Retrofitting into the Existing - The new Mixed Use

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Retrofitting in to the Existing Afrah Bathsha - 18051235 MA Architecture and Urbanism


SMART URBAN HERITA

TEAM MEMBERS: AFRAH BATHSHA, CHIN

ACKNOWLEGMENT As I submit my thesis:‘Retrofitting into the Existing’, I take this opportunity to express my heartfelt gratitude to all those who had helped me in its completion. I express my sincere gratitude to my mentor Claudio Molina Camachofor his valuable comments, constant support and guidance, throughout my thesis. I would like to also thank my mentor Yun Wu for her patience, her inputs and support throughout my thesis. I am grateful to Eamonn Canniffe, the Course Leader, Manchester School of Architecture, and all other tutors in the course for giving valuable inputs on the thesis. I thank the University of Manchester and the Manchester Metropolitan for availing me all the facilities for successfully accomplishing this research. I thank my classmates for aiding in the research, constant encouragement and the healthy competition that came with it. I also thank my family for their support and for being there by my side as a source of encouragement. Above all, I thank God, the almighty for all his blessings.

Copyright © 2020 Manchester, England United Kingdom All rights reserved. Manchester School of Architecture University of Manchester Manchester Metropolitan University Copyright reserved by Afrah Bathsha MA Architecture & Urbanism


Source: https://www.deccanchronicle.com/nation/in-other-news/090817/meenakshi-temple-in-jeopardy.html



8

Introduction to Site and Project

10

History and Development

13

Mapping of Landmarks

14

Table of Contents

28

Study of the Maudrai till the Masi Street extent

(Structural Plan, Land use Mappings, Morphology, Transportation, Activity Pattern and Analysis )

Study of the East Avani Street (Structural Plan, Land use Mappings, Morphology and Analysis )

34

Conceptual Design

37

Design Development

40

Design- Master Planning

42

Proposals

61

Global and Local Impact

63

References




Introduction to Site

MIXED-USE CITY The site for the project is in Madurai, a radial city in urban planning of heritage value. Madurai is located in the south of India in the state of Tamil Nadu. This site is in a developing country with limited economic resources and is in the PHASE 2 of the India's SMART CITY MISSION. This is very apt in terms of the brief of defining a new mixed use development as there is a need for it devoid of the barriers between urban production and living, working and public space as the area around the temple reeks of the artiistic and heritage culture and in turn commerce. The research will be based on the three street radius of the temple but the design strategies will be for the East Avani Street.


Project Identification Introduction Of Topic Data Collection

Site Study & Analysis

•Technical Data •History and Evolution:Studio B Madurai extent till Maasi street

•Selection of the site •Site Visit •`Site Study •Site Analysis

History & Initial Site Analysis

Landuse

Morphology

Transportation & Other Services

Activty Patterns

Design Principles Setting some design principles and guidelines to be followed during the design process Concept/ Sketch Scheme •Developing Concept •Zoning •Sketch Scheme Design Development Develop designs in the primary stage following the concept and the sketch scheme. Final Design Development

Methodology

•Working on the design to finally fix the appropriate designs •Preparation of sheets


9th Century - 3th Century: 3rd Century:

Chola Dynasty

Madurai reffered to as Methora

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

550 AD: Pandyan Dynasty

300 BC-200 AD: Sangam Age

13th Century:

300 AD - 550 AD: Kalabhras Dynasty

Second Pandyan Empire, this time with Madurai as the capital

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

Palaganatham Settlement

Historic City

Palace Complex Fort Wall Communities

River Vaigai

Annuppanadi Settlement

Kovil (Smaller Temple)

Channel

1560

1757

Early Centuries: PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

• 6th Century - Prehistoric Settlements • 9th Century - Settlement between two branches of the Vaigai fortified. • Declared the capital of the Padian Kingdom • City Planning: Around the temple (Kings Palace) - 4 Main Streets Decided radial pattern -Occupied by different groups

• 1572 - Captured by Vijaynagara King • Whole Madurai was divided in to 72 divisions • Three Major communities migrated into the city • 1559 - Nayak Dynasty PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

