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F I R S T AID AN D

ST.

JOHN

THE

-----

A M BU LAN CE

OAZETTE.

Edited by ARTHUR B. DALE. No. 283.—

V

o l

.

X X IV .

NOTICE

JANUARY,

TO

by a much

READERS.

Its aim and object being the advancem ent of A m bulance W o rk in a ll its branches, the E d ito r invites Readers to send A rticle s and R eports on subjects pertaining to the M ovem ent and also welcomes suggestions for P ractical Papers. A ll R eports, & c., should be addressed to the E d ito r, and should reach him before the 12th of each month, and must be accom panied (not necessarily for Publication) by the name and address of the Correspondent. Subscriptions, A dvertisem ents and other business Com m unications connected with F I R S T A I D should be forwarded to the P ublishers, REYN O LDS

&

C O .,

wider acquisition of ambulance knowledge

throughout the world.

F I R S T A I D is published on the ao th of each m o nth . T he A n n u a l Subscription is as. 6 d. post free ; single copies 2d.

DALE,

tw p2 a ™ ™ 0™ Cf . . e

1918

We do not propose to describe the film in detail, but would recommend our readers to take the earliest oppor­ tunity of seeing it for themselves.

It is to be hoped that

the various Centres of the Association and Divisions of the Brigade will arrange for the exhibition of the film, not only as a means of education in first aid methods for their mem­ bers but also in order to interest others in the good work which is being accomplished in connection with the ambu­ lance movement, for it assuredly has great possibilities as a recruiting agent for the ranks of ambulance

L

46, C a n n o n S t r e e t , L

t d

men and

.,

ondon

, E . C . 4.

women.

The film should also be shown in various cinema

theatres throughout the country, so that the general public

Telegraphic A ddress: “ Twenty-four, London." Telephone No. 5477 Bank.

may gain a better appreciation of the activities of our am­ bulance workers. It is interesting to record that the overseas branches

EDITORIAL.

of the St. John Ambulance Association have taken a keen interest in the project since it was first suggested, and be­

First Aid Instruction by Cinematograph.

T h e possibilities and advantages of the

fore the film was even nearing completion had made pre­

employment

of the cinematograph for

liminary arrangements

educational

purposes are being more

understand that orders have already definitely been booked

appreciated

day

by

day,

its

exhibition

abroad.

We

the

for Canada and Australia, and shall be surprised and dis­

announcement that the official film of

appointed if long before the year has run its course the first

the St. John Ambulance Association,

official film of the St. John Ambulance Association has not

illustrating various phases of ambulance work,

and

for

has now

been completed and will shortly be available for exhibition, marks a new era in first aid instruction.

been exhibited in all parts of our Empire. In another part of this Journal we give a brief descrip­ tion of the section of the film depicting “ Railway Ambu-

We were privileged to be present recently at a private

Ambulance Work,” and some particulars of its preparation,

view of the film, and must say that it far exceeded our

from which it will be seen that the work has been under­

expectations from the educational standpoint.

taken with a wholeneartedness and thoroughness which is

No pains

have been spared in it preparation, and all concerned in

highly'commendable, and when our readers have them­

this unique production are

selves had an opportunity of seeing the pictures depicted

to be congratulated on the

success which has been achieved.

Mr. Harold Lomas, a

cinema-photographer of world-wide experience, was,

on the screen we feel sure they will endorse our apprecia­

we

tion of the efforts of all who have been concerned in the

understand, the operator, and it is largely due to his initia­

production, for having given oftheir ambulance knowledge,

tive that this most interesting series of ambulance pictures

for the furtherance of the Movement which we all have so

have been taken and are now available for exhibition.

much at heart.

We trust that the reception of the new film in ambu­ lance circles will be such as to result in further employment of the cinematograph as a means of instruction in ambu­ lance subjects, for this departure will doubtless be followed

Pte. Sewell, of the No. 29 (Walthamstow) Division, who is a member of the R.A.M.C., volunteered to allow i|- pints of blood to be taken from him to save a patient’s life, which was accomplished.


— F I R S T

98

tJThe Grand J rio rg of th« 0 rd»r of the h o sp ita l of S t. Jo h n of Jerusalem in Sngland. AMBULANCE

Jh e

Jo h n

.Ambulance S rigade.

D ISTR ICT” ORDERS.

No. . District. D

S t.

DEPARTM ENT.

e pu ty

C

o m m issio n e r

W.

H.

W IN N Y .

:

-------

F E B R U A R Y , 1911. S u n d a y D u t y , S t. P a u l’s C a t h e d r a l. S u n d a y , 3 r d .— N o . 17 D iv is io n , M e r to n a n d W im b le d o n . „ lo t h . — N o . 19 „ S o u th M e tro p o lita n G a s C o . „ 1 7 t h .- N o . 20 „ H a m p ste a d . „ 2 4 th .— N o . 21 „ B r o m le y . F r o m 2 .3 0 p .m . to 8 p .m . K e y fro m S t. J o h n ’s G a te , 2 p.m . HONOURS

FO R

M EM BERS D IS T R IC T .

OF

TH E

NO.

1

T h e D e p u t y C o m m is s io n e r h a s m u c h p le a s u r e in a n n o u n c ­ in g th a t the s e r v ic e s o f M r s . C h a p m a n , L a d y S u p e r in te n d e n t o f th e E a s t C r o y d o n a n d A d d is c o m b e N u r s in g D iv is io n ; M is s B e a t r ic e B e e s o n , M is s J e s s ie C h a rt , b o th m e m b e rs o f th e W h it e h a ll N u r s in g D iv is io n , h a v e b e e n r e c o g n is e d b y the g r a n t o f th e R o y a l R e d C r o s s 2 n d C la s s . I t is a ls o u n d e r ­ sto o d th a t M a jo r H u d s o n , w h o is S u p e r in te n d e n t o f the H a m p ­ s te a d N o . 20 D iv is io n , h a s b e e n a w a rd e d the D .S .O . S P E C IA L

DUTY

AT

ST.

J O H N ’S

GATE.

D u r in g p e r io d s o f th e m o n th w h e n a ir r a id s a re m o st e x ­ p e c te d , a rr a n g e m e n t s a re b e in g m a d e fo r m e n , in c h a r g e o f a S e r g e a n t o r C o r p o r a l, to a tte n d at St. J o h n ’s G a te in the e a rly p a r t o f th e e v e n in g . C o m m u n ic a t io n s o n t h is m a tte r s h o u ld b e m a d e to th e D is t r ic t S e rg e a n t , M r . J . E la m , at h e a d ­ q u a rte rs. I t is h o p e d th a t e v e ry D iv is io n w ill ta k e its s h a re o f t h is w o rk . ARM LETS. M e m b e rs a re r e m in d e d th a t the s p e c ia l “ S .J .A .B . A r m ­ le t s ” a re n o t in t e n d e d to be w o rn w ith th e u n ifo rm , a n d th e y w ill n o t b e is s u e d to m e m b e rs w h o c a n r e a d ily o b ta in t h e ir u n i­ fo rm in c a s e o f a n a ir r a id c a ll. T h e a rm le ts a re n o t th e p r o ­ p e r t y o f th e m e m b e rs to w h o m th e y a re is s u e d , b u t a re is s u e d o n lo a n . O ffic e rs a n d M e m b e rs in C h a r g e o f D iv is io n s s h o u ld keep a n a c c o u n t in a r e g is t e r o f m e m b e rs to w h o m a rm le ts a re g iv e n , a n d s h o u ld a m e m b e r g o o n A c t iv e S e r v ic e o r le a v e th e D iv is io n o r n o t b e a v a ila b le fo r a ir r a id s e r v ic e , the a rm le t s h o u ld b e r e c o v e r e d a n d s e n t to H e a d q u a r t e r s . (S ig n e d )

W . H . W IN N Y ,

Deputy- Commissioner. H e a d q u a r t e r s :— St. J o h n ’s G a te , C le r k e n w e ll, E . C . IM P O R T A N T

N O T IC E .

D iv is io n a l S e c r e ta r ie s a re re q u e s te d w h e n s e n d in g n e w s ­ p a p e r c u tt in g o f t h e ir m e e t in g ', e tc., to g iv e the d a te o f p u b li­ c a t io n o f th e n e w s p a p e rs .— E d i t o r . H a m p s t e a d ( N o . 2 0) D i v i s i o n . — O n D e c e m b e r 15th a n in t e re s t in g c o m p e t it io n b e tw e e n te a m s r e p re s e n t in g the H a m p ­ s te a d D iv is io n , R e g u la r a n d S p e c ia l C o n s t a b u la r y , w a s h e ld at th e lo c a l P o lic e S ta tio n . D r . C e c il M a c F a d d e n , C h ie f S u rg e o n N o . 1 D is t r ic t , e x a m in e d th e c o m b in e d team w o rk a n d g a v e a m o st u p -to -d a te test, w h ic h p o rtra y e d th e p o s s ib ilit ie s o f w o rk d u r in g p r o g r e s s o f a n a ir r a id — fo u r p a tie n t s b e in g m o re o r le s s s e r io u s ly in ju re d . D r . C o rb e t F le t c h e r , H o n . S u r g e o n o f th e D iv is io n , w a s re s p o n s ib le fo r th e In d iv id u a l W o r k a n d set so m e h ig h ly p r a c t ic a l tests a n d q u e s tio n s . T h e B r ig a d e team s e c u re d to p n a i k s in e a c h p o rtio n o f the c o m p e tio n , a n d w on firs t p la c e , w h ile the R e g u la r P o lic e o b ta in e d s e c o n d p la c e b y a s m a ll m a r g in o v e r th e S p e c ia ls . L a t e r in th e e v e n in g a m o st

AID. —

January, 1918.

e n jo y a b le s o c ia l e v e n in g a n d c o n c e rt w a s h e ld at th e P o lic e S t a t io n , S u b - In s p e c t o r W . A n d e r s o n b e in g in th e c h a ir , a n d a n d s u p p o rte d b y b o th d o c to rs a n d S .D . In s p e c t o r P a r k e r . A / O E r n e s t T . M illb u r n is c o n g ra tu la te d o n h is w e llm e rite d p ro m o tio n to H o n . S e r v in g B r o t h e r o f th e O rd e r. E a s t H a m ( N o s . 8 & 15) D i v i s i o n .— S ilv e r m e d a ls fo r lo n g s e r v ic e w e re p re se n te d at a c o n c e rt in E a s t H a m T o w n H a ll o n D e c e m b e r 30 th . u n d e r th e a u s p ic e s o f the T a s t H a m A m b u la n c e a n d N u r s in g D iv is io n s . T h e p re s e n t a t io n s w ere m a d e b y D e p u t y C o m m is s io n e r W . H . W in n y , w h o w a s a c c o m p a n ie d b y A s s is t a n t C o m m is s io n e r V ilv e n , S u p ts A t k in s a n d S ta th a m , D r . B e n to n , D s t .- S e rg t . E la m , etc. T h e r e c ip ie n ts w ere S e rg t. R . L ' E d m o n d s a n d P te . C . E . E a t o n , w h o se s e r ­ v ic e in e a c h c a s e c o v e rs a p e rio d o f 15 y e a rs . T h e D e p u t y - C o m m is s io n e r re fe rre d to th e s p le n d id w o rk w h ic h th e E a s t H a m D iv is io n s a n d o th e r d iv is io n s d id o n th e o c c a s io n o f th e g re a t e x p lo s io n in E a s t H a m . T h a t w o r k h a d b e e n re c o g n is e d to a lim it e d e x te n t, b u t, h e w a s s o r r y to sa y , o n ly to a lim it e d e xte n t. S u p t. A t k in s m e n tio n e d th a t the E a s t H a m D iv is io n w a s e s t a b lis h e d in 1895, a n d th a t th e N u r s in g D iv is io n w a s a s m u c h a p a rt o f th e m o v e m e n t a s th e m e n ’s D iv is io n , a n d e q u a lly d e s e r v in g o f g r a titu d e fo r th e g o o d w o rk th a t h a s b e e n a c c o m ­ p lis h e d .

No. 5 District. W o r k s o p D i v i s i o n . — T h e s u p e rin t e n d e n t a n d s e c r e t a r y w e re a b le to p re s e n t p a r t ic u la r s a t the firs t m e e tin g a fte r the e n d o f the B r ig a d e y e a r w h ic h s h o w th e a c t iv it ie s a re g re a te r th a n e v e r. T h e d iv is io n h a s b e en g r e a t ly fa v o u re d w ith a s u c c e s s io n o f e n t h u s ia s t ic s u p e rin te n d e n ts . D r . M o n ta g u e — n o w w e a rin g th e S e r v ic e M e d a l, a s ta ff o ffic e r (d is t r ic t s u rg e o n ) a n d a n A s s o c ia t e o f the O r d e r , w h o w a s fo llo w e d b y D r . M o r r is , w h o h a s g a in e d th e M ilit a r y C ro s s a n d b e e n p ro m o te d C a p t a in in F r a n c e , a n d h e b y A c t in g S u p t. G re a to r e x , w h o h a s a n e x p e rie n c e r e a c h in g b a c k to A s s o c ia t io n d a y s , a n d h a s , p e r ­ h a p s , a r e c o rd a s t ra n s p o rt o ffice r. T h e p re s e n t m e m b e rs h ip is 162, in c lu s iv e o f 10 3 (fo r m e r ly 108) o n A c t iv e S e r v ic e . T w o m e m b e rs h a v e th e S e r v ic e M e d a l (a n d c la im s a re p e n d in g fo r tw o m o re ). T h ir t y - f iv e m e d a llio n s , 8 la b e l m e n , a n d 41 n u r s in g c e r t ifib a te s sh o w c a p a c it y a n d a p p lic a t io n ; a n d tw o R . A . M . C . m e d a ls c o m m e m o ra te s e r v ic e in S o u th A fr ic a . O n e h u n d r e d a n d t h irt y - e ig h t c a s e s o f firs t a id , 59 r e ­ m o v a ls , w ith 1 ,11 5 r e m o v a ls o f w o u n d e d s o ld ie r s to the w a r h o s p ita l a n d r e g u la r o r d e r ly d u tie s , s p e a k w e ll fo r th e W o r k s o p D iv is io n .

No. 11 District. W E S T G l a m o r g a n . — A t B r it o n F e r r y on D e c e m b e r 15th th e re w a s a g a t h e r in g o f th e m e m b e rs o f th e W e s t G la m o r g a n C o r p s p r e s id e d o v e r b y M r . J . B . W illia m s , a g e n t to L o r d J e r s e y , w h e n c e rt ific a t e s w e re p re s e n te d to O ffic e rs a n d N . C . ’s o f th e c o rp s b y M r . a n d M r s . H . M . E l li s . V o u c h e r s w e re a ls o p re se n te d b y M r s . F r e d T h o m a s to m e m b e rs o f th e B r it o n F e r r y D iv is io n . T h e fo llo w in g D iv is io n s w e re p re s e n t in fu ll s tr e n g th — B r y n , C r y n a n t , C y m m e r , G ly n c o r r w g , L la n s a m le t , M o r r is t o n 1 O n llw y n , P o n t a rd a w e a n d B r it o n F e r r y , a ls o N u r s ­ in g D iv is io n s fro m G ly n c o r r w g , L la n s a m le t , M o r r is t o n a n d P o n ta rd a w e . C o r p s S u p t. W h e e l g a v e a n e x c e lle n t a d d re s s o n th e o r ig in o f th e O rd e r, w h ic h w a s m u c h a p p re c ia t e d b y th o se p re se n t. T h e W e s t G la m o r g a n C o r p s is fo rtu n a te in h a v in g s u c h a n a b le m a n a s C o r p s S u p t. W h e e le r a s t h e ir h e a d , a n d th e fe e lin g o f th e m e m b e rs w a s w e ll s h o w n b y the m a n n e r in w h ic h th e y s u b s c rib e d to a s u ita b le p r e s e n ta tio n w h ic h w a s h a n d e d h im b y M r s .D a v ie s M o r ris t o n o n b e h a lf o f th e C o r p s .

No. 12 (Irish) District. C i t y o f D u b l i n . — T h e o ffic e rs a n d m e m b e rs o f th e St. S t e p h e n ’s G re e n N u r s in g D iv is io n a n d th e C it y o f D u b lin A m b u la n c e D iv is io n h e ld a s o c ia l e v e n in g a t th e D . B . C . ,


— FIRST

January, 1918.

D a n e - s t r e e t , D u b lin , on D e c e m b e r 15th . T h e s e d iv is io n s h a v e w o rk e d in p a r t n e r s h ip fo r so m e tim e in g re a t h a rm o n y . A ll th e m e m b e rs o f b o th d iv is io n s a re in b u s in e s s . A ft e r h o u rs t h e y g o o n th e a tre d u t y e v e ry e v e n in g , a n d a ll r e a d y to d o a n y p a r t o f V . A . D . w o rk th e y c a n p o s s ib ly fit in o n the s h o rte s t n o tic e . A t h ird o f the m e m b e rs o f b o th d iv is io n s h a v e g o n e on A c t iv e S e rv ic e . A m o n g th e g u e s ts w h o h o n o u re d th e d iv is io n s w ith t h e ir p re s e n c e w e re — W . G . S m ith , E s q ., A c t in g D e p u t y C o m m is ­ s io n e r, w h o a c te d a s C h a ir m a n ; D r . E l l a W e b b , L a d y D is t r ic t S u p e rin te n d e n t ; M is s B la n d fo r d , D is t r ic t O ffic e r ; G . P . M e ld o n , E s q . , M .D ., C o r p s S u rg e o n ; M r s . S h a n k s , L a d y C o r p s S u p e rin te n d e n t ; A . J . M c W illia m , E s q ., C o r p s O ffice r. T h e o c c a s io n w a s ta k e n a d v a n ta g e o f b y th e s is t e r s o f th e n u r s in g d iv is io n “ at h o m e a n d o n s e r v ic e ” to p re s e n t to t h e ir A c t in g L a d y S u p e rin te n d e n t, M rs . R o w le tte , a fitte d a tta c h e c a s e “ a s a s m a ll to k e n o f th e ir lo v e a n d e ste e m .” T h e o ffic e rs a n d m e m b e rs o f the A m b u la n c e D iv is io n p r e ­ s e n te d a s ilv e r w a tch to t h e ir H o n . S e c re ta ry , F r a n k J . H o r n e , E s q ., o n h is p ro m o tio n to A m b u la n c e O ffice r. C o r p l. C a s s id y r e c e iv e d s e rg e a n t ’s s trip e s. V o te s o f t h a n k s h a v in g b e e n p a s s e d to th e c h a ir m a n a n d a rt is t s , w h o m a d e the e v e n in g s u c h a s u c c e s s , th e p ro c e e d in g s t e rm in a te d w ith th e h e a rty s in g in g o f G o d S a v e th e K in g .

The

Railway

Ambulance

Film.

I t can only be regarded as a tribute to the efficiency of Great Western Railway Ambulance workers that they should have been selected by the St. John Ambulance Association to demonstrate the application of first aid methods for the railway portion of the official cinematograph film. As soon as the project became known among the Great Western staff it was taken up with enthusiasm, and on the Sunday morning selected for taking the first series of pictures some hundred and twenty “ first-aiders” and their friends assembled at Paddington station where the numerous scenes were arranged. T he scheme attempted was the reproduction of a rail­ way accident, involving a collision between two trains, in order to demonstrate the methods of ministering to the needs of the disabled passengers. The scene commences with the collision, and passengers are shown alighting from the coaches, some being liberated from the vehicles, the doors of which have become jambed by the impact ; mes­ sengers are despatched for medical aid and to summon the corps, who are soon seen hurrying to the spot with their first aid equipment. Passengers injured and otherwise are extricated from the compartments and wreckage, and then is commenced the treatment of the various injuries sus­ tained, in which teams of women workers participate. A fractured leg, a crushed foot, spinal injury, bleeding, scalds, a broken collar-bone, fractured knee-cap, and many other cases are dealt with, in some of which the preliminaries have to be performed under the wrecked rolling stock. Eventually a relief train arrives upon the scene, the injured are loaded into it, conveyed to a station, unloaded and transported to hospital. Some of the women workers in the meantime are seen providing an improvised rest station, to which certain of the injured are taken to have dressings changed, & c , and here refreshment is also pro­ vided for the patients. Some of the “ treatment ” pictures are of a general character, depicting several teams at work, whilst others showing specific injuries are taken at close range in order that the first aid work may be more closely followed. The realism of some of these cases is remarkably strik­ ing, as, for instance, that in' which the driver of one of the

AI D. —

99

locomotives is seen lifting down his injured mate (fireman) from the foot-plate and rendering the prescribed treatment for extensive scalds on the face. There is throughout the pictures an entire absence of camera-consciousness which contributes not a little to their value; in fact, were it not made clear that the pictures represent ambulance workers at practice, one might be excused for assuming that inci­ dents attending a real accident were depicted. It is understood that besides Mr. W. G. Chapman (G.W.R. Centre Secretary), Mr. A. Gardner was primarily responsible for staging the representations, assisted by a number of the more prominent ambulance workers at Pad­ dington. T he whole of the proceedings were supervised by Dr. J. M. Carvell, whose familiar features will be recog­ nised by many as one of the medical men in attendance on the injured. The film was produced by Mr. Harold Lomas, under the auspices of the St. John Ambulance Association. All those who took part in the representations were recently invited to see the pictures on the screen in the General Meeting Room at Paddington. Mr. Frank Potter, the general manager, presided, and was supported by the chief officers of the Company, whilst among those present were Major Prichard, the Chief Secretary of the St. John Ambulance Association and Col. J. Cantlie. Mr. Potter reviewed briefly the Great Western Com­ pany’s association with and progress in first aid training, and mentioned that the first ambulance class was composed entirely of railway servants, recorded in the history of the St. John Ambulance Association, was held at Paddington in 1878. Since 1896, when the present G.W.R. centre of the Association was formed, there had been distributed to members of the Company’s staff examination awards total­ ling 28,292. He said the directors and officers encouraged the movement in every way they could and were much gratified by the success it had met with. Major Pritchard spoke of the growing recognition by the Government of the value of ambulance training among workers, and gave some striking figures representing the usefulness timely first aid had proved in munition and kin­ dred works. He commended the Great Western workers for their sustained interest in the movement in the face of the difficulties of war conditions, and thanked those who had given their services in the prepara­ tion of the film for carrying out the work, willingly and successfully. Mr. Lomas, with whom originated the idea of taking the cinematograph film for first aid instructional purposes, gave an interesting account of the origin of the scheme, and congratulated the Great Western workers upon having provided the subject matter for the first of a series of edu­ cational films that would undoubtedly be used throughout the world.

Messrs. Bailliere, Tindall and Cox, of 8, Henriettastreet, Covent Garden, London, W.C., have just issued the 2nd edition of “ Chemistry for Beginners,” by C. Kingzett, F.I.C., price 2s. 6d.

The first edition being so quickly

exhausted, shows that the book was received with much favour.

T he new edition has been enlarged by the incor­

poration of additional information and some re-arrange­ ment of the matter has been made. The book provides a good ground work of practical chemistry and should prove most helpful to those desirous of gaining knowledge of this absorbing study.


IOO

— F IR S T

A ID

&

THE

ST.

JOHN

AMBULANCE

G A ZETTE. —

January, 1918.

THE ST. JOHN AMBULANCE GAZETTE. The T

h e

T

Capture

h a n k sg iv in g

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O n Friday, January n t h , at noon, the Order of St. John of Jerusalem in England held at the Grand Priory Church a solemn Service of Thanksgiving for the recapture of the Holy City from the hands of the Turk, to which all Mem­ bers and Associates were invited. There have been many services of thanksgiving for this thrilling feat of British arms, but to this particular service very special solemnity and significance are attached in view of the Order’s age-long connection with Jerusalem, of the fact that its history is inseparably bound up with the Holy City and that it bears its name. T he church was crowded during the service, which was preceded by a procession of the members of the Chapter-General of the Order, in their robes, from St. John’s Gate to the Churoh, the order of procession being as follows :— B a n n e r o f th e K in g d o m o f Je ru s a le m . E s q u ir e s .— C o l. W . G r a y d o n C a rt e r , E d w in D a w e s , E s q ., C h a r le s B o u g h t o n H a m ilt o n , E s q ., C .M .G . K n ig h t s o f G ra ce.— F r a n k H . C o o k , E s q ., C . I . E . , S ir W illia m St. J o h n H o p e , J . H a m m o n d M o rg a n , E s q ., C .V .O ., F . R . C . S . , R o b e r t A . G ib b o n s ,E s q ., M .D ., J o h n S. G riffit h s , E s q ., M . R . C . S . , S i r W illia m H . B e n n e tt, K . C .V .O . , F . R . C . S . , C o l. S i r J o h n W . O ttle y , K . C . I . E . F la g o f th e O r d e r b o rn e b y a n O ffic e r o f th e S t. J o h n A m b u la n c e B r ig a d e w ith a n e s c o rt o f B r ig a d e m e m b e rs. K n ig h t s o f J u s tic e .— C o l E . D . B r o w n - S y n g e - H u t c h in s o n , V . C . , C .B . , S ir J o h n P . H e w e tt, G .C . S . I . , C . I . E . , S ir O w e n C . P h ilip p s , K . C . M . G . , M .P ., C h a r le s G , K e k e w ic h , E s q . , I n ­ s p e c t o r - G e n e r a l B e lg r a v e N in n is , C .V .O ., F r a n c is W . P ix le y , E s q . , J . H o r n e S te v e n s o n , E s q ., S ir W illia m W y n d h a m P o r t a l, B t ., C o l. J . W illo u g h b y W r a y , C o l. S ir J a m e s R . A. C la r k , B t ., C .B ., C .M .G ., T h e L o r d Is lin g t o n , G .C .M .G ., D .S . O . , L ie u t .- C o l. S ir R ic h a r d C . T e m p le , B t., C .B ., C . I . E . , L ie u t .- C o l. A . C . Y a te , T h e L o r d M o s t y n , C o l. S i r C h a r le s W y n d h a m M u r r a y , K .C . B . , A r t h u r F . G . L e v e s o n G o w e r, E s q ., E d w in F r e s h f ie ld , E s q . , L L . D . , C o l. T h e L o r d W illia m C e c il, C .V .O ., M a jo r G e n e r a l J . C . D a lt o n , C o l. B. M . D a w e s , S ir J o h n F u r le y , C .B . C r o s s o f th e C h a p t e r - G e n e r a l. T h e S ecreta ?y ( W . R . E d w a r d s , E s q .) . D ir e c to r o f C erem onies ( S ir A lf r e d S c o tt- G a t ty , K . C .V .O . G a rte r). A lm o n e r ( S i r D y c e D u c k w o r t h , B t., L L . D . , M .D .) . D ir e c to r o f A m b u la n ce D e p a r tm e n t ( T h e R t . H o n . T h e E a r l o f R a n f u r ly , G .C .M .G . ). S ecr eta ry -G en er a l ( T h e R t . H o n . E v e ly n C e c il, M .P .). C h a n c e llo r ( C o lo n e l S ir H e r b e r t J e k y ll, K .C . M . G .) . B a i l i f f o f E a g le .— C o lo n e l S ir ( H e r b e r t C . P e rro tt, B t., C .B .) T h e S u b - P r io r .— T h e R ig h t H o n . T h e E a r l o f P ly m o u th , C .B .) . T h e V e n e r a b le A r c h d e a c o n H o lm e s , B is h o p J o h n T a y lo r S m ith , C .V . O . , T h e R e v . C a n o n E d g a r S h e p p a rd , K .C .V . O ., D .D . T h e P r e la te (The Archbishop of York) with his Chaplain.

T he procession was met by the clergy and choir of the Chapel Royal, who conducted it to the church. A detach­ ment of the Prince of Wales’s Corps of the St. John Ambu­

lance Brigade was on duty during the procession and sub­ sequently lined the centre aisle of the church during the service. His Majesty, the Sovereign Head and Patron of the Order, was represented by Viscount Sandhurst (Lord Chamberlain), who occupied a seat in the sanctuary, and the Royal Family was also represented by the presence of H .R .H . Princess Beatrice and H.H . Princess Marie Louise, Ladies of Justice. The Grand Prior, H.R .H . the Duke of Connaught, was unfortunately unable to be pre­ sent, as he had not sufficiently recovered from the effects of his recent illness. The Service, which was most impressive, was con­ ducted by the Rector, the Rev. T. C. Elsdon, the first lesson being read by Bishop Taylor Smith, ChaplainGeneral to H.M. Forces, and the second lesson by Canon Edgar Sheppard, Sub-Dean of the Chapel Royal and Domestic Chaplain to the King. A most eloquent sermon was preached by the Arch­ bishop of York, Prelate of the Order, who took his text from Psalm C X X X V I I . : “ If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning.” A full report of the sermon will appear in our next issue. The T e Deum was sung after the sermon, and after the Prelate had pronounced the Benediction the service concluded with the National Anthem. The music of the Service was arranged by Dr. C. H. Lloyd, M.A., Organist and Composer to H.M. Chapel Royal, who officiated at the organ, and was beautifully ren­ dered by the choristers.

The Genesis of the Indian Branch of the S.J.A.A By

L ie u t.-C o l.

A. C. Y A T E , F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.Soc. ( C o n tin u ed fro m p a g e S j . )

Ambulance Department of the Order of St. John asked for further information, and I therefore devoted another three weeks to the consideration of my subject, and then returned to the charge with a letter pointing to Railways, Volunteers, Police, Native States, Municipalities, Missions, Colleges, Schools, not to mention the British and Native Armies and Imperial Service troops, as material for ambulance work, urging that the Indian Branch should be started with the support and co-operation of the highest authority, with headquarters at Simla and centres in each Province, and attach a copy of a letter which I had received from Lord Curzon of Kedleston, expressing his sympathy with the proposal which I had laid before him. The second reply, dated September n t h , 1900, was more encouraging, and to this effect:— “ The first step to be taken is to ask the Chapter to recommend to H .R .H . the Prince of Wales that you should

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be appointed Organising Commissioner for the Ambulance Department for India. Twenty years or so ago we appointed Surgeon Major (now Surgeon-General) Manley, V.C., Commissioner for India, on his being sent out there for military duty. He was at that time Director of the Ambulance Department, being succeeded in that office by the late Colonel Duncan, C.B., M.P. There was no particular scope for Surgeon-Major Manley’s energies in this direction in India, so that his holding the office was practically a dead letter,* and on his return to England a few years after the appointment lapsed. Pend­ ing your return to India, we would be in a position to com­ municate with the Viceroy and the other officials suggested in your recent letter, and as soon as you are appointed Lord Knutsford would communicate with Lord Curzon, and he would also write to and he would see Lord George Hamilton ” (then Secretary of State for India). On the 1st December, 1900, Lord Knutsford wrote to me :— “ The Council and Chapter were unanimous in recom­ mending your appointment as Organising Commissioner for India, and I sincerely trust that you will be able to take up the work. When the proper time arrives I shall do my best to assist you by writing to Lord Curzon, Lord Northcote and Lord Ampthill, who, I feel sure, will do the best they can.” On the 1 ith December came the formal notification from the Chief Secretary :— “ I have the pleasure to inform you that H .R .H . the Grand Prior has sanctioned the recommendation of the Chapter that you should be appointed Honorary Organis­ ing Commissioner of India, in accordance with the sugges­ tion made by Viscount Knutsford and the Central Executive Committee.” Before I left India at the end of January, 1901, I had an interview with Mr. (afterwards Sir Richmond) Ritchie at the India Office, to whom I explained the work which I hoped to carry out. I further received a letter from Lord Roberts saying, “ I will communicate with (SurgeonGeneral Sir William) Taylor about your ambulance scheme and hope that he will see his way to assist you in carrying it out.” Finally, Sir Stewart Bayley, on behalf of the National Indian Association, invited me to lecture on ambulance work for India ; but time did not permit of that. That Association then informed me that they proposed that their different local branches in India should be urged to take it up, and invited me to give them all the possible informa­ tion on the subject. T o that request I responded to the best of my ability. The voyage from Marseilles to Bombay, where I arrived on the 10th February, afford me time and leisure to write the pamphlet in which, under the title.of “Ambulance Work in India,” I laid my scheme before the Indian public. During the four days which I spent in Bombay I had the privilege of explaining my plans to Lord and Lady Northcote, and in Messrs. King, King & Co. and Mr. George Lund, I secured allies of the highest value. Mr. Harold King, a brother of Sir H. S. King, had in former years been a keen worker on behalf of the St. John Ambulance Association. On 15th February I left for Calcutta, His Excellency * T h is is a euphem istic method o f saying that the official w orld of In d ia , w ith characteristic beaureaucratic blindness, w ould do nothing. I at least started w ith the go o dw ill of L o rd Curzon, the G overnors of Bom bay and M adras (L o rd s N orthcote and A m p th ill), m y brother the C h ie f Com m issioner of B aluchistan and H . H . the G a ik w a r o f B aroda, a ll of whom and m any others lent me a h elping hand.

JOHN

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101

Lord Curzon of Kedleston received me on the 19th, expressed his approval of my proposals, estimated that the Indian Branch would take two years to organise, and directed the Secretary to the Government of India in the Military Department to request the Military Authorities to grant me two months leave to start with. This was arranged on the 20th February. It was perfectly clear to me that on my success in Calcutta depended the future of the Indian Branch of the St. John Ambulance Association. After consultation with the Lieut.-Governor, Sir John Woodburn, 5 p.m. on the 18th Mrrch was fixed for the public meeting in the Town Hall of Calcutta at which India was to be invited to say whether she would or would not have the St. John Ambu­ lance Association. I may add that my health at this time was in a very critical state. The stimulus of a work which I was determined should not fail probably carried me through a month of extremely strenuous effort. It was my clear duty to conciliate and interest all classes, official and unofficial, Hindu, Mahommedan, Parsi and Eurasian, and above all to secure the support of the Press. I owe much to the Indian Press for the help they gave me, and to none more than to the late Mr. Hensman of the Pioneer and Mr. Bennett of the Times 0f In dia ; but, in simple truth, the entire Press of India, English and Native, was with me, as far as its opinions came within my cognisance. I entertain the most grateful remembrance of the sup­ port which Calcutta afforded me. At the meeting on the 18th March General Sir Edward Collen came down and said “ On behalf of the Army, that he considered the work proposed to be done was likely to be a valuable aid in time of war, and that he knew the Viceroy, the Commander-in-Chief (Sir William Lockhart) and the AdjutantGeneral (Sir Edmund Elies) to be favourably disposed to it.” {Pioneer M a il, 22nd March, 1901.) Among others who supported the scheme were the Maharaja of Darbangha, Maharaja Jotendro Mohum Tajore, Mr. Justice (now the Right Hon.) Ameer Ali. Mr. Justice Gurudass Banerjee, Sir Patrick Playfair and Colonel T. H. Hendley, Sir Richard Temple, then Commissioner of the Andaman Islands, and since well known at St. John’s Gate, informed me that he intended to turn the native convicts into “ first-aiders,” and, what is more, he did it. Although the Calcutta meeting was essentially a success, I found the formation of a Local Committee with an honorary secretary and treasurer, a matter of decided difficulty. Still the centre did steady work, the Port Defence Volunteers showing especial keenness, so much so, that in March, 1905, they won the Volunteer Challenge Shield, which was presented to them at an ambu­ lance demonstration held in the gardens of “ Belvidere,” the residence of the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal, at which I was present.

(T o be continued.)

T h e O rd e r o f M e r c y . — Our readers will be in­ terested to hear that amongst the recipients of the Order of Mercy at the Investitute held at St. James’ Palace on December 2rst, was Col. R. T. Blackham, C .I.E , D.S.O., Col. Blackham, who is an Assistant-Commissioner of the St. John Ambulance Brigade Overseas, has been a VicePresident of the League of Mercy for upwards of ten years, and is the founder of the Indian Branch of the League.


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The Grand Priory of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England. Chancery o f the O rd e r , St. John's Gate , C lerken w ell , Lo n d o n , E . C . , oam iary n t h , 1918. T h e K in g h a s b e e n g r a c io u s ly p le a s e d to s a n c t io n the fo llo w in g p ro m o tio n s in , a n d a p p o in t m e n t s to, th e O r d e r o f th e H o s p it a l o f S t. J o h n o f J e r u s a le m in E n g la n d :—

A s K n ig h ts of Grace : L ie u t .- C o lo n e l J u a n J a y - G o u ld , C .B . E . , l.M .S . C o lo n e l J o h n S c o tt R id d e ll, M .V .O ., M .D . (fro m A s s o c ia t e ).

AMBULANCE

G A Z E T T E .—

Notes Notice classes :—

has

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News. of

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following

new

Hom e N u rs in g Mondays at 5 p.m. Commencing Jan. 28th, at King’s College for Women, Campden Hill-road, Kensington, W. Hon. Sec., Miss Baddeley, 87, Cadogan-gardens, S.W. 3. Fee 1 2s. 6d. Toynbee Hall, 28, Commercial-street, E .i. For Women, Fridays at 8 o’clock. Commencing Jan. 18th. For Men, Tuesdays at 8 o’clock. Commencing Jan. 15th. Fee, including text book, 5s.

F i r s t A id . H o n o ra ry

A s L a d y o f G ra c e : T h e M a r c h io n e t s o f B u te .

A s H o n o ra ry S ervin g B ro th ers : L ie u t . R o b e r t P in gjet. E r n e s t T h o m a s M ilb u r n . W a lt e r W illia m B u rt o n . C h a r le s M id d le t o n . W i ll ia m H e n r y B ir d . C a p t a in F r e d e r ic k J o s e p h C u n n in g h a m . F r e d e r ic k W a lt e r M u llin e u x . H e n r y H e w e tt-D e a n . J o s e p h L a n c a s h ir e W o ls t e n h o lm e . J o h n R o b e r t C ro s s . F r a n c i s L a n c e lo t B o o th . J o h n G e o r g e F in la y s o n . G e o rg e H e n n e k e r. G e o rg e F e a rn . W i ll ia m H a n c o x . W i ll ia m H e n r y W o o d . R ic h a r d A le x a n d e r S m ith . J o h n T o n k in O lle y .

A s H o n o ra ry S ervin g Sisters : Ir e n e M a r g a r e t , M is s H o b a tt . D o ro th y B a n n e rm a n , M rs . W a tso n . E v e ly n , M is s L a s c e lle s . M a r io n , M is s S o a n s . F lo r e n c e , M is s S k ip w it h . E d it h , M is s C liff. F r a n c e s , M is s G a r fo rt h . D a is y , M r s . M a r k h a m . C o n s t a n c e , M is s W r ig le y . B e rth a , M rs. Lee. M a r g a r e t , M is s N o b le . K a te M a ry , M rs. R o bso n .

For Women, Wednesdays at 8 p.m. Commencing Jan. 16th, at Brondesbury Hall, Iverson-road, Brondesbury, N.W. Fee 2s. 6d. Hon Sec., Miss A. Wyche, 19, Dean-road, Cricklewood, N.W. 2. * * * Information has been received from the War Office that no V.A.D. member is to be allowed to transfer to the W .A .A C. unless she first resigns her membership of her Voluntary Aid Detachment. The same ruling will apply to members who wish to join the Women’s Royal Naval Service.

V In the list of St. John Ambulance Nursing Sisters mentioned in Despatches, which we published in our November issue, we regret the following names were omitted :— N u r s in g S is t e r K . E a r n s h a w (n o t St. J o h n ), E a s t H a d d o n C o n v a le s c e n t H o m e (1 0 b e d s ) fo r 18 m o n th s. I n c h a rg e . N u r s in g S is t e r E . D r a n e , in c h a r g e o f G u ils b o r o u g h A u x ilia r y H o s p it a l (2 7 b e d s ) fo r 18 m o n th s. N u r s in g S is t e r F . B r a d fo r d , in c h a r g e o f B r a m p t o n A u x i li­ a r y H o s p it a l (3 6 b e d s ) s in c e A u g u s t 1916. N u r s in g S is t e r L . M o r ris , in c h a rg e o f B la k e s le y A u x ilia r y H o s p it a l ( 1 7 b e d s ) fo r tw o y e a rs . N u r s in g S is t e r F . E l la r d (n o t re p o rt e d ) 1/5 N o r t h e r n G e n e r a l H o s p it a l, L e ic e s t e r , s in c e M a y 19 15. C o m m a n d a n t M r s . P a t t e n a ll, in c h a r g e o f H ig h a m F e r r e r s A u x ilia r y H o s p it a l s in c e M a r c h 1915N u r s in g S is t e r D . P it t s , M a s s e u s e a t W e s t o n F a v e ll A u x ilia r y H o s p it a l fo r 18 m o n th s.

* * * Names of Brigade Members mentioned in despatches by Sir Douglas Haig and published in the Gazette , Decem­ ber, 24th, 1917 :—

T h o m a s B u x t o n F li n t , M . R .C . S ., L . R . C . P . J o h n A le x a n d e r N e ila n , L . R . C . S . & P ., D . P . H . S e p t im u s F a r m e r , L . R . C . P . A n d r e w D o u g a ll, L . R . C . P . C e c il P r y o r L a n k e s t e r , M . R . C .S ., L . R . C . P . C h a r le s S u m m e r S c o tt. A le x a n d e r G r a n v ille , L L . D .

B a n is t e r , M r s . M . G ., S a lo p 4 2 ; B a r re t t, S. V io le t , D u b lin 3 8 ; B a rto n , S y b il, L o n d o n 9 6 ; B o y d , M a r y E t h e l, N o r t h u m la n d 5 2 ; B u t le r , S. W in if r e d , C it y o f D u b lin 2 4 ; D is r e a li, M a r g u e r it e K. K a t h e r in e , L o n d o n 96; D ix o n , B e r t h a W ig h t m a n , W . R . Y o r k s 6 6 ; D o w n , H i ld a N ., S e r re y 1 1 6 ; G ilh o v le y , R o s e , L o n d o n 126 ; G ra v e s , M a d g e , W a t e r f o r d 9 1 0 ; H e n n e s s y , K a t h le e n , C o r k 2 ; K e a r n e y , A n n ie M a y , S lig o ; K y d d , A n n ie V . R ., W . L a n c s . 2 2 ; L a r s e e n , A n n ie 0 '., N o r t h u m b e r la n d 56 ; M ir r in g t o n , G e r t r u d e E . , B r is t o l 2 ; P e a rt, E le a n o r I. , D u b lin ; P e te rs G e rt ru d e , E . L a n c s . 1 5 8 ; R it c h ie , M r s . S y d n e y , W . R . Y o r k s 9 8 ; R u s s e ll, A lic e M ., D u b lin 2 0 ; S ilv a , N a n c y D e , W . L a n c s . 59 ; S te e le , M a r y , N o r t h n n t s 2 ; S te v e n so n , H i ld a M a r y ,

T h e O r d e r o f t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e . — Miss Harriet Estill, whose name appears in the honours list as a Member of the Order of the British Empire, has carried out per­ sonally the whole of the administrative and secretarial work of the Highfield Auxiliary Military Hospital, Norton, Malton, since the opening in August 1914.

F lo a t , M illie , L e ic e s t e r 1 6 ; H a ig h , A n n ie , L o n d o n 1 48 ; H o u s t o n , A lic e S ., O tto w a 1; N ic h o ls , A n n ie , D u b lin ; S a v a g e , R o s e M a r y , A n t r im 2 8 ; S te w a rt L a u r ie , B e lf a s t ; T in g e r y ,

B o r E n ro lm e n t as H o n o ra ry A ssociates:

W. Lancs. 58; Usher, Edith Hannah, Worcester 68; Williams, * * * The following are the names of Members of Territorial Branch of St. John’s mentioned in despatches by Sir Douglas Haig and published in the Gazette, December 24th, 1917 :—


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Gladys, London 146; Wallis, Annie R., Flint 6; Wood, Lucy E., W.R. Yorks 36; Wood, Rosa Dorothy, W.R. Yorks 36; Williams. * * * T he Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police in a New Year’s address takes the opportunity of bearing special tribute to the most valuable services rendered to the com­ munity by members of the St. John Ambulance Associa­ tion and Brigade, the British Red Cross Society and other First Aid and Transport Associations, who since the out­ break of War have never failed to assemble in adequate numbers to render succour to the victims of air raid attacks. At great inconvenience to themselves, in all weathers and at all times of the day and night, they have, on being summoned, assembled promptly and have rendtred aid with skill and efficiency whenever their ministrations have been required. The Commissioner has no hesitation in testifying to the unanimity and warmth of public appreciation of the services thus rendered, and he will be grateful to the various

AMBULANCE

GAZETTE. —

St. John Warehouse, for Hospital Supplies.— Address Chairman. 56, St. John’s Square, E.C. 1. St. John Ambulance Brigade Depot.— Address Superin­ tendent, Halkyn House, Belgrave Square, S.W.

F irst Aid in th e Field. B y C O L O N E L R. J. B L A C K H A M , C.I,E., D .S .O , Member of the Order of M erc y; Knight of Grace of the Order of St. John, and Assistant Commissioner, St. John Ambulance Brigade Overseas.

T o those of us who have spent all the best years of our lives in teaching first aid and preaching its importance, it has been of absorbing interest to see the methods we have preached and taught, actually practiced in the present war. The art of first aid is practiced in war by two medical formations, viz. :— 1.— Regimental medical establishments composed of regimental stretcher bearers working under the command of the regi­ mental medical officer, and 2.— Bearer divisions of the Royal Army Medical Corps working under officers of the field ambulances. The duty of the regimental stretcher bearers is to carry the wounded from the firing line to the regimental a i J p o s ts . At the regimental aid posts the wounded are taken over by R.A M C , and c<>nve>ed by (a) hand c image, (o) wheeled stretchers, or (c) trench tramways, to the advanced dressing stations. R A.M.C. Training lays down : —

A corner of the War Supply Depot at Belfast in charge of Mrs. President of the St. John V.A.D. organisations if they will convey to all their members the Home Secretary’s cordial recognition of their valuable work.

* * * The following addresses may be found useful to our

readers :— The Headquarters of the Joint War Committe, 83, Pall Mall. Among departments which are accommodated at this address are those of the Central Joint V.A.D. Committee, Stores and Transport, Trained Nurses, Travelling and Passports. The Central Prisoners of War Committee, 4, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7. The Central Workrooms, Royal Academy, Burlington House, Piccadilly. Medical Stores, 10, South Crescent, Store Street, W.C. I. Wounded and Missing, 18, Carlton House Terrace, S.W.i. Women’s Joint V.A.D. Department, Devonshire House, Piccadilly, W. 1.

Each medical officer with a unit, u n d e r the orders of the C .O , will e n d e a v o u r to select suitable places which m a y be used as regimental aid posts, to which the regimental stretcher bearers will bring the wounded, and where they can be attended to and left until taken over b y the field ambulances. A regimental aid post should be under cover or out of the line of fire, but sufficiently near the firing line as to be readily accessible. One or more will be selected for each battalion or other unit. Early in the war these aid posts were located in build­ ing or in cellars, but with the advent of trench warfare they had to be located in dugouts or shelters in the trenches. Most of these now in use are only splinter-proof. When our army started to advance last year even these shelters had to be abandoned and regimental aid posts located in shell holes or in any form of shelter abandoned by the enemy. T he Regimental Medical Officer with a battalion holding the line has quite a considerable number of men under his command, viz. : 1 Regimental Corporal, as “ Sick” Corporal. 1 Orderly and servant. 16 Regular Stretcher Bearers. When the unit is preparing for an attack he has in addition :—

16 Reserve Stretcher Bearers. 1 N.C.C., R.A.M.C. 2 Runners, R.A.M.C. 8 R.A.M.C. Bearers.


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In other words, just before a battle the medical officer of a battalion has about 45 men, more or less, directly under his orders. The regular stretcher bearers move in rear of their companies and carry, instead of rifles and ammunition, stretchers and haversacks of dressings. Each regimental stretcher bearer wears on his left arm a brassard with the letters “ S.B.” The regular stretcher bearers of a battalion appear to be entitled to wear the Red Cross armlet, as they are definitely told off for medical duties, and are continu­ ously employed in this way. They at all times are un­ armed, and carry stretchers instead of rifles. Each company has four stretcher bearers and two stretchers, complete with slings. The senior bearer always carries a water bottle and surgical haversack, containing the following :— A r o m a t ic s p ir it o f a m m o n ia , s m a ll fla sk . B a n d a g e s , ro lle r , 1 doz. B a n d a g e s , t ria n g u la r , 4. B o r ic p o w d e r, in d re d g e r. P r e s s u r e fo rc e p s , 1 p a ir. D o u b le c y a n id e g a u ze , 6 p a c k e ts. D o u b le c y a n id e w o o l, I doz. oz. p a c k e ts. C a n d le la m p . M o r p h in e ta rtra te . N e e d le s a n d s a fe ty p in s . R u b b e r a d h e s iv e p la s te r. S c is s o r s . S t e rile s u r g ic a l s ilk , 3 0 in . le n g th s , 12 T a p e , 2 p ie c e s. T a llie s , s p e c if ic a t io n ( A . F . B . 166), 1 b o o k . T h r e a d , sto u t, I re el. T o u r n iq u e t s , F ie ld , N o . 2.

The other bearers each carry a haversack of shell dressings :— The official medical equipment of a battalion consists of a pair of field medical panniers, a medical companion, surgical haversack and two water bottles, but in addition to these the regimental aid post in rest camps and billets is generously equipped. It contains the following :— C u p s , fe e d in g . C u p s , s p it t in g .

Dressings :— G a u z e , w h ite , p a c k e ts , 10 G a u z e , c y a n id e , p a c k e ts , 10. Ja c o n e t, y a r d s 6. L in t , b o r ic , p o u n d s , 2. L in t , w h ite , p o u n d s , 4. S h e ll, d r e s s in g s , 100. Io d in e a m p o u le s , 100. A m m o n ia a m p o u le s , 200. T in c t u r e io d in e , p in ts , 1. P a n , be d , 1. T a b le , im p r o v is e d , 1. F a n s , a n t i-g a s , 3. L a m p , a c e ty le n e , 1. W h a le o il, g a lls ., 1. O x y g e n c y lin d e r s , s m a ll, 2 S to v e , “ B e a t r ic e ,” 1. S to v e , “ P r im u s ,” 1.

Splints :— A r m , 6. L e g , w ith fo o tp ie ce , 6. L is t o n , lo n g , 4. T h o m a s ’s, 3. G o o c h , y a rd s , 2. T in s , p e tro l, fo r w a te r, 2 T o r c h e s , e le c t r ic , h a n d , 3 T o u r n iq u e t s , 2. T o w e ls , h a n d , 3.

AMBULANCE

G A Z E T T E .—

January, 1918.

Urinal, I. W a s h s t a n d , im p ro v is e d , 1.

Medical Comforts :— C a n d le s , 12. C o c o a a n d m ilk , tin s , 12. M e th y la t e d s p ir it , 2. M ilk , G la x o , tin s , 5. O x o , 12 ozs. S u g a r, 2 lb s . T e a , 1 lb .

A good deal of this equipment is left behind and only a small portion carried up to the trenches. The field am­ bulance running the advanced dressing station has large supplies of dressings and splints, and readily supplies any drugs, dressings and surgical material asked for. Solidified spirit is of the utmost value in regimental aid post work, and I always see that plenty of it is available. A wounded man is always a thirsty man, but is seldom hungry if got in early. Soup the private soldier abomi­ nates, but tea he loves, and I always insist on plenty of it being available at collecting posts and dressing stations, both advanced and main. Let us accompany the first aid workers of a battalion going up into the trenches on the Western front at this time of year. The journey is made after dark and the bearers plod along through the mud in single file. The darkness is relieved only by the gun flashes and the Very Lights which go up at regular intervals from the front line trenches on both sides of “ N o Man’s Land,” to assist the sentries in detecting anything of the nature of a raid or attack. The effect of this fitful illumination is weird and im­ pressive, and when accompanied by the arrival of shells near the narrow duck-board track, the road to the trenches often calls to mind the Psalmist’s “ Valley of the Shadow of Death.” Fortunately the men have little imagination and trudge along stoically, cursing the weather, the mud and the war, in the strange oaths which the Old Army has bequeathed to the New. Arrived at the wet, cheerless dug-out, the bearers take over their routine of work from their predecessors in the line.

(T o be concluded).

The King has signed a warrant ordaining that anyone who, after having rendered services for which the Royal Red Cross Decoration, First Class, is awarded, afterwards renders such approved services as would, if she had not received the decoration, have entitled her to it, shall be awarded a bar to be attached to the decoration.

The presence of larger British Forces on the Italian front has meant increased calls for the co-operation of the Joint War Committee of the British Red Cross Society and the Order of St. John, Among other things a request was made for more motor ambulances, and within the past few weeks the Motor Ambulance Department of the Joint War Committee at 83, Pall Mall, has handed over to the Army authorities a fully equipped convoy of 50 ambulances for service on the Italian front.

W hen corresponding w ith A d vertisers please m ention “ First Aid ”


— FIRST

January, 1918. CO NTEN TS E

d it o r ia l

OF

T H IS

ist r ic t

with Dr. Henry Briggs, Heriott-Watt College,

epo rts

N o . 1 ; N o . 5 ; N o . 11 ; N o .

he

St . Jo

h n ’s

A

m bu lan ce

...

...

98

...

...

...

99

G

a ze tt e

...

100 100

...

H o s p it a l o f ... ...

102

N o te s a n d N e w s

...

...

...

102

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

103

...

105

...

...

106

...

...

...

107

...

...

...

107

U s e a n d A b u s e o f D is in f e c t a n t s ...

A n E m e rg e n c y S tre tch e r etter

to

E

d it o r

...

u e r ie s

a n d

A

...

Edinburgh,

from whom further information can be obtained.

Before

any actual designs which have not already been patented are sent to Dr. Briggs, it is desirable that inventors should apply to the Patent Office,

25,

Southampton-buildings,

Char.cery-lane, London, W.C. 2, for provisional protection for them. * * *

We are pleased to hear that the War Office has issued instructions to all military commands at home to the effect that members of the M .H .H . Reserve who have been com­ pulsorily transferred to combatant units may, if desired, be re-transferred to the R .A M.C.

L is t o f A m b u la n c e S t a t io n s n sw ers

C

to

o r r espo n d en ts

D e s c r ip t io n o f Io d o fo r m

...

...

...

108

P r u s s ic A c id P o is o n in g ...

...

...

...

108

D a n g e rs o f W o u n d s

...

...

...

...

108

N ic o t in e P o is o n in g

...

...

...

...

108

I t was stated at an inquest last month on one of the victims of the recent air raid in the London district that two members of the St. John Ambulance Brigade volunteered to carry an injured man to the hospital on a litter when the anti-aircraft gun firing was at its most intense pitch.

The

conduct of these men was highly praised by the Coroner,

D is lo c a t io n o f A n k le

...

...

...

...

108

D r e s s in g s fo r B u r n s

...

...

...

...

108

...

...

...

108

T r e a t m e n t o f P u n c iu r e d W o u n d s

. ..

...

110

D r e s s o n F ir e . . .

...

...

no

In answer to Colonel Faber in the House of Commons

...

...

no

on December 18th, Mr. Beck (Saffron Walden, L.) said :—

B a n d a g e s fo r F s a c t u r e d ...

...

T re a tm e n t o f C o m p o u n d F ra c tu re P

...

T h e G r a n d P r io r y o f th e O r d e r o f the S t. J o h n o f J e r u s a le m in E n g la n d F ir s t A id in th e F ie ld

Q

97

T h e G e n e s is o f th e In d ia n B r a n c h o f th e S . J . A . A . . . .

B r e v it ie s

L

...

12 ...

T h e C a p t u r e o f Je r u s e le m

III.

...

T h e R a ilw a y A m b u la n c e F ilm T

valves for self-contained breathing apparatus to commuicate

R

IO S

who have designs for automatically-adjusting oxygen feed

NUM BER.

F ir s t A id In s t r u c t io n b y C in e m a t o g ra p h D

AI D. —

r a c t ic a l

P

o in ts

who said he was proud that he was a life member of the Association. * *

*

The total number of men of military age employed by the

E f fic ie n t F ir s t A id

...

...

...

...

110

British Red Cross Society in France is stated by the society

M e d d le s o m e F ir s t A id

...

...

...

...

no

to be approximately 1,900. made by the Recruiting

men are being withdrawn for service in the armed forces,

Since the series of raids at the end of September the St. John Ambulance Brigade in London has provided a staff to attend to cases of fainting and illness in the tubes Even when there is no damage in the im­

mediate locality the first air staffs find their hands suffi­ ciently full with people who are suffering from shock and exhaustion.

At Finsbury Park Station on two consecutive

nights 300 such cases were dealt with, although very often all the first aid that is necessary is a mug of water.

The

principal stations are now manned by the Brigade when a raid is expected, and the Borough Councils also dispatch a number of woman lavatory attendants.

Where possible,

an unused lift or storeroom is placed at the disposal of the St. John men.

to General Head­

quarters, France, in June this year, a proportion of these

. Brevities.

during raids.

As a result of representations Department

Although fatalities have not been unknown

since the public began crowding into the tubes, the fewness of the serious casualities under the unusual circumstances, reflects great credit alike upon tube management,

the

ambulance service, and the police.

on the principle that men fit for general service and men of Catagory B 1, under 30 years of age, shall be released, sub­ ject to the right of appeal by the society cases of indispensability.

The British Red Cross Society

further states that there are also approximately 200 men of military age similarly employed in other theatres of the war.

In this country, excluding tribunal cases, there are

approximately 250 men of military age employed by the British Red Cross Society.

With two exceptions, none of

these men are fit for general service.

In addition to the

above there are a certain number of men of military age who have been granted exemption

by tribunals in

ordinary course, and who have undertaken work,

T h e Mine Rescue Research Committee of the Depart­ ment of Science and Industrial Reserch invites inventors

the

either

whole or part time, under the British Red Cross Society. Col. Faber asked if it could be assumed that all Red Cross men fit for the front had been combed out.

Mr

Beck thought that could not be taken for granted, but the the matter was being very carefully watched.

***'

to the Field-

Marshall Commanding-in-Chief in France in very special

Many of the

men had been granted exemption by the tribunals, and there were men who had been in the Red Cross Society from the beginning and whose services were very valuable.


— F I R S T

111.

U se a n d

A buse of

D isin fe c ta n ts.

Bv N. C O R B E T F L E T C H E R , M.B.. B.A., B.C., Cantab., M.R.C.S., Eng.

Hon. Surgeon Hampstead D ivision S ./.A .B . A uthor 0/ “ A id s to F i r s t - A i d “ A id s to Home Nursing," &*c. ( Concluded from page 92.) L y s o l (Liquor Cresol Saponatus) belongs to the group of disinfectants known as Cresols of which other members are Creolin, Izal and Cyllin. These are all, like Carbolic Acid, obtained from coal tar, are much less poisonous than the latter, are similar in their action, and are available fo r a ll purposes , e g , hands, dressings, glass and metal instruments, &c. Lysol consists of cresols and potash soaps; is exten­ sively used as a disinfectant (1 per cent.) and as an anti­ septic (£ per cent.) ; is eqally reliable as as detergent and— apart from its expense— is valuable for cleansing bed pans, urinals, &c. Lysol is neutralised by alcohol, the immediate application of which (e.g., methylated spirit) will counter­ act its irritant effects and prevent the formation of a burn or blister. Solutions of Lysol should be prepared with warm (not hot) water. T i n c t u r e o f I o d i n e is an alcoholic solution, con­ taining Iodine, a non-metallic element which is so named from the violet colour of its vapour, was originally manu­ factured from seaweed, but is now prepared from ctrtain natural salts. It is powerfully disinfectant and irritant, the latter quality being drawn out by repeated applications. Applied to the skin, Iodine produces a yellow stain (which can be removed by an alkali), and gives rise to a sensation of heat and burning with dilatation of vessels and some escape of white cells of blood. Iodine, then fore, differs fro m other disinfectants in that, far frcm interfering with Nature’s Method of protection against infection, it actually supports these efforts, s;nce it brings about a marked and prolonged congestion of the part Further, it can be applied freely to the wound without fear of poisonous effects or danger of burning the tissues, provided that it is not repeated, and is allowed to dry by evaporation before the dressing is applied. It is most effective when applied to a dry wound. In other words, Tincture of Iodine is the quickest, safest, and most efficient antiseptic dressing —alike for septic wounds and for prevention of sepsis— especially in an emergency. (3) S o l i d s .

T he best examples of this group of Chemical dis­ infectants are Soaps and Chlorinated Lime. S o a p s are solid compounds of oil or fats with soda (hard soaps) or potash (soft soaps) used in washing. They possess cleansing and also valuable antiseptic'properties, because the alkalies of soap dissolve the fatty secretions of the skin and friction of the part removes germs, together with surface impurities. T o this end soft soap is more effective than hard. C h l o r i n a t e d L i m e (Bleaching Powder) is a dull white powder, smelling strongly of Chlorine gas, which it gives off on addition of an acid or exposure to air. It is obtained by passing this gas over moist, unslaked Lime. When fresh, Clorinated Lime (sometimes incorrectly termed Chloride of Lime) contains about 34 per cent, of

AID. —

January, 1918.

available Chloride gas, to which is probably due its undoubted disinfectant power. It is cheap and is chiefly indicated f o r disinfection of excreta, drains, urinals, bed-pans, &c., for which purposfi it is usually used in the strength of 2 2-4 oz. per gallon. If exposed to air, it will absorb moisture and become inert, such change being proven by the pasty appearance of powder and by absence of strong odour of Chloride. It is noteworthy that during the last two years solu­ tions of Bleaching Powder— prepared in various ways have been used in the treatment of septic wounds, and that some of them are now accepted as efficient— though some what unstable— -disinfectants which promote natural heal­ ing, and are free from poisonous and irritating effects. II I .— R U L E S

OF

D ISIN FECTIO N .

Keeping in mind the inestimable benefits which have resulted from the use of Disinfectants, we are now able to epitomise concisely in four definite Rules all that has been discussed in this Article. (1) Disinfection M u st be Suitable to the Purpose. We have seen that the Methods of Disinfection vary in their potency ; that their efficiency depends on many factors, e.g., temperature and strength of solution, medium, & c . ; and that the ideal object is to select that most suitable to the purpose. Thus, cotton and linen articles may either be boiled for 30 minutes or soaked in Ctesol (2 per cent.) or Carbolic (5 per cent.) solutions for at least 2 hours, whereas blankets and woollen goods must be steri­ lised by steam, which is also the method of choice for a ll bu/kv articles, e g., mattresses, pillows, clothing, &c. Again, feeding and nursing utensils are first cleansed by fie 2 use of brush and water containing soda, and then disinfected either by being placed in antiseptic solution for 30 minutes or, better still, by immersion in cold water which is gradually raised to and maintained at boiling point for 510 minutes. Lastly, the clinical thermometer can only be sterilised by means of disinfectant solution, e.g., Cirbolic (5 per cent.), which in its turn is removed by riming in cold, sterile water. (2) Disinfection M ust be Commenced on the Spot. We have seen that Infection— viz, the transmission of disease— is spread by living germs. When, therefore, we appreciate the possibilities of infection, we must deal with it at its source of origin. For example, the excreta of a Typhoid Fever patient must be placed in strong Carbolic solution (5 per c e n t ) or treated with Chlorinated Lime (2 per c e n t ) at the bedside, and not immediately thrown down the drain or put on one side for subsequent disinfec­ tion. Otherwise, an epidemic of Typhoid Fever may arise from delay in commencing action. Again, the hands of the attendant, who has completed this task, must forthwith be cleansed and scrubbed thor­ oughly with soap and water, and further disinfected by be­ ing soaked in antiseptic lotion, e.g , Perchloride of Mercury (1-2000) or Carbolic (1-40), for a minimum period of 2 minutes. Lastly, the feeding utensils, which have been used by this patient must not be removed from the sick­ room until they have been soaked for 20 minutes in a bucket of strong disinfectant placed near the door. (3) Disinfection M u st be Sufficiently Prolonged. We have seen that Disinfection means the destruction of germs and that most disinfectants are powerful poisons. Yet we often fail to realise that time must be allowed for this purpose, and also that the time allotted varies with the method adopted. Thus, disinfection by heat demands


— F I R S T

January 1918

15 minutes if boiling is adopted for instruments, at least one hour if steam is used for bulky or woolen articles, whereas disinfection by Chemicals requires 30 minutes if liquid solutions are preferred for nursing utensils, and not less than 1 2 hours if gas is chosen for the sick-room. At the same time it must be pointed out that Dis­ infection can be carried to excess, For examples, many kinds of material, e.g., rubber, are rapidly ruined by being too long or too frequently, and extravagance in fuel also results. Similarly, water required for drinking loses it natural gases when boiled for more than one minute, and is rendered flat and unpalatable. (4) Disinfection M u st be Sufficiently Potent. We have seen that most methods of Disinfection are, if indiscreetly used, injurious to the tissues, and that some germs are able to resist their action for a long time. Hence there is need for care in the application of the method selected. Thus, for efficient disinfection by boiling the water must be carefully kept at boiling point for the full period, whilst for that by steam the correct amount of pres­ sure must be maintained throughout. Similarly, with liquid disinfectants it follows that the more potent the solution, the more rapid and complete will be its task of destroying germs. Indeed, it is remarkable that Lister based his Principles of Antisepsis on a weak (1-40) solution of Car­ bolic Acic which could only prevent the growth of germs, and that he always taught that the washing of the operator’s hands in soap and water would interfere with the activity of the antiseptic lotion. Under these circumstances we must carefully recognise the disinfectant — as compared with the antiseptic — strength of the drug selected. Lastly, combinations of such chemical solutions do not tend to greater efficiency and potency, because most of them are incompatible and incapable of acting together in harmony. F

An

in is

E m erg en cy B

y

F.

C.

.

AID .— beneath the patient is to see that the buttocks lie third loops. The following advantages can be claimed :— (1) It is cheap and easily made. (2) under a patient in bed as easily as a draw-sheet, patient can then at once be lifted and taken away

m

(ID

..rz

over the

It can be put and the over the

fa ]

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i

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r

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foot of the bed. (3) Four women can lift a heavy patient. (4) It is very useful in cottage houses. It can also be used as a carrying chair, one bearer on each side, taking the first and third loops, and the patient sitting and leaning back on the canvas between these points. Each side of the canvas may be turned over to form a channel for introduction of poles, thus allowing it to be used as an ordinary stretcher. It can be easily made at home, but can also be bought from Messrs. Knight & Co., The Square, Bournemouth.

Setters to the Sditor. We are in no may responsible for the opinions expressed, or the statements made, by Correspondents.— E d i t o r , E t c .

L IS T

S tr etch er .

BOTTOMLEY,

Surgeon and Acting Supt., Bournemouth Div., S.J A B. T he stretcher described was devised to enable nurses to carry a patient up or down the somewhat narrow angular staircase of a V.A.D. hospital, and to be especially avail­ able in case of fire. An ordinary stretcher with poles has to be lifted over the banisters and require strong men, whereas on this stretcher a heavy patient can be easily con­ veyed by four women It has been used for taking patient to and from the operating theatre, and is well adapted for this purpose and other short journeys. It consists of a piece of canvas 5 ! ft. long by 20 in. w ide; four loops for hand-holds are fixed on each side of this, and the stretcher is carried by two bearers on each side holding a loop in each hand. The loops are conveni­ ently made from 3 in, webbing, which is sewn in two lines across the under surface of the canvas. They are placed respectively about 7 in., 19 in., 33 in. and 54 in. from the head end, and support the head, shoulders, buttocks, and legs (below the knees). It will be noticed that the third and fourth loops are further apart than the first and second ; this enables the bearers at the foot end to take some of the main weight of the body \ and the important point in placing the canvas

OF

AM BULAN CE

S T A T IO N S .

S i r , — I h a v e o ften t h o u g h t w h a t a g re a t a ss e t it w o u ld be if in c a s e o f a c c id e n t s th e first a id e r k n e w if th e re w a s a n a m ­ b u la n c e s ta tio n n e a r b y w h e re s k ille d a s s is t a n c e c o u ld b e h a d if n e c e s s a ry . T h e r e a re m a n y a m b u la n c e s ta tio n s a ll o v e r th e c o u n t ry , b u t I am a fr a id m a n y o f u s d o n o t k n o w w h e re to fin d th e m , e s p e c ia lly o u t o f o u r o w n to w n , o r e v e n d is t r ic t ; a n d 1 t h in k it w o u ld be a v e r y g re a t a d v a n ta g e in t h is g o o d c a u s e if y o u c o u ld p u b lis h in F i r s t A i d a lis t o f th e a m b u la n c e s ta tio n s t h ro u g h o u t th e c o u n try . I f t h e ir n u m b e r s a re too m a n y fo r o n e is s u e , p e r h a p s y o u c o u ld d e a l w ith a d is t r ic t e a c h m o n th .— Y o u r s t ru ly , A . T . G o o d in g . [ W e a re a fr a id it w o u ld be im p o s s ib le to c o m p ile s u c h a lis t as o u r c o r r e s p o n d e n t s u g g e s ts , a s th e a m b u la n c e s e r v ic e s o f v a r io u s to w n s a re in c h a rg e o f m a n y d iffe re n t a u t h o r it ie s . G e n e r a lly , in p r o v in c ia l to w n s, th e a m b u la n c e s ta tio n s a re in ­ d ic a t e d b y la m p - p o s t s ig n s , w h ile in L o n d o n w e h a v e th e c a llb o x s y ste m a n d te le p h o n e .— E d . “ F . A . ” ]

In dealing with the annual report of the Manchester Special Constables in our last issue, we regret an error occurred. Special

The report was not that of the Manchester

Constables Ambulance Corps,

E a s t D ivision of the Corps.

but only of

the

T he Corps comprises five

divisions, and, therefore, has a larger membership than that indicated in the paragraph.


— F I R S T

io8

Queries and Jlnswers Correspondents.

D o e s N ic o t in e a ct lik e O p iu m a n d p ro d u c e s le e p , p in p o in t p u p ils , & c . ? (2 ) S in c e it s ta in s th e fin g e rs , & c ., s h o u ld a n e m e tic be w ith h e ld , a s la id d o w n in C a n t lie (p. 1 5 1 ) ? (3 ! W h a t is c o r r e c t tre a tm e n t in c a s e s o f p o is o n in g w ith N ic o t in e ?

to

Queries w ill be dealt w ith under the following rules :— 1 . — Letters containing Queries ?nust be marked on the top left hana corner of the envelope “ Query," and addressed— F i r s t A i d , 46, Cannon-street, London, E .C . 2 .— A l l Queries must be accompanied by a “ Query Coupon ” cut jrom the current issue of the Journal, or in case of Queries from abroad from a recent issue. 7 . — Queries, accompanied by stamped addressed envelope, w ill be answered by post.

D escription of I odoform. P . L . ( S w a n s e a ) :— A t a n A m b u la n c e C o m p e titio n I w a s a s k e d “ W h a t is Io d o fo rm ?” W a s I r ig h t th a t it is a n a n t is e p t ic u s e d fo r prevention o f accumulation o f g e rm s. Y e s , b u t p e r h a p s prevention o f growth o f g e rm s w o u ld h a v e b e e n a b e tt e r a n s w e r. I t c o n s is ts o f fin e y e llo w c r y s t a ls (w h ic h h a v e a p e c u lia r a n d c h a r a c t e r is t ic s m e ll) a n d a c ts b y lib e r a t io n o f fre e Io d in e .— N. CORBET F letche r.

January, 19 18.

AID. —

( 1 ) N o . N ic o t in e c lo s e ly re s e m b le s S t r y c h n in e a n d b e lo n g s to th e Ir r it o - N a r c o t ic g r o u p o f p o is o n s . I t is (lik e S t r y c h n in e a n d P r u s s ic A c id ) a m ost p oten t n erv e p o iso n a n d m a y c a u s e d e a th in 3 m in u te s w ith s y m p to m s o f p ro fo u n d C o lla p s e — the p u p ils b e in g w id e ly d ila t e d , a lth o u g h in th e e a r ly sta g e s th e y a re c o n tra c t e d b y N ic o t in e . I t is u s u a lly a s s o c ia te d w ith n a u s e a a n d v o m itin g , a n d o c c a s io n a lly w ith c o n v u ls io n s a n d s ig n s o f A s y p h y x ia . (2 ) A s w ith S t r y c h n in e a n d P r u s s ic A c id , a n e m e tic s h o u ld be g iv e n w ith o u t a m o m e n t’s d e la y a n d b e fo re in s e n s ib ilit y d e v e lo p s . W it h c a s e s o f p o is o n in g it is th e “ b u r n in g ” (w h ic h is o n ly fo u n d w ith C o r r o s iv e A c id s a n d A lk a lie s ) a n d n o t the “ s t a in in g ,” w h ic h c o n tra in d ic a te s th e a d m in is t ra t io n o f a n e m e tic , b e c a u s e — w h e n we fin d th e lip s a n d m o u th b u r n e d — th e n w e s u s p e c t th a t the s to m a c h is a ls o b u rn e d a n d lia b le to ru p tu r e i f v o m it in g is e x c ite d . (3 ) I n m ild c a s e s , a ct a s y o u r m o th e r d id w h e n y o u s m o k e d y o u r firs t p ip e — v iz., a n e m e tic , a d o se o f c a s to r o il a n d to b e d w ith y o u 1 I n s e v e re c a s e s , g iv e e m e tic a n d tre a t a s fo r P r u s s ic A c id p o is o n in g , p a y in g s p e c ia l a tte n tio n to th e C o lla p s e , w h ic h is th e m o st p ro m in e n t fe a tu re w ith N ic o t in e . - N . C O R ­ BET

F le tc h e r .

D islo c a tio n

Prussic A cid P oisoning. P . L . (S w a n s e a ) I f a m a n w h o h a s ta k e n P r u s s ic A c id is in ­ s e n s ib le , a n y t h in g qiven by mouth is fo rb id d e n . (1 ) H o w c a n y o u m a k e p a tie n t, i f t ic k lin g th e th ro a t f a ils ? (2 ) W o u ld a F ir s t - A id e r be ju s t ifie d in u s in g a s to m a c h p u m p , if m e d ic a l a s s is ta n c e w a s t o t a lly im p o s s ib le ? ( 1 ) T h e p a tie n t b e in g in s e n s ib le , y o u m u st n ot a tte m p t to m a k e h im v o m it. S o y o u r s u g g e s t io n o f t ic k lin g h is th ro a t is v e r y b a d tre a tm e n t a n d a n e x a m p le o f M e d d le s o m e F ir s t - A id . A ll th a t y o u c a n d o is la id d o w n in C a n t lie (p . 152). (2 ) Certainly not. The use of stomach pump involves ex­

D angers of W ounds . E . (S o u t h s e a ) a s k s fo r G e n e r a l T r e a t m e n t p u n c t u r e d , c o n tu s e d a n d la c e r a t e d w o u n d s.

of

in c is e d ,

Y o u w ill fin d th e G e n e r a l R u le s in Cantlie (p p . 7 6 a n d 94). E x e r c is e th e P r in c ip le s o f F ir s t A id ( Cantlie , pp . 17 a n d 1 8 ) a n d m o d ify th e R u le s to s u it th e d iffe re n t v a rie t ie s o f w o u n d s w ith s p e c ia l re fe re n c e to t h e ir d a n g e rs . W it h contused a n d lacerated w o u n d s H a e m o rrh a g e is n o t u s u a lly m a rk e d — w ith th e fo rm e r, b y re a s o n o f th e a s s o c ia te d b r u is in g a n d d e p o s it o f b lo o d c lo t ; w it h th e la tte r, b e c a u s e o f th e in f o ld in g o f th e m u s c u la r c o a ts o f v e s s e ls w h ic h , as it w ere , c o r k s th e v e s s e l m o u th s , b u t w h ic h m a y b e fo llo w e d b y s e v e re R e a c t io n a r y H a e m o rrh a g e a s w h e n a lim b is to rn off. W it h b o th v a r ie t ie s a n d fo r s a m e re a s o n s the d a n g e r o f S e p s is is g re a t. W it h incised w o u n d s s e v e re H a e m o rrh a g e is fre q u e n t ly se e n b e c a u s e th e v e s s e l w a lls a re c o m p le t e ly s e v e re d ; b u t th e re is a c o r r e s p o n d in g ly s lig h t r is k o f S e p s is , o w in g to th e fre e b a t h in g o f w o u n d w ith b lo o d . W it h punctured w o u n d s th e r is k o f b o th H a e m o rrh a g e a n d S e p s is a re u s u a lly u r g e n t b e c a u s e d e e p v e s s e ls a re in ju r e d a n d th e b lo o d is r e ta in e d in w h a t a re p r a c t ic a lly c lo s e d c a v itie s . W it h a ll varieties of w o u n d s th e d a n g e r s o f S h o c k a re v a r ia b le , a n d d e p e n d c h ie f ly on th e q u a n t it y o f b lo o d lo s t a n d th e ra te o f lo s s o f b lo o d .— N . Corbet F letcher.

A n k l e .

( 1 ) D is lo c a t io n s o f jo in t , c o m p a re d w ith fra c t u re s o f b o n e s, a re e x c e e d in g ly ra re a c c id e n t s , a n d u s u a lly a ffect th e u p p e r lim b . S p r a in o f a n k le jo in t is a s fre q u e n t a s d is lo c a t io n is in fre q u e n t. (2 ) N o . I t is w ro n g to u n c o v e r a d is lo c a t e d jo in t , u n less so m e s p e c ia l in d ic a t io n is p re s e n t (e .g ., c o m p o u n d - d is lp c a tio n ) a n d u n t il p a tie n t h a s b e e n re m o v e d to h is [h ou se. T r e a t as la id d o w n in C a n tlie (p. 6 3 ).— N . C o r b f .t F l e t c h e r .

pert knowledge and experience, failing which a First-Aider should not presume to employ it, more especially with an in­ sensible patient.— N. CORBET F letcher .

M.

o f

W . M . (P e m b r o k e ) a s k s (1 ) i f a d is lo c a t e d a n k le o ften o c c u r s ; a n d (2 ) i f th e b o o t s h o u ld be re m o v e d a n d lim b p la c e d in s p lin ts .

D r e ssin g s

f o r

B u rn s.

R . W . M . ( E r i t h ) sta te s th a t h is D e ta c h m e n t (w h o se m e m b e rs a re d e ta ile d fo r A i r R a id D u t y ) r e q u ir e a s u ita b le , s e lf-c o n ­ t a in e d d r e s s in g fo r B u rn s , to re p la c e P ic r ic A c id a p p lic a ­ t io n s w h ic h a re n o w u n o b t a in a b le . H e a s k s fo r s o m e th in g w h ic h c a n be p la c e d o n in ju r y at o n c e a n d re m o v e d w it h ­ o u t le a v in g m a te r ia l in w o u n d . C y a n id e G a u z e (k e p t in s e a le d p a c k e ts a n d u s e d in its e n ­ t ir e ty w h e n p a c k e t is b r o k e n ) is a jv e r y u s e fu l p re p a re d d r e s s in g fo r B u rn s , b e c a u s e (1 ) it a b s o rb s a n y d is c h a rg e , (2 ) p re v e n ts its d e c o m p o s itio n , a n d ( 3 ) — to so m e e x te n t— s o o th e s th e in ju ry . T h e a d d it io n o f B o r a c ic A c id (4 p a r ts ) a n d S a lic y lic A c id (1 p a rt) p o w d e rs — w e ll m ix e d a n d lig h t ly d u s te d o n the g a u z e — h a s b e e n s u g g e s te d to in c r e a s e b o th its a n t is e p t ic a n d a ls o its s o o th in g p ro p e rtie s . B o r ic L in t , if u s e d w ith s a m e p r e c a u t io n s , p o s se ss e s s im i­ la r a d v a n ta g e s a n d is the m o st s e r v ic e a b le F ir s t - A id d r e s s in g fo r a n y lo c a l in ju ry . F a i li n g tn e se , p ie c e s o f lin t o f s u ita b le size c a n b e s p r e a d w ith B o r ic O in tm e n t (d ilu t e d w ith e q u a l p a rts o f V a s e lin e ), a n d k e p t r o lle d u p in a s u it a b le c o n ta in e r fo r u se in a n e m e rg e n c y . S u c h d r e s s in g s a re a n t is e p t ic , s o o t h in g a n d u s e fu l.— N . C o r b e t F le tc h e r .

B an d ag es

f o r

F r actu r ed

F em u r .

N icotine Poisoning. H P . (H a m p s t e a d ) r e m a r k s th a t s o lu t io n s o f N ic o t in e a re n o w

M . R . ( N o t t in g h a m ) :— I n y o u r A n s w e r to M . B. ( N o v e m b e r is s u e ) y o u s a y — w ith re fe re n c e to b a n d a g e s fo r fra c t u r e d f e m u r— “ first c o n tr o l fra c t u re b y tw o b a n d a g e s , o n e a b o v e a n d o n e b e lo w fra c t u r e .” H o w d o y o u r e c o n c ile th is t e a c h in g w ith th e in s t ru c t io n s la id d o w n in C a n tlie (p . 58) ?

b e in g fre e ly u s e d fo r g a r d e n in g p u rp o s e s a n d a s k s : ( 1 )

By exercising the Principles of First-Aid and especially


January, 1918

— F I R S T

AID

109

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no

— FIRST

m y “ d i s c r i m in a t i o n ” a n d “ r e s o u r c e f u ln e s s ” ! ! T h e danger is a t th e se a t o f fra c t u re w h ic h m u st re c e iv e im m ediate a tt e n ­ tio n . F u r t h e r , o n p a g e 58 o f C a n tlie a lis t o f b a n d a g e s r e ­ q u ir e d is set o u t w ith o u t an y reference to s e q u e n c e o f a p p lic a ­ tio n w h ic h c o n s t itu te d the d if fic u lt y o f th e c o rr e s p o n d e n t n a m e d .— N. C orbet F letcher . P.

C . ( P a r r a m a t t a , N . S . W ) a s k s h o w to p r e p a r e S a lt s , s u c h a s th o se s u p p lie d b y c h e m is ts .

S m e llin g

S m e llin g S a lt s c o n s is t o f A m m o n iu m C a r b o n a t e w ith L a v e n d e r. T h e y a re in d ic a te d a s b r a in a n d r e s p ira t o r y s t im u la n t , e s p e c ia lly w iih S y n c o p e a n d c o n t r a -in d ic a t e d w ith s e v e re H a jm o r r h a g e a n d H e a d - ln ju r ie s . T h e ir p r e p a r a t io n is b e y o n d the s c o p e of F ir s t A id . — N. C orbet F letcher .

T reatment of Punctured W ounds . C . M . ( S o u t h s e a ) :— A m a n h a s in ju re d h is foo t w ith a fo rk w h ile d ig g in g p o ta to e s. T h e r e is d ir t in the w o u n d . H a v ­ in g n o s te r ile w a te r, s h o u ld I w a sh w o u n d w ith ta p -w a te r, a n d th e n p a in t w ith Io d in e , o r s h o u ld I le t w o u n d b le e d a lit t le to w a sh o u t p o is o n to so m e e xte n t, a n d th e n p a in t w ith Io d in e ? \ o u r s e c o n d s u g g e s t io n is th e r ig h t o ne. T h e le s s a w o u n d is in t e rfe r re d w ith in a n e m e rg e n c y , th e le s s a re the d a n g e rs o f S e p s is . F o r t h is re a s o n , th e T e x t -b o o k c o n c e n tra te s a tte n tio n o n tre a tm e n t o f H a e m o rrh a g e (s in c e the d angers to life a ris e fro m lo s s o f b lo o d ) a n d m a k e s th e p re v e n t io n o f S e p s is a s id e — b u t n o n e th e le s s im p o r t a n t — is s u e . I n th e C a s e q u o te d , the t a p w a te r m ig h t be a f u r t h e r s o u rc e o f S e p t ic In f e c t io n , the d a n g e r o f w h ic h is a lr e a d y u r g e n t .— N . C orbet F letcher .

D ress on F ire . F.

A . (S e lw y n , N .Z .) a s k s w h y a p a tie n t, w h o se d r e s s is on fire , is p la c e d o n g ro u n d w ith fla m e s u p p e rm o s t •

The p ro n e (o r re c u m b e n t) p o s itio n m in im is e s the d a n g e r s o f fire , b e c a u s e (1 ) it lim it s th e ra n g e o f a c t iv it y o f th e fla m e s , (2 ) it s to p s a n y d ra u g h t w h ic h w o u ld fa n the fla m e s in to in c r e a s e d a c t iv it y , a n d (3 ) p la c e s p a tie n t in s it u a tio n m o st c o n v e n ie n t fo r s m o t h e r in g fla m e s , fo r d r e s s in g b u m s a n d fo r c o m b a t in g s h o c k .— N. C orbet F letcher .

T reatment of C ompound F racture . G.

C . M . ( F o r t W i l l a m , C a n a d a ) e x p re s s e s h is s in c e r e a p p r e ­ c ia t io n o f the u t ilit y o f th e se c o lu m n s , a n d a s k s : — ( 1 ) W it h c o m p o u n d f r a c t u r e o f fe m u r (bone p r o tr u d ing), w h y s h o u ld a F ir s t - A id e r a v o id a p p lic a t io n o f e x te n ­ s io n to lo w e r fra g m e n t ? (2 ) W o u ld it be rig h t to d re s s w o u n d , th e n s tra ig h t e n (bu t n o t ex ten d ) lim b , a n d f in a lly a p p ly s p lin t s a n d bandages ? ( 3 ) W o u ld th e p r o t r u d in g b o n e be p u lle d b a c k in to its p la c e b y s tr a ig h t e n in g the lim b ? I f so , w o u ld it su ffii e to d r e s s th e w o u n d , a p p ly s p lin t s a n d b a n d a g e s , a n d k e e p lim b at r e s t a s fa r a s p o s s ib le ? (4) I f the a c c id e n t h a p p e n e d in th e b u s h , a n d the ser­ vices o f a doctor w ere n o t a v a ila b le fo r 2 o r 3 d a y s , w o u ld e x t e n s io n b e ju s t if ie d u n d e r th e se s p e c ia l c ir c u m s t a n c e s ?

AI D.

January, 1918

because sp ecia l a n tisep tic p r eca u tio n s m u st be taken w ith c o m ­ p o u n d f ra c t u r e s (m o re p a r t ic u la r ly if o n e o r b o th f ra g m e n ts p ro tr u d e ) — b o th to c o u n te ra c t a n y e x is t e n t (a n d a ls o to a n t i­ c ip a te a n y s u b s e q u e n t) S e p t ic In f e c t io n ; a n d ( iv ) because e x ­ tension req u ires ex p e r t k n o w ledge o f a n a t o m y a n d s k ill in the n e c e s s a ry m a n ip u la tio n s , w ith o u t w h ic h it c a n n o t be e ffic ie n t, a n d is , th e re fo re , u n ju s t if ia b le a n d bo th o f w h ic h a re b e y o n d th e m o st h ig h ly - t r a in e d F ir s t - A id e r . (2 & 3 ) W it h c o m p o u n d fra c t u re s the first s te p in tre a t­ m e n t is to d r e s s th e w o u n d . S t r a ig h t e n in g (w it h o u t e x te n s io n o f) the lim b w o u ld in m o st in s t a n c e s a g g r a v a t e th e fra c t u r e a n d in c re a s e the p a in w ith o u t d o in g a n y g o o d ; fu rth e r, e x c e p t w ith fra c t u re s o f fe m u r a n d h u m e ru s , w h e re th e re is m a rk e d s h o r te n in g a n d o v e r - r id in g o f fra g m e n ts it w o u ld b e w e ll- n ig h im p o s s ib le . C o r r e c t tre a tm e n t r e q u ir e s f i r s t th a t the w o u n d be d re s s e d a n d a n y h a e m o rrh a g e c o n tr o lle d , secondly th a t th e fra c t u r e be fix e d w ith s p lin t s a n d b a n d a g e s as fir m ly a n d as com fortably as i s p ossib le u n d e r th e g iv e n c ir c u m s t a n c e s ; a n d th ir d ly th a t the p a tie n t b e re m o v e d re c u m b e n t o n th e s tre tc h e r. (4 ) F o r th e re a s o n s a lr e a d y g iv e n I am o f o p in io n that eAen th e se m o st e x c e p tio n a l c ir c u m s t a n c e s d o n o t ju s tify a n y a c t iv e in te rfe re n c e , e s p e c ia lly if b o n e p ro tu d e s ; a n d th a t the p a tie n t’s in t e re s ts w ill be b e st c o n s id e re d i f th e F ir s t - A id e r (1 ) ta k e s ste p s to k e e p th e fra c t u r e d fe m u r a s c o m p le t e ly at re st a s is p o s s ib le w ith d u e a tte n tio n to the c o m fo rt o f th e p a tie n t, a n d to tre a t th e w o u n d w ith fu ll a n t is e p t ic p r e c a u t io n s , a n d (2 ) d e c id e s to a w a it th e a r r iv a l o f the d o c to r, m o re e s p e c ia lly a s s o m e a u t h o r it ie s c la im th a t, p ro v id e d a fra c t u re is e ffic ie n tly c o n tro lle d in th e first in s t a n c e , n o g re a t h a rm is lik e ly to e n s u e , e v e n i f th e fin a l s e t tin g o f th e lim b is p o s tp o n e d fo r a w e e k .— N . C orbet F letcher .

