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the railway business magazine

Year IX No. 1.2(104) 2014 ■

EIB supports railway infrastructure projects in Poland and Hungary South-East Europe countries upgrade infrastructure

Railway PRO

All railway players should bear responsibility for railway safety

Infrastructure Development

Журнал железнодорожный бизнес

Central and S-E Europe rail market opens up new opportunities Interview with Paul Brown, General Manager – ISAF

ISAF Центральная и Юго-Восточная Европа предоставляет новые возможности для развития железнодорожного бизнеса Интервью с Генеральным Директором ISAF, господином Паул Браун


editor’s note 1

T

he attempts of building a single European railway area based on the competition between service providers (led by railway operators), but also between manufacturers, are hindered by barriers that are difficult to remove. Today, an intra-European confrontation marks the new step necessary to the liberalisation of the passenger transport market – market based on regulated competition. The Fourth Railway Package, the next step taken by the European Commission to reposition on new values the railway transport sector and to offer new stimulus to competition and innovation inside and between sectors hits against a conservatory opposition among panEuropean classical structures. Even today, when this text is inked, a huge pressure is exerted over a European Parliament in the final stages of its mandate in order to block the passenger-oriented evolution of national railway markets. These attempts are not surprising if placed in the context of other events important for opening the railway

transport sector. After a promising start, 2013 seemed the great year of state capital retreat from several smaller and medium markets, by selling stakes in the national freight transport operators. As time passed and the 2013 autumn came and even in early 2014, procedures have failed one at a time. The arguments for supporting the cancellation of sales are various, the public space being invaded by arguments pro and against the sale of stakes. There were not few those who transformed from critics of the intention of selling a state “pearl” into bitter critics of failure and capitulation, thus proving that political interest is still very much involved in controlling railway companies. The sure thing is that, on the short term, state protectionism has once again triumphed, foreshadowing the strong pressures to be exerted in order to block tenders on contracting public service obligations as well. And probably, this bitterness against transparency and assuming responsibility (for example, the obligation of presenting

the transport programme and comfort requirements before tendering services) is one of the reasons for which the Fourth Railway Package is blocked. Last but not least, this state protectionism/destruction is also reflected in the industrial sector. The opposition that the research programme SHIFT2RAIL has known is the answer the conservators give to any attempt of identifying alternative solutions. And this happens in the context of a boost in international competition in the market of railway products and solutions. As Chinese technologies advance and the European policy focuses on smallest price acquisitions, notwithstanding quality, the threat to European competitors is strong. And so, in full endless crisis, we ask ourselves once again: should we boast about a weak state portfolio or about a competitive society which naturally finds its own way?

Railway statism vs. open European market Issue published with the support of Romanian Railway Industry Association & Club Feroviar – The Railway Business Club Журнал издаётся при поддержке Асоциации Железнодорожной Промышленности и Club Feroviar – ЖД Клуб Деловых Людей

Железнодорожный этатизм или свободный европейский рынок Попытки создания единного европейского железнодорожного рынка, основан на рыночной конкуренции на уровне поставщиков услуг (прежде всего железнодорожных операторов) а также, на уровне производителей, ограничены сложными барьерами. В текущее время, внутриевропейское столкновение отмечает новый шаг для либерализации рынка пассажирского транспорта – основан на регулируемой конкуренции. 4-ый Железнодорожный Пакет это следующий шаг Европейской Комиссии для изменения позиции железнодорожного сектора и для оказания толчка в области конкурентоспособности и инновации внутри и между секторами, но, он сталкивается с консерваторским управлением на уровне классических пан-Европейских структур. В эти дни, когда печатается данный текст, к концу мандата, огромное давление оказывается на Европейский Парламент с целью блокировать процесс развития пассажирского сектора на уровне национальных железнодорожных рынков. Такие попытки не удивительны, в контексте иных событий, важных для

открытия железнодорожного сектора. После перспективного начала, 2013 год оказался главным указателем отступления государственного капитала с ряда средних и небольших рынков путём продажи конкретных участий в операторы грузоперевозки. Время прошло – осень 2013 и начало 2014 года, и мы заметили, что процессы потерпели неудачу один за другим. Есть много доводов для поддержке отмены продаж, общественный сектор являясь захваченным взглядами за, и против продажи акций. Не мало тех, которые превратились в жёстких критиков неудачи и отступления, вначале бывая критиками стремления продажи “драгоценностей” государства, таким образом доказывая, что политический интерес всё ещё сильно вовлечён в управление железнодорожных компаний. Очевидно, что на короткий срок, государственный протекционизм ещё раз восторжествовал, прогнозируя сильное давление которое окажется для заграждения тендеров по получению императивных общественных услуг. И наверника, такие действия против

транспарентности и ответственности (к примеру, обязанность представить программу транспорта и требования комфорта перед продажой услуг на тендере) являются среди мотивов, приводящих к блокировке 4-го Железнодорожного Пакета. Данный протекционизм - государственное разрушение, отражается также в промышленном секторе. Сопротивление по отношению к исследовательной программе SHIFT2RAIL, это ответ консерваторов на любые попытки установления альтернативных решений. Это, в контексте активизирования международной конкуренции на рынке железнодорожной продукции и системах. На фоне технологического развития китайских компаний и европейской политики приобретения при самой малой цене, в ущерб качества, угроза для европейских участников рынка является существенной. И так, в полном безконечном кризисе, ещё раз ставится вопрос: должны ли мы хвалится слабой государственной деятельностью, или, конкурентоспособным обществом, которое естественно находит свой путь? February 2014 | www.railwaypro.com


2 cOntent MARKET DEVELOPMENT

РАЗВИТИЕ РЫНКА

18 26

Promoting research and development costs, solution to develop sustainable mobility Промотирование затрат в области исследования и развития, решение для роста долгосрочной мобильности The optimal operation of the transport system requires full integration and interoperability of the individual parts of the network, as well as interconnection between different (modal) networks. Для оптимального действия транспортной системы, полная интеграция и интероперабельность индивидуальных частей сети является необходимой, а также, взаимосвязь между различными сетями (видами транспорта).

MARKET development

16 EIB supports railway infrastructure projects in Poland and Hungary 18 Promoting research and development costs – solution to develop sustainable mobility 20 Aktau Port extension

the railway business magazine

Railway PRO

ISSN - 1841 - 4672

Publisher: Editura de Transport & Logistică S.R.L. 30, Virgiliu Street, Sector 1 Bucharest, postal code: 010881 Tel.:+4 021 224 43 85; +4 021 224 43 87 Mobile: +40 721 723 724 Fax: +4 021 224 43 86 E-mail: editors@railwaypro.com Web-site: www.railwaypro.com Editors: Elena Ilie elena.ilie@railwaypro.com Pamela Luică pamela.luica@railwaypro.com Production and photo editor: Petru Mureşan Department of translations: Alina Vuţulicu Paula Badescu Veronica Lupan Contributors: Viorel Lucaci Marian Ciofalcă Barkóczy Péter Graphic design: Petru Mureşan Layout and DTP: Petru Mureşan petru.muresan@railwaypro.com Photo: Radu Drăgan Marketing: office@railwaypro.com Advertising Enquiries: advertise@railwaypro.com www. railwaypro.com/advertise

Editor’s note

project could be completed this year

1 Railway statism vs. open European market

38 Transport infrastructure for Sochi Olympic Games is completed

POLICIES & STRATEGIES

47 A change in transportation is a good opportunity for the equipment manufacturing industry

22 Railway market

liberalisation – a challenge for the financing of railway transport

34 Western Balkan countries request the intensification of railway infrastructure investments

Leaders

50 Sustainable urban mobility plans need reorientation Products & Technologies

ЛИДЕРЫ

Central and S-E Europe rail market opens up new opportunities Interview with Paul Brown, General Manager – ISAF

Центральная и Юго-Восточная Европа предоставляет новые возможности для развития железнодорожного бизнеса Интервью с Генеральным Директором ISAF, господином Паул Браун The railway system has been affected by the economic downturn as all the other economic sectors, but the studies carried out by different companies or institutions in the sector show that the railway industry is stable and will start developing by 2017. Worldwide, the railway industry has increased 3.2% year on year, a promising figure considering that public subsidies have constantly shrunk since the beginning of the economic crisis. Компания ISAF специализирована в области производства и монтажа железнодорожного оборудования и устройства – автоматизация, сигнализация, системы телекоммуникации, радиокоммуникации и оборудований высокого напряжения, предназначены ...

LEX

24 All railway players should bear responsibility for railway safety 32 OTIF prepares the review of COTIF Asset Management

39 Sochi: railway bridges on Adler – Alpika line, a real challenge for builders

46 New methodology to analyse and optimize maintenance

38 Transport infrastructure for Sochi Olympic Games is completed

40 ERTMS, technology with

significant benefits for the railway transport

52 COMSA provides its rail expertise to expand the Ankara Metro

48 Can rail charging

41 Performing technologies for turnouts

54 Contact wires - conductivity is of prime importance

36 South-East Europe

countries upgrade infrastructure

differentiated according to noise emissions reduce phonic 42 Level crossings, the weak pollution? link of the railway system?

64 What are the solutions offered by public transport for reducing the effects of excessive urban development?

www.railwaypro.com | February 2014

44 Investments in new technologies permitted companies to produce longer rails

ENGINEER

59 Railway infrastructure financing – an aspect with vast implications in railway transport system operation Statistics

62 Railway Statistics


cOntent 3

41 Высококачественные технологии для 64 Какие решения 50 Переориентация планов железнодорожных путей 1 Железнодорожный предоставляет общественный долгосрочной городской этатизм или свободный 42 Железнодорожные транспорт для снижения мобильности необходима европейский рынок переезды – слабое звено эффектов чрезмерного железнодорожной системы? городского развития? ПОЛИТИКА И СТРАТЕГИЯ закон РАЗВИТИЕ РЫНКА 44 Инвестиции в новые 22 Либерализация технологии позволили 24 Все действующие железнодорожного 16 ЕИ Б поддерживает компаниям производить лица железнодорожной рынка – провокация проекты железнодорожной длинные рельсы для финансирования инфраструктуры в Польше и системы должны нести ответственность железнодорожного Венгрии инженер железнодорожной транспорта 18 Промотирование затрат безопасности 59 Финансирования 34 Страны запада в области исследования железнодорожной Балканского полуострова и развития – решение 32 OTIF подготавливает инфраструктуры – аспект с требуют интенсификации для роста долгосрочной пересмотр COTIF широкими вовлечениями в инвестиций в мобильности сфере функционирования железнодорожную системы железнодорожного инфраструктуру 20 Возможно, в этом году продукты и транспорта технологии проект развития 36 Страны Юго-Восточной завершится Порта Актау Европы модернизируют свою управление инфраструктуру 38 Транспортная 39 Сочи: железнодорожные активами инфраструктура мосты вдоль линии Адлер – 38 Транспортная Олимпийских Игр в Сочи Альпика, сложнейшая задача 46 Новая методология инфраструктура создана для анализа и оптимизации для строителей Олимпийских Игр в Сочи обслуживания создана 47 Изменение в секторе 40 ERTMS –технология, 48 Можно снизить уровень транспортном СТАТИСТИКА окажет положительное которая приносит шумового загрязнения влияние в отрасли значительные выгоды при дифференциальной 62 Железнодорожного железнодорожному тарификации в зависимости промышленности статистика оборудования транспорту от звукового излучения? Редакционная статья

ПОЛИТИКА И СТРАТЕГИЯ

РАЗВИТИЕ РЫНКА

February 2014 | www.railwaypro.com


news 5 Serbia to rehabilitate 300 km of railways on Corridor 10

Negotiations on HZ Cargo sale, cancelled

Serbia: Director General of Serbian Railways Dragoljub Simonovic stated that around 300 kilometres of railway on Corridor 10 would be reconstructed by 2016. Simonovic said that the government has already set aside 15% of the funds for the purpose and that around RSD 9 Million have been transferred to the account of Serbian Railways. The Annex Two of the contract will be implemented soon which covers six segments of Corridor 10 and the sections Ruma-Golubinci, MladenovacKovacevac and Mala Krsna-Velika Plana.

croatia: The Croatian Transport Ministry said it had called off the privatization of HZ Cargo. Grup Feroviar Roman (GFR), the company which should have taken over a majority stake in HZ Cargo, would had backtracked significantly on the terms of the submitted binding offer for the rail freight carrier, the local press informs, quoting the ministry’s press release. Among the reasons for the move is GFR’s failure in the course of the sale talks to provide relevant confirmation that it is in a position to secure substitutes for the state guarantees extended for HZ Cargo loans, the ministry said in a statement. The sale agreement proposed by the selected buyer did not even come close to the terms of the sell-off competition or the conditions

Reconstruction of Corridor 8 railway section launched in March

photo: www.vlakovi.com

FYR Macedonia: The reconstruction of railway Corridor 8, 31km-long railway section Kumanovo-Beljakovce is to begin in March 2014. Representatives of Macedonian Railways Infrastructure Skopje and German company Wiebe GmbH signed at the end of December an agreement for development of the project amounting to EUR 39.75 by third quarter in 2016. The two remaining sections of the railway leading to Bulgaria, which is to be completed by 2022, are Beljakovce-Kriva Palanka (36km) and Kriva Palanka-Deve Bair (23km).

of the binding offer and as such is unacceptable, the statement said. Among the other demands made by GFR that were deemed unacceptable, the Croatian side also listed seeking assurances that other operators would be barred from entering the market, billing the Croatian state for the cost of staff redundancies as well as seeking a second due diligence. In July, the Croatian Government accepted GFR’s offer on the acquisition of 75% in the stakes of HZ Cargo. HZ Cargo is the largest railway operator in Croatia carrying an annual volume of goods of 11 million tonnes, the annual average of transport revenues amounting to EUR 80 Million and with a total value of assets of EUR 285 Million. The rolling stock fleet of the operator includes 187 locomotives and 6,039 wagons.

requirements for the rail tube crossing part of the project. The Marmaray project includes an undersea rail tunnel crossing the Bosphorus strait and the modernization of existing suburban railway lines along the Sea of Marmara.

Kazakhstan Railways reached objectives in 2013 Kazakhstan: In 2013, Kazakhstan Railways had a freight transport performance indicator of 231.2 billion tonne-km (100.1% compared to plan), and a passenger transport performance of 16.9 billion passenger-km (100.3% compared to plan). The company’s net revenues amounted to KZT 117 Billion (103.2% compared to plan). The company purchased and upgraded 135 locomotives, 3154 freight cars, 288 passenger coaches and rehabilitated 631 km of railways.

HZ Infrastruktura tenders contract for Greda-Novska line Croatia: Croatian state-owned railway

photo: www.railways.kz

infrastructure operator HZ Infrastruktura has invited bids for upgrade works on the Greda-Sunja-Novska rail track, in the country’s east. The planned works have an estimated value of HRK 550 Million (EUR 72 Million). The bidding deadline is February 21.

JICA increases credit for Marmaray project Turkey: Turkey’s Treasury and the Japan International Cooperation Agency ( JICA) have agreed to raise the value of the JICA loan for the rail tube crossing part of Turkey’s Marmaray rail transport project to JPY 183.79 Billion (EUR 1.3 Billion) from the previously agreed JPY 140.81 Billion. The exchange note and amendment to the loan agreement were signed on January in order to meet the additional financing

Хорватия: Министерство Транспорта Хорватии объявило, что переговоры в связи с приватизацией HZ Cargo были отменены. Сербия: Генеральный Директор Сербских Железных Дорог объявил, что до 2016 года пройдёт реконструкция около 300 км железнодорожной линии 10-го Коридора. БЮР Македония: В марте месяце начнутся работы реконструкции участка Куманово - Беляковце (31 km), часть 8-го Коридора по территории Македонии. Казахстан: В 2013 году, Железные Дороги Казахстана отметили эксплуатационный показатель грузоперевоза 231.2 млрд. тонн-км (100.1% в сравнении с планом).

Bulgaria assigns new railway modernisation contract Bulgaria: Bulgarian consortium Zhelezen Pat has won a BGN 15.6 Million (EUR 8 Million) rail upgrade contract for the Plachkovtsi-Krastec section (Bulgaria). The contract includes the rehabilitation of lines, of four tunnels and of a rail station.

Chinese railway sector needs more investments International: With transport capa-city lagging far behind demand, the Chinese railway sector will accept investments from a wide range of sources. Private businesses have already landed deals for railway construction projects and

Румыния: Softronic Craiova создала первый низкопольный электровоз в Румынии с асинхронной тягой, в двух вариантах максимальной скорости, 160 км\ч, и 200 км\ч.. Хорватия: Инфраструктурная компания HZ Infrastruktura пустила в ход тендер для модернизации линии Греда – Новска, на востоке страны. Болгария: Болгарский консорциум Железен Път выиграл контракт по модернизации участка Плачковци – Крастек (Болгария). Турция: Японское Агенство Международного Сотрудничества и Министерство Финансов Турции согласились повысить кредит, предоставлен компанией JICA для проекта Мармарай. February 2014 | www.railwaypro.com


6 news more companies are welcome to enter the railway transport market, Zhao Guoqing, chief engineer of the State Railways Administration, said. The Railway Agency has drastically reduced the number of private funded projects that have to go through review and approval procedures. The agency will improve its strategy to encourage and support qualified enterprises of all kinds to participate in the bidding for railway construction projects, added Zhao Guoqing. Russia and Ukraine deliver all repaired wagons to Azerbaijani Railways International: Azerbaijani Railways has received all 76 passenger wagons sent for overhaul to Ukraine and Russia, head of the company Arif Askerov said. The head of the company said that 60 wagons have been overhauled at Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine) and 16 in Voronezh (Russia). The wagons will be operated on the Baku-Tbilisi and Baku-Moscow routes. The wagons were sent abroad for repairs due to the lack of technology in Azerbaijan for capital repairs of passenger carriages. As the deputy head of the company Gurban Nazirov said earlier, Azerbaijani Railways as part of the renovation of the car load park plans to buy 100 new passenger wagons. It is also planned to buy 50 locomotives for freight transport and 12 locomotives for passenger transport.

UK authorities announced selected bidders for the Intercity East Coast franchise International: The Department for Transport in UK has announced the shortlisted bidders for the operation of the new franchise Intercity East Coast. The companies and consortia to have passed the shortlisting phase are: East Coast Trains Ltd (First Group plc); Keolis/Eurostar East Coast Limited (Keolis (UK) Limited and Eurostar International Limited); Inter City Railways Limited (Stagecoach Transport Holdings Limited and Virgin Holdings Limited). The shortlisted bidders will be able to develop the plans for the franchise before receiving the bid invitation from the government. The Intercity East Coast franchise has been stabilised under government ownership since 2009, being one of the two main railway lines connecting London to Scotland. The elecВ мире: С допустимой нагрузкой несоответствующей требованиям, железнодорожный сектор Китая примет инвестиции, происходящие из широкой гаммы источников. В мире: Железные Дороги Азербайджана получили все 76 вагонов, модернизированы Украиной и Россией, по словам директора компании, Ариф Аскеров. Турция: Железные Дороги Турции (TCDD) вложат около половины бюджета на 2014 год в проекты высокоскоростных поездов. www.railwaypro.com | February 2014

TCDD to boost railway investments turkey: Turkish state railways will invest almost half of its 2014 budget in high-speed train projects. Turkey will invest more than 5.5 billion lira (EUR1.80 Bln) in its transportation projects, according to the country’s 2014 budget. The Turkish government will allocate around 3.5 billion lira (EUR 1.14 Bln) to Turkish state railways, and around 2 billion lira to the Turkish Ministry of Transportation, Maritime Affairs and Communications, for its railway investments.

trified line has 632 km and links London, Peterborough, Doncaster, Leeds, York, Newcastle and Edinburgh. Over EUR 500 Million investments in railway projects Bulgaria: All railway projects under Bulgaria’s Operational Program Transport are in a process of implementation. The sum total of all OP Transport railway projects amounts to over BGN 1 B (EUR 511 Mln), Transport Minister Danail Papazov said Tuesday at the official launch of the Pazardzhik-Stamboliyski section construction. “We lay the foundation of the section between the two towns of Pazardzhik and Stamboliyski. In a month, we will begin the construction of the whole railway line connecting the Southern town of Septemvri to the city of Plovdiv,” Minister Papazov said. According to him, the fares have not been raised in the last four years, despite inflation. Meanwhile, the number of passengers was 3% higher in 2013 compared to the previous year. Owing to the OP Transport projects, more than BGN 300 M (EUR 153 Mln) have been invested in the Plovdiv area. The investments will not only improve the railway infrastructure but will open new jobs as well.

ÖBB awards contract for Semmering tunnel

Turkish State Railways (TCDD) will invest almost half of its 2014 budget (1.8 billion liraEUR 655 Mln) in high-speed train projects, according to the company’s budget program. Turkey’s Transportation Minister announced last month that Turkey will develop its own high-speed train line, which will be completed in 2018. Turkey increased its investments on transportation as part of its “2023 Vision” program, which aims to celebrate the country’s 100th anniversary of the establishment of the Republic by developing significant projects, such as building 11 thousand kilometers of new railway and expanding high-speed train networks.

between the Baltic Sea and the Adriatic Sea. The tunnel will be 27.3km long and the contract refers to its middle section of 13 km. The tunnel will have 26 crosspassages, an emergency-stop station and two 400m ventilation shafts. The Chinese partners might complete the high-speed railway project in 2014 Romania: In 2014, the Romanian Ministry of Transport and the Chinese partners might complete the project of the high-speed line in Romania, on the route Vienna-Budapest-Bucharest-Constanta, declared Minister Ramona Mănescu, during a TV show. “We are discussing with the Chinese partners about the high-speed train Vienna-Budapest-Bucharest-Constanta. The section Border-Constanta can be completed without European funds. This year, we hope to complete at least the project enabling us to launch the actual construction of the line”, the minister said. According to her, for 2020, the authorities want the high-speed train to run at 200 km/h. “By the end of the 2014-2020 programming period, we want to have high-speed trains in Romania, freight trains to run at 120 km/h, passenger trains at 160 km/h and the high-speed train from border to Constanta to run at 200 km/h”, added Mănescu.

Government renames pan-European railway corridors

Austria: ÖBB has awarded the Simmering tunnel contract to a consortium of Implenia and Swietelsky. The contract is estimated at around EUR 625 Million. The tunnel is part of the new southern Austrian line, part of the connection line

Croatia: The Croatian Government decided on a new classification of railway lines throughout the country, thus changing the terms for Croatia’s sections of panEuropean corridors.

Болгария: Все железнодорожные проекты в рамках программы POS-T Болгария в поцессе осуществления. Общая сумма проектов, которые осуществляются при POS-T, превышает один млрд. лева (около 511 млн. евро).. Словакия: Грузовые Вагоны (Cargo Wagons) и Интермодальные грузоперевозки (ZSSK Cargo Intermodal) дочерние национальной ZSSK Cargo, отметили выражение интереса со стороны 15 потенциальных инвесторов в рамках первой фазы тендера.

Австрия: ÖBB предоставил контракт тоннеля Семмеринг сообществу, созданному из Implenia и Swietelsky. Румыния: Возможно, в этом году Министерство Транспорта и китайские партнёры завершат проект высокоскоростной линии на территории Румынии. Хорватия: Правительство решило принять новую классификацию для национальных железнодорожных линий, таким образом, изменяя условия для участках Хорватии в рамках пан-европейских коридоров.


news 7

Tender for Prokop station in Belgrade Serbia: Zeleznice Srbije has invited bids

for the first phase of works at Prokop station in Belgrade. Offers could be submitted by 24 February. The 420-day contract includes the construction and reconstruction of lines and the installation of information and signalling systems.

В мире: Консалтинговая компания США, которая выиграла тендер по осуществлению делового плана для проекта линии широкой колеи Россия – Австрия, начала выполнять план. Сербия: Национальная Железнодорожная Компания Zeleznice Srbije предоставила тендерное предложение для первой фазы строительных работ вокзала Прокоп, в Белграде. Россия: Пять компаний будут конкурировать для поставки подвижного состава для малой кольцевой линии в Москве Болгария: В этом году, Болгарская Железнодорожная Компания вложит 100 млн. лева (51 млн. евро) в приобретение 16

budget some BGN 30 Million (EUR 15.4 Million) annually over the next three years to finance the purchase of new railway cars, Minister of Transport Danail Papazov said. Papazov quoted experts as saying that an upgrade of the company’s fleet is a prerequisite for improving the company’s financial state.

struction of a broad-gage railway RussiaAustria started working, RZD President Vladimir Yakunin announced. The business plan should be ready in the final quarter of the year, said Yakunin. The project financing method will only be analysed after the finalization of the business plan, concluded the RZD President.

China to electrify Belarus-Lithuania railway connection

Ukrzaliznytsia to upgrade locomotive fleet

International: Belarus Railways has selected China National Electric Import and Export Corporation to electrify the 80km long line between Maladzyechna, Gudohay and the Lithuanian border. The cost of the project amounts to USD 90 Million. Works will begin this year and will be completed by the end of 2015.

Ukraine: Ukrainian Railways (Ukrzaliznytsia) will upgrade 1,500 diesel locomotives up to 2015. The ChME-3 locomotives were manufactured in 1963-1991. The locomotives will be equipped with Caterpillar engines and new equipments to improve the operational capacity and ergonomics. According to Ukrainian Railways, the modernisation programme will cost by 40% less than the acquisition of new locomotives. The modernisation is to be performed by Poltava Diesel Locomotive Repair Plant.

photo: www.beobuild.rs

Ministry of Railway Transport launched tenders for railway connection with Iran

The project will be financed of the RSD 10 Million (EUR 26 Million) loan from the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development. Moscow: Five companies bid for rolling stock Russia: Five companies will bid to supply rolling stock for the Smaller Ring of the Moscow Railway (MKZD). The companies are: Transmashholding, Sinara - Transport Machines, Hyundai Rotem, Stadler Rail and Kryukovsky Car-Building Plant. The tender will be launched in February. The contract stipulates the acquisition of 33 seven-car trains. The rolling stock is to be commissioned in 2016.

BDZ will purchase rolling stock Bulgaria: BDZ plans to invest BGN 100 Million (EUR 51 Million) in 16 new railway cars. BDZ will get from the state

новых вагонов. В мире: Белорусские Железные Дороги предоставили китайской корпорации China National Electric Import and Export Corporation контракт по электрификации 80 км-ой линии. В мире: Министерство Железнодорожного Транспорта Туркменистана пустило в ход тендер по завершению строительства линии широкой колеи, связывающей Берекет с границей Ирана. Россия: ПКомпания Global Ports Investments завершила процесс приобретения 100% акций NCC Group Limited – второй крупнейший оператор контейнерных терминалов в России.

International: Turkmenistan’s Ministry of Railway Transport has launched the tender for the completion of the broad gauge line construction between Bereket and the Iranian border, part of the Kazakhstan-Iran railway. The contract also includes the completion of the locomotive servicing facilities at Bereket. The deadline for submitting offers is 14 February. The line should be commissioned by the end of the year. The project was initiated in March 2010.

Business plan for Russia-Austria railway ready in 2014 International: The U.S. consulting company that has won a tender for development of a business plan for con-

Railway to link countries in the Gulf Area to be extended to Yemen International: Gulf countries have initiated the elaboration of a feasibility study of a railway linking Oman to Yemen. The extension would add another 1,400 km of track to the initial project which stipulated the development of a network of 2,177 km to connect Kuwait to Oman upon its completion in 2018. The extension could have 12 additional rail stations. So far, about 200 km of track has been laid in Saudi Arabia and 120 km in the United Arab Emirates.