History and development

Madakulam Settlement

Fort Wall PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

Chan


1880 AD- 1885 AD: 1559 AD- 1736 AD:

Madurai Resurveyed

Nayaks 1308 AD: Madurai Under Delhi Sultanate

1308 AD: Madurai Under Delhi Sultanate

1378 AD: Vijayanagar Empire

Until Mid 18th Century: Madurai changed hands between Chanda Sahib, Arcot Nawab and Muhammad Yusuf Khan

1866 AD: Madurai Constituted as a Muncipality

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

Palace Area

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

Temple

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

Palace Area

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

Tank

nnel

1970

• • • • •

1801-1947 British Colonial Rule 1837 - Demolition Fort Wall Head Quarters for South Zone 1875 - Railway - Industrial Development Migration from Rural Communities

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

• • • • • • • • • •

Core: Remained compact Houses: Traditional + Colonial Arches Northern Part: Instituitions Victor Mayer Bridge across Vagai Palaces: Turned to Administrative Offices Outer Street - Veli Veedi Vacant Plots: Religious Instituitions and Corn Markets after independence Phenominal urban growth Area 51.28 sq km Core city - Business Headquarters of Region PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

1857



Regal Talkies

Maiyya Mandapam

Flower-Madurai Malligai exports from nearby villages

Gori palayayam

Yanai Malai

Office working people live in the northern part of the city and they visit temple on auspicious occassions only

Meenakshi Temple Gopuram

Mapping of Landmarks

Madurai Mills was the largest textile mill in India and it opened employment opportunities even for people in the nearby villages Madurai Mills

Railway Station

American College

TVS Automobiles Residents live in TVS Nagar and visit core city only for festivals and for leisure

St Mary’s Cathedral

Vandiyoor Thoppakulam

Thirumalai Nayak Palace


PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

N Masterplan of Madurai District


N

Bifurcates to

Usilampatti as MDR

Head Post Office

• The temple (Orange) is the centre of development as it is a radial urban development.

Veli Street Masi Street Avani Street

Madurai Junction

Melur

MDR Converted

Chithirai Street

Vaigai River

Puthumandapam Periyar Bus Stand

Structural Plan

• The core pattern of a single cluster or superblock in Madurai city is intensive residential spaces(Yellow) bordered by commercial outlets(Blue) and streets which are inter-connected by lanes and roads. • The green dotted lines indicate the proximity of the landmarks (Purple) around the area to the temple.

Railway Line

Madurai College

On the left, is a depiction of the the structural plan at a zoning level. This is a simple form to understand the city:

Permual Koil

Thirumal Naicker Palace

• The inner street next to the temple (Orange) is the Chithirai Street (which is completely pedestrianised) and the outer streets concentric to that is the Avani Street, the Masi Street and the Veli street consecutively. • The thick black dashed lines indicate the major transportation lines for inter city mobility and the medium thick black line indicates the railway line. For the purpose of study, an extend till the Masi Street is taken for initial studies and for further research, documentation and design East Chithirai Street has been taken.

Aruppukottai MDR Converted

Burial Ground


Points To Be Noted : • Madurai is heavily dense. • The general characterestic of the city is having commercial outlets facing the street and residential inner. • The general settlement pattern is according the occupation of the inhabitants. For Example Jains settled together in the east side are settled there itself

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• The lanes leading to the residential colonies are narrow and vehicles cannot enter through. • The areas facing the chithirai street are completely commercial and no mixed use can found. • Recreational and open spaces are very less and hence there is no place for the inhabitants to breath and relax. • Roads are one way around the temple and the Chithirai Street is completely pedestrianised.

Existing Land Use

• Safety and security is one of the highest priorities aroud the temple and hence the watch towers located on all four sides in the Chithirai street.


Note: Each street has a specific commercial pattern as depicted in the map.

Commercial Land Use Pattern

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Street Trading Character

General Trend of Trading


According to the different streets, street hawkers maybe permanent or mobile.

Garlands , Ritual Items Etc

Fruit Stalls

Textiles

Street Vendor Zoning

Accesories and Corckery

Accesories

Food Vendors

Street Vendors are the life and soul of the Chithirai Street, keeping the temple atmosphere pleasurable. These hawkers cover almost 36% of the total area.


Source: https://ruralindiaonline.org/articles/gods-own-dressmakers-in-madurai/


ORPHOLOGY

PE OF STUDY

Morphological Aspects

ope of study entails the regions bound Masi streets and includes the Avani hithirai Streets along with the Meenakshi SCOPE OF STUDY n Temple Complex.