^Practical Joints. The E d itor invites Notes on actual Cases— with special reference to geea and bad taints in Treatment— for inclusion in this Column.

E fficient F irst-Aid. A g ir l d r a n k so m e O x a lic A c id b y m is ta k e . F a i li n g o th e r re m e d ie s , a F ir s t - A id e r g r o u n d d o w n a c la y p ip e a n d a d m in is ­ te re d th is a s a n a n tid o te , th e re b y s a v in g th e g ir l’s life . N . B . — T h e s a lts o f S o d a a n d P o ta s h a re n o t p e rm is s a b le , b e c a u s e th e y c o m b in e w ith O x a lic A c id to fo rm s o lu b le p o is o n s. A c la y p ip e is c o m p o s e d o f lim e , c h a lk a n d c la y , the first tw o o f w h ic h in t e ra c t w ith t h is a c id to p ro d u c e a n in s o lu b le c o m ­ p o u n d a n d so re n d e r th e p o is o n in n o c u o u s .— C . M ., S o u th S h ie ld s .

Meddlesome F irst -Aid.

A g ir l, s u ffe rin g fro m a p o is o n e d fin g e r, c o n s u lte d a d o c to r w h o la n c e d the fin g e r a n d a d v is e d h e r to a p p ly b o r a c ic fo m e n ­ ta tio n s. N e x t m o r n in g s h e c o m p la in e d o f g re a t p a in a n d u n ­ w is e ly to o k in to h e r c o n fid e n c e a F ir s t - A id e r , w h o — fo rg e tfu l o f th e P r in c ip le s o f F ir s t - A id — ig n o r e d th e d o c t o r’s in s t ru c t io n s a n d p re su m e d to o p e n u p the w o u n d w ith a n e e d le . W h ile r e ­ d r e s s in g th e fin g e r, th e F ir s t - A id e r a c c id e n t a lly p r ic k e d h is o w n h a n d w ith th e n e e d le , a n d w it h in 24 h o u rs w a s ly in g d a n g e r o u s ly il l w ith B lo o d p o is o n in g w h ic h in c a p a c it a t e d h im fo r th re e m o n th s. (1 ) W it h a ll lo c a l in ju r ie s th e d a n g e rs a re H a e m o rrh a g e , N . B . — T h i s c a s e c le a r ly p ro v e s ( i ) t h a t M e d d le s o m e F ir s t S h o c k a n d S e p s is ; w ith c o m p o u n d f ra c t u r e s th e se a re a ll p r e ­ A id m a y be a c c o m p a n ie d b y u rg e n t d a n g e r to a m e d d lin g s e n t in m a rk e d d e g re e , e s p e c ia lly th e la s t n a m e d . In c i­ F ir s t - A id e r n o le s s th a n to th e p a tie n t ; a n d (2 ) th a t a p p a r e n t ly d e n t a lly , in th e p r e -a n tis e p t ic d a y s p a tie n ts w ith s u c h in ju rie s s m a ll in ju r ie s m a y r e q u ir e im m e d ia te e x p e rt a tte n tio n . B . C ., w e re fo rtu n a te to e sc a p e d e a th , a n d s t ill m o re fo rtu n a te to H a m p s te a d . r e c o v e r w ith o u t a m p u t a tio n o f th e a ffecte d lim b . A l l a tte m p ts a t e x t e n s io n o f a c o m p o u n d f ia c t u r e a re r ig h t ly r e g a r d e d a s M e d d le s o m e F ir s t A id . a n d a re s t r ic t ly fo r b id d e n to a F ir s t - A id e r , w h o is , b y th e w a y , a q u a lifie d a n d c e r t ific a t e d m e m b e r o f th e c o m m u n ity (1) because h is d u ties are d iie c te d to the p r e v e n tio n of f u r t h e r in ju r y a n d n o t to a c tu a l tre a tm e n t o f a n y c o n d it io n , s a v e u n d e r e x c e p t io n ^ c iic u m ireiji.:r.kd i'D s ta n c e s w h en life is a t stake (e .g ., A s p h y x i a ) ; ( ii) because a ctive in terferen ce w i l l increa se th e d a n g e r s o f H e m o r r h a g e a n d S h o c k , q u it e a p a rt fro m a g g r a v a t io n o f the f ra c t u r e it s e lf ; ( iii)

READY SOUPS II


January, 1918.

— FIRST

AI D. —

h i

{a M o d &

7

For

N u rs e s ' W ear

■ \y H O L E - H E A R T E D appreciation has been extended by the N u rsin g Profession to our N u rses’ Section. H a rro d s are appointed by the St. Jo h n A m b u l­ ance Brigade and B ritish R e d Cro=s Society, and a ll m aterials and Patterns are approved thereby.

N o tic e th e

N .U . 7 3 . - Red Cross Society's Regulation Military Coat, for Nurses, of Govern­ ment Serge, well made in our own workrnoms. In Summer or Winter Weight.

to

P u b lic

S . W . , W., o r O . S .

E

w ish , in th e p u b lic in te re s t, to e m p h a s iz e th e fa c t th a t th e p r ic e o f H a l l ’s W in e is s till 4 s. 6 d., e x t r a la r g e s iz e b o t tle

W

We make this announcement as a guide to the purchaser and as a pro­ tection to the dealer, because a few cases have come to our notice where Hall’s Wine has been sold above the advertised price.

H a lls W in e

..

Pilot C l o t h .................. Army Cl o th ..................

48763767/6

N .U . 68. — Red Cross Society’s Overall in Re gu la ­ tion Grey Blue Nurse Cloth. Lengths 50, 52, 54 & 56 7/6 Or with Fitted W a i s t . . 10/6 Dress Style made to order, with fittings .. 17/9

HARRODS

LTD

LONDON

SW 1

W o o d m an Burbidgc M anaging Director

T H

E

PICTORIAL

F I R

S T

A

I D

T RI ANGULAR

BANDAGE.

The Supreme Restorative R estriction s in supplies, ow ing to w ar co n d i­ tions, m ake M a ll’s W in e difficult to secure, and m any who h a \e experienced the value of H a ll’s W in e in these trying times w illin g ly pay more than 4s. 6d. to obtain the help and stre gth that H a ll’s W in e gives. T ho se who pay more than this price are acting contrary to the best interests o f a ll— the purchaser and dealer alike.

E x t ra

Large Size,

4/6.

S m a l l e r S i z e , a/9.

0/

Illustrating the various w ays of using the Bandage in cases of injury. Triangular Bandages can also be supplied plain, unprinted.

a ll W ine Merchants, and Grocers and Chem ists w ith W ine Licences.

G U A R A N T E E . — Buy a bottle to-day If, after taking half of it you feel no real benefit, return to us the half-empty bottle anil we refund outlay.

Stephen

S mith

& Co., Ltd., Bow, London, E. 3.

SOUTHALL BROS. &BARCLAY, Ld., B IR M IN G H A M , Established

1S 20 ,

M anufacturers of Surgical Dressings, Fine Chem icals and Pharm aceutical Preparations. Enquiries invited.


112

— F I R S T

AID.

J a n u a ry ,

MANUALS

OF

19 1 8 .

F IR S T -A ID , &e.,

B y N. C O R B E T F L E T C H E R , B .A ., M .B ., B .C .(C a n t a b ), M .R .C .S .

AIDS

TO

F IR S T -A ID . Post free, 7 d.

Th ir d Edition.

t

First-Aid Simplified and Tabulated, with Aids to Memory.

“ Col. £ tint lie contributes an introduction and we endorse his good opinion o f the book." — Lancet.

AIDS

TO

H O M E -N U R SIN G .

Second Edition.

Price 7 d . , post free.

Home-Nursing Simplified and Tabulated, with Aids to Memory. “ This book w onderfully sim plifies a complex subject and should be read by a ll students.”~ L . & N . W . R y . Gazette.

WHY

H a n m e r ’s L ife -S a v in g L e c tu r e s. H a v in g b e e n a p p o in t e d la y d e m o n s tra to r to the St. J o h n A m b u la n c e A s s o c ia t io n , S e rg t. H a n m e r w ill c o m m e n c e a s e rie s o f t o u rs e a r ly in th e N e w Y e a r to e x h ib it th e o ffic ia l

FIRST

AID

IN ST R U C T IO N an d

in

E FFIC IEN CY

D IS P E N S IN G .”

A m em ber of S .J .A .B . w rit e s :— “ I feel deeply indebted for the courses of instruction received, have often wanted to take such courses, but could never find w here to get such.” ( T . B . ) S p e c i a l t e r m s n o w —h a lf fees— to members of S .J .A .B ., &c. Apply (stamp) t o Mr. J. E. W a l d e n , S e c . , Westminster College (Lady Dispensers S e c t i o n o f the Westminster College of Chemistry and Pharmacy, estd. 1874), 1 12 , S t . G e o r g e ’s R o ad , S o u t h w a r k , L o n d o n .

US

IN

Problems

F iR S T - A I D .

is. ad.

Post free,

Study, Treatment and Examination solved for Senior Students.

' ‘ IVithout doubt the book w ill be 0/g reat service in the tra in in g o f those f e r whom it is designed . " — British Medical Journal.

HINTS

FOR

H OSPITAL

O RDERLIES.

7d.

A most compact brochure w hich contains much useful information .” —

Prescriber.

„ By

, J.

FIR ST

IN D EX O F F IR S T -A ID . C A R V E L L , M .R .C .S ., L .S .A .L on d .

A ID

IN F E W W O R D S , B y th e Sam e Autnor.

Y ith Coloured D iagram s. HOME

12 pp. F o ld er.

( , 8 th

THE

COM PLETE

M A N IK IN ,

system s of Body accurately indexed. In valua b le to Students of A natom y, M e dicin e, F irs t-A id and A llie d Subjects. P rice 2 S . net; postage, 2d. ,

A

THE

TR IA N C U LA R

BANDAGE:

Its A p p licatio n A ccurately D escribed by W o rd s and 116 D iagram s. By

HOWARD

M.

PRESTON.

116 Illu s . THE

Dem onstrator

or

D AL E.

REYNOLDS

&

CO..

Ltd.,

46, Canno n Street, London, E.C.

Pelytoehnic.

ROLLER BANDAGE. B y th e Sam e A u t h o r .,

F IR ST -A ID

A N A TO M IC A L

Iw e lv e in set, on R o lle r. separately, 2 d . No.

D IA G R A M S.

Post free, 2 S . l o d . E a ch D iagram 5 and 6 (coloured), 6 d . each.

1 4 . - HUMAN B O D Y .—SH O W IN G PRESSU RE PO IN T S.

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F .R .C .S .

{Approved by the Red Cross Society). A By

&

P rice, 6 d .

W H O L E A R T O F BA N D A G IN G . B y T H E K L A B O W S E R , F.J.I.

by J a m es C a n t l ie ,

SHORT COURSE A LLA N BROMAN. JOHN

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**R^LG ^ l P A i - . J . ^ , S T R U C T , o w , N C U T T I N G UP H O SP IT A L IG A R M E N TS FO R S IC K

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C lo th , 4 d . thousand).

( 16 t h

In c lu d in g useful reference tables. 14 pp. F o ld er. Paper, 2 d . C lo t h ,4 d .

Introdm ction

A D V E R T I S E M E N T S

th o u s a n d ).

Paper, 2 d .

N U R SIN G IN F E W W O R D S . B y th e Sam e A uth or.

THE

YOUR

AN M.

A vade-mecum for the A m bulan ce W o rke r. F . cap.8vo. Post free, i s . 2 d .

Everyone engaged in F IR S T A ID w ork should take up ne above Courses at once.

SEND

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>lWe commend this book to Lecturers and Students who w ill f in d it 0/ great service. ” — First Aid.

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ELEM ENTARY

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Orderly Duties Simplified aud Tabulated, with Aids to Memory.

F i r s t T o u r . —P r i n c e of W a l e s ’s C o rp s. K in d ly a p p ly f o r d a te s early. Souvenir Booklet jd . Stamps. POSTAL

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FILM

w h ic h h a s b e e n p r e p a r e d a t H e a d q u a r t e r s . T h i s n e w fe a tu re a n d S e rg t. H a n m e r ’s u n r iv a lle d c o lle c t io n o f la n te rn s lid e s w ill fu r n is h a s p le n d id e n te rta in m e n t o f g re a t e d u c a t io n a l v a lu e . T h o s e w is h in g to s e c u re the le c t u r e r ’s s e r v ic e s s h o u ld a p p ly e a r ly to S e r g t . C. H A N M E R , 205, D o n c a s t e r R o a d , G o l d t h o r p e , N r . R o t h e r h a m . W ir e s :— H a n m e r , A m b u la n c e , G o ld th o rp e .

R E A D IN G ”

AND

Difficulties in Study and Treatment solved by Question and Answer.

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O U T & M A K IN G & W OUNDED.

Illu strated.

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P H Y S IC A L TR A IN IN G . Price is . 8 d. p o s t free. D AN IELSSON,

4

Ltd .,

83-91. G r e a t T itc h fie lc i S t r e e t , L o n d o n , W . On First Aid, Medicine, Surg ery , and all other Sci en­ tific and Li ter ar y Subjects.

B

O

O

K

Second-hand Prices, N e w

S

at

Half

Books at d is c o u n t Prices. Ca ta lo g u es free. St ate wants. Books sent c a p proval. pro B o o k s bought. W . & G . F O Y L E , i2t and 1*3. C h a ri n g Cross Roa d , Lond on, W . C .

P ric e 6d. net.

NOTES

ON

P ost f r e e 7d.

FIR S T

B y S id n e y

AID

SIMPLIFIED.

H. Lam b.

T

\ X) O ffic e rs •O .XX ..JD . G r e y

R e g u la t io n G re a t C o a ts . D a r k A Handbook in a tabulated and simplified form giving the main points in b e a v e r c lo th , 4 5s. to m e a su re . first aid, so arranged as to impress them on the memory of the student. S u p e r io r q u a lit y M e n ’s G re a t C o a ts , 32 s. 6 d .— W r it e fo r D A LE, R EYN O LD S & CO ., L td ., 46, C an n o n S t., LONDON, E .C . 4 . p a tt e r n s a n d p a r t ic u la r s , T h o r n t o n & C o ., t a ilo r s , B r ig h o u s e .

S

O R S A L E , a q u a n t it y o f M e n ’s A m b u la n c e U n if o r m T r o u s e r s , a ll size s, q u it e n e w , 9s. 6d. a p a ir .— T h o r n t o n a n d C o ., 24, C o m m e rc ia l-s tre e t, B r ig h o u s e .

F

O R S A L E . — R e g u la t io n B r o w n L e a t h e r B e lt s a n d P o u c h e s ; a ls o C a p s a n d O v e r c o a t s ; s a m p le s on a p p r o v a l.— F o lle t t j V ic t o r ia - a v e n u e , B is h o p s g a t e , L o n d o n , E . C .

F4,

“ FIRST AID ” QUERY and REPLIES COUPON. To be cut out and enclosed with a ll Queries. January,

1918.

P rin ted and Published by D a l e , R eyno ld s & C o ., L td ., 46, C annon S t., L o n d o n , E .C .4 ., to whom a ll com m unications should be addressed.


FIR ST AID AND

ST.

JOHN

THE

-----

A M BULANCE

GAZETTE.

Edited by ARTHUR B. DALE. No. 284. —

V o l.

XX IV .

NOTICE

TO

FEBRUARY,

1918.

[2/6 Per Annum, Post Free

{ E n u r e d a t S ta tio n e r s '

these ambulance men and women have acquired the neces­

READERS.

sary training which enables them to render first aid to the

F IR S T A ID is published on the 2 0 th of each m onth. A n n u a l Subscription is a s .

T he

6 d . post free ; single copies 2 d .

tunity of applying their knowledge for the alleviation of the

Its aim and object being the advancem ent of A m bulance W o rk in a ll its branches, the E d ito r invites Readers to send A rticle s and R eports on subjects pertain in g to the M ovem ent and also welcomes suggestions for P ractical Papers. A ll R eports, & c., should be addressed to the E d ito r, and should reach him before the 12th of each month, and must be accom panied (not necessarily for Publication) by the name and address of the Correspondent. Subscriptions, A dvertisem ents and other business Com m unications connected w ith F I R S T A I D should be forwarded to the P ublishers, DALE,

REYN O LDS

&

C O .,

ailing and injured, and they ask no reward for the oppor­

suffering of their unfortunate brothers and sisters.

Any

other attitude would be foreign to the spirit of the Move­ ment which springs from a sincere

appreciation of and

devotion to high and noble ideals. Prior to the outbreak of war the ignorance

of the

general public with regard to activities in connection with the ambulance movement was frequently remarked, and whilst it was known that there existed an organisation in

L t d .,

46, C a n n o n S t r e e t , L o n d o n , E .C . 4.

the country which provided uniformed workers for service on occasions when large concourses of the public assembled,

Telegraphic A ddress: “ Twenty-four, London." Telephone No. 54TJ Bank.

such services were more or less taken for granted.

It was

known possibly that certain large undertakings encouraged

EDITORIAL.

their employees to acquire efficiency in first aid methods, and that an association was in being having for its object the preparation of men and women to succour the wounded

T h o s e

First Aid on the Home Front,

of our readers who peruse the

correspondence columns of the London daily press will have noticed quite a number of letters from various sources eulogising the valuable work performed

by ambulance men and women on behalf of the unfortunate victims of the more recent air raids.

Such letters are sig­

nificant only because they are so few and far between. We have seen many tributes to the efforts of the special con­ stables, hospital staffs and others concerned— all richly and fully deserved— but have been struck by the paucity of praise meted out to the London ambulance workers who have always been at their posts to succour the wounded on these occasions.

Anyone acquainted with the complete

organisation of the St. John Ambulance Brigade for tend­ ing the injuries resulting from hostile air raids may be par­ doned for asking why our ambulance workers have hitherto been denied the thanks and encouragement which is their just due.

in what was then regarded as the very remote possibility of war— particularly a hostile invasion.

Beyond this the man

in the street knew little of the ambulance movement, and apart from the small minority of ambulance enthusiasts, he cannot be regarded as having taken much interest in the subject. War, however, has changed all this.

It has, in a way,

brough ambulance and Red Cross workers into the fore­ front, and we do think it is up to the public— or those who speak for them— to express their sincere appreciation of the ambulance workers on the “ Horfie Fron t” who, day and night, hold themselves in readiness to undertake what our new allies, in present day war-slang, would refer to as the “ samaritan stunt.”

That the ambulance worker seeks

no thanks is no reason why the public should be so reluctant to express any gratification they feel.

After all,

a word of thanks can only act as an incentive to further effort.

The ambulance workers themselves, however, seek no such thanks, as they seek no reward for their services.

By

dint of perseverance and zealous devotion to practise, in­ volving in many cases the sacrifice of well-earned leisure,

Home Hygiene Class for men and women starts on April 16th (Tuesday), at 8 30 ; held at Christ Church Schools, New End, Hampstead ; fee for course, 4s. Secre­ tary, W. B. Norwood, 5, Gayton-road, Hampstead.


- F I R S T

ii4 0<^4L^ j | ||| » 4 “

JJh« Qr»nd Jrio rg of the 0 r d « of the Jtospital of S t. John of Jerusalem in Sngland. AMBULANCE

Jh e S t.

DISTRICT ORDERS.

N o. i D is t r ic t . deputy

W.

-----

C ommissioner : H.

DEPARTM ENT.

John .Ambulance Brigade.

W IN N Y . M ARCH,

1918.

S u n d a y D u t y , St. P a u l’s C a t h e d r a l. S u n d a y , 3 r d .— N o . 22 D iv is io n , H o s p it a l S a t u r d a y F u n d . „ 1 0 th .— N o . 2 3 „ N o rw o o d . „ 1 7 t h . - -N o . 28 „ H a rro w . ,, 2 4 th .— N o . 29 „ W a lt h a m s to w . F r o m 2 .3 0 p .m . to 5 .3 0 p .m . K e y fro m St. J o h n ’s G a te , 2 p.m . O P E N IN G OF P A R L IA M E N T . T h e D e p u t y - C o m m is s io n e r d e s ir e s to e x p re s s h is a p p r e ­ c ia t io n o f the p ro m p t w a y in w h ic h m e m b e rs re s p o n d e d to the c a ll fo r d u ty o n th e o c c a s io n o f th e O p e n in g o f P a r lia m e n t b y H i s M a je s t y the K in g , a n d a ls o fo r th e s m a rt a p p e a ra n c e o f the p e r so n n e l a n d e q u ip m e n t o f th o se m e m b e rs w h o d id d u ty on th a t d a y . A IR R A ID SH ELTERS. A p p lic a t io n s a re c o n s t a n t ly r e a c h in g th e D e p u t y - C o m m is ­ s io n e r fo r v o lu n t e e rs , b o th n u r s e s a n d m e n , to ta k e d u t y in the v a r io u s a ir r a id s h e lt e rs in L o n d o n . T h e s e c o m p r is e v a r io u s p r iv a t e a n d p u b lic b u iid in g s , C o u n t y C o u n c il S c h o o ls a n d T u b e S t a t io n s . T h e m o st p r e s s in g re q u e s t fo r th e m o m e n t is fo r v o lu n t e e r s in th e n e ig h b o u rh o o d s o f St. P a n c r a s , B la c k f r ia r s , a n d the C it y . O ffic e rs a n d m e m b e rs in c h a r g e o f D iv is io n s w h o h a v e m e m b e rs w h o c a n ta k e d u t y in th e se n e ig h b o u rh o o d s s h o u ld c o m m u n ic a te w ith th e D e p u t y - C o m m is s io n e r a s e a r ly a s p o s s ib le . CLASSES

IN

F IR S T

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AND

HOM E

N U R S IN G .

A t t e n t io n is c a lle d to th e fa c t th a t c la s s e s in F ir s t A id a n d H o m e N u r s in g a re b e in g c o n t in u o u s ly h e ld at St. J o h n 's G a te . M e n a n d w o m e n d e s ir o u s o f j o in in g th e se c la s s e s s h o u ld c o m ­ m u n ic a te w ith th e H o n . S e c r e t a r y o f A m b u la n c e C la s s e s , at St. J o h n ’s G a te , E . C . 1. R E C O G N IT IO N

OF

S E R V IC E S .

T h e D e p u t y - C o m m is s io n e r h a s m u c h p le a s u r e in m a k in g it k n o w n th a t M is s F lo r a S a n d e s , a m e m b e r o f the C ro y d o n N u r s in g D iv is io n , is r e p o rte d to h a v e r e n d e re d c o n s p ic u o u s s e r v ic e in th e S e r b ia n A r m y , a n d h a s b e e n g iv e n th e r a n k o f S e r g e a n t M a jo r in th a t a rm y . S h e h a s r e c e n t ly b e e n r e c e iv e d in p r iv a t e a u d ie n c e b y H e r M a je s t y Q u e e n A le x a n d r a . (S ig n e d )

W . H . W IN N Y ,

Deputv- Commissioner. H e a d q u a r t e r s :— S t. J o h n ’s G a te , C le r k e n w e ll, E .C . IM P O R T A N T

N O T IC E .

D iv is io n a l S e c r e ta r ie s a re re q u e s te d w h e n s e n d in g n e w s ­ p a p e r c u tt in g o f t h e ir m e e tin g s, e tc., to g iv e th e d a te o f p u b li­ c a t io n o f th e n e w s p a p e rs .— E ditor . N o . 44 ( W e s t L ondon ) D ivision.— A b r ie f re p o rt o f th e p a s t y e a r ’s w o r k o f th e 44th W e s t L o n d o n D iv is io n o f the S t. J o h n A m b u la n c e B rig a d e . T h i s d iv is io n , w h ic h is c o m m a n d e d b y A c t in g S u p t. E . D a ls t o n , h a s r e g u la r ly s u p p lie d m e n fo r d u ty a t A c t o n C o tta g e H o s p it a l, C h e ls e a , F u lh a m a n d lo c a l fo o tb a ll g ro u n d s , H a m ­ m e rs m ith P a la c e , S h e p h e r d ’s B u s h E m p ir e , H a m m e r s m it h E l e c t r i c P a la c e , a n d o th e r p la c e s in the d is t r ic t w h e re a s s is t ­ a n c e is lik e ly to be r e q u ire d . 2 ,4 7 7 a tt e n d a n c e s fo r p u b lic d u tie s h a v e b e e n re c o rd e d ,

AID.

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February, n i8

a n d 4 ,1 1 2 c a s e s h a v e r e c e iv e d tre a tm e n t fo rm m e m b e rs o f the d iv is io n w h ile o n o r o ff d u ty . A n a v e ra g e o f 20 m e m b e rs h a v e t u rn e d o u t fo r d u t y w ith the p o lic e o n e v e ry o c c a s io n o n w h ic h a n a ir r a id w a r n in g h a s b e en s e n t o ut, a n d th e y h a v e re n d e r e d v a lu a b le a s s is ta n c e o n s e v e ra l o c c a s io n s in d is t r ic t s w h e re b o m b s h a v e b e e n d ro p p e d . M e m b e r s h a v e b e e n s u p p lie d fo r s p e c ia l d u t y o n e v e ry o c c a s io n w h ic h h e a d q u a r t e rs h a v e s e n t o u t a c a ll d u r in g the p a st y e a r. T w o c la s s e s fo r m e n a n d tw o c la s s e s fo r w o m e n h a v e b e e n h e ld d u r in g th e p e rio d u n d e r re v ie w , a n d 92 p e r ce n t, o f the c a n d id a t e s s u c c e s s fu lly p a s s e d th e r e q u ir e d e x a m in a tio n . 68 m e m b e rs o f th e d iv is io n a re on a c tiv e s e r v ic e w ith H i s M a je s t y ’s F o r c e s , b u t the s tre n g th o f th e d iv is io n h a s b e e n w e ll m a in ta in e d b y r e c r u it in g n e w m e m b e rs. A ll n e w m e m b e rs p a ss e d t h e ir a n n u a l e x a m in a tio n , o ne q u a lif ie d fo r th e L o n g S e r v ic e M e d a l (1 5 y e a rs ), 9 q u a lif ie d fo r S e rv ic e S t a rs , 4 q u a lif ie d fo r p ro m o tio n , a n d a n a v e ra g e o f 24 a tte n d e d e a c h o f th e 55 d r ills w h ic h w e re h e ld . T h e d iv is io n h a s b u ilt, e q u ip p e d , a n d is n o w m a in t a in in g a firs t a id d r e s s in g s ta tio n in A c t o n V a le to re n d e r a s s is ta n c e in the m a n y c a s e s o f a c c id e n t w h ic h u n fo r t u n a te ly o c c u r. T h i s s ta tio n , w h ic h w a s o p e n e d b y th e R t . H o n . E v e ly n C e c il in J u n e la s t, is o p e n a n d sta ffe d b y m e m b e rs o f th e d iv is io n d a ily fro m 8 a.m u n t il 10 p .m ., S u n d a y s a n d h o lid a y s in c lu d e d , a n d a lr e a d y o v e r 500 c a s e s o f a c c id e n t o r s ic k n e s s h a v e re c e iv e d tre a tm e n t g ra tu it o u s ly . T h e s ta tio n is a ls o o p e n e d , a n d a s q u a d o f m e n a re in a tte n d a n c e , w h e n e v e r a n a ir r a id c a ll is r e c e iv e d d u r in g th e n ig h t a fte r c lo s in g tim e .

No. 3 District. Birmingham.— O n J a n u a r y 5 ih , 19 18, a s p e c ia l P a r a d e o f o ffic e rs a n d m e m b e rs o f th e B ir m in g h a m N u r s in g C o r p s w a s h e ld at th e G r o s v e n o r R o o m s , G ra n d H o t e l, th e o c c a s io n b e ­ in g th e p r e s e n ta tio n o f a n A d d r e s s to L a d y C o r p s S u p t. M rs . H . C . P o rt e r , c o n g r a t u la t in g h e r u p o n h e r a p p o in t m e n t a s a L a d y o f G ra c e o f th e O r d e r o f S t. J o h n o f J e r u s a le m in E n g ­ la n d . T h e A d d r e s s , w h ic h w a s b e a u tifu lly illu m in a te d , w as s ig n e d o n b e h a lf o f 8 7 5 m e m b e rs b y th e D iv is io n a l O ffic e rs o f th e C o r p s , a n d w a s a s fo llo w s : — A my F rances Porter , L ady of G race of of the O rder of St . John of Jerusalem in E ngland . W e , the O ffic e rs a n d M e m b e r s o f the B irm in g h a m N u r s in g C o rp s , St. J o h n A m b u la n c e B r ig a d e , b e g to o ffer to y o u , o u r L a d y C o r p s S u p e rin te n d e n t , o u r h e a r ty c o n ­ g ra tu la tio n s o n th e h o n o u r b e sto w e d u p o n y o u b y the S o v e r e ig n H e a d o f th e O rd e r. I n a ll th e w o rk w h ic h h a s b e e n a c c o m p lis h e d b y the B ir m in g h a m N u r s in g C o rp s , y o u h a v e b e e n o u r le a d e r a n d in s p ir a t io n . Y o u r u n t ir in g e n e rg y in p ro m o tin g o u r e ffic ie n c y in tim e o f p e a c e h a s b o rn e f ru it in o u r w id e -s p re a d o r g a n i­ s a tio n , a n d h a s a lo n e e n a b le d u s to “ c a r r y o n .” W e s h o u ld lik e to a s s u re y o u o f o u r u n s w e rv in g lo y a lt y in th e w o rk w e h a v e u n d e rta k e n , a n d in a n y w o rk w h ic h y o u m a y c a ll u p o n u s to d o in the fu tu re . I n the N o v e m b e r is s u e o f F irst A id, a p a r a g r a p h s p e a k s o f th e g o o d w o rk d o n e b y th e n u r s in g s is te r s in B irm in g h a m in c o n n e c tio n w ith d is t r ic t n u r s in g ; a n d in r e a d in g M is s T h e k la B o w s e r ’s b o o k “ T h e S t o r y o f B r it is h V . A . D . W o r k , ” s h e a ls o m e n tio n s t h is w o rk w ith th e a d d it io n , th a t s h e t h in k s th e y a re th e first to m a k e t h is n e w d e p a rt u re in n u r s in g la b o u rs . v P e rh a p s it w ill in te re s t re a d e rs to k n o w th a t t h is b r a n c h o f w o rk h a s b e e n c a r r ie d o n b y the n u r s in g s is te r s o f the S .J .A .B . a lm o s t s in c e the fo rm a tio n o f th e N u r s in g D iv is io n . C e r t a in ly w h e n th e N o rw o o d N u r s in g D iv is io n (N o . 5, P r in c e o f W a le s ’s C o r p s ) g o t to w o rk in th e e a r ly p a rt o f 1894, th is w a s a s p e c ia l fe a tu re o f th e d iv is io n , a n d th e co tta g e n u r s in g , h a s c o n tin u e d e v e r s in c e . A t th a t tim e (1 8 9 4 ) th e re w a s a t r a in in g h o m e a t W o r c e s t e r , k n o w n a s S t .J o h n ’s h o m e , w h e re m e m b e rs m ig h t g o fo r a s h o rt


February, 1918.

— F I R S T

course in district nursing ; so it is evident that nursing divi­ sions in other parts of this country also took up this branch of work. A t one time the S .J .A 'A . proposed issuing a “ Cottage Nursing” certificate for those who had independently nursed fifty cases in cottages, or dwellings of the poor, under the super­ vision and to the certified satisfaction of a registered medical practitioner, and then passing an examination showing that they had sound, practical knowledge of the subject. C a s e record books were published, but somehow the certificates did not mature. Kettering . — U p to d a te c o n s id e ra b ly o v e r a h u n d re d m e m b e rs o f the H e a d q u a r t e r s D iv is io n h a v e jo in e d th e F o r c e s a n d m a n y h a v e g a in e d d is t in c t io n , d u e , in n o t a few in s t a n c e s , to the c a r e fu l t r a in in g r e c e iv e d d u r in g t h e ir c o n n e c tio n w ith the d iv is io n . D u r in g the c lo s in g w e e k s o f 1 9 1 7 a la rg e first a id c la s s w as h e ld u n d e r th e d ir e c t io n o f S u p t. R a b y a n d In s t r u c t o r s (S ta ffS e rg t. C u r t is , S e rg t. G ro o m a n d C o r p l. D y s o n ), w ith C h ie f S u rg e o n L . W . D r y la n d a s le c tu re r, a n d the r e s u lt w a s a ll th a t co u ld be d e s ire d , a n d h a s s u b s t a n t ia lly in c re a s e d th e p e rs o n a l o f the d iv is io n . O n J a n u a r y 29th the a n n u a l c o m p e t it io n fo r th e “ R a b y ” c u p p r o v id e d a n in t e re s tin g ite m . C h ie f S u rg e o n D r y la n d a rra n g e d a “ w a r ” ca se , a s s is te d b y S ta ff-S e rg t. C u r t is , a n d s ix s q u a d s co m p e te d . T h e s q u a d a w a rd e d th e c u p — P te s. H e w itt, W . H a n k in s , L . B a g le y , H o u g h t o n a n d G . T u r n e r — w e re p o p u ­ la r w in n e rs , a n d g a v e a n e x c e lle n t e x h ib it io n o f w e ll th o u g h t-o u t m e th o d s. T h e N . C . O .’s d id n o t jo in in th e co n te st. T h e d iv is io n h a s le a r n e d w ith re g re t th a t S e r g t - M a jo r P . S c a r r , R . A . M . C . , is r e p o rte d m is s in g , b u t h o p e is e x p re s s e d that th is p r o m is in g o ffic e r h a s n o t g o n e u n d e r ; a lw a y s an e n t h u s ia s t ic w o r k e r h is re tu rn to the d iv is io n h a s b e e n lo o k e d fo rw a rd e d to. T h e m e n at h o m e a re d o in g a lo t o f u s e fu l w o rk . S e c r e ­ ta ry S e rg t. C la y p o le is d o in g g o o d w o rk at th e lo c a l V . A . D . h o s p ita l, a n d s p e c ia l m e n tio n m u s t be m a d e o f the s ta lw a r t s w ho, n u m b e r in g u n d e r a d o ze n , h a v e in fu s e d the n e w b lo o d w ith the n e c e s s a r y g r it a n d e ffic ie n c y to k e e p th e fla g fly in g .

AID.

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” 5

1 9 1 7 , h a v in g p r e v io u s ly fille d th e p o s it io n o f C h ie f L a d y S u p t. o f th e In s p e c t io n D e p a r t m e n t . T h i s in v o lv e d th e d u t y o f e n g a g in g a ll w o m e n r e q u ir e d as E x a m in e r s , a s w e ll a s th a t o f r e v is in g a n d c o n t r o llin g t h e ir c o n d it io n o f u n ifo rm , fo o d a n d s e r v ic e . A t p re s e n t M r s . D e a s e ’s r e s p o n s ib ilit ie s a ffe c t th e in t e re s ts o f b e tw e e n 50,0 00 a n d 60 ,0 0 0 w o m e n s c a tt e re d t h ro u g h o u t the U n it e d K in g d o m . D r . E l l a W e b b , L a d y o f G r a c e o f the O r d e r o f St. J o h n , h a s b e e n a p p o in t e d M e m b e r o f th e B r it is h E m p ir e . D r . W e b b jo in e d the B r ig a d e a s L a d y D iv is io n a l S u r g e o n to th e C it y o f D u b lin N u r s in g D iv is io n in N o v e m b e r, 19 12 , a n d w a s p ro m o te d L a d y D is t r ic t S u p e rin te n d e n t in O c to b e r, 1914, is m e m b e r o f th e J o in t V . A . D . C o m m itte e fo r Ir e la n d , a n d C h a ir m a n o f th e J o in t W o m e n ’s V . A . D . S e le c t io n B o a r d . F o r m a n y y e a r s D r . W e b b h a s g iv e n a g re a t d e a l o f h e r tim e a n d th o u g h t to s o c ia l p r o b le m s in D u b lin . S h e h a s a fre e

No. 12 ( I r is h ) D is t r ic t . W e m u c h r e g r e t to h a v e to r e c o rd the d e a th o f M r s . M i d ­ d le to n C u r t is , L a d y C o r p s T r e a s u r e r o f th e C it y o f D u b lin C o r p s , a fte r a s h o rt illn e s s . M r s . M id d le t o n C u r t is jo in e d th e B r ig a d e , 1909, p ro m o te d L a d y D iv is io n S u p e r in t e n d e n t J a n u a r y , 1910, a n d L a d y C o r p s T r e a s u r e r o f th e C it y o f D u b lin C o r p s . O c to b e r, 1914. M rs . M id d le to n C u r t is w a s o n e o f the first la d ie s in Ir e la n d to take a n in te re s t in th e B r ig a d e , a n d w o rk e d in th e e a r ly d a y s w ith D r . L u m s d e n to p u t th e o r g a n is a t io n o n a s o u n d b a s is , a n d w h ile in c h a r g e o f th e C it y o f D u b lin N u r s in g D iv is io n a tte n d th e m a s a m b u la n c e w o rk e rs at v a r io u s p u b lic fu n c tio n s , a n d w a s p re s e n te d w ith th e K in g ’s M e d a l fo r s e rv ic e d u r in g h is firs t v is it to D u b lin . O n th e o u t b r e a k o f w a r, M rs . C u r t is e s ta b lis h e d a n d o r g a n is e d T e m p le H i l l H o u s e , B la c k r o c k , as C o n v a le s c e n t H o m e fo r w o u n d e d s o ld ie rs , a n d a c te d a s C o m ­ m a n d a n t th e re fo r s ix m o nth . U p to to th e tim e o f h e r d e a th , M rs . C u r t is w a s in d e fa t ig ­ a b le in a ll w o rk c o n n e c te d w ith the B r ig a d e , a n d h a s b e e n a co n sta n t w o r k e r in th e B la c k r o c k W a r H o s p it a l S u p p ly D e p o t. O n the 6th J a n u a r y sh e w a s in c h a r g e o f the p a ra d e at D a lk e y C h u r c h , a n d o n e o f h e r la s t a c ts w a s to p re se n t th e C it y o f D u b lin C o r p s w ith a s h ie ld fo r the b e st k e p t r e tu r n s a m o n g s t the N u r s in g D iv is io n s . M r s . E d m u n d D e a s e h a d th e h o n o u r o f a p p e a rin g in th e first lis t o f d e c o ra t io n s a s a n O ffic e r o f th e O r d e r o f the B r it is h E m p ir e . M r s . D e a s e , w h e n re s id e n t in S o u th T ip p e r a r y , jo in e d th e B r ig a d e in N o v e m b e r, 1914, a n d a s L a d y S u p t. o f the N e n a g h N u r s in g D iv is io n d is p la y e d g re a t p o w e rs o f o r g a n i­ sa tio n , a r r a n g in g w o rk p a rtie s , d e v is in g p r a c t ic a l s c h e m e s, a n d c o n s t a n t ly in s p ir in g th e m e m b e rs w ith ze al a n d e n th u ia s m . M r s . D e a s e at p re s e n t o c c u p ie s the v e r y im p o rt a n t p o s i­ tio n o f C h ie f L a d y S u p t. o f th e C e n t r a l S to re D e p a r t m e n t o f M in is t r y o f M u n it io n s , to w h ic h s h e w a s a p p o in t e d in M a y ,

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M r s. M id d le to n

C u r t is.

d is p e n s a r y n e a r St. P a t r ic k ’s w h e re sh e p r e s c r ib e s tw ic e a w e e k fo r p o o r c h ild r e n b ro u g h t to h e r, th u s s a v in g m a n y in fa n t liv e s , a n d h e r w o rk in c o n n e c tio n w ith B a b y C lu b s is w e ll-k n o w n . W h ile n o t p e r m it t in g B r ig a d e w o rk in a n y w a y to in t e rfe re w ith h e r o th e r in te re s ts , it w o u ld be im p o s s ib le to p a y f u ll t rib u t e to h e r fo r a ll sh e h a s d o n e to p u t th e B r ig a d e in Ir e la n d o n a s u re fo u n d a tio n . M is s B e r t ie B r u c e , a p p o in t e d M e m b e r o f th e O r d e r o f the B r it is h E m p ir e , jo in e d th e B r ig a d e in J a n u a r y , 19 15, a n d in it ia t e d a n d e s t a b lis h e d th e B o r r is o k a n e N u r s in g D iv is io n , o f w h ic h sh e b e c a m e L a d y S u p e rin te n d e n t . I n O c to b e r, 19 15, M is s B r u c e , a fte r h a v in g u n d e rg o n e a c o u rs e o f t r a in in g in th e m a k in g o f W a r H o s p it a l s u p p lie s at C u r r a g h m o r e , u n d e r th e s u p e r v is io n o f th e M a r c h io n e s s o f W a t e r f o r d , w a s a p p o in t e d H e a d In s t r u c t r e s s o f th e I r i s h W a r H o s p it a l S u p p ly ( C e n t r a l) D e p o t, 40, M e r r io n - s q u a r e , D u b lin , fro m w h e n c e s h e s ta rte d a n d o rg a n is e d m a n y s u b -d e p o t s in d iffe re n t p a rts o f Ir e la n d . In th e s u m m e r o f 1916, M is s B r u c e w a s a p p o in t e d W e lfa r e S u p e r in te n d e n t at B ir m in g h a m u n d e r the M in is t r y o f M u n it io n s a n d , w ith th re e a s s is ta n ts , in s p e c t s o v e r a h u n d r e d fa c to rie s , a n d lo o k s a fte r the in t e re s ts o f t h o u s a n d s o f w o m e n m u n itio n w o rk e rs . M is s B r u c e ’s in flu e n c e w ith th e m is e x t r a o r d in a r y , m a n y s t r ik e s a n d e m p lo y m e n t t ro u b le s , w h ic h h a v e fro m tim e to tim e a ris e n , h a v in g b e e n s e ttle d th ro u g h h e r in flu e n c e .

W h e n corresp on d in g w i t h A d v e r t i s e r s please m en , tion “ F i r s t A i d .”


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THE ST. JOHN AMBULANCE GAZETTE. Service of Thanksgiving for the Re­ capture of Jerusalem from the hands of the Turks. Sermon Preached by t h e A R C H B I S H O P of Y O R K (.Prelate o f the Order). “ I f I forget thee, O Jerusalem , let my right hand forget her cunning.” P s a l m C X X X V I I . , V e r s e 10. O f all the happenings in this world wide war, Its battles, its revolutions, the ebb and flow of its mighty armies, many have had greater military and political importance, none have more deeply stirred the imagination of men than the capture of Jerusalem ; for no city in the world has been the centre of memories so hallowed, of longing so intense, of a devotion so deep, so universal and so prolonged. If we may speak of Athens as the city of the world’s intellect, of London as the city of its commerce, of Florence as the city of its art, we may speak of Jerusalem as the city of its soul. For long centuries before the Christian era it had been regarded and venerated as the chosen City of Him whom the Hebrews gradually came to worship as the God of all the earth. When it was desolated and laid low the Hebrew people turned to it with a love and longing which still moves the spirit of men in their imperishable Psalms. Still that wonderful people, preserved through trials and persecution so marvellously that it still seems marked for some high mysterious destiny, veneratee Jerusalem as the city of its dreams, its prayers and its hope. T o the Chris­ tian it is the home of even holier and more hallowed memories, for its streets felt the footprint, its courts and gardens heard the voice of the highest and the holiest of the sons of men, of Him in whom God walked this earth and spoke to men as a friend. His longing love for Jeru­ salem was uttered in words of unforgettable pathos. There He suffered, died, was buried and rose again. There His Spirit flowed into the hearts of men. When the Holy Places fell into the hands of the infidel, the chivalry of Europe sacrificed itself in a passionate desire to rescue. Thither for long centuries hundreds of pilgrims have wended their way from every region of the earth. Still in every part of Christendom where men assemble to celebrate the most sacred rite of their religion a memorial is offered which takes their spirit back to the upper room of Jerusalem. Truly every man and woman in whom the soul is living must needs say, “ If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning.” We of all others who belong to this Order have our own very special association with the Holy City. We bear its name. Its history and ours are inseparably bound * H e ld by the G ran d P rio ry o f the O rder of the H o sp ita l o f St. Jo h n o f Jerusalem in E n g la n d at St. John P rio ry C h urch , C le rken w e ll, on F rid a y , Ja n u a ry n t h 1918.

together. Nine hundred and seventeen years have passed since the Merchants of Amalfi set up within its gates a Hospital for pilgrims, dedicated to St. John Eleemon, which soon became the noble Hospital dedicated to St. John the Baptist and the central home of the widespread Order of the Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem, with their Knights, their Chaplains and their Serving Brothers. Driven forth by the conquering Saladin 730 years ago, the Order set the rescue of the City before their face as the supreme object of their care, From this place where we are assembled our fathers sent forth their arms, their prayer and their knights to aid the great adventure of the Crusader. It was an adventure stained indeed by ferocity and feuds, typical of a wild and passionate time, but yet it was ennobled by devotion to a high ideal : it gave to the Middle Ages the great tradition of chivalry, the central fire of arms, of literature and art. Even now this restored English Branch of the Order has given proof of its faith­ fulness to the old ideals and traditions, in the Hospital of St. John, which looks across the Valley of Hinnom to the tomb of St. David, and beyond it to the Citadel of Zion and the holy places of the Lord. For all these centuries, through manifold vicissitudes, this Order has been mindful of its origin, and its heart has kept repeating the refrain, ‘ If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning.” We therefore of all others must needs have been thrilled by the news that a British Army had entered and taken possession of Jerusalem. Most fitting is it that we should assemble to give thanks to Almighty God for this fulfilment of an age-long hope and desire. It was indeed with no pomp and pageantry of the Middle Ages that the British General on December n t h entered the Jaffa Gate and proclaimed on Mount Zion that the long struggle of the Crusades had at last been achieved. The City was won, not by hosts of knights with waving pennants and shining armour, but by plain citizens in arms, our brothers taken from the fields and the factories of England and the plains and cities of the British Dominions beyond the seas. Their memories of the Holy Places may have been faint and few, recalling distant days in our English schools, but, however unconsciously, they, too, like the Crusaders, were giving proof of their loyalty to a high ideal. We may dare to believe that it was an ideal not unworthy of Him who, when He stood in the City of Jerusalem, confronting the representatives of the world-power of His human day, set before Him the claims of a higher and nobler kingdom of moral and spiritual truth. How long we may be in posses­ sion of the Holy City— what the future political settlement of Palestine may be— these things are uncertain. What is certain is that a new era in the history of the most sacred City of the world dawned on that day when it was placed within the care of a great Christian nation. But Jerusalem is not only the centre of hallowed memories; it is the symbol and the type of that spiritual City of God, that divine order which never comes and yet is ever coming; the City laid up in the heavens, whose Maker and whose Builder is God. Even when the earthly


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Jerusalem had been burned and wasted by the legions of Rome the seer of Patmos saw the Heavenly City, the Holy Jerusalem, descending out of Heaven from God, hav­ ing the glory of God. T o that vision I would you bid lift your hearts and eyes this day. T o him it was a vision of the Church of Christ, adorned as a bride for her husband. Since then, to countless generations of Christians it has been a vision of that City of peace in which the long travail of the human spirit finds its rest and its reward ; a vision which has sustained the hope of the human race. It has given mankind courage to endure the seeming futility of its highest ideals and the pathos of its doom of death. Jerusalem, my happy home, Name ever dear to me. When shall my labours have an end, Thy joys when shall I see ? When shall my eyes thy heaven-built walls And pearly gates behold, Thy bulwarks with salvation strong And streets of shining gold ? In this longing for rest, in this invincible fath that there is some higher destiny for human life than can here be ful­ filled, man has in every age repeated to himself, “ If I for­ get thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning.” Yet to us of this twentieth century the vision brings an even nobler meaning. It speaks to us not only of the promise of a peace hereafter, but of the ideal and goal of resolute and high-hearted effort here and now. We are to see the heavenly city, the holy Jerusalem, not so much awaiting us hereafter as here and now, descending out of heaven from God, calling us to bring its light and order into the human life and society in which we have to fulfil our service. The whole of human history may indeed be rightly regarded as one long struggle between Babylon, the power of material Might, and Jerusalem, the ideal of moral Right. Is it presumption that we should see in this pre­ sent conflict a stage in that age-long struggle ? May we not dare to believe that we are meeting the challenge of a great power, swollen with the ambition to achieve world dominion by material force, with the ideal of a higher kingdom of truth and justice and mercy and freedom and peace? If it be so, we have indeed to stay our souls, in the midst of increasing strain, on the height and strength of our spiritual ideal. There are still harder sacrifices which we must meet, still more bitter trials which we must endure— let us meet them with the refrain of courage rising in our hearts, “ If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning.” In the days to come may we be mindful of this heavenly vision. This generation will be called to the task of rebuilding a civilisation which has been shattered by the convulsions of war. The question which the conscience of the men and women of this generation will have to meet is the question whether in our rebuilding we are to follow material or spiritual ideals, whether Babylon or Jerusalem is to prevail. The call to restore and build the earthly Jerusalem stirred the hearts of the Hebrew exiles and sum­ moned Christendom to the great adventure of the Middle A g e s ; in the twentieth century the call to restore and re­ build on earth the heavenly Jerusalem, the city of spiritual ideals, in our land and Empire and in the wider common­ wealth of nations must arouse within us a like spirit of chivalrous adventure. Let us in these coming days have the courage of a high ideal which will rebuke cynicism and faintheartedness. Well would it be if with our thanksgiv­

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ing of this day there were to arise the offering of a great desire and a fixed resolve. Bring me Bring Bring me Bring

my me my me

bow of burnished gold, my arrows of desire ! spear. O clouds, unfold, my chariot of fire !

I will not cease from mental strife, Nor shall the sword sleep in my hand Till we have built Jerusalem In England’s green and pleasant land. In the coming struggle between materialism on the one hand and spiritual ideals upon the other, between the pur­ suit of private advantage, comfort and ease and the pursuit of a truer polity based upon fellowship for the common good, there is no doubt as to the place which the members of this Order, if they are faithful to their high traditions, must take. It is for them to give witness resolutely and undauntedly to the spiritual, the ideal ; to say ceaselessly amid the clamour of rival policies, “ If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning.” It is not only the trust of the Holy Places in Jerusalem that has been committed to this nation, but the higher and nobler trust of the faith and ideals of which these are but the earthly symbols. So may the capture of Jerusalem be the parable and the promise of the capture of all the energies of our social and national life for the kingdom of our Lord and of His Christ.

First Aid in the Field. B y C O L O N E L R. J. B L A C K H A M , C.I,E., D.S.O., Member of the Order of Mercy; Knight of Grace of the Order of St. John, and Assistant Commissioner, St. John Ambulance Brigade Overseas.

( Concluded from page 104.) T he life of the first aid man now centres round this aid post. They carry back to it their wounded and hand them over to the R.A .M .C. bearers, and apply to the “ Sick ” Corporal for fresh supplies of dressings and the like. Occasionally the placid course of trench life is inter­ rupted by Raids— i.e., a decision is taken to raid a portion of the enemy’s trenches opposite to our own, with a party of 10 to 100 men, or even more. Such departures from the normal mean a goodly temporary increase of wounded, and the Regimental Medical Officer usually asks for, and obtains, a special party of bearers. Very often a special Advanced Aid Post is got ready for the raid, and the medical officer moves forward to it. The R .A .M .C. bearers, of course, also move forward to this advanced post and clear it to the advanced dressing station. Less frequently than raids come the battles which have been a feature of work on the Western front of late years. These are the occasions when the whole medical service has a very anxious time. War is an uncertain thing, and much provision is necessary to be prepared for the various eventualities of a great battle. One has to remember that, in a modern attack, there is generally a rush of casualties at the beginning, or, at any rate, occurring in a short space of time, and if there are


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not plenty of stretcher bearers (and stretchers) available, cases will be lying about on the field for hours, or even days before being removed to the rear, an occurrence which has a bad effect on the morale of the men, and is contrary to all dictates of humanity, and prospects of re­ covery for the patients concerned. As noted above, each battalion has at least 32 stretcher bearers, and we will now show how these are disposed in battle formation. There seems to be two fairly obvious ways in which they can be distributed, viz. :— (1) equally amongst the four companies, or (2) a certain proportion of the regimental aid post for subsequent disposal by the regimental medical officer (say 2, 3 or 4 squads = 8, 12 or 16 men), accord­ ing to circumstances, and the remainder detached with their companies. The corporal in charge of stretcher bearers remains with the regimental medical officer. T he decision as to which method one will adopt must necessarily be influenced by the nature of the operations to be undertaken, and here I might remark that it is essential for the regimental medical officer to make himself thor­ oughly familiar beforehand with all the essential details of the attack, so that he may make arrangements most suitable for the occasion. On him lies the responsibility, not only of attending to the wounded of his battalion, but of satisfying himself, so far as it is possible for him to do so, that all wounded are brought in ; a far more important responsibility than that of merely attending to the wounded. It is impossible to lay too much stress on the neces­ sity for training the stretcher bearers thoroughly in first a i d ; if this has been done satisfactorily, there will be less necessity for the regimental medical officer to re-dress the cases himself, and many of them can remain as they are until the patient reaches the field ambulance, provided that haemorrhage is arrested and broken limbs are adequately in splints. Time will thus be saved, and the regimental medical officer will be able to devote himself to, firstly, getting touch with his battalion headquarters, which we will assume will, in most cases, have moved forward consider­ ably, following the course of the attack, and will now be established in a new position. He will there in all likeli­ hood gain information as to where most of the casualties have occurred, and will be able to organise and lead in person, if he thinks necessary, his reserve stretcher bearers to any point where help is most urgently required, or if the casualties should be exceptionally severe, he can request additional assistance from brigade headquarters or, failing them, from the field ambulance ; and secondly, he will also be able to reconnoitre the ground with a view to selection of a site for a new and more advanced aid post. As soon as he has established this, he should inform his battalion headquarters of his new position, and ask them to communicate the position by wire or runner to the several company commanders for the information of the stretcher bearers, he must also inform the field ambulance commander of his change of position, in order that R.A.M.C. bearers can be sent up to him. There is still one more “ activity ” which he can apply himself, and that is the sending out of bearers to search the ground over which the attack has passed, to see if there are any cases lying out which have been missed by the stretcher bearers, and to bring them in. The role of the field ambulance personnel rendering first aid is no less arduous than that of their regimental comrades. They take over the wounded at the regimental aid posts and carry or wheel them back to the advanced

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dressing station, where usually motor ambulance transport is available. The first aid rendered in the advanced dressing station is of the utmost value as it enables the wounded man to stand the journey back to the casualty clearing station. But of the long and tedious journey of the bearers to the advanced dressing station, how shall I speak ? It is difficult to imagine more arduous labour than the carrying of stretchers along a muddy track, winding amongst shell holes or along slippery duck-boards. Add to the insecure foothold the constant screech of shells and the frequent hail of shrapnel bullets and pieces of high ex­ plosive shell. Infantry walking along a shelled track can dodge hurriedly into shell holes out of danger, but the R .A M.C. bearers must keep stolidly on. There is no escape for them if the Bosche gunner ranges successfully on the track. Moreover, the R.A .M .C. have none of the joy and lust of battle; no power of hitting back. They must just “ carry on ” with the satisfaction of duty well done. Their regimental comrades are the first to give them credit for their work, and it will generally be ' found that the group of field ambulances of a division get as much or more, recognition for their work than any group of similar strength in the division. No one who has seen their work on the blood-stained battlefields of Flanders during the present war, grudges the R.A.M.C. its proudly humble motto of “ In Arduis Fidelis.”

General Letter of the Joint V.A.D. Committee to County Directors. I send you the following for your information:— With reference to our recent appeal in the Press, and the needs of our Auxiliary and Military Hospitals, we find that if advertisements are inserted by the County Directors in their local press, for the special branches of work for which we are in urgent need of recruits, the response is very much better than that which we obtain from a general appeal. We recently obtained a large supply of cooks in this way. I therefore suggest that County Directors should advertise, under “ Situations Vacant ” in their chief local paper, for the following: Cooks, Ward Maids, Ward Orderlies, Assistant Cooks, Housemaids, Scullery Maids, typists, all of whom we urgently need. All General Service members who go for Foreign Service will, in the future, wear kahki shoulder straps on their outdoor uniform and brown overalls over their in­ door uniform. These may be obtained from Messrs. Hobson. Will County Directors please impress upon their Com­ mandants that every V.A.D. member must be in possession of a copy of J.V.A.D. 24 duly signed by her Commandant and County Director. All other uniform permits are now entirely obsolete, and the Police have authority to accept no form but J.V.A.D. 24. All shops and tailors have been instructed to refuse to supply the registered official uniform unless this Form is produced. It is very hard on those members who come up to London for service abroad and desire to obtain their uniform without delay if their Commandant has never provided them with the only official permit which enables them to ob­ tain it. This ruling does not refer to the St. John Ambulance


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Brigade, Nursing or Ambulance Divisions, for which there is an official Uniform Certificate. County Directors are advised to remind their Com­ mandants that V.A.D. members must not leave their county for work elsewhere without the written permission of their Commandant and County Director, and that on no account may they take their County Brassard out of the County to which it belongs. We recently had a complaint from the Military Authorities that a V.A.D. member was using a very old County Brassard to obtain travelling facilities in France Aliens. The War Office requires to be supplied with the Christian names of the Father and Mother and the maiden name of the Mother, in the case of all alien appli­ cants for Auxiliary War Work. Yours faithfully,

C hilston, Chief County Director.

The Grand Priory of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England. Chancery o f the Order , St. fohn's Gate , Clerkenwell , London , E . C ., January 2g'h. ig i8 . T h e K in g h a s be en g r a c io u s ly p le a s e d to s a n c t io n the fo llo w in g p ro m o tio n s in , a n d a p p o in tm e n ts to, the O r d e r o f the H o s p it a l o f St. J o h n o f J e r u s a le m in E n g la n d :—

A s Lady o f Justice (from Lady o f Grace): M a r y , M r s . A n t h o n y H ic k m a n M o rg a n .

A s K nights of Grace : C o l.

S ir T h o m a s C r is p E n g lis h , K . C . M . G . , F .R .C .S . C o l. S ir J a m e s P u rv e s S te w ;, t, K . C . M . G ., F .R .C .P . T h e H o n . H u b e r t G e o rg e B e a u m o n t. W illia m B a r c la y S q u ir e (fro m E s q u ir e ).

M . B . B .S ., C .B , M .D .,

A s Ladies o f G race: J e s s ie M a t ild a , M r s . W . H . S e fto n M o o rh o u se . F r a n c e s E m ily , C o u n t e s s o f C a s s illis . A n n ie A lle n , T h e H o n . L a d y L a w le y , G .B .E . H a r r ie t A m e lia , M is s A ls o p . T h e L a d y A m p t h ill, G . B . E . , C . I . E t h e l, M is s D e a n e .

A s E squire : H a r r y K n ig h t S te p h e n s.

A s Honorary Serving B rother : L ie u t . H e n r i D e w a v r in .

A s Honorary Serving Sister : E liz a M a r y , M r s . B a lc o m b e B ro w n e .

F o r Enrolm ent as Honorary Associates: L ie u t .- C o l. W ilf r id S e r v in g t o n D in n ic k . W illia m H u g h W a r d r o p e . C o l. H e r b e r t L in d s a y F it z P a t r ic k . C a p t a in A lf r e d H e n r y A r n o ld . C a p t a in A lb e r t E d m u n d C h a r le s B u rd e n . C a p t a in E d w a r d S la to r. B r ig a d ie r - G e n e r a l E v a n E y a r e C a r t e r , C .B ., C .M .G . , M .V .O .

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The Genesis of the Indian Branch of the S.J.A.A. By

L ie u t .- C o l.

A. C . Y A T E , F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.Soc.

( Continued from page 101.) A t the time of, or just after, the meeting under Sir John Woodburn on March 18th, 1901, the Pioneer ventured on the prediction “ It is evident that the work of the St. John Ambulance Association has come to stay.” Nine years elapsed before I felt confident of endorsing that forecast, but I accepted the omen and went on my way encouraged. Madras, Baroda and Quetta were the scents of my next three efforts. Lord Ampthill, the Gaikwar of Baroda, and my brother Colonel E. C. Yate (now M.P. for Melton Mow­ bray) severally took the lead in those places. Colonel Harvey Kelly in Madras and Dr. Dhanjibhai Mehta in Baroda worked admirably, but in Quetta difficulty arose. Still it is to Dr. A Jukes of the C.M.S. in Quetta that I was indebted for the first translation into Hindustani of Shep­ herd’s First Aid Manual. That was published in Bombay in 1902. Marathi, Gujarati, Burmese, Hindi and Pashtu translations of various ambulance manuals were ready or in preparation before I left India in 1905. When I reached Quetta from Baroda, early in April, 1901, after having travelled from 7,000 to 8,000 miles by rail, the doctors at once sent me before a medical board. I had come to the end of my tether. The Indian Office Medical Board in January, 1901, finding no specific disease, had ordered me to return to duty. We may readily pardon them their error. They were the unwitting instruments in the creation of a work which has done much for the armies of the Empire and to help their profession during the great war. On the recommendation of the medical board at Quetta, I went to Bombay en route for England. The Commissioner of Bombay, to whom H. E. Lord Northcote, being away at the hill-station of Mahabaleshwar, had sent a message of goodwill and approval, convened a public meeting, which I attended, in the Municipal Buildings for the purpose of inaugurating the Bombay Centre of the St. John Ambulance Association. From 1901 to 1909 it was the most important centre in India. This was due, firstly, to the hon. secretary, Mr. George Lund, a host in himself, a Municipal Councillor, a Volunteer Officer and indefatigable philanthropist, and, secondly, to the establishment there of the Indian Branch Store Depot. When the Duke of Connaught spoke on ambulance at Bombay in February, 1903, he paid a just tribute to the good work of the Bombay Centre. My ill-health necessitated eight months’ absence from India. I kept in touch during that time with the five centres— Calcutta, Madras, Baroda, Quetta and Bombay— which had been started. I took over command of the 129th Baluchis in February, 1902, I found my regiment, of all places in the world for a man who had to communicate with all parts of India, at Chaman, on the very border of Afghanistan. However, correspondence went on, and the work grew and prospered. Not that it was all plain sailing. Far from it. The spadework of ambulance was as other spadework, and the soil it tilled was as the soil of St. Matthew’s parable; and of the seed sown some fell on


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stony places and withered away ; some fell among thorns and the thorns choked them, and some fell into good ground and brought forth fruit, some an hundredfold, some sixtyfold, some thirtyfold. Railways especially did well, so much so that I felt justified in inviting St. John’s Gate to grant a Challenge Shield for competition among the rail­ ways of India. The proposal was favourably received, and on May 1 2th, 1903, the Chief Secretary of the Ambulance Depart­ ment wrote me th u s:— “ I have the pleasure to inform you that H .R .H . the Prince of Wales and the Chapter have sanctioned the pro-/ posal that a Silver Challenge Shield should be offered for competition among the railway companies of India, in the same manner as that presented by the Order of the English railway companies. The Chapter has also sanctioned the proposal, of which I gave you a private notice, that prizes of the value of twenty guineas per annum should be pre­ sented to the individual members on winning teams on the same lines as is done at home.” Hhe first competition for this shield was held at Jabal pur on M irch 15th and 16th, 1904. I remember, with a gratitude that is still lively, the way in which I was helped on that occasion by the officers of the R .A .M .C. and I.M.S. at Jabalpur, and by the railway companies. Placed as I was in Karachi in command of my regiment, called upon to frame rules and devise plans for a brand-new competition at a place distant a thousand miles or more, granted the barest leave by my general to get to Jabalpur to superintend the competition and return, I need scarcely say that help was invaluable. Therefore I remem­ ber and record it. The team of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway won the Shield, and the Chief Commissioner of the Central Provinces, Mr. (now Sir) John Prescott Hewett kindly presided when the result of the competition was notified. Sir John Hewett now appropriately presides over the Indian Soldiers Fund Committee, which sits at 1, Carlton House-terrace, the town residence of the Viceroy, who guided my tentative essays in the early days of the Indian Branch. Ex-Viceroy and Ex-Chief Commissioner are privileged to see in time of war the adult stage of the enterprise, the infancy of which they fostered in days of peace. The success of the Railway Shield in 1904 em­ boldened me to ask for a similar shield for the Volunteers of India. It was granted, and in 1905 both were competed for. I have always regretted that an admirable design for an Indian Ambulance Shield prepared by Mr. Sher Mahommed, Headmaster of the Mayo School of Art, was never utilised. It reached me too late, Messrs. Elkington having already secured the commission with a banal design of distinctly inferior merit. The Railway Shield of 1904 was finally presented to the G.I.P. Railway Team at Ganeshkind, the Poona residence of the Governors of Bombay, on June 18th, 1904, by Lord Lamington, Governor of Bombay, in the presence of Lady Lamington, General Sir Archibald Hunter, commanding the Bombay Forces, SurgeonGenerals McConaghey and Gubbins, and others.

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Notes

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February, 1918.

News.

Complaints have recently been received that badges are issued to people who are not entitled to wear them owing to ignorance of the regulations on the subject. It is particularly requested that the following rules should be strictly complied with :— The regulation badges, buttons and titles of the St. John Ambulance Brigade and Voluntary Aid Detachments can only be supplied as follows :— T o officers, on production of an authority signed by the Deputy-Commissioner of the District. T o Corps or Divisions, on the written order of the officer or other member in charge. T o individual members, on production of an authority, signed by the officer or other member in charge of her Division. T o firms supplying uniforms, on production of an authority, signed by the officer or other member in charge of the unit for which the uniforms are being made. In every instance the authority must be written on official stationery, and the name of the member, a list of the articles to be supplied and the registered number of each given. Unless the purchaser has an account with the Asso­ ciation, a remittance covering the valve of the order must accompany it. T o a Detachment, on the authority of the Com­ mandant. T o an individual member, on the production of an authority from her Commandant, or her uniform certificate.

Examinations for Demonstrator’s Certificates will take place as follows:— London, at St. John’s Gate, 2nd M a r c h ; Birmingham, 2nd M a r c h ; Cardiff, 4th March; Belfast, 1st March; Dublin, 1st March; Man­ chester (if sufficient candidates are forthcoming), 1st March. * * * Notice has been received of the following new classes :

F ir s t Aid. For Men and Women. Lecturer, Samuel Osborn, Esq., F.R.C.S., Knight of Grace of the Order of St. John. Commencing 18th February, 6 p.m., and following Mondays. Hon. Sec. Mr. Pearce, St. John’s Gate, E C. Fee 5s., in­ cluding book and bandage. For Women. Commencing February 19th at 3 p.m., and following Tuesdays, at 41, Tothill-street, Westminster. Hon. Sec. Miss Baddeley, 87, Cadogan-gardens, S.W. Fee 1 2s. 6d. Also evening couise for maids, fee 4s. inclusive.

Home Nursing.

{To be continued.)

For Men and Women (separate lectures as arranged). Lecturer, N. Corbet Fletcher, Esq., M.B., M.R.C.S. Com­ mencing 13th February, 6 p.m., and following Wednesdays, at St. John’s Gate. Hon. Sec. Mr. Pearce (as above). Fee 4s.

W hen corresponding w ith A d vertisers please m ention “ F irst Aid ’’

Eustace Miles Restaurant, Chandos-street, Strand. Commencing February 14th, at 6.30 p.m., and following Thursdays. Lecturer, J. M. Carvell, Esq., M.R.C.S. Hon. Sec. Miss Baddeley (as above). Fee 4s.


February, 1918.

— F IR S T

A ID

&

THE

ST.

41, Tothill-street, Westminster. Commencing Friday, February 15th at n a.m., and following Fridays. Hon. Sec. Miss Baddeley (as above). Fee 12s. 6d.

V

JOHN

AMBULANCE

The following addresses may be found useful to our readers :— T h e H e a d q u a r t e r s o f the J o in t W a r C o m m itte , 8 3 , P a ll M a ll. A m o n g d e p a rt m e n ts w h ic h a re a c c o m m o d a t e d at t h is a d d re s s a re th o se o f th e

Selected Special Service V.A.. Members commended for Hospital Service in the Times of 2nd February, 1918.

C e n t r a l J o in t V . A . D . C o m m itte e , S t o re s a n d T r a n s p o r t , T r a in e d N u r s e s , T r a v e llin g a n d P a s s p o rt s .

Bathurst, Countess (Lilian Margaret Frances) Gloucestershire 84 G ilb e rt s o n , S y lv ia , G la m o r g a n 66. G ilb e rt s o n , P h llis , G la m o r g a n 69. G re a v e s , M r s . G o n s ta n c e M a r y , L o n d o n 232. N o e l, C h a rlo tt e I d a F r e d e r ic a , N o r f o lk 88. T ilia r d , E d it h , H u n t s 10. T u r n e r , C a t h e r in e M a r y , H e r t s , 42.

** * Extract from the Times , dated the 2nd February, 1918. The names of the following ladies have been brought to the notice of the Secretary of State for valuable services rendered in connection with the establishment, maintenance and administration of hospitals.

G A ZE TT E. —

T h e C e n t r a l P r is o n e r s o f W a r C o m m itte e , 4, T h u r lo e P la c e , S .W . 7. T h e C e n t ra l W o r k r o o m s , R o y a l A c a d e m y , B u r lin g t o n H o u s e , P ic c a d illy . M e d ic a l S to re s , to , S o u th C re s c e n t, S to re S tre e t, W . C . I. W o u n d e d a n d M is s in g , 18, C a r lt o n H o u s e T e r r a c e , S . W . i. W o m e n ’s P ic c a d illy , W . St. J o h n C h a ir m a n . 56,

J o in t V . A . D . D e p a r t m e n t , D e v o n s h ir e H o u s e , 1. W a r e h o u s e , fo r H o s p it a l S u p p lie s .— A d d r e s s St. J o h n ’s S q u a re , E . C . I.

S t. J o h n A m b u la n c e B r ig a d e D e p o t .— A d d r e s s S u p e r in ­ te n d e n t, H a lk y n H o u s e , B e lg r a v e S q u a re , S .W .

St. John Hospitals. B a irs to w , M r s . M a r ia n , A u x . H o s p ., T o w c e s te r. B a rn e tt, M rs . M a r g a r e t , E s s e x H o u s e , C h u r c h S tre tto n . B a rth o lo m e w , M r s . S a r a h , V . A . D . H o s p ., B la k e s le y , N ’h a n ts. B a rto n , M r s . E m m a H o p e , S ta p le to n P a r k , P o n te fra c t. B a r tr u m , M r s . M a r ia n , E g g e r s la c k A u x . H o s p ., L a n c s . B la ik lo c k , N o r a , V . A . D . H o s p . S o u t h a ll, M id d le s e x . B o y n e , V is c o u n t e s s , 7 th D u r h a m A u x . H o s p ., B ra d c e p e th . B r a s s e y , M r s . V io le t , A u x . H o s p ., C o tts b ro o k . C a u s to n , M rs . I. J ., A u x . H o s p . P in n e r . C h a rr in g t o n , M r s . M a r y , G iffo rd H o u s e , R o e h a m p to n . C h ill, M r s . E v e ly n , A u x . H o s p ., S o u t h a ll, M id d le s e x . D a ly , T h e H o n . F lo r e n c e , A u x . H o s p ., M a n o r H o u s e , F o lk e ­ sto n e. D a r lo w , M r s . E l le n F r a n c e s , A u x . H o s p ., N o rt h w o o d , M id d x . D u n d o n a ld , C o u n t e s s of, A u x . H o s p ., 84, E a to n -s q ., L o n d o n . E d e n , L a d y ( S y b il) , 19th D u r h a m A u x . H o s p ., F e r r y h ill F it z w illia m , M r s . E v e ly n , M ilt o n P a r k , P e te rb o ro u g h . G e o g h e g a n , M r s . M a r y E liz a b e t h , A u x . H o s p ., B la c k r o c k , D u b lin . G o o d s ir , M r s . G e rt ru d e , A u x . H o s p ., W a lla c e fie ld , C ro y d o n . H a re w o o d , C o u n t e s s of, H a r e w o o d H o u s e , Y o r k s . H e a th c o te , T h e H o n . M r s E v e ly n , C o tta g e H o s p it a l, M a rk e t D r a y to n . H o llin s , L a d y D o r a , S t. J o h n V . A . D . H o s p ., L a n c s . H o w a r d - T a y lo r , M r s . G e rt ru d e , M id d le w o o d H a ll , D a rfie ld . H u g h e s , M is s A n n e , S ilv e rd a le , L a n c s . H u g h e s , M is s C h a r lo t t e , A u x . H o s p ., S h re w s b u r y . L o w t h e r L a d y ( M a r jo r ie N o e l), S w illin g t o n H a ll, L e e d s . M o u n t g a rre t t, V is c o u n t e s s , M o u n t g a rr e t t H o s p ., C a d o g a n G a rd e n s. N u m b u r n h o lm e , D o w a g e r L a d y , R o y a l N a v a l H o s p ., H u ll. O r le b a r , M r s . F a it h , H in w ic k H a ll, W e llin g b o r o u g h . P e a s e , M r s . H e le n a M a r ia , 10th N o r t h u m b e rla n d V . A . D . H o s . R e c k it t , M r s . H i ld a B re n t , R e c k it t ’s H o s p ., H u ll. R o s s a ll, M is s J a n e , S t a r r H i l l s A u x . H o s p ., L y t h a m . St. J o h n M ild m a y , M r s . C e c il, A u x . H o s p . T h o r n b y . S h a k e r le y , L a d y ( H i ld a M a r y ), S o m e rfo rd P a r k , C o n g le to n . S k ip w o r t h , M r s . S o p h ia , L o v e r s a l H a ll, D o n c a s t e r. S m ile y , M r s . C o n s ta n c e , A u x . H o s p . T e m p le L a n e , D e rb y . S to b b a rt, M r s . J e s s ic a , 1 7 th D u r h a m A u x . H o s p ., E t h e r le y . P o w e ll, M rs . L il y , D in a s P o w is A u x . H o s p ., G la m o rg a n s h ir e . T r e n c h - G a s c o ig n e , G w e n d o lin e , L o th e r t o n H a ll, A b e rfo rd , Y o rk s. W a le s - F a ir b a ir n , M r s . L il y , A s k h a m G ra n g e , Y o r k s . W a k e fie ld , M r s . M a r y , A u x . H o s p ., S t ra n m o n g a t e , K e n d a l. W h e le r , M r s . F a it h , L e d s t o n e H a ll, C a s te lfo rd . W o o d , M r s . G ra c e , St. J o h n V . A . D . H o s p it a l, C re s s w e ll.

Mentioned in Despatches. G o r d o n , M r s . M a r y , F o r t R o u g e , W in n ip e g . S .J .A .B .

Another course of X-Ray training is being started early in March. Applicants should apply at once to the Secretary. X-Ray Course, Devonshire House, London, W. 1, An attractive Ambulance Competition Meeting will be held at the Ambulance Hall, Pontypool, Monmouth­ shire, on April 2nd, when contests will be held for a silver shield and ^ 5 for male teams; female team tests ^ 5 (and possibly a trophy). Full particulars may be obtained from the Secretary, J. Bees, 17, Nicholas-street, Pontypool, or District-Supt. G. H. Nelms, 37, Wainfelin-avenue, Ponty­ pool. Programmes 2^d. each.

The following extract appears in the Annual Report of the Leicester Royal Infirmary :— “ We must not forget also to pay a tribute to the valuable help of Mr. A. W. Faire, the County Director, and to Mr. J. R. Corah, the Assistant Director, for sending St. John Ambulance men with all convoys of wounded soldiers to the infirmary, to assist is their speedy admission to the wards. The men’s services have been much valued, and the report now pre­ sented affords a suitable opportunity of acknowledging them.” The Cape Medical Council has decided that military probationers must spend one year training in a general hospital. If some such decision had been arrived at in this country at the beginning of the war, says “ The Nurs ing Times,” we should still have had the V.A.D. problem with us, but in a less contentious form. What are our civil hospitals going to do about it? For, as we said last week, the question is really one for them to decide. We note that Miss McCarthy, Matron-in-Chief of the Army Nursing Service in France, is reported to have said to a Press representative : “ I hope that it will be possible to approach the civil hospitals to give an allowance for length of service here. I think the hospitals here should allow the work here to count as one year’s training, or two years for two years’ service. Subject to the consent of the War Office, every case would be considered separately.”


122

— F I R S T CONTENTS

OF

THIS

AID.

February, 1918.

surgeon to the Allies French-English Hospital, who has

NUMBER.

served on the floating ambulance Ocean in Belgium, has

E ditorial -

written a report on the utilisation of the extensive water­

F ir s t A id o n th e H o m e F r o n t

113

D istrict R eports — No. 1 ; No. 3

...

114

N o . 12

115

T he St . John’s A mbulance Gazette — S e r v ic e o f T h a n k s g in g fo r th e C a p t u r e o f J e r u s a le m fro m th e H a n d s o f th e T u r k s F ir s t A id in th e F ie ld

...

G e n e r a l L e t t e r o f th e J o in t V . A . D . the C o u n t y D ir e c t o r s

ways in France and Belgium to transport wounded.

Any craft that is not

the gravely

more than 40 metres

long, 5 metres wide, and does not draw more than 2 metres of water can travel along the numerous available waterways from the fighting lines far into the interior of

1 16 117

the country. kind exist.

C o m m itte e to

This gives ample room to instal a comfort­

able ambulance, and many barges and other craft of this The

advantages

118

are such that, on the Ocean, there were as many as 52

T h e G r a n d P r io r y o f th e O r d e r o f th e S t. J o h n o f J e r u s a le m in E n g la n d

1 19

abdominal

viscera

* * *

122

...

R a ilw a y A m b u la n c e

the

per cent, of cases cured. 120

N o te s a n d N e w s

of

water for

119

B r e v it ie s

wounds

by

T h e G e n e s is o f th e In d ia n B r a n c h o f the S .J . A . A . . . . H o s p it a l o f

penetrating

of transport

grave

123

P ractical Points — A C o m p lic a t e d A c c id e n t

123

A C o m p e t it io n H o w le r ...

124

T h e record of six months’ work of the American Red Cross (4 Place de la Concorde, Paris), is full of interest. Beginning in June, 1917, with a staff of thirteen persons, by September the organisation comprised and

Q ueries and A nswers to C orrespondents —

sixty

workers.

The

staff, not

nine

bureaux

including

members

T re a tm e n t o f B ro k e n N o se

124

of the Friends’ Unit, now numbers three hundred and

In ju r ie s to In t e r n a l O r g a n s

124

sixty-four

1 14

bureaux

M e d d le s o m e F ir s t A id

...

persons. at

The

124

where a Red Cross

L ia b ilit y fo r D o c t o r ’s F e e

124

tion with

B le e d in g tro m R a d i a l a n d U ln a r A r t e r ie s ...

126

tional

P r u s s ic A c id P o is o n in g ...

126

care

B lu e B a g fo r S t in g s

126

reconstruction and relief,

F a t a l I n j u r y to F e m o r a l V e in

C a r b o lic A c id P o is o n in g

126 126

activities.

F r a c t u r e o f F lo a t in g R ib s

126 126

T r e a t m e n t o f In s e n s ib ilit y

126

includes

children’s

(among which is Chalons,

physician

Friends’

campaign

A r t if ic ia l R e s p ir a t io n B le e d in g at B a c k o f N e c k

the

holds

Maternity

clinics

bureaux

in connec­

Hospital), on educa­

with a travelling picture

of the b a b y ;

&c.,

work

various centres

film on

for tuberculosis,

re-education of

muti/es,

and complete records are being kept

the

refugees

of

&c.,

all the

* *

*

Some preventable accidents :— Workman at steam hammer in hammer shop, after pulling a tyre on horn, swung around with hook and

Brevities.

struck another workman standing near by on the nose. Injured man was compelled to lose time from work as a

A

deputation from the Lincoln Corps of the St.

result,

John Ambulance Brigade had attended the Watch Com­ mittee meeting with respect to the position of members of

Suggestion : Looking out for the other fellow would have prevented this accident.

the brigade whilst on duty during air raids, and, after con­

Rolling mill labourer was carrying a bar in his hands

ferring with them, the following resolution was passed, with

and had his fingers interlocked, so that whep he wanted

which the deputation expressed their satisfaction, viz .:—

to drop the bar he could not get his fingers loose in

Resolved that the Corps be informed that should it unfor

time and his hand was pinned on the floor by the bar.

tunately happen that a member of the St. John Ambulance

H e received contusion of index and ring fingers.

Brigade be incapacitated by an injury received by him in the city while assisting the police in the execution of their

Suggestion : Bad practice to interlock fingers when carrying heavy weights.

duties in connection with air raids, and is, at the time he receives the injury, acting under the supervision or in accordance with the directions of the Chief Constable of the city, or dies from the effect of any injury so received without his own default, the case will be most sympathetic­ ally, considered on its merits by the Watch Committee. * * *

D r . G eorge L ouvard , of the French Army, and

Hammer over

on

reins,

shop man, while helping to turn bloom

die,

got

through

manipulating

his

failing

hand to

caught

extricate

between his

hand

tongs while

the tongs, received a severe contusion of

hand. Suggestion : A

little more “ Safety First ” thought;

these are the kinds of accidents that make up the “ 74 per cent.” class.


February, 1918

— F I R S T

Railway Jlmbulance. S.E. & C .R .— On this line first aid work among the staff has for a long course of years received much en­ couragement from the officers and directors of the Com­ pany. The South Eastern and Chatham Railway was con­ stituted a centre of the St. John Ambulance Association in 1905, although, previous to this date, classes were organised throughout the system, and the foundation laid for the excellent results herein recorded. T he railway is divided into nine districts, each district having its own secretary and committee. During the past season. 289 first year certificates have been issued to new members, whilst nearly a thousand members of the staff, already holding an award of the Association have successfully passed a more advanced examination. In 1910 a medal of special design was instituted for presentation to members passing an ambulance examina­ tion seven years in succession. Since then no less than 701 men have qualified in this manner. The medal is a much coveted distinction, and is undoubtedly the means of ensuring that members of the staff will keep themselves proficient in first-aid knowledge and attend annually for re­ examination. It is also a tangible evidence of the fact that the holder is absolutely competent to deal with any case of accident or sudden illness with which he may be brought into contact. The following figures represent the awards issued to successful members of the classes since the formation of tHe centre :— Year. 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917

Certificate 1st exam. 408 267 274 360 240 316 232 163 148 222 231 289

Voucher 2nd exam.

145

295 201 217 218 >83

'99

119

113 83

81 129

Medal Label 3rd 4th & subse­ Total. exam. quent exam. 86 732 93 179 '34 875 257 302 1,034 185 480 1,242 594 19' ',243 206 1,428 723 810 142 1.383 798 '54 1.234 86 817 1,164 780 74 ','59 822 1,189 55 92 873 1,373

It will thus be seen that the number of first certificates granted during the past season has been greater than for several years past, whilst the total number of awards com­ pares favourably with previous years, especially bearing in mind that, owing to the exceptional conditions prevailing, it has been found impossible to hold the usual competions and demonstrations, and that this undoubted stimulus has, therefore, been wanting. With the advent of female labour on the railway, classes have been held for women members of the staff in various districts. These classes have been well attended, and a high percentage of successes gained at the examina­ tions. O f South-Eastern and Chatham Railway employes serving with the Colours at the present time, 230 are mem­ bers of the Centre. A successful First Aid Class ^for members of the staff attached to the Railway Operating Division at Boulonge has been held under the auspices of this Centre, and the many reports of first aid rendered by the members prove the value of the knowledge gained. First aid has been rendered by members of the staff in

AID

123

-

4,114 cases during the past twelve months, making a total of 32,000 instances where the patients’ sufferings had been alleviated and further complications prevented since the formation of the Centre in 1905. These figures speak for themselves. Since the outbreak of war, all ambulance trains con­ veying patients to five hospitals on the South-Eastern and Chatham Railway have been entirely unloaded by the railway’s ambulance employes. This work has been performed by the members of the staff in the districts affected, and has been carried out in the men’s own time at all hours of the day and night, necessitating a great deal of self-sacrifice. The men, how­ ever, who, by-the-bye, have individually purchased their own uniform and equipment,'are glad to realise that, all un­ consciously, the knowledge gained by them in the past has been but a preparation for the time when they would be able to ensure the comfort of those broken in our wars whose lot it has been to be drafted to hospitals situated on the South Eastern and Chatham Railway Company’s system. The practical interest taken in the ambulance move­ ment by the staff generally is evinced by the action of the station masters, inspectors, and locomotive foremen who have combined for the purpose of instituting a fund, which has been subscribed to by all grades of the service, for pre­ senting prizes to ambulance men performing meritorious acts of first aid, and by other means encouraging the staff to take up the work. The subscriptions this year amount to no less than ^ 9 7 — twice the amount received on any previous occasion. With this sum a magnificent shield has been purchased for annual competition by teams of men throughout the railway, ^ 3 5 has been distributed amongst the various corps and in the purchase of surgical aid letters for the benefit of ambulance men and their families, and the remainder for the purchase of prizes. The action of the station masters, inspectors and loco­ motive foremen in connection with the fund is greatly appreciated, and there is not the least doubt that it is a means of encouraging the staff to take up the first aid work. On no other line, as far as it is known, is a fund of this kind in existence. It is worthy of record that, by means of collections, the proceeds of concerts, etc., the members of the SouthEastern and Chatham Railway centre have been enabled to subscribe the sum of over ^ 1 0 0 to the funds of the St. John Ambulanoe Brigade Hospital, acknowledged to be one of the best, if not the best equipped, hospital in France, thus showing their interest in the work of the Order of St. John over-seas as well as at home.

practical joints. Tke Editor invites Notes on actual Cases— with special reference to goea and bad boints in Treatment— for inclusion in this Column. A

C

o m p l ic a t e d

A

c cid en t

.

At a certain Railway Terminus a young man was in charge of a cellar lift, which was covered in by two falling-in trap doors. Recently he forgot to loosen the inside bolts, set the lift work­ ing and attempted to force open the trap-doors with his head. Being unsuccessful, he was crushed between lift and doors, and was killed by reason of fracture— dislocation of spinal column, complicated fractures of ribs, &c. A woman-porter, who was passing with a barrow loaded with luggage, saw the accident, let go the barrow, fell on the •piatform in a dead faint. The blade of the barrow knocked


124

— FIRST

d o w n a n o t h e r w o m a n -p o rt e r a n d c a u s e d a c o m p o u n d f ra c t u r e o f b o th b o n e s o f h e r r ig h t le g , w h ils t a la d y p a s s e n g e r, b e in g o v e rc o m e at s e e in g th is c o m b in a tio n o f a c c id e n t s , h a s te n e d in to th e r e s t a u r a n t fo r the p u r p o s e o f o b t a in in g so m e s tim u la n t. F a in t in g in h e r t u r n , sh e fe ll d o w n so m e s te p s a n d s u s ta in e d a s e v e re s c a lp w o u n d w ith c o n c u s s io n of b r a in w ffic h n e c e s s ita te d h e r r e m o v a l on a s tre tc h e r. F in a lly , a n o th e r w o m a n -p o rte r r u s h e d in to a n o ffice w ith th e n e w s o f th e a c c id e n t a n d th e n f a in t e d — thus making four separate and distinct emergencies which were the direct outcome o f one accident.— W . C . B ., V ic t o r ia . A

C

H

o m pe titio n

.

o w le r

D u r in g a R a ilw a y C o m p e t it io n o n a h o t s u m m e r ’s d a y , a a c o m p e t it o r tre a te d a m a n supposed to be insensible a n d s u ffe r­ in g fro m a ’ s e v e re s c a lp w o u n d , w h ic h h e d re s s e d n e a t ly a n d e ffic ie n tly . A s k e d b y th e J u d g e if h e h a d d o n e a n y t h in g e lse , h e r e p lie d th a t h e h a d g iv e n the p a tie n t a w h is k y a n d s o d a ! ! W h e n r e p r im a n d e d , h e r e p lie d “ T h e B la c k B o o k te a c h e s u s to s t u d y o u r p a tie n t ’s c o m fo rt, a n d f u rth e r, th e m a n a s k e d fo r a d r in k ! !” — F . A ., C h is w ic k .

