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VOLUME 29 ISSUE 3

ISSUE THREE 2012

Hatching of eggs The hygiene factor

Indo Livestock 2012 preview Poultry watering systems Weaning of pigs Organic farming in the Philippines

Agricultural biodiversity

Stemming tree cankers with cuprous oxide fungicide - p23


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Contents

VOLUME 29 ISSUE 3

US$15.00 (UKÂŁ9.00)

Bulletin 4

A round-up of key developments in the regional market

ISSUE THREE 2012

Hatching of eggs The hygiene factor

Agenda Thai farm economy dips 1.5 per cent in Q1; Near-record wheat output in 2012 likely; DDGS sales to Japan at record levels; Malaysia keen to foster farm trade ties with Philippines; plus FAO Food Outlook

Photo: Pas Reform Hatchery Technologies

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Events 9

Previews of Indo Livestock Expo & Forum 2012 and EuroTier 2012; and an overview of other upcoming events

Indo Livestock 2012 preview Poultry watering systems Weaning of pigs

Livestock

Organic farming in the Philippines

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Good hygiene vital for high chick numbers

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Incubating eggs of different sizes

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Watering mistakes that affect poultry production

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Weaning in pigs, when the facts change

Stemming tree cankers with cuprous oxide fungicide - p23

Agricultural biodiversity

Crops 23

Stemming tree cankers with cuprous oxide fungicide

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Organic farming: The future of Philippine agriculture

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GIS-based water maps help produce more crop per drop

Equipment 30

The latest innovations and agricultural technology

Moreover 35

Agricultural biodiversity to improve nutrition food security

Advertisers Index AWILA Anlagenbau GmbH ..................................................................................5

OMEX Agrifluids Ltd ........................................................................................25

Compact Seeds and Clones SA ..........................................................................7

SCHAUER Agrotronic GmbH ............................................................................21

Diamond Engineering Ltd.................................................................................33

Schaumann Agri International GmbH ..............................................................15

Eurofeed Technologies ....................................................................................34

Technical Systems ..........................................................................................17

Goizper Sociedad Cooperativa ........................................................................23

Tithebarn Ltd. ....................................................................................................9

Lubing Maschinenfabrik GmbH & Co. KG ........................................................36

Unicess Live Group ..........................................................................................11

Machines 4 Food Limited ................................................................................19

www.fareasternagriculture.com

Managing Editor: Prabhu Dev - feag@alaincharles.com Editorial and Design team: Bob Adams, David Clancy, Andrew Croft, Immanuel Devadoss, Ranganath GS, Prashant AP, Genaro Santos, Zsa Tebbit, Nicky Valsamakis and Julian Walker Publisher: Nick Fordham Advertising Sales Director: Pallavi Pandey Magazine Sales Manager: Richard Rozelaar, Tel: +44 207 834 7676, Fax: +44 207 973 0076 Email: richard.rozelaar@alaincharles.com Country China India Nigeria Russia South Africa Qatar UAE USA

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FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2012

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Production: Donatella Moranelli, Nasima Osman, Devolina Pal, Nick Salt, Jeremy Walters and Sophia White - Email: production@alaincharles.com Subscriptions: circulation@alaincharles.com Chairman: Derek Fordham Printed by: Times Printers Private Limited Far Eastern Agriculture (ISSN 0266-8025) Audit Bureau of Circulations - Business Magazines

Serving the world of business

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Bulletin China reports H5N1 bird flu outbreak AN OUTBREAK OF the highly epidemic H5N1 bird flu virus in poultry has been reported in China's Northwestern Ningxia Hui autonomous region, the country’s Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) announced. A total of 95,000 chickens have been culled after the H5N1 bird flu case was confirmed. The outbreak was discovered as 23,000 chickens at several farms in the village showed symptoms of the avian influenza. The National Avian Influenza Reference Laboratory then tested the chickens and confirmed the outbreak. The ministry said the "epidemic is now under control", while work teams have been sent to the area to step up prevention measures. China is considered one of the nations most at risk of bird flu epidemics because it has the world's biggest poultry population and many chickens in rural areas are kept close to humans. In January, a man in southwest China's Guizhou province died after contracting the bird flu virus, the second such fatality reported in China this year, health authorities said.

Cambridge launches new journal in animal nutrition CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS has announced that it will publish a new online only animal nutrition journal. The new journal entitled Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition (JAAN) will join Cambridge’s distinguished list in animal science and nutrition from 2012. JAAN will publish leading research in all aspects of animal feed science and nutrition in agricultural species, companion species and exotic species. Research areas covered include commercially funded research such as new product development as well as academic research. The breadth and quality of original research articles, review articles, pilot studies and data papers describing large-scale trials make the journal invaluable to practitioners, consultants and veterinarians as well as researchers in the public and private sectors. Dr Lucy Waldron, Editor of JAAN, said, “This is an exciting new development for researchers, post graduates and commercial companies. As the majority of research is now commercially sponsored, it will allow improved access to data from research studies that involves a commercial element that is otherwise more difficult to publish. Although JAAN adheres to the traditional requirements in terms of quality of protocols, data analysis and reporting, it also allows readers to access pilot studies, which are highly useful as background information for new product development or new research directions.”

Cargill opens ninth feed mill in Vietnam US-BASED ANIMAL feed maker Cargill recently opened a feed plant at Dong Van II Industrial Park in Ha Nam Province, taking its total number of feed mills in Vietnam to nine. The feed mill— with a capacity of 240,000 tonnes per year— will begin production by the third quarter of this year. This investment in Ha Nam follows the company’s acquisition of a shrimp feed mill in Tien Giang Province in November 2011. Cargill CEO Greg Page, said, “Cargill is proud to have served our customers in Vietnam for the past 17 years. Our recent investment in animal nutrition is a sign of our continued commitment to the success of our esteemed customers and to fostering the economic growth of Vietnam. We see a very bright future in Vietnam as we

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prosper together with local farmers and producers in the livestock and aqua industry, as well as our valued dealers and suppliers.”

Anpario acquires Meriden Animal Health ANPARIO, ONE OF the leading suppliers of natural high performance feed additives to enhance health, growth and sustainability in global agriculture and aquaculture markets, has acquired Meriden Animal Health Limited ("Meriden"). The acquisition of Meriden brings another strong trading brand to the Anpario Group, broadening its product technology and increasing Anpario's global market share in the feed additive sector. Meriden, based in Bedfordshire in the United Kingdom, supplies the global agriculture and aquaculture markets with natural animal feed additive products. It also has a technical support team based in a representative office in Malaysia and a joint venture company in Australia. Meriden has a close and important partnership with its China operation with sales accounting for 26 per cent of Meriden’s total sales during 2011.

USGC appoints new director for China THE US GRAINS Council has announced the appointment of Dr. Bryan Lohmar as its new director in China. In this capacity, Lohmar will oversee the Council’s programmes in the country while maintaining and fostering key relationships with Chinese policy officials. Lohmar comes with a wealth of industry knowledge and experience having most recently served a three-year stint as the director of economic research for Bunge CHINA in Shanghai. Prior to that, he was an economist for USDA’s Economic Research Service, where he focused on a wide range of agricultural production and trade topics, many pertaining to China. Dr. Wendell Shauman, USGC chairman said, “Mr. Lohmar's direction and leadership will be essential to continuing our market presence in China.” “The Council has been active in the China market since 1982. Persistent, on-ground engagement in China created a foundation of credibility and trust that enables the Council to engage with the highest levels of Chinese ministries, research institutes and endusers on the value of trade as a solution to food security. This level of engagement, combined with China's growing middle-class economy has made this market into one of the newest demand drivers for U.S. corn and co-products.”

IVCC and Pfizer to collaborate with CVMA THE CHINESE VETERINARY Medical Association (CVMA) and the International Veterinary Collaboration for China (IVCC), a consortium of leading veterinary medical schools in the United States and United Kingdom and Pfizer Animal Health, announced the signing of a memorandum of understanding through which the CVMA will collaborate with the IVCC to advance veterinary medical education and animal health in mainland China. “I am confident our collaboration with the IVCC will make possible scientific exchange of best practices in veterinary medicine between the professional communities in China, the United States and United Kingdom,” said Dr Jia Youlin, President of the CVMA. “This increased access and sharing of knowledge and ideas will enrich and strengthen veterinary education in China especially at the undergraduate education level.” The CVMA, founded in 2009, is the first organisation representing the veterinary profession in China.

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2012


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Events 2012 JULY 2012 4-6

Indo Livestock 2012

Jakarta, Indonesia

8-12

CIGR-Ageng 2012

Valencia, Spain

19-21

Agritech Cebu 2012

Cebu City, Philippines

www.indolivestock.com http://cigr.ageng2012.org http://globallinkmp.com

AUGUST 2012 5-9

World Poultry Congress 2012

Bahia, Brazil

www.wpc2012.com

www.easonline.org

SEPTEMBER 2012 1-5

AQUA 2012

Prague, Czech Republic

11-14

SPACE

Rennes, France

23-25

VIV China 2012

Beijing, China

www.space.fr www.vivchina.nl

OCTOBER 2012 10-12

Vietstock 2012 Expo & Conference

Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

10-13

World Nutrition Forum

Singapore

www.vietstock.org www.worldnutritionforum.info

NOVEMBER 2012 1-2

Aviana Uganda

Kampala, Uganda

13-16

Eurotier 2012

Hanover, Germany

28-30

Poultry India 2012

Hyderabad, India

www.avianaafrica.com www.eurotier.com www.poultryindia.co.in

Thai farm economy dips 1.5 per cent in Q1 THAILAND’S AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY fell by 1.5 per cent yearon-year in the first quarter as a result of last year’s severe floods in the country. However, the Office of Agricultural Economics (OAE) said the government is optimistic the farm index will increase this year to meet its 5 per cent growth projection thanks to improving crop prices. Secretary-general Apichart Jongskul was quoted by Bangkok Post as saying, “The farm sector suffered the most from the floods, with more than 10 million rai of rice fields inundated, causing a 3 per cent contraction in the crop sector during the first three months of this year.” “The livestock sector was also adversely affected by the floods, with both production and consumption dipping. In the first quarter, the livestock sector expanded a slight by 0.5 per cent year-on-year.” GDP growth last year tallied only 0.1 per cent year-on-year, while the agricultural economy grew by only 2.2 per cent, down from projections of 4.8 per cent. The state’s pledging programmes for rice and cassava is likely to push up crop prices this year, he said. Pledging for second-crop rice is underway and the state has committed to pay farmers 15,000 baht for a tonne of white paddy rice. Prices for palm oil, natural rubber, and soybeans are all increasing, which should lead to higher production, with the OAE estimating the crop sector will increase by 4.9 per cent to 5.9 per cent this year. Improvement is also expected from the livestock sector due largely to positive news from the EU, according to Bangkok Post. Thai authorities are optimistic the EU will lift its import ban on fresh chicken meat in June, ending an eight-year embargo since the bird flu outbreak in 2004. The EU buys 200,000 tonnes of cooked chicken meat from Thailand a year.

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2012

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Agenda

Food Outlook GLOBAL FOOD PRICES measured by the FAO Food Price Index fell three points or 1.4 per cent from March to April 2012 but seem to have stabilized at a relatively high level of 214 points. The fall was the first after three consecutive months of increases and although the index is significantly down from its record level of 235 points in April 2011, it is still well above the figures of under 200 which preceded the 2008 food crisis. The index was published in the latest FAO Food Outlook, a global market analysis which comes out twice a year. It noted that the prospects for the second half of this year and into the next indicate generally improved supplies and continuing strong demand. Consequently the global food import bill in 2012 could decline to US$1.24 trillion, down slightly from last year’s record of US$1.29 trillion Food Outlook said. The forecast for cereals production was for a modest expansion in 2012 to a new record of 2,371 million tonnes compared to 2,344 million tonnes in 2011. However, within the cereals sector, wheat production in 2012 is anticipated to fall by 3.6 per cent compared to 2011, to 675 million tonnes,

with the largest declines forecast for Ukraine, followed by Kazakhstan, China, Morocco and the EU. The expected decrease coincides with prospects of a slight reduction in total wheat utilization in the 2012/13 marketing season. Lower wheat output is offset by a record coarse grains production of 1,207 million tonnes anticipated in 2012, compared to 1,164 million tonnes in 2011 – itself a record year. But the increase, expected to follow a sharp rise in plantings in the United States, is unlikely to be sufficient to ease current market tightness because of the very low level of opening stocks, with consequent, continuing pressure on prices. Rice production is expected to grow 1.7 per cent in 2012 to 488 million tonnes, but slackening import demand and the return of India as a major exporter are keeping prices down. World rice production this year is expected to exceed demand for the eighth consecutive year. The FAO Oils/Fats Price Index averaged 251 points in April, up another 6 points (or 2.2 per cent) from March. Following a surge in soybean prices, the rise mainly reflects growing concern about this season’s exceptionally tight supplies of soybeans and derived products.

Reduced export availabilities of soy have increased global demand for palm oil, which, however, continues to face weak production growth and hence rising prices. The FAO Meat Price Index averaged 182 points in April, up marginally (1 point) from the previous month and a new record. The increase was driven by rising quotations of all meats except sheep. Pig meat prices rose most, followed by bovine and poultry meat. On average, meat prices in the first four months were 3.5 per cent higher than the corresponding period last year, with bovine showing the strongest gains on continued tight export supplies and brisk import demand.