MORPHOLOGY MORPHOLOGY SCOPE OF STUDY

SCOPE OF STUDY Building Height

Urban Grain

Open Space Morphological Age Character Typology Aspects Map Morphological

The scope of study entails the regions bound by the Masi streets and includes the Avani The scope of study entails the regions bound as-dominatand Chithirai Streets along with the Meenakshi by the Masi streets and includes the Avani Building cowherds and Amman Temple Complex. Height and Chithirai Streets along with the Meenakshi herds who Building Amman Temple Complex.

t both with tural and milk Yadavas-dominated by cowherds and roducts. Yadavas-dominatshepherds who

Height

ed by dealt cowherds both and with shepherds agriculturalwho and milk dealt both with products. agricultural and milk products.

Aspects

Brahmins lined in the northern side of the temple spreading from North Chithirai to North Brahmins lined in the Avani Moola and from northern side of the East Chithirai to East Brahmins lined in the temple spreading from northern side of Marret Street. North Chithirai to the North

Urban Open Space Age Character Typology Grain Map Urban Open Space Age Character Typology Grain Map

temple spreading Avani Moola and from from North Chithirai East Chithiraito to North East AvaniMarret MoolaStreet. and from East Chithirai to East Marret Street.

ashtrians cluster Sourashtrians upied the The cluster - east part occupied the Sourashtrians core city.It The Southeast part cluster ater in all di-occupied of the core thecity.It spread later in all diaround the Southeast part rections around ala Nayakof the core city.It the Thirumala Nayak later in all dialace. spread Palace.

Dominated by Chettiars.It spreads from Dominated by South Chithirai Southfrom Chettiars.Itto spreads Masi and West Masitoby to South Chithirai South Dominated Masi and West Masi to East Masi street. Chettiars.It spreads from Masi street. SouthEast Chithirai to South Masi and West Masi to East Masi street.

rections around the Thirumala Nayak Palace.

Masi Street Masi Street

SETTLEMENT SETTLEMENT PATTERN PATTERN SETTLEMENT PATTERN

Urban Morphology

MORPHOLOGY

Avani Avani StreetStreet

Masi Street Chithirai Street

Chithirai Street

Avani Street

Chithirai Street

Morphological Aspects

The scope of study entails the regions bound by the Masi streets and includes the Avani and Chithirai Streets along with the Meenakshi Amman Temple Complex.

Building Height

Urban Grain

Open Space Age Map

Yadavas-dominated by cowherds and shepherds who dealt both with agricultural and milk products.

Character Typology

Brahmins lined in the northern side of the temple spreading from North Chithirai to North Avani Moola and from East Chithirai to East Marret Street.

Sourashtrians The cluster occupied the South- east part of the core city.It spread later in all directions around the Thirumala Nayak Palace.

Dominated by Chettiars.It spreads from South Chithirai to South Masi and West Masi to East Masi street.

Masi Street Avani Street

SETTLEMENT PATTERN SCOPE OF STUDY SCOPE OF

Chithirai Street

STUDY

SCOPE OF STUDY


Traditional • Wooden Ornamental Brackets • Linear Windows • Curved Roof Tiles • Low-Rise Buildings( Upto 6M) • Inward Swinging Window Pane Sloping Roof

Colonial • • • • •

Semi Circular Arches Columns Flat Roofed Ornate Parapets Jali Works

Art Deco

Architectural Character

• • • • •

Traditions+Colonial Ornamental Brackets Flat Roof Curvilinear Ornamental Cornice And Entablature

Modern • Concrete Blocks • Facade Treatments using ACP and Stone

Most buildings of traditional and colonial buildings are vacant due the lack of maintenance and proper infrastructure. The pattern of development in terms of morphology is demolotion and contruction, when in fact what is required is gentrification of buildings to retain the architectural identity of the city. The Colonial Style has been retained as it and modern style of cladding and facade treatment are done for the recently facelifted uppen floors potraying an immerse contrast.


BUILDING HEIGHT CATEG Analysis and Inferences

•According to the building bylaws of Madurai, m ing height permitted on Chithirai Street is 9 metr

BUILDING HEIGHT CATEGORIZATION

metres elsewhere.