Queries and Jlnswers Correspondents.

to

Queries w ill be dealt with under the following rules :— I - — Letters containing Queries must be marked on the top left hana comer of the envelope “ Query,” and addressed— F i r s t A i d , 46, Cannon-strect, London, E . C. 2.— A l l Queries must be accompanied by a “ Query Coupon ” cut jrom the current issue of the fournal, or in case of Queries from abroad from a recent issue. S ' — The Tcxtbookfto which reference may be made in these columns, is the Revised (19/7) Edition o f S .J .A .A . M anual o f First-A id.

T

r ea tm en t

B

of

r o ken

N

ose

.

P . S. (S y d n e y , N . S . W . ) a s k s fo r th e tre a tm e n t o f a b ro k e n n ose. T r e a t a s a b r u is e (T e x t -b o o k , p. 106) a n d a d v is e p a tie n t to c o n s u lt a d o c t o r w ith o u t d e la y , N o s e b le e d in g is o fte n a p r o m in e n t fe a tu re o f th e c o n d it io n , w h ic h m a y — i f e x tre m e v io le n c e h a s b e e n u s e d — be c o m p lic a t e d b y s ig n s o f f ra c t u re d b a se o f s k u ll. E x t e r n a l s p lin t s a re , o f c o u rs e , u s e le s s .— N . C

o r bet

F

le tc h e r

In

.

ju r ies

to

In

te r n a l

O

rg an s

.

W . S. ( F i n c h l e y ) : — T h e re v is e d T e x t b o o k s ta te s th a t fo r in ­ ju r ie s to th e b la d d e r a n d k id n e y s “ c o l d ” s h o u ld be a p p lie d . T h e o ld b o o k r e c o m m e n d e d “ h ot fo m e n ta tio n s .” W h ic h is c o r r e c t ? T h e p o in t is n o t im p o rt a n t b e c a u s e ( 1 ) h e a t a n d c o ld p r o ­ d u c e th e s a m e r e s u lt ; a n d (2 ) the p a tie n t ’s c o m fo rt (a n d w is h e s ) c o n t r o l the s it u a tio n . A t the s a m e t im e — if I w e re th e p a tie n t — I s h o u ld p re fe r h o t fo m e n ta tio n s a s re c o m m e n d e d b y D r . C a n t lie .— N . C . F . M

ed d leso m e

F

ir st

-A

id

.

R . M . (L it t le h a m p t o n ) : — T h e f o llo w in g Q u e r y is b a s e d o n p e r s o n a l e x p e rie n c e . (1 ) B e in g in L o n d o n re c e n t ly d u r in g a n a ir - r a id , I t re a te d a f a in t in g w o m a n in a T u b e S ta tio n a n d s e ttle d h e r c o m fo rt a b ly o n th e p la tfo rm . T h e S .J .A .B . m e n in u n ifo rm th e n c a m e u p without asking any ques­ tions o f th e b y s t a n d e r s o r m y s e lf b e g a n at o n c e to u p se t th e p a tie n t a n d re p e a t the e x a m in a tio n u n t il I re m o n s tra te d w ith the m . (2 ) U n d e r th e se c ir c u m s t a n c e s , I a s k w h a t lin e a c t io n s h o u ld b e t a k e n w h e n o n e F ir s t - A id e r is a lr e a d y in c h a r g e o f a c a s e a n d a n o t h e r a r r iv e s u p o n the sce n e .

AI D. —

February, 1918.

S h o u ld th e firs t m a n be a llo w e d to c a r r y o ut h is o w n m e th o d s u n le s s th e se a re m a n ife s tly w ro n g , a n d u t ilis e th e o th e r m a n ’s h e lp to k e e p b a c k th e c r o w d ? W o u ld th e w e a r in g o f a n o ffic ia l u n ifo rm a ffect th e s it u a t io n ? (1 ) B e y o n d a ll q u e s tio n th e S .J .A .B . m e n w ere , o n y o u r sta te m e n t, g u ilt y o f M e d d le s o m e F ir s t - A id , a n d n e g le c te d s o m e im p o rta n t e le m e n t a ry P r in c ip le s . F ir s t , they forgot that F irst-A id aims at prevention of f u r t h e r in ju r y a n d n o t a t t re a t ­ m e n t ; s e c o n d ly , they were palpably unskilled in observation s in c e th e y d id n o t n o te the c o m fo rta b le p o s it io n o f p a t ie n t ; t h ir d ly , they lacked discrimination in n o t r e a lis in g th a t— a s an a ir - r a id w a s in p r o g r e s s — th e re w a s n o t h in g f u rth e r to b e d o n e ; a n d fo u rth ly , they demonstrated a deplorable want o f tact in t h e ir tre a tm e n t o f yo u. (2 ) T h e fir s t m a n o n the s c e n e is the m a n in c h a rg e , a n d s h o u ld n o t y ie ld u p h is r e s p o n s ib ilit ie s unless and until he k n o w s th a t the s e c o n d m a n c a n re n d e r m o re e ffic ie n t a s s is ta n c e to th e p a tie n t whose interests centrol the situation. T h i s — a n d n o t a n o ffic ia l in u n ifo rm — is th e p r a c t ic a l test, a lt h o u g h in t h e o ry th e m a n in u n ifo rm (e -g ., S . J . A . B . ) is m o re lik e ly to b e c a p a b le o f e ffic ie n t a id in a n e m e rg e n c y , b e c a u s e h e s u b m its h is k n o w le d g e to a n n u a l re -e x a m in a t io n . T h i s test, h o w e v e r, m a y n o t a lw a y s h o ld g o o d , a s y o u r e x p e rie n c e p ro v e s . I n p ra c t ic e , F ir s t - A id e r s s h o u ld c a r r y o ut the P r in c ip le s o f F ir s t A id a n d a ct a s d o c t o rs d o w h e n th e y m e et in c o n ­ s u lta tio n o r in e m e rg e n c y . F ir s t , w ith a few d ip lo m a t ic q u e s ­ tio n s a n d a n s w e rs they establish their identities a n d th e fa ct th a t th e y a re b o th q u a lifie d p r a c t it io n e r s ( if th e se a re n o t a lr e a d y k n o w n ) ; s e c o n d ly , they listen carefully to opinions expressed by each other, r e c o g n is in g th a t th e se a re w o rth y o f a ll c o n s id e ra t io n ; t h ird ly , they discuss and agree upon th e m e th o d s b y w h ic h th e R e q u ir e m e n t s o f th e c o n d it io n o r e m e rg e n c y m a y be m o st s a t is fa c t o r ily d e a lt w ith . I n s h o rt, b y a d o p tin g so m e s u c h p la n F ir s t - A id e r s w ill (lik e th e d o c t o rs ) s h a re th e r e s p o s ib ilit y o f th e ca se , w h ile the p a tie n t w ill o b ta in the a d d it io n a l a d v a n ta g e o f a w e ll c o n s id e re d p la n o f a c tio n , m o d ifie d , o f c o u rs e — in a n e m e r g e n c y — b y th e n e c e s s it y fo r s p e e d a n d fo r th e p r o v is io n of e x p e rt a s s is t a n c e .— N . C . F . F

a tal

In

ju r y

to

F

em o r a l

V

e in

.

J . H . (P a r a m a t t a , N . S . W . ) in v it e s o u r c r it ic is m o f a n e w s ­ p a p e r c u tt in g w h ic h (a) r e p o rt s “ the e x t r a o r d in a r y s u d d e n d e a th o f a c h ild fro m h a e m o rrh a g e d u e to w o u n d in g r o in , c a u s e d b y f a llin g o n b r o k e n c r o c k e r y ” ; a n d ( b) s ta te s th a t “ a s p e r s io n h a s b e e n t h ro w n o n the h u m a n ity o f tw o lo c a l d o c to rs .”

(a) W it h r e g a r d to th e w o u n d w e n o te ( 1 ) th a t d e a th w a s d u e to h a e m o rrh a g e fro m fe m o ra l v e in (the artery being uninjured) ; (2 ) th a t, a lt h o u g h th e c h ild w a s p la c e d in re c u m b e n t p o s itio n , d ig it a l p r e s s u re (which would have saved the childs life ) w as n o t e x e rte d on th e w o u n d ; a n d ( 3 ) th a t th e t h ig h w a s so s w a th e d in s h e e t in g th a t th e g ra v e d e g re e o f b le e d in g w a s n o t r e a lis e d t ill too late. F r o m t h is e x c e e d in g ly r a r e c a s e w e le a r n , 1st, th a t th e v e n o u s b le e d in g is n ot a lw a y s “ s lo w ” (a s the T e x t b o o k u n ­ fo r t u n a te ly t e a c h e s )— d e a th in t h is in s t a n c e t a k in g p la c e w ith in fifte e n m in u te s ; a n d 2 n d , th a t th e a p p lic a t io n o f d ig it a l p r e s ­ s u re w o u ld h a v e s to p p e d th e b le e d in g a n d s a v e d life , w h e re a s th e s h e e t in g encouraged (while it concealed) the c a u s e o f th e in c r e a s in g p a llo r a n d fa in tn e s s . (b) W it h r e g a r d to th e c o m p la in t th a t th e d o c to rs re fu se d to co m e , w e n o te ( 1 ) th a t th e a c c id e n t h a p p e n e d “ w it h in tw o o r th re e m in u te s w a lk o f th e h o s p ita l ’’ a n d (2 ) th a t a m e s s e n g e r, d e liv e r d a v a g u e v e r b a l m e ss g e w h ic h c le a r ly s u g g e s t e d a s lig h t in ju r y to le g . F r o m th e c a s e , th e re fo re , w e le a r n fu rth e r — 1st, th a t it is n o t a lw a y s w is e to “ s e n d fo r ’> a d o c to r, s in c e , as in t h is ca se , v a lu a b le tim e m a y be lo s t b y s u c h a c tio n ; a n d 2 n d , th a t p r e ­ c is e w ritte n m e s s a g e s — w ith f u ll d e t a ils — a re a lw a y s p re fe ra b le to v e r b a l. F o r fu rth e r c r it ic is m see A n s w e r to A . E . (H e n d o n ) . — N . C. F. L

ia b il it y

for

D

o c t o r ’s

F

e e

.

o f A . E . ( H e n d o n ) a s k s w h o is lia b le to p a y th e d o c to r’ s fee w h e n a F ir s t - A id e r c o n s id e rs it n e c e s s a r y to s e n d fo r expert a s s is ta n c e .


February 1918

— F I R S T

AID.—

125

FIR S T -A ID

IODEX |

(<Jn£. lodi M &J)

A BLAND & PAINLESS ;

—IODINE DRESSING.—

for U n ifo r m s

A sep tic.

a n d

A n tise p tic .

I O D E X is a First-Aid Dressing of great merit— painless and bland It promotes rapid healing and is ideal in septic wounds, tears, abrasions, bruises, burns, scalds, inflamed feet, etc.

IODEX has been supplied to :

E q u i p m e n t

H .M . F le e t S u r g e o n s , R .A .M .C . Surgeons, R ed C r o s s S u r g e o n s ,

V a st modern factory resources, added to a century's experience, enables us to supply First A i d and all other Services with uniforms and e q u i p m e n t of g u a r a n t e e d materials, workmanship and finish — at prices that challenge compari­ son with an y other clothing of equal quality.

C rolz R ouge Francalse B e l g i a n F i e ld H o s p i t a l s ,

I O D E X is non-staining, non­ irritating Free Iodine of great penetrative power. It is a power­ ful absorbent and antiseptic, and rapidly reduces inflammation.

F r e n c h F i e ld H o s p i t a l s , N um erous M ilitary H osp itals, M e m b e r s of St. John A m bulan ce.

IO D E X

is

so ld

in

1 oz.

P o ts,

P rice

1 /3 .

I O D E X has benefitted the follow ing and numerous other conditions.

Prices and Samples on request. 1 6 ,

N

I L E

S T

R

E

E

T

,

CITY R O AD , LONDON, N .I., and at 6, YORK PLACE, LEEDS, and 84 , MILLER STR EET, GLASGOW.

E n l a r g e d G la n d s , G oitre, T u b e r c u l o u s Join ts, B u r s itis , S y n o v it is , S c ia tic a , N eu r itis, G out, R h eu m a to id A rthritis, H yd rocele, P arasitic S k in Diseases. R in g w o r m , C hilblain s, Acne, Bolls, M u m p s , S p r a in s , AND ALL IN FL A M M A T O R Y C O N D ITIO N S. L it e r a t u r e

on

a p p lic a t io n

Menley & James, Ltd., T H

E

PICTORIAL

F I R

S T

to —

39, F a rr ln g d o n R o ad , LONDON, E .C .

A

I D

T RI ANGULAR

BANDAGE. Jfaval, JfCtlitarij and Civil Jailors and Sreeches Jfiakers. The West End House of Hazel & Co., as below, is exclusively devoted to the

Clothing & Equipment OF

Officers of all Ranks and all Services,

Illustrating the various w ays of using the Bandage in cases of injury.

and the supply of High Grade Tailor­

Triangular Bandages can also be supplied plain, unprinted.

ing

for

Gentlemen’s

Wear.

Best

materials and workmanship only at moderate prices. U n ifo r m s

a n d

SOUTHALL BROS. & BARCLAY, Ld„

L iv e r ie s.

B IR M IN G H A M , Established

4

,

P R

I N

HANOVER

C

E

S Q .,

S

S T

R

E

LONDON,

Catalogues on application.

E

T

,

W. 1.

%

1820 ,

M anufacturers of Surgical Dressings, Fine Chem icals and Pharm aceutical Preparations. Enquiries invited.


- F I R S T T h e p e rs o n w h o a c t u a lly s u m m o n th e d o c t o r is in la w lia b le fo r the fee. I f a F ir s t - A id e r , th e re fo re , w is h e s to a v o id t h is r e s p o n s ib ilit y — w h ic h , h o w ev er, is r a rely en forced — he s h o u ld e it h e r (1 ) s e e k firs t th e c o n s e n t o f th e p a tie n t o r (2 ), b e tte r s t ill, d e le g a te th e d e c is io n to a p o lic e o ffic e r w h o is a u t h o r is e d to e x e r c is e h is d is c r e t io n , a n d m a y in c u r s u c h lia b ilit y at th e e x p e n s e o f p u b lic fu n d s. B y th e w a y , a d o c to r is a fre e a g e n t. N o le g a l o b lig a t io n c a n c o m p e l h is a tte n d a n c e — e v e n in a n e m e r g e n c y — w ith o r w ith o u t fee, a lth o u g h h u m a n it a r ia n p r in c ip le s u s u a lly c a u s e h im to w a iv e h is la w fu l r ig h t s to fre e d o m o f a c t io n a n d to r e m u n e ra t io n .— N . C . F . B l e e d in g

I.

f r o m

R a d ia l

a n d

U ln ar

A r te r ies.

S. ( W a r r in g t o n ) a s k s if th e St. J o h n S lin g s h o u ld be u s e d fo r b le e d in g fro m r a d ia l a n d u ln a r a rt e r ie s a s fro m th e p a lm a r a rc h e s . H e a d d s th a t th e T e x t b o o k is n o t c le a r o n the p o in t, a n d th a t a n e x a m in e r r e c e n t ly p e n a lis e d h e a v ily a c a n d id a t e w h o u s e d a la r g e a rm - s lin g .

B le e d in g fro m th e p a lm o f h a n d is d iffic u lt to c o n tro l, b e c a u s e w e c a n n o t e x e rt firm p re s s u re o n th e s p o t u n less a n d u n t il w e r e la x the fib ro u s tis su e w h ic h c o v e rs a n d p ro te c t s the p a lm a r a rc h e s . T o d o t h is e ffe c tiv e ly w e m u st u se the S t. J o h n S lin g , w h ic h r a is e s th e h a n d w h ile it k e e p s th e e lb o w fle x e d at a n a c u te a n g le . T h i s c a u s e , h o w e v e r, d o e s n o t o p e ra te w ith b le e d in g fro m r a d ia l a n d u ln a r a rt e rie s , a n d a la r g e s lin g is u s u a lly s e le c te d , e v e n th o u g h a St. J o h n S lin g m ig h t be m o re c o m fo rta b le a n d c a u s e e le v a t io n o f b le e d in g p a rt. B r ie f ly put, the la t te r s lin g m ig h t be m o re a d v a n ta g e o u s , b u t it is n o t e s s e n t ia l.- N . C . F . P r u ssic

A c id

P o iso n in g .

C . W . ( G r a v e s e n d ) . — I n a re c e n t A n s w e r I n o te th a t y o u a d v is e th e im m e d ia t e a d m in is t ra t io n o f e m e tic fo r P r u s s ic A c id P o is o n in g , “ p r o v id e d p a tie n t is c o n s c io u s a n d a b le to s w a llo w .” H o w d o y o u r e c o n c ile th e se in s t ru c t io n s w ith th e T e x t b o o k , sin ce a l l acids b urn ? Y o u h a v e fa lle n in to a fa v o u rit e e x a m in a tio n t ra p ! T h e T e x t b o o k te a c h e s y o u to w ith h o ld e m e tic s w ith C o r r o s iv e P o is o n s . P r u s s ic A c id is n ot a C o r r o s iv e A c id a n d d o e s n ot u lc e r a t e the s to m a c h . O n th e c o n t r a r y , it is a m o st p o te n t n e rv e p o is o n a n d a n e m e tic m u s t be g iv e n at o n c e , b e fo re in ­ s e n s ib ilit y o c c u r s .— N . C . F . B lu e

B ag

fo r

Stin g s.

A . G . (N e a s d e n ) : — I n C a n tile , th e b lu e b a g is a d v is e d s tin g . S h o u ld th is b e a p p lie d w et o r d r y ?

fo r a

T h e b lu e b a g c o n ta in s s e v e ra l a lk a lie s (s o d a b e in g the c h ie f c o n s t itu e n t ), a n d is u s e fu l fo r s o o t h in g th e p a in a n d i r r i ­ ta tio n o f a s tin g . F o r t h is re a s o n it w ill be m o re e ffic a c io u s if a p p lie d w et. 1 n o te th a t y o u q u o te C a n tile ( s ic ) tw ic e . G iv e m o re p la y to y o u r p o w e rs o f ob servation ! ! — N . C . F . C a r b o l ic

A c id

P o iso n in g .

L . G . ( W ille s d e n ) a s k s w h a t n e rv o u s s y m p to m s w ith C a r b o lic A c id .

m ay appear

S y m to m s o f g r a v e c o lla p s e — in s e n s ib ilit y , co m a , s te rto rio u s b r e a t h in g , lo s s o f re fle x m o v e m e n ts , h u r r ie d a n d s h a llo w b r e a t h in g , d e a th . C a s e s m a y im p ro v e , r e c o v e r c o n s c io u s n e s s , a n d a fe w h o u r s la t e r d ie s u d d e n ly fro m c o lla p s e .— N . C . F . A r tif ic ia l

R e sp ir a tio n .

A . G . ( N e a s d e n ) : — I n o t ic e y o u p re fe r S c h a e fe r's M e th o d o f r e s p ir a t io n w h e n e v e r p o s s ib le . I n C a n tile it is la id d o w n fo r L a b o r d e to b e u s e d in in ju r y to d is e a s e o f b r a in , a n d fo r c h ild r e n in c o n v u ls io n s c a u s in g s u s p e n d e d re s p ir a t io n . D o y o u t h in k th a t t h is is b e tte r o r w o u ld y o u re c o m m e n d S c h a e f e r ’s M e th o d fo r th e se c a s e s a ls o ? ( 1 ) Y o u r p o w e rs o f observation a re a g a in at fa u lt ! ! Y o u h a v e m is r e a d C a n tlie (p . 140), w h ic h p re fa c e s its s u g g e s t io n s fo r L a b o r d e th u s “ W h en fr o m any cause the above m ethods (S c h a e f e r a n d S ilv e s t e r ) cann ot be c a rr ie d out, Labbrde?s m ethod s h o u ld be tried. (2 ) A ls o , y o u r k n o w le d g e is d e fic ie n t ! C e s s a t io n o f

AID.—

February, 1918

r e s p ir a t io n is th e in d ic a t io n fo r a r t ific ia l r e s p ir a t io n a n d n o t in ju r y to o r d is e a s e o f th e b r a in ! ! F u r t h e r , it is n o t p o s s ib le to c a r r y o u t s u c h m o v e m e n ts w h ile a c h ild is c o n v u ls e d ! ! ! R e a d y o u r T e x t b o o k (e s p e c ia lly C h a p t e r s I . a n d V .) a g a in w ith g r e a t e r c a re a n d d ilig e n c e , a n d a ls o th e A n s w e r s to Q u e rie s w h ic h y o u c r it ic is e — a n d y o u w ill fin d that S c h a e f e r ’s M e th o d is n o t o n ly the la te s t (d e s c r ib e d in 1905 ; L a b o r d e in 1 9 0 2 )— b u t a ls o the q uickest, easiest a n d m ost effective m ethod o f a r t if ic ia l r e s p ir a t io n .— N . C . F . F r actu r e

o f

F lo a tin g

R ib s.

A . S. ( B r is t o l) .— I s it r ig h t to a p p ly tw o b ro a d b a n d a g e s fo r f ra c t u r e o f flo a t in g r ib s ? W h a t g o o d w o u ld th e y d o ? T h e y c a n n o t c o n t r o l th e fra c t u re d r ib s w h ic h a re a tta c h e d to s p in a l c o lu m n o n ly . If , h o w e v e r, th e s u p p o rt o f a b a n d a g e g iv e s e a se a n d c o m fo rt (a s it o ften d o e s) w ith th e a s s o c ia te d b r u is in g o f m u s c le s , th e o ne b a n d a g e w o u ld p r o b a b ly su ffic e a n d be g o o d tre a tm e n t.— N . C. F. B l e e d in g

f r o m

B ack

o f

N ec k .

M . B. ( M o r e c a m b e ) : — I b e g to s u b m it a n e w m e th o d o f a p p ly ­ in g a t r ia n g u la r b a n d a g e to b a c k o f n e c k w h e n th e re is a w o u n d w ith s e v e re b le e d in g . F ir s t , p la c e p a d in p o s it io n ; secondly, p la c e c e n tre o f b ro a d b a n d a g e o v e r p a d , b r in g b o th e n d s o v e r s h o u ld e r s d o w n in to a rm p it s , a n d tie at b a c k b e tw e e n s h o u ld e r b la d e s ; th ird ly , ta k e a n a rro w b a n d a g e , t h r e a d the e n d s t h ro u g h lo o p s o f first b a n d a g e , a n d tie e n d s in fro n t o n b re a s tb o n e . B y t h is m e th o d the re q u is ite a m o u n t o f p re s s u re c a n be o b ta in e d , a n d p re s s u re on a rt e r ie s o f n e c k a n d w in d p ip e is a v o id e d . Y o u r s u g g e s t io n is a u s e fu l o n e , th o u g h 1 b e lie v e th a t yo u ca n s e c u re th e c o rr e c t a m o u n t o f p r e s s u re b y m e a n s o f the firs t b a n d a g e o n ly , th e s e c o n d b e in g u n n e c e s s a ry a n d lik e ly to c a u s e d is c o m fo rt. O f c o u rs e , y o u r e a lis e ( 1 ) th a t the p re s e n c e o f the k n o t in th e m id d le o f b a c k is a d is a d v a n ta g e , if p a tie n t h a s to be k e p t ly in g o n h is b a c k ; a n d (2 ) th a t y o u c a n n o t tie off k n o t o n p a d a s is u s u a lly re c o m m e n d e d .— N . C . F . T r eatm en t

o f

In se n sib ility .

J . C . (T u f n e ll P a r k ) : — A m id d le -a g e d m a n (k n o w n to h a v e h e a rt d is e a s e ) s u d d e n ly c o lla p s e d in a T u b e lift. H e w as ta k e n in to fre s h a ir , b u t r a p id ly lo s t c o n s c io u s n e s s a n d c e a se d b r e a t h in g in ten m in u te s. (a) I s t h is a c a s e in w h ic h “ s p e c ia l s i g n s ” a n d “ a r a r e o c c a s io n ” (a s y o u r W h y a n d W herefore te a c h e s ) ju s t if y th e a d m in is t ra t io n o f b r a n d y w h ile th e p a tie n t is u n c o n s c io u s ? ( b) S h o u ld a r t if ic ia l r e s p ir a t io n h a v e b e e n t r ie d ? (1c) W h a t c a n a F ir s t - A id e r do, p re s u m in g d ia g n o s is is c o rr e c t ? (a) T h e S p e c ia l S ig n s fo r b r a n d y a re , b r ie f ly (1) f a i l u r e o f S u p p o r tiv e ^treatment (r e m o v a l o f c a u s e , re c u m b e n t p o s itio n , e tc .); (ii) p r o g r e ssiv e .character o f C ollapse, a s p ro v e d b y S t a n d a rd G u id e s (fa ce , p u ls e , b re a t h in g , e t c .); (Hi) in tro d u ctio n o f S p e cia l P o is o n (e .g ., s n a k e v e n o m ); a n d (iv) absence o f M e d ic a l A i d in s p it e o f h o n e st a tte m p ts to s e c u re sam e . I n t h is c a s e , th e firs t, s e c o n d , a n d (p re s u m a b ly the fo u rth in d ic a t io n s w e re p re se n t. F u r t h e r , th e c o n t r a - in d ic a t io n s — H s e m o rrh a g e a n d H e a d in ju r ie s — w ere a b se n t. T h e r e fo re , y o u r s u g g e s te d d o se o f b r a n d y w o u ld , in m y o p in io n , h a v e b e en g o o d tre a tm e n t, p r o v id e d p a tie n t w a s c o n s c io u s a n d a b le to s w a llo w , th o u g h it w o u ld not h a v e s a v e d th e m a n ’s life. ( b) C e s s a t io n o f r e s p ir a t io n is th e in d ic a t io n fo r a r t if ic ia l r e s p ir a t io n , a n d a b s e n c e o f s ig n s o f o b s t ru c tio n , p re s s u re , etc., is n o a rg u m e n t a g a in s t its use . U n d e r th e se c ir c u m s t a n c e s , it w o u ld c e r t a in ly be e x c e lle n t tre a tm e n t fo r a F ir s t - A id e r to c o m ­ m e n c e a c tio n w ith o u t d e la y a n d to p e rs e v e re u n t il the a r r iv a l o f a d o c to r w ho is the o n ly com petent ju d g e o f the sig n s o f death. (c) A n e x a c t d ia g n o s is (h o w e v e r g r a t if y in g it m a y be to a k e e n s tu d e n t) is n o t r e q u ire d in o r o r e s s e n t ia l to F ir s t - A id . T h e r e f o re , y o u m u st a p p ly th e G e n e r a l R u le s o f In s e n s ib ilit y (T e x t b o o k pp. 127 to 149). T h e s e a re b a se d on s y m p to m s o n ly a n d m u st be m o d ifie d in a c c o r d a n c e w ith v a r ia t io n s p re se n t a n d the P r in c ip le s o f F ir s t - A id . - N . C . F.


February, 19 1 8

— F I R S T

127

AID. —

T

ia

for

v

u

x

t d

N u rses'

W ear

Section is devoted entire ly to the sup p ly of e verything that is necessary to the outfitting o f Profes­ sional and V .A .D . N urses. W e are appointed by the St. Jo h n A m bulan ce Brigade and B ritish Red C ross Society, by whom m aterials and patterns are approved. W e''w elcom e enquiries as” a com plim ent to ourundoubted sphere of usefulness. Red Cross Regulation Apron, in stout apron cloth, linen finish. Lengths 34, 36, 38 and 40 .. 2/0 Regulation Sletves, fine cambric 8 4 . pair

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— F I R S T

128

February, 1918.

AID. —

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T

F

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F

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e br u a r y

,

1918.

P rin ted and Published by D a l e , R e y n o l d s & C o ., L td ., 46, C annon S t., L o n d o n , E . C . 4., to whom a ll com m unications should be addressed.


F I R S T AID AND

ST.

JOHN

THE

-----

AM BU LAN CE

GAZETTE.

Edited by ARTHUR B. DALE. No. 2 8 5 . — V o l . X X I V

NOTICE

MARCH,

TO

««w

1918

Haii.\

by bearers trained

READERS.

by

[2/6 pP^ ICaENNum°postCEf RBej

the

medical

department

army in the time of peace; in civil

of the

life the training of

F I R S T A ID is published on the a o t h of e a c h m o n th . T he A n n u a l Sub scriptio n is a s. 6d. post free ; single copies 2 d.

the bearers was left to members of the

sion under the direction of civil ambulance

bodies.

Its aim and object being the advancem ent o f A m bulance W o rk in a ll its branches, the E d ito r invites Readers to send A rticle s and R eports on subjects pertain in g to the M ovem ent and also welcomes suggestions for P ractica l Papers.

military work the medical

out

department

medical

sent

profes­ In

trained

men under its control to bring in the wounded,

but

in

civil life, surgeons and physicians waited for the injured

A ll R eports, & c., should be addressed to the E d ito r, and should reach him before the 12th of each m onth, and must be accom panied (not necessarily for Publication) by the name and address of the Correspondent.

to be brought to the hospitals, but took no responsibility

Subscriptions, A dvertisem ents and other business Com m unications connected w ith F I R S T A I D should be forwarded to the Publishers,

no part in the training *or

D ALE,

REYN O LDS 46 , C

&

annon

C O .,

L t d .,

S t r e e t , L o n d o n , E . C . 4.

or control for how or in what state the injured were to be brought to them.

Universities and medical schools took teaching

cf

first-aid

bearers

or ambulance workers.

First aid, as now known, was a

special

surgical

branch

of the

art,

and

those

of

the

medical profession who wished to take it up had to

Telegraphic A ddress: “ Twenty-four, London." Telephone No. 3 4 7 7 Bank.

beyond their schools

to

acquire

the

sary in either the practice or the

knowledge

teaching

of

go

neces­

the

art.

As a profession we shut our eyes to the condition of the

EDITORIAL

wounded in the streets and took no care,

for

instance,

to prevent the simple fracture from becoming compound TO

OUR

READERS.

and septic.” Sir James Cantlie then went on to say we want the

For a lon g t im e w e ha ve f o u g h t a g a in st W a r c o n ­

best appliances,

the

best

ditions, bu t w e now find it n e ce s s a r y to increa se t h e

physicians and surgeons

price of

We

“ FIRST A I D ”

April issue.

to 3d., com m encin g w it h the

T h e g r e a t r e s tr i c t io n s and cost of paper,

etc., t h a t w e, in com m on w i t h

m a n y other im porta nt

papers ha ve for t h e tim e be ing to endure, to m a ke t h i s tem porary.

alte ration,

c om pels us

w h ic h w e hope will on ly be

W e a s k e v e r y reader to s ta n d by us during

quite

agree

this

take

and

the

our

matter

statement,

always maintained that the medical

for

The Principles and Practice of Ambulance Work.

C a n tlie ,

the

veteran

the S.J.A.A. that the many them to render able

assistance

The more

to

the medical and nursing schools do

men who

that a medical man becomes interested

London

on

the

Principles and Practice of Ambulance the

injured persons as speedily as possible,

from the battle front to the base, or from

the

mov­ either

factory,

First aid as it

is ought

to

it

be

impart

facilities

will

Unfortunately

not

before a meeting of the members of the of

the

a fellow worker in

medical

ject in their curriculum, and

Medical Society

was

thousands of workers in all

ambulance work, read a paper) recently

Work, which he defined as ing of

of

have

fields of industry have acquired the knowledge, enabling

the layman have in receiving instruction. Jam es

hand.

we

profession

instruction in ambulance work the greater S ir

foremost in

backbone of ambulance work, and it is due to them and

case of accident.

t h is stress.

with

teachers,

to

take

is only by in

the

sub­

coincidence the

subject.

taught, was not in the

stage of the little knowledge which is a dangerous thing. It was. Sir James said, a definite part of medicine and complete in its limitation and its purpose. we

welcome

the suggestion

that

the

That is why

medical

schools

the harvest field, or the street to the hospital:—

should give their students a training in the subject,

“ In military ambulance work the injured man was moved

we feel sure it would benefit the whole community.

for


130

— FIRST J h e Grand 3*riorg of the 6 r d tr of the h o sp ita l of S t. Jo h n of Jerusalem in Stigland. AM BULANCE

The S t.

Jo h n

DEPARTMENT.

.Ambulance S rigade.

DISTRICT- ORDERS. D epu ty

W.

C o m m issio n e r

H.

W IN N Y .

A P R I L , 1918. S u n d a y D u t y , S t. P a u l’s C a t h e d ra l. S u n d a y , 7 t h .— N o . 3 0 D iv is io n , E a s t L o n d o n . „ 1 4 th .— N o . 3 3 „ B e rm o n d s e y a n d W a lw o r t h . „ 21 S t . — N o . 3 7 „ G r e a t W e s t e r n R a ilw a y . ,, 2 8 th .— N o . 38 „ L . B . & S .C . R y ., V ic t o r ia . F r o m 2 .3 0 p .m . to 5 .3 0 p .m . K e y fro m S t. J o h n ’s G a te , 2 p.m A IR

R A ID

DUTY.

T h e D e p u t y - C o m m is s io n e r w is h e s to c a ll a tte n tio n to th e e x c e lle n t s e r v ic e s r e n d e r e d b y m e m b e rs o f th e B r ig a d e w h e n b o m b s fe ll o n th e o c c a s io n o f re c e n t a ir r a id s in N o r t h L o n d o n , C e n tra l L o n d o n a n d N o rth -W e st L o n d o n . I n so m e c a s e s the d u t y w a s p e rfo rm e d in c ir c u m s t a n c e s o f e x c e p tio n a l d iffic u lt y , a n d th e m e m b e rs o f the B r ig a d e , r e g a r d le s s o f a ll r is k , d id e v e r y t h in g p o s s ib le fo r th e p a tie n ts . F o r m s h a v e r e c e n t ly b e e n is s u e d to e a c h D iv is io n in o rd e r th a t a m e n d e d lis t s o f a ir r a id w o rk e rs m a y b e p re p a re d . In s o m e c a s e s th e in fo r m a t io n r e q u ir e d w a s fu rn is h e d p ro m p t ly , b u t it is re g re t t e d th a t a n u m b e r o f D iv is io n s a re s t ill la g g in g b e h in d in g iv in g in fo rm a t io n w h ic h it s h o u ld b e p o s s ib le to f u r n is h w ith o u t m u c h tro u b le . T o f a c ilita t e th e w o rk at H e a d ­ q u a r t e r s , it is h o p e d th a t a d d it io n a l r e m in d e rs w ill n o t be n e c e ssa ry . T h e r e is s t ill n e e d fo r m o re a s s is t a n c e fro m m e m b e rs o f th e B r ig a d e , a n d it is h o p e d th a t n o m e m b e r, w h o c a n p o s s ib le r e n d e r h e lp , w ill f a il to s e n d in h is o r h e r n a m e at o n c e to H e a d q u a r t e r s , t h r o u g h t h e ir D iv is io n a l O ffic e r. B R IG A D E

RETURNS.

T h e C h ie f C o m m is s io n e r is d e s ir o u s th a t th e A n n u a l R e p o r t b e in r e a d in e s s a s s o o n a s p o s s ib le . T h e r e a re s t ill so m e D iv is io n s w h o d e la y th e ir A n n u a l R e t u r n s y e a r a fte r y e a r, a d d in g g r e a t ly to th e w o rk o f th e H e a d ­ q u a r t e r S ta ff, a n d r e n d e r in g it im p o s s ib le to fu r n is h a c o m p le te re p o rt . I t is h o p e d th a t th e se D iv is io n s w ill m a k e a s p e c ia l e ffo rt to s e n d in t h e ir B . F . l ’s, etc., a n d t h e ir D iv is io n a l B o o k s to H e a d q u a r t e r s a s e a r ly a s p o s s ib le . M O TO R

D R IV E R S .

I n o r d e r th a t th e M o t o r A m b u la n c e p re s e n te d b y the S h o w m e n ’s G u ild to the N o . 1 D is t r ic t m a y be a v a ila b le w h e n r e q u ir e d fo r u se , it is d e s ir a b le th a t th e re s h o u ld b e a d d it io n a l d r iv e r s fo r it. M e m b e r s o f A m b u la n c e D iv is io n s w h o c a n d r iv e a F o r d C a r , a n d g e t to St. J o h n ’s G a t e q u ic k ly in c a s e o f e m e r g e n c y , w ill b e v e r y w e lc o m e , a n d if a ro s te r o f d u t y c a n b e p r e p a r e d , it w ill n o t be n e c e s s a r y to c a ll o n a n y o n e d r iv e r s o fre q u e n t ly . (S ig n e d ) W . H . W I N N Y ,

Deputy-Commissioner. H e a d q u a r t e r s :— S t. J o h n ’s G a te , C le r k e n w e ll, E . C . IM P O R T A N T

N O T IC E .

D iv is io n a l S e c r e t a r ie s a re re q u e s te d w h e n s e n d in g n e w s ­ p a p e r c u t t in g o f t h e ir m e e tin g s, etc., to g iv e th e d a te o f p u b li­ c a t io n o f th e n e w s p a p e rs .— E d i t o r .

H a m p s t e a d . — A n in t e re s tin g in n o v a t io n in the t r a in in g o f t h is D iv is io n h a s b e e n m a d e t h is y e a r, m e m b e rs b e in g e n ­ c o u r a g e d to re a d p a p e r s o n t h e ir e x p e rie n c e s . S o f a r we h a v e h a d p a p e r s o n C iv ilia n , N a v a l a n d M ilit a r y d u tie s .

A I D. -

Marc h,

.8.

O n J a n u a r y 4th C o r p o r a l O w e n , n o w a s e n io r s ic k b e rth a tte n d a n t, a d d re s s e d th e D iv is io n o n th e t ra n s p o rt o f n a v a l p a tie n t s a n d t h e ir r o u t in e tre a tm e n t a fte r a r r iv a l in h o s p ita l. H e d e ta ile d th e m a n y w a y s in w h ic h th e b r ig a d e t r a in in g h a d h e lp e d h im in h is n e w d u tie s . C o r p o r a l O w e n is s t ill o n s e r ­ v ic e , a n d g a v e a m o st c le a r, in s t r u c t iv e a n d in t e re s tin g d is ­ co u rs e . O n F e b r u a r y 6 th C o r p o r a l M o r e la n d o p e n e d a d is c u s s io n o n “ D is c r im in a t io n in F ir s t A id , ” illu s t r a t in g h is s u b je c t b y p e rs o n a l e x p e rie n c e s in c iv il w o r k a n d in th e S p e c ia l C o n ­ s ta b u la r y . O n e in t e re s tin g p o in t ra is e d w a s th e lin e o f a c tio n to be a d o p te d w h e n a c a s e is a lr e a d y b e in g tre a te d b y a t ra in e d a m b u la n c e m a n . T h i s g a v e ris e to m u c h d is c u s s io n , a n d w a s u lt im a t e ly re fe rre d to D r . C o rb e t F le t c h e r , w h o se d e c is io n w a s p u b lis h e d in th e Q u e r y c o lu m n o f F e b r u a r y is s u e o f F i r s t A id .

O n F e b r u a r y 2 6th P r iv a t e F o w le s (w h o w a s h e a r t ily w e l­ co m e d o n h is re tu rn a fte r 3 ! y e a r s ’ s e r v ic e in R . A . M . C . ) re a d a p a p e r o n h is e x p e rie n c e s in th e M ilit a r y H o m e H o s p it a ls . D u r in g h is term o f s e r v ic e h e h a d b e e n e n g a g e d u p o n th e p r e ­ p a r a t io n o f a u x ilia r y m ilit a r y h o s p ita ls , th e re c e p tio n o f p a tie n ts a n d t h e ir s u b s e q u e n t tre a tm e n t, a n d w a s th e re fo re w e ll q u a lifie d to d e a l w ith th e s u b je c t O n e m o st in t e re s tin g fa c t h e re p o rte d w a s th a t, w h e n h e jo in e d u p a t M illb a n k H o s p it a l the R . A . M . C . s ta ff m a rc h e d o ff th e s q u a re , a n d w a s im m e d ia t e ly r e p la c e d b y m e m b e rs o f th e St. J o h n A m b u la n c e B r ig a d e , a ll o f them v o lu n t e e rs . T h i s c le a r ly d e m o n s tra te d th a t the B r ig a d e h a s b e e n tru e to its o b je c ts o f fo rm a tio n , a n d h a s t ra in e d a b o d y o f m e n d u r in g p e a ce a s a re s e rv e fo r the r e g u la r m ilit a r y a n d n a v a l m e d ic a l s e r v ic e s in tim e o f w a r. F u r t h e r p a p e rs w ill fo llo w la te r, b u t o u r n e x t item o f in ­ s tru c t io n is a p u b lic c o u rs e o f le c tu re s o n “ H o m e H y g ie n e ,” w h ic h s ta rts o n T u e s d a y , A p r i l 16 th , a n d a re o p e n to b o th m e n a n d w o m e n , w h e th e r m e m b e rs o f th e B r ig a d e o r not. F o r p a r t ic u la r s a p p ly to S e rg t. N o rw o o d , 5, G a y t o n - r o a d , H a m p ste a d . N o . 7 7 ( U n d e r g r o u n d R a i l w a y s ) D i v i s i o n .— A s the u n d e r g r o u n d r a ilw a y s a re n o w u s e d fo r a ir r a id s h e lte rs , b e in g c o n s id e re d b o m b -p ro o f, th e y a re in c o n s e q u e n c e c ro w d e d d u r ­ in g th e se d a n g e ro u s p e rio d s . T h e N o . 7 7 D iv is io n is n o w tw e lv e m o n th s ’ o ld , a n d a re s u m e o f the d u tie s p e rfo rm e d m a y be in t e re s tin g . U n d e r n o r m a l c o n d it io n s , a c c id e n t s u n fo rt u ­ n a t e ly o c c u r (u n d e r t h is w id e s c o p e the m e m b e rs h a v e d e a lt w ith s u ic id e s a n d b ir t h s ), a n d it is s a t is fa c t o ry to r e c o rd th a t a ll c a s e s r e q u ir in g tre a tm e n t h a v e b e e n c o r r e c t ly d e a lt w ith b y th e m e m b e rs. D u r in g a ir ra id s , B a n k h o lid a y s a n d o th e r s p e c ia l e v e n ts a ll the m e n a re r e q u ir e d fo r d u t y o n th e r a i l ­ w a y s , b u t it is c o n te n d e d th a t a lt h o u g h n o t p e rfo rm in g o u ts id e d u ty , a s s is t a n c e to th e p u b lic is r e n d e re d w h e n n e c e s s a ry , h e n c e th e fu n c t io n s o f th e b r ig a d e a re in effect. O u ts id e d u ty h a s b e e n u n d e rta k e n o n th re e o c c a s io n s d u r in g th e y e a r. D u r in g th is y e a r fo u r s e p a ra te c la s s e s h a v e b e e n u n d e r tu itio n , a n d it is a n t ic ip a t e d th a t a c o n s id e ra b le in c r e a s e to th e d iv is io n w ill re s u lt. S in c e th e d iv is io n h a s b e e n fo rm e d , th e s u p e r in ­ te n d e n t o f the lin e a n d o th e r o ffic e rs o f th e C o m p a n y h a v e t a k e n so m e in te re s t in a m b u la n c e w o rk . A t s ta tio n s w h e re th e re is a n e ffic ie n t s ta ff in firs t a id a n a m b u la n c e b o x is p r o ­ v id e d b y th e C o m p a n y , a u d p r a c t ic a lly a ll s ta tio n s h a v e a s tre tc h e r, b a n d a g e s , etc.

No. 3 District. B i r m i n g h a m . — I t is w ith d e e p re g re t w e h a v e to a n n o u n c e th e d e a th o f D r . T h o m a s N e ls o n , w h o p a s s e d a w a y on M a r c h 4th. T h e la te D r . N e ls o n w a s a n E s q u ir e o f th e O r d e r o f St. J o h n o f J e r u s a le m in E n g la n d , w a s o n e o f th e o r ig in a l m e m ­ b e rs o f th e B ir m in g h a m C e n t re o f th e St. J o h n A m b u la n c e A s s o c ia t io n w h ic h w a s fo rm e d in 1880 : h e w a s a L if e M e m b e r, a n d a m e m b e r o f th e H o n o r a r y M e d ic a l S t a f f o f th e F ir s t A id C o m m itte e . I n 1911 D r . N e ls o n w a s a p p o in te d C o u n t y D ir e c t o r u n d e r th e T e r r it o r ia l F o r c e A s s o c ia t io n fo r V o lu n t a r y A id D e t a c h ­ m e n ts, B ir m in g h a m a n d (p a r t ) W o r c e s t e r s h ir e , a n d in J u ly , 1914, A s s is t a n t C o m m is s io n e r to N o . 3 D is t r ic t (S t. John Am­ b u la n c e B r ig a d e ).


March, 1918.

— FIRST

S in c e th e fo rm a tio n o f th e C e n t re in B ir m in g h a m a n d th e first A m b u la n c e D iv is io n s , D r . N e ls o n a s s o c ia te d h im s e lf m o st w h o le -h e a rte d ly w ith the w o rk o f the A s s o c ia t io n a n d B r ig a d e , o r g a n is in g a n d c o n d u c t in g c la s s e s in firs t a id , n u r s in g , s a n it a ­ tio n , etc., a r r a n g in g fo r th e p r o v is io n o f a m b u la n c e s in v a r io u s p a rts o f th e to w n ; fo r the t r a in in g o f m e m b e rs , th e o r g a n is a ­ tio n o f a n n u a l c a m p s , c o m p e t it io n s a n d tea m w o rk , d r ill, etc. H e w as r e s p o n s ib le fo r the t r a in in g a n d e q u ip m e n t o f 40 a m ­ b u la n c e m e n fo r s e r v ic e in th e S o u th A f r ic a n W a r . A s C o u n t y D ir e c t o r h e w a s r e s p o n s ib le fo r th e V o lu n t a r y A id D e ta c h m e n t s fo rm e d fro m th e a m b u la n c e a n d n u r s in g d iv is io n s o f th e B r ig a d e u n d e r th e T e r r it o r ia l s c h e m e o f the W a r O ffice. In 1 9 1 4 th e re w e re fo u r W o m e n ’s a n d tw o M e n ’s V . A . D . ’s re a d y fo r d u t y at th e o u t b re a k o f w a r : n o w , in 1918, th e re a re two B r ig a d e C o r p s , A m b u la n c e a n d N u r s in g , a n d the V o lu n ­ ta ry A id D e ta c h m e n t s fo rm e d fro m the m n u m b e r six te e n W o m e n ’s a n d s ix m e n ’s, w ith n e a r ly 2 ,00 0 w o rk e rs . S in c e th e c o m m e n c e m e n t o f th e w a r, th e in c r e a s e o f w o rk has b e en v e r y g re a t ; in a d d it io n to a r r a n g in g f o r the e ffic ie n c y a n d d is c ip lin e o f th e w o rk e rs , D r . N e ls o n , a s C o u n t y D ir e c t o r and C h a ir m a n o f th e J o in t V . A . D . C o m m itte e , w a s r e s p o n s ib le for the lo c a l V . A . D . H o s p it a ls , in c lu d in g th o se at M a lv e r n a n d H a le s o w e n , w ith u p w a rd s o f 1,000 b e d s ; th e R e s t S ta tio n at S n o w H i ll , a c k n o w le d g e d to be th e b e st in th e k in g d o m ; the t ra n s p o rt o f w o u n d e d fro m th e a m b u la n c e t r a in s to h o s p ita ls a n d fro m B a s e H o s p it a l to o th e r d e s t in a tio n s ; th e E n q u ir y D e p a rtm e n t fo r w o u n d e d a n d m is s in g s o ld ie r s , etc. T h e w o rk o f St. J o h n m e m b e rs w ith th e B ir m in g h a m a n d a n d D is t r ic t N u r s in g S o c ie t y w a s o n e in w h ic h D r . N e ls o n took a v e r y k e e n in te re s t. T h e fin a n c ia l s id e o f th e w o rk in v o lv e d the o u t la y o f m a n y th o u s a n d s o f p o u n d s a m o n t h ; th e r e s p o n s ib ilit ie s o f th is, c o m ­ b in e d w ith the c le r ic a l w o rk o f th e v a r io u s d e p a rt m e n ts in a d d itio n to the d u tie s o f a la r g e p riv a t e p ra c t ic e , c a n o n ly 'b e re a lis e d b y th o se w ho w e re a s s o c ia te d w ith D r . N e ls o n in h is w o rk f o r th e s ic k , a n d w o u n d e d a n d s u ffe rin g , h e w a s a lw a y s re a d y to h e lp th o se w h o n e e d e d h is a d v ic e a n d c o u n s e l, a n d h is lo ss is v e r y d e e p ly fe lt b y a ll c la s s e s o f th e C ity . T h e r e is n o d o u b t th a t h is d e v o tio n to d u t y h a s h a s te n e d his d e a th , w h ic h to o k p la c e v e r y s u d d e n ly at h is re s id e n c e at 78, H a g le y - r o a d , E d g b a s t o n ; h e h a d n o t ta k e n e v e n a n h o u r ’s le a ve s in c e th e b e g in n in g o f the w ar. A m e m o r ia l s e r v ic e w a s h e ld at B ir m in g h a m C a t h e d r a l on M a r c h n t h , w h e n re p re s e e t a t iv e s o f m a n y p u b lic b o d ie s w e re p re se n t in c lu d in g S ir J o h n H o ld e r , B a r t. ( K n ig h t o f G r a c e o f the O r d e r ), M r . J . H . R o g e r s (re p r e s e n t in g th e E a r l o f P ly ­ m o u th ), M r . T . H . W o o ls t o n (D e p u t y - C o m m is s io n e r N o . 3 D is t r ic t ) , a n d M r . A . J . L o w e (r e p re s e n t in g the B .R . C .S . ) . T h e B is h o p o f B ir m in g h a m d e liv e r e d a n e lo q u e n t a d d re s s .

No. 4 District. M a n c h e s t e r . — A m o st e n jo y a b le e v e n in g w a s s p e n t in c o n n e c tio n w ith th e M a n c h e s t e r S p e c ia l C o n s ta b le s N . E (B r a d f o r d ) D iv is io n o n F e b r u a r y 24th. I t to o k th e fo rm o f a s m o k in g c o n c e rt, a t w h ic h a b o u t 50 m e m b e rs w ere p re se n t. T h e a c t in g - s u p e r in t e n d e n t o f th e p o lic e fo r th e E D iv is io n (M r . R . T h o m a s ) p r e s id e d , a n d w a s s u p p o rte d b y th e C o r p s In s p e c t o r o f S to re s ( M r . H . E a s t w o o d ), a n d o th e r g e n tle m e n . M u s ic a l ite m s w e re a d m ir a b ly r e n d e re d b y M e s s r s . E . P ilk in g t o n , D . C r o s s le y a n d H . E a s t w o o d , a n d r e c it a ls o f a v a r ie d c h a r a c t e r w e re g iv e n b y M r. C . A . J o n e s , w h o w e ll s u s ta in e d h is h ig h r e p u t a t io n a s a n e lo c u tio n is t. T h e a c c o m p a n is t w a s M r. J . B a n d f o rd , A . L . C . M . T h e p re s e n t a t io n o f c e rt ific a t e s , v o u c h e r s a n d m e d a llio n s o b ta in e d in the re c e n t e x a m in a tio n w a s m a d e b y th e c h a ir m a n w ho p a id a h ig h t rib u t e to th e S u p e r in te n d e n t , M r . F . E l l i ­ son , w h o fro m its fo rm a tio n in 19 16 h a d u n d e rta k e n the in ­ s tru c tio n o f the c la s s w ith s u c h c o m m e n d a b le re s u lts . P r iz e s w e re a ls o d is t r ib u t e d to th o se m e m b e rs w h o h a d been s u c c e s s fu l in th e In d iv id u a l C o m p e t it io n o r g a n is e d b y the d iv is io n a l o ffic e rs , a n d w h ic h to o k p la c e o n F e b r u a r y 10 th . A m o st p le a s a n t a n d s u c c e s s fu l s o c ia l g a t h e r in g w a s b ro u g h t to a c lo s e b y th e u s u a l v o te s o f t h a n k s a n d th e s in g in g o f th e N a t io n a l A n th e m a b o u t 10 p .m .

AI D. —

No. 5 District. P o n t e f r a c t . — T h e c o r p s c o m m e n c e d th e y e a r w ith 1 1 9 m e m b e rs , a n d the s tr e n g th is n o w 1 3 0 ; o u t o f th e se 1 0 2 a re s e r v in g in th e R . A . M . C . , etc., in c lu d in g th re e o ffic e rs , th re e s e r g e a n ts a n d th re e c o r p o r a ls ; fo u r m e n o f th e c o r p s h a v e b e e n k ille d in a c t io n a n d o n e re p o rt e d m is s in g ; 1 2 h a v e b e e n w o u n d e d , a n d C p l. D . S c o tt h a s w o n th e M ilit a r y M e d a l fo r b r a v e r y o n th e fie ld . D u r in g th e th re e y e a r s o f w a r t h is c o r p s h a s b e e n th e a m e n s o f r a is in g ^ 7 5 0 fo r “ O u r D a y ” R e d C r o s s F u n d s , b e s id e s a b o u t £ 6 0 0 fo r o th e r A m b u la n c e a n d R e d C r o s s w o rk .

No. 6 District. H U L L .— T h e S t. J o h n V . A . D . H o s p it a l at H u ll , w h ic h is sta ffe d b y the m e m b e rs of th e N u r s in g D iv is io n a n d V . A . D . , is o n e o f th e fin e s t a u x ilia r y h o s p it a ls in th e c o u n t r y , it h a s a c c o m m o d a t io n fo r 4 5 0 p a tie n t s a n d is e q u ip p e d w ith e v e r y m o d e rn a p p lia n c e . L a d y N u n b u r n h o lm e is th e c o m m a n d a n t, a n d sh e ta k e s a d e e p in t e re s t in it, w h ile M r . K . W a t e r h o u s e is q u a r t e r m a s t e r a n d M is s H a in e r is th e m a tro n . L o r d F r e n c h o p e n e d th e h o s p it a l in A p r i l la s t y e a r, a n d it h a s h a d m a n y d is t in g u is h e d v is it o r s , in c lu d in g th e K in g a n d Q u e e n .

No. 11 District. I p s w i c h , — M is s M a r y C o u lc h e r , o n e o f th e r e c ip ie n t s o f the O r d e r o f the B r it is h E m p ir e , a tte n d e d at B u c k in g h a m P a la c e o n F e b r u a r y 20th fo r th e in v e s t it u re . U p o n h e r t e t u r n to Ip s w ic h M is s C o u lc h e r w a s m et at th e r a ilw a y s ta tio n b y r e p re s e n ta tiv e d e ta c h m e n ts o f o ffic e rs a n d n u r s e s o f th e I p s w ic h N u r s in g C o r p s , u n d e r th e s u p e r in t e n d e n c e o f D r . W . F . F r y e r , M is s E m w o r t b , S u p ts . G . C u r t is , J . P a w s e y , T . D a m a n t , a n d W . R a m s e y , a n d 1st O ffic e rs R . A . E l l i s a n d A . C . H i ll . B o u q u e ts w e re p re s e n te d to M is s C o u lc h e r fro m th e M a tr o n a n d S is t e rs o f B r o a d w a t e r H o s p it a l a n d fro m th e N u r s in g C o rp s. S u b s e q u e n t ly M is s C o u lc h e r w a s c o n g r a t u la t e d a t th e A m b u la n c e H a ll b y D r . F r y e r o n b e h a lf o f th e o ffic e rs a n d m e n o f th e S t. J o h n A m b u la n c e , a n d a ll p re s e n t w e re g iv e n th e p r iv ile g e o f e x a m in in g the e m b le m o f in v e s t it u r e . B e fo re le a v in g th e h a ll M is s C o u lc h e r t h a n k e d the c o m p a n y fo r the h e lp th e y h a d g iv e n a n d th e w o r k th e y w e re n o w d e v o t in g to a c a u s e s h e h a d s o m u c h at h e a rt.

No. 12 (Irish) District. O n M a r c h 2 n d a “ s o c ia l ” w a s h e ld in c o n n e c tio n w ith th e C it y o f D u b lin C o r p s o f th e B r ig a d e in St. A n d r e w ’s H o t e l, E x c h e q u e r - s t r e e t , D u b lin , a t 8 o’c lo c k p.m . T h e f u n c t io n w a s h o n o u r e d b y th e p re s e n c e o f th e D e p u t y C o m m is s io n e r ( D r . L u m s d e n ), M r s . L u m s d e n , a n d M is s N o r a h L u m s d e n , a ls o M r s . S le a th G e n t ( P r in c e o f W a le s ’ C o r p s , L o n d o n ). T h e f o l­ lo w in g m e m b e rs o f th e d is t r ic t a n d c o rp s w e re p re s e n t :— M r . W . G . S m ith ( D is t r i c t S u p e r in t e n d e n t ) a n d M r s . S m ith , M is s E l l a W e b b ( L a d y D is t r ic t S u p e r in te n d e n t ) a n d D is t r ic t O ffic e r M is s B la n d fo r d , M r . J a m e s H . W e b b (C o r p s S u p e r in t e n d e n t ) a n d M r s . W e b b , M r . R e g . K e a t in g e ( C o r p s S u p e r in t e n d e n t ) a n d M r s . R e g . K e a t in g e , M r s . S h a n k s ( L a d y C o r p s S u p e r in ­ t e n d e n t), a n d M r s . W a t s o n ( L a d y C o r p s O ffic e r). A ft e r th e a d m ir a b ly s e rv e d tea, p r o v id e d b y M is s J o h n ­ sto n , th e p r o p r ie t o r o f th e h o te l, C o r p s S u p e r in t e n d e n t J . H . W e b b c a lle d fo r a w a rm a n d re a l h e a r ty w e lc o m e to th e D e p u t y C o m m is s io n e r , w h o h a d ju s t r e t u r n e d fro m F r a n c e , w h ic h w a s c a r r ie d b y a c c la m a t io n . C o r p s S u p e r in t e n d e n t K e a t in g e th e n g a v e a v e r y in t e r e s t ­ in g d e s c r ip t io n o f h is re c e n t v is it to F r a n c e (in c o n n e c tio n w ith R e d C ro s s w o rk ), illu s t r a t e d b y la n te r n s lid e s o f p ic t u re s t a k e n in h o s p it a ls , fir s t a id d r e s s in g s ta tio n s , etc. T h e m u s ic a l p r o g ra m m e w a s s p le n d id ly o r g a n is e d b y L a d y D iv is io n a l S u p e r in t e n d e n t M is s C a m p b e ll, w h o w a s m o st fo rt u n a te in s e c u r in g th e s e r v ic e s o f M is s F lo r e n c e H o w le y , M r . K it t y F a g a n , th e M is s e s D o w s e , M r . A r t h u r L u c a s a n d M r . I r v in e L y n c h , w ith M is s C u o la h a n a s a c c o m p a n is t. T o o m u c h p r a is e c a n n o t b e g iv e n to th e se t a le n t e d a rt is t s fo r the c o m p e te n t w a y in w h ic h th e y s u s t a in e d t h e ir p a r t o f the e n te rta in m e n t.


J32

— F I R S T

AID.

March, 1918.

A t th e c lo s e o f th e m u s ic a l p a rt o f th e e v e n in g , D r . L u m s ­ d e n p re s e n te d the “ M id d le t o n C u r t is S h ie ld ” fo r th e m o st e ffic ie n t ly k e p t r e c o r d s o f a d iv is io n fo r the b r ig a d e y e a r — k in d ly p r o v id e d b y th e la te L a d y C o r p s T r e a s u r e r M r s . M id d le t o n C u r t is — w h ic h s h ie ld w a s w o n b y th e C it y of D u b lin N u r s in g D iv is io n , L a d y D iv is io n a l S u p e r in t e n d e n t M is s M o w b ra y . I n m a k in g th e p re s e n t a t io n , D r . L u m s d e n re fe rre d in th e m o st fe e lin g te rm s to th e lo s s th e b rig a d e h a d s u ffe re d th ro u g h th e d e a th o f M r s . M id d le t o n C u r t is , w h o h a d b e e n o n e o f the firs t w o r k e r s in Ir e la n d in c o n n e c tio n w ith the b rig a d e . M r. G e r a ld C u r t is , w h o w a s p re s e n t, o ffe re d , o n b e h a lf o f h im s e lf a n d h is b ro th e r , a T r o p h y in m e m o ry o f t h e ir m o th e r— to be c o m p e te d fo r a n n u a lly b y th e n u r s in g d iv is io n s o f th e b rig a d e . A m e d a l w a s p re s e n te d to S e rg t. T u g w e ll (M e s s r s . W . a n d R . J a c o b ’s & C o .’s D iv is io n ) fo r c o n s p ic u o u s c o u ra g e a n d b r a v e r y d u r in g th e In s u r r e c t io n o f 1916. S e re t. T u g w e ll h a s ju s t re tu r n e d fro m R u s s ia , w h e re h e w a s e n g a g e d in R e d C ro s s w o rk . T h e D e p u t y C o m m is s io n e r re tu rn e d t h a n k s to the a rt is t s fo r t h e ir S e r v ic e s , a n d to M r s . S h a n k s , L a d y C o r p s S u p e r in ­ te n d e n t, fo r the th o ro u g h m a n n e r in w h ic h th e a rra n g e m e n t s o f th e s o c ia l f u n c t io n w e re c a r r ie d out.

d is t r ic t w e re p re s e n t, a m o n g s t w h o m w e re s e v e ra l m e m b e rs o f th e d is t r ic t staff. T h e P r im a t e o f Ir e la n d , th e M o s t R e v . D r . C ro z ie r , w a s th e p re a c h e r , a n d in d e a lin g w ith th e w a r h e e x h o rt e d h is h e a r e rs to b e a r w ith o u t m u r m u r in g th e p e tty h a r d s h ip s a n d p r iv a t io n s t h e y w e re c a lle d u p o n to e n d u re , a n d to re m e m b e r w h a t th e m e n a n d w o m e n fig h t in g a n d w o r k in g in th e w a r zo n e s h a d to face . T h e p a ra d e o f m e n a n d n u rs e s in th e c h u r c h g r o u n d s at th e c o n c lu s io n o f th e s e rv ic e w a s in c h a r g e o f C o r p s . S u p ts. W e b b a n d K e a t in g e a n d L a d y C o r p s S u p t. M r s . S h a n k s , a n d th e r a n k s w ere in s p e c te d b y th e A c t in g D e p u t y C o m m is s io n e r a n d L a d y D is t r ic t S u p t. T h e o ffe rto ry in a id o f th e B r ig a d e w o rk a m o u n te d to o v e r ,£ 5 3 , a n d th e I r i s h D is t r ic t is fu r th e r in d e b te d to th e re c to r, th e R e v . P e r c y P h a ir , w h o h a s fo r so m e y e a rs p a st a rr a n g e d t h is s e r v ic e e a c h y e a r a n d g iv e n m u c h h e lp a n d e n c o u ra g e m e n t, n o t o n ly to th e d iv is io n c o n n e c te d w ith the c h u r c h , L e e s o n P a r k , b u t to th e b r ig a d e a n d its w o r k g e n e ra lly .

T h e fir s t a n n u a l m e e tin g o f th e N o r t h C o . D u b lin N u r s in g D iv is io n w a s h e ld o n M a r c h 4th , in th e St. G e o r g e ’s P a r o c h ia l H a ll. T h e fo llo w in g o ffic e rs w ere p r e s e n t :— D is t r ic t S u rg e o n , L ie u t .- C o l. P r in g le , R . A . M . C . ; D is t r ic t O ffic e r, M is s E . F . B la n fo r d ; C o r p s S u p t-, J a m e s H . W e b b ; L a d y C o r p s S u p t., M r s . S h a n k s ; C o r p s O ffic e r, A . J . M c W illia m ; a n d E . M c D o w e l C o s g r a v e , K n ig h t o f G ra c e , a c te d a s C h a irm a n . T h e c h a ir m a n re a d th e a n n u a l re p o rt, a ft e r w h ic h a c o m ­ p e titio n to o k p la c e b e tw e e n th re e te a m s, w h o s h o w e d t h e ir a b ilit y in r e n d e r in g first a id b y th e k e e n n e s s o f th e co n te st. L ie u t .- C o l. P r in g le a n d C o r p s S u p t. W e b b a c te d a s ju d g e s . N o . 2 te a m c a r r y in g a w a y the p rize . O n e fe a tu re o f th e p r o ­ g r a m m e w a s th e “ D r il l- d o w n ” b y th e N u r s in g S is t e rs u n d e r th e d ir e c t io n o f C o r p s O ffic e r A . J . M c W illia m , w h ic h re s u lte d in a s c o re fo r N u r s in g S is t e r H ig m a n . A d e lig h t f u l m u s ic a l p ro g r a m m e w a s r e n d e re d b y M a d a m A l i c i a K e o g h , M is s E . S t a n fo r d C a m p b e ll, a n d M e s s r s . V in e S a n d e r s o n a n d W . L e w in . A ll th e a rt is t e s w e re h e a r t ily e n c o re d . M r s . M a c D o w e l C o s g r a v e k in d ly d is t r ib u t e d t h e p riz e s , w h ic h in c lu d e d o n e f o r b e s t a tt e n d a n c e d u r in g th e y e a r. T h e o ffic e rs a n d m e m b e rs to o k the o p p o r t u n it y o f p r e ­ s e n t in g th e L a d y S u p t., M is s H a ll, in to k e n o f t h e ir este em a n d a ffe c tio n , w ith a n a d d re s s a n d p re s e n ta tio n , w h ic h to o k th e fo rm o f a g o ld p e a rl a n d t u r q u o is e p e n d a n t. T h e a d d re s s w a s a r t is t ic a lly d e s ig n e d a n d illu m in a t e d . T h e m e e tin g c o n c lu d e d w ith th e s in g in g o f the N a t io n a l A n th e m .

Messrs. Reynolds and Branson, Ltd., of 13, Briggate, Leeds, have placed on the market a se.ies of First Aid Cabinets to meet the requirements of the recent Home Office Order relating to iron works, etc. The one illus­

D is t r ic t S u p t. W . G . S m ith h a s ju s t b e e n a p p o in te d H o n o r a r y A s s o c ia t e o f th e O r d e r o f S t. J o h n . H e is th e s e c o n d m e m b e r o f o u r D is t r ic t to re c e iv e th is d e c o r a t io n , the o th e r b e in g D is t r ic t S u rg e o n C a p t a in W a lt e r C . S te v e n s o n , R . A . M . C . M r . S m ith jo in e d the B r ig a d e in 19 0 7, a n d it w a s o w in g to h is e ffo rts th a t a n e x c e lle n t A m b u la n c e D iv is io n w a s s ta rte d in M e s s r s . W . a n d R . J a c o b a n d C o .’s F a c t o r y in D u b lin . M r. S m it h w a s a p p o in t e d D iv is io n a l S u p t. o f th a t D iv is io n in J u ly 19 0 7, C o r p s O ffic e r, N o v e m b e r 19 14, C o r p s S u p t. in A u g u s t 1 9 1 5 , a n d D is t r ic t S u p t. in D e c e m b e r 1915. D u r in g th e S in n F e in R e b e llio n o f 19 16, M r . S m ith a c te d w ith g r e a t g a lla n t r y , a n d w a s a ft e rw a rd s a w a rd e d th e life s a v in g s ilv e r m e d a l o f th e O r d e r o f St. J o h n o f J e r u s a le m . D u r in g th e D e p u t y - C o m m is s io n e r ’s a b s e n c e in F r a n c e , he f ille d th e p o s it it io n o f A c t in g D e p u t y - C o m m is s io n e r w ith d is ­ t in c t io n , a n d a s th e C h ie f S t a ff O ffic e r to th e D e p u t y - C o m m is ­ s io n e r h e h a s p ro v e d h im s e lf a m o st a b le o ffice r.

A n in t e r e s t in g p a r a d e s e r v ic e w a s h e ld a t C h r is t C h u r c h , L e e s o n P a r k , D u b lin , o n S u n d a y , F e b r u a r y 3 r d , w h e n o v e r 150 o ffic e rs , m e n a n d n u r s in g s is t e rs o f th e b r ig a d e in th e D u b lin

First Aid Cabinets.

trated herewith contains all the necessary requisites for a Local Dressing Station. Our readers interested in works to which the Home Office Order applies should write Messrs. Reynolds and Branson, Ltd., for their price list.

C h e s te r .—

The report of the Centre for the past year

is of a very satisfactory character.

The St. John’s V.A.D.

had been very much in demand during the year for the care of the wounded soldiers, and that work alone was deserving of the greatest praise to all those who had assisted in such noble work.

The competitions this year had been excel­

lent. The silver challenge cup, kindly given by Mr. W. Carstairs Jones, was competed for on the 8th December, and won by St. John V.A.D. No. Team. T he “ Sir Owen Philipp’s ” medal was competed for on the 15th of the same month, and this was won by Mr. J. Carswell. The thanks of the committee were also due to Mr. J. R. Morris for kindly supplying additional medals. The detachment was formed in 1915 with a membership of six or seven men, and to day the total membership of all ranks was 70. Of these 70, 40 held first aid certificates, 28 held medallions 2 4 one or more labels, and 20 the nursing certificate.


March, 1918,

— F IR S T

A ID

&

THE

ST.

JOHN

AMBULANCE

G A Z E T T E .—

133

THE ST. JOHN AMBULANCE ^ GAZETTE. The Priory for Wales of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England. A f t e r 1 1 3 0 (or about that time) when Jordan de Briset gave ten acres of land in Clerkenwell to the Knights of St. fohn, on which to build their Priory, they acquired much property and received a number of Charters conferring on them valuable privileges. There is in the Cathedral Library of Canterbury a document dated 4th November, i 4 8 6 , in which are set out and confirmed Charters of Edward IV, Richard II, Edward III, Edward II, Edward I, and Henry III. T he document itself is of doubtful authenticity, but the previous Charters mentioned in it had undoubtedly existed, though they were probably destroyed by fire when rebels under Wat Tyler destroyed the greater part of the Clerkenwell Priory. In the reign of • Queen Mary, the Order, which had been suppressed by Henry V I I I , was reconstituted by Royal Letters Patent, dated 2nd April, 1557. Queen Elizabeth, however, again seized the property of the Order but did not revoke its Charter, and the English Branch continued to exist in Malta. In the early part of last century the Order was revived in England, and on the 14th May, 18 88 , received a Royal Charter from Queen Victoria. By this Charter no power was given to form Priories, but on the 22nd May, 1 9 0 7 , the necessary powers were obtained, and these have been exercised for the first time to form the Welsh Priory, a step taken by the Duke of Connaught as Grand Prior of the Order as at St. David’s Day last (1st March), Priories of the Order had previously existed at Torphichen in Scotland, and Kilmainham in Ireland, where the Order had several properties. The Priory of Wales now formed is, however, the first that has existed in the Principality, though the Order had possessions there, as is shown by the following list:—

Breconshire. —Llanfigan, Llanvyrnach. Cardiganshire.— Cardigan, Homdon (Cardigan), Llanrhystyd, Moelon, Rhostie, Troed-y-raur, Ystrad-Merie, Llansantffraid. Carmarthenshire.— Cilmaenllwyd,Cilsant, Kidwelly, Esgermaentir, Newcastle Emlyn, Llanllwch. Carnarvonshire.— Permachno. Glamorganshire.— Multon, Penmark, Porth Ceri, Margam, Dinas Powis ; Ilston, Llandimore, Llandrhidian, Lloughor (in Gower); Penkeyte (? Pencoedj; Oxwich, Penmaen, Porteynon, Rhosilly, Walterston (in Gower); Swansea. Pembrokeshire.— Ambleston, Amroth, Lanelau, Llan Deilo, Martltwy, Rosmarket, Rowistick, Slebech, Stremenrick, East Walton, Wiston (Castel Gwrys), Templeton, ’’•olgenwol (Yspythy Ifan), Claresbeston, Minwear, Alleston, Boulston, Canaston, Cuffern, Haverfordwest, Letterston, Llanfair-nant-ygof, Merryborough, Merthyr Kinlas (Malhry), Newport, Prendergast, Redberth, Rinaston, Rudbaxton, S. Lawrence, Stackpole, Stokeburgia, near Llawhaden, Ozmaston, Bury. Radnorshire.— Llanvihangel-nant-melan. County not identified.— Benegerdon, Betmenon, Blakedon, Bocchinfeild, Burlake, Dolbryvaur, Garlandston, Ros (Castle of), Sarnnelay, Welsh Hook, Willanvel, Woodstock.

Most of the properties were under the governance of the chief house, which was situated at Slebech in Pem­ brokeshire. This was a Preceptory, in charge of the sub­ ordinate houses, and returning the profits to Headquarters at Clerkenwell. The unsettled state of the Principality is illustrated in a Return of 1338, in which the Preceptor, John de Frouwyck, charges the expenses of servants and adds : “ And for the many others who come in from Wales in great numbers and are great wasters and a heavy burden.” He also claims : “ Payment to two of the magnates of Wales, for maintaining and protecting the bailiwick against the highway robbers and malefactors of the countryside of Wales, who are fierce in those parts ; to wit, Richard Penres, 40 shillings and to Stephen Perot 40 shillings.” The total receipts are returned at ^ 3 0 7 ts. io£d., and the expenses as ^ 1 4 1 2s. 7d,, showing that there was a substantial balance to send to the Grand Priory at Cletkenwell and thence to headquarters in Rhodes. In the Library of the Order at St. John’s Gate, is an original deed of the 15th century, being a grant from the Bishop and Chapter of Bangor to the Hospital of Jerusalem of the Church of Permachno at Dolgenwo), also known as Yspythy Ifan (the Hospital of St. John). With the exception of the ancient churches, of which the Order held the avowsons, antiquarian relics of the Hospitallers in Wales are very scarce. At Slebech there are still interesting/emains, and in the manor house along twohanded sword, found upon the site, is preserved. The theory put forward by some authorities that this sword was used for conferring the accolade upon Knights of the Order is untenable, as such Knights were made, except at the Headquarters of the Order or at a Grand Priory. Never­ theless, the weapon is a fine example of the skill of the 13th century amourer. Tne Prince of Wales, whom the King made a Knight of Justice of the Order last year, has consented to be the first Prior of the Welsh Priory, and the Grand Prior of the Order has appointed as the Executive Officers of the Priory, to hold office for three years :— T h e R t. H o n . th e E a r l o f P ly m o u t h , C .B . ( K n ig h t o f J u s t ic e ) , S u b - P r io r fo r W a le s . S ir O w e n P h ilip p s , K . C . M . G . , M .P . ( K n ig h t o f J u s t ic e ) , A c t in g S u b - P r io r fo r W a le s . T h e B is h o p o f St. D a v id s , C h a p la in fo r W a le s . T h e E a r l o f P o w is ( K n ig h t o f G ra c e ), B a ilif f o f S ;. D a v id s . L o r d M o s t y n ( K n ig h t o f J u s t ic e ), H o n o r a r y B a ilif f f o r W a le s . T h e R t . H o n . D a v id L lo y d G e o rg e , M . P , C h a n c e llo r fo r W a le s . T h e H o n . M r . J u s t ic e S a n k e y , G . B . E . , V ic e - C h a n c e llo r fo r W a le s . C o l. S ir W a t k in W illia m s - W y n n , B a r t ., H o n . T r e a s u r e r fo r W a le s . L ie u t .- C o l. T h o m a s W a lla c e , M .D . ( H o n . S e r v in g B r o t h e r ), T r e a s u r e r fo r W a le s . M r. L e o lin F o r e s t ie r - W a lk e r , H o n . D ir e c t o r fo r W a le s o f S t J o h n A m b u la n c e A s s o c ia t io n . T h e R t . H o n . T h o m a s R ic h a r d s , M .P ., D ir e c t o r fo r W a le s o f S t. J o h n A m b u la n c e A s s o c ia t io n . L ie u t .- C o l. D a v id D a v ie s , M .P ., H o n o r a r y A lm o n e r fo r W a le s . C o l. J . A r n a u lt J o n e s , M .D . ( K n ig h t o f G r a c e ), A lm o n e r fo r W a le s . L o r d K e n y o n , K . C . V . O . , R e g is t r a r fo r W a le s .


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T h e R t . H o n . E l l i s J . G riffit h , K .C ., M .P ., S t a n d in g C o u n s e l. M r . H u g h M . In g le d e w , H o n o r a r y S o lic it o r . M r . H e r b e r t L e w is ( K n ig h t o f G r a c e ), P r in c ip a l S e c r e t a r y a n d C o m m is s io n e r fo r W a le s .

The objects of the Priory, subject to the jurisdiction of the Grand Prior and the Chapter-General of the Order, are :— I . — T h e e n c o u ra g e m e n t a n d p ro m o tio n o f a ll w o r k s o f h u m a n it y a n d c h a r it y in th e r e lie f o f s ic k n e s s d is t r e s s , s u ffe r in g a n d d a n g e r w ith o u t d is t in c t io n o f ra c e c la s s o r c re e d , a n d th e e x t e n s io n o f th e g re a t p r in c ip le o f the O r d e r “ P r o U t ilit a t e H o m in u m .” II. - — A id in g th e s ic k p o o r a s b y p r o v id in g th e c o n v a ­ le s c e n t o u t -p a t ie n ts o f p u b lic h o s p it a ls a n d d is p e n s a r ie s w ith d ie ts p r e s c r ib e d b y th e m e d ic a l o ffic e rs a n d v is it in g th e m at t h e ir h o m e s d u r in g th e p e rio d o f s ic k n e s s the f o u n d a t io n a n d m a in te n a n c e o f c o tta g e h o s p it a ls a n d c o n ­ v a le s c e n t h o m e s a n d t r a in in g e s t a b lis h m e n t s fo r n u rs e s to a tte n d the s ic k p o o r. M a k in g p r o v is io n fo r th e c a r e a n d w e lfa re o f w o u n d e d o r d is a b le d s a ilo r s a n d s o ld ie rs . I I I . — T h e p ro m o tio n o f a m o re in t im a t e a c q u a in ta n c e w ith th e w a n ts o f th e p o o r in tim e o f s ic k n e s s a n d th e s u p p ly in g o f s u c h in fo r m a t io n a s m a y u s e fu lly a id th e p r o ­ p e r a u t h o r it ie s in th e p ro s e c u t io n ;o f m e a s u re s fo r th e im ­ p ro v e m e n t o f th e lo c a lit ie s a n d h o u se s in h a b it e d b y th e p o o r. I V . — T h e o r g a n is a t io n o f a id to th e s ic k a n d w o u n d e d in w a r a n d th e p r o m o tio n in th e P r in c ip a lit y o f s u c h p e r ­ m a n e n t o r g a n is a t io n d u r in g th e tim e o f p e a c e a s m a y be at o n c e a v a ila b le u p o n th e o c c u rr e n c e o f a n y n e c e s s it y fo r a c t iv e e x e rtio n . V . — B r in g in g to th e n o t ic e o f th e O r d e r a n y s p e c ia l s e r v ic e s in th e c a u s e o f h u m a n it y e s p e c ia lly fo r th e s a v in g o f life a t im m in e n t p e r s o n a l r is k a s th e C h a p t e r o f the P r io r y fo r W a le s m a y d e e m w o rt h y o f re c o g n it io n b y the O rd e r. V I . — T h e m a in te n a n c e a n d d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e a c t iv i­ tie s a n d w o r k o f the St. J o h n A m b u la n c e A s s o c ia t io n a n d th e St. J o h n A m b u la n c e B r ig a d e a s e s t a b lis h e d a n d c o n ­ tro lle d b y th e O r d e r , a n d s u c h o th e r d e p a rtm e n ts a n d w o rk a s m a y b e fro m tim e to tim e e s t a b lis h e d a n d c o n tr o lle d b y th e O r d e r .

T he Chapter of the Priory will consist of the Executive Officers of the Priory and of all the Knights of Justice, not more than six Knights of Grace, three Esquires, and teD other Members or Honorary Associates of the Order resident in Wales, or of Welsh descent or association. The Chapter will meet on St. David’s Day and at other times when neces­ sary, and will from time to time submit to the Prior as Members or Associates or Serving Brothers or Serving Sisters of the Priory for Wales such persons professing the Christian faith as the Chapter may think fit. The candi­ date must merit admission either for work done for the Order or its Departments or the Priory of Wales or by a persistent course of attachment to its objects. In the latter case the candidate’s admission shall rest upon the expectasion that under the guidance of the Priory for Wales, he or she will continue to carry out in his or her life, and con­ duct those principles which actuated him or her before admission. T he admission of candidates to the Priory for Wales will not constitute admission to the Order, but they will be styled Members, Associates, Serving Brothers or Sister of the Priory for Wales. Every Member or Honorary Associate of the Order who is resident in the Principality or is of Welsh descent, or association, may become a Member of the Priory for Wales on signifying to tho Principal Secretary for Wales, Herbert Lewis, Esq., 46, Charles-street, Cardiff, by notice, in writing, his desire to become a Member thereof. Any question as to what constitutes Welsh residence, descent or association will, in case of doubt, be determined by the Chapter.

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No doubt those who are qualified to join the Priory will seize the opportunity afforded to them and by their active support contribute to the usefulness and prosperity of the first St. John Priory in Wales, and also the first established by the revived English Branch of the old Hospitaller Order.

The Genesis of the Indian Branch of the 5.J.A.A. By

L i e u t . - C o l . A. C . Y A T E , F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.Soc.

(Continued from page 120.) A n e r a in the progress of the Indian Branch was marked

when H .R .H . the Duke of Connaught came to India for the Durbar of 1902-03. On the 24th of February, 1903, His Royal Highness distributed certificates to qualified members of the St. John Ambulance Association in Bom­ bay, and afterwards addressed these words to the Bombay Centre and to India “ Your Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen,— Before I left England the Grand Master of the Order, the Prince of Wales, asked me if I would take the opportunity of showing the interest he takes— and I take— in the St. John Ambulance work ; and I had an interview with Colonel Yate at Delhi, when it was arranged that I might have the opportunity here at Bombay, with the permission of His Excellency the Governor, of meeting those who were do­ ing such good work on the part of the St. John Ambulance Association and of presenting certificates. You have all heard the report which has been read by the General Officer commanding the Bombay Army, and I am very pleased to .see that Sir Robert Low takes so very deep an interest in the promoting of this good work. I am certain the Bombay Centre is very grateful for the great interest shown by his Exceilency the Governor and Lady Northcote in the work, which is still in its infancy, but which will, I hope, spread far and wide throughout India. T o those gentlemen I desire to express my grateful appreciation of the time they have given up to this work, and of the excel­ lent results that have already attended their endeavours. Help to those who through accident are momentarily in­ capacitated and who for immediate aid may not be able to get the attendance of a medical officer, is of such import­ ance, that I am certain that in a country like India, where there is great humanitarian feeling, people will readily respond to the endeavours which are being made by the St. John Ambulance Association to promote its objects, and teach those who are mostly brought into contact with passengers and others how to render the requirements of first aid. Such people are naturally the police and employees of the railways, and I am very much pleased to see that the Commissioner of the Bombay Police and the Bombay and Baroda Railway have so largely taken up this work, and that already two of the police have been able to put to practical test the great advantages of first aid, by which two boys taken out of the sea almost dead were able to be restored to animation. “ Ladies and gentlemen, this is a special work in which ladies can do a great deal, and I am sure that the kindly interest taken by ladies, both British and Native, in this work, will largely promote its propagation throughout the


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country. Bombay has taken a leading part in the St. John Ambulance work, and, considering that it is only two years since it was fairly started, I may say I am immensely struck with and very much pleased to see what has already been done. We hope it is not going to remain in Bombay alone, but that all parts of India will take this work up and will recognise its utility and its humanitarian influences. It is not so long since this work was started in England, but the way in which it has spread within the last twenty-four years is marvellous. I do not know what we should have done in the late war in South Africa had it not been for the assist­ ance given by the bearer companies who went out from the Ambulance Association, and who were able to assist the Royal Army Medical Corps in their onerous duties. Let me assure you, ladies and gentlemen, that not only I, but Her Royal Highness also, who has come here to-day, takes the deepest interest in this work. I wish it every possible success, and I hope that our coming here to-day will show you the very practical interest we take in the work, which we are sure is only it its infancy in India, and which will, we hope, spread amongst all nationalities and among all creeds, and that as time goes on there will not be a town or village in India which cannot count among its inhabitants someone who has obtained the St. John Ambulance cer­ tificate.” When His Royal Highness saw me at Delhi, one thing he said remains fixed on my memory. Possibly I expressed some little disappointment at the slowness of progress, for he replied: “ It took twenty-five years to make progress in England. You must make India perhaps even a more liberal allowance,” In less than fourteen years from the start India was ready for the great war. It was not till 1898 that the bureaucrats of the War Office dis­ covered the virtues of St. John’s gate, which had been at work since the early seventies, under the directorship, as already mentioned, of Surgeon-Major Manley, V.C., and Colonel Duncan, M.P. As early as 1904 I made to the Government of India the offer of sending an ambulance contingent to Japan, then at war with Russia. It remains to say a few words about the transfer of my duties as Honorary Organising Commissioner, under the orders of Viceroy, on the 31st March, 1905, to a Committee of which Lord Kitchener most kindly accepted the chair­ manship. Deeming it wise to take time by the forelock, I wrote on the 12th of April, 1904, to the Viceroy’s private secretary and asked if His Excellency would approve of the formation of a Central^Committee of the Indian Branch of the St. John Ambulance Association. The reply, dated 27th April, was as follows :— “ Your letter of April 12th has been laid before the Viceroy, who has given it his careful consideration. His Excellency desires me to say in reply that, as he is just returning to England, he cannot undertake at present to arrange for the constitution of a Committee, and that it would be undesirable that you should, yourself, take any steps to constitute it in his absence.” The command of a regiment and the management of a branch of the St. John Ambulance Association which had already formed 14 Provincial and Native States Centres did not let time hang heavily on my hands. Among those who came forward during 1904 to support the ambulance cause may be mentioned Sir James Digges La Touche, Lieut.-Governor of the United Provinces, Mr. Orange, the Director-General of Education, Colonel Brown Synge Hutchinson, V.C., of the 14th Hussars ; Colonel Simlette, I.M.S., the Residency Surgeon at H.H. the Nizam’s capital, and Colonel (now General Sir John) Nixon. This

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was before the days when the Viceroy looked out upon the work of the Indian Branch and saw that it was good and forthwith -.— Arinuit et totum nutu tremefecit Olympum The men who helped me in 1901-05 did not wait for the Viceregal nod.

(T o be concluded).

The Present S tate of Preparation for Relief Service of the Red Cross Society of Japan. Contributed through M rs. R. J. B L A C K H A M , Lady of Grace of the Order of St. John, a Member of the Japanese Red Cross. I.— R e h e f Corps. There are 126 Relief Detachments consisting of trained nurses, 29 Detachments consisting of trained attendants (male), and 2 hospital ships. II.— Personnel of the same is composed of 197 physicians, 330 head nurses, 77 head attendants, 3,458 trained nurses, 918 trained attendants, 873 probationers (female), and 37 probationers (male). I I I .— Relief Supply, (a) Relief supply in time of war is always in readiness to meet all the necessaries for 126 Relief Detachments consisting of trained nurses, 29 Relief Detachments consisting of attendants (male), and 2 hospital ships. (b) Relief supply in time of natural calamities is pre­ pared as follows:— Surgical instruments, 3,028 pieces; patient’s gowns, 20,140 pieces; bedding, 28,6rr pieces; stretchers, 727 pieces ; tents, 201 sets ; mantles for mem­ bers of the Relief Detachment, 1,392 pieces ; uniforms for members of the Relief Detachment, 4,868 suits ; miscel­ laneous, 3,583.

R e lie f Work in Time o f War. The war with Germany in 1914-15 caused our Society to administer its relief service to the sick and wounded. Two hospital ships, “ Hakuai Maru ” (Philanthropy) and “ Kosai Maru” (Humanity), of the Society, always in readi­ ness at a moment’s notice, were thoroughly equipped and engaged in transporting the wounded of both belligerents between Tingtao and Japan. In addition, we despatched 4 Relief Detachments to the naval and military hospitals at Sasebo (Japan) and Tingtao (China) respectively. The number of patients treated by these Relief De­ tachments are given below :— Patients, including 12 German war-prisoners, on board the hospital ship “ Hakuai Maru,” 1,025 > patients, includ­ ing 19 German war-prisoners on board the hospital ship “ Kosai Maru,” 1,059 patients, inoluding English soldiers, at the naval hospital at Sasebo, 729; patients, including 339 German war-prisoners, at the military hospital at Tingtao, 247.