15 bidders interested in ZSSK Cargo subsidiaries slovakia: Cargo Wagons and ZSSK Cargo Intermodal, the two subsidiaries of the Slovak state owned railway company ZSSK Cargo, have seen interest from 15 potential investors in the first round of their sale tender, Pravda reported. The second round of the tender started on 7 January. The potential bidders are expected to submit their bids by 21 March. The state plans to sell a 66% stake in Cargo Wagons for EUR 40 Million, while a 50% stake in Cargo Intermodal is expected to bring around EUR 17.5 Million.

photo: www.zscargo.sk

The Croatian route of the pan-European X corridor starting from the Slovenia-Croatia border via Savski Marof, Zagreb, Dugo Selo, Novska, Vikovci, Tovarnik towards the Croatia-Serbia border will be referred to as the Corridor RH1. The Croatian route of the pan-European Vb corridor, starting from the HungarianCroatian border via Botovo, Koprivnica, Dugo Selo, Zagreb, Karlovac, Rijeka, and Sapjane towards the Croatian-Slovenian border has now the official term the Corridor RH2. Also, the Croatian route of the pan-European Vc corridor, starting from the Hungarian-Croatian border via Beli Manastir, Osijek, Slavonski Samac and the Craotian border with Bosnia and Herzegovina and then via the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo towards the Croatian border with Bosnia and Herzegovina in the south of that country to reach Croatia’s town of Metkovic and seaport of Ploce, is now referred to as the Corridor RH3. According to this classification, the total length of Croatia’s railways is 2,625 kilometres, of which 1,481 kilometres of the rail infrastructure are used for international traffic, 626 for regional traffic and 518 kilometres for local rail traffic.

February 2014 | www.railwaypro.com


8 news UEEIV: Do Railways need Engineers? international: On 7-8 March 2014, the Union of European Rail Engineer Associations (UEEIV) organises the conference “Do railways need engineers?” in Vienna, Austria. The event will discuss the challenges faced by young engineers while dealing with important construction projects, methods for stimulating the young generation to choose a job in the railway sector, as well as the administration of business activities that can be performed by engineers. The second day will include a technical visit to the construction site of Vienna Main Station. The event will be attended by representatives of railway companies from Austria, companies dealing with railway constructions in Switzerland, Germany, Italy, Poland, Romania, as well as representatives of universities.

photo: .globalports.com

Russia: Global Ports Investments PLC has completed the acquisition of 100% of the share capital of NCC Group Limited, the second largest container terminal operator in Russia. Global Ports will now operate nine container terminals with a total volume of 4 million TEUs, thus becoming the largest container operator in Eastern Europe. To finance the acquisition of USD 291 Million, the group paid USD 229 Million and contracted a long-term credit of USD 238 Million.

HZ Infrastruktura bids Gradec– Sv. Ivan Zabno rail section Croatia: Croatian state-owned railway

infrastructure operator HZ Infrastruktura has invited bids for the construction of a total of 12.2 kilometres of rail tracks along the Gradec–Sv. Ivan Zabno route, in the country’s northeast. The construction works on the project, with an estimated value of HRK 205 Million (EUR 27 Million), are expected to get underway in October 2014 and wrap up in December 2016. CFR SA prepares tenders worth EUR 1.9 Billion Romania: CFR SA published on its official web page two documents on the situation of public procurement in preparation and the situation of the on-going public procurement. For the public procurement in preparation, CFR SA estimates that the date for the initiation of procedure is 14 February 2014, the finalization of procedure being set for 14 May 2014 (for all listed projects). The total cost is estimated at RON 8.57 Billion (EUR 1.9 Billion), VAT excluded, the projects being financing from foreign funds. One of the mentioned projects refers to services supply for technical assistance www.railwaypro.com | February 2014

for the supervision of design and execution works on the project “Interlocking in Videle rail station (open tender), the rest including rehabilitation works for bridges, culverts and tunnels for SRFC Cluj, Bucharest, Iaşi, Braşov, Constaţa, Timişoara. Four closed tenders are in plan for the rehabilitation works on the pan-European Corridor IV, Border-Curtici –Simeria line (1. section2: Km 614 – Gurasada, subsection 2a: Km 614 - Y Bârzava; 2.section 2: Km 614 –Gurasada, sub-section 2b: Y Bârzava –Y Ilteu; 3. section 2: Km 614 –Gurasada, sub-section 2c: Y Ilteu –Y Gurasada; 4. section 2: Km 614 –Gurasada, sub-section 2c: Y Ilteu –Y Gurasada) with an estimated cost of RON 8.24 Billion (EUR 1.84 Billion), VAT excluded. Regarding the situation of the on-going acquisitions, there are 5 projects on services supply (consultancy in execution management and control of execution, civil engineering and installations works) worth RON 202.79 Million (EUR 45.3 Million), VAT excluded. The list of ongoing acquisitions includes 9 projects on design and execution works worth RON 862.57 Million (EUR 192.7 Million), VAT excluded. All projects are due in FebruaryMarch 2014.

International: Oman railway network project is a priority on the list of Ministry of Transport’s projects in 2014, declared Oman Transport Minister. The prequalification of project contractors will commence soon. Oman authorities hope that the first phase of the project, the development of the Al Buraimi-Sohar section, would be assigned by the end of the year.

Arriva abandons Prague suburban services

Zeleznice Srbije carries more passengers

Czech Rep.: In December, Arriva Vlaky, Arriva’s Czech subsidiary, withdrew its open-access suburban service between Prague Masarykovo and Kralupy nad Vltavou, just three months after the start of operations. Arriva Vlaky started operations on

Serbia: Serbian state-owned railway operator Zeleznice Srbije posted an 8.6% rise in passenger traffic to 18 million in 2013. The volume of shipped freight increased by 12% to 10 million tonnes, while revenues from this activity increased by EUR 10 Million to EUR 75.3 Million.

В мире: В период 7-8 марта 2014 года, Европейская Ассоциация Инженеров Железнодорожной Отрасли (UEEIV) организовывает конференцию “Нуждается ли железнодорожная система в инженерах?” в Вене, Австрия. В мире: Строительство железнодорожной сети города Оман является приоритетным проектом в списке Министерства Транспорта на 2014 год, по словам Министра Транспорта города Оман. Украина: Железные Дороги Украины модернизируют 1.500 дизельных локомотивов до 2015 года. В мире: Страны Персидского залива пустили в ход анализ техникоэкономического обоснования для

photo: ekonomika.idnes.cz

Global Ports buys NCC Group

September 23, 2013 on its own initiative and took on all financial risks for the service with the aim of convincing Prague transport authority PID that the service was viable. However, passenger numbers were disappointingly low and the lack of financial support meant the losses were too large for Arriva to sustain. Arriva operated eight return services per day on the 27km route, offering a regular two hour frequency. Despite the failure of the Prague suburban service, Arriva Vlaky still plans to continue developing its rail business in the Czech Republic. Meanwhile, Czech newspaper Mladá fronta Dnes reports that British bus and train operator National Express has established a Czech subsidiary, National Express CZ, which plans to bid for public service obligation regional operating contracts.

Oman launches tender for national railway project

железнодорожной линии, которая должна предоставить связь между Оманом и Йеменом. Хорватия: Оператор национальной железнодорожной инфраструктуры HZ Infrastruktura отправил запросы на предложения по строительству 12.2 км железнодорожной линии участка Градек – Св. Иван Забно. Сербия: За 2013 год, национальный железнодорожный оператор Zeleznice Srbije объявил рост пассажирских перевозок на 8.6 %, составляя 18 миллионов. Армения: РЖД пока не приняли решение в связи с финансированием строительства железнодорожной линии Ванадзор – Фиолетово в Армении.


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10 news Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Oman transit agreement to take effect soon

International: A report of the European Court of Auditors (ECA) reveals that the Marco Polo Programme has not been efficient enough in reaching its proposed objective, that of facilitate the shift, through financing programmes, of as many freight volumes from roads to railways. The EU Council has taken note of the report of the European Court of Auditors and asks the European Commission to consider ECA’s recommendations when deciding over a new financing programme that would replace Marco Polo. Same recommendations are also valid in case of new actions regarding freight transport services within the TEN-T network.

International: The transit agreement which has been signed between Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Oman will take effect by the end of the current Iranian calendar year (March 21), ISNA quoted Iranian Ports and Maritime Organization official Sadollah Abdollahi. Qatar has also expressed interest in joining the transit agreement, he added. He also said that India, Afghanistan, and Iran are working out the signing of another agreement to boost port and transit cooperation. Turkmenistan and Iran with the participation of Kazakhstan have already

Railway line between Plovdiv and Septemvri due in 2015 Bulgaria: The construction of the railway line connecting the southern town of Septemvri to the city of Plovdiv was officially launched. The sod-turning ceremony was attended by Bulgarian Transport Minister Danail Papazov, according to a statement of the Transport Ministry. The official launch of construction works took place at the railway station in Stamboliyski with the section connecting Pazardzhik to Stamboliyski worth around BGN 66 M, VAT included. This is the last railway project funded under the “Transport” Operational Program for the period 20072013. The railway line is to be completed by October 2015, after which trains will be able to develop a speed of 160km/h.

Turkish transport minister: 2014 will be a year of high-speed trains Turkey: The high-speed railway (YHT) line between Istanbul and Ankara will quadruple Turkey’s high-speed railway passenger numbers, according to Transport Minister Lütfi Elvan. He has been Transport Minister since December 26, 2013, when he replaced Binali Yıldırım. “2014 will be the year of records for the YHT,” he told Anadolu Agency, while discussing the 2013 performance of the much-anticipated lines. Elvan, who took over as minister from Binali Yıldırım as part of a large recent Cabinet reshuffle, stated that high-speed trains in Turkey had transported almost 4.5 million passengers in 2013, and said the figure would exceed 20 million in 2014 once the line under construction between Istanbul and Turkish capital Ankara was completed. Elvan praised the YHT system as fast, comfortable, economical and one of the safest possible means of transport. The first introduction of YHT lines in www.railwaypro.com | February 2014

Turkey was in 2009 with the AnkaraEskisehir line. Elvan stressed that the ministry would invest a total of USD45 Billion in rail systems until 2023, and construct 10,000 km of YHT lines and another 4,000 km of conventional new lines. The government plans to construct new high-speed and normal railway lines in 15 cities, where a majority of the population lives. Elvan named the new YHT lines to be opened soon as AnkaraIzmir, Ankara-Bursa, and Ankara-SivasErzincan. Treaty on Eurasian Economic Union is of great importance for Kazakhstan

begun the implementation of a trilateral project for creation of a new North-South rail corridor. On the recreated transport and trade system, road cargo will be transferred to the Gulf countries, Indian Ocean, Europe and other regions without delay. According to preliminary estimates, the annual volume transit cargo transportation will be 10-12 million tonnes.

photo: chrono-tm.org

European Court of Auditors reviewed the efficiency of the Marco Polo Programme

in the processing sector. He said each CES country has been implementing a unified tariff in the sphere of railway transportations since January 1, 2013 for the services on transportation of various types of cargos. Zhaksylykov also said unification of tariffs ensures the transparency of their use, helps to create equal competitive conditions for commodities and commodity producers. “The volume of transportations conducted by Kazakh shippers through the territory of Russia and Belarus is about 17.2 million tons per year, while the volume of transportation of Russian and Belarusian goods on the territory of Kazakhstan stood at about 8.6 million tons in 2012. Therefore the tariff unification is particularly important for Kazakh shippers,” he said.

Kazahstan: The Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union is planned to be signed in 2014, Kazakh Vice-Minister of Economy and Budget Planning, Timur Zhaksylykov said at a briefing in Astana. He said the treaty’s provisions are formed on the basis of codification of the contractual framework of the Customs Union and the Common Economic Space (CES). “This document is very important for Kazakhstan, as it will define the basis of the state’s foreign economic policy for many years to come,” Zhaksylykov said. He went on to add that the goal of Kazakhstan’s participation in the Eurasian integration is the expansion of markets, attracting investment, including

Saudi Arabia: The Persian Gulf country will soon take delivery of train cars for its high-speed rail project linking three major western cities, its transport minister has said. Jibara Al Suraisri said contractors have started the construction of the rails within the second phase of the Haramain rail project, denying reports about a delay in one of the largest train projects in the Gulf Kingdom. “The second phase of the project has been

В мире: Иран, Туркменистан, Узбекистан и Оман заключили договор о сотрудничестве по повышению грузопотока на их территориях. В мире: Доклад Европейского Суда Аудиторов (ECA) показывает, что Программа Marco Polo не была достаточно эффективной в достижении цели облегчения перемещения большого объёма груза с дорожного транспорта на железнодорожный, с помощью программ финансирования. Болгария: Официально началось строительство железнодорожной линии, обеспечивающей связь города Септември, расположен на юге страны, с городом

Пловдив. Азербайджан: Заключение работ на железнодорожной линии БакуТбилиси- Карс совпадёт с открытием нового грузового и контейнерного терминала порта Баку. Турция: По словам нового Министра транспорта Турции, Лютфи Элван, высокоскоростная железнодорожная линия, связывающая Стамбул с Анкарой, повысит пассажиропоток в четыре раза. Казахстан: Цель государства в плане Евразийской интеграции состоит в развитии рынков и привлечении иностранных инвестиций, в том числе в секторе обработки сырья.

Saudi high-speed rail: Trains to be delivered soon


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12 news

Azerbaijan: The Baku Tbilisi Kars (BTK)

railway is set for completion, on time for Baku to move the bulk of its seaborne trade to the purpose built port outside the city. Azerbaijan has been building a new ferry, bulk and container port outside Baku’s city centre so freight and passengers can transit more easily out of the city. The new port should double the city’s cargo capacity to over 20 million tonnes when complete in a

launched by the contractor and the train cars will be delivered soon,” he said after inspecting the project. The 450-km (280 mile) Haramain train, which could run as fast as 300 kph, will link the Western Red Sea port of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia’s second largest city, with nearby Makkah, Medina and other towns in western Saudi Arabia. “It is the first project of its kind as it will link major cities in the Kingdom, the project poses a big challenge to all those involved in it…but it is progressing smoothly and the results so far are good,” said Suraisri, who heads the Saudi Railways Organization. Tender for the modernisation of Okucani–Vinkovci section Croatia: The Croatian state-owned railway infrastructure operator HZ Infrastruktura announced it has invited bids for a contract to design the upgrade of the 131.3 kilometre Okucani–Vinkovci rail route. The contract is worth HRK 92 Million (EUR 12 Million). The project will involve a complete overhaul of the railway, telecommunications and signalling infrastructure along the route, including the replacement of 23 bridges and the reconstruction of 12 train stations.

Ukrzaliznytsia opens freight transport information centre Ukraine: This year, Ukrzaliznytsia opened an information centre for freight traffic (Transport and Logistics Centre) providing customers will all necessary information on freight traffic. The establishment of the centre aims to optimise the services supplied to railway infrastructure users in the freight segment and the stimulation of interaction through online communications services. “All users will receive necessary information on freight transport. We hope that this project will optimise the quality of the services supplied to the customers in the freight transport market”, declared the Deputy General Director Vitaly Zhurakivsky. “First of all, the centre will focus its activity on the interaction with operators and shippers and could become the coordinator of the entire logistics www.railwaypro.com | February 2014

few years time. The ferry port will move to the new terminal later this year. The Baku Tbilisi Kars Railway linking Azerbaijan via Georgia to Turkey will be completed in 2015, and move most of the freight that comes into Baku by rail instead of road as is currently happening. The BTK Railway involves the reconstruction of the Soviet built Marabda to Kartsakhi section and building a new, 27 km line from Akhalkalaki to the Turkish border at Kars. This will give access from the Azerbaijani port to the European network, significantly increasing the profitability of Baku port.

chain through which an interconnection with other organisation, agencies and ministries will be achieved”, declared Vladimir Ivashchuk, the Director of the centre. Baltic States’ position on Rail Baltica II project will be harmonized International: Minister of Transport and Communications of Lithuania, Rimantas Sinkevicius, believes that the three Baltic States’ position on the project Rail Baltica II will be harmonized and, therefore, also the negotiations over the joint venture finalized. “My conversation with Estonian Minister of Economic Affairs and Communication Juhan Parts confirms it. Last September, five ministers, among which also the Estonian Minister, signed a declaration on the establishment of a joint venture for the project Rail Baltica II, where Vilnius was acknowledged as a part of Rail Baltica. Estonian minister confirmed that his signature on this declaration is still valid,” said Sinkevicius. Lithuania wants to modernize the 100 km branch line between Kaunas and Vilnius and, thus, connect all three Baltic States’ capitals with the Trans-European gauge. The total length of Rail Baltica II route in Lithuania will be approximately 360 kilometres, in Latvia – 300 kilometres and Estonia – approximately 300 kilometres. It is expected that the joint venture established by all three Baltic States will administer only the construction of the

Украина: На текущий год, Укрзализныця наметила свои приоритетные проекты модернизации инфраструктуры. Согласно прогнозу грузоперевозки, будут модернизированы более 800 км линии. Саудовская Аравия: Государство Персидского Залива скоро получит поезда, соответствующие высокоскоростной сети, предоставляющей связь между тремя крупными городами на западе страны. Хорватия: Оператор железнодорожной инфраструктуры HZ Infrastruktura, обявил тендер по проекту модернизации отсека Окукани – Винковчи (Okučani – Vinkovci).

route, whereas all infrastructure will remain to each country separately. Ukrzaliznytsia upgrades infrastructure on main lines UKrainE: Ukrzaliznytsia has established the company’s priority projects which include infrastructure modernisation. According to freight traffic estimates, over 800 km of line will be upgraded. At present, construction works are being carried out on Hrebinka – Poltava section, and will be continued on another section to Lozova (Hrebinka-PoltavaLozova line). The project aims to increase the capacity of infrastructure, speed and freight volume from Kiev to Kharkiv and Donetsk. In 2012, line Sahaidak and Brateshky was modernised to allow trains to run at speeds of 160 km/h, and in 2013 Pivdenna Railways modernised line Fedunka – Sahaidak to increase the speed of trains in the route Kiev- Kharkiv and Kiev- Donetsk. In 2014, 5 km of line on the (simple) line section Yaresky – Fedunka will be constructed and the section Dolynska – Mykolaiv will be modernised and reconstructed on both directions.

photo: uz.gov.ua

BTK Railway completion set to coincide with Baku Port’s development

Azerbaijan and Georgia boost trade International: In 2013, the trade turnover between Azerbaijan and Georgia amounted to USD1.35 Billion, up by 7.14% against 2012. Azerbaijan is Georgia’s second largest trading partner after Turkey (USD 1.53 Billion), and Ukraine ranks third with USD 795 Million. Georgia’s foreign trade in 2013 amounted to USD 10.78 Billion, 5.48% more compared to the previous year.

Украина: В этом году, Укрзализныця открыла информационный центр по грузоперевозки, предоставляющий все нужные информации в области грузового сообщения. В мире: Министр Транспорта Литвы, Римантас Синкевичус считает, что все три позиции по отношению к Rail Baltica II будут согласованы и, будет создана общая компания ответственная за проект. В мире: В этом году, восстановление регионов ЕБРР будет затруднено, несмотря на прогрессы развитых стран, в том числе стран Еврозоны и США, показывает Европейский Банк Реконструкции и Развития.


Points for Safety

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14 news Izmir to access credit for railway project

Million. Lines could become operational in 2017.

First new trams begin operation in Sofia Bulgaria: Sofia has put in service the first two trams of the lot purchased for the capital’s network in a project financed through the Operational Programme Environment. The ceremony has been attended by Sofia’s Mayor, Madame Yordanka Fandakova, and the Minister of Environment, Madame Iskra Mihaylova. At first, trams will run on Line 1. So far, four trams have been delivered in the project, while the remainder 16 will be delivered by May 2014. The trams, manufactured in Poland, are low-floor and have facilities for disabled people.

Four shortlisted for Tel Aviv Red Line infrastructure contract International: Tel Aviv Metropolitan Mass Transit System announced that four international consortia have prequalified for the railway systems contract for the city’s planned 22km light rail Red Line from Petakh-Tikva to Bat Yam. The consortia are: Alstom Transport and Israeli partner Minrav Engineering & Building (Israel); 2) Bombardier and Danya Cebus (Israel); 3) TAT (Colas Rail, Thales, Systra and Shapir Civil and Marine Engineering); 4) Sefarad Infrastructure (Ineco, Indra, Isolux Corsan, Isolux Ingenieria, Corsan-Corviam Construction and Metro de Madrid). The line will be 22km long and will connect Petakh-Tikva and Bat Yam. The contract includes the development of the line and the implementation of the signalling systems, train control and power supply. The winner will be selected in the second quarter of 2014 and the contract will be signed at the beginning of next year.

Ministry of Transport publishes Government Decision approving Metrorex revenue and expenditure budget Romania: On 21 January 2014, the Romanian Ministry of Transport published on its official web page the Government Decision on the approval of the revenue and expenditure budget of Metrorex for 2014. The deadline for submitting proposals or notes is 31 January 2014. According to the information included in the draft budget, Metrorex will have a loss of RON 123 Million (EUR 27 Million), www.railwaypro.com | February 2014

source: www.izmir.bel.tr

Turkey: The International Finance Corporation is considering lending EUR 55 Million to the western Turkish metropolitan municipality of Izmir for a tramway project. The project envisages the construction of two new tramway lines of 13 and 10 km and the procurement of rolling stock. The total cost of the project is estimated at EUR 212

as revenues will reduce by around RON 30 Million (EUR 6.6 Million) and a cost increase by RON 90 Million (around EUR 20 Million). The estimated subsidy will be of RON 328 Million (EUR 72.6 Million). The investment amount included in the document is of around RON 730 Million (EUR 161.4 Million), amount allocated from the state budget. Alstom will manufacture trams in Brazil International: Alstom Transport announced it would open a new tram production line in Taubaté, Brazil, operational from December 2014. Investments in this project amount to around EUR 15 Million. The production unit will have a surface of around 16,000 square meters. The rolling stock will run in Brazil and in Latin America. The first trams to be manufactured here are those ordered in 2013 by the consortium VLT Carioca for Rio de Janeiro.

Bulgarian State Railways to cooperate with Sofia Municipality

is funded under the South East Europe Transnational Cooperation Programme 2007 – 2013,” Mr Dimitrov said. The project aims at achieving a number of goals, including the coordination of schedules of international trains, schedules of trains in the country’s interior and schedules of different modes of transport in the capital city Sofia. Milan to rebuild suburban tram line International: Milan public transport company ATM has awarded Italian construction company Cooperativa Muratori e Cementisti (CMC) a contract to reconstruct the Milan-Desio-Seregno suburban tram line. The 14.3-km line, closed in 2011, will be reopened by the end of 2016. CMC has awarded Alstom a EUR 40 Million contract to design, supply, and install track, electrical traction substations, signalling, and telecommunications for the project.

Bistriţa wants to have a tram line Romania: Bistriţa Mayor Ovidiu Creţu announced that this year the city will make the first step towards the construction of a tram line in Bistriţa. 330,000 lei from the local budget for 2014 will be allocated to the design of the line route. The tram line would link Viişoara and Unirea districts. Bistriţa tram line construction project is estimated at around EUR 20 Million and the municipality plans to apply for European funds to finance the contracts.

Baku Metro prepares for the construction of other stations

Bulgaria: Passengers’ Travels Department at the Bulgarian State Railways will work to ensure ties with other means of transport. Dimitar Dimitrov, head of the Passengers’ Travels Department at the Bulgarian State Railways, made the comment in an interview for Focus News Agency. Dimitrov said that work was done so that the company’s clients could freely select means of transport and use several modes of transport one after the other. “Our company has worked out a joint project along with Sofia Municipality, which

Azerbaijan: Baku Metro is completing preparation work for starting the construction of a station. “We can say that work on moving the facilities which came under the area of construction has almost been completed,” according to Baku Metro’s message. Moreover, in 2013 Baku Metro came to a stage of completion of construction work on the Avtovagzal and Memar Ajami-2 stations. All stations will be a part of the new Purple Line (5 stations).

Турция: Международная Финансовая Корпорация рассматривает возможность предоставления кредита 55 млн. евро проекту трамвайной линии в городе Измир. Болгария: В Софии были пущены в эксплуатацию первые два трамвая из партии, которая была закуплена для столичной сети в рамках проекта, финансированного Программой Оперативного Контроля Окружающей Среды. В мире: Компания Tel Aviv Metropolitan Mass Transit System объявила, что четыре международных концернов были выбраны в кандидаты последнего тура конкурса по строительству будущей Красной линии в Тель-Авиве.

Румыния: На Официальном сайте Министерства Транспорта опубликован проект Государственного Решения в связи с утверждением бюджета доходов и расходов национальной компании Metrorex на 2014 год. В мире: Alstom Transport объявила открытие новой производственной площадки для трамваев в городе Таубате в Бразилии, которая начнёт операционную деятельность в декабре. В мире: Компания общественного транспорта ATM в Милане предоставила контракт компании Cooperativa Muratori e Cementisti (CMC) по реконструкции пригородной трамвайной линии Милан – Десио – Серегно.


news 15 Currently the length of Baku Metro’s is 34.6 kilometres. It has two lines. Plans are to bring the number of the lines to five, the length to 119 kilometres and the number of stations to 76. RAT Craiova launched the overhaul of 15 tram cars

photo: cvlpress

Romania: On 16 January, RAT Craiova presented the first tram, of a total of 15 cars, to be overhauled as part of a plan for the modernisation and improvement of Craiova transport system. The tram repair project includes 6 KT4D cars and 9 E1 cars. The repairs are part of the normal vehicle refurbishment process, without including modernisation of the drive and traction systems or the implementation of facilities for disabled people. The refurbishment consisted in the revision of electric installations, engines and bogies, the replacement of tires and the modification of the body case to mask couples and bogies. Inside the trams, the

UITP addresses the UN on Sustainable Development Goals International: At the 7th session (6 January 2014) of the Open Working Group (OWG) of Member States, Honorary UITP President Ousmane Thiam addressed the United Nations in New York on the essential role public transport plays in ensuring cities can grow, work and prosper and make life in them better for all. One of the main outcomes of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), held in Rio de Janeiro in June 2012, was the agreement by Member States to launch a process to develop a set of sustainable development goals (SDGs) in 2015 through the OWG. Citing UITP’s PTx2 strategy (to double the market share of public transport worldwide by 2025) and Sustainability Charter

lighting system has been replaced, the stairs have been rehabilitated, the melamine has been replaced with PVC fittings, secured windows have been installed and the seats have been replaced. The driver’s seat and the fittings in the cab have also been replaced. However, repairs have not included the installation of video and voice information systems. The first car is covered in the theme of the project “Craiova, European Capital of Culture 2021”. Total costs for the first car were of 41,000 lei and other two cars are undergoing repairs in the RAT depot. Depending on available funds, the authorities plan to install air-conditioning

programme, Ousmane Thiam highlighted the wide ranging benefits of more and better public transport and stressed the need for a dedicated goal for sustainable transport as it will marshal the appropriate resources required to allow everyone to have equal access to mobility without entailing the heavy costs to society and the environment. Addressing the OWG, Mr. Thiam said: “Sustainable transport is safe, reliable, clean and is what is best for our economies. Doubling the market share of public transport, alongside adequate walking and cycling facilities will be critical in addressing the problems caused by automobile dependence and ensure that all cities and regions can grow, work and prosper and make life in them better for all. This is why we need a dedicated goal on sustainable transport”.

inside the trams. All 15 tramways will be overhauled by the end of 2014. В мире: В рамках Конференции Объединённых Наций на тему Долгосрочного Развития (Rio+20), которая состоялась в Рио-де-Жанейро 6 января 2014 года, государства-члены согласовали наметить цели для устойчивого развития (SDGs) после 2015 года. Румыния: 16 января, RAT Craiova представила первый трамвай из партии 15 вагонов, которые пройдут ремонтные работы в рамках плана модернизации и улучшения транспортной системы города Крайова.