Analysis and Inferences •According to the building bylaws of Madurai, maximum building height permitted on Chithirai Street is 9 metres and 15

metres elsewhere. •Of the 9.7% buildings with height upto 15 metres, around 3% were in Chithirai Streets. •0.2% of the buildings were found to be blatantly violating this

law. Majority of these buildings were found to near the West Masi and North Masi street. •This creates visual hindrances and obstructs the view to the Meenakshi Amman temple (focal point). •Also the dense massing reduces the visual interaction of the temple with the Avani and Masi streets.

Buildings in the Chithirai street violating the 9m building bylaw.

•Of the 9.7% buildings with height upto 15 metres were in Chithirai Streets.

BUILDING HEIGHT CATEGORIZATION •0.2% of the buildings were found to be blatant

law.and Majority of these buildings were found to ne Analysis Inferences

Masi and North Masi street. •According the buildingvisual bylaws of hindrances Madurai, maximum build•Thisto creates and obstruct ing height permitted on Chithirai Street is 9

metres and 15 the Meenakshi Amman temple (focal point). metres elsewhere. •Also the dense massing reduces the visual intera •Of the 9.7% buildings with height upto 15 metres, around 3% with the Avani and Masi streets. were in temple Chithirai Streets.

•0.2% of the buildings were found to be blatantly violating this law. Majority of these buildings were found to near the West

Masi and North Masi street. •This creates visual hindrances and obstructs the view to

the Meenakshi Amman temple (focal point). •Also the dense massing reduces the visual interaction of the temple with the Avani and Masi streets.

Legend(in m) 0-5 5-10 10-15 15-20 >20

Building Height Analysis

Buildings in the Chithirai street violating the 9m building bylaw.

• According to the building bylaws of Madurai, maximum building height permitted on Chithirai Street is 9 meters and 15 meters elsewhere. • Of the 9.7% buildings with height upto 15 meters, around 3% were in Chithirai streets. •

m) m) 0.2% of the buildings were found toLegend(in be Legend(in

blatantly violating this law. Majority of these 0-5 buildings were found to be near the West and 5-10 North Masi streets.

10-15

• This creates visual hindrances and obstructs the view to the Meenakshi Amman Temple (focal 15-20 point). >20 • Also the dense massing reduces the visual interaction of the temple with the Avani and Masi streets.

0-5 5-10 10-15 15-20 >20



Transportation, Tourism and Analysis


Parking Problems

Tourism

The location of the parking lots do not provide any benefits with regard to the parking issues and due to this, people choose to park their vehicles along the roadside creating a lot of traffic congestion. Bus Access: Periyar bus stand Aarapalayam bus stand Mattuthavani bus stand. Railway access: Madurai Junction Railway Station


Acitivity Pattern and Analysis


Perspective of the Users

Inferences

“There is not much problem with crimes here. The law and order is kept very intact. Minor theft and some other problemsoccur during the festival times but that is usually always taken care of. Night hours are not safe for women, as there are minute percentage of offenders.” - Mr. Reghuram, Police Constable, Madurai

• The police community does not encourage activities during the late hours to ensure safety of the women. Thus the activity during the night time is limited on a daily basis (small allowances on the weekend are allowed).

“Almost everything is in harmony here, yet there are various issues that we had to deal with during this visit. Mainly there is an issue as there are very few signages. One more minor problem we came across was the movement issue due to the unorganised allocation of vendors on the footpath.” - Mr. Kankaraj, a pilgrim “All activities here are temple oriented, so our life is quite peaceful. During the peak festival month, our days are packed annd good business follows.” - Mrs. Sitalakshmi, Florist “People here mostly use two-wheelers, yet there are major issues with the parking. Parking is basically on the left side of the road making huge traffic congestion.” - Mr. Vijay, Resident youth

• Though the temple astonishes the pilgrims, they find the city confusing due to the lack of signages. This can affect their movement and subsequent activities in the city. Hence they find the temple and the site visits exhausting in the initial phase. • The street vendors like the florist feels the presence of the temple to be a great blessing. Hence amidst the various advantages and disadvantages of the place, they are content with the city. • The resident youth solely finds parking as a big issue. Being frequent two-wheeler users, the only obstacle to efficient mobility is the parking of vehicles on the road. In addition to this issue, the reducing of the road width doesnot help with ease of mobility either.