R elief Detachments sent Abroad. Upon the outbreak of the present war in Europe, our Society, desiring, in conformity with the principle of the Red Cross, to render our humble service to the war victims of the allied countries, despatched three Relief Detach­ ments there, each one having had a different destination, namely, England, Russia and France. Speaking more particularly, one to England was en­ gaged in the work there for 335 days, from January 31st to


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December 31st, 1915, and returned to Japan in March of the following year; one to Russia for 475 days, from December 20th, 1914, to April 8th, 1916, and returned to Japan in May, 1916 ; and one to France for 501 days, from February 15th, 1915, to June 30th, 1916, and came back to Japan in September, 1916. The number of patients treated by them is as follows : — By the Relief Detachment stationed at the British Red Cross Hospital at Netley, 2,591 ; in hospital temporarily established by our Society in Petrograd, 496 ; in Paris by the Relief Detachment sent out there, 910.

The R e lie f and Inform ation Service f o r the Prisoners of War. In December, 1914, our Society instituted the Com­ mittee for the Relief and Information Service for the Prisoners of War, with the object of transmitting to them letters, parcels and money coming directly from their relatives and friends or indirectly through the International Red Cross Committee at Geneva. The number of such things we dealt with is given below :— Received and delivered in 1915, 323 articles; in 1916, 183. Despatched i 9 i 5> 263 ,, 1916, 162. Our Society has contributed 2,500 francs towards the fund of the similar committee established within the Inter­ national Red Cross Committee at Geneva.

The R e lie f W ork in Time o f N a tu r a l Calamities. The term “ natural calamities ” here implies such accidents as often caused by the conflagration, the collision of railway cars, the public crowding, and the like. During the year 1916 the number of cases where dis­ aster relief was carried out by the First Aid Departments of local branches of the Red Cross Society of Japan amounted to 146, and the number of patients to 2,841, whilst those who were treated by the permanent posts of relief in the city of Tokyo and Kyoto numbered 3,390 in the same year.

Anti-Tuberatlosis Campaign. During the year of 1916 the consumptive patients who were taken into our local Red Cross hospitals numbered 1.501 persons, and those of day-patients 5,940, whilst ordi­ nary ones taken into our Central Red Cross hospital in Tokyo and local Red Cross hospitals numbered 21.902, and day-patients 153,356 in all.

Membership. The number of members of the Society at the end of 1016 is as follows :— Honorary members, 49; special mem­ bers, 26,138; ordinary members, 1,726,208; total, i , 7S8. ° 5 "' Members bearing Order of Merit (“ Yukosho ” ) in these groups number 2,282 persons.

Pinance. Annual income, ¥ 4 ,2 8 1,75 1; annual expenditure, Y 2 ,043,053; balance, ¥2,175,698. Out of this balance Y i , 837,670 was carried into the Fixed Fund, and ¥338,028 into the expenditure for the following year.

The Committee of Ladies. A special committee of ladies, called the “ Ladies’ Volunteer Nursing Association,” exists inside the Red Cross Society of Japan, and consists of Imperial Princesses and lady members of the Society. A t the end of 1916 the whole members of the Asso­

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ciation numbered 15,234. Its principal objects are, firstly, to propagate the principle of the Red Cross work among our fellow country men and women ; and, secondly, to take in time of peace, nursing instruction and. in time of war, to assist relief work. During the wars in the past their services were worthy of notice in re manufacturing the bandage materials to be used in the military and naval hospitals, in visiting and consoling the sick and wounded there, and in practically engaging themselves in nursing work. They have done a great deal of relief work also in the tiaie of natural calamities.

The Grand Priory of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England. Chancery o f the Order , St. fohn's Gate , Clerkenwell, London , E .C ., M arch 2nd, i q i S. T h e K in g h a s b e e n g r a c io u s ly p le a s e d to s a n c t io n the f o llo w in g p ro m o tio n s in , a n d a p p o in tm e n ts to, the O r d e r o f the H o s p it a l o f St. J o h n o f J e r u s a le m in E n g la n d :—

A s Lady o f Justice ( from Lady o f G race): T h e L a d y E d e lin e S t r ic k la n d .

A s Knights of Grace : M a jo r D u d le y H e n r y A le x a n d e r , C .M .G . (fro m E s q u ir e ) . C h a r le s L e e N ic h o ls .

A s Ladies o f G ra ce: E d it h , L a d y D a n e . E t h e l M a r y , M r s . L y c e t t G re e n . H a n n a h S h a w , M r s . J. W . M o r k ill. E m m a , M r s . H o p e B a rto n . E lle n Lytcott, L a d y D o u g la s .

A s E squ ire : P e rc y P ie r p o in t B u rg e s s . S te p h e n H e r b e r t V ilv e n (fro m H o n o r a r y S e r v in g B r o th e r ). C e c il J o h n R e a d M a c F a d d e n , M .D . , C .M . (fro m H o n o r a r y A s s o c ia t e ).

A s Honorary Serving Brothers : L ie u t .- C o lo n e l F r a n k B e n ja m in C re s w e ll. J a m e s T h o m a s C h u rc h e r. E rn e st Seym our W ood. T h o m a s G e o rg e N o b le . Jo h n L a rd e r. C a p t a in W illia m H e n r y S a x o n D a v ie s . W illia m C la r e L e e s . W illia m B e n ja m in W illia m s .

A s Honorary Serving Sisters : M a r g a r e t , M is s M e lle tt. H e le n M a t ild a , M is s B o w e r. E v a K a t h a r in e , M is s B a d d e le y . E l le n R o s e , M r s . A n d re w s . M a r y C a t h e r in e B r u n o , M r s . M illa r , R . R . C .

B o r Enrolm ent as Honorary A ssociates: J o h n J o h n s o n , M .B ., C .M . H e n r y D o u g la s J o h n s , M .D . W illia m S lin g s b y M a n n , M .R . C .S . , L . R . C . P . M a r y L o u is a , M is s C a ld w e ll. E l le n K a t e , M is s F in n e m o r e . C h a r le s G e o ffre y S a w y e r. E liz a b e t h B la c k a ll, B a r o n e s s de T ’ S e rc la e s . M a ir i L a m b e r t C h is h o lm G o o d e n , M is s C h is h o lm . C o l. F r e d e r ic k K id d le , C .M .G . , A .M .S .


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THE

ST.

C o l. A lf r e d E d w a r d W e b b - J o h n s o n , D . S .O ., F . R . C . S . M a jo r A lf r e d W illia m A d a m s o n Ir w in , R .A . M . C . C a p ta in G e o rg e H a r o ld L a w s o n W h a le , M .D ., F .R . C . S . , R .A .M .C .(T .F .). C a p t a in L e s lie B ly t h M a x w e ll, O . B .E . C a p t a in H u m p h r e y N o c k o ld s , M .B ., B .S ., R . A . M . C H a r o ld L e p p in g t o n T h o r n t o n . T h e R e v . H e d le y H a s la m . W illia m G e o rg e S m ith .

Novel Essay Competition. D u r i n g the month of November, 1917, Sergt. Hanmer gave a series of his lectures in Dublin. The series con­ sisted of five lectures, all different subjects. T o create in­ terest in the work, the lecturer offered a prize of a First Aid Haversack to the writer of the best essay, each com­ petitor to write a paper on any three of the subjects. The winner of the first prize was Miss Lily Griffin, of Clontarf, whose work is shown below, the Doctor who judged the competition considers the Essay to be quite a course of first aid for either a beginner or an advanced student.

B E N E FITS

I

G IVEN I.— T r ia n g u l a r

D ER IVED BY

S e r g t .

B a n d a g e—

FROM C.

LECTURES

HANMER.

F r a ctu r es

a n d

t h e ir

T r e a t m e n t.

The triangular bandage, commonly called “ Esmarchs,” is a very valuable asset in first aid. In its open form it can be very effectively used as a fan by holding the apex between the teeth and the two ends in both hands. In this form the triangular bandage also makes the “ St. John ” and “ Large Arm ” slings. It is also used as a means of keeping on dressings or poultices as on the breast, shoulder, knee, elbow, etc. The triangular bandage when folded into “ Broad,” “ Narrow,” or “ Medium ” bandages can be used for securing splints, in case of fractures, or for affording support to dislocated or sprained limb, as in case of ankle. Then we have the “ Small Arm Sling,” made by folding the triangular into the broad bandage ; and lastly, we have the “ Ring Pad ” made from the triangular bandage. This pad is very effective in haemorrhage cases where there is also a fractured bone, as fractured skull. When making “ Two-handed Seat” it greatly relieves the bearer to use “ Ring Pad ” instead of hooking the fingers (Hanmer’s method). Fractures .— A fracture is a broken bone. Fractures may be caused by direct or indirect violence or muscular action. If a bone breaks at the spot where the injury is received it may be called direct violence. If a bone breaks at some other spot than that where injury is received it may be called indirect violence. A fracture caused by muscular action is where a bone is broken by contraction of muscles attached to it, as in knee-cap, etc. Fractures may be classed as follows Simple .— The bone is broken and there is no injury, or very slight injury, to surrounding parts. Compound .— The bone is fractured and there is also a wound which permits air and germs to enter. In this fracture the broken ends of long bone may protude. Complicated .— In this fracture, as well as the broken bone, there is also an injury to some internal organ, blood vessel or nerve.

JOHN

AMBULANCE

GAZETTE. —

i 37

C om m inuted— A comminuted fracture is one where the bone is broken into several pieces. Green Stiek. — When the bone bends or cracks without really breaking across it is called “ Green Stick ” fracture, this usually happens in bones of children. Impacted.— An impacted fracture is when broken ends of bone are driven into each other. Signs and symptoms of fractures are as follows :— jPain, swelling , loss o f pow er , irregularity , unnatural move­ ments and crepitus. A first aid worker must never look for crepitus, that should be left to the doctor. Treatment o f Fractures. — T reat on the spot, holding up traffic if necessary. Restrain a ll movement on part of the patient, as a careless movement may cause a simple fracture to become compound or complicated. Ge?itly draw injured limb into position. Steady atid support by means of padded splints and bandages. D o n 't forget to treat patient for shock by covering him up warmly, and while attending to injury, if patient is conscious, talk cheering to him and make light of his injury. Send for doctor immediately and see to proper means of transport. As regards splints and bandages, the first aider should be resourceful, and when proper appliances cannot be procured make use of whatever is avail­ able. For instance, in a street accident it is not always easy to procure the proper splints, but a gentle­ man standing by may have an umbrella or walking-stick, both of which make very good splints, or there may be a shop near by where someone can procure for you a rolled-up map, some stiff cardboard, a brush or broom handle. A policeman’s truncheon can also be utilised, and folded newspapers make excellent splints for a broken leg. Splints should be long enough and firm enough to keep the joints, below and above fracture, immovable. Splints should be padded, and if padding has to be improvised, the clothing of patient can be used effectively. Bandages can be im­ provised from scarfs, neck-ties, strips of clothing, etc. By­ standers can always be made use of, to help under your supervision and they can usually tell you the history of the case, which is a great help. Wken in doubt treat as a fracture. Rem arks.— In cases of badly crushed limbs, I think the cradle-splint, as illustrated by Sergt. Hanmer, an ex­ cellent means of support as well as an easy and comfort­ able one, also his suggestions about examining a leg for varicose veins or ulcers, so as to take great care when ap­ plying splints and bandages, as many a first aider might overlook this, and so make the patient’s last condition worst than his first.

(T o be continued).

Notes

and

News.

Home Hygiene Class for men and women starts on April 16th (Tuesday), at 8.30; held at the Mission Hall, Heath-street (a few doors from Hampstead Tube Station). Fee for course, 4s. Lecturer, Dr. Corbet Fletcher. Secre­ tary, Mr. B. Norwood, 5, Gayton-road, Hampstead. *** A course of First Aid Lectures will commence on the 9th April, from 7.30 to 9 p.m. at the Northampton Poly­ technic Institute, Clerkenwell, London, E.C. v. The course consists of eight lectures, and the fee is 3s. for non­ members of the Polytechnic, including the examination.


— F IR S T

A ID

&

THE

ST.

Further enquiries should be made to the Lady Super­ intendent, Miss A. M. Tuck. *** T he Ambulance Committee has appointed Sergeant Hanmer as Official Demonstrator of the First Aid Cine­ matograph Film recently prepared for this Association, details of which were given in our January issue. Sergeant Hanmer is organising a lecturing tour in all parts of the United Kingdom. The first series will take place in London between the dates of March 25th and April 30th inclusive, and the second series in the country. Each visit to a division or class will consist of two meetings on consecutive evenings ; the first being a lecture on First Aid, illustrated by the official film and a very comprehensive set of lantern slides, and the second a prac­ tical display of First Aid. In times like the present, when a knowledge of first aid is undoubtedly so essential to everyone, these lectures should do much to stimulate an interest among all classes. Full particulars as to dates, expenses, etc., can be obtained from the Chief Secretary, S.J.A.A., St. John’s Gate, Lon­ don, E.C. ** * A series of lectures on First Aid have been given by Captain G. A. Skinner, R.A .M.C., at Gillingham during the past months. The examination took place on Saturday, Jan. 5th, 1918, at the Casualty Hospital, Chatham. The examiner was Major J. E. Bates, R.A.M.C.(T.). officer in charge Surgical Division, Military Hospital, Fort Pitt, Chatham. At the conclusion of the examination, Major Bates stated that the ladies, the members of the class, had done ex­ ceedingly well and that they had an excellent knowledge of first aid. Quartermaster Sergeants Chesterman and Billingham, R .A .M .C., undertook the work of demonstra­ tion. * * * 11,050 members of the V.A.D . posted from Devon­ shire House are now working in military hospitals at home and abroad, under the Joint Committee, and 863 of these members were posted in January. The members are work­ ing in England, France, Switzerland, Italy, Malta, Holland, Salonika, Egypt and Mesopotamia. 597 ordinary applica­ tions for work were received during the month, and in answer to Sir Arthur Stanley’s appeal in the press 850 applications were received up to the end of January ; these applications were of a very satisfactory type. V .A.D. members working in military hospitals who are ill are sent to Queen Alexandra’s Military Hospital, Vincent-square, or to the Royal Free Hospital, Gray’s Innroad. Those members serving under the Joint Committee are sent to St. Thomas’ Hospital. In connection with these hospitals two convalescent homes have just been opened— one in Warwickshire, owing to the kindness of Mrs. Dawson, with the kind co-operation of Mr. Little, County Director of Warwickshire, which is for the members of Vincent-square, and Ardington Manor, which has been generously lent by Lady Wantage, and with which Admiral Fleet, County Director for Berkshire, is kindly helping. It is with deep regret that we report the death of eight members during the month. Six were drowned in the “ Aragon,” and another at Busrah in Mesopotamia. One General Service member is dangerously ill, hav­ ing received serious injuries in the railway accident near Carlisle. Her life was at first despaired of, but she is now slowly recovering. More and more requisitions are being received, includ­

JO H N

AMBULANCE

G A ZE TT E. —

March, 1918.

ing one from Salonika for 120 General Service members, and we are requiring new members to meet these requi­ sitions. The Motor School has now re-opened— this time at Devonshire House. There are also a certain number of assistant cooks being trained in the canteen at Devonshire House, and this arrangement seems to be answering very satisfactorily.

V The following addresses may be found useful to our readers :— T h e H e a d q u a r t e r s o f the J o in t W a r C o m m itte , 8 3, P a ll M a ll. A m o n g d e p a rt m e n ts w h ic h a re a c c o m m o d a te d a t th is a d d re s s a re th o se o f the C e n t r a l J o in t V . A . D . C o m m itte e , S to re s a n d T r a n s p o r t , T r a in e d N u r s e s , T r a v e llin g a n d P a s s p o rt s . T h e C e n t ra l P r is o n e r s P la c e , S .W . 7.

of W a r

T h e C e n t ra l W o r k r o o m s , R o y a l H o u s e , P ic c a d illy .

C o m m itte e , 4, T h u r lo e A cadem y,

B u r lin g t o n

M e d ic a l S to re s , 10, S o u th C re s c e n t , S to re S tre e t, W . C . 1. W o u n d e d a n d M is s in g , 18, C a r lt o n H o u s e T e r r a c e , S . W . i. W o m e n ’s P ic c a d illy , W . St. J o h n C h a ir m a n . 56,

J o in t V . A . D . D e p a r t m e n t , D e v o n s h ir e H o u s e , 1. W a r e h o u s e , fo r H o s p it a l S u p p lie s .— A d d r e s s S t. J o h n ’s S q u a re , E . C . 1.

St. J o h n A m b u la n c e B r ig a d e D e p o t.— A d d r e s s S u p e r in ­ te n d e n t, H a lk y n H o u s e , B e lg r a v e S q u a re , S .W .

B o m b a y . — His Excellency the Governor presided, and Lady Willingdon gave away awards at the annual meeting of the ambulance classes organised by Mr. and Mrs. D. F. Panthaki, under the auspices of the Bombay City Centre of the St. John Ambulance Association, held on 12th January, 1918, at Bombay. There was a large attendance of ladies and gentlemen taking an interest in the institution. The proceedings opened with a display of first aid and and home nursing. This consisted of a demonstration in triangular and roller bandages and of first aid in cases of dislocated shoulder, fractured knee cap, drowning, acci­ dental hanging and of burns at a fire. A number of young Parsi lades and gentlemen took part in the display. Mrs. Shirin D. F. Panthaki, Honorary Class Secre­ tary, then gave an account of the ladies ambulance class for the year ending 30th Septembei, 1917. She said : “ I beg to present the report of the work performed in the ambulance classes orgauised by me under the auspices of the Bombay City Centre of the St. John Ambulance Asso­ ciation during the year ending 30th September, 1917. Besides being the founder ond organiser of the Parsi Nursing Division of the St. John Ambulance Brigade Over­ seas, I have been connected with the Bombay Centre of St. John Ambulance Association for the last seven years. Before the official year 1910-11, ambulance instruction was not much spread amon the women of Bombay, but since then, 56 First Aid, Home Nursing and Home Hygiene Classes, besides four classes in Mid-wifery and Infant Welfare, were organised by me at various stages in Bombay, and they became very popular. Mr. and Mrs. Panthaki gave an excellent report of the year’s work, which shows the interest being taken in ambulance work in India. In all, 1381 females and 323 male students received instruc­ tion in various objects during the year.


— FIRST

March, 1918.

AID.—

139

spat in it, and then offered it to an officer. CONTENTS

OF

T H IS

NUMBER.

charity in warfare, caused the

E d it o r ia l—

T h e P r in c ip le s a n d P r a c t ic e o f A m b u la n c e W o r k ...

“ This per­

sistent degradation of the Red Cross, universal emblem of

129

deepest

possible impres­

sion on the British prisoners, both officers and men, at that time.”

D is t r ic t

R epo rts—

No. 1 ; No. 3

...

* * *

130

N o . 4 ; N o . 5 ; N o . 6 ; N o . 1 1 ; N o . 12

131

F ir s t A id C a b in e t s ...

132

T h e S t . J o h n ’s A m b u l a n c e

T

h e

third annual report of the joint finance com­

mittee of the British Red Cross Society and the Order of St, John of Jerusalem has been issued, covering the year

G a zette —

ended October 20th,

1917,

and

including a statement

T h e P r io r y fo r W a le s o f the O r d e r o f the H o s p it a l o f St. J o h n o f J e ru s a le m in E n g la n d ...

133

of accounts for the past

T h e G e n e s is o f th e In d ia n B r a n c h o f the S . J . A . A . . . .

134

tion and management of the great work of the Red Cross

T h e P r e s e n t S ta te o f P r e p a r a t io n fo r R e lie f S e r v ic e o f the R e d C r o s s S o c ie t y o f J a p a n ... ' ...

135

T h e G r a n d P r io r y o f th e O r d e r o f th e St. J o h n o f J e r u s a le m in E n g la n d

136

scribed by the public for the

137 137

wounded.

showed for the first time since the war began a deficiency

139

as compared with the expenditure.

H o s p it a l o f

N o v e l E s s a y C o m p e t it io n N o te s a n d N e w s B r e v it ie s

...

Q u e r ie s

a n d

A n sw ers

years.

T he

at home and abroad during the twelve

adminstra.

months

under

review involved no direct charge upon the funds sub­ The

income

C o r r espo n d e n ts—

t o

I n j u r y to P a lm a r A r c h e s

three

of

benefit the

Red

of

the sick and

Cross,

however,

* * *

140

question having been raised as to the position of

B a n d a g e s fo r F r a c t u r e d F e r m u r ...

140

T o b a c c o S m o k e in In s e n s ib ilit y ...

140

the members of the L.C.C. staff who are members of volun­

P a in t in E y e

140

tary aid detachments in the event of their mobilisation in

...

P o is o n o u s S n a k e B it e

...

T

h e

140

a national emergency, the General Purposes Committee in

U s e o f S a l V o la t ile

140

a recommendation adopted by the Council

S u b s e q u e n t T r e a t m e n t o f B u r n s ...

140

meeting, stated: “ Subject to the permission of the head

E x te rn a l U s e o f M u sta rd

at a recent

142

of the department concerned being obtained, no objection

...

142

be raised to officers and employes of the Council becoming

...

142

Red Cross Society and the St. John Ambulance Associa­

F ir s t A id W it h o u t D is c r im in a t io n

142

tion on the understanding that occasional duty may be

F ir s t A id W it h o u t K n o w le d g e

142

A p p lic a t io n o f R o lle r B a n d a g e P r a c t ic a l

members of the voluntary aid detachments of the British

P o in ts —

A n o t h e r C o m p lic a t e d A c c id e n t

performed so long as it does not interfere with their official duties ; and that, in the event of the detachment being mobilised (i.) for the purpose of repelling the enemy in the

Brevities.

event of an invasion being imminent, or (ii.) in the event of civil insurrection, the Council’s war service regulations

W

e

are so accustomed to German brutality that we are not

apply to members of its staff thus called out, provided that

surprised at any new evidence of it, yet we cannot suppress

their position and service under the Council are such as

a feeling of astonishment and pain when we learn that those

would have entitled them to the benefit of such regulations

who are the type of mercy— Red cross workers and nurses

if they had been eligible for enlistment and had enlisted in

should so shamelessly break all the

H.M . Forces.”

service.

traditions of their

We cannot imagine any British nurse being other

than gentle and skilled in her ministrations to German wounded, for the helplessness of the wounded man appeals to high instincts, and we could not vent on him, even if we were German, the natural anger that we feel towards our cruel enemy. * * * A

W h ite

Paper just issued, based on the sworn reports

T

h e r e

were up to the end of December,

1917, just

100 aid raids over the United Kingdom reported, viz., 51 by aeroplanss and 49 by Zeppelins.

T h e total casualities

incurred numbered 1,082 killed and 2,724 injured, viz., by areoplane 599 killed and 1,572 injured.

Four Areoplane

raids in 19 17 alone caused 404 deaths and injured 881 persons.

There were six Zeppelin raids and 13 aeroplane

of British officers and men, tells us that “ the Red Cross

raids over London.

women showed a positive hatred of the British” ; they

30th, 1917, were officially given as 366 killed and 1,092

refused them food and drink, and they frequently spat in

injured.

their faces.

46 aeroplanes brought down.

They would tantalise the starving prisoners

T h e casualties in London up to July

The casualties to raiders were 12 Zeppelins and The military damage caused

with the sight of food and then take it away, saying it was

by the raids was negligible, and the property loss well be­

“ not for swine.”

low the annual fire loss.

One woman brought a glass of water,


140

— F I R S T

Queries and Answers Correspondents.

AID. —

March, 1918.

p o s s ib le g o o d c o u ld r e s u lt fro m fo u lin g fre s h a ir w ith to b a c c o s m o k e ? I n a ll e m e rg e n c ie s , th e re fo re , c a r r y o u t th e in s t r u c ­ tio n s o f th e T e x t b o o k a n d p a y n o a tte n tio n to th e fo o lis h s u g ­ g e s tio n s o f ig n o r a n t b y s ta n d e rs . O r b e tte r s t ill, g e t r id o f th e m b y a llo t t in g so m e ta s k , e.g., ta k e w ritte n n o te to d o c to r, fe tch p o lic e litte r, & c .— N . C . F .

to

Queries w ill be dealt with under the following rules :—

1 ■ Letters containing Queries must be marked on the top left hana comer of the envelope “ Query," and addressed— F 4.6, Cannon-street, London, E .C .

ir st

P a in t

G.

2 • A l l Queries must be accompanied by a “ Query Coupon" cut jrom the current issue of the Journal, or in case of Queries from abroad from a recent issue. 2- — Tke Texfbook, to which reference may be made in these columns, is the Revised [cgry) E d iticn o f S . f . A . A . M an ual o f First-A id.

I.

t o

P a lm ar

A r ch es.

L . (N o r w o o d ) :— I s th e f o llo w in g tre a tm e n t c o r r e c t fo r a s ta b in p a lm a r a r c h e s ? A p p ly im m e d ia t e ly d ig it a l p re s s u re to r a d ia l a n d u ln a r a rt e r ie s ; a d v is e p a tie n t of in t e n t io n s ; p r o m p t ly la y h im d o w n a n d u t ilis e c o a t s le e v e fo r p a d b y fle x io n w ith fig u re -o f-e ig h t b a n d a g e a t e lb o w . N e x t a p p ly c le a n d r e s s in g o n w o u n d ; p la c e r o lle d p a d in h a n d a n d fix w ith p a lm a r a rc h b a n d a g e . F in a lly , lo o se n f le x io n ; u n d o t ig h t c lo t h in g p a y in g s p e c ia l c a r e to b o d y b e lt ; k e e p c r o w d b a c k to a llo w p le n t y o f fre s h a ir ; k e e p w a rm a n d g iv e s ip s o f w a te r ; a s k fo r n e a re s t d o c t o r ; a n d ta k e p a t ie n t ’s n a m e a n d a d d re s s .

Y e s , e xd e p t ( 1 ) th a t y o u fo rg o t to ra is e th e lim b d u r in g tre a tm e n t a n d to a p p ly th e S t. J o h n S lin g a fte r c o n t r o llin g h a e m o rrh a g e ; a n d (2 ) th a t, i f th e b o d y -b e lt is th e u s u a l lo o se fla n n e l b a n d , it is b e st le ft a lo n e a s a m e a n s o f r e t a r d in g b o d y h ea t. I t w o u ld n o t in te rfe re w ith r e s p ir a t io n .— N . C o r b e t F letch er

B an d ag es

f g r

F r actu r e d

P a in t g e n e r a lly c o n s is ts o f o il, w h ite le a d a n d p ig m e n t w ith t u rp e n tin e a d d e d to “ t h i n ” m ix tu re . B o th le a d a n d tu rp e n tin e a re in s o lu b le in w a te r. T h e r e f o re , tre a t a s fo r fo re ig n b o d y e m b e d d e d in e ye (T e x t b o o k , p. 1 1 7 ).— N . C . F .

I f W . G . is c o n v in c e d th a t h is p o in t s a re m a tte r is e n d e d . P e r s o n a lly I am n o t, a n d , w h e n fe m u r, I w ill— if I a m c o n s c io u s a n d a b le to t a lk — th e F ir s t - A id e r fir s t c o n t r o ls th e fra c t u re , then th e la s tly th e lim b s . — N . C . F .

E.

S m o ke

in

Sn a k e

B it e .

P . C . (S y d n e y , N . S . W . ) . — I f a m a n h a s b e e n b itte n b y a p o is o n o u s s n a k e a n d n o firs t a id tre a tm e n t is p o s s ib le for h a lf- a n - h o u r — (1 ) w o u ld the a p p lic a t io n o f lig a t u r e s d o a n y g o o d ? a n d (2 ) w h a t is th e b e st tre a tm e n t u n d e r these c ir c u m s t a n c e s ? (1 ) L ig a t u r e s a re a p p lie d to cu t o ff th e v e n o u s re tu rn ot b lo o d to h e a rt a n d to p re v e n t the e n t r y o f th e p o is o n in to the g e n e r a l c ir c u la t io n . I f h a lf- a n - h o u r h a s la p s e d , t h e ir u t ilit y is e x t re m e ly d o u b tfu l. A t the s a m e tim e , if y o u d e c id e to tre a t th e w o u n d a c t iv e ly , som e la ten t p o iso n m ay be le t loose, a n d fo r t h is re a s o n I w o u ld a d v is e a p p lic a t io n o f lig a t u r e s a s a p re lim in a r y to tre a tm e n t. (2 ) T h e c o n d it io n o f the p a tie n t m u s t b e y o u r g u id e . I f h e I s in a s ta te o f C o lla p s e , y o u m u st c o n c e n tra te a tte n tio n on t h is c o n d it io n a n d a d o p t im m e d ia t e s tim u la n t tre a tm e n t. If,' h o w e v e r, th e re is lit tle o r n o C o lla p s e , th e n th e w o u n d r e q u ir e s first ca re . B y th e w a y , d o n o t fo rg e t th e m e n ta l s id e o f the p ic t u re , a s m a n y p a tie n t s h a v e d ie d fro m s h e e r f rig h t a n d , a fte r d e a th , a ll e v id e n c e o f s n a k e -p o is o n in g h a s b e e n a b s o lu t e ly e x c lu d e d .— N . C . F

F e m u r .

W . G . ( C a v e r s h a m ) s e n d s a le n g t h y le tte r in w h ic h , r e fe r r in g to A n s w e r s in is s u e s o f N o v e m b e r a n d J a n u a r y la s t, he e n d e a v o u r s to p ro v e ( 1 ) th a t th e (a)l(b) (c), & c ., o f th e T e x t ­ b o o k m u s t n e c e s s a r ily s ig n if y 1st, 2 n d a n d 3 r d ; a n d (2 ) th a t th e im m e d ia te a p p lic a t io n o f b a n d a g e s (a) a n d (6) w il e n s u re c o n t r o l o f u p p e r fra g m e n t o f f ra c t u re d fe m u r.

T obacco

E ye .

E . ( P o p la r ) a s k s fo r tre a tm e n t o f p a in t in eye.

P o iso n o u s In ju r y

in

A id ,

p ro v e d , I b re a k see to it s p lin ts ,

the my th a t and

U se

C o n g r a t u la t io n s o n th e p ro p e r e x e r c is e o f y o u r d is c r im i­ n a tio n o n tw o o c c a s io n s — o n th e firs t in th a t, n o t k n o w in g , yo u d id n o t in t e rfe r e ; o n th e s e c o n d in th a t y o u d e c lin e d to u se a m e th o d o f tre a tm e n t, c o n c e r n in g w h ic h y o u w e re ig n o ra n t. N o . T h e u se o f to b a c c o is a p o p u la r f a lla c y . An in s e n s ib le p a tie n t r e q u ir e s a s m u c h fre s h a ir a s y o u c a n o b ta in fo r h im , because h is V it a l F u n c tio n s are a t a le w ebb. S o w h a t

S al

V o l a tile .

A . S . ( B r is t o l) .— I s it r ig h t to g iv e S a l V o la t ile in a c a s e o f p a l­ p it a t io n — s e v e re o r s lig h t ? P a lp it a t io n is d u e to d is e a s e o r d is t u r b a n c e o f h e a rt, fo r e a c h o f w h ic h S a l V o la t ile is a v a lu a b le re m e d y . F ir s t - A id e r s te n d to a d m in is t e r S a l V o la t ile fa r too fre e ly a n d fre q u e n t ly , a n d s o m e tim e s fo r g e t to carry o u t f i r s t th e P r in c ip le s o f F ir s t A id — e s p e c ia lly r e m o v a l o f c a u s e , c o r re c t p o s it io n o f p a tie n t, & c ., w h ic h w ill b e {fk m o re e ffe c tiv e t h a n th e s tim u la n t s u g ­ g e ste d . D o n o t fo rg e t th a t s tim u la t io n is in v a r ia b iy fo llo w e d b y d e p r e s s io n .— N . C . F

In se n sib il it y .

T . ( T o t t e n h a m ) :— I s it a g o o d t h in g to b lo w to b a c c o s m o k e u p a p a tie n t ’s n o s t r ils w h e n h e is f a in t in g o r in a fit ? On o n e o c c a s io n I s a w a n u n c o n s c io u s p a tie n t b e in g h e ld u p b y fo u r m e n w h ile a fifth w a s b lo w in g p u ffs o f s m o k e u p h is n o s t r ils . A s k in g fo r p a r t ic u la r s , I d is c o v e re d th a t the p a tie n t h a d b e e n in s e n s ib le fo r fo rty -fiv e m in u te s , a n d th a t h is f r ie n d h a d s m o k e d fiv e c ig a re t te s . I d id n o t in te rfe re . R e c e n t ly , I w a s t re a t in g a c a s e o f s e v e re E p ile p s y a n d the b y s t a p d e r s s u g g e s te d th a t to b a c c o s m o k e s h o u ld be b lo w n in to th e p a t ie n t ’s n o s t r ils . I re fu s e d to a llo w t h is to be done.

o f

S u bseq u en t

H.

T r ea tm e n t

o f

B u r n s.

A . ( E d g b a s t o n ) .— M y w o r k b e in g in a m u n itio n fa c to ry , I o fte n h a v e to u n d e r ta k e s u b s e q u e n t tre a tm e n t o f in ju rie s , a n d s h a ll be g ra te fu l if y o u w ill a n s w e r th e se q u e r ie s : — ( A ) C a n P ic r ic A c id b e u s e d fo r b u r n s w h e n s k in is b ro k e n ? C a n it be a p p lie d to d ir t y , g r e a s y s k in ? S h o u ld it b e a p p lie d u n t il w o u n d is h e a le d ? I f n o t, w h a t t re a t ­ m e n t s h o u ld be u s e d ? ( B ) C a n L e a d a n d O p iu m lo tio n be a p p lie d fo r b u rn s w h e n s k in is b r o k e n ? S h o u ld it be u s e d a s first d r e s s in g o n ly ? ( C ) W h a t is b e st tre a tm e n t fo r p a in s in e y e ?

W h e n y o u re a d y o u r T e x t b o o k , y o u p a lp a b ly s k ip p e d o v e r C h a p t e r I. R e a d t h is now , a n d r e a lis e (1 ) th a t F ir s t A id a im s o n ly at p re v e n t io n o f f u rt h e r in ju r y ; (2 ) th a t th e S .J . A . A . r u le s fo rb id s e c o n d d r e s s in g s ; a n d (3 ) th a t y o u r p a tie n t s a re fo o lish to tru s t t h e m s e lv e s to y o u r u n t r a in e d s k ill. T h e o n ly ju s t if ic a ­ tio n fo r s u b s e q u e n t tre a tm e n t is th a t y o u a c t (lik e a N u r s e u n d e r m e d ic a l in s t r u c t io n a n d s u p e r v is io n .


— F I R S T

M a rch , 1 9 1 8

A I D

141

-

FIR S T-A ID

I0DEX I

A BLAND & PAINLESS

(U n£ Iodi M

—IODINE DRESSING.—

for A se p tic.

U n ifo r m s

a n d

A n tise p tic .

I O D E X is a First-Aid Dressing of great merit— painless and bland It promotes rapid healing and is ideal in septic wounds, tears, abrasions, bruises, burns, scalds, inflamed feet, etc.

IO D E X has been supplied to :

E q u i p m

e n t

H .M . F l e e t S u r g e o n s , R .A .M .C . Su rgeon s, RedCross Surgeons,

V a st modern factory resources, added to a century’ s experience, enables us to supply First A i d and all other Services with uniforms and e q u i p m e n t of g u a r a n t e e d materials, workmanship and finish — at prices that challenge comparison with any other clothing of equal quality.

Croix R o u ge F r a n c a is e B e l g i a n F i e ld h o s p i t a l s ,

I O D E X is non-staining, non­ irritating Free Iodine of great penetrative power. It is a power­ ful absorbent and antiseptic, and rapidly reduces inflammation.

F r e n c h F ie ld H o s p i t a l s ’ N um erous M ilitary Hospitals, M e m b e r s of S t. John A m bulance.

I0 D E X

Is

so ld

in

1 o z.

P o ts,

P rice

1 /3 .

I O D E X has bcncfitted the follow ing and numerous other conditions.

Prices and Samples on request. 1 6 ,

N

I L E

S T

R

E

E

T

,

CITY ROAD, LONDON, N .I., and at 6, YORK PLACE, LEEDS, and 84 , MILLER STR EET, GLASGOW.

E n la r g e d G lan d G o itre. T u b e r c u l o u s Join ts, B u r s i t i s , S y n o v i t i s , Sc ia tic a, N eu ritis, G out, R h eu m a to id A rthritis, H yd ro ce le , P arasitic S k in D is e a s e s . R in g w o r m , C hilblain s, A c n e Bolls. M u m p s, S p r a in s , AND ALL IN F L A M M A T O R Y CO N D ITIO N S.

L lto r a lu r e on a p p lic a tio n

Menley & James, Ltd., T

H

E

P I C T ORI A L

F I R

S T

39, F a rrln g d o n R oad, LONDON, E .C .

A

I D

T RI ANGULAR

BANDAGE. J'faval, Jfiititanj and Civil Jailors and Sreeches jffakers. T he West End House of Hazel & Co., as below, is exclusively devoted to the

Clothing & Equipment OF

Officers of all Ranks and all Services,

Illustrating the various w ays of using the Bandage in cases of injury.

and the supply of High Grade Tailor­

Triangular Bandages can also be supplied plain, unprinted.

ing

for

Gentlemen’s

Wear.

Best

materials and workmanship only at moderate prices. U

4

,

n if o r m s

P R

I N

HANOVER

C

an d

L

S

S T

E

S Q .,

iv e r ie s

R

E

LONDON,

Catalogues on application.

SOUTHALL BROS. & BARCLAY, Ld ,

.

E

B IR M IN G H A M , T ,

W. 1.

Established

1820 ,

M anufacturers of Surgical Dressings, Fine Chem icals and Pharm aceutical Preparations. Enquiries invited.


142

— FIRST

( A ) P ic r ic A c i d is u s e fu l f o r d r e s s in g b u r n s a n d m a y be a p ­ p lie d to b r o k e n o r g r e a s y S k in ? If , h o w e v e r, th e s k in is v e r y d ir t y a n d g r e a s y , w h y n o t s o a k th e p a rt first in a s t r o n g s o lu t io n o f b ic a r b o n a t e o f s o d a a n d w a rm b o ile d w a te r to re m o v e a s m u c h d ir t a n d g re a s e a s p o s s ib le ? F o r s u b s e q u e n t tre a tm e n t c o n ­ s u lt a d o c to r. (B ) Y e s. S u c h a lo t io n is a n e x c e lle n t a p p lic a t io n , b e c a u s e it p r o te c t s a n d s o o th e s th e p a rt. A d o c t o r w ill d e c id e w h e th e r it s u s e s h o u ld be c o n t in u e d o r n ot. ( C ) C o n s u lt a d o c t o r.— N . C . F .

E x t e r n a l

D.

U se

o f

M u sta r d .

B . ( B i r k e n h e a d ) : T h e T e x t b o o k d e s c r ip t io n s o f m u s ta rd p la s t e r a n d p o u lt ic e v a r y . T h u s , so m e b o o k s g iv e m u s ta rd p la s t e r a s m a d e e n t ire ly w ith m u s t a r d a n d a p o u ltic e as m a d e w ith m u s t a rd a n d lin s e e d in v a r y in g q u a n t it ie s , w h e re a s o th e rs g iv e m u s t a r d p la s t e r a n d p o u ltic e a s s y n o n y m o u s te rm s . T h e s a m e d iffe re n c e a p p lie s to b o r a c ic fo m e n ta tio n s a n d p o u ltic e s .

T h e te rm s a re n o t s y n o n y m o u s . A p o u ltic e ( = p o r r id g e ) is a so ft, p a s t y e x t e r n a l a p p lic a t io n , w h ile a p la s t e r ( = m o u ld e d o n ) is a m e d ic in a l a g e n t c o n s is t in g o f a n a d h e s iv e s u b s ta n c e s p r e a d o n c lo th o r le a th e r so a s to s t ic k to the p a rt. A m u s t a r d p la s t e r is c o m p o s e d o f o il o f m u s t a r d — e x t ra c te d , p o w d e re d a n d s p r e a d o n c a r t r id g e p a p e r, M u s t a r d is a v e r y p o w e rfu l lo c a l ir r it a n t , a n d c a n be u se d either concentrated a s a p la s t e r o r p o u ltic e or diluted w ith v a r y ­ in g q u a n t it ie s o f lin s e e d . I n th e fo r m e r c a s e the re s u lt s a re m o re r a p id a n d s e v e re , a n d r e q u ir e c lo s e r o b s e r v a t io n le st b u r n s a n d b lis t e r s r e s u lt ; in th e la t te r so m e o f the e ffe c tiv e n e ss o f m u s t a r d is lo s t p a r t ly b y d ilu t io n a n d p a r t ly b y the a c t io n o f h e a t, w h ic h d is s o lv e s o il o f m u s t a rd . F o r t h is re a s o n a m u s t a r d p o lt ic e is m a d e w it h te p id , a lin s e e d p o u ltic e w ith b o ilin g w a te r. T h e d iffe re n c e n o te d in T e x t b o o k s , th e re fo re , d e p e n d s o n th e d e g re e o f d ilu t io n a d v o c a te d b y the d iffe re n t a u t h o r it ie s . I d o n o t k n o w w h a t a b o r a c ic p o u lt ic e is. A b o r a c ic fo m e n ta tio n r e q u ir e s th e c o m b in a tio n o f m a x im u m h e a t w ith m in im u m m o is t u r e .— F . C . F .

A p pl ic a t io n

o f

R o ller

AI D. —

March, 1918.

Jracticat Joints. The E d itor invites Notes on actual Cases— with special reference to gooa and had Points in Treatment— for inclusion in this Column.

A n o th er

C o m p lic a t e d

A c c id e n t .

R e f e r r in g to th e in t e re s tin g “ P r a c t ic a l P o i n t ” in th e F e b ­ r u a r y is s u e , 1 h a v e t re a te d a case which resulted in four addi­ tional emergencies, a lt h o u g h m in e d iffe rs fro m th a t re p o rt e d b y W . C . B . in th a t I was one o f them !! T h e fa c ts a re t h e s e :— A y o n n g m a n , w o r k in g in a c o a l m in e , s u s ta in e d a s m a ll s c a lp w o u n d , a n d b e in g so m e w h a t h y s t e r ic a l w a s re m o v e d to h is h o m e in the c o llie r y tra p , a c c o m p a n ie d b y m y s e lf a s a m b u la n c e m an. W h e n we a r r iv e d at the h o u se , th e M o th e r (s u s p e c t in g so m e g r a v e in ju r y ) im m e d ia t e ly fa in te d ; a n d , in f a llin g , g a s h e d h e r rig h t fo re a rm o n a b r o k e n iro n p a il a n d s e v e re d b o th r a d ia l a n d u ln a r a rt e r ie s ! B o th p a tie n ts w ere p la c e d o n c o u c h e s in d o o rs , th e m o th e r b e in g n o w u n c o n s c io u s a n d the so n in a m o st h y s t e r ic a l c o n d it io n . W h ile th e a rt e r ia l b le e d in g w a s b e in g c o n tr o lle d , a d a u g h t e r w a s in s t ru c t e d to b a k e so m e p la te s as s u b s titu te s fo r h o t-w a te r b o ttle s, r e q u ir e d fo r tre a tm e n t o f sho ck. H a s t e n in g to c a r r y o ut o rd e rs , s h e s tu m b le d , fe ll o n th e g ra te , a n d b u r n e d the p a lm s o f bo th h a n d s s e v e re ly !! A t t h is s ta g e th e d o c t o r a r r iv e d a n d to o k c h a r g e o f th e th re e c a s e s . A ft e r a s h o rt tim e th e d r iv e r a n d 1 d e c id e d to re tu rn to th e c o llie r y . A s w e w e re g e ttin g in to th e tra p , h o w e v e r, the h o rs e b o lte d a n d th re w us in d iffe re n t d ir e c t io n s , w ith th e r e s u lt th a t th e d r iv e r s c ra p e d th e w h o le o f o n e s id e o f h is fa c e a n d I s p r a in e d m y r ig h t a n k le b a d ly ! ! ! — C . H . R o t h e r h a m .

F ir s t - A id

W ith o u t

D isc r im in a tio n .

D u r in g a n A ir - R a i d in L o n d o n , a h o u se w a s s t r u c k b y a b o m b a n d s e v e ra l o c c u p a n ts w ere b a d ly in iu re d . A R e d C ro s s D e ta c h m e n t w a s q u ic k ly on the sp o t, a n d the O ffic e r -in -c h a rg e — disregarding the grave condition o f the victims — is s a id to h a v e c o m m e n c e d o p e ra t io n s b y lin in g h is m e n u p in fro n t o f th e s tr e tc h e r a n d o r d e r in g the m to n u m b e r o ff in th e o rth o d o x f a s h io n !! — B . N ., K e n t is h T o w n .

B an d ag e. F ir s t -A id

T e x t b o o k s te a c h u s to b a n d a g e from •within outwards. T w o d o c t o rs h a v e re c e n t ly in s t ru c t e d u s to b a n d a g e from left to right W h ic h is c o r r e c t ?

A . S. ( B r is t o l) . — T h e

T h e T e x t b o o k s a re rig h t . I d o u b t y o u r s e c o n d s ta te ­ m e n t, a n d b e lie v e th a t y o u h a v e m is t a k e n the in s t ru c t io n s g iv e n . T h e s e p r o b a b ly w ere th a t (1 ) w h e n a p p ly in g b a n d a g e s y o u m u s t fa c e y o u r p a tie n t ; a n d th a t (2 ) in b a n d a g in g the le ft lim b y o u m u s t u se y o u r r ig h t h a n d a n d v ic e v e rs a .— N . C . F .

B i r m i n g h a m . — The annual report states that no report has been issued since September, 1914, owing to the pressura of work incident upon the war. The demand for am­ bulance tuition at the outbreak of war increased enormously, and owing chiefly.to the generous assistance of the honorary medical lecturers, 3,671 certificates were issued during 1915. and 1916. N o fewer than 201 classes had been held— 50 men’s first aid, 12 men’s nursing, 78 women’s first aid, and 61 women’s nursing, and compared with from 20 to 30 classes in a normal year. Out of the male classes 112 men were recruited into the R .A .M .C. by the centre, and 236 members of the Birming Corps of the brigade had joined the military home hospitals of the Royal Naval Sick Berth Reserves. Six new nursing divisions had been added to the Birmingham corps of the brigade during the two years, making 11 in all, and from these fifteen women’s V .A . D .’s had been formed.

W it h o u t

K n o w led g e.

O n a re c e n t o c c a s io n a F ir s t - A id e r , w h o w a s t re a tin g a m a n w ith a fra c t u re d fe m u r, a s k e d fo r h o t-w a te r b o ttle s. B e ­ in g to ld th a t th e re w e re n o n e in the h o u se e x c e p t a T h e r m o s F la s k , h e in s is t e d o n t h is b e in g fille d w ith h o t w a te r a n d p la c e d a g a in t th e p a tie n t ! A p p a r e n t ly h e d id n o t k n o w th a t a T h e r m o s F la s k retains and does not transmit h e a t!! — B. A ., C a m b r id g e .

The Mayor of Plymouth publicly presented to the George-street Church Ambulance Corps, on March 7th, a Motor Ambulance for voluntary service in the town. The ambulance corps is not connected with the St. John Ambulance Brigade, although nearly all its members have passed through the classes of the Association. The corps was founded in 1910, with Dr. T. G. Cawdrey as hon. surgeon, and Mr. Hedley V. Miller as the superintendent. The ambulance station is open night and day throughout the year.

w

f

M . W - '. d l .i h

e

[iff READY SOUPS j


— F I R S T

March, 1918.

A ID .—

143

T

la

f or

w

x

t e

Nurses’

W ear

R A RRO D S are appointed by the St. Jo h n Am bulance B r i g a d e and

B r i t i s h Red C ross Society, and a ll m aterials and p a t t e r n s are approved thereby.

T h e

We welcome en­ quiries as a complinvint to our un­ doubted sphere of usefulness.

U rg en t

N e e d ROM doctors on behalf of patients— and from patients themselves— urgent appeals lor special supplies of Hall’s Wine continue to reach us.

N. U. 7. — Well-cut Apron, good skitt, handy pocket, in stout Apron Cloth, linen finish. Lengths 36, 38 and 40 in., 2/6. N- U. 31. — Circular Cloak with Under­ front in thoroughly showerproof and shrunk cloths. Cravenetted Cashmere, 29/6 . Fine Coating Serge 34/- and 39/-

F

'M

*

%

HARRODS LTD

A lad y w rites : “ M v husband having derived much benefit from H a ll’s W in e w ould lik e to continue taking it. I should be grateful if you could send some.” A nother lady w rites : “ T h e doctor has ordered it for my son, who has had a serious illness. Please o b lig e .”

M

SW 1

Uniform Clothing & Equipment Co.

Patients must not forget that although Hall’s Wine is vital to their health— it is equally necessary to thousands of others.

H a lls W in e

LONDON

Woodman Burbidge Managing Director

BEST AND

Latest

C H E A PE ST HOUSE

Pattern

Khaki

IN T H E T R A D E .

Uniforms a Speciality.

C o n tra cto rs f o r : — S t. Jo h n A m b u lance B rig a d e ; B r it is h Red C ro ss, & c .; O fficers and P riv a te s; also fo r A rm y , N avy, Police and F ir e B rigades. SEND

FOR

P R IC E

L IS T

AND

P A TTER N S

TO :-

Uniform Clothing & Equipment Co, (FR ED

5, $

W.

EVANS,

Proprietor!,

C le rk e n w e ll Qreen, F a r r in g d o n Road, L O N D O N . E.O. Telephone—No. 2 3 5 3 Holborn. Telegrams— " Evao*. Clerkenwell Green, London,

The Supreme Restorative Owing to war restrictions we are Only able to meet a proportion of the orders for Hall’s Wine. All our agents are treated alike, and get a fair share. Where retailers are temporarily out of stock we appeal to the public to show patience. Extra

L arge

Size,

4/6.

S m a l l e r S i z e , a/9.

0/ a ll W ine M erchants, and Grocers and Chemists w ith W ine Licences. S t e p h e n S m it h &

Co.,

Ltd .,

Bow,

L ondon,

E. 3.

Bcngcr s admirable preparation The Lancet.

F o o d

«or I n f a n t s , I n v a l i d s & theA g e d . C o n s l a n t p r e s c r i p t i o n b v l e a d i n g m e d i c a l a u t h o r i t i e s in E n t e r ic , a n d o th e r f e v e r s , h a s s t a n d a r d is e d B e n g e r s fo r a ll i lo e s s e s in v o lv in g s e r io u s d i g e s t iv e d is tu r b a n c e .

Sold in tins ly Chemists,etc. , everywhere BENOER’S FOOD 1TD ., — Otter Works, — MANCHESTER,

Eng.

Branch Offices : NewYork & Sydnev. Dc-pfltsthroughout Canada.


— F I R S T

144

AID. —

M a rch , 1 9 1 8

MANUALS

OF

FIRST-AID,

&e.,

By N. C O R B E T F L E T C H E R , B .A ., M .B ., B .C (C a n ta b ), M .R .C .S .

AIDS

TO

F I R S T -A ID .

Third Edition. Post free, 70. |( First-Aid Simplified and Tabulated, with Aius to Memory. ‘ €*l. S a n t lie contributes an introduction an d we endorse his good opinion 0/ the book. ”— Lancet.

AIDS

TO

H O M E -N U R SIN G .

Second Edition. Price 7 d . , post free. Home-Nursing Simplified and Tabulated, with Aids to Memory. “ This book w onderfully sim plifies a complex subject and should be read by a ll students." — L . & N . W . R y . Gazette.

WHY

H a n m e r ’s L ife -S a v in g L e c tu r e s . CAN B

O

R

R

O

W

A

T U

R

E

P A

L A

C

E

?

I f so , d o it a t o n c e ! G e t th e p r o m is e o f the lo a n o f it fo r o ne n ig h t a n d th e n w rite to “ H A N M E R ” fo r p a r t ic u la r s o f a s c h e m e th a t w ill g iv e th e A m b u la n c e m o v e m e n t in y o u r d is t r ic t a g o o d lift. M r. H a n m e r is n o w b o o k in g d a te s fo r e x h ib it io n s in the p r o v in c e s o f the O

F F I C I A L

F I R

S T

A I D

F I L M

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FIRST S id n e y

AID H.

SIMPLIFIED.

Lam b.

\ T> O ffic e rs R e g u la t io n G re a t C o a ts . D a r k A H an dboo k in a tabulated ar d sim plified form givin g the main points in •fj .X X .X ) . G r e y b e a v e r c lo th , 4 5s. to m e a su re . first aid, so arranged as to im press them on the memory of the student. S u p e r io r q u a lit y M e n ’s G re a t C o a ts , 32 s. 6d .— W r it e fo r D A L E , R EYN O LD S & CO ., L td ., 46, C a n n o n S t., LONDON, E .C . 4 . p a tt e r n s a n d p a r t ic u la r s , T h o r n t o n & C o ., t a ilo rs , B r ig h o u s e .

T

S

O R S A L E , a q u a n t it y o f M e n ’s A m b u la n c e U n if o r m T r o u s e r s , a ll size s, q u it e n e w , 9s. 6d. a p a ir .— T h o r n t o n a n d C o ., 24, C o m m e r c ia l-s tr e e t, B r ig h o u s e .

F

F

O R S A L E . — R e g u la t io n B r o w n L e a t h e r B e lt s a n d P o u c h e s ; a ls o C a p s a n d O v e rc o a t s ; s a m p le s o n a p p r o v a l.— F o lle tt, 4, V ic t o r ia - a v e n u e , B is h o p s g a t e , L o n d o n , E . C .

Prin ted and P ub li.h ed by D a l e , R

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F I R S T AID AN D

ST.

JOHN

THE

-----

A M BU LAN CE

GAZETTE.

Edited by ARTHUR B. DALE. A PR IL,

No. 286.— V o l . X X IV .

NOTICE

TO

1918.

[E n tered a t S ta tio n e rs'H a ll.]

[

PRICE THREEPENCE Annum, Post FreiI

16 Per

part in the important services it represents.

READERS.

In the mean­

time, we must be content to carry on as usefully as we possibly can, and we hope our readers will support us in

F I R S T A I D is published on the a o t h o f e a c h m o n t h . A n n ual Subscription is 3 s . 6 d . post free ; single copies 3 d .

T he

Its aim and object being the advancem ent of Am bulance W o rk in a ll its branches, the E d ito r invites R eaders to send A rticle s and Reports on subjects pertain in g to the M ovem ent and also welcomes suggestions for P ractica l Papers.

this effort. N .B .— The subscription rate will be 3s. 6d. per annum post free.

A ll R eports, & c ., should be addressed to the E d ito r, and should reach him before the 12th of each month, and must be accompanied (not necessarily for Publication) by the name and address of the Correspondent.

Liverpool Auxiliary Hospital Wounded Officers.

Subscriptions, A dvertisem ents and other business Com m unications connected w ith F I R S T A I D should be forwarded to the Publishers, D ALE,

REYN O LDS

&

46, C a n n o n

S treet,

T

L td .,

C O .,

London,

E .C . 4.

Telegraphic A ddress: “ Twenty-jour, London Telephone No. 3 4 7 7 Bank.

he

for

Avenue Auxiliary Hospital was opened on February

9th by the Lord Bishop of Liverpool.

Mr. Tobin, chair­

man of the Hospital Committe and also of the Liverpool Centre of the St. John Ambulance Association, explained the origin and purpose of the new hospital, said :— We meet here to-day to add one more stone to that great edi­ fice of hospital work, the foundations of which were laid in

EDITORIAL.

Jerusalem 870 years ago. Since the beginning of the war the Order of St. John

A s n o t if i e d in o u r la st is su e, c o m m e n c -

To Our Readers.

i n g w it h th is n u m b e r o f F i r s t A i d th e price

is

r a is e d

further n otice. th is

step

w ith

to

threepence

u n til

W e have d ecid ed upon

great reluctance.

A lth o u gh

n e a r ly e v e r y

o t h e r J o u r n a l h a s r a i s e d its p r i c e l o n g a g o , w e h a v e so far h e s i t a t e d in t a k i n g th is c o u r s e , b u t t h e c o n t i n u o u s ris e in cost

of

paper

r e s tr i c tio n s s e r io u s

and

on

labou r and

paper

sh ortage

of

also

con su m ptio n ,

s u p p l ie s ,

have

th e

drastic

attribu table now

official to

rendered

th e th is

in crease necessary. A s regard s th e effect o f the c h a n g e o f p rice u p on our c i r c u l a t i o n , w e a n t i c i p a t e th a t w e m a y lo se s o m e o f

our

has established in England 230 hospitals, and the number grows month by month. The zeal and activities of our great rival and close friend, the British Red Cross Society, are well known to all of you. Side by side we strive and struggle to alleviate this great mass of suffering, and to answer: “ We will help you— we will help you,” to that great silent appeal. And we meet here that our voices, small and humble though they be, may go to swell that mighty answer to that call by saying : “ We will help you.” No effort shall be spared in this Hospital to translate those words into action. I look forward hopefully, trustfully, anticipating that the wounded who pass through this Hospital will carry with them pleasant memories of care they received here, and grateful thoughts of the skill of the surgeons and doctors, the devotion of the nurses, and the zeal, cheerfulness, and efficiency of the whole staff.

re a d e rs, a n d w e w o u l d a s k t h o s e w h o d e c i d e to d i s c o n t i n u e the p u rch ase of F

irst

A

id

to n o t ify t h e ir n e w s a g e n t s at

th e e a r li e s t p o s s i b l e m o m e n t , so as to e n a b l e u s to p r in t u p

F

irst

A

id

has m a d e

m any new

friends d u rin g the

w a r a n d its c i r c u l a t i o n s t a n d s at a h i g h e r f ig u r e t h a n it h a s d o n e f o r s o m e y e a r s past.

The Official Cinema Ambulance Film was shown for the first time at Poplar on April i6tb, in connection with which

c l o s e l y to m e e t a c t u a l r e q u i r e m e n t s .

W h e n m ore h a ppier con d itio n s

1st Ambulance Officer Hanmer gave his First Aid Lecture. T he Mayor of Poplar presided over the gathering, supported by Sir A. W. Yeo, M.P., and Captain-Allen.

In spite of

inclement weather, a large and enthusiastic audience was

p r e v a i l w e h a v e i d e a s for i n c r e a s i n g its s c o p e , in te r e s t a n d

present, and the film created a great deal of interest,

u t i li t y

besides being of much educational value.

w h ich , we

h o p e , w ill e n a b l e it to p l a y a v a l u a b l e


146

— FIRST jvalej,,

? 1

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jp ,, Qr*nd J rio rg of the 0 e d « of the h o sp ita l of S t. Jo h n of Jerusalem in Sngland.

* “

AM BULANCE

Jhe

W.

John

C o m m issio n e r :

H.

.Ambulance B rigade.

D IS T R ICT- ORDERS.

No. . District. D epu ty

S t.

DEPARTM ENT.

--------

W IN N Y .

M A Y , 1918. S u n d a y D u t y , St. P a u l’s C a t h e d r a l. S u n d a y , 5 th .— N o . 40 D iv is io n , B e c k t o n . „ 1 2 th .— N o . 44 „ W est London. „ 1 9 t h .- N o . 46 „ Ilf o r d . „ 2 6 th .— N o . 4 7 „ L .B . & S . C . R y . , W illo w W a lk F r o m 2 .3 0 p .m . to 5.30 p .m . K e y fro m St. J o h n ’s G a te , 2 p.m . C O M B IN E D

D R IL L .

A c o m b in e d d r il l o f s e v e ra l D iv is io n s w a s h e ld o n S a t u r ­ d a y , A p r i l 1 2 th , in th e T e m p le G a rd e n s . T h e d r il l p ro v e d to b e v e r y s u c c e s s fu l, a n d th e D e p u t y C o m m is s io n e r h a s b e e n r e ­ q u e s t e d to a r r a n g e s im ila r c o m b in e d d r ills in th e c e n t r a l p a rt o f L o n d o n . I f p o s s ib le , t h is w ill b e d o n e a t a n e a r ly d a te . A r r a n g e m e n t s w ill b e m a d e , a s in th e T e m p le G a rd e n s , fo r p r a c t ic e in t r a n s p o r t in g p a tie n ts , a n d lo a d in g a n d u n lo a d in g A m b u la n c e W a g o n s . NEW

D IV IS IO N S .

T h e f o llo w in g n e w D iv is io n s h a v e b e e n fo rm e d :— A ?n b u la n ce D iv is io n s .— N o . 7 9 , G e n e r a l E le c t r ic D iv is io n . N o . 80, S to k e N e w in g t o n D iv is io n . N u r s in g D iv is io n s .— N o . 40, S t ra t fo rd . N o . 4 1 , B rix t o n . RO LL OF HONOUR. T h e D e p u t y C o m m is s io n e r m u c h re g re t s to re p o rt th a t the f o llo w in g m e m b e rs o f th e St. J o h n A m b u la n c e B r ig a d e , N o . 1 D is t r ic t , h a v e b e e n k ille d in a c tio n . P te . P . H . P r in g le , N o . 3 7 D iv is io n , G .W . R . P te . B o u lto n , N o . 58 D iv is io n , L o n d o n P o s t O ffice . P te. G e o rg e A r t h u r W a lk e r , N o . 58 D iv is io n , L o n d o n P o s t O ffice . P te . W o o lv e r t o n , N o . 7 5 D iv is io n , S o u th e n d . P te . M a lc h e r , N o . 51 D iv is io n , C ro y d o n . P te . H . J . W a k e le y , N o . 2 D iv is io n , H a g g e r s t o n . P te . C . H . B u n t in g , N o . 1 3 D iv is io n , K in g ’s C ro s s . P te . S te v e n s , N o . 7 5 D iv is io n , S o u th e n d . P te . K il li p , N o . 11 D iv is io n , W e m b le y a n d H a r le s d e n . P te . W illia m W r ig h t , N o . 40 D iv is io n , B e c k to n . E X E M P T IO N

FRO M

B R IG A D E T IO N .

R E - E X A M IN A ­

A n im p r e s s io n s e e m s to be c u r r e n t a m o n g s t so m e D i v i ­ s io n a l O ffic e rs th a t i f a m e m b e r o f th e D iv is io n is e n g a g e d in a G o v e r n m e n t O ffic e d o in g c le r ic a l w o r k in o r d in a r y h o u rs o f d u t y , h e is a u t o m a t ic a lly e x e m p t fro m th e B r ig a d e r e -e x a m in a ­ tio n . I t h a s b e e n d e c id e d th a t e x e m p tio n m a y be g r a n te d to th o se m e m b e rs o f D iv is io n s w h o a re c a lle d u p fo r the A r m y , o r w h o a re g iv in g th e w h o le o f t h e ir tim e to H o s p it a l w o rk , o r a re d o in g s u c h o th e r w o rk c o n n e c te d w ith th e w a r th a t it is n ot p o s s ib le fo r th e m to p u t in a n a tte n d a n c e a t t h e ir D iv is io n o r s it fo r t h e ir B r ig a d e R e -e x a m in a t io n , b u t t h is is n o t in te n d e d to im p ly to th o se m e m b e rs o f D iv is io n s w h o a re s im p ly d o in g a n o r d in a r y d a y ’s w o rk in a G o v e rn m e n t O ffice , M u n it io n F a c t o r y , o r d o in g o th e r w o rk o f N a t io n a l Im p o r t a n c e , a n d c a n a r r a n g e a fte r o ffic ia l h o u r s to d o t h e ir D iv is io n a l w o rk . (S ig n e d )

W . H . W IN N Y ,

Deputv- Commissioner. H e a d q u a r t e r s :— S t. J o h n ’s G a te , C le r k e n w e ll, E . C . IM P O R T A N T

N O T IC E .

D iv is io n a l S e c r e ta rie s a re re q u e s te d w h e n s e n d in g n e w s ­ p a p e r c u t t in g o f t h e ir m e e tin g s , etc., to g iv e th e d a te o f p u b li­ c a t io n o f th e n e w s p a p e rs .— E d i t o r .

AI D. —

April, 1918.

No. 3 District. C o v e n t r y . — O n S a t u r d a y , M a r c h 2 3 rd , a w h is t d r iv e a n d s o c ia l w a s g iv e n b y the n u r s in g s is t e r s o f th e S .J .A .B . C o v e n t r y C o - o p e ra t iv e N u r s in g D iv is io n to th e p a tie n ts in th e B a r r a c k s M ilit a r y H o s p it a l, a n d a ll s p e n t a n e n jo y a b le e v e n in g . N u m e r o u s p riz e s w e re g iv e n to th e s u c c e s s fu l p la y e rs , a n d a fte r w h is t the p a tie n ts p a rto o k o f re fre s h m e n ts p r o v id e d b y N u r s in g S is t e rs T ip le r a n d B a ll. A w e ll- a p p r e c ia t e d c o n c e r t fo llo w e d , S u rg e o n M a jo r O r t o n o c c u p y in g the c h a ir . A m o n g th o se p r e ­ se n t w e re M r s . a n d M is s O r t o n a n d C a p t. N e w to n , R . A . M . C . A ft e r th e c o n c e rt, M a jo r O rto n k in d ly p re se n te d th e p riz e s to th e s u c c e s s fu l p la y e rs , a n d m o v e d a v o te o f t h a n k s to th e N u r s in g S is t e rs , the L a d y O ffic e r (M r s . E . H e w it t ) a n d th e L a d y S e c r e t a r y (M r s . M . A . G a s k in s ) fo r th e th o ro u g h m a n n e r in w h ic h th e s o c ia l fu n c t io n w a s c a r r ie d o ut ; a n d a ls o t h a n k e d th e a rt is t s fo r t h e ir s e r v ic e s . S e rg t. W y n n e , o n b e h a lf o f n u rs e s a n d staff, re sp o n d e d .

No. 9 Disrict. E x e t e r . — D r . R . H . G r im b ly , th e D . C . o f th e D is t r ic t , p re s e n te d lo n g s e r v ic e m e d a ls to m e m b e rs o f th e C it y o f E x e t e r D iv is io n . T h e r e c ip ie n ts o f th e m e d a ls w e re D iv is io n a l S u p t. E . A . B o w d e n , A m b u la n c e O ffic e r F . R iv e r s , S e rg t. Y o u n g a n d P te . C la rk e . T h e la t te r w a s a b s e n t w ith a b a tt a lio n o f th e D e v o n s , a n d h is m e d a l w ill be f o rw a rd e d to h im . D r . G r im b ly s a id th e h o n o u r h a d b e e n c o n fe rre d o n th e m , n o t fo r a n y p a r t ic u la r a c t, b u t fo r lo n g a n d fa ith fu l s e r v ic e in a m b u la n c e w o rk . H e h o p e d th e o th e r m e n w o u ld be e n c o u ra g e d to e m u la te t h e ir e x a m p le . I t w a s la r g e ly d u e to D iv is io n a l S u p t. B o w d e n th a t the E x e t e r D iv is io n h a d a tta in e d its p re se n t e ffic ie n c y , w h ile A m b u la n c e O ffic e r R iv e r s w a s a lm o s t th e m a in s p r in g o f the w o rk . W h a t th e E x e t e r m e n w e re d o in g at t h is tim e w a s p a r t ic u la r ly u s e fu l, a n d b y th e h o s p ita ls it w as h ig h ly v a lu e d . F a l m o u t h . — A p re s e n ta tio n w a s m a d e b y th e m e m b e rs a n d s tu d e n ts o f the F a lm o u t h D iv is io n a n d V o lu n t a r y A id D e ta c h m e n t , S .J . A . B ., o f a g o ld w ris tle t w a tch , h a n d b a g , & c ., to C o m m a n d a n t M r s . A . G . C ro p p e r , o n the o c c a s io n o f h e r d e p a rt u r e fro m F a lm o u t h to ta k e u p f u ll tim e w a r s e rv ic e . M r s . C ro p p e r h a s b e e n in c h a r g e o f th e d iv is io n s in c e its fo rm a tio n in 1910, a n d it is th e s e n io r d iv is io n in C o r n w a ll, h a s a s tre n g th o f 50 m e m b e rs , f u lly u n ifo rm e d , a n d h o ld s a g o o d r e c o rd o f w a r s e r v ic e . F ir s t O ffic e r M r s . R . S. H o s k e w m a d e th e p re s e n ta tio n , a n d e x p r e s s e d th e d e e p r e g re t o f th e m e m b e rs o n th e lo s s o f t h e ir c o m m a n d a n t, a n d w is h e d h e r s u c c e s s in h e r fu tu re w o rk .

No. 11 District. B l a i n a . — T h e a n n u a l in s p e c t io n o f the B la in a A m b u la n c e D iv is io n to o k p la c e o n M a r c h 7th . T h e m e n w e re u n d e r the c o m m a n d o f S e rg t. W m . G a r d n e r , a n d th e re w a s a g o o d tu rn o ut. T h e in s p e c t io n w a s ta k e n b y A c t in g D is t r ic t O ffic e r B . F . M a b e r ly , o f C a r d if f, w h o m a d e a th o ro u g h e x a m in a tio n o f th e w h o le d iv is io n a n d fo u n d th e m e m b e rs w e ll u p in fir s t a id a n d d r ill, a n d h e c o m p lim e n te d th e m o n t h e ir w o rk . T h e p a r a d e t e rm in a t e d w ith a v o te o f t h a n k s to M r . M a b e r ly .

The Victorian Railways, N.S.W. Ambulance, recently completed their Annual competitions with very satisfac­ tory results. Hitherto it has been the practice to hold the competitions extending over two days, but owing to the increased number of entries that were received it was de­ cided to hold District Competitions. This year the State was divided into six districts, viz, Northern, North-Western, North-Eastern, Eastern and South-Western (combined), North Suburban and South Suburban.

W hen corresponding w ith A d vertisers please m ention “ First Aid "


—FIRST

April, 19*8

The Treatment of Special Wounds and Bites. By

C H A R L E S PH E LPS CU SH IN G .

R a t h e r g r i m , th is lis t o f t o p i c s — “ a b d o m i n a l w o u n d s , s n a k e b ites, e y e w o u n d s , d o g a n d c a t b it es, l o c k j a w , stin gs a n d b i t e s o f i n s e c t s a n d s p i d e r s , w o u n d s w h e r e b l e e d i n g is

AI D. —

14 7

T he principle is simple : set your heel on a garden hose and you stop the flow of water from the nozzle. “ Any doctor or nurse can show you in halt a minute or less how to apply a tourniquet. “ First of all, the student must learn the location of the courses of the arteries and the best pressure points at which to apply the tourniquet’s pad. It is as if you had to mend a leak in a garden hose without shutting off the faucet. If you stepped on the hose at a point beyond where the leak occurred, the water would keep on spout­ ing You have to shut off the flow at a place between the leak and the pumping station. Now the heart is a pump, a wonderful little double-sided affair (twocylinder, if you prefer) no bigger than your fist, but pulsating on an average of seventy-two times a minute and driving the blood at a lively rate to the very ex­ tremes of your body. T he left side of the engine drives the supply tp the greater part of the body ; the right side " supplies the lungs.

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severe.” If sensitive readers cannot fore­ bear a shudder at the prospect, the writer knows just how they feel. H e felt the same way himself when the time ap­ proached for his interview with the Red Cross surgeon who is the source of in­ formation for these articles. But as the interview progresses the reporter experi­ enced a decided change of sentiment. His repugnance turned into admiration for the mechanism of the human machine and into wonder at some of the achieve­ ments of modern medical science. “ The last time we got together,” the surgeon was saying, “ I told you that in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred all that is necessary to stop a wound from bleed­ ing is exposure to the air or the pressure of the dressing applied. Knowing this, don’t become alarmed at the sight of blood. Don’t become flustered and hurried. If the pressure of the wound dressing does not check the flow, check it yourself with a tourniquet. “ Now a tourniquet, as I told you last month, is simply a band or strap of any material that happens to be convenient (a bandage cloth, a necktie, a hankerchief, a towel) twisted tightly enough to press hard on a pad and stop the vein or artery underneath it from flowing into the wound. a watch

The pad may be a stone, a cork,

anything solid and of convenient size— wrapped

up in cloth or paper to prevent it from bruising the skin.

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* 1

“ The left side of our pumping engine drives the blood away from the heart along these courses, across the collar bone and down the inside of the arm in a line almost paralleling the seam of a man’s coat sleeve, but up] a line on each side of the neck to the temples, down a line inside the thigh and the calf of the leg, again almost following the seam the tailor puts in the clothing. Is this difficult to remember ? As for the pressure points, they are simply

B r a d fo r d C ity N

u rsin g

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ivisio n .

convenient spots along these lines to apply the tourniquet’s local pressure, as, for example, at the bend of the elbows, at the temples, or back of the knee.” There are two ways, the surgeon pointed out, to tell when the wound we are dealing with has severed an artery. One is by the bright red colour of arterial blood, and another by the fact that the flow from an artery is in spurts and pulsations, not in a steady stream. “ All efforts to


148

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stop bleeding have as their object clotting of blood so that the clots will plug the bleeding vessels. Therefore we must know the best way to help the clots to form. In order to clot, the blood must be at comparative rest. A spouting stream of blood will never clot. This is one reason why bleeding from arteries is particularly dangerous. As soon as we stop the bleeding the blood begins to clot but not before. Any foreign material, especially if it has many points on which clots may form, will help in the formation of clots. Surgical gauze is a good example. Just as the pipes of a waterworks system diminish in size as they divide and branch off from a main, the arteries “ as they go further from the heart become smaller and thinner-walled till they finally end in still smaller vessels called capillaries, from the Latin word meaning hair. The capillaries form a delicate network of vessels everywhere, and give the rosy colour to the skin. . . . Naturally, on account of the minute size of these vessels, bleeding from them, except from a very large surface, is not danger­ ous to life. Capillaries branch so freely that pressure used to check capillary bleeding, to be effective, must be made on the bleeding point. The blood lost from capillaries is no longer bright red in colour like that from the arteries, but is somewhat darker.” The darkest blood of all, a bluish red, is that which after passage through the capillaries returns toward the heart through the veins. The flow from a cat vein is steady, not in spurts ; and as its course is toward the heart, pressure to stop it must be placed upon the vein on the side away from the heart. “ I do not dare to dwell too long on the details of giving first aid in the kind of case which occurs so rarely as does this of severe bleeding,” the surgeon continued.* “ But as a matter of education we all ought to know, in a general way, enough about the blood system to learn to respect it and to know what to do in an emergency. Often enough the most difficult thing the first aider has to do is to keep his own self control and not allow the sight of blood to fluster him. Remember three duties:— 1, Send for a doctor. 2, Check the bleeding. 3, Make the patient as comfortable as possible. Next to a warning not to leave a tourniquet on any longer than is necessary. As a jog to memory, the surgeon skimmed rapidly over the headings in two chapters of the text book that deal with wounds. “ We have discussed how to treat ordinary wounds and wounds where bleeding is severe,” he remarked. “ Be­ fore we leave the subject a few words should be added about some special wounds. “ Most wounds are no worse for exposure to the air, but beware of that when the delicate structures of the con­ tents of the abdomen are exposed. Such a wound must not be allowed to become dry or the result may be fatal. Cover the wound with a clean cloth kept constantly moistened with a weak solution of salt and water— and if possible have the water boiled. Take every precaution to prevent infection. “ Concerning eye wounds which are severe enough to require the assistance of a doctor, the best thing the first aider can do while the professional is on his way is to lessen the inflammation by binding both eyes with soft cloths soaked in cool water. A drop of castor oil or olive oil is soothing. 1 The text book devotes several paragraphs to the treatment of poisonous snake bites. Thisjfis not, however, on the ground that such injuries are generally common, for they aien’t. Briefly, the treatment is this : First, twist a string or bandage tightly enough above the wound to shut

AID. —

April, 1918

off the poisoned blood from circulating through the body. Then ‘ milk ’ or suck the wound to extract as much of the poison as possible. There is no danger in this latter pro­ cess unless your mouth is cut or bruised. Then burn the place with a hot iron or cauterize it with ammonia. A d­ minister stimulants as required. “ The treatment for a dog or cat bite is the same as for a snake bite— tie it off, squeeze the wound to make it bleed and then cauterize it. Don’t lose any time about consulting a doctor. Hydrophobia is preventable but not curable.”— From the U.S.A. R ed Cross Magazine.

practical joints. The E d itor invites Notes on actual Cases— with special reference to goes, and bad toints in Treatment— for inclusion in this Column.

C ulpable

and

M e d d leso m e F ir st A id .

A p a c k in g c a s e s lip p e d fro m it s p o s itio n , s t r u c k a m a n w ith fo rc e s u ffic ie n t to d o u b le h im u p a n d re n d e r h im u n c o n ­ s c io u s . A ft e r a s h o r t tim e he r e g a in e d c o n s c io u s n e s s , b e c a m e c h a t t y a n d c h e e rfu l, a n d w a s a b le to m o v e h is toes. H i s s h o p m a te s, th e re fo re , d e c id e d th a t th e re w a s n o t h in g m u c h w ro n g , b u n d le d h im in to a fo u r-w h e e le d c a b a n d re m o v e d h im to h is h o m e , a s s u r in g th e m a n ’s w ife th a t the in ju r ie s w e re a s c a lp w o u n d a n d b r u is e d le g . T h e y p la c e d h im o n th e flo o r o f h is b e d ro o m , p ro c e e d e d to u n d r e s s h im b y c u ttin g th e s id e sea m o f th e tro u s e rs a n d fo u n d th a t b lo o d w a s is s u in g fro m a w o u n d th r o u g h w h ic h a b ro k e n t h ig h b o n e c o u ld be felt. F u rth e r e x a m in a tio n p ro v e d th a t, in a d d it io n to th e c o m p o u n d , c o m p li­ c a te d fra c t u re o f fe m u r, the m a n w a s s u ffe rin g fro m in ju r ie s to c h e s t a n d fro m s e v e ra l s c a lp w o u n d s. N . B . — T h e s ig n s o f fra c t u re v a r y c o n s id e ra b ly , a n d it is t o t a lly in c o r r e c t to e x c lu d e a fra c t u r e o f lo w e r lim b b y re a s o n o f a b s e n c e o f S h o c k a n d m o v e m e n ts o f to e s .— F . A ., C h a r in g C ro s s . M u lt ip le E

m e r g e n c ie s.

W it h re fe re n c e to th e in t e re s tin g m u lt ip le e m e rg e n c ie s r e c e n t ly re p o rte d u n d e r “ P r a c t ic a l P o in t s ,” I have had eight cases under treatment at the same time, a ll b e in g d u e to the sa m e ca u s e s. I n a c e rt a in L o n d o n O ffic e tw e lv e g ir ls w ere a c c u s t o m e d to w o r k in a ro o m w h ic h m e a s u re d 18 ft. in le n g th , 16 ft. in b re a d t h a n d 12 ft. in h e ig h t. O n e m o r n in g a fu rth e r s ix g ir ls w e re d e ta ile d fo r d u t y in t h is ro o m , w ith th e r e s u lt th a t a n h o u r la t e r I w a s s u m m o n e d , a s a m b u la n c e m a n , to the o ffice b e c a u s e a g i r l h a d fa in te d . B e fo re I a r r iv e d , h o w e v e r, f u r t h e r f a in t s o c c u r r e d , a n d I am n o t lik e ly to fo rg e t th e p ic t u r e w h ic h g re e te d m e o n a r r iv a l. I n s h o rt, th e ro o m r e s e m b le d a s la u g h t e r-h o u s e , b e c a u s e s c a tte re d h e re th e re a n d e v e ry w h e re w e re e ig h t g ir ls in v a r io u s d e g re e s o f fa in ts , a n d fo r th e m o m e n t I w a s p u zzle d w h e re to b e g in ! N . B . — T h e m e n ta l a n d p h y s ic a l c a u s e s o f S y n c o p e a re w e ll illu s t r a t e d in t h is re p o rt , th e fa in ts b e in % partly due to d e ­ fic ie n t a ir - s u p p ly c o n s e q u e n t o n a b s e n c e o f p ro p e r v e n t ila t io n , partly due to th e effects o f s y m p a th y , a n d partly due to the c o m b in a tio n o f th e se tw o c a u s e s .— A . R ., L o n d o n B r id g e .

P s e u d o -I n t e r n a l H a e m o r r h a g e . A F ir s t - A id e r w a s re c e n t ly o n O p e n S p a c e d u t y w ith h is D iv is io n , a n d fo u n d , so m e d is t a n c e fro m th e A m b u la n c e S ta tio n , a m a n in a s ta te o f a p p a re n t c o lla p s e . W h ile he w a s e n d e a v o u r in g to e s t a b lis h th e c a u s e , th e p a tie n t v o m ite d a n d b ro u g h t u p a d a r k b ro w n , e v il- s m e llin g m ix tu re . F e a r in g u lc e r a t io n o f s to m a c h w ith in t e r n a l h a e m o rrh a g e , the F ir s t A id e r w is e ly e x e rc is e d h is “ d is c r im in a t io n ” a n d im m e d ia t e ly se n t fo r th e O ffic e r -in -c h a rg e , w h o d e m o n s tra te d th a t th e “ c o ffe e -g ro u n d ” v o m it c o n s is te d o f s ta le b e e r a n d c h o c o la te 1 S h o r t ly a ft e rw a rd s th e p a tie n t g o t u p a n d w a lk e d a w a y q u ic k ly . — C . T ., H a m p s t e a d .


April, 1918,

— F IR S T

A ID

&

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ST.

JOHN

AMBULANCE

GAZETTE. —

149

THE ST. JOHN AMBULANCE GAZETTE. The Genesis of the Indian Branch of the S.J.A.A. B y L ie u t .- C o l.

A . C . Y A T E , F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.Soc.

( Continued from page 135.) I n December, 1 9 0 4 , Lord Curzon resumed his Viceroyalty at Calcutta. On the 23rd of that month I again wrote to His Excellency’s Private Secretary, and a month later found myself placed in communication with the Secretary to the Government of India in the Military Department, MajorGeneral De Brath. Space bids me compress into a few lines the result of two months correspondence and con­ ference with him. I handed over to him at Calcutta by the 26th March, under instructions from the Viceroy, three memoranda, viz. :— (1) List of Provincial and Native Centres, * 1 4 in all, excluding Railway and District Centres. (2) Memorandum on the Powers and Duties of the Central Committee of the Indian Branch. (3) “ Instructions for the guidance of the Central Committee of the Indian Branch.” (This last subject to the approval of the Central Exe­ cutive Committee of St. John’s Gate). These were acknowledged by Major-General de Brath in a letter dated 27th March, 1905, which says :— “ I have laid the matter before the Viceroy, and am desired to say that His Excellency approves of the formation of a Central Committee composed as follows ” I refrain from re­ peating a long list which is on record at St. John’s Gate and in India. Suffice it to say that the Committee was thoroughly representative of class and office, and that the Viceroy himself was President of the Branch, and the Commander.in-Chief President of the Committee. I tele­ graphed that day to St. John’s Gate that the Indian Branch Committee was formed, and left on the 31st, via Singapore, Japan and Canada, for England. From 1905 to 1908 the Indian Branch was a sort of waif and stray. Like a gallant ship, it weathered the time of trouble bravely, but there was no strong hand at the helm. I possessed my soul in patience, and at last fell in with two strong men who meant work, j Mr. Vivian Gabriel, I.C.S., and Major (now Colonel) Blackham, R .A .M .C. They went to India and worked to good purpose. Lord and Lady Minto supported them effectively, and the Governors* Lieut.-Governors. Chief Commissioners, Heads of Departments, Native Princes, and lesser official lumi­ naries, fell into line, and when war broke out in 1914 *V ide lists in the O rd e r’s R eport for 1906, p. 178, signed by L ie u t .C olonel A la n E . Y ate, R . A . M .C ., their J-Ion. Sec. In d ia n Branch. T h e M ad ras C entre is there shewn as “ in abeyance.” T h e truth is that much work was going on in M adras, but the G overn o r declined to cast his sem i-official aegis over it. + M r. G ab rie l had previously w orked w ith the Sim la, and M a jo r Blackham w ith a D evo npo rt or Plym outh Centre.

India was, from a Red Cross point of view, in some mea­ sure prepared for war. My congenial task was now finished. I tendered my resignation of the post of Hon. Organisining Commisioner for India. It was accepted in words which I esteem it an honour to quote. They are those of the Secretary-General of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem :— “ I am requested to convey to you the very best thanks of the ChapterGenral for your valuable services in India, and after leaving that country, in the office you have vacated— services which have tended to place the work of the Ambulance Depart­ ment in the Indian Empire on a much more satisfactory footing, and which will always be remembered by the Chapter-General, and the members generally, with grati­ tude, and as a further proof of your well-known interest in all that affects the well-being and prosperity of the Order.” Of one other utterance I cherish the memory. They are words spoken by the late Viscount Knutsford, Director of the Ambulance Department in 1900, and later SubPrior of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, on 10th July, 1910, in the House of Lords :— “ In India we have done magnificent work, helped by Lord Curzon, Lord Minto and Lord Kitchener, and by Lieut.-Colonel A. Yate, who did good service in promoting it.” In the cold weather of 1905, the visit to India of the Grand Prior of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, H .R .H . George Prince of Wales, was marked by the address pre­ sented to His Royal Highness, and signed on behalf of the Indian Branch Committee by Lord Kitchener, Sir Denzil ibbetson, and the Bishop of Lahore (Dr. Lefroy). Lord Kitchener discussed the Indian Branch with me in Calcutta, at the end of March, 1905, and was insistent that it should be made “ a big ,thing.” His address to the Prince of Wales, a copy of which is in my posession, states :— “ Work in this country was commenced in 1901 by Major (now Lieut.-Colonel) A. C. Yate, Indian Army, who in July, 1900, had submitted to the Central Executive Com­ mittee in London a scheme aiming at a permanent organi­ sation on definite lines, and who, with the sanction of the Grand Prior, was in December, 1900, appointed Hon. Organising Commisioner for India. This office, with brief intermissions, worked indefatigably until March of the present year, when, on the eve of his permanent de­ parture from India, and upon his application, His Excellency the Viceroy was pleased to approve of the formation of a Central Committee, with headquarters- in Simla, the object of its formation being to take over the direction of and to foster the movement in India, while giving a certain measure of official recognition and support.” I consider it necessary to draw particular attention to those words, “ official recognition and support,” because subsequently some misunderstanding arose about this. Lord Kitchener’s address further gave the composition of the Indian Branch Committee, a list of the Provincial Native States and Local Centres (sixteen in all) in India, an account of the work that was being done by the Rail­ ways, Volunteers, and Police, and a description of the


i 5°

— F IR S T

A ID

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ST.

JOHN

“ most successful depot of stores managed at Bombay by Mr. George Lund.” T o this address H .R .H . the Grand Prior was pleased to vouchsafe a gracious reply, and during his tour in India presented the Railway Challenge Shield, at Khandwa Railway Station, to the team of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway, which had won it at the com­ petition at Jabalpur in March, over which I, for the second and last time, presided. His Royal Highness also pre­ sented twenty-two silver and bronze medals, awarded by the Order to twenty-two officers and men of the 1st and 7th Gurkha Rifles for the gallantry which they displayed in saving life during and after the disastrous earthquake which took place at Dharmsala on April 4th, 1905. The Railway Challenge Shield Competition Volunteers’ Challenge Shield has proved more difficult to arrange to the convenience of competitors coming from a distance. His Majesty’s Secretary of State for India has been prompt during the war in recognition of and expressions of gratitude for the conspicuous generosity of the [native Princes— generosity which has not infrequently taken the form of contributions of money aud material for the use of the Indian Branch of the Ambulance Department of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. The Indian Branch itself, which has thus, in the space of fifteen years, won the confidence and regard of high and low in India, should not be forgotten. Once only do I recollet a Secretary of State for India expressing appreciation of its services, and that was when a bomb was thrown, with disastrous results, at Lord Hardinge of Penhurst during his ceremonial entrance into Delhi. T he Ambulance Detachment close by was prompt to render aid. The thanks accorded to it were well deserved.

