the railway business magazine
Year IX No. 1.3(105) 2014 ■
European regions need to consolidate their capacity of absorbing structural funds
Railway PRO Mass Transportation
Financial institutions allocate USD 175 Billion for sustainable transport “Horizon 2020” provides EUR 6.3 Billion to research and innovation
Журнал железнодорожный бизнес
Business models should include examining competition and playing to one’s own particular strengths
Interview with Trevor GARROD, Chairman, European Passengers’ Federation Любая модель бизнеса должна включать исследование рынка и подчёркивать личные качества Интервью с Тревор Гаррод, председатель Европейской Федерации Пассажиров (EPF).
Avenio – Made for any infrastructure. 100 % low-floor with minimal axle loads.
Its unique design makes it possible: The Avenio offers the lowest axle loading of all 100 % low-floor tramcars with the weight evenly distributed throughout the vehicle. And it’s not just bridges that benefit from this reduced stress: The minimized wheel and rail wear reduces operating
costs while giving passengers a uniquely comfortable ride – and the quiet running is an added-plus for residents along the route. That’s how the Avenio builds bridges for all. Avenio – fits your city.
Answers for mobility.
editor’s note 1
he railway political speech of the past years has been dominated by the idea of liberalisation and institutional separation between infrastructure managers and railway operators. The European Commission and part of the market wanted the Fourth Railway Package to be a step forward towards a European system where public authorities provide investors with a lever for developing business, competing and, finally, contributing to increasing the life quality of the European citizens with a lower financial effort from public money. However, it seems that the railway logic of shut-down undertakings that tolerate the activities of complementary undertakings only in those areas where it is impossible for them to act directly is about to win. The European Parliament has approved the constituent text of the legislative package with a
series of amendments that come to truncate the original message and spirit proposed by the European Commission. Preserving the current life style, marked by the logic of the state clerk or of a colossus that leads large masses of people through order, prevails in front of the possibility of working on equal terms with suppliers or customers, against the possibility of assessing performance according to strictly business criteria and, finally, against the possibility of losing the privilege of “strategic undertaking”. What is surprising in the logic of approaching the different industries and strategies for optimising activity is the fact that for air or naval transport the separation between infrastructure managers and operators is accepted as normal and natural, although we talk about environments with technical challenges similar to railway transport. As underlined before,
we can observe a major approach difference between the employees of a self-oriented business environment, such as the railway environment, and those of an environment open to international cooperation and competition, such as air or naval transportation. The events of the near future, also influenced by electoral logic, are vital to understanding what will be the path of the next decades. Probably, the conservatory path will be favoured, forcing us to continue at the mercy and will of enlightened people who want or not to invest in railways and in the industry too, instead of leaving the private flows to converge on this area, which is either leverage or economic brake.
Goodbye liberalisation? Issue published with the support of Romanian Railway Industry Association & Club Feroviar – The Railway Business Club Журнал издаётся при поддержке Асоциации Железнодорожной Промышленности и Club Feroviar – ЖД Клуб Деловых Людей
Прощай, либерализация? За последние годы, в политической речи железнодорожной области господствовала идея либерализации и институционного отделения операторов железнодорожной инфраструктуры от железнодорожных операторов. 4-ый Железнодорожный Пакет был востребован Европейской Комиссией и частью представителями рынка, для осуществления прогресса в направлении создания европейской системы, в которой государственные органы предоставляют инвесторам возможности развития бизнеса, конкурентоспособности и, в итоге, роста качества жизни для европейских жителей, при низких финансовых усилий на уровне общественного бюджета. Всё же, видимо, выигрывает логика на уровне закрытых железнодорожных предприятий, допускающая операционные деятельности побочных предприятий лишь в зонах, где им невозможно действовать прямо. Европейский Парламент одобрил конститутивные
акты законодательного пакета с рядом поправок, искажающих оригинальное послание и смысл предложен Европейской Комиссией. Соблюдение нынешнего образа жизни, отмеченного логикой государственного должностного лица или логикой колосса, руководящего большими массами людей, имеет преимущество перед возможностью работать равноправно с поставщиками и клиентами, оценивать результаты деятельности строго по критериям бизнеса, и в конечном итоге, перед возможностью потерять привилегию “стратегического предприятия”. То, что удивляет в логике подхода различных промышленностей и стратегий оптимизации деятельности, это факт, что в секторе авиации или в секторе морского транспорта, отделение между оператором инфраструктуры и эксплуатантами оценивается как нормальным и натуральным, хотя речь идёт о технических провокаций подобных железнодорожному транспорту. Так как
ранее было подчеркнуто, отмечается существенная разница подхода между лицами оперирующими в бизнессфере внутреннего направления, как железнодорожный сектор, и сферой, открытой международной конкурентоспособности и сотрудничеству, к которой относятся воздушный и морской транспорт. Последующие события, которые будут отмечатся избирательными подходами, являются жизненно важными для перспективах следующих десятилетий. Наверное, преимущество будет иметь консерваторское направление, которое далее будет обязывать нас зависеть от жалости и благоволения интеллектуальных лиц, принимающих решения в связи с инвестициями в железнодорожный сектор и промышленность, вместо того, чтобы позволить продвижение частных денежных средств к этой сфере, которая может быть экономическим рычагом или тормозом.
March 2014 | www.railwaypro.com
2 cOntent MARKET DEVELOPMENT
European regions need to consolidate their capacity of absorbing structural funds Европейские регионы нуждаются в консолидации способности освоения структурных фондов
The capacity of absorbing and using EU structural and investment funds is limited to a certain extent by the organizational capacity of national and regional authorities in the member states. Способность освоения и использования структурных и инвестиционных фондов ЕС ограничена в определённой степени организационной деятельностью органов государств-членов.
POLICIES & STRATEGIES
36 OECD: integrating spatial planning and transport policies, a challenge for metropolitan areas 37 Assessment of current and future urban mobility performance the railway business magazine
ISSN - 1841 - 4672
POLICIES & STRATEGIES Publisher: Editura de Transport & Logistică S.R.L. 30, Virgiliu Street, Sector 1 Bucharest, postal code: 010881 Tel.:+4 021 224 43 85; +4 021 224 43 87 Mobile: +40 721 723 724 Fax: +4 021 224 43 86 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web-site: www.railwaypro.com Editors: Elena Ilie email@example.com Pamela Luică firstname.lastname@example.org Production and photo editor: Petru Mureşan Department of translations: Alina Vuţulicu Paula Bădescu Veronica Lupan Graphic design: Petru Mureşan Layout and DTP: Petru Mureşan email@example.com Photo: Radu Drăgan Advertising Enquiries: firstname.lastname@example.org www. railwaypro.com/advertise
cover photo: Club Feroviar
www.railwaypro.com | March 2014
16 EU sets the pillars of the
new framework on climate change and energy for 2030
18 Financial institutions allocate USD 175 Billion for sustainable transport 20 EP votes Forth Railway
Package hoping more competition would improve railway services
21 Lack of strong and independent regulatory bodies, an obstacle for crossborder traffic
38 New guidelines on the development and implementation of sustainable urban mobility (SUMP)
Business models should include examining competition and playing to one’s own particular strengths
Interview with Trevor GARROD, Chairman, European Passengers’ Federation Europe has lately focused on the intense discussions around the Fourth Railway Package, a legislative act which should “stimulate the reduction of costs for railway passenger transport, to optimize the reliability, quality, information supply and to form an integrated transport network”, points out Trevor Garrod, Chairman, European Passengers’ Federation (EPF) in the interview for Railway Pro. Moreover, implementation... Интервью с господином Тревор Гаррод, председатель Европейской Федерации Пассажиров (EPF). Темы, которые обсуждались с представителем EPF нацелены на эффекты внедрения 4-го Железнодорожного Пакета, провокации с которыми будут сталкиваться операторы, связанные с ростом ...
32 Advanced technology for all requirements
40 Investing in public transport means investing in the city!
52 Integrated ticketing, still a complex issue
34 European regions need
to consolidate their capacity of absorbing structural funds
44 Warsaw and Sofia renew tram fleet
43 Modern rail stations, diversity of functions and a better integration in the urban landscape
46 Bistriţa City plans to introduce tram transport
47 Moscow Metro could have a new ring line
deals with around EUR 1 Billion for achieving progress in the European railway sector for research and innovation port needs state support to develop
39 “Avoid-shift-improve” concept is important for sustainable transport development
22 Strategy and technical 31 European railway industry innovation - the two directions
33 Russia: passenger trans-
24 “Horizon 2020” provides EUR 6.3 Billion to research and innovation
48 More WBSA cities want metro network Statistics
50 Railway Statistics
cOntent 3 Редакционная статья
ПОЛИТИКА И СТРАТЕГИЯ
16 ЕС планирует основные
ПОЛИТИКА И СТРАТЕГИЯ
ПОЛИТИКА И СТРАТЕГИЯ
33 Россия: для развития, 40 Инвестиции в 48 Другие города ШЧР пассажирский транспорт нуждается в государственной общественный транспорт, это хотят линии метро инвестиции в город! поддержке РАЗВИТИЕ РЫНКА
новые цели в области 36 ОЭСР: интеграция изменения климата и энергии территориального 34 Европейские регионы до 2030 планирования и транспортная нуждаются в консолидации политика – провокация для способности освоения 18 Финансовые городских агломераций структурных фондов учреждения предоставляют 175 млрд. долларов для 43 Современный вокзал, устойчивого транспорта многофункциональность и 37 Оценка текущих улучшение интеграции в и будущих показателей 20 Парламент городской ландшафт достижения городской проголосовал 4-ый мобильности Железнодорожный Пакет метрополиТАН с намерением улучшить услуги железнодорожного сектора путём повышения 44 Варшава и София 38 Новая ориентация в конкуренции развитии и внедрении Плана обновляют свой трамвайный парк Долгосрочной Городской 21 Нехватка сильных Мобильности (англ. SUMP) и независимых органов регулирования, препятствие 46 Город Бистрица трансграничному движению планирует ввести трамвайную сеть 31 Европейская 39 Концепт “избежаниежелезнодорожная перемещение-улучшение”, 47 Возможно, Московское промышленность владеет важен в развитии Метро будет иметь новую суммой около 1 млрд. долгосрочного транспорта кольцевую линию евро для исследования и инновации
исследования и разработки
22 Стратегия и техническая инновация – два направления способствующие прогрессу европейского железнодорожного сектора 24 “Горизонт 2020” предоставляет 6.3 млрд. евро для исследования и инновации 32 Передовая технология соответствующая всем требованиям 52 Продажа и покупка проездных билетов всё ещё является сложной задачей СТАТИСТИКА
March 2014 | www.railwaypro.com
Croatia: The Croatian Government adopted a decision to extend state guarantees for a EUR 40 Million loan from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) to finance the modernization of state-owned railway infrastructure operator HZ Infrastruktura. The proceeds of the 15-year loan will ensure the procurement of equipment for the maintenance of railways, supply and installation of information systems for managing energy efficiency and for financing one part of a workforce restructuring program. The guarantees are now pending approval by parliament.
Iran-Turkmenistan-Kazakhstan railway to come on stream in 6 months International: Iran-TurkmenistanKazakhstan will come on stream in six months, Deputy Director of Construction & Development of Infrastructures Transportation Company (CDITC) Seyed Masoud Nasr Azadani said. IRNA News Agency quoted Khanmamed Ataev, a senior engineer with the Ministry of Railway Transport of the Republic of Turkmenistan, as saying that Ashgabat will fulfill its obligations in the project. “Turkmenistan will finish its part of construction in 3 months,” he said. Ataev went on to note that Iran and Turkmenistan will construct a joint bridge on Atrek River in six months.
Železnice Srbije reform is compliant to European standards Serbia: “We appreciate the initiative for serious thinking on reforms which can solve a number of key aspects of the company (Železnice Srbije) and which will, I am sure, have a positive impact on the railway sector in Serbia and in region. When your plans regarding reforms become realized, they will surely and gradually bring your company closer to the railway laws of European Union. In this respect, I think your plan is generally in line with the Directive 21012/34/EU, which is a fundamental rule that treats the
First freight train from Czech Republic to Piraeus Greece is expected soon international: This effort was in cooperation with the Greek, FYR Macedonian, Hungarian and Czech Railways, said the Managing Director of the Railways Serbia, Dragoljub Simonović. “Initially, we will have one to two container trains per week, and over the next two years we could have that number on the daily basis, so, that in a following period we could have up to twenty cargo train sets on this route. Specifically, in the Greek port of Piraeus, there are cca. four million containers, and Chinese ocean shipping company (COSCO) is interested in organizing their transport to Czech Republic” – said Serbian Railways Director General Dragoljub Simonović, pointing out that the agreement to launch the first freight train on this route was made with Director General of the Hellenic Railways.
This operation will bring Serbian Railways significant income, because the expected income per freight train is about six thousand Euros – said Simonović. China ocean shipping company (COSCO) is investing about USD 750 Million, so that Piraeus could become the main port of Southern Europe. Transport of goods through the port of Piraeus to Northern Europe, saves several days of sailing and huge financial resources for the Chinese company, and they are planning to build another Piraeus port in order to increase the port’s capacities to seven million containers per year.
HZ Infrastruktura gets state securities for loan
Vilnius will be part of Rail Baltica
basic aspects of the railway companies, that is, both the infrastructure companies and railway companies, and it foresees the key regulations regarding relationship of these companies and the state and the government, and which aims to guarantee the best institutional structure for the single European railway area – said in a written form sent to Serbian Railways Libor Lochman, Executive Director of the Community of European Railway and Infrastructure Companies (CER). Having the restructuration plan of Serbian Railways analyzed, Mr. Lochman points out that the agreed organizational structure, which implies gradual separation of existing Directorate for infrastructure and transport in different legal entities, is crucial for gradual bringing closer to the EU legislations, emphasizing at the same time that special attention should be paid to the independence of infrastructure manager and its main functions. “The success of railway reform certainly depends on providing the necessary framework conditions outside the company for the key issues, such as obligations that State should take on itself regarding Serbian Railways and financing of railway infrastructure”.
International: An agreement was reached on Vilnius (Lithuania) to be part of the trans-European “Rail Baltica” gauge at the tripartite negotiations on the setup of a JV in charge with Rail Baltica. “Lithuania appreciates the fact that, during the first official visit in Lithuania, Prime Minister of Latvia Laimduoda Straujuma expressed support for Lithuanian aim to build the European standard gauge Rail Baltica with Vilnius being part of it”, said Minister of Transport and Communications Rimantas Sinkevičius. “Issue of integrating Vilnius into the project “Rail Baltica” is being tackled. Estonian delegation proposed a compromise on how to do it technically. The negotiations will be continued in Tallinn at the beginning of March. An agreement was reached also on some other parts of the project; therefore, the list of discussable questions is getting shorter, and we are getting very close on establishing a joint venture”, said Director of Development and International Relations Department Arenijus Jackus. Currently, the three Baltic States are nego-
В мире: Железные Дороги Латвии пустили в ход тендер по проектированию и развитию национальной программы электрификации ж-д линий Хорватия: Правительство приняло решение о предоставлении государственных гарантий для кредита 40 млн. евро от ЕБРР, предназначен финансированию и модернизации железнодорожной инфраструктуры. В мире: Заместитель директора Компании по Строительству и Развитию Транспортной Инфраструктуры объявил, что линия Иран – Туркменистан – Казахстан будет введена в эксплуатацию через шесть месяцев. В мире: Проект грузового поезда Чехия
– Греция осуществился при сотрудничестве железнодорожных компаний Греции, БЮР Македонии, Венгрии и Чешской Республики. Сербия: Инициатива реформ, которая позволит решить ряд ключевых задач национальной железнодорожной компании Сербии получает положительную оценку и окажет позитивное влияние на национальном уровне и в регионе. В мире: В рамках переговорах между тремя балтийскими странами в связи с договором о создании совместного предприятия, ответственного за осуществление проекта Rail Baltica, было установлено провести линию с европейской колеей через Вильнюс (Литва). March 2014 | www.railwaypro.com
Construction of bridge linking Russia to China was initiated International: Construction of first railway bridge from Russia’s Nizhneleninskoye to China’s Tongjiang across the Amur River was launched on the border between the two countries, Xinhua news agency reported. The countries inked the deal to build the railway bridge in June, 2013. The project costs nine billion roubles (around USD 253 Million). The annual throughput capacity of the bridge will make 5.2 million tonnes at the first stage of the project, and around 21 million tonnes of cargoes will be delivered annually. Russia plans to export iron ore, coal, mineral fertilisers, timber and other products to China over the bridge.
Tender book of CFR Marfă’s new privatisation process will be completed soon Romania: The tender book of CFR Marfă’s new privatisation process will be completed soon. The tender book will have to comprise criteria and objectives for the consultant to be chosen and that will have to propose the sale method, stated former Romanian Minister of Transport Ramona Mănescu. “The first decision I made when appointed minister of transport was to stop the existing sale process and to initiate a new privatisation process of CFR Marfă to attract as many investors as possible through a transparent and fair approach and to get a good price for the company. The time proved that the decision I made was a good one, it was fair and most of all it was legal. Today, the privatisation process is in the phase of completion of the new tender book to include the criteria and objectives for the consultant to be selected that will also have to propose the privatisation variant”, she said. On 26 February 2014, next to other ministers of the National Liberal Party, Ramona Mănescu, resigned. В мире: Пущены в ход строительственные работы первого железнодорожного моста между Россией и Китаем (Нижнеленинское-Тунцзян) через реку Амур. Румыния: Процесс приватизации компании CFR Грузоперевозки находится в стадии завершения отчёта условий разработки проекта, документ предоставляющий критерии и цели для будущего выборного консультанта. В мире: Представители стран СНГ, балтийских стран и Грузинских Железных www.railwaypro.com | March 2014
General Transport Master Plan, completed by April romania: “We want to complete the General Transport Master Plan by April. Although the document is delayed, we want it to be well-elaborated and we discussed the basic problems of railway transport. First of all, it is necessary to define the class of the transport demand, which has been falling in the past 15 years, we have to have a clear definition of the network (according to the consultant, it is significantly reduced). Also, this document should come up with a list of projects and to clearly establish the criteria of evaluation and prioritization of projects. Together with the consultant, we want to
Protocol on railway freight transport between CIS, Baltic States and Georgia International: The representatives of the countries in the Community of Independent States, of the Baltic States and of Georgian Railways signed a protocol in Tallinn that determines the volume of trains and traffic schedule. Under the protocol, an increased freight volume could be channelled to Koidula border checkpoint (south-east Estonia, Russian border), instead of Narva border checkpoint (north-east Estonia). The protocol will thus be favourable to Estonia, permitting a better distribution of the freight carried between the two border checkpoints.
CFR SA opened bids for contracts worth EUR 25.4 Million
make tests to establish a fair treatment between road and railway transport”, declared Claudiu Dumitrescu, Head of the Railway Department within the Romanian Ministry of Transport, while attending the conference “Railway infrastructure development in the programming period 2014-2020”, organised by Club Feroviar and the Romanian Railway Industry Association. According to the representative of the Ministry of Transport, through the General Transport Master Plan the authorities try to balance railway transport so that is could develop on the long term and to experience significant recovery to meet the demands and increase competitiveness.
Three offers were submitted for Lot 1 (System for detecting overheated axle boxes and tight brakes): the consortium CELPEx with a bid worth RON 44.54 Million (EUR 9.8 Million), Bombardier Transportation Italy S.P.A. with a bid worth RON 50.85 Million (EUR 11.2 Million) and the consortium MER MEC S.p.A., GDO MOV IMPEX S.R.L. with a bid of RON 50.79 Million (EUR 11.19 Million). Four offers were submitted for Lot 2 (Modernisation of electromechanical interlocking on Ilia Lugoj traffic section): Thales Consortium with a bid of RON 55.42 (EUR 12.21 Million), Siemens with a bid of RON 56 Million (EUR 12.35 Million), the consortium IMSAT-AZD, with a bid of RON 56.38 Million (EUR 12.42 Million) and the consortium CEPLEx with a bid RON 60.5 Million (EUR 13.33 Million).
RomAnia: On 25 February 2014, the Romanian railway infrastructure manager, CFR SA, opened the bids for two tenders announced in November 2013 on “System for detecting overheated axle boxes and tight brakes” – Lot 1 and “Modernisation of electromechanical interlocking on Ilia Lugoj traffic section” – Lot 2. The estimated cost for the two lots is of around RON 115.6 Million (EUR 25.4 Million) of which lot 1 amounts to RON 51.88 Million (EUR 11.43 Million), while lot 2 amounts to RON 63.7 Million (EUR 14 Million) VAT excluded. Дорог, подписали протокольное соглашение по установлению объёма грузопотока на железной дороги и графика движения поездов. Румыния: 25 февраля 2014 года, национальная железнодорожная компания CFR SA открыла предложения для двух тендеров, объявленных в ноябре 2013. Грузия: Грузинские Железные Дороги открыли новый таможенный терминал в Батуми, обрабатывающий объём грузопотока 200 млн. тонн, перемещён с дорожного движения на железную дорогу. Чехия: Совет Управления компании CD
photo: Club Feroviar
tiating the establishment of a joint venture that will coordinate the implementation of the second part of the project “Rail Baltica”. To apply for EU funding for this part of the project, an application should be submitted by 2016.
Cargo одобрил деловой план компании на 2014 год. В мире: В рамках встречи представителей Железных Дорог Сербии, китайского банка EXIM Bank и Венгерской Железнодорожной Компании (MAV), обсуждался вопрос продолжения работ модернизации линии Белград – Будапешт. Румыния: Мы намерены завершить Генеральный Мастер-План в области Транспорта до апреля месяца. Хотя документ не соблюдает график, мы хотим благоприятно обдумать его.
news 7 Россия: Согласно вице-президенту РЖД, Александру Мишарину, несколько немецких компаний заинтересованы в участии в проекте высокоскоростной магистрали Москва – Казань. Польша: В феврале был официально открыт центральный вокзал в городе Краков, с помощью инвестиции 130 млн. злотых (31.2 млн. евро), проект включая перемещение части рабочей деятельности в подземку и соединение вокзала с трамвайными и автобусными сетями.