“Without visiting the temple in the morning for a morning prayer, my day is not complete. We always come to the Chithirai street for leisure talk and relaxation, often spending evening hours with my family.” - Mr. Thangavet, Security guard

• The residents around Chithirai and Avani Streets finds the former street as their public interaction space dure to the highly concentrated residential complexes. The street being pedestrianised, is a spillout area for evening gathering and walks compensating for the lack of public spaces.

“We have been to Madurai before and has a special place in our minds. The temple and the surrounding is so vibrant that we leave the city with a fresh and positive mind.” - Mr & Mrs. Brown, Tourists

• The international tourist community finds Madurai and its culture fascinating. They are only affected by the absence of signages and lack of public spaces. As most of them are from countries with dominant cold weather and the hot sun of Madurai can be a bit too harsh.

Lifestyle Survey

Seasonal Commercial Boom


East Avani Street


STRUCTURE PLAN This is a one-way street which is packed with buildings of great heritage value. It is commercially prominent and has 4 entrances from the temple, one being through the Puthumandapam (heriitage building).

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The orange circle depicts the temple. This dashed lines show the connections and linkages to major nodes from the street

Typical Section This area of East Avani street was selected for the purpose of design as there is much more scope of development, integration and interconnections for a Phase 1. In the case of urban regenerations, one of the frequent mistakes made is the sudden disruption created in the middle of an ongoing life of the city. This area has vacant plots and hence disruption of a working city is way less and hence is apt for PHASE 1.

The blue blocks show the buildings of commercial land use and the cyan colour blocks depict the heritage buildings. VAIGAI RIVER

The Studio C is an extension of the research in Studio B and is a detailed design of the urban fabric of the street eliminating the barrier between living, working and urban production. This street is prominent for its architecture, heritage and cultural infused retail which responds to the main temple complex. Since the earlier times, this street has been of prominance importance because of the heritage buildings; Puthumandapam and Rayagopurams

Open Parking Plot

Raja Gopuram Puthumandapam

Madurai Junction: Railway Station

Meenakshi Amman Temple

LEGENDS By lanes and streets Linkages to main Nodes

Periyar Bus Stand

Avani Street Direction South Avani Moolai St.


Mappings on Site Analysis

Land Use

Open Space

SOLID VOID

Urban Grain

Commercial Typology


I

II III

IV •Unsupervised constructions have marred the street facade caused certain degree of visual intrusion. •The Nandi forms a node/landmark as it marks a traffic junction as well as a historical core. •It is observed that the presence of the historic Puthumandapam. Amman Sannidhi and the Rayagopuram is not respected through the street and conservation interventions need to be incorporated in order to avoid the further decline of the East Avani Street.

View Corridors •Compared to the other Avani Streets, visual intrusion is comparitively lesser in the north-south axis. •The visual intrusion is higher in the perpendicular streets leading to the temple.

Street Character

•This can be attributed to the large number of residential buildings along these roads.

Section- I

Section- II

Section- III

Section- IV


THE OPEN PLOT This plot is a huge area which can be creatively developed and utilized for so many functional aspects such as a public breathing space or multilevel parking solving the parking problems.

STREET VENDORS ON FOOTPATHS AND ROADS Street vendors on pedestrian pathways and roads prevent the proper movement pattern. They can relocated to proper place as a solution.

DCR RULES ARE NOT IMPLEMENTED PROPERLY. THE PUBLIC PARK The public park in this street is the only community space for the people to relax in the Madurai core and hence this is one of the major strenghths favoring the people in the street.

RAJA GOPURAM This heritage site is not being properly maintained and the visual hindrances ( transformers) in front of the structure hides its true elegance. This site can be turned into an oppertunity by adaptive re-use.

PUTHUMANDAPAM AS A HERITAGE SITE

Even though Puthumandapam is one of the most enthrauling places in the street, the mandapa used to be a place for public performances and is a heritage site that should be conserved. but since a lot of commercial activities hapen inside , the hertage value of the building .is lost.

LACK OF VENTILATION AND LIGHT Due to the fact that almost all buildings have shared walls, only two walls can provide ventilation and light. There are certain long buildings which have only limited provisions for the same.

OVER-CROWDING & CONGESTION

The buildings are heavily packed and the density is too much leaving very less space for new development.

PUTHUMANDAPAM

SWOT Analysis

This street is very lively, interactive and busy because of the presence of Puthumandapam and the commercial activity happening inside which is one the colourful activity happening.