Benefits I Derived From Lecture' Given by Sergt. Hanmer. ( Continued fro m page 137). I I .— B l e e d i n g . supports life ( 1 ) by regulating and sustaining the body temperature (II). Supplying the body and tissues with liquid and moisture (III). Absorbing from the air and carrying oxygen to the tissues (IV). Renewing and replacing the output of nourishment, and (V) by carrying out Nature’s plans for the discharge of waste material. The organs concerned in the circulation of the blood are the heart, arteries, veins, capillaries and lungs. Arteries carry blood from the heart and convey it to all parts of the body. T he Capillaries connect the arteries and the veins The veins convey the blood back to the heart, from whence it passes into the lungs, where it gives off its impurities and gets a fresh supply of oxygen. The blood in the arteries is of a bright red colour and issues from a wound in spurs or jets, but if the artery is deep seated it may not issue in this manner. Venous blood is of a dark colour and issues from wound in continuous stream. Hcemorrhage — In all cases of injury examine carefully for haemorrhage and give it your fir s t attention. Nature’s way of arresting haemorrhage is by formation of a clot, and this is the best of all ways— a clot shou'd never be disturbed, as a clot not only arrests bleeding but also prevents entrance of germs. Haemorrhage can be arrested by (I) digital pressure, (II) pad and bandage, (III) flexion, (IV) torniquet. In all cases patient must be placed in recumbent position and bleeding p a r t elevated and supported. When arresting B

lood

AMBULANCE

G A ZE TT E. —

April, 1918

haemorrhage let the flection method and tourniquet be used only as last resources. O f course, in the case of very severe injury, such as limb torn off, you may have to put on a tourniquet as a precautionary method, but in this case the tourniquet should not be left on long ; get the doctor immediately, and if any delay arises loosen touriquet very often to see if bleeding is controlled and then you may leave it slightly loosened unless haemorrhage starts again ; of course, patient must be watched incessantly. In all cases of haemorrhage let there be no delay in getting the services of a doctor. It is most important in all cases of haemorrhage to treat for shock by keeping the patient warm ; see that he get as much air as possible and watch carefully for signs of collapse. A r ter ia l Hcemorrhage is to be stopped when possible by pressure either on the wound or on the pressure point; this pressure can be applied by the finger or pad and bandage, and don't forget position o f body and elevation of

part. Bleeding From Nose.— This is a case very often met with. Place patient sitting near open door or window with head slightly back and hands raised above head. Undo all tight clothing. Apply cold to bridge of nose and nape of neck. In arterial haemorrhage the pressure point is on heart side of wound. There is one case of arterial haemorrhage where pressure is to be applied on both sides of wound, that is, when “ carotid artery ” is wounded, as there is a connection between the two carotid arteries. The jugular vein lies so close to the carotid that it is very often wounded at the same time, and this another reason for pressure on both sides of the wound. In tern a l Hcemorrhage.— When an injury is accom­ panied by severe internal bleeding the patient shows signs of collapse, suffers from a ir hunger, yawns, throws the arms about, and the skin feels cold and clamy and pulse is low. Place patient lying with head low, see to free circulation of air, cover warmly, place ice-bag on seat of injury, and if haemorrhage is very severe bandage limbs from toes up to thighs and from fingers to arm-pits. Get doctor. Varicose Veins.— Bleeding from a varicose vein is a case the first-aider may meet with any day. The veins of the leg become varicose by long standing or the wearing of tight garters, etc., that is, the valves of the veins become diseased. Treatment.— Place patient lying down. Elevate the limb. Expose the wound. Remove all constrictions. Apply clean pad and tight bandage to wound. Apply another pad and bandage (on side of wound away from heart, and it may also be necessary to apply pressure on side of wound nearest to heart. On account of diseased condition of valves a varicose vein can bleed from both ends. In case of blood issuing from ear, no attempt must be made to stop it, just wipe away as it issues. Wounds.— Treatment. Stop bleeding. Prevent germs from entering. Expose wound. Remove foreign bodies if you see any in the wound, but don’t search for them. Then cover with a clean, dry, absorbent antiseptic dressing. Support injured part. Never wash a wound unless the water has been first boiled to render it antiseptic.

Mrs. W. Harvey Reeves, Assistant County Director Northants V.A.D., was among the recent recipients of the Royal Red Cross. Mrs. Reeves has been actively asso­ ciated with the St. John’s Ambulance Brigade in North­ ampton for many years past.


April, 1918

— F IR S T

A ID

&

THE

ST.

The Chapel of St. John Brigade Hospital, Etaples. h i s Chapel was dedicated on the 1 6th November, 1 9 1 7 , by the Rt. Rev. the Bishop of New Westminster. It is situated nearly in the centre of the Hospital, adjoining the patients’ dining room. It is about 24 ft. by 20 ft., and capable of seating 45 people. For a largely attended service, screens are removed between the Chapel and the Dining Hall giving accomo­ dation for well over 100. The funds for this Chapel were collected within a fortnight of permission being granted for its erection, and during the few months since it was dedicated it has proved quite a centre to the Hospital. On entering there is such a feeling of repose. The delightful harmony and colouring of the Sanctuary carpet,

JOHN

AMBULANCE

GAZETTE. —

General Letter of the Joint V.A.D. Committee to County Directors.

T

T he

C h apel

o f

St . Joh n

the blue and green shaded hangings, the beautiful crimson of the super-frontal, on which is embroidered the eight pointed Cross of the Order, do, indeed, make a happy change after the rush of a busy hospital life at the Front. On completion of the Chapel it was found that a harmonium was needed, and this was immediately pre­ sented by the generosity of Lady Mount-Stephen, who had already been one of the largest donors to the funds. Miss du Pre, a Lady of Grace of the Order and a member of the Brigade, was another generous donor. A Competition in First Aid between the Norwood Division Special Constables and the Norwood Section Volunteers took place last month, resulting in a win for the Specials. Dr. Halliwell was the examiner and Messrs. W. C. Banks, A. Vincent, and H. Mear of the -S.E. and C. Ry. Ambulance Corps were responsible for instructing the teams.

I s e n d you the following for your information:—

R e A lien s .— County Directors would help us consider­ ably and would also enable the War Office to give fair and just decisions regarding aliens, if they would be good enough to send any private information from Commandants or other sources with the first application, Identity Book, Passport, etc. In several instances the War Office has re­ fused to allow these aliens to be employed, and we have immediately received strong letters from their Com­ mandants giving information to the credit of the applicant, and urging the War Office to reconsider their decision. This seems to be a very unsatisfactory method of approach­ ing a Government Department.

B r ig a d e

H o sp ita l, E t a p l e s .

County Directors are asked to notify all their Com ­ mandants that they must not enrol in their Voluntary Aid Detachments personnel employed by the Metropolitan Asylums Board, unless such applicants can produce a letter stating that they have permission to enrol. You will have notice in the Press that the War Office have now arranged to grade V .A .D . Nursing Members who have completed two years continuous service in a Military, Territorial or War Hospital, who have already been awarded the red efficiency stripe, rand who are recom­ mended by the Matron and C.O. of the Hospital. This promotion carries no increase of pay, but it is an enormous encouragement to our members who have so anxiously awaited some official recognition of their work. The Central Joint V.A.D. Committee have now under consideration a similar scheme for grading V.A.D . members working in Auxiliary and V.A.D. Hospitals, and we hope o be able to issue the scheme very shortly.


— F IR S T

A ID

&

THE

ST.

I 1egret to inform you of the death of Dr. Nelson, County Director for Birmingham. The War Office has informed us that in future General Service Members and Labour Women will only be em­ ployed in Military Hospitals, where suitable accommadation already exists and where the conditions of work are satis­ factory for the employment of women. The. War Office have sanctioned the issue ot gum boots to General Service members serving Overseas, when these are considered necessary by the local Military Authority. The Committee hope very shortly to issue some simple suggestions regarding the duties of Commandants, Matrons, Lady Superintendents and Quartermasters in Auxiliary Hospitals, which it is hoped may be found useful. The rules are at present in the hands of the printers. County Directors are asked to impress upon their Commandants the necessity of all V . A D. personnel, officers and members alike, being in possession of the uni­ form certificate, J.V.A.D. 24. It has been agreed that if any senior member or Com­ mandant, after three years’ service in a Detachment, can show a certificate from her County Director that he is unable to give her suitable employment in his County, and that Devonshire House is unable to offer her a suitable post, such member shall be allowed to serve with an Allied Unit without having to resign from her Detachment, It has been found necessary to rule that no V.A.D. member shall, under any circumstances whatever, be posted for work under a domestic servant. Yours faithfully, C

h ilsto n

,

Chief County Director.

The Grand Priory of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England. Chancery o f the Order , St. fohn's Gate , Clerkenwell, London , E .C ., M arch 28th , ig i8 . T h e K in g h a s b e e n g r a c io u s ly p le a s e d to s a n c t io n the fo llo w in g p ro m o tio n s in , a n d a p p o in t m e n t s to, the O r d e r o f the H o s p it a l o f St. J o h n o f J e r u s a le m in. E n g la n d :—

A s Lady o f Justice ( from Ladv o f Grace ) : H e r G r a c e T h e D u c h e s s o f D e v o n s h ir e .

A s Knights of Grace : A r t h u r H e n r y L e s lie - M e lv ille . L t .- G e n e r a l S ir J o h n S te v e n C o w a n s , G .C .M .G ., K . C . B . , M .V .O . S ir W illia m P le n d e r , G .B . E . J a m e s F r a n c is C la r k H o s s a c k , F . R . C . C . S . , L .R .C .P .( F .d .) , (fro m H o n o r a r y A s s o c ia t e ). F r a n c i s E d w a r d J a m e s S m ith . S ir C h a r le s F o r r i s N ic h o ls o n , B t., M .P .

A s Ladies o f Grace : C a t h e r in e L e s lie , L a d y W in g a t e . F r a n c e s , L a d y L a y la n d B a rra t t .

A s E squ ire : L t .- C o l. H u b e r t F r e d e r ic k B a r c la y .

A s Honorary Serving Brothers : P e r c y G e o r g e R ic h e s . E d w in S c o tt. W i ll ia m T h o m a s K n ig h t . A lb e r t G e o r g e G u is e . H e r b e r t E d m u n d R ic h a r d s o n .

JO H N

AMBULANCE

GAZETTE. —

April, 1918.

A s Honorary Serving Sisters : G e r a ld in e G e r t r u d e , M is s C o le s . R u t h , M is s L in d s a y . M in n ie , M is s B a te s. E l s i e M a u d e , M is s L e in s t e r . E u n ic e M a r y , M r s . P a d le y . M ia , M is s L u c a s . M a b e l, M is s W ig h t . S a r a h , M r s . W illia m s .

L o r E nrolm ent as Honorary Associates : C a p t a in M a u r ic e G . L o u is s o n , M .B ., B .S ., M .R . C . S . , L . R . C . P N .Z .M .C . M a jo r J o h n R e s t e ll T h o m a s , M .B .. N .Z .M .C . C a p t a in C h a rle s A r t h u r C o v e n to n , M .R .C .S ., L . R . C . P . N ig e l C o rb e t F le t c h e r , M .B ., B .C ., M . R .C .S ., L . R . C . P . T h e H o n . E u s t a c e S c o t t H a m ilt o n R u s s e ll. J o h n C h a r le s P ro b s t. M a jo r L o r im e r J o h n A u s t in , F . R . C . S . , R . A . M . C . , T . C . M a jo r B e r n a r d H u d s o n . J o h n L a n e K in g . J o s e p h C r y e r , M . R .C . S ., L . R . C . P . E d m u n d T h u rm a n .

Notes

and

News.

Fifty-four members of the St. John Ambulance Brigade Overseas arrived in England on the 4th April from Canada. These members were officially sent over for woik in the Military Hospital in England. They reported at Devon­ shire House the next morning, and in the afternoon were taken, in charge of Miss Gow, to St. John's Gate, where they were received by their Deputy-Commissioner, W. H. Morgan, Esq. Mr. Morgan conducted them over the building, and afterwards to the Crypt of the Church. They were much interested in everything they saw, and im­ pressed by their first visit to their Headquarters, of which they had heard so much. *** V.A.D. selected members mentioned for Nursing Services in the Times , March 14th, 1918 :— M rs. M is s M is s M is s M rs. M is s M is s M is s M rs. M is s

M a r g a r e t B r a m le y , G la m . 70 , B .R .C .S . J e s s ie F u lt o n D o w n ie , W . L a n c s . 54, S .J .B . M u r ie l M T a n s h a w e , D e v o n 42, B . R . C . S . D o r is J o h n s o n , W . L a n c s ., S .J .B . L e o n o r a K e n n y , L o n d o n 40, B .R . C .S . V io le t M . K e n r ic k , H a n t s 2, B .R .C .S . 1 G ra c e M a r g a r e t L e u c h a r s , S u r re y 52, B . R . C . S . M u r ie l C a r y O liv e , C o r n w a ll 56, B .R . C .S . M a b e l E m i ly S e v e rn , D e r b y 26, B .R . C .S . G w e n y th W o r t h in g t o n , S taffs. 64, B .R . C . S .

Corrige?idum.— The following name is now correctly described :— M r s . M a r g u e r it e D ic k s o n , M id d le s e x 44, S .J .A .B .

R a d s t o c k . — Dr. J. E. Scales, on April 7th, conducted the Radstock 15th annual re-examination of such certified local First Aid men who chose to submit. Before the ex­ amination commenced Mr. S. Lloyd Harvey referred to the fact that the occasion was the sixth successive year Dr. Scales, at no small sacrifice to his valuable time, had gratuitously undertaken the work. During the 14 years the re-examinations had been held 52 vouchers, 35 medal­ lions and 115 bars had been obtained, a total of 202 awards. Mr. Lloyd Harvey moved “ That this meeting tenders its best and heartiest thanks to Dr. Scales for his sustained kindness in again undertaking the re-examinations gratuitously.”


—FIRST

April, 1918 CO NTENTS

OF

T H IS

American and British Expeditionary Forces has announced the discovery that trench fever is communicated by the

T o O u r R e a d e rs

145 145

L iv e r p o o l A u x ilia r y H o s p it a l fo r W o u n d e d O ffic e rs R epo rts—

N o . 1 ; N o . 3 ; N o . 9 ; N o . 11

146

T h e T r e a t m e n t o f S p e c ia l W o u n d s a n d B it e s ... P r a c t ic a l

i 53

combined committee of investigators from the

T h e

NUM BER.

E d it o r ia l —

D istr ic t

AI D. —

147

P o in ts —

body louse.

The germ is not yet isolated, but the progress

made in combating the disease is regarded as important. The committee has been working for two months at a British Hospital in France with part of the ^20,000 which the Red Cross has set aside

for research work.

Five

C u lp a b le a n d M e d d le s o m e F ir s t A id

148

American doctors are on the committee, which reached its

M u lt ip le E m e r g e n c ie s

148

conclusions from one American officer and seven men who

...

P s e u d o - In t e r n a l H a e m o rrh a g e T h e S t . J o h n ’s A m b u l a n c e

148

G aze t te —

T h e G e n e s is o f th e In d ia n B r a n c h o f th e S . J .A .A . ...

149

B e n e fits I D e r iv e d fro m H a n m e r ...

1 50

The

L e ctu re s

C h a p e l o f th e St. J o h n E t a p le s

g iv e n b y S e rg t

151 C o m m itte e to

T h e G r a n d P r io r y o f th e O r d e r o f th e St. J o h n o f J e r u s a le m in E n g la n d

151 H o s p it a l o f 152

N o te s a n d N e w s B r e v itie s

...

A m b u la n c e W o r k o n G .W . R . , 1 9 1 7

153 154 '55

...

R e v ie w s—

t h e

'55

E d it o r —

A n E m e rg e n c y S tre tch e r Q u e r ie s

a n d

A n sw ers

t o

156 C o r r espo n d e n ts—

C o m p le te A m p u t a t io n o f L im b

. ..

and laundries

W o r k W o r t h D o in g F ir s t A id in B o m b a r d e d P a r is

158 158

Trench

all the Red Cross societies of the belligerent and neutral nations to a conference, which will take place at Geneva on The programme of the conference is to formu­

late principles of humanity which ought to inspire the new law of nations. * * * T w o new hospitals in France, now waiting to take from opening

...

the

***

'57 '57 '57 '57 '57 '57 '57 '57

B u r n s o f C o r r o s iv e P o is o n E r r o r s in T e x t b o o k

nearer

Personal cleanliness will be

International Red Cross Committee has invited

T h e

T re a tm e n t o f A p o p le x y ...

L ia b il it y fo r D o c t o r ’s F e e

much

in

baths,

Western front during the past three years than any other

in

C o m p lic a t e d E x a m in a t io n T e s t

of

disease except scabies.

156

I n j u r y to F in g e r

supply

fever has been the cause of more cases of sickness on the

156

F r a c t u r e w ith o u t L o s s o f P o w e r ...

the

insisted upon even more strongly than before.

B a y o n e t a n d B u lle t W o u n d s C o m p o u n d F r a c t u r e w ith H a e m o rrh a g e

T he first result

the immediate increase

probably

“ delousing” stations,

April 30th.

S ix L e c t u r e s to S t. J o h n V . A . D . M e m b e r s t o

efforts,

152

O n D is c r im in a t io n ...

Letter

“ delousing ”

actual front than hitherto.

B r ig a d e H o s p it a l at

G e n e r a l L e t t e r o f th e J o in t V . A . D . C o u n t y D ir e c t o r s ...

volunteered as experimentation subjects. of these conclusions will be

their

maids,

full

complement by the

of

lack

and other paid

wounded,

of

ward

General

are

prevented

orderlies,

house­

Service V.A.D.

mem­

bers. Sections of other hospitals are also closed for lack of workers. Two hundred women are required at once,

and a

steady flow of recruits must be kept up all through the spring and summer, that the men fighting for us shall not miss the care of women from home. The General

Service V . A . D . ’s live in hostels and

camps, and are paid at the same rates as other women in

Brevities.

the services. the

A tte n tio n

is drawn by the

London

Fire Brigade

Terms and conditions can be obtained from

Women’s

Joint

Committee,

Department,

* * *

Committee in a report to be presented to the County Council to the initiative shown by Miss Logan and Miss Hopkins, members of the staff of the ambulance service.

V.A.D.

Devonshire House, Piccadilly, W.

A n

Army

Council

instruction notifies that special

military probationers and nursing members of Voluntary

On February 17th the Bloomsbury ambulance, of which

Aid Detachments who have

they formed the staff, was despatched in response to a call

tinuous

to Albany Chambers, Regent-street, where a woman was

pitals,

hanging in the lift, suspended by her arms, her hands

assistant nurse.

being jammed between the lift and the floor.

not carry any increase of pay, is to be recommended,

She asked

service are

to

in be

military eligible

Promotion

completed Territorial for

or

grade

to this grade,

for something to relieve her pain, and in the exceptional

however, for efficiency only, and

eircumstances the attendant in charge of the ambulance,

vice.

Candidates

the

two years’ con­ war of

hos­

V.A.D.

which does

not for length of ser­

must already have been awarded the

administered chloroform, while Miss Hopkins went up to

red efficiency stripe.

the floor above and, as the patient came under the influence

will wear the letters “ A .N .” on the right side of their

Probationers appointed to this grade

of the chloroform, succeeded in unclasping her hands, thus

aprons in indoor uniform, and on the shoulder straps of

enabling her to be extricated.

their outdoor uniform coats.


1 — F I R S T

154

On By

Discrimination.*

R IC H A R D

M ORELAND, J u n r.,

Corporal , Hampstead D iv ision , ,S7 John Ambulance Brigade. study o f Discrimination compels one to follow the revised (1917) Edition of ths S.J.A.A Manual and to take account of the Signs, which are abnormal conditions— such as pale or flushed face, deformity, swelling, haemorrhage, etc. ; the Symptoms , of which the patient will make much or little— such as pain, e tc .; the History, which may be what the First Aider saw or heard himself, or was told by bystanders; the Causes, Effects and Surroundings which may give possible clues to diagnosis ; the Help, appli­ ances, shelter and means of transport available, and, lastly, the Observation, Tactfulness, Resourcefulness and Explicit­ ness— required by the First Aider in addition to Discrimi­ nation. In considering the question of Discrimination I pro­ pose to take headings and to quote cases which are taken from actual accidents. T h e headings which I have adopted are The

(1)

The Discrimination required in whether a Doctor should be or not.

deciding sent for

(2)

The Discrimination required in deciding whether the patient should be taken home or to hospital.

(3)

The Discrimination required in selecting means of treatment and of transport.

(4)

The Discrimination required in handling a case already under treatment by another First Aider.

AID.

April, 1918.

clined to act on the assumption that the easiest way of getting rid of a case is to send it post haste off to the hos­ pital. From all reports, however, this excellent arrange­ ment would be much improved if the attendant exercised a little more Discrimination in attending to the Signs, Symp­ toms and History of the case before taking it off at full speed to the hospital, and undoubtedly this will be done. The following are two Cases which deal with the problem of “ Sending for the Doctor.” C

ase

N

o.

r.

A girl, riding a bicycle down a steep hill, lost control owing to faulty brakes, and ran into a horse and cart. A First Aider saw the accident, which, as it was dark, appeared to be very serious and hastened to the girl’s assistance. During his examination a boy came along and asked if he should ring up the ambulance; but the First Aider, fearing possible injuries to the head, spine or pelvis, decided to send for a doctor. Afterwards, finding that the patient could move both upper and lower limbs freely, and wished to get up, the First Aider assisted her into a house close by, leaving a bystander to tell the doctor where to come. The latter on arrival found that there was nothing to be done, and had a wasted journey, as, being away from home when called, he had to travel a distance of two miles. The patient, after resting, was taken home about a mile by train by the First Aider. What actually happened was that the bicycle received the worst of the blow, and the girl only a slight scalp wound with a bruise on the inner side of the left leg. In this case the First Aider was too quick in deciding to send for the doctor, although at the time the injuries appeared to be serious. C

ase

N

o.

2.

The second case occurred on one of the tube stations, where two “ Specials ” (one a First Aider) were called by the lift attendant to a woman who, having fallen down­ (5) The Discrimination required in deciding stairs was unconscious and bleeding trom the temple. to do nothing. They succeeded in stopping the haemorrhage, and then (1) In deciding whether a D octor should be s nt Jor took the patient up the lift for more air. Failing to revive or not. her they decided to send for a doctor. When payment was being arranged, the Police In the S.J.A.A. Manual there are several accidents for Authorities thought that the case did not warrant the sum­ which the services of a Doctor are required, such as frac­ moning of the doctor, and that the First Aider should have tures of spine and femur, insensibility, poisoning, disloca­ been able to deal with the case himself. tions, etc. In most instances, however, the First Aider has to attend to the most urgent necessities and to utilise his (2 ) In deciding whether the case should be taken home or to hospital. common sense and experience, always remembering that he is not a doctor, and “ must on no account take upon This will give free play to our Discrimination. If the himself the duties and responsibilities of a Doctor.” injuries are slight, and can be attended by an efficient First It is, I believe, common knowledge that the Police are Aider, there seems to be no reason why the patient should very adverse to calling doctors. Indeed, it hardly seems not, after treatment, be escorted home by the First Aider. fair to take up medical men’s valuable time on what can Hospitals cannot admit all cases, as if they attempted frequently be done by a qualified first aider, a point which to do so these would soon crowd out other (and possibly brings out very forcibly the great importance of educating more serious) cases. It would follow that, if there was a as many people of both sexes in the Principle of First Aid, hospital or doctor’s house near, the patient should, when­ because (a) if a First Aider meets with an accident, he can ever possible, be taken there. By this step expert assist­ help himself by telling the bystanders what to do ; and (b) if ance is obtained without calling a doctor to the emerhe finds a casualty he can treat it efficiently. Moreover, it is gency. jf apparent to our commonsense that a patient should be The following case, which occurred at one of the taken to the doctor in most cases rather than that the Tube Stations during an air raid will illustrate this doctor should be summoned. point :— In these days, when in large towns there are motor A working woman was found in an epileptic fit on the ambulances in readiness at a moment’s notice, one is inplatform and remained unconscious until the raid was over * T h e se N otes are based on a paper read at a recent meeting ot when she was brought up by lift and placed in the station the H am pstead D iv isio n , S .J .A .B . hall. The First Aider in charge, not being able to restore


— F I R S T

April, 1918.

consciousness, telephoned for a wheeled ambulance, on which the patient was taken to hospital 400 yards away. On further examination, the case was not considered serious enough for admission, and was subsequently sent home by motor ambulance.

(T o be continued,)

A I D . —

Notwithstanding the exceptional stress of the times, members of the medical profession have continued to sup­ port the movement by training and examining students, and the active and sympathetic interest shown by the Company’s Directors and officers has doubtless done much to maintain enthusiasm in the ambulance cause throughout the railway. Y e a r.

Ambulance Work on G.W.R., 1917. N o t w ith st a n d in g the unprecedented demands which have continuously been made upon the railways since the outbreak of war, involving the handling of an enormous amount of additional traffic with a heavily depleted staff, ambulance work goes on among railway employees with un­ remitting zeal. In connection with the Great Western Railway Centre of the St. John Ambulance Association upwards of two thousand examination awards have been gained during the past year, which figure is in excess of that for the year 1913, when the results achieved were in access of any previous year. The accompanying table shows the number of exami­ nation awards gained by members of the Centre in each of the past eight years, and whilst, as was only to be antici­ pated, the number of certificates, vouchers and medallions shows a falling off as the war goes on from year to year (due to enlistments and other causes) it proves that the older men retained in the service are keeping up their first aid efficiency, as the number of label awards— i.e., for third and subsequent re-examinations— constitutes a record achievement for the Centre. A feature of the year’s work has been the number of classes formed among women employees, and it is gratify­ ing to know that a good proportion of those who are now engaged upon the railways in replacing men serving with the Forces are acquiring the knowledge which will enable them to minimise the effect of accidents involving personal injuries which may arise in the course of their employment. A large number of Great Western Railway ambulance workers are serving with the medical units of the Navy and Army, and reports received indicate that the knowledge they have obtained in the railway ambulance classes has proved invaluable. Many who cannot be released from their railway duties have enrolled in the V.A.D. and other hospitals for duties in their leisure hours, while others are regularly affording valuable assistance in the transport of wounded between trains and hospital. Among the women employes a similar spirit has been manifest in connection with hospital duties. Arrangements for the provision of voluntary ambu­ lance workers on the occasion of hostile air raids have been completed, and no fewer than fifteen calls have been answered by an average number of sixteen men and women since September last, when a number of injuries have been dealt with, illustrating the practical utility of the training. As in past years, a number of cases of exceptionally meritorious first aid treatment have been reported, many of which have drawn unstinted praise from the medical men who subsequently took charge. These cases are now being adjudicated upon in connection with the Directors’ annual issue of medal and certificate awards. The preparation of the railway section of the official first aid film of the St. John Ambulance Association was a noteworthy departure, and the large number of G.W.R, ambulance workers who took part in the preparation of the pictures evinced a whole-hearted interest in the project.

155

C e r t if ic a t e 1st Y e a r.

1910 1911 1912

1913 1914 1915 1916 i 9 '7

551

510 368 823 1,698

639 455 400

V o u c h e r M e d a llio n M e d a llio n L a b e ls fo r 3 rd 2nd R e -e x a m . Y e a r. Y e a r. 269 35? 147 2 15 355 157 150 381 185 608 215 36 7 823 617 434 8 56 383 639 1 ,16 7 563 443 1,211 2 74 234

T o t a l.

',324 1 ,2 3 7 1,084 2 ,0 1 3

3,672 2,497 2 ,6^8 2 ,1 1 9

Reviews. S IX

LECTU RES

TO

ST.

JO H N

V .A .D .

M EM BERS. B y T h e k la B o w s e r, F . J . I . B ir m in g h a m : C o r n is h B r o s ., L td .

Price is. 6d. net. T h e s e le c tu re s w ere d e liv e r e d at B ir m in g h a m la s t y e a r to m e m b e rs o f th e n u r s in g c o rp s o f th a t c it y o n s u b je c t s c lo s e ly a llie d to t h e ir w o rk , s u c h a s “ T h e H is t o r y o f th e O r d e r o f St. J o h n o f J e r u s a le m ,” “ T h e B ir t h o f th e S . J .A .A . a n d B r ig a d e ,” “ T h e W a r O ffic e V . A . D . S c h e m e a n d its D e v e lo p m e n t ,” “ T h e M a k in g o f a n O ffic e r,” “ T h e D u t ie s o f Q u a rt e r m a s t e r a n d S e c tio n L e a d e r s ,” a n d “ D is c ip lin e a n d E f f ic ie n c y .” M is s B o w s e r, w h o h a s h a d c o n s id e r a b le e x p e r ie n c e in b r ig a d e w o rk , e x p la in s in m u c h d e t a il it s w o r k a n d r a m if ic a ­ t io n s in t h is lit tle b o o k . I t is a h a n d y lit t le v o lu m e to a ll th o se in te re s te d in th e w o rk .

F. B. (Gateshead) sends us four stamps to obtain Home Office First Aid leaflets, without his address. Please send us this and we will try and assist you.

“ R e s c u e W o r k ” i n C o a l M i n e s . — Owing to the fact that many thousands of men from the “ Coal Mines ” have joined the Forces, the ranks of the trained “ Rescue Men ” have been considerably depleted. It is essential that the establishment of such a body should be complete, and that reserves should be constantly in training, for when an explosion takes place the men are needed in full force. It is, however, owing to the present situation, diffi­ cult to obtain the right kind of men for the work ; but the task of finding and teaching the men will be made less difficult if the medium provided by “ Hanmer’s Lectures ” is employed. First Officer C. Hanmer, who is well known throughout the United Kingdom as a “ Rescue Worker ” and promoter of “ Ambulance" and “ Rescue Work.” gives a special illustrated lecture on the subject, and his services are always at the disposal of “ Coal-Mining ” districts.

W hen corresponding w ith A dvertisers please men­ tion “ F i r s t A id .”


— FIRST

£etters to the Sditor. We are in no way responsible for the opinions expressed, or the statements made, by Correspondents.— E d i t o r , E t c .

AN

EMERGENCY

STRETCHER.

the January number of H i s atten­ tion was particularly arrested by the illustrated article “ An Emergency Stretcher,” by F. C. Bottomley. Whilst most fully and heartily endorsing all the points raised in favour of the article described, the writer has the temerity to submit that the “ carrying sheet” introduced by him, and catalogued by Messrs. Ferris & Co., Ltd., Bristol, in 1908, possesses equal recommendations, and, moreover, is yet even easier to make, and— as really specially designed for— folds into a compact package (9^ in. by 6 in. by f in.) for inclu­ sion in a portable first aid outfit. The home-made one’ the writer uses is made of white “ duck ”— this material is strong and can be boiled for cleansing if necessary— folded from each side to the middle, giving a double thickness, the whole fairly closely (3 in.) quilted together with five lines of sewing parallel to edges all round, forming a strong selvege about liin. wide, in which, on the fourth line from the outer edge, are cut the hand-holes, each of these being 4 in. long and strongly button-holed. Weight 1 lb. It can be. used as an improvised stretcher by threading even awkward shaped or size poles up to the limits of the size of the holes— through the hand-holes. Possibly exception may be taken to the width shown, i.e., 21 in., but in practical use such has left nothing to be desired. Too-wide carrying sheets are apt to be sloppy, with a conseD ear

S i r , — It was only a day or two ago that F i r s t A i d came to the writer’s notice.

C en tp es—

i ! Z ~ , v-asw.

AID, —

A p ril, 19 1 8

be brought; down six flights of stairs; these were fairly capacious, but had several “ hair-pin ” turnings at the landings. After reviewing the whole position, it was decided, to obviate any risk of bumping the patient when lifting it over the bannisters, to leave the stretcher in the hall, bring the patient down on the sheet, place both on the stretcher, and all in the ambulance van. Such was done, and when arriving at the cottage hospital, such procedure was reversed— viz., the whole taken into the vestibule, then the sufferer lifted off stretcher, and carried into the ward and placed on the bed, on the carrying sheet. In a few moments the matron handed out the sheet, remarking “ Thank you. We have never had a patient brought in a nicer manner, or with less trouble.” Why some such article as suggested by Mr. Bottomley is not more readily and generally adopted passes compre­ hension. One pertinent consideration for the use of such is the extra protection from cold when placed on a stretcher on a carrying sheet to the sufferer’s back— a point all too frequently overlooked.— Ycurs truly, S.

L

H

lo yd

a r v e y

.

Radstock, Som., April 6th, 1918.

Queries and Answers Correspondents.

to

Queries w ill be dealt with under the following rules :— 1 . — Letters containing Queries must be marked on the top left hana c o m e r of the envelope “ Query," and addressed— F i r s t A i d , 4.6, Cannon-street, London, E .C . 2 .— A l l Queries must be accompanied by a “ Query Coupon ” cut jrom the current issue of the Journal, or in case of Queries from abroad from a recent issue. ? .— The Textbook, to which reference may be made in these columns, is the Revised { iq if ) E dition o f S .J .A .A . M an ual o f F irst-A id .

C

Harvey

C a r r y in y Sh.ee t .

quent loss of command in manipulation, especially as when negotiating narrow steep stairs. The writer well remembers one such instance where a collier, badly crushed from head to toes by a fall of the roof underground, had to be carried up very narrow, quarter-wind stairs rising 9 ft. in a base length of 6 ft., the risers being un­ usually high, and the treads particularly meagre. Whilst in the middle of the ascent, the patient’s body was practically vertical, and here it was the not-too-wide carrying sheet— one bearer each end— proved to be just the thing, as by bringing the two lower hand-holes together in one grip below the feet the whole body was kept from slipping downwards, and although the sufferer screamed at the idea of being carried up­ stairs— his doctor could not undertake his examination where he laid, and the bed, from want of space in the room down­ stairs, could not be brought down— he was put on the sheet, carried up, and laid in bed and sheet removed, without a mur­ mur or groan. As a very exceptional experience, it is pleasing to add that, in relation to this transport case, the then, and great, sufferer met one of the bearers a few evenings ago, and, amongst other generalities of a chance meeting, observed in very grateful tones “ I have never forgotten your carrying me upstairs when I was hurt underground eight years ago.” Another instance of usefulness of some such article as under review was a case of acute rheumatic fever, which had to

o m plete

A

m pu ta tio n

o f

L

im b

.

F. C. (Victoria) asks for correct treatment of case in which the lower limb has been accidentally amputated through the hip joint. Remembering the dangers— Haemorrhage, Shock and Sepsis,

we first control bleeding partly (and when possible) by placing patient— with head and trunk low and pelvis raised— on an in­ clined plane (e.g., table with legs at one end elevated 12-18 in.) and partly by exerting immediate digital compression on the femoral artery at the brim of pelvis ; secondly, we prevent Sepsis by covering wound with pad consisting of three or four layers of dry boracic, on which further pressure is permis­ sible ; thirdly, we minimise Shock partly by treating the cause and partly by keeping the patient as warm as possible and by giving him sips of cold water to drink. Digital compression requires just enough pressure to pre­ vent escape of blood from the vessel compressed, and can rarely be efficiently maintained for more than ten minutes. I t is the only F irst A id Treatment possible— pending the doctor’s arrival— for complete amputation of lower limb, and necessi­ tates relays of assistants to keep up constant pressure.— N. C o rb e t F le tc h e r.

B

a y o n e t

an d

B

u lle t

W

o u n d s

.

E. M. (Cardiff).— What is First Aid treatment of bayonet an bullet wounds ? Apply General Rules of Treatment for Wounds Htemorrhage— (Text-book, p, 79, seq.).— N. C. F.

ar


—FIRST

April, 1918 T

M.

C.

r e a t m e n t

(Swansea)

asks

of

with

A

po p le x y

reference

.

to

treatment

of

A p o p lexy—

(A) Why does Textbook teach us, when face is flushed, to raise head ? May not the rush of blood to face be Nature’s method of reducing pressure within the brain ? (B) Would not application of cold to head (which is advocated by some authorities, though not by Dr. Cantlie) be harmful, since it would drive blood from the surface vessels into those more deeply situated, and thereby in­ crease leakage of blood into brain? (A) Your suggestion is incorrect. First you have misread the Textbook, which teaches us to raise head and shoulders slightly j secondly, you are mistaken in presuming (i) that the blood in the surface vessels of face is drawn from the brain, and (ii) that the change applies to the vessels of face only. The flushed face is due to dilatation of blood vessels, a process which affects the superficial vessels o f the whole body (since it arises from irritation of the Circulatory Centre of Brain by increased pressure due to extravastated bloodj, and will also result in considerable loss of body-heat unless we take steps to prevent it (as instructed in Textbook) by application of warmth to the body, The slight elevation of head and shoulders, therefore, does not decrease the blood supply to face so much at it tends to diminish pressure within the skull and to limit any further escape of blood into brain. (B) This suggestion also is incorrect. Application of cold does not drive blood into internal parts. On the contrary, (i) by direct action on the vessel walls it causes the superficial vessels to contract, and (ii) by indirect (i.e., reflex nervous) action it brings about a similar contraction of the deep vessels. Further, the application is to the head and not to the face. Therefore, the application of cold to head in Apoplexy, even if its power for good be limited, can certainly do no harm and will not aggravate the condition. By the way, reference to the revised Textbook (p. 145) shows that this step in treat­ ment has been re-inserted and is now recommended.— N. C. F. C

o m pou n d

F

r a ct u r e

w ith o u t

H

e m o r r h a g e

.

S. H. (Dowlais) quotes a recent fatal accident in which a man sustained fractures of skull, spine, sternum, ribs, thigh and leg, and asks if it is possible to have a compound fracture of leg without a spot of blood on the surface of skin. No. The pressing dangers of fractures are Haemorrhage, Shock and Sepsis— the last named being particularly urgent with compound fractures, the distinguishing characteristic of which is communication between the air and the fracture. To this end (1) the skin must be torn or punctured and (2) there must be some bleeding, though this may be very slight, especi­ ally with the more superficial bones (e.g., tibia and clavicle) and when the fragments do not protrude. From your letter I suspect that you have confused a com­ plicated with a compound fracture. The former can certainly occur without a spot of blood on surface of skin and yet be accompanied by serious internal (or concealed) hmmorrhage. — N. C. F. F

r a ctu r e

w ith o u t

L

oss

of

P

o w er

.

A. M. (Regent’s Park).- In a recent case of fractured leg there was acute pain with some deformity of limb and slight irregularity at seat of injury, but the woman was able to move her foot up, down and round. It seems to me remarkable that “ loss of power” was practically absent. Your statement is incomplete, and I question the accuracy of your conclusions. Loss of power is a certain sign of frac­ tured limb, and is constantly present unless (the fracture is impacted (e.g., radius) or (2) the less important of two bones (e.g., fibula) is alone involved. In the case quoted, movement of the foot— which must be carefully distinguished from loss of power— would be possible, if the tendons of the leg were intact and if the broken frag­

A ID

157

ments were at rest on ground or couch. If, however, the patient had attempted to raise the foot, to stand or walk, then (in the absence o f the two conditions tiatned) you would have quickly discovered loss of power.— N. C. F.

In ju r y

t o

F in g e r .

M. B. (Stockport) asks for treatment of badly trapped finger. Remove from trap ; seat patient and instruct raise and support hand ; control bleeding, if present, by pressure through dry boracic lint ; when finger dry, paint with Iodine and allow drying by evaporation ; cover with fresh piece boracic lint ; improvise, pad, and bandage splint to palm of hand and fingers ; rest limb in St. John Sling.— N. C. F. L ia b il it y

fo r

D o c t o r ’s

F e e .

G. B. (Caerphilly) refers to Answer on this point given in February issue, and asks whether or no a First Aider is still liable for fee if he summons medical aid (1) when the patient is unconscious and (2) when no policeman is available. Yes.— N. C. F. C o m p l ic a t e d

E x a m in a t io n

T est.

R. C. (Bath). — In a recent examination I was asked to (1) stop the axillary artery, (2) treat for crushed hand, and (3) fix up a fractured forearm— a ll tests on the one limb. Please give your advice in a case like this. Treat crushed hand on same lines as laid down for case of M. B. (Stockport), but improvise, pad and apply splints which will control both the anterior and posterior aspects of the fore­ arm and extended hand. Then fix axillary pad in position ; place limb in 'St. John sling, keeping hand well raised and elbow as far forward on chest as possible ; and finally tie limb to chest with transverse bandage. By this means you will avoid pressure on both crushed hand and fractured forearm. Lastly, expose the collarbone and (when the examiner comes) demonstrate that you are prepared to exert digital pressure on subclavian artery, if the pressure on axillary artery by pad and bandage fails to control bleeding.— N. C. F.

B u r n s

o f

C o r r o s iy e

P o is o n s .

E. M. (Cardiff).— (1) What are the detailed signs present in a case of Corrosive Poisoning? (2) What is the appearance of burns due to Corrosive Poisons? (3) What colour is the stain ? (1) Imagine yourself indulging in such a drink and you can work out the details. First, you will get immediate burn­ ing pains in mouth, throat and stomach ; next, you will suffer from severe vomiting, thirst, &c. ; finally, you will exhibit signs of Shock, which may pass on to fatal Collaps. See A id s to First A id (3rd Edition). (2) Much depends on the strength of the solution and duration of contact. If this is concentrated and the antidote cannot be administered immediately there is usually loca charring (3rd degree of burn) in places of contact. Otherwise, there may only be local redness, swelling or blistering (1st or or 2nd degrees). (3) The colour of burn varies with the poison. Thus, the Corrosive Alkalies all give muddy-white stains ; while of the Corrosive Acids, Nitric gives a yellow stain, Sulphuric a black, Carbolic a dead white, Oxalic a white, &c., &c — N. C. F.

E r ro r s

in

T ex tb o o k .

W. S. (Finchley) points out that on p. 63 of revised Textbook it states that inner splint should reach “ to just above the knee,” and asks if this not a misprint for “ just below knee.” Dr. Cantlie (p. 58) taught “ to the knee,” and this— in con­


— FIRST junction with his definition of a splint (p. 36)— was usually accepted as “ just below and including knee joint.” The in­ structions— “ just above knee”— in revised Textbook, though strictly correct, are unfortunate, because they may cause an inexperienced First-Aider to select too short a splint. Person­ ally, for First Aid purposes 1 prefer an internal splint, which extends from fork to ankle.— N. C. F.

First Aid in Bombarded Paris. T h e growing frequency of bombardment in Paris from air­ craft bombs and long-range shells has resulted in the organisation of a new public service to provide rapid help for the victims among the civil population, help rendered the more necessary since during the bombardment all normal means of transport by motor-bus, taxicab, and underground cease. T he Under Secretary of State for the Service de Sante has sanctioned the transformation of all military hospitals and ambulances into permanent first-aid posts available for injured persons of whatever category. A medical officer is on duty continuously day and night. When a raid is announced an equipe arranged in advance, and consisting of a surgeon, an assistant, and a radiologist is sent express by military automobile to each of a dozen principal surgical centres. Here they attend to the injured persons brought in from the surrounding district within easy reach of the hospitals, as well as other cases sent on from the less important hospitals, where on arrival they have been judged too severely injured to be properly attended to on the spot. Further, in each of the barracks and fire stations scattered over the capital a military medecin-major is continuously on duty, each for a period of 24 hours, ready in case of accident to sally forth at once to examine the wounded in his neighbourhood, render first aid, and secure their transport by stretcher to the nearest ambulance, from which a motor ambulance then conveys the severer cases to one of the 12 surgical centres. On the alarm being given all the wounded in each hospital are carried into the basement, where operating theatres have been installed as far as this is possible. Since bombard­ ment has become a daily affair the transport to the base­ ment involves great hardship to the severely wounded and to the recent operation cases, and an order has been given to evacuate all bed patients into the environs or further south.— The Lancet.

A remarkable case of resuscitation after electric shock is narrated in the recent report of an inspector of a New York power company, which gives particulars of the recovery of one of his men from the effect of an electric shock. T he man was apparently killed by touching acci­ dentally a wire carrying current at 2,300 volts. A lineman immediately took hold of the ankles of the limp body, lift­ ing it until the whole weight rested on the neck, and letting it fall. He then took a pair of connectors and hammered the soles of the injured man’s feet without removing his shoes. Another lineman was about to begin the Schaefer method of resuscitation, when the man returned to life. H e was removed to the hospital, and is now well, though suffering severely from his burns. Similar cases of recovery are mentioned in connection with the plan of striking the feet without removing the boots or shoes in cases of electric shock,

AID. —

April, 1918.

Work

Worth

Doing.

I n Miss Bowser’s book dealing with St. John’s and the Red Cross at the front, a capital picture is given of work on lines of communication and of the first V .A .D . rest station which was established at Boulogne. T he staff of three trained nurses and eighteen Red Cross workers went out under Mrs. Furse. They were given by way of plant three railway wagons and two passenger coaches. The rollingstock was in its native dirt, and they could only procure three smallish spirit-stoves on which to cook and boil water. Within twenty-four hours a thousand wounded men had been fed, and within a day or so stoves were fitted into the wagons, shelves and cupboards were put up, and the wagons were turned into really charming rooms, bright with clean paint, gleaming tin utensils, and even with comfort­ able chairs out of barrels. S o m ebo d y

h a s

g o t

t o

d o

it

.

In a certain French hospital, Miss Bowser relates, is a young English V.A.D. member who has for months on end worked for the best part of the day in a cellar at retrim­ ming lamps. The lighting of these French hospitals is one of the difficulties which has to be faced, and every day someone has got to trim between one and two hundred lamps. The cellar is cold and dark, the work is dirty, and the life is lonely. There is no glory and no fame, and certainly no sort of comfort in a job of this kind. “ Some­ body has got to do it.” N ot

fo r

g o o d

!

There is a popular opinion that after the war a large proportion of the nursing V .A .D .’s intend to enter the hospitals for regular training. This opinion is not confimed by the experience of Miss McCarthy, R.R.C., Matron-in-Chief in France. Desirous of finding out the attitude of these women with regard to the future, she sent out a circular to inquire how many had any intention of taking up nursing as a profession and would be willing to go into civil hospitals to train. Out of 2,000 who are working under htr at present, only 149 troubled to reply

A special committee appointed by the chairman of the Mayor’s Committee (New York City) on the training of volunteer “ nurses’ aides ” reports that, with certain slight changes in the theory, and a moderate increase in the amount of time devote to certain practical procedures, the present course appears to be a suitable one. It recom­ mends the extension of the training now given in base hospitals to hospitals approved by the Red Cross Service. The report states: “ In view of the fact that hospitals lacking proper educational facilities and unable to offer a proper field for such training are attempting to establish short courses of training, it is of considerable importance that such efforts should as far as possible be placed under the control of the Red Cross, which forms our national nursing service. In no other way can volunteer nurses’ aides be given the official recognition which will make them available for service wherever they may be most needed.”

When corresponding with Advertisers please mention “ First Aid.”


— F I R S T

April, 1918.

AID. —

iS 9

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HARRODS Ltd Managing T H E

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“ F I R S T

PICTORIAL

LONDON SW1 A I D ”

TRIANCULAR

BAN DACE. for

U n if o r m s

a n d

E q u i p m e n t V a st modern factory resources, added to a century's experience, enables us to supply First A i d and all other Services with uniforms and e q u i p m e n t of g u a r a n t e e d materials, workmanship and finish — at prices that challenge compart son with any other clothing of equal quality. Prices and Samples on request.

16,

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Illustrating the various w ays of using the Bandage in cases of injury. Triangular Bandages can also be supplied plain, unprinted.

SOUTHALL BROS. & BARCLAY, Ld, B IR M IN G H A M , Established 1 8 2 0 ,

M anufacturers of Surgical Dressings, Fine Chem icals and Pharm aceutical Preparations. Enquiries invited.


i6o

— FIRST

AI D. —

April, 1918

MANUALS

OF

F I R S T -A I D ,

&e.,

By N. CORBET FLETCHER, B.A., M.B., B.C (Cantab), M.R.C.S. A ID S

TO

F IR S T -A ID .

T h ird E d itio n .

Post free, 7 d .

First-Aid Simplified and Tabulated, with A|ds to Memory. “ Col. Cantlie contributes an introduction and we endorse his good opinion 0/ the book."— L a n c e t .

A ID S

TO

H O M E -N U R S IN G . P rice 7 d - . post free.

Second E d itio n .

Home-Nnrslng Simplified and Tabulated, with Aids to Memory. “ This book w onderfully sim plifies a complex subject and should be read by a ll students.” — L. & N.W . Ry. G a z e t t e .

H a n m e r ’s L ife -S a v in g L e c tu r e s.

WHY

AND

W HEREFORE

E F F IC IE N C Y CAN

YOU

B O R R O W A P I C T U R E P A L A C E ? If so, do it at once ! Get the promise of the loan of it for one night and then write to Ambulance Officer H a n m e r for par­ ticulars of a scheme that will give the Ambulance movement in your district a good lift. Mr. Hanmer is now booking dates for exhibitions in the provinces of the O F F IC IA L F I R S T A ID F IL M , accompanied by his well-known system of teaching First Aid, by aid of Lantern Slides and practical demonstrations. Special opportunities offered to Coal Mining Districts. Send 3d. stamps for Novelty Booklet and fall particulars of Eight Special Features to :— HANMER, Official Demonstrator, St. John Ambulance Association, G o l d t h o r p e , Nr. Rotherham. Wire : "Hanmer, Ambulance, Goldthorfe.”

POSTAL R E A D IN G ”

IN S TR U C TIO N in “ PRESCRIPTION and “ ELEM ENTARY DISPENSING.”

Everyone engaged in FIRST AID work should take up ne above Courses at once. A member of S.J.A.B. writes:— “ I feel deeply indebted for the courses of instruction received, have often wanted to take such courses, but could never find where to get such.” (T.B.) Special terms no w — half fees—to members of S.J.A.B., &c. A p p ly (stam p ) to M r . J. E . W a l d e n , S e c ., W estm in ster C o lle g e (L a d y D ispen sers S ectio n o f the W estm in ster C o lle g e o f C h em istry and P h a rm a cy, estd. 1874),

I 12, S t . G e o r g e ’s R o a d , S o u t h w a r k , L o n d o n .

SEND

US

A D V E R T I S E M E N T S (L a rg e o r S m a ll)

IN

F iR S T -A ID .

H IN TS

FOR

H O S P ITA L

46,

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By

J.

AN M.

IN D E X

OF FIR S T-A ID .

CARVELL,

M .R .C .S .,

L.S .A .L on d .

A vade-mecum for the Ambulance Worker. F.cap.8vo. Post free, i s . 2 d . F I R S T A ID IN F E W W O R D S . (38th thousand). B y th e S a m e A u tb o r .

With Coloured Diagrams. 12 pp. Folder. Paper, 2 d . H O M E N U R S I N G IN F E W W O R D S . (16th

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B y th e Sam e A uth or.

Including useful reference tables. 14 pp. Folder. Paper, 2 d . Cloth, 4 d . T H E C O M P L E T E M A N IK IN . Systems of Body accurately indexed. Invaluable to Students of Anatomy, Medicine, First-Aid and Allied Subjects. Price 25. net; postage, 2d. T H E TR IA N G U LA R B A N D A G E : Its Application Accurately Described by Words and 116 Diagrams. By

HOWARD

M.

PRESTON,

Dem onstrator

to

the

Pelytoehnic.

116 Illus. Price, is. net; postage 2d. T H E RO LLER BANDAGE. B y th a S a m e A u t h o r .

Its Application Accurately Described by Words and 16a Diagtams. Price, is. net; postage, 2d. F I R S T - A I D A N A T O M I C A L D IA G B A M S . Twelve in set, on Roller. Post free, 25 . l O d . Each Diagram separately, 2 d . 5 and 6 (coloured), 6 d . each. No. 1 4 .— H U M A N B O D Y . - S H O W I N G A R T E R I E S A P R E S S U R E PO IN TS. Coloured. Price, 6 d . T H E W H O L E A R T O F B A N D A G IN G . THEKLA

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Introdmction by J a m e s C a n t l i e , F.R.C.S. IUus. Post free, i s . 2 d . P R A C T I C A L I N S T R U C T I O N IN C U T T I N G O U T & M A K IN G UP H O S P I T A L G A R M E N T S F O R S I C K & W O U N D E D . (.Approved by the Red Cross Society). Illustrated. Post tree, i s . 2 d . A S H O R T C O U R S E OF P H Y S IC A L TR A IN IN G . By

ALLAN

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P ric e i s

8d. p ost free.

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fo r o n e P u b l i c a t i o n o r m a n y , a n d w e w i l l a r r a n g e for t h e i r in se r tio n a t O ffic e R a te s , t h u s s a v i n g y o u tim e an d trou b le.

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P o st free, i s . ad. Problems Study, Treatment and Examination solved for Senior Students. “ W ithout doubt the book w ill bo o f great service in the tra in in g o f those f o r whom it is designed."— B r i t i s h M e d i c a l J o u r n a l .

By

YOUR

IN

P ric e 7 d ., post free. Difficulties in Study and Treatment solved by Question and Answer. 11We eommond this book to Lecturers a n d Students who w ill fin d i i o f groat serviee .”— F i r s t A i d .

On F irst A id, M ed icin e, S u rg e ry , an d a ll other S cie n ­ tific and L ite ra ry S u b jects.

S e c o n d -H a n d Price a, N ew

at

H a lf

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D isco u n t P rice s. ree. State wants. Boaks sent on approval. B o o ks bought. W . & G . F O Y L E T2i and T13. C h a ria g Craaa R oa d , L o n d on , W .C .

P ric e 6 d . n e t.

P ost fre e 7d.

A T> Officers Regulation Great Coats. Dark NOTES ON FIR S T AID SIMPLIFIED. % T r \ . D . Grey beaver cloth, 45s. to measure. Superior quality Men’s Great Coats, 32s. 6d.— Write for B y S id n e y H . L a m b . patterns and particulars, Thornton & Co., tailors, Brighouse. A Handbook in a tabulated ard simplified form giving the main points in first aid, so arranged as to impress them on the memory of the student. OR SALE, a quantity of Men’s Ambulance Uniform Trousers, all sizes, quite new, 95. 6d. a pair.— Thornton DALE, REYNOLDS & CO., Ltd., 46, Cannon St., IONDON, E.C.4. and Co., 24, Commercial-street, Brighouse.

S

F F F

T

OR SA L E.— Regulation Brown Leather Belts and Pouches; also Caps and Overcoats; samples on approval.— Follett, 4, Victoria-avenue, Bishopsgate, London, E.C.

IR S T A I D A P P L I A N C E S .— Wanted, energetic young man or woman with experience, to take entire charge of new Department.— Address Box 26, “ First A i d ” offices, 46, Cannon-street, E.C.4. Printed and Pnbliahed b y D

a l i

, R

eynolds

“ FIRST A I D ” QUERY and REPLIES COUPON. To be cut out and enclosed w ith a ll Queries A p ril,

1918.

& C o ., L td ., 46, Cannon S t., London, E .C .4 ., to whom all communication* should be addressed.


F IR S T AID AND

ST.

JO H N

THE

AM BULANCE Ed ited b y A R T H U R

No. 287.— V o l . X X IV .

N O TICE

TO

M AY,

All Reports, &c., should be addressed to the Editor, and should reach him before the 12th of each month, and must be accompanied (not necessarily for Publication) by the name and address of the Correspondent.

Subscriptions, Advertisements and other business Communications connected with FIRST AID should be forwarded to the Publishers,

C annon

DALE. [E n tered a t Stationers' H a ll.)

more than the average

Its aim and object being the advancement of Ambulance Work in all its branches, the Editor invites Readers to send Articles and Reports on subjects pertaining to the Movement and also welcomes suggestions for Practical Papers.

46,

GAZETTE.

PRICE THREEPENCE 13/0 P e r

A n n u m , P ost

F ree]

war, without expense to the country, that they have much

READERS.

REYNOLDS & CO.,

B.

1918.

F I R S T A ID is published on the 2 0 th of each m on th . The Annual Subscription is 3s. 6d. post free ; single copies 3d.

DALE,

-----

patriots

zeal and

courage,

and

would be the last to shirk any military duties desired of them, and we hope the authorities in making this further call upon the manhood of this country will do so as far as possible without imparing these efficient services. As the new Act now stands the Tribunals have power when exempting a man, at the same time to exempt him from service in the Volunteers Force.

This

exemption

can no doubt be obtained for ambulance men, and should always be pressed for, as it is well nigh impossible for a man, in these days to serve in the Volunteers and the Brigade in his leisure time.

L t d .,

Str eet, L ondon,

E.C.

4.

It is also understood that it is not the intention to utilise the older men in the actual firing line, and we opine

Telegraphic Address: "Twenty-pour, London." Telephone No. 5477 Bank.

that it would be consistent with the highest economy of man power if those too old for the rigours of the trenches,

EDITORIAL.

who have proved their efficiency in tending the sick and wounded, should be attached to medical units for ambu­ lance duties— duties for which there must unfortunately,

M an Pow er

O u r readers will be familiar with the

but invariably be, increasing need before the end to which

leading features

we all look forward, can be achieved.

of the

new

Military

an d

Service Act, the principal provision of

A m bulan ce

which is the extension of the age eligi-

M en ,

bility for military service.

This exten­

sion of the age limit will further deplete

In Colonel Yate’s article on p. r49 of our last issue in

the ranks of the St. John Ambulance Brigade, whose per­

in the paragraph commencing with “ In the cold weather

sonnel has been seriously reduced in the past.

of 1905,” the 17th line, “ This office with brief intermis-

The response that ambulance men have made and the effective service they have rendered in fighting and medical units have been the subject of generous commendation by

missions” should read “ This officer with brief intermis­ sions.”

In the Note at the foot of p. 149 the lists were

signed by Lieut.-Col. Alan E. Tate, R.A .M .C., and not Lieut.-Col. Alan E. Fate, R .A .M .C.

those who know and appreciate what has been done, and when, if ever, the whole history of the work of the St. John Ambulance Association and the St. John Ambulance

Arrangements have now been made that all matters

Brigade during the war comes to be written, the activities

concerning the procuring and distribution

of these bodies will surprise many people.

Auxiliary Hospitals shall be dealt with from headquarters.

Ambulance men have shown by their alacrity in join, ing the Reserves of the Brigade at the outbreak of war and by their fearless activities during air raids and the splendid system of transport of wounded

from hospital trains to *

hospitals and work in hospitals, which has been organised, and has been carried out since

the beginning of

the

of

food

for

County Directors who experience any difficulty in obtain­ ing the necessary supplies, or who desire any information on the subject, should communicate with the Food Branch of the Stores Department, 83, Pall Mall, London.

All

Food Consumption Statistics will continue to be dealt with by Capt. Colchester Wemyss. 8, St. Algate-square, Glou­ cester, and these should be sent direct to him,


162

— F I R S T SJhe Qrand JPriorg of the 0 r d « of the K ospital 0} S t. Uohtt of Jerusalem in Sttgland. AM BU LANCE

The S t. No. . D i s t r i c t . d e p u t y

C

o m m issio n e r

DEPARTM EN T.

John

.Ambulance B rigade.

D IST R IC T - ORDERS. -------

:

AID.

May, 1918.

assembled in the Temple Gardens for practice and combined drill. Both uniformed and non-uniformed men were present, and practice was afforded in loading and unloading wagons and carrying out such movements, as are only possible when large numbers of men meet together. The Deputy-Commissioner addressed the parade, and in­ vited Lady Maud Wilbraham to distribute “ Mons ” Ribbons, Service Medals, and Bars to members of the Prince of Wales’s Corps On the motion of Mr. W. R. Edwards, seconded by Captain Cahusac, a vote of thanks was passed to Lady Maud Wilbraham.

W. H. W IN N Y , O.B.E. JU N E, 1918. Sunday Duty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. Sunday, 2nd.— No. 47 Division, L.B. & S.C.Ry. „ 9th.— No. 49 „ Erith. „ 16th.— No. 51 „ Croydon. „ 23rd - No. 56 „ Crickelwood. „ 30th.— No. 58 „ London Post Office. From 2.30 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. Key from St. John’s Gate, 2 p.m. V I S IT

OF

A M ER ICA N TROOPS [MAY nth, 1918.

TO

LONDON,

The Deputy-Commissioner wishes to express his thanks to the members of the District who turned out at very short notice for duty on the occasion of a visit to London of the American Troops, when they were reviewed by His Majesty The King. Some members were on duty from an early hour in the morning at Waterloo Station until late in the afternoon. The Deputy-Commissioner wishes to congratulate both Ambu­ lance and Nursing Divisions for the smart way in which their duties were carried out, and the very efficient way cases were treated. ANNUAL

R EPO R T.

Members of the District are again reminded that the work of the District Office, with a depleted staff, is made much more difficult owing to the failure of certain Divisions to send in their Annual Returns, and bring up their Divisional Books for inspection. It is thought that if Officers in Charge of Divisions realised the amount of inconvenience to which the District is placed by this omission, they would make a greater effort to comply with the Brigade Regulations. The failure to send these Returns in, tends to delay the Annual Report. NIGH T

GUARD

AT

ST.

JOHN’S

GATE.

The Deputy-Commissioner desires to express his indebted­ ness to those Divisions which have furnished members to take duty at certain periods of the month, as a night guard, under the charge of District-Sergeant Elam, at St. John’s Gate in the evenings when air raids were thought likely to occur. POLICE

CO M PETITION S.

It is proposed to hold the annual competitions in aid of the Metropolitan and City Police Orphanage, at the Zoological Gardens, Regents Park, about the end of August. One of the features of these competitions is an Ambulance Competition amongst air raid workers registered with the Police. It will no doubt be remembered that when last the St. John Ambulance Brigade entered teams, the Prince of Wales’s Corps Detach­ ments, both nursing and men, came out first. It is hoped to furnish teams in August next which will do equally well. (Signed)

W. H. W IN N Y , O.B.E.,

No. 70 ( R o y a l B o r o u g h o f K e n s i n g t o n ) D i v i s i o n . — This Division is in charge of Sergeant Millard, and consists of 2 sergeants and 25 rank and file. The superintendent, 2 sergeants, 2 corporals, and 30 rank and file are on Active Service. Drills and duties have been well attended, especially Bank Holiday duties on Wormwood Scrubbs, where the Division has a permanent ambulance station, which has proved very useful on these occasions. Also men have performed duty on Barnes Common on Bank Holiday. Men attend twice weekly at Gifford House Auxiliary Hospital, Roehampton ; Chelsea Palace and Granville Music Halls. An average of 12 men have turned out to assist the police on all occasions when an air raid warning has been given, and rendered valuable assist­ ance when called upon to do so, for which services this division has been specially mentioned by the Press. Also men have been standing by in readiness when the conditions for air raids have been favourable. Fifty cases have been treated on duty and 1,153 cases treated off duty, making a total of 1,203 cases treated in the past twelve months by members of the division. Seventeen members sat for annual re-examination, and all passed. It is the intention, with permission of the authorities, to erect an ambulance station in the Royal Borough of Kensing­ ton, but this project has for the present been postponed, and p 100 of the funds has been invested in War Loan. We regret the death on Active Service of Private Reader.

No. 3 D is t r ic t . O l n e y . — Supt. W. T. Knight, who was recently selected as an Hon. Serving Brother of the Order of St. John, has been associated with ambulance work since 1894, when he assisted in the formation of the Olney Ambulance Division, which was reorganised in 1902 when he was appointed Sergeant and Hon. Secretary, which office he filled for 10 years ; being promoted to the rank of First Officer in 1904. In 1905 he organised First Aid and Nursing Classes for men in conjunction with the R.N.A.S.B.R. He was presented with the long servjee medal of the Order by H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught, Grand Prior, and had the honour of taking a Detachment for Public Duty at Northampton on the occasion of the visit of H.M. the King. Not content with these labours he has formed Field Ambulance and Sick Nursing Classes. Also Classes for Home Nursing both at Olney and Emberton. The Division of which he is Superintendent has been able to send upwards of 50 men for service in various theatres of war, not to mention a number of ladies who have gone from Olney to the various Military Hospitals, both at home and abroad. This record of work is one of which he may be justly proud, and we are glad he is still able to continue his good work although his Division has been so sadly depleted in numbers.

Deputy-Commissioner. Headquarters :— St. John’s Gate, Clerkenwell, E.C. I M P O R T A N T N O TIC E. Divisional Secretaries are requested when sending news­ paper cutting of their meetings, etc., to give the date of publi­ cation of the newspapers.— E d i t o r . C o m b i n e d D r i l l i n T e m p l e G a r d e n s .— On Saturday, May 4th, a number of selected Divisions of the No. 1 District

R o w l e y R e g i s . — This Division held its second annual Church Parade on Sunday, May 12th, to Christ Church, Cradley Heath, when there was a good muster. Brigades assembled at the headquarters, Meredith Schools, when the Division (under Corps Surgeon McQueen, Divisional Surgeon Petit, Supt. Chapman, 2nd Lieut. L. T. Dallow, R.E., % secretary (who was over on leave), and Sergt. Hunter, were well supported by the following bodies :— Police and Special Constables : Inspectors Myatt and Tucker. Cradley Heath Town Prize Brass Band, Bandmaster Billingham. Rowley Regis District Fire Brigade, Lieut. Smith.


May, 1918.

— FIRST

Dudley and Brierley Hill Ladies Nursing Sections, Lady Offi­ cers Little, Scrivens, Hogetts, Share and Yardley. The Motor Ambulance “ Edith Cavell,” Driver J. Cook, and neighbouring Divisions of the St" John Ambulance Brigade, including Smeth­ wick and West Smethwick: Supt. Cripps, Ambulance Officer Lamb, Sergeants Dunmaker, Moore and Brettle. Stourbridge : Divisional Surgeon Darby, Supt. Bolton. Lye : Supt. Stacey, Quartermaster Schofield ; and Stewarts and Lloyds, Supt. Williams, N. W. Corps Secretary. The Boy Scouts (under District Scoutmaster Jacquiss, Scoutmaster Yardley, Assistant Scoutmaster Bloomer) were present in good numbers and were accompanied by their own band ; Old Hill, Cradley, Blackheath and Cradley Heath Troupes being represented. The advertised route had unfortunately to be curtailed somewhat as the early inclement weather caused a delay in starting. The Reverend C. A. Ashelford preached a most inspiring sermon, and a collection was taken in aid of the British Red Cross Society. The arrangements were in the hands of the Divisional Acting Secretary, Corpt. H. G. Unlow.

AID. — bdrs having been trained mainly at the classes held in the College by Dr. Ella Webb (First Aid, Oct.-Dec., 1912 ; Home Nursing, Jan.-March, 1913), were formed into a Division under Miss E. V. McComas, the present Lady Supt., and Miss A. O ’Kelly, now Lady Supt. of Harcourt Nursing Division, who did much by her energy to advance the efficiency of the members in the early stages. The Division entered a team for the first competition held by the St. John Ambulance Brigade for the Irish Women’s Challenge Cup in June, 1913 (4th place), and again in 1914, when the cup was awarded to the team representing the Division, trained by Lieut.-Col. Pringle, District Surgeon, then the Divisional Surgeon. They again competed in 1915 and 1916. On the outbreak of war, frequent practices were held and many new members joined from the classes organised in College, bring up the total to 48 in 1915. The Division was registered as a V.A.D. in Dec. 1914, under the No. St. John, 646. Dublin 8 afterwards (1916) changed to Co. Dublin 52, and through it many members have been on active service. The present strength is 3 officers and 49 members, of

No. 5 D is t r ic t . N o t t i n g h a m . — At a concert organised b y the Central Division of this corps on April 10th occasion was taken to pre­ sent nursing certificates to members of the newly-formed Jewish V.A.D. Mr. Snook, J.P., who presided, observed that the divisional officers had been responsible for training no fewer than 350 recruits in first aid and nursing during the war period, and altogether over 4,000 hours had been spent in practice, and over 3,000 in attending on the wounded. He congratulated both Mrs. Weinberg and Divisional Supt. T. R. Scott (the instructor) on the success of the Jewish detachments formed in connection with the Jewish Girls’ Club, and he expressed the hope that other cities would follow the example set by Not­ tingham. The chairman then presented to Divisional Supt. Scott a wallet containing Treasury notes subscribed by the members of the Central Nursing Division in recognition of his services as instructor.

No.

11

D istrict.

L lw y n y pi a .— In order to further the good work of the ambulance movement in the district, the Division has been fortunate through their Superintendent, D. Morgan, M.E., agent of the Cambrian Combine, and Hedley Clark, Esq., general manager, in procuring a Challenge Shield, the gift of Peter Haig Thomas, Esq , chairman of directors of the col­ lieries from which teams will be drawn for competition— i.e., Cambrian, Naval, Glamorgan, Gilfach Goch Collieries, Messrs. D. Davis & Son1 Ltd., and Welsh Navigation (Coed Ely) Col­ lieries. The competition will take place on June 22nd, 1918, at the Cricket Field, Llwynypia, at 3 p.m. Judges— Capt. D. Rocyn Jones, M.B., D.P.H. (Newport) and Dr. De Vere Hunt, life member of S.J.A.A. (Cardiff). The annual examination of the ambulance classes, held under the auspices of the Division, took place on March 9th. Examiner— Dr. De Vere Hunt. The following were the suc­ cesses :— First Aid, 21 ; Vouchers, 15 ; Medallions, 2 ; Labels, 5 ; total, 43. The successful session reflects great credit upon the lecturer, Dr. Irbris, who sacrifices his valuable time to the good work ; also to Corps Supt. Payne, who had charge of the morn­ ing classes; 1st Ambulance Officer Ben Lewis, and the secretaries, Enoch Trcharne and W. R. Matthews. No. 12 (Irish) D is t r ic t . A l e x a n d r a C o l l e g e N u r s i n g D i v i s i o n , V.A.D. 646, R e p o r t , 1 9 1 3 - 1 9 1 8 . — The Alexandra College Nursing Division was registered at headquarters in November, 1 9 1 3 , but had

been at work since the previous May.

The 20 original mem-

D

is t r ic t -S u p t .

W.

G.

S m it h ,

Hon. Associate of the Order and Assistant County Director for the City and County of Dublin. whom 29 have been in hospital, including 13 who have served overseas, and 23 have been constantly engaged in the work at 40 Merrion-square since it began in Nov. 1915. This was the first Division to undertake the work of keeping and cleaning the house, and has always maintained a supply of members regularly attending for the purpose, and this is the principal corporate work undertaken by the Division. There are but few who are not regular in some form of special work for the war, and they are always available at all hours of the day and night. But of Brigade work (which must be also maintained in the midst of all extra activity) an average of 22 practices are held each year and the re-examination is always well attended by available members— of 31 medallions three have four labels and several have three, two and one. At a special Home Nursing examination, 1917, 10 passed for the pendant. Seven members are qualified for the Service Star and there will be many more very shortly.


— F I R S T

164

Several cases of accident have been attended by individual members, including fractures, haimorrhage, epilepsy, burns, sprains, etc. Enough money was contributed by and through the Division in Jan., i9i7,to endow an Alexandra College Nursing Division bed in the Duke of Connaught Hospital at Bray. In order to maintain efficiency in ambulance and nursing work a week-end was recently arranged by the officers, and a furnished house at Greystones was obtained for the purpose, 16 members attended and the programme was as follows :— The Quartermaster and her orderly went down by an early train on Friday to take over the house and to make arrangements, the remainder arriving by 7 p.m., when the work of the house, meals, etc., was divided into shifts— one to serve dinner and wash up, next to light range, prepare breakfast and clean house, and so on, the whole work being arranged in this way during the visit. On Saturday morning a trained nurse— Sister Phelan— very kindly came by an early train from Dublin and until luncheon instructed the members most exhaustively in Home Nursing— practical bedmaking, bandaging, administering of medicines, etc., and also in theoritical work. After lunch Dr. Ella Webb arrived and saw the members work on a scheme prepared by her for their practice, including first aid, lifting, and emergency work. After tea more Home Nursing ques­ tions. Altogether six hours ambulance and nursing work was done and much useful knowledge was gained. On Sunday Church Parade was the only fixture, all enjoying the lovely weather in the afternoon either resting or walking. After an early breakfast, the larger number returned by the 8.50 train to Dublin, leaving a few to give up the house and complete the cleaning, etc. This plan has proved most successful in keeping up the esprit de corps of the Division and promoting keeness in ambulance work and in the Brigade, but it would not have been possible but for the capable way in which the arduous duties of the Quartermaster were carried out, which left nothing to be desired in that most important department.

AID. —

May, 1918

Chapter IV. we find an astounding breach of the Principles and Etiquette of First Aid— viz., the inclusion of an article on Trench Foot, for which no First Aid treatment is allowable or even possible, and we know several examiners who have already declared that under no circumstances will they ever ask a question on this subject. On the other hand, we welcome the final disappearance of oil and other greasy substances (and the recognition of the pressing need for active antiseptic measures) in the treatments of burns and scalds. The most striking changes are in Chapter V. (Insensi­ bility), where a praiseworthy attempt has been made to deal systematically with a grave condition which may be intimately associated with other and equally serious emergencies. For purposes of tuition, however, we find the chapter extremely complicated, and we fear that the novices will, unless specially warned, become involved in the sections and sub-sections which are in places mixed up together. In Chapter VI. (Poisoning) some re-arrangement and amplification of the subject has been made with advantage, but in their essentials the instructions remain as before. In the remaining Chapters we find few material alterations Under transport the modification of the two-handed seat, known as “ the human stretcher,” has been added, and will prove most serviceable. Finally, we note the addition of an appendix containing a description (with methods of application) of the roller bandage. We are glad that this is not included in the Syllabus of In­ struction in First Aid, because we have always felt that no First Aider can be regarded as really efficient unless and until he qualifies in the additional subject of Nursing, and so acquires a knowledge of the use of the roller bandage. In conclusion, we congratulate the committee on their whole-hearted endeavour to simplify the subject, and we hope that the Manual may continue to be successful in teaching laymen and laywomen the most efficient ways in which they can render temporary assistance to their injured fellows.

WHY

AND

W HEREFORE

IN

FIRST

AID.

By N. Corbet Fletcher, M.B., B.C., Cantab., M.R.C.S.

Reviews.

Third Edition. London : John Bale Sons & Danielsson, Ltd.

FIRST

A ID

TO

THE

IN J U R E D .

Price 6d. net.

Thirty-second Edition. London : The St. John Ambulance Association.

Price is. net. We have received a copy of the new edition of “ First Aid to the Injured,” which we note has been revised by a committee of medical men under the chairmanship of Mr. W. R. Edwards. To console those old-time First-Aiders— to whom the thought of a new text-book and the necessity for further study are fraught with fears and trembling— we may state at the outset that the changes are chiefly by way of re-arrangement rather than by addition of fresh matter. We have always maintained that this Manual is the best of the numerous Textbooks because it teaches General Rules based on Principles. Looking through the new edition, there­ fore, we hoped to find further improvements on these lines, but we were disappointed. In Chapter I. (Outline of First Aid) new and valuable matter has been added. This, however, will prove most useful for Senior Students, especially for competition purposes ; and we fear that the novices will be so frightened at the review of technical words, phrases, etc., therein set out that they will hesitate to pursue the subject further. With regard to Chapters II., III. and IV. (Fractures, Haemorrhage and Miscellaneous Injuries) we observe that the committee have wisely refrained from interfering with the sub­ ject matter except in some minor details. We note an elabor­ ate sequence of bandages for an injured elbow, and we regret the omission of treatment for fractures of both clavicles. In

When this book was originally published in 1915 we were able (on account of its concise and practical methods of teach­ ing) to recommend it strongly to lecturers and students, and we prophesied a ready sale. Our prophecy has been fulfilled, and to-day we welcome whole-heartedly the recently published third edition, which has been completely revised and brought up-to-date. As our readers are aware, Dr. Corbet Fletcher has for the past three years acted as honorary expert correspondent to this Journal, and has firmly established his position as a most efficient exponent of First Aid, the proof of which is seen in the marked increase in the number of queries, difficulties, etc., submitted for his elucidation month by month. We are not surprised, therefore, to note that the new editionjof “ Why and Wherefore” contains many queries derived from this source ; and our readers can discover for themselves which queries impressed their teacher and are deemed worthy of inclusion. Owing to paper restrictions, some re-arrangement of type and spacing has been made in order to compress old and new matter into a smaller compass. This, however, has been done without sacrificing either the usefulness or the appearance of the book, which is well printed on good paper. Under these circumstances, we again commend the book to all who take an intelligent interest in First Aid.

When corresponding with Advertisers please mention “ First Aid.”


May, 1918,

— F IR S T

A ID

&

THE

ST.

JO H N

AMBULANCE

G A Z E T T E .—

THE ST. JOHN AMBULANCE GAZETTE. Benefits

1Derived

From Lectures Given by Sergt. Hanmer. ( Continued, fro m page 150). In

se n sib il it y

.

is caused by interference with t h e brain or its functions, or interference with the heart or lungs or their functions. Therefore, it may be caused by any of the following:— (1) Apoplexy; (2) Epilepsy; (3) Injuries to the brain; (4) Obstruction of air passages ; (5) Disorder of nervous system. Discrimination is most important in cases of insensi­ bility, let surroundings help as far as possible. Promptness in all cases is most essential. Observe for signs of acci­ dent, poison, etc. Then carefully and gently examine patient for signs of haemorrhage, injury to head, etc. Note condition of limbs, face— whether pale or flushed, tempera­ ture— high or low, breathing— whether stertorous or stopped altogether. Carefully examine eyes, as they are a great guide in cases of insensibility. Note whether pupils respond to light or if fixed or uneven. In cases of fractured skull, eyes may have blood-shot appearance. In cases of collapse from alcohol, eyes will usually respond to light. On examination, if one side of body is limp, it may be taken as a sign of paralysis. Examine lips, mouth and throat for stains, etc. Treatment.— In all cases of insensibility the following rules may be applied :— Lay patient gently down. Arrest haemorrage if apparent. Undo all tight clothing. If face pale , lower headj if flushed , raise head and shoulders slightly. Treat for shock by covering patient warmly. Provide for supply of fresh air. If breathing has stopped, apply artificial respiration. Get a doctor promptly. Watch patient carefully till doctor arrives. Give nothing by the mouth so long as patient is unconscious. If a limb is frac­ tured, see that it is properly steadied, supported and secured before moving patient. Even when the first aider is not able to diagnose the cause of the insensibility he will be perfectly safe in carry­ ing out above treatment, Compression or Apoplexy. — Caused by pressure on brain. Face flushed ; breathing stertorous. Very serious condition, and insensibility may be long and profound. Lay patient down ; raise head and shoulders; undo tight clothing ; apply cold to head and warmth to lower limbs ; get doctor immediately. Concussion o f B ra in . — This is one of the common causes of insensibility. Concussion is caused by some injury to the head, or falling from a height on to the feet often causes concussion. Insensibility from concussion may be mild, or it may only last a short time, or it may be severe and last a long time. Compression often comes on after concussion, so it is most important to get a doctor at once and see that the patient has rest and quiet, however slight the injury may appear. A life may be lost by neglecting these points. Epilepsy. — Prevent the patient hurting himself by In

se n sib il it y

gently restraining or steering his movements ; raise and support head and shoulders ; place gag between teeth and hold there, as patient might swallow it. When fit is over, let patient rest, but watch him carefully for recurring fits. If he asks for a drink give him a sip of cold water off a metal spoon. Fainting. — This condition is caused by want of blood to the brain. Lay patient down with head low ; undo tight clothing : cover up warmly ; raise lower limbs. Fan patient and apply smelling salts to the nose, if there is no injury to the head. Look for obstruction in air passages. Serve nothing by mouth while unconscious. Hysteria. — In this condition the patient is not entirely unconscious, but he needs the services of a doctor. Deal firmly but gently with him ; give no sympathy, but threaten him if necessary. Hysteria is usually caused by mental excitement. Collapse.— Treat as for fainting. Elevate and massage the limbs, and if very severe bandage limbs from toe up to body and from fingers to armpits, etc. H eat or Sunstroke.— Flushed face; skin dry; full pulse. Remove patient to cool, shady spot and lay down ; strip to waist; elevate head and shoulders; apply cold water or ice to head and spine. Infantine Convulsions.— These are usually caused by fevers, teething, or stomach trouble. Support the child in bath of water at body temperature; apply cold to head ; send for doctor. Electric Shock — Insensibility may be caused by elec­ tric shock. Before touching patient be sure to insulate yourself— roll some pieces of rubber or dry clothing round your hands and stand on rubber mat or dry coat, etc. ; use a stick to hook away wire. If drawing away patient, don’t catch under armpits or anywhere that may be moist. When you have removed patient from the current, lay him gently down and apply “ Laborde’s method ” of artificial respiration 12 to 15 times per minute, also flick neck and chest with wet towels. Don’t forget that there may also be very severe burns in this case. Narcotic Poisoning. — Morphia, laudanum, opium, syrup of poppies, etc. After any of these a patient is very very much inclined to go to sleep and so sink into insensi­ bility. This should be prevented at any cost, and while the patient is being treated for the “ poison ” he should be made to walk about and his neck and chest flicked with wet towels, or any other means resorted to that will keep him conscious till the doctor arrives. In a case of this kind an intelligent written message should be at once sent to the doctor. Rem arks. — When examining an unconscious patient it is not at all safe to come to the conclusion that he is in­ toxicated because his breath smells of alcohol. H e may just have taken a little when he felt unwell.

Mr. Polwhele,

County

Director for

changed his address from 25 Princess-street, Truro.

Cornwall,

River-street, Truro, to

has 1,


— FIR ST

A ID

&

TH E

ST.

JO H N

G eneral L etter of th e Joint V.A.D. C om m ittee to County Directors. D e a r S ir , you the following for your information:— T he Finance Committee has agreed that, since the Military Authorities now require V .A .D . members to be vaccinated before they are posted to Military Hospitals at home, the cost of vaccination may be paid by the County Director and charged to his grant-in-aid applications (para C(b).), in accordance with the conditions laid down in J.V.A.D. 124, para 1, June 27th, 1917, and J.V.A.D. 147, para. 2, November 26th, 1917. I have been asked to endeavour so ascertain the cor­ rect number of V.A.D . members, men and women, working in the counties. I am aware that County Directors have already been asked to supply these statistics more than once, but unfortunately we have never obtained anything like the true figure. Will you please do your best to let me have the nearest approximate number. I regret that we have been obliged to raise the price of Uniform Certificate Cases to Sd., owing to the increased cost. I am asked by Miss Swift, Matron-in-Chief Joint War Committee to insert the following :—

I

sen d

Owing to the expense, difficulties of travelling and risk of infection, I am writing to ask all Doctors and Commandants of Hospitals to co-operate with me and make as few changes in their nursing staff as possible, also to ask them to make my request known to the sisters. T he conveyance of the wounded is a serious matter, and the time has come when only journeys of necessity should be undertaken. I am sure I may count on the help of you and your staff in this matter. You will feel with me that the time has come when everyone should unhesitatingly sink minor diffi­ culties and tastes and do their duty as our soldiers are doing theirs, regardless of conditions. T h e following is the scheme which we have drawn up for the grading of V.A.D , members working in A u x ilia ry Hospitals. It is hoped that this scheme will give the encouragement which our members desire and so richly deserve. A V.A.D. nursing member who has gained the blue stripe in one hospital will not be posted to another for inferior duties ; naturally in these days of great emergency it may sometimes be necessary to ask a “ blue stripe ” mem­ ber to perform minor duties, just as fully trained sisters are sometimes asked to do them, but it must be clearly under­ stood that such a request is a temporary and not a perman­ ent one. Application for the blue stripe should be made to Lady Ampthill at Devonshire House, on a special form, which wdl be issued as soon as we receive it from the printers. T he following resolutions on the subject of grading Nursing V.A.D , members in Auxiliary Hospitals were brought before the Joint Women’s V.A.D. Committee on April 9th, 1918, and were agreed upon. 1. That only Nursing V.A.D . members with two white stripes should be allowed to enter for the exami­ nation. 2. That the examination should be conducted by

AM BULANCE

G A Z E T T E .—

May, 1918.

the Matron and Medical Officer of a Hospital where none of the candidates have worked, in various towns to be named later. 3. That there should be a written paper as well as a viva voce examination. The written examination to consist of six standardised questions from head­ quarters, four of which must be answered correctly by each candidate. Questions on medical and surgical work, also precautions to be taken against infectious diseases. Ten marks given for each question. For the viva voce examination 30 marks for six questions. 4. That the personal reports on the candidate from the Matron or Sister in charge of her hospital on her work and punctuality, obedience, neatness, dis­ cipline, ward work and nursing capabilities be taken into consideration. 5. That members who qualify at this examination shall be permitted to wear a blue stripe instead of the white ones, and that only such members shall be eligible for the post of Assistant Nurse. 6. That members who have qualified as above and are deemed suitable should be recommended by the Matron of the hospital for the post of Assistant Nurse, and such appointment should be confirmed by the County Director and Headquarters. 7. That the letter A be worn by assistant nurses on their aprons. 8. That the blue stripe be worn on the Indoor and Outdoor uniform. It should be clearly understood that this scheme applies only to Auxiliary Hospitals. With reference to para. 4 J.V.A.D. 156, dated January 28th, 1917, all General Service members, whether working in Home Hospitals or Hospitals abroad, must now wear the brown shoulder straps on their outdoor uniform, and brown overalls. County Directors are urgently -asked to see that this order is carried out. At a meeting of County Presidents and County Directors, which was held at the Automobile Club on Thurs­ day on the n t h inst. the question was discussed of our Organisation undertaking to supply and administer beds in connection with existing hospital establishments to the ap­ proximate number of 18,000, for the treatment of dis­ charged men who have been invalided out of the Army. Mr. Hodge, the Minister of Pensions, attended and undertook to provide the full expenses necessary for equip­ ment and maintenance, and further, to provide money that might be necessary for rent if suitable buildings could not be obtained free. It was understood that, subject to the protection of the tax-payer, the County Director should exercise similar control over these beds to that exercised over the beds in existing Auxiliary Hospitals provided for by the War Office. It was clearly understood that under no circumstances should any expenses or money charges be entailed upon the Red Cross Organisation. I promised to send round to the various Counties a copy of the table drawn up by the Ministry of Pensions of the number of beds which they desire to have in each county, and it was understood that County Directors would thereupon endeavour to ascertain how far they could meet the Ministry of Pensions’ requirements, and would draw up an estimate of the capital expenditure necessary, and any annual cost that might be chargeable by way of rent. I have pleasure in sending herewith a copy of the table referred to, in which you will see the number of beds that it is


May, 1.918.

FIRST

A ID

&

THE

ST.

JOHN

hoped that your County would provide. I shall be grateful if you will kindly consider the matter, and let Doctor Fox Symons know at this address before Saturday, May 4th, the number of beds, up to the figure desired, which you think you could provide in your own County, together with your estimate of the cost thereof. . ^ 33^ Your estimate should set out under separate headings the estimated cost of equipment, of rental— if any, and of alterations necessary to convert the buildings suggested into satisfactory hospitals. It would be a further advantage if you could give an indication of the time which you expect it would take to complete the buildings satisfactorily, pro­ vided that Priority Certificates were obtained by the De­ partment to enable you to obtain the necessary materials and labour. You will observe that we are asked to supply 18,000 beds, and I would ask you to bear this number in mind in making your investigations, but for the present it probably will suffice for the needs of the Ministry of Pensions if we can provide about he (that number. Yours faithfully, A

r t h u r

S

t a n l e y

,

Chairman.

Duties of a Commandant, Medical Officer, Matron or Lady Superintend= ent and Quartermaster in Hospital.* D

u t ie s

of

a

C

o m m a n d a n t

H

o sp it a l

w h en

W

o r k in g

in

.

Commandant.— The Commandant will be in charge of the Hospital, except for Medical and Nursing Services, and will

(a) Be responsible to the County Director for all duties connected with the Hospital. (b) Issue the necessary local orders for carrying out Hospital duties and for the maintenance of discip­ line. (c) Be responsible for all buildings, equipment, stores and supplies. (d) Be responsible for all monies belonging to the Hospital and see that all books, returns, records and documents are properly kept. (e) Be responsible to the County Director for all Military Returns and other business in connection with the War Office. The Commandant must carefully avoid any interfer­ ence in the Ward Work or nursing arrangements. T he Commandant should be responsible for V .A . D .’s in non-nursing, capacities working in Hospitals. The Commandant should be responsible for V .A .D .’s off duty (if resident) and for their punctuality in reporting for duty. If the Hospital is large enough to need Staff Hostels, there should be a special Superintending Officer appointed to manage them, who would be responsible to the Com­ mandant. Special rules should be laid down for the treatment of infectious disease or for temporary isolation. * These hints for Officers in Auxiliary Hospitals should not be taken as rules, because it is fully recognised how different the conditions are in every county ; but they are published as a guidance to what has proved to be a workable scheme.