February 2014 | www.railwaypro.com


Market development & STRATEGIES 16 POLICIES

EIB supports railway infrastructure projects in Poland and Hungary [ by Pamela Luică ]

For 2013-2015, the European Investment Bank planned to boost financial support to EUR 65-70 Billion, European Investment Bank Operational Plan and 2013-2015 of which 90% is dedicated to EU member states. Financing is focused on four areas: innovation skills, efficient use of resources, strategy infrastructure and access to financing for small companies. Lending Programme

I

The evolution in the past and expected lending programme is as shown in Table 1. Table 1: Evolution of the EIBexpected Lending Programme The evolution in the past and lending programme

n these three years, for the EU strategic infrastructure segment (energy, transport and communications), the bank plans to grant a financing of EUR 10-15 Billion, generally the bank lending less than its upper limit of 50% of the project cost, but this can rise in exceptional circumstances. We specify that within the multiannual 2014-2020 budget, EC proposed joint strategic programmes that impacted on EIB Group’s activity, among which “Horizon 2020”, the Connecting Europe Facility and COSME (Programme for Competitiveness of Enterprises and Small and MediumSized Enterprises). The outcome of the EC and EIB Group dialogue was that the bank will contribute to speeding up the development and implementation of various projects part of the priorities of the multiannual budget. In this context, at the beginning of the year, EIB granted Hungary a loan of EUR 250 Million for the rehabilitation of railway infrastructure and for improving its investments programme for 2013-2016. The objective of the project is to improve the safety, capacity and performance of the existing both commuters and freight conventional railways. The project includes different national graphics, mainly for the improvement of infrastructure and bridges, signalling systems, communications, but also for the modernisation of railway stations, including by increasing the accessibility of

for better competitiveness, supporting social sector reforms for inclusive growth, countries to adapt to climate change and improve energy efficiency. The IFC is s private sector through its investments and advisory services in such areas infrastructure, manufacturing, agribusiness, services and trade, while MIGA political risk insurance to support investments across all sectors. During FY 20 2013, the IBRD and IDA provided some US$2,173 million (about EUR 1,678 m loans, IFC had approved new investments of US$740 million (about EUR 570 low-mobility people. The modernisation of Modernisation works are to be launched MIGA provided new guarantees US$874 million (about EUR Markethad demand, which is beyond EIB control, will be for determining speed 675 at million). railway infrastructure and rolling stock in ofthis yearkeyand completed inthe 2017. which the additional capacity can be utilised over the course of the next three years. Hungary is a priority for EIB, the transport “The EIB loan supports our investment Hence, flexibility is committed required in worth theitself above targets, as outlined below:to sector benefiting credits EUR programme worth PLN Billion of (over The EBRD hasfrom to provide financing the9 region EUR 4 bil  signature targets are set with a flexibility range of +/-10% reflectPLK the uncertain 4.2 Billion (since 1990), 25% EUR 2 Billion) fortoinitiatives, 2014. will use avail- corpora two-year period. It isrepresenting supporting public and private including and sectoral lending and to take into account the stock for of the of EIB’sregional total credit forenvironments Hunable funds through all resources investment in thecommitment form of loans, equity and trade financing, sustainable energy gary. undisbursed finance agreements. projects on railway infrastructure moderniasJoining well as national and municipal infrastructure and the financial sector. It  theHungary borrowing a ceiling on potential disbursements and thus at programme the end of creates the year, sation and rehabilitation”, declared Remi- is also with the legacy of the crisis, for example the high levels of non-performing loans the disbursement operational target range will be set at 90%-100% of the Poland also received financing from EIB for giusz Paszkiewicz, President of PLK. ceiling. exchange denominated loan stocks, and corporate and bank rest railway disbursement infrastructure. The bank allocated With to thissupport loan, PKP PLK continues its EUR 235 Million infrastructure collaboration with EIB. Including the latest involvement in to therailway Central European and Baltic area is less extensive than in S Increased Special Activity manager, PKP with funds being disoperation, the bank has supplied nine creEurope, but PLK, its priorities include sustainable energy, privatisation, commercialisa EUR 6bn foreseen for the 2013 target risk Special Activities. tributed toisthe modernisation works offor a higher dits with a total value of EUR 1.65 Billion to utilities, and the development capital markets. Theof EBRD’s investments are 92.5 section between Warsaw with andofRamodernisation railway infrastructure ThekmBank is actively working project the promoters, national authorities and by policy dialogue aimed at economic restructuring, diversification, and dom. The project consists in thethe construcIn 2012, financing in Po-enhanci institutional investors to ensure pilot phaseinofPoland. the Project Bond EIB’s Initiative (PBI) can governance. Since the announcement of the Joint Action Plan, the EBRD h tion of the second line between the two land was of EUR 4.4 Billion, 15% of which start as soon as possible. points, the modernisation of new the existing being dedicated to railway and urban transalmost EUR 2.5 billion in commitments to the region. supply system and the replacement of sig- port projects. 2: Special Activity,systems. Risk Sharing and Credit Enhancement nalling andTable telecommunications 2012

EIB lending by sector in Poland from 2008-2012 (in EUR m)

Sectoral distribution of lending under bn) (Eur bn) (Eur bn) (Eur bn) ЕИБ(Eurподдерживает 2: Action Sectoral theTable Joint IFI Plandistribution of lending under the Joint IFI Action P Special Activities (higher risk)

Forecast

Inside the EU Outside the EU Group EIB Total Special Activities (higher risk)

in %

RiskInfrastructure Sharing and Credit Enhancement 37.6

2013

2014

2015

проекты железнодорожной 3.0 5.5 5.5 5.5 0.6 0.5 0.5*World Bank Grou инфраструктуры in0.5* % в Польше EBRD 3.6 6.0 6.0 6.0 и Венгрии Industry,

Financial systems commerce & 2013-2015 32.4 На период Европейский 2.0 2.0 2.0* 2.0*capital markets Инвестиционный Банк планирует повысить agribusiness 0.3 0.25* 0.25* финансовую поддержку до 65-70 млрд. Financial 2.0 2.3 2.25 2.25 SMEs, mid*Holding caps, figure pending EU budget availability Public sector евро, с announcement которых 90% предназначены 30.5 institutions, странам Евросоюза. В28.1 данном контексте, equity & guarantees reforms including EIB lending by sector in Hungary from в началеSMEs года ЕИБ предоставил Венгрии Guarantee activities also include LGTT infrastructure project financings and credit кредит 250 млн. евро на восстановление 2008-2012 (in EUR m) RDI, Manufacturing, & enhancement for securitisation structures; see also Section 5 for further details. Competitiveness железнодорожной инфраструктуры и health, education & 19.7 Infrastructure 21.6 exportнаpromotion улучшение инвестиционной программы training 28 February 2013 6 протяжении периода 2013 – 2016. Page Более Energy, того, Польша получила финансирование Energy & environment & Health, pensions & от ЕИБ для железнодорожной environment 12.3 17.9 инфраструктуры. Компания PKP PLK natural social services (including TEN-E) получила 235 млн. евро для работ resources модернизации участка протяжённостью Source: First Report on the Joint IFI Action Plan for Growth in 92.5 км между Варшавой и Радом. Infrastructure, Source: EIB Central and South Eastern Europe- WB Group, EIB, EBRD energy and environment www.railwaypro.com | February 2014 (including TEN-T) RSFF-EC Project Bonds (Pilot Phase) Total Risk Sharing and Credit Enhancement


Market development & STRATEGIES 18 POLICIES

Promoting research and development costs – solution to develop sustainable mobility

[ by Elena Ilie ]

The optimal operation of the transport system requires full integration and interoperability of the individual parts of the network, as well as interconnection between different (modal) networks. Crucial in achieving this result are the nodes, which are the logistics centres of the network and offer connectivity and choice for both freight and passenger transport. Intermodal and transhipment platforms should be promoted and developed where there is a potential for consolidation and optimisation of passenger and freight flows. There is the typical case in areas with a high activity of passengers and freight transport, for example in urban areas, and where high volume corridors are intersecting.

D

rawing from the experience, pro- estimated that world population will exceed comparable to that of GSM technology”, bevided common methodologies 9 billion) and global car ownership, there is lieve experts in infrastructure research and and similar assumptions should be a compelling need for a technological shift development. adopted in the appraisals of infrastructure towards lower and zero-emission vehicles Certainly, another policy instrument is to projects across modes and, possibly, coun- and for the development of alternative solu- foster R&D expenditures towards sustaintries. Common data and indicators are need- tions for sustainable transport. Europe must able mobility. New transport systems and ed, starting by those on traffic and conges- pave the way to sustainable mobility, where vehicle technologies will have to be first imThe growth of the projects, recent past – essentia tion. This will help selecting projects on the possible providing solutions that are valid plemented asmarkets demonstration to as– will continue to play a strong viability. role. Rapid growth basis of comparable cost-benefit ratios and on a global scale and that can be exported to sess their feasibility and economic taking all relevant elements into account: other regions of the world. region as a main pillar of the global rail supply ma Future development in the global rail socio-economic impacts, contribution to For promising technologies, the necessary supply market [EUR m] cohesion and effects on the overall transport framework conditions to introduce them Regional market breakdown [EUR m] Breakdow network. commercially on the market have to be put in 169,930 New infrastructure is costly and making the place by policy makers without giving undue 7,116 optimal use of existing facilities can already advantage to any specific technology. This re9,114 145,809 12,041 achieve a lot with more limited resources. quires, in particular, setting open standards, 4,745 5,725 This requires proper management, main- ensuring interoperability, increasing R&D 19,832 10,275 Total m tenance, upgrading and repair of the large expenditures for technologies that are not 17,636 volume 29,229 infrastructure network that has so far given yet “mature” for market application. Integrat 24,766 Europe a competitive advantage. Upgrading The most important policy instrument will projects the existing infrastructure – also through in- probably be standard setting. The transition Rail con 45,608 40,822 telligent transport systems – is in many cases to a new and integrated transport system will the cheapest way to enhance the overall per- only be quick and successful if open standInfrastru formance of the transport system. ards and norms for new infrastructure and 46,991 41,839 Rolling The research and development sector and vehicles and other necessary devices and stock industry are already very active in searching equipment are introduced. The standard 2015-2017 2009-2011 Service solutions for transport safety, fuel depen- setting should aim at interoperable, safe and Rest of Americas CIS Western Europe dency, vehicle emissions and network con- user-friendly equipment. This is not only imAfrica & Middle East NAFTA Rounding gestion. In view of the mentioned trends in portant for the internal market, but also to Eastern Europe Asia & Pacific world population (according to estimates, foster European standards on an internationthe share of the European population in ur- al scale. “The developments of Intelligent Figure 3: Future development in the global rail supply m relative rates were strongest in theTransport market volumes projects and rail ban areas growth is expected to increase from 72% in Systems orfor of integrated alternative vehicles 2007 to 84% in 2050;inforfigure the same control, as shown 2: year, it is propulsion systems could provide a success However, Промотирование затрат as the significance and advantages of области исследования Growth in total annual market volumes and comparison of product segments inвother countries, more fast-growing markets for MARKET VOLUME P.A. [EUR M] CAGR: 3.4% 136,268

145,809

и развития – решение America (particularly Brazil), the Middle East and для роста долгосрочной this score, as shown in figure 4.

COMPOSITION OF DELTA [EUR M] CAGR 10-12 [%]

+5.6

+3.1

+1.9

6.8

+9,541

8.7

+3.4

106

9,541

мобильности

2.8% Для оптимального действия Eastern транспортной системы, полнаяWestern интеграция Europe Europe NAFTA и интероперабельность индивидуальных 8.1% частей сети является необходимой, а также, взаимосвязь между различными сетями (видами транспорта). Для достижения 7.0% этой цели, решающею роль играют Africa & транспортные узлы – логистические Middle East центры сети, предоставляющие различные соединения и выбор в секторе грузового и Rest of пассажирского транспорта. Americas

1,485 2,005

3,095

Total 2007-09 Total 2009-11 Source: UNIFE

Infrastructure

2,849

ROS

Services

Rail control

Integrated projects

Total delta

Figure 2: Growth in total annual market volumes and comparison of product segments

www.railwaypro.com | February 2014

2.7% 2.0%

1)

2.0% CIS

W sup

Figure 4: Regional growth rates in the rail supply mark


Market development & STRATEGIES 20 POLICIES

Aktau Port extension project could be completed this year [ by Pamela Luică ]

Aktau Port (Kazakhstan) is the main transport destination on the Europe-Asia axis providing efficient connections between the two continents, with two important corridors – TRACECA and the North-South corridors. Also, for Aktau Port, the Silk Wind project will increase freight volumes, especially since the first high-speed train (included in the project) will be launched in the summer of 2014. Silk Wind includes a container transport on the route China-Kazakhstan-Caspian Region-Caucasus-Turkey-Europe and, according to the system proposed by Kazakhstan, the Chinese containers will be delivered by rail to Aktau and then by ferry to Baku and then by rail to the Georgian ports. From here on, the containers will be delivered Aktau Port Development, Masterplanning & Feasibility Study by ferry to the Turkish and Ukrainian ports. In this final case, Silk Wind is combined with the LithuanianUkrainian transport corridor Viking. Scenario B: Aktau does not win traffic back from the Odessa route, and Kuryk handles only Kashagan’s exports. On this basis, Aktau’s traffic would reach peaks of 18-19 million tonnes in 2011-2013, and then settle down in the range 8-9 million tonnes Scenario C: Kuryk handles Tengizchevroil as well as Kashagan exports. On this basis it is estimated that Aktau’s traffic would peak at 16 million tonnes in 2012, before falling back to around 8 million tonnes. Port position vs Traceca (left) and vs North-South Corridor (right) uilt in 1963, the Port of Aktau (the

B

Caspian Sea) is the only maritime

Dry Cargo: For dry cargo the projected future volumes are well above the AISCP forecast. The gate to the international routes main reasons for the higher forecast are (i) the exports planned by the new fertiliser plant, (ii) of dry goods, crude oil and oil products the additional grain exports likely to result from the new export strategy of JSC Ak Biday and from Kazakhstan.in Acknowledging their investment new coastal silosthe in imIran, Azerbaijabn and Georgia, and (iii) imports of portance of materials the portand haslater determined construction consumer the goods from Dubai and Turkey for the New City.

authorities to develop the port’s infrastrucSteel exports to Iran account for a large proportion of Aktau’s dry cargo. Mittal and Castings ture. have that future exports will rise to about 1.5 million tonnes via Aktau by 2010. This For forecast this project, Kazakhstan Railways mayDP seems slightly high; ashave Mittalsigned has noaplans and World company co- to increase production at present (its investment programme is focussing on quality improvements). But Castings is planning an increase in operation agreement on project manageproduction of 0.4 million tonnes – equivalent to a 10% increase in national production - and the ment, agreement that will help develop Source: Iranian and Kazakhstan governments recently agreed towww.portaktau.kz an Iranian company constructing a the transport andinlogistics system in the Ka-strong growth of imports into Iran, and the fact that modern steel plant Kazakhstan. Given zakhstan and theKazakh extension of the The portsteel is extended as part dominated of the Transthe fast-growing economy hastransit a well-established in Kazakhstan by capacity. DP World presented itsexports visionvia Caspian 2013, dredging Mittal, it seems likely that the steel Aktau willCorridor. increase.InHowever, in view works of the on the development and administration of assumed were initiated and growth the feasibility negligible growth in recent years it has been that future will be studies modest, on at aroundproject. 5% p.a. Aktau the construction of two dry terminals with According to the local media, quoting a capacity of 1.5 million tonnes/year and In the President longer term Askar the Special Economic Zone should generate additional traffic, but ait capacity will take KTZ Mamin, the port another terminal for grains with time. None of the projects currently in the pipeline will generate significant port traffic, and no extension project could be completed this of 1 million tonnes were finalized. Accorddistribution companies, which are the key players at other successful SEZs such as Jebel Ali, year. the set initial accessAlso, to railing to plans, capacity expected have Under yet been up project, in the SEZ. additional traffic maythe beport attracted awayis from their way infrastructure to theroutes port was limited toand increase to ports 18 million tonnes routes of goods overland overland current to Novorossiysk Ukrainian on to Traceca via regarding thereforms capacity the final sec- inby Aktau - if key areoncarried out,line especially rail2020. pricing and cross border procedures. But tion Saitake Utestime. andThey Mangyshlak). At discussion the end of Karmanov, these(between reforms will have been under for 2013, severalKairat years and there is little sign of progressofasimprovement yet. The development works Vice President of Kaznex Invest (Agency on this section will increase transport vo- for the Promotion of Kazakh Exports and Total Volumes: Theproducts. following Table summarizes the total projected volumes are lumes of non-oil KTZ 4should Investments) declared for (oil thevolumes press that based on Scenario “A”): double the line to reach this objective. the Port of Aktau could be transferred to TABLE 4: Traffic Forecasts (Scenario A) (000 tonnes) Traffic Forecasts (Scenario A) (000 tonnes)

Oil Dry Cargoes Steel Scrap Grain Other Rail ferry inbound, existing traffic Rail ferry inbound, New City cargo Rail ferry outbound (fertilisers) Containers, existing Traffic Containers, New City Cargoes Total Dry Cargo Total Liquid and dry

2006

2010

2015

2020

9,900

14,000 (a)

15,000

17,000

947 51 118 30 148 0 0 10 0 1,304 11,204

1,151 100 400 30 259 330 0 51 330 2,651 16,651

1,469 200 1,000 40 417 330 1,000 154 330 4,940 19,940

1,875 300 1,250 50 613 330 1,200 310 330 6,258 23,258

(a) Rising to 23 millions tonnes in 2012, before declining to 15 million tonnes.

Возможно, в этом году завершится проект развития Порта Актау Порт Актау (Казахстан) это главный транспортный пункт вдоль направления Европа – Азия, предоставляющий эффективные связи между названными континентами, имея в виду что существуют два важных коридора – ТРАСЕКА и Северо-Южный коридор. Власти пустили в ход проект развития порта, в качестве части Транскаспийского коридора; в 2013 году были начаты землечерпальные работы и завершился анализ технической осуществимости проекта строительства трёх терминалов. По словам президента Национальной Железнодорожной Компании Казахстана, Аскар Мамин, проект развития порта может завершится в этом году.

Source: Aktau Port Development, Masterplanning & Feasibility Study

www.railwaypro.com | February 2014

foreign management. “A Spanish company has expressed interest in taking over the management of the port. Kazakhstan hosts a Spanish delegation to study the opportunities. Turkish companies are also interested. Foreign companies are not willing only to operate available facilities, but also to invest”, said Karmanov.

11


www.railforce.ro

Rail passenger transport Rail freight transport Shunting services Contact: 2 Oltului St. 500283 - Brasov Romania Tel: +40 268 310 697 Fax: +40 268 310 859

SPIACT BRAĹžOV


22 POLICIES & STRATEGIES

Railway market liberalisation – a challenge for the financing of railway transport

[ by Pamela Luică ]

The liberalisation of passenger rail transport in the EU is a topic of intense discussions. The policies which encourage this process should allow passengers to benefit from more comfort, safety, attractive tariffs, while infrastructure managers should have more customers and, therefore, more revenues that would also determine the implementation of projects focused on increasing the quality of railway transport.

the development of the railway transport market and opening access to services on the new high-speed lines in France. Railway PRO: To what extent the liberalisation of the railway market is a challenge for the financing of the railway transport system?

T

he liberalisation of the railway transport market in Europe will allow new entrants to access markets in the countries where the competitiveness level is not very high. In this context, the liberalisation can be a financing challenge in the railway sector as the process will improve the productivity of the railway system. All new players have to be considered a source of proposals for creating a better transport system that would benefit from technological innovations and services. Also, with the adoption of the Fourth Railway Package, liberalisation will bring benefits to public authorities only if the opportunity of bringing more initiatives and money to the system is created. All these aspects will form a performing and competitive market, but also new opportunities concerning the necessity of new rolling stock and infrastructure financing resources. Mr Benoît Chevalier, Deputy Director for Railway Regulation, French Ministry of Transports talks in the interview below about the challenge the liberalisation process poses to railway system financing, the importance of the political class on establishing an environment favourable to www.railwaypro.com | February 2014

Benoît Chevalier: Opening the railway passenger system market in Europe to alternative railway undertakings, as proposed in the fourth railway package, could bring a number of new players in the countries not already widely open to competition. This process is likely to improve productivity of the railway system, but the experience of past market opening shows that local authorities tend to choose a better service for the same or higher price rather than keeping the previous service at a lower price. Thus, every new player must be seen as a new source of proposals for a better transport system and technological, customer service innovations. Such a process is a good way to have a more creative, more dynamic market, but also creates new needs and requires new sources of financing for the rolling stock or the infrastructure proposals that will arise. Railway PRO: How can the railway business environment determine the political class to accelerate the liberalisation process? Benoît Chevalier: Liberalisation has been widely announced and is likely to conclude the process of the four railway packages (three already in force, one being discussed at the Council and the European Parliament). So liberalisation will probably arrive, and the questions left for answer are both when and how it will be organised. As always, the details of the European texts and the national transpositions will be key to a successful liberalisation. The exact date is not as big a challenge as the actual creation of the market. The best way

to do it is probably through experimental initiatives, and the private sector is expected to lobby each government asking them to launch a small number of experimental tenders to test the best way forward for each national system. Railway PRO: The objective of the Fourth Railway Package aims to improve the efficiency and quality of transport services. What are the challenges (generated by the application of the legislative package) that operators have to face? Benoît Chevalier: The legislative package is not yet adopted, but if it is, liberalisation is likely to create benefits for the public authorities only if it brings the opportunity to bring more creativity, more initiative and sometimes more money into the system. Actual challenges are many, and will depend on the final discussions of the fourth railway package which will extend until 2015 or even 2016. They include the balance to be found between “open access” fully private services and trains operated under a public service contract; the terms and conditions of the staff; the actual relationship between the infrastructure manager and the railway operators, since the infrastructure separation proposed by the European Commission must make way for a strong cooperation in the day to day job... And the discovery of better ways to finance railway infrastructure. Railway PRO: What does access opening to services on the new high-speed lines mean for France? How would you explain the profitability of the new lines regarding new entrants? Benoît Chevalier: High speed lines, combining higher costs and higher revenue, have turned out in other countries to be the profitable segment of the market, even if it very much depend on the infrastructures tolls. However, French high speed lines are already open to com-


POLICIES & STRATEGIES

petition since 2009 for international passengers, and nobody has yet contacted France to discuss the start of a new service from Paris to London, Brussels or Milano. This means that the profitability might be smaller than thought. But of course, when the national passenger market is eventually open to competition, we anticipate new entrants to try to create services from Paris to Lyon, for example. The role of the French government will be to make sure there is no discrimination between competitors. But it will be for them to create a successful business plan and a profitable business. Railway PRO: Under the Fourth Railway Package, ERA will be responsible for the supply of the single safety certificate to all railway transport operators (including the authorisations of vehicles put in service in the market). How does the national safety authority see the transition towards the implementation of this process since it implies a major change at the level of each state? Benoît Chevalier: The initial proposal of the fourth railway package included a complete transfer to ERA of the tasks as well as the responsibilities to deliver authorisations. The transport Commission of the European Parliament agreed. But

the Council designed a more efficient system, where the authorisation arrives after an exchange between ERA and the national safety authorities. There is no decision taken yet, but in any case ERA will probably have to recruit a number of expert staff for the tasks the regulation gives it. There is even a question of whether there are enough experts for hire on the market... Railway PRO: Proposed measures would allow reducing by 20% the time necessary for a new operator to enter the market and by 20% the costs and duration for rolling stock authorisations. Also, for companies it would mean saving EUR 500 Million by 2025 (according to the recitals submitted by EC). In this situation, how do you see the cost-benefit analysis? Benoît Chevalier: The 20% figures are

symbolic, but it is fundamental to make sure any value created is a net value added by a more efficient, more creative, more competitive and customer-oriented transport system, rather than an economic asset transferred from the public to the private operator. As far as rolling stock authorisations are concerned, they have been reported to be very long and demanding processes, causing a loss of value (trains parked waiting months for the authorisation...) that was not captured by anyone.

23

It is necessary to shorten them but only if the safety level is secured in the long term. The safety level of the railway system has a significant cost; but it is the cost to stay in business, and provides the huge benefit of making it one of the safest modes of transport currently operating in France and elsewhere.

Либерализация железнодорожного рынка – провокация для финансирования железнодорожного транспорта Провокация связанная с процессом либерализации для обеспечения финансирования железнодорожной системы, роль политической сферы в предоставлении благосклонных условий для развития железнодорожного рынка, а также, расширение доступа к услугам на новых высокоскоростных линий во Франции – это несколько тем, анализированных в следующем интервью, предоставлен господином Беноыт Щевалье, заместитель директора по железнодорожным нормативным положениям при Министерстве Транспорта Франции.


24 Lex

All railway players should bear responsibility for railway safety [ by Elena Ilie ]

At the middle of last December, the Committee for Transport and Tourism of the European Parliament (TRAN) gave green light to the six law proposals composing the Fourth Railway Package. This month, the European deputies meet for the final vote on the law packages. All are equally important for a better operation of the European railway market and for the consolidation of the Single European Railway Area, an ambitious dream of the decision factors in the European forums.

P

rior to the vote of the TRAN Committee, a series of amendments referring to the review proposal of the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Railway Safety has been brought. Next to the publication of the new Guidelines regarding the TEN-T network, the establishment of the international freight corridors which compose the core TEN-T network and the adoption of the Technological Initiative SHIFT2RAIL, the Fourth Railway Package has been one of the most debated topics of last year. That is why it is important to find out several of the amendments brought to the review proposal of the Directive on Railway Safety. This law package will define a

Source: http://onlyhdwallpapers.com

www.railwaypro.com | February 2014

series of measures for the good operation of the railway transport system, for the organization of infrastructure management and the main players involved in the management of railway infrastructure might consider these measures useful. Club Feroviar and the Romanian Railway Industry Association (AIF) open the series of this year’s conferences with the session dedicated to railway infrastructure and therefore, the account of the amendments brought to the Directive on Railway Safety can support infrastructure managers and the industry, the latter playing a major role in the research and development of performing technologies which brings added value to railways.

Safety levels in the Union’s rail system are generally high, in particular compared to road transport. In line with technical and scientific progress, safety should be further improved, when reasonably practicable and taking into account the expected improvement in the competitiveness of rail transport following the emergence of new railway players or new operational problems. All the actors in the rail system should bear full responsibility for the safety of the system, each for their own part. Member States should make a clear distinction between this immediate responsibility for safety and the national safety authorities’ task of providing a national regulatory


Source: http://www.mecx.co.uk

Lex 25

framework and supervising the performance of all operators. “The responsibility of infrastructure managers and railway undertakings for operating the rail system does not preclude other actors such as manufacturers, carriers, consignors, fillers, loaders entities in charge of maintenance, maintenance suppliers, wagon keepers, service providers and procurement entities from assuming responsibility for their products or services. To avoid the risk that the responsibilities are not properly assumed, each relevant actor should be made responsible for its particular process through contractual agreements”, state the proposed amendments. In view of the gradual approach to eliminating obstacles to the interoperability of the rail system while maintaining a high level of railway safety and of the time consequently required for the adoption of TSIs, steps should be taken to avoid a situation where Member States adopt new national rules or undertake projects that increase the diversity of the present system. “Train control and signalling systems play a critical role for railway safety. The harmonised development and deployment of the ‘European Rail Traffic Management System’ (ERTMS) on the Union railway network is an important contribution to improving safety levels”, notes another amendment to the text proposed by the European Commission. Regarding the safety certificate, the amendments say it should provide evidence that the railway undertaking has established its safety management system and is able to comply with the relevant safety standards and rules. For international transport services, it should be enough to approve the safety management system only once at Union level or for the territory the rail infrastructure of which the railway undertaking will use. Regarding international transport services, it should be enough that the safety management system would only be approved once within the Union. The safety certificate should be a proof that the railway undertaking understands the safety system and the internal rules specific to the territory

the rail infrastructure of which the railway undertaking will use. Each infrastructure manager should have a key responsibility for the safe design, maintenance and operation of its rail network. The infrastructure manager should be subject to safety authorisation by the national safety authority concerning its safety management system and other provisions to meet safety requirements. The European Railway Agency should be in charge of delivering the safety authorisation in the case of cross-border infrastructures. Another aspect included in the amendments proposes that the European Railway Agency should develop with the sector experts a common safety method for identifying the critical components for safety taking in account the experience of aviation sector. The European Rapporteur Michael Cramer, in charge of this draft report, also proposes a new aspect. Therefore, “in order to create a Single European Railway Area and to improve railway safety, the introduction of a single safety certificate is essential. This requires a clear distribution of tasks and responsibilities between the Agency and the national safety authorities.” ERA should become a one-stop shop for safety certificates in the Union, using the valuable expertise, local knowledge and experience of national safety authorities. It should delegate specific tasks and responsibilities to national safety authorities on the basis of contractual agreements referred to in Regulation on the European Railway Agency, but have the exclusive competence to issue, renew, amend or revoke safety certificates for both railway undertakings and infrastructure managers. Safety must be underpinned not by arrangements or forms of cooperation but by clear, contractual safety-management procedures. Thus, a “safety management system” means the organisation and procedures established by an infrastructure manager or a railway undertaking to ensure the safe management of its operations. In application of this Directive, member

states shall establish binding higher national safety rules. If member state intends to introduce a new national rule which requires a higher safety level than the CSTs, or if a member state intends to introduce a new national safety rule which may affect operations of railway undertakings from other member states on the territory of the member state concerned, the member state should consult all interested parties in due time and inform ERA. The progressive establishment of a European railway area without frontiers requires Union action in the field of the technical regulations applicable to railways with regard to the technical aspects (interoperability) and the safety aspects, the two being inextricably linked and both requiring higher level of harmonisation at the Union level. Promoting innovation and research in railway transport is an important responsibility that should be encouraged by ERA.