Georgian Railways eyes the Turkish market Georgia: Georgian Railways has opened new customs terminal in Batumi, which manages to load 200 tonnes of freight from automobile transport to railway cars. The freight from trucks coming from Turkey to Central Asia will be loaded on railway cars, from where the transportation will be carried out to the direction of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkistan and Armenia. “New model of the transportation will be favourable for everyone, as for transportation companies and economy of Georgia and the opening of the terminal will considerably reduce congestion. With the help of this terminal, the obstacles on customs starting point will be removed”, declared Levan Jgarkava, Manager LLC Trans Caucasus Terminals. LLC Trans Caucasus Terminals provides transport services to Batumi (by automotive vehicles) and from Batumi to destinations in Central Asia, but by railways. With this service, carriers from Turkey will reduce costs by around 50%.
of Belgrade - Budapest line. “The involvement of local companies in the modernization of Belgrade - Budapest railway line is one of the priorities for Serbian economy, bearing in mind that it is an almost EUR 1.5 Billion investment. That doesn´t mean that Chinese companies will not be engaged, but it is important to find the right model for cooperation”, said Dragoljub Simonović, General Manager of Serbian Railways. Trilateral meeting of the working group was primarily technical, and there was an opportunity to inform the Chinese party about current condition of railway infrastructure on the section in Serbia. “EXIM Bank realizes potential and significance of modernization of this railway route for Serbia and Hungary. Joint participation of the representatives of both countries in negotiations with EXIM Bank represents an excellent starting point and I am sure that we are on the right track to realize this project. The preparation of feasibility study for the section from Belgrade to state border with Hungary represents the starting point for further negotiations, and that it is necessary to intensify activities in order to finish this work as soon as possible”, said Huihong Gong, vice president for concessional loans of EXIM Bank. According to Simonović, the various options are being considered, and given the importance and specific nature of the project, it is important that the first decision should be made at the state level between representatives of the Serbian and Chinese governments.
CD Cargo approved business plan for 2014 Czech Rep.: The Board of CD Cargo approved the company’s business plan for 2014. Also, the company has set as priority for the next three years to achieve a balance profit for each transport segment and estimates have been made based on the measures applied to ensure sustainable operations. The company’s business plan seeks to achieve an operating profit worth CZK 2 Million (EUR 73 thousand) and a freight volume of 67 million tonnes. In 2014, CD Cargo will continue the restructuring process launched in the previous years in order to gradually increase the company’s efficiency. An important element of the 2014 plan is to develop combined transport. CD Cargo’s investments will be focused on renewing the existing rolling stock fleet.
NTK to merge with Freight One
China wants to participate in the modernization of BelgradeBudapest line International: In February, Serbian Railways, the representatives of EXIM Bank and Hungarian Railways (MAV) discussed the continuation of activities on realization of the project of modernization
Russia: Businessman Vladimir Lisin will merge Independent Transportation
Bulgaria and FYR Macedonia ask EC to back joint infrastructure projects international: Bulgarian Foreign Minister Kristian Vigenin and his Macedonian counterpart Nikola Poposki sent a joint letter to EU Enlargement Commissioner Stefan Fule and Johannes Hahn, EU Commissioner for Regional Policy. Vigenin and Poposki confirm the readiness of the two countries to boost contacts between the competent authorities in order to ensure
Болгария: Болгария начала работы модернизации стоимостью 75 млн. лева (38.3 млн. евро) на участке, который предоставляет связь между Септември и Пазарджик. В мире: Возможно, линия Баку-Тбилиси-Карс будет пущена в эксплуатацию к концу текущего года или в начале следующего, по словам министров Иностранных Дел Азербайджана, Грузии и Турции, в рамках пресс-конференции в городе Гянджа.
Company (NTK) with Freight One and will sell the resulting company on the stock exchange, “Vedomosti” reports quoting sources close to NTK. Sources have not disclosed when the merger will take place. NTK owns 100% in Freight One. NTK is 99.99% owned by UCL Rail B.V. and 0.01% by de UCL Holding B.V. Both companies are owned by Vladimir Lisin. German companies plan to contribute to development of Moscow-Kazan line Russia: According to Alexander Misharin, First Vice President of RZD, some German companies have joined forces to contribute to the development of the Moscow-Kazan HSR project in Russia. The name of the union is “German Initiative”. Its members are companies such as Siemens, Deutsche Bahn, Deutsche Bank, etc. “The main goal of the union is to promote the high-speed railway project in the Russian Federation using German technologies, including financing technologies,” noted A. Misharin.
Modernisation of Krakow central station was completed Poland: Krakow central station was inaugurated at the middle of February, following an investment of PLN 130 Million (EUR 31.2 Million) to relocate the existing station’s concourse underground, connecting it with the city’s tram and bus networks. Krakow central station is now spread across four floors, with the ticket hall and tram platforms now located beneath the better coordination and implementation of joint projects in spheres such as infrastructure, economy and improving the overall connectivity of the region. “We believe that the existing projects aimed at developing the automobile and railway infrastructure should be given priority treatment, paying special attention to the implementation of corridor 8 (East-West),” Vigenin and Poposki say, stressing that increasing the financial aid for the completion of these projects is essential.
March 2014 | www.railwaypro.com
8 news FYR Macedonia begins the modernisation of KumanovoBeljakovce section FYR MAcedonia: FYR Macedonia has launched the upgrade of the KumanovoBeljakovce railway section, part of panEuropean transport Corridor VIII, under a project worth some EUR 50 Million. The upgrade of the 30.8 km railway track in eastern Macedonia is the first phase of a three-stage project, which includes the construction of three railway stations, overpasses, underpasses and a bridge. The contract for the upgrade of the KumanovoBeljakovce railway section has been award-
International: Baku-Tbilisi-Kars line could be commissioned at the end of this year or the beginning of the next one, foreign ministers of Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey stated at a press conference in Ganja. All three countries have tried to implement this project as soon as possible, said Turkish Minister of Foreign Affairs, Ahmet Davutoglu.The line is expected to carry 30 million tonnes of freight after commissioning.
Works start for modernising Septemvri-Pazardjik rail section Bulgaria: Bulgaria has initiated modernisation works worth BGN 75 Million (EUR 38.3 Million) on the section connecting Septemvri and Pazardzhik, announced the Ministry of Transport. Works will be completed by the end of 2015 and are part of a project of BGN 257 Million for the reconstruction of Septemvri-Plovdiv line, financed through SOPT. The section is 17.5km long. Trains will be able to run at speeds of up to 160 km/h when works will be completed.
CFR SA could lease 1,600 km of lines this year Romania: “Over 700 km of non-interoperable railway lines will be leased in the near future and we hope to launch a tender for the lease of another 900 km in the second half of the year. The private sector shows increased interest, yet local authorities are reluctant about this project. However, we plan to collaborate with local authorities to establish a balance between transport modes, and we want the authorities to get involved”, said Claudiu Dumitrescu, Head of the Railway Department within the Romanian Ministry of Transport, while attending the conference “Railway infrastructure development in the programming period 2014-2020”, organised by Club Feroviar and the Romanian Railway Industry Association. According to CFR SA addendum, for the
PKP to upgrade 2,000 km of line
Poland: Polish infrastructure manager PKP PLK plans to rehabilitate and to upgrade around 2,000 km of line in 2014. Investments will amount to around PLN 9 Billion (over EUR 2 Billion) compared to PLN 5 Billion (EUR 1.2 Billion) last year. The routes to be rehabilitated are Krakow– Rzeszów, Wrocław – Poznań and Warsaw – Skierniewice. Modernisation works will also be completed this year on Warsaw - Trójmiasto, Toruń – Bydgoszcz and Częstochowa – Koniecpol routes. PKP PLK’s investment plans for 20142020 amount to PLN 36 Billion (EUR 8.6 Billion).
first time, there is a set of stimulants the state is willing to grant if the infrastructure manager will balance its costs and will reduce the track access charge. This year’s railway infrastructure budget will be balanced to bring the infrastructure level to normal parameters, however, because of the situation in the past two decades, the railway infrastructure is still confronted with problems, explained Dumitrescu. CFM prioritizes infrastructure projects
Baku-Tbilisi-Kars line could be commissioned in 2014-2015
main line platforms. The project has been made possible through EU funding.
www.railwaypro.com | March 2014
ed to the German company Wiebe. The construction of the Beljakovce-Kriva Palanka section will cost EUR 144 Million while the works on the third section that leads to the Bulgarian border are estimated at EUR 360 Million.
БЮР Македония: начались работы модернизации трассы КумановоБелжаковце, часть 8-го коридора. Россия: Бизнесмен Владимир Лисин объединит Первую Грузовую Компанию и её владельца НТК, и продаст объединённую компанию на фондовой бирже. Польша: В этом году, компания PKP PLK намерена восстановить и модернизировать около 2000 км линии. В мире: Министры Иностранных Дел Болгарии и Македонии передали общее официальное письмо комиссарам Евросоюза Стефану Фуле и Йоханесу Хан, подтверждая свою поддержку в связи с вопросом улучшения контакта между
Moldova: “We have projects on the development of railway traffic in the Republic of Moldova and the priority will be to launch passenger transport on Giurgiuleşti –Galaţi (Romania) route, and on Cahul – Giurgiuleşti – Galaţi route. We also want to implement the modernisation of signalling, interlocking, telecommunications, data transmission and civil engineering works, including power supply”, declared Petru Saracuţa, Lines Director, Moldovan Railways (CFM), while attending the conference “Railway infrastructure development in the programming period 2014-2020”, organised by Club Feroviar and the Romanian Railway Industry Association (AIF) on 19 and 20 February in Sibiu. The company plans to rehabilitate 204.5 km of line for which investments of EUR 54.5 Million are necessary, to complete the construction of Cahul – Giurgiuleşti line (52 km) requiring EUR 16.9 Million and the electrification and construction of the European-gauge line Ungheni-Chişinău (107 km) requiring EUR 435 Million. The line is included in the pan-European Corridor IX. We recall that in February, Romania and the Republic of Moldova signed a Memorandum of Understanding to develop joint projects. Joint projects were identified in the railway transport sector such as the modernisation of Ungheni–Chişinău section, but also the construction of a 10-km broad-gauge segment from Iaşi to Nicolina rail station. On the short run, the Romanian side proposed the modernisation of Socola rail station to permit the transhipment of passengers from the broad-gauge trains to the Europeangauge trains, or the collaboration with local authorities to introduce a public transport line up to Nicolina rail station. компетентными органами для улучшения управления и внедрения двусторонних проектов инфраструктуры и экономики. Румыния: В следующий период 700 км не-интероперабельной железнодорожной линии будут отданы в аренду и страна надеется, что во второй половине года организует тендер по аренде других 900 км. Рес. Молдова: У нас есть проекты развития железнодорожного движения, первая цель касается обеспечения пассажирского движения по трассе Джурджулешть – Галац (Румыния) и соответственно, по трассе Кагул – Джурджулешть – Галац.
10 news Pasazieru vilciens will upgrade 19 diesel trains
Project of Moscow – Vladimir high-speed line was approved
latvia: Passenger transport operator in Latvia Pasazieru vilciens has signed a contract for modernization of 19 diesel trains. The contract signed with the group of companies VRC Zasulauks (Latvia) is worth EUR 21.98 Million, of which EU will co-finance with EUR 13 Million. According to the agreement of the two parties, the first trains will be modernised by the end of the year and the rest will be delivered by the end of 2015.
russia: The State Expert Assessment Department approved the project of the high-speed railway line linking Moscow and Vladimir (east of Moscow), which will later be a part of the Moscow – Kazan line.
South Caucasus Railway: increasing passenger transport
Kaztemirtrans set priorities for 2014
FPK anticipates profit increase Russia: Federal Passenger Company (FPK) is expected to increase profit to RUB 3 Billion (USD 85.3 Million) this year, FPK General Manager Mikhail Akulov said. For this, FPK will provide new services and will extend the dynamic charging system for more trains. The company estimates that the net profit in 2013 amounts to RUB 2.5 Billion.
Kazakhstan: In 2014, Kaztemirtrans
plans to repair 20,000 wagons, twice as much as in 2013, when 11,158 wagons were repaired. “This year, we want to increase the number of wagons to be rehabilitated by 10,000 compared to the previous year. To complete this project, it is necessary to approach repair and quality problems, which is mandatory for all subsidiaries”, declared Kaztemirtrans President, Kanat Almagambetov. For 2014, priorities also include the optimisation of manipulation and dispatch of the fleet of wagons, the share of empty wagons traffic and the identification of wagon optimisation costs, as well as the implementation of automated control systems, that have already been tested and would be implemented by the end of 2014. The company also considers the modernisation of equipment in the overhaul depots, but also the reconstruction of Kushmurun depot (undergoing) and Balkhash depot will be transformed in a maintenance centre.
The line is the first phase of the national network of the United Arab Emirates and it is financed with a credit of USD 1.28 Billion. Phase two will include the construction of a connection between the border with Saudi Arabia and Al Ain. The construction of phase two could begin by summer. CIT Group acquires Nacco International: CIT Group Inc., global leader in transport finances, announced the acquisition of Paris-based Nacco SAS, one of the largest independent full service railcar lessors in Europe. Nacco owns more than 9,500 railcars and services over 150 customers in 16 countries and has subsidiaries in Germany and Great Britain. The terms of the transaction have not been disclosed. “Europe has one of the largest freight rail markets in the world and this acquisition supports our efforts to grow our rail leasing business,” said Jeff Knittel, President of CIT Transportation & International Finance.
RZD grants financial resources to Trans-Baikal Railway subsidiary
UAE: Etihad Rail expects operations on the 266km long line connecting Shan/ Habshan to Ruwais to begin by the end of the year. Construction works were nearly completed and testing was initiated. The line will be used for the transport of sulphur to the Port of Ruais for export.
Russia: In 2014, Zabaikalyye (TransBaikal-ZZD), a RZD subsidiary, could invest RUB 17.9 Billion (EUR 376 Million) in the renewal of the locomotive fleet. This is almost RUB 300 Million (EUR 6.3 Million). The project includes the acquisition of 154 new locomotives for which RZD plans to allocate RUB 17.4 Billion (EUR 366 Million). “We expect to buy 129 locomotives for freight traffic and 25 shunting locomotives”,
Россия: Национальный Департамент Анализа Осуществимости одобрил проект строительства высокоскоростной линии, связывающей Москву с городом Владимир (на востоке от Москвы), которая станет частью магистрали Москва – Казань. Правительство должно принять окончательное решение в связи с проектом этой весной. Латвия: Оператор пассажирского транспорта Латвии, Pasazieru vilciens, заключил договор по модернизации 19 дизель-поездов. Контракт, подписан с консорциумом VRC Zasulauks (Латвия) оценен в 21.98 млн. евро, с которых ЕС софинансирует 13 млн. евро. Россия: В 2014 году, Забайкалье
(ТТК Байкал-Транс, дочерняя РЖД, возможно вложет 17.9 млд. рублей (376 млн. евро) в обновление локомотивного парка, бюджет проявляя рост на 300 млн. рублей (6.3 млн. евро) в сравнении с прошлым годом. Казахстан: В 2014 году, Казтемиртранс намерена провести ремонтные работы 20.000 вагонов, почти двойное количество в сравнении с 2013, когда прошли ремонт 11.158 вагонов. Румыния: CFR Грузоперевозки организовали в феврале 2014 встречу с представителями Железных Дорог Литвы (LG) на тему сотрудничества двух компаний в рамках проекта Викинг, который связывает регионы Балтийского и Чёрного Моря.
Line Ruwais inaugurated this year
www.railwaypro.com | March 2014
Armenia: In 2013, South Caucasus Railway transported 3.2 thousand tonnes of cargo, by 5.3% less compared with 2012, while passenger traffic increased by 4% (from 53 Million passenger/km to 55 Million passenger/km). Per type of goods, non-ferrous ores dominated (1.3 million tonnes), followed by cereals (455 thousand tonnes), oil (276 thousand tonnes), construction materials (133 thousand tonnes) and cement (110 thousand tonnes). In order to increase freight and passenger transport, the company’s CEO, Victor Rebets, demanded the careful analysis of the situation in the decision-making process.
Meanwhile, the final decision will be made by the Russian Government this spring. The justification of investment in the Moscow – Kazan line, made by Lengiprotrans institute and the Centre of Strategic Developments was confirmed by independent auditors. The Ministry for Economy agreed with the project cost estimation.
DB tightens collaboration with rail industry Germany: Deutsche Bahn AG and the country’s railway industry want to collaborate far more closely in the technical sector in future. Such a quality partnership will be used to further improve the development of new rail vehicles. An appropriate agreement was recently signed by representatives of the two parties. The first definite steps to form the quality partnership will be presented at the end of spring this year.
Turkmenistan builds over 200 km of railway line towards Iran International: Some 210 kilometers of the Bereket – Etrek section of the North-South transnational railway have been laid, the Turkmen government said. Earlier it was reported that a 300 kilometer railway line is planned to be commissioned in October 2014. This term was set by Turkmen President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov at a meeting of the Cabinet of Ministers in early 2014. The North-South project is being implemented on the basis of an agreement signed by Turkmenistan, Iran and Kazakhstan in 2007. A project on connecting the railways at the KazakhTurkmen border was commissioned in May 2013. At this stage, work is underway in sections of Iran and Turkmenistan.
Russia supports Kyrgyzstan to join the Customs Union International: Kyrgyzstan and Russia reached an agreement to develop a joint programme promoting the country’s accession to the Customs Union, Kyrgyz Economy Minister Temir Sariyev
CFR Marfă to become Viking member in May 2014 romania: In February CFR Marfă organised a meeting with the representatives of Lithuanian Railways (LG) having as main topic the collaboration between the two railway companies in the Viking project the regions of the Baltic and of the Black seas. During the meeting, experts from both companies defined the technical, operational and commercial conditions that would allow developing this project on the Romanian railway network as well. An assessment record was concluded at the end of the meeting with firm conditions to be met by CFR Marfă until the end of April 2014, so as to access the Viking project in May 2014. It should be said that the route of this project from the Baltic Sea area to the Black Sea area includes railway companies, maritime companies, shipping companies and port administrations from Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, the Republic of Moldova, Bul-
announced. The agreement was reached at a meeting between Russian and Kyrgyz presidents in February. “The heads of state agreed that soon the two countries would set up a working group chaired by the first deputy prime ministers to develop a programme helping Kyrgyzstan to join the Customs Union,” Sariyev said. The Kyrgyz authorities decided to join the Customs Union in spring 2011. In six months the republic filed an official application to join the organisation. Developing the technical challenge for the future European rail system International: European rail operating community, which brings together European train operators and infrastructure managers who are members of CER, EIM and UIC, builds on the vision of “Challenge 2050” and publishes its Rail Technical Strategy for
Армения: В 2013 году, ЮжноКавказская Железная Дорога транспортировала 3.2 млн. тонн груза, на 5.3% ниже оценки 2012 года, в то время как пассажирский транспорт проявил рост на 4%, от 53 млн. пассажиров-км до 55 млн. пассажиров-км (число пассажиров составляя 4 млн.). Россия: Федеральная Пассажирская Компания (ФПК) оценивает увеличение своей прибыли до 3 млрд. рублей (85.3 млн. долл.) в этом году, согласно генеральному директору ФПК, Михаил Акулов. В мире: Компания Etihad Rail оценивает, что операционные деятельности на 266 км-ой линии связывающей Схан\Хабсхан и Руваис, начнутся до конца года. Строительные работы были почти окончены и начались испытания. В мире: Железнодорожные компании России и Балтийских стран намерены
garia and Turkey, Romania being the country to complete this logistics chain. On 28 February 2013, CFR Marfă signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Lithuanian Railways LG on boosting collaboration between the two railway companies, including cooperation through the Viking combined transport project and, also, the transport ministries from Romania and Lithuania signed on 5 December 2013 a Memorandum of Understanding on transport cooperation, with focus on developing Viking combined transport project.
photo: Club Feroviar
states the company. In 2013, ZZD received 119 Yermak electric locomotives. Twenty-four TEM-18dm diesel locomotives were added to the fleet of shunting locomotives. RZD invested more than RUB 17.5 Billion (EUR 368 Million) for their purchase. Over RUB 170 Million (EUR 3.6 Million) were spent on the modernization of locomotives. The length of TransSib in the ZZD section is 2,266.7 km. The mainline runs across two regions: Zabaikalye Territory and Amur Region.
the future European rail system. In order for individual rail companies to plan for the future in the best possible way, leading rail experts from across Europe have come together led by the UIC’s Coordinator Europe, Simon Fletcher, to publish a shared strategy, known as Rail Technical Strategy Europe (RTSE). The strategy builds on the high level vision that was published in the Challenge 2050 document of 2013 and is designed to complement and support national strategies, and so provides the common ground for railways across Europe to grow together. It sends a really strong message that the systems that are so important to efficient operation and service provision must all look to pull in the same direction. It will enable the rail operating community to focus on a wide range of core points and take the opportunities to satisfy customer requirements and to prepare for the расширить сотрудничество в области трансграничного сообщения вдоль северо-западной оси, для повышения конкурентоспособности транспортных услуг. С этой целью был создан Балтийский Железнодорожный Совет. В мире: Кыргызстан и Россия заключили договор по развитию общей программы поддержки вступления страны в Таможенный Союз, согласно министру экономики Кыргызстана, Темиру Сариеву. В мире: Для независимых железнодорожных компаний, европейские эксперты отрасли и Координатор Международного Железнодорожного Союза по Европе, Симон Флетшер, опубликовали общею стратегию – Железнодорожная Техническая Стратегия Европы (RTSE), цель которой состоит в обеспечении поддержки для компаний в эффективном планировании будущих проектов. March 2014 | www.railwaypro.com
International: Railways of Russia and the Baltic states are going to expand cooperation in cross-border transportation in the North-West to increase their competitiveness at the transport services market. The Baltic Railway Council has been launched to achieve the objective. At its first meeting (February 2014) in St. Petersburg, the Memorandum and the Agreement about border cooperation
challenges related to the way in which the future system is designed, constructed, operated and maintained. In this way, it can also contribute to wider social and economic goals within the communities that rail serves. Skopje rail station modernization to be launched FYR Macedonia: The upgrade of Skopje’s main railway station will be launched at the end of March or in early April, the Macedonian government said. The evaluation of the bids submitted in a tender for the station’s reconstruction is expected to be completed by the end of the month, the government said in a statement. The transport ministry, which called the tender in July 2013, said at the time that the upgrade works should be completed by 2015.
were signed. Viktor Stepov, Head of Oktyabrskaya Railway (an affiliate of RZD), said that in the framework of the new organization it is planned to prepare offers about optimizing technologies for freight and passenger trains traffic via border crossings. The members of the Council are representatives of railways of Russia, Finland, Belarus, Estonia, and Latvia. Lithuanian Railways preferred to have the observer status. Viktor Stepov, Head of Oktyabrskaya Railway, was elected Head of the Council.
districts, as well as for the construction of links between the corridor and the new line to Brussels Airport. The project includes the installation of acoustic barriers and the implementation of anti-vibration solutions. Works will be finalized by December 2015. Ukrzaliznytsia buys electric locomotives Ukraine: This year, Ukrainian railway company Ukrzaliznytsia plans to buy 59 electric locomotives for freight trains, Minister of Infrastructure Volodymyr Kozak announced. Most of the locomotives will by manufactured by Luganskteplovoz railcar plant. According to the minister, Ukrzaliznytsia also plans to buy 2,000 freight cars.