AMBULANCE D

u tie s

M edical

GAZETTE. — of

M

th e

e d ic a l

167 O

f fic e r

.

Officer.— The

Medical Officer has entire charge and control as far as medical and surgical matters are concerned. D

u t ie s

o f

th e

S

M

a t r o n

S

e n io r

,

ist er

L

ad y

in

a

S H

u p e r in t e n d e n t o sp it a l

or

.

T he Matron, Lady Superintendent or Senior Sister (who must be a three years’ Trained Nurse) will direct the work of the Nursing Staff, and will supervise the special points bearing upon Nursing, the sterilization of instruments and other professional matters in the Wards and Operating Rooms. In the absence of the Commandant and the Medical Officer she will be in complete charge of the H os­ pital. She will ordinarily

(a) Be responsible to the Medical Officer for the treatment and care of the sick. ( b) Be responsible that all poisons and external applications are kept in their appointed place, and that the Poisons Cupboards are kept locked. (c) Receive daily any alcoholic drinks ordered for the patients and be responsible for their correct distri­ bution, in accordance with the Medical Officer’s orders. (d) Go round the wards at breakfast, dinner and tea, and see that the diets are properly distributed and served. The Matron, Lady Superintendent or Senior Sister should have entire control and management of the patients and Nursing Staff in the Wards, and the responsibility for this should be clearly laid down. She should Attend the Visiting Surgeon or Physician, taking his instructions with regard to treatment, and giving orders accordingly. See all new members of the Nursing Staff as soon as possible after arrival at the Hospital, arrange all offduty times— three hours daily— -as in all Military Hospitals. Prevent waste and extravagance, both of food and also of dressings in the wards. Give report each night to the Night Sister and receive report from her in the morning of all that has happened during the night. Have a written report from the Sister of every nurse leaving a ward on being transferred to another. Exercise great care that all members of the Staff fully understand the necessity for care and disinfec­ tion, and that they should be taught to cover carefully every scratch or sore on fingers or hands before doing dressings, and be careful to use forceps to remove soiled dressings See that the sanitary arrangements for the Nurs­ ing Staff are adequate, and entirely separate from those used by the patients. See that the Nursing Staff report at once the slightest illness to the Matron or Sister on duty. D

u t ie s

of

H

o sp it a l

Q

u a r t e r m a st e r

.

The Hospital Quartermaster will be responsible to the Commandant for the receipt, custody and issue of all articles in the equipment and provision store, and will

(a) Command in the absence of the Command­ ant, Medical Officer and Matron. (b) Keep a register of all articles loaned. (c) Prepare and submit indents connected with supplies for the approval and signature of the Com­ mandant.


i68

— F IR S T

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(d) Be responsible for all the soldiers’ kits in Hospital and for the issue of the Hospital clothing. (e) Keep a careful list of all men’s kits. See that their clothing is washed and cleaned and any valuables kept under lock and kep. ( / ) Keep a careful list of anything committed to her care.

The College of Ambulance. A s u m m e r course o I special lectures and demonstrations on Ambulance Work and First Aid will be held in the Lecture Hall of the College of Ambulance, 3, Vere-street, Cavendish-square, London, W. 1., on Thursday afternoons at 4.30 p.m., in May, June and July, 1918, as indicated below. Each lecture or demonstration will be illustrated as far as may be possible and will be followed by a dis­ cussion. May 23rd, at 4.30, p.m. “ The Evolution of Ambu­ lance Work in the Army.” Surgeon-General G. J. H. Evatt, C.B., M.D., R .A .M .C., President Travelling Medical Board, Western Command, 1915-16 May 30th, 4.30 p.m. “ Ambulance, First Aid, and Welfare Work in Factories.” William J. O ’Donovan, Esq., M.D., B.S., M.R.C.P., Chief Medical Adviser to the Ministry of Munitions of War. June 6th, 4.30 p m. “ First Aid in Infectious Fevers.” Col. William Hunter, C.B,, M.D., F.R.C.P., Senior Phy­ sician London Fever Hospital and Consulting Physician to the Eastern Command. June 13th, 4.30 p.m. “ First Aid in the Management of Mental Cases.” Major Sir Robert Armstrong-Jones, M.D., F.R.C.S., F.R.C.P., J.P. R.A .M .C., Consulting Physician in Mental Diseases to the London and Aidershot Commands. June 20th, 4.30 p.m. “ First Aid in the Treatment of Injuries and Affections of the Ear, Nose and Throat.” Herbert Tilley, Esq, B.S., F.R.C.S., Surgeon to the Ear and Throat Deparment, University College Hospital. June [27th, 4.30 p.m. “ First Aid in Injuries and Affections of the Eyes.” Arthur Hugh Thompson, Esq., M.A., M.B. Surgeon Western Ophthalmic Hospital. July 4th, 4.30 p.m. “ The Work of the Royal Life Saving Society.” William Henry, Esq., Chief Secretary of the Royal Life Saving Society. July n t h , 4.30 p.m. “ First Aid in the Management of Burns and Scalds.” J. M. H. Macleod, Esq,. M.A., M.D., F.R .C.P. Physician for Diseases of the Skin, Char­ ing Cross Hospital. July 18th, 4.30 p.m. “ The Work of the Royal National Life Boat Institution.” George F. Shee, Esq., M.A. Secretary of the Royal National Life Boat Insti­ tution. T he Course is intended primarily for the Governors, Fellows, Members and Associates of the College of Ambu­ lance, but medical officers of health, medical practitioners, nurses, health visitors, and others engaged in public health duties, social assistance and all forms of National service are invited to attend. There is no fee for this course of special lectures and demonstrations. Further particulars and information regarding election to the College of Ambu­ lance may be obtained on application to the Secretary at 3, Vere-street, Cavendish-square, W. 1. (Telephone: “ May­ fair 4652).

AMBULANCE

G A ZETTE. —

May, 1918.

The Grand Priory of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England. Chancery o f the Order , St. fohn's Gate , Clerkenw ell , London , E .C ., A p r il 30th, ig i8 . The King has been graciously pleased to sanction the following promotions in, and appointments to, the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England :—

A s Chaplain : The Right Rev. The Bishop of St. David’s.

A s K nights of G ra ce: John Eyre. The Hon. Mr. Justice Sankey. Leolin Forestier-Walker. Lieut.-Colonel David Davies, M.P. The Lord Kenyon, K.C.V.O. Hugh Murray Ingledew Lieut.-Colonel Thomas Wallace, M.D. (from Hororary Serving Brother). The Right Hon. Thomas Richards, P.C., M.P. Sir William Benjamin Gentle. Lieut.-General Thomas Herbert John Chapman Goodwin, C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O. Colonel William Gordon Thomson (from Honorary Associate). The Hon. Sir Charles Algernon Parsons, K.C.B. William Francis Paul. Edward White. Colonel (Temporary Brigadier-General) Valentine Murray, C.M.G.

A s Ladies o f G ra ce: Frances Fownes, Lady Maxwell Lyte. Adela Harriet, Lady Codrington. The Hon. Mrs. Ernest Guinness. Julia Mary, Lady Sheffield. Hilda Mary, Lady Shakerley. Emma Bettine, Mrs. Paget. Marion, Mrs. Bruce. A s E squ ire : Robert Peacock, M.V.O. (from Honorary Serving Brother).

A s Honorary Serving Brothers : Thomas Lamb. Jonathan Clingo. Henry Thorp.

F o r E nrolm ent as Honorary Associates : Thomas Parkyn Blades, F.R.C.S. Colonel Henry Herrick, D.S.O., L.R.C.P., and S., A.M.S. Colonel Conrad Theodore Green, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., D.P.H., A.M.S., T.D. John Willett, L.R.C.P.E., L.R.C.S.E. Lockhart Edward Walter Stephens, C.B.E., M.R.C.S. Charles Bell Child Clipperton, C.M.G. Captain Frederick Charles Lefevre. Mary Elizabeth, Miss Davies.

A Home Nursing Class for women is assembling at 6.30 p.m. on May 30th at 41, Tothill-street, Westminster. T he fee for the course is 4s., and application should be made to Miss E. Fraser Baddeley, 87, Cadogan-gardens, S.W. Mr. E. M. Tailby, Winchester House, Victoria-square, Birmingham, has been appointed County Director for B ir­ mingham, in the place of Dr. Nelson, deceased.


— F I R S T

May, 1918. CONTENTS E

d it o r ia l

OF

TH IS

the British Red Cross Society and the Order of St. John

NUMBER.

has reached the immense total of ten million pounds, and lays stress on the fact that “ never was there a need for a

Man Power and Ambulance Men D

R

ist r ic t

epo rts

continuance of the ministration of the Red Cross more

urgent.”

No. 1 ; No. 3 ... No. 5; No. 11; No. 12 ... R

e v ie w s

A I D . —

163

i6a

First Aid to the Injured...

The work of the Red Cross costs seven pounds

a minute, and it is certain that the recent severe and con­ tinuous fighting will make increased demands upon the resources of the organisation. * *

Why and Wherefore in First Aid T

he

S t . Jo

h n ’s

A

G

m bu lan ce

*

aze tt e

Benefits I Derived from Lectures given by Sergt Hanmer ... ... ... ... ...

A n ingenious little appliance, the Demonstrator Clini­ 165

cal Thermomometer, designed for demonstrating the mark­

General Letter of the Joint V.A.D. Committee to County Directors ... ... ... ... 166

ing and reading of

the clinical

designed by

J.

M.

Carvell, who is well

Duties of a Commandant, Medical Officer, Matron or Lady Superintendent, and Quartermaster in Hospital ... ... ... ... ...

ambulance

workers

as

a

The College of Ambulance

...

...

The Grand Priory of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England ... ... Brevities ... ... On Discrimination ...

... ...

... ...

... ...

167

... 16S

... ... ...

... 171

P r a c t ic a l

P o in t s —

...

...

Masking of Signs of Epilepsy t o

t h e

a n d

...

... ...

...

known to

examiner

in

Demonstrator is obtainable from the St. John Ambulance * * * I

n c r e a sin g

attention is being paid to the health and

conditions of factory workers, and not only has a Com­ mittee of the British Association been appointed to investi­

172

a Committee set up by the Minister of Munitions, has

... 172

issued a number of important memoranda on welfare super­

E d it o r —

Complicated Accident Emergency Stretcher Q u e r ie s

171

and

gate industrial fatigue from the economic standpoint, but

Natural Remedies L etter s

...

lecturer

Association at the price of sixpence.

168

Life on Board an Ambulance Train

thermometer, has been

first aid and kindred subjects of many years’ standing. The

169 170

Clinical and Ordinary Thermometer (Fahr.) Notes ...

Dr.

A n sw ers

vision, industrial canteens, employment of women, hours of ... ...

... ...

... ...

... ...

173 173

C o r r espo n d en ts—

t o

Fractures of Clavicle and Scapula

...

... 174

work, industrial fatigue, ventilation and lighting of munition factories and workshops, sickness and injury, and special industrial diseases.

In addition, Professor Stanley Kent

...

...

...

174

has published under the auspices of the Home Office, an

...

...

...

174

important jpoint on the investigation of industrial fatigue

Fracture Involving Elbow Joint ...

..,

...

174

by physiological methods, in which he co-ordinates and

174

amplifies the recommendations made in these memoranda,

Improvised Treatment

...

Transport of Fracture Cases

Fracture of Humerus and Forearm

...

...

Fracture without Loss of Power ...

...

... 174

pleading for a more careful study of the physical capabili­

...

...

...

... 174

ties and limitations of the worker, both in his own interest and that of his employer.

Vagaries of Textbook

...

...

Extract from a Letter from a Fellow V.A.D.

174

* * *

Brevities.

A t the Institute of Public Health Sir James Cantlie stated that a soldier s chances of recovery from wounds

W e had the pleasure in inspecting this month the

depended upon treatment received during the first half-

splendid ambulance station which has been erected by the

hour in which he is brought up from the trenches.

No. 44 Division of the No. 1 District of the Brigade, and

same applies to persons injured in works or street, hence the necessity of a training in First Aid.

while there its usefulness was amply demonstrated by a case coming in for attention.

* * *

The Supt. had the greatest

difficulty in raising funds to accomplish his project, but now it has been attained, the station is a landmark to the resi­

The

On

May

6th,

at

the

offices

of

Messrs.

Crescus

Robinson & Co., Ltd., Newington Causeway, S.E., certifi­

dents of the district, and is a constant reminder to them

cates were presented to eleven members of the firm who

of the work of the division, and thus he anticipates to be

sat, all of whom passed the examination of the St. John

well supported financially.

Ambulance Association.

Other divisions please note.

V

/

T h e King’s letter of congratulation to the Times sets forth in moving terms the claims of the Red Cross upon the people of the Empire.

His Majesty expresses great

satisfaction that the fund of the Joint War Committee of

The Chapter-General has sanctioned the issue of a War Service Badge to people who have been working under any department of the Order of St. John. Full particulars will shortly be in the hands of all County Directors, Deputy Commissioners and Centre Secretaries.


— FIRST

On

D iscrim ination.*

B y R I C H A R D M O R E L A N D , J u n r .,

CorporaI, Hampstead, D ivision , S J .A .B . ( Concluded from page i j p . ) (3)

selecting means o f treatment and op transport.

In a large number of cases the First Aider will find himself alone with a patient and a few bystanders, who know nothing about First Aid. He may be out of reach of a telephone ; there may be no available medical help and no hospital within useful distance; and he will then have to exercise his Discrimination, and to act entirely on his own responsibility. In proof of this we will consider the following case :— An Alpine Touring party— consisting of two men and a guide, with knapsacks and stocks— was descending a mountain, when crossing a ravine one of the men slipped and fractured his patella. The other man, who was a F'irst Aider, found him un­ conscious with a scalp wound and with his sleeve saturated with blood. They were an hour’s journey from the nearest inn and within one hour of sunset in the late autumn. The First Aider at once began to treat the haemorrhage by apply­ ing digital pressure and by instructing the guide to keep the patient in a restful position, to utilise the dry bracken and heather which lay near at hand, to undo clothing, to cover up patient with their light shawls, and to prop him up with the knapsacks. On exposing the wounded arm, he found that the digital pressure only temporarily controlled the haemorr­ hage, and by further explicit instructions to the guide he was able to put on an improvised tourniquet. Using his Discrimination, he next examined for other injuries, and finding none treated the insensibility and suc­ ceeded in restoring his friend to consciousness. H e also released the tourniquet at intervals to avoid congestion of the limb. H e then had to solve the problem of transport against time, and sent his guide a short distance to find help. After ten minutes the messenger found two shepherds, who agreed to assist until sunset. During this time, with the assistance of the patient he set the fractured patella and dressed the wounds of arm and scalp. As all four men were necessary to carry the patient down to the road, he decided to make use of a hurdle as stretcher. On reaching the road, the shepherds had to return, so putting his patient under shelter the First Aider sent the guide for a horse and cart, which he obtained at an inn'three-quarters of a mile away. At the same time he gave instructions to have a bedroom prepared for patient and also to send two more men. During this interval he treated for shock, gave the patient some water to drink, made use of his smelling salts, and kept him warm. Further, anticipating some jolting, he collected bracken and heather, which he subse­ quently placed under the hurdle in the cart. On reaching the inn the patient was put to bed, and the First Aider, learning that a doctor could not arrive until the morning, sat up all night applying cold water dressings to patella, and giving proper attention to the comfort of patient and to tourniquet, the continued use of which was indicated by recurrence of hasmorrhage.

* These Notes are based on a paper read at a recent meeting of the Hampstead Division, S.J.A.B.

AID. —

M ay, 1918.

(4) In handling a case already under treatment by another F ir s t Aider. Under these circumstances an unusual amount of Discrimination is required, especially when it is quite evident that an accident has occurred; that the patient is ill and has met with an accident; and that another man is in charge. Sojne First Aiders, however, being over-anxious that the best treatment is not being adopted, in many in­ stances forget to ask for the signs, symptoms and history, “ butt in,” begin to examine, and thereby give rise to trouble. The best way, in cases such as these, would be for the First Aider who arrives last, to mention first to the other that he is certified and qualified to render First Aid, and to ask if he can be of any assistance. Afterwards he could quietly suggest that the proposed treatment might be ex­ plained, so that he might give the benefit of his experience and knowledge. Then after consultation he could assist the first man, who might, however, decide to hand over the case to him as the more efficient First Aider. If, however, the first man wishes to continue in charge of the case, he should be allowed to do so, and the second man should loyally assist. Again, it must not be taken for granted that a man— in plain clothes and without any badge— is incapable of dealing with a case, as he may be a first class ambulance man. Further, we can imagine and sympathise with his feelings if he has to stand by and see another man, possibly in uniform, come up, interfere and undo a good deal of the treatment which he has already put in. (5) In deciding to do nothing. This is probably the most difficult task before a First Aider, and is best illustrated by an actual case. Thus :— A St. John nurse was walking along a road in uniform, when she was informed by a boy that there was an accident two hundred yards away. A man had fallen from a ladder resting against a tree which he was cutting, and came down with the branch cut off. When she arrived on the spot, the nurse saw that two bystanders had picked the man up and were just going into a neighbouring house. From enquiries she found that the man had come down quite slowly in the branches and that he could walk. She did nothing ! It might be asked whether she should not (1) have volunteered assistance ; and (2) have gone into the house, on the chance of the man having received a blow on the head, or some other injury that might have caused in­ sensibility later. I believe, however, that the nurse acted wisely and with discrimination, since signs of external injury were absent and her assistance was not invited by those in charge of the case. In selecting “ Discrimination ” as my subject, I have endeavoured both to point out some important ways in which this quality may be called into play, and also to emphasise its significance as a most essential qualification for any one who desires to carry out efficiently the Prin­ ciples of First Aid.

We regret that there were two errors in “ Promotions and Appointments to the Order” appearing in our last issue— viv., Sir Charles iffirris Nicholson, Bt., M.P., should be Sir Charles vVorris Nicholson, Bt., M . P . ; and Mia M iss Lucas should be Mia M rs. Lucas.


— F I R S T

May, i 9 l8 -

Clinical and Ordinary Thermometer (Fahr.) Notes. B y S.

LLOYD

HARVEY*.

he appended details are the collation of notes from lecture, general reading, and observation whilst preparing for a St. John Home Nursing examination. In the form presented, such may be helpful to entrants for ^similar course of instruction.

AID. — (by attraction) at the dots and transforming them into smudges. A “ Certified Clinical,” “ Bath ” (Clinical size are on the market) and Sick-room thermometers should be in­ cluded in the equipment of every nurse.

T

Condition.

Lowest.

Highest.

Limits of life ... Generally fatal Great danger... High fever 0 Low „ £ “ Sick patients ... O Normal Average normal Sub. normal ... Collapse Shock and rigor ...

90

110 108 106 106 103 100'5

93 95

102 100 996 981

97

98 '4

1Reaching higher /point in evening

995 98

97

90 —

Notes.

Temp, may be normal, or, even raised

2 to 6 A.M. 2 to 6 P.M. Temp, of body „ of sick­ 65 55 room — 60 „ for frost bite Baths, tepid ... No effects nerve 95 85 centres or lungs, no reaction „ infantile 95 95 convulsions >> 72 98 „ general cleansing .S96 101 „ warm ... Stimulates nerves, •5>increases pulse, O slight reaction 102 no „ hot Greatly increases pulse and re­ spiration 1 11 120 „ very hot Short time only, strongly affects heart and lungs Freezing point — 32 212 _Boiling „ — 245 250 Steam disinfecting Equal to pressure of 28 lbs. to the square inch G

e n e r a l

N

o tes

.

Clinical thermometers vary in extent of markings below 95 degs. Preferably’ they should, at least, range from 92 to 110 degs. An uncertified clinical thermometer is valueless for real practical use. Instead of “ jerking” down the mercury, with con­ sequent risk of breakage, place about half length of bulb end in cold water. See mercury is below normal before using. If, from any cause, in doubt of correctness of reading, take temperature again before marking record sheet. When marking chart with pen and ink, make dot on point of variation, and draw connecting line just short of, and not quite to, the previous made dot. Not actually connecting will prevent the ink running off too freely

Life on Board an Ambulance Train. A w r i t e r in “ The L. & N.W. Railway Gazette” for April gives the following description of the work of an ambulance train in this country : “ Imagine, for a little while, that you are an onlooker on the quay of a certain English port. See the stretcher bearers with their bundles of blankets and piles of stretchers, waiting to board the big ship as it comes alongside. They begin their task of mercy. They pass before you in an endless stream, carrying the weak and suffering, but ever cheerful, lads from the ship to the train, with the care and consideration which a mother bestows on her child. Friend and foe are treated alike. T he other day I was watching some bearers removing some wounded Germans. The first two or three pairs came and put down their burdens on the platform, saying to the sergeant in charge: ‘ Fitze,’ ‘ square head,’ or ‘ Berlin Scottish’— for, of course, the bearers have all sorts of names for the Hun. After them came another pair with step firm and slow, carrying their patient very steadily, and, placing him gently on the platform, they just said ‘ German,’ and walked away. This German was both blind and legless, and I noticed in this instance particularly the care and attention which was given him. While the patients are being entrained the examiner makes his final inspection to see if the train is in proper order and fit for running. Eulogy of the examiner is superfluous. He is a man who knows that the lives of many depend upon him, and his patriotic spirit renders trustworthy. The train is now loaded and steams out of the station en route, let us say, for some place in the North. T he orderlies make the patients comfortable for their journey, and then collect the labels which are attached to each patient and hand them in at the office, where a record is made. “ The medical officer comes round with his cheery smile and jocular manner, dieting them according to their complaints. 1 Where are you wounded, sonny?’ says he to one of them. ‘ Left thigh, right hand and right foot.’ ‘ Y ou ’ll only get one gold stripe for that, you know; why couldn’t you be satisfied with one wound?’ And so he goes on with a pleasant word for everyone. “ The patients have to be fed, and the orderlies rise to the occasion. Feeding patients is an art in itself when the train is travelling at the rate of 50 to 70 miles an hour. The carrying of soup in basins on trays, especially, neces­ sitates a good deal of juggling. The orderlies delight to display their skill. Old Bill, who balances a tea-pail in each hand, defied competition. Those who dare to follow his example fail in the attempt to maintain their equilibrium, and leave a wet trail behind them. Jam sandwiches go down with a relish, and there are many ‘ Oliver Twists ’ among the patients. Perchance there are many among our readers who have had to go without food for a somewhat lengthy period, but their hunger cannot be called by that name, according to ambulance orderlies. They see men who experience hunger every day, and the ozone of the Channel is productive of not easily satisfied appetites. “ When all are fed and warm, inside as well as out, cigarettes are distributed, and some smoke while others


172

— F I R S T

sleep. Those who remain awake look out of the window if old King Sol has not yet gone to rest. They gaze in awe and wonder at the stately grandeur, it may be, of the northern ranges, or admire the placid rivers and woodlands of the South. The fields are white with daises, or perhaps Nature has clothed herself in a mantle of snow. Some­ times she appears in the ffowing golden robes of a rich harvest of grain, and her cbeeks are red as the scarlet poppies. Sometimes she has dressed herself in a drab brown, and the farmer ploughs his land and sows his seed, and hopes that she has not discarded her bridal dress for ever, but will appear in due time as fresh and gay as before. “ Some of the patients are fond of passing away the tedious hours in recounting their experiences. Invariably they make light of their wounds. ‘ There was a careless chap in our company,’ says one, ‘ and the night I got hurt he was eating oranges and throwing the peel all over the battlefield. So, of course, when I went to see ’Aig ter ask if it was dark enough ter have some fireworks, blow me if I didn’t slip on one of those bits of peel and cut me fingers on a salmon tin.’ ‘ How many Germans did you shoot?’ asks Joe of Charlie. 11 never shot one, and I had a good chance, too. The Huns were charging in close formation.’ ‘ Shoot at will,’ shouted the captain. ‘ Which one is ’e ?’ I answers, and before anyone could tell me I got it in the chest. The idea that the average soldier is unin­ telligent and ignorant is quite wrong. Most of them know what they are talking about. Captain Bairnsfather’s Old Bill is nothing more than a caricature, which it is intended to be. These men who come over and travel in our ambu­ lance trains we find to be, as a rule, men who think as rational men should think. The drill sergeant may tell us ‘ You are not supposed to think in the Army.’ If the British soldier had refused to exercise his mental faculties failure would be inevitable, whereas we have reason to be­ lieve that victory is imminent. “ T o continue our journey, the agricultural and horti­ cultural area are left behind, and we pass into an iudustrial area, where smoking chimney rise skywards and grime and dirt replace the grass and flowers, and we stop at one of our great railway centres. A [large crowd of women and children and business men peer in at the windows, handihg in gifts for the patients or wishing them good luck. A nursing orderly hands out some postcards and letters with the request that they be posted, most of them being roughly pencilled lines to relatives and friends. T he V .A .D . nurses, who come on the train with refreshments, endeavour to make the men happier than ever, and their services are much apprciated, and it would be well if they could be car­ ried on more extensively. The train moves off once more, and the next stop is at our destination. There we find motor ambulances drawn up in readiness, with patriotic women of the W.A.A.C. standing beside them to drive away as soon as they are loaded. Men of the R .A M . C . : the St. John Ambulance Corps, the Red Cross stretcher bearers are waiting to enter the wards with stretchers. The medical officer and sergeant alight. ‘ Boards out !’ roars the sergeant, and the orderlies adjust the boards at the doors so that the bearers may avoid the step. The stretchers are carried into the wards, and the work of detraining begins. Tommy and Jack and Bill and Bob bid each other farewell in case they should be separated, and off they go to join the sick and wounded in our British hospitals, to be taken care of by our efficient staffs of doctors, nurses and orderlies. There we must leave them while we get to our work, roll up our sleeves, change the linen, make the beds, and, with brush and soap and water

AID. —

May, 1918.

elbow-grease, make our train spic and span for the next convoy, as we return to the disembarkation port once more.”

J r a c tic a l J o in ts . The Editor invites Notes on actual Cases— with special reference to gooa and bad boints in Treatment—for inclusion in this Column. N a tu r a l

R e m e d ie s.

A man on one occasion is said to have set his mind on committing suicide. To ensure this object, he (1) swallowed a potent dose of opium ; (2) saturated his clothes with paraffin oil ; (3) fixed round his neck a cord, one end of which he attached to a tree overhanging a river ; and (4) loaded his revolver. At the critical moment he applied a lighted match to his clothing, jumped from the river bank, placed his revolver to his head and fired. Did he accomplish his object ? N.B.— No. The shot missed his head but severed the rope ; the water quenched the flames of the burning clothes ; the paraffin and water made him vomit ; and a policeman pulled him out of the river. For these reasons he escaped the combined dangers of shooting, hanging, burning, narcotic poisoning and drowning ! ! !— A. I. M., Kentish Town. M a s k in g

o f

S ig n s

o f

E p il e p s y .

A man was found lying unconscious beside a row of waggons in a Railway Siding. There was no bruising or wound of head. In short, signs of Concussion of the Brain were present and well marked, except that these were accompanied by slight twitching movements, involving face and all the limbs and recurring spasmodically. Doubt, therefore, hrose as to the exact diagnosis. Fifteen minutes later and before the arrival of the doctor, the patient vomited and the effects of Concussion begin to abate— the face regaining its normal colour, the pulse and respiration becoming stronger and more regular, although there was no return of consciousness. Shortly afterwards a typical attack of Epilepsy, with severe convulsive movements took place. The history obtained subsequently demonstrated that the man, who was subject to Epilepsy, was suddenly seized with an attack while standing near the waggons, and that, in falling, he struck his head against an axle box, with the result that during the first attack the convulsions were probably limited in their violence by the Concussion which intervened and masked the signs of Epilepsy.— E. T. M., Tufnel Park. A course of First Aid Lectures will be held at St. Luke’s Church Room, West Kilburn, N.W. on May 30th, at 8 o’clock. Application should be made to Sergt. G. Faire, 43, Marne-street, Queen’s Fark, W. 10. The fee is 3s. 6d., including book and bandage and examination. Lecturer, Dr. Newman. These classes will be held on alternate weeks. Candidates for Demonstrator’s Certificates are re­ minded that the next examinations take place during the first week in June as follows:— June 1st: London, Bir­ mingham, Manchester, Bristol and Dublin. June 3rd: Cardiff. Examinations will also be held during the same period at a few of the other centres in the event of their being sufficient candidates.

A MEAL IN A MINUTE


—FIRST

May, 1 9 1 8

£ etters

to

the

1 73

S d ito r .

We are *n n0 roay responsible for (he opinions expressed, or statements made, by Correspondents.— E d i t o r , E t c . COM PLICATED

AID. —

the

A CCIDEN T.

D EAR S i r , — With reference to the Complicated Accident

(which resulted in four additional emergencies) reported under “ Practical Points” in your April issue, I am inclined to infer that, if three of the Principles of First Aid had been carried out, four of the cases might have been avoided. First, if the ambulance man had been tactful he would have sent a messenger on before to a sensible neighbour, who could have warned the mother and sister and saved them from injuries, which seem to have been caused by their being flurried. Secondly, if the ambulance man had been observant, and at the same time resourceful, he would have noticed the restive condition of the horse and would have gone to the head of the animal while the driver obtained control with the reins, whereby he would have prevented the last two accidents.— Yours respectfully, H.

W

r e st

.

19, Norman-grove, Kirkstall, Leeds. EMERGENCY D

ear

STRETCHER.

S i r , — In reading Mr. S. Lloyd Harvey’s letter in

April issue, he says that one bearer in front and one bearer at back of carrying sheet is just the proper thing to convey a badly crushed patient up narrow stairs ; but he does not men­ tion the position of injured person’s back while ascending the stairs. I will give my experience on this work :— When going to load an injured person on a stretcher, to convey him home (or hospital), I have a good strong rug laid over stretcher, which is comfortable for patient to lay on, and the sides of the rug can be used for covering and warmth. On arriving at patient’s home, and the necessary preparations made for removal upstairs, I have one bearer at the head, one bearer at the feet, and a third at the patient’s hips, to help in lifting injured man on my back, while I am on my hands and knees deside the stretcher. When the patient is laid flat on my back, I go on hands and knees until the stairs are reached, the bearer at head goes backwards, and I go upstairs on my hands and feet, thus keeping the patient in a recumbent posi­ tion ; the two bearers only steadying the patient. On arrival at top of stairs, the march to bedside is done on my hands and knees, when the third bearer is called on for help to lift patient into bed. Hoping my experience may help any other first aider under such circumstances.— Yours truly, F

r ed

B

o tto m ley

Tankersley, Barnsley. May 6th, 1318.

.

for

U n if o r m s

a n d

E q u i p m e n t V a st modern factory resources, added to a century’ s experience, enables us to supply First A i d and all other Services with uniforms and E q u i p m e n t of g u a r a n t e e d materials, workmanship and finish — at prices that challenge comparison with an y other clothing of equal quality. Prices and Samples on request.

16,

N IL E S T R E E T , C ITY ROAD, LONDON, N .I., and at 6 , Y O R K P L A C E , L E E D S , and 8 4 , M IL LER S T R E E T , G LA S G O W .

HOME FOR

OF F IC E

O RDER

FACTORIES.

An Order made by the Secretary of State, requires that the Occupier in all Factories in the following classes: Blast Furnaces, Copper Mills, Iron Mills, Foundries, Metal Works shall provide F I R S T A I D C A B I N E T S in the proportion of at least one to every 150 persons, where 25 persons or more are employed. We supply for this purpose two C a b in e t s :— No. I, containing the minimum requirements of the Order. Prices, 1 to 4 Cabinets, 25/=; 5 to 10 Cabinets, 23/9; 11 to 20 Cabinets, 22/6; over 20, 21/3 each nett. No. 2, containing in addition, the Dressings recommended by H.M. Medical Inspector of Factories in the First Aid Leaflet for the Treatment of Minor Injuries. Prices, 1 to 4 Cabinets, 50/- ; 5 to 10 Cabinets, 47/6, 11 to 20 Cabinets, 45/d J over 20 42/6 each nett.

T er m sP a c k in g free, carriage paid.

Cash with order.

First Aid Cabinets are not required in Blast Furnaces where an Ambulance Room is provided.

U s e d e x t e n s i v e l y in B r it is h , C iv il a n d M il it a r y h o s p ita ls , a n d b y t h e R e d C r o s s S o c ie t i e s ot G r e a t B r it a in , t h e o v e r ­ s e a D o m in io n s , a n d t h e A llie s .

Sold in tins by Chemists,etc.,everywhere BENGER’S FOOD LTD., — Otter Works, — MANCHESTER, B r a n c h O ffic e s : N ew Y o r k & S y d n e y .

Eng.

D e p d ts th ro u g h o u t C a n a d a .

A M B U L A N C E R O O M S must be provided where 500 persons or more are employed in Factories to which this Order applies. We supply estimates for the equipment required, also for the construction of the Rooms where necessary.

S o u th a ll B ros. & B a rcla y , Ltd., C h a rfo rd

M ills ,

B IR M IN G H A M .


— FIRST

r 74

Q u eries

and

J U is w e r s

to

C o rresp o n d en ts. Queries will be dealt with under the following rules :— 1 .— Letters containing Queries must be marked on the top left hana corner of the envelope “ Query,” and addressed— F i r s t A i d , 46, Cannon-streei, London, E.C. 2.— A ll Queries must be accompanied by a “ Query Coupon ” cut jrom the current issue of the Journal, or in case of Queries from abroad from a recent issue. ?. — The Textbook, to which teference may be made in these columns, is the Revised (79/7) Edition of S.J.A.A. Manual of First-Aid.

AID.— of forearm ? cation ?

o f

C l a v ic l e

Sc a pu la .

a n d

G. A. (Victoria) asks for treatment of fractures of right clavicle and left scapula. Treat as for fracture of both clavicles ( Cantlie , p. 51). This method has unfortunately been omitted in revised Text­ book.— N. C o r b e t F l e t c h e r . I m p r o v is e d

T r ea tm e n t

o f

F r actu r e d

L eg .

D. H. (Bridgend).— For treatment of fractured leg— splints not being available— is it correct to straighten leg and fix it to uninjured fellow with bandages at knees, ankle and feet and with wadding packed between legs to keep limb

straight ? The padding is good treatment if it is carefully arranged to fill up irregularities between legs, but it would not keep leg straight. Otherwise treatment is correct, though 1 suggest using four bandages— one above and one below break, to con­ trol fracture ; one just above knees and one round ankles, to control limbs.— N. C. F. T r an spo r t

o f

F r a ctu r e

C ases.

I. B. (Wigan).— In transport of fractures, should the stretcher come to rest feet first and fracture last, wherever it may be ? When a stretcher is being lowered, the patient must be kept (where possible) in a horizontal position, and all four runners of stretcher must touch ground at the same moment. The position of fracture does not affect the point.— N. C. F. F r actu r es

o f

H u m eru s

a n d

I n v o l v in g

W

r a ctu r e

it h o u t

L

oss

of

P

o w er

.

A. M. (Regent’s Park) supplements his Query, published in April issue, with more complete details. The patient was intoxicated, fell off a bench, and broke both bones of left leg. Afterwards, while sitting on edge of the bench, she was able to move her feet freely up, down and round ; further, she insisted on standing up and on walking round the room, supporting herself with her arms round the shoulders of two women. Under these circumstances, A. M. asks if this is not a case of fracture without loss of power. No.

Since the patient was not able to stand or walk Further, the mental condition of the patient would dull the sense of pain, while it encouraged foolhardy action. Incidentally, the frag­ ments must either have been impacted or pressed so firmly together that there was practically no break in continuity oj the bones which could, therefore, be used for certain limited movements.— N.C.F.

except -with assistance, there was loss of power.

U

ses

of

T

r i o n a i ..

E. T. (West Green).— What are the properties and uses of Trionai ? Is it safe to use on Burns ? Trionai drug, taken beyond the sive, and I N. C. F.

is a powerful and dangerous sleep-producing by mouth. As such, therefore, it is absolutely scope of First Aid. Further, it is most expen­ have never heard of it being used externally.—

F o r ear m .

W. P. (Oldham).— (1) With simple fractures of humerus (lower third) and of forearm, would it be right to secure with right angled splint? (2) What sling should be used, since Textbook recommends small arm sling for humerus and large for forearm ? (1) Yes— with modifications. Improvise and pad a rightangled splint, the vertical limb of which should extend well up the arm, while the horizontal should reach to finger tips. Apply same to inner (palmar) aspect (supported by another splint on outer aspect) of forearm. Fix splints with five band­ ages— one in middle of arm and one below elbow joint to con­ trol fractured humerus (and splints) ; one above and one below fractured forearm, to control fracture thereof-, and one round hand, to complete control o f splints. Finally, rest limb in large arm sling. (2) The Textbook rightly allocates injuries involving elbow joint to forearm, and recommends large arm sling in all such cases.— N. C. F. F r a ctu r e s

If not, what is the best position for its appli­

The necessity for the fourth bandage is not clear. In fact, I consider it a bandage wasted and quite unnecessary, since the weight of the forearm is efficiently supported by the armsling, which will remedy any defect in the strength of the rightangled splint. Reference to the Textbook, however, shows that a new method (Fig. 25) of tying splints together is recommended. This differs from the old method taught by Dr. Cantlie (Fig. 26) in the absence of diagonal turns of the controlling bandage. It is palpably weak, and permits movement of the transverse and horizontal limbs of the splint. For this reason an extra figure-of-eight bandage may be necessary (although to me this disadvantage is overcome by the large arm-sling), and should be applied as close to the elbow joint as the splints allow.— N. C. F. F

F r a ctu r e s

May, 1918.

E lbow

Jo in t .

I. G. (Newport).— For Fractures involving elbow joint the Textbook (p. 59) now instructs us to “ apply a fourth band­ age as figure-of-eight round arm and forearm.” What is the special object of this bandage ? Should it be applied round the middle or upper third of the arm and the middle

E xtract from a L etter from a F ellow V.A.D. D e a r old E. F. Barker died on Wednesday evening. She was only ill fifteen hours, and became unconscious almost at once. She was buried on Friday with full military honours. First of all was the firing party with reversed rifles, then the ambulance with her ; then six orderlies carrying wreaths ; then 30 of the R .A .M .C. Detachment, and then all the M .O .’s and some of the General Service V .A . D .’s. We went in ambulances, and followed two and two to the cemetery, first V .A .D .’s and then Sisters. Capts. Roberts, Rankin, Aidie, MacMichael, Wagstaffe and Marrett carried her coffin so nicely. The padre saluted the grave at the end of the service, and when the Last Post was sounded it was almost more than I could bear. Heaps of outsiders came— Miss Hartigan (matron-inchief for that area) and three other matrons, various head­ quarter V .A .D ,’s, A .D.M .S .’s, etc. It was all most impressive, and very nicely done.


— F I R S T

May, 1918.

A I D

FIRST-AID IO D E X

T fa v u x te Nurse’s Outfits

A BLAND & PA IN LESS

^ (Un£. Iodi

— IO D IN E D R E S S IN G .—

Aseptic.

Antiseptic.

IO D E X

has been supplied to : h.M . F le e t S u r g e on s, R .A .M .C . S u rgeon s, RedCross Su rgeon s, C ro ix R o u g e F r a n c a i s e B e l g i a n F i e ld H o s p i t a l s F r e n c h F i e ld H o s p it a ls , N um erous M ilitary H o s p it a ls , M e m b e r s of S t. John A m bulance.

I0D EX

is

T J E R E at Harrods the Private or Professional Nurse will find every requisite of her calling, and she may depend implicitly upon the correctness, the quality, and the service of every­ thing supplied. Advice on all out­ fitting matters gladly given by post to those prevented from visiting the Department (on Harrods 2nd Foor).

I O D E X is a First-Aid Dressing of great merit— painless and bland. It promotes rapid healing and is ideal in septic wounds, tears, abrasions, bruises, burns, scalds, inflamed feet, etc. I O D E X is non-staining, non­ irritating F re e Iodine of great penetrative power. It is a power­ ful absorbent and antiseptic, and rapidly reduces inflammation.

sold in l o z . Pots, Price

Harrods are appointed by the St. John Ambulance Brigade and the British Red Cross Society and all materials and patterns are approved thereby. N . U . 13 0 . W e ll cut U n iform D ress, as sketch , bodice lin ed , in fine N a v y C o a tin g Serge. S to c k S i z e s . . .. 39/6 and 4 5 / M ad e to order, w ith fittin gs . . .. 6 3 /-

1/3.

IO D EX has benefited thefollowing and numerous other conditions. B n larg-ed C la n d s , G o itre. T u b e r c u lo u s J o in ts, B u rsitis, fe y n o v ltls, S c ia tic a , N e u ritis , G o u t, R h eu m a to id A rth ritis, H y d ro c e le , P a ra sitic S k in D ise a se s. R in g w o rm , C h ilb la in s , A c n e B o lls, M u m p s , S p r a in s , AN D A L L IN F LA M M A T O R Y C O N D IT IO N S.

L lt o r a t u r e

on

a p p lic a tio n

N .U . 11 6 . R e d C ross S o c ie ty 's R e g u la tio n B lu e A lp a c D ress. S to ck Sizes .. .. .. .. 2 6 /M ad e to order, w ith fittin g s . . .. 38/H e m stitc h e d C o lla r and CufTs sets .. i/ i 1 P a te n t B elt .. .. .. 1/6

to —

HARRODS Ltd Managing

M enley & J a m e s, Ltd 39'lfoNDON^0EX?3*1’

H U S S E Y Regulation Outdoor U n if o rm for b o th th ese Societies.

&

i 7S

C O . , ltd .,

O U T F IT S FOR MEMBERS OF T H E B.R.C.S. and S . J .A . A . and BRIGADE:

LONDON SWI

Director

Specialists in Nurses’ Wear,

In d oo r U n i f o r m , S .J .A .A . and B rigade.

O U T F IT S and

FOR DOCTORS, NURSES CAN TEEN WORKERS-

Nurses Uniforms of an d escriptlou s.

D octors’ Operatin g Coats.

I n d o o r U n if o r m , B .R .C .S .

wrF ine M uslin V.A.D. Caps, 1 /- ea ch , in tw o regu lation sizes, 18 in. b y 27 in ., 19 in. b y 28 in.

Storm Caps, 6/9 each. In 4 sizes.

Collars, w ith 2 stud

In B la c k or N avy G arberdine.

Sleeves, w ith w rist­

holes, in a ll sizes, 8 } d . each. band and finished w ith e la stic at top. C o t t o n .. .. U n io n .. .. Pure L in e n ..

1/2} 1/6} 2/3}

W e ll m ade

Washing Dresses

F or C an teen W o rk and W a r Service'. F asten ed dow n the front, and finished w ith b elt round w aist. In W h ite and C olours.

6/11, 7/11 and 9/11.

Stiffened Belts in all

Finest Irish Collars, Cuffs an d Belts,

34in ., 3 6 in ., 38 in ., 40 in ., 1 0 / 6 each.

O r unlined, 4 7 / 6 . In 3 sizes— S m all, M edium and L a rge.

Blae Lustre Overall,

In N a v y for B .R .C .S . O r B la c k for S .J .A .A .

In le n g th s 48 in ., 5 0 in .,

White Apron, reg u lation p attern , w ith tw o p a tc h p c c k e ts, in le n g th s, 34111-, 36 in ., 38 in ., 40 in ., 3/11 each.

9/6, 1 2/6 .

Sister Grace Collar, w ith one stud, 8 ' d . each.

52 in., 54 in ., 56 in.

Sister Grace Cuffs, 1 0 ' d . per pair.

B est q u a lity Irish Calico

Aprons, welT-fitting G ored S k irts.

In len gth s 34 in.,

Oversleeves, for w ear in h osp ital, 1/2-V, 1/6}, 2/3} per pair. Stiff White Belts in a ll sizes, 2} in. w ide, 1/- each.

Hemstitched Obloug Cap, in fine L a w n , 18 in. b y 27 in. and 19 in. b y 28 in ., 1/each.

36 in ., 38 in., 40 in. A s illustration , 3/11 each.

HUSSEY & CO., Ltd., I

Army Caps,

Grey Cotton Washing Dress, in 4 sizes,

In C ran en ette, lined to w a ist, 65/“

Write for our Price List E.

F in e M uslin 36 in. squ are, 2/ 3} an d 3 / 3 } , 27 in. square, 2 / 3 } ea ch .

in vario us d ep th s, an d a ll sizes kept in stock .

sizes, 2} in. dep th , 1/- each.

Summer Coals.

in Z e p h y r a n d M atron C lo th , in s e lf colou rs an d strip es, from 13/11 each . In 3 s to c k sizes.

Ladies’ Overalls on w ell c u t lines.

Sister Dora Cap, 7 j d . , 1/0}, 1/11} each.

116,

Bold

Operating Coats, as w orn in the M ilita r y H osp stals. In fine Irish C a lic o , lig h t yet stron g, 9/11 each . In C ream L in en -fin ish ed C lo th , 9/11 each. S p ecial m easurem ents for la rg er or sm aller C o ats c a re ­ fu lly follow ed, o r differen t s ty les m ade acc o rd in g to c u sto m ers’ req uirem en ts.

Linen Masks, 1 /6 } each .

S tr e e t, LIVERPOOL.

“ St . Cecilia Apron.” W ith e x tra la rg e bibs an d w ide c urved strap s over the sh oulders, and w ell cu t gored skirt m easuring 72 in. at foot. M ad e in L inen-finished C lo th , w ith or w ith out p ock et, 5/ 3 each. S to c k ed in 3 le n g th s, 36 in., 38 in ., and 40 ins.

C a rr ia g e

Paid on

all Orders overlO/-

’ ,85#

Telephone: 5162 Royal.


- F I R S T

176

AID.—

May, 1918

MANUALS

OF

FIRST-AID,

&e.,

By N. CORBET FLETCHER, B.A., M.B., B.C (Cantab), M.R.C.S. A ID S

TO

F IR S T -A ID .

T h ir d E d itio n .

^

e

c

c

5

“ C o l.

S U B S T IT ^

P o st free, 7 d .

First-Aid Simplified and Tabulated, with A|ds to Memory. Cantlie contributes tin introduction tend we endorse his good o p i n i o n 0/ the book." — L a n c e t .

A ID S

TO

H O M E -N U R S IN G .

P ric e 7 d . , post free. Home-Nursing Simplified and Tabulated, with Aids to Memory. S econ d E d itio n .

^ ilc a k e s i^ ^

“ This book w onderfully sim plifies a complex subject and should be read by a ll students." — L . & N .W . R y . G a z e t t e .

H a n m e r ’s L ife -S a v in g L e c tu r e s.

WHY

AND

W HEREFORE

E F F IC IE N C Y CAN

YOU

B O R R O W A P I C T U R E P A L A C E ? If so, do it at once ! Get the promise of the loan of it for one night and then write to Ambulance Officer H a n m e r for par­ ticulars of a scheme that will give the Ambulance movement in your district a good lift. Mr. Hanmer is now booking dates for exhibitions in the pr ovinces of the O F F IC IA L F I R S T A ID F IL M , accompanied by his well-known system of teaching First Aid, by aid of Lantern Slides and practical demonstrations. Special opportunities offered to Coal Mining Districts. Send 3d. stamps for Novelty Booklet and full particulars of Eight Special Features to :—

HANMER, Official Demonstrator, St. John Ambulance Association, GoLDTHORrE, Nr. Rotherham. Wire: “ Hanmer, Ambulance, Goldthorpe."

PO STAL IN S TR U C TIO N in “ PRESCRIPTION R E A D IN G ” and “ ELEM ENTARY DISPENSING.” Everyone engaged in FIRST AID work should take up ne above Courses at once. A member of S.J.A.B. writes:— “ I feel deeply indebted for the courses of instruction received, have often wanted to take such courses, but could never find where to get such.” (T.B.) Special terms no w — half fees— to members of S.J.A.B., &c. A p p ly (tta m p ) to M r . J . E . W a l d e n , S e c ., W estm in ster C o lle g e (L a d y D isp en sers S ectio n o f the W estm in ster C o lle g e o f C h em istry and P h a rm a cy, estd. 1874),

1 12, S t . G e o r g e ’ s R o a d , S o u t h w a r k , L o n d o n .

B ES T AN D C H EA P ES T HOUSE IH T H E TR A D E. Latest

Pattern

Khaki

Uniforms

a

Speciality.

IN

F iR S T -A ID .

H IN TS

FOR

H O S P ITA L Po st free,

7d.

FOR

P R IC E

L IS T

AND

P A TTER N S

P r e s c r ib k r .

By

J.

AN M.

IN D EX

OF

CARVELL,

F IR S T-A ID .

M .R .C .S .,

W.

EVANS.

F IR S T

A ID

IN

FEW

WORDS.

(?8th thousand).

B y tho S a m e A u th o r.

With Coloured Diagrams. 12 pp. Folder. Paper, 2 d . H O M E N U R S I N G IN F E W W O R D S . (16th

Cloth, 4 d . thousand).

B y tke Same A u th o r.

Including useful reference tables. 14 pp. Folder. Paper, 2 d . Cloth, 4 d . T H E C O M P L E T E M A N IK IN . Systems of Body accurately indexed. Invaluable to Students of Anatomy, Medicine, First-Aid and Allied Subjects. Price 2 S . net; postage, 2d. T H E TR IA N G U LA R B A N D A G E : Its Application Accurately Described by Words and 116 Diagrams. By

HOWARD

M.

Dem onstrator

PRESTON,

to

the

Pelyteehnic.

116 Illus. Price, I S . net; postage 2d. T H E R O LLER BANDAGE. B y t h . Same A u th o r.

Its Application Accurately Described by Words and 162 Diagrams. Price, i s . net; postage, 2d. F I R S T - A I D A N A T O M I C A L D IA G R A M S . Twelve in set, on Roller. Post free, 2 S . l o d . Each Diagram separately, 2 d . 5 and 6 (coloured), 6d . each. No. 1 4 .— H U M A N B O D Y . — S H O W I N G A R T E R I E S 3k P R E S S U R E P O IN TS . Coloured. Price, 6d . T H E W H O L E A R T O F B A N D A G IN G . THEKLA

BOWSER,

F .J.I.

Introdmetion bv J a m e s C a n t l i e , F.R.C.S. Illus. Post free, i s . 2 d . P R A C T I C A L I N S T R U C T I O N IN C U T T I N G O U T & M A K IN G UP H O S P I T A L G A R M E N T S F O R S I C K & W O U N D E D . (.Approved by the Red Cross Society). Illustrated. Post free, i s . 2 d . A S H O R T C O U R S E OF P H Y S IC A L TR A IN IN G . By A L L A N BROM AN. P ric e is. 8d. p o st free. JO HN BALE, SONS D AN IELSSO N , Ltd., 83-91. G r e a t T l t e h f l e l d S t r e e t , L o n d o n , W .

Second-H and Prices, N ew

T O :-

PreprletorJ,

E.O .

Telephone— No. 2353 Holborn. Telegrams— “ Evans, Clerkenwell Green, London.

H al f

NOTES

ON

P o st fre e 7d.

FIR S T

AID

SIMPLIFIED.

B y S id n e y H . L a m b . A Handbook in a tabulated and simplified form giving the main points in first aid, so arranged as to impress them on the memory of the student.

i T ) Officers Regulation Great Coats. Dark , _/\ . I ) . Grey beaver cloth, 45s. to measure. Superior quality Men’s Great Coats, 32s. 6d.— Write for DALE, REYNOLDS & CO., Ltd., 46, Cannon St., I ONDON, E,C.4. gatternsjrn^jrarticularSj^hornton^&^Ca^ailorSj^righouse^

S

T

at

B o o ks at O isco u n t P rices. C a ta lo g u e s ree. S tate w ants. B o s k s sent on ap p ro v a l. B o o k s b ough t. W . & G . F O Y L E 121 and r*3. C h a rin g C ross R o a d , L o n d o n , W .C .

P r ic e 6 d . n e t.

5, C l e r k e n w s l l G r e e n , F a r r i n g d o n R o a d , LONDON.

L .S .A .L o n d .

A vade-mecum for the Ambulance Worker. F.cap.8vo. Post free, 1 s. 2d.

On F irst A id, M edicine, S u rg e ry , an d a ll other S c ie n ­ tific and L ite r a r y Sub jects.

U niform C loth in g & E q u ip m en t Co. (FRB D

O R D E R L IE S .

Orderly Duties Simplified aud Tabulated, with Aids to Memory. “ A most compact brochure which contains much useful inform ation ." —

C o n tr a cto rs f o r : — S t . John Am b u lan ce Brig ad e; Britis h Red Cross, & c . ; Officers aad P r iv ates; also for A r m y , N avy , Police and Fire Brigades. SEND

F IR S T-A ID .

P o st free, i s . ad. Problems Study, Treatment and Examination solved for Senior Students. “ W ithout doubt the book w ill be o f great service in the tra in in g o f those f o r whom it is designed. " — B r i t i s h M e d i c a l J o u r n a l .

By

U niform C loth in g & E q u ip m en t Co.

IN

P ric e 7 d . , post free. Difficulties iu Study and Treatment solved by Question and Answer. 11We commend this book to Lecturers a n d Students who w i l l f i n d i i o f great serviee . " — F i r s t A i d .

OR S A L E , a quantity of Men’s Ambulance Uniform Trousers, all sires, quite new, 9s. 6d. a pair.— Thornton and Co.. 24, Commercial-street, Brighouse.

F F

O R SA L E.— Regulation Brown Leather Belts and Pouches; also Caps and Overcoats; samples on approval.— Follett, 4, Victoria-avenue, Bishopsgate, London, E.C. Printed and Published by D

a l i,

“FIRST AID’’ QUERY and REPLIES COUPON. To be cut out and enclosed w ith a ll Queries M ay,

1918.

R e y n o l d s & C o ., L td ., 46, Cannon S t., London, E.C. 4., to whom all communications shoald be addressed.


F IR S T

AND

ST.

JO H N

THE

AM BULANCE E d ite d b y A R T H U R

No. 288.—

V

o l

.

A ID

X X IV .

JUNE,

B.

1918.

GAZETTE.

DALE. {E ntered a t S ta tioners' H a ll.)

PRICE THREEPENCE [ 3/8 P

A nn u m , P o st

er

F ree]

number of Dutch, Swedish and Norwegian noblemen, who N O TICE

TO

READERS.

would be likely to exercise their influence. This

F I R S T A I D is published on the 2 0 th of ea ch m on th . The Annual Subscription is 3s. 6d. post free ; single copies 3d.

Its aim and object being the advancement of Ambulance Work in all its branches, the Editor invites Readers to send Articles and Reports on subjects pertaining to the Movement and also welcomes suggestions for Practical Papers. All Reports, &c., should be addressed to the Editor, and should reach him before the 12th of each month, and must be accompanied (not necessarily for Publication) by the name and address of the Correspondent. Subscriptions, Advertisements and other business Communications connected with FIRST AID should be forwarded to the Publishers, DALE,

REYNOLDS & CO., 46 , C

annon

protest

worthiest

of

has

been addressed to

motives— namely,

the

it

with the

lives

of

our

wounded soldiers in hospital ships may be saved, and the treatment of British sick and wounded prisoners in Ger­ many may be improved by the protest which the Order in England has made to the Order in Prussia. A small section of the Press, notably The E vening

Standard , has criticised the protest, commenting on the circumstance that after nearly

four years of

war with

Germany any body of British such be ready to address to Germans such a communication.

L td .,

that

We think such a view

altogether misguided, and cordially agree with the Duke of

S t r e e t , L o n d o n , E .C . 4.

Somerset, who has publicly refuted it.

Telegraphic Address: “ Twenty-four, London.” Telephone No. 3471 Bank.

The Duke writes

that it would be criminal to miss any chance, however slight, to save the lives in hospital ships or improving the treatment of the British sick and wounded in Germany,

EDITORIAL.

and as the Order in Prussia is a very influential body there is at least such a chance.

W e publish in another column of this A P r o te st and an A p p e a l t o Germ any.

issue a solemn appeal it has been de­ cided

by the Order of

St.

John

of

to the utmost the interests of our sick and wounded should write against the dignified protest of the Order of St. John in England on their behalf.

Jerusalem in England to address to the same Order in Germany to exert its

influence in securing that a stop shall

be

H e further expresses astonish­

ment that any British newspaper which desires to promote

When The Eveuing Standard says that it would have supported the appeal had it been made in August, 1914,

put to the

it certainly forgets that no one at that time would have

sinking of hospital ships, the ill-treatment of prisoners

given the Germans credit for such barbarities, or for a

and of the wounded, and other breaches of the Geneva

moment thought the appeal necessary.

German section of the Order before

It is a record that the Order in this country has ful­

the war numbered upwards of 3,000 Knights, all of noble

filled the duties of its historic mottoes :— “ Pro F id e ” and

Convention.

The

birth, with the Kaiser as the Protector, who were pledged

“ Pro Utilitate Hominum.”

to devote themselves to the objects of the Order, which are the Christian principles of the care of the wounded T

and the protection of the weak and unprotected without regard to nationality. The Johanniter Orden, as it is described in Germany, is the Prussian branch of the ancient Order of St. John, and in this country it is hardly realised what importance and influence is attached to and wielded by the German section of the O rder; it also embraces a considerable

the

he

O

Order

rder

will

of

be

S t . J o h n .— The annual Festival of

celebrated

on

.June

25th.

A

Commemoration Service, which the Duke of Connaught, as Grand Prior, will attend, will take place at the Grand Priory Church (St. John’s) Clerkenwell, Archdeacon of Wesminster will preach. a General Assembly of the Order will Chapter Hall at St. John’s Gate.

at

2.30.

The

After the service be held in the


178

— FIRST

AID. —

June, 1918.

IMPORTANT J h ( Grand Shriorg of the Ordar of the h o sp ita l of S t. Jo h n of Jerusalem in Sngland. AM BULANCE

Jh e

S t.

Jo h n

DEPARTM EN T.

.Ambulance Brigade

D IST R IC T D

epu ty

C

o m m issio n e r

ORDERS.

:

W. H. W IN N Y , O.B.E.

JULY, 1918. Sunday Duty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. Sunday, 7th.— No. 63 Division, Smith & Son. „ 14th.— No. 64 „ St. Pancras Y.N.C.S. „ 21st.— No. 66 „ Mitcham. „ 28th - No. 67 „ Boro of St. Pancras. From 2.30 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. Key from St. John’s Gate, 2 p.m. A IR

R AID

C A SU A L T Y .

The Deputy Commissioner announces with deep regret that Private White, of the No. 4 Division, whilst preparing to proceed on air raid duty, was killed together with his wife, by a bomb from hostile aircraft on May 19th, 1918. The funeral took place on the following Wednesday, and was attended by an escort from his Division, the special permission having been obtained from General Sir Francis Lloyd that the coffin should by draped with the Union Jack. OFFICERS

TRAINING.

It has been arranged that Officers of the No. 1 District shall meet occasionally near the headquarters for special training, such as might be given in an Officers Training Corps. The senior Superintendent Mr. Liddell, has promised to assist. A number of officers have expressed their desire to take part, and it is specially desired that officers of experience shall attend in order that the newer officers shall have the advantage of their help. If it can be arranged it is also proposed that drills for sergeants and corporals shall be held. Officers who are able to attend are requested to advise the Deputy Commissioner, stating the day and time they would prefer the training to take place. [A L T E R A T I O N S

IN

U N IF O R M .

It is expected that very shortly Brigade Orders will be issued indicating changes in the uniform of officers; and rank and file. Members are therefore advised not to purchase new uniforms without consulting the Deputy Commissioner. A IR

RAIDS.

Reports have been received from various Divisions show­ ing that members of the Brigade did excellent service in each part of London where bombs fell on the occasion of the air raid on Whit Sunday, May 19th. The members in charge of a contingent treating serious cases should report at once in writing to the Superintendent, and if necessary, to the Deputy Commissioner. Detachments who assemble for duty but do not treat cases need only send in the ordinary periodical report through the officer in charge of the division. NEW

DIVISIO N S.

The following new divisions have been formed :—

N ursing.— No. 42. Euston Nursing Division. Ambulance.- No. 81. Kilburn Division. (Signed)

NOTICE.

Divisional Secretaries are requested when sending news­ paper cutting of their meetings, etc., to give the date of publi­ cation of the newspapers.— E d i t o r .

W. H. W I N N Y , O.B.E.,

Deputv-Commissioner. Headquarters :— St. John’s Gate, Clerkenwell, E.C.

H a m p s t e a d (20) D i v i s i o n . — The Division took a full share in the Recruiting Parades recently organised by the V.A.D. County Director. On Sunday, May 12th, a good muster of the available members attended Church Parade in the morning at Christ Church, and in the afternoon joined in the route march through the borough. On the following even­ ing a public meeting was held at St. Stephen’s Hall, the Mayor of Hampstead being in the chair. Miss Lilian Braithwaite was the principal speaker and emphasised the pressing need for more help from the women of England in the military hospitals. Further appeals for full and part-time workers in the local hospitals were made by Dr. Cecil MacFadden, Dis­ trict Surgeon, S.J.A.B. ; by Miss Hoare, Commandant Caenwood Towers Hospital (S.J.A.B.); by Miss Cutbush, Commandant Rosslyn Lodge Hospital (B.R.C.S.) ; and by others. At the conclusion of these speeches the Divisional Surgeon — Dr. Corbet Fletcher— gave an interesting account of the part taken by the Brigade in the development and furtherance of the Red Cross Movement, and then directed an excellent display of the various methods of transport, which were well carried out by squads selected from the Division. On Monday, May 27th Private W. G. Wickens, with the help of his friends, organised and conducted a most successful concert at St. Stephen’s Hall in aid of the Divisional funds.

U n d ergro u n d R a ilw a y (N o. 77) D i v i s i o n . — The annual concert was held at the “ Albert Stanley” Institute, Hammersmith, on May 23rd and 30th. The concert was run in duplicate owing to the staff being on duty. On both dates the London Electric Railway Black and White Minstrels gave a very good and varied programme consisting of songs, dance, and solo instrumental music. This troop is composed entirely of Underground male and female staff, and is managed by a member of the Division. On the 23rd Mr. W. E. Blake, Supt. of the Lines, was in the chair. In a suitable speech he stated that the division had dealt with over 200 cases during the year, and the Railway Company show their appreciation by refund­ ing the examination fees to successful students. Mr. W. A. Agnew, mechanical engineer, was in the chair on the 30th. He offers a medal for individual competition at the annual sports. Sixty-one certificates and 13 medallions were distributed as a result of recent examinations, only two students failed to pass the examination.

No. 2 D is t r ic t . S o u t h a m p t o n . — It is with sincere regret we have to re­ cord the death of Pte. E. H. Crook of this Division, he having joined the 3rd Battalion Grenadier Guards in May, 1917, was severely wounded whilst serving with that unit in France and died in one of the Canadian hospitals (in France) on the 15th May last. Pie. Crook joined the Southanpton Division in January 1910, and was a member who was always ready and willing to undertake his share in ambulance work whenever the Division was out on public duty, and was a fair attendant at Divisional drills. In the early stages of the War he also rendered valuable help at the local Rest Camp, and immediately the Voluntary Aid Hospitals were opened he took up the duty as a night orderly. His loss will be keenly felt by all members of^the Southampton Division.

No. 3 D is t r ic t . N o r t h E a s t W a r r i c k s h i r e — The Coventry Nursing Division regret the loss of one of its members, Miss Gertrude Haines, who was taken ill and passed away very suddenly, suffering from the new complaint (Botulism). Six nursing sisters attended the funeral, which took place on May 22nd in the Coventry Cemetery.


June, 1918.

No.

4

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D istric t.

C H O R L E Y . — A civic welcome was given to Sick Bay Steward Montague, who took part in the recent Zeebruggee and Ostend raid. Montague, who is a member of the Chorley Division of the Brigade, has been serving since 1914, and is attached to a monitor. He was presented by the Mayor with £5, and also with a safety razor, the latter the gift of the Division. The Mayor said that nothing stood out as a greater indication of the real bravery and heroism than the action of those men who volun­ teered to take part in the great exploit— one of the greatest in the annals of the Navy. The Chorley Division had since the outbreak of war sent out 148 men to the various naval and military forces. Supt. Ashton said in addition to the men they had sick nurses serving in France, Egypt, Salonika, and various parts of the United Kingdom,

No. 9 D is t r ic t . With much regret we have to record the death of Dr. R. H. Grimbly, which took place on April 4th at his residence at Newton Abbot, after a short illness, from pneumonia. Dr. Grimbly was a native of Banbury (Oxon), but in his early days went to Newton Abbot, where he soon established an extensive practice. He was the founder of the Newton Ambulance Corps, and his services were recognised in 1911 by his appointment as Deputy-Commissioner for the counties of Devon and Cornwall (No. 9 District) and in addition he was made a Knight of Grace of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. Also through his instrumentality the V.A.D. Hospital at Newton was established in 1914, with 45 beds, but the accommodation was not long ago increased to 100. Of this institution he was medical officer in chief, and as Assistant County Director of the Red Cross Society he carried out his work at the hospital in a manner which won the highest praise from headquarters. About a month ago this work was recognised by his having conferred upon him by His Majesty the King the Order of Officer of the British Empire. A few years ago he built a house at Hay Tor, Dartmoor, and had looked forward to retiring to that lovely spot. His funeral took place on April 8th, in Ilsington church­ yard, on the edge of the moor which he loved so much.

No.

12 (Irish) D is t r ic t .

Sir John Lumsden, D.L., Deputy-Commissioner Irish Dis­ trict, and Director-in-Chief Joint V.A.D. Committee for Ireland (excluding Ulster), whose name appeared in the last Honours List as a Knight of the British Empire, formed the first active Division of the St. John Ambulance Brigade in Ireland in 1903, and he has pioneered its extension to 30 Ambulance Divisions and 58 Nursing Divisions. He despatched 100 fully trained Royal Naval Sick Berth Reservists on the day of the outbreak of war, and since then has mobilised 500 men for [service in Military Home Hospital Reserve. Sir John Lumsden has acted as Director-in-Chief of the Joint V.A.D. Committee for Ireland (excluding Ulster) since its formation in February 1916. B u i l d i n g T r a d e s C o r p s . — This corps has been steadily increasing in strength and has recently added another Nursing Division to its numbers. The Central Nursing Division has been formed, the Divisional Superintendent being Mrs. Chas. Keatinge. Already some of the new members have volun­ teered for service abroad, and it is hoped that the new division will be as useful as the older ones in the corps have proved themselves to be. A m b u l a n c e W e e k . — An interesting event took place in Dublin during the week commencing May 13th, when a strong amateur company produced “ The Duke of Killicrankie ” and “ The Man from Blankley’s ” at the Gaiety Theatre. The per­ formances were in aid of the funds of the No. 12 (Irish) Dis­ trict of the St. John Ambulance Brigade, and a very substantial profit accrued. The Marchioness of Headfort very kindly gave her ser­ vices and acted at every performance. Her personal charm

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and delightful acting were important factors in the success of the undertaking. The plays were produced by Mr. Herbert Bailey, who has so often helped the Red Cross movement in Ireland, and he and his clever players are to be heartily con­ gratulated on their magnificent success— not only in raising so much for the funds of the Brigade, but the truly artistic way in which the plays were interpreted. A committee was formed to promote the sale of tickets, and Lady Arnott, D.B.E. (Lady of Grace) kindly acted as Chairman of Committee, and also gave her house for committee meetings. Miss Macnie acted as hon. secretary to this Com­ mittee, and Corps Supt. Reg. H. Keatings as hon. treasurer. His Excellency Viscount French, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, attended the performance during the week, making his first public appearance in Dublin society. A Guard of Honour of Nursing Sisters was drawn up in the foyer of the theatre and inspected by His Excellency, who, in a delightful speech, acknowledged the work of our V.A.D’s in France and else­ where. After the week’s performances, the artistes were entertained to supper in the theatre by Lady District Supt. Dr. Ella Webb, M.B.E. (Lady of Grace), District Supt. W. G. Smith, District Officer Miss Blandford and Corps Supt. Reg. H. Keatinge— representing the Irish District of the St. John Ambulance Brigade— when a presentation was made to Mr. Bailey as a token of gratitude from the Brigade. The hon. business manager and organiser, Corps Supt. Reg. H. Keatinge, is to be congratulated on the success of Ambulance Week, which has realised a sum of over £350.

S t.

3ohn N

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ou th

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a les

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.

T he 27th annual report of the Centre, which is just to hand, is a record of steady progress. Recruiting for the Australian Imperial Force has lead to numerous applica­ tions being made for instruction by men desirous of enlist­ ing in the Army Medical Corps. T he past year’s record show that 106 classes have been held, comprising 69 First Aid, 33 Home Nursing and four Hygiene, and 2,151 individuals qualified for an award. The St. John Ambulance Brigade Overseas, N.S.W. District continues to grow in numbers and usefulness. The various Divisions have rendered the Association assistance by organising new classes and giving the members instruc­ tion in the practical work. The Nursing Divisions as V . A . D ’s, in conjunction with the Red Cross Society have helped in the Convalescent Homes for returned wounded and sick soldiers, and the men of the Ambulance Divisions have on many occasions attended to the needs of Queens­ land returned soldiers on the train from Sydney to Brisbane. The annual statement of accounts shows a credit balance of £ 4 1 6s. 9d.

It is interesting to note the comparison in the progress of the London Ambulance Service; in 1915,

the com­

mencement of the service, 2,405 calls were received; in 1916, 9,244; and in 1917, 12,652.

We attribute this in­

crease not to the fact of their being such an increase of accidents, but to the general recognition on the part of the public of the usefulness of the service.


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June, 1918

THE ST. JOHN AMBULANCE GAZETTE. General Letter of the Joint V.A.D. Committee to County Directors. D

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you the following for your information:— A V.A.D. Club has now been opened at Devonshire House, Piccadilly, for the use of V.A.D . members. The Club contains a writing-room, and a drawing-room. The garden at Devonshire House is at the disposal of members, who may also use the three tennis courts on payment of a fee small enough to help with the upkeep. Members may also use the canteen attached to Devonshire House. There is no entrance fee or subscription (except for the use of the tennis courts), but no member will be allowed inside the Club except on the production of J.V.A.D.24. With reference to J.V.A.D. 160, para. 2, dated March 1 8th, the War Office request that the members referred to will wear the letters “ T .F .A .” on their shoulder straps in lieu of the single letter “ T ,” as already laid down in the paragraph referred to. In view of the shortage of paper, J.V.A.D. 80 should not, in future, be filled in in duplicate. Owing to the increasing difficulty of supplying mem­ bers to Auxiliary Hospitals, Lady Ampthill asks that County Directors will, whenever possible, supply these hospitals from local detachments. Will you kindly impress upon your Commandants once again that all General Service members must be provided with J.V A .D . 24, This is the only permit for buying uni­ forms and must be given to all V.A.D. members to what­ ever section they belong. General Service members are continually presenting themselves at Devonshire House prior to going abroad, but are found not to be in possession of this necessary certificate. Please notify St. John Commandants that they must instruct their General Service members to get brown over­ alls. All General Service members have now to wear brown whether they are St. John or Red Cross members. A third class return ticket for single fare will now be issued by the War Office once every six months to women of the mobile branch of the General Service Section V . A . D .’s, serving in hospitals under military control, when travelling in uniform on leave. County Directors will, therefore, not have to provide mobile members in future with half their leave travelling expenses. The concession, however, will continue to be paid in the case of immobile members. Members who have served three months whole time consecutive service in a hospital may now enter for First Aid and Home Nursing examinations without attending the usual course of lectures. It is hoped that the examination questions for the blue stripe will be finally settled very shortly. We have now received the drafts of questions from the Chairman of the Education Committee of the British Red Cross Society and the Chief Secretary of the St. John Ambulance Association. se n d

Full instructions regarding these questions and the blue stripe will be issued later. Colonel Carr-Calthrop, I.M.S., 9, Grange-road, Ealing, W.5, has been appointed County Director for Middlesex, in the place of Major Darvil-Smith, retired. Mr. Edward Tailby, Winchester House, Victoriasquare, Birmingham, has been appointed County Director for Birmingham in the place of the late Dr. Nelson. Yours faithfully, C

h iltso n

,

C h ie f County Director.

The Order of St. John of Jerusalem in England and the Johanniter Order. A s p e c i a l meeting of the Chapter of the Order of St. John was held under the Presidency of the Duke of Connaught, Grand Prior, on May 14th, at the opening and conclusion of which prayers were read, according to custom, by the Chaplain, the Rev. Canon Sheppard, D.D., Sub-Dean of the Chapel Royal and Domestic Chaplain to the King. T he Secretary General, the Rt. Hon. Evelyn Cecil, M.P., at the request of the Duke of Connaught, then made a statement that the object of the meeting was to approve a communication from the Order of St. John in England to the Order of St. John in Prussia, protesting against the sinking of hospital ships, the ill-treatment of ' sick and wounded prisoners of war and other breaches of the Geneva Convention. The protest was emphatically not from Government to Government, but from the Order of St. John of Jerusalem in England to the same Order in Prussia. The Order was founded to carry out Christian principles, it was international, and it was an ancient Order of Chivalry dating from the twelfth century. The Grand Prior then read the communication, as under:— 14th May, 1918. We, Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, Prinee of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ire­ land, Grand Prior of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem in England, and the Knights of Justice, Knights of Grace, and other members of the said Order, in Chapter-General solemly assembled, desire to approach the most illustrious Grand Master of the Bailiwick of Brandenburg, and the Knights of Justice, Knights of Honour, and other members of the Johanniter Orden, with regard to certain belligerent acts committed by the Imperial German Government dur­ ing the present war, which appear to us to be opposed to the declarations, maxims, and professions of our ancient and illustrious Order of Christian Chivalry. Strongly im­ bued with the spirit of our Order, we would beg of the noble members of the Johanniter Orden to petition his Imperial Majesty the German Emperor,and exercise their influence with the Imperial German Government to pre­ vent henceforth the sinking of hospital ships, to foster in all camps .the humane treatment of sick and wounded prisoners of war, and to observe scrupulously all the pro­ visions of the Geneva Convention. We regret to record


June, 1918.

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our opinion that in these respects the Government of his Imperial Majesty has not always acted up to the ideals and laws of our Christian brotherhood. These objects are so much the purpose and goal for which our ancient Order has continually striven, that we appeal with the more con­ fidence to its eminent members in Germany, in the hope and belief that they will unite with us in endeavouring to uphold our historic mottoes, “ Pro Fide ” and “ Pro Utilitate Hominum,” and to maintain the highest standard of Christian generosity, charity, mercy and honour. To the Most illustrious Grand Master of the Bailiwick of Brandenburg of the Johanniter Orden and Knights and Members of the Orden. A r t h u r , Grand Prior.

JOHN

Sub-Prior. C e c i l , Secretary-General.

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181

In connection with the last sentence of the SecretaryGeneral’s letter, it is interesting that the Swiss corre­ spondent of a Zurich paper which supports the cause of the Allies writes as follows: “ I was much impressed by the noble tone and sentiments of the letter from the British Order of St. John to the Prussian Order of St. John and have already written on the subject to my paper.”

A V.A.D. Bed.

H e r b e r t J e k y l l , C h a n cello r. P

AMBULANCE

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The Duke of Connaught commended the letter to the Chapter as dignified and maintaining the high spirit of chivalry and humility which had always imbued those who had the honour to belong to the Order, and he trusted that this exposition of their true feelings expressed in a friendly manner might be productive of some good. They had all deplored the sinking of our hospital ships and the terrible treatment of our prisoners of war, and he felt that they would not be acting up to the tenets which they held so precious if they did not make an appeal, now assembled on this solemn occasion, to try whether it might not have some effect for good with the representatives of the Order in Germany. The Earl of Plymouth moved, and Sir Herbert Jekyll seconded, an expression of thanks to His Royal Highness the Grand Prior.

W e are asked to publish the two letters below with regard to a bed at the Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital being endowed by V . A . D . members.

The Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital, Euston-road, London, N.W. 1. A p r i l 1 r th, 1918 . D

ear

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Secretary-General.

ad a m

,—

I am venturing to write and tell you about the Memorial Appeal now being made by this Hospital in honour of its Founder, Dr. Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, who, as you doubtless know, died last December. Dr. Garrett-Anderson founded the Elizabeth Gairett Hospital, the pioneer women’s hospital, in 1866, and it is felt that there could be no better way of honouring her memory than by placing on a sure foundation for the future the Hospital started by her. We hope, therefore, to raise a sufficient sum to endow as many as possible of the existing beds, and various representative groups of women workers are being asked to collect severally £ 1,000 to endow or “ Name” a bed in perpetuity. Miss Irene Vanbrugh is collecting for a Stage Bed, Miss Beatrice Harraden for a Women Writers Bed, Dr. Ethel Smyth has collected over ,£140 for the Musicians’ Bed, etc. The leaflet enclosed will show you the beds we are trying to endow, and I am writing to ask if you could give us any help with the “ V.A.D. Bed,” which has only just been started. We should indeed be grateful for any contribution you could send us. I am, dear Madam, yours faithfully, (Signed) W in if r e d £. E v e r it t . Appeal Secretary. • Lady Ampthill, 65, Ennismore Gardens, S.W. 7.

The following letter in reply to criticism in an evening paper has been addressed to a correspondent by the Secre­ tary-General :— Chancery of the Order of St. John. 8th June, 1918. I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter regard­ ing the protest recently addressed by the Order of St. John of St. John of Jerusalem in England to the Johanniter Orden in Prussia, and enclosing a copy of an article in the E vening Standard. I regret that I cannot agree with you or with the E ven­ ing Standard. How any newspaper which has the welfare of our sailors and soldiers really at heart can write in such terms is to me astonishing. It amounts to saying that, rather than leave no stone unturned to prevent the sinking of hospital ships or improve the treatment of British prisoners in Germany, we are better employed in singing hymns of hate everyday. That is not the principle upon which the Order of St. John in England has ever acted, and I trust it never will. To quote its statutes, its objects are “ the encouragement and promotion of all works of humanity and charity in the relief of sickness, dis­ tress, suffering and danger, without distinction of race, class, or creed,” and so long as there is the slightest chance that the Order can do good towards saving the lives of our wounded soldiers or bettering the lot of British prisoners in Germany by appealing on Chris­ tian grounds to the Order in Prussia, I have not the least doubt that it was right that it should be done. And the protest could not possibly be effective"unless it was couched in absolutely polite and traditional language. If the Prussian Order, which is a powerful body in Germany, has sunk so low that it persists in disregarding its Christian and international obligations, this very fact is brought into stronger relief by the protest from the Order in England, and is helpful in influencing neutrals towards the side of Great Britain and her Allies. Yours faithfully,

M

Lady NorthclifiPs Hospital (for Officers), 14, Grosvenor Crescent, S.W. May 1st, 1918. M v

d ear

L

ady

A

m pth ill

,—

I am asked by a great friend, Lady Hall, who is Treasurer of the fund for the Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Memorial, to write to you in support of the suggestion for a bed to be endowed by V.A.Ds. I know that you have already been appealed to on this subject and that the Appeal Secretary has had a sympatnetic reply, but Lady Hall asks me to suggest that if every V.A.D. gave 6d. or is. the bed would be endowed at once. Perhaps you would consider doing this through the various detachments, and I only make this suggestion entirely for you own approval. Yours very sincerely, (Signed) M ar y N o r t h c lif fe , The Lady Ampthill, G.B.E., etc.

A Home Nursing Class for women is assembling at the Northern Polytechnic at 7.30 on Friday evenings. Application should Jbe made* to Mrs. Adcock, Northern Polytechnic, Holloway-road, N.


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Members whose Names were Mentioned in Dispatches by Sir Douglas Haig. P u b lish e d

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G azette,

2 5 t h M a y , 1918 .

Auchinleck, Evelyn, Dublin 6, B.R.C.S. Barford, Dorothy Mary, Oxford 30, B.R.C.S. Batten, Winifred E. S., Somerset 74, B.R.C.S. Bishop, Molly, London 136, B.R.C.S. Boycott, Ethel A., London 128, B.R.C.S. Burton, Winifred. London 146, B.R.C.S. Caldwell, Annie M., Belfast 604, S.J.A.A. Carmichael, Florence K., Forfar 6, B.R.C.S. Chambers, Doris Elaine, London 198, B.R.C.S. Charlton, Marjorie, Worcester 70, S.J.B. Ching, Mary Eveline, Northumberland 70, S.J.B. Clague, Emily, Ramsey, Isle of Man, 550, S.J.A.A. Cole, Mary E., Oxfordshire 28, B.R.C.S. Colvin, Lva, London 148, S.J.A.A. Corsellis, May, Dublin 22, S.J.B. Cowdall, Constance Lovell, Leicester 26, S.J.B. Cowper, Florence, Durban 18, B.R.C.S. Darvall, Annie E. J., Bustave, Queensland 2, B.R.C.S. Deane, Susan, Sussex 156, B.R.C.S. Ewen, Marjory D’Arcy, Leicester 18, S.J.A.A. Farie, Alice, London 28, B.R.C.S. Forrestal, Catherine, Surrey 96, B.R.C.S. Galloway, Helena R., Warwickshire 44, B.R.C.S. Henman, Louisa Janet, Berks 50, B.R.C.S. Hoblyn, Joan Winifred, Hants 100, B.R.C.S. Hollongs, Hilda, Hants 10, B.R.C.S. Holmes, Bella R., Co. Dublin 38, S.J.B. Howship, Alice Emily, London 210, B.R.C.S. Hughes, Dulcie, Derby 10, B.R.C.S. Jackson, Cicely Mary, Hants 68, S.J.B. Johnson, Mabel G. C., London 96, S.J.B. Johnson, Gertrude Frances, Kent 132, B.R.C.S. Jones, Price Millette, Carmarthenshire 8, B.R.C.S. Kaas, Rubina Agnes, Isle of Man 918, S.J.A.A. Kenshole, Ida M., Glamorgan 100, B.R.C.S. Kerr, Muriel Shannon, London 252, B.R.C.S. Lyon, Muriel F. F. Bowes, London 48, B.R.C.S. Maconochie, E. Bridget, Edinburgh 2, B.R.C.S. MacDonald, Helen Whightman, Renfrew 12, B.R.C.S. MacFarlane, Mary Clark, Stirling 4, B.R.C.S. Matthews, Doris M. W., Sussex 92, B.R.C.S. Mallor, Juliet Vivien, London 268, B.R.C.S. Morony, Emily Helena, Co. Dublin 24, B.R.C.S. Norrie, Emily Helena, Aberdeen 40, B.R.C.S. Oram, Gladys, Margaret B. A., Cambridge 28, B.R.C.S. Pinkerton, Evelyn, Carmarvonshire 4, B.R.C.S. Rees, Margaret Oliver, Glamorgan 96, B.R.C.S. Rogers, Violet Grace Minnie, Devon 66, B.R.C.S. Sandys, Hilda Maud, Co. Wicklow 2, S.J.B. Smith, Marjorie Kathlene, Bristol Nursing Division, S.J.B. Stuart, Myrtle Irene, Kent 100, S.J.B. Taylor Antoinette Wilhelmina, London 268, B.R.C.S. Thomas, Dorothy Una G., London 128, B.R.C.S. Thrippleton, I. Violet, W.R. Yorks 42, S.J.A.A. Twnnard, Florinda, Haddington 6, B.R.C.S. Walker, Mabel Louise, Surrey 124, B.R.C.S. Waller, Vera, London 46, B.R.C.S. Watt, Amelia Allan, London 144, S.J.A.A. Wheeler, Kathleen Georgina, Middlesex 10, S.J.A.A. White, Dorothy Margaret, London 154, B.R.C.S. Wood, Alathea, Yorks 4, B.R.C.S. Woolnough, Clara, Suffolk 84, S.J.B. Wright, Nora R., Staffs 40, B.R.C.S. C r o s s , 2nd C l a s s , 3rd J u n e , 1819. Bartholomew, Elizabeth C., Berks 4, B.R.C.S. Gale, Margaret, London 6a, B.R.C S. Jameson, Margaret Edith Cyra, Berks 4, B.R.C.S. Robinson, Christobel, London *32, S.J.B. A

w a r d ed

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AM BULANCE

GAZETTE. —

Women

June, 1918.

V.A.D. Notes.

T h e V.A.D. Department are urgently in need of voluntary nursing members for Auxiliary Hospitals, They are, how­ ever, anxious to impress upon nurses in civil hospitals that they do not wish to disturb their present work, which is of great national importance. They can very probably render a service to the V.A.D. Department in a different direction. Girls wishing to take up nursing frequently apply in the first case to a friend engaged in the nursing profession. It is hoped that nurses will in such instances suggest that girls who are too young for general training or who can afford to work for their expenses only, should offer their services to the V.A.D. Department. It might be pointed out that although no salary is given or uniform allowance made, the fact that free board and lodging are provided makes the offer quite equal to a small wage, when one considers the present high cost of living. All would-be nurses above the age of 19 should be in­ vited to communicate with the V.A.D. Department (8), Devonshire House, Piccadilly, London, W.i.

Red Cross Help in France. i e u t . - G e n e r a l S i r A. T. S l o g g e t t , who, on giving up the post of Director-General of Medical Services in France, is also relinquishing that of Chief Commissioner of the Red Cross, has addressed from headquarters to the Hon. Sir Arthur Stanley, Chairman of the Joint War Committee of the British Red Cross Society and the Order of St. John, a letter of thanks for the help of the joint societies in France. He says :— “ The great success of the service which I have had the honour to command out here during the last three years and nine months I attribute in no small measure to the un­ failing and very generous assistance I have received from your Committee. It would have been impossible to have kept up the extremely high standard of comfort in our military hospitals if the Army stores had not been very largely supplemented by the gifts from the British Red Cross So cie ty; their provision of several perfectly staffed and equipped hospitals, their supply of motor ambulance convoys, and last, but not least, the splendid Store Depart­ ment, have all contributed enormously to the efficiency and smooth working of the Medical Service. “ As regards the officers, nuring sisters, and other ranks employed by the Joint Committee, whether in their hospitals, motor ambulance convoys, stores or offices, the work they have done and the devotion to duty they have shown has been beyond praise, and their desire to be of use in every possible way has earned the affection and re­ spect of every one with whom they have come in contact, and the heroism shown by the drivers of the motor ambu­ lance convoys— male and female— has been the admiration of every one in France. “ Throughout the long period I have been here the very cordial and harmonious working between the Joint War Committee in France and the Royal Army Medical Corps has been a source of great satisfaction to me, and this is due largely to the very happy relations that have existed throughout between myself and the three successive Commissioners— namely, Sir Courtauld Thomson, Lord Donoughmore, and Sir Arthur Lawley, to whom I shall ever feel grateful. I can honestly say that since the early days of the war there has not been the slightest friction,

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and these gentlemen have always most loyally and sympa­ thetically'co-operated with me in our mutual endeavour to better the condition of our sick and wounded. “ T o Major Wynch, the secretary, and to Majors Paget and Guise, heads of the Transport and Store Departments, I tender also my most grateful thanks for all they have done for the good of the cause. “ T o yourself personally I cannot sufficiently express how much I appreciate the ever-ready and generous re­ sponse you have always given to my many demands. My work with you and the Order of St. John of Jerusalem and British Red Cross Society will always be a very happy memory to me. I feel sure that the help that has always been given to me will continue to be extended to my successor.”

The Grand Priory of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England. Chancery o f the Order, St. John's Gate, Clerkenwell, London, E .C ., June 3rd, ig i8 . The King has been graciously pleased to sanction the following promotions in, and appointments to, the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England :—

A s K nights of Grace : Col. Sir Herbert Lloyd Watkin Willins Wynn, Bt. The Rt. Hon. Sir Ellis Jones Ellis Griffith, Bt., P.C., K.C., M.P. Col. Sir John Godfrey Rogers, K.C.M.G., D.S.O., A.M.S. Frank Tobin (from Honorary Serving Brother). Major-General Alban Randell Crofton Atkins, C.B., C.M.G. Arthur Vernon Davies, M.B., M.B.E.

A s Ladies o f Grace : Julia, Mrs. McMordie. Caroline Sydney, Lady Arnott, D.B.E. Violet Edith, Mrs. Brassey.

A s E squ ire : William Stanley Woodcock (from Honorary Serving Brother).

A s Honorary Serving Brothers : Captain George Sampson Elliston, B.A., R.A.M.C.(T:). Charles Conroy.