PARKING FACILITY Multi- level Parking available for this area and on-street parking is also available and hence parking efficiency for this street is really adequate.

LACK OF VEGETATION Due to the lack of the vegetation, inhabitants face dust winds at almost all times during the day. The funneling effect can be reduced by the addition of green spaces.

PEDSTRIAN FACILITIES Sufficient pedestrian facility is provided for the people to safely move through. A footpath of 1.2 m on both sides are available.


Source: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/art-asia/south-asia/ x97ec695a:vijayanagara-period/a/the-meenakshi-temple-at-madurai


For ease of mobility (Pedestrians included) congestion has to be reduced. This shall be done in two processes: • Some of the congested superblocks to be broken from the inside to provide breathing and spill out area.

Masterplan Redesign Concept: Retrofitting in to the Existing

• East avani street to be pedestrianised. A direct connection from the old to the new town to be provided for ease of access of the temple

Breaking of superblock to enable ventilation, light and more access

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Adaptive Reuse:

• Revival of Heritage buildings. (Puthumandapam and Rayagopuram) • Buildings of prominent architectural character to undergo gentrification. Existing facades to be retained and land use pattern to be as designed.


Integrating services, infrastructure amd Public spaces to tackle the environmental crisis: • Rainwater harvesting system to be in place to tackle the water scarcity of the city. LAND CONGESTION

ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS

MOBILITY

Hindrances

FADING HERITAGE

• Water treatment plants to be active to provide water for landscaping, agriculture and other secondary uses. Solar Power to be Incorporated in all the buildings.

• Sustainable Material Screen to be provided for commercial buildings. Double skin to safeguard from the harsh sunlight and heat.

SOCIAL (PUBLIC SPACES)

• Integrating more public spaces in the form of Urban Forests. It is the concept of opening up the ground to have more natural groundcover.(Plantation of fruit-bearing trees and others). Sustainable Material Screen

SERVICE & INFRASTRUCTURE

HOUSING

Residential

ECONOMIC

Urban Forest Concept

Residential

Mixed Use Development:

Barrier Free Landuse Pattern: Urban Production, Living, Working and Public Space.

Workshop

Commercial

As Shown in the sketch above you can see how different land-uses can be inbuilt into the levels of a buildings. This model is recognised due to the requirement of the people of Madurai, who find it extremely difficult to have workshops (Urban Production), Residences and Storefront in different areas of the city. As you can see in the section, the commercial fron easily accessible to the public with their respective workshops behind and residences on top thus integrating living, working and urban production. The public open spaces can be integrated into urban planning as shown in the green patches in the site plan. In cities like these as we move forward in 2050, WHAT

we require aren’t skyscrapers sometimes but careful retrofitting into the existing to make a livable home for the people.

Concept Sketch

Integrate public Space into day to day commercial activities


Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/androarun/7210561580/in/photolist-bZb1Kf-4mtxcD-9GrJTR-9GrJBz-ciH8zL-9GuCUb-9GuDc1-7BLdci-jJ6PtB-jJ6RoZ-jJ9F4f-jJ6TBM-jJ72wK-7L9Tq-jJ9wT7-jJ6EMP-jJ9xJW-jJ6YGM-jJ8Un9-jJ8FHS-jJ7seZ-jJ9kXu-o3edN-7L9Tr-dFdcSZ-dFiDwf-dFdaXX-dFiB4w-dFdbep-dFiD91-dFdbRP-dFiCCJ-dFdbqa-dFiDU5-dFdaFB-dFdcer-dFiAFs-8QW92f-jJ6B9B-jJ9qyU-jJ6zkr-6JaxTx-6JaDvR-6JeJG7-6JasPB-6JeJfQ-6JeJSE-jJ7F9r-6JaBzT-6Jex6y


Mixed Use city: Masterplan Zonong

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Residential Commercial Assembly Mixed-Use Building

Existing Scenario Scale : 1:3000

Mixed-Use Building (Commercial and Workshop)

Future Vision


KOCHADAI WATER PUMPING STATION

KOCHADAI WATER PUMPING STATION

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MISSION MEENAKSHI L HOSPITA

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MARKET BUS STAND WHOLESALE & INTEGRATED I BUS STAND] VAN [MATTU THA

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Masterplan of Madurai District The green circle indicates the new town and the maroon circle indicates the old town.