MÁV to soon finalize the free internet project
Hungary: MÁV-Start Zrt. Has almost completed the implementation of the Wi-Fi internet network in 735 trains. The project will allow 50 million passengers a year to use free internet in trains. The internet services are already provided on the intercity lines between Budapest and Miskolc, Debrecen, Nyíregyháza, Pécs,
EU to finance the optimisation of traffic on Brussels – Strasbourg corridor International: The European Union will grant EUR 34 Million to improve railway traffic on Brussels – Luxembourg – Strasbourg Corridor (priority project TEN-T 28), by eliminating traffic bottlenecks in Brussels and in the neighbourhood of the Belgian capital. Funds will be allocated for works in Watermael, Schuman and Josaphat www.railwaypro.com | March 2014
Венгрия: MÁV-Start Zrt. почти полностью завершила проект беспроводной сети интернета WI-FI в 735 поездов. Проект позволит 50 млн. пассажирам (ежегодно) бесплатно использовать интернет в вагонах. В мире: CIT Group Inc., глобальный лидер финансового транспортного сектора, объявил приобретение Nacco SAS, со штабом в Париже – одна из крупнейших самостоятельных лизинговых компаний железнодорожного сектора в Европе. Nacco содержит более 9.500 вагонов, имея более 150 клиентов в 16 странах, а также, дочерние компании в Германии и Великобритании. В мире: Deutsche Bahn AG и немецкая железнодорожная промышленность намерены укрепить сотрудничество в технической области в будущем. Сотрудничество нацелено на развитие нового подвижного состава. В мире: Вдоль участка Берекет – Етрек,
Szeged and Szombathely. The number of internet connections in MÁV trains has increased from 30,000 in March 2013 to 450,000 in December last year.
Baltic Railway Council was launched
ADIF launches ETCS tender for Madrid – Galicia HSL SPAIN: Spanish infrastructure manager ADIF approved the tendering of a contract to design, install and maintain signalling and telecommunications equipment on the Madrid-Galicia high-speed rail line, with a total value of EUR 640.8 Million. The tender will seek a contractor to design, supply and install ETCS train protection and centralised traffic control systems, GSM-R, along the 326km Olmedo – Ourense corridor. This part of the contract is worth EUR 326.8 Million. The package will also include the maintenance of all subsystems, not only on the Olmedo – Ourense section, but also on the 85km Ourense – Santiago high-speed line. The total value of this part of the contract is calculated at EUR 314 Million.The package replaces a EUR 905 Million public-private partnership contract issued two years ago. Despite its initial intention to call for private investment to equip the line in order to ease the financial burden on the state, the Spanish government subsequently decided to contract the works directly due to lower interest rates in the bond market and a lack of interest from the private sector. часть Северо-Южного Трансграничного Коридора, были установлены около 210 км железной дороги, объявили 12 февраля власти Туркменистана. БЮР Македония: Проект модернизации главного вокзала Скопье будет пущен в ход в конце марта или в начале апреля, согласно властям. Тендер по проекту был открыт в июле 2013 году. Работы должны заключится до 2015 года. В мире: ЕС предоставит 34 млн. евро на улучшение железнодорожного сообщения вдоль коридора Брюссель – Люксембург – Страсбург (приоритетный проект сети TEN-T 28), путём устранения затора движения в Брюсселе и в округе. Украина: “Укрзализныця” намерена приобрести в этом году 59 электровозов для грузовых поездов, согласно министру Инфраструктуры, Владимир Козак. Большинство электровозов будут произведены Вагонным Заводом Лугансктепловоз.
Romania: The Association for Metropolitan Mobility (AMM) has sent an open letter on the organization of public transport in the area of competence of AMTB to the authorities in charge (Ministry of Transport, Bucharest Metropolitan Transport Authority, Ilfov County Council, the Competition Council and the National Regulatory Authority for Municipal Services). At present, Bucharest Metropolitan Transport Authority, structure in the suborder of the Ministry of Transport, is developing the tender procedure for the attribution of public passenger transport by bus, between the administrative territorial units in Bucharest metropolitan area (for the programming period 2014-2020). The session on the evaluation of candidates and the selection of winners of the bid is set for 14 April-26May 2014. AMM demands that, for further clarifying the implications of the tender on urban and territorial development of Bucharest Metropolitan Area, a meeting between all parties involved should be organised to analyse the aspects mentioned in the letter,
Metro extension inaugurated in Moscow Russia: The mayor of Moscow, Mr. Sergei Sobyanin, opened a 4.5km extension to Line 12 of the Moscow Metro at the end of February. The extension has two stations and provides an additional connection with metro line 6. The project will improve transport services for around 300,000 people living in the area. Construction works began in 2011. With the new extension, line 12 has 10 km and 7 stations.
such as: Thus, AMM underlines 10 aspects, among which: “AMTB documents violates the European Union Regulation 1370/2007, as the attribution documents don’t include the public service contract to be concluded. The conclusion of public service obligations between AMTB and operators is mandatory (...) as long as the operator benefits from exclusivity on AMTB routes. The contract model should have been presented to bidders 180 days before the expiration of the current transport programme. We thus also observe the infringement of the European and national legislation leading to market distortion and to limited access in the market of new operators with serious implications on the quality level of services and tariffs”, AMM states. Also, the letter states that “the transport programme doesn’t rely on any traffic study and on any mobility strategy in Bucharest metropolitan area. This aspect is highlighted by the way in which the routes served by the future metropolitan buses have been drawn and by the requested capacity”. In fact, this transport programme does not provide connection with trains, but with routes parallel to railways, tram networks or metro lines.
systems in the world”, Erdogan stressed at the ceremony for Istanbul’s new 18-km underground line, which he said would serve one million people daily. The line will have four stations: Mecidiyekoy, Kagithane, Alibeykoy and Mahmutbey. photo: en.wikipedia.org
Bucharest Metropolitan Transport Authority infringes EU Regulation 1370/2007
London Metro, interested in buying trains
France to become part of Tel Aviv light rail project
International: London Underground Ltd. has asked for expressions of interest for supplying 250 driverless trains. The actual tender will, most probably, be held at the beginning of 2015. The metro trains will be dedicated to Piccadilly, Central, Bakerloo and Waterloo & City lines. The trains will have to be equipped with air-conditioning and they will have to allow people to walk easily between carriages. Siemens has already indicated its interest in bidding. The company’s spokesmen said they were expecting to see what the bid required.
International: Israel Minister of Transport, Yisrael Katz, announced the French Government is interested in building Tel Aviv light rail project during a binational agreement. The designers of the line try to put most of the line in the underground to free the land to be sold to
Istanbul could have a rail transport network of 420 km Turkey: Turkey’s Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan said he wanted Istanbul to expand its light rail system by 420 km until 2019 and eventually reach 776 km. “We strive to make Istanbul rank second among the cities with the longest rail www.railwaypro.com | March 2014
Румыния: Ассоциация Городской Мобильности (AMM) передала компетентным органам открытое письмо в связи с организационной деятельностью в секторе общественного транспорта в зонах, находящихся под ответственностью Авторитетных Органов СтоличногоТранспорта Бухареста. Россия: Мэр Москвы, Сергей Собянин, провёл официальное открытие продолжительного участка длиной 4.5 км 12-ой линии метро, в конце февраля. В мире: Лондонское Метро London Underground Ltd. направило заявку по доставке 250 автоматических поездов метро. Турция: Премьер-министр Турции, Реджен Тайип Эрдоган, объявил что намерен расширить сеть лёгкого метро
investors to ensure the project financing. The agency in charge with the development of the rapid transit in Tel Aviv, NTA, has already received a budget of ILS 2.5 Billion for this project, although construction works have not been initiated. Dubai continues the extension of the metro network International: Design and planning of three extensions to Dubai’s metro network is well underway, according to the acting CEO of Roads and Transport Authority’s (RTA) Rail Agency, Mr Abullah Yousuf Al Ali. The extensions include adding 20.6km to the existing 22.5km Green Line. The extension will have 11 stations. The 52.1km long red line will be extended by 3.5 km to the south from the eastern terminal and by 15 km to the south to the western terminal. Overall, the two extensions will have 12 new stations. All extensions will be ready in time for the World Exhibition in 2020.
Metrorex continues development projects Romania: “At present, Metrorex’s projects in progress with foreign financing include the elaboration of the preliminary technical projects for the development of works to Drumul Taberei – Pantelimon line, Universitate – Pantelimon section, 7.4km ling double track (12 stations and one depot). Works are due to begin in 2015 and commissioning is due in 2019. The project also includes the acquisition of 30 new trains for M5. The entire project is estimated at around EUR 1.3 Billion, of which EIB supplied a loan of EUR 465 Million. Another project with foreign funds, proposed to financing within the Operational Programme Large Infrastructure 2014-2020, refers to the connection of the metro network to Henri Coandă – Otopeni International Airport (14.2 km of double track). The project is estimated at over EUR 1 Billion, of which JICA granted a loan of EUR 320 Million. The estimated deadline for the beginning of works is 2015 and the commissioning is scheduled for 2021. For Metrorex, the Стамбула на 420 км до 2019. В мире: Министр Транспорта Израиля, Израэль Кац, объявил что правительство Франции проявило интерес осуществить проект лёгкого метро в Тель-Авиве в рамках двустороннего соглашения. В мире: Проектирование и планировка трёх продолжительных участков метро в Дубае находятся в стадии разработки; работы начнутся скоро, как объявил Председатель правления Железнодорожного Агентства, Абдуллах Юсуф Аль Али. Россия: Метровагонмаш (принадлежащий Трансмашхолдингу) и Трансхолдлизинг выйграли тендер на поставку 832 вагонов для Московского метро.
news 15 EU awards for sustainable mobility international: The European Commission has announced the six finalists of two awards which honour the actions of European cities in developing and promoting sustainable approaches to urban mobility and which will be presented on 24 March. This year’s Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP) award recognises cities with SUMPs illustrating the ‘integration of economic, social, and environmental policy
introduction in the SOP-T (as of 2013) was a very important process, due to the advantage of EU funds for eligible projects. The Operational Programme Large Infrastructure 2014-2020 considers the project Haşdeu – Universitate – Pantelimon section, which is 11-km long double track (17 stations), the current financing source being EIB and the state budget. The estimated deadline for the beginning of works is 2015 and commissioning is scheduled for 2019. Hyundai Rotem to manufacture metros in Brazil International: CCR Group, the winner of the tender organised by Metro de Salvador for the second phase of the construction of the metro network, confirmed it will buy 49 new units from the consortium Hyundai Rotem – Iesa. The
criteria’. The award is presented to local authorities who demonstrate excellence in developing and implementing their sustainable urban mobility plans to address their city’s mobility challenges. An expert jury evaluates the applications on their achievements and selects a winning city to receive the prize of EUR 10 000. The finalists for the 2013 SUMP award are: Rivas Vaciamadrid (Spain), Strasbourg (France) and Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain). The European Mobility Week (EMW) award rewards the local authority which
is most actively promoting sustainable travel and introducing new measures to encourage a shift towards sustainable urban transport. The cities of Budapest, Ljubljana, and Östersund have been selected as finalists for their ambitious and innovative campaign programme. 2013 EMW award received 30 applications from 12 countries. The shortlisted cities (except for finalists) are: Bologna (Italy), Larnaka (Cyprus), Gdynia (Poland), Hudiksvall (Sweden), Sofia (Bulgaria), Labin (Croatia) and Turku (Finland).
assembly of the units will be made at Iesa plant in Araraquara with elements imported from South Korea. Currently, the metro has six units with 24 cars manufactured by Mitsui - Hyundai Rotem consortium in 2008. The contract also includes the rehabilitation of these six units by Hyundai Rotem.
the delivery of 16 new trams, which, adding to the four additional four, means that the Spanish manufacturer will have to deliver 20 new trams. The first new trams will arrive in November this year. Due to the new trams, the city fully renovates and extends its 3rd and 4th tram lines during 2014 and 2015 for EUR 26 Million.
Tallinn buys 4 new trams International: Tallinna
Linnatranspordi AS, Tallinn City Transport Operator, board and Spanish manufacturer CAF signed an agreement in the framework of which four more trams will be bought for the city, exercising an option. The purchase of the trams is financed from revenues of the state. The total amount of the contract is EUR 9.8 Million, of which TLT will cover EUR 243 Thousand. In 2013, CAF and TLT signed a contract on
В мире: Европейская Комиссия объявила 6 городов – финалистов, которые получат два приза состоящих в разработки плана продвижения и развития долгосрочной городской мобильности; призы будут представлены к концу марта. В мире: Оператор общественного транспорта столицы Таллинн, Tallinna Linnatranspordi AS, заключил базовое соглашение с испанским производителем CAF по доставке 4 дополнительных трамваев, в качестве факультативной части контракта.
March 2014 | www.railwaypro.com
16 Policies & Strategies
EU sets the pillars of the new framework on climate change and energy for 2030
[ by Pamela Luică ]
Reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 40% (below the 1990 level), a mandatory objective of at least 27% at EU level for renewable energy, renewed ambitions for energy efficient policies, a new government system and a set of new indicators for ensuring a safe and competitive system, these are the pillars of the new EU framework on climate change and energy for 2030.
Combined (life cycle) emissions, MtCO2e
EED and Transport White paper annual reduction impact on CO2 emissions he pillars of the new framework were presented by the European Commission at the end of January. Supported by a detailed analysis of the energy prices and costs, the framework for 2030 will ensure the regulatory stability for investors and a coordinated approach between member states, triggering the development of new technologies. In fact, the aim of the framework is to stimulate a progress towards an economy with low carbon-dioxide emissions and an energy system which provides energy at affordable prices, increasing the security of energy supply and creating new growth opportunities and jobs, while also considering the potential impact on long-term prices. “An ambitious project of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 40% until 2030 is the stimulates environmentally jobs Energy Council andCO2 the EP) is accompanied by a A Need Source: “Energy Efficiency,friendly Renewable and Allowances in Europe: most cost-efficient milestone in our way and supports the procurement security”, law proposal on market stability reserve on Climate Brief, no. 18, CDC September towards an economy with low carbon-dio- declared EC President Jose Climat ManuelResearch, Bar- EU’s emission2012. trading scheme (EU ETS) EU Transport GHG: Routes to 2050 II Developing a better understanding of the secondary impacts, xide emissions. And the objective of at least roso. as of 2021. The reportimpacting of energy prices and 6.The Some efficiency measures, notably those electricity con Contract sensitivities for the energy decarbonisation of EU by 2050 27% for 070307/2010/579469/SER/C2 renewable energy is an important communication which setstransport the 2030 costs suggests that an increase of energy the potential to drive down the carbon price and to make the achievement of signal that provides stability to investors, (to be prices can be partially reduced by ensuring Figure 1.3: Business as usual projected growth in framework transport’s lifecycle GHGdebated emissionswithin by modethe efficient energy and climate policies. reductions more costly than they would otherwise be. However, the cur Total Combined cycle)GHG GHG emissions, BAU-a Total Combined (life (life cycle) emissions, BAU-a “The 2030 framework sets a high level of allowances in the ETS is largely driven by other factors. climate changambition on counteracting 2,200 FreightRail es, but alsorenewable acknowledges that thiscan objecMeasures to promote energy efficiency (and energy) lower the 2,000 tive should be attained at the lowest cost. MaritimeShipping weakening the demand for emission allowances in the ETS. Furthermore, at The internal energy market is everything InlandShipping 1,800 we need to achieve thiscan objective and I out c of the carbon price,HeavyTruck short term emission reductions be carried will continue to struggle to complete it so 1,600 purchase of allowances. And any extra takenfrom to its reduce emissions MedTruck as to measures be able to benefit full poteninvestments in renewable energy, energy efficiency measures in transport or 1,400 tial. This includes the “Europenization” of Van renewable energy policies”, said Commisrelative terms be more costly. With a low carbon price, investments in suc WalkCycle 1,200 sioner for Energy, Günther Oettinger.
therefore difficult toMotorcycle justify for delivering short term emissions reductions.