A s Honorary Serving Sisters : Evelyn Graham, Mrs. John Abercrombie. Gertrude Lucy, Mrs. C. S. de Segundo. Frances Ada, Miss Sheldon. Mary Isabella, Miss Burdett. Frances, Mrs. Brennan. May Isabel, Mrs. MacFadden.

L o r E nrolm ent as Honorary Associates : Edward Thomas Scowby, M.B. William Hutton, L.R.C.P. and S.Ed. James Thomson Scott, M.D., C.M. Surgeon-Colonel Arthur Henry Robinson, M.D., M.R.C.S., D.P.H. Constance Elizabeth, Miss Todd, R.R.C. Lieut.-Col. James Clendinning Browne. Col. Colquhoun Scott-Dodgson, C.B., C.M.G. Frank Alexander de Rougemont. Col. Charles Walker Cathcart, F.R.C.S., A.M.S. Major (temporary Lieut-Col.) Guy Belfield Kensington, R.E. Edward Robert Morris.

JO H N

AM BULANCE

G A Z E T T E .—

Notes

and

News.

T he Minister of National Service has officially in­ formed the Secretary-General of the Order of St. John that he will make it clear in any future instructions issued re­ garding the “ protection” of Red Cross workers that they specifically include workers under the Joint War Committee of the British Red Cross Society and the Order of St. John. ** * A club for V.A.D, members was opened at Devonshire House on May 23rd. The club is entirely free, and any V .A .D . member wearing correct uniform may use it on signing a book and producing her J .V .A .D .24. It is hoped that all members working in hospitals will use the club, where daily and weekly papers are provided and where they may write letters. There are Patience cards and indoor games, but members must not play for Money. A library is also being formed in connection with the club. There are three Tennis Courts, which may be used at a charge of 3d. each player per hour. Members may have luncheon in the canteen between 1 and 1.45 p.m, and tea between 4.15 and 5 p.m. at reason­ able cost. *** Miss Audrey Forse, of Surrey 96, has been awarded the Military Medal for courage and devotion to duty dis­ played when, during a hostile Air Raid, a bomb fell on the hospital marquee, of which she was in charge, and although great damage was done and many patients injured, she showed admirable coolness in the performance of her duties throughout, and carried on as if nothing had hap­ pened, Her matron says “ She was splendid.” *** The Joint War Committee have issued an interesting pamphlet on the War Library by H. M. Gaskell, which explains the organisation for the collection and distribution of literature to the sick and wounded. By a recent decision of the Army Council the sick and wounded only receive 10 per cent, of the supply of litera­ ture sent through the Post Office. This hardly provides a fifth of what is now being distributed by the Red Cross War Library, and hardly a tenth of what is asked for. County Directors and others are asked to co-operate in the scheme for the collection of literature for the wounded. Communications should be addressed to the War Library, Surrey House, Marble Arch, London, W.

* * * Enquiries from persons desirous of obtaining certifi­ cates are often addressed to Headquarters as to classes of instruction. It would be of great assistance to the Chief Secretary if any of those who contemplate the formation of classes in First Aid, Home Nursing, Home Hygiene or Sanitation, especially in London and the surrounding disstricts, would advise him of their intention as early as pos­ sible. This would enable him to forward information to enquirers in time for them to apply to the Class Secretary for admission to the course of instruction. * * * We regret to state that owing to the recent German Air Raids on Red Cross Hospitals in France, several casualties have occurred among Brigade members. We hope to publish a full report in our next issue.


184

— F I R S T CONTENTS

OF

T H IS

AID. -

June, 1918.

with the hoofs was asking for trouble ; while the cow kicked

NUMBER.

sideways to protect its udder, and the safe place was behind. E

d it o r ia l

Transmission of glanders from the horse was an appreciable

A Protest and an Appeal to Germany D

R

ist r ic t

epo r ts

...

...

177

risk, he pointed out, and the symptoms of the disease should be known to all farm-workers.

No. 1 ; No. 2 ; No. 3 ; No. 4

...

...

...

178

No. 9; No. 12 ...

...

...

...

179

...

...

179

...

St. John Ambulance Association

...

* * * T

T

St . Jo

he

h n ’s

A

G

m bu la n ce

a ze tt e

General Letter of the Joint V.A.D. Committee to County Directors ... ... ... ...

180

cleaning purposes ; the yokel was apt to keep arsenic in the same kind of bottle as he kept his beer, and the corro­

The Order of St. John of Jerusalem in England and the Johanniter Orden ... ... ... 180

sive acids and alkalies used for cleaning needed

A V.A.D. Bed ...

known and recognised.

...

...

181

Members whose Names were Mentioned in Dis­ patches by Sir Douglas Haig ... ...

182

Women V.A.D. Notes

...

...

Red Cross Work in France

...

accident occurred,

...

...

...

182

...

...

...

182

The Grand Priory of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England ... ...

183

Notes and News Brevities

...

...

the harvest-field there was danger from drinking

n

impure water and from the internal cramp induced

...

...

...

...

184

drinking

accidents of the farm were tears and bruises, the severance

...

...

185

...

186

d it o r

I

183

...

E

to know the pro­

...

...

th e

it was necessary

per antidote to use, as the doctor’s house might be miles away. * * *

...

...

to

be

...

Leicester V.A.D. Competitions ett er s

to

If in spite of such knowledge

...

Alteration in Revised Textbook L

cupboard of the country stable contained a num­

h e

ber of poisonous substances used for cattle medicine and

copiously

of

icy

water.

Among

the

by

serious

of limbs from careless use of machinery, poisoning from fungi and toxic plants and berries.

There were also

An Appreciation

...

...

...

... 187

dislocations through

When the Raiders Come

...

...

...

... 187

tivitis due to floating pollen, stings of bees and wasps,

...

...

...

...

P

r a c t ic a l

P

o in ts

accidental

Resourcefnl First Aid

Maladministration of Sal Volatile Dangers of First Aid Getting Better Q

u e r ie s

an d

...

... A

...

n sw ers

C

to

188

...

... 188

...

...

...

...

...

... 188

...

... 189

...

...

...

...

Bandages for a Fractured Femur

189

went of

avin g

enumerated the risks,

on

impress

...

... 189

...

... 190

To

deal

by

a

...

... 190

Neutralisation of Burns...

...

...

... 190

men

Rules of Disinfection

...

...

...

... 190

of

Uses of Trinol...

...

...

...

... 190

quet.

the

a n tlie

from

touching

that at

some

on future

first

aid

time

to

cattle,

Sir John

Cantlie

the

essentials

illustrating

his points

with

severed

a

cut

he

artery

cross

Bleeding with paper

being the ashes

or

place

with

braces

of

of

made

if need

and

rope made

of

the

caused

two

strips

as a tourni­ wound

burnt

was

hay or

of

was handy, paper

two a

leg

teaching that

be,

freshly

whichever

lint;

the his

staunched,

bracken,

straw

in

reiterated

available,

poles

good

laced

to­

stretcher.

In

urgency a hurdle could be used.

lance Work and First Aid for the Agricultural Worker,” at the College of Ambulance on May 10th.

which

assistants dressed as farm labourers.

wear

the

Sir James

hearers

and improvisation,

each

took

gave his first lecture, “ Ambu­

his

should

gether C

on

webbing,

straw,

am es

things

aid of

scythe

dressed

J

to

simplicity

...

ir

other

*

Corrosive Acid Poisoning

S

many

conjunc­

* *

with

Brevities.

horseback,

ambulance.

H

Hasmorrhage from Stomach A First Aid Library

and

from

the need of increasedattention to farm

188

Inventor of Triangular Bandage... ...

shooting,

fully justified

o r r e spo n d e n ts

falling

***

Fie refrained as

he

S

hoped

McFadyean, prin­

cipal of the Royal Veterinary College, would deal with the

the

p ea k in g

Chertsey

Edward Hutton, sphere

subject. * * * So long as horses were still employed on the farm

at a meeting recently in connection

with

Red Cross Week. Lieutenant-General Sir

too well

K.C.B.,

said

tointerfere with

women understood their the men when

they

returned from service with the Colours,

and the men

would find their jobs available for them.

Women would

in fact fall back naturally to their homes, and to those

bites and kicks would occur, although, he said, even the

other female and womanly duties in the social world all

townsman soon grasped the,elementary fact that the horse

the better for having shown what they could do in a great

always kicked behind, and that a man’s head in direct line

time of national emergency.


—FIRST

June, 1918.

Alterations

in

Revised

Textbook.

B y N. C O R B E T F L E T C H E R , M.B.. B.A., B.C., Cantab., M.R.C.S., Eng. Hon. Associate Order o f St. J o h n ; Hon. Surgeon St. Jo h n Ambulance Brigade. S e v e r a l correspondents have written with reference to the alterations in the Revised (1917) Textbook of the St. John Ambulance Association, and have suggested that a tabu­ lated list of the changes would serve a most useful purpose. Under the circumstances, I take pleasure in complying with their requests and suggestions. C

h a pter

I.

(O

u t lin e

o f

F

ir st

A

id

).

Page 1 7 sets out a more complete definition of First Aid with regard to diagnosis and treatment under the head­ ing “ What First Aid is.” Pages 18-22 contain new matter, not essential to be­ ginners, though most helpful to advanced students. This section deals with the P atien t or Patients (differences in sex, position and numbers); with the Signs, Symptoms and History (their meanings, inter-dependence and co-relations); with the Cause or Causes (their effects and significance); with the Surroundings (their importance in relation to danger, diagnosis, help, appliances, shelter and transport). Pages 22 26 ,— The old Principles remain practically the same, although (1) they are now sub-divided into Qualifications (observant, tactful, resourceful, explicit and discriminating) and P rin cip les ; and (2) emphasis is laid on the fact that a doctor is the only judge of the signs of death. Removal of boot is now effected by undoing the laces and not by slitting up back seam. C

h a pter

Pages

II.

(S

k e le t o n

,

F

r a c t u r es

, &

c

.),

28-39 .— The descriptions of skeleton, joints,

etc., are almost identical, except that (1) there is some transference of explanatory words and sentences, and (2) there is a more complete explanation of the internal mechanism of joints. Pages 41-43 — Emphasis is laid on the dangers of handling comminuted fractures and on the use of splints and bandages for fractures. In the description of the triangular bandage the name of “ Esmarch ” is rightly re­ moved. Pages 47-49. — In the General Rules of Treatment of Fractures, various changes have been made. Thus (1) Rule No. 2 (Haemorrhage) is the late No. 5 ; (2) Rule No. 4 (Shock) replaces the old No. 7 ; (3) Rule No. 5 (Trac­ tion) is the previous No. 3, to which are added these em­ phatic words “ with great care and without using force” ; (4) Rule No. 6 (a) introduces a third qualification for a splint— i.e., width— in addition to firmness and length ; (5) Rule No. 7 (late No. 6) no longer names the stretcher as the “ preferable” method of transport for fractures of spine, etc., etc. Page 7 1 .— T o the direct causes of Fractured Spine is added “ the fall of a heavy weight upon the back.” Page 5 5 .— In treatment of Fractured Collarbone, two special instructions have been added. Thus, (1) Rule No. 3 (b) includes a warning to steady the limb while applying the St. John Sling, which is illustrated by a new full-length diagram (Fig. 20); (2) Rule No. 4 insists on the necessity of testing the pulse after applying the broad bandage to body. The treatment of Fractures of both Collarbones is deleted.

AID. —

185

Page 3 8 .— In treatment of Fractured Humerus the warning (Rule No. 2) against pressure on blood vessels now includes armpit as well as elbow joint. Unfortunately, the difference between the slings for this fracture and for the shoulder bandage (p. 161) is reproduced in this edition. Page 3 9 .— The treatment of Fracture involving Elbow Joint has been altered in several particulars. Thus ( i ) a new method (Fig. 25) of tying the right angled splint is in­ troduced, and differs from the old illustration in the absence of diagonal turns of the bandage ; (2) the splint is to be applied to the side of the limb “ that shows the least injury ” ; (3) an extra bandage is applied round the hand, to control the splint; and (4) a fourth bandage is added and to be used “ as figure-of-eight round arm and forearm.” Page 6 3 .— In treatment of Fractured Femur certain alterations are noted. Thus, the inner splint now extends to “ just above the k n e e ” instead of “ to the knee.” Further, “ when single-handed or when patient is a woman,” then— (1) eight (instead of seven) bandages are advised; (?.) the bandages are marked in diagram (Fig. 20) by num­ bers instead of letters ; and (3) instructions are now given as to the sequence of their application— i.e., “ in order shown by numbers.” Page 64 — In treatment of Fractured Kneecap several changes are noted. Thus, (1) Rule No. 2 requires that the back splint should only extend “ to the heel ” instead of, as previously, “ to beyond the heel”; (2) Rule No. 3 gives more complete instructions for placing bandages round the kneecap ; (3) Rule No. 5 now substitutes two bricks for the previous dangerous device of “ resting the injured leg on its fellow” ; (4) Rule No. 6 adds the reason for application of cold, viz., “ to lessen effusion of blood ” ; (5) the illustra­ tion (Fig. 31) is altered, the bricks being shown in correct position, and the second bandage being indicated by dotted lines. Page 6 7 .— In the treatment of Fractured Leg “ when single-handed or when patient is a woman”— similar changes have been made as for Fracture of Femur, six bandages being now required instead of five. In the treat­ ment of Crushed Foot precise instructions are now given for application of figure-of-eight bandage, and emphasised by numerals shown in the new illustration (Fig. 54). Page 68 .— In Signs of Dislocation, swelling is de­ scribed “ about the joint ” in place of “ about and below the joint.” C

h a pt er

III.

(C

ir c u l a t io n

of

t h e

B

lo o d

).

P'ai e 75 -— T o the description of the Heart are added the words “ a muscular organ which acts like a pump.” Page 79 . — The old section on “ Haemorrhage ” now refers to “ Wounds and Haemorrhage.” Further, (1) the General Rules for Treatment of Wound with Arterial Bleeding now number 13 (instead of 9, as in previous edition); (2) the instructions for controlling haemorrhage by pressure, tourniquet, etc , which used to precede the General Rules, are now included in sub-sections therein ; (3) Rule No. 2 issues a warning against elevating a bleed­ ing part “ in the case of a fractured lim b ” ; (4) Rule No. 4 teaches that the pulp of thumb (or fingers) must be used when exerting digital pressure; (5) Rule No. 5 is new, deals with “ indirect pressure,” and serves to introduce the use, indications, etc., of a tourniquet, including the special St. John Tourniquet, which is fully described in context and by illustration (Fig 3 7 ); (6) the latter displaces the de­ scriptions not only of a tourniquet but also of elastic band­


i 86

F I R S T

ages, the use of which is now extended to “ cut ” as well as “ torn o f f ” limbs; (7) Rules Nos. 6 and 8 are also new, the former dealing with the danger of septic infection of “ clean” wounds and with methods of avoiding such con­ tamination, the latter with instructions for treatment of “ dirty ” wounds with Tincture of Iodine, sterile water, etc. ; (8) Rules Nos. 10, 11 and 12 are concerned with the appli­ cation of pad over the dressing and of bandage over the pad— the indications and contra-indications thereof, where­ in the need for early removal of indirect pressure is empha­ sised and thirty minutes is definitely stated to be the maxi­ mum period for which such pressure (e.g., tourniquet) may be continuously exerted; (9) the importance of a blood clot— “ to keep blood in and germs o u t ”— is emphasised in a special Rule (No. 14) and is followed by warnings (a) against the use of sticking plaster and ointment, and (b) against the risk of severe, delayed (reactionary) haemorrhage in cases of lacerated wounds and of accidental amputation of a limb.

Page 8 7. — Compression of Carotid Artery is more easily understood by reason of a new and improved illus­ tration (Fig. 37).

A I D . —

June

(3) all the oily applications (and the potato) are finally re­ moved ; (4) strips of dressing are again recommended, though, unfortunately, without any suggestions as to size— the original “ breadth of palm ” being omitted; (5) for burns by Corrosive Acids, magnesia and slaked lime are not now advised. Page 1 1 3 .— In treatment of Stings the subsequent application of oil or vaseline is now suggested. Pages 1 1 4 - 1 1 5 .— An article on Trench Foot from The Practitioner is presented in abridged form with the curious final observation— “ These patients should always be under medical observation ”— which palpably places the subject beyond the scope of First Aid. Page 1 1 6 .— The treatment of Fishhook Injury is not now complete until a boracic fomentation (incorrectly de­ scribed as “ soaked in hot water ”) is applied. Page 1 1 7 .— For Foreign Body in Eye, the embedding of any substance (not necessarily a piece of steel) definitely contra-indicates attempts at removal. With Foreign Body in Nose it is now advised to “ take patient to doctor” if treatment fails.

( To be continued.)

Page 89. — Compression of

Facial Artery may (in addition to the previous methods) be also obtained by utilising the bandage for fractured jaw, the knot being tied over the pressure point. Compression of the Occipital Artery is now stated to be difficult, and the precise loca­ tion of its pressure point is (unfortunately) not insisted upon. Page 96. — For digital compression of Femoral Artery the operator is now advised “ to face the feet ” of the patient. Page 100. — With Varicose Veins, the result of the valves failing to span the vessels is now set out clearly— “ thus allowing the backward flow of blood.” For General Rules of Treatment of Wounds with Venous Haemorr­ hage— the Rules for Arterial Bleeding must now be applied, subject to three specified modifications. Page 1 0 1 . — In treatment of Wound with Capillary Haemorrhage a paragraph is added, showing the necessity for protecting wounds with slight bleeding, and labelled “ General Rules.” Pa?e 10 2 .— Bites of Snakes, Rabid Animals, etc., are now included under “ Wounds and Haemorrhage.” For these wounds (1) caustic potash is no longer recommended ; (2) the criticism of solid caustic is unfortunately omitted ; and (3) for bites by venomous snake the previous instruc­ tions to inject permanganate of potash are superseded by the advice to “ scratch the skin round wound and rub in powdered permanganate of potash.” Page 10 3 . — T o the Signs of Internal Haemorrhage are now added “ cold, clammy skin ” and “ air-hunger.” For the treatment the position of patient is further modified “ with head low and turned on one side.” Page 10 3 .— For treatment of Haemorrhage from Mouth, etc., the instruction to compress carotid arteries is withdrawn. Page 10 6 . — Bruises are now described under “ Wounds and Haemorrhage.” In place of witchhazel the application of lint soaked in spirit and water is ad­ vised. C

h a pt er

IV .

(M

isc e l l a n e o u s

I

n ju r ies

).

Page h i .— In treatment of Burns several alterations are noted. Thus, (1) Rule No. 3 reads “ immediately ex­ clude air” in place of the old instruction “ immediately cover up part ” ; (2) cotton wool is advised as first choice of dressing, with boracic ointment as the only alternative;

Leicestershire V.A.D. Competitions. T h e new silver challenge shield recently given by Mr. A. W. Faire (County Director), for competition among the Men’s Voluntary Aid Detachments of the town and county, promises to arouse keen rivalry. The trophy is to be com­ peted for annually, and in addition Mr. Faire has promised to give a badge to the members of the winning squad. The first competition was held at Leicester on May 20th and attracted a good deal of interest. The judges were:— Col. A. V. Clarke, Col. L. K. Harrison, Lieut.-Col. R. Pratt, Major Blakesley, Major Gordon Kelly, Major Williams, Capt. C. M. Serjeantson, O.B.E., Capt. Barnes, Dr. H. Skipworth. The shield was presented to the team gaining the highest aggregate number of marks, this was Leicester V.A.D. 15, teams 10 and 11, the other results were as under :—

Squad Drill.— 1 and 2, 8th and 9th Loughborough V.A.D. 13. Stretcher Drill.— 1, 8th Loughborough V.A.D . 1 3 ; 2, n t h Leicester V.A.D. T5. Collect Wounded.— 1, Leicester V.A.D. 3; 2, Leicester V.A.D. 15. Improvisation.— 1, Leicester V.A.D. 1 5 ; 2, Leicester V.A.D. 3. Air Raid.— 1, Melton V.A.D. 1 1 ; 2, Loughborough V.A.D. 13. Lady Kathleen Curzon-Herrick distributed the awards. Moving a vote of thanks to her, the County Director men­ tioned that her ladyship had recently undertaken the sec­ retarial duties of the British Red Cross Society for the county. Colonel A. V. Clarke, who seconded, said Leicestershire had a proud record in connection with the V.A.D. In supporting, Colonel Harrison gave some in­ teresting details of the Transport work locally. The pro­ position was adopted with enthusiasm. Briefly responding, Lady Kathleen Curzon-Herrick returned thanks for what she described as a most enjoyable and instructive after­ noon. The band of the Leicestershire Regiment contributed delightful selections.


—FIRST

June, 1918.

£ etters

to

the

S d ito r .

tVe are in no w a y responsible fo r the opinions expressed., or the sta tem en ts m ade, by C orrespondents. — E d i t o r , E t c .

AN

APPRECIATION.

SIR,— As a subscriber of many years to your invaluable journal F i r s t A i d , I should like to say how greatly I value the practical articles in the same. Only to-day I received a letter which bears eloquent testimony to its usefulness. The writer, a naval officer (one of our own members), says :— “ When we are in the base, the C.O. has asked me to take charge of the sanitation and the sick. Flies are the great curse out here, and the C.O. has asked me to give lectures on sanitation to the men to enforce cleanliness. In a F I R S T A i d , May 1 9 1 6 , there appeared a paper on ‘ Flies,’ by Dr. Henton White, which is the very thing I want. Can you send it to me ?” Fortuantely, I had that one by me and was able to send it as desired. I make a practice of circulating my copies among the members and they are greatly appreciated. Yours truly, W. T. K n i g h t , Divisional Supt. Olney Division.

When A B

y

P

t e

F

ew

.

A.

H

d e

the in ts

to

Raiders th e

A

Come

m bu lan ce

M

a n

L. JO N ES , No. 7 (Toynbee Division, S.J.A.B.

.

Hall)

Now that air raids, like the poor, seem always with us, the first aid man finds that he has to accommodate himself to entirely different circumstances to those generally prevail­ ing in peace time. Accidents occurring in peace time are more easily dealt with as a rule owing to the fact that then one factor, to wit, the King’s enemies, has not to be taken into account. During air invasions that factor has to be reckoned with, and first aid and rescue work have often to be con­ ducted in partial darkness owing to the danger of exhibit­ ing any illumination to the enemy. This brings before us the fact that one of the best friends an ambulance man can have is an electric torch, which, while not showing too much light, can be directed on the ground to enable the injuries on a wounded person to be easily seen, and will also be extremely useful in unfamiliar ground, enabling him to pick his way in safety among debris, through strange gardens, houses, etc. Other necessary parts of his equipment are first aid dressings, consisting of dressings stitched to roller band­ ages, and the whole wrapped in sealed paper, so that the dressing can be applied instantaneously to a wound without much handling with hands, probably dirty from contact with debris. These dressings are far superior to those con­ sisting of separate pieces of lint, etc., kept in place by roller bandages applied after these operations necessitating much more handling. In this connection the writer can recom­ mend the “ Asepto ” bandage as having been very useful in air raids. The ambulance man would be well advised to wear a stout pair of either canvas or old lined kid gloves, so that after handling any dirty lumber, etc., he can re­ move the gloves if required to dress a wound. Should splints be required and none available at the moment there need be no difficulty, and there is no need

AID. —

187

to wait for the orthodox ones to be fetched, as on the scene of a bomb explosion any amount of loose wood can usually be picked up. It is advisable for the first-aid man to familiarise him­ self with the various ways of safely knotting ropes, as in case of rescues being effected from the upper floors when staircases are destroyed, it might be necessary to lower rescued persons to the ground by means of ropes, or to tie patients on to stretchers before bringing them down. In one case that came under the writer’s notice during an air raid, a top floor had been demolished and the stairways were blocked and impassable. An elderly woman who was lying injured on a bed, had to be brought to the ground, and the rescue was effected in the following manner:— The fire-escape ladder was run into the room on the first floor, where the woman was lying. She was then lifted on to a stretcher and tied to it securely by a line placed round her chest and legs. One fireman stood on the steps of the escape and a companion stood behind him holding the escape with one hand and his comrade’s belt with the other hand. The first man having both hands free, took hold of the poles of the stretcher at the foot, and with the assistance of ambulance men on the building, placed the stretcher on the escape. H e then proceeded to slowly pull the stretcher, which slid down the ladder, an ambu­ lance man meanwhile holding the top poles pressed down so that the stretcher should not slip off sideways. After the stretcher had slid down a few rungs the man at the lower end of the stretcher was ordered to stop by a man watching at the top. The ambulance man at the top end of the stretcher, who was leaning forward, was then enabled to bring his feet down a few rungs, to the poles of the stretcher, when the process was repeated till the ground was reached. This method can generally be carried out down an escape or ladder provided it is not at a steep angle. Should the angle be steeper than is altogether safe it would be necessary to have steadying lines fixed to the upper poles or to the traverse bar of the stretcher. The air raid man should always be provided with a full water-bottle, as persons rescued from demolished buildings are often half choked with dust and crave water. The writer will not soon forget the eagerness with which his water bottle was grasped by a man rescued after being buried for an hour under piles of bricks and mortar. Another point to remember is that many persons rescued from damaged houses are in night attire, and atten­ tion should be given at once to securing blankets or other covering for them, as they are usually suffering from shock, and warmth is imperative. While injuries are being treated a bystander should be at once set to collecting such covering. Should you have to treat burns often caused by fires from bombs of an incendiary nature, it is advisable not to apply oils but only dry cotton wool or lint, cut into small pieces instead of being put on in one big piece. An ambu­ lance man found this policy endorsed by the doctor at the hospital, who was able to uncover and treat the burns piecemeal without exposing the whole of the burnt surfaces at the same time. Smelling salts and sal-volatile should invariably be carried, as their prompt use will often prevent collapse and a long fainting case, which would take a lot of time and attention that might be required for more serious cases. The fall of a bomb often causes damages to houses some distance away by concussion, blowing in windows bringing down ceilings, etc., and though the damage may appear trivial from the outside, all such houses should be


i88

— FIRST

searched, as experience has 'shown that many people are injured by ceilings coming down ; in one case the writer treated, a small boy in bed who was injured on the face by a lump of plaster. It has also been found that injured per­ sons turn up hours after a raid, probably feeling dazed they sat down in a room or garden, and feeling better later they come out to seek assistance for their injuries. Thus, then, when to all appearances all the injured in a locality have been collected, it is necessary for the first aid man to keep his eyes open for cases that may require treatment. Lastly, in all cases except the very slightest, see that the patient is seen by a doctor or taken to a hospital for further examination, as closer inspection may reveal injuries not easily discernible when dealing with cases under the conditions prevailing in an air raid.

J r a c tic a l J o in ts . The Editor invites Notes on actual Cases— with special reference to gooa and bad tioints in Treatment—for inclusion in this Column. R

F

eso u r cefu l

A

ir st

id

.

Following the explosion of a bomb dropped on a house during a recent Air Raid, three patients— a ll suffering from fractures o f both legs — were found lying under cover of a totter­ ing wall. The Fire Brigade Officer gave warning that the wall would fall within 2 minutes. Under the direction of a First-Aider, who emphasised the need for speedy action and the danger of handling broken legs, three firemen dashed forward, each selecting a patient. They gently raised their patients a short distance from the ground by locking their hands through the arm-pits and then dragged them directly backwards— with the lower limbs trailing over the ground— to a position of safety. Immediately afterwards the wall fell, and the fractures were quickly and efficiently splinted on the spot and before further removal. N.B.— The removal of a patient suffering from a fracture should not, as a general rule, be attempted until the fracture has been controlled by splints, &c. In this case, however, the choice lay between death from asphyxia and other injuries as a sequel to the fall of a wall and the danger of converting sim­ ple fractures into compound or complicated. The First Aider and his assistants, therefore, must be congratulated on their display of discrimination and resourcefulness.— A. J. M., Kentish Town. M

a l a d m in istr a t io n

of

S

al

V

o la tile

.

During an Air Raid a member of a Red Cross Detachment, who was on duty in a Tube Station, was called upon to deal with a fainting patient who had fallen on the platform. With­ out bothering to loosen the patiends clothes, the bearer quickly mixed a dose of Sol Volatile, filled his mouth with the fluid, and — to the utter amazement of the onlookers— expectorated the mixture into the face of the patient who immediately recovered, sat up and swore lustily ! !— E. C., Tufnell Park.

D

a n g er s

of

F

ir s t

A

id

.

A First-Aider, who was known to suffer from a weak heart on one occasion went on Public Duty and was called upon to treat a half-drunken man who had attempted suicide by throw­ ing himself into the sea from which he was removed nearly drowned. Forgetting his own weakness, the First-Aider at once went to the man’s help and by arduous work at artificial respiration brought him back to consciousness. Later he assisted to carry the patient (who was struggling violently) to shelter. While thus engaged, the First-Aider fell back and

AID. —

June, 1918.

instantly expired from heart failure, the result of the excep­ tional exertion undergone in his humane efforts on behalf of his patient. Truly, First Aid carries with it dangers to its exponents no less than to its patients, and this man was well worthy of the Victoria Cross.— F. A., Canonbury.

Getting Better. P r i v a t e B r o w n was getting better. Generally when one is making recovery from a dangerous illness one does so with feelings far remote from regretful. Yet Brown had regrets. He reviewed the past three months of his life. The last visit to the trenches was the beginning of a series of scenes in his mental cinematograph. The time in the trenches did not seem so dreary, looking back ; the fatigues, dangers and miseries were toned down, while the memory of his comrades was more vivid. The big stunt and getting hit was a blurred picture. The journey down the line was very indistinct— portions of it missing altogether. Then clear and distinct comes the picture of the ward in the casualty clearing station. A few days of waking and sleeping, and then a time of study. Brown had never known womenfolk very well ; now he was absolutely in their hands. At first it was with some feelings of mistrust that he studied them, but soon that gave way and the very opposite took its place. The sisters and nurses were friends, nay, more, they were also like mothers and sisters for the time. For many weeks he had been in the constant care of these womenfolk, and now the time was approaching when he was to draw away from them and fend for himself. One speaks sneeringly of petticoat government, but it must be put on record that Brown will leave it with regret. A. R., in the Stebonheath Journal.

We have received a copy of the 3rd issue of the Stebonheath Journal, which is the organ of the auxiliary hospital which bears that name. It is a credit to its editor, and is well produced, containing a number of bright articles.

A First Aid Class for men and women is assembling at the Eustace Miles Restaurant, 40 Chandos-street, Strand, at 7.30 p.m. on May 16th, and a further course at 7.30 p.m. on June 4th. Application for membership should be made to Miss E. Fraser Baddeley, 87, Cadogan-gardens, S.W. T h e fee for admission is 4s. This course will be followed by one on Home Nursing.

M a r k e t H a r b r o u g h . — It is with regret that we have to record the death of Pte. Percy Carter, R .A .M .C., who was killed in France, together with two other men while carrying down a wounded man. They were hit by a shell, three of them being killed and the other wounded. Pte. Carter was a member of the Market Harbrough Division of the Brigade and had been out in France for nearly three years.

W hen corresponding w ith A d vertisers p lease m ention “ F irst Aid ”


— F I R S T

June, 19 18.

Q u eries

and

J ln s w e r s

to

C o rresp o n d en ts.

AID. —

A S K

Y 0 U

Queries w i l l be dealt w ith u n d er the fo llo w in g rules :—

1,— Letters containing Queries must be marked on the top left hana corner of the envelope “ Query” and addressed— F i r s t A i d , 4b, Cannon-strcct, London, E.C. 2.—A ll Queries must be accompanied by a “ Query Coupon ” cut jrom the current issue of the Journal, or in case of Queries from abroad from a recent issue. ?. — The Textbook, to which reference may be made in these columns,

is the Revised [19/7) Edition of S.J.A.A. Manual of First-Aid.

In

ven to r

of

T

r ia n g u la r

B

an d a g e

.

189

R C H

E M I

S T F 0 R

SEPTIC WOUNDS Cuts, tears, scratches, abrasions, bruises, sprains, burns, scalds, etc., are rapidly healed by I o d e x . It presents the antiseptic, pene­ trating, and healing properties of Iodine in a bland, absorbable and painless base, and is free from stain, irritation, or corrosion. As a first aid dressing I o d e x is ideal. In field and home, munition and other works, where minor injuries are of daily occurrence, a supply of I o d e x ensures complete antisepsis and rapid healing. For inflamed conditions I o d e x is ideal. Try it. All good chemists stock it.

F. A. (Canonbury) : In your A id s to F irst A id (3rd Ed. p. 14) you say “ the triangular bandage was invented by Mayor of Lausanne and popularised by Esmarch of Kiel.” As most of us probably associate this bandage with the name of Esmarch, and as the point is of historical interest, will you favour us with your authority for the statement ? With pleasure. My authorities are two books which were given to me by a reader of these columns. The first in an ori­ ginal copy of the S.J.A.A. Manual, which was written by Dr. Peter Shepherd and published in 1878. In it the bandage is called “ triangular” and the name of Esmarch (who began his lectures on First Aid in 1882) was not coupled with it until the edition of the manual, which was revised by Dr. Robert Bruce in 1893. In the 1917 edition the name of Esmarch has been omitted. My second authority is a book called Popular Surgery (published in 1836 by Dr. Thomas Cutler)— “ being translated from the French of a pamphlet published by Dr. Mayor (of Lausanne) in the year 1831, under the title of Fragments o f Popular Surgery I' In his description of the treatment of fractures, Mayor praises the utility of handker­ chiefs, which “ can be cut diagonally into triangular bandages” or, as he calls them elsewhere, “ three cornered bandages.” In an appendix he describes various ways in which the bandage may be used. Thus, for an eye bandage, he begins— “ Take a soft handkerchief (say cambric) and fold it diagonally so as to form a triangle.” The invention of the triangular bandage, therefore, lies to the credit of a Swiss and not a German sur­ geon.— N. C o r b e t F l e t c h e r .

H E.

e m o r r h a g e

from

St

o m ach

.

(Cardiff") For hcemorrhage from Stomach, the Text­ book ( p. 106) says, “(Treat as for internal haemorrhage, except that nothing is to be given by mouth.” Why may we not give cold water to sip or ice to suck ? Would not such treatment assist clotting of blood and check the flow of blood from the torn vessels?

REGULARLY F leet Surgeons, R .A .M .C . Surgeons, Red C ross Surgeons, Croix R ouge F rancaise,

M E N L E Y

&

USED

BY:

B e l g ia n Field H ospitals, F r e n c h F i e ld Hospitals, N um erous M ilitary H ospitals, M e m b e r s of S t . John A m bulan ce.

J A M E S ,

U n if o r m s

a n d

E q u i p m e n t

E.

Yes— probably it would in some cases ; but in others it might stimulate the stomach vessels, cause more profuse bleed­ ing, and bring about effects contrary to the Principles of First Aid. Further, haemorrhage from the stomach suggests ulcera­ tion and with it possible perforation of the stomach wall— the diagnosis of which is beyond the most experienced First Aider; and the dangers of which are most urgent and will be aggra­ vated by liquids and solids passed into the stomach. For these reasons, in First Aid we play for safety, take no risks and give nothing by mouth.— N. C. F.

A

F irst-A id

L ib ra ry .

F. A. (Canonbury) :— Will you be good enough to suggest

L td .,

39, Farrlngdon Road, LONDON, E.C.1. Contractors to H.M. Government.

Vast modern factory resources, added to a century's experience, enables us to supply First A i d and all other Services with uniforms and e q u i p m e n t of g u a r a n t e e d materials, workmanship and finish — at prices that challenge comparison with an y other clothing of equal quality. Prices and Samples on request.

16,

N IL E S T R E E T , C ITY ROAD, LONDON, N . 1., and at 6 , Y O R K P L A C E , L E E D S , and 8 4 , M ILLER S T R E E T , G LA SG O W .


— FIRST some books (excluding text and aid books) which are are worthy of inclusion in a keen First-Aider’s library? Much depends on your taste for books. I presume you refer to works of history and fiction. Unfortunately, as with Medicine, so with the Ambulance Movement, the history has been sadly neglected. Of such works I can only suggest (1) Order o f St. John o f Jerusalem, by W. H. Fincham (St. John’s Gate) ; (2) Under the American Red Cross Flag., by Mabel Boardman (Lippincott); (3) E rrand o f Mercy, by Mostyn Bird (Hutchinson); (4) Reminiscences of Surgeon-Major G. A . Hutton (Lewis). If you refer to works of fiction, which touch on the various periods of the Ambulance Movement, then you have a wider choice. Thus, The Bethrothed and The Talisman, by Sir Walter Scott, and Richard Yea-and.Nay, by Maurice Hewlett, will carry you back to the time of the Crusades both in Eng­ land and Palistine, while Richard Dehan’s books (Heinemann) will probably interest you, since Between Two Thieves deals with the Crimean War, The Man o f Iron with the FrancoGerman War of 1870, and The Dop Doctor with the South African War. I give this list in the hope that other readers of these columns may come to our help and send along some further suggestions.— N. C. F.

B

an dages

for

F

r a ctu r ed

F

e m u r

In the Revised Textbook you will find a third method ! In short, the Textbook (p. 63) instructs you when single hand or patient is a woman to apply bandages ” in order shown by numbers” in diagram, a method which practically amounts to first, the limbs; then, the splints; lastly, the frac­ ture. Provided, however, you are resourceful and at the same time discriminating in carrying out the objects of treat­ ment— viz., prevention of aggravation of fracture and provision of proper transport— then it is immaterial in what order or by which method you apply the bandages. At the same time, my method is based on two facts. First, since the Principles of First Aid teach us to “ remove the cause,” and since the pressing danger is at the fracture— I believe it right to deal first with the danger, at its seat of origin. Secondly, since the adoption of a definite system serves to simplify the work, I prefer to teach “ General Rules ” (which in this instance are applicable to the treatment o f a ll fractures ) in accordance with the Principles of First Aid.— N. G. F.

e u tr a lisa tio n

o f

B

u r n s

.

M. C. (Brighton) ;— In the case of a wound— the result of a cut from a poison bottle— should one apply the antidote that would be given for the same poison internally ? Some poisons affect the part touched ; others have no local effect and act on the system, only after absorption. If the poison in question is one that acts locally (e.g., corrosive acid or alkali) and if the part is burned, then immediate appli­ cation of the neutralising substance is indicated.— N. C. F.

C

o r r o siv e

A

c id

P

o iso n in g

.

W. B. (Newport, Mon.) says that he has been warned to give small doses of alkalies in Corrosive Acid Poisoning and asks the reason of this warning. The choice of alkali is important because Acids re-act with Alkaline Carbonates and give off Carbonic Acid, which would

June, 1918.

distend’ the stomach and might cause rupture of its wall, if this was weakened and ulcerated by the Corrosive Acid. Chalk, whiting, washing soda, and bicarbonate o f soda are nil alkaline carbonates— and, if used, must be given in small quan­ tities and freely diluted with water. On the other hand, plaster, lime water, callcined magnesia, and soap and water lack this danger and may be used without fear. Another practical point is that the mouth must be well washed out before any of the alkaline solution is swallowed, because some of the acid might be retained therein and would otherwise be diverted into the stomach.— N. C. F.

V

ag a r ie s

of

T

e x tb o o k

.

H. C. (Bristol) asks what First Aid has to do with Trench Foot. Heaven knows ! Trench Foot is absolutety beyond the scope of First Aid. The Committee of Revision evidently for­ got that by copying an article from the Medical Journal they were deliberately inciting First Aiders to interfere with condi­ tions for which “ they must on no account take upon themselves the duties and responsibilities of a Doctor” (p. 25).— N. C. F.

.

E. M. (Cardiff) :— In the November issue of F I R S T Aid you gave the correct sequence of applying bandages for frac­ tured femur as “ first, control the fracture ; then, control the splints ; lastly, control the limbs.” In the B.R.C. Manual I note that this order is reversed, i.e., first, the splints; then, the fracture; lastly, the limbs. Will you be good enough to state the advantages and disadvantages of these two methods ?

N

AI D. —

R

u les

of

D

is in f e c t io n

.

B. C. (Bristol).— In your A id s to Home N ursing (p. 29) you give a most helpful aid to memory for the Rules of Venti­ lation— viz., the air must be P. U. R. E. (Bure in quality ; Upward in direction ; Regulated in rate of entry ; Expelled through exits). Can you help me similarly with the Rules of Disinfection ? With pleasure. Disinfection must be S. U. R. E. (S u it­ able for the purpose ; Undertaken on the spot ; Reliable and sufficiently potent ; Effective and sufficiently prolonged). For complete details see Article on “ Disinfectants,” published in issue of January last.— N. C. F.

The Q.W.R. “ S a fe ty ” Movement. Every year since 1913, when the Great Western Railway Company inaugurated the “ Safety” Movement for the pre­ vention of accidents to railwaymen, the records of injuries to members of the Company’s staff have gone to show that the campaign was attended by very beneficial results, and although the latest available statistics— those for 1917 indicate in the aggregate a slight increase over those for the previous year, they are substantially below those for preceding years. The following are the figures :— 1913 1914 191 s 1916 1917

Persons Killed. 40

44 30

43

32

Persons Injured.

3,331

3,220 2,686 2,375 2,401

Total

3,371 3,244

2,716 2,418

2,433

Of accidents caused by the movement of trains or vehicles, the total for 1917 was 410, as against 499 for the previous year and an average of 561 for the three preceding years. Of accidents due to other causes, there was an increase of 104 in 1917 as compared with 1916. This increase mainly represented comparatively slight injuries sustained while load­ ing or unloading wagons, or in moving goods or luggage. Many of the men and women now employed upon these duties are new comers, engaged as war workers, and have not had comparable experience to that of the regular staff. An analysis of all the injuries to the Company’s staff dur­ ing the last year reveals that in 203 cases they were attributable to misconduct or want of care, and 2,186 could be described as misadventures. A large proportion of the latter might, how­ ever, been prevented by vigilance and forethought, which is the object of the “ Safety ” Movement to inculcate.


— FIRST

June, 1918

The S t. Joh n

AID.—

A m b u la n c e

A s s o c ia tio n . N u r se s’ W ear

L I F E - S A V I N G L E C T U R E S . Below are outlined five of the LectureDemonstrations given by

A m bulance O fficer C. HANMER in any part of England, Ireland or Wales, as an aid to students and to promote interest in the

TJJERE at Harrods the Private ^ or Professional Nurse will find every requisite of her call­ ing, and she may depend im­ plicitly upon the correctness, the quality, and the service of every­ thing supplied. Advice on all outfitting matters gladly given by post to those prevented from visiting Plarrods (2nd Floor). Harrods aie appointed by the St. John Ambulance Brigade and the British Red Cross Society and all materials and patterns are approved thereby. U N IF O R M

A M B U L A N C E R E S C U E

A N D

M O V E M E N T S -

I.— L I F E A

M IN E S

Popu lar

B O N N ETS

SA V IN G .

F ir s t

Aid

DRESS

N . U . 1 3 1 . — W ell cut U n iform D ress (as illu stra te d ) b odice lined, in fine N a v y C o a tin g S erge. S to c k S iz e .. .. -. 4 5 /“ In good q u a lity A lp a c a .. 36/N .U . 1 3 6 . — F in e S tra w B onnet, e x tra broad shape, trim m ed folds o f goo d q u a lity p iece V e lv e t 10/6

L e jt u r e .

Illustrated by an unrivalled collection of Lantern Slides and Chemical Demonstrations, and an exhibition of the Official First Aid Film. The film is at present shown in licensed Halls only. Sunday demonstrations can be arranged.

N . U . 3 3 . — B eco m in g B onn et o f fine S traw , trim m ed good q u a lity p iece V e lv e t. N a v y or B la c k .. .. 9/6 B row n , G reen or G r e y .. 10/6

Sen t Carriage P a id .

HARRODS Ltd

II.

Managing Director

LONDON SW 1

Similar to the above, but without the film. III.— R E S C U E A

peep

in to

WORK the

IN

life of

M IN ES.

a Miner,

Showing the miner at work, at play and on the battle­ field. Calculated to create new interest in Rescue Work in Coal Mines. IV.

— NATURE Nature’ s

AS

a

FIRST

m e t h o d s and fu r th e r them .

h ow to

f ir s t

a id

.

W h y e v e r y o n e should ha ve a k n o w le d g e of F ir s t Aid.

A practical display suitable for indoors or the open air. The demonstrations are not confined to text-book methods, but show a variety of novel variations which have proved their practical worth. Special inducements are offered to Mining Districts. No entertainment tax is payable in respect of any of the above, provided that no music or other extraneous amusements are included in the proceedings.

For terms and dates available apply to

AmbuTance Officer C. HANMER, 205.

FOR

OF F IC E

ORDER

FACTORIES.

AID ER.

First Aid is discussed in an entirely original manner with the object of showing how Nature prevents and heals injuries and warns us of dangers. This lecture is suitable alike for the novice or expert, and includes several radiographs and a number of slides of artistic merit directly or indirectly illustrating the subject. v ._ P R A C T IC A L

HOME

D o n c a s te r R o a d , G o ld th o rp e , N e a r R o th e rh a m .

Telegrams : “ Hanmer, Ambulance, Goldthorpe.”

An Order made by the Secretary of State, requires that the Occupier in all Factories in the following classes:— Blast Furnaces, Copper Mills, Iron Mills, Foundries, Metal Works shall provide F I R S T A I D C A B I N E T S in the proportion of at least one to every 150 persons, where 25 persons or more are employed. We supply for this purpose two C a bin ets: — No. I, containing the minimum requirements of the Order. Prices, 1 to 4 Cabinets, 2 5 / = ; 5 to 10 Cabinets, 2 3 / 9 ; 11 to 20 Cabinets, 2 2 / 6 ; over 20, 2 1 / 3 each nett. No. 2, containing in addition, the Dressings recommended by H.M. Medical Inspector of Factories in the First Aid Leaflet for the Treatment of Minor Injuries. Prices, 1 to 4 Cabinets, 5 0 / - ; 5 to 10 Cabinets, 4 7 /6 ; 11 to 20 Cabinets, 4 5 / - ; over 20, 4 2 / 6 each nett. Terms:— Packing free , carriage paid. Cash with order. First Aid Cabinets are not required in Blast Furnaces where an Ambulance Room is provided. A M B U L A N C E R O O M S must be provided where 500 persons or more are employed in Factories to which this Order applies. We supply estimates for the equipment required, also for the construction of the Rocms where necessary.

S o u th a ll B ros. & B a rcla y , Ltd., C h a rfo rd

V ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ J

M ills ,

B IR M IN G H A M .


192

— FIRST

AID.—

June, 19 1 8 .

MANUALS

OF

F I R S T -A I D , &e.,

By N. CORBET FLETCHER, B.A., M.B., B.C (Cantab), M.R.C.S. A ID S

TO

F IR S T-A ID .

T h ird E d itio n .

P o st free, 7<l.

First-Aid Simplified and Tabulated, with A|ds to Memory. “ Col. Cantlie contributes an introduction and wo endorse his Rood opinion o f the book. " — L a n c e t .

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TO

H O M E -N U R S IN G .

Secon d E d itio n .

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P O STAL IN STR U C TIO N in “ PRESCRIPTION R E A D IN G ” and “ ELEM ENTARY DISPENSING.” Everyone engaged in FIRST AID work should take up ne above Courses at once. A member of S.J.A.B. writes:— “ I feel deeply indebted for the courses of instruction received, have often wanted to take such courses, but could never find where to get such.” (T.B.) Special terms no w — half fees—to members of S.T.A.B., &c. A p p ly (stam p ) to M r . J . E . W a l d e n , S e c ., W estm inster C o lle g e (L a d y D ispensers S ectio n o f the W estm in ster C o lle g e o f C h em istry and P h a rm a c y , estd. 1874),

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Its Application Accurately Described by Words a n d 1 6 1 D i a g r a m s . Price, is. net;.postage, 2d. F I R S T - A I D A N A T O M I C A L D IA G R A M S . Twelve in set, on Roller. Post free, 2S. lod. Each Diagram separately, 2d. 5 and 6 (coloured), 6d. each. No. 14. — H U M A N B O D Y . - S H O W I N G A R T E R I E S & P R E S S U R E P O IN TS . Coloured. Price, 6d. T H E W H O L E A R T O F B A N D A G IN G . By

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A vade-mecum for the Ambulance Worker. F. cap. 8vo. Post free, I s. 2d. F I R S T A ID IN F E W W O R D S . (38th thousand).

U niform C loth in g & E q u ipm en t Co. (FRED

F IR S T-A ID .

Orderly Duties Simplified aud Tabulated, with Aids to Memory.

s a v i n g y o u t i m e a n d t r o u b le .

Pattern

IN

Problems Study, Treatment and Examination solved for Senior Students. ‘ ‘ W ithout doubt the book w ill be o f great service in the tra in in g o f those f o r whom it is designed."— B r i t i s h M e d i c a l J o u r n a l .

for t h e i r in se rtio n a t O ffic e R a t e s , t h u s

L atest

W HEREFORE

Post free, i s . a d .

(L a rg e o r S m a ll)

46,

AND

P ric e 7 d . t post free. Difficulties in Study and Treatment solved by Question and Answer. “ IVe eammond this book to Lecturers a n d Students who w ill fin d it o f groat service . " — F i r s t A i d .

Second-H and Prices, N ew

at

H al f

B oo ks at C a ta lo g u es

, — D isco u n t P rice s. w. S ta te wants. B ooks sent on ap p reTal. B o o k s bought. W. & G. F O Y L E . - r and 123. C h a rin g C r e w R oad, L o n d o n , W .C .

P ric e 6 d . n e t.

NOTES

ON By

P ost fre e 7d.

FIRST S id n e y

AID H.

SIMPLIFIED.

Lam b.

A Handbook in a tabulated atd simplified form giving the main points in first aid, so arranged as toimpressthem on thememory of the student.

F

OR SALE, a quantity of Men’s Ambulance Uniform Trousers, all sizes, quite new, 9s. 6d. a pair.— Thornton and Co., 24, Commercial-street, Brighouse.

F

OR SA L E.— Regulation Brown Leather Belts and Pouches; also Caps and Overcoats; samples on approval.— Follett, 4, Victoria-avenue, Bishopsgate, London, E.C.

“ FIRST AID” QUERY and REPLIES COUPON.

L

I G H T Ambulance Brougham, rubber tyres ; for single or pair ; fitted with stretcher bed complete.— Poad & Helps, Coach Builders, Bristol.

To be cut out and enclosed w ith a ll Queries

DALE, REYNOLDS & CO., Ltd., 46, Cannon St., LONDON, E,C.4.

J u n e , 1918.

Printed and Published by Dal*, Reynolds & C o ., L td ., 46, Cannon S t., London, E .C . 4., to whom all communications iheald be addressed.


FIR S T

A ID

— AND

S

t

.

J

o

h

THE —

n

G

A

a

z

e

m

t

V O L U M E

t

b

e

u

l

a

n

.

X X V .

(No. 289, July, 1918, to N o . 300, June, 1919).

LONDON. DALE,

REYNOLDS

&

CO.,

L t d .,

46,

CANNON

STREET,

E.C. 4.

c

e


I N D E X .

A Alterations in Revised Textbook, by N. Corbet Fletcher, u Ambulance Train, for the American Army, 74 Action, and Re-Action, 190

G G .W .R y . Ambulance W ork, 1918, 143

H B Bowdler, Col. Cyril William, C.B., 77 Blackham, Col. R. J., C.M.G., C.I.E., D.S.O., 58 B r e v i t i e s , 9, 25, 41, 57, 73, 90, 105, 123, 141, 157,173, 188 Brigade Overseas, 174 „ Services Overseas, 59

How to Get a Cinder Out of the Eye, 33 Humour of Air Raids, The, 91 I Invalid Carrying Chair, An, 142

C Closing of Auxiliary Hospital, 144 „ Caen Wood Towers Auxiliary Hospital, 144

L Lesson of Our Cross, The, 156 L

etters

Danger of Neglecting Cuts and Scratches, 191 Day’s Work at a Provincial Ambulance Station During Hos­ tilities, A, 136 Design of Ford Ambulance Body, A New, 11 Death of an Old St. John Ambulance Veteran, 175 „ Surgeon-Major Hutton, 178 D

ist r ic t

O

rd ers

No. 1— 2, 18, 34, 50, 66, 82, 98, 114, 134 150,166, 182 „ 2— 50,98,114,150,182 » 3— 2. 51. 166, 182 4— 3. 19, 34, 66, 82, 134, 151,167, 183 » S— 3, 18, 19, 34, 51, 66, 83, 98, 115, 135, 151, 167, 183 „ 6 - 1 3 5 , 167 >. 7 — 167 „ 8— 35,115,135,151 ,,

„ „ „

9— 67

10— 98 1 1 - 3 , 1 9 , 6 7 ,8 3 ,9 9 ,1 5 1 12 (Irish)— 35, 51, 67, 99, 135, 183

to

th e

E

d it o r

:—

Brigade Uniform, The, 45, 62, 78 „ Work During the War, 92 „ Medal, etc., 160, 175 Change of Uniform, 45 First Aid Library, 8 „ Essay Competition, 92 „ Competitions, 127 „ Training of Troops in Italy, 160 Notable Ambulance Dates, 175 Publication of Emergency Cases, 78 S.J.A.A. Benevolent Fuud, 127 Street Calls v. Telephone Exchange, 78 Suggestion, A, 46 Temporary Promotion of Officers, 78

D

M Meeting of V.A.D. Recruiting Commandants, 58 Mines Rescue Work, 42

N

E E

d it o r ia l

:—

Brigade Report, The, 17 First Aid to Minor Injuries, 33 From War to Peace, 65 Future of the V.A.D.s, The, 113 Importance of First Aid, The, 1 Organisation of the Brigade, 97 Prevention of Accidents, 133 Railway Ambulance Work, 165 Reconstruction. 81 Red Cross Conference at Cannes, 149 „ „ Finance, 165 „ „ League, The, 181 Ro-organisation of the S.J.A.A., 149 Safety Committees in Factories and Workshops, 49

F First Aid and Business Output, 26

New Water Bottle, A, 43 Notable Ambulance Dates, by N. Corbet Fletcher, M.B., 125, 140, 158 O Order of the Priory of Wales, 65 P Practical Points from the Textbook, 171, 189 Presentation to the County Director of Leicester, 107 P

r a c t ic a l

P

o in ts

:—

Abuse of Stimulants, 43 Complete First Aider, The, 62 Curious Accident, A, 192 Dangers of First Aid, 43, 110 Efficiency in First Aid, 172


IN D First Aid with Discrimination, 192 Foreign Body in Stomach, 43 Justifiable Interference, 144 Old Time Method of Transport, 13 Pseudo-Internal Haemorrhage, 192 Rare Complicated Accident, A, 13 „ Emergency, A, 76 Rapid Action, 156 Resourceful F irst Aid, 27, 76 Swell’s Downfall, 129 Transient Hemiplegia, 27 Unsolicited Testimonial, An, 144 Vagaries of Epilepsy, The, 83, 129, 156 „ of First Aid, 1 10 Worst Aid, 172

X .

R Railway Ambulance, io, 46, 6 8 , 9 1 , 126, 15 6, 178 Red Cross Congress at Cannes, 15 1 „ „ in Japan, The, 19 4 Report of S.J.A.B., 1 9 1 7 , The, 27 R

e v ie w s

:—

Home Nursing, 127 Motor Manual, The, 127 Official Handbook War Work in Middlesex, 177 Order of St. John of Jerusalem Past and Present, 1 7 7 Sunderland’s First Aid to the Injured and Sick, 127

S St. John Ambulance Association, 26

Q Q

u e r ie s

an d

A

n sw ers

to

C

St . Joh o r respo n d en ts

Alcoholic Poisoning, Treatment of, 44 Alteration in Textbook, 44 Ambulance Rooms and Outfits, 108 Artificial Respiration, 108, 110, 194 Bites of Rabid Animals, 146 Buried in Lime, 108 Burns and Scalds, 108 Burst Varicose Vein, Treatment of, 14, 28 Camphor Poisoning, 28 Causes of Hysterical Fits, 94 Competitions, Vagaries of, 60 Compound Complicated F'racture of Skull, 76 Contents of First Aid Outfits, 14 Concussion, Treatment of, 128 Corrosive Poisoning, 162 Crushed Fingers, Treatment of, 76 Detailed Marking Sheets, 176 Diagnosis of Alcholism, 94 Doses of Emetics, 29 Effects of Apoplexy, 14 Ethics of First Aid, 92 Fainting, Treatment of, 44 Foreign Body to Ear, 162 Fracture of Clavicle and Humerus, 28 „ F'emur, 94 „ Forearm, 94 ,, Knee-cap, 60 „ Spine, 162 Tibia, 77 „ with Insensibility, 146 „ Involving Elbow Joint, 94 F'ractured Femur, Treatment of, 76 Haemorrhage from Nose, 92 Indication tor Artificial Respiration, 29 Infantile Convulsions, Treatment for, 29 Injuries to Kidneys, 162 Injury to Scalp, 61 Insensibility, Treatment of 108 Meddlesome First Aid, 29 Method of Bandage Drill, 44 Opium Poisoning, 28 Perforating Wound of Lower Jaw, 61 Poisoning by Chloride of Lime, 76 „ Treatment of, 162 Prussic Acid Poisoning, 146 Recurrence of Gas Poisoning Symptoms, 61 Severe Abrasion of Face, 76, 108 Smelling Salts, Use of, 44 Snake Bite, Treatment of, 28 Sprained Ankle, Treatment of, 14 Strychnine Poisoning, 28 Swelling of Tissues of Throat, 108 Textbook, Vagaries of, 28 Tincture of Iodine, 108 Tourniquet, Uses of, 128 Transport of Fractured Pelvis and Ribs, 29 Tobacco Smoke in Insensibility, 194 Zinc Chloride Poisoning, 94

n

A

m bu lan ce

G

azette

:—

Ambulance Lecture given by Ambulance Officer Hanmer, 8 „ Competitions, 22 „ Features, 102 Brigade Hospital, 71, 88 „ Overseas, 87 Blue Stripe Examination Successful Candidates, 102, 118, 170 Copies of Letters Received by the Ambulance Department of the Order, 153 Doctor at the Front, 39, 53 Eight-Pointed Cross, The, 21 Extracts from Letters Received from V.AD. Members Working in Military Hospitals, 55 First Aid Jottings, 103 Freshfield, The late Edwin, LL.D., F.S.A., 37 General Letter of the Joint V.A.D. Committee to the County Directors, 23, 56, 72, S8, 103, 119, 138, 154, 186 Grand Priory of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England, 7, 22, 70, 86, 101, 117, 138, 153, 169, 185 „ Prior’s Interest in the S.J.A.B., 23 Lecture Demonstrations, 102 Official Brigade News, 4,20, 36, 52, 69, 84, 100, 116, 137, 152, 168, 184 Open Air Treatment, 23 Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, Priory of Wales, 38 Our Day, 70 Railway Ambulance Competition, 117 Relief Unit for Syria, 120 Re-opening of the Oyhthalmic Hospital in Jerusalem, 138 St. John Ambulance Brigade Hospital, 6, 118 „ „ „ „ Southport, 104 „ „ „ Overseas, 23 „ „ „ Supply Depot, Halkyn House, 119 ,, West Riding V.A.D. 39, 120 S.J.A.B. Overseas, 124 Some Criticisms and Suggestions on First Aid Competi­ tions, 106 St. John Day, 7 Service of Thanksgiving for the Cessation of Hostilities, 85 Special Brigade Order, 154 Their Majesties Silver Wedding, 5 Thompson, Sir Courtauld, 71 Voluntary Aid Detachments, 24, 40 V.A.D. Summary of Work, 71, 88, 104, 119, 139, 155, 170 186 War Charities, 155 Work of the S.J.A.B. in the London Civil Hospitals, 87

T Training School for Girls, A New, 176

W Watford Junction Station Ambulance Class, 74


~ —

I N D E X .

Illustrations. A New Design of Ford Ambulance Body, 12, 13

Col. R. J. Blackham, C.M.G., 58

Eight Pointed Cross, 22

The Late Miss Sophia Barrett, V.A.D., 67

A New Water Bottle, 43

Mrs. G. Kate Mason, H.S.S., 99

The V.A.D. Section of the S.J.A.B. Nursing 'Division Maid­ stone, 60

Pte. G. Lovett, 175

American Ambulance train, 75

Lieut. W. W. McKinney, 189 Cheltenham Motor Ambulance, 125 Dr. C. Highet’s Patent Invalid Carrying Chair, 142, 143

P

o r tr a it s

G.

H. Tucker, O.B.E., 10

The Late Edwin Freshfield, LL.D., 37

Air Raid Duty Certificate, 171 Glebe Men’s V.A.D. No. 41 Types of Microbes, 191

a

,

N.S.W., 174


F I R S T AID AND

ST.

JO H N

THE

AM BULANCE E d ite d b y A R T H U R

No. 289 — Vol. XXV.

JULY,

B.

r9 i8

GAZETTE.

DALE. [E n tertd a t Stationgrs' H a ll.)

PRIC E TH REEPENCE [3/0 P e r

A n n u m , P o st

Free]

and the experience gained in military hospitals and other N O TICE

TO

READERS.

spheres should prove of great service in civil life, if these persons do not let their knowledge so acquired be lost by

F I R S T A ID is published on the a o t h of ea ch m onth .

Annual Subscription is

The

3s. 6d. post free ; single copies 3d.

Its aim and object being the advancement of Ambulance Work in all its branches, the Editor invites Readers to send Articles and Reports on subjects pertaining to the Movement and also welcomes suggestions for Practical Papers. All Reports, &c., should be addressed to the Editor, and should reach him before the 12th of each month, and must be accompanied [not necessarily for Publication) by the name and address of the Correspondent. Subscriptions, Advertisements and other business Communications connected with FIRST AID should be forwarded to the Publishers, DALE,

REYNOLDS & CO., 46, C a n n o n

S tre e t,

L

td

discontinuing their studies. It is here that the St. John Ambulance Brigade has immense scope for expansion, in inducing these persons into its ranks, and we hope that no efforts will be lost in using every endeavour in this direction. By doing so, we shall have a vast body of trained men and women in every town and village in the country organised and capable of being of the utmost use to the community.

.,

London,

E.C. 4.

Telegraphic Address: <tTwenty-Jour, London.” Telephone No. Bank.

No.

13

(K

i n g ’s

C

ross

G.N.R.)

D

iv isio n

.—

A course

of first aid lectures to female members of the Company’s staff commenced on Wednesday, June 26th.

The ladies

are very fortunate in having Dr. W. Mailer as lecturer, "and

ED ITO RIAL

over

140 listened to a very interesting and instructive

lesson.

The very large number of entrants bids fair for the

formation of a Nursing Section of the above division. T

The

h e

Archdeacon of Westminster,

in

preaching a sermon of great interest at

I m p o r t a n c e of the Annual Commemoration Service of F i r s t Aid.

the Order of St. John, which is reported in another column, said that the Order

of St. John had a glorious and inherited privilege in the work of reconstruction which lay before us. the following of

It stood in

Hospitallers to whom the care of the

The Red Cross motor ambulance launches in Mesopo­ tamia are now not only operating all along the Tigris from Mohammerah, 20 miles below Basrah, to Samarra, some 500 miles above Basrah, but are also in service on the upper

and

Ramadie.

lower

Euphrates,

some

being

well above

Recent reports and statistics show that since

body— its food, its cleansing, its recover from sickness—

the first boat arrived on the Tigris in December, 1915, the

was a passion, but who were at the same time the champion

total mileage covered by all the craft is well over 500,000,

of the Cross of Christ— the symbol of our faith.

whilst the number of passengers carried is a large one.

theirs at once to “ uphold the Christ” abroad, redressing human wrongs.”

and

It was “ to ride

The noble sentiments

express the spirit in which the great body of workers under

In addition over 150,000 packages of medical stores, etc. have been carried. general

Perhaps

reliability of

as

could

show

built

in

the

Great

Britain more

done for the good of their fellow creatures.

especially in view of the very arduous nature of the service

which the Archdeacon of Westminster referred, one asset which should prove of special value will

be

the

vast

number of persons who have acquired a knowledge of First Aid.

These are spread over every section of society,

the

nothing craft

the banner of St. John carry on their work, work which is

In the work of reconstruction which lay before us to

than

motor

plain statement of these facts,

the difficulties of navigation in the river and the excessively muddy water, which is one of the greatest troubles that a marine motor can encounter.

It is fair to add that a good

proportion of the best known British engines are installed in the boats, which now number close upon 100, and that the results from all of them have been excellent.


2

— FIRST 7 h ( Grand fr io rg of thi Srdir of the h o sp ita l of S t. Jo h n of Jerusalem in Sngland. AM BU LANCE

ffhe S t. No. 1 D is t r ic t . D

epu ty

C

o m m issio n e r

Jo h n

July, 1918.

I M P O R T A N T N O TIC E. Divisional Secretaries are requested when sending news­ paper cutting of their meetings, etc., to give the date of publi­ cation of the newspapers.— E d i t o r .

DEPARTM EN T.

.Ambulance S rigade.

D IS T R IC T :

AID. —

ORDERS.

-------

W. H. W IN N Y , O.B.E. A U G U S T , 1918. 'lunaay Duty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. Sunday, 4th. - No. 68 Division, City of London. „ nth.— No. 70 „ Royal Borough of Kensington. „ 18th.— No. 72 „ Barking. „ 25th.- No. 74 „ London City Missionary. From 2.30 p.m. to 8.30 p.m. Key from St. John’s Gate, 2 p.m. W O M E N ’S

PROCESSION TO BU CKIN GH AM PALACE. The following is a copy of letter received by the Deputy Commissioner from the Right Hon. G. H. Roberts, M.P., Minister of Labour, with reference to duty performed by the No. 1 District on the occasion of the Women’s Procession, on June 29th, 1918. Ministry of Labour, Montagu House, Whitehall, S.W.i. July 9th, 1918. Dear Sir, I cannot let the occasion of last Saturday’s Proces­ sion pass without reference and thanks to the St. John Ambulance Brigade for the admirable arrangements made in connection with it. I appreciate the fact that the ordinary anxieties of a public ceremony were greatly enhanced by the fact that Saturday’s Procession consisted of women unaccustomed to the fatigue of marching. Whilst only a comparatively small portion needed the care of your workers, the speed and efficiency with which this assistance was rendered, contributed to a great extent to the smoothness and success of the proceedings. Yours sincerely, (Signed) G e o . H. R o b e r t s . ST. J O H N ’S DAY. On the occasion of the Annual Assembly of the Order of St. John, members of the No. 1 District had’ the privilege of forming a Guard of Honour to receive H.R.H. The Duke of Connaught, the Grand Prior. His Royal Highness inspected the Guard, and later on expressed his high appreciation of the work the St. John Ambulance Brigade was doing in London. P U B L I C DU T Y . On the occasion of Their Majesties Silver Wedding Cele­ bration on July 6th, the Brigade was asked to furnish twentyfive ambulance stations along the line of route. In spite of the frequency with which public duty has lately been performed it was found possible to amply staff the various stations with both men and nurses, and full equipment, both for first aid and transport. The Deputy Commissioner wishes to express his apprecia­ tion of the prompt way in which the members turned out at the appointed time, and of their general smart appearance. The occasions on which calls for public duty have been very frequent of late, and the Deputy Commissioner desires to warmly thank those members who, at short notice, so readily responded. S A L U T IN G . Attention is called to the recent Army Order abolishing the salute with the left hand. All salutes should be given by the right hand when a member speaks to an officer or is addressed by one. (Signed) W. H. W IN N Y ,

Deputv- Commissioner. Headquarters :— St. John’s Gate, Clerkenwell, E.C.

W a l t h a m s t o w (No. 29) D i v i s i o n . — An impressive cere­ mony was held in this district on Sunday, June 16th, in con­ nection with the above division, which is one of the most progressive in the Metropolitan area. It seems quite recently that we witnessed the ceremony of founding the ambulance station, which has already become an established benefit in the locality. Since the occasion referred to the war has demanded its tribute from all parts of the Empire, and Walthamstow has responded to the call. The ceremony, which took place on the date above men­ tioned, was the unveiling of a wall tablet recording the death of four of the members of No. 29 Division, who had lost their lives in the service of their country. The names inscribed on the memorial were :— Lieutenant Robarts, Private G. Wilson, Private V. Dale, Private T. Kent. The ceremony was performed by Assistant Commissioner S. H. Vilven, upon whose arrival the Divisional Band gave the General Salute, the Division being subsequently inspected. The consecration service was conducted by the Rev. A. T. Fryer, who delivered an inspiring addiess. Special solos were sung by Mr. Bailey, from St. Giles’ Church, Cripplegate. In unveiling the memorial, the Assistant Commissioner referred to the solemnity of the occasion and stated that the Division in placing on record the names of those comrades who had lost their lives in the service were not only doing honour to the dead but also to themselves, as the tablet would be a lasting record of the esteem of their former comrades. On be­ half of the Brigade he extended to the relatives of the deceased the sincere sympathy of all those who had been associated with the members who had fallen, and felt sure if consolation were possible it should be drawn from the knowledge that the sacrifice which had been called for was equally deplored by the former comrades of those who had fallen. He also hoped that the presence of the memorial in their Ambulance Station would be the means of inspiring in those who had to follow a sense of determination to emulate the glorious example that had been set to them by the services of which the record was an eloquent acknowledgment. The closing prayer having been offered by the Rev. A. T. Fryer, the buglers of the Division’s band sounded the “ Last Post,” the members thereafter filing past and saluting the memorial. The proceedings were ably carried out under the charge of Supt. A. E. Blum, assisted by Ambulance Officer Cardo. A large gathering of members of the Nursing Division under the charge of Lady Supt. Mrs. Cardo, was also present. W e s t L o n d o n (44) D i v i s i o n .— Below is a brief report on the first year’s work of the First Aid Station, Acton Vale. The Station completed its first year’s work on June 22nd last and has amply justified its existence. During that period first aid has been rendered in 1,041 cases of accident and sickness, of which 200 cases have been taken to the various hospitals. The station has been open daily, Sundays and holidays included, from 8 a.m. till 10 p.m., and later whenever there has been an air raid warning.

No. 3 D is t r ic t . G l o u c e s t e r . — The Corps held its 2nd annual Church Parade on June 30th. Altogether about 130, exclusive of the bands, paraded under Ambulance Officer M. G. Matty and Sergt. G. Jackson (City Division), Commandant Watts (Red Cross), First Officer W. Palmer (Wagon Works'), Girl Guides (Captain Flora Bruton), and, headed by the Wagon Works Silver Band (Bandmaster A. Dowers) and the Bugle Band of


July,

— FIRST

the Gloucester Volunteer Regiment, marched to the church, where seats had been specially reserved for the visitors. An appropriate sermon was preached by the Vicar (the Rev. S. Richmond Robertson), who gave a brief history of the Order of St. John and made a strong appeal for the object of the collection— the fund for the reconstruction of the St. John Hospital destroyed at Etaples by German aircraft. At the close of the service the National Anthem was sung, and the Wagon Works Band rendered a sacred selection with taste and expression. T i p t o n P a r i s h . — Corpl. A. H. North o f this Division was recently awarded the British Empire Medal f o r gallantry and bravery shown on the occasion o f an air raid in the Midlands.

No. 4 D is tr ict. C H E S T E R . — The funeral of Section Leader W. D. Jones, of Cheshire V.A.D. 9, took place at Chester Cemetery on Wednesday afternoon, 27th June, amid tokens of great respect on the part of his numerous friends. He was a keen and clever worker in the cause of St. John Ambulance, and, up to the time of his illness, ever willing to do his duty and zealous in all the work of the Detachment. The body was taken to Christ Church where, as also at the graveside, the service was taken by the Vicar, the Rev. G. C. M. Bennett. Eight of his fellow workers on the railway headed the procession, after which marched 24 members of Chester V.A.D. 9, under the command of Quartermaster W. H. Dashcombe. The Rev. F. G. Wright, Incumbent of St. John’s Hospital, who has been connected with ambulance work for over 20 years, represented the Centre Committee. The coffin was covered with beautiful wreaths (among them a particular choice one, the gift of the Detachment) and bore the cap and belt of the deceased. Very real sympathy is felt for the widow and her family. Com­ mandant T. Oldham, to bis great sorrow, was unable to attend through illness. The late section leader possessed the certificate, voucher, medallion and 10 labels and did duty at St. John’s Hospital, and was senior section leader of the Detachment until his ill­ ness incapacitated him, which lasted 10 weeks. He was captain of the team which came second in the “ CarstairsJones” Challenge Cup Competition in December last. L i v e r p o o l . — An interesting ceremony took place at the headquarters of the Liverpool Division, at the conclusion of the annual examination on the 10th inst, when Capt. Llewellyn Morgan,R.A.M.C.(T.)presented Long Service Medals to Sergts. G. Allen and P. J. Conway. Both recipients have been mem­ bers of the Division since its inception in April, 1892, and were heartily congratulated by Capt. Morgan on their long associa­ tion with the Brigade and first aid work. In their brief replies both said they only regretted that they had not been able to give still more of their time to the work. Three rousing cheers were given for each man and with a vote of thanks to Capt. Morgan a pleasant little function ended.

On June 21st the Liverpool Divisions had the pleasure of listening in Y.M.C.A., to an address by Sir James Cantlie, who gave a most interesting rdsume of the history of the First Aid Movement and pleaded for the foundation of a “ College of Ambulance” in Liverpool, such as had been founded in the Metropolis, as a memorial to the First Aid work which had been accomplished since the commencement of hostilities. Sir James Cantlie’s account of the efforts to stem the war rush for emergency classes was most interesting, and must have been particularly so to three people at the back of the platform, Dr. and Mrs. Murray-Cairns and Miss Lydia Wilson, who, together have laboured in the S.J.A.B. cause for many years, and whose efforts at many centres succeeded in meeting the demands of 1914, and since that time. They must have felt proud of the audience in front of them, the great majority of whom owed their training to Dr. Cairns, who is looked upon with pride and affection by student, worker and Parent i" the S.J.A.B. Auxiliary Hospital, Myrtle-street, of which he is the O.C., and for the successful organisation of which Mrs. Murray Cairns is largely responsible.

AID. —

3

No. 5 D is t r ic t . N e w a r k . — Under the auspices of the Newark War Emergency Committee, the Newark Division held recently an air raid rehearsal. All the details of an actual raid were carried out and the ambulance men performed their duties to the satis­ faction of the medical men present. N o t t i n g h a m . — On 6th July the Corps was inspected by Lieut. S. W. Malkin, Deputy Commissioner of the District. There were 569 officers, nursing sisters and ambulance men on parade under command of Corps Supt. A. B. Gibson. The Deputy Commissioner after the inspection congratulated the Corps on its efficiency and smart turn out, the Duke of Port­ land, who was also present, commended the members on their work. The Duke of Portland, in opening the V.A.D. Hospital, said it was the first hospital equipped by the voluntary efforts of the Corps, which was formed some eight or nine years ago by the efforts and energy of the men working on the railways in the city, to whom, more than to anyone else, the credit was due for the present work. The hospital had accommodation for 40 beds, but was capable of extension to 70, and it was to be worked entirely by voluntary effort, with the exception of the lady at the head of the kitchen. Headquarters were providing two sisters (Sisters Perkins and Henny), but all the other helpers would be voluntary, and having regard to what he had just seen, he was sure that the hospital would not lack ample support in its beneficent work. There was more than 1,000 men and women in the Corps ; nearly 200 men were on active service in the army, the R.A.M.C., the infantry, and other branches, and many of the women were acting as nurses in military hospitals at the front, and nurses in V.A.D. hospitals. He commended upon their most efficient work at the Whitsun­ tide Patriotic Fair, when they dealt with 348 cases, and re­ joiced that they were going to participate in the August Fair. During a recent disaster, too, they had rendered invaluable aid, and within 20 minutes of the occurrence members of the Corps were on the spot to attend to the wounded.

No.

11 D is t r ic t .

b e r t i l l e r y . — The annual inspection of the Abertillery Man and Nurses Divisions took place on the 6th June, the men were under the command of Supt. Matthews and the nurses were under Nursing Sister Mrs. O. Strickland; the inspection was taken by the District Officer, Mr. Maberly, of Cardiff. After the inspection Mr. Maberly complimented the Divisions on their smartness and general efficiency, and after giving some useful hints on first aid, the proceedings terminated with a vote of thanks.

A

L l w y n y p i d . — The first annual competition in connection with the “ Peter Haig Thomas” Ambulance Challenge Shield, to be competed for by teams from the following colleries :_ Cambrian, Glamorgan, Naval, Gilfach Goch, and Messrs. D. Davis & Sons and Welsh Navigation (Coed Ely), took place on Saturday, 22nd of June, on the cricket and tennis grounds, Llwynpid. Owing to the fact that so many members have joined the colours several of the teams which had entered had to with­ draw from the competition, with the result that only four com­ peted, namely, Glamorgan No. 1 (captain, Cpl. D. Williams), Glamorgan No. 2 (captain, Frank Tudball), Tylorstown (cap­ tain, Sergt. J. Morgan), and Naval (captain, Sergt. H. J. Hopkins). After a keen competition the award was given to the Tylorstown team. The judges were Dr. J. Morgan Rees, Pontypridd, and Dr. De Vere Hunt, Cardiff. The officers of the committee were :— Chairman, Corps Supt. George Payne ; treasurer, Sergt. R. Davies, Clydach Vale ; secretary, Mr. W. R. Matthews, Trealaw.

W hen corresponding: w ith A d vertisers please m ention “ F irst Aid ”


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AMBULANCE

G A ZETTE. —

July 1918.

THE ST. JOHN AMBULANCE GAZETTE. Official Brigade News. J u n e , 1918.

T h e Chief Commissioner has sanctioned the following appointments, promotions, transfers and resignations :— No

1 D istr ict

( P r i n c e o f W a l e s ’ s C o r p s ).

Divisional Supt. W. D. Liddell, No. 1 Division, to be Corps Supt., 28.6.18. East Croydon and Addiscombe N. Division.— Frederick Beard, M.B., to be Divisional Surgeon, 12.6.18. No. 42 Euston Nursing Division.— Miss Stella Emery to be Nursing Officer, 4.6.18. Stratford Nursing Division.— Katherine E. Gardner to be Nursing Officer, 3.16.18. N o. 3 D istr ict.

Birmingham Corps (New Street, L. & N.W.R. Division)' — Wm. Chancellar, M.B., to be Divisional Surgeon, 28.6.18' J. C. Graham to be Divisional Superintendent, 28.6.18. J. F. Lisle to be Ambulance Officer, 28.6.18. Birmingham N. Corps (Edgbaston N. Division).— Mrs. E. M. Milward to be Nursing Officer, 12.6.18. Birmingham Corps (West Smethwick Division).— Joseph Charles Cripps to be Ambulance Officer in charge as from 18.2.18. Arthur Challinor to be Ambulance Officer as from 19.2 .1 8.

Dudley and District Corps (Dudley Nursing Division).— Miss Hannah Little to be Lady Divisional Superintendent, 8.6.18., vice Lady Divisional Superintendent Mrs. Gittens resigned. No.

4 D istr ict.

Manchester and Salford Corps (North Manchester Divi­ sion).— Sergt. M. Lusckinski to be Temporary Superintendent during the absence of the Divisional Superintendent, on active service, 17.6.18. Cammell Laird (Birkenhead) Corps.— George M. Carter to be Corps Superintendent, 19.6.18, vice Corps Supt. W. John­ son resigned. Wm. Simpson to be Ambulance Officer, 19.6.18, vice A. V. Johnson resigned. Stockport Division.— Lewis Leonard Turner to be Ambu­ lance Officer, 7.6.18. John Thomas Barber to be Divisional Superintendent, 7.6.18. Hazel Grove Division.— Sergt. James Smith to be Tempor­ ary Ambulance Officer in charge during the illness of Ambu­ lance Officer J. Daniels, 26.6.18. N o . 5. D i s t r i c t .

Nottingham Corps (Great Northern Division).— William Harold Cunningham to be Divisional Superintendent, 4.6.18. vice Divisional Supt. R. Goddard retired owing to ill-health. Nottingham Corps (Corps Band Division).— George William Hall to be Ambulance Officer, 14.6.18. Nottingham Corps (Beeston N. Division).— Mrs. E. A. Paling to be Lady Divisional Superintendent as from 13.2.18. Hanley and District Corps.— Charles William Bradley to Ambulance Officer for Transport, 17.6.18. Denaby Main Corps (Askern Nursing Division).— Miss Florence Bellamy to be Nursing Officer, 14.6.18, vice Miss M. Elson resigned, 3.6.18. Mrs. Mary Jane Smith to be Nursing Officer, 15.6.18.

No. 6 D istr ict.

Friends (Newcastle) Nursing Division.— Elizabeth Brown to be Nursing Officer, 1.6.18. Dawdon Colliery Division.— Divisional Surgeon Dr. F. W. Squair resigns his appointment. West Hartlepool Nursing Division.— Mrs. Margaret Ann Strovor re-appointed Lady Divisional*Superintendent, 11.6.18, vice Mrs. Ada Lucy Coulson. Mrs. Ada Lucy Coulson to be Nursing Officer, 11.6.18. Murton Colliery Division.— Divisional Surgeon Dr. W. H. Gaunt resigns his appointment. N o. 8 D istr ict.

Hastings Corps (Hastings Nursing Division).— Mrs. Helena Harmer to be Nursing Officer, 20.6.18. Brighton and Hove Corps (Preston Nursing Division).— Miss Clara Mills to be Nursing Officer, 14.6.18. Amy L. Simmons to be Nursing Officer, 15.6.18. Temple Ewell Nursing Division.— Miss Olive Watson to be Nursing Officer, 14.6.18. N o . 12 D i s t r i c t .

Naas Nursing Division.- -Mrs. Mary Greer to be Nursing Officer, 6.6.18. D eaths.

The Chief Commissioner regrets to record the fol­ lowing deaths amongst Officers of the Brigade during the month of June :— No. 2. D F.

istr ict.

Oxford Corps (Woodstock Division).— Divisional Supt. T. Thorpe.

No. 8 D

istr ict.

Corps Officer Dr. E. C. Maguire.

The following sanctioned :— No. 1 D

istr ict

Ambulance

Division

has

been

( P r i n c e o f W a l e s C o r p s ).

Ambulance— No. 81 Kilburn Division, 1.6.18.

R oll

of

H onour.

During the month of June, notification has been re­ ceived of the death of the following Brigade members on Active Service:— Bailey, Pte. G. S., Hoyland, M.H.H.R. Bell, Pte. R. C., Clifton, Bristol, M.H.H.R. Bird, Pte. J., Pelton Colliery, M.H.H.R. Forster, 2nd Lieut. C., Scotswood, R.A.F. Greenwood, Pte. L., Manningham, M.H.H.R. Haslam, Pte. J. T., Blackburn, M.H.H.R. Hirst, Pte. J. S., Blackpool, M.H.H.R. Jennings, Pte. R., Murton Colliery, R.A.M.C. McConway, L.-Cpl. J., Newcastle (Western), M.H.H.R Parrin, Pte. S., Rochdale, M.H.H.R. Sykes, Pte. L., Armley, M.H.H.R. Skinner, Pte. A. W., Hull, M.H.H.R. Turney, Pte. W. J., Wing,JM.H.H.R.


July, 1918.

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Young, Pte. C., Victoria Garesfield and Rowlands Gill, R.A.M.C.

AMBULANCE

GAZETTE. —

5

Their M ajesties’ Silver Wedding.

St. John Ambulance Association (Territorial Branch):— Franklin, Pte. J., M.H.H.R. Keenan, Pte. W. J., M..H.H.R.

M il it a r y

D e c o r a t io n s .

Buzan, Pte., Dover Division, Military Medal.

Ministry of Labour, Employment Department, Queen Anne’s Chambers, Westminister, W.i Lady Ampthill, G.B.E., C.I., R.R.C., Joint Women’s V.A.D. Department, Devonshire House, Piccadilly, W.i. M a d a m ,—

B r ig a d e

r.N.

A u x il ia r y

S ic k

B erth

O r d e r s. R eser v e.

Recuits are still required for this Reserve. Brigade men up to 40 years of age, classified under the Ministry of National Service as Grade HI., and men between the ages of 40 and 50 as Grade II. and III., can be submitted to Deputy Commis­ sioners on Form S.B.R. 1 for immediate service in the Reserve, if accepted by the Admiralty. No.

13 ( U l s t e r ) D i s t r i c t .

The formation of No. 13 (Ulster) District, to consist of the Counties within the Province of Ulster, has been approved. The appointment of Sir Robert Kennedy, Bt., K.C.M.G., as Deputy Commissioner, has been sanctioned by H.R.H. The Grand Prior. No.

12 D i s t r i c t .

No. 12 District will in future comprise the Provinces of Munster, Leinster and Connaught. C e r t if ic a t e s r e c o g n is e d

fo r

A d m is s io n

to

B r ig a d e .

By resolution of the Chapter-General of the Order, the Certificates of the British Red Cross Society and the St. Andrew’s'Ambulance Association will in future be accepted as qualification for entry into the St. John Ambulance Brigade. Co u n ty

M e d ic a l

V o lu n teer

I am directed by the Minister of Labour to refer to the Women War Workers Procession of Homage to Buckingham Palace on the occasion of their Majesties’ Silver Wedding and to express his appreciative thanks for the assistance which the Joint Women’s V.A.D. Department gave to the Employment Department of the Ministry of Labour in organising the cere­ mony. The Minister feels that its dignity and impressiveness must be the subject of congratulation to all concerned, and more especially to the splendid body of women who formed the Procession and who represented many others engaged on war work of vital importance to this country and her allies. I am to enclose a copy of a letter addressed to the Minister by Lord Stamfordham expressing on behalf of the King and Queen the pleasure and satisfaction which they felt in receiving the Procession of Women War Workers. I am also to attach for the information of the Corps a copy of His Majesty’s reply to the Address of Homage. I am, Madam, Your obedient servant, (Signed) T. W. P h i l l i p s .

C o r ps.

Members of the Brigade not liable for Military service may, during the period of the war, enrol in a Volunteer Field Ambulance, nr Voluntary Ambulance Convoy of a County Medical Volunteer Corps, with the sanction of the DeputyCommissioner concerned. Applications for authority to enrol will be made in writing, through their Divisional Officer, or member in charge, to the Deputy Commissioner. In the case of a Division being asked by the Volunteer authorities of the County to form a Field Ambulance or Ambu­ lance Convoy, or a part thereof, the sanction of the Chief Com­ missioner will be necessary. Brigade men whose enrolment in a County Medical Vol­ unteer Corps has been authorised will be allowed to count efficient service in such corps as “ efficiency” under the Brigade Regulations for each complete year’s service during the period of the war.

The members of the Wellington South Nursing Division, N.Z , have successfully passed a high test in sig­ nalling, receiving certificates and congratulations on being the first squad to pass such an examination in Australasia. Enquiries from persons desirous of obtaining certifi­ cates are often addressed to Headquarters as to classes of instruction. It would be of great assistance to the Chief secretary if any of those who contemplate the formation of classes in First Aid, Home Nursing, Home Hygiene or sanitation, especially in London and the surrounding dis­ sects, would advise him of their intention as early as pas­ s' e. This would enable him to forward information to enquirers in time for them to apply to the Class Secretary or admission to the course of instruction.

Buckingham Palace, June 29th, 1918. The Rt. Hon. George H. Roberts, M.P., Minister of Labour. D

ear

M

r

. R

oberts

,—

The King desires me to assure you with what pleasure and satisfaction the Queen and he received the Women War Workers this afternoon. His Majesty considers the admirable parade reflected the highest credit alike on all who took part in the Procession and those responsible for its organisation. Their Majesties hope that no one suffered from undue fatigue and that the few cases of fainting in the ranks were not of a serious character. Yours very truly, (Signed) Stam fordham .