Near-record wheat output in 2012 likely FAO HAS FORECAST that 2012 world wheat production will be the second highest on record at 690 million tonnes. Published recently, FAO’s quarterly Crop Prospects and Food Situation report forecast a 2012 wheat crop 10 million tonnes or 1.4 per cent down from the record 2011 harvest but still well above the average of the past five years. Although plantings have increased or are forecast to increase in many countries this year in response to continuing strong prices, a return to normal yields is expected in areas where record highs were achieved last year, the report said. But it was still too early for a global forecast of 2012 cereal output, it added. Crop Prospects also noted a firming of international cereal prices in recent weeks due to tightening current wheat supplies and concerns over the impact of severe cold weather in Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. Turning to the situation at regional level, the report said that adverse

In Far East Asia, prospects for the 2012 wheat crop are generally favourable with output expected to reach last year’s record level

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weather in West Africa caused a sharp drop in cereal and pasture production in large parts of the Sahel. This, combined with high food prices and civil strife, has led to high food insecurity and increased malnutrition in several countries, notably in Niger, Chad, Mauritania, Mali and Burkina Faso. In Far East Asia, prospects for the 2012 wheat crop are generally favourable with output expected to reach last year’s record level due in particular to good gains in India. In the Near East, food security has deteriorated in the Syrian Arab Republic and Yemen following civil conflict in the two countries. In Syria about 1.4 million people have become food insecure while thousands of families have been forced to flee their homes in Yemen. In Eastern Africa, despite some improvement, the food situation of vulnerable groups remains precarious, especially in pastoral areas affected by earlier drought. The food security situation in the Sudan and South Sudan is of concern following poor harvests. In Southern Africa, overall crop prospects remain satisfactory despite dry spells and cyclones in some areas. In Central America, dry weather reduced plantings of the 2012 secondary maize crop in Mexico. Elsewhere, good maize harvests are estimated despite losses due to torrential rains during the recently concluded secondary seasons. In South America, a prolonged dry spell affected the 2012 maize crop in Argentina and Brazil but above-average outputs are still forecast due to increased plantings. The cereal import bill of Low-Income Food-Deficit Countries (LIFDCs) is expected to climb to a record level of US$32.62 billion in 2012, slightly above the 2010/11 estimate, mainly due to a decline in production and a rise in import requirements in the major importing countries.

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Agenda

Israel to set up CoEs in India

DDGS sales to Japan at record levels

INDIAN FARMERS WILL have a chance to learn to optimise crop production from Israeli agriculture experts who will come down to the country to guide them. Agritech Israel international agricultural exhibition, which is held once every three years, has seen huge participation of farmers from India. The 20th year fair was held in Tel Aviv recently. A large number of Indian farmers from different parts of the country and several experts, scientists, bureaucrats and ministers attended the fair. After two decades of diplomatic goodwill, both the countries have mutually decided to help each other in agriculture and will set up a Centre of Excellence (CoE) for agriculture in several states of India. “Such CoEs have already been set up in many states in India. This year, we are eyeing a few more states, including Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Punjab among others, where we want to set up centres of excellence in agriculture technology,” said Mrs. Vani Rao, counsellor, embassy of India in Israel in an informal chat with several Indian journalists who were invited to the fair. This Indo-Israel institute also has an exchange programme, under which Israeli experts will come to Gujarat to guide farmers on sowing, cultivation, harvesting and post-harvesting processes, according to her. India accounts for huge wastage in agriculture as well. The country needs to learn and improve on post-harvest management, cold storage technology, packaging and dairy products. “In coming years, India will experience huge scarcity of water. The technology used in Israel on recycling sewage water for agriculture can help India save water as well as improve overall productivity,” says Mrs. Rao.

JAPAN’S IMPORTS OF Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in 2011 surged 31 per cent ahead of 2010 levels, and US market share, already dominant, climbed from 89 to 93.7 per cent. Japan's DDGS imports thus far in 2012 are on track to exceed last year's record, with U.S. market share edging up yet again, to 96 per cent through the first quarter, said T o m m y Hammamoto, USGC Director, Japan “Japan has long been the top international customer for U.S. corn, and the continued growth in interest in DDGS is encouraging. Fully 58 per cent of DDGS are fed to layers, with other sectors sharing the remainder.” “The removal of oil by US distillers and the sale of new, low-fat DDGS has attracted the attention of Japanese buyers, and the USGC office in Japan has been in close contact with customers to answer any questions.”

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2012

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Agenda

Nestle expands Asian product development operations

Malaysia keen to foster farm trade ties with Philippines

SWISS FOOD AND beverage giant Nestle has announced plans to invest more than US$4.37 million (S$5.5 million) to strengthen its R&D base in Singapore. This will be used to further develop its MILO, coffee mixes, culinary and out-of-home products. Singapore will also become the lead centre for quality control of all markets in Asian, Oceania and African markets. Nestle will open its fourth Asian R&D centre later this year in India. This will add to its 32 R&D centers worldwide, three of which are in Asia – Singapore, Shanghai, and Beijing. The company also plans to set up its main training centre for the whole of Asia in Singapore. Nestle Singapore managing director Valerio Nannini said, “The S$5.5 million will be used to create a consumer centric environment. We are basically extending the building where the consumer will interact with our R&D and marketing community in order for us to tap into future products and future thinking for new products and businesses.” Singapore was chosen for its well-connected infrastructure, deep talent pool and stable economy. The company employs more than 600 people in Singapore and operates a major manufacturing facility in Jurong, which houses Nestle's largest malt extract manufacturing plant in the world. Singapore is also home to Nestle's Commodity Purchasing Competence Centre where key raw materials including oils, coffee, cocoa, grains and sugar are purchased for the region. Singapore is also the base for Nestle's Regional Treasury Centre, where operations responsible for the cash management, funding, forex and risks management in 23 countries are based.

MALAYSIA AND PHILIPPINES are exploring possible strategies to foster twoway agricultural trade. Malaysia’s Minister of Plantation Industries and Commodities Tan Sri Bernard Dompok recently met with Agriculture Secretary Proceso J. Alcala to discuss trading of various farm commodities between the two countries, and private sector investments in Tan Sri Bernard Dompok agriculture, particularly in palm oil. “I [called] on him to look into what the Philippines and Malaysia can do [to improve farm trade],” said Dompok at the sidelines of the opening of the Malaysia-Philippines Palm Oil Trade Fair and Seminar 2012. Speaking at the inaugural function of the Malaysia-Philippines Palm Oil Trade Fair and Seminar 2012, Dompok said, “I’m keen on the trade in palm oil, timber, rubber, cocoa, and tobacco as these are the areas that I handle.” “There are many “untapped opportunities” between the Philippines and Malaysia—two major oil and fat producers in the region.” The Malaysian Palm Oil Council (MPOC) and Malaysia organized the inaugural one-day trade fair to provide insights into upcoming trends as well as economic opportunities for palm oil in 2012. Figures released by MPOC showed Malaysian palm oil export to the Philippines reached 512,000 metric tons (MT) in 2011. This is 150 per cent higher than the 204,731 MT shipped out to the Philippines in 2010, according to a report in Business Mirror.

Food 2040: The future of food and agriculture in East Asia

China may emerge as top corn importer by 2014

THE US GRAINS Council recently joined with the US embassy in Japan to present a groundbreaking new study, Food 2040, at a major public briefing in Tokyo jointly sponsored by the embassy and Keidanren, a major Japanese business federation. An in-depth report on the future of food and agriculture in East Asia, Food 2040 anticipates that rising demand, especially from China, will significantly restructure the global food industry. “Food 2040 outlines important new opportunities for producers and agribusinesses,” commented USGC President and CEO Tom Dorr, “but seizing these opportunities requires that we be ready to meet the challenges ahead.” Food 2040 projects that in Japan as much as 70 per cent of food expenditures will be for foods prepared outside the home, and that other Asian markets are likely to follow Japan's lead; food will become increasingly a service, not a commodity. Asian consumers will demand greater food safety based on new systems for testing, reporting and transparency that may present major challenges to legacy producers and agribusinesses. At the same time, Asian consumers will demand increasing quality and much wider consumer choice. Driven by rising demand and resource constraints, East Asia is likely to emerge a as a bioscience leader. The emerging Asian diet is also likely to be healthier, as traditional Asian perspectives on nutrition converge with 21st century science and technology to address problems of aging and diseases of affluence. “These changes will be consumer-driven,” Dorr said. “The emerging Asian markets will be very large, affluent, and sophisticated. It is up to us— producers and agribusiness in the United States— to position ourselves to meet this rising demand. The consumer is king.” Food 2040 was commissioned by the US Grains Council in collaboration with USDA/Foreign Agricultural Service.

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CHINA MAY DISPLACE Japan as the world’s largest corn importer as early as 2014, as demand for meat and feed grains expands along with its middle class, the US Grains Council said. “It could be a matter of two to three years. China has more than 4 million tons booked and delivered already.” Thomas Dorr, president of the council, was quoted as saying by Bloomberg. Japan bought 15.3 million metric tons last year, according to the country’s agriculture ministry. Imports by China, the second-biggest consumer after the US, are forecast to more than quadruple to 4 million tons in the 2011-2012 from a year earlier, according to an April 10 report from the US Department of Agriculture. Inbound shipments may grow to a record 5.5 million tons in the year starting Oct. 1, Dorr said. Rising demand could support futures, which have lost 4.8 per cent this year on the prospect of record US output, according to Bloomberg.

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2012


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Events

Indo Livestock Expo to focus on opportunities in the sector The Indo Livestock Expo & Forum, billed as Indonesia’s largest livestock trade event, will be held in Jakarta from July 4 to 6, 2012.

E

XHIBITORS FROM VARIOUS parts of the globe would once again be showcasing their products and innovations at the seventh edition of the event, which serves as an ideal platform for integrators, manufacturers, farmers, veterinarians, feed millers, food processors, research institutes and industry experts across the region to source for new technology, build partnerships, look for new investments and keep themselves abreast of current developments. More than10, 000 trade visitors are also expected to take part in the three-day mega fair. “Recognized by the industry as the leading livestock and feed industry expo, Indo Livestock Expo & Forum is dedicated to deliver maximum return to exhibitors and participants. Our commitment is reflected in the high quality of visitors and unmatched exhibitors’ record,” the organizers said. “The event is perfectly timed to capitalize on the tremendous business opportunities in Indonesia today. And all those who participate in the expo will benefit from this excellent marketing platform to promote their products and services to the people that really matter.” According to the organizers, in the previous edition, 82.4 per cent of the exhibitors rated the quality of visitors as good or excellent, 82 per cent rated the show as successful. And for 91 per cent of the exhibitors, the show exceeded their expectations.

in preventing food shortage and producing raw materials for industrial purposes. On the one hand, animal products are essential for the development of human resources, while on the other, increasing human population significantly increases the demand for meat, milk and eggs. The annual increase in national livestock production in Indonesia is projected to contribute significantly to the gross domestic product. This should be matched with a higher growth factor for meat, taking into consideration the inevitable price changes. Among the regions of the world, Asia has the fastest developing livestock sector. Growing incomes, expanding urbanization and ageing— but nevertheless expanding— populations fuel the rapidly growing demand for livestock products, particularly meat. There has been a dramatic shift from diets which were formerly predominantly vegetable-based towards those of animal protein. This shift has resulted in an ongoing transformation of the livestock sectors in the region, with subsequent implications for the feed resource and other inputs. The increased demands open up new opportunities for livestock producers. At the same time, huge changes are taking place in the way food is sourced, processed and retailed. Processed or packaged food now accounts for about one third of retail sales in countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand and about two thirds in South Korea, Taiwan and the Philippines. n

Indonesia’s livestock sector is undergoing a significant structural change from the traditional small-scale backyard farming to large integrated farms that employ technology to enhance efficiency and bio-security. The livestock sector is currently dominated by poultry farming with the ruminant subsector being substantially smaller. This change has resulted in huge demand for modern farming systems, improved breeding conditions and better animal nutrition and health products. Furthermore, the downstream meat processing industry has also seen strong growth rates amid higher domestic demand and exports. Commercial livestock and poultry productions are largely centred in Java and Sumatra. According to the Directorate General of Livestock Services (DGLS), the island of Java has the largest concentration of cattle (meat and dairy) with about 45 per cent of the nation's herd, followed by Sumatra with about 20 per cent and Nusatengarra (NTT) and Sulawesi having about 10 per cent each. Agriculture in developing countries such as Indonesia plays an important role

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2012

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Events

International summit, new addition to VIV China 2012 AN INTERNATIONAL CHINA Summit will be added to the biannual VIV China trade show to ensure a strong interest at the September show, according to the organisers VNU Exhibitions and CNAS. The International China Summit will be held on September 22, the day before the show. Visitors will be able to attend a full-day programme, with a range of conferences on trends and developments and 20-minute seminar sessions focusing technical best practices. International media partners, exhibitors, associations and institutions have selected their best speakers to share knowledge and visions on various topics for the production of feed, eggs, poultry and pork, as well as for ways to improve trade. Great Britain and France will focus their presentations on pig breeding. The growth in demand for pig genetics strongly continues in China. In non-promotional presentations, exhibitors will emphasise how investments in premium products lead to much better results. The summit is just one of the elements added by the organisers to improve the quality of VIV China. The organisers aim to achieve a change, following the weaker editions in 2009 and 2010. Ruwan Berculo, project manager at VNU Exhibitions, said, “It is essential to differentiate VIV China from other events by playing our best cards. This will turn VIV China into the preferred international business platform from feed to meat again.” The new approach therefore revolves around ‘better matchmaking with quality buyers’, the organisers stated. Earlier, the frequency of the show was announced to return to its

two-year cycle. In addition, investments in a better visitor campaign should result in new buyers visiting VIV China. And once on-site, visitors will find it easier to find their suppliers. Berculo said, “The market will see a completely new VIV China, set to create the perfect business ambiance.” First signs are promising, as the show is said to be nearly sold out. Five months prior to the event, 360 exhibitors have confirmed their participation. Market leaders like Aviagen, Big Dutchman, Buhler Group, Jamesway Incubators, Moba, Pas Reform and Poly-Clip Systems are among them. Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, South Korea and the USA will present their suppliers in dedicated pavilions. A new personalised promotion campaign focuses on bringing in high-quality buyers from China’s seven most important animal production regions. From feed to meat, professionals will be attracted to attend the event. So far, over 1,200 key buyers throughout China have already registered five months prior to the show. VIV China is scheduled to be held at the New China International Exhibition Center in Beijing, China, from September 23-25.