Все действующие лица железнодорожной системы должны нести ответственность железнодорожной безопасности В середине декабря месяца прошлого года, Комитет по Транспорту и Туризму Европейского Парламента принял решение пустить в ход шесть законопроектов, составляющих 4-ый Железнодорожный Пакет. В этом месяце, евро-депутаты встречаются с целью выразить окончательное голосование в связи с законодательными пакетами. Club Feroviar и Ассоциация Железнодорожной Промышленности Румынии (AIF) открывают серию конференций с совещанием на тему железнодорожной инфраструктуры; таким образом, изложение поправок Директивы Железнодорожной Безопасности принесёт пользу операторам инфраструктуры а также, промышленности, которая играет ключевую роль в исследовании и развитии эффективных технологий, способствуя росту качества в отрасли. February 2014 | www.railwaypro.com


26 leaders

The railway system has been affected by the economic downturn as all the other economic sectors, but the studies carried out by different companies or institutions in the sector show that the railway industry is stable and will start developing by 2017. Worldwide, the railway industry has increased 3.2% year on year, a promising figure considering that public subsidies have constantly shrunk since the beginning of the economic crisis. According to UNIFE’s Report “World Rail Market Study” (2012 issue forecasting the railway market until 2017), a constant increase of the world railway market is expected by 2017. Middle East, Russia and CIS, as well as Latin America are among the regions which experience a strong increase of the railway market. For these regions, the railway market of railway product suppliers is estimated to increase by 2.6% per year with volumes of EUR 170 Billion. For now, the railway market remains stable despite the economic recession and its effects. www.railwaypro.com | February 2014


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ISAF: Central and S-E Europe rail market opens up new opportunities Interview with Paul Brown, General Manager – ISAF

[ by Pamela Luică ]

Due to the positive answer of railway transport to mobility requirements, environmental impact, and the need for an environmentally-sound transport system, railway transport remains in the attention of the authorities who launch policies and programmes to encourage this transport mode. These activities favour the railway industry. To find out more about the effects of the financial crisis over investment programmes, the need to implement projects to ensure a sustainable long-term growth, we have interviewed Mr Paul Brown, General Manager – ISAF.

I

SAF is a company specialized in the field of manufacturing and mounting of railway installations and equipment: automation, signalling, telecommunications, radiocommunications and high voltage installations for electrified railway and urban transport. ISAF is member of the Colas Group, which in turn is a member of the French multinational company Bouygues. With over 60 years of experience in Romania and over 10 years in Greece and Bulgaria, the company has secured its position as a traditional regional specialist in railway constructions. 5 years ago, ISAF was taken over by Colas Rail, and this period was one with positive changes regarding the company’s consolidation in the Romanian market. As of 2011, ISAF focused on

adopting radical changes, of organisation and company culture. One of the important measures has been the use of the available financial resources for investments in the modernisation of equipment and of the production facility. ISAF benefits from the existing know-how of Colas Rail, including the Safety sector where improvements have been made. These improvements have allowed “the perfect management of the Safety Record in 2013 with zero accidents”. Recently, ISAF has reviewed its opportunities of getting involved in the Colas Businesses in Europe with the probability of developing works in Great Britain. One of the strategic objectives of ISAF is to expand its activity in the urban transport, to begin new projects, with new tech-

The financial crisis pointed out the importance of investing in the rail network infrastructure with long term economic benefits and creating jobs in the short-term.

Paul Brown

nologies that could generate a competitive advantage for the company. Regarding the extension to different markets, ISAF will continue to consolidate its position in Romania, to vary its activities and to exploit new opportunities in Greece, Great Britain, Central and South-East Europe. Railway PRO: How do you see the situation of the railway industry in Romania and in Central and Eastern Europe, after the financial crisis which affected all economic sectors? Paul Brown: The financial crisis pointed out the importance of investing in the rail network infrastructure with long term economic benefits and creating jobs in the short-term. Due to the current financial situation and the lack of private financing, a number of railway infrastructure projects have already been delayed, this postpones the modernisation of the rail infrastructure. Being in line with the European institutions concern regarding the growth of the green transport, I consider that this trend should not only drive economic growth, but also increase the longterm horizon, this policy will outweigh the negative short-term effects produced > February 2014 | www.railwaypro.com


28 leaders > by this deep crisis. In this context, I would like observe for the Romanian railway industry, i.e. that it is essential to not only focus on the increasing absorption rate of EU Funds, but also needs to be preoccupied on a long term investment in Maintenance, which is required to sustain the upkeep of the Romanian Railway infrastructure. Railway PRO: What do you think about the European railway industry considering that the European institutions plan to significantly develop railway transport over the next decades? Paul Brown: As the European Commission explicitly deems the expansion of high speed rail as a priority within the Trans-European networks, allocating an important part of the community funds for its development, I think this will contribute to an increase of the market share within rail transport. Among other advantages, like time savings, increase in reliability, comfort and safety, it also brings a release of capacity in the conventional network, which can be used for the freight transport. There is no doubt that in some European countries, like Romania, the over polluting road transport sector has become overwhelmingly dominant over the rail freight, mostly because of the fast and growing economic changes in the country. Of course, for the reduction of the environmental damage caused by the road freight transport, we are all aware

www.railwaypro.com | February 2014

that the solution is a sustainable freight transport sector, so it is necessary also to increase the share of railways on the freight transport market. I would like to make a special mention regarding the construction of a high speed rail line between Budapest and Bucharest, which would be a part of a larger transportation corridor Paris-Vienna-Budapest-BucharestConstanţa and which will bring benefits for both countries and also increasing the economic exchanges at European level. Railway PRO: 2014 is an important year for the railway sector, especially in the European countries, keeping in mind that the new EU measures encourage railway transport, including rail urban transport. This means new projects and approaches, but also innovation in this segment. How do you see these considerations and what is the impact of new policies over the railway industry in general and your company in particular? Paul Brown: One of the strategic objectives for ISAF is expanding its activity on the urban transport, so for us it is essential to be focussed on the new projects and also on the new technological means that will create a competitive advantage for ISAF. Railway PRO: Can you tell us what have these past five years of transition since the takeover of ISAF’s shares by Colas Rail meant for ISAF?

Paul Brown: This was a period of positive change for ISAF, consolidating our image on the Romanian market with a solid partner that has a strong client orientation. In the first two years we were focused on the consolidation of the company, and since 2011 we have been more concentrated on the radical changes – organization, local team empowerment, company culture. On top of that, we used the available financial resources to invest into the modernization of our equipment and our production plant. I would like to make reference to ISAF’s benefit of using the existing knowledge within the Colas Group including the Safety sector and we are very proud to declare many improvements in this area that has contributed to us managing a perfect Safety Record for 2013, with zero accidents. Recently, we have also been able to explore the opportunities for ISAF to support other parts of the Colas Businesses throughout Europe, with the probability of securing some works within the UK Market. Railway PRO: What are ISAF’s projects underway and what projects do you think you will implement in 2014-2016? Paul Brown: ISAF is currently involved in Romania in the finalization of the exISPA projects, like Campina-Predeal, Lot 3 and Lot 4, Baneasa-Fundulea, and the rehabilitation of railway stations (Pitesti, Braila). ISAF is also engaged on the Corridor 4th projects, including the Atel-


leaders

29

our website and to join us, as partners. Railway PRO: The European railway network is confronted with different technical barriers and needs investments to eliminate or reduce them. How can the countries and the industry remove investment problems and what is the role of the railway industry?

Sighisoara and Atel–Micasasa sections and also on the Pilot ETCS / ERTMS level 2, Buftea-Crivina. In Greece, ISAF is working on the rehabilitation of the electrification system of the section Inoi–Tithorea. ISAF is currently seeking to be involved either as main contractor or subcontractor in the major signalling projects and new sections on the Corridor 4th that are currently being tendered in Romania, and we are very optimistic that our presence on the Greek and Bulgarian markets will strengthen over the future years. Railway PRO: Outside Romania, ISAF has developed projects in Morocco, Bulgaria, Hungary and Greece. In your opinion, what are the methods to be approached in implementing the projects of these countries and what are the main differences? Paul Brown: Of course, every country is different, with different rules, regulations and laws. Within each country the rules, regulations and laws for that country apply and we have done our best to respect laws. Every nation and every country has its own customs and traditions that we also try to understand and respect. Last but not least, once we have acknowledged our client’s requirements, we use all our know-how and management skills to achieve and exceed their expectation. Railway PRO: What is the company’s development/extension strategy not only in Romania, but also abroad? Paul Brown: ISAF is already a strong partner, creditable and reliable, both as a subcontractor (Electrification, Signalling

& Telecommunications), as well as a supplier (Production) of products that are manufactured to the highest quality. We are continuously striving to strengthen ISAF’s position on the Romanian Market, and to diversify the company’s activities (mainly Production & Tramway) and to investigate new market opportunities in Greece, UK, and Central &S-E Europe. Railway PRO: What are the challenges you meet in developing projects? Paul Brown: A special mention will be for the inability to secure payments for the works ISAF has already performed, which is penalizing us in further investments and development. Now, just to name some other challenges, I will remark but a few, i.e. low financial power of the state, that has the pottential to block the start of new projects or indeed the performance of the existing ones, the labour market has a shortage of a specialized workforce, unstable market of important raw materials (copper, siliceous sheet-metal, steel etc), inflation and variable Exchange Rate (Euro). Also, ISAF was confronted with issues in locating railway construction equipment easily, quickly and at a competitive price. To tackle this problem, ISAF has launched a web page specialized in this market segment, i.e. www.inchirieri-utilaje-feroviare.ro, the first web site of its kind in Romania for leasing Railway machines, that can be used by any other company from the railway sector. This site is a platform of communication and identification of available vehicles. What is important is that any company that wants to provide vehicle leasing services may use this web page. We invite all the other market players interested in this segment to access

Paul Brown: As previously mentioned, one of the main issues that any contractor has on the railway market is to be paid on time. If the money is moving fast in the industry, then we can always explore research and development, in order to eliminate technical barriers from different European countries and to invest in order to ensure that we are in line with the technologies used in other countries. Nevertheless, if the state budgets are not sufficient enough to allow for new investments in the railway industry, then the answer will be economic reforms designed to improve the operational and financial performance of the national railways and private investments in the railway infrastructure facilities and train services. This will contribute to increasing the competitiveness within the transport sector and to ensure that the railway industry will provide a sustainable long term development strategy. Railway PRO: More and more European companies focus on Central Asia and the CSI. Are these markets new challenges for you or they are not yet included on your extension strategy? Paul Brown: Every market is a new challenge. As you know, Colas Rail Group is already very active in these markets and ISAF has the capability to assist them, should the opportunity arise.

ISAF: Центральная и Юго-Восточная Европа предоставляет новые возможности для развития железнодорожного бизнеса Компания ISAF специализирована в области производства и монтажа железнодорожного оборудования и устройства – автоматизация, сигнализация, системы телекоммуникации, радиокоммуникации и оборудований высокого напряжения, предназначены электрифицированному железнодорожному и городскому транспорту. Для получения более подробных информаций в связи с эффектами финансового кризиса в области инвестиционных программ, необходимостью осуществления проектов для обеспечения долгосрочного развития, мы провели интервью с Генеральным Директором ISAF, господином Паул Браун. February 2014 | www.railwaypro.com


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32 Lex

OTIF prepares the review of COTIF [ by Elena Ilie ]

The Intergovernmental Organisation for International Carriage by Rail (OTIF) has recently announced it prepared to revise the Convention concerning the International Carriage by Rail - COTIF. The convention was last revised in Vilnius in 1999. The revision will concern both the basic convention and its appendices. It will involve both amendments which fall within the competence of the Revision Committee and amendments which fall within the competence of the OTIF General Assembly, but nevertheless the revision seems to be rather limited in scope. The OTIF Revision Committee should meet during the second quarter of 2014. The OTIF General Assembly itself will take place in September 2015.

T

he International Rail Transport Committee (CIT) has revealed some of the amendments that CIT group of experts in this field believe opportune for the review of COTIF. Therefore, most of the suggestions released by CIT group of experts concern the replacement of the principle of functional equivalence between the electronic consignment note and the paper consignment note by specific provisions for the electronic consignment note. These specific provisions also give the electronic consignment note precedence over the paper one. OTIF’s Secretary General François Davenne notes that COTIF’s rules (the CIM Uniform Rules and the CIV Uniform Rules) are most used in the international

railway transport, but remained unchanged since 1999. Therefore, it is now time to make some changes to these appendices to bring them up-to-date, firstly to meet the requirements of the various stakeholders in international rail traffic and, secondly to take account of technical advances in the transport world. In practice, with the exception of some changes to the COTIF Convention itself, which the Revision Committee cannot make and which have to be made by a General Assembly, the prime purpose of the Revision Committee is to modernize the CIM Uniform Rules. Over and above any suggestions which may be made by Member States and railway associations, the OTIF Secretariat will propose and sup-

port initiatives to update the CIM consignment process to allow it to benefit from the progress made in new technologies and in particular by giving the use of an electronic consignment note precedence over the use of a paper one. OTIF will also support all the actions proposed by members of the committee which are necessary in order to advance freight transport by rail. Regarding the changes to the CIV Uniform Rules (for passenger transport), the OTIF Secretariat will take a little more time before deciding whether it is now the right time to change that appendix. Following the accession of the European Union to COTIF in July 2011 and because of parallel European Union regulations in this area, it is probably preferable for OTIF and for all users, passengers and even transport providers for OTIF to try to bring passenger law together into a single legal corpus. “We need a little more time to get passenger transport legislation generally accepted”, highlighted OTIF’s Secretary General in his note.

OTIF подготавливает пересмотр COTIF

Source: www.thepaperwall.com

www.railwaypro.com | February 2014

Межправительственная Организация по Международным Железнодорожным Перевозкам (OTIF) объявила, что подготавливает пересмотр положений Конвенции о Международных Железнодорожных Перевозках - COTIF. В прошлый раз, изменения состоялись в Вильнюсе, в 1999 году. Пересмотр относится к основным протоколам Конвенции и к её приложениям.


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18 - 20 February 2014 18 - 20 February 2014 Karlsruhe Trade Fair Center Karlsruhe Germany Trade Fair Center Germany

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34 POLICIES & STRATEGIES

Western Balkan countries request the intensification of railway infrastructure investments

[ by Elena Ilie ]

“Since the establishment of South East Europe Transport Observatory (SEETO), in 2004, EUR 13.2 Billion have been allocated to investments in the comprehensive network of the region which includes Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, FYR Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo. EUR 9.2 Billion were allocated in this period for the implementation of over 300 infrastructure projects. 83% of this amount has been allocated to road infrastructure and only 10% (EUR 920 Million) was available for railway transport projects”, declared Nedim Begovic, Regional Railway Expert – South East Europe Transport Observatory – SEETO, during the Railway Days Summit “Greener and more efficient railway transport in WBSA”, organised by Club Feroviar and the Romanian Railway Industry Association (AIF) in October 2013 in Bucharest.

At the moment, there is a series of transport projects under development that amount to EUR 4 Billion. However, in 2013 we managed to obtain an additional financing worth EUR 1.2 Billion. 90% of the amount could be accessed for development of railway transport projects”, added Begovic. “Over the next five years, the SEETO countries will need at least EUR 8.2 Billion for the implementation of priority infrastructure projects. 11 projects are railway infrastructure projects and the sum necessary for their development is estimated at EUR 2.9 Billion”, concluded the SEETO representative. The railway networks of the SEETO countries urgently need financing and to direct all the available resources to a better development of the railway transport

Source: Nedim Begovic, Regional Railway Expert - SEETO

www.railwaypro.com | February 2014

and its connection to the infrastructure of TEN-T networks. Until 2012, the highest investments in the railway transport infrastructure were registered in Croatia with EUR 427 Million, the second position being held by the investments registered in Bosnia and Herzegovina reaching EUR 157 Million. Nevertheless, the amounts are not enough for the current needs of the railway networks in these states. Thus, we may say that the investments in the railway infrastructure of the Western Balkan countries were insufficient, generating a descending diagram in the evolution of the railway transport competitiveness in these states compared to the remaining European states, either EU members or not. However, the transfer of investments to the railway system and the increase of traffic volumes could revitalise the railway net-

works of those states. In addition, a better collaboration between the regional railway networks would also increase the competitiveness of the railway infrastructure.

Страны запада Балканского полуострова требуют интенсификации инвестиций в железнодорожную инфраструктуру “С момента основания Центра по Мониторингу Транспорта в ЮгоВосточной Европе (SEETO), в 2004 году, были предоставлены 13.2 млрд. евро для инвестиций в сеть территориального региона, в который входят Албания, Босния и Герцеговина, Хорватия, БЮР Македония, Черногория, Сербия и Косово. Также, были выделены 9.2 млрд. евро для осуществления более 300 инфраструктурных проектов. 83% данной суммы были вложены в инвестиции дорожной инфраструктуры, и всего 10% (920 млн. евро) в железнодорожные проекты”, по словам эксперта в области железнодорожного транспорта при SEETO, Недим Бегович.


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36 POLICIES & STRATEGIES

South-East Europe countries upgrade infrastructure [ by Pamela Luică ]

The 2020 Strategy for South-East Europe (SEE), launched by the Regional Cooperation Council (RCC) is aimed at improving the living conditions in the region and to stimulate the development of the region and its competitiveness, guided by the EU Strategy “Europe 2020”. The implementation of the projects included in the strategy will significantly develop the SEE region by creating 1 million jobs, rising trade from EUR 94 Billion to EUR 210 Billion and increasing the GDP from 36% to 44%.

T

o increase and develop the econo- ing infrastructures”. my, RCC focuses its priorities on In order to meet objectives in this sector, transport and energy infrastruc- in 2014-2016, “RCC and national administures which are an important integration trations, SEETO and EU railway agencies factor. In this segment, the reconstruc- will define necessary steps to discuss priotion and modernization of railway infra- rity projects, financial availabilities, as well structure is a method of reviving the other as legal and institutional reforms”. economic sectors. To this end, RCC has SEETO (South East Europe Transport launched an initiative to benefit from po- Observatory) has been established to prolitical support in the coordination of rail- mote cooperation in transport developway infrastructure development and will ment. continue to promote a regional approach The development of the SEETO network for the urgent implementation of railway in terms of completed and ongoing projects infrastructure reconstruction and modern- was limited to Corridor X and Corridor Vb, ization projects. According to the RCC re- a large part of investments being ensured port for 2012-2013, “an efficient transport by the private side for the construction infrastructure is a fundamental challenge and rehabilitation of Corridor X (EUR 1.1 for the SEE region. Currently, its financing Billion) by 2020. According to the SEETO is a lot less than necessary and, therefore, 2014 development plan, funds will be allothe governments and the business environ- cated for works on Corridor X. For Croatia, ment have to identify methods for increas- there is EU financing – EUR 487 Million ing the efficiency of mobility to stimulate and EUR 86 Million from the budget, SerSEETO Comprehensive Network Development Plan 2014 - 2018 productivity and to create the premises for bia benefits from a loan granted by Russia the efficient use of private funds in financ- – EUR 251 Million, Kuwait – EUR 26 Mil-

lion, EUR 155.1 Million from IFI and EUR 26.6 Million, EU funds. Macedonia also implements projects for the rehabilitation of Corridor X, for which the EU allocated a fund worth EUR 15.1 Million. The implementation of the railway transport projects in SEE will result in optimising the efficiency of railway undertakings and infrastructure and will increase the competitiveness of railway traffic and the adaptation of SEE markets to the requirements of EU’s open market. Total estimated investment requirements for the modernization and rehabilitation of 4,526 km of the SEETO Comprehensive Rail Network is €9.34 billion. Approximately €8.92 billion is required for the rehabilitation and improvement of 4,466 km sections in below average condition41 Further one, to remove traffic capacity bottlenecks in rail network, upgrade of the 60 km in the approximate amount €414 million is required.

Implementation of these investment requirements would eliminate bottleneck sections and sections in unsatisfactory condition on theentire SEETO Comprehensive Network, enabling normal unhindered transport flows and improving connectivity of the Western Balkan region.

SEETO Comprehensive Rail Network Investment requirements

Rail priority projects Figure 3- 4: SEETO Comprehensive Rail Network - Investment requirements

Страны Юго-Восточной Европы модернизируют свою инфраструктуру very poor, poor, medium, good condition sections are taken into consideration for the railway network due to the deteriorated condition, outdated infrastructure and equipment and necessity for modernization of large part of SEETO Comprehensive Rail Network

41

Source: SEETO Comprehensive Network Development Multi-Annual Plan 2014-2018 FigurePlan 4-2:2014, Rail priority projects

www.railwaypro.com | February 2014

4.2.2 Priority projects for preparation

Цель Стратегии развития Юго-Восточной Европы до 2020г., пущена в ход Советом Регионального Сотрудничества (RCC) состоит в улучшении жизненных условий и повышении развития и уровня конкурентоспособности в регионе. Для роста и развития экономики, СРС предоставляет преимущество транспортной инфраструктуры и энергетики, названные две сферы также являясь важными факторами для интеграции. В этой области, реконструкция и модернизация железнодорожной инфраструктуры является направлением для восстановления остальных экономических секторов.

27


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38 POLICIES & STRATEGIES

Transport infrastructure for Sochi Olympic Games is completed [ by Pamela Luică ]

The Sochi Olympic Games held on 7-23 February has determined the elaboration and implementation of projects for which estimated investments amount to around USD 50 Billion. Under the plans, 235 facilities were built, of which 11 facilities are where competitions will be held, the rest being locations and infrastructures necessary to the development of the event and of the city. 70% of necessary works have been completed in Russia with investments rising to USD 36.7 Billion.

in the Olympic Games will be able to use high-speed trains (Lastochka). In January, 50% of electric trains were already put in operation. Moreover, in January, RZD departments in charge announced that tests on 6 stations used during the Olympic Games were completed: Olympic Park, Krasnaya Polyana, Esto-Sadok, Adler, Sochi and Khosta. Also, the company’s Vice President, Oleg Toni, said that “in 5 years, RZD has met its objectives regarding the development of the transport infrastructure for the Olympic Games”.

Source: eng.rzd.ru

A

ccording to the declarations of artery and develops the regional infrastrucPresident Vladimir Putin, USD 3 ture by connecting a motorway, road hubs Billion of total amount was grant- and railway infrastructure. Railway works ed by the government and the remainder included the construction of 48 km of elecwas represented by contributions of in- trified line, two new stations and passenger vestors. As regards the transport system, terminals (Esto-Sadok and Alpika-Servis), since 2010 Russian Railways is the general tunnels and bridges. partner of the 22nd edition of the Olympic Another important line was Sochi – Adler Games which made it responsible for the – the Olympic Park (Veseloe), commisimplementation of infrastructure projects sioned in 2012 and connecting three stain Sochi region – the construction of road tions. Works included the construction of and railway infrastructure, the moderni- two tunnels and bridges (over 4 rivers). To sation and construction of new stations, increase the capacity of Tuapse-Adler line, the operation of a switchyard station. The RZD has additionally constructed railway most important of these projects were the sections which resulted in the significant inconstruction of the railway and road infra- crease of train frequency from 54 (in 2008) structure from Adler to Alpika-Servis, the to 70 (in 2011). Until 2013, the line was construction of Tuapse-Adler and Adler- dedicated to shipping construction materiSochi lines (to the airport), the switchyard als with a volume of 44.1 million tonnes for stations in Imeretinskaya, the passenger the construction works necessary for the terminals in Dagomys, Sochi, Matsesta and Olympic Games and 20.5 million tonnes Khosta. Overall, RZD was responsible for for the modernisation and development of the construction of 157 km of transport the city of Sochi. The travel time has been lines and 12 tunnels with a total length of reduced by 40-50 minutes. 30 km. Sochi – Adler – Sochi Airport line is viA complex project is the “Alpika-Servis” tal to ensuring transport to Alder, as over planthefor atofthe Sochi-2014 project as itThe represents maintransport transport 60% passengers arriving for participation

Winter Olympic games

The plan for transport at the Sochi-2014 Winter Olympic games

Транспортная инфраструктура Олимпийских Игр в Сочи создана

Source: Sergey Starykh - RZD

www.railwaypro.com | February 2014 6

Для Олимпийских Игр в Сочи, которые пройдут 7-23 февраля, были разработаны и выполнены проекты, инвестиции которых оценены в около 50 млд. долларов. В январе месяце, ответственные подразделения РЖД объявили, что прошли испытания в шести станций, предоставляющих связи в рамках Олимпийских Игр. Более того, компания объявила, что за пять лет осуществились цели в области транспортной инфраструктуры.


Products & Technologies 39

Sochi: railway bridges on Adler – Alpika line, a real challenge for builders [ by Pamela Luică ]

One of the most complicated infrastructure projects for the Olympic Games in Sochi is the rail-road connection between Adler and Alpika resort, ensuring the transport of competitors and spectators to Krasnaya Polyana stadiums and Imeretinskaya Lowlands Olympic Park (Adler- Krasnaya Polyana route). Regarding the railway infrastructure, the project implied the construction of a 48-km electrified line with double track sections, two new stations and terminals and also the construction of 6 tunnels and 22 bridges, works developed simultaneously.

Source: en.skmost.ru

were designed so that the tunnel builders and bridge builders had to interact closely. “A good example is a double-track railway bridge at Stake 447, which is located near the southern entry of Tunnel System No. 6 that ends up at the Alpika-Service, which is the terminal station of the route. The tunnel and the bridge are connected using a number of very interesting design concepts for integrating the structures. However, their implementation required a highly accurate schedule that considered simultaneous operation of the highway building and tunnelling organizations”, declared Evgeny Yakovlev, Production Manager of the OJSC Stroy-Trest Sochi Division. Work development has required the latest construction methods based on the geographic and climatic specifics of the region, some of them never before used in Russia. All bridges on this route have been built using innovative and common concepts. Their main feature is that the track is ballasted to ensure significant noise and vibration reduction at a speed of up to 160 km per hour.

