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FACE CHANGE


FACE CHANGE innovation and rapid evolution in building skin technology


OUT WITH THE OLD

today’s facade technology is not what it was 5 years — or even 3 years ago...


TRANSITION

the appearance and performance of the urban environment must undergo transformation


find the

DRIVERS OF CHANGE

and leverage them to innovate dominant drivers today in building skin technology • geometric complexity • material and process diversity • acoustical performance


PROJECT CASE STUDIES

Fulton Street Transit Center

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

New San Diego United States Courthouse

West 57th Street

SFMOMA

World Trade Center Transportation Hub

National Museum of African American History & Culture

New Stanford Hospital

Colombia University: Jerome L Greene Science Center

Tilt!


PROJECT CASE STUDIES

Fulton Street Transit Center

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

New San Diego United States Courthouse

West 57th Street

SFMOMA

World Trade Center Transportation Hub

National Museum of African American History & Culture

New Stanford Hospital

Colombia University: Jerome L Greene Science Center

Tilt!


Fulton Street Transit Center New York, NY ARCHITECT

Grimshaw Architects ARTIST

James Carpenter Design Associates GC

Plaza Construction + Schiavone Construction CABLE NET FAB

TriPyramid Structures COMPLETION

2014

BUILDING TYPE

transportation hub FAÇADE

solar reflector shell, free form cable net structure PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


Fulton Street Transit Center New York, NY ARCHITECT

Grimshaw Architects ARTIST

James Carpenter Design Associates GC

Plaza Construction + Schiavone Construction CABLE NET FAB

1056 coordinates

TriPyramid Structures COMPLETION

2014

BUILDING TYPE

transportation hub FAÇADE

solar reflector shell, free form cable net structure PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


Fulton Street Transit Center New York, NY

952

unique panels

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


Fulton Street Transit Center New York, NY

1

universal connector

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


PROJECT CASE STUDIES

Fulton Street Transit Center

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

New San Diego United States Courthouse

West 57th Street

SFMOMA

World Trade Center Transportation Hub

National Museum of African American History & Culture

New Stanford Hospital

Colombia University: Jerome L Greene Science Center

Tilt!


Gates Foundation Seattle, WA ARCHITECT

NBBJ GC

Sellen FAÇADE CONSULTANT

Morrison Hershfield COMPLETION

2012

PROGRAM

two 6-story buildings, 900,000 sqft BUILDING TYPE

cultural FAÇADE

design/assist–design/build custom curtainwall and cable net systems

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


Gates Foundation Seattle, WA ARCHITECT

NBBJ GC

Sellen FAÇADE CONSULTANT

Morrison Hershfield COMPLETION

2012

PROGRAM

vertical cable supported glass facade

two 6-story buildings, 900,000 sqft BUILDING TYPE

cultural FAÇADE

design/assist–design/build custom curtainwall and cable net systems

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


300,000 sqft custom unitized curtainwall

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


PROJECT CASE STUDIES

Fulton Street Transit Center

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

New San Diego United States Courthouse

West 57th Street

SFMOMA

World Trade Center Transportation Hub

National Museum of African American History & Culture

New Stanford Hospital

Colombia University: Jerome L Greene Science Center

Tilt!


New San Diego United States Courthouse San Diego, CA ARCHITECT

Richard Meier & Partners Architects GC

Hensel Phelps Construction FAÇADE CONSULTANT

Curtainwall Design Consulting COMPLETION

2012

PROGRAM

16-stories, 467,000 sqft BUILDING TYPE

courthouse FAÇADE

300,000 sqft

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


New San Diego United States Courthouse San Diego, CA

extensive terracotta

ARCHITECT

Richard Meier & Partners Architects GC

Hensel Phelps Construction FAÇADE CONSULTANT

Curtainwall Design Consulting COMPLETION

2012

oversized 9 x 19 ft IGUs

PROGRAM

16-stories, 467,000 sqft BUILDING TYPE

courthouse FAÇADE

300,000 sqft

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


complex AESS

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


PROJECT CASE STUDIES

Fulton Street Transit Center

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

New San Diego United States Courthouse

West 57th Street

SFMOMA

World Trade Center Transportation Hub

National Museum of African American History & Culture

New Stanford Hospital

Colombia University: Jerome L Greene Science Center

Tilt!