FIAAP, VICTAM & GRAPAS Asia 2012 draws good response FIAAP, VICTAM & GRAPAS Asia 2012 proved to be a perfect meeting ground for the Asia’s feed and grain industry professionals. More than 6,000 visitors from about 70 countries flocked to the BITEC exhibition centre in Bangkok to explore the latest

products and solutions for the feed and grain industry, registering an increase of 10 per cent compared to the previous edition in 2010. The exhibition area was 40 per cent larger and had more exhibitors than the previous shows. About 30 new products were launched at the event.

The exhibition area was 40 per cent larger and had more exhibitors than the previous shows

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Technical conferences and seminars too evoked overwhelming response. “Once again quality was the buzz word. The visitors described the exhibits as high quality, the exhibitors said the same for the visitors…and delegates also appreciated the quality of the conferences,” organisers said. The exhibitions co-located with the VICTAM show also proved popular. “The GRAPAS expo, the event for grain processing, rice and flour milling, brought in new visitors and 48 per cent of the visitors showed interested in the GRAPAS exhibitors.” “The FIAAP exhibition, the show for feed ingredients and additives, attracted a lot of attention with 52 per cent of the visitors looking for ingredients and additive products. A large number of these visitors expressed interest to see more ingredient and additive suppliers at the 2014 exhibition.” The show organizers have announced that their next event will be held again at BITEC. “Visitors and exhibitors have all agreed that the new home of the event, BITEC was excellent. About 95 per cent of the exhibitors stated that they will exhibit again in 2014.”

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Events

Aqua 2012 to be held in Czech Republic THE AQUA 2012 event will take place in the Czech Republic capital, Prague, from 1 to 5 September 2012. The Aqua events are jointly organised by EAS and WAS every six years, and AQUA 2012 succeeds the 2006 event in Florence, Italy and the 2000 event held in Nice, France. Aqua 2012 will draw on Europe and Africa, Canada, USA and Latin America as well as the Middle East and Asia Pacific region and the rest of the world to create one of the largest aquaculture trade shows in the world. “Combining the very popular Aquaculture Europe with the highly successful international World Aquaculture makes for a tremendous meeting of aquaculture participants from around the world. This is a fantastic opportunity for aquaculturists to come together and find common ground and solutions for situations facing all segments of the industry,” a spokesperson for Aqua 2012 said. The keynote presentations of Aqua 2012 address the theme of the event, namely “Global Aquaculture – Securing our Future” The presentations will provide industry and science perspectives on the different aspects of the theme, which has obvious implication in global and regional food security and aquaculture trade. It also refers to economic and environmental sustainability and the image of aquaculture activities. Aqua 2012 Programme co-chairs, Marco Saroglia, José Polanco and Zdenek Adamek, have put together a vast programme of more than 50 technical sessions. Major pillars of the technical programme include environment,

Aqua 2012 will draw on Europe and Africa, Canada, USA and Latin America as well as the Middle East and Asia Pacific region to create one of the largest aquaculture trade shows in the world

biodiversity and climate change; aquaculture certification; aquaculture and human health; production systems; feedstuffs, feeds and feed additives; molluscs and other invertebrates; marine shrimp; general finfish culture; freshwater fish culture; marine fish culture; seaweeds; ornamentals; aquaculture economics; animal welfare, health and diseases; breeding and genetics and other specialised topics.

Brazil to host World Poultry Congress 2012 BRAZIL IS ALL set to host the World Poultry Congress (WPC 2012), which is considered the most important global event of the industry. The WPC 2012 will be held on 5-9 August 2012, in the Convention Center of Bahia, in Salvador. The event is organised every four years by the World’s Poultry Science Association (WPSA) and this will be its 24th edition. More than 9,000 visitors and 4,000 participants from various parts of the globe are expected and will discuss the poultry meat and egg production chain. The programme highlights include seminars and paper presentations by renowned researchers and a mega expo where hundreds of companies would be showcasing their new products and innovations. “This is a unique opportunity for students and professionals that aim at continuous learning in their fields,” said Dr Edir Nepomuceno da Silva, president of FACTA (APINCO Foundation of Poultry Science and Technology) and also representative of WPSA Brazil. “WPC 2012 will also celebrate the centennial of WPSA, with the aim of stimulating and disseminating the development and the creation of technologies applied in all aspects of animal science, in addition as being the link between research and the different industry segments of the poultry meat and egg industry.”

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Events

EuroTier 2012 expo bound for success T

HE INTERNATIONAL EUROTIER 2012 exhibition to be held in Hanover from 13 to 16 November has been attracting more suppliers of machinery and equipment, farm inputs and animal breeding from home and abroad than ever before. This was demonstrated by the stand booking figures to date. According to the organizers DLG (Deutsche LandwirtschaftsGesellschaft – German Agricultural Society), with over 1,800 exhibitors from 46 countries, current booking levels are well above the comparable figures for the last event two years ago. There has also been a further clear increase in the exhibition floor space. The last edition of EuroTier saw huge visitor numbers from livestock farmers and experts from all over the world. A total of almost 145.000 visitors came to gather information on equipment, genetics, farm inputs and services for modern animal husbandry. The bioenergy and local energy segments also proved to be popular at the show with some 42.000 attendees. EuroTier Project Manager Dr. Karl Schlösser pointed out that the developments indicated that there would be as many as 2,200 businesses and organisations in Hanover this coming November. The world’s leading suppliers of machinery and equipment, farm inputs and animal breeding will be presenting innovative solutions and comprehensive information about trends and innovations. With these outstanding figures, EuroTier impressively consolidates its status as the world’s top event for animal husbandry. Dr. Schlösser said, “Both the pig and cattle sectors as well as the poultry sector with the ‘World Poultry Show’ will be represented in a unique way at the Exhibition Grounds in Hanover in November. Stand bookings to date are up in all these areas, as well as in the crossspecies sectors of climate control installations, feedstuffs, animal health and veterinary medicine, and other inputs. The level of exhibitor interest shown in bioenergy with the BioEnergy Decentral exhibition is also excellent.”

World Poultry Show Participation from the poultry industry sector will be unique at EuroTier 2012 and cover the entire industry with its brand leaders from the fields of breeding, husbandry and processing. This will make the “World Poultry Show” the highlight of the entire international poultry industry this year. Further drawing power for visitors from the poultry sector is exerted by the cross-species exhibition areas such as feed and feed storage, animal health or climate control technology in animal housing that are not presented as comprehensively at any other exhibition.

BioEnergy Decentral BioEnergy Decentral, the global forum for decentralized energy supply, has also been encountering a high level of exhibitor interest. Large numbers of well-known companies from home and abroad have already booked stands and will be presenting a comprehensive programme covering the whole range of technological developments in the fields of bioenergy (biogas, solid biofuels such as wood, energy grain and liquid biofuels) as well as renewable energy. “BioEnergy Decentral”, being organized in close cooperation with VDMA Power Systems and the Association of Local Utilities (VKU) addresses both producers of bioenergy with their agricultural, municipal, commercial and industrial users and operators of decentralized energy supply systems.

Veterinarian Medicine Exhibition The Federal Association of Practising Veterinarians (Bundesverband Praktizierender Tierärzte -bpt) is now scheduling its annual congress and associated specialist exhibition “Veterinarian Medicine” to overlap with EuroTier at the Exhibition Grounds in Hanover for the third time. The record participation by veterinarians at both the bpt Congress and EuroTier at the last event in 2010 made the synergies eminently clear. Both events with their specific information programmes are indispensable for veterinarians and can now be reached in just one trip.

Photograph: Deutsche Messe AG

Future forum

Aerial photograph of the exhibition grounds

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EuroTier is the most important future forum addressing all aspects of professional animal husbandry. Traditionally this is where both technology trends are pointed up and all important questions of modern animal husbandry and animal breeding are addressed. Together with partners from business, academia, advisory services, trade associations and organizations, this year too, DLG will be presenting a comprehensive technical programme complementing the programmes of the exhibitors. This includes international conferences and events, as well as animal species-specific forum events on current trends and important developments in the industries. n

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Livestock

Photograph: Pas Reforms Hatchery Technologies

Good hygiene vital for high chick numbers

Sub-standard hygiene can reduce hatchability by up to 15 per cent, but it can be easily avoided by using as simple on-farm measures as collecting floor eggs separately from nest eggs

G

OOD POULTRY PRACTICE is often a matter of common sense and none more so than health and hygiene measures required for high hatchability of healthy chicks. All else being equal, the cleaner the eggs, which are set for hatching in the incubator, the better are the results achieved as healthier and higher quality chicks. The science is simple. Pathogenic bacteria, which can never be totally eliminated from poultry practice, respond rapidly to the warm and humid conditions in the incubator. The bird’s egg is not only designed to exclude pathogenic microbes but also to allow free gaseous exchange as the chick embryo respires, grows and develops. This requires a porous calcium carbonate shell to allow oxygen to diffuse in and carbon dioxide to diffuse out. But egg shell pores are potential weak points through which bacteria can enter to disrupt and destroy developing chick embryos. Microbial contamination of hen’s eggs can occur congenitally or extragenitally. Congenital contamination invariably happens in the ovary and involves a range of well-known pathogenic microorganisms including salmonella bacteria, mycoplasmas and certain virus particles. These egg transmitted pathogens are controlled by vaccination, blood testing and subsequent removal of infected hens or in the case of mycoplasmas the use of antibiotic egg dipping. Extra-genital contamination is something which happens after the egg is laid and typically causes rots, mould growth, bangers (eggs that explode once inside the incubator), early dead chick embryos and a

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2012

higher first-week on-farm chick mortality, the latter often being the result of yolk sac infection. Heavily contaminated eggs, such as those laid-on and collected from the floor, will be the most heavily contaminated by potentially pathogenic microbes and therefore most at risk. Evolution of the egg, complete with its membranes and hard and inert but porous calcium carbonate egg shell, has furnished the embryo with a comprehensive system of protection for unimpeded growth and development and successful hatching of the free living chick. The eggshell has thousands of pores which are sufficiently large to permit bacterial cells and fungal spores to pass through and enter the egg. Passage through most of these pores is prevented by the presence of a blocking cuticle but sufficient numbers are open to allow the entry of microbes. Two inner shell membranes act as a further barrier and an antibacterial lysozyme, located in the egg albumen, is active against Staphylococcus bacteria.

Infection route Under normal circumstances, a healthy breeder hen lays eggs with an essentially sterile shell. At the point of lay (oviposition) the eggs are hot and moist but they cool down quickly which has the effect of drawing (pulling in) contaminating bacteria through the eggshell. It follows that the environmental conditions into which the egg is oviposited will have a significant influence and effect on the concentration and range of pathogenic microorganisms that it carries and

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holds, and can transfer into the incubator. Motile bacteria in large numbers, especially in the presence of moisture (e.g. condensation) on the external surface of the egg, pose the biggest risk and likelihood of egg penetration and yolk colonisation and contamination. Even eggs which are visibly clean can carry anything from 50,000 to l million bacteria. Soiled and dirty eggs may carry a bacterial load in excess of 10 million. For practical purposes, the level of bacterial contamination will depend upon whether eggs are laid in the nest box or laid on the floor. Condition of the floor litter further affects contamination. Damp litter sticks to the birds’ feet and feathers while exceptionally dry litter creates dust. Condition and depth of nest-box litter will affect contamination level of eggs laid there, while the manner in which eggs are handled and treated post collection will affect contamination level, irrespective of whether they were laid in a nest box or on the floor.

which increase the contamination of nests. Nest eggs and floor eggs must be collected separately while always making sure egg collectors wash their hands between collections to avoid cross contamination. Floor eggs should be packed separately with clear identification to avoid any mixing of clean and soiled eggs. Some nests will invariably be more popular than others with the hens and if the eggs are not collected sufficiently frequently from these overloaded nests then breakages will be unavoidable. Operators should collect eggs at least four times every day with a late afternoon collection to avoid eggs staying in the nest boxes overnight. Automatic nests offer a range advantages including a reduction in the amount of egg handling and a corresponding reduction in the risk of shell breakage and egg contamination. Egg collection by hand allows eggs to be sorted and packed directly onto the incubator tray and subsequently conveyed on a monorail to the packing area. Around four fifths of time spent on a breeder farm is concerned with egg collection and handling. Therefore detailed thought given to the most cost effective mode of harvesting of what is essentially a delicate living embryo in an equally delicate shell will surely pay dividends.