новационные принципы строительства. Главной их особенностью является устройство проезжей части на балласте, что обеспечивает существенное снижение шума и вибрации при движении со скоростью до 160 км/ч. А также постоянную жесткость пути без динамического удара при въезде поезда с насыпи на мост, — разъясняет Владимир Простоквашин. — При этом значительная часть мостов располагается на криволинейных участках с радиусом от 600 до 1200 метров и на уклонах величиной до 40 %. То есть на каждый километр дороги прибавляется 40 метров от прежнего уровня. Использовать типовые пролетные строения в таких условиях невозможно. Длина пролетных строений, разработанных специально для этого проекта, варьируется от 18,2 до 110 метров. Устройство проезжей части на балласте, по мнению специалистов, имеет ряд существенных преимуществ. Главное из них — обеспечение проезда в заданных кривых с большими скоростями. Немаловажно, что введение в строй новых пролетов с ездой на балласте позволит при текущей эксплуатации максимально использовать парк машин для ремонта верхнего строения пути. Разнообразие рельефа предопределило большой разброс стандартов пролетных строений. Всего было разработано восемь видов, различающихся по размеру и устройству пути. Основными являются балочные и со сквозными фермами с ездой на балласте. Длина балок составляет 18,2, 23, 33,6 метра, ферм — 55, 66, 110 метров. Монтаж металлоконструкций железнодорожных мостов на трассе Адлер — Красная Поляна велся по новой, специально разработанной для этого проекта технологии. Пролетные строения со сквозными фермами имеют жесткий нижний пояс, что позволяло вести монтаж и внавес, и способом продольной надвижки, а также применять сварку, устраивать между пролетами герметичные деформационные швы. Впервые в России строители использовали здесь болто-сварной метод сборки. — Московским институтом «Гипростроймост» были разработаны проекты болто-сварных балочных пролетных строений и ферм. Монтаж металлоконструкций — наиболее ответственная работа при строительстве мостов. Она включает в себя ряд сложных операций, таких как сварка металла в полевых условиях, сборка элементов на высокопрочных болтах, продольная и поперечная передвижка пролетных строений, установка конструкций на опорные части с идеальной точностью. Это особенно сложно, учитывая то, что высота опор достигает 30 метров при руководящем уклоне до 40 тысячных. Обычно на железных дорогах этот показатель не превышает 18 тысячных, — комментирует Станислав Илюхин. — Новая технология сборки увеличивает степень антикоррозийной защиты пролетных строений, что особенно важно в условиях влажных субтропиков. Соединения на высокопрочных болтах заменены на сварку в основном в тех элементах проезжей части, которые находятся под щебеночным балластом, то есть в местах, подверженных наибольшей коррозийной опасности. К таким ответственным работам были привлечены сварщики, прошедшие специальную подготовку и аттестованные специалистами Национального агентства контроля и сварки (НАКС). А качество сварных швов проверялось с помощью приборов ультразвуковой дефектоскопии, причем не выборочно, а повсеместно. — Здесь принят ряд очень хороших, грамотных инже-

This also ensures a constant bridge stiffness to avoid a dynamic impact when the train enters the bridge. Вантовый веер в горах

A Fan of Stay Cables in the Mountains

a constant bridge stiffness the train enters the bridge f Vladimir Prostokvashin. Th cated within a curved sect 600 to 1,200 meters, with g that 40 meters above the p lometer of the road. Standa be used under such conditio tures that were custom des 18.2 to 110 meters». According to specialist number of advantages. Th high speed when running a portant that with the new the fleet of equipment for t maximum extent during rou rain diversity dictated big di bridge span structures. Eig designed. Ballasted track-s er spans represent the mai 23, and 33.6 meters, and th meters. The railway-bridge on the Adler–Krasnaya Poly process. The trussed girde tom flange, which allows th launching and without tem used, and sealed movemen adjacent spans. The builde weld assembly method for «The Giprostroymost, a bolted and welded girder a

Source: Always Raising the Bar, skmost2014.com

B

ecause of the specific relief (mountainous) and of the environmental requirements respectively, the line consists especially of bridges and viaducts, some of them measuring 2-km in length. The bridges were not built over Mzymta River but alongside this river, due to the water level, which rises several meters during floods. In addition, this approach allowed the minimisation of the construction project impact on the environment. The design features varied for each location, the type of terrain and the gradient differences in the various areas of construction. Thus, the builder in charge (Stroy-Trest Sochi Division-part of SK MOST group) has cooperated with several design companies, the operations being carried out for the entire route. The major structures were designed by a design organisation, the construction sites and facilities were designed by another organization, and a third organisation integrated the construction sites with the facilities necessary for the infrastructure. A number of construction sites

194

Сочи: железнодорожные мосты вдоль линии Адлер – Альпика, сложнейшая задача для строителей Один из наиболее сложных инфраструктурных проектов, созданных для Олимпийских Игр в Сочи, это связь рельсового и безрельсового транспорта между Адлером и Альпикой, которая обеспечит перевозку участников и зрителей по направлению к стадионам Красной Поляны и к Олимпийскому Парку в Имеретинской низменности (по трассе Адлер – Красная Поляна). В том что касается железнодорожной инфраструктуры, в рамках проекта были построены одновременно электрифицированная линия протяженностью 48 км с участками двойного пути, две новые станции и терминалы, а также, 6 тоннелей и 22 моста. February 2014 | www.railwaypro.com


40 Products & Technologies

ERTMS, technology with significant benefits for the railway transport [ by Pamela Luică ]

The European transport policies place at the core of the entire system the development of railway transport which should form a single area, both in terms of infrastructure and the technology used in this field. Once implemented, the technological solutions will contribute to the interoperability of the railway transport, a factor intensively pursued by the EU authorities, for the purpose of continuing the cross-border transport. In this respect, the ERTMS implementation becomes vital; worldwide, Europe holds the highest rate for investments in the ERTMS implementation, 57.16%, followed by Asia, with 26.03%.

T

ERTMS Deployment in 2020 ERTMS required by European Deployment Plan

Kiruna

Corridors A, B, C, D, E and F

REYKJAVÍK

Additional voluntary national deployment Trans-European railway network

Luleå

Freight area Non-EU deployment Umeå

0

125

250

km Sundsvall

Tampere

HELSINKI

Turku OSLO STOCKHOLM

TALLINN MOSKVA

Edinburgh

RIGA

Göteborg Frederikshavn

Aalborg Glasgow

Randers Aarhus Esbjerg

Manchester

Norwich

Bremen Amsterdam Hannover

Lyon

Novara

Zamora

Leira

LISBOA

Perpignan

Huesca Zaragoza Lérida

Valladolid

Avignon

Béziers

La Spezia

Oradea Brasov Ploieşti

PRISTINA

PODGORICA

ROMA

Plovdiv

SKOPJE

ANKARA

Istanbul

Napoli

Thessaloníkí Taranto

Lárisa

Palma de Mallorca

Chalkida ATHINA

Córdoba Cagliari Sevilla

Palermo Málaga

Varna Bourgas

Dimitrovgrad Svilengrad Ormenio

TIRANË

Bari Potenza

Battipaglia Valencia

Ruse

Foggia Caserta

Albacete

Craiova

SOFIA

Marseille Figueras

Ciudad Real

Badajoz

Sines

Constanţa

BUCUREŞTI

Drobeta-Turnu Severin SARAJEVO

Stara Zagora

Tarragona

Cuenca

CHISINAU Nyíregyháza

Arad

Timisoara BEOGRAD

ZAGREB

Trieste

Firenze

Toledo

Evora

KYJIV

Koper

Barcelona

MADRID Cáceres

Setúbal

Pamplona

Palencia

Porto Aveiro

Nîmes Montpellier

Hendaye Irún

Bergamo Vicenza Treviso

Torino Milano Venezia Verona Padova Alessandria Piacenza Parma Bologna Genova

Bordeaux Dax Vitoria

WARSZAWA

Poznań

BERLIN

Arnhem Frankfurt DEN HAAG an der Oder Magdeburg Rotterdam Duisburg Zeebrugge Wrocław Antwerpen Halle Dover Görlitz Düsseldorf Leipzig Calais Kassel BRUXELLES Dresden Dunkerque Köln Katowice Erfurt Gliwice BRUSSEL Lille Lovosice Aachen Mons Koblenz Liège le Havre Charleroi Ostrava Frankfurt Kraków PRAHA Amiens am Main LUXEMBOURG Přerov Plzeň Brno Mannheim Reims Bettembourg Žilina Nürnberg Bettembourg České Budĕjovice Saarbrücken Metz PARIS Karlsruhe Miskolc Stuttgart Nancy BRATISLAVA Linz WIEN Augsburg Strasbourg München Győr BUDAPEST Freiburg Ulm Mulhouse Szolnok Salzburg Kufstein Tours Leoben Graz Dijon Székesfehérvár BERN Innsbruck Szombathely Klagenfurt Maribor Nagykanizsa Bolzano Villach Szeged Pragersko LJUBLJANA Domodossola Trento

Brest

Burgos

Szczecin

LONDON

Plymouth

Orense

MINSK

Gdansk Tczew

Rostock Lübeck

Hamburg

Birmingham Cardiff Bristol

Santiago de Compostela

VILNIUS Gdynia

Rødby

Neumünster

Crewe

Cork Swansea

Kiel

Kaunas

Malmö

Kolding

Flensburg

Leeds

Cartagena

Algeciras

VALLETTA

Gioia Tauro

Patra

Korinthos Piraeus

LEFKOSIA

Source: ec.europa.eu

Liverpool

Vigo

KǾBENHAVN Taulov

Belfast

DUBLIN

Cartography DG TREN 05/2009

he main advantages of ERTMS are security and interoperability, features available for both levels (N1 and N2) and they also determine cost reductions for locomotives as regards the cross-border traffic for the border crossing time. In exchange, while for N1 the transmission is based on beacons or loops, using the existing signalling equipment, for N2 a modern signalling infrastructure is necessary. In terms of data transmission, in the case of N1the information is conveyed to the vehicle from rail signals (via adapters) and N2 is based on the signalling system, the train movements being continuously monitored (by radio block centres - RBC). While maintenance costs are reduced by eliminating track signals, N2 also presents the possibility to significantly increase the line capacity by increasing the running speed of trains-which determines several

© EuroGeographics 2001 for the administrative boundaries

Source: www.ertms.net

www.railwaypro.com | February 2014

benefits (higher capacity, more trains). Also, N2 is permanently monitoring the train speed and direction, the correct route and the operating instructions. Thus, when choosing the implementation of N1 or N2, we must consider the technical and operational status of the existing interlocking system, but also the completion of the renewal works for the line or network. Along with N1 and N2, the rail industry develops N3, which is still in the design stage and allows the introduction of the “mobile block” technology. In the first two systems, the transport authorities are determined to use “fixed blocks” – line section between two fixed points that cannot be used by two trains at the same time. In exchange, due to N3, the continuous and correct information is conveyed by the train directly to the control centre, without the use of the detection equipment (based on the line). As the train monitors its position, there is no need for “fixed points”, the train being considered as a “mobile block”. N3 implementation will determine the increase of transfers and the reduction of maintenance costs.

ERTMS allows the easy migration from one level to another: for example, to upgrade N1 to N2, it is necessary to install the radio network (RBC) and additional buoys for positioning. Introducing N3 allows the train to monitor and report its own integrity, eliminating the need for detecting track circuits.

ERTMS –технология, которая приносит значительные выгоды железнодорожному транспорту С точки зрения инвестиций в области внедрения Европейской Системы Управления Железнодорожными Перевозками (ERTMS) на мировом уровне, в Европе регистрируется наиболее высокий процент, 57.16%, за ней следуя Азия, с 26.03%. Главные выгоды системы ERTMS это безопасность и интероперабельность, характеристики обоих уровнях (У1 и У2); также, она приводит к снижению стоимостей для локомотивов с точки зрения трансграничных перевозок и время пересечения границ.


Products & Technologies 41

Performing technologies for turnouts [ by Elena Ilie ]

Modern and safe railway infrastructure is the key factor for the development of the rail transport system. The infrastructure manager has to provide train traffic in the best and safest conditions, while the railway industry, that manufactures track equipment, has to be always active in the research and development of reliable, safe and efficient products aimed to increase the use of infrastructure, as well as the capacity of railway lines to adapt to heavy traffic.

We are still in the range of tram infrastructure turnouts and we talk about the technology delivered by another famous profile company. Vossloh Cogifer’s technology of turnouts for urban traffic provides two concepts for the production of turnouts. The first concept includes a rail welded construction where the spares are mechanically processed. The second concept is based on the mono-block construction of rails. Features include the mono-block switch, two main components, continuous processing without welding and easy maintenance. The company believes that mono-block

switches have to be used for current lines, while welded switches have to be used only near depots (in case financial constraints don’t permit the use of mono-block structures as well). rail welded construction

Photo: Vossloh Cogifer

The railway industry is ready to answer to a wide range of demands coming from infrastructure managers. voestalpine VAE APCAROM is one of the best known companies dealing with the production of turnouts. Among the turnouts the company manufactures for tram transport systems, the company provides a performing solution, ConCross – fully assembled factory turnouts on “Plug and Play” concrete precast elements. The system is modular with slab-track switches, integrated track circuits, electrically insulated against currents and with continuous elastic support, preset drive systems and drainage boxes, whose installation is optional. The system has various advantages ranging from rapid installation, the significant reduction of traffic interruption, high pre-

cision and stability and the possibility of replacing subassemblies. Other advantages of this system include noise reduction and longer life expectancy. All materials used are recyclable. Another innovative concept proposed by voestalpine VAE APCAROM is that of rail hardening using welding. The technology provides clear advantages such as reduced maintenance costs and increased life expectancy. At present, voestalpine VAE APCAROM applies this procedure for manufacturing the turnouts supplied for the vast tram network in St. Petersburg.

Photo: VAE APCAROM

T

he current trend for the European railways and not only regarding the development of urban, conventional and high-speed railway transport is that the supplying industry must guarantee full railway equipment solutions. Thus, the demand for complete solutions is increasing. Consequently, demands include much more performing equipment and turnouts.

Высококачественные технологии для железнодорожных путей Современная и безопасная железнодорожная инфраструктура является ключевым элементом развития системы рельсового транспорта. Оператор инфраструктуры обязан обеспечить движение поездов при наилучших и безопасных условиях, в то время как железнодорожная промышленность, производящая оборудование для рельсовых путей должна проявлять активность в исследовании и развитии эффективной, надёжной и рентабельной продукции, способствующей росту использования инфраструктуры и грузовой способности, при адаптивности к грузонапряженному движению. February 2014 | www.railwaypro.com


42 Products & Technologies

Level crossings, the weak link of the railway system? [ by Elena Ilie ]

Improving Europe’s rail infrastructure and making it more attractive from a commercial perspective opens up the possibility of attracting passengers - and freight - back onto the railways. This means that they can be moved with considerably greater efficiency and less impact on the environment. As railway transport specialists believe, the ERTMS is the only step towards building a more efficient international traffic, either cross-border between European countries or between the states of the Eurasian Platform.

possible. What can we do to re-establish the balance? In many countries, level crossings on less important roads and railway lines are often “open” or “uncontrolled”, sometimes with warning lights or bells to warn of approaching trains. Another critical point is the lack of projects in which rail and road operators are jointly involved. To reduce the impacts due to accident operational consequences at level crossing Each year people die in accidents at level and to increase safety and human awareness crossings involving road vehicles colliding is important to introduce new technologies with trains. 95% of these fatalities are attrib- in the level crossings operational manageuted to faults by the road vehicle driver who ment, but high safety requirements togethdoesn’t pay attention to signalling. Despite er with high railway standards are presently this fact, society labels most fatal accidents hindering technological upgrade of level at level crossings as a rail problem. crossings. Despite the best safety precautions, level In order to calculate the risks of failure crossings remain a weak point. Opera- and hence the change in failure risk when tions are fully automatic. In the event of a new technology is introduced, it is necesmalfunction, the fail-safe principle applies. sary to carry out a comprehensive physical The safety system takes over and prevents decomposition of the system in question. a level crossing from opening by mistake. Moreover is not possible to quantify the Nevertheless, most incidents still occur at relationship between the cost of new techlevel crossings. Car driver carelessness and nologies and the risk reduction that their recklessness are usually to be blamed. That introduction involves. This is mainly due is why, it is recommended to replace level to unavailability of a statistical base and the crossings with tunnels orRoad bridgesmortality where missing of data standardisation as well as inin Europe Road mortality in Europe

250

2001 200

2010

150 112 (EU in 2001) 100 62 (EU in 2010) 50

0

Source: www.ioas.gr / ILCAD 2013

www.railwaypro.com | February 2014

puts for the required evaluations. Significant part of the technology-oriented rail side projects is dedicated to the investigation of low cost solutions applicable especially to level crossings with low traffic conditions (road and rail). The aim of these projects is to reduce the contemporary relatively high number of accidents occurring on passive level crossings equipped only with St. Andrew‘s cross. Such technological developments are in their testing and evaluation phase in Austria (ISIS), Switzerland (Micro) and France (SAL0).

Photo: wikimedia.org

I

nteroperability-related problems have always been, and sometimes they are still, a hindrance in the path of European rail operations. Less developed signalling systems have been the main hindrance. The existence of more than 20 signalling systems in Europe is viewed as a critical factor. Indeed, each train used by a national rail company has to be equipped with at least one system, but sometimes more, just to be able to run safely within that one country.

Железнодорожные переезды – слабое звено железнодорожной системы? Развитие железнодорожной инфраструктуры в Европе и её преобразование в наиболее привлекательную систему с коммерческой точки зрения, способствует притяжению пассажиров и груза на железную дорогу. Таким образом, предоставляется возможность осуществить транспортные операции при значительной эффективности и уменьшить воздействия на окружающею среду. Специалисты железнодорожной области считают Европейскую Систему управления железнодорожным движением (ERTMS) единственной возможностью повышения эффективности международного движения – трансграничного, между европейскими странами, или, между странами Евразийской Платформы.


dŚŝƐŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůĞǀĞŶƚĞŶƟƌĞůLJĚĞĚŝĐĂƚĞĚƚŽZdD^ĂŶĚďŽƚŚŝƚƐĐŽŵƉŽŶĞŶƚƐd^ĨŽƌ ƚƌĂŝŶĐŽŶƚƌŽůĂŶĚ'^DͲZĨŽƌƌĂĚŝŽͲĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ͕ŚĂƐďĞĐŽŵĞĂǁŽƌůĚǁŝĚĞƌĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ ĨŽƌ Ăůů ĚĞĐŝƐŝŽŶͲŵĂŬĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ ƌĂŝůǁĂLJ ƉƌŽĨĞƐƐŝŽŶĂůƐ ŝŶǀŽůǀĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƌĂŝů systems across the world. The UIC’s purpose in organising this conference is to support and advance the momentum of ERTMS ƚŽǁĂƌĚƐ ŝƚƐ ŽďũĞĐƟǀĞ͘ LJ ďƌŝŶŐŝŶŐ ƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ ƚŚĞ most knowledgeable professionals in the business ƚŽƐƉĞĂŬŽŶĂůĂƌŐĞǀĂƌŝĞƚLJŽĨƚŽƉŝĐƐ͕ƚŚĞh/ZdD^ ŽŶĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƐ ƚŚĞ ŵĂŝŶ ƉůĂƞŽƌŵ ƚŽ ƚĂŬĞ ƐƚŽĐŬŽĨƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐĂŶĚƚŽƉƵďůŝĐůLJƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĂŶĂŐĞŶĚĂ ĨŽƌƚŚĞĨƵƚƵƌĞ͘ During the 2014 ERTMS World Conference the ƌĂŝůǁĂLJƐĂŶĚƐƵƉƉůLJŝŶĚƵƐƚƌLJǁŝůůĐŽŵĞƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌƚŽ showcase the latest achievements of ERTMS and prove their commitment to further development ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ͘ dŚĞ ƚĞĐŚŶŝĐĂů ĞdžŚŝďŝƟŽŶ ǁŝůů ĐŽŶǀŝŶĐŝŶŐůLJ ĚĞŵŽŶƐƚƌĂƚĞ ƚŚĞ ƐƵƉƉůLJ ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůĂŶĚƚŚĞĂƉƉůŝĐĂƟŽŶŽĨůĞĂĚŝŶŐ technologies within the ERTMS ĐŽŶĐĞƉƚ͘

Tuesday 1 April 2014 Technical visit by TCDD will be followed by the Opening Cocktail Party at the HCC Centre

Wednesday 2 April and Thursday 3 April 2014 HCC Centre, Istanbul

Looki ng welco forward t behal ming you o f of a on l l o r g on 1 to 3 anisers 2014 A in Ist pril anbul !

Ms Barbara MOUCHEL Coordinator ERTMS Conference 2014 mouchel@uic.org

ertms-conference2014.com


44

Products & Technologies

Investments in new technologies permitted companies to produce longer rails STEEL PRODUCTION AND USE: STEEL PRODUCTION AND USE:

[ by Pamela Luică ]

The world steel production in January-November 2013 increased by 3% on average, in November the GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION production level increasing by 3.6% (127 million tonnes) compared to the same period last year. In November, 2002 China reported an increase of 4.2% (60.9 million tonnes), Japan, 8.9% (9.3 million tonnes), while2012 South Korea reported negative results (-0.2%). In the EU, Germany recorded a growth of 5.7%, France 3.5%, and Spain 15.5%.

F

teel productionigures are promising considering fact that the steel production fell otal: 905 millionthe tonnes

Crude steel production Crude steel production 2012 World total: 1,547 million tonnes

during the financial crisis, like all the Other Europe other economic sectors determining the 2.6% adoptionOthers of severe measures consisting in Others CIS EU-27 EU-27 limited activities, stagnation of production, 8.7% 7.2% 10.9% Other Asia 6.1% 20.8% Other Asia or even sale of assets. The situation has im12.2% 11.6% Japan Other Europe proved, the large companies in the area being NAFTA 6.9% Japan 2.2% 7.8% motivated to invest in the modernisation of CIS 11.9% 11.2% factories, technologies included, to increase China NAFTA China the quality 20.1% and quantity of products. Ac46.3% cording to the World13.4% Steel Association, the industry allocates EUR 12 Billion per year to improvement processes, development of new products and technology innovation. Regarding rail production, companies have chosen to invest in the modernisation of the omprise: facilities and technologies they use to proOthers comprise: duce 1.7 longer whichand could alsoAmerica provide 4.7 % % railsCentral South Africa 1.0% Central and South America 3.1% increased For example, TataZealand Steel has 0.9 % ast 1.4 %safety. Australia and New Middle East 1.6% Australia and New Zealand 0.4% invested EUR 35 Million in the modernisation and equipment of a plant to double pro- cedures. The rail moves through an induc- 400 thousand tonnes of rails by 2030. duction volumes (from 55 thousand tonnes tion furnace which uses an electromagnetic “We are the only ones in Russia and the to 125 thousand tonnes) and manufacture field to heat the steel to 950°C. The rail is CIS to apply a unique method of heat treatlong (finished rails (from steel 36 to 108 m) using heat pro- then rapidlyApparent cooled using compressed air. mentproducts) of rails – the rails are hardened by dipnt steel use products) steel use (finished steel The resulting low residual stresses provide ping the railhead into a special solution”, said otal: 822 millionMONTHLY tonnes CRUDE STEEL PRODUCTION World total: 1,413 million tonnes further protection against risk of rail failure in an interview AndreyDeinek, Board memMonthly crude steel production OAO. 2009 to 2012 2009 TO 2012 compared to other in-line heat treatment ber of Mechel Other Europe million tonnes million tonnes processes. The investment resulted in sign2.5% Total 63 reporting countries ingNAFTA a contract with SNCF in January on the CIS Others Others EU-27 EU-27 Other Europe supply of 200 thousand tonnes of rails. 9.2% 4.0% “We 9.3% 9.9% 19.3% Инвестиции в новые 2.0% Other in Asia Other Asia made a significant investment Hayange NAFTA 14.9% 16.6% технологии позволили CIS to be able to produce the 108m long rail re9.3% Japan 4.1% компаниям производить quired by SNCF. 4.5% Our heat-treatment facility Japan NAFTA 8.7% means we are also now able to produce highly длинные рельсы 16.7% China China wear-resistant rails with lengths up to 108m 45.7% 23.3% – a key requirement of most of our European В период январь- ноябрь 2013 г. на European Union (27) Central and South America customers”, Henrik Adam, Tata Steel’s Chief глобальном уровне в производстве стали Commercial Officer, said. отмечается рост на 3%, в ноябре месяце To manufacture the 100-m rails (from уровень производства достигая роста 12.5m), Mechel invested USD 715 Million на 3,6% (127 млн. тонн) в сравнении с in Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant (Russia). аналогичным периодом предыдущего года. omprise: Others comprise: The complex includes all necessary techСоответственно Мировой Ассоциации 2.1% Central and South America 3.3% Africa 1.9% Central and South America 3.3% nological equipment and uses correction, Производителей Стали, промышленность ast 3.0% Australia and New Zealand 0.9% Middle Eastcontrol technologies. 3.5% Australia and New12 Zealand 0.5% processing and quality предоставляет млрд. евро в год на Japan CIS (6) The plant’s capacity is of over 1.1 million процессы улучшения, развития производства tonnes of end products per year. The inи технологические инновации. В области 15 vestments in other production centres have производства рельсов, компании made the company secure a long-term conосуществляют инвестиции в модернизацию tract with RZD, within the Railway Transпроизводственных помещений и технологии port Development Strategy by 2030 apпроизводства длинных рельсов, которая к proved by the Russian Government. Under тому же способна предоставить высокий theChina contract, Mechel will supply a volume of уровень безопасности. Source: WORLD STEEL IN FIGURES 2013, World Steel Association 140

11

120

9

7

100

actual data deseasonalised data

actual data deseasonalised data

80

2009

2010

2011

2012

18

5

2009

2010

2011

2012

7

6

15

5

12

actual data deseasonalised data

9

2009

2010

2011

2012

4

3

10

10

8

8

actual data deseasonalised data

2009

2010

2011

6

6

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actual data deseasonalised data

4

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The 63 reporting countries

4

70

Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Brazil,

Bulgaria, Byelorussia, Canada,| Chile, China, Colombia, www.railwaypro.com February 2014Croatia, Cuba, Czech

Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway,

60

2009

2010

2011

2012


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46 Asset management

New methodology to analyse and optimize maintenance [ by Elena Ilie ]

The improvement of the rail infrastructure-related activities is strictly linked to the infrastructure maintenance activity and the railway industry is challenged by different problems, such as the intensification of specific requirements, traffic boost and the need to improve safety, bottlenecks, sustainability and cost efficiency. Augmented Usage of Track by Optimisation of Maintenance, Allocation and Inspection of railway Networks (AUTOMAIN) project, is led by PRORAIL, with the implication of representatives from the operators, the industry, the academic environment and having Deutsche Bahn as technical coordinator. The development project, estimated at EUR 3.8 Million, began in February 2011 and is due in 2014.

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he AUTOMAIN project proposes to adopt the best practices from other industries for the optimisation of inspection and maintenance activities (for example, motorways or the airspace industry). The project will prove the way in which the reference time allocated for key maintenance tasks where all activity on that specific infrastructure is stopped can be reduced by up to 50%. “The European Commission asks for a more sustainable transport system and therefore has asked the railway industry to facilitate the modal shift of freight traffic from motorways to railways via innovation”, believes Henry Olink, project manager, ProRail. The AUTOMAIN project aims at increasing the maintenance of infrastructure under operating conditions. This can be accomplished by reducing the time taken to install and maintain infrastructure, which is achievable by identifying tasks that lead them to automation and then developing and introducing appropriate technology. The clear objective of the AUTOMAIN is to transform railway freight transport into a much more reliable transport than currently through availability and safety by generating new capacities on the existing network. The objectives of the project Aug-

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mented Usage of Track by Optimisation of mated systematization and planning syswww.automain.eu Maintenance, Allocation andA Joint Inspection tems. Research Project of funded under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) of the European Commission railway Networks (AUTOMAIN) consist The benefits of this research will include in the development of new methods for reducing the maintenance preparation infrastructure inspection, both on freight- time, increasing the speed of the specific dedicated routes, as well as on mixed traffic activity, programming maintenance only routes, improvement of the maintenance when useful and necessary, but also fewer process efficiency and development of routes to inspect. a new maintenance systematization and The Association of the European Railway planning instrument. Industry (UNIFE) participates in this speThe key innovations proposed by the cific research project aimed to prove the developers of the AUTOMAIN research possibilities of improving the infrastructure project include methods with increased capacity. Of the EUR 3.8 Million, the Euroinfrastructure inspection and maintenance pean Commission granted a financing of speed, development of new infrastructure EUR 2.5 Million through FP7, programme components and improvement of the auto- backed by EU’s Research Department.