Elements of the political framework The authors of an EP study on energy efficiency and the ETS232 highlight th for 2030 IntlAviation same activities by two instruments can amount to double regulation, there EUAviation The key elements of the political framecarbon market signal, Busand making the achievement of GHG emissions reducti work for 2030, set by the Commission, than they would otherwise be "whilstconsist underinthe firmsobjectives. can optimise Car twoETS, mandatory One their the longer term – they have a choice between investing and buying Total WP Targets is related to the reduction of greenhouseallowan gas emissions, as coretoelement of with the EUthe regul 2010 BAU EED they are forcedSULTAN to apply technological solutions comply energy and climate policy – of reducing 2035be 2040 2045 2050 in conflict with the optimising investment over longer emissions by 40%the - that could term". only be met PassengerRail
Source: EU transport GHG: routes to 2050 II (2012)
Modelling exercises carried out in preparation of the Commission's EED were regarding possible impacts on the price of ETS allowances233. In terms of ad
Source: SULTAN Illustrative Scenarios Tool, updated for the EU Transport GHG: Routes to 2050 II project www.railwaypro.com | March 2014 Notes: Maritime shipping include estimates for the full emissions resulting from journeys to EU countries, rather than current international reporting which only include emissions from bunker fuels supplied at a
EU Transport GHG: Routes to 2050 II Contract 070307/2010/579469/SER/C2
Developing a better understanding of the secondary impacts, Policies & Strategies sensitivities for the decarbonisation of EU transport by 2050
Figure 7.4: Comparison of the relative significance of GHG emissions from infrastructure development and operation as of a proportion of overall lifecycle GHG emissions energyof overall Comparison of the relative significance GHG emissions from infrastructure development and(including operation vehicle as a proportion consumption and vehicle production and disposal) for different modes of transport lifecycle GHG emissions (including vehicle energy consumption and vehicle production and disposal) for different modes of transport Significance of Transport Infrastructure* GHG by Mode 76%
20% 15% 10%
Significance of Transport Infrastructure* GHG by Mode Range
15% EU Transport GHG: Routes to 2050 II Contract 070307/2010/579469/SER/C2
60% 50% 40%
Developing a better understanding of30% the secondary impacts, 31%by 2050 30% sensitivities for the decarbonisation of EU transport
Comparison of the relative13% significance of GHG emissions20% from infrastructure development 15% and 10% operation as a proportion of overall lifecycle GHG emissions (including vehicle energy 15% 13% 9% 10% modes of transport 3% consumption and vehicle production and disposal) for different
Significance of Transport Infrastructure* GHG by Mode
Infrastructure % of Total Lifecycle GHG
Infrastructure % of Total Lifecycle GHG
Significance * Construction AND Operation 100%
of Transport Infrastructure* GHG by Mode
1.3% 2% Aviation
* Construction AND Operation
Range Range The figures in the chart represent the90%range of values 85% identified in the literature for different modes of Low Low 76% transport. 80% 31% Infrastructure % of Total Lifecycle GHG
Infrastructure % of Total Lifecycle GHG
Source: EU transport GHG: routes 76% to 2050 II (2012)
30% through internal measures. The annual re- Typical able energy. Its achievement is ensured press release states. Typical 70% duction of30% the maximum threshold of emis- High by the new governance system based on For competitive and safe energy at affordHigh 25% sions in the sectors pertaining to the EU national 60% energy plans: energy efficiency – able prices, EC proposes a series of key inETS scheme would increaseproduction from 1.74% whose role dicators on the evaluation of the progress 20% 7.5.2 50% will be analysed during the reVehicle and disposal (today) to 2.2% after 2020, while those not view of directive on40%energy efficiency to be in time, and by means of these indicators 40% 15% included in 15% the scheme should15% be reduced concluded later 30% this year. EC will analyse policies will ensure a competitive and safe The(compared following and Figure 7.6 comparison of the GHG due toof 2030. 30% provide a summary by10% 30% to Figure 2005) – 7.5 an effort the potential need to amend31%the directive energy system is the perspective 13% different materials and the breakdown of the vehicle lifecycle emissions between equally shared by EU member states. Thus, after completing the review. The national For the new governance system, the 2030 20% 15% 15% the5%Commission invites the Council and energy of member states will framework proposes amodes. system based on na10% production/disposal, maintenance andplans operational energy use for different transport 13% also 9% 10% 3% the EP to agree, by the end of2%2014, on the have to include energy efficiency. tional plans for competitive, safe and sus10% 2% 9% 3% 1.3% 2% 1.3% 2% fact0%that Road EU should commit to a 40% cut Another0%element is the reform of the EUAviation tainable energy. Based on the future guideRail Shipping Aviation Road Rail Shipping 7.5:of 2015 Comparison of the GHG from vehicle disposal by will be at theFigure beginning as part of internaETSemissions scheme forbreakdown which EC proposes the manufacture lines elaboratedand by EC, these plans material for different modes of transport Notes: The figures in the chartglobal represent the range of values identified in the literature for differentdeveloped modes of by member states based on a tional negotiations on a new climate establishment of a reserve for consolidattransport. to be concluded in Paris change agreement ing the market at the beginning of the new common approach. at the end 100% of 2015. trading period of ETS in 2021. “The reserve Transports are part of key complemen0.6% 3.5% 4.2% 6.5% The second objective concerns renewable8.6%would also permit the approach of the sur- tary policies, for which the objective is re8.6% 90% a crucial part in the transi-6.2% energy playing plus of emission certificates and 9.6% the opti- ducing emissions by 60% until 2050 and by 7.5.2 Vehicle production and disposal 12.4% 2.6% 27.4% tion to a competitive, safe and sustainable8.6%misation of the system endurance to major 20% until 2030 (compared to 2008). A re80% system. Reducing greenhouse gas emisshocks by automatically adjusting the supduction of emissions will require the gradThe following Figure 7.5 and Figure 7.6 provide a summary comparison of the GHG due to 24.7% 70% sions by 40% should determine use of plyofof certificates to belifecycle tendered,emissions (...) the ual transformation of the entire transport 4.7% different materials and thethebreakdown the vehicle between renewable energy by at least 27% in 2030, creation of such reserves being supported system to a better integration of transport production/disposal, maintenance and operational energy use for different transport modes. 60% this being EU’s mandatory goal on renew- by a broad range of interested parties”, modes, an improved exploitation of “non4.3% 52.9% EC 23.5% road” alternatives and the optimisation of 54.8% 50% Figure 7.5: Comparison of the GHG emissions breakdown from vehicle manufacture and disposal by management with intelligent traffic flow Comparisonmaterial of the GHG emissions breakdown from vehicle manufacture and disposal for 19.5% different modes of transport 40% systems. 74.8%modes of transport by material for different
GHG from Materials Production, % Total
GHG from Materials Production, % Total
* Construction AND Operation
* Construction AND Operation
Light Rail/Metro 52.9%
ЕС планирует основные новые 3.4% цели в области изменения климата Aircraf t и энергии до 2030
Heavy Rail 23.5%
Снижение уровня выбросов парниковых газов на 40% (ниже Lead Magnesium Titanium Nickel уровня 1990 года), императивная цель 30% Plastics Rubber Glass Textile достижения не менее 27% на уровне 39.3% 20% 33.6% ЕС в области регенерируемой энергии, Composites: CFRP Composites: GFRP Other 29.6% 10% новые стремления в сфере политики 22.6% энергоэффективности, новая система 3.4% Notes: CFRP = carbon fibre reinforced plastic; GFRP = glass fibre reinforced plastic 0% управления и ряд новых показателей для Car Truck Light Rail/Metro Heavy Rail Aircraf t обеспечения конкурентоспособной и надёжной энергетической системы, это Steel and iron Aluminium Copper Zinc основные задачи плана ЕС в области Lead Magnesium Titanium Nickel изменения климата и энергии до 2030 Plastics Rubber Glass Textile года. Composites: CFRP Composites: GFRP Other 40%
Source: EU transport GHG: routes to 2050 II (2012)
CFRP = carbon fibre reinforced plastic; GFRP = glass fibre reinforced plastic
Ref. AEA/ED56293/Final Report – Issue No. 3
March 2014 | www.railwaypro.com
ute has his
During the UN “Rio+20” conference of June 2012, 8 development bankscommitted (Multilateral Development under the Banks -MDBs) launched the Commitment to Sustainable Transport estimating they will supply credits and grants worth USD 175 Billion to sustainable transport projects from developing countries. Sustainable Energy Initiative, with estimated
carbon savings over
ccording to the first progress report (2012-2013) of the Working Group for the 8 multilateral development banks (MDB), they are willing to grant over USD 175 Billion for the next decade (in credits and grants) for the sustainable transport segment of developing countries. Among others, the report includes the amounts granted for this segment (USD 20 Billion in 2012), of measures Assessment of the the elaboration sustainability of 2012 for changing the transport sector by consolilending dating capacity, know-how and good practice exchange political Also, 48. ADB and applied the dialogue. Sustainable the banks have completedRating the development Transport Appraisal (STAR) of a joint environment for sustainability monitoring and framework to assess the of reportingapproved on the in transport projects 2012.11 projects which have been tested by several banks. The trans49. Mostdirectly projects were assessed port sector contributes by 5-10%asof moderately sustainable or while above.indirectly Urban the GDP in most countries, transport and sectors water totransport allowing other contributeprojects to ecotended to score compared Through to road nomic and socialwell development. projects. No railway projects were approved the support granted to extending economic in 2012. Across all projects, the aspects of opportunitiesthat andwere services and providing sustainability strongest were (i) mobility access, transport contribute to an economic, (ii) social and (iii) environmental inclusion-favourable increase, next to reducin that order. ing pollution, congestion and accidents. of projects These aspects Number have determined the 8 banks 10 Urban Transport to 9financially support the development of Air Transport 8 Water Transport “sustainable, accessible, efficient, financial 7 Rail Transport 6 sustainable, environmentally friendly and Road Transport safe54 transport”, states the first joint report of the3financial institutions. In21 2012, the institutions approved the financing of transport projects worth over 0 USD 20 Billion and their commitment Results of assessment of ADB’s 2012 approved transport projects using STAR Value of project loans ($ million) Urban Transport Air Transport Water Transport
Rail Transport Road Transport
1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0
CO2 per annum.
old ter ort 12, ch om for ey nd ble
[ by Pamela Luică ]
gh to try ble RT, TS, ng nd
40% of the portfolio, versus 10% in 2005.
Financial institutions allocate USD than $700 million invested in 175 Billion for More sustainable transport the rail sector in 2012.
an an is en RT 12 ns ng her ka,
Increased focus on the private sector:
18 Policies & Strategies
Source: Progress Report (2012–2013) of the MDB Working Group on Sustainable Figure 10:Transport Results(2013) of assessment of ADB’s
2012 approved transport projects using www.railwaypro.com | March STAR2014
EBRD’s modal distribution of 2012 transport approvals
Airport Shipping Ports Logistics
Rail 0%4% 2%
Source: Progress Report (2012–2013) of the MDB Working Group on Sustainable Transport (2013)
amounts to USD13: 175 Billion for the modal next and distribution public transport. Figure EBRD’s of 2012 decade and it involves all transport sectors. For 2014, the institutions planned to deveBy analysing investments,transport ADB (within approvals lop the monitoring and reporting framework STAR) has allocated 63% of financing to and to carry out an analysis of transport “moderate sustainable or more sustainable” operations. Also, for 2015 banks will monitransport projects, 29% have been consi- tor all new projects (financing through comdered “marginally sustainable” and only 8% mon framework) and until 2017, the Rio+20 “non-sustainable”. The strongest aspects of Commitment will include an assessment of all studied projects included economic, so- the completed sustainable projects. cial and environmental sustainability. 21 Also, EIB (within Results Measurement) analysed 30% of the transport projects in 2012 (outside Europe) as being “quality Финансовые учреждения excellent”, the assessment relying on differпредоставляют 175 млрд. ent indicators including environment, social долларов для устойчивого segment, carbon footprint, energy efficienтранспорта cy. In 2012, EIB investments outside the EU (for the transport segment) amounted В июне 2012 года в рамках конференции to USD 2 Billion, 63% being distributed ООН - „Рио+20”, восемь Многосторонних to public transport and investments in EU Банков Развития (MDB) пустили в developing countries. The total volume was ход Обязательство для Устойчивого of USD 5.4 Billion and the share of public Транспорта, которое позволило оценить transport amounted to 45%. предоставление кредитов и субсидий Also in 2012, EBRD signed 31 transactions стоимостью 175 млрд. долларов для for the transport segment worth USD 2 Bilпроектов устойчивого транспорта в lion and 56% of investments in all transport развивающихся странах. modes were directed to railway, maritime
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20 Policies & Strategies
EP votes Forth Railway Package hoping more competition would improve railway services
[ by Elena Ilie ]
Competition to provide better rail passenger services should warm up under draft rules voted in the European Parliament at the end of February. National authorities that give rail service contracts to a single operator would have to put them out to tender or justify not doing so. New and/or small operators would have to be given better access to rail infrastructure, and complex authorisation procedures for putting trains on tracks would be simplified. This vote confirms Parliament’s first reading position. When the Council has set out its own position, the two sides will negotiate the final wording of the rules.
o improve rail service quality and focus on tangible improvements for the passenger, a list of efficiency and service quality criteria should be set for public service contracts, say Parliament’s amendments, voted to draft common rules for awarding public service contracts in the rail passenger sector. National authorities could tender out public service contracts or award contracts directly to a preferred rail operator, but the EU rules would set a maximum duration for such contracts and require the authorities to justify awarding them directly on efficiency criteria such as punctuality of services, costefficiency, frequency of train operations, and customer satisfaction, says Parliament. Public service operators that are selected by the authorities should grant their staff working conditions that comply with binding national, regional or local social standards and/ or rules for transfer of staff in the event of a change of operator. They would also have to comply with the relevant collective agreements and ensure decent employment and working conditions, adds the text. The proposed rules also aim to create opportunities for new operators to provide
services and to give all operators equal access to track infrastructure, while safeguarding the important role of public service contracts. Size limits on public service contracts, defined by setting a minimum number of contracts to be awarded in each member state according to traffic volume, should help smaller operators to compete for public contracts. The vote of the European Parliament has generated a series of intense debates among the representatives of the European railway sector, some being for and some against the vote outcome. The amendments voted on the possibility to select the railway governance model for railway infrastructure managers have been by far those that have triggered the dissatisfaction and indignation of most railway market players. It is mainly about preserving the holding structure for railway governance. They showed that by adopting these amendments, the principles that should govern a free market and nondiscriminatory access to railway infrastructure would no longer be considered. Rail Freight Group is extremely disappointed that the European Parliament has rejected the Governance Section of the 4th Railway
Package as approved by its Transport and Tourism Committee in December 2013. The result is to allow the big incumbent railways to continue to behave in a monopolistic manner, in some way putting the clock back to before previous legislation, that allows financial flows between incumbent operators, infrastructure managers and holding companies, so that there may be a hidden subsidy to incumbent operators who can then compete unfairly with new entrants. It could allow an integration of infrastructure manager and incumbent train operator, as is planned in France, and it could allow one operator (the incumbent) to help finance the infrastructure manager and thereby get priority in paths allocation and perhaps charging. Whereas the other parts of the 4th Railway Package will help bring in common standards and other benefits of interoperability, without a governance section which either requires total separation of infrastructure manager from all operators, or brings in strong Chinese walls to prevent hidden subsidies, transfers of staff or other bits of confidential information, the European rail network will not obtain the private sector investment that it desperately needs, because new entrants will continue to be rightly frightened of the ability of incumbents to kill or buy their business.
Парламент проголосовал 4-ый Железнодорожный Пакет с намерением улучшить услуги железнодорожного сектора путём повышения конкуренции
Photo: Club Feroviar
www.railwaypro.com | March 2014
Конкуренция для предоставления более качественных услуг для пассажиров должна быть стимулирована законодательством, утверждённым голосованием Европейского Парламента в конце февраля. Национальные органы, предоставляющие контракты услуг только одному оператору, будут обязаны организовывать открытые тендеры или, предоставлять объяснения в связи с не организованием таких тендеров.
Policies & Strategies
Lack of strong and independent regulatory bodies, an obstacle for cross-border traffic
[ by Elena Ilie ]
Among consumers, rail services are ranked 27th out of 30 services markets, with particularly poor scores on comparability and satisfaction. The market records the second highest number of problems with a wide divergence existing across the EU. In most EU Member States, public payments have increased substantially, while the growth in passengerkilometres has been more moderate. Overall passenger-kilometres increased by 4.3% between 2005 and 2010. Substantial public sector investment, particularly in the newer EU member states where subsidy payments more than doubled in six years, has not in itself secured equivalent increases in rail demand. This is partly due to an inability to curb operational inefficiencies caused by a lack of appropriate competitive incentives. Yet in some member states, public funding is awarded directly without competitive tender. Efficiency gains are desperately needed to create sustainable growth and for the benefit of the public budget.
nternational passenger transport services are modest compared to the internal service market. On longer distances, for example journeys of over 400 km, railways have a relatively small market share. For such journeys, personal vehicles and planes have conquered the greatest part of the market. On short, regional distances, the highest demand refers to suburban railway transport services within the agglomerations of a country; therefore the international railway transport volume is modest. On the state budgeted railway market (for which there are public service contracts), the implication of several authorities complicate the organisation of international transport services. There are, however, se-
veral successful examples of international regional lines operated under public service contracts. But there are many technical hindrances in the operation of international transport services, hindrances that could only be overcome through additional costs. Since international passenger transport can only cover a small part of the overall railway transport services, technical standardisation is only possible to a limited extent, the recently launched study specifies. Moreover, the non-comprehensive implementation of the existing EU legislation continues to be a barrier in the development of crossborder services for passenger transport. The lack of strong and independent regulatory bodies that could intervene in case of litigation is also considered a hindrance.
High charges for railway infrastructure access can also be an obstacle, especially on new high-speed lines. The old transport challenges remained unchanged as new ones appeared, such as increasing competitiveness which represents a pressure in the global economy, traffic congestion and poor accessibility in the transport market, the increasing oil price and the oil dependency in the transport sector, all these representing hindrances in setting an environmentally friendly transport. The cross-border high-speed traffic between the 27 EU member states (prior to Croatia’s accession to the EU) has increased by 48%, cross-border regional services have increased by 36%, by 2009 and then they’ve dropped, just like conventional long-distance services which have dropped by 32%. At the same time, a 91% increase in the number of regional trains has been recorded between EU15 and EU 12. Borders between EU15 countries cover nearly 85% of the traffic flow, where growth is based on high-speed railway traffic development between France and different other countries, but also on higher traffic between Sweden and Denmark. In other EU15 countries railway traffic was below 10%.
Нехватка сильных и независимых органов регулирования, препятствие трансграничному движению
На уровне пользователей, услуги железнодорожного транспорта занимают 27 место из 30 рынков услуг, в том, что касается сравнимости и уровня удовлетворенности потребителей, получают минимальную оценку; находятся на втором месте с точки зрения проявляющихся проблем, имея в виду значительную неравномерность на территории Европейского Союза. March 2014 | www.railwaypro.com
Strategy and technical innovation the two directions for achieving progress in the European railway sector [ by Elena Ilie ]
This year the European Railway Award was granted to the former Commissioner for Transport, Jacques Barrot, for a series of achievements in the field of transport, especially for the railway transport, and to another personality, Giorgio Diana, Researcher and Professor within Politecnico di Milano, for technical achievements. The European Railway Award is granted each year, ever since 2007, for important achievements in directing a strategy, as well as for technical activities. The event is organized by the Community of European Railway and Infrastructure Companies (CER) and the European Rail Industry Association (UNIFE).
uring his mandate in 2004 - 2008, the former European Commissioner for Transport Jacques Barrot had a major influence in the development of the European railway transport system. In his activity, Jacques Barrot shed a favourable light on the public railway transport service, the passenger transport service in the railway and road system, and equally contributed to consolidating the passengers’ rights by setting up Regulation no. 1371/2007. The Commissioner Barrot has also supported the liberalisation of the railway transport sector and the development of a sustainable mobility through a series of actions in this regard. In addition, the Directive for the liberalisation of rail freight transport services was implemented during his mandate. The laureate of the award for the technical part, Giorgio Diana, is a well-known specialist at world level in the field of dyna-
mics of railway vehicles. In the past 30 years, the Italian researcher has contributed to the improvement of knowledge on the dynamics of running railway vehicles and their interaction with the infrastructure. His research has been successfully implemented in many railway vehicles of new generation including the new high speed trains in Italy, Frecciarossa 1000. His research activity has been an essential source for innovation in various fields of railway engineering, as well as the study on high-speed train aerodynamics, railway vehicle dynamic control, vehicle - track and pantograph - contact line interaction.
system to become more competitive and attractive, it must progress in two major directions: strategy and technical innovation. Therefore, the 4th Railway Package and SHIFT2RAIL Initiative work great together”. “The fast approval of the Technical Pillar (of the Fourth Railway Package) will be crucial for higher efficiency in future rail system operations. Technical harmonisation together with high quality infrastructure will pose major cornerstones for further improvements in rail products and services for our customers”, mentioned CER Chairman and CEO of OBB, Christian Kern.
The current European Commissioner for Transport, Siim Kallas, has focused his speech on the two most important actions at European level in the field of transport, 4th Railway Package - in the field of strategy and SHIFT2RAIL - on the technical side. “If we want the European railway transport
“UNIFE encourages the quick adoption of both SHIFT2RAIL and the Technical Pillar of the Fourth Railway Package, as the innovations and process improvements brought by both these initiatives are necessary to make the sector more efficient, competitive, and attractive”, declared UNIFE Chairman Henri Poupart-Lafarge.
Стратегия и техническая инновация – два направления способствующие прогрессу европейского железнодорожного сектора
Source: www.europeanrailwayaward.eu / www.juliedebellaing.be
www.railwaypro.com | March 2014
В этом году, Европейская Премия в железнодорожном секторе (European Railway Award) была предоставлена бывшему Европейскому Комиссару по Транспорту - Жак Баррот, за серию достижений в транспортном секторе, в особенности в железнодорожном; также, был награждён Джорджо Диана, исследователь и профессор Политехнического Университета Милана, за достижения в технической сфере. Событие организовано Сообществом Европейских Железнодорожных и Инфраструктурных компаний (CER) и Ассоциацией Европейской Железнодорожной Промышленности (UNIFE).
Rail passenger transport Rail freight transport Shunting services Contact: 2 Oltului St. 500283 - Brasov Romania Tel: +40 268 310 697 Fax: +40 268 310 859
“Horizon 2020” provides EUR 6.3 Billion to research and innovation [ by Elena Ilie ]
With an investment in transport research and innovation of EUR 6.3 Billion, the EU transport sector will significantly benefit from “Horizon 2020”. This is an increase of 50% compared with the previous funding period. The aim is to transform Europe’s transport system into a resource efficient and competitive transport system.
artnerships with the transport industry will be stepped up in “Horizon 2020” in order to overcome fragmentation and, hence, accelerate the market take up of innovative solutions. Next to the SHIFT2RAIL Technological Initiative, launched through the Horizon 2020 Programme, a series of three financing demands was launched aimed to increase and to consolidate the competitiveness of European industries in the sphere of transports and to create a resource-efficient transport system that is individual, seamless, environmentally friendly and user-oriented. The work programme for 2014-2015 was launched and includes three calls for project financing as follows: Mobility for Growth, Green Vehicles and Small Business and Fast Track Innovation for Transport. The results of this investment in “Smart, green and integrated transport” will, among others, contribute to reaching the crucial objective of cutting carbon emissions in transport by 60% by 2050, as set out in the 2011 White Paper on Transport. Horizon 2020 activities in transport will also focus
www.railwaypro.com | March 2014
on speeding up the deployment of the most promising innovations. The budget for transport for 2014-2015 within “Horizon 2020” is close to EUR 1.5 Billion. Innovative management of transport demand The start of Horizon 2020 means the launch of CIVITAS 2020: innovation in resource-efficient and competitive urban mobility and transport. Research & Innovation action in this area will improve transport and mobility in urban areas, which will benefit a large and increasing share of the population which lives and works in cities or uses them for services and leisure. New mobility concepts, transport organisation, logistics and planning solutions will be developed and tested, contributing to the reduction of air pollution and noise and improving efficiency. Public and non-motorised transport as well as other resource-efficient transport options should be developed as a real alternative to the use of private motor vehi-
cles, supported by greater use of intelligent transport systems as well as by innovative demand management. Urban mobility and transport are integral part of European transport policy, which confirms that urban mobility is at the core of the debate on resource efficiency and plays a key role in defining a well-balanced approach between the social, economic and environmental pillars of sustainable mobility. The most important challenge is to bring the results of the research to the market and to turn innovation into business opportunities, thereby fostering growth and employment. The amount earmarked for urban mobility for 2014 and 2015 is EUR106.5 Million. In addition, there will be a contribution to the Call ‘Smart Cities and Communities’ for an amount of EUR 40 Million for 2014-2015. Efficient and quality infrastructure Transport policy needs an efficient, interoperable and interconnected transport infrastructure network which can offer adequate availability and high capacity, optimal interconnectivity between modes, traffic management based on shared data/information base across modes, increased safety and security, reduced impact on environment and spatial quality, economic affordability in terms of total cost of ownership. Research and innovation efforts under Horizon 2020 will focus on key areas to leverage infrastructure performance and a streamlined delivery of infrastructure projects. Research and Innovation actions will be promoted to achieve a smarter design, construction and maintenance as well as to develop resource efficient, smarter and safer transport infrastructures. The aim is to achieve greener, cost-efficient and smarter transport infrastructure, contributing to the achievement of the Transport White Paper goal of an efficient and modern European transport infrastructure. The amount earmarked for infrastructure for 2014 and 2015 is EUR 36.5 Million.
freight management ITS services. The application of Smart ICT services for people and freight can transform the way transport is used, its quality of delivery to the customer and its efficiency, contributing to the innovation and deployment strategy set out by the Transport White Paper. The amount earmarked for ITS for 2014 and 2015 is EUR 31 Million.