West 57th St New York, NY ARCHITECT

Bjarke Ingels Group GC

Hunter Roberts FAÇADE CONSULTANT

Israel Berger & Associates COMPLETION

2016

BUILDING TYPE

residential

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


The images to the right are a sampling of these analysis. It estimates the warpage for the structural framing and galvanized back pans as well as the stainless steel cladding panels. They depict initial geometry and the subsequent subdivisions to create individual unit and panel discretization. It is our intent to use these tool to further optimizeYork, the finalNY geometry to establish a New more robust and economical solution to the panel system.

West 57th St

Sloped Wall - Initial Panel Analysis

study of geometrical characteristics of sloped wall system to estimate the warpage for structural framing and galvanized back pans, as well as the stainless steel cladding panels images depict initial geometry and subsequent subdivisions to create individual unit and panel discretization Less than 1/4” over the length of the panel Less than 1/2” over the length of the panel Less than 1” over the length of the panel Less than 2” over the length of the panel Less than 3” over the length of the panel Less than 4” over the length of the panel

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

Sloped Wall - Framing and Mullion Subdivision

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


West 57th St New York, NY

Panel Composition 1. Aluminum 2. Shop Applied Structural Silicone 3. Field Applied Sealant 4. Gasket 5. Thermal Insolator 6. Backer Rod 7. “Wiper” Gasket 8. Mineral Wool Insulation 9. Steel 10. Fasteners 11. Insulated Glass Unit 12. Galvanized Panel 13. Stainless Steel Panel 14. SS Window Washing Track 15. Coated Metal Panel

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


West 57th St New York, NY

sloped wall cross section detail and 3D rendering

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


PROJECT CASE STUDIES

Fulton Street Transit Center

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

New San Diego United States Courthouse

West 57th Street

SFMOMA

World Trade Center Transportation Hub

National Museum of African American History & Culture

New Stanford Hospital

Colombia University: Jerome L Greene Science Center

Tilt!


SFMOMA San Francisco, CA ARCHITECT

Snohetta GC

Webcor COMPLETION

2016

PROGRAM

10-stories, 185,000 sqft expansion BUILDING TYPE

civic

FAÇADE

design/assist for 8 custom wall types

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


SFMOMA San Francisco, CA

panel warpage

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


SFMOMA San Francisco, CA

FRP panels

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


SFMOMA

perforated aluminum panel

FRP panel

San Francisco, CA

single pass unitized system: insulation, primary and secondary weather barrier and FRP armature are pre-fabricated into a unitized system unitized system uses aluminum framing to allow for certain units to be slightly cold warped into position along the double curved surfaces of the east and west elevations PROJECT CASE STUDIES

largest application of FRP in the US to date

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


SFMOMA San Francisco, CA

National Fire Protection Associaton 285: Standard Fire Test Method for Evaluation of Fire Propagation Characteristics of Exterior NonLoad-Bearing Wall Assemblies Containing Combustible Components

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


PROJECT CASE STUDIES

Fulton Street Transit Center

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

New San Diego United States Courthouse

West 57th Street

SFMOMA

World Trade Center Transportation Hub

National Museum of African American History & Culture

New Stanford Hospital

Colombia University: Jerome L Greene Science Center

Tilt!


World Trade Center Transportation Hub New York, NY ARCHITECT

Santiago Calatrava GC

Tishman Construction / Turner Construction Company JV COMPLETION

2014

BUILDING TYPE

transportation FAÇADE

design/build for operable skylight system

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


World Trade Center Transportation Hub New York, NY ARCHITECT

Santiago Calatrava GC

Tishman Construction / Turner Construction Company JV COMPLETION

2014

operable skylight

BUILDING TYPE

transportation FAÇADE

design/build for operable skylight system

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


World Trade Center Transportation Hub New York, NY

rapid prototyping

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


PROJECT CASE STUDIES

Fulton Street Transit Center

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

New San Diego United States Courthouse

West 57th Street

SFMOMA

World Trade Center Transportation Hub

National Museum of African American History & Culture

New Stanford Hospital

Colombia University: Jerome L Greene Science Center

Tilt!


