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7KH)RUXP "The gregarious spirit of the Spanish Horse shows a horse that is faithful to its herd"

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7+(Âł*5(*$5,28663,5,7´,17+(35( We have often heard tell, or read about a feature common to all the equine breeds, which appears to be one of the behavior characteristics that most likens or differentiates horse from other animal species; â&#x20AC;&#x153;the Gregarious Spirit.â&#x20AC;? This characteristic, common to most species living in freedom and sharing the same territory, perfectly deďŹ nes the relationship of affection and dependence among the members; however, it can be said that the bonds are more or less signiďŹ cant depending on factors such as breed, gender or age of the animals. In the PRE, the â&#x20AC;&#x153;gregarious spiritâ&#x20AC;? is more accentuated than in other equine breeds due to decisive factors explained below. %\(PLOLR&DUR 6SHFLDOLVWLQ(TXLQH%UHHGLQJ

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"The mistrustful attitude of the PRE when accepting a new horse as a member of their herd perfectly defines the gregarious spirit of the breed"

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The Portuguese equine breeding progr am was prosperous, especially along the Tajo River Valley 1, from the reign of John I of Portugal (1358-1433) until the defeat of the Portuguese army in the battle of Alcazalquivir (1578) when King Sebastian2 died. However,  &RVWD*RPHV5  0RQDUTXLDHWHUULWyULRUHVLGrQFLDVUHDLV SRUWXJXHVDVVpFXORV;,9D;9, PHDQLQJ0RQDUFK\DQGWHUULWRU\ 3RUWXJXHVH5R\DO5HVLGHQFHVWKWRWK&HQWXULHV ,Q*pUDUG 6DEDWLHU 5LWD&RVWD*RPHV FRRUGV /RFDWLRQVRISRZHU(XURSH WKWK&HQWXULHV/LVERQS  )UD\/XLV1LHWRLQ5HODFLyQGHODVJXHUUDVGH%HUEHUtD\GHOVXFHVR \PXHUWHGHO5H\'6HEDVWLiQ PHDQLQJ/LVWRIWKH%HUEHU:DUVDQG WKHRXWFRPHDQGGHDWKRI.LQJ6HEDVWLDQ FRPSLOHGLQ&ROHFFLyQGH

the scarce number of soldiers in the Portuguese army, which did not exceed â&#x20AC;&#x153;ten thousand and a thousand horsesâ&#x20AC;?3 had something to do with this defeat, as it pushed Portugal into a serious social, politics and economic crisis4. GRFXPHQWRVLQpGLWRVSDUDODKLVWRULDGH(VSDxDYRO &ROOHFWLRQ RIXQHGLWHGGRFXPHQWVDERXWWKHKLVWRU\RI6SDLQ SDJHV  7KHHQHP\KDGÂłVHYHQWHHQWKRXVDQGKRUVHVIURPQLQHWRWHQ WKRXVDQGVKRRWHUVVHYHQWKRXVDQGRIWKHVHDUTXHEXVHUVWKLUW\IRXU SLHFHVRIDUWLOOHU\´   0DUTXLVGH3LGDO\GH0LUDIORUHVDQG0LJXHO6DOYi   &ROHFFLyQGHGRFXPHQWRVLQpGLWRVSDUDODKLVWRULDGH(VSDxD PHDQLQJ&ROOHFWLRQRIXQHGLWHGGRFXPHQWVDERXWWKHKLVWRU\RI 6SDLQ 9RO;/0DGULG9GDGH&DOHUR3UHVV

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The town representatives requested, in the thirtieth chapter, asked Philip II to eliminate the stud farms as the means to avoid conflicts. The king consented and this worsened the crisis in the Portuguese equine breeding

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As was the case in Spain, customs changed from traveling on horseback, to traveling in carriages; it brought criticism, because it changed the way of being seen in public. It was claimed that the use of carriages would lead to the decline of knights

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Not only was their use regulated, but also the formation of the Royal entourage was established when the king traveled by carriage, which was similar to the protocol followed when traveling on horseback or in a litter

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As of June 1625, due to the circulatory chaos of the time, travel to Lisbon in chair, litter or carriage was prohibited except if you were going on a journey. Three months later the law was reformed and it was again authorized

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Most competition riders work, not For the tr aining, but For victory. This system allows a rider to win a Dressage competition without using Classical methods

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The University of Cordoba laboratory has pioneered in Spain for more than five years to develop this technique for horses

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Kinesiological electromyogr aphy studies muscular activity during postur al exercises, functional movements, working conditions as well as treatment and tr aining procedures

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Revista El Caballo Español 2010, n.197 (ENGLISH)  
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