Stage 1: Connection Via Mobility -

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Interconnecting the New and the Old by introducing an LRT line to and from the new city directly for the ease of tourists and citizens in terms of acces to the temple. The East Avani Street is to be pedestrianised, thereby devising basement parking facilities on either end of the street. The pathway to open only for emergency vehicles.

Stage 2: Connection via People -

3 Stages of Interconnections

Public spaces are introduced and interconnected to each other via human centered activities including street based commercial activities, exercising areas, relaxing areas etc all based on the concept of Urban forests. All void spaces to be public and not as part of gated communities.

Stage 3: Connection via Buildings The Puthumandapam to have its orginal landuse as when constructed; Communal Gathering space.

Wind Direction Sun Path InterconnectionsDesign proposal

The passage to the Meenakshi Amman Temple via the Puthumandapam from the Raya Gopurams under the watchful eye of the protector “Nandi�. All landuse activites dedicated to the temple. Interconnection between the public plazas on either side of the Puthumandapam to be via the building itself.


Proposed Masterplan

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Basement Floor

Ground Floor

Residential Commercial Open Space Assembly Area Workshop Service Cores Circulation Spaces


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First Floor

Second Floor

Residential Commercial Open Space Assembly Area Workshop Service Cores Circulation Spaces


Proposal 1: The new Mixed-Use Development


Mixed Use Development:

Barrier Free Landuse Pattern: Urban Production, Living, Working and Public Space. The buildings highlighted in the figure on the left are redesigned to be of mixed used development. This shall showcase an integration of the vertical horizontal zoning of lanuse in a building. This model is recognised due to the requirement of the people of Madurai, who find it extremely difficult to have workshops (Urban Production), Residences and Storefront in different areas of the city and the lack of proper infrastructure that aid in the former. Due to this most of the plots in and around the area are left vacant and people are migrating to the new town and hence the identity of the city is quietly fading. The public open spaces can be integrated into urban planning as shown in the green patches in the site plan opening the superblocks making the city more accessible.

In cities like these as we move forward in 2050, WHAT we require aren’t skyscrapers sometimes but careful retrofitting into the existing to make a livable home for the people.


N

Section A-A’

Section B-B’

Site Plan

Section A-A’

P e

Roof + 14.0 m Second Floor + 10.0 m First Floor + 6.0 m Mez. Floor + 1.5 m Basement - 2.5 m


Inverted Kinetic dome with photo and motion sensors opening the dome at night during respiration and closing during harsh weather like rain and sun.

This area provides water in the roof to channel to the water source inside the building to recharge the ground water source

Public Play area with integrated outdoor Gym Courtyard Area Of The Building Linking Basement And The Private, Semi Private And Public Areas

Residential Residential Commercial Basement

Workshop

Commercial

Recycled Wooden Screen


N

Section A-A’

Section B-B’

Site Plan Section B-B’

Roof + 14.0 m Residential

Second Floor + 10.0 m

Residential

First Floor + 6.0 m Mez. Floor + 1.5 m Basement - 2.5 m

Commercial

Workshop

Commerc


Inverted Kinetic dome with photo and motion sensors opening the dome at night during respiration and closing during harsh weather like rain and sun.

cial

This area provides water in the roof to channel to the water source inside the building to recharge the ground water source

Recycled Wooden Screen

Courtyard Area Of The Building Linking Basement And The Private, Semi Private And Public Areas

Green wall shading the harsh sun from the south and giving a cold atmosphere inside

Office Space Cafe

Office Space

Basement Parking

LRT Line


Section C-C’

This area provides water in the roof to channel to the water source inside the building to recharge the ground water source

Key Plan Section C-C’

This section cuts through and through the new courtyards/ public spaces infused into the the buildings gentrified where the elevations are kept intact revising the landuse pattern.

Roof + 14.0 m Second Floor + 10.0 m First Floor + 6.0 m

Commercial Buildings with interactive workshops inspilling into the courtyard.

Puthumandapam


Inverted Kinetic dome with photo and motion sensors opening the dome at night during respiration and closing during harsh weather like rain and sun. This sections shows the connection via public spaces through the buildings. All public spaces are not gated and hence open to public.

Mixed Use Building

Mixed Use Building

Opening up the super blocks for access to the public spaces

Mixed Use Building


Interactive Public Spaces


Section D-D’

Key Plan Section D-D’

This section cuts through a new public space which is supposed to be flexible with workshops for the commercial activity around to be spilled into it. The uses can be as follows: Concerts, street hawkers, street performances, fairs etc.