National Museum of African American History & Culture Washington, DC ARCHITECT

Freelon Adjaye Bond / SmithGroup GC

Clark Construction Group COMPLETION

2015

BUILDING TYPE

cultural

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


corona screen

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


National Museum of African American History & Culture

11

4

2 1

Washington, DC

5

SYSTEM COMPONENTS

9

1. Corona Panels

8. Stainless Steel Cables

2. Corona Steel Vertical

9. Stainless Steel Rods

3. Corona Steel Frames

10. Steel Bottom Box Beam

4. Steel Spandrel

11. Curtain Wall

5. Steel Horizontal Truss

12. Glass Skylight

6. Steel Mullions

13. Glass Canopy

7. Stainless Steel Castings

14. Rafter Panel

3

6 7 11

8

11

10

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


National Museum of African American History & Culture

corona panel samples

Washington, DC

Ultra High Performance Concrete

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

Stamped Bronze Sheet

Cast Bronze

Cast Aluminum with Bronze Sprayed Finish

Stamped Aluminum with Bronze Sprayed Finish

Cast Aluminum with Painted Finish

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National Museum of African American History & Culture Washington, DC

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

cast aluminum fabrication

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


National Museum of African American History & Culture Washington, DC

structural analysis Cast Aluminum - A356.0-T6 WL = 25 psf (1.2 kPa) Deflection: 0.274 in < 0.36 in OK Stress: 11.9 ksi < 21.6 ksi OK Utilization: 55.2%

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


full-scale mock up

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


PROJECT CASE STUDIES

Fulton Street Transit Center

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

New San Diego United States Courthouse

West 57th Street

SFMOMA

World Trade Center Transportation Hub

National Museum of African American History & Culture

New Standford Hospital

Colombia University: Jerome L Greene Science Center

Tilt!


New Stanford Hospital Stanford, CA ARCHITECT

Rafael Vinoly Architects GC

Clark / McCarthy JV FAÇADE CONSULTANT

Allana Buick & Bers COMPLETION

2018

PROGRAM

7-stories, 812,000 sqft BUILDING TYPE

healthcare FAÇADE

comprehensive design/assist–design/build package including custom unitized curtainwall, metal panels + doors

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


New Stanford Hospital Stanford, CA ARCHITECT

Rafael Vinoly Architects GC

Clark / McCarthy JV FAÇADE CONSULTANT

Allana Buick & Bers COMPLETION

2018

PROGRAM

pressurized double skin facade

7-stories, 812,000 sqft BUILDING TYPE

healthcare FAÇADE

comprehensive design/assist–design/build package including custom unitized curtainwall, metal panels + doors

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


PROJECT CASE STUDIES

Fulton Street Transit Center

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

New San Diego United States Courthouse

West 57th Street

SFMOMA

World Trade Center Transportation Hub

National Museum of African American History & Culture

New Stanford Hospital

Colombia University: Jerome L Greene Science Center

Tilt!


Colombia University: Jerome L Greene Science Center New York, NY ARCHITECT

Renzo Piano Building Workshop COMPLETION

2015

PROGRAM

10-stories, 362,700 sqft BUILDING TYPE

education / research FAĂ&#x2021;ADE

175,988 sqft of building skin rendering courtesy of Columbia University

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


Colombia University: Jerome L Greene Science Center New York, NY ARCHITECT

Renzo Piano Building Workshop COMPLETION

2015

PROGRAM

6

wall types

10-stories, 362,700 sqft BUILDING TYPE

education / research FAĂ&#x2021;ADE

175,988 sqft of building skin rendering courtesy of Columbia University

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


twin-span double skin facade

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


Although, the most accurate way of estimating the sound pressure level inside the building, is to perform field mock-up tests, it is possible to use an approximated procedure to compute the facade’s noise ingress.

Colombia University: Jerome L Greene Science Center

NC-curves (see figure 9). The appropriate NC designation is then estimated. This designation can be compared to the recommend NC-curves for different types of spaces (see table

The noise level in a room due to sound penetrating a façade element may be calculated according to BS EN 12354-3 and BS 8233 from:

Table 4 - Noise Criteria Rating

Where:

New York, NY

Recommended NC-Curve

Equivalent Sound level (dB)

Conference rooms

25-30

35-40

Private Offices

30-35

40-45

Open-plan Areas

35-40

45-50

Business machines/computers

40-45

50-55

Laboratories

35-40

45-50

Corridors

30-35

40-45

Public Areas

35-40

45-50

Lecture and classrooms

25-30

35-40

Open-plan classrooms

35-40

45-50

Movie motion picture theaters

30-35

40-45

Libraries

35-40

40-50

Restaurants

40-45

50-55

Space Type

L2=L1- R + 10Log(S/V) + 10Log(T) + 11

• • • • • •

points.