Disinfection and dry cleaning

Microbial contamination of hen’s eggs can occur congenitally or extra-genitally

Clean nests means clean eggs Key issues involved in the production of clean eggs for incubation and hatching are: design, nature and condition of the nests; separation of soiled eggs from clean ones; frequency of egg collection; degree of care exercised in egg handling; personal hygiene of those involved in the procedure; and the disinfection of eggs. Nest boxes must be easily accessible (to hens), clean and hygienic, generously supplied with litter and sufficient in number with at least one nest allocated for every four hens. Overall, they must be sufficiently attractive so that hens do not lay any eggs on the floor. Nest boxes must be in place and position prior to the onset of lay. They should be positioned for easy accessibility and comfort of hens, rather than convenience for the farmer, as the number one priority. Nests should be started near the floor surface and elevated gradually up to 30-40cm from the litter. Softwood shavings are one of the best choices for litter and should be replenished (topped up) or replaced every seven days. Populations of bacteria in the litter can be reduced to safe levels by using paraformaldehyde prills deployed at the rate of 25g per box per month. Automatic nests function best in slatted floor areas and should be closed up at night. This is because hens which sleep in nests, as well as hens with dirty feet resulting from wet floor litter, are significant factors

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There is general agreement amongst veterinarians that treatment of hatching eggs is the best way to control shell-borne infections such as salmonella. Disinfection of eggs can be carried out by dry cleaning followed up by fumigation with formaldehyde or alternatively by wet sanitising the eggs. Dry cleaning using Scotchbrite pads or sandpaper is an ideal mechanical method for cleaning slightly soiled eggs and should be supported by follow-up fumigation using formaldehyde vapour as a chemical disinfectant. Fumigation with formaldehyde will usually destroy a high proportion of bacteria on the external surface of the shell but several important requirements must be satisfied for its success. Eggs must be placed on plastic trays to allow adequate circulation of the formaldehyde vapour and the procedure should be conducted in a custom-designed chamber. This must be hermetically sealed (gas tight) to maintain a biocidal concentration of formaldehyde and to stop any vapour from escaping. Last but not least, operators must use the recommended dose and employ a gas neutraliser at the end of the procedure. Fumigation will not be effective if eggs are very dirty or badly soiled because the active formaldehyde disinfectant will not be able to reach the pathogenic bacteria inside the particles of dirt and soil. That is why eggs must be pre-cleaned prior to fumigation. Use of formaldehyde vapour may be restricted or even banned in some countries due to current health and safety concerns.

Wet sanitising of eggs Sanitising machines effectively and efficiently disinfect the eggshell and thus avoid practical problems associated with the ‘wet cleaning’ hatching eggs. Standard sanitising machines are designed to accept trays of eggs on a conveyor and to subsequently spray them with high-temperature disinfectant. When used correctly they are more cost effective due to significant labour savings. Temperature of the disinfectant should be higher than that of the egg to prevent bacteria from entering the egg by suction. Operators should only use the concentration recommended on the disinfectant product label which will be high enough to kill pathogenic bacteria without any risk of damage to the egg. Chlorine-generating products are popular but require constant monitoring and replacement with fresh product when the concentration falls below that required for effective disinfection. n Dr Terry Mabbett

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Livestock

S. Korea opens market to Philippine poultry SOUTH KOREA WILL soon open its market to Philippine poultry products after declaring them safe. “Chicken from triple-A slaughterhouses may start entering South Korea. [Seoul’s] decision to start accepting our chicken products means that we have complied with their requirements,” The Philippines' Bureau of Animal Industry Director Efren Nuestro was quoted as saying by Asia News Network. South Korea’s poultry industry has been affected by the dreaded avian flu or bird flu, which is caused by viruses that The Philippines may start export of local occur naturally among birds. chicken products before the end of the The Philippines is one of the first semester few countries in Asia that remains free from avian flu, which has led to multibillion-dollar losses in the global poultry industry. The opening of South Korea to local chicken products was one of the important points discussed during the Philippines-South Korea bilateral meeting on agriculture held in Manila in November last year. The Department of Agriculture noted that the South Korean market was as big as the Japanese market which has relied on the Philippines for its poultry products after Thailand was hit by the avian flu. So far, Japan remains the top importer of Yakitori chicken from the Philippines, according to Asia News Network.

Mycotoxin management project launched ANIMAL HEALTH AND nutrition major Alltech has developed a new global project to help control mycotoxins through a combination of mycotoxin management programs and technologies. As part of this practical and solutions-oriented approach to effectively manage mycotoxins, the global Mycotoxin Management Team from Alltech will not only assist in managing mycotoxins throughout the feed chain, but also in detecting and addressing the risks caused by more than 37 types of mycotoxins. “It is now more important than ever to have a documented mycotoxin control program in place as the price of feed rises, the use of alternative raw ingredients increases and the need for improved feed efficiency is paramount,” said Dr. Swamy Haladi, global technical manager, Mycotoxin Management Team. “We know mycotoxins are going to be more prevalent in certain processed raw materials and also that mycotoxins can negatively affect health and feed efficiency, ultimately impacting profitability. The potential threat of mycotoxin residues to human health should also be factored in” One of the key elements of the project is Alltech’s 37+ Program. To assist feed mills and producers, Alltech recently launched its Mycotoxin Hazard Analysis program, MIKO. Based on the principles of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP), the MIKO program is designed to identify the mycotoxin risks within a given farm or feed mill and create a plan to minimize the risks for the animal, and consequently, for consumers.

Sri Lanka chicken consumption to grow next five years THE PER CAPITA consumption of chicken by Sri Lankans is to increase to 8 kilo grams within the next five years, in line with the increase of purchasing power of the citizens, Ceylon Grain Elevators (GRAN), the largest company producing chicken in the country said. According GRAN’S latest report, the yearly chicken and egg consumption in Sri Lanka at present is approximately 5.7 kilo grams and 54 eggs per person. The per capita

consumption of chicken increased significantly to 5.7 kilo grams from 5 kilo grams in the previous year. “We expect this increasing trend to continue in the coming years on par with increasing purchasing power enjoyed in Sri Lanka,” GRAN Chairman and CEO, Cheng Chih Kwong primus was quoted as saying by Sri Lanka’s leading newspaper Daily Mirror. The report further stated that supply of

locally produced maize, which comprises large part of chicken feed, decreased drastically due to unfavorable weather conditions and floods in maize growing areas, according to Daily Mirror. “This led to a higher feed production cost. The sudden rupee depreciation over the US$ by 3 percent towards the end of 2011 further increased the price of all imported items and added burden to the industry,” Kwong said.

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Livestock

Maintaining all eggs within an incubator at the correct EST is a challenge because varying egg characteristics, such as eggshell conductance and egg size, can lead to variation in EST

Incubating eggs of different sizes E

MBRYO DEVELOPMENT AND chick quality are optimal when the embryo temperature is maintained between 99.5 – 100.5ºF throughout incubation. When eggs are not incubated at an embryo temperature between 99.5 – 100.5ºF, embryo development is impeded and chick quality at hatch and in later life is negatively affected. Egg shell temperature (EST) is a reflection of the embryo’s temperature and can therefore be used in practice to determine the correct machine temperature required for a batch of eggs. Maintaining all eggs within an incubator at the correct EST is a challenge because varying egg characteristics, such as eggshell conductance and egg size, can lead to variation in EST. When ESTs in a batch of eggs vary, development of some embryos is impeded while it is increased for others. The consequences of variation in development within an incubator are a longer hatch window and reduced chick quality and uniformity, because some embryos are incubated at suboptimal temperatures. Uniform and correct ESTs are vital to ensure optimal hatch results and chick quality.

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Egg size and EST Egg size is one of the egg’s characteristics that influence EST. During the second half of incubation, embryonic growth and heat production increase compared to the first part of incubation. From day 15 of incubation onwards, embryos in large eggs have a higher growth rate and a corresponding higher heat production than embryos in small eggs. In addition, large eggs have a relatively small surface area and a relatively large content compared to small eggs. This makes a large egg less capable of removing heat than a small egg. As a consequence, the EST in large eggs increases more than in small eggs when they are incubated at the same environmental temperature and the embryo inside a large egg is at risk of overheating.

Egg size variation within a flock Variation in egg size in a batch of eggs in one incubator can occur because of the natural variation in, for example, body weight of the hens within a breeder flock. As a consequence, the eggs that are laid vary in size as well.

When eggs with a large variation in size are set in the same incubator, the incubator design influences the variation in EST. Correct incubator design is crucial to maintain all ESTs within the optimal range of 99.5-100.5ºF, despite differences in egg size. The conditions within an incubator should allow optimal heat exchange between the eggs and the environment at all locations in the incubator. A uniform air flow is required to ensure an equal air velocity through the incubator. Air velocity plays an important role in allowing an egg to lose surplus heat. High air velocity (> 1 m/s) results in improved heat exchange between an egg and the air and minimizes temperature differences between small and large eggs. A laminar airflow ensures a uniform air velocity throughout the incubator. As a result, all ESTs can be maintained between 99.5 – 100.5ºF and optimal conditions can be provided for eggs of different sizes.

Breeder flock age A second cause of different egg sizes in an incubator is when eggs of breeder flocks with different ages are mixed in one incubator. As a

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MANAGING YOUR FEED DISTRIBUTION WITH FLEXIBILITY

Eggs of different sizes – and, correspondingly, with different heat production – can be set within the same incubator when the machine has a laminar air flow combined with a high air velocity

breeder flock ages, eggs increase in size. The largest eggs from an older flock produce much more heat than the smallest eggs from a younger flock. This can lead to more variation in ESTs when eggs of different breeder flock ages are incubated together in one incubator. To prevent variation in ESTs, it is recommended that eggs from different breeder flocks are set in separate incubators with a suitable temperature profile to maintain ESTs within the optimal range. However, in practice, the large size of incubators – often with capacities of over 100,000 eggs– requires eggs of several breeder flocks to be set within one machine as batches of eggs of one breeder flock are too small to fill one incubator. Whether a mix of eggs from breeder flocks of different ages results in satisfying hatchability and chick quality also depends on incubator design. HatchTech’s incubator design solved the issue of egg size by dividing the incubator into separate, individually controlled sections. A temperature sensor is placed in each section behind the egg mass, accurately measuring

heat production for that section. Heating and cooling is immediately adjusted per radiator according to the temperature reading for that section, resulting in independent air temperature control per section. Differences in EST are minimized by the HatchTech incubator. Eggs from all breeder flock ages will hatch high quality, uniform chicks that are able to express their full genetic potential later in life. Eggs of different sizes – and, correspondingly, with different heat production – can be set within the same incubator when the machine has a laminar air flow combined with a high air velocity. This ensures minimum variation in ESTs within a batch of eggs of one breeder flock age. Eggs from different breeder flock ages can be set within one incubator because it is divided into different sections, essentially creating separate incubators with independent air temperature control. As a result, all eggs are in their optimal incubation environment, resulting in high quality, uniform hatchlings. n Ir. Carla van der Pol, HatchTech B.V.

FATIQLESS F ATIQLESS AUGER

TM

HatchTech inks pact for new hatchery in Australia MULTIQUIP GROUP OF Companies and HatchTech have started the construction of another major HatchTech hatchery in Australia. The hatchery, with a final setting capacity of 90 million eggs per year, will be supplied with a complete product package including MicroClimer Setter and Hatchers, HatchTech Ventilation, HatchTech Water Management System. The hatchery will be constructed in Picton, a small town in New South Wales, and cover a surface of 4,500sqm. MultiQuip also opted for working with the HatchTech Management System, a system that monitors and displays all the crucial performance parameters of the HatchTech equipment in their hatchery. It provides MultiQuip with complete control over every aspect of their daily operations and helps with analysing and improving performance.

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2012

www.technicalsys.com Cape Town, South Africa

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A common myth in the poultry industry says that increasing the pressure in an enclosed watering system increases the amount of water the birds consume

Watering mistakes that affect poultry production Poultry production has evolved from a relatively simple barnyard practice to a highly technical industry. Yet, all too often producers do not achieve the results they want.

A

RECENT INTERNATIONAL SURVEY of field representatives in the poultry industry revealed five very common mistakes producers make concerning their watering systems, resulting in less than optimum flock performance. Remedies for these mistakes are relatively simple.

Incorrect pressure settings Broilers drink approximately 0.7 to 0.8 kg. (1.6 to 1.8 lbs) of water for every 0.45kg (1 lbs) of feed they consume. However, birds can drink only so fast and only so much. Producers cannot force them to drink more. A common myth in the poultry industry says that increasing the pressure in an enclosed watering system increases the amount of water the birds consume. Running a watering system with too much pressure delivers more water than the birds can consume such that the excess water spills onto

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the litter. Wet litter results in elevated ammonia levels which can harm the health of the birds and contribute to poor flock performance. Virtually all manufacturers of nipple-type drinkers without catch cups recommend minimum pressure settings for day-old chicks. Some manufacturers recommend settings as low as 2.5 cm (1 inch) of column height pressure. Manufacturers differ on pressure settings after the first week. To determine the correct pressure setting, examine litter conditions. For wet litter, reduce pressure until it starts to dry. Only then, increase pressure. Producers should strive for friable litter.