Roof + 14.0 m

Commercial Buildings with interactive workshops inspilling into the courtyard.

Second Floor + 10.0 m First Floor + 6.0 m

Commercial

Workshop

Commercial

Puthumandapam


Proposal 2: Rejuvenation of Heritage Buildings


Adaptive Re-Use:

Puthumandapam and Raya Gopurams The buildings highlighted in the figure on the left are heritage buildings dated hundred of years back. The idea behind it is that the Puthumandapam and the Rajagopurams to have its orginal landuse as when constructed; Communal Gathering space and Commercial and workshop activites dedicated to the temple complex respectively. The retail activities inside the puthumandapam will be relocated to the heritage buildings parallel, Rayagopurams. The passage to the Meenakshi Amman Temple via the Puthumandapam from the Raya Gopurams under the watchful eye of the protector “Nandi�. All landuse activites dedicated to the temple. Interconnection between the public plazas on either side of the Puthumandapam to be via the building itself.

In cities like these as we move forward in 2050, the need for conserving our heritage is extremely important.


Section E-E’

View from the Puthumandapam to the public Space Key Plan Existing Scenario

Section E-E’

Roof (Rayagopuram North) + 12.0 m Roof (Puthumandapam) + 10.0 m

GF (Puthumandapam) - 0.90 m

Public Gatherings


Dance rituals for the Temple

Puthumandapam

Rayagopuram North



Section F-F’

Key Plan Section F-F’

Commercial activities from the Puthumandapam to be relocated to the Rayagopuram (North)

Roof (Rayagopuram South) + 12.0 m

The workshops in the Rayagopuram (South) to support the commercial activities in the other Rayagopuram

Roof (Rayagopuram North) + 10.0 m

Street Commercial Provisions

GF (Puthumandapam) - 0.90 m

Workshops


Proposal 3: Urban Forest


Key Plan

Integrating more public spaces in the form of Urban Forests. It is the concept of opening up the ground to have more natural groundcover.(Plantation of fruit-bearing trees and others). The ramped walkway can also be used in case of emergency vehicluar access. The walkway is to open up the ground and let the earth breathe. Urban forest is a concept that should be integrated into the city to make it more sustainable as it is important for the earth to heal with the touch with air, water etc as it is supposed to be.


Proposal 4: Revising the Meenakshi Park to an Open Park


Existing Scenario

Key Plan The Meenakshi park is currently a gated park but the idea is to change it to an open park with the view of the temple. The park will also act as a station for the LRT proposed connecting the new town to the old.

Future Vision



This can be a new model for the heritage cities all around the world as we need to embrace our history, culture and utilise technology as an enabler instead of the focus as people should be the focus of the cities development.

LAND CONGESTION

SUSTAINABILITY

EASE OF MOBILITY

Global & Local Impact

EMBRACING HERITAGE

Interventions

• The application of mixed land use in vertical and horizontal zoning.

SOCIAL (PUBLIC SPACES)

• Some of the congested superblocks to be broken from the inside to provide breathing and spill out area

SERVICE & INFRASTRUCTURE

AFFORDABLE HOUSING

ECONOMIC

• Integrating Public spaces in to the intense building blocks.

Encouraging Local Economy.

Enhancing street Shopping.

Promoting Tourism

Providing infrastructure and incentives.

• Introducing Rainwater Harvesting systems in the buildings as water scarcity is one of the major problems faced all around the world. • Using Public spaces more interactive by makinf flexible designs for accomodating the needs of the people: Concerts, fairs, Street shopping, Markets, Workshop Spill outs etc.



References

https://www.theodysseyonline.com/indian-independence-day-2016 https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/art-asia/south-asia/x97ec695a:vijayanagara-period/a/ the-meenakshi-temple-at-madurai http://smartcities.gov.in/content/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smart_Cities_Mission http://www.maduraicorporation.co.in/citydevelopment.html http://www.atkinsglobal.co.uk/~/media/Files/A/Atkins-Corporate/group/services-documents/future-proofing-cities/FPIC_Madurai%20Action%20Plan_1214.pdf http://smartcities.gov.in/upload/uploadfiles/files/Madhurai_SCP.pdf


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