â€œĐ“ĐžŃ€Đ¸ĐˇĐžĐ˝Ń‚ 2020â€? ĐżŃ€ĐľĐ´ĐžŃ Ń‚Đ°Đ˛ĐťŃ?ĐľŃ‚ 6.3 ĐźĐťŃ€Đ´. ĐľĐ˛Ń€Đž Đ´ĐťŃ? Đ¸Ń Ń ĐťĐľĐ´ĐžĐ˛Đ°Đ˝Đ¸Ń? Đ¸ Đ¸Đ˝Đ˝ĐžĐ˛Đ°Ń†Đ¸Đ¸
Source: European Commission
ITS projects benefit from tiv themes in the Transport White Paper. EUR 31has Million a bigover effortrecent has beenyears? made How EU Research and InnovationHowever, fundingthough evolved in this domain, there are still significant Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) play challenges and barriers, technological and a key role to help deliver safe, efficient, sus- non-technological, for the successful ITS tainable and seamless transport of goods deployment. Research and Innovation acand people on the European transport tions on ITS will contribute to bridging the network as well as to safeguard the com- gap to deployment by focusing on the optipetitiveness of European industry. This is mal use of traffic and travel data to improve the reason why ITS is one of the leitmo- mobility and on the continuity of traffic and
Đ˜Đ˝Đ˛ĐľŃ Ń‚Đ¸Ń†Đ¸Đ¸ Đ˛ ĐžĐąĐťĐ°Ń Ń‚ŃŒ Đ¸Ń Ń ĐťĐľĐ´ĐžĐ˛Đ°Đ˝Đ¸Ń? Đ¸ Đ¸Đ˝Đ˝ĐžĐ˛Đ°Ń†Đ¸Đ¸ Đ˛ Ń Ń„ĐľŃ€Đľ Ń‚Ń€Đ°Đ˝Ń ĐżĐžŃ€Ń‚Đ° Ń Ń‚ĐžĐ¸ĐźĐžŃ Ń‚ŃŒŃŽ 6.3 ĐźĐťŃ€Đ´. ĐľĐ˛Ń€Đž, ĐżĐžĐˇĐ˛ĐžĐťŃ?Ń‚ Đ˛Ń ĐľĐźŃƒ Ń‚Ń€Đ°Đ˝Ń ĐżĐžŃ€Ń‚Đ˝ĐžĐźŃƒ Ń ĐľĐşŃ‚ĐžŃ€Ńƒ Đ•Đ˛Ń€ĐžĐżĐľĐšŃ ĐşĐžĐłĐž ĐĄĐžŃŽĐˇĐ° ĐżĐžĐťŃƒŃ‡Đ¸Ń‚ŃŒ ĐˇĐ˝Đ°Ń‡Đ¸Ń‚ĐľĐťŃŒĐ˝ŃƒŃŽ ĐżĐžĐťŃŒĐˇŃƒ ĐżŃ€Đ¸ ĐżŃ€ĐžĐłŃ€Đ°ĐźĐźĐľ â€œĐ“ĐžŃ€Đ¸ĐˇĐžĐ˝Ń‚ 2020â€?. Đ&#x;Ń€ĐžĐłŃ€Đ°ĐźĐźĐ° ĐżĐžĐťŃŒĐˇŃƒĐľŃ‚Ń Ń? Ń€ĐžŃ Ń‚ĐžĐź 50 % Đ˛ Ń Ń€Đ°Đ˛Đ˝ĐľĐ˝Đ¸Đ¸ Ń ĐżŃ€ĐľĐ´Ń‹Đ´ŃƒŃ‰Đ¸Đź ĐżĐľŃ€Đ¸ĐžĐ´ĐžĐź Ń„Đ¸Đ˝Đ°Đ˝Ń Đ¸Ń€ĐžĐ˛Đ°Đ˝Đ¸Ń?. ĐŚĐľĐťŃŒ Ń ĐžŃ Ń‚ĐžĐ¸Ń‚ Đ˛ ĐżĐžĐ˛Ń‹ŃˆĐľĐ˝Đ¸Đ¸ Ń?Ń„Ń„ĐľĐşŃ‚Đ¸Đ˛Đ˝ĐžŃ Ń‚Đ¸ Đ¸ ĐşĐžĐ˝ĐşŃƒŃ€ĐľĐ˝Ń‚ĐžŃ ĐżĐžŃ ĐžĐąĐ˝ĐžŃ Ń‚Đ¸ ĐľĐ˛Ń€ĐžĐżĐľĐšŃ ĐşĐžĐš Ń‚Ń€Đ°Đ˝Ń ĐżĐžŃ€Ń‚Đ˝ĐžĐš Ń Đ¸Ń Ń‚ĐľĐźŃ‹. Đ’ Ń€Đ°ĐźĐşĐ°Ń… â€œĐ“ĐžŃ€Đ¸ĐˇĐžĐ˝Ń‚ 2020â€? ĐąŃƒĐ´ŃƒŃ‚ ŃƒŃ Đ¸ĐťĐ¸Đ˛Đ°Ń‚ŃŒŃ Ń? ĐżĐ°Ń€Ń‚Đ˝Ń‘Ń€Ń Ń‚Đ˛Đ° Đ˛ ĐžĐąĐťĐ°Ń Ń‚Đ¸ Ń‚Ń€Đ°Đ˝Ń ĐżĐžŃ€Ń‚Đ˝ĐžĐš ĐżŃ€ĐžĐźŃ‹ŃˆĐťĐľĐ˝Đ˝ĐžŃ Ń‚Đ¸ Ń Ń†ĐľĐťŃŒŃŽ ŃƒŃ Ń‚Ń€Đ°Đ˝ĐľĐ˝Đ¸Ń? Ń„Ń€Đ°ĐłĐźĐľĐ˝Ń‚Đ°Ń†Đ¸Đ¸ Đ¸ Ń ĐżĐžŃ ĐžĐąŃ Ń‚Đ˛ĐžĐ˛Đ°Đ˝Đ¸Ń? Đ˛Đ˝ĐľĐ´Ń€ĐľĐ˝Đ¸Ń? Đ˝ĐžĐ˛Đ°Ń‚ĐžŃ€Ń ĐşĐ¸Ń… Ń€ĐľŃˆĐľĐ˝Đ¸Đš.
Turkey, Black Sea and Mediterranean
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Europe has lately focused on the intense discussions around the Fourth Railway Package, a legislative act which should â€œstimulate the reduction of costs for railway passenger transport, to optimize the reliability, quality, information supply and to form an integrated transport networkâ€?, points out Trevor Garrod, Chairman, European Passengersâ€™ Federation (EPF) in the interview for Railway Pro. Moreover, implementation will challenge operators, one of the greatest challenges being the submission of bids for the supply of transport services and, at the same time, to estimate the economic trends in the period its supplies the services. Another challenge is the competition of the other transport modes. www.railwaypro.com | March 2014
Business models should include examining competition and playing to one’s own particular strengths
Interview with Trevor GARROD, Chairman, European Passengers’ Federation [ by Pamela Luică ]
part from the challenges and benefits created by the implementation of the Fourth Railway Package, Mr. Trevor Garrod explains the methods of increasing public transport attractiveness, but also the way in which increasing mobility options, orienting services to customers and the new solutions for increasing public transport attractiveness can become a business model leading to rail transport development; the EPF representative also talks about the difference between Western Europe public transport and Central and Eastern Europe public transport. Railway PRO: The Fourth Railway Package has been intensely debated in the railway transport over the last period of time. What do you think about the effects of implementing it in the railway transport? Trevor Garrod: We judge it by the simple criterion - will it benefit rail passengers and therefore increase rail’s share of the market? That means that it has to lead to reduced prices, improved reliability, quality and information and create a better network. The technical pillar should certainly help in this respect, especially on crossborder services. Streamlining of acceptance procedures and harmonisation of safety will contribute towards reduced costs make it easier to introduce new or improved cross-border services. As far as the other pillars are concerned, much depends upon the terms of what is, effectively, a contract between an operator and a national or regional government.
Railway PRO: What do you think
about the effects of implementing the Package in railway transport? Trevor Garrod: Let’s look first at what has happened in countries which have already introduced liberalisation, because they can be seen as a model for this part of the 4th Railway Package. In Great Britain the entire network was franchised out to private Train Operating Companies in the mid 1990s. In Germany private operators were allowed to bid for regional services while the core national network remained with Deutsche Bahn. In both countries, passenger numbers have increased. Since 1996, 24% of German regional rail services have been operated by private companies. They have worked with regional authorities to reduce costs and tailor services to local needs, resulting in an 18% increase in train/kilometres and a 50% increase in passenger numbers. The new system has also prompted Deutsch Bahn to change the way in which it runs its remaining regional services. In Great Britain numbers were already on the increase before privatisation and, of course, they may well have continued to go up if the nationalised British Rail had still been running trains. Passenger kilometres have doubled since 1993-4, passenger numbers have gone up by over 70% since the late 1990s and in the same period 20% more trains have run. The National Passenger Survey (which is not organised by the operators) shows passenger satisfaction overall at a record high.
Companies bidding to run trains should also show an ability to innovate - which could mean through services where there were none before;
Some of the fears which users had, that services would be cut and national ticketing and information would be fragmented, fortunately have not happened. That is because certain requirements were written into the law. You can still buy a ticket from anywhere to anywhere, and use it on the trains of different operating companies. For example, from my home town of Lowestoft to Leeds in the north of England, I buy one ticket, which I use on a series of three trains, each run by a different company. I can also print out a schedule of train times for the journey. This facility is possible because of the Rail Settlement Plan, which allocates revenue between different operators (including open access operators) and, if appropriate, third parties selling tickets. We are also fortunate in having a National Passenger Survey conducted twice a year, with results published so that passengers can see which operators are giving most satisfaction to their customers. This is conducted by the Governmentfunded statutory body Passenger Focus. Other EU countries can learn from the March 2014 | www.railwaypro.com
28 leaders after losing money. The British open access operators carry a very small percentage of the total rail market, linking London with cities such as Hull, Sunderland and Bradford which previously had few or no direct links with the capital. For the passenger, what is important is clear objective information and the chance to be flexible. There should be online and printed publicity showing the various options by train and other public transport modes. Not every journey is a simple return trip. Zonal tickets (such as found in the German Laender or the Italian region of Lombardy) and Interrail have an important role. Sometimes British people find it convenient to go to the Continent by train and return by ferry or plane - but that can sometimes be difficult to book and expensive. Railway PRO: In your opinion, what are the methods for increasing the attractiveness of public transport?
British and German experiences if and when the Fourth Railway Package becomes law and is implemented. Railway PRO: What are the challenges faced by operators when the Fourth Railway Package is implemented? Trevor Garrod: The biggest challenge is to submit a bid to run services and, in so doing, to predict economic trends over the period of the franchise. In Great Britain, this means reducing costs but improving quality. Companies bidding to run trains should also show an ability to innovate - which could mean through services where there were none before; better rolling stock; new bus/ train links with through ticketing; improved customer service. The company should only make promises which it is confident that it can fulfil. A company bidding to run trains for ten years must also be able to make a realistic prediction of what the economic situation will be in ten years time. Failure to do so may lead to a situation where an operator has to “hand in the keys” to a franchise (such as happened in 2010 between London and Edinburgh) or to the problems besetting the re-award of the West Coast Main Line franchise in 2011/12. A further challenge comes from competition from other modes. For example, a new coach operator or airline may enter the field and compete against the train operator. Certainly in Germany and in Sweden, long-distance coach operators have done so. One question then to be considered may be: is the competition fair? Another question arises: is a bus www.railwaypro.com | March 2014
or coach operator attracting passengers away from the trains, or is it attracting motorists out of their cars? The evidence from Germany and Sweden indicates some modal shift from car to bus or coach; but if the road operator undercuts the rail operator (in terms of price and/ or flexibility), the latter may lose out. Fair competition may also be an infrastructure matter: the train operator is using the properly equipped station; the coach operator may just be picking up and dropping passengers in a back street. We in EPF have taken part in the SMART MOVE project for a modal shift from car to bus and coach; but in so doing we have also argued for proper multimodal public transport hubs which operators should be required to use. Railway PRO: What are the challenges for railway transport operators in increasing transport demand and changing the market structure? Trevor Garrod: One such potential challenge is open access - especially if it leads to a private company “cherrypicking” on a popular route such as Vienna - Salzburg, Hamburg - Cologne or Prague – Ostrava. It is perhaps too early to make a definite judgement on the effect of companies such as WESTbahn, HKX or Regiojet - but that judgement must answer the question: are more people travelling by train overall, or is one operator simply taking a portion of the other operator’s customers? Great Britain only has three open access passenger operators at present. Their operations are, of course, purely commercial and a fourth operator ceased trading
Trevor Garrod: Public transport has to be easy to use and it has to be affordable. The technology is now there to enable the customer to plan and end-to-end journey. We in the European Passengers’ Federation have supported the Telematics Applications for Passengers that has been developed at European level and the concept of a multi-modal journey planner. Ideally a passenger should be able to pay for an entire door-to-door journey in one transaction. That may happen in the future. In the meantime, EPF encourages good practice whereby, for example, a ticket by high-speed train by the Italian operator NTV to Florence, Naples or Salerno also includes public transport for 24 hours in the destination city. This is one of many such facilities covered by our report THE FINAL MILE, published in English, French and German in October 2013 and available on our website ( www.epf.eu ). Such seamless travel also means that local buses and other public transport should have easy interchange with trains. In cities with frequent urban transport, it is more important to have barrier-free access from the platform to the stop and to make the stop easy to find. In rural areas, with less frequent buses, it is reasonable to hold connections, at least for a certain specified time. Communication between the train and bus operator would be sensible here, but more work needs to be done to persuade some of them. Sometimes public transport routes and schedules seem to be planned more for the convenience of the operator than the passenger. In the late 1990s, a colleague and I had travelled by train from Strasbourg to Lauterbourg, in France, or a conference.
The last train back in the early evening was actually a bus. It took longer and was less comfortable. On the way back we saw the train returning to Strasbourg as empty stock! I recently chaired a meeting where several of those present complained that a popular local leisure area was not covered. The two bus operators present said that this was because the road was too congested and their buses would be delayed. The message seemed to be, “We won’t take you there because it takes us too long.” Customers often complain that rail fares are too high. As I have indicated, the 4th Railway Package should reduce them. There is also a political debate to be continued on the respective costs of different modes of transport and how to create a level playing field between them. However, train operators can help themselves by encouraging off-peak travel at cheaper fares and by railcards which, effectively, reward more frequent users. Some operators in some countries already do this; others should follow their example. Railway PRO: To what extent can the increase of mobility alternatives, the customer-orientation of services and the new solutions for increasing the attractiveness of public transport become a business model? Trevor Garrod: Any business model should certainly include examining the competition and playing to one’s own particular strengths. It may, for example, be faster to fly between two cities, but cramped seating, inconveniently sited airports and the amount of time spent in a terminal must be offset by the convenience of a city centre station, swift boarding and a comfortable train. Customer service must also be part of a business plan. The daily commuter is familiar with the route and does not need much staff contact - though information when things go wrong is still important; and a human presence can also be desirable for security reasons. The more occasional traveller appreciates the presence of staff who, furthermore, should be well-informed, wellequipped and well-motivated. Therefore, for most if not all operators, employment of adequate staff and the proper training of those staff should be part of any business plan. Consultation with users’ organisations should also take place as a plan is developed. Railway PRO: It is obvious that Eu-
rope is divided into unequal regions regarding public transport development and the implementation of new policies. What can you tell us about the project of encouraging public transport in Western
Europe, compared to Central and Eastern Europe? Trevor Garrod: There are indeed good examples in some western European regions. Sometimes a cross-border region such as Euregio Maas-Rhine, covering parts of German, Belgium and the Netherlands, brings together train and bus operators with joint marketing and a userfriendly day ticket. The German Verkehrsverbunde (Transport Authorities) usually provides excellent examples of co-ordination within a city and its region. Regionalisation in some parts of France in the past decade has also been very successful. It was pioneered in Alsace, where one organising authority now coordinates 13 rail services, 7 cross-border lines and 7 local bus routes. Since decentralisation, with decisions being taken in the region rather than in distant Paris, train-kilometres, bus-kilometres, passenger numbers and passenger-kilometres have all increased. In 2009-10, for instance, passenger numbers grew by 13-14%. In other places, simply investing to modernise a network and make it more user-friendly has led to increased usage. In Northern Ireland, for example, there is a small rail network (following widespread closures in the 1950s and 1960s) but an extensive bus network. Recent investment in new trains and infrastructure (including a cross-city line in Belfast plus four new stations including an impressive combined rail and bus station) together with good customer service and marketing, has boosted passenger numbers, which rose by 20% in the period 2008 2013. Northern Ireland is the one part of the United Kingdom which still has a fully publicly owned rail network and a provincial transport authority, Translink. That indicates that one size does not always fit all, and that conditions in differing European countries can means there is more than one way of delivering a good service. Railway PRO: According to current trends, more and more people choose motorised private transport. How could they be persuaded to choose public transport? What are the methods of increasing the attractiveness of public transport that the authorities and companies should apply to attract as many passengers as possible towards an environmentally friendly transport? Trevor Garrod: The motor car is perceived as giving people more freedom and, of course, it is one of the inventions that have transformed lives - but most reasonable people accept that it also causes problems which must be addressed. Car ownership is not the same as car
usage. If someone buys a car, this does not mean that they have to use it all the time. Government policies should encourage people to make rational and environmentally friendly choices. As I have already shown, fares policy and seamless travel can help public transport offer an alternative to the motor car and indeed to reduce what we may call “car dependency.” Another way in which trains and buses can tempt people out of cars is through service frequency. In the late 1980s, many cross-country routes in England and Wales underwent a transformation, with longer trains being replaced by shorter but more frequent ones. The idea behind the concept was that people could be tempted out of their cars if they had a short, fast, comfortable train every hour instead of a longer train just four or five times a day or an inconvenient series of local trains. Typical of this transformation was the route from Norwich to Liverpool via the major cities of Nottingham, Sheffield and Manchester. My local railway from Ipswich to Lowestoft, some 70 kilometres, has also seen the benefits of a more frequent service. An hourly service was introduced on this fairly rural line linking two towns, in two stages from 2010. Previously we had, essentially, only one train every two hours. In January 2014 the train operator announced a 60% increase in business since December 2010. The design of the public transport vehicles themselves can also tempt people out of cars. In Sweden it is often said, “when you start a family you have to buy a car.” A family may need to take more luggage and needs room for items such as baby-buggies. Designers or trains, trams, metros and buses need to allow enough flexi-space for such items and we in EPF have made this point in submissions to the European Commission. That also applies to bicycles by train. Otherwise some cyclists will attach their bicycles to the roofs of their cars. A car has also often been seen by young people as a status symbol. Yet in some countries, things are changing. Over the past decade in Switzerland, the percentage of teenagers acquiring a driving licence has gone down, and owning a smartphone or tablet has become more of a status symbol. Of course, Switzerland is also a country with an excellent public transport network. That brings me to my last point: the carrot and the stick. To encourage motorists to leave their cars at home, some cities have introduced a congestion charge. London did so in 2003 and cities such as Stockholm and Milan have more recently brought in similar schemes. To make this “stick” effective, however, a “carrot” is also required - and in the case of London this meant inMarch 2014 | www.railwaypro.com
30 leaders where possible rather than build on farmland, in forest or on parkland needed for recreation. Such inner-city sites are much better served by public transport than by cars. The Docklands Light Railway and the recently completed orbital route of London Overground are highly successful in that respect. In Nottingham I have travelled from the railway station on the new tram route which terminates on the site of a former coal mine, Phoenix Park, which is now a business park. In Salford (Greater Manchester) and Dublin I have used trams to the former dock areas now being regenerated while in Sheffield the Supertram is helping regenerate the formerly heavily Railway PRO: To what extent is urban industrialised Don Valley. France, like the United Kingdom, had rail transport an opportunity for sustainlargely turned its back on the tram; but able development in the large cities? over the past two decades its larger cities Trevor Garrod: Firstly, let us define have reintroduced tram systems or built “urban rail transport” as public trans- metros and are cleaner and quieter as a port on rails - whether metro, tram, light result. Lille is a good example of a city whose rapid transit or conventional rail; indeed, in some cities (such as Karlsruhe and high-speed rail links, refurbished tram Mulhouse) the distinction is in any case and modern metro have helped greatly in its regeneration. blurred. In the Netherlands, I have visited subElectric vehicles - whether conventional trains, trams or metros - obviously re- urbs of Amsterdam and Utrecht where the Page metro1 or tram respectively were deduce pollution and play a role in sustain- 15:20 14121 PTC Advert Railway Pro_Layout 1 04/03/2014 able development and regeneration. It is signed into the new developments. These important to develop brown field sites are pleasant places to live while the trip troducing 300 extra buses, including new routes and priority measures. In the four years immediately following the introduction of the congestion charge in February 2003, daily bus usage went up from 90,000 to 116,000. Modal shift in London between 2000 and 2009 including a 67% increase in bus usage, 10% more passengers on the Underground (metro), 27% more passengers on suburban trains and 82% more on the Docklands Light Railway. The congestion charge was not the sole cause of the modal shift - the extension of the Docklands Light Railway and the introduction of the Oyster stored-value card were also factors.
into the city centre is fast, clean and efficient. These are all examples of good practice which we in the European Passengers’ Federation seek to discuss and promote.
Любая модель бизнеса должна включать исследование рынка и подчёркивать личные качества Интервью с господином Тревор Гаррод, председатель Европейской Федерации Пассажиров (EPF). Темы, которые обсуждались с представителем EPF нацелены на эффекты внедрения 4-го Железнодорожного Пакета, провокации с которыми будут сталкиваться операторы, связанные с ростом транспортного спроса и изменением структуры рынка. Кроме этого, Гаррод объясняет способы, необходимые для роста привлекательности общественного транспорта, а также, как рост выбора в транспортной мобильности, ориентированность на клиента и новые выходы для роста конкурентоспособности могут стать моделью бизнес-процесса, способствуя развитию рельсового транспорта.