Faulty line management Enclosed drinking systems revolutionized the poultry industry, providing birds with more nearly hygienic water. No longer do the birds contaminate the water by pecking the litter and then drinking from an open bell or cup-type drinker. But, many producers fail to take full advantage of enclosed systems by allowing sediment to enter and biofilm to build up in the lines. Sediment or particulate matter often ends up in the drinkers and causes them to leak. A filter ahead of the water line (a 5 to 10 micron cartridge) can prevent this from happening. A regular program of high pressure flushing also is effective in removing sediment.

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Biofilm creates its own set of problems. Biofilm buildup occurs when organic based interventions of medications and vitamins create a sticky substrate of material on the interior walls of the drinker lines. This nutrient-enriched biofilm, in turn, provides pathogens, such as E. coli, with everything they need to multiply and prosper. As the birds drink, these pathogens enter their 41.1-degree C (106-degree F) digestive tracts. This environment acts like an incubator and accelerates the number and strength. The diseases fostered by this contamination can severely challenge a flock and hinder performance. Enclosed watering systems operate on low pressure, providing little turbulence to dislodge biofilm. Daily high pressure flushing breaks up biofilm. Also, flush after each intervention of vitamins or medications. Hydrogen peroxide-based cleaners offer a highly effective tool for eliminating biofilm. Properly formulated, hydrogen peroxide becomes a powerful oxidizing agent that scrubs the interior of the pipe clean of biofilm.

Water consists of more than hydrogen and oxygen atoms. It also contains a variety of substances dissolved or suspended in it. Those added materials could drastically affect flock performance. Water contamination Water consists of more than hydrogen and oxygen atoms. It also contains a variety of substances dissolved or suspended in it. Those added materials could drastically affect flock performance. Runoff from fields can cause significant contamination to wells, ponds or streams. Even water from a municipal system can contain contaminants, including excessive chlorine that can harm flock performance. Producers should ensure water entering the house meets the same microbiological standards as potable water for human consumption. Ideally, water should be clear, odorless and tasteless for the poultry flock. It should have no bacteria in it. It is critical that producers have their water tested regularly so they know what their flocks are consuming. Water quality can change over time.Producers should pay particular attention to their wells during times of drought. As the water table lowers, the quality of water in the well can change.

Drinker height Producers should make sure they have the drinkers at the right height for the birds. Drinkers set too low result in water spills. Drinkers placed too high inhibit birds from getting all the water they need. Producers need to pay special attention during the first few days of a new flock. If the chicks do not drink or cannot find the water, they will rapidly dehydrate. On the first day, place the chicks close to the drinkers. For nipple-type systems, the end of the trigger should be just slightly higher than eye level. Also, provide sufficient candlepower, enough to attract chicks to the metal pins. As the birds find the drinkers, raise the lines slightly, encouraging the chicks to stretch their necks. By the second or third day, drinker height should encourage the chicks to peck at about a 45-degree angle. Chickens rely on gravity to drink because of a split in the upper hard palate of the beak that allows air into the nasal passages. This prevents the birds from forming a vacuum in their mouths and they must raise their heads to allow the water to flow into their crops.

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2012

As the birds age, continue to raise the drinkers. By four weeks, the drinker height should require the birds to peck at about a 50- to 55degree angle. (Determine the angle by drawing a line from the bird’s feet to its beak.) Drinkers that are too high force the birds to elevate their breasts and stretch their necks, leading to inadequate consumption. Some producers will keep the drinkers so high the birds must jump to activate the trigger pin. This only leads to water spillage.

Inaccurate advice Producers often receive poor advice about management procedures applied to the drinking system. Producers always should follow management recommendations made by the manufacturer of their system. Applying general management procedures or procedures someone other than the manufacturer recommends usually leads to poor system performance. However, certain observations can help a producer optimize drinking system performance. Observe litter conditions. Make sure the flock receives as much water as possible without making the litter wet. Producers should carefully track their bird performance, including weight, livability, feed conversion, undergrades, egg production, egg size, etc. Producers should compare flock-to-flock and house-to-house performances, as well as looking at industry norms. This means keeping detailed records and referring to them often. When any one of the measured categories begins to show signs of underperformance, the producer should turn detective to find the problem. n Technical Team, Ziggity Systems, Inc.

Burger process machines from 200 kg to 400 Kg per hour •Meat block flaker, •Wolfking or Hobart Mixer grinder •Formax F6 Burger machine •Formatic Former

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We offer 2nd hand refurbished machines and new process machines. Anything in the Poultry, red meat, dairy, fish, Bakery, packaging machines Weigh bagging line •Ishida 14 head Multihead weigher, year 2005 •Miele Bagger, 400 mm crimp bar, year 2005 •Stainless steel gantry.

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Tel: 44 (0)1761 410345 Fax: 44 (0)1761 410332

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Livestock

Weaning in pigs, when the facts change In order to achieve a successful transition from milk to solid feed, the enrichment of diets with phytogenics feed additives to support growth performance in newly weaned pigs is recommend.

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T HAS ALWAYS been true that weaning is one of the most stressful moments in pigs’ life due to the sudden shift from high protein, high fat and high lactose milk to low protein, low fat, low lactose and high carbohydrate solid feed. Shortly after weaning, the gastrointestinal tract appears to be susceptible to this feed shift. Diet shift is just another factor which can be added to other sources for stress like immunological and environmental stresses. Weaning induces many unwanted changes that can be summarised as follows: • A decrease in the immune response of the small intestine due to the damage that occurs in the epithelial lining which contains the mucinsecreting cells. • A substantial increase in E.coliand Clostridium perfringens populations concomitant with a sharp decrease in Lactobacillus species. • Villous atrophy due to the shifting to the solid diet (just after weaning, the digestive tract of the pigs is almost empty for 3-6 hours which is considered as a golden opportunity for microbes to attack the epithelial lining of the small intestine and cause the previously mentioned morphological damage). Also it is very common to observe a significant decrease in villous height followed by an increase in the cryptal depth.

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These changes count for the vast majority of health and performance problems that occur at this critical time. As consequences to these changes, digestive disorders appear to cause improper growth performance through poor nutrients digestibility which is followed by an increase in the feed conversion ratio. The improper nutrients digestibility and the enteritis caused by pathogens are the most important factors leading to diarrhea incidence and mortality in newly weaned pigs. Just after weaning there are some facts that most producers believe in like the growth performance of pigs is normally decreased, health also is adversely affected by weaning and mortality is a common incidence during that time. On the other hand, there is another fact in the mind of all producers: the performance of pigs during the nursery phase is the key limiting factor in the pigs’ future productivity until the marketing step. In the light of all mentioned above, it seems that we can achieve a successful post-weaning performance mainly though supporting and stabilising the gastrointestinal tract. Regardless of the different weaning programs, pigs still need powerful, safe and sometimes uncommon solutions to overcome the weaning-related problems and hence change these old facts regarding animals’ health and growth performances after weaning. Different natural feed additives and growth promoters were studied for their possible effects on improving pig performance. Phytogenics are a potent group within the family of natural growth promoters which have been shown to exert many positive effects within the gastrointestinal tract.

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Livestock

A 28-day experiment on 23 days old pigs was conducted to investigate the potential of a phytogenic product ( Biomin® P.E.P. ) in comparison to an antibiotic growth promoter on the productive performance of newly weaned pigs under the conditions in Korea. A total of 360 weaned pigs equally distributed into three groups with four replicates as follows: • Group 1: Negative control (commercial diet) • Group 2: Positive control(commercial diet + 100 ppm apramycin/ton) • Group 3: Treatment (commercial diet + 125 ppm P.E.P./ton).

Phytogenics and FCR Feed conversion ratio (FCR) is affected by different parameters including mainly gastrointestinal health and feed quality. For producers, feed conversion ratio represents an important parameter in the production process. Figure 1b shows that the phytogenic improved feed conversion ratio by about 6 per cent than the negative control group and to a greater extent (11.5 per cent) than the antibiotic fed group. This finding confirms the efficiency of phytogenics on improving nutrient utilisation and stabilising the gastrointestinal tract.

Phytogenics vs antibiotics and their effects on live body weight For a very long time, antibiotics have been used in animal feed as medical treatments and as growth promoters, but since 2006 Europe has banned the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal rations. This decision created major problems for producers since they observed a pronounced decrease in live body weight, high mortality rate and a significant increase in the incidences of diarrhea in their herds. This response was expected because of the weak nature of young pigs during the early stages of their lives. Furthermore, in our current case (Korea) the producers will not be free to use antibiotics as feed additives. The Korea food and drug administration will ban the use of the antibiotics in animal rations by July 2011. In the present study, the phytogenic product was shown to exert a positive effect on the live body weight at 50 days of age (Figure 1a) where pigs fed on P.E.P. had significantly higher body weights than those fed on the antibiotic growth promoter (1530g difference) and numerically higher weights than the negative control group (230g difference).

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2012

Figure 1a & 1b: Live weight (left) and feed conversion ratio (right) of commercial pigs at 50 days of age. a,b - significant differences with experiment (p<0.05)

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Livestock

Table 1: Cost-benefit analysis per total pigs from 23 to 50 days of age. Number of pigs BW (kg) BW gain (kg) Total feed intake (kg) Feed cost ($/kg) Total feed cost Feed cost/gain ($/kg) Differences

Control 120 20.79 13.34 2753 0.857 2359.3 113.48 104per cent

No mortality with phytogenics Piglets are born weak and for a considerable amount of time they are observed to be susceptible to different diseases and stressors. It is known that mortality appears especially at the early life stage. This is why mortality always peaked at birth and at weaning. Furthermore, considering the complexity of reasons that lead to death at the end, it seems that mortality control at the weaning phase is a distant dream. Data regarding live body weight and feed conversion ratio revealed that the negative control group has a performance quite similar to the phytogenics group but and, as shown in Figure 2, the difference became clear where the negative control group had a mortality rate of 2.5 per

Figure 2: Mortality rate of commercial pigs at 50 days of age

Antibiotic growth promoter 120 19.49 12.47 2738 0.892 2442.3 125.31 115per cent

Biomin® P.E.P. 120 21.02 13.61 2646 0.863 2283.5 108.63 100per cent

cent and the phytogenic group showed 0 per cent. Also, the phytogenic group performed better than the antibiotic group which had a 1.7 per cent mortality rate.

At the end money talks: profits behind phytogenics The cost-benefit analysis (Table 1) shows the differences between different treatments regarding to total feed cost in a quite short period (23 to 50 days of age). Diet supplementation with Biomin® P.E.P. resulted in reducing total feed cost by 4 per cent and 15 per cent in comparison to negative and positive control groups, respectively. It is a fact that there is no escape from having improper performance shortly after weaning and it is accompanied with increasing mortality rate. After reviewing the presented data, we can in fact control this very sensitive period through having better live body weight, lower feed conversion ratio, reduced mortality and reduction in the feed cost. Other data not shown indicate that Biomin® P.E.P. is modulating the gastrointestinal tract by controlling total microbial count, increasing nutrient digestibility and influencing immune response. In order to achieve a successful transition from milk to solid feed, it is a must to increase feed quality and one of the possible ways is the enrichment through using phytogenics as feed additives to support growth performance in newly weaned pigs. It is also worth mentioning that phytogenics could be a powerful solution for producers on an early weaning program. Finally, all facts that we know about post-weaning difficulties, can be controlled if we support our herds by increasing the quality of their rations by adding phytogenics. n By: Tobias Steiner, Ahmed Aufy, Biomin

Pulse NeedleFree swine vaccination available in Japan PULSE NEEDLEFREE SYSTEMS, a supplier of needle-free injection solutions to the animal health industry, has signed an exclusive distribution agreement with I.P. Tsusho for the Japanese swine market. I.P. Tsusho, an affiliate of Japan’s Ishii Group, provides animal health and husbandry products to Japanese livestock producers. I.P. Tsusho creates an important bridge between leading international suppliers and Japan’s livestock producers. The president of I.P. Tsusho, Masahiro Takeuchi said, “We identify areas where emerging technologies can improve Japanese pork production and we work with leading suppliers to bring those technologies to Japan. Pulse’s expertise and success in other countries makes it a perfect fit for I.P. Tsusho, as we focus on products and services that enhance animal health, animal welfare and protection of the environment.” “Pulse is very pleased to be working with I.P. Tsusho and to offer our best-in-class vaccination technology to pork producers in

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Japan,” commented Edward Stevens, CEO of Pulse NeedleFree Systems. “Japan is recognised throughout the world for its high quality meat production standards and we are honoured to collaborate with a respected group like I.P. Tsusho to serve this market.” Pulse NeedleFree Systems’ products improve animal health and food safety. By eliminating needles from the livestock vaccination process, Pulse reduces disease transmission between animals, reduces the risk of broken needles entering the food supply and improves efficiency in on-farm production.

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Crops

Stemming tree cankers with cuprous oxide fungicide Prevention is the key to management of canker diseases. Canker pathogens can be difficult to eradicate once the infection process has started.

• cleaning the canker • treatment of the cleaned area with cuprous oxide fungicide paint • sealing with waterproof and insect proof layers of grease

Three key steps in Phytophthora canker control are:

Failure to perform each stage using the most appropriate tools and materials jeopardizes success of the entire operation. Canker cleaning requires a range of sharp clean tools including machetes (cutlasses), knives, scrapers and chisels (with hammer) to facilitate fast and efficient removal of all infected bark, as well as healthy bark several centimetres beyond the edge of the canker. And sufficiently deep to expose and display clean disease-free wood. Excised bark material is bagged and removed for incineration. All canker cleaning tools are routinely disinfected before moving on to the next canker whether it is on the same or a different tree. Canker paint is prepared by mixing cuprous oxide as wettable powder, granule or flowable formulation in water to produce an aqueous mixture with a paint-like viscosity. Viscosity is accelerated and enhanced adding an appropriate adjuvant sticker. Required strength (concentration of cuprous oxide) and viscosity is most easily and rapidly achieved by using high-copper formulations such as Nordox 75% WG (wettable granule).