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0,4 0,2 0 Time, 130, 6h Source: www.automain.eu

Time, 840, 6h

Time, 912, 6h

Time, 130, 9h www.automain.eu

A Joint Research Project funded under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) of the European Commission www.railwaypro.com | February 2014

Новая методология для анализа и оптимизации обслуживания Улучшение операционной деятельности железнодорожной инфраструктуры взаимосвязанно с работами технического обслуживания. Проект AUTOMAIN, направлен в особенности на исследование и развитие новых технологий, предлагает принятие наилучших методов работы с других сферах промышленности для оптимизации технического осмотра и обслуживания.


market development 47

A change in transportation is a good opportunity for the equipment manufacturing industry [ by Elena Ilie ]

The cost of the EU infrastructure development that would be necessary to meet the transport demand was estimated at over EUR1.5 Trillion for 2010-2030. However, in the years and decades to come it will be more and more difficult to find ways to invest in the transport infrastructure.

U

nder the circumstances, preserving mobility will only be possible through sustainable strategies. The European transport system developed in the context of generally low oil prices, infrastructure extension, technological supremacy and limited environmental constraints, but at the present moment it must adapt to different framework conditions. The expected growth of emerging economies and of world population will undoubtedly exert pressure on natural resources. In addition, the technological challenges also offer interesting opportunities. Profound transformations of the public transport system - in terms of tram network development, light tram and metro - can lead to considerable progress in a transport system that heads, in the best case, for marginal improvements regarding efficiency. Service levels should not be compromised because of the new constraints. Structural

changes in the transport sector can improve life and environment quality, maintaining the citizens’ freedom to travel and the EU industry competitiveness. The transformation of transportation towards more efficient, more environmentally-friendly, safer and more reliable modes will not be possible if only a small number of specific interventions are used. Transportation represents a complex system based on the interaction between infrastructure, vehicles, information technology, rules and behaviours. All these elements must be part of a common vision of change. A change of transportation is also a good opportunity for the equipment manufacturing industry and for the logistics operators, considering that other regions of the world will also face similar constraints as regards resources, as worldwide mobility demand continues to increase. The best technology will benefit from an expanding market for trade.

Distribution of infrastructure investment between modes, selected years Euros, current prices and exchange rates

Source: EUROSTAT

The urban dimension will become even more important, as it is expected that the share of Europeans living in urban areas will increase from 74% at present to approximately 85% in 2050. Designing sustainable cities is one of the biggest challenges faced by the policymakers. However, it is expected that technological improvements for all modes of transport will lead to energy savings and will reduce emissions per passenger/kilometre by up to 90% in 2050 at the level of intercity and regional journeys (up to 500 km). This will not solve the traffic congestion problem which could worsen with the increase of travel volumes, despite the introduction of advanced traffic management technologies. A systematic selection of the most efficient mode of transport among public and private modes of transport is also necessary so that intercity journeys could become more sustainable and efficient.

Изменение в транспортном секторе окажет положительное влияние в отрасли промышленности оборудования Стоимость развития инфраструктуры ЕС для соответствия с транспортными требованиями, была оценена в более 1.5 триллионов евро на период 2010-2030. Несмотря на это, в течении следующих лет и десятилетий, будет всё более сложно найти возможности осуществить инвестиции в транспортную инфраструктуру. February 2014 | www.railwaypro.com


48 POLICIES & STRATEGIES

Can rail charging differentiated according to noise emissions reduce phonic pollution?

[ by Elena Ilie ]

According to Member State reports compiled by the European Environment Agency (EEA) in 2010, railway noise affects about 12 million EU inhabitants at day time, with a noise exposure above 55 dB(A), and about 9 million at night time, with a noise exposure above 50 dB(A). In fact, the real figures are undoubtedly higher since the EEA’s European noise mapping initiative concentrates on agglomerations with over 250,000 inhabitants and on main railway lines with over 60,000 trains per year.

T

he discussion about railway noise Nevertheless, these methods have only has become very important in se- local effect and impose huge investments veral European countries as rail- in protecting extended parts of the railway way transport increases and plays a more networks, as stated in a report published by important role in greening transportation. the European Parliament in 2012, a report To reduce railway noise pollution, passive which analysed “Reducing railway noise measures at the place of disturbance can pollution”. Instead, source-driven measures Policy Department B: Structural and Cohesion Policies be distinguished from active measures at reduce noise across the whole railway sys____________________________________________________________________________________________ the noise source. The most important pas- tem, if they are widely introduced. 1:used Share of people affected noise suspensions, in each European country sive Figure methods to reduce the impact of by railway Also, wheel the aerodynato EEAare data railway noise on according the environment noise mic form of pantographs and phonic isolaprotection walls and insulating windows, tion of traction equipment (for example, and for the most part action plans and in- the locomotive engines) are measures to vestments of the member states concen- reduce source noise. trate on these methods. In the authors’ opinion, noise should Share of people affected by railway noise in each European country according to EEA data

ideally be reduced at the source because these measures have a network-wide effect. Where track infrastructure causes increased noise levels (for example, structure-radiated noise from viaducts or curve squeal in narrow radius curves), or where the local environment is particularly sensitive to noise (for example, rural or urban environments with residences very close to the railway line) then additional trackside noise mitigation measures may be necessary. Such measures include friction modifiers, rail dampers, and floating (or isolated) slab tracks and of course noise bunds and barriers in various heights. Vehicles and track should all be maintained to eliminate unnecessary sources of noise, for example, corrugation. On the infrastructure side, friction modifiers, rail dampers and slab track are cost-effective measures for reducing noise. In densely populated environments and highly trafficked railway sections, the use of noise barriers or coverings cannot be avoided. However, if there is a wide introduction of vehicle-related measures, the number of noise barriers or covers can shrink significantly. Without doubt, economic facilities, such as rail charging differentiated according to noise emissions, can help stimulate the use of technologies with low noise emissions for rolling stock.

Можно снизить уровень шумового загрязнения при дифференциальной тарификации в зависимости от звукового излучения?

Source: Reducing Railway Noise Pollution, EC Study 2012

www.railwaypro.com | February 2014

Во многих европейских странах проблема шумового загрязнения в железнодорожном движении занимает важную и активную позицию, имея в виду, что железнодорожный транспорт усилил свою роль, особенно в экологическом плане, оказывая влияние над общей транспортной системой Евросоюза.


49

February 2014 | www.railwaypro.com


Market development & STRATEGIES 50 POLICIES

Sustainable urban mobility plans need reorientation [ by Elena Ilie ]

Managing a successful transition to a more sustainable urban mobility creates significant troubles for cities all around the European Union. Local authorities need support to counteract the negative economic, environmental and societal effects assigned to today’s urban mobility models. It is therefore necessary that urban mobility should maintain its predominant position in EU’s political agenda. The Commission and member states should consolidate the support that local authorities grant so that the cities of the European Union could achieve a radical change regarding the efforts they make to obtain a more competitive and resource-efficient urban mobility.

L

ast December, the European Com- peration in the EU on developing the conmission published a Communica- cept and the relevant instrument, to set up tion on the establishment of an a one-stop shop and to extend the current Urban Mobility Package. The new Com- www.mobilityplans.eu website, transformmunication seeks to involve all governmen- ing it into a virtual centre of knowledge and tal levels. Thus, the Commission will con- competence. solidate its support provided in the areas with added value in the EU, while member Strong points: coordinated urban states are encouraged to create the right logistics and (a greater) use of framework-conditions for local authorities public transport to develop and implement integrated and comprehensive strategies for an improved, Urban logistics is essential for the good sustainable urban mobility. To facilitate a operation of cities and it is a significant closer exchange between the Commission part of urban traffic as part of regional, naand member states, the Commission pro- tional and international supply chains. It is poses hosting a group of experts on urban expected to develop, increasing the already mobility in member states. significant external costs. However, logistics The sustainable urban mobility – Thus, the hotspots Commission willfor establish in needs are often neglected in urban planning 2014need a European platform of sustainable and urban management. for an intelligent integration of measures urban mobility plans to coordinate cooThe Commission recommends the adopThe hotspots for sustainable urban mobility – need for an intelligent integration of measures Airport & Airport link

Park & Ride hubs & interurban traffic

Consolid. hub & freigth corridors

Central Station & regional links

City Center

Harbors & „hinterland“ connection

Source: Andreas Mehlhorn/Mobility Division, Siemens

Page 4

Oct-10

www.railwaypro.com | February 2014

Dr. Andreas Mehlhorn

tion of a concrete set of measures at different levels to deal with several relevant issues, such as urban logistics, urban access regulation, implementation of ITS solutions (intelligent transport systems) in the urban environment, and will closely monitor subsequent actions. A Eurobarometer poll (also published in December 2013 which can be consulted on the Commission’s web page) reviewed the attitude towards urban mobility. Thus, the majority of citizens believe the major problems are congestion, cost, as well as the negative effects of urban mobility and of current transport models on the environment. Most respondents were rather pessimistic about the improvement prospects of traffic in their cities. “Transforming urban mobility requires coordinated action by decision makers and competent authorities at all levels of government”, says the Commission. New approaches to urban mobility planning are emerging as local authorities seek to3break out levers of past silo major for approaches and develop strategiesmobility that can stimulate a shift sustainable towards cleaner and more sustainable transmodes, such- as walking, 1.port Modal shift road to railcycling, public transport, and new patterns for car use and - Efficient transition points ownership. Many cities across EU have ex- Intermodal perimented withinformation innovative solutions for - Public transport urban mobility and shared their experience -… various cities networks. through The Commission has actively promoted 2. Intelligent mobility the concept of sustainable urban mobility management planning for several years. EU-funded ini- Intelligent traffic together mgmt. stakeholders tiatives have brought - Tolling and expertssystems to analyse current approaches, discuss problem and identify best plan- Smart card areas solutions ning - …practices. With Commission support, guidelines for the development and imple3.mentation Technological innovation of Sustainable Urban Mobility Road: e.g. E-Mobility, Plans were developed, for instance, which Hybrid buses provide local authorities with concrete suggestions to implement - Rail: on e.g.how Lightweight con- strategies for struction urban mobility that build on a thorough and regenerative analysis of theenergy, current situation, as well as a breaking electronic clear vision for a sustainable development of train control systems their urban area. -The … Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan © Siemens AG 2010 Industry Sector, Mobility Division


  Market development  

51

concept considers the functional urban area and proposes that action on urban mobility is embedded into a wider urban and territorial strategy. Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans are about fostering a balanced development and a better integration of the different urban mobility modes. This planning concept highlights that urban mobility is primarily about people. It therefore emphasises citizen and stakeholder engagement, as well as fostering changes in mobility behaviour. Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans can help cities make efficient use of existing transport infrastructure and services and deploy urban mobility measures in a costeffective way. The concept has gained considerable momentum in recent years and the Commission will continue to support development and promotion of the concept in the future. Concrete measures 

Thus, the Commission proposes in its implemented in their urban areas and that sible requires making choices about the use Communication a series of measures that they are integrated into a wider urban or of urban space. Loading and unloading spamember states should consider. We can territorial development strategy. The fourth ces, bus lanes, cars, parking, pedestrian faciltalk about conducting a careful assessment measure refers to reviewing – and amend- ities, cycle lanes and parking all compete for of the present and future performance of ing where necessary – the technical, policy- urban road space and cities have to manage urban mobility in their territory, also in based, legal, financial, and other tools at the these competing demands according to local view of key EU policy goals. The second disposal of local planning authorities. And priorities and circumstances. Urban vehicle measure implies developing an approach the final suggestion refers to measures to access regulations can help optimise urban to urban mobility which ensures coordi- avoid fragmented approaches to ensure con- access, improve air quality and contribute  nated and mutually reinforcing action at tinuity and compatibility of urban mobility  to the goal of phasing out conventionally    national, regional and local level. The third measures to safeguard the functioning of the fuelled cars in cities by 2050. measure refers to ensuring that Sustainable internal market, where appropriate. There is currently a wide diversity of  Urban Mobility Plans are developed and Making urban centres as accessible as pos- schemes being implemented across Europe  and a better understanding of these different types of access regulations, their costs and impacts is needed. These different rules and requirements, and the lack of information about how to comply with the various schemes, risk fragmenting the internal market and creating new barriers to the movement of people and goods. 

Переориентация планов долгосрочной городской мобильности необходима

Source: The State-of-the-Art of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans in Europe

 

Управление для успешного перехода к долгосрочной городской мобильности ставит сложные задачи перед городами Европейского Союза. Местные власти нуждаются в поддержке для устранения негативных экономических эффектов, а также в социальной сфере и по отношению к охране окружающей среды, с которыми сталкиваются нынешние виды городского транспорта. Городская мобильность должна занимать главную позицию в плане действий политики Евросоюза. Комиссия и государствачлены должны усилить свою поддержку для местных властей таким образом, чтобы все города Евросоюза смогли осуществить коренное изменение в достижении более конкурентоспособной и эффективной городской мобильности с точки зрения использования ресурсов. February 2014 | www.railwaypro.com


52 Engineer

COMSA provides its rail expertise to expand the Ankara Metro The history of the underground in Turkey began with the construction in 1875 of the so-called Tünel in Istanbul, being the second oldest underground railway in the world. In the city of Ankara, the history of the underground is newer and began with the construction of the Ankaray light rail, between 1992 and 1996. The M1 line was subsequently opened (1997) and is to be extended by lines M2, M3 and M4.

T

he Ministry of Transport of Turkey (currently AYGM), through the Directorate General of Infrastructure Works, entrusted COMSA with building of the Kizilay-Çayyolu (M2) and Batikent-Sinçan (M3) Ankara metro lines, with a total track length of 64 kilometres and 22 stations. The projects have required a total investment of 100 million euros and have been implemented in conjunction with the company Açilim Insaat. The M2 work has involved 11 stations, a shaft for sidings and ventilation, 33

kilometres of track throughout its length underground, 7 sets of sidings and 11 emergency exits for the TMB section. The new M2 starts in Kizilay station, where it connects to M1 line south terminus, and will run along the south of the city. On the other hand, the M3 line starts at the other end of M1 line, and will connect the north-east of Ankara.. A link has therefore been established between the north and south of the city, with a total distance of 46.4 kilometres between the outlying stations and 34 stations. The project also envisages connecting the M2 to the Ankaray

light rail line. Meanwhile, the M3 line project has involved 11 stations, two of which are completely underground and the rest on the surface. The section has a total length of 31,3 kilometres, having approximately 20,8 kilometres of ballast track and 10,5 kilometres of slab track. Its implementation has involved the civil engineering, architecture, infrastructure and superstructure and electrical and mechanical work required for commissioning of the line in early 2014. Every underground project is always a

Eryaman Station 1-2 www.railwaypro.com | February 2014


Engineer 53

challenge because the real properties of the soil remain uncertain until works’ execution and they can vary drastically from section to section. In Ankara Metro, the challenge is even more complex as the project is located in an important urban area. Several tunnels and connecting galleries were executed during the project using the NATM (New Austrian Tunnelling Method) with a diameter range between 4.0 and 6.6m. One of the key points of the worksite was the execution of the Mesa Station in M3 Line. The station was designed as a box (187m long, 20m wide and with a variable deepness up to 35m to allocate an intermediate level). The original project foresaw the execution of perimetral diaphragm walls, reinforced intermediate slabs and a top-down excavation. In order to cope with clients’ requirements, the solution was changed to perimetral piles (diameter 0.80m) with passive anchorages in different levels. The connection galleries were designed to be executed using the NATM as well, but they have been changed to the Cut&Cover method in order to increase works’ safety, given that they were located under one of the main city roads and just a few meters from the National Parliament. Track was designed for a commercial speed of 80km/h in standard gauge (1.435mm). A total length of 14,6km is slab track whilst 31,3km are ballasted track, both of them using UIC54 rail in 18m bars. The bars were welded with Flash Butt Welding (FBW) in plain line and alluminothermic welds were executed in turnouts. Fastenings were DFF 21 in the slab track sections and W14 in the ballasted ones. Some slab track sections were provided with elastomeric mats to improve N&V performance.

About COMSA

COMSA’s 120-year history and its international presence vouch for its capacity to undertake all kind of projects in the infrastructure sector. It began operating in 1891 with track work projects and station renovation. Today it finds itself among the leading construction companies in Spain and it has a strong international presence. The company is specialized in construction and maintenance of railway lines; high speed and conventional lines; metros and trams; railway installations; construction, conservation and maintenance of roads; emblematic buildings; maritime, port, airport, hydraulic and urban projects, tunnels and subterranean works. COMSA is the infrastructure company of COMSA EMTE, one of Spain’s top groups in integrated infrastructures, engineering, environment and technology. COMSA EMTE is present in 25 countries and develops activities in the five continents.

The electrification of the line is via third rail using 15m aluminium bars fixed to the sleepers every 6 meters with ceramic insulators and a protective cover to avoid any contact. The scope of the works were fulfiled with the execution of the mechanical installations that guarantee the required level of

operation: 61 elevators, 109 automated stairs, 108 ventilators in tunnel and stations, 160 pumps and 12 F&S units.

February 2014 | www.railwaypro.com


54 Engineer

Contact wires - conductivity is of prime importance

[ by PhD Barkóczy Péter ] University of Miskolc Institute of Materials Science Hungary

Introduction

a diagnosis laboratory for wires and con- deposits are all related to the heat which ductors. Apart from conventional standard is developed and conveyed in the contact The contact wire is a very important ele- tests, this lab helps us test contact wires in wire during operation. That is why we only ment of the electric overhead railway sys- operation conditions with simulated loads. consider the environment and operation tem. In order to be installed, this contact As this article shows, we have greatly relied conditions which define the nominal elecwire has to meet a complex system of con- on this opportunity. tric energy forcontact the contact wire. Fiecare fir de fabricat de societatea noastră est ditions which impose strict requirements Our idea relies on the fact that the surface ÎnThe electric loadcontrol, of the printre contactaltele wireseismăsoară re decursul acestui to the manufacturing process. For over a of the contact wire deteriorates through the mainly determined by its heat treatment. rezistivitatea electrică a firului de contact. Pentru cele ursul tratamentului de suprafaĠă scopul nostru este úi acela de a nu schimba rezisten�a la the load power increases the heat decade, FUX SA has been dealing with the action of corrosion processes. Changing the Increasing aceste teste atât cu epruvete din tronsoanele cu suprafa re, rezisten�a la alungire úi nici conductivitatea electrică. Procesul trebuie astfel and realizat manufacturing of overhead wires and elec- surface quality changes the heat exchange the temperature of the contact wire renetratată. tric conductors, among which the producbetween the contact wire and the environspectively. In turn,rezultatele it influences its resistance să se evite deteriorarea acestor parametri. Tabela 1. conĠine măsurărilor, iar in Figura tion of the contact wires used in electric ment. A recently manufactured contact to mechanical stress. The temperature can diagrame coloană. gur, această metodă nu duce la o creútere substanĠială a valorii curentului nominal de traction. FUX SA meets the strict manu- wire, with smooth and bright surface has only increase to values to which mechanical nă, dar facturing poate mări capacitatea efectivă de tracĠiune a linieicoefficient electrice. schimb, de conditions imposed thorough a heat emission thatÎnvaries be- firul stress doesn’t produce irreversible, damagTabela1. Parametrii mecanici úi electrici pentru fire Fiecare fir de contact fabricat de societatea noastră este supus control rigu continuous development, achieved not tween 0.1-0.15. A contact wire that has been ing and unwanted changes. this unui case, it act cu suprafaĠa tratată prezintă úi un alt avantaj. În cazul firelorfabricat de contact clasice, în este Fiecare fir de contact de societatea noastră supus unui control In riguros de calitate. RezistenƜalarupere, În decursulcoefficient acestui control, printre alteleSuprafaƜa se măsoară rezistenĠa la rupere, alungi only in collaboration with its partners, but used has a surface heat emission is very important to observe if the contact În decursul acestui control, printre altele se măsoară rezistenĠa la rupere, alungirea úiMPa  ul iernii,also depunerile de gheaĠă, brumă sau chiciură înrăutăĠesc calitatea colectării through different ideas and in-house of 0.75. Of course, thisrezistivitatea doesn’t apply to the a firului wire isdeloose. electrică contact. Pentru cele trei tipuri de fire de conta rezistivitatea electrică a firului de contact. Pentru cele trei tipuri de fire de contact am382 efectuat Netratatĉ research and development activities. This contact surface, which is a small-surface The economical method of manuntului, sau pot produce chiar deteriorări ale firului de contact. GheaĠa înlăturată aceste testetrebuie atât cueleepruvete dinmost tronsoanele cu suprafaĠa tratată cât úi pentru ce AC80 aceste teste atât cu epruvete din tronsoanele cu suprafaĠaTratatĉ tratată cât úi pentru cele cu suprafaĠa 381 article presents the outcome such studies suprafeĠei ment, compared thenetratată. whole surface thefirul facturing contact wires is by cool drawing. nte de stabilirea operării liniei.ofTratamentul estetoaúa conceput caofpe de the netratată. 357 Netratatĉ aimed to help the fitters and the operators contact wire. During cool drawing Tabela 1. conĠine rezultatele măsurărilor, iar in Figura 2.technological aceste rezultate sunt c AC100 Tabela 1. conĠine rezultatele măsurărilor, iar process, in Figura 2.Tratatĉ aceste sunt and comparate act apa să nu contact se depună picături mari, nici gheaĠa săin nu se cristalizeze pe the 355 prin of the wiresin manufactured in ourdeci This difference thediagrame heat emission breakrezultate resistance toughcoloană.fac-masiv coloană. tor diagrame ismai apparently higher, doesn’t but the pull decreases, while 353 afaĠă. Încompany. schimb, picăturile mici de apă se scurg usor úi maialthough repedeitde pe fir, ness úiAC120 inincrease, loc Netratatĉ The contact wire has to meet a series of influence the operation under load of the mecanici 352fabricate. Tabela1 . Parametrii úi electrici Tratatĉ pentru firele de contact heaĠă solidă, mai degrabă se depune un fel de brumă, care se înlătura cu un risc mai mic . Parametrii úi electrici pentru firele de contact fabricate. requirements, both as recently manufac- contactTabela1 wire and doesn’t mecanici cause a different Rezistivitatea RezistenƜalarupere, Alungirea, Fig 2. The forms of a railway line RezistenƜalarupere, Alungirea, Rezistivitateaelectricĉ, SuprafaƜa antograful locomotivei. În aplus, creúterea deon emisie termică a firului tured product and after long period of ex- capacităĠii exploitation the whole contact wire. de contact SuprafaƜa MPa process over% :mm2  degradation 2 time MPa % :mm /m  Regulations no distinction However, this difference has implications posibilăploitation. înlăturarea totală make sau parĠială a gheĠii prin efect termic cauzat de o sarcină 382 4 0.0174 Netratatĉ 382 4 0.017467 Netratatĉ between the ages of the contact wire, but for the operational part,AC80 which could be AC80 381 4 0.0174 Tratatĉ ală prestabilită mai mică. Înwould acestnot mod siguranĠa tracĠiunii electrice se poate mări 381 cu un 4 0.017465 the exploitation system permit positively exploited Tratatĉfor a certain case. For 357 5.5 0.0171 Netratatĉ um maithis micdistinction de energie. noastră de tratare a suprafeĠei either.Procesul However, dezvoltat there is a de thissocietatea reason, our products include the pos357 5.5 0.017124 Netratatĉ AC100 AC100 355 6 0.0171 Tratatĉ small, yet significant difference between a principale. sibility to apply a surface treatment to the 355 6 0.017119 Tratatĉ ru firul de contact úi-a impus aceste scopuri 353 4.5 0.0171 Netratatĉ recently manufactured wire and one used contact wire. Our company offers this pos353 4.5 0.017127 Netratatĉcare AC120 ontinuareforsunt prezentate rezultatele testelor sibility de laborator, să demonstrăm AC120 352 5 0.0171 a longer period of time. In our developof treatingprin the surfacedorim of all types of Tratatĉ 352 5 0.017119 Tratatĉ ment activity, we have tried to nostru reduce this contactawires manufactured in conformity atea úi efectivitatea procedeului de tratare suprafeĠei. difference that exists between two contact customers’ specifications. ru testele prezentate au fost fabricate fire de with contact tip Cu-ETP standardizate conform wires of different ages, so as to produce the By treating the surface, we reduce the dif50149 desame tip higher AC80,quality AC100 úi AC120. Produsele au fost realizate prinwire tragere in conformity which ference between a new contact and anla rece a the proper requirements by the properzi. older contact from important conductor cilindric fabricat imposed prin procedeul Dinwires firele de two contact produse au fost standards and regulations in force. aspects. One of the aspects is related to the e epruvete de lungimi corespunzătoare. Jumătate (dreapta) de fir In-house development has been very traction capacity ofdin theepruveta contact wire, andde contact a tratată pe suprafaĠa ei, cealaltă jumătate (stanga) a fost lăsată netratată (Figura helpful, as we have completed our inte- the other is related to removing ice, frost 1). Testele grated quality management system withSA.or rime deposits specific to winter. These ost făcute în laboratoarele societăĠii FUX Figure1. Surface treated and non-treated segment (contact wire type AC100)

Figura2. ComparaĠie intre parametrii mecanici úi elect

Figura 1. PorĠiune tratată úi netratată la www.railwaypro.com | February 2014

Atât Tabela 1. cât úi Figura 2. arată, că la acelaúi tip de electrici nu diferă, deci suprafaĠa tratată nu modifică a vede că valorile respectă standardul relevant de confor tratată poate perfect înlocui firul de contact cu suprafa menĠionat în introducere a fost realizat. Pentru a atinge următorul nostru obiectiv, epruvetele d suprafaĠă (fir de contact tip AC100). fost tratate termic într-un cuptor electric, la temperatur Figura2. ComparaĠie intre parametrii mecanici úi electrici pentru firele de conta Figura2. ComparaĠie intre parametrii mecanici electrici firele de contact fabricate. au fost deúi50°C, timppentru de 1 oră. După aceea, epruvetele