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Policies & Strategies
European railway industry deals with around EUR 1 Billion for research and innovation
[ by Elena Ilie ]
The budget proposed for SHIFT2RAIL in the financing period 2014-2020 is EUR 920 Million, EUR 450 Million of which will be allocated by the European Union and EUR 470 Million will come from the railway industry partners involved in the development of the research and technological innovation initiative. For research and innovation, of the EUR 450 Million allocated by the EU, EUR 180 Million will be allocated to the associated members and the rest of EUR 180 Million will be attributed to other partners. This objective seeks to attract the SMEs and the research institutes into the project.
nological Initiative. This research and development initiative has been declared priority by the Greek Presidency. “SHIFT²RAIL is one of the top transport priorities of the Hellenic Presidency, it will move rail transport forward, and help the market grow. The European Rail Industry should remain the leader of the global market and SHIFT²RAIL is the instrument to achieve this”, declared Michalis Papadopoulos, Deputy Minister of Infrastructure, Transport and Networks for the Hellenic Republic. “Rail is facing significant competition from other transport modes and, from other regions of the world; in order to combat this SHIFT²RAIL combines a significant amount of EU and sector R&D resources with a long-term vision that will produce tangible results that contribute to the EU’s ambitious transport goals”, pointed out Olivier Onidi, Director for the European Mobility Network at the European Commission. Henri Poupart-Lafarge, President of Alstom Transport and Chairman of UNIFE, highlighted why the sector needs such dedicated funds to invest in rail R&D to increase the attractiveness of the rail mode and the competitiveness of the European rail indus-
ecently, on 12 February, the European Commission, through the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (DG ITRE), proposed the transfer of EUR 42.5 Million from the funds of the COSME and “Horizon 2020” programmes to the European Investment Fund (EIF) to facilitate the access of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) to the European financing funds. The proposals include the allocation of EUR 52 Million to SHIFT2RAIL, the new EU Technological Initiative aimed at encouraging the competitiveness of the railway network infrastructure and that of the specialized industry products. This package will be financed through the “Horizon 2020” programme until the technological initiative will be fully operational. The amendments, which will not affect the total amount of the EU budget for 2014, will have to receive formal approval from the European Parliament and the Council. At the initiative of the Hellenic Presidency of the EU, decision makers and transport leaders from the EU institutions, executives from the European rail sector, Greek rail stakeholders, research centres and academia gathered in Athens at the middle of February to officially present the Commission’s proposal to establish SHIFT²RAIL Tech-
try, which accounts for 50% of the world market for rail supplies and services. “We are confident that with the dedicated resources and organisation around the SHIFT²RAIL initiative the sector will move even closer towards the EU’s transportation goals and an even more competitive European rail sector and transport mode on which millions of Europeans rely every day”, underlined Philippe Citroën, Direct General of UNIFE and coordinator of the SHIFT²RAIL initiative. The Technological Initiative SHIFT²RAIL refers to the whole European railway sector, especially to innovation and large scale competitiveness and to the consolidation of the European industry to face international competition considering the strong competition from the Asian transport market.
Европейская железнодорожная промышленность владеет суммой около 1 млрд. евро для исследования и инновации Бюджет предложен для SHIFT2RAIL на период финансирования 2014 – 2020, составляет 920 млн. евро, с которых 450 млн. евро будут обеспечены Европейским Союзом, и 470 млн. евро будут предоставлены партнёрами в железнодорожной промышленности, вовлечённые в данный проект технологического исследования и инновации. В названную сферу, из суммы 450 млн. евро предоставленной ЕС, 180 млн. будут в наличии членов основателей SHIFT2RAIL, 180 млн. евро будут предоставлены ассоциированным членам, и остальные 180 млн. евро будут распределены иным партнёрам. Данная цель намерена привлечь в проект малые и средние предприятия и Исследовательские Институты. March 2014 | www.railwaypro.com
Advanced technology for all requirements [ by Elena Ilie ]
Over the last decade, passenger information systems have evolved from simple audio and video displays, with no network connection to multimodal integrated systems providing information and entertainment for passengers during the journey, such as news, presentations using the latest technological solutions, advertising or web entertainment. All these systems provide real-time, fluent information onboard of vehicles and inside railway stations, while being managed and controlled from a single control centre.
Public transport operators rely on one commodity – the passenger and to serve this ever-increasing market, operators need to focus more on passenger information, especially for long-distance journeys. The 21st century with its high-tech computing
platforms enables operators to break away from traditional information systems to deliver real-time information to the audience. Therefore, a dedicated multimedia system that is easy to understand and integrate in the vehicle with real-time broadcasting to reach all displays simultaneously is no longer a dream, it is reality. Passenger information, entertainment and safety systems are vital in rail transport, as well as in other public transport systems. They answer to current changes that passenger transport and public transport environment are going through worldwide, such as low-cost technologies, improvement of services offered to clients and increasing safety. Before implementing new passenger information, entertainment and safety systems, the operator has to carefully assess the technical solutions to be implemented, the impact on the passengers’ satisfaction level and demands or the advertising potential, experts believe. Currently, innovating passenger information systems, especially inside high-speed
assenger information solutions, WiFi systems based on innovating technologies, are constantly developing to the benefit of passengers providing them with a relaxing journey and real time information. Onboard displays show relevant trip information such as travel speed, arrival time and transfer information. Currently, passengers of the railway transport benefit from the same facilities as while travelling by plane. Passengers can get real-time information on connections with other trains or with other means of transport, while enjoying the ride and information. This solution allows transport companies to provide more precise information for their passengers, improve the passenger flow and turn into account the advertising space by installing onboard displays.
trains, represent the key element between transport operators. Efficient for the activity development but also for initiating new business, the new generation systems in the field of infotainmet for passangers bring new benefits for the operator: they develop new ways to improve transport operations internally as regards the train punctuality, efficiency of maintenance operations, the availability of rolling stock and operations at communication level between the staff.
Передовая технология соответствующая всем требованиям
www.railwaypro.com | March 2014
За последний десяток лет, информационные системы для пассажиров прошли этапы развития, от классических аудио и видео экранов, несвязанных с сетью, до интегрированных многомодальных системах, предоставляющих пассажиру информацию и развлечение на протяжении поездки, например новости, представление технологических достижений, коммерческие рекламы, или веб –дивертисмент. Все названные системы обеспечивают информацию в реальном масштабе времени, динамичность на борту подвижных средств и в вокзалах, при оперировании единого центра управления.
Policies & Strategies
Russia: passenger transport needs state support to develop [ by Pamela Luică ]
The structural reform programme that lasted 13 years has determined significant changes in the Russian railway sector and it has resulted in a transition towards the market of railway services made of several thousand private companies representing shipping firms, transport and logistics operators, passenger transport operators, as well as suppliers and repair companies.
he reform implementation has focused attention of preventing the irreversible negative effects for both consumers and the economy, a series of measures planned, but also adjusted to market requirements being implemented. All changes have been discussed with the executive authorities of Russian and the market players and have been approved by the government as part as action plans. However, the railway passenger segment in Russia needs support and the implementation of development programmes to face the challenges imposed by the other transport modes. According to IPEM (the Institute of Natural Monopolies Research in Russia), the volume of the financial state aid is lower than in other developed countries. Around RUB 30 Billion (over USD 850 Million) are allocated every year
to support the regulation of the railway passenger segment, which means RUB 0.43-0.45 per passenger-km. By comparison, in the US, the volume of subsidies is of around RUB 5 per passenger-km, while in the EU countries it is RUB 2 per passenger-km. Moreover, the elimination of state subsidies will affect this segment (especially the economic class and day carriages – the most popular segment, 70%), the price increase will reduce the mobility of vulnerable groups as they will no longer permit to use air transport or the most expensive railway transport. As a result, for the development of the passenger transport system, IPEM proposes “the development of a system of measures to supply mobility to vulnerable groups depending on this transport mode, the elaboration of comprehensive analyses
Rehabilitation of Buna bridge
on the traffic flows on different routes. This will help selecting directions/routes and the transport modes which need state aid, the optimisation of the costs of the federal budget for subsidies and the identification of elements and state aid volume”. The lack of a long-term policy on the financing of transport of selected passenger groups “will make it almost impossible for transport operators to develop their strategies on the long-run. The incertitude of state regulation will not allow companies to plan traffic flows within a regulated segment, nor the value of investments for rolling stock acquisition”, said IPEM. In order to solve the problem, it is important to change the approach paying more attention to the passengers’ preferences and, at the same time, a fair policy of transport modes will encourage competitiveness and will increase the quality of supplied services.
Россия: для развития, пассажирский транспорт нуждается в государственной поддержке
Сектор пассажирского железнодорожного транспорта России нуждается в поддержке в применении программ развития для решения задач, проявленных со стороны остальных видов транспорта. Для развития системы пассажирского транспорта, Институт проблем естественных монополий (ИПЕМ) предлагает развитие системы мер для обеспечения мобильности для социально уязвимых категорий населения, которые зависят от этого транспорта, а также, проведение тщательных анализов пассажиропотока на различных трассах. March 2014 | www.railwaypro.com
34 market development
European regions need to consolidate their capacity of absorbing structural funds
[ by Elena Ilie ]
The capacity of absorbing and using EU structural and investment funds is limited to a certain extent by the organizational capacity of national and regional authorities in the member states. The European Commission launches new action aimed at extending the competences, the capacities and the operational instruments in the member states in order to invest the structural and investment funds and to enhance the quality of expenses.
he “invisible” barriers in the path of financial management and control phases. using the vast resources available in The success of each phase in the implementerms of structural and investment tation life cycle depends on three interdefunds include the lack of competences and pendent factors, namely the organizational instruments necessary at the level of nation- structure, human resources and systems/ al and regional administrations. It is widely instruments. known that many issues related to the imThe intermediaries of the investment proplementation of funds derive from the ca- cess are the national and regional public pacity of national and regional authorities in administrations and there is no standard forthe member states to manage them. Invest- mula as regards the optimal operation mode ing significant financial resources implies a of this process. The approach must be adapthigh level of organisation, competences and ed, proportionate, appropriate and effective. commitment. In order to achieve a high de- There are many good examples showing that gree of absorption of structural and invest- Transport a significant contribution can be made to the ment funds and to ensure reduced rates Transport management of funds by improving Amount governdetails ) of implementation errors, a well-targeted ing structures, implementing( Euros appropriate TOTAL Allocations/expenditure directly linked to TEN 37,502,119,326 effort for the creation of the adequate ca- strategies in terms of human resources and Allocations/expenditure not linked toeffective TEN 44,236,837,313 pacity is necessary, mentions Panoramio, a developing instruments. TOTAL publication edited by DG REGIO. European Commissioner81,738,956,639 for Regional EU Within 12 Allocations/expenditure directlyJohannes linked to TEN Hahn, declared 27,922,368,475 the EU there are in fact considerPolicy, that “a Allocations/expenditure not linked to TEN 27,260,449,666 able differences in terms of performance good institutional capacity for planning related to the capacity, effectiveness and ef- and using EU funds is essential to ensure EU 12 55,182,818,141 ficiency of structural and investment funds an directly effective policy 9,457,013,691 and, thereEU 15 Allocations/expenditure linked tocohesion TEN absorption. Basically, the performance eval- fore,notextremely economic Allocations/expenditure linked to TEN important for the 16,026,394,787 uation must concern the entire life of recovery and growth. In the absence of EU cycle 15 25,483,408,478 investments, from the overall management adequate fund management architecture of programmes until the programming, that should be based on stability and conimplementation, evaluation/monitoring, tinuity and that should be led by the most 45 %
capable persons having the most appropriinstruments and systems, the cohesion 50.6% policy could not produce results at its entire 49.4% capacity. Without an adequate administrative capacity, absorption rates are low, error 100% rates are high and the total impact of the 37.1% investment is lower than it should be. And 62.9% in these times of financial difficulty, no one 100% can accept that public funds are not used in a way as effective as possible, offering Europe and its citizens the chance to return to a growth path”. 54.1%
Европейские регионы нуждаются в консолидации способности освоения структурных фондов
35 % 30 % 25 % 20 % 15 % 10 %
Source: European Commission Allocations not linked to TEN Allocations directly linked to TEN
www.railwaypro.com | March 2014
EU cross-border cooperation
Способность освоения и использования структурных и инвестиционных фондов ЕС ограничена в определённой степени организационной деятельностью национальных и региональных авторитетных органов государств-членов. Европейская Комиссия пускает в ход новый план действий, цель которого состоит в расширении способностей, возможностей и операционных инструментов государствчленов для вложения инвестиционных структурных фондов и оптимизации качества расходов.
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36 Policies & Strategies
OECD: integrating spatial planning and transport policies, a challenge for metropolitan areas
The metropolitan governance of two strategic sectors: transport and spatial planning
A majority of metropolitan [ by Pamela Luică ] governance bodies work on Figure 8. Transport, regional development and spatial planning spatial planning, transport are the core responsibilities of metropolitan governance bodies and regional development. Share of metropolitan governance bodies active in a policy field However, considerableby diversity The 5th round table of the mayors and ministers organized OECD (in Marseille) has focused on the way 90% persists in their legal status, 80% in which national governments and cities can composition, improve cooperation power, budget and to accelerate and promote sustainable 70% staffstimulating – hence in theirinfrastructure impact on economic growth. Discussions have focused on investments, innovation, 60% policy design and 50% consolidating environment sustainability, financial endurance social inclusion. implementation. OECD and analysis 40% shows that over 80% of 30% metropolitan governance bodies 20% work on transport and regional ust as the governments try to identify increase accessibility education, ences directly economic interdependencies 10% development,(to andjobs, over 70% on new methods for sustainable growth, spare time etc.), increasing spatialall these planning (Figure the 8). life 0%and life quality; the lack of coordination bethe cities rely on reinvention and in- quality. Also,More intelligent tween cities could double investments and than 55%infrastructure of metropolitan can bodies areenvironment active in novation at rapid pace. The cities are more reduce costsgovernance in the business waste public resources. all three fields at the (environment same time. and more creative in supplying local basic (productivity), emissions Thus, the integration of spatial planning This is likely because in these Source: OECD Metropolitan Governance Survey. services and sustaining important invest- sustainability) and can increase access to and transport policies remains a real chalfields the demand from ments for the future. Although still con- cultural, social and education opportunilenge for metropolitan areas. residents is higher, externalities fronted with a tight financial situation, they ties. are most obvious, and areasin with a transport Figure 9. in Citizens areas with a transport authority authority have no other option but to answer to the Two strategic sectors have identified Citizens municipalities canbeen co-operate are more satisfied with with public transport are more satisfied public transport more easily. challenges raised by climate change and mi- at the level of metropolitan governance:
grating population. transport and spatial planning for which the OECD research shows that The round table included a forum on majority of governance bodies is working. overall,show around 60% 80% of of approaching methods of coordinating na“OECD studies that over metropolitan tional and local policies that can help cities metropolitananalysed governance bodies areas work in a specific transport turn their potential into account, attention the regionalhave development and transport authority. Metropolitan areas being paid to strategies for financing invest- sector, over that 70% have in spatial public planning transport and ments, creating intelligent and eco-friendly over 55% in all three sectors”, shows authorities report levels of the air abpollution that are approximately cities, promoting attractiveness and acces- stract of discussions. than in those without sibility to meet the challenges imposed by According 9% to lower OECD research, around one. Citizens are also more demographic changes and creating a more 60% of thesatisfied metropolitan areas analysed with the public inclusive labour market. own a specific transport authority; transport system in metropolitanthose Identifying and promoting connections benefiting from areas this withauthority a public report transporta rebetween economic, social environmenduced pollution level(Figure by 9% authority 9). than in the aran governance of andtwo strategic sectors: tal objectives are possible and vital for the eas without this authority and citizens are atial planning construction of a functional city and sus- much more satisfied with the public transtainability has to be channelled in all three port system in the metropolitan areas that dimensions (economic, environmental and have this authority. social). Thus, public transport solutions can Spatial planning is considered another have a positive influence on the labour mar- sector where actions of governance bodket and reduce transport time, labour force ies are adopted and the way in which the litan costs and greenhouse gas emissions and can authorities supply land for activities influ-
on port ment. rsity atus, and ct on and lysis of odies ional % on e 8). litan ve in ime. hese from lities
Figure 8. Transport, regional development and spatial planning Transport, regional development and spatial planning are the core are the core responsibilities of metropolitan governance bodies
responsibilities of metropolitan governance bodies
Share of metropolitan governance bodies active in a policy field 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Source: OECD Metropolitan Governance Survey.
www.railwaypro.com | March 2014
Share of citizens satisfied with the public transport system in OECD metropolitan areas (EU)
1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5
With metropolitan governance body
Without metropolitan governance body
Source: OECD calculations based on Eurostat’s Urban Audit – Perception Survey 2009.
ОЭСР: интеграция территориального планирования и транспортная политика – 45 провокация для городских агломераций
В рамках 5-ой встречи за круглым столом Мэров и Министров ОЭСР (в городе Марсель), обсуждался вопрос улучшения взаимодействия национальных правительств и городов для ускорения и стимулирования долгосрочного экономического развития. На уровне руководства городских агломераций, были установлены два стратегических сектора: транспорт и территориальное планирование, в развитие которых вовлечены многие правительственные органы. Согласно анализам ОЭСР, более 80% правительственных органов городских агломераций разрабатывают сферу транспортного и регионального развития, более 70% сосредотачиваются на территориальное планирование и более 55% на все три сферы.
Policies & Strategies
Assessment of current and future urban mobility performance [ by Elena Ilie ]
Last December, the European Commission published a Communication on the establishment of an Urban Mobility Package. The new Communication seeks to involve all governmental levels. Thus, the Commission will consolidate its support provided in the areas with added value in the EU, while member states are encouraged to create the right framework-conditions for local authorities to develop and implement integrated and comprehensive strategies for an improved, sustainable urban mobility.
The development of a sustainable urban mobility should build on a careful assessment of the present and future performance of the urban transport system. The Commission recommends the adoption of a concrete set of measures at different levels to deal with several relevant issues, such as urban logistics, urban access regulation, implementation of ITS solutions (intelligent transport systems) in the urban environment, and will closely moni-
tor subsequent actions. A Eurobarometer poll (also published in December 2013 which can be consulted on the Commission’s web page) reviewed the attitude towards urban mobility. Thus, the majority of citizens believe the major problems are congestion, cost, as well as the negative effects of urban mobility and of current transport models on the environment. Most respondents were rather pessimistic about the improvement prospects of traffic in their cities. “Transforming urban mobility requires coordinated action by decision makers and competent authorities at all levels of government”, says the Commission. New approaches to urban mobility planning are emerging as local authorities seek to break out of past silo approaches and develop strategies that can stimulate a shift towards cleaner and more sustainable transport modes, such as walking, cycling, public transport, and new patterns for car use and ownership. Many cities across EU have experimented with innovative solutions for urban mobility and shared their experience
through various cities networks. Thus, the Commission proposes in its Communication a series of measures that member states should consider. We can talk about conducting a careful assessment of the present and future performance of urban mobility in their territory, also in view of key EU policy goals. The second measure implies developing an approach to urban mobility which ensures coordinated and mutually reinforcing action at national, regional and local level. The third measure refers to ensuring that Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans are developed and implemented in their urban areas and that they are integrated into a wider urban or territorial development strategy. The fourth measure refers to reviewing – and amending where necessary – the technical, policybased, legal, financial, and other tools at the disposal of local planning authorities. And the final suggestion refers to measures to avoid fragmented approaches to ensure continuity and compatibility of urban mobility measures to safeguard the functioning of the internal market.
Оценка текущих и будущих показателей достижения городской мобильности
o facilitate a closer exchange between the Commission and member states, the Commission proposes hosting a group of experts on urban mobility in member states. Thus, the Commission will establish in 2014 a European platform of sustainable urban mobility plans to coordinate cooperation in the EU on developing the concept and the relevant instrument, to set up a one-stop shop and to extend the current www.mobilityplans.eu website, transforming it into a virtual centre of knowledge and competence.
В декабре прошлого года, Европейская Комиссия опубликовала Сообщение в связи с созданием Пакета Городской Мобильности. Цели, намечены в новом Сообщении, направлены на мобилизацию на уровне всех представителей властей. Таким образом, Комиссия усилит свою поддержку в зонах с добавленной стоимостью на уровне ЕС, в то время как государства-члены будут сосредотачиваться на развитии перспектив для предоставления местным властям возможности применять общие стратегии развития долгосрочной городской мобильности. March 2014 | www.railwaypro.com
38 Policies & Strategies
New guidelines on the development and implementation of sustainable urban mobility (SUMP)
[ by Pamela Luică ]
The Guidelines on Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP) were published in January 2014 and present the concept of benefits of these plans as a new planning paradigm. Also, they describe and explain essential steps, as well as the development and implementation activities of such a plan. Moreover, the document comprises references to instruments and additional information sources, as well as over 60 examples from Europe which illustrate the way in which individual activities (from the development plan) have been implemented.
he guidelines are the results of and interested parties, the coordination of works carried out by the European policies between sectors (transport, use of Commission and the Executive space, environment, economic developAgency for Competitiveness and Innova- ment, energy etc.) between the levels of aution (EACI) within a service agreement thorities and between the authorities close from 2010-2013. In fact, the objective of to the segment. For the urban area, SUMP these guidelines is to accelerate, on large requires a sustainable and long-term vision scale, the sustainable urban mobility plans while considering the societal benefits and with the help of the guidelines, awareness costs in order to internalize costs and unactivities and training seminars. derlines the importance of evaluation. In contrast with the traditional approachThe document presents 4 phases with 11 Dintransport guidelines-developing-and-implementing-a-sump_final_web_jan2014b.pdf es of planning, the new concept steps which include 32 “activities”. They Grafic pag 15 emphasizes the implication of citizens should be adopted as part of a regular A NEw wAy OF PLANNING A newUrbAN way ofMObILITy planning Urban Mobility Traditional Transport Planning
Sustainable Urban Mobility Planning
Focus on traffic
Focus on people
Primary objectives: Traffic flow capacity and speed
Primary objectives: Accessibility and quality of life, as well as sustainability, economic viability (...)
Balanced development of all relevant transport modes and shift towards cleaner and more sustainable transport modes
Integrated set of actions to achieve cost-effective solutions
Sectoral planning document
Sectoral planning document that is consistent and complementary to related policy areas
Short- and medium-term delivery plan
Short- and medium-term delivery plan embedded in a long-term vision and strategy
Related to an administrative area
Related to a functioning area based on travel-to work patterns
Domain of traffic engineers
Interdisciplinary planning teams
Planning by experts
Planning with the involvement of stakeholders using a transparent and participatory approach
Limited impact assessment
Regular monitoring and evaluation of impacts to inform a structured learning and improvement process
Source: GUIDELINES – Developing implementing Sustainable urban mobility plan, ©urban European Union,plan, 2013 © European Source: GUIDELINES – and Developing andaimplementing a Sustainable mobility Union, 2013 www.railwaypro.com | March 2014
planning cycle for a continuous optimisation process. A SUMP proposes to create an urban transport system by approaching several objectives, among which “making sure that all citizens have transport options, increase safety and security, reducing emissions and pollution, optimising efficiency and transport costs and increasing the attractiveness and the quality of environment and urban design”. Also, a SUMP has a much more efficient approach of urban transport problems, resulting in a structural process which comprises an analysis, a vision, objectives, policies, monitoring and evaluation. Starting from the existing practices and regulatory frameworks, the basic characteristics of a SUMP concerns the adoption of a longterm vision and of a clear implementation plan, participative approach, the fair and integrated development of all transport modes, the vertical and horizontal integration, as well as paying attention to external costs for all transport modes.