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LANT DISEASE CONTROL is pre-occupied with pathogens that infect foliage and fruit although those attacking the bark and wood are altogether more economically damaging, especially in the longer term. With the right treatment, trees will usually recover quickly from foliar infection and live to crop in the following season or year, but not so trees suffering from untreated stem canker diseases. These diseases can kill mature fruit bearing trees by girdling the trunk to wipe out years of investment and future yield. Phytophthora, a fungal like pathogen belonging to the Oomycetes and now regarded as closer to the algae than the true fungi, is by far the most important cankercausing pathogen in the tropics.

Canker control


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Phytophthora stem canker in cocoa spreads from infected flower cushions (left) where the young pods called cherelles develop (right)

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canker paint protection is a long term business lasting months if not years and clearly requires a waterproof covering layer of thick petrolatum grease or other equivalent sealant known to encourage bark renewal. Paint should ideally be dry before applying sealant but this may not be possible in the wet and humid tropics. Sealant should cover the entire cleaned and painted area and at least 5 cm beyond the edge of the treated area. Treated areas should be inspected over the following months for bark renewal, and the paint and/or sealant re-applied if necessary. South East Asia is where most innovative work with canker cleaning, painting and sealing takes place. Farmers add polymer

materials to the paint to obtain a ‘two-in-one’ canker paint/wound sealant that provides a self-sealing impenetrable crust over the treated area. Sealing of the painted area is not only for waterproofing and prevention of re-infection, but to deter bark and wood boring insect pests like beetles which are attracted to damaged areas of bark and exposed wood.

Avocado Avocado ‘decline’ caused by root infection with Phytophthora cinnamomi is well known. The same organism can infect above ground on the collar and trunk of the avocado tree, but stem infections are usually caused by the closely related species Phytophthora citricola.

Bark on and around a Phytophthora stem canker on cocoa cleaned away in preparation for application of cuprous oxide canker paint

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2012

Photograph: Nordox

Traditionally-used canker paints are aqueous (water-based) but farmers in some South East Asian countries have found oilemulsion paints, obtained by adding locally available vegetable oils, actually increase penetration of active copper fungicide into the bark and wood for extra protection and control. Nordox has an oil-based flowable formulation of cuprous oxide fungicide called ‘Nordox Oleo Ultra’ that can be used in this way to produce oil emulsion canker paint. Best results are obtained by brushing liberal amounts of paint over the entire area of the excised bark and at least 5 cm beyond over healthy intact bark. There are no hard and fast rules governing concentration of cuprous oxide (active copper) used in the paint. There is unlikely to be any adverse reaction from the bark or wood since cuprous oxide has been safely used for almost 90 years on almost every commercial tree crop in the world. Since the paint must remain at biocidal concentrations until the area is healed and sealed, which may be months or even more than a year depending on size, type of tree and climate, it is best to use a high concentration of copper in the paint. Like all copper-containing fungicides, cuprous oxide is active against a broad range of fungi and bacteria and is therefore able to deal with most secondary invaders as well as the primary Phytophthora pathogen. Cuprous oxide is acknowledged to be the most efficacious of all fixed copper fungicides (on a gram to gram basis), and its rich dark red colour means estate managers can easily see whether or not a tree has been treated. Cuprous oxide is inherently tenacious. Use of oil emulsions or adjuvant sticker to formulate paints will further increase tenacity and resistance to weathering. That said,

Photograph: Nordox

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The main difference between root and stem infecting Phytophthora species in avocado is that above ground infections nearly always occur through weakened bark whether due to wounding or through tree stress. Stem cankers originate at or below ground level and establish on the crown and lower trunk but can also occur much higher up the tree trunk at (45-50cm), especially if wounding is prevalent during pruning, picking and other tasks. Canker lesions are discoloured areas on the bark, producing copious quantities of redcoloured resin seeping out and oozing through cracks in the bark. Excision of the canker reveals an orange-brown outer layer of wood, instead of the normally creamy-white healthy inner living bark which emits a fruity smell when exposed to the air. Red coloured margins of the canker are where the Phytophthora is most active and most easily isolated. Cutting and cleaning treatments must extend well beyond this area. Infections must be identified early by regular trunk inspection because the tree itself does not show any obvious symptoms until the disease starts eating into the cambium and moving around the circumference of the tree trunk. From this point on, decline and death is rapid occurring in just one or two months. Scraping off cankerous tissue and painting with copper sulphate has been tried but growers complain how the highly soluble copper sulphate is easily washed off by rain to require repeat treatment. Canker paint containing cuprous oxide in an oil emulsion formulation is much superior in this respect. Phytophthora citricola infects avocado fruits and these diseased fruits left on the orchard floor provide a continual source of inoculum for further trunk infections, especially during wet weather and irrigation.

Cleaned stem canker wounds on cocoa are protected and sealed by applying cuprous oxide canker paint

hydroxide. Discovery and use of cuprous oxide in the early 1930â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s coincided with discovery that Phytophthora spreads from the pod along the peduncle and into the flower cushion, from where it develops into a stem canker.

Cocoa Phytophthora on cocoa is most frequently associated with pod rot (black pod) but Asian Pacific cocoa in countries like Malaysia and Papua New Guinea experience high levels of Phytophthora stem canker. In West Africa, where stem canker is not so prevalent (though still a problem), research shows incidence and distribution of cankers up the trunk is related to the actual source of inoculum, and therefore the particular species causing the problem. Phytophthora pod rot and stem canker in West Africa are caused by Phytophthora palmivora and Phytophthora megakarya, the latter best known for survival on cocoa debris in the soil. In areas where P. megakarya is the predominant species most stem cankers are found at the base or near the base of the tree trunk, the inoculum responsible having originated in the soil. Where P. palmivora is most common cankers are found at positions much higher up the trunk having been sourced from infected flower-cushions. Phytophthora stem cankers on cocoa are difficult to detect in the early stage because there are no external symptoms. However, careful scraping the bark reveals a pink-red discolouration of the cambium tissue. Any scraping and wound cleaning carried out in cocoa must be conducted with care because large treated areas fail to heal sufficiently, and quickly lead to complete loss of trees. Cuprous oxide has been used to a greater extent on cocoa than any other crop, and gram for gram is found to be the most effective of all fixed copper fungicides which includes copper oxychloride and cupric

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2012

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Photograph: Nordox

Crops


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Crops

Photograph: Nordox

Stem canker on durian expertly treated in Vietnam by excising the infected branch and sealing with cuprous oxide canker paint

Citrus

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Cuprous oxide has been used to a greater extent on cocoa than any other crop, and gram for gram is found to be the most effective of all fixed copper fungicides which includes copper oxychloride and cupric hydroxide.

Classic Asian fruits A wide range of classic and often iconic Asian fruit trees including mango, durian, lychee, longan and apples (at high altitude) all suffer from infections by Phytophthora to cause typical stem canker infections. Water based canker paints are traditionally used to treat these infections, but farmers in Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia now use cuprous oxide canker paint mixed as an oil emulsion. Oil emulsion formulations of cuprous oxide have more sticking power and also exhibit penetrative properties allowing the active copper (Cu2+) to move deeper into the wood to prevent localised spread of infection and to kill any residual mycelium. Furthermore, addition of polymers allows the dried canker paint to form a selfsealing water-proof crust over the wound. n By Dr Terry Mabbett

An old but valuable durian tree in Vietnam rescued from Phytophthora stem canker by using cuprous oxide canker paint on an extensive wound at the base of the tree trunk

Photograph: Nordox

Citrus gummosis can be caused by a number of different Phytophthora species. Infections are most common around the collar and lower trunk portion of the tree because inoculum is invariably splashed up from the soil as spores, although many infections do occur higher up the trunk and even on the main scaffold branches. If left unchecked, gummosis will kill main branches and eventually the whole tree as infections progressively encircle the affected trunk area. Early symptoms include resin-like gum oozing from cracks in the bark which may wash off in the rain or dry, crack and eventually fall off. Otherwise early symptoms are difficult to detect so regular tree inspection is essential. In more advanced stages, secondary pathogens invade and cause bark and wood discolouration distinctly darker than the gummosis itself. Early detection and treatment is essential, especially before the disease has encircled 50 per cent or more of the trunk or main branch. Disease can be halted by scraping off all diseased bark and a buffer strip of healthy light brown or greenish bark around the margins of the infection. Alternatively, affected bark may be scraped more lightly to find the perimeter of the lesion, which is subsequently cauterised with a propane torch to kill advancing fungal mycelium. All cleaned and treated areas are painted with cuprous oxide canker paint and sealed as described using petrolatum grease. In areas of high disease pressure growers are recommended to paint the bark of healthy trees with cuprous oxide paint as a prophylactic treatment. Cuprous oxide is one of the relatively few chemicals which may be

used to control the disease for organically produced citrus fruits. Orange, grapefruit and pommelo all succumb to Phytophthora bark infections. These can be collar rot infections just above soil level or infections up the trunk and on the main scaffold branches. Infections on the main branches of pommelo in Thailand are associated with copious production of brown and amber coloured resin. Orange trees suffer from a fruit infection called Phytophthora brown rot caused by spores splashed up from the soil and onto low hanging full fruit. This phase of the disease is controlled by spraying with cuprous oxide. High volume sprays to run off give complete coverage required. Otherwise, vulnerable fruit are infected and fall to provide even more inoculum for stem canker infection.

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Crops

Organic farming: The future of Philippine agriculture

As the trend towards healthier lifestyle continues to grow, the interest in organic farming in the Philippines is also expeditiously gaining ground

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HILIPPINE PRESIDENT BENIGNO Aquino III believes that organic agriculture is the way of the future not only to address hunger but also to sustain health and environment. The government has mandated the Department of Agriculture to allot at least PHP1 billion (US$23.70 million) this year to exclusively promote the organic agriculture programs in the country. According to the local organic group Organic Producers Trade Association (OPTA), the risk of consuming non-organic food is becoming more perilous to human health as high-yielding agri-produce or the so-called “green revolution crops” developed in the province of Los Banos— one of the country’s major agricultural research hubs— have been identified as one of the causes of brain damage particularly resulting to impaired intellect to people in poor or third world countries. According to OPTA, the crops that are produced under modern agriculture techniques that use large doses of pesticides,

herbicides and fertilizers are decreasing brain size, thus slowing down one’s intelligence capabilities. OPTA also tells that international studies have likewise shown that chemicalinfused crops have resulted in cancer, hormone disruption, neurological disorders and other life-threatening illnesses. As chemical farming destroys the environment, OPTA says beneficial micronutrients in the soil that are needed by a human body are also killed such as calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, selenium, manganese and many others. The absence of these essential health elements in the planting grounds may cause malnutrition as the soil can no longer produce foods that are adequately supplied with important nutrients. On the other hand, OPTA reveals that livestock and aquaculture grown in chemicalindustrial animal farming systems are also huge health hazards. These animals are fed and injected with synthetic chemicals to force them to grow fast and survive the pathogenic microorganisms such as antibiotics, growth hormones, steroids, synthetic vitamins and minerals. The danger of these chemicals has been proven to be so grave that it compelled the European Union to ban the use of antibiotics and growth hormones in their livestock. Although the Philippines has not resorted to completely ban the use of synthetic chemicals in animal farming, the country is

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2012

set to go all natural in agriculture through Republic Act 10068 that aims to strengthen the state’s policy to promote, propagate, develop further and implement the practice of organic agriculture. Through the law, the farming community are hoped to ensure and cumulatively condition and enrich the fertility of the soil, increase farm productivity, reduce pollution and destruction of the environment, prevent depletion of natural resources and protect the health of the farmers and of the general public. Moreover, going organic agriculture is an opportunity for the country for the organically grown commodities in the world market which would cost US$40 billion to US$70 billion in 2012.

The “birth pains” of organic Amid all the wonderful advantages, pundits say the local farming community is yet to totally embrace organic agriculture. The tedious task of producing them plus its high production costs have discouraged farmers to shift into organic farming. While the use of chemical inputs in farming guarantees sure harvests, there isn’t much economic inducement for farmers to organic. According to Agriculture Secretary Proceso Alcala, while organically grown food commodities are making a sweep in more developed countries, these are yet to catch on Filipinos as cost is one factor as organic food items are more expensive than those

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grown with commercial chemically formulated fertilizers. The only way to lower production costs is for farmers to learn to process their own organic fertilizers. An organic farmer admitted that the change from traditional to non-chemical farming was totally difficult as what was once his 15 kilos of okra has been significantly reduced to 7 kilos each scheduled harvest. Not to mention the invasion of insects that begun to swarm in his farm when he stopped the use of pesticides. According to the website EcoPhilippines, going organic will totally involve a considerable amount of investment and time. First, the soil must first be analyzed for rehabilitation to determine the exact nutrients needed and other recommendations for the soil. Second, land preparation should eliminate the use of herbicides and instead using the grass cutter or manual pruning to plow and pulverize the soil and prevent grass from growing. Third, is reconditioning the soil by using vermicasts or composts using earthworms to let the garden “rest” for at least a month from the chemicals. After the “rest” period, the garden is ready to be planted and the introduction of seedlings should be totally free of synthetic inputs. Likewise, organic farmers should ensure that their seeds and other inputs are totally free from chemicals and these should be checked by certifying bodies.