Engineer 55 Figure3. Comparison between the softening level of the contact wire with treated and non-treated surface

unchanged. In turn, this temperature value Of course, this method does not lead to determines the nominal electric load in a substantial increase of the load nominal the contact wire. In order to determine current value, but it can increase the actual the nominal electric load we have to study traction capacity of the overhead line. Inthe heating of the contact wire in different stead, the treated surface contact wire has operation regimes. Supposing a balance another advantage. In the case of classical thermic state, the temperature of the con- contact wires, during winter, the ice, rime tact wire is determined by the heat issued and hoarfrost deposits worsen the quality by the load current through Joule effect, of current collection or can even deterioby the sun heat, and by the heat released rate de contact wire. The ice has to be rethrough radiation and convection. The first moved before setting the line operation. two heat components lead to temperature The surface treatment is thus conceived increase, while the other two components so that water would not set on the conreduce the temperature. The heat produced tact wire in large drops and so that the ice through Joule effect depends on the wire would not form massive frost deposits on resistivity and on the load current. The its surface. Therefore, large water drops main influence is that of the current; the glide more easily off the wire and instead of higher the current, the higher the heat gen- solid ice, a sort of rime deposits on the wire erated during the set timeframe. which can be removed with the locomotive The heat generated by sun radiations de- pantograph at smaller risks. pends on climate conditions and on the Moreover, increasing the heat release cairradiated surface of the contact wire. A pacity of the contact wire enables the total shiny, reflective surface connects less heat or partial removal of ice through heat effect in the wire than a mat, non-reflective sur- caused by a smaller initially pre-set load. Figura3. ComparaĠia între înmuierea la firul de contact cu suprafaĠa tratată netratată.  face. Considering the setúispecific environThis way, the safety of electric traction can ment conditions, the temperature growth be increased and energy consumption can due to sun radiation is not variable, Atât din Tabela 2. cât úi din Figura 3. se vede că înmuierea la firele de contact de acelaúibut tip it be reduced. The process of contact wire surcan be considered those in- face treatment developed by our company nu prezintă diferenĠe notabile din cauza tratării suprafeĠei. RezistenĠa laaccording rupere úi to rezistivitatea cluded designtemperaturii. standards. Therefore, has imposed these main goals. electrică scad asemănător, iar alungirea creúte la fel odată in cuthe creúterea Acest our study on temperature can only We continue by presenting the results of lucru înseamnă că tratarea suprafaĠei nu schimbă valoarea temperaturii T0,5, growth care în cazul be reduced to the of the Jouleeste heat. lab tests aimed at proving the utility and firului de contact tip AC80 este ... °C, în cazul AC100 este ... °C, iareffect în cazul AC120 ... The obiectiv most important parameters in de- efficiency of our surface treatment proce°C. Din rezultate se poate trage concluzia că úi al doilea a fost realizat, úi firul de signing the material of the cool drawing dure. contact cu suprafaĠa tratată se poate utiliza în proiectare sau în exploatare la fel ca úi cel cu the electric slightly increases. contact wire are: break resistance, electric For the presented tests, the Cu-ETP conînmuierea la resistivity firul de contact cu suprafaĠa tratată úitratată netratată.  aaraĠia firul între de contact cu suprafaĠa tratată  suprafaĠa suprafaĠa netratată. Deci, firulúidenetratată. contact cu poate suplini oriunde firul de Through the cool drawing, due to the struc- resistance, extension coefficient and the tact wires were manufactured and standcontact clasic, fără nici o modificare. tural dislocations produced, metals become softening one respectively. latter coef- ardised in conformity with EN 50149 type 2. cât úi Figura 3.lasefirele vede că înmuierea lafaptul fireletip de dacă contact de acelaúi tip termicăThe e vede înmuierea de contact de acelaúi Încădin partea de introducere am prezentat că, se măreste emisia la the firulthermal de moredin resistant to future form changes. This ficient isrezistivitatea directly connected to AC80, AC100 and AC120. The products notabile cauza tratării suprafeĠei. RezistenĠa la rupere úi arenĠe tratării suprafeĠei. RezistenĠa la rupere úi rezistivitatea contact, cedarea de căldură pe unitatea de timp estestability mai mare, úi sematerial reuúeste rigidity, obĠinereawhich unei is have been manufactured through cool is apparently beneficial, because a conducof the iarodată alungirea creúte latemperaturii. fel odată cu creúterea temperaturii. Acest aemănător, creútelinii la fel cu creúterea Acest cumore temperatura demore exploatare mai Dimpotrivă, dacă această rigid resistant tomică. friction the T0.5 value of thetemperatură temperaturedeto which drawing of a cylinder conductor manutratareator suprafaĠei nu and schimbă valoarea T0,5, care în cazul ucăschimbă valoarea temperaturii T0,5, caretemperaturii în cazul exploatare este dată, firul de contact poate opera lathe un 1curent de sarcină mai mare, úi asta se erosion is obtained. On the other hand, the hour heat treatment of the material factured through the Properzi procedure. tntip AC80 este este ... °C, în cazul este ... °C, iar AC120 este ... cazul AC100 °C, iar înAC100 cazul AC120 este ...în cazul realizează doar... prin creúterea capacităĠii de emisie termică.by Emisia termică este caracterizată regulatory provisions concerning the rigidireduces half its mechanical rigidity. Samples of corresponding dimensions eziasecă poate trage concluzia că úi alrealizat, doilea obiectiv a fost realizat, úi firul de úi alty doilea obiectiv aemisie, fost úi firul de prin coeficientul de care pentru firele fabricate of prezintă valoritreatment între 0,1-was have been cut from the contact wires. Half and electric resistance of the contact wirede contact The objective our surface faĠa tratată se poate utiliza în proiectare sau în exploatare la fel ca úi cel cu liza în0,15. proiectare sau în exploatare la of felcool capentru úidrawing. cel cu limit excessive process to increase the heat limită, emission of theafla wire (right) of the contact wire sample has been Pe the baza unor calcule teoretice o temperatura de exploatare se poate ată. Deci, firul contact cu suprafaĠa tratată poate suplini oriunde firul de ct cu suprafaĠa tratată poate suplini oriunde firul Apartde from the positive effects obtained in and thus to increase the capacity dependenĠa curentului maxim de sarcină îndefunctie de coeficientul de emisie. (Figuraof4).releas- treated on its surface, the other half (left) ără nici o modificare. metals after cool drawing formations, un- ing heat through emission. Thus, we can re- has been left untreated (Figure 1). Tests oducere prezentat faptul că, dacă măreste emisia termică la firul aptul că,am dacă se măreste emisia termică la firul reach de fortunately, the metals thusse processed duce the loadde operation temperature of the have been carried out in the laboratories of căldură pe unitatea de timp este mai mare, úi se reuúeste obĠinerea de timp este mai mare, úi se reuúeste obĠinerea unei a metastable state. The dislocated structure contact wire, unei although we can operate to an FUX SA company. ura deDimpotrivă, exploatare mai mică. Dimpotrivă, dacă mică. dacă această temperatură deaceastă ensures an enlarged enthalpy compared to temperatură increased de load current in the contact wire dată, firul de contact poate opera la un curent de sarcină mai mare, úi asta plastic deformation to the same T0.5sevalue of the temperature. After the surface treatment, the contact oate opera that la unbefore curentthe de sarcină mai mare, úi and asta rese prin capacităĠii de emisie Emisia termică estethis caracterizată mains unchanged only totermică. low With procedure, while using the same wire samples have been submitted to qualii decreúterea emisie termică. Emisia termică estetemperatures caracterizată de emisie, careexample, pentru firele de contact fabricate prezintămaterial valori între 0,1-and the same constructive ity controls. Then, they have been heatthe ambient temperature) quality firele de (for contact fabricate prezintă valori între 0,1where atomic movement is very lent. standard, we can or calcule teoretice o temperatura exploatare se poate aflaobtain a contact wire with treated for one hour in an electric oven ntru o temperatura depentru exploatare limită, sede poate afla limită, As the temperature increases enough toemisie. broader scale4).use. with Borel-type convection at temperantului maxim sarcină în functie de coeficientul (Figura nă în functie dede coeficientul de emisie. (Figura 4). de move the atoms in the metals to significant In the course of the surface treatment, tures of 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450 and speeds, the dislocated structure is retrans- our goal is not to change the break resist- 500 °C. After each of the specified heat formed and the material break resistance ance, the extension resistance and the elec- treatment, the samples have been qualified and toughness drop, the drawing increases tric conductivity. The process has to be de- again to determine the value of the T0.5 and the electric resistance is slightly re- veloped so as to avoid the deterioration of temperature. duced. The softening share depends on the these parameters. After these tests, the contact wire segmeasure of the plastic deformation, but Table1. Mechanicand andelectric electricparameters parameters manufactured contact Table1. Mechanic of of thethe manufactured contact wireswires  also on temperature. The tender book inElectricresistivity, Breakresistance, Extension, cludes the extent of plastic deformations, Surface MPa % but they cannot be considered. In turn,  :mm2/m temperature remains a very important pa382 4 0.017467 NonͲtreated AC80 rameter for plastic deformation. The higher 381 4 0.017465 Treated the temperature is, the faster the comeback 357 5.5 0.017124 NonͲtreated process. By reversing the thinking method, AC100 355 6 0.017119 Treated we can determine a value of the operation temperature to the contact wires where 353 4.5 0.017127 NonͲtreated AC120 the factory plastic deformation remains 352 5 0.017119 Treated February 2014 | www.railwaypro.com

Table2. Mechanic and electric parameters for the heat-treated contact wires NonͲtreatedsurface Treatedsurface  


AC100

56 Engineer

AC120

357 355 353 352

NonͲtreated Treated NonͲtreated Treated

5.5 6 4.5 5

0.017124 0.017119 0.017127 0.017119

andand electric parameters for the contact contact wires wires Table2. Table2.Mechanic Mechanic electric parameters forheat-treated the heat-treated ments have been introduced in our load NonͲtreatedsurface Treatedsurface  current testing devices, where we have ana-  lysed the differences in heat emission to  T,°C Rm,MPa A200,% U,:mm2/m Rm,Mpa A200,% U,:mm2/m the treated and the non-treated segments 22 382 4 0.017467 385 4 0.017465 with the help of a heat camera. 100 383 13 0.017406 382 14 0.017427

Surface behaviour of a new contact wire Each contact wire manufactured by our company is submitted to rigorous quality tests. During these tests, we mainly check the break resistance, the extension and the electric resistivity of the contact wire. For the three types of contact wires, we have carried out these tests with samples from both the surface treated and non-treated segments. Table1. Includes measurement results, and in Figure 2. These results are compared through column diagrams. Both Table 1 and Figure 2 show that the mechanic and electric parameters of the same type of contact wire are not different; therefore, the treated surface does not change these parameters. Moreover, we can see that the values observe the relevant conformity standard and that the contact wire with treated surface can perfectly replace the contact wire with non-treated surface. Therefore, the first objective mentioned in the introduction has been achieved. In order to reach our next objective, the contact wire samples with treated surface have been submitted to heat treatment in an electric oven at temperature varying between 200 and 500°C, in different steps of 50°C, for one hour. Afterwards, the samples have been left outside to cool at ambient temperature. After a one-day resting, they have been submitted to the same testing measurements as the recently manufactured ones. The main tested parameter has been the break resistance, but extension and electric resistivity have also been measured, so as to have complete comparison data. The results are included in Table 2. The comparison between the softening level to the contact wires with treated and non-treated surface is presented in Figure 3.

AC80

AC100

AC120

150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 22 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 22 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

384 324 240 234 236 234 233 232 357 356 357 314 257 235 234 234 232 232 353 351 350 301 255 232 225 225 223 227

19 46 56 59 57.5 58.5 59 56 5.5 14 22 45 60 59 58.5 60.5 57.5 61 4.5 12 25 35 47 60.5 60.5 61 63 62

0.017279 0.017117 0.017034 0.017027 0.017039 0.017045 0.017004 0.017029 0.017124 0.017118 0.017109 0.017112 0.017093 0.016971 0.017073 0.017024 0.017004 0.017012 0.017127 0.017136 0.017119 0.017137 0.017149 0.016966 0.017085 0.017041 0.017008 0.016985

sical contact wire with no changes needed. In introduction, we have showed that if the heat emission of the contact wire is increased, the heat enlargement per time unit is high and we can manage to obtain a line with smaller exploitation temperature. On the contrary, if this exploitation temperature is given, the contact wire can operate to a larger load current and it can only be achieved by increasing the heat emission capacity. The heat emission is characterised

381 326 240 237 236 232 232 232 356 356 355 313 252 237 237 232 234 231 351 351 348 298 244 229 225 226 224 224

25 48 56 56.5 60.5 60.5 62 61 6 12 26 47 53 58 58 59 60.5 60 5 16 27 39 51.5 60 62.5 62 63 61.5

0.017302 0.017113 0.017063 0.017032 0.017072 0.017057 0.017035 0.017081 0.017119 0.017124 0.017115 0.017109 0.017074 0.017014 0.017042 0.017021 0.016994 0.017011 0.017119 0.017108 0.017112 0.017098 0.017075 0.016998 0.017015 0.016971 0.016978 0.017036

by the emission coefficient which has values ranging between 0.1-0.15 for the contact wires. Based on theoretical calculation for a limited exploitation temperature, we can find out the dependency of the maximum load current depending on the emission coefficient. (Figure 4) This is a well-known phenomenon, because the emissivity of the overhead line increases due to the oxidative influence of

Figure 4. Load current depending on the emission factor (contact wire type AC100)

Both Table 2 and Figure 3 show that the softening of the same type contact wires is not very much different because of surface treatment. Break resistance and electric resistivity reduce similarly and extension increases with the temperature increase. This means that surface treatment doesn’t change the value of the T0.5 temperature, which in the case of the contact wire AC80 is ... °C, for the contact wire AC100 is ... °C, and for type AC120 is ... °C. We can thus conclude that the second objective has also been achieved and the contact wire with treated surface can be used in design or in exploitation just like the one with the nontreated surface. Therefore, the contact wire with the treated surface can replace the claswww.railwaypro.com | February 2014

Figura4. Curentul de sarcină în funcĠie de factorul de emisie (fir de contact tip AC100) 


Engineer 57 Figure 5. Heat camera photograph (contact wire AC100 Cu-ETP)

the contact wire surface. We have also mentioned in the introduction that this phenomenon is not the singular and most important effect. In winter, ice crystallizes on the contact wire surface endangering the quality and the safety of electric energy collection. Ice has to be ambient environment eliminated during exploitation as it is cao 22 C pable to cause many problems. In extreme situations, it can cause intermittences in the collection of electric power or even fully cutting off power by breaking the overhead line. Both problems cause major risks for the electric traction in ensuring its seamless exploitation. Another problem results from the fact that railway traction stresses the treated surface overhead line per sections, by heating the o > 120 C contact wire for the period of time when non-treated surface the section is stressed and then leaving it to ~106 o C cool. This helps ice deposits when it is cold. Eliminating ice is a current problem today and sometimes it is very difficult to solve. Figura5. Fotografie cu camera termică (fir de contact AC100 Cu-ETP) the environment and can reach up to 0.75. contact wire was submitted, the temperaIce forms on the contact wire in two ways.  However, this cannot be completely used to ture of the segment with treated surface If the temperature, humidity and wind have increase the load current charging capacity was by almost 10°C smaller than that of the values between corresponding limits, rime Fotografia termice arată clar că temperatura firuluiwith de contact cu suprafaĠa because camerei wear during operation makes the segment non-treated surface. tratată Similarestewith a porous texture and with small memaitransversal mică decâtsection cea cu of suprafaĠă netratată. Ambele măsurători termice făcute cu camera the conductor small- values were obtained to the other two types chanic resistance sets on the wire surface, termică, respectiv cu termocuplul, au segment arătat că la of untested curentcontact de sarcină de 480A la care s-a er. This also requires that every wires. which is usually eliminated by friction to firul have de Acest contact AC100, temperatura porĠiunii cu suprafaĠă tratată in a fost aproape should the same age. In conclusion, Tests were completed laboratory condithe locomotive pantograph. If environment să sesupus răcească. lucru ajută depunerea de gheaĠă în perioade decufrig. Eliminarea themai increase of emission coefficient has to tions at anValori ambient temperature of 22úi °C. 10°C mică decât cea a porĠiunii cu suprafaĠa netratată. similare am obĠinut la and exploitation conditions change, it is ii estecelelalte obeproblemă actuală zileletestate. noastre,While úi uneori foarte dewith rezolvat. artificially generated. calibrating the dificilă heat camera the possible that solid ice will form on the condouă tipuri de fireúideîn contact aĠa seTestările formează pecontact firul wire deîncontact înlaborator două moduri. temperatura, umiditatea úi vântul The tested has beende installed help of theDacă thermocouple contact thermomwire, especially in suspension points. au fost realizate condiĠii la temperatură ambiantă de 22 °C. Calibrândtact in a limite high current circuit termometrului of a testing eter,firului wetermocuplu managed to determine the The deposit of solid ice can be so strong termică cu ajutorul de contact cu am reuúit să determinăm alori camera între corespunzătoare, pedevice suprafaĠa se depune brumă cu oheat textură created bydethe company. Halfa the sample of emission coefficient of că thetechnologia contact wire. that it cannot be simply eliminated with emisie termică firului de contact. Măsurătorile arătat oasă úicoeficientul cu rezistenĠă mecanică mică, care esteMeasurements eliminată deau obicei prin frecare de the contact wire had treated surface and the indicated that the elaborată de tratare a suprafeĠei a reuúit să mărească la 0,5 valoarea coeficientului desurface emisie the pantograph. Moreover, an ice layer may other half had not. During the testing optreatment technology managed to increase form so thick that not even the exploitation ograful locomotivei. Dacă condiĠiile de mediu úi de exploatare se modifică, este posibilă termică. Utilizând această valoare întransitory calculele teoretice prezentate înthe Figura 3., rezultăcoefcă se heat could melt it. eration, we have waited until the to 0.5% the value of heat emission mareapoate de gheaĠă pea curentului firul de contact, special în punctele de suspensie. Depunerea obĠine osolidă creútere dereached sarcinăîn deficient. 3-5% pe tronson utilizarea unui heating regime passed and we have Byacelaúi using this valueprin in the theoretical Our process of surface treatment imde contact de acelaúi tip dar cu suprafaĠa tratată. Valoarea reală, desigur, depinde de heaĠăfirtare poate fi atât de puternică, încât ea nu se poate elimina simplu cu pantograful. a thermal balance. This observation was calculations presented in Figure 3, it results proves this situation in two ways. The first concrete dehelp mediu. cre�tere, după cum amobtain arătat anterior, nuacesta influenĠează achieved with of a Această heatun camera. that we can a 3-5% increase insă thenu one is that multcondiĠiile decât atât, se the poate forma strat de gheaĠă atât de gros, încât poată fi the air steam on the contact wire parametrii mecanici sau electrici, deci nu e nevoie de a schimba parametrii de proiectare. In the heat balance state, we took photoload current on the same section by using surface doesn’t condensate in large water tă niciCude căldura produsă în timpul exploatării. acestea,with úi althe treilea menĠionat graphs heatobiectiv camera (Figure 5),înasintroducere a contacteste wiredeofasemenea the sameîndeplinit, type, but úiwith drops, but in smaller water drops. They cesul anume, nostru tratare a suprafeĠei situaĠie învalue două moduri. glide Primul well curentul asdeheat measurements with mări aîmbunătăĠeúte contact treatedaceastă surface. The actual easily and eliminate the occurrence of de sarcină se poate fără schimbarea parametrilor mecanici úi depends, electrici this final case, we used an firului of course, of thea firului realnuenvironment condia thick ice layer. A thin ice layer is formed doarIn prin creúterea termic de de contact realizat acelaimportanĠi, căthermometer. aburiicidin aer depuúi pecoeficientului suprafaĠa deemisie contact condensează în picături iron thermocouple we electrically insutions. This growth, as previously shown, instead made of small water drops with the tratarea de suprafaĠă corespunzătoare a acestuia. i, ci înprin picături mici de that apă. Aceútia se scurg mainot uúor, aúa că se poate dezvoltastructure un strat of the contact wire with a thin layer ofcă acest does influence thenu mechanic similar to rime. Amlated menĠionat, de asemenea, în introducere, fenomen nu este efectul unicorúielectric cel mai de gheaĠă, ci doar un strat subĠire, format din mai multe picături mici, care prezintă polymeric. parameters and it isgheaĠa, not necesTo odemonstrate, we have divergently important. Pe perioada de iarnă, pe suprafaĠa firului de contact se therefore cristalizează care heat asemănătoare camera precum photograph clearly sary toenergiei change design parameters. The third sprayed water from a distance of 100 mm ctură pune maiThe degrabă cea decolectării brumă. în pericol calitatea úicu siguranĠa electrice. GheaĠa trebuie să fie shows that the temperature of the contact objective mentioned in the introduction on both sides (treated and non-treated) of eliminată în cursul exploatării, capabilă de apă a provoca probleme. În current caz mmthe tru demonstrare, am pulverizat în modethan divergent de lamulte onamely distan�ă de 100 pecontact wire. Figure 6 shows how the wire with treated surface isdeoarece smaller is also achieved, the load extrem, ea poate provoca intermitenĠe în colectarea energiei electrice sau chiar întreruperea ele părĠi (tratată úi netratată) ale firului de contact. Figura 6. prezintă modul cum the non-treated surface. Both heat meas- can be increased without changing the im- sprayed small water drops gather on the a acesteia ruperea linieicamera, aeriene.the Ambele reprezintă un risc parameters, important urements made with the heat portant mechanic and electric non-treated surface of the contact wire, turiletotală minuscule deprin apă pulverizate se exploatării adună peprobleme suprafaĠa netratată a firului de contact, pentru trac�iunea electrică în asigurarea continue a acesteia. O altă problemă thermocouple respectively, showed that for but also by increasing the contact wire heat forming large drops. It is easy to imagine mând rezultă picături mari. Este usor de aceste picături temperaturi joasehow se these drops transform into ice at low dincurrent faptul of că480A tracĠiunea pe închipuit calea feratăcum pune sub sarcină linia dela contact pe a load to which the AC100 emission coefficient achieved bytronsoane, treating sformă în gheaĠă úi provoacă problemele descrise. încălzind firul de contact pe o perioadă de timp cât tronsonul este sub sarcină úi lăsând acesta temperatures and cause the described probFigure 6. Test with water sprayed on the treated and non-treated surface (AC100 lems. contact wire) Figure 6 shows that large drops don’t appear on the treated surface of the contact wire, the sprayed water drops glide individually off the wire surface. In case of frost, crystallization begins with these small drops, so, on the one hand, the chance of a thick ice layer is small and, on the other hand, the thin ice layer is easier to remove mechanically or thermally. The second way in which the treatment of the contact wire surface prevents ice is related to the increase of the thermal emission coefficient through which the treated

Figura6. Test cu apă pulverizată pe suprafaĠa tratată úi netratată (fir de contact tip AC100)

February 2014 | www.railwaypro.com


58 Engineer contact wire releases more heat in the environment. The environment can be a direct one or even the ice layer. In case of frost on the contact wire, it can be submitted to a pre-set electric loan which partially or totally melts the thin ice layer which can then be easily removed by the locomotive pantograph. These conclusions come from both the theoretical calculation mentioned in the introduction and from the tests with water sprayed on the contact wire. Abstract Our company is committed to the continuous improvement of its products. By developing innovative products and technologies, we propose to rise quality levels and the operational safety of all our products, either contact wire conductors, wire cables for the automotive industry or energy industry or contact wires for railway or road electric transport. In most cases, the development activity is carried out together with our customers. This paper has presented the results of the tests applied to contact wires which had been previously submitted to a surface treatment process, representing a result of our latest innovative activities. By correspondingly treating the contact wire surface, our aim was to obtain an increase of the nominal electric load on the same section and to increase the resistance of the contact wire to ice, thus increasing the safety of railway traffic. For measurements, we have used samples made of contact wires with different section using Cu-ETP or CuAg1materials. The contact wires have been manufactured using in-house technology where the fabrication line has been completed with the surface treatment equipment.

“Грузовой автомобильрельсового пути” системы Наша компания - FUX SA, более десяти лет производит контактные провода и другие кабельные проводники для воздушных систем энергии соответствующих электрифицированным железнодорожным сетям. За эти десять лет мы достигли тесного сотрудничества с нашими партнёрами, факт который стимулировал нас постоянно развивать линию продукции. Кроме обеспечения качества нашей продукции, путём открытия к нововведениям, мы прилагаем усилия для непрерывного повышения надёжности нашей продукции для железнодорожных строителей и операторов. В данной статье, мы представляем такую цель и соответственно, её достижение. Устойчивая температура контактного провода определяется в первую очередь теплом, переданным электрическим зарядом и теплом, переданным путём www.railwaypro.com | February 2014

The mechanic and electric properties of the contact wires were tested and the conclusion was that the recently manufactured treated contact wires are similar to those non-treated. Moreover, the new contact wires fully meet the standard specifications. An important design parameter is the T 0.5 value of temperature which determines in fact the thermal stability of the contact wire. This value, in the course of primary mechanic design, determines the maximum exploitation temperature of the overhead line. To determine the T0.5 value, we made a series of heat treatments in our lab and then we tested the mechanic and electric properties. We noticed that surface treatment has changed neither the value of the T0.5 temperature, nor the electric or mechanic properties. Following these results, we can conclude that the contact wire with treated surface can replace or change the same type of non-treated contact wire anywhere. We have also introduced the contact wire samples in a special testing device at high load current. After setting the heat balance, we measured the temperature of the wire with a heat camera, namely a contact thermocouple. We noticed that for the same electric load (same current), the temperature of the contact wire with treated surface is smaller than that of the non-treated wire, so the emission of this type of contact wire is higher. With the values provided by the contact thermometer, we managed to calibrate the heat camera and to determine the heat emission coefficient which ranges between 0.1 and 0.15 for the contact wire with non-treated surface, while for the contact wire with treated surface, the value of this coefficient increased to around 0.5. This increase of the heat emission coefficient

permits an approximate increase of 3-5% of the nominal load current depending on the environment conditions. We also analysed the ice deposit by spraying water on the surface of the contact wire. We noticed that while the water sets in large drops on the non-treated surface leading to thick ice layers, small drops form on the treated surface leading to a thin ice layer with small mechanic resistance. Moreover, the heat emission coefficient of the contact wire increased with the surface treatment resulting in the reduction of the defrost current and therefore of the used electric energy and the easier removal of the ice layer off the contact wire. The contact wire surface treatment process introduced in the final part of the fabrication line didn’t affect productivity. The raw materials were not changed and the treatment process can be applied to all types of standard contact wires manufactured by our company, which makes us capable to provide the above-mentioned advantages for all our products.

радиации. Известно, что насаженный контактный провод со временем, оказывает лучшее сопротивление току перегрузки благодаря тому, что при окислении поверхности, имеет повышенную способность теплопередачи. Данная способность повышенной радиации поверхности имеет и другую выгоду: лёд, образованный на контактном проводе, растапливается при более низком уровне нагрузочного тока. В процессе нашего развития, мы создали метод обработки поверхности, при котором способность теплопередачи нового произведенного контактного провода становится подобной теплопередачи провода при бывшом употреблении. Метод обработки поверхности не влияет на главные характеристики контактного провода, на пример, на геометрию, механическое сопротивление, или электрическую проводимость. Данный факт доказан в нашей статье результатами сравнивающих измерений

с необработанными проводами, которые проводились в нашей лаборатории. Результаты показывают, что контактный провод с обработанной поверхностью может использоватся в проектах или в эксплуатации также как провода с необработанной поверхностью, заменяя без проблем классический провод. Мы доказали, что обработка поверхности приводит к повышению нормы теплопередачи контактного провода, позволяя немного повысить номинальное напряжение в эксплуатации. Также мы доказали, что контактный провод с обработанной поверхностью приводит к образованию тонкого слоя льда, легко удалимому механически или термически, позволяя повысить безопасность железнодорожного движения. Процесс обработки поверхности применяется для последней части продукции, и, в зависимости от спроса наших клиентов, может применятся для любых стандартных контактных проводов нашей продукции.