Новая ориентация в развитии и внедрении Плана Долгосрочной Городской Мобильности (англ. SUMP) В январе 2014 были опубликованы Перспективы Развития и Внедрения Плана Долгосрочной Городской Мобильности (англ. SUMP), представляющие выгоды данных планов, в качестве схемы планирования. Также, они рассматривают главные этапы развития и внедрения плана. Основные направления являются результатами работы Европейской Комиссии и Координационного Агентства по Конкурентоспособности и Инновациям (EACI) в рамках контракта услуг на протяжении периода 2010-2013.
Policies & Strategies
“Avoid-shift-improve” concept is important for sustainable transport development
[ by Pamela Luică ]
At present, the transport sector faces challenges regarding the improvement of access to goods, job, markets and services demanding additional services and infrastructures. At the same time, it is important to optimize other aspects of transport, related to the economic, social and environmental situation. Negative transport outsourcing are estimated at 6-10% of GDP, the subsidies which support the monitoring process amount to USD 300-900 Billion, while the costs of road accidents are estimated at USD 2,240 Billion (3% of GDP and 5% of the GDP in developing countries). Also, pure carbon emissions coming from diesel vehicles determine climate changes, transport being responsible for ¼ of GHG, which could increase by 70% until 2050, shows a Status Report on the Contribution of Sustainable Transport to the Implementation of Rio+20 - Creating Universal Access to Safe, Clean and Affordable Transport, elaborated by the United Nations.
he “avoid-shift-improve” concept transport and services infrastructure has to is important to create a change in be guided by the <<avoid-shift-improve>> the transport system and to gene- approach”, the report states. rate a more inclusive access by developIt shows the need to avoid the necessity ing the infrastructure and services. All the of motorized journeys to the intelligent use solutions of the approach are scale-tested of spacesParadigm and logistics planning, to shift New Sustainable Transport and can deliver inclusive access. These so- freight and passengers to more sustainlutions will have multiple benefitsthrough among able transport modes and to improve the Inclusive Access Avoid-Shiftwhich improvement of access and road efficiency and performance of the environImprove safety, reducing congestion, emissions etc. ment for transport systems by improving Moreover, they will supply more and more vehicles, fuels, transport operations and To realize transformative change in the sectortechnologies. and create more proof that aunderlines the importance of transport management “In inclusive order to access transport policy will needtransport to shift fromsuccessfully building roads to movethe cars or trucks to growth-oriented sustainable implement <<avoid-shiftbuilding to transport systems peopleimprove>> and goods.concept, There is itgrowing agreement leading significant savingsthat formove the busiis desirable to inamong transport policy specialists and planners on thethe need to deploy three interlinked ness environment. ternalize external transport costs”, the strategies to realize inclusive access to jobs, document goods andstates. services. The development of “To achieve a transformation change transport infrastructure services be concept guided by the Avoid-Shift-Improve in transportation and a and political form need on toThe is universally applicable and approach.access, This calls (a) Avoiding for unnecessary motorized trips inclusive it is for: necessary to shift theit need is relevant for all countries, either develthrough smarter land use and (b)developing. Shifting the transport of goods from building road transport (tologistics shift roadplanning; oped or 2 and persons the most transport efficient mode (c) Improving the case efficiency traffic) to moretosustainable sys- ; and “Internationally, in the of the and deenvironmental transport systems improved vehicle, fuel, and tems providingperformance mobility forofpassengers veloped by world most countries deal with network operations management To enable and freight. There is aand growth consensus technologies. a mature vehicle fleet andthethesuccessful emphasis implementation of the Avoid-Shift-Improve and it willplanning be highly to between transport specialists and design- approach in infrastructure is desirable likely to be internalize external costs’ in thethree pricing of transport. ers on the need to implement intermore on replacing or maintaining existconnected strategies. The development of ing infrastructure rather than creating new
infrastructure. This is likely to result in a greater emphasis on “improve” measures. In the developing world where there is a large need for additional and new transport infrastructure and services and where urbanization is proceeding most rapidly, there is likely to be greater opportunity for “avoid” and “shift” measures. However “improve” measures are still important as well to counter the impacts of rapid motor vehicle fleet growth in the developing world”, the report concludes. The avoid-shift-improve concept, initially developed as a political paradigm, acts more and more as a comprehensive political framework for the development of a sustainable transport system.
Sustainable Transport Paradigm
Для изменения в транспортной системе и для расширения доступности, в том числе путём развития инфраструктуры и услуг, концепт “избежание-перемещениеулучшение” играет важную роль, так как все методы этого подхода испытываются на ступени развития и способны обеспечить инклюзивный доступ. Данные решения могут принести многочисленные выгоды, как например повышение доступа и безопасности (дорожного движения), снижение затора, выбросов, показано в Докладе ООН о Роли Долгосрочного Транспорта в процессе внедрения Рио+20 – “Предоставление доступа к Безопасности, Зеленому и Доступному Транспорту”.
Inclusive Access for All
Avoid the need to travel
Shift to more efficient transport modes
Improve Improve fuel and vehicle technologies
Source: A Status Report on the Contribution of Sustainable Transport to the Implementation of Rio+20 - Creating Universal Access to Safe, Clean Affordable Transport Figure 9.and Sustainable Transport Paradigm
The Avoid-Shift-Improve approach has universal applicability and is equally relevant for the developed and the developing world. However, in the case of the developed world
Концепт “избежаниеперемещение-улучшение”, важен в развитии долгосрочного транспорта
March 2014 | www.railwaypro.com
40 Policies & Strategies
Investing in public transport means investing in the city! [ by Pamela Luică ]
Well-organised and efficient public transport services bring significant benefits to the economy, environment and society, public transport being an important factor that stimulates sustainable growth, cost cuts in cities (by reducing congestion etc.) and a healthy life style for every citizen. Worldwide, every state, and therefore, every city has, or tries to have, a long-term strategy to meet mobility needs. As around 60% of the world’s population will choose to live in urban environments by 2025, this means transportation will develop its efficient and eco-friendly transport systems, by encouraging public transport. Also the structure of the mobility demand will change.
ro encourage an efficient and ecofriendly transport system and, therefore, to increase the use of public transport, UITP launched in 2009 the PTx2 strategy which seeks to double the share of public transport worldwide by 2025. Projects to meet this objective have already been implemented and this has led to the elaboration and continuous application of other programmes aimed at promoting and increasing the use of public transport. According to UITP, if the objective is attained (worldwide), the number of journeys will triple; regarding the developing countries, public transport journeys could increase by 250%, while in developed countries, growth is estimated at 110%. Doubling public transport market share will help save 170 million tonnes of oil which is the equivalent of 550 million tonnes of carbon dioxide, while fatal incidents would reduce by 15%. Also, public transport will significantly reduce congestion and therefore costs: every year, around EUR 100 Billion (or 1% of the EU’s GDP) represents losses of the European economy resulted from congestion. Moreover, public transport provides energy-efficient solutions: if the number of journeys by motorised transport modes in urban areas increases over the next years, governments will depend on fossil fuels, and therefore they will have to find new efficient mobility modes. Thus, by doubling public transport market share (by 2025), energy consumpwww.railwaypro.com | March 2014
tion could be stabilized at the 2005 level, resulting in savings of 170 million tonnes of fuel (the equivalent of USD 140 Billion per year). Related to the PTx2, in 2012 UITP launched the “Grow with Public Transport” Campaign to support this objective. The campaign seeks to determine decisionmakers to increase the awareness on the importance of a better public transport, underlining the positive effects of sustainable mobility. It also provides guidelines to decision makers, public authorities and transport companies on the optimisation of public transport and instruments for implementing transport solutions for every city or region. Over 90 cities, regions and related industry segments participated in the campaign (September 2013). A successful public transport system begins with policies. National authorities and governments have to acknowledge the importance of urban and national mobility and to make sure these are on the agenda and therefore, provide adequate resources. National and regional authorities should supply an integrated and coherent political framework that supports local authorities in adopting their decisions, although the chain of decision-making varies from one country to another. It is essential to have a national regulatory framework for urban transport, as well as clear and stable policies. Apart from policies, urban transport services need financing to preserve quality. Massive investments will be necessary in the future to modernise and develop the infrastructure and vehicles/rolling stock. An innovative financing and investment method is the use of local fees and interests and another alternative could be to levy a charge on those who benefit most from public transport supply, such as employers, retailers and real-estate owners. Meanwhile, charges can also be levied on those whose mobility habits are most harmful to society.
These charges can include urban tolls, congestion and or/pollution charges, parking charges and fuel taxes. This would not only mean financing sources for public transport, but also encouraging citizens in choosing a more sustainable transport mode. Innovative assessment methods to reveal the social and economic benefits of public transport can help create a taxes and charges system especially created for public transport financing. Most countries worldwide set their public transport priorities for 2020. 2014 is a starting point to creating a real choice. “In this context, first and foremost, I’d like to stress that we have to offer public transport services of high quality standards, particularly having in mind changing mobility patterns of urban citizen as well as pressures that relatively high individual motorized transport ridership generates towards our sector. What grabs an increasing attention of local governments is a better control of car usage and parking in cities in order to support alternative modes of transport, most notably public transportation”, explains Alain Flausch, Secretary General UITP. UITP focuses part of its activity in Central and Eastern Europe, a region which greatly needs to reinforce its public transport economic segment and to prove they way in which transport contributes to creating jobs, local economic attractiveness and competitiveness. For UITP, but also for increasing interested parties, investing in public transport means investing in the city! To find out more about the new image of UITP, adopting measures to increase public transport share, the importance of public transport in Central and Eastern Europe, as well as the challenges faced by regional authorities, operators and industry with the development of the segment, Railway Pro has interviewed Mr Alain Flausch, Secretary General UITP.
Policies & Strategies
We inform that the International Association of Public Transport (UITP) and the Association for Metropolitan Mobility – Club Metropolitan (AMM) organise in March 2014 the workshop “Financing and modernising light rail in Central and Eastern Europe 2014-2020”, where light rail, mobility and financing experts will discuss solutions for modernising and financing tram and light rail transport in Central and Eastern Europe. Railway PRO: UITP has recently launched a new visual identity. What is the strategy of the new brand and the message sent to the public transport community? How should it be interpreted by the decision makers? Alain Flausch: Actually, our new look and logo reflect our role as the only worldwide network bringing together all public transport stakeholders, with a core aim of ‘Advancing public transport’. Also, our new logo and visual identity illustrate what we stand for: interconnection, exchange, innovation, intermodality and the international nature of UITP. This is of course reflected in our new vision which is to work on enhancing quality of life and economic well-being by supporting and promoting sustainable transport in urban areas worldwide. Also by our new mission we want to make a change in the sector: every day we want to make a difference for our members and for the wider sustainable transport community. Railway PRO: As most countries in the world set their priorities for 2020, for the public transport system 2014 is a starting point to developing a real choice. What measures should be adopted, not just by the authorities, but also by operators and passengers to increase public transport share? Alain Flausch: First and foremost, I’d like to stress that we have to offer public transport services of high quality standards, particularly having in mind changing mobility patterns of urban citizen as well as pressures that relatively high individual motorized
transport ridership generates towards our sector. Moreover, please don’t forget that strong public transport within 5, 10 or 15 years is also about developing partnership with employers and retail to strengthen the position of public transport in daily mobility. I’m talking here about company mobility plans, combined tickets or localization strategies to name just a few. Finally, what grabs an increasing attention of local governments is a better control of car usage and parking in cities – including green zones or congestion charging – in order to support alternative modes of transport, most notably public transportation. I think that all of these points sum up to a relatively good set of measure that will be responsible for a sound development of public transport in a near, or rather foreseeable, future. Railway PRO: To what extent the increase of mobility alternatives, customer-oriented services and new solutions for boosting public transport attractiveness can become a business model? Alain Flausch: Please note that offering higher quality services enables to charge higher fares based on a fact, showcased by a number of UITP studies, that passengers are more sensitive to quality than to price. It will also help to attract people who would otherwise not use public transport as a mode of choice. Besides, diversifying the public transport offer and developing additional services are yet other sources of extra revenues. For instance, developing retail in stations brings revenue from the rent of the space, but also attracts more passengers to public transport. Also, don’t forget that if we better identify the indirect benefits of public transport to car users, employers and land owners, than it would be more acceptable to earmark the charges coming from those indirect beneficiaries to public transport. It all could be a part of well-functioning business model in public transport.
Railway PRO: UITP focuses part of its activity in this region (CEE). What is UITP’s strategy to encourage and promote the concept of sustainable public transport concept and the modernization of the entire system in order to increase public transport share? Alain Flausch: I think that in Central and Eastern Europe it is extremely important to strengthen the economic case for public transport and show how it contributes to jobs and growth policies, how it makes the local economy more attractive and competitive. And that it drives the innovation too! In other words, we plea for highlighting the benefits for the city system organically, as a whole. For us, but I also believe for a growing number of stakeholders, investing in public transport means investing in the city! Another issue of substantial importance for the CEEC region is to secure a resilient funding mix for public transport, based on a stronger revenue strategy as well as on the contributions from indirect beneficiaries – in addition to traditional sources of funding that is. Here, I’d definitely refer all urban stakeholders and politicians to take a look on our latest Policy Brief on “Better public transport fare policy for more resilient funding” published in February. We’re also eager to profile public transport in the region as an integrator of urban mobility services, mode of choice and a hype, convenient, comfortable and sometimes fun –for instance thanks to social media initiatives – way of moving throughout the cityspace. But again, there is a certain level of quality required here in order to meet this end. Railway PRO: Although discrepancies are obvious between the two regions, Central and Eastern Europe countries try to remediate the situation to reach western levels. What are the elements that should be presented in CEE to stimulate public transport? Alain Flausch: It’s obviously not that easy to mention them all one by one, given that there are very often serious discrepancies in municipal spending for public transport, different financing models, finally differences in development, quality of infrastructure, fleet and so one, and that not only between countries of the CEEC region but also within them! Nonetheless, as I have mentioned already earlier, operators and authorities should definitely re-think two major aspects or elements as you like: financing and business model for public transport of today and tomorrow; and the quality of services, including customer-orientation, what also envisages a different management style, less public company-oriented, but more customer-driven. At the end of the day, public transport should not be reduced to a sole passengerkilometre provider. It has a major role to play in urban development and economic life of cities and regions – I believe that unMarch 2014 | www.railwaypro.com
42 Policies & Strategies derstanding this is a key to success for PT in Central and Eastern Europe, but also among citizens looking for a mode of choice other than car. Railway PRO: EU’s new programming period began with over EUR 181 Billion directly transferred to Central and Eastern Europe region. 5-8% of the amount would go to integrated public transport development projects. How could this amount be used efficiently? What do you think the right directions would be? Alain Flausch: I fully support the conditions under the Structural Funds for the programming period 2014-2020, which oblige all those who wish to apply for EU funds not only to combine vehicles or rolling stock purchases with necessary infrastructure modernization, but also that require from authorities to create SUMPs and showcase in detail their urban mobility vision and philosophy behind each and every project, each and every euro to-be-spent. Europe has seen a number of misfortune projects being financed by the EU, which have turned out to be economically unfeasible even in a mid-term. CEEC region has to avoid such spectacular, vision-less failures and think in more sustainable terms, taking into account changing mobility behaviours, planned infrastructure developments but also urban development and city planning. SUPPORTED BY
Once you have this process done, you will find hundreds of interesting projects to support, from traffic management systems, metro automation solutions and green IT to trolleybuses, light rail and smart energy deployment mechanisms. Plenty to choose from if you plan and managed things right according to your real needs and mostprobable mobility scenarios.
the European PT manufacturing scene. It is a big chance that Central and Eastern Europe cannot miss.
Инвестиции в общественный транспорт, это инвестиции в город!
Railway PRO: As the CEE market develops, what would be the challenges faced by authorities, operators and the industry? Alain Flausch: As far as operators and authorities are concerned, I believe the issue of grave important will be public transport financing and finding the right funding mix, particularly as free public transport experiments are not booking any major breakthrough in terms of increasing the share of public transport. In turn, for industries from Central and Eastern Europe I would say that the key words are, believe it or not, innovation and perseverance. There is a steadily growing number of manufacturers in each and every country in the region that regularly show that they are able to compete and win with the world’s biggest industries in open tenders. It’s not any more where you are from, but what you have to offer – I believe that the CEEC region holds command of necessary resources to make a breakthrough on
Международный союз общественного транспорта, UITP, сосредотачивает часть своей деятельности в Центральной и Восточной Европе, где жизненно важно укрепить экономический сектор общественного транспорта и подтвердить его роль в повышении процента занятости, привлекательности местной экономики и развитии конкурентоспособности. Для получения подробных информаций в связи с новой визуальной идентичностью UITP, принятием мер для роста ценности общественного транспорта, важной ролью этого сектора в Центральной и Восточной Европе, и в связи с дальнейшими провокациями для авторитетных органов, операторов и промышленности в регионе, в контексте развития данной сферы, мы провели интервью с господином Алан Флауш, Генеральный секретарь UITP.
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Modern rail stations, diversity of functions and a better integration in the urban landscape
[ by Elena Ilie ]
The criteria for the location of the railway station or stations related to high-speed lines from the city should consider the optimal requirements of that city and of the citizens, as well as the ones specific to the railway system. A functional design of the station is absolutely essential while the possibility of carrying out business activities in parallel is also a regular feature of the railway stations in the high-speed railway transport.
one point to another. The integration of the railway station related to high-speed lines in the urban and regional transport systems and the optimisation of transfer between the access ways and the railway station is essential. Another relevant variable in choosing the high-speed transport is the cost. The railway transport has a clear advantage if the railway station is well served by the regional and urban transport, namely that it has lower costs in terms of accessibility. On the other hand, the estimated cost for expanding the railway station to increase its capacity in the urban environment is enormous; therefore, the design of a high-speed railway transport system, efficient in the urban environment must involve the infrastructure managers, the operators and the parties in charge with the urban planning. The railway stations related to high-speed lines are a landmark in the urban environment and a powerful advantage for the city. They also act like a “magnet” that attracts activity in the adjacent area, both for
travels intended to make the connection between them and other cities along the high-speed lines and for travelling from this hinterland. In most cases, the railway station is the first image that the customer perceives about the railway transport. Railway stations must transform, just like airports, into hubs which also generate profit. What about the central position of a railway station? Due to the high accessibility, at the regional level, many of them are attractive as a place for the distribution of goods but it still must be investigated whether they can have the desired effect for the retail segment. What are the expectations of modern citizens as regards railway stations? The diversity of functions and a better integration in the urban landscape. The location of stations that will serve the high-speed railway transport lines is an important and strategic aspect for the success of this system as a whole. Railway stations must be well placed for the user to benefit from the advantages of reduced travel time and they must also have a very good connection to airports, public transport systems and private transport systems.
Современный вокзал, многофункциональность и улучшение интеграции в городской ландшафт
Photo: Club Feroviar
nother important aspect related to the railway transport is the capacity of railway stations. This problem is even more acute in the case of the high-speed transport because it supposes a greater passenger flow, especially from and to the main cities. A study carried out by the International Union of Railways (UIC) has identified three major challenges for the location of railway stations in the high-speed transport from the cities: the accessibility importance and the transfer times, the importance of the effectiveness of different systems involved and the urban renewal and new developments of high-speed railway stations. In the first case, it is the passenger’s option to travel by the high-speed train which includes the demand and the feasibility of the entire high-speed transport system. The choice of the passenger implies a compromise involving on the one hand the cost and advantage of the schedule and on the other hand the total travel time from
Главные критерии размещения станций афферентных высокоскоростным линиям города, должны учитывать оптимальные требования со стороны жителей и города, а также, специфику требований железнодорожной системы. Функциональное проектирование вокзала является ключевым параметром, а возможность проводить деловые встречи при вокзале становится естественным требованием для вокзалов высокоскоростного ж-д сообщения. March 2014 | www.railwaypro.com
Warsaw and Sofia renew tram fleet [ by Elena Ilie ]
zecin, but also by other cities in Eastern Europe, such as Szeged in Hungary and Cluj – Napoca, in Romania. “A few years ago, there were few low-floor trams in Warsaw. In 2015, almost 60% of the trams operating in the public transport network will be low-floor”, said Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz, Mayor of Warsaw. Sofia buys 20 trams The trams bought by Sofia Municipality in Bulgaria are also manufactured by Pesa and, according to available data, they already started operation in January 2014 on the public transport network of the Bulgarian capital. At the beginning of the year, Sofia received four new, ready to run, trams. The story of the Bulgarian city is somehow similar to that of the Polish capital, as these are the first new trams bought by Sofia after a long period of time when operation has been carried out only with old trams. In the past, Sofia has been focused on the procurement of second-hand, rather than new, trams. A total of 20 trams will be delivered to Sofia by May 2014, their cost amounting to EUR 33.2 Million. Another sum of EUR 16.8 Million will be dedicated to the acquisition of spare parts and a diagnose system, so that the municipality could maintain
trams in a good operating condition. The trams have five wagons and a total length of 30 metres. The individual capacity of a tram is 201 passengers, 41 of whom on seats. As in the case of Warsaw, the trams in Sofia, delivered to Stolichen Elektrotransport public transport company, are accessible to low-mobility people and have an energy-efficient system. They are also equipped with a modern passenger information system. “These are the first new trams we’ve bought in many years to run on our public transport network. So far, we’ve only bought secondhand trams because new trams were very expensive”, declared Yordanka Fandakova, Mayor of Sofia. The acquisition of trams was possible through the Operational Programme “Environment”.
he capital city of Poland, Warsaw, has taken a significant step forward in creating an efficient and ecofriendly public transport system. Thus, towards the end of January 2014, the Polish city completed the acquisition of the 186 new trams that would replace 40% of its obsolete rolling stock. Some of these vehicles were almost half a century old. For this project, Warsaw Municipality signed a contract with Pesa in 2009. The contract amounts to around PLN 1.5 Billion (EUR 350 Million). The trams travelling on Warsaw’s network are equipped with air-conditioning, electronic passenger information system and automatic ticket validating machines. Their low-floor feature facilitates the accessibility of the elderly or disabled people. The procedure of integrating the new trams in the public transport network began in May 2010. Of the 186 new trams delivered to Tramwaje Warszawskie Company, 179 were bought using EU funds with payment covering around 59% of their cost. The rest of the amount was covered from a loan signed with EBRD. This contract between Warsaw Municipality and the tram manufacturer is one of the largest of its kind and the model bought by Warsaw has been also ordered by other Polish cities, such as Gdansk and Szc-
Варшава и София обновляют свой трамвайный парк
www.railwaypro.com | March 2014
Варшава сделала большой шаг вперёд в создании более эффективного и экологического общественного транспорта. Таким образом, в конце января месяца текущего года, завершилась закупка 186 новых трамваев, произведённых Pesa с целью заменить 40% старого парка подвижного состава. Власти болгарской столицы София также закупили трамвайный парк производства компании Pesa и, соответственно данным, уже в этом году в январе, трамваи были включены в сеть общественного транспорта столицы.