Consumer awareness Private think tank La Liga Policy Institute recommends that for people to totally go into organic, it should raise consumer awareness which is marketing. La Liga says there is much to be gained in enhancing the labeling, standards and certification of organic products and byproducts to sustain ecological agriculture. La Liga managing director Roland Cabigas said that a concrete labeling system with clear government check mechanism for the

Photograph:

Crops

Organic farmers should ensure that their seeds and other inputs are totally free from chemicals and these should be checked by certifying bodies

validity of labels, the promotion of organic products and byproducts would boost trading system that would benefit more consumers and producers. This means developing labels and standards that range from organic, semiorganic, organically grown, naturally farmed, pesticide free or less chemicals. Cabigas also said the appropriate labels will provide the consumers the appropriate food information and proper guidance. Likewise, certification processes should be attuned to the interest of the small farmers to make it more economical to go into organic farming. If these measures are immediately done, Cabigas said organic supply would surely increase and these would drive down prices that would encourage people to buy. It also would be reasonable to expect consumers to wean themselves from “steroid-

laced” meat, fish, fruit and vegetables. While organic farms are sprouting like mushrooms in the country, experts cautions that the farms should be entirely free from chemicals and that farmers should be educated and knowledgeable enough to operate an organic farm. Organic farming, they say, is easier said than done and although organic agriculture seems to be the trend in the next five years, its goal of addressing the food security and health benefits should be taken into consideration foremost. With the booming population and increasing health perils, organic farming may seem to be one of the keys in addressing the poverty of third world countries such as the Philippines. n Gemma Delmo

Arysta LifeScience Japan introduces new product for IPM ARYSTA LIFESCIENCE HAS introduced BotaniGard® WP (Beauveria bassiana strain GHA), a product of Laverlam International, Corp., for integrated pest management (IPM) in Japan. The microbial insecticide BotaniGard® ES (Emulsifiable Suspension) has been promoted in the Japanese market by Arysta LifeScience to control thrips, whiteflies and Lepidoptera along with beneficial insects and mites (so called, “natural enemies”). Although

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effective against the target pests, some side effects were found to act against predatory mites such as Amblyseius swirskii. In response, Arysta LifeScience developed a new formulation of Beauveria bassiana. As a wettable powder, BotaniGard WP is much less harmful to predatory mites and is compatible with IPM programs in greenhouse vegetables such as strawberries, sweet peppers, eggplants and cucumbers. In another major development, Arysta

LifeScience Vietnam has begun operation of a new suspension concentrate (SC) formulation plant in Song Than II Industrial Zone, Binh Duong province, Vietnam, for production of KASAI-S® 92SC, a fungicide to be launched later this year. KASAI-S is a mixture of kasugamycin and tricyclazole that has proven effective for control of rice blast disease. It will be the first “blasticide” in SC formulation available to growers in Vietnam.

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2012


S06 FEAG 3 2012 Crops_Layout 1 25/05/2012 10:23 Page 29

Crops

GIS-based water maps help produce more crop per drop T

HE IMPACT OF the accelerating change in climatic conditions around the world is well documented. It provides an ongoing point of discussion and debate in our national and international governing bodies and a regular talking point for the news media. A decrease in reliable sources of freshwater has an enormous negative impact on agricultural production at a time when there is a global need to increase yield. According to How to Feed the World in 2050, a strategic report issued by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in 2009, world population will grow by another two billion to around nine billion people in the next 40 years, requiring a 70 per cent increase in food production.

PiMapping Moves to the Cloud With complex tools that have been developed for many years, eLEAF is working with Esri's Professional Services team to port PiMapping to a standardized ArcGIS platform. "The solution will leverage Esri's cloud infrastructure, opening many new exciting opportunities for data analysis and dissemination," says Bastiaanssen. Time-series data collected from this framework is plotted in ArcGIS to create evapotranspiration and biomass production maps. Benefits are substantial and include the estimation of water requirements for different agro-ecosystems, drought monitoring, the identification of areas for possible water savings, and the potential volume of such savings.

Measuring Water Use Recently, two well-established companies in the Netherlands, WaterWatch and Basfood, formed eLEAF to support global solutions for agriculture and the environment with data they collect on vegetation, water, and climate. WaterWatch previously developed PiMapping technology, a family of GISbased tools that delivers more than 50 data components. “In the past, the efforts to expand agricultural productivity have focused on the land, commonly measured as a yield per hectare," says Patrick Sheridan, chief marketing officer for eLEAF. "However, with the increasing global scarcity of water resources, the focus is shifting away from the land on which the crop is grown and to the productivity of the water applied to the crop, or a yield per cubic meter.” Optimizing crop water use efficiency requires quantitative measurements of crop water consumption. The physical process behind crop water consumption is called evapotranspiration. It is the combination of plant transpiration (the loss of water vapor from plants) and surface evaporation.

Utilizing Remote-Sensing Data During the mid-1990s, professor Wim Bastiaanssen, a water resources modeling and remote-sensing specialist and founder of WaterWatch, developed the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (or SEBAL model) to calculate crop water consumption from remote-sensing data. The model measures the energy balance that specific plants in a defined area require to sustain the hydrologic cycle. Basically, the energy driving the hydrologic cycle is equal to the incoming energy from the sun minus the energy reflected back into space and the energy used to heat the surrounding soil and air. The model uses satellite imagery (spatially distributed, visible, nearinfrared, and thermal infrared data) that includes the albedo (solar reflection coefficient), leaf area index, vegetation index, and surface temperature. This complex algorithm calculates evapotranspiration on a pixel-by-pixel basis to determine the optimum amount of water needed to sustain healthy plant life in any part of the world. It can also calculate the biomass production (total plant life in a specified area) and soil moisture in the root zone. Bastiaanssen established the think tank WaterWatch to pursue his research in water resource modeling and remote sensing. The framework WaterWatch developed for PiMapping is based on the SEBAL model. Along with supporting algorithms, PiMapping provides essential meteorologic input data, such as wind speed, humidity, solar radiation, and air temperature. Combining those inputs with remote-sensing data, PiMapping generates weekly updates on biomass production, water productivity, crop water requirements, root-zone soil moisture, and CO2 intake.

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2012

China’s Water Productivity Score, calculated by eLEAF and mapped with ArcGIS, is displayed in kilograms per cubic meter

"Compelling visualizations of our results are essential to get the message across," Bastiaanssen explains. "In our day-to-day consulting work, we have seen substantial productivity increases thanks to the great mapmaking features of Esri's products." Because they are GIS based, evapotranspiration maps can also be combined with land-use and biomass coverages. Combining these maps provides a great deal more information, such as the amount of water use by land-use class; the boundaries of areas where water consumption can, and cannot, be controlled; the impact of changes in land use on downstream water availability; crop water productivity; and the amount of water that can be saved while the same production levels are maintained.

ArcGIS Delivers eLEAF's Database eLEAF relies on ArcGIS hosted in the Amazon cloud to deliver data to clients. "We are in the process of creating a worldwide database from our analyses that anyone can access using very simple web services," says Sheridan. "ArcGIS has the features we need to integrate with our clients' systems." Once data is processed and quality checked, it is posted in eLEAF's data warehouse. ArcGIS for Server exposes the data in multiple formats, such as Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc. (OGC), web services, or through an image server. This way, eLEAF feeds websites as well as smartphone applications and can react flexibly to customer demands. To afford easy access to its global databases, eLEAF also provides its service via ArcGIS Online. "ArcGIS Online is a wonderful platform, as people can experience our products and easily integrate them in their maps," adds Sheridan. n By Jim Baumann

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S07 FEAG 3 2012 Equipment_Layout 1 25/05/2012 10:25 Page 30

Equipment

Seed drill progress Increasing output to save time and costs is among the crop establishment priorities, and many of the newest seed drills have design features to improve work rates and increase efficiency.

O

NE OF THE obvious cost-saving developments is designing seed drills that need less initial seedbed preparation. It is a trend that started more than 30 years ago and still continues, and there has already been a big reduction in the number of cultivations carried out on many farms to allow significant savings in time and fuel consumption. Although the number and type of cultivations needed is determined to some extent by soil type, the crop to be grown and, in some cases, by problems such as soil compaction and weed infestations that need special treatment, the general trend is to economise on seedbed preparation. The ultimate in cultivation saving is no-till drilling when the seed drill works directly into undisturbed soil. This can mean attractive cultivation cost savings, although there is also likely to be increased dependence on herbicides for weed control. An example of this approach is John Deere’s 750A No-Till drill which has the versatility to work in undisturbed stubble, into land that has had just a primary cultivation with a plough or a set of discs, and also into a fully prepared conventional seedbed. John Deere’s No-Till drill has pneumatic seed delivery and is available with 3.0, 4.0 and 6.0m working widths and with hopper capacities of 1,000, 1,800 and 2,300 litres respectively. Sowing depths can be adjusted between 13 and 90mm and work rates up to 6ha/hr are available with the 6m version. Power requirements start at 80hp for the 3.0m drill.

John Deere's 750A No-Till drill can work in uncultivated soil.

30

One of the benefits of establishing crops with reduced cultivations and no-till drilling systems is moisture conservation. Moving soil in a traditional sequence of cultivations increases the exposure to moisture loss, and crops sown into dry soil germinate more slowly and unevenly, often bringing lower yields. Another advantage in some situations is that stubble and other residues from previous crops are left on the surface between the crop rows, and this helps to reduce the risk of wind erosion. Strip tillage is another form of reduced cultivation and an effective way to reduce soil moisture losses when establishing maize and other crops sown in widely spaced rows. It is widely used in the US and has become increasingly popular in parts of Europe and other areas where conserving soil moisture is an important factor. Strip tillage also significantly reduces the amount of tractor time and fuel needed to establish each hectare.

Cultivator-drill combinations Cultivator-drill combinations offer a different approach to reducing time and fuel costs for crop establishment. It is a system that is widely used in Europe, especially for small to medium acreages and for a wide variety of crops. The combination consists of a p-t-o powered cultivator plus a seed drill, both working together and mounted on the tractor three-point linkage. The cultivator is usually a power harrow and most of the leading manufacturers offer a power

harrow that can be used either on its own or with a special seed drill attachment. Disadvantages of the till-and-drill combination include relatively slow work rates because power harrowing is not a high-speed operation, but the power harrow can be used after a single primary cultivation or, in some conditions, can work in undisturbed soil and it can be much more effective in hard soil than tined cultivation. One of the design features that can improve drilling work rates is the size of the seed hopper, with more capacity reducing the time lost for refill stops. Amazone uses a 2,000 litre hopper on the 3.0 and 4.0m wide versions of the AD-P Super combination drill. It can work at speeds up to 15 kph, the makers say, and it is teamed up with Amazone’s KG series power harrows equipped with RoTec Plus coulters with a wedge type rear roller to consolidate the soil around the freshly sown seeds. A 2,000 litre seed hopper is also featured on the 3.0 and 4.0m versions of the Venta series drill from the French manufacturer, Kuhn Farm Machinery. The Venta combi units include Kuhn’s HR1003 series power harrows and a special feature of the drill design is the new Seedflex coulter system that can be adjusted to exert 35 to 40kg downward pressure, 25 per cent more than the previous design and said to offer better penetration and depth control in difficult ground conditions. Kverneland’s top selling seed drill is the recently introduced TS Evo offered with working widths from 4.0 to 6.0m and with three hopper capacities from 1,200 to 2,200 litres. Design features include a pneumatic seeding mechanism with a hydraulically powered fan; the main frame is in three sections for improved contour following and there are five rows of tines giving more efficient trash clearance than the three rows on Kverneland’s previous TS series combination drill. The fact that power harrow/drill combinations are mounted on the rear linkage means the hopper capacity has to be limited by the tractor’s lift capacity, but one option for overcoming this problem is to carry an additional seed hopper on the front linkage. The front-mounted hoppers are available from some of the leading combination drill companies to provide additional capacities of 1,000 litres or more. For those who want a seed drill with a bigger working width and a much larger hopper capacity, the choices are likely to be among

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2012


S07 FEAG 3 2012 Equipment_Layout 1 25/05/2012 10:25 Page 31

Equipment

Close-up view of a 4.0m wide Kuhn Venta series combination drill.

trailed machines which are not restricted by lift capacity. Simba Great Plains offers the recently introduced Centurion trailed drill in 4.0 and 6.0m widths with a 4,100 litre hopper. The specification includes 4mm discs to open the slots for the seeds and the options include weigh cells to check the seed hopper contents. The company, owned by American based Great Plains, has also produced the V-300 drill

series to suit smaller acreages and 100hp tractors. Seed only and seed plus fertiliser versions are available and the seeding mechanism includes 19 Turbo Coulters that can operate with up to 250kg of downward pressure for working in hard soil conditions. As well as arable crops, the V-300 drill can be used to sow grass and clover seed for livestock. Hopper capacity on the 6.0m wide Lemken