References 1 A. Csoma, Actual questions on loadability of catenary wires , Hungarian Rail Technology Journal, vol. XVIII/2, 2013, Magyar Közlekedési kiadó Kft. 2 A. Csoma, Actual questions on loadability of catenary wires.(2nd. part), Hungarian Rail Technology Journal, vol. XVIII/2, 2013, Magyar Közlekedési kiadó Kft. 3 Gy. Nemcsik, P. Barkóczy, Sz. Gyöngyösi, Development of the drawing technology of shaped wires, XIV. Conference on plastic deformation, Miskolc, Hungary, pp. 228-233 (2011) 4 D.A. Porter – K.E. Easterling: Phase transformation in metals and alloys, Chapman & Hall, London, 1996 5 P. Cotterill – P.R. Mould: Recrystallization and Grain Growth in Metals, Surrey University Press, London, 1982


Engineer 59

Railway infrastructure financing – an aspect with vast implications in railway transport system operation (part IV)

5. Strategy elements of railway infrastructure modernization 1.1 The effects of the increase of maximum speed and maximum admitted tonnage as a result of investments In the following, the considerations will be focused on investment strategies in railway infrastructure through modernization works. Regarding the aim of investments, the infrastructure manager has to choose between two directions: • The increase of the maximum traffic speed, specific to the high speed lines or passenger transport networks and operators; • The increase of the maximum tonnage, a strategy dedicated to the networks with freight traffic superior to passenger traffic (for example, the railway networks in USA, Canada and Australia). The concepts “increase of the maximum speed” and “tonnage” are related only to the direct effects of investments. Generally, through a modernization process that increases the value of the main parameters projected for the running track, superior values of maximum admitted speeds and tonnage are obtained. Their values vary according to the specificity of the activity and fundamental strategies. The indirect effects of railway operation as a result of investments that aim to increase the maximum speed, maximum admitted tonnage respectively, are schematically presented in figures 25 and 26. The two situations are different, being specific to passenger, respectively freight transport networks. Regarding the railway networks dedicated to mixed traffic, the efficient option between the two directions of development through investments is difficult to choose. No matter which option is adopted, the negative effects for the other area of activity are induced. The excessive development of a railway network \primarily dedicated to passenger traffic (high speed and mobility) generates disadvantageous operational conditions for freight traffic. Firstly, tonnage and/or length limitations for trains are imposed. The lack of sorting units and technical stations with sufficient lines affects the level of mobility and connectivity of freight flows. The avail-

[ by Viorel LUCACI – Expert, Romanian Railway Safety Authority – ASFR Marian CIOFALCĂ – Head of Service, Romanian Railway Safety Authority – ASFR ]

able maximum lengths of the delivery/dispatch lines of a passenger traffic network do not provide the possibility to operate freight trains of adequate length. Thus, the probability that this mode of freight transportation will become energy efficient is low. A similar situation, with difficulties registered in both directions (passengers and freight) is identified on the CFR network in the rehabilitated area of the pan-European Corridor IV. In other train of thought, directing investments strictly to the freight railway transport, considering the existent mixed traffic, creates significant limitations for the passenger railway transport. In such a scenario speed restrictions and limitations are the main problems that could appear. The value of work execution duration ( ) is influenced by the type of equipments and technologies used, the professional background/number of the personnel and the factors related to the amplitude of the structure, the category of the railway line (its importance and positioning within the railway network, the traffic, the maximum traffic speed etc.) and the geographic conditions. The cases when the railway traffic is totally suspended during the modernization\rehabilitation works on a specific section of a railway line are rare. Such a situation would be the most advantageous, because operations can be interrupted and will not be obstructed by the (minimum) traffic that must be maintained. Not all railway networks allow this. Often, practice has revealed that the bypass possibilities (without implying excessive extensions of the train routes – a fact that implies additional energy consumption, the increase of the transit time, significant cost increase etc) are insignificant. For this reason, the modernization\ rehabilitation works are carried without the total interruption of railway traffic. The aspects mentioned above determine prolongations (sometimes significant) of (Tr ) durations. Thus, works can extend on intervals ranging between a few days (in the case of easy works) and several years (in the case of complex rehabilitation works – for example: the rehabilitated sections of the pan-European Corridor IV Bucharest – Ploiesti and Bucharest – Constanta). Moreover, the timetables necessary for such works are influencing particular traf-

fic conditions, such as: the occurrence of speed restrictions for the protection of the site areas, cancellations of trains, difficulties in railway traffic, the complete closure of a particular traffic section (in the case of double track lines), the adoption of temporary traffic systems etc. These disadvantages that cannot be avoided during work execution period are represented with dotted line in figures 24 and 25. In other words, the beneficial effects of the modernization/rehabilitation of a railway line are observed after the complete fulfilment of related works, representing a “compensation period” (noted Tc in figures 24 and 25). In order to simplify figures 24 and 25 Tc is constant for all the indirect effects presented. In practice, the compensation time is different, its duration being determined similarly to case Tr. The main indirect effects related to infrastructure (running track) investments that aim to increase the maximum speed are the following (figure 24): • The increase of the mobility level (M1>M2). This is the main advantage related to the increase of the maximum traffic speed. Decreases of the transit times occur, including transit periods that passenger trains register from the station in cause to the end station. A high level of mobility significantly attracts passengers towards the railway transport system. For the majority of individuals, the time concept has an important significance in the context of economic, social, industrial and cultural activities; • The decrease of the transit times (T1>T2). This aspect is advantageous in the operation of passenger trains; • The decrease of energy consumption (Co1->Co2). A running track that allows high speed operation without speed restrictions and limitations provides the conditions for an optimal and efficient exploitation regime for the traction equipments. In these conditions, the quantity of consumed energy corresponding to the number of carried passengers has low values. The resulted beneficial economic effects are significant; • The environmental impact (I1->I2) decreases as a result of reduced energy consumption and silent running. The traffic of February 2014 | www.railwaypro.com


60 Engineer the trains with high and constant speeds reduces the powder resulted through repeated braking processes. The breaking processes make the high speed trains more environmentally friendly. Generally, the high speed trains use electromagnetic or electric breaking systems. Systems based on mechanical friction are used only in exceptional or emergency cases; • The increase of passenger flow (F1->F2). It is a result of the increase of traffic speeds and mobility level; • The increase of incomes (Î1->Î2). The increase of the passenger flow determines the increase of incomes. There is a strong interconnectivity between all the aspects mentioned above. The variation (increase or decrease) of one aspect has influence on the others.

load, are vehement. • The increase of energy consumption (Co1->Co2). At first analysis, this aspect can be considered a disadvantage. The increase of energy consumption is insignificant in comparison with the increase of the volume of freight. Against the road sector, in railway traction the values of energy consumption have not the same shares in report with carried tonne. In other words, if in the road traffic the aim is to double the freight traffic, the value of fuel consumption is also doubled at a certain moment. In the railway system, the doubling of the actual volume (by increasing the number of wagons or using heavy load wagons) does not lead to an increase of energy consumption in the same proportion, due to low mechanical resistance (significantly lower compared with a similar carried volume). Compared to other surface transport systems, the change of energy consumption is significantly lower related to freight volume variation; • The increase of incomes (Î1->Î2) is related to the increase of freight volume. Longer and heavier freight trains generate increases of incomes; • The increase of transport efficiency (E1>E2). The efficiency of the railway transport is a characteristic resulted by combining the variation of the other factors mentioned above. For example, the increase of efficiency occurs when a freight operator puts in operation very long trains (for example over 200 wagons – USA), or vehicles with high axle load (25 or 30 tonnes per axle). A highly efficient railway transport system is provided when the quantity of the consumed energy corresponding to each effective tonne carried is as low as possible. Moreover, the efficiency of this transport system is related to the optimal driving of the train.

Figure 24. The indirect effects of railway infrastructure investment that increases the value of maximum admitted speed

For the investments that aim to increase the maximum tonnage, the indirect effects are the following (figure 25): • The increase of freight volume (Vol1>Vol2). A high value of the maximum tonnage admitted on a certain network or section offers the possibility of using trains with greater length and higher freight volume. Moreover, the increase of the maximum axle load allows the increase of the effective load for freight wagons. Remark: On the railway networks in North America, the mass of a four-axle railway vehicle can exceed 120 tonnes and the mass of a six-axle load vehicle can reach 180 tonnes. The economical advantages, from the point of view of the carried effective www.railwaypro.com | February 2014

Figure 25. The indirect effects of a railway infrastructure investment that increases the value of maximum admitted tonnage

2. The connection between the characteristics of the railway transport system and the economic development of certain states The available statistics and the history of railway networks reveal that the economic and industrial development (for the majority of states) is strongly related to the extension and characteristics of these networks. The unprecedented industrial development registered in the 19th century was based mostly on the invention of the steam car – in fact, the steam locomotive. In comparison with road transportation, the ground transportation possibilities (economic and safe) of large freight volumes and a significant number of passengers offered by railway transport, have provided vast opportunities of rational distribution of industrial capacities as well as major implications in land planning. Often, large human settlements (and areas of industrial activity) have been created and developed as a result of the existence of railway transport facilities (railway hubs, connections with ports or areas of exploitation of main energy resources, etc). The aspects mentioned above generally refer to the 19th century (the beginning of which marks the creation of the railway transport system). History after the “railway revolution” has proved that neither the 20th century has drifted from these international “trends”. The multiple advantages offered by the railway transport (especially military – important during that period) have determined the contemporary decision-makers to undertake ample policies for the development of railway networks. In fact, the major share of the total amount of kilometres of railway lines currently available to mankind was constructed in the 20th century. The fast evolution of the road transport system during the last 50 – 60 years has not led to the “eradication” of railway networks. The railway sector continued its strategic and economic role in the highly industrialized states, even after 23 years from the transition to the 21th century. The level of extension and development of the railway system in the highly industrialized states confirms this affirmation. In order to confirm the aspects mentioned above, a comparison between the railway transport systems of several states from and outside the European Union is presented in the following. The analyzed states are: Japan, Russian Federation, United States of America, Argentina, Brazil, Germany, France, Great Britain, Italy, Sweden, Switzerland, Netherlands, Poland, Romania and Czech Republic. Their sequence is not based on aspects related to the development or importance, representing the order of their presentation in the sources. The main characteristics related to the railway transport system of these states (territory, the length of the railway network, the relation between the length of the network and territorial surface, the volume of carried freight, the number of carried


Engineer 61                                 

Nr. crt.

Denumireastatului 1

DistribuƜiemodalĉ[%](dinvolumultotal

SuprafaƜĉ

PopulaƜie

[km²]

[milioanelocuitori]

LungimeareƜelei decaleferatĉ[km]

Raportul LungimeareƜelei/suprafaƜa teritoriului [Kmdecaleferatĉ/km²]

Transportde marfĉ

Transportde cĉlĉtori

[miliardetoneͲkm]

[miliardecĉlĉtori–km]

Marfĉ

Cĉlĉtori

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

transportat–rutier+feroviar)

1

JAPONIA

337.944

127,69

20.100

0,0594

22,3

402,9

6

30,6

2

RUSIA

17.075.400

141,96

84.200

0,0049

2.116,2

175,9

60,3

77,8[fĉrĉ considerarea operatorilorde transportrutieri privaƜi]

3

STATELEUNITE ALEAMERICII

9.629.091

304.4

226.700

0,0235

2.641

9,9

45,2

0,2

0,0069

12,024[23.619.000 tone]

9,562[734.043.000 cĉlĉtori]

Datenedisponibile

Datenedisponibile

19.399[18.504(reƜeade transportdemarfĉ) 895(reƜeadetransportde cĉlĉtori)]

4

ARGENTINA

2.780.400

40,117

5

BRAZILIA

8.511.965

190,732

27.916[27.646(reƜeade transportdemarfĉ) 270(reƜeadetransportde cĉlĉtori)]

0,0032

265,2[424.000.000 tone]

4,419[282.316.000 cĉlĉtori]

Datenedisponibile

Datenedisponibile

6 7

GERMANIA FRANfA

354.104 543.965

82 62,4

33.900 29.900

0,0957 0,0549

115,7 40,6

81,8 85

21,5 13,9

8,2 10

8

MAREABRITANIE

243.820

61,6

16.200

0,0664

24,8

52,7

11,9

6,7

9

ITALIA SUEDIA ELVETIA OLANDA

301.336

60

19.900

0,0660

23,8

49,8

10,4

450.295

9,3

11.000

0,0244

23,1

11

36,2

9,3

41.285

7,7

3.600

0,0871

12,3

18

38,6

15,8

41.526

16,5

2.900

0,0698

7

16

POLONIA ROMÂNIA REPUBLICACEH 

312.685

38,1

19.600

0,0626

52

20,2

22,7

6,

238.391

21,5

10.800

0,0453

15,2

6,9

17,9

7,5

78.868

10,5

9.500

0,1204

15,4

6,8

23,2

7,1

10 11 12 13 14 15

5,3

5,7

9,1



Table 1. Characteristics transport of certain states    of the  railway       system   

Surse:



x EuropeanCommission,EnergyandTransportinFigures,StatisticalPocketbook2010; x TheEconomist,PocketWorldinFigures2010; x OECD/ITF2010,TrendsintheTransportSector1970Ͳ2008; x AssociationofAmericanRailroads2007(pentruSUA); x Eurostat,StatisticalOfficeoftheEuropeanUnion,2010; Sursĉintegratĉ:DREW,J.,&LUDEVIG,J.,(2011),ReformingRailwaysͲLearningfromExperience,EdituraEurailpress,Hamburg.

passengers and the modal distribution in freight and passenger railway transport) are presented in table 1. According to the data presented in table 1 it is observed that in addition to the direct proportional dependency between the territorial surface, the volume of carried freight, the number of passengers and the length of the railway network, the level of economic development has a significant influence on these characteristics. This aspect is revealed especially by the volume of transported freight and the modal distribution share (columns 6, 8 and 9 in table 1). Of all the 15 analysed states, it is known that the highest levels of economic and industrial development are in the United States, Japan, the Russian Federation, Brazil and Germany. The parameters corresponding to columns 2,3,4,5,6,7,8 and 9 in table 1 are graphically represented in next figures .

The density of the railway network [km of railway line/km²] presents an atypical situation. It is observed that, of the analyzed states, the ones with a small territorial surface present the highest values (Czech Republic, Romania and Switzerland). Practically, the density of the railway network has a tendency of distribution inversely proportional to the territorial surface. Such a situation occurs as a result of two factors: 1. The scaling characteristics of the parameters in table 1 do not present connections on a proportional scale from a state to another. The differences between the extreme values (especially regarding the territorial surface) are significant. For example, in order to equalize Germany’s railway network density with the one of the United States it would be necessary to create a railway network measuring almost one million km – an aspect difficult to achieve from the economic perspective and considering the opportunities, even for the USA’s economic potential. 2. From the historic perspective, the construction and development of most of the current railway networks have been undertaken in the context of different configurations of the borders between the states, this issue corresponding to different administrative situations. Most of such administrative mutations took place in the 20th century. For example: the split of

former Czechoslovakia, the disintegration of Austro-Hungarian Empire and Soviet Union etc. The aspects presented above reveal that the economic development is compulsory connected to the existence of an appropriately maintained railway system and railway networks efficiently distributed on the territory. 3. Conclusions The behaviour in time of the railway infrastructure is influenced by the level of stress generated by the traffic of trains. Any exceeding of the projected stress level causes significant accelerations of the wear-out process and the premature degradation of particular constituent elements. The carried gross tonnage on a particular railway line can have different values defined through specific regulations and rules. This indicator is measured in hundreds of millions of gross tonnes (carried) and represents the quantity of cumulated tonnes (vertical load) carried on a particular running track section. Exceeding the designed length of trains or tonnage determines significant transversal or vertical efforts that accelerate the degradation and wear-out process. This creates possibilities for the occurrence of defects that generate speed restrictions or limitations. The adoption of efficiently implemented investment strategies for railway infrastructure has significant positive effects on a medium and long term. The subsequent maintenance costs can be significantly reduced through higher values of the initial investments. The lack of financing implies the adoption of compromise solutions, as introducing speed restrictions and limitations, closure of lines etc. All these aspects lead to the amplification of the negative consequences and losses caused by the decrease of the traffic, as well as the traffic capacity of the network. Finally, the efficiency of the railway transport system is affected in modal competition. Viorel LUCACI – Expert, Romanian Railway Safety Authority – ASFR

Marian CIOFALCĂ – Head of Service, Romanian Railway Safety Authority – ASFR

February 2014 | www.railwaypro.com


62 statistics Total length of rail lines operated (km) per 10 000 km2 for selected countries, 2011

Main transport indicators, 2011

Totallengthofraillinesoperated(km)per10000km2 forselectedcountries,2011

Sweden* Azerbaijan* Finland UnitedStatesofAmerica* Turkey* Norway RussianFederation

Rail infrastructure gross se0 200 400investment 600 800 spending 1000 1200for1400 Main transport indicators, 2002-2011 lected countries,Source:UNECEdatabase 2010 Current prices and*Datarefersto2010 exchange rates (million Euros) Railinfrastructuregrossinvestmentspendingforselectedcountries,2010 Roadaccidents:Fatalitiesper1000000inhabitants,2002Ͳ2011 Currentpricesandexchangerates(millionEuros) Kyrgyzstan

Switzerland* CzechRepublic* Germany Hungary* Slovakia* Netherlands* Austria UnitedKingdom* Poland* Slovenia Italy France* Croatia* Romania Serbia* Bulgaria RepublicofMoldova* Portugal Latvia Spain TheFYRofMacedonia* Lithuania* Ireland* Estonia* Sweden* Azerbaijan* Finland UnitedStatesofAmerica* Turkey* Norway RussianFederation

RussianFederation RussianFederation Kazakhstan

Spain

RepublicofMoldova

UnitedKingdom Georgia Azerbaijan Italy* Poland

France

Ukraine

Germany

Greece

Turkey UnitedStatesofAmerica Serbia

Sweden

Albania

Belgium*

Armenia

Poland Lithuania Croatia Canada

Romania

CzechRepublic

Belarus

Portugal BosniaandHerzegovina Bulgaria Denmark

Latvia

Finland

Portugal

Norway* Montenegro TheFYRofMacedonia

Hungary

Cyprus

Slovakia

Belgium

Romania Estonia Uzbekistan Luxembourg*

CzechRepublic

Slovenia

Slovenia Canada 0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

Hungary *Datarefersto2009 Source:InternationalTransportForum(ITF) Italy

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Source: Main transportSource:UNECEdatabase indicators in the UNECE region, September*Datarefersto2010 2013

Luxembourg Austria France

Railinfrastructuregrossinvestmentspendingforselectedcountries,2010 EU supporting future Rail Freight Corridor 1 through co-financed project Slovakia Currentpricesandexchangerates(millionEuros) Liechtenstein

TheRussianFederation European Union will co-finance with €1.61 million from the TEN-T Programme aSpain series of actions to promote the concept of Rail Freight Corridors, which are important sections of pan-European rail infrastrucUnitedKingdom ture identified by EU Regulation 913/2010. In particular, the project will Italy* promote the implementation of the Rotterdam-Genoa Corridor 1. The ActionFrance includes: 1) StudiesGermany covering the development of the corridor information system; Turkey 2) Improvement of quality of operations within the Corridor; Sweden 3) Establishment of an integrated corridor management system. Belgium* Budget: Poland Canada

Total project cost covered by this Decision:

Denmark

Finland €1,610,000 Norway*

Turkey Germany Ireland Israel Malta Switzerland Netherlands Denmark Iceland

2002 2011

Spain Norway Sweden UnitedKingdom 0

Studies: 50%

CzechRepublic

Action Portugal promoter:

Percentage of EU support:

Finland

€3,220,000 EU contribution: €1,610,000

Hungary Rail studies in Slovenia to get a boost from EU co-financing

50

100

€1,610,000

€1,610,000

It is part of a Global Project aiming to increase the line capacity by doubling the track, upgrading the freight category from D3 to D4 and upgradPercentage of EU cost ing theBudget: signallingTotal andproject telecommunication systems. covered by this support: Action Budget: promoter: Action €2,882,000 promoter: €1,224,000

Decision: Percentage of EU Total project cost covered by Studies: 50% support: this Decision: €12,790,000 €2,448,000 EU contribution:

Studies: 50%

EU contribution: €2,558,000 €1,224,000

x

www.railwaypro.com | February 2014 Budget: Budget:

Total project cost Total project cost covered by this

Percentage of EU Percentage of EU support:

200

250

UnitedNationsEconomicCommissionforEurope TransportDivision Palais desNations,8Ͳ14AvenuedelaPaix,CHͲ1211Geneva10 Tel:+41(0)229172401– Fax:+41(0)229170039 EͲmail:stat.trans@unece.org,www.unece.org/trans

Slovakia

RomaniaUnion will support with just over €1.2 million from the The European Percentage of EU Total project cost covered by Budget: Luxembourg* this TEN-T Programme a series of studies to support the construction of a new support: Decision: Percentage of EU Total project cost Budget: railway Action line running from the country’s capital of Ljubljana to the Austrian Slovenia covered by this support: Studies: 50% border,promoter: including a0€2,448,000 connection to4000 Ljubljana’s Jože Puènik airport. Decision: 2000 6000 8000 10000 The study concerns the evaluation ofStudies: options 50% for the alignment and the *Datarefersto2009 Source:InternationalTransportForum(ITF) EU contribution: €1,224,000 preparation report for a new railway line Ljubljana€3,220,000 Actionof an environmental promoter: Kranj-Jesenice-state border, with a connection to Ljubljana Jože Puènik €1,224,000 EU contribution: Airport.

150

Contactinformation

UNITED NATIONS September 2013


Budget:

Total project cost covered by this Decision:

Percentage of EU support:

statistics

63

Studies: 50% €3,220,000 Action promoter: given to studies and works for Vienna’s trimodal port expansion EU support EU contribution: €1,610,000

The European Union will co-finance with over €5.3 million from €1,610,000 the TEN-T Programme two initiatives for the extension of the Vienna trimodal port’s container handling capacity and improvements to the overall intermodality of the port. Both the studies and works, which contribute to the realisation of the “Railway axis Paris-StrasbourgPercentage of EU Total project cost covered by Budget: Stuttgart-Wien-Bratislava” (TEN-T Priority Project 17) and the “Watersupport: this Decision: way axisAction Rhine/Meuse-Main-Danube” (TEN-T Priority Project 18) will Percentage of EU Total project cost Budget: promoter: major 50% and combina€2,448,000 help eliminate bottlenecks in thecovered port’sStudies: transfer by this support: tion capacity. Decision: EU contribution: €1,224,000 Action The proposed consists of studies aiming to plan Studies: and design 50% the expanded Port€1,224,000 of Vienna Freudenau.€3,220,000 The studies specifically look Action at extending the containerpromoter: handling capacities of the port. The Action EU contribution: will include all the necessary steps from preliminary planning to ob€1,610,000 taining the building authorisations and€1,610,000 publishing the works tenders. Budget: Action promoter:

Total project cost covered by this Decision: €12,790,000

€2,882,000

Budget:

Action EU contribution: promoter: €2,558,000

€1,224,000

x

Percentage of EU support: Studies: 50% Total project cost covered by this Decision: €2,448,000

Percentage of EU support: Studies: 50%

EU contribution: €1,224,000

EU to co-finance rail studies for new northern Greek line The European Union will support with €1 million from the TEN-T Programme a seriesTotal of project studies which are necessary for the construction Percentage of EU cost Budget: Percentage of EUof Total project cost Budget: of the new 43 km single connecting the commercial Port coveredrailway by this line support: covered by this support: Kavala (Philippos Port) with the Greek rail network. Decision: Action Decision: Action Thesepromoter: studies are a necessary step towards the maturityStudies: of the promoter:Studies: 50% 50% €2,000,000 global project, whose construction phase is foreseen as part of the 5th €12,790,000 €1,000,000 Programming Period 2014-2020. €2,882,000 EU contribution: EU contribution: The studies include inter alia: • preliminary studies for structures and E/M installations buildings €1,000,000 • preliminary architectural studies for€2,558,000 E/M installations buildings, platforms and shelters x • detailed designs for E/M installations buildings, platforms and shelters • final studies for hydraulics, alignment, track layout and structures • geotechnical studies Percentage of EU Total project cost • superstructure study Budget: covered by this support: • cadastre Decision: Action • compilation of tender promoter: Studies: 50% documents €2,000,000 €1,000,000

EU contribution: €1,000,000

Estonian studies on “Rail Baltica” on track thanks to EU co-funding The European Union will co-finance with just over €5.1 million from the TEN-T Programme a series of studies to lay the groundwork for the development of the Estonian section of “Rail Baltica” (Warsaw-Kaunas-Riga-Tallinn-Helsinki - TEN-T Priority Project 27). “Rail Baltica” is a strategic and sustainable rail project linking four new EU Member States of the EU - Poland, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia - as well as Finland. In addition, it is the only rail connection between the three Baltic States themselves to Poland and the rest of the EU. To the north, Helsinki is connected by rail ferry services across the Gulf of Finland which can form a “bridge” to the countries of the Nordic Triangle (PP12). The length of the current track is approximately 1,200 km by the most direct existing route from Tallinn to Warsaw. A variety of track and operating systems are currently in use: single and double track, electrified and nonelectrified (of which single track non-electrified is the most common system).

Source: http://inea.ec.europa.eu/en/news__events/newsroom/news_archive_2013.htm

February 2014 | www.railwaypro.com


64

POLICIES & STRATEGIES

What are the solutions offered by public transport for reducing the effects of excessive urban development? [ by Elena Ilie ]

C

onsidering the importance of the tram line route and, especially of its related infrastructure, in the traffic system of cities and metropolitan areas as a whole, it is necessary to observe European regulation principles when building new lines and upgrading old ones by implementing appropriate constructive solutions with increased reliability and environment protections standards, economic solutions with minimal implications over street equipments on the crossed routes. Due to excessive urban development in the past years, the cities are facing an increase in the density of populations and of freight volumes that need transportation. But the development of necessary infrastructure so as to cover these growths is limited in many cities due to lack of space. That is why, those responsible of counteracting this threat underline that the applications of the Intelligent Transport Solutions (ITS) are insufficiently used to be able to create an efficient management of urban mobility or are developed without considering interoperability. The European Commission underlines that it is necessary for the authorities to ensure public investments in infrastructure, in the existing rolling stock fleet and in its maintenance, even in the replacement

of the obsolete fleet of vehicles in order to ensure a safer urban transport. This also requires cooperation at local, regional, national and European level, but also among citizens who should properly pay for the services they use and they are willing to pay for quality public transport services. Correlation at regional and national level The public transport sector has the necessary competence to improve the urban area, for both citizens and development of activities, as we can see in many urban centres. The proper and efficient management of the transport infrastructure can have a positive impact on safety and the environment. Accessibility to a public transport system is defined through the quality given to population regarding urban mobility which includes infrastructure and transport services. The efficient connections from insides the cities, or those with the surroundings of cities between urban and interurban transport networks, are considered essential. According to the opinions of the decision makers in the public transport system, intermodal exchange is not paid enough attention and there is also a lack of collectively integrated transport solutions, such

as suburban rail transport systems, tramtrain correlated systems, etc. It is recommended to implement measures to develop a public transport system that would be integrated, eco-friendly, attractive, fast (with vehicles with traction features that would permit high-speed traffic), and mostly sustainable (with technical solutions that would permit a reliability of 20 to 30 years, without maintenance and with minimum exploitation costs). In specific cases, many cities in SouthEast Europe, that had a vast yet quite obsolete tram transport infrastructure, have implemented radical measures such as redesigning and adopting new constructive solutions to normalize the situation and to efficiently and optimally exploit tram infrastructure. Among them, there is the urban integration of tram lines, increasing attractiveness by increasing comfort, reducing discomfort caused by noise and vibrations and, another solution, increasing the passengers’ safety by implementing light rail solutions with dedicated lines that no longer depend on road congestion. The profile industry has developed more and more products and mechanisms necessary to the rolling track of trams so that the routes of trams lines in direct line and at junctions would be optimised, and the aspect of lines would not contrast with the architecture of the streets they crossed.

Photo: wikimedia.org

Какие решения предоставляет общественный транспорт для снижения эффектов чрезмерного городского развития?

www.railwaypro.com | February 2014

Имея в виду важную роль трассы трамвайной линии и, в особенности, соответствующей инфраструктуры, в рамках городской системы движения и метропольных ареалов, при строительстве новых линий или модернизации старых, необходимо обеспечить соответствие с нормативными правилами на европейском уровне; точнее, применять эффективные и конструктивные решения, предоставляющие высокий уровень надёжности и безопасности окружающей среды, а также, экономически рентабельные, с минимальными эффектами над городским оборудованием по трассам.


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