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Bistriţa City plans to introduce tram transport [ by Elena Ilie ]
The mayor of the City of Bistriţa, Ovidiu Creţu, has announced that in 2014 the municipality would take the first steps for the construction of a tram line in Bistriţa. RON 330,000 will be allocated to the design of the line route from the local budget for 2014. The tram line would connect Viişoara and Unirii districts, passing through the centre of the city. The route will cross either Liviu Rebreanu pedestrian area or Dornei Street, the exact location being determined by the designer. The project for the construction of the tram line in Bistriţa is estimated at around EUR 20 Million and the municipality wants to apply for European funds to finance the contracts.
mong the motivations underlying the decision to study the possibility of introducing a tram line in Bistriţa is the need to improve the environmental indicators in the city, by reducing harmful emissions from the use of individual transport modes, developing local tourism (the city has a total of 20 historical monuments, many of them hosting museums, memorial houses or art galleries – editor’s note) and consolidating the proposed objective Bistriţa – the Green City. In addition, the city of Bistriţa is interested in creating a metropolitan area, which would allow a better absorption of European funds and the capitalisation of the lands around Bistriţa. “Compared to other cities in the world, in terms of traffic, mobility and pollution,
Bistriţa is an uncivilised city. We travel only by small cars that have the highest level of pollution. The tram would civilize Bistriţa”, said Mayor Creţu within the extraordinary meeting of the Local Council of this year for the approval of the City Hall’s budget. According to the plan published by the municipality, the tram will connect the component localities Viişoara and Unirii, crossing the historic centre through Gheorghe Şincai Street, Piaţa Centrală, Dornei Street, Piaţa Unirii, Liviu Rebreanu Street. Since on these streets, the existing prospect is quite low, the possibility that the tram line should run on a single stretch will also be studied, the tram traffic being driven in both directions with electric lights. According to the project plan, the length of the green transport line reaches
approximately 15 km. According to the investment description “the analysis of the context in which the project will be implemented will be presented, describing the specific problems/ needs identified which will be met by the project and a detailed and justified motivation of the necessity and opportunity of the project implementation will be provided, including by presenting a comparison to at least another alternative solution to the identified problem and the advantages of the recommended solution. By alternative solution, the contracting authority understands a green public transport mode, excluding the possibility of presenting as alternative solutions: the solution with no investment, changing the route, etc. Also, the comparative situation will present the benefits from the economic, social and environmental points of view that will be obtained after the project implementation in the recommended version”. The City of Bistriţa, the capital city of Bistriţa-Năsăud County, is located in the north-eastern part of the Transylvanian Plateau, in Bistriţa Depression and is crossed by the river with the same name.
Город Бистрица планирует ввести трамвайную сеть Овидью Крецу, мэр города Бистрица объявил, что в этом году совершит первый шаг для строительства трамвайной линии в городе. Местный бюджет на 2014 год предоставит 330.000 лей проекту трассы линии. Проект строительства трамвайной линии в Бистрица оценивается в около 20 млн. евро; мэрия намерена подать заявку на предоставление европейских фондов для финансирования контрактов. www.railwaypro.com | March 2014
Moscow Metro could have a new ring line [ by Pamela Luică ]
With a population of 10.5 million citizens, Moscow has an efficient public transport system, and the estimates on the long-term transport demand determined the authorities to focus on the development of the urban rail transport. Under the circumstances, the authorities have suggested the construction of a new ring line of 54 km to extend the metro network.
oscow Metro (12 lines, 298 km) is the main mode of transport of the capital city ensuring the transport of 56 % of the total number of passengers, 9 million passengers being transported a day. The development of the underground network include the construction projects for doubling the length and, according to estimates, the new lines will ensure the traffic of one billion passengers a year. If the projects are implemented, by 2015 the underground system will cover a quarter of the area that does not currently benefit from underground and by 2020 the entire rolling stock fleet will be replaced. By 2020, the total length of the network
will reach 451 km, being served by 252 stations. All projects aimed at will enable the increase of the passenger traffic and the number of those who do not use the underground will drop from 22% to 13%, which will determine the reduction of the surface traffic density and the increase of the market share of public transport. Within the development strategy, in February, the Municipality of the city announced that it plans to build a second underground ring line, a project that is rapidly progressing compared to the rhythm estimated by the authorities. After the review of the technical parameters, the final plan aims at the completion of the line until 2018, declared Andrei Bochkaryov,
the head of the municipal construction department. According to the final plans, the project would be completed until 2020 and aims at the construction of a 54-km line, which would represent half the length of Moscow Ring Road. “The first segment to come on line will be the north-western part (Khoroshevskaya station to Nizhnyaya Maslovka). Then we will move from Nizhegorodskaya Ulitsa to Elektrozavodskaya station,” Bochkaryov said. The next stage will be Vernadskogo Prospekt to Aminyevskoye Shosse. “Afterwards, parts of the ring will gradually become available for service once completed”, said Bochkaryov. To implement the metro project, this year the authorities allocated funds amounting to RUB 130 Billion (USD 3.7 Billion), the construction of the lines being the most expensive element on the budget of the city, and an amount of RUB 330 Billion (USD 9.5 Billion) will be necessary for 2014. In the next decade, the authorities want to build 158 km of line, and until 2020 the length of Moscow metro network will double.
Возможно, Московское Метро будет иметь новую кольцевую линию С населением 10.5 млн. жителей, Москва обладает эффективной общественной транспортной системой; оценки на длительный срок по отношению к требованиям в области транспорта заставили властей сосредоточить своё внимание на развитие рельсового городского транспорта. В данном контексте, для развития сети метро власти предложили строительство новой кольцевой линии, длинной 54 км. Source: themoscowtimes.com
March 2014 | www.railwaypro.com
More WBSA cities want metro network [ by Pamela Luică ]
The underground transport system is very important for the mobility of the citizens, for reducing congestion and pollution. In the countries of the Wider Black Sea Area, the past years have been focused on projects or project plans on the construction of metro networks, while public transport strategies included this transport option.
ncluded in strategies, the increase of urbanization and the need to provide efficient transport services are the main factors which determined the authorities to choose to implement projects. Despite high investments, the development and construction potential of metro networks is high as there will be several cities with a population exceeding 1 million citizens as of 2016. In this context, underground transport becomes a necessity.
One of the WBSA cities which have recently announced their intention to build a metro system is Ashgabat (Turkmenistan). The problem of building the system has been considered following the Parliament Resolution of 2013 according to which Ashgabat increased its metropolitan area by taking over Abadan and Rukhabad suburbs. The city is the largest political, administrative, commercial and transport hub centre, gathering 12% of the country’s population. Since the city has known a rapid development and the number of population will increase significantly, during a meeting between the Turkmen President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov and Vladimir Petruk, Manager of Interbudmontazh Company in Ukraine, the head of state has asked the company to consider the construction of Ashgabat metro system. “During this meeting, the Turkmen President pointed out that Ashgabat was a city experiencing intense development with growing population which meant the authorities would build metro lines”, the local press informed. The company’s manager said experts would closely study the possibility to build the system. The project development had been brought to discussion in 2008, when the local municipality invited the Saint Petersburg-based company to bring its contribution. www.railwaypro.com | March 2014
Photo: Club Feroviar
Azerbaijan authorities also consider that a metro system has important positive effects for the society and the economic environment, saying many cities could rely on the new transport system in the future. Ganja, the second largest city in Azerbaijan, is on the list of cities which could have a metro network. European companies have already expressed interest in participating to the development of the system. “Next to other important projects on public transport in the cities of Azerbaijan, the city of Ganja is very interesting as it plans to build a metro line”, declared Alstom Bernard Gonnet, Senior Vice President
for the CIS. Currently, Baku is carrying out network development projects for which 6 new stations will be put in traffic by 2016, while the long-term strategy includes the construction of another three lines with the total length of the network amounting to 119 km (from the current 34). Romania Timişoara, a city in the west of Romania, with a population of around 304 thousand people, is a strong hub city for the entire western region of the country focusing over 80% of the county’s economy and over 30% of the regional economy. It is also the second economic centre (following Ro-
Другие города ШЧР хотят линии метро
Photo: Club Feroviar
mania’s capital, Bucharest). Public transport development includes plans to build a metro line connecting Gara de Nord to Timişoara International Airport. The line will be 8 km-long and the project will be included in the portfolio of Timişoara municipality for 2014-2020. “This is the solution-the railways should be shifted in the underground and we will also develop a metro connection between several key points of the city: Gara de Nord, the mall area, Gara de Est, Airport. They can all be connected and fast. We have to find financing sources and then we can implement the project”, declared Mayor of Timişoara Nicolae Robu. The project is considered as the authorities plan to move the railway currently in the middle of the city, outside the city, but in a few years “the transport problem will reappear, because of the expansion of the city, and it will be in the middle of the urban agglomeration again”, said Robu. If the construction of the metro line is completed, Timişoara will be the second Romanian city to benefit from an underground transport network, after Bucharest. At present, the Romanian capital prepares projects for the extension of the network. Metrorex elaborates foreign financing projects, currently in preliminary technical stages, on Drumul Taberei – Pantelimon line (Line5); for the 7.4km long Universitate – Pantelimon section (12 stations and a depot), works will begin in 2015 and commissioning is due in 2019. Another foreign financing project, proposed for financing within the Operational Programme Large Infrastructure 2014-2020, refers to the connection of the underground network with “Henri Coandă – Otopeni” International Airport (14.2 km of double track). The project is estimated at over EUR 1 Billion and works are due to being in 2015. The Operational Programme Large Infrastructure 2014-2020 also includes the project of the 11-km long Haşdeu – Universitate – Pantelimon section (17 stations), the current financing source being EIB and the state budget. The estimated deadline for the beginning of works is 2015 and commissioning is due in 2019.
Подземная транспортная система играет очень важную роль в городе, с точки зрения обеспечения мобильности жителей, снижения затора движения и уровня загрязнения окружающей среды. На этом основании, в странах Широкого Черноморского Региона (ШЧР), за последние годы были объявлены проекты или перспективы строительства сети метро. March 2014 | www.railwaypro.com
countries. Thus, the EU average for train use does not take into account the
countries. In addition, this chapter provides information on European’s
international, national, or regional trains and also their use of suburban trains countries. EUROPEANS’ SATISFACTION WITH RAIL SERVICES, MAIN FINDINGS: 1.1. Frequency of use
• More than two-thirds of Europeans have travelled by international, national or regional trains at least once in their lives (67%). FLASH EUROBAROMETER 382a “Europeans’ satisfaction withtrains rail services” • On average, respondents are fairly satisfied with the railway station services that were asked about in this survey 1.1.1. Use of international, national or regional • On average, more respondents are satisfied than dissatisfied with each aspect of railway travel surveyed. • Across the EU, a third of respondents who never or very rarely use trains cited at least one accessibility problem as a reason why they do not do so. Europeans were asked about how often they travel by international, national or r
Use of suburban trains for traveltrains originating in their home country. Use of international, national or regional trains
Respondents were also asked about whether they have used suburban trains within their approximat At the EU level, countries, and how frequently they use these trains. At the EU level, more than four thirds of inrespondents
ten respondents (46%) have used suburban trains at least once. Over half of Europeans travelled by international, n (53%) have never used suburban trains and slightly fewer than one inorfive uses them regional trains at least o once a year or less (17%). An additional 15% use suburban trains several times per their lives (67%). Important
year. A small proportion of EU citizens are heavy suburban train users with 6%not using the does include suburban trains several times a month and a further 8% using them at least once awhich week. are discussed later
report. Slightly more than t These results show that suburban rail use is polarized, with a group of heavy users ten the respondents (14%) and the majority not using these trains at all (53%). By contrast regional, have neve
international, nation national and international rail services were more evenly used among an the population, regional train (32%). A with 13% heavy users and only a third who never use these services (32%).
proportion of respondents According to this survey, the proportion of Europeans who have usedused theseone trains of is these trains slightly higher compared with the proportion found in a Special Eurobarometer survey year or less (31%). Less
5 . The carried out in 2012 where a similar question was asked (46% vs. 40%)say quarter that they use interpretation of the changes between the two surveys should be done with caution several times per year (23% into consideration different interviewing and thenational different aims of theat least At the EUtaking level, approximately two thirdsthe of respondents have travelled mode by international, or regional trains respondents except MT and CY (n= 26034) once in their lives (67%). Importantly, this all does not include suburban trains which are discussed later in this in report. two surveys. In the Base: EB77.2, respondents were interviewed face-to-face and thisSlightly more thansurvey, three in ten respondents have never used an international, national or regional train (32%). A similar proportion respondents were interviewed by telephone (landline and mobile phone). The of respondents have used oneFinally, of these trains once a year or less (31%). Less than a quarter say that they use a train several only around one in twenty respondents report that they use one of these tr current sought to one investigate satisfaction railofservices whereas times per year (23%).survey Finally, only around in twenty Europeans’ respondents report that theywith use one these trains at least once a once a week (6%) or several times per month (6%). week (6%)the or several times perleast month survey conducted in(6%). 2012 concerned rail competition.
Use of suburban trains
At the EU level, more than four in tenBase: respondents (46%) have used suburban trains at least once. Over half of Europeans all respondents except MT and CY (n= 26034) (53%) have never used suburban trains and slightly fewer than one in five uses them once a year or less (17%). An additional 15% use suburban trains several times per year. A small proportion of EU citizens are heavy suburban train users with 6% using the trains several times a month and a further 8% using them at least once a week. These results show that suburban rail use is polarized, with a group of heavy users (14%) and the majority not using these trains at all (53%). By contrast the regional, national and international rail services were more evenly used among the population, with 13% heavy users and only a third who never use these services (32%). www.railwaypro.com | March 2014 5
statistics 51 Since there are a number of changes between the methodology of the current su
the Eurobarometer Flash Survey in 2011 we present the changes at the en chapterMost along with purpose an explanation of by the comparison. frequent of journeys trains FLASH EUROBAROMETER 382a
“Europeans’ satisfaction with rail services”
Most Europeans use trains primarily for leisure activities - Respondents in EU Countries with train services were also asked about the reasons why they use trains within their countries. Across the EU, Length time to in get to the nearest train station or stop respondents are1.3. most likely to use of train services their country most frequently for leisure activities (33%) or for holiday (22%). This means more than Respondents inmost EU Member with rail transport were also asked how long it takes half of respondents use trains frequently States for leisure (55%). Fewertothan in five Europeans usethe closest train station. This question was asked in order them getone from their home to trains most frequently for travelling to work, school have understanding geographical coverage of train stations and stops in the EU or university.toLess thanan one in ten Europeansofuse trains for business trips (8%). Approximately one and determine the factors thatinmight increase or decrease Europeans’ use of trains. This five Europeans (19%) use trains for other reasons is above. a new question this survey, and thus comparisons cannot be made to previous not described Since there aretoa number of changes between thewaves. methodology of the current survey survey and the Eurobarometer Flash Survey in 2011 we present the changes at the end of the chapter Europeans have good access to train stations. In total, more than eight out of along with an explanationgenerally of the comparison. ten Europeans live within 30 minutes of a train station (83%). A small majority of Europeans report that it takes them between 10 to 30 minutes to get to the nearest railway station or stop from their home (52%). Approximately three in ten Europeans (31%) live less than 10 minutes away from a train station. Slightly more than one in ten Europeans (12%) live more than 30 minutes to an hour away from a train station. Less than one in twenty Europeans (4%) live more than an hour from the
nearest railway station or stop. Length ofBase: time to get who to the nearest train stationnational, or stop regional or suburban train (n= 18896) those travel by international,
Europeans in different EU Member States use trains for each of these pur different rates.
Respondents in every Member States are more likely to use trains primarily for
and other leisure activities than they are for travelling to work and business trips
The most likely to use trains to travel to work, school or university are respon Belgium (29%), Luxemburg (24%) and the Netherlands (24%).Conversely,
likely to use trains primarily for this reason are respondents in Lithuania (9% (10%), Romania (10%) and Italy (10%).
Respondents in EU Member States with rail transport were also asked how long it takes them to get from their home to Base: all respondents MTstations. and CY (n= 26034) the closest train station. Europeans generally have good accessexcept to train In total, more than eight out of ten Europeans live within 30 minutes of a train station (83%). A small majority of Europeans report that it takes them between 10 to 30 minutes to get to the station orto stop from their homenearest (52%). Approximately three invaries ten Europeans The time it nearest takes railway respondents travel to the railway station by EU (31%) live less than 10 minutes away from a train station. Slightly more than one in ten Europeans (12%) live more than Member State. Respondents mostone likely to live less than 10 more minutes away a 30 minutes to an hour away from a train station. are Less than in twenty Europeans (4%) live than an hourfrom from the nearest railway station or station in stop. Luxembourg (43%), Denmark (41%) and the Netherlands (40%). Source: EUROPEANS’ SATISFACTION WITHleast RAIL SERVICES, December 2013, Conducted by TNS Political Socialstation at the request The European Respondents are likely REPORT, to live this distance away from a &rail in of Lithuania Commission, Directorate-General Mobility and Transport (15%), Estonia (16%), and Latvia (18%). March 2014 | www.railwaypro.com
Integrated ticketing, still a complex issue [ by Elena Ilie ]
In line with global urbanisation trends, it is estimated that 4.5 billion people globally will be living in cities by 2020, representing 60% of the world’s population. This will continue to exacerbate demand for urban transportation in these areas, which will be dependent on smart mobility networks to facilitate travel and the movement of goods and services in tomorrow’s smart cities
more flexible use of rolling stock on long distances can generate significant improvements in terms of efficiency thus leading to a most costefficient and more competitive railway passenger transport. New interior design concepts are needed to be able to use passenger coaches in a more flexible way and to make sure that this flexibility does not interfere with the attractiveness of vehicles in different market segments. The purpose of innovative comfort concepts for railway vehicles is to improve the competitiveness of railway long-distance transport as compared to short-distance air transport. To maximize the potential of high-speed long-distance railway transport, transport operators need innovative equipment that meet new requirements for interoperability, economy, reliability, energy efficiency and the ability to ride both dedicated and conventional tracks. In terms of innovating concepts, the industry has offered more and more attractive ticketing solutions so as to make longdistance railway traffic more attractive and a viable competitor to short-distance air transport. However, a major disadvantage consists of the integrated ticketing system for long-distance passenger transport services which is still a complex issue, as shown by a study elaborated in 2012 by the Euro-
pean Parliament, the Department of Internal Affairs. Its feasibility encounters a number of legislative, technical and competition-related hurdles resulting from the differences between the many transport environments that have to be combined. Integrated ticketing is not an objective per se: rather, it is a means of making multimodal transport more attractive for users and of promoting more efficient use of existing infrastructure and services. Only limited statistics are available on long-distance intermodal travel and there is no common definition across Europe of long-distance trips. This makes it difficult to provide a precise overview of the main characteristics and size of the long-distance market. Nevertheless, it can be said with absolute certainty that long-distance integrated ticketing remains a limited phenomenon, restricted to certain niche markets. However, stakeholders suggest that, even though it may be difficult to estimate, the potential for such a market does exist and may grow in the longer term. The study shows that as far as the longdistance market segment is concerned, progress has been slow and no significant advances have been made. Rail-rail integration remains weak, as evidenced by the limited number of instances found by this study. Policy measures in this area have essentially
focused on improvements in technical interoperability among domestic networks, while less attention has been paid to the integration of booking and ticketing schemes for trips involving more than one operator. According to a Eurobarometer survey published in December 2013, 58% of Europeans are satisfied with rail services in their country. However, comparatively few Europeans take the train. In some countries, the number of users who consider it overly complicated to buy tickets is worryingly high. And some 19% of Europeans do not use the train because of accessibility issues. Persons with reduced mobility complained in particular about bad accessibility of train carriages and platforms and a lack of information on accessibility when they are planning their journey. The overall level of satisfaction with the ease of buying tickets has not improved since 2011 (78% satisfaction) with however big improvements in Austria and Greece (14 and 10 percentage points increase respectively), but worrying increases in dissatisfaction in Italy, Denmark and Slovenia (all more than 10 percentage points). Satisfaction with the provision of information during train journeys, in particular in the event of delays has remained insufficient (less than 50% satisfaction). The highest rates of satisfaction are found in the UK (70%), Finland and Ireland (68% and 62%). Highest rates of dissatisfaction are found in France (47%) and Germany (42%).
Продажа и покупка проездных билетов всё ещё является сложной задачей
www.railwaypro.com | March 2014
Соответственно мировым тенденциям урбанизации, оценивается что 4.5 млрд. человек будут проживать в городах до 2020 года, составляя 60% мирового населения. Данный факт будет продолжать способствовать росту спроса в области городского транспорта, в особенности интеллектуальных транспортных системах, с целью облегчения пассажирских и товарных перевозок в будущих крупных городах.
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