Compact-Solitaire drill is 5,000 litres. It is based on the Lemken Heliodor cultivator and it can be supplied in either seed only or seed plus fertiliser versions. For sowing fertiliser the hopper is supplied with a dividing wall that can be moved to vary the ratio between the seed and fertiliser capacities. The special OptiDisc double-disc coulters place the fertiliser between the seed rows. Precision drills are important for crops where accurate seed spacing is important, and they are used for large scale production of salad and vegetable crops and for sowing maize. The new arrival in this sector of the market is Vaderstad of Sweden which introduced the Tempo drill for sowing maize seed last year. It is based on a number of new features designed to improve spacing accuracy while allowing faster working speeds. An example is the position of the seed release, which is immediately in front of a press wheel to prevent the seed rolling as it falls on to the soil. Two versions of the Tempo maize drill are available initially, sowing six and eight rows and with four row space settings from 700 to 800mm. Each of the sealed seed hoppers holds 70 litres and the options include fertiliser placement and micro-granule hoppers. n

Valley Irrigation releases Bender160 product to global market VALLEY IRRIGATION RECENTLY released the Bender160 product for center pivots to the international market. For an economical cost, the Bender160 can increase the number of irrigated hectares in a field. With the Bender160, a grower can easily avoid a tree, building, or other obstacle in the field, allowing for maximum irrigated land, according to the company. The Valley Bender160 retrofits to existing center pivots, though minor structural changes to the center pivot are required. More than one Bender160 unit, as well as in combination with the Bender30, can be installed in multiple locations on the same center pivot. “The Bender160 is designed to provide growers flexibility to maximize their irrigated hectares in oddly shaped fields with obstacles,” explained Wade Sikkink, Equipment Product Manager. “The innovative design of the Bender160 allows for continual monitoring of the machine angle while bending, which enables growers to control auxiliary functions and end guns. This exclusive feature from Valley Irrigation gives growers more options to make sure they are getting the most out of their land and investment in center pivot irrigation.” “This product is yet another example of the choices Valley Irrigation offers to growers. The Bender160 will allow growers in the

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2012

Valley Irrigation Bender160

international markets to irrigate areas that were not always reachable with a standard center pivot,” said Scott Mauseth, International Product Manager. “With the focus on precision irrigation, Valley Irrigation continues to outperform the competition by offering an exclusive speed-up timer function, which comes standard with both the Bender30 and Bender160. This feature improves a center pivot’s water application while bending.”

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S07 FEAG 3 2012 Equipment_Layout 1 25/05/2012 10:25 Page 32

Equipment

Cat introduces advanced felling head CATERPILLAR FOREST PRODUCTS has launched the new Cat® HF201B felling head with enhancements to improve performance and durability. Available with 40° partial or full 330° tilt, the HF201B has a cutting capacity of 22.5 in. (572 mm) and is ideally matched with Cat track feller bunchers. “We redesigned the structure from top to bottom and went through four prototype iterations with field and strain gauge testing,” said Keith Hicks, product performance engineer. “By redistributing the weight where it needs to be in the high stress areas, we were able to reduce the overall weight by 900 lb. (408 kg). The weight reduction and other structural improvements will extend the life of the head and the carrier and reduce operator fatigue. The head is more robust as a result of a stronger dual box section frame design, improved arm box structures, stronger pin retention and more use of abrasion resistant material on the saw base.”

Cat® HF201B felling head

Hydraulic plumbing has been simplified with a 42 per cent reduction in the number of hoses and a 52 per cent reduction in

connection points. The grab and accumulator arms were redesigned with single cylinders, reducing hydraulic flow demand on the carrier by about 40 per cent. The arms now have both base and rod end cylinder snubbers. “When the arms are opening or closing, the hydraulic oil is dampened at the end of the stroke, cushioning the impact. Also, the new shape and reduced weight of the grab arm reduces the arm’s mass momentum 46 per cent, which also adds to durability.” The HF201B can hold 7-8 stems 152 mm (6 in.) in diameter as compared to 4-6 with the previous model. The new designs for the grab and accumulator arms and the top tree yoke improve tree control. Changes in the saw base also contribute to the head’s performance. A 12 per cent larger throat opening makes it easier to position a tree and improves handling trees with butt swell. Tapered saw housing improves discharge, reduces abrasive wear and snow build-up. A more open saw base bottom reduces debris build-up and saw stalling.

WEDA launches new container for liquid feeding systems WEDA DAMMANN & Westerkamp from Lutten has introduced a new type of container for liquid feeding systems, which enables the dosification of smallest feed amounts for pigs.

The special feature of the ‘QXS’ is the cuboidshaped ‘sump’ of the container. Furthermore, the developers of the comprehensive suppliers for pig managements have adopted the modular construction manner of the proven QS container wall system. This standardization facilitates container sizes with a volume from 650 to 1,650 litres in maximal construction stage, according to the company. “The newly developed agitators with floorlevel ‘minimal stirrers’, attached under the floor bearing, guarantee the desired maximum of homogenous feed. The agitators operate close to the wall and the special construction of the agitators prevents demixing of the feed,” said Ralf Meyer, head of WEDA’s Development Department. “Due to the use of different cable cross sections, the technology can be used for piglet feeding as well as for the feeding of sows and fattening pigs. With a sump with a ‘50-outlet’ and the new corresponding accessories, the system operates in accordance with the proven WEDA piglet feeding system, Conticomp.” “The ‘90-outlet’ corresponds with the liquid feeding container. During the calculations of the flow behaviour, the WEDA developers have paid special attention to the prevention of feed splashes during the mixing process, – The new QSX container enables dosification of minimal an important feature of container hygiene,” amounts of pigs feed Meyer elucidated.

32

New solution to reduce poultry house litter JANSEN POULTRY HAS launched a new system to mechanically remove litter in poultry houses. “Many poultry farmers would like to reduce the litter level and improve its quality in their poultry houses. When using Jansen’s Litter Removal System, litter levels in the house can be kept in check, litter is mechanically removed and dust and ammonia levels are considerably reduced,” a company official said. “The system works in the following way. In the walk ways of the house, a revolving steel cable with a scraper attached every ± 4m is installed. The back and forth movements of the scrapers move litter to the back of the house. During cleaning of the house the cable with scrapers can be removed so that the system does not interfere with the cleaning process.”

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2012


S07 FEAG 3 2012 Equipment_Layout 1 25/05/2012 10:25 Page 33

Equipment

Heavy poultry pan from Tuffigo Rapidex

Pas Reform granted exclusive use of Microban in hatcheries

TUFFIGO RAPIDEX HAS extended its automatic weighing range with a new heavy poultry pan. Tuffigo Rapidex standard automatic weighing pan can track the evolution of the weight of poultry in real time. Equipped with a smart load cell, the device transmits directly all weighings to the Tuffigo Rapidex computer. They are rendered as curves and Excel table to be exported to a PC or stored on a USB memory stick. “This solution provides high reliability and time savings of several hours per week. The shelf is adjustable in height by age and poultry species. This equipment allows breeders to make the right decisions immediately, reliably monitor the animals and their development and to measure the impact of their decisions,” a company official said. “The tray suits any kind of poultry and can therefore be maintained on site alternating chicken/turkey. It is also fully removable and travels flat to minimise transportation costs.”

MICROBAN ANTIBACTERIAL TECHNOLOGY is finding new applications in the hatchery sector, through an Agreement that gives Dutch hatchery technology company Pas Reform sole use worldwide. Pas Reform has incorporated Microban into the polymer used to manufacture setter trays, hatcher baskets and other hygienecritical hatchery consumables. “Pas Reform’s use of Microban technology represents an important development in minimising contamination by bacteria and pathogens in hatcheries”, explains Gerd de Lange, Senior Poultry Specialist of Pas Reform. “Millions of hatching eggs are transferred every day, between breeder farms and hatcheries. From the hatchery, day-old chicks are then transferred in their millions, to multiple points of delivery in the poultry chain. “The constant flow of eggs and chicks in hatcheries can, without proper hygiene practices, increase the potential for cross

contamination and bacteria transfer during transportation. Improving the hygiene throughout this process is an absolute priority” explains Mr de Lange. Optimising the hatchery’s hygiene status is fundamental to good incubation. Bacteria can double in number every 20 minutes, so that within just seven hours, every bacterium can multiply into more than a million organisms. While disinfection is effective in the short term, it does not prevent the re-growth of micro-organisms once the surface dries and the disinfectant has evaporated. By incorporating Microban technology into hatchery consumables such as setter trays and hatcher baskets, Pas Reform has created a unique and highly effective means of combating cross-contamination in modern hatcheries. Contact with the Microban treated polymer fatally disrupts the biological function of bacteria, to provide continuous protection between wash cycles.

Advanced double-dose chick vaccinator launched DIAMOND ENGINEERING’S LATEST development in vaccination technology claims to offer significant cost reduction and minimised stress to the bird. The latest addition to their range of Evolution vaccinators is the Evolution 2V double-dose vaccinator “The Evolution 2V applies two vaccines simultaneously through a single needle. The vaccinator reduces stress on the bird by 50 per cent and increases production by 100 per cent. It also reduces labour cost by 50 per cent,” a company official said. “The Evolution 2V still vaccinates the same high output of the renowned Evolution 1V up to 4000 chicks per hour. The special double cavity syringe can be ordered with a choice of dose sizes from 0.1ml to 0.5ml and any combination. It is possible to inject live and inactivated vaccines during the same injecting process.” The Evolution range has been specifically designed for continuous use in arduous climates and working conditions with minimal servicing required. The range now includes double chick sensing and double dose vaccination in one injection as an option. Oil and water based vaccines can also be injected together, according to Evolution 2V double dose vaccinator the company.

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2012

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S07 FEAG 3 2012 Equipment_Layout 1 25/05/2012 10:25 Page 34

Moreover

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Moreover

Agricultural biodiversity to improve nutrition food security A

PROJECT AIMED at using research and education to tackle growing global concerns over the negative health implications of poor nutrition and also improve food security was officially launched during the World Nutrition Rio Congress 2012 in Rio recently. A narrowing of variety in people's diets, with nutritionally-poor processed foods dominating the dinner table, has led to a raft of health issues. One third of the world's population is suffering from hunger and micronutrient malnutrition, while obesity and diet-related chronic illnesses have reached critical levels. The diversity of crops and their wild relatives, trees, animals, microbes and other species contributing to food production - known as agricultural biodiversity - can counter these trends, said Emile Frison, Director General of Bioversity International, which is coordinating the project to further research and promote the links between biodiversity and good nutrition. "Diversity of diet, founded on diverse farming systems, delivers better nutrition and greater health, with additional benefits for human productivity and livelihoods," Frison said. "Agricultural biodiversity is absolutely essential to cope with the predicted impacts of climate change." The Global Environment Facility (GEF)'s multi-country project on Biodiversity for Food and Nutrition Project is led by Brazil, Kenya, Sri Lanka and Turkey and coordinated by Bioversity International, with implementation support from the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). FAO's principal nutrition officer Barbara Burlingame notes that dietary energy supply can be met by a few staple crops only, without biodiversity. However, diets that are adequate for human health must be composed of a diversity of foods, with biodiversity being the key. As well as researching biodiversity's role in nutrition, the US $35million project, supported by GEF with US$5.5 million, and contributions from partner governments and agencies, aims to provide information on the nutritional and health benefits of traditional food sources to the four partner countries. The results will enhance the development of policies and regulatory frameworks that promote biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of important and underutilized foods. "To meet the challenge of feeding the world population of around nine billion by 2050, we need to consider not only sustainably producing sufficient food but also working towards diversified nutrition, which means providing a healthy diet for all," said Braulio

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2012

Dias, Executive Director, Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). "Agricultural biodiversity plays a central role in meeting this challenge." Neglected or forgotten traditional foods, which are often more nutritious and better adapted to local environments, and which therefore have fewer impacts on ecosystems - are crucial to this bigger picture. "In India, for example, a long series of studies to improve the use of so-called minor millets among very poor farmers has shown multiple beneficial impacts on yields, incomes, profits, the nutritional value of popular snack and breakfast foods and female empowerment, all promoting the likely conservation of these crops and their biological diversity in farmers' fields," Frison said. Examples of these foods, some of which have gained global popularity, are: • Indigenous leafy vegetables such as amaranth leaves, cleome and nightshade, which are now acknowledged as significant sources of vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidants • Lycopene-rich guava varieties, acerola and pitanga. In Brazil, which already has a great deal of biodiversity in its food supply, these former garden fruits are now commercially produced and processed. Another nutrient-rich fruit from Brazil and elsewhere is the popular açaí berry • Food condiments and spices, which have recently been reported to have anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, and anti carcinogenic properties. Spices also contribute to daily intakes of iron, zinc and calcium • Arugula (or rocket), a nutritious vegetable once collected as a wild food, and quinoa an extremely nutritious grain-like crop from the Andes, have both found wide-scale acceptance in grocery aisles and on restaurant plates around the world as a healthy, nutritious and tasty food, Quinoa holds particular promise in that it is highly adaptable to different climatic and geographic conditions and 2013 has been cleared year of the Quinoa by the United Nations The project is consistent with the Cross-Cutting initiative on biodiversity for food and nutrition, adopted by the CBD at COP8 (the eighth meeting of the decision-making body of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change) in 2006 in recognition of the importance of the links between biodiversity, food and nutrition. n Source: FAO

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S07 FEAG 3 2012 Equipment_Layout 1 25/05/2012 10:25 Page 36

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Maschinenfabrik GmbH & Co. KG

Tel.: +49 (0) 54 42 - 98 79-0 Fax: +49 (0) 54 42 - 98 79-33 info@lubing.com

Far Eastern Agriculture Issue 3 2012  

Far Eastern Agriculture Issue 3 2012