L2 = noise level in room dB L1 = external free field noise dB. R = sound reduction index dB S = area of façade portion, m2. V = room volume, m3 T = reverberation time, s.

inter-story Some of the facade is directly subjected to report typical field measurements acoustic noise caused by the elevated train, whichInfromthiseach of the three noise conditions (ambient vehicular traffic, northbound analysis is located within 60’ of the building facade. and southbound train traffic) were used

100

Southbound Trains (88 - 92 dB(A))

70

Northbound Trains ((77 - 83 dB(A)) ( ))

60

50

Ambient - Vehicle Traffic (No Trains) 62 - 71 dB(A)

40

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

A series of in situ test were conducted

8000

10000

Frequency (Hz)

6300

5000

4000

3150

2500

2000

1600

1250

1000

800

630

500

400

315

250

200

160

125

100

50

40

32

30 25

Wall type WT-3 encloses the east, northeast and southeast faces of the building. As such it is directly subjected to noise caused by the elevated train, which is located within 60’ of the building facade. The curtainwall design adapts a very efficient double skin envelop to mitigated the excessive noise levels caused by the train traffic.

80

5.8 - Columbia University

80

63

ATS performed tests and calculations to determine the appropriate design solutions in order to meet STC and OITC acoustic Wall Type WT-3 Outside / Inside standards for the interior program. Noise Analysis

Sound Pressure L Level (dB re: 20 Pa)

90

Figure 8 - SPL Measurements of Building Exterior APPENDIX G - SM&W Measured Train Noise

to estimate the room noise level for a typical room of 20’ wide by 20’ deep, adjacent to the curtainwall type WT-3 (14’-9” high). A reverberation time of

4), to asses the performance of the exterior envelope. It is concluded that even for the most severe sound pressure levels (northbound train) the system

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Colombia University: Jerome L Greene Science Center New York, NY

1. Vertical Strongback 2. Stainless Steel Bracket 3. Steel Verticals 4. Steel Horizontals 5. Aluminum Verticals 6. Aluminum Horizontals 7. Insulated Glass

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

CW TYPE 1

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Colombia University: Jerome L Greene Science Center

5

6

7 8

2 1

3

2

4

New York, NY

9

DOUBLE SKIN FACADE

1 7

1. Aluminum Verticals 2. Aluminum Horizontals 3. Insulated Glass 4. Laminated Glass 5. Cast Braces

8

8 2

CW TYPE 3

1

6

9

4 5

3

6. Sunshades 7. Steel Grate 8. Anchor 9. Operable Vision Door section

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

exploded isometric

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PROJECT CASE STUDIES

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PROJECT CASE STUDIES

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PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


PROJECT CASE STUDIES

Fulton Street Transit Center

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

New San Diego United States Courthouse

West 57th Street

SFMOMA

World Trade Center Transportation Hub

National Museum of African American History & Culture

New Stanford Hospital

Colombia University: Jerome L Greene Science Center

Tilt!


Tilt! Chicago, IL

ARCHITECT

Gensler

ENGINEER

Thornton Tomasetti GC

Turner Construction FACADE CONTRACTOR

Cupples

94th floor

COMPLETION

2014

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


Tilt! Chicago, IL

ARCHITECT

Gensler

ENGINEER

Thornton Tomasetti GC

Turner Construction FACADE CONTRACTOR

Cupples

3

hydralics

COMPLETION

2014

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


Tilt! Chicago, IL

ARCHITECT

Gensler

ENGINEER

Thornton Tomasetti GC

Turner Construction FACADE CONTRACTOR

Cupples

26

foot-wide platform

COMPLETION

2014

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


Tilt! Chicago, IL

ARCHITECT

Gensler

ENGINEER

Thornton Tomasetti GC

Turner Construction FACADE CONTRACTOR

Cupples

30

degree tilt

COMPLETION

2014

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


Tilt! Chicago, IL

ARCHITECT

Gensler

ENGINEER

Thornton Tomasetti GC

Turner Construction FACADE CONTRACTOR

Cupples

1,000 ft above Chicago

COMPLETION

2014

PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


PROJECT CASE STUDIES

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10


DRIVERS OF CHANGE Aesthetic considerations remain the dominant drivers. Performance has yet to emerge as a prominent driver of building and building facade implementation. There is much more change to come!


advanced technology studio mic patterson mpatterson@enclos.com

Face Change presentation  
Face Change presentation  

Face Change presentation by Mic Patterson of Enclos - Chicago Facades+ 2014