Copy o f H is M ajesty's reply to the Address o f Homage. The Queen and I heartily thank you for the Address to which we have listened with much interest and satisfaction. We are touched by the thought that the first expression of loyalty and devotion on the occasion of Our Silver Wedding should come from this representative body of women, who by their services have assisted the State in the full mobilisation of its man power. In our visits to various centres we have had opportunities of seeing and appreciating the great part which the women of our land are taking in all branches of war service ; and every­ where we have been filled with admiration at their achieve­ ments— an admiration which I believe to be shared by the whole nation. The Queen follows with deep interest every branch of women’s work and has constantly at heart the welfare of women and children. She is proud to be associated with the workers in her position of Commandant-in-Chief of the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps, and it is a satisfaction to us both that our daughter is serving as a Commandant of a Voluntary Aid Detachment. The range of war work undertaken by women is well exemplified in your imposing procession. I understand tha


6

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every woman in your respective units is a whole-time worker, engaged either in some work of national importance under a State Department or in some service of public utility under local authorities. When the history of our country’s share in the war is written, no chapter will be more remarkable than that relating to the range and extent of women’s participation. This service has been rendered only at the cost of much self-sacrifice and endurance. Women have readily worked for long hours and under trying conditions in our factories and elsewhere, to produce the supplies of munitions which were urgently needed at the front and to maintain the essential services of the country. As nurses and V.A.D. workers they have laboured in hos­ pital and dressing station for the care of the sick and wounded with even more than the accustomed devotion which has characterised our Red Cross service since the days of the Crimean War. They have often faced cheerfully and courageously great risks both at home and Overseas in carry­ ing on their work, and the Women’s Army has its own Roll of Honour of those who have lost their lives in the service of their country. Some even have fallen under the fire of the enemy. Of all these we think to-day with reverent pride. We should commemorate, too, the many acts of courage and self-sacrifice performed by women workers in the attempt to save life, and in other ways which appear in the lists of those to whom has been awarded the Medal of the Order of the British Empire. What has already been achieved must serve as a stimulus and a call to further effort. As the struggle in which we are engaged becomes more intense the need of the assistance of all the women of the country grows greater. In many branches of service— in Queen Mary’s Army Auxiliary Corps and the Land Army, to mention only two— more women are wanted and will be wanted. 1 trust this procession to-day will bring home to those who have not yet realised it, the country’s need of their help. I am confident that women and men alike are prepared to make every sacrifice to that end, and that, with God’s help, these sacrifices will not be made in vain. In the sure hope that your labours may soon have their reward in that decisive victory and enduring peace toward which we with all our brave Allies are ever striving, I wish you God speed, In that happy day it will be your proud satisfaction to feel that you have nobly shared in securing these priceless results.

Captain Peake, M .O , 20th County of London Volun­ teer Regiment, will shortly deliver a course of lectures on Military sanitation to the members of the ambulance section of tha£ regiment. The course of lectures will be free, and any Volunteer desirous of obtaining the St.John Certificate in this subject should apply to Sergt. Filmer, 26, Coningham-road, Shepherd’s Bush, W. J2. The first lecture will be given about the first Thursday in September. Mr. C. T. Kingzett, F.I.C., F.C.S., in presiding on the 3rd July, at the annual meeting of the “ Sanitas” Company, Ltd., congratulated the shareholders upon the satisfactory results of the year’s working.' The sales had exceeded those of any previous year, in consequence more particularly of increasing supplies of disinfectants to the various military and naval authorities and continued ex­ pansion of the export trade of the Company. An unusually large amount of working capital was locked up in stocks of raw material and other materials necessary for the Com­ pany’s manufactures, and he looked forward with con­ fidence to the continued prosperity of the business, which had now completed a successful career of 40 years. A balance dividend of 4J- per cent., making, with the interim dividend of 3 I per cent, already paid, a total distribution of 8 per cent, for the year, was declared.

JOHN

AMBULANCE

The

St.

G A ZE TT E. —

John Ambulance Hospital.

history of events since the

T he

July, 1918.

Brigade

18th May, which

has

brought to a close the first chapter of the life of an insti­ tution which may safely be said to be “ second to none” of its type in France, would be read with mixed feelings of pride and sorrow, admiration and disgust by all who are in any way connected with the St. John Ambulance Bri­ gade Hospital at Etaples. It is unfortunate, therefore, that it is not permissible to give a full account of the damage done by enemy aircraft to the hospital, or of the splendid behaviour and devotion to duty on the part of Colonel Trimble and the staff of the hospital. It is im­ possible to speak too highly of their courage and coolness in the face of so trying an ordeal, and it is indeed gratify­ ing to learn that some of them have been rewarded for their gallantry. The loss of life amongst the patients, nurses and orderlies is lamentable, and the wanton destruction of buildings erected to alleviate the sufferings brought about by war can only be looked upon as yet one more barbarous act of a cruel and ruthless enemy, who knows not the meaning of the words Honour and Humanity, and who observes no laws. The undamaged parts of the buildings have now been removed to an area removed from the fighting zone, and it is hoped that in a very short space of time they will again be ministering to the care of the sick and wounded, thereby beginning the second chapter of a wonderful record.

C

a r r a g h e e n

.—

“ Carragheen ” is the gaelic for sea­

weed (chondrus crispus) which coast of Scotland and in known as “ Irish moss.”

is abundant on the west

Ireland,

where

a

variety is

For generations it has been used

■in the highlands cooked with milk.

Mrs. Maitland Mal­

colm, a member of the Surrey 48 V.A.D. when working in a military hospital in Malta, found the gelatine supplied was so inferior that she sent for some carragheen from Scot­ land and used it as a substitute most successfully. On her return from Malta she made experiments to eliminate taste of seaweed, after a year brought specimens of jellies, etc,, to the Food Production Department, where the matter was taken up by the Hon. Assistant Director of Horticulture (Hon. Mrs. Evelyn Cecil). Samples were submitted to both St. Tnomas and the London hospitals, where they were thoroughly tested and highly approved. An arrangement has been made with Sir Arthur Stanley to enable Mrs. Malcolm to open a depot for the sale of Car­ ragheen, and an organisation for the voluntary collection of seaweed on the English and Welsh coasts is being made by the Food Production Department. A book of direc­ tions and recipes can be obtained from Mrs. Malcolm, and orders for Carragheen should be sent to th Carragheen Depot, 8, Exhibition-road, South Kensington, S.W. 7. The price is 2s. a pound, carriage paid, including the book of directions. This gelatine substitute has been highly recommended by Sir Henry Thompson, Scientific Advisor to the Ministry of Food. It will be readily seen what a help this substitute will prove in providing nourishing and pleasant articles of diet for our sick and wounded, especially at the present time when good gelatine (now 7s. 6d. a lb.) is scarce and rising in price.


July, 1918,

— FIRST

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JOHN

The Grand Priory of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England. Chancery o f the Order , St. fohn's Gate , Clerkenwell , London , E .C ., fu ly gth , iq r8 . The King has been graciously pleased to sanction the following promotions in, and appointments to, the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England :—

A s K nights of G ra ce: Major-General Robert Arundel Kerr Montgomery, C.B., D.S.O. Robert Septimus Gardiner. John Caldwell Uhthoff, M.D. (from Honorary Serving Brother). Major John Murray Reddie, C.B. Edward Ansell. Ernest Bruce Charles, K.C.

A s Ladies o f G ra ce: Katharine, the Hon. Mrs.- Corbet. Marie Carola, Lady Galway. Emily Colby, Lady Perley.

A s Esquires : Lieut. Andrew Edmund James Clark, M.C., R.A. Frederick John Coward (f-iom Honorary Serving Brother).

A s Honorary Serving Brothers : Captain Michael Patrick Leahy, R.A.M.C. Henry William Hipwell. Edward Brownfield Wain. Frank Ernest Buckley. Charles John Adams.

A s Honorary Serving Sisters : Mary Ashlin, Miss Thomas. Elsie Clotilda, Miss Smedley. Winifred, Miss Noble. Georgina, Miss Skinner. Elizabeth, Mrs. Taylor.

B or E nrolm ent as Honorary Associates : Major Ebenezer Teichelmann, M.R.C.S., N.Z.M.C. Anthony John Capper Magian, M.D., B.Ch., F.R.G.S. Lieut.-Colonel John Archibald Turnbull, D.S.O., R.A.M.C. Captain Sir Henry Dennis Readett-Bayley, K.B.E. Major Edward Harman Hicks, R.A.M.C. John Frederick Arlidge. L.R.C.P. & S. Herbert Llewellyn Rutter, M.D., F.R.C.S.

St. John’s Day. Anniversary Service and General Assembly o f the Order were held on Tuesday, June 25th, being within the Octave of St. John Baptist’s Day. Holy Communion was celebrated at 8.30 a.m. in the Chapel of the Order in the Crypt of the Grand Priory Church, and a short service, at which the Grand Prior was present, was held at 2.30 in the church. His Royal High­ ness was received at the entrance by the Sub-Prior, the Executive Officers of the Order and Churchwardens, and was conducted to his seat in the sanctuary. The sermon was preached by the Archdeacon of Westminster, Dr. E. H. Pearce, who took as his text an ancient indenture pre­ served at Westminster Abbey, whereby the Order under­ T he

AMBULANCE

GAZETTE. —

7

took to help the Carthusian monks to obtain a water sup­ ply, in return for which the Carthusians covenanted that on their deaths the names of the Prior of St. John and his brethren should be inscribed in the Charterhouse Book of Remembrance to be ever remembered in the prajers of monks. In explaining the reason for taking this deed as his text, the preacher remarked that the deed was sealed at the house of the Order in Clerkenwell on July 19th, 1431 — a time of great crisis, three weeks after the maid of Or­ leans had been burned at the stake in Rouen by the Eng­ lish, who were then heavily engaged in France against the French, and were steadily losing ground. T he preacher continued : “ In the midst of such a time as that, they that feared the Lord met here on this spot in the same quiet, confident, prayerful faith that keeps our hearts pulsing steadily at this grave hour of European destiny, and the one part said : ‘ Your water shall be secure ’; and the other side said : ‘ Our prayers for you shall never fail.’ The present Order of St. John, following the old Hospitaller Order, with whom the care of the body— its food, its cleansing, its recovery from sickness— was a passion, but who were at the same time the champions of the Cross of Christ, stood by their two mottoes taken together— inseparable expressions of one undivided pur­ pose ‘ Pro Fide; Pro Utilitate Hominum.’ ” The choral part of the service was rendered by the gentlemen and children of the Chapels Royal under the direction of Dr. C. H. Lloyd. The General Assembly was afterwards held in the Chapter Hall at St. John’s Gate, the Grand Prior pre­ siding. His Royal Highness first addressed the meeting, and said :— It is a source of great satisfaction to myself to be able to congratulate all the members of the Order on the excel­ lent work they continue to do. I am particularly happy to think that the Order of St. John and the Red Cross Society have combined in working steadily for the good of our sick and wounded soldiers and sailors. Since your last meeting it has been my great pleasure and of great advantage to me to have recently visited Egypt and to be able to hear for myself of the work which has been done there in our Ophthalmic Hospital previous to its destruction by the Turks. I went over the building myself, portions of which are still perfectly intact, although I regret that others are destroyed. The matter has been carefully gone into, and Sir Courtauld Thomson has recommended that we should spend ^3,000 on reconstruct­ ing the buildings so far as to make them perfectly usable and enable us to carry on the work that has been done in the past. It will interest you all to know that it is the only Ophthalmic Hospital in that part of the world that has done a great deal of most necessary and useful work, and that its present loss is very much felt. I feel certain that the whole of the Order would wish this most useful hospital to be so far at least reconstructed as to enable the good work to be continued. You are aware that at my special request sanction was given to the Order of St. John being conferred upon General Sir Edmund Allenby as a special honour for the British General who had taken Palestine from the Turks, and he was decorated by your Grand Prior in Jerusalem. I think the circumstances were unique, and I felt very proud to have the great honour of decorating our General, who has covered himself with glory in Palestine. Ladies and Gentlemen, I do not know that there is any­ thing further that I can tell you, but I would like to thank Sir John Rogers for the excellent work he has done in Egypt and Palestine for the Red Cross and St. John.


8

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I should also like to mention that I hope you are all very proud of the excellent work done by our St. John members on the occasion of the air raids. They have been exposed to considerable danger themselves and they have carried out their work with great efficiency and great gallantry, and I would like you to show your appreciation of these splendid workers, many of whom formed the Guard of Honour outside to-day. I have to thank you for attending in so large a number to-day and for the support you give to the Grand Prior and the Order on such occasions. The Secretary-General made a report on the work of the Order during the year, making special allusions to the St. John Ambulance Brigade Hospital, in France, and the British Ophthalmic Hospital, in Jerusalem. The proceedings terminated with a resolution of thanks from the Sub-Prior to the Grand-Prior for presiding, and to Archdeacon Pearce for preaching.

New Lantern Lecture Given by Ambulance Officer Hanmer. T h e title of the lecture is “ Nature as a First Aider,” and it is based on an article with the same title, by Mr. W. R.

Edwards, which appeared in the “ St Gazette” in May, 1916.

JOHN

AMBULANCE

G A ZE TT E. —

July, 1918.

perature under various climatic conditions, introducing a small amount of the science of physics. The lecture terminates with a caution against hurrying Nature, the last slide of all illustrating Nature’s sovereign remedy. It will no doubt be remarked after reading the out­ line of the lecture that the methods of illustrating the art of first aid differ very materially from the plan adopted in the text-book. In the preparation of the lecture by the author of the article on which it is based, it was borne in mind that what is suitable for a syllabus of a course of lectures and pracT tical instruction is not necessarily the best way of lecturing with the aid of lantern slides. In the latter case thelec­ turer is quite free from the feeling that he is preparinghis audience according to a syllabus, and can allow himself a wider scope than if he had in his mind the questions which an examiner would be likely to set. Accordingly, matters which do not directly bear on first aid as practised have been introduced; in fact, some of the slides have atfirst sight no apparent connection withthe subject, and it is not until their significance is explained that anyone would imagine they could possibly belong to a first aid lecture. Many opportunities will be provided by Mr. Hanmer to those who wish to hear the lecture, and it is much hoped that it will be found alike interesting, novel and instruc­ tive.

John Ambulance

The principal objects of the lecture are to explain; firstly, Nature’s equipment for the preservation of our bodies in the struggle for existence, whether by prevention, warnings of danger, or remedies for damage actually done, and, secondly, how the first aider can best assist Nature in her efforts. T he lecturer begins by showing the value of resource­ fulness in bygone ages and affords examples, taken from tne early days of the human race on earth, illustrating a few of the fundamental principles which underlie the present practice of first aid. After this introduction is given a brief outline of the human body showing how its various parts are built up, and how admirably they are adapted for the purposes they have to perform. X-Ray pictures are shown illustrating fractures and their repair— imperfectly when Nature’s efforts are unaided, and perfectly with the surgeon’s help. An example is also given of Nature’s efforts going too far. The uses of hremorrhage are shortly demonstrated, while much importance is attached to the blood-clot which is looked upon as perhaps the most net essary part of Nature’s first aid equipment, serving as it does the double purpose of keeping blood in a wounded blood vessel and keeping out harmful germs. The subject of infection by germs and other septic matter invading the body through wounds or other ways, is dealt with. In this connection many very interesting slides of artistic uierit are introduced. The circulation of the blood is very briefly explained and the lymphatic system, which is not mentioned in the official text book, receives notice. The necessity for fighting flies, which are regarded as amongst Nature’s most powtrful enemies, is shown, three slides being devoted to this purpose. Nature’s methods of dealing with unwelcome intruders are illustrated in a novel way. Attention is paid to the regulation of the body tem­

S e t te r s

to

the

S d ito r .

We are in no w a y responsible fo r the opinions expressed , or the statem ents m ade , by Correspondents.— E d i t o r , E t c .

FIRST

A ID

LIBRARY.

R e First Aid Library. I herewith suggest a few more books which I think should be useful to anyone study­ ing the historical side of first aid. In the first place W. H. Fincham’s history contains a bibliography of works relating to the Order of St. John. Others are :— “ In Peace and War, Autobiographical Sketches,” by Sir John Furley (Smith, Elder & Co). “ Life of Florence Nightingale,” by Sir Ed. Cook. “ Florence Nightingale to her Nurses,” addresses to her probationers (McMillan). “ The 7 z>tt«-History of the War in South Africa” contains a good account of the medical service in that campaign, includ­ ing a short note of the S.J.A.B. Many books of personal experience of medical work in the present war have already appeared, most of them have been reviewed in F i r s t A i d . Thekla Bower’s (Hon. Serving Sister) is the most comprehensive and should certainly be in­ cluded along with “Six Lectures to St. John V.A.D. Members” (Cornish Bros.), by the same authoress. I should be giad to hear from anyone who has a copy of “ Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem,” by Bedford and Holbeche, for disposal, for my own library.— Yours, &c., D e a r S ir ,—

“ M

an ch ester

.”

At Newton Abbott Ambulance Hall, on the 17th inst., a tablet was unveiled to the memory of the late Dr. R. H. Grimbly, O.B.E.,

the founder of the local corps of the

St. John Ambulance Brigade, which is one of the strongest in the country. The unveiling ceremony was performed by Mr. G D. Woollcombe.


— F I R S T

July, 191& CO N T E N T S E

d it o r ia l

OF

TH IS

T

R

ist r ic t

meanwhile hindering prompt medical

The enhanced value of knowing what is best to

do “ till the doctor comes ” was referred to by Sir Thomas

epo rts

...

...

...

1

Barlow, who presided at the sixth of the series of lectures on first aid at the College of Ambulance (3, Vere-street,

No. 1 ; No. 3 ...

...

...

...

...

2

London, W.) on June 20th.

...

...

...

...

3

himself, he added that the examination of the ear and the

St . Jo

h n ’s

A

G

m bu lan ce

Official Brigade News

a ze tt e

...

...

...

4

Their Majesties Silver Wedding...

...

...

5

St. John Ambulance Brigade Hospital

...

...

6 7

St. John’s D a y ...

7

...

Letter

s

to

th e

E

d it o r

First Aid Library Brevities

...

...

Railway Ambulance

o in ts

To know what is the matter, how to

the urgent need. + *

8

T

h e

lecturer, Dr. Herbert Tilley, surgeon to the Ear

and Throat Department of University College Hospital, after sketching the anatomy of the ear, nose and throat, dwelt on the serious after-effects of neglect in treating the

...

...

...

...

8

...

...

...

...

9

...

...

...

...

10

...

...

...

11

...

...

11

A New Design of Ford Ambulance Body P

...

given by Ambulance ... ... ...

Alteration in Revised Textbook

a c t ic a l

...

medical education.

examine, and what are signs of disease are a large part of

*

The Grand Priory of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England ... ... ...

With regard to the doctor

treatment of ear troubles was a patent defect in present-day

...

New Ambulance Lecture Officer Hanmer ...

many accidents and diseases to which these parts of the body are liable.

He went on to show how efficient first aid

can be rendered.

At

the same time

audience to call in medical aid

as

especially in cases of sore throat in a sign— as Colonel Hunter had

he

warned his

soon as possible, children,

already

a previous lecture— of infectious

A Rare Complicated Accident

Q

attention.

No. 4 No. 5; No. 11 he

Pr

9

dearth of doctors

N U M B ER .

The Importance of First Aid D

AID. —

so often

emphasised

fever.

He

in

illustrated

...

...

...

13

the

Old-Time Method of Transport ...

...

...

13

by citing four cases from his personal experience of the

...

...

14

of a light scratch on the nose.

u e r ie s

an d

A

n sw ers

C

to

o r r espo n d en ts

Treatment of Sprained Ankle Contents of First Aid Outfit

... ...

...

...

14

...

...

14

Effects of Apoplexy

...

...

14

...

of

neglecting even the most trivial

accident

past twelve months, in which death was the result simply

Treatment of Burst Varicose Vein ...

risk

* * * T

h e

triennial appointments to the Executive offices,

Council, and Committees of the Order of St. John of Jeru­ salem in England took place

Brevities.

tist’s Day.

on

St.

John

the

Bap­

The Duke of Connaught as Grand Prior made

the following nominations : The Earl of Plymouth, SubPrior ; Sir John P. Hewett, as Chancellor, to succeed Sir

to the large demand for reprints of the article

Herbert Jekyli, who has resigned owing to residence out of

on “ Alterations in Revised Textbook,” by Dr. N. Corbet

London ; the Hon. Evelyn Cecil, M.P., Secretary-General;

O

w in g

Fletcher, the first instalment of which appeared in our last

Mr. F. W. Pixley, Receiver-General ; The Earl of R^n-

issue, we have decided to reprint the article, as soon as it

furley,

is completed, in pamphlet form, at 2d. per copy, postage

Courtauld Thomson, Chairman of the British Ophthalmic

extra.

Hospital,

Readers desirous of obtaining copies should apply

Director

of

the

Ambulance

Jerusalem Co mmittee; Sir

Department; Dyce

to the publishers, Dale, Reynolds & Co. Ltd., 46, Cannon-

Almoner; Lord Claud Hamilton, M.P.,

street, London, E C 4.

Edmund * * *

Fraser,

Librarian;

Sir

Genealogist and Director of Ceremonies.

Duckworth,

Registrar;

Alfred

Sir

Mr.

Scott-Gatty,

The

following

members of the Council reappointed : Sir Herbert Perrott,

have in this issue a new feature— “ Official Brigade

Sir John Furley, Major-General J. C. Dalton, Lord William

News.” This is an official page, giving a list of promotions,

Cecil, Sir Richard Temple, Sir James R. A. Clark, In­

W

e

etc., in the Brigade.

It will be a regular feature, and we

hope will be of use to our readers.

spector-General Belgrave Ninnis, Sir Owen Phillips, M.P., Sir William Bennett and Sir Mackenzie Chalmers.

The

new nominations to the Council were the Earl of DonoughV

more. Sir William Goschen, and Viscount Chilston.

* *

I t may well be that for many yeari after peace is pro­ claimed the general standard of health will be lowered by the aftermath of war.

The common accidents of life will

»

H .R .H .

T

h e

D

u k e

o f

C

o n n a u g h t

,

Grand Prior, Sir

James Clark and Sir Murvey Malcom, visited the Waltham­

tend to increase at the same time that the speeding-up in

stow Ambulance Station this month.

factories intensifies the liability of industrial mishap, the

appear in our next issue.

A

full report will


10

— FIRST

J ta ilw a g

J lm b u la n c e .

L. & Y .R .— Mr. Tucker, whose name appeared in the recent Birthday Honours as having been made a Member of the Order of the British Empire, is the Commandant of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Voluntary Aid De­ tachment at Liverpool (West Lancashire No. 7). This detachment has rendered a great amount of voluntary service since the outbreak of war, and the mem­ bers have taken duty on 330 occasions when ambulance trains have arrived at Liverpool, and transferred from the trains to motor ambulances upwards of 60,000 wounded soldiers. Mr. Tucker has a long period of ambulance service to his credit and has given up a great amount of time in organising classes and helping forward the ambulance movement in the Liverpool district. He has for the last

July, 1918.

AID.—

captained the Yorkshire and Lancashire Company’s ambu­ lance team which won the Inter-Railway Shield at the Portman Rooms, London, in 1914, has recently been killed whilst on Active Service in France. Mr. Murphy, who saw service in the South African War, rejoined the Forces im­ mediately on the outbreak of war, and had won the Dis­ tinguished Conduct Medal during the present campaign and promoted to the rank of Battery Sergeant-Major.

Alterations

in

Revised

Textbook.

B y N. C O R B E T F L E T C H E R , M.B.. B.A., B.C., Cantab., M.R.C.S., Eng.

Hon. Associate Order o f St. fo h n ; Hon. Surgeon St. John Ambulance Brigade. ( Concluded from page 18 6 .) Page 1 1 8 . — In the description of the Abdominal Organs (1) the stomach is now located “ just below the breastbone towards the left side ” ; (2) the pancreas is named here and on p. 120 ; (3) the kidneys are placed “ one at each side,” and (4) the bladder is situate “ to the front ” in the pelvis. The treatment of Wounds of Abomen is modified. Thus, (1) i f bowel protrudes the lint, towel, etc., must be “ wrung out of boiling water every two or three minutes (an unfor­ tunate incentive to Meddlesome First A i d ) ; (2) if bowel does not protrude instructions are given to “ treat as ordi­ nary wound.” Page 1 2 1 . — For Injury to Kidneys, etc., cold is now recommended in place of heat. For Rupture, “ a pillow under the knees ” replaces the previous raising of buttocks. C

h a pter

V.

(In

se n sib il it y

).

Page 12j . — The descriptions of Brain and Spinal Cord

G

J. T

ucker

,

0

B.E.

fifteen years been the Secretary of the Liverpool Division of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Centre of the St. John Ambulance Association, and in addition has been the Superintendent of the Bootle Division of the St. John Ambulance Brigade since 1907. Mr. Tucker is well known to the frequenters of the Inter-Railway Competitions conducted by the St. John Association at the Portman Rooms, London, having cap­ tained the Lancashire and Yorkshire team which won the Inter-Railway Shield in 1906 and 1908, whilst he acted as instructor to the L. & Y. team which secured the Shield in 1914. He was elected as Honorary Serving Brother of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem in England in 1910. We regret to record that Mr. James Murphy, who

have been— the former entirely, the latter partially— re­ written. Page 124..— The epiglottis is now described as a “ flap,” and attention is directed to the fact that inter­ ference therewith during insensibility— either by “ solids or fluids” or by “ the falling backward of the tongue”— will cause choking or obstruction of air-passages. Page 1 2 5 . — In the description of Respiration, “ en­ largement and diminution of chest cavity ” is substituted for the old “ expansion and contraction of the chest.” Pages 12 J -150 .— The most noteworthy alterations in the Textbook occur in the pages dealing with Insensibility,which have been completely re-written, Asphyxia and its treatment being no longer described separately. Thus (1) three grades of Insensibility are recognised— sleep, stupor and coma; (2) the re-actions of the pupils are set o u t ; (3) the objects of treatment are definitely stated— “ to ensure action of heart and lungs ” and “ to prevent stupor from deepening into coma ” ; (4) the various causes of Insensi bility have been (with advantage) re-arranged and collected into groups presenting similar signs and symptoms; (5) the rules of treatment have been divided into four sections— “ for all cases ii., “ when breathing is absent Hi,, “ when there are no convulsions,” and iv., “ when convulsions are present.” Passes 128-130 .— For treatment of Insensibility— in all cases— the old General Rules apply with certain modifica­ tions . Thus (1) Rule No. 5 directs special attention to p atient (for signs of injury), and to surroundings (for possible clues); (2) Rule No. 10 deals with the return to


July, 1918.

— FIRST

consciousness and emphasises the need for sleep (except in narcotic poisoning) and for warm drinks (except for haemorrhage). The last named warning is badly given and will create the impression that a ll drinks (cold or warm) must be withheld with haemorrhage. Pages 130 1 3 5 .— For treatment of Insensibility— when breathing is absent— the Rules are amplified, useful warn­ ings being given (1) that death is not necessarily present because “ signs of life are absent,” and (2) that attention to the breathing includes the air-passages, pressure on chest and abundance of pure air. Stings of insects are added as a cause of Swelling of Tissues of throat, in the treatment of which a recumbent (in place of a sitting) position is now recommended. Smothering and the effects of Lightning are completely omitted, while the first step in the treatment of Choking is to “ thump t h e . back hard between the shoulder blades.” For Suffocation by smoke, etc., attention is direction to “ heavier than air” gases (e.g., petrol) with the consequent advice to the rescuing First Aider to assume and “ move in an upright position.” Page 1 3 3 .— With regard to Artificial Respiration, cer­ tain alterations are made. Thus (r) the various methods are not, as in previous editions, scattered here and there but are collected together ; (2) three methods only (Schaefer, Silvester and Laborde) are described with precise particulars as to timing of each, the others (Howard and MarshallHall) being discarded; (3) alternation of method (Schaefer followed by Silvester ,‘ for 10 minutes”) is now advised instead of the previous combination ot mtthods (e.g., Silvester and Howard). For Schaefer’s Method new and much improved illustrations (Figs. 56 and 57) are presented and useful hints are given (1) for turning an unconscious patient from a supine to a prone position and (2) for changing the method of artificial respiration immediately signs of congestion appear in the patient’s face. Unfor­ tunately, however, Dr. Schaefer’s instructions “ to make no attempt to loosen or remove clothing ” are omitted ; and his advice to place the hands on the loins is now incorrectly given as “ on the lowest ribs.” Pages 1 4 1 -14 4 .— For treatment of Insensibility with no convulsions— some important alterations are made. Thus (i)the dangers of Concussion are emphasised by a valuable new paragraph (p. 142); (2) Shock, Syncope and Collapse are accurately scheduled and rendered easy of comprehension by contrast with former editions ; (3) the treatment of Syncope, secondary to haemorrhage, is fully dis­ cussed (p. 144); and (4) the peculiar dangers of stimulation are clearly set out. Page 1 4 5 .— The treatment of Apoplexy and Com­ pression is enlarged. Thus (1) the continuous application of cold to the head is advised as supplementary to warmth to b od y; and (2) the need for complete rest is urged. The particular effects of Sunstroke and Heatstroke are more fully described and treatment differs in that administration of cold drinks is not specifically mentioned. Page 14 3 .— The treatment of Insensibility “ with convulsions” is considerably improved, partly because (1) the causes are tabulated, and partly because (2) definite rules are laid down with clear indications as to possible causation, though “ Epilepsy ” (p. 148) is a palpable mis­ print for Apoplexy. The maximum period for a bath is said to be 15-20 minutes and the partial loss of conscious­ ness in Hysteria emphasised. C h a p t e r VI. ( P o i s o n i n g ). Page 13 2 .— The Non-Corrosive poisons are now labelled as Narcotics, Convulsants and Irritants. T o the old list of Narcotics are added Chloral, Veronal, Sulphonal and Trionai.

11

AID.

Page 1 3 4 . — In treatment of Poisoning by Non-Corro­ sives some minor alterations are made. Thus (1) mustard and salt are the only emetics named ; (2) their doses are doubled ; (3) the fingers (two must be used) are now only re­ commended as supplementary method, while (4) the feather and Ipecacuanha wine are omitted altogether. In treat­ ment of Poisoning by Corrosives (1) the doses of antidotes are now stated; (2) the advice to wash out mouth (before allowing patient to swallow) is most unfortunately withheld ; (3) the use of soda as antidote for corrosive acid is with­ drawn and with it warning of its special danger if used in Oxalic Acid poisoning. In treatment of Poisoning by Opium— Permanganate of Potash and Condy’s Fluid are specified as the correct antidotes and their doses are given. Page 13 6 .— Cyanide of Potassium is now bracketted with Prussic Acid, for which an emetic (when possible) is unfortunately not specifically recommended, though it is advised to “ give alcoholic stimulants freely ” — a note­ worthy exception to the Principles of First Aid. Page 138 . — Corrosive Sublimate and Iodine receive brief notices among the special poisons. C h a p t e r V III. ( M e t h o d s o f C a r r y i n g ). Page 1 3 6 . — For the Two-Handed Seat, interlocking of the flexed fingers is now the only method recommended, and a warning is issued that the bearers should hold “ a folded handkerchief to prevent hurting by finger nails.” The modification of this seat— known as the “ Human Stretcher— is included and fully described. Paoe 168 . — For the Three-Handed Seat the bearer must now “ grasp his own forearm,” instead of his wrist This change does not apply to the Four-Handed Seat. Pages 172 seq.— Stretcher Exercises are now included under “ Methods of Carrying.” The weight of the ordi­ nary stretcher is now given as 21-22 lbs.; traverse bars are described as “ traversers,” and foot wheels as “ runners” ; and the pillow sack is more fully explained. Pages \ j8 seq.— The 3 and 4-Bearer Stretcher exer­ cises are now exactly in accordance with R .A .M .C. and Brigade Orders, and three new illustrations (Figs. 83, 84 and 85) are introduced. The modified 3-Bearer and the 6-Bearer Exercises are omitted and the old term “ wagon ” is replaced by its modern equivalent— “ ambulance.” C h a p t e r IX. ( F o r F e m a l e s ). Excepting that the instructions which deal with “ lifting into b e d ” are transferred to Chapter V I I I , and that reference to “ the human stretcher ” is included, this Chapter is unaltered. Pages 210 2 1 9 .— An appendix describing the Roller Bandage is included, though it is definitely stated that this bandage is outside the Syllabus of Instruction in First Aid. F

in is

.

A New Design of Ford Ambulauce Body. By

H. L A N G L E Y JON ES.

T h e chassis is by Ford, the body being butlt to my own design by P. Morgan, of Prittlewell. In constructing the body, the following requirements have been borne in mind :— (1) The use of the vehicle for accident cases occurring in the borough. (2) The transport of invalids to Hospitals and Nursing Homes.


12

— FIRST

AID.—

July, 1918

(3) For Naval and Military work when loaned to the into the ambulance, although plenty of fresh air is admitted V.A.D. to the interior. A t the side of the blanket cupboard is a stretcher cup­ As will be seen from the photograph of the interior, board running the full length of the vehicle, and containing the frames or shelves for holding the stretchers are posi­ a spare stretcher. tioned towards the off side, so that there is a gangway Each of the frames or shelves are designed to take through the vehicle on the near side for an attendant, either a Furley or a R .A .M .C. stretcher or a Naval cot. with clear access for attention to the patient on either frame. The change from stretcher to cot can be made in a moment. The stretchers are retained by wooden stop blocks and When required for one stretcher case only, the upper straps, and the Naval cot by a stop block and an iron frame may be removed, thus giving even more room for safety pin. the patient and for the attendant, and also enabling Spare parts, Stepney wheel, tools, inner tube, etc., are a patient to be loaded in a sitting position if required. carried, as it is desirable to have these immediately at hand The stretcher runners are so placed that there is suffi­ for long runs and night journeys, in case of an accident cient space on the off side for the attendant to place one when a garage is not available. foot on that side of the vehicle and one in the gang­ The side lamps burn oil, and the head lamps are way thus standing astride) and lift the patient if neces­ sary. electric. The exterior of the body is covered with grey

There is a spring seat for the attendant in the gang­ way. On the wall of ths vehicle is a first aid cabinet con­ taining all the usual appliances, and along side it a water bottle which might be needed in an accident case, and long femur splints are strapped to the side of the vehicle. The interior is lighted at night by a small electric la m p ; there is thus no danger of fire as in the case of oil or acetylene lamps. A cupboard in the well of the vehicle is used to con­ tain spare motor parts. T he number plate at the rear is fixed to the flap of a cupboard in which are stored several blankets and a ground sheet, also a half-back curtain for the vehicle; the latter can be fixed in place of the ordinary back curtain, so that air is admitted to the vehicle on a long journey, and dust from the wheels and fumes from the exhaust are not drawn

waterproof material on which white panels are painted, with black lettering, and the St. John device on a metal moveable plate, interchangeable with a Red Cross plate when required for V.A.D. work. The sides up to a good height are all wood covered with “ Rexine.” The interior is enamelled white. When required on V.A.D. work for sitting cases, both frames are removed, and cushions installed giving accom­ modation for four patients who enter the vehicle from the driver’s seat. It should be mentioned that in the choice of a Ford, the necessity for a chassis which could be learned and handled easily by voluntary men had to be borne in mind, as it is necessary in such work to have a number of drivers available in order that a successful service might be main­ tained. It is extremely difficulty to obtain drivers with a knowledge of the more expensive chassis, whereas there are


—FIRST

July, 1918

any number of men already acquainted with the Ford, and a few lessons ensures competence.

AID -

A S K

Y

p r a c tic a l J o in ts . The Editor invites Notes on actual Cases— with, special reference to gooa and bad boints in Treatment—for inclusion in this Column. O

l d

-T im

M

e

eth ods

of

T

r a n spo r t

.

The problem of transport which is only now being solved in its entirety was— previous to the introduction of the Furley stretcher by the St. John Ambulance Association— cruelly neglected. Your readers may, therefore, be interested to hear of an incident which occurred in 1876, and is reported in the biography of the late Dr. Robert Anderson. On this occasion a miner, who had sustained a compound fracture of the lee, was being carried on a hurdle over rough roads, shoulder high, by four men who were not marching in

0 U R

C H E M I

13

SEPTIC WOUNDS Cuts, tears, scratches, abrasions, bruises, sprains, burns, scalds, etc., are rapidly healed by I o d e x . It presents the antiseptic, pene­ trating, and healing properties of Iodine in a bland, absorbable and painless base, and is free from stain, irritation, or corrosion. As a first aid dressing I o d e x is ideal. In field and home, munition and other works, where minor injuries are of daily occurrence, a supply of I o d e x ensures complete antisepsis and rapid healing. For inflamed conditions I O D E X is ideal. Try it. All good chemists stock it.

11 j

I

1 £5

REGULARLY H .M. F l e e t .S u rg e o n s, R .A .M .C . Surgeons, Red C ross Surgeons, Croix R ouge F rancaise,

M E N L E Y

&

USED

BY>:—

B e l g i a n F i e ld H ospitals, F r e n c h F ie ld Hospitals, N u m erou s M ilitary H o s p it a ls , M e m b e r s of S t . John A m b u lan ce .

J A M E S ,

L td .,

39, Farringdon Road, LONDON, E.C.1. Contractors to H.M. Governvient.

U n if o r m s

a n d

E q u i p m e n t I

n te r io r

V

ie w

of

F

ord

A

m bu la n ce

.

step, either broken or military. The screams and groans of the injured man were dreadful to hear. The surgeon protested and appealed to the men to handle and carry the patient more gently. Further, he pointed out that, if they would follow his irections in marching, it would be easier for their patient. Instead of complying with these kindly meant instructions, the men indignantly resented interference, and one remarked, Does he think that we are d d sodgers ?”— F. A., Canon-

A

R

ar e

C

o m p l ic a t e d

A

ccid en t

.

An old man fell from a tree and sustained slight concussion ot brain and fracture of right collarbone. No further injury was discovered by the doctors in charge. Removed to his ouse, the patient was placed in bed and warned against any attempts to move. Next day he was apparently making a good

Vast modern factory resources, added to a century's experience, enables us to supply First A i d and all other Services with uniforms and e q u i p m e n t of g u a r a n t e e d materials, workmanship and finish —at prices that challenge compari­ son with an y other clothing of equal quality. Prices and Samples on request.

16,

N IL E S T R E E T , C ITY ROAD, LONDON, N . 1., and at 6 , Y O R K P L A C E , L E E D S , and 8 4 , M IL LER S T R E E T , G LA SG O W .


— FIRST

14

recovery. On the following day, however (when nobody was present), he got up from bed and was later discovered in a state of profound Collapse, to which he almost immediately succumbed and before medical aid could be summoned. At the Coroner’s Inquest it was shown that, in addition to the fractured collarbone, the patient had broken four ribs on the same side ; that the muscular strain involved in getting up had displaced the fragments of the broken ribs ; and that these had consequently nipped and torn several of the arteries beneath the ribs, with the result that the patient died from Collapse due to internal haemorrhage. N.B.— The interesting points of this case are (1) the diffi­ culty of demonstrating in all cases the presence of fractured ribs ; (2) the unusual and delayed complication of tearing the inter-costal arteries without injury to lung tissue ; and (3) the involvement of several arteries which produced the same results as would follow rupture of a main artery (e.g., femoral)— aggra­ vated in this case lay the age of the patient and the effects of recent Shock associated with the accident.— B. W. T., Peter­ borough.

Q u eries

and

.A n s w e r s

to

C o rresp o n d en ts. Queries will be dealt with under the following rules:— 1 .— Letters containing Queries must be marked on the top left hana comer of the envelope “ Query,” and addressed— F i r s t A i d , 46, Cannon-street, London, E.C. 2.— A ll Queries must be accompanied by a “ Query Coupon ” cut from the current issue of the Journal, or in case of Queries from abroad from a recent issue. 7.— The Textbook, to which reference may be made in these columns,

is the Revised (1917) Edition of S.J.A.A. Manual of First-Aid. T

P.

r ea tm en t

of

S

p r a in e d

A

n k l e

In First Aid we aim at prevention of aggravation (rather than at treatment) of the injury. How would removal of the boot facilitate this object ? No— the advantages of leaving the boot in position with a Sprained Ankle out-of-doors are (1) limitation o f swelling which will almost certainly follow, and which will be restricted by pressure of boot ; (2) protection from exposure (and possible aggravation) while the boot is being removed and the precise nature of the injury is being settled— often a very difficult matter with injured joints ; and (3) avoid­ ance o f delay (incidental to taking off and replacing boot) in removal of patient to shelter and doctor. For these reasons we apply the bandage over the boot.— N. C o r b e t F l e t c h e r . o n ten ts

of

F

ir st

A

id

O

u t f it

July, 1918.

large enough for any Ambulance Hamper. For further par­ ticulars refer to article on “ First Aid Outfits” published in issues of January and February, 1917.— N. C. F.

T

r ea tm en t

of

B

u r st

V

ar ic o se

V

e in

.

P. C. (Sydney, N.S.W.).— With a burst varicose vein, is liga­ ture of the vein necessary subsequent to First Aid treat­ ment, or will the vein repair itself without a surgical operation ? Under medical treatment the vein will usually quickly heal, and the only indication for an operation would be the advis­ ability of radical cure by excision of the varicose vein, which is so often complicated by the development of an ulcer. In many instances the bursting of the vein is the sequel of this ulcera­ tion, and the First Aider has to treat as a wound with haemorr­ hage.— N. C. F. E

ffects

of

A

p o p le x y

.

M. W. (Selkirk).— In Apoplexy, how does Nature repair the damage caused by the ruptured blood vessel ? Since there is a hole in the vessel, why does not blood keep {louring out ? Everything depends on the size of the vessel and the quantity of blood extravasated. Sometimes cases of Apoplexy do become steadily and progressively worse until a fatal issue results. In these cases the blood continues to pour out and to plough up the brain substance. In most cases, however, the vessel is a small one, while the escaping blood is small in quantity and forms a blood clot which (1) blocks the opening in the vessel, (2) prevents further loss of blood and consequent raising of pressure within the brain, and (3)promotes healingoi the vessel. In due course the blood clot is absorbed, chiefly through the activity of the white corpuscles of the blood. For this reason the patient may or may not be unconscious in Apoplexy.— N. C. F.

.

(Sydney, N.S.W.).— With a Sprained Ankle out of doors, why is application of tight bandage over the boot advo­ cated ? Would it not be better to remove the boot first ?

C.

C

AID. —

.

M. L. (Manchester).— We have just purchased a large Ambu­ lance Hamper from Headquarters, mainly for use in Air Raids. It is supplied with Tinct. Iodine, Sal Volatile and Boric Acid in bottles, together with one 4-ounce and three 8-ounce empty bottles. We shall be much obliged if you will advise what would be the most useful to carry in these bottles, taking into consideration the purpose for which the hamper is intended. Why not consult your Divisional Surgeon— who is the best judge of local requirements ? Subject to this condition and pre­ suming that the empty bottles are poison receptacles with glass stoppers, then I suggest that you might use the 4-ounce bottle for pure Lysol, and that for the 8-ounce bottles you might make a choice between Distilled Extract of Witch Hazel or Lead and Opium Lotion (bruises, injured joints, etc.), Condy’s Fluid (cuts, opium poisoning, etc.), Solution of Picric Acid (burns and scalds), and Brandy. Incidentally an 8-ounce bottle is far too large and a 4-ounce bottle (which can be refilled from stock) is

HOME FOR

OFFICE

ORDER

FACTORIES.

An Order made by the Secretary of State, requires that the Occupier in all Factories in the following classes:— Blast Furnaces, Copper Mills, Iron Mills, Foundries, Metal Works shall provide F I R S T A I D C A B I N E T S in the proportion of at least one to every 150 persons, where 25 persons or more are employed. We supply for this purpose two C a b in e t s :— No. I, containing the minimum requirements of the Order. Prices, 1 to 4 Cabinets, 25/=; S to 10 Cabinets, 23/9; 11 to 20 Cabinets, 22/6; over 20, 21/3 each nett. No. 2, containing in addition, the Dressings recommended by H.M. Medical Inspector of Factories in the First Aid Leaflet for the Treatment of Minor Injuries. Prices, 1 to 4 Cabinets, 50/- ; 5 to 10 Cabinets, 47/d; 11 to 20 Cabinets, 45/- ; over 20, 42/6 each nett.

Terms:— Packing free, carriage paid.

Cash with order.

First Aid Cabinets are not required in Blast Furnaces where an Ambulance Room is provided. A M B U L A N C E R O O M S must be provided where 500 persons or more are employed in Factories to which this Order applies. We supply estimates for the equipment required, also for the construction of the Rooms where necessary.

S o u th a ll B ros. & B a rcla y , Ltd., C H a rfo rd

M ills ,

B IR M IN G H A M .


— FIRST

July, 19*8-

A ID

r The S t. J o h n

A m b u la n c e

A s s o c ia tio n .

T

lc

m

o

C orrect

L I F E - S A V I N G L E C T U R E S . Below are outlined five of the LectureDemonstrations given by

A m bulance O fficer C. HANMER in any part of England, Ireland or Wales, as an aid to students and to promote interest in the

A M B U L A N C E R E S C U E

A N D

fo r

O u tfits N u rses

REGULATION PATTERNS HARRODS QUALITY T J E R E at Harrods the Private or * Professional Nurse will find every requisite of her calling, and she may depend implicitly upon the correct­ ness, the quality, and the service of everything supplied. N . U . 147 •— N e a t G r e y Ma t in fine C anton S tra w , trim m ed g r e y ribbon band

6/11

M IN E S

M O V E M E N T S .

t t e

N . U . 145 . — S m a rtly tailored C o a t an d S k i r t in sh ow erp roo f and shrunk g re y tw eed , su itab le for h ard w ear,

I.— L I F E A

Popular

95/6

SAVIN G .

F ir s t

Aid

Le cture.

Illustrated by an unrivalled collection of Lantern Slides and Chemical Demonstrations, and an exhibition of the O ffic ia l F ir s t A id F ilm . The film is at present shown in licensed Halls only. Sunday demonstrations can be arranged. II. Similar to the above, but without the film. III.— R E S C U E A

peep

in to

WORK the

IN

life of

Nature’ s

AS

A

FIR ST

m e t h o d s and fu r th e r th em .

FIRST

A ID .

A practical display suitable for indoors or the open air. The demonstrations are not confined to text-book methods, but show a variety of novel variations which have proved their practical worth. Special Inducements are offered to Mining Districts. No entertainment tax is payable in respect of any of the above, provided that no music or other extraneous amusements are included in the proceedings.

For terms and dates available apply to

Ambulance Officer C. HANMER, D o n c a s te r R o a d , G o ld th o rp e , N e a r R o th e rh a m .

Telegrams : “ Hanmer, Ambulance, Goldthorpe.”

V-

HARRODS Ltd Managing

Director

LONDON SW1

‘ lM y. Benger'f admirable Preparation. ’’

1 he Lancet.

A ID ER.

h ow to

W h y e v e r y o n e should ha ve a k n o w le d g e of F ir s t Aid.

205.

Advice on all outfitting matters gladly given by post to those prevented from visiting the Nurses’ Department (on Harrods 2nd Floor).

M IN E S .

First Aid is discussed in an entirely original manner with the object of showing how Nature prevents and heals injuries and warns us of dangers. This lecture is suitable alike for the novice or expert, and includes several radiographs and a number of slides of artistic merit directly or indirectly illustrating the subject. V .— P R A C T I C A L

C o v ert C loth ,

£ 5 5s.

a Miner,

Showing the miner at work, at play and on the battle­ field. Calculated to create new interest in Rescue Work in Coal Mines. I V .— N A T U R E

G re y

F o o d for I n f a n t s , I n v a l i d s &the A g e d . C o n s ‘ a n t p r e s c r ip t io n b * le a d in g m e d ic a l a u t h o r it ie s in E n t e r ic , a n d o t h e r f e v e r s , h a s s t a n d a r d is e d B e n d e r ’s fo r a ll 1 lo e s s e s in v o lv in g s e r io u s di - e s t iv e d is t u r b a n c e .

Sold in tins by Chemists, etc. ,everywhcn BENGER’ S FDOD I TD.. — Otter Works, — MANCHESTER Kng Branch Offices : New York & Sydnet. Dc-pOts ihrouyhoui Canada.

fffC o eo a VI-G O G O A restores lost energy and builds both brain and body. The ideal m id -m orn in g beverage.

The Food bcvcrage of the People. M a d e in

DELECTALAND


i6

— FIRST

AID.—

July, 1918.

MANUALS

OF

FIRST-AXD,

By N. CORBET FLETCHER, B.A., M.B., B.C ( A ID S

TO

F IR S T-A ID .

T h ird E d itio n .

? f E

C

C

^

A ID S

TO

H O M E -N U R S IN G .

S econd E d itio n .

SjjaJJ cakes

US

Post free, 7 d .

First-Aid Simplified and Tabulated, with Aius to Memory. “ €ol. €ontlie contributes an introduction and we endorse his good o p i n i o n o f the book."— L a n c e t .

S U B S T lT l ^ l SEN D

&e.,

i.tab), M.R.C.S.

P ric e 7 d . , post free.

Home-NursJng Simplified aod Tabulated, with Aids to Memory. “ Th is book w onderfully sim plifies a complex subject a n d should be reeul by a ll students.”— L. & N .W . R y . G a z e t t e .

WHY

Y O U R

AND

W HEREFORE

IN

F IR S T-A ID .

P ric e 7 d . , post free.

A D V E R T I S E M E N T S

Difficulties la Study and Treatment solved by Question and Answer. “ tVe commend this book to Lecturers a n d Students who w ill fin d it o f great service." — F ir s t A id .

E F F IC IE N C Y

IN

F iR S T -A ID .

Post free, i s . a d .

Problems Study, Treatment and Examination solved for Senior Students. ‘ * IVit/tout doubt the book w ill be o f great service in the tra in in g o f those f o r whom it is designed ."— B r it is h M e d i c a l J o u r n a l .

(L a rg e o r S m a ll)

H IN T S

for on e P u b l i c a t i o n or m a n y , a n d w e w ill a r r a n g e

FOR

H O S P ITA L

O R D E R L IE S .

Post f r e e , 7 d.

Orderly Duties Simplified aud Tabulated, with Aids to Memory. A most compact brochure which contains much useful inform ation ."—

for t h e i r in se rtio n a t Office R a t e s , t h u s

P r e s c r ib e d

s a v i n g y o u t i m e a n d t r o u b le . By

AN

J.

M.

IN D EX

OF

CARVELL,

F IR S T-A ID .

M .R .C .S .,

L .S .A .L on d .

A vade-mecum for the Ambulance Worker. F.cap.8vo. Post free, is.2d. D A LE,

R EYN O LD S Advertising

46,

Cannon

S tre e t,

&

C O .,

Agents, London,

E . C . 4.

PO STAL IN STR UC TIO N In “ PRESCRIPTION R E A D IN G ” and “ ELEMENTARY DISPENSING.” Everyone engaged in FIRST AID work should take up ne above Courses at once. A member of S.J.A.B. writes:— “ I feel deeply indebted for the courses of instruction received, have often wanted to take such courses, but could never find where to get such.” (T.B.) Special terms now— half fees —to members of S.J.A.B., &c. A p p ly (stam p ) to M r . J . E . W a l d e n , S e c ., W estm in ster C o lle g e (L a d y D ispen sers S ectio n o f the W estm inster C o lle g e o f C h em istr y and P h a rm a c y , estd. 1874),

1 12, S t . G e o r g e ' s R o ad , S o u t h w a r k , L o n d o n .

EXOEPTIONAL ARE

OPPORTUNITIES

OFFERED

BY

TH E

SANITARY TRAINING 335, H ig h

FIR S T

L t d .,

COLLEGE,

H o lb o r n , L o n d o n , W .C .I.,

O all who aspire to become Sanitary, Factory, Food, Weights and Measures Inspectors, Health Visitors, Maternity and Child Welfare Workers, Dispensers, Relieving Officers, Private Secretaries, Bank, Insurance, Labour Exchange Clerkships and other official appointments. Most successful personal and postal preparation obtainable. For illustrated guide, write the Secretary. Special courses are given on Home Nursing and First Aid, Surgical Nursing, Hygiene, Anatomy and Physiology. For real help and sound guidance the College stands unique. Established 1885. A unique course of Memory Training is presented to each student free of cost.

FEW

WORDS.

(38th thousand).

B y th e S a m e AutDor.

B y the S a m e A u th or.

Cloth, 4d. thousand).

Including useful reference tables. 14 pp. Folder. Paper, 2d. Cloth, 46. T H E C O M P L E T E M A N IK IN , bystems of Body accurately indexed. Invaluable to Students of Anatomy, Medicine, First-Aid and Allied Subjects. Price 2s. net; postage, 2d. T H E TR IA N G U L A R B A N D A G E : Its Application Accurately Described by Words and 116 Diagrams. By

HOWARD

M.

PRESTON,

Dem onstrator

to

ttu

Polytechnic.

116 Illus. Price, is. net; postage 2d. T H E R O LLER BANDAGE. B y th e Sam e A uthor

Its Application Accurately Described by Words and 162 D i a g r a m s . Price, i s . net; postage, 2d. F I R S T - A I D A N A T O M I C A L D IA G R A M S . Twelve in set, on Roller. Post free, 2S. iod. Each Diagram separately, 2d. 5 and 6 (coloured), 6d. each. No. 1 4 .— H U M A N B O D Y . S H O W I N G A R T E R I E S A P R E S S U R E PO IN TS. Col 'ured. Price, 6d. T H E W H O L E A R T O F B A N D A G IN G . THEKLA

BOW SER,

F .J .l

Introdmction b y J a m e s C a n t l i e , F . R . C . S . Illus. Post free, is. 2d. P R A C T I C A L I N S T R U C T I O N IN C U T T I N G O U T & MA KIN G UP H O S P I T A L G A R M E N T S F O R S I C K Sc W O U N D E D . (.Approved by the Red Cross Society). Illustrated. Post tree, is. 2d A S H O R T C O U R S E OF P H Y S IC A L TR A IN IN G . By

ALLAN

P ric e is . 8d. po>t free.

BROMAN.

JOHN BALE, SONS a D A N lEL SSO N , L td ., 83-91, G r e a t T i t e h f i e l d S t r e e t , L o n d o n , W . On F irst A id, M edicine, S u rg ery, an d a ll other S cien ­ tific and L ite ra ry Sub jects.

Second-H and Price*, N ew

!)iscount P rice s.

ree. S ta te wants. B oo ks sent on ap p ro v a l. B o o k s bought. ta t and 113. C h a rin g C roat R oa d , L o n d on , W .C .

P ric e 6 d . n e t.

NOTES A T> Officers Regulation Great Coats. Dark , x T . J 3 » Grey beaver cloth, 54s. to measure. Superior quality Men’s Great Coats, 45s. — Write for patterns and particulars, Thornton & Co., tailors, Brighouse. T

IN

With Coloured Diagrams. 12 pp. Folder. Paper, 2d. H O M E N U R S I N G IN F E W W O R D S . (16th

By

T

S

A ID

ON

at

Hal f

B oo ks at C atalo gu es

W. & Q. FO YLE

P ost fre e 7d.

FIRST

AID

SIMPLIFIED.

B y S id n e y H . L a m b . A Handbook in a tabulated ar d simplified formgiving the main points in first aid, so arranged as to impress them on the memory of the student. DALE, REYNOLDS & CO., Ltd., 46, Cannon St., LONDON, E.C.4.

F

OR SALE, a quantity of Men’s Ambulance Uniform Trousers, all sizes, quite new, 12s. 6d. a pair.— Thornton and Co., 24, Commercial-street, Brighouse.

F

OR SA L E.— Regulation Brown Leather Belts and Pouches; also Caps and Overcoats; samples on approval. — Follett, 4, Victoria-avenue, Bishopsgate, London, E.C.

Printed and Published by D a l e ,

R e y n o ld s

“ FIRST AID’’ QUERY and REPLIES COUPON. To be cut out and enclosed with a ll Queries

& C o ., Ltd., 46, Cannon S t., London, E.C. 4.,

J u l y , 1918.

to

whom all communication* should be addresied.


F I R S T AID AND

ST.

JO H N

THE

-----

AM BULANCE Ed ited b y A R T H U R

No. 290.— V o l . X X V .

AUGUST,

1918.

B.

GAZETTE.

DALE.

[E n tered a t Stationers' H a ll.]

PRICE THREEPENCE

[3/6 P e r A n n o m , P o s t F r e e ]

record to show this increase in strength, and shows that N O TICE

TO

READERS.

the spirit of Brigade work is very much alive. We fully believe that the war will have given a great

FIR 5 T AID is published on the a o t h of ea c h m onth . Annual Subscription is 3 s . 6 d. post free; single copies 3 d .

The

Its aim and object being the advancement of Ambulance Work in all its branches, the Editor invites Readers to send Articles and Reports on subjects pertaining to the Movement and also welcomes suggestions for Practical Papers.

impetus to the Brigade, for many thousands of people at present-engaged on Hospital work of some kind or other will want an outlet for their interest, which can be found in the civil activities of the Brigade,

We cannot foresee

what is going to happen to the Reserves of the Brigade

All Reports, &c., should be addressed to the Editor, and should reach him before the 12th of each month, and must be accompanied (not necessarily for tntblication) by the name and address of the Correspondent.

adopted in this country, such Reserves on a voluntary basis

Subscriptions, Advertisements and other business Communications connected with FIRST AID should be forwarded to the Publishers,

prophesying in this respect, but we can see it has bright

DALE,

REYNOLDS & CO.,

after the war, for if a modified form of conscription is

will not be required.

However, we make no pretence at

prospects in its civil sphere.

L td .,

46 , C a n n o n S t r e e t , L o n d o n , E.C. 4.

Telegraphic Address: “ Twenty-Jour, London." Telephone No. S 471 Bank.

S o u t h a m p t o n C o r p s .— Miss Graham Smith, C o m ­ mandant of Detachment 76, was invested by the K i n g o n the 25th ult. with the R . R C . 2nd Class for d e v o t i o n t o duty, in the Regent’s Park Hospital, Southampton, where she has been a constant worker since October, 1914.

EDITORIAL. We The

deal

on

another page with

the

annual report of the St. John Ambulance

B riga d e

Brigade for the past year.

Report.

of which everyone associated with the work must fetl proud.

It is a record

Although

we

cannot call the report an interesting volume, yet the figures and tabulated matter which it contains have a great signifi­ cance.

H.M. the King

of the Belgians has conferred the

M edaille de la Reine Elisabeth , in recognition of interest taken in the Belgian refugees and wounded, on the follow­ ing Ladies of Justice of the Order of St. John. H .R .H . the Duchess of Albany, the Duchess of Somerset, Adeline, Duchess of Bedford, the Duchess of Buckingham and Chandos, and Lady Perrott, R.R.C. This decoration is very highly prized in Belgium. It has also been given t o Viscount French and the Hon. Lady Lawley.

Take one instance alone, we find that the personnel

supplied by the Brigade to Naval and Military authorities, Private Hospitals and Hospital Ships, up to May, 1918, reached the huge total of 22,569, nearly the strength of the Brigade at the outbreak of war; such figures as

these

should convey to the man in the street some idea of the magnitude of the organisation. of the Brigade

is shown at

25,560 in i9t3 .

Again, the total strength 65,391, as compared with

We do not know whether this figure is

exclusive of members on Active Service; at

all events

there is an increase of approximately 4 per cent, over the previous year.

When it is considered that superintendents

have been sufficiently hard put to it by war conditions in carrying on their Corps and Divisions, it is a creditable

An ambulance competition was held on August 3rd at Congleton, Cheshire, in connection with a Garden Party in aid of the Red Cross and Somerford Park St. John Hospital. Owing to the heavy and continuous rain it had to be held in the Drill Hall instead of in the grounds of Hynshall Hall. Fourteen teams competed, the first prize being won by Newcastle North Staffs. Railway ; second, by London Road, Manchester; and third, by Cresswell, one point only dividing the teams. T he competition was organised and prizes given by Dr. Lowe, Surgeon of the Congleton Division, North Staffs. Railway Corps; secre­ tarial duties being carried out by Ambulance Sergeant Yates, of that Division. The judges were Dr. March, of Macclesfield, and Dr. Picton, of Holmes Chapel, whose decisions gave entire satisfaction. Sir Walter Shakerley distributed the prizes, complimenting the winners for their smartness and knowledge of first aid.


FIRST

v

a a

'

Jh « Grand frio rg of the 0rd«r of the K ospital of S t. Jo h n of Jerusalem in Sngland. AMBULANCE

Jhe No. 1 D is t r ic t . D eputy

S t.

Jo hn

.Ambulance B rigade. ORDERS.

------

W. H. W IN N Y , O.B.E.

S E P T E M B E R , 1918. Sunday Duty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. Sunday, 1st.— No. 77 Division, Underground Railways. „ 8th.— No. 78 „ Enfield. „ 15th.— No. 72 „ General Electric Co. „ 22nd.- No. 80 „ Stoke Newington. „ 29th.— No. 81 „ Kilburn. From 2.30 p.m. to 8.30 p.m. Key from St. John’s Gate, 2 p.m. PROM OTIONS

AND

APPOINTM ENTS.

Attention is called to B.O. 327 for promotions and appoint­ ments, which states :— “ Appointments, Promotions and Resignations of Officers ol the Brigade ; also Awards for War Service, and Casualties, will in future appear in “ First Aid and the St. John Ambulance Gazette.” A N N U A L RETURNS. There is still a number of Wales’s Corps whose returns for yet to hand. These must be sent possible. BRIGADE

Divisions in the Prince of the year 1916-1917 are not to Headquarters as soon as YEAR.

The Brigade Year for the future and including the current year commences on the 1st January and terminates on the 31st December. Returns for the current year should therefore be made, not up to the 30th September but up to the 31st December. Divisional accounts should also be made up to the end of December, and the annual meeting of the Division held as soon after the end of December as possible. In making returns, figures for the whole fifteen months should be included. APPLICATION

F OR

SERVICE

BADGES.

Application for Service Badges should now be made early in the new year, after the B.F .i’s have been prepared and sent to Headquarters. OFFICERS’

TRAINING

CO UR SE.

Arrangements vere made for the first meeting of the above to take place at St. John’s Gate on Thursday, August 15th, the District Surgeon delivering a short inaugural lecture in both nursing and ambulance wotk, followed by instruction in drill by the Coips Supetintendent. It is hope to continue these meet­ ings once or twice a month, if Officers respond in sufficient numbers. The course is intended to cover instruction in the work of Officers generally, and the organisation and mainten­ ance of Divisions. Every Ambulance Officer is welcome to these meetings, whether in charge of a Division or not, and on special occasions Nursing Officers will be invited. As it is at present difficult to ascertain the most convenient night for the greatest number of Officers to be present, notice of meetings will be sent to each Ambulance Officer by post­ card. S E R V I C E M EDA LS. A few Service Medals are now ready for presentation, and it is hoped to arrange for a public presentation early in September. (Signed) W. H. W IN N Y ,

Deputy-Commissioner. Headquarters :— St. John’s Gate, Clerkenwel

August, 1918.

I M P O R T A N T N O TIC E. Divisional Secretaries are requested when sending news­ paper cutting of their meetings, etc., to give the date of publi­ cation of the newspapers.— E d i t o r .

DEPARTM ENT.

D IS T R IC T

C o m m issio n er :

A I D. -

E.C.

W a l t h a m s t o w ( N o . 29) D i v i s i o n .— Saturday, June 2 2 n d was a day which will ever live in the memories oi this Division a n d No. 11 Nursing Division.

Walthamstow War Weapons Week was opened on that day by Field-Marshall H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught and Strathern, K.G. It was considered to be a fitting occasion for the duke to be invited to inspect the fine new ambulance station so recently opened by the Princess Arthur of Connaught. On the invi­ tation of the Chief Commissioner, Col. Sir Jas. Clatk, C.B., the duke readily acquisced, with the result that Walthamstow Divisions, men and nursing sisters, combined to make the visit a memorial one. e Long before the scheduled time of arrival everyone con­ cerned was taking up their allotted positions. The excellent bugle band belonging to the Division was drawn up to the right of the entrance, facing the main street, and there, too, was a long line of men and nursing sisters foiming guard of honour to welcome H.R. Highness. The first to arrive was the Chief Commissioner Col. Sir Jas. Clark, C.B., accompanied by Major Darvil-Smith, C.B.E. His Royal Highness upon arrival, was received by the Chief Commissioner, Deputy Commissioner W. H. Winny, O.B.E.; District Surgeon C. J. R. MacFadden, M.D. ; Major P. G. Darvil-Smith, C.B.E.; Lieut.-Col. Challis, M.D. (Divi­ sional Surgeon) ; Div. Supt. A. S. G. Blum, H.S.B., and others. His Royal Highness was conducted round the Ambu lance Station—the casualty receiving ward taking his particular attention. Here there was seen most up-to-date appliances for dealing with first aid. His attention was draw to the special emergency surgical trolley for the use of medical men called in to a case. His Royal Highness expressed himself highly satisfied with the arrangements made for dealing with the sick and in­ jured. The nurses own room was admired, and the two nursing sisters in charge received a word or two of congra­ tulation from the duke. In passing once more through the casualty ward His Royal Highness spent some moments before the memorial placed there in memory of the fallen members of the Division. He was informed that the designer was one of the members— Pte. A. G. Mattacks— and the work was exe cuted under his personal supervision. The Duke read the names inscribed on the memorial and expressed the hope that they should have no further addition to make to them. The next part of the programme was an inspection of the men of No. 29 Division and the nursing sisters of No. 11 Divisian. They presented a very smart and imposing spectacle, and the Duke in passing down the lines did not fail to notice one of the members who had lost an arm in France and another who had received his discharge after serving his country since the outbreak of war. Ptes. Underhay and Martin will have something to remember. The Duke also conversed with some of the members who were in possession of their long service medals. He did not fail either to give one or two of the nursing sisters a word of congratulation. Both No. 29 Division and No. 11 Nursing Division con­ sider themselves highly favoured to think that on one day they should have the special honour of being inspected by the G i a n d Prior of the Order and also by the Chief Commissioner of the Brigade. The signed photograph of the Chief Commissioner, kindly pre­ sented to the Superintendent for the Division, and now hang­ ing in the Station, will ever temind them of the kindly thoughts and interest which obtained for them a visit from the Grand Prior of the Order. L i m e h o u s e (No. 76) D i v i s i o n . — In connection with the Remembrance and Commoration Day Services at St. Ann’s Church, Limehouse, this Division held a successful Church Parade. Under Ambulance Officer Mr. Arthur Marks the


August, 1918

— FIRST

“ failin’’ was made at East India Dock-road Police Station yard. The Division was favoured by the presence of repre­ sentatives from Nos. 2, 7, 10 and Grays Divisions, S.J.A.B., also about 250 Special Constables of “ K” Division, and the Dixon-street Patrol. The Rev. J. W. Green, M.A., Rector of Limehouse, preached a very telling sermon, taking for his text, “ Not by might nor by power but by My spirit, saith the Lord of Hosts.” During the singing of that fine hymn, “ Thro’ the night of doubt and sorrow,” the collection was made, which was to be divided between the British Red Cross Society and the Church expenses. Mustering after Church in the grounds attached, a march back was made where Mr. A. Marks thanked the members of the visiting Divisions for coming, promising to return the honour should an opportunity be given. No.

2

D is tric t.

N O R T O N H i l l .— Owing to so many having gone on active

service, and the consequent greatly increased demand upon the abilities of the medical gentlemen left in civil life, the St. John Ambulance Association, with the view of organising assistance for any doctor willing to take up a course of First Aid or Home Nursing lectures, invited sufficiently advanced in First Aid or Home Nursing members to submit to an examination for appointment, during the duration of the war, as officially recog­ nised demonstrators to any medical lecturer who might desire such help. Dr. John Griffith, the Deputy Commissioner for the dis­ trict, conducted an examination at Redland Park House, Bristol, on June rst last. From the result just announced it is learnt that two mem­ bers of the Norton Hill Division, Mr. S. Lloyd Harvey and Mr. Gomer G. Phillips, superintendent of the Somerset Mines Rescue Station, Midsomer Norton, were alike successful in obtaining Demonstrator’s Certificates in both First Aid and Home Nursing. No. s D is trict. S h e f f i e l d .— Two parties of Officers, N.C.O.’s and men of the Sheffield Corps, were privileged to inspect the “ Mine Rescue Station,” at Chesterfield, on July 6th and 20th respectively. To those who have had no experience in mining work these Rescue Stations are a revelation. That was the general feeling when the party left Chesterfield. On arrival, the members were introduced to the Chief Officer, Mr. Wilson, and his staff, and found, that here at any rate, the right man was in the right place. Mr. Wilson seems to have everything connected with mining and rescue work at his finger ends, and he first showed the electrical installation for calling out the men in case of emergency, from whence the party was shown the various apparatus used by the rescue teams, and some of the men were privileged to wear this equipment. The station is replete with a large motor fire pump and motor van, in which the men travel and convey their equipment to the scene of the disaster. There are only four men resident at the station, but each colliery has it own rescue team, the members of which come to the station for training. Here again Mr. Wilson has shown his capabilities as a first class instructor. The ground on which the station is built, being below the road level, a large basement has had to be built. This Mr. Wilson has constructed into a minature pit, with apparatus for filling it with smoke. The rescue team in their training having to clear the air and rescue dummy, or in some cases, real men, just as though they were in an actual pit on fire. A visit to the single mens’ quarters, which is a verit­ able home from home, brought to a close what was considered one of the most instructive days the Sheffield Corps has ever had, and most of its members will not be found wanting should they be at hand when a colliery disaster occurs.

No. 11 D istrict. P o n t a r d a w e .— The Public Hall was packed on Monday evening, July 20th, on the occasion of a reception to Pte. Wm.

AID -

19

D. Jones of the R.A.M.C. He was escorted from his home at Alltwen by the St. John Ambulance Brigade, men and nurses, headed by the Boy Scouts and bugle band. At the Public Hall Mr. Jno. Edwards presided over the meeting and presented the hero with a cheque on behalf of the Soldiers and Sailors Association, Pontardawe. Mr. J. Jenkins Jones presented a wrist-watch to him on behalf of the Glantawe woiks, where he was employed pre\ ious to joining the Colours. Divisional Supt. D. Williams read the official account of the brave deeds performed by Pte. Jones, which won for him the highest award and honour— the D.C.M. At the request of the chairman, Miss Jones, Commandant of the V.A.D. Nursing Division, ascended the platform and made a most suitable speech, in which she said how glad and proud we all were to turn out and welcome one of our members who had won such distinction. It is the highest honour yet brought to Pontardawe by a Pontardawe man.

No. 12 (Irish) D is t r ic t . The Joint Annual Inspection of the S.J.A.B. and . B.R.C.S. was held on Saturday, 16th' June, in Lord h eagh ’s Gardens, when over 800 nurses 300 men paraded. Owing to the unavoidable absence of his Excellency Lord French, Loid Lieutenant of Ireland, the inspection was conducted by the Earl of Donoughmore and the Hon. Sir Arthur Stanley, G.B E., M.P. The results of the competitions as announced by Sir John Lumsden, K.B.E., M.D,, were :— Irish Women’s Ambulance Challenge Cup— Harcouit -Nursing Division, 215 marks; 2nd, Borrisokane. (co. Tip­ perary) Nursing Division, 214 : (eight teams competed), Dublin Ambulance Challenge Cup— City of Dublin Divi­ sion ; 2nd, Irish Land Commission Division (Seven teams competed). Talbot C u p —co. Dublin No. 48 Team, B.R.C.S. (five teams competed). Meath Cup— co. Dublin No. 14 Team, B.R.C.S (eleven teams competed). Sir Arthur Stanley, at the request of Sir Maurice Dockerall, presented certificates of honorary life membership of the British Red Cross Society for distinguished service during the Sinn Fein rising of 1916, to Miss Jeanie Fitzpatrick, Miss Nora Fitzpatrick, and Mirs. Crawforth Smith (Commandant), co. Dublin V.A.D. No. 2 ; Miss Emily K. Harris (Com­ mandant) co. Dublin V.A.D. No. 28 ; Dr. Reginald Peacocke (Assistant County Director), Mr. W. G. Smith (Joint Assistant County Director), Mr. H. O’C. Fitzsimon (Commandant) ; Mr. R. Peat, Mr. S. W. Dixon (ex-Sergeant R.I.C.), Dr. S. Wayland, Medical Officer ; Mr’ W. Kennedy (pharmacist), Mr. M. J. McDonald, R.I.C.; Mrs. James Giltrap and Messrs. R. A. Olliver, W. P. Donnelly, Wm. Cantley, Henry Olds, W. Fetherstonhaugh, and Mr. Andrew Peat, co. Dublin, V A D No. 7. Sir Arthur Stanley expressed his hearty appreciation of what he had seen of the V.A.D. work on his first visit to Ire­ land. Mr. Justice Ross proposed a vote of thanks to the Inspecting Officers and the proceedings closed with the play­ ing of the National Anthem. Assistant County Directors W. G. Smith and Reginald H. Keatinge had charge of the arrange­ ments. A Nursing Division has been registered this month in Portarlington, Queen’s County, due to the efforts of Assistant County Director Mr. Algernon Odium. Dr. T. W. Rice, who has given all the lectures gratis, has consented to act as Divi­ sional Surgeon. About 30 persons have been enrolled. Boyle Nursing Division, Co. Rosecommsn, was inspected on May 31st by Lady District Officer Miss Blandford. Out of 15 members on roll 13 paraded in indoor uniform. Miss Mary ffolliott, Lady Divisional Supt., works indefatigably with little or no encouragement and under great difficulties. The mem­ bers are to be congratulated on the excellent work they are doing at the local War Hospital Supply Depot.


20

— F IR S T

A ID

&

THE

ST.

JOHN

AMBULANCE

G A Z E T T E .—

August, 1918

THE ST. JOHN AM BULANCE GAZETTE. Official Brigade News. July , igi8. T he Chief Commissioner has sanctioned the following appointments, promotions, transfers and resignations :— No. 3 D i s t r i c t . Birmingham Nursing Corps (Edgbaston Nursing Division). — Miss Kate Whitmore to be Nursing Officer, 15.7.18. Northampton Corps (Spencer Nursing Division).— Miss Emily Ada Osborn to be Lady Divisional Supt., 30.7.18. Mrs. Julia Bradford Livesley to be Nursing Officer, 30.7.18. Miss Alice Mary Nobles to be Nursing Officer, 31.7.18. Edward Arthur Saunders, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. to be Divisional Surgeon, 31.7.18.

No. 4 D

istr ict.

Altrinchan Nursing Division.— Mrs. Brenda Crosby to be Nursing Officer, 2.7.18. Colne Division.— James F. Tyson to be Ambulance Officer, 18.7 .1 8 .

Tottington Nursing Division.— Miss Mary H. Halliday to be Nursing Officer, 24.7.18, vice Nursing Officer Miss Greenhaigh resigned 18.5.18. Oldham Corps (Oldham Nursing Division).-— Florence Eastwood to be Nursing Officer, 26.7.18. Mary Ellen Easthope to be Nursing Officer, 26.7.18. Nelson Corps (Nelson Nursing Division).— Mrs. Lillie Booth to be Nursing Officer, 27.7.18, vice Nursing Officer Mrs. Maud Farrington resigned 11.5.17. Mrs. Margaret Waddington to be Nursing Officer, 18.7.18. Miss Ruth Mackwell to be Nursing Officer, 29.7.18. Miss Hilda Wood to be Nursing Officer, 3 0 .7.18. No. 5. D i s t r i c t . Nottingham Corps (Lenton Division).— Robert Pells to be Ambulance Officer, with effect from 28.4.18. Bulwell Division.— James Boxter to be Ambulance Officer, 1 3 .7 .1 8 .

Earby Nursing Division.— Miss Lily Slanden to be Nursing Officer, 11.6.18. Hanley and District Corps (Walstanton, May Bank and Porthill Nursing Division.-— Miss Jane Hobson to be Lady Divisonal Supt., 8-6-18. Mrs. Ethel M. Till to be Nursing Officer. Bradford Co-operative Society’s Nursing Division.— Mrs. Martha R. Meggs to be Lady Divsional Supt, 19-6-18. Robert Crawford, M.B., Ch. B., to be Divisional Surgeon, 19-6-18. Castleton Division.— George Brown Hillman, L.M.S.S.A., to be Divisional Surgeon, 26-6-18.

No. 6

D istrict.

Malton and Norton Division.— James Ernest Long, M.D., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., to be Divisional Surgeon, 27-7-18. No. 8

D

ist r ic t

.

Corps Surgeon and Supt. George Looks, M.R.C.S., to be District Officer, 26-7-18. Tunbridge Wells Nursing Division.— Mrs. Harriott Aitkin to be Nursing Officer, 18-7-18. Mrs. Evelyn Lees to be Nurs­ ing Officer, 18-7-18. Hastings Corps (Hastings Division).— G. H. Howe to be Acting Corps Surgeon and Supt., 26-7-18. James Hope to be Ambulance Officer, 26-7-18. Temple Eweli Nursing Division — Lady Division Supt. Miss M. Nuttal resigned her appointment, July, 1918.

No. 9 D i s t r i c t . Divisional Supt. Edgar Thomson to be District Inspector of Stores, 2-7-18. Parkstone Nursing Division.— Mrs. Emma Swame to be Nursing Officer with effect from 19-2-18, vice Nursing Officer Mrs. Scott, resigned. No. 12 D i s t r i c t . Public Service Corps (Royal College of Science Division). — Joseph Bamford to be Divisional Supt., 4-5-18, vice Divi­ sional Supt. D. S. Jardin, deceased. 1 N ew

D iv isio n s.

Tne following new Divisions have been sanctioned and registered :— No. 3 D i s t r i c t . Y.W.C.A. (Birmingham Nursing Corps. 1 Spencer Nursing Division (Northampton Corps), 23.7.18. Motor Transport Division (Birmingham Corps), 27-7.18. No. 5 D i s t r i c t . Uttoxeter Railway Division (North Staffs Railway Corps), 25.6.18. Conisborough Division (Denaby Main Corps), 15.7.18 No. 6 D i s t r i c t . N.E.Ry. Hull Nursing Division (Hull Corps), 18.6.18. No. 12 D i s t r i c t . Morgan Mooney’s Division (City of Dublin Corps), 17.18. Portarlington Nursing Division, 20.7.18. St . John

V oluntary

A id

D etachm ents.

During the month of July three St John Women’s Detachments have been registered, as set forth below:— Northampton 32 (formed out of the Peterborough Nursing Division). Commandant, Mrs. Perkins, Hillmorton,The Park, Peterborough. Northampton 36 (formed out of the Geddington Nursing Division). Commandant, Miss Sheffield, St. Alban’s, Gedding­ ton, Kettering. West Riding Yorks. 184 (formed out of the Elland Nurs­ ing Division). Commandant, Dr. G. Hoyle, Burleigh House, Elland, Yorks. R oll

of

H onour.

During the month of July, notification has begn re­ ceived of the death of the following Brigade members on Active Service:— Bradley, Pte. E., Sheepbridge, M.H.H.R. Brewer, 2nd.-Lieut. T. E., Shotton Colliery, Royal Air Force. Daniel, Pte. L., Taylorstown, M.H.H.R. Darkens, Pte. C. R., No. 1 District, 13/E. Surrey Regt. Ellis, Pte. C., No. 7 Division (No. 1 District), M.H.H.R. Exton, Pte. C., Padiham, M.H.H.R. Flint, Miss F. D. L., Newarke, N.D., V.A.D. Fowler, Pte. F., Blackburn, M.H.H.R. Goodison, Pte. J., Spalding Railway, Sherwood Foresters. Green, Sergt. G., Olney, Bedfordshire Regt. Jones, Corpl. B. B., Ferndale, M-H.H.R. Lewitt, Pte. L. A., Leicester, M.H.H.R. Sanderson, Pte. A., Rotherham “ A ”, R.A.M.C. Scott, Pte. J., Littletown and Sherburn, R.A.M.C. Tugwell, Pte., Dover, 1/2 Lancashire Regt. Walker, Miss J., South Shields N.D., V.A.D.


Aqgust, 1918,

— F IR S T

A ID

&

THE

ST.

Wallis, 2nd.-Lieut. N. H., Brighton and Hove, R.F.A. White, Pte. H., Harbury, R.N.A.S.B.R. Wilks, Sergt. C. P., Cheltenham, M.H.H.R. Willey, Pte. H., Olney, Oxford and Bucks L.I. Wraight, Pte. W., Beckton, K.R.R. M il it a r y D e co ra t io n s . Cavanagh, Miss M., Maidenhead N.D., Military Medal. Hounslow, Miss E., Oxford City, Military Medal. Rnaggs, Pte W. R., Whitby, Military Medal. Lyth, Pte. F., Whitby, Military Medal. Watts, Pte. F., Oxford City, Military Medal. B A

n nu al

R

e

-e

r ig a d e

x a m in a tio n s

O

r d er s

.

.

Particular attention is called to B.O. 305, dated 1st Sep­ tember, 1917. Jt has been brought to the notice of the Chief Commis­ sioner that the instructions laid down therein are not being carried out, and that in many cases application for Brigade Annual Re-examinations is being made to the Chief Secretary of the Association. As stated in B.O. 305, applications for these examinations should be addressed to the Deputy Commissioner of the District. Deputy Commissioners are in possession of the necessary forms i.e., B.F. I i a , B.F. 1 I B , etc., and will make all the necessary arrangements. The attention of Officers in Charge of Divisions is par­ ticularly drawn to the last paragraph of B.O. 305, which ap­ pears to be lately entirely ignored. Special care should in future be taken that this paragraph is strictly complied with, as non-compliance with the procedure laid down therein leads to a great deal of correspondence with the Examiner, which could otherwise be avoided. It has been necessary to make the following alterations in the additions to B.F. I IB :— (1) The Divisional Superintendent, after having entered on B.F. 1 I B , the names of the \vhole Division, should insert the word “ absent ’’ againt the names of those who, for various reasons, are not present at the examination, or ’ the letters “ O.A.S.” if they are on active service. },• i( (2) The name and address of the Divisional Superintendant should be entered in the space now provided for the purpose. (3) The date of the examination should be inserted in the space provided for the purpose. (4) The Divisional Surgeon conducting the examination should add his signature, together with his address, to Form B.F. 1 I B . P

r o m o t io n s

A

an d

p po in tm e n t s

.

In future, promotions and appointments to Corps or Divi­ sions of the Brigade which have not rendered their annual returns will not be entertained unless under exceptional cir­ cumstances.

The

E ight By

P ointed

Cross.

W m . R. E D W A R D S .

W h e n in the year 1 1 2 0 Raymond d u

Puy became Grand Master of the Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem, one of his first acts was to draw up statutes for its govern­ ance. These included an ordinance that members of the Order should wear on their robes a white eight pointed cross, and this has ever since been the badge of the Order. The cross was to be worn to put its wearers in mind of bearing always in their heart the cross of Jesus Christ adorned with the eight virtues that attend it. It was further laid down that brothers ought likewise to apply themselves continually to an exact observation of what they promised to God when they made the three vows— Chastity, Obedience and Poverty— and to the prac­ tice of all other moral and divine virtues, so that being inflamed by charity they might have no dread when taking

JOHN

AMBULANCE

GAZETTE. —

21

the sword in hand and exposing themselves with prudence, temperance and fortitude to all sorts of dangers for the honour of Christ our Saviour and His Holy Cross, and for the defence of justice, widows and orphans. It will be seen from the above that from the earliest times of the Order’s history the points of the cress were associated with the eight Christian virtues, and also that what are know as the four cardinal virtues— prudence, justice, temperance and fortitude— were mentioned in the Statutes of the Order. Moreover, evidence is available to show that the four cardinal virtues had long previously been asso­ ciated with the four arms of the rectangular cross. Later the expression “ beatitudes” look the place of “ virtues,” and in Helyot’s History of Monastic, Religious and Military Orders, published in French in 1715, the eight Beatitudes are set out. These do not at all closely correspond with the eight Beatitudes mentioned in St. Matthew’s Gospel, but the French words, somewhat freely translated, describe them as (1) Spritual tranquility, (2) Life without malice, (3) Contrition, (4) Patience in adversity, (5) Love of justice, (6) Mercy, (7) Sincerity and purity of heart, (8) Endurance under persecution. In the same work it is stated that the cross was ordained white as a sign of purity, and was to be borne without stain or spot, as much in the heart as outwardly. A prayer, based on the old traditions of the Order, is used at the services of the Order, and a copy is given to all newly appointed Members and Associates on signing the Homage Roll. The prayer runs :— F or

a l i. w h o

w ear

th e

W

h it e

E

ig h t -P o in t e d

C

ro ss.

Let us pray God, through Jems Chiist our Lord, that as we wear the sign of v ur Redemption, so we may ever remember in our lives that its four arms symbolize the Christian Virtues— Ptudence, Tem­ perance, Justice, and Fortitude ; that its points rep.esent the eight Beatitudes which spring from tfe practice of those Virtues ; and thit its whiteness is the emblem of that purity of life required in those who fight for the defence of the Christian Faith and live for the service of the poor and suffering. — Amen. It is now usual to associate the eight Beatitudes pre­ cisely as they appear in the 5th Chapter of St. Matthew, with the eight points, and in the east window of the Grand Priory Church of the Order, Clerkenwell, the glass of which was presented in 1914 by Mrs. Man Stuart, a Lady of Grace of the Order, in memory of her husband, Colonel J. A. Man Stuart, a Knight of Justice, the beatitudes are represented in medallions in the following manner :— Blessed are the poor in spirit , f o r theirs is the Kingdom o f Heaven. The Recording Angel with the forgiven penitent kneeling. Blessed are they that mourn , fo r they sh a ll be comforted. The Magdalene sees and recognises the Risen Lord.

Blessed are the meek f o r they sh a ll inherit the earth. The Annunciation.

Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after righteous­ ness., f o r they sh a ll be filled.. The last Communion of the Knights of the Order, on the morning of St. John’s Day, 1565, in the little chapel beneath the fort of St. Elmo, then besieged by the Turks. B lissed are the merciful , fo r they sh a ll obtain mercy. St. John the Almoner, the early patron saint of the Order. Blessed are the pure in heart, fo r they sh a ll see God. Our Lord with the Virgin Mary and Sir Joseph.

Blessed are the peacemakers, f o r they sh a ll be called Sons of God. The Turkish ruler Bajazet presenting to Grand Master D ’Aubusson the Relic of the right hand of St. John Baptist. This incident took place in 1484, on


22

— FIRST

AID

& THE

ST.

the conclusion ot a treaty of peace between the Order and the Turks. 1 he hand of St John was later preserved in the Conventual Church of Malta.

Blessed are they that have been persecutedfor righteous­ ness sake, f o r theirs is the Km dom of Heaven Blessed are ye when men sha ll reproach y o u , and persecute you, and say a ll manner o f evil againt you falsely, fo r M y sake. The Martyrdom of St. John Baptist. The beatitudes, as printed above, are taken from the revised version of the Bible ; they differ slightly from those in the authorised version. Quite recently the Council of the Order in England has agreed to add to each point of the cross a secular signi­ ficance specially applicable to the essential qualities of a

JOHN

AMBULANCE

GAZETTE. —

August, 1918.

can best be left for the patient or the bystanders to do, and what should be left to the medical man. (g) Persevering, that he may continue his efforts, though not at first successful. (h) Sympathetic, that he may give real comfort and encouragement to the suffering. Those earnest First Aiders who have been accustomed to associate the eight points of the cross with a religious significance only, will find the badge they wear doubly helpful when they realise the additional meaning of these points as being the qualities which they have for long, con­ sciously or unconciously, endeavoured to cultivate in themselves and instil into others.

The Grand Priory of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England. Chancery o f the Order, St. fohn's Gate, Clerkenwell, Tendon, E . C . , A ugust 1st, ig /8 . The King has been graciously pleased to sanction the following promotions in, and appointments to, the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England :—

A s Lady o f Justice (from Ladv o f Grace) : The Countess Beauchamp.

A s K nig ht of Grace {from Honorary Associate) : Lieut.-Colonel Harry VVoodburn Blaylock, C.B.E.

A s Ladies o f Grace:

First Aider. The points will thus have a double meaning for ambulance workers, while the symbolism of the white­ ness and the arms of the cross will remain without any addition. The secular significance of the eight points is (r) Observation, (2) Tact, (3) Resource. (4) Dexterity, (5) Ex­ plicitness, (6) Discrimination, (7) Perseverance, (8) Sympathy. Five of these qualities are mentioned on pages 22 and 23 of the First Aid Textbook of the St. John Ambulance Association, and it is proposed to add the other three if a revision of the book in other respects is found necessary. The complete list will then read thus :— In order to render the skilled assistance required the First Aider should be— (a) Observant, that he may note the causes and signs of injury. (b) Tactful, that he may without thoughtless questions learn the symtoms and history of the case, and secure the confidence of the patient and bystanders. (c) Resourceful, that he may use to the best ad­ vantage whatever is at hand to prevent further damage, and to assist Nature’s efforts to repair the mischief already done. (d) D extrous, that t'e may handle a patient without causing unnecessary pain, and use appliances efficiently and neatly. (e) E x p lic it , that he may give clear instructions to the patient or the bystanders how best to assist him. ( f ) D iscrim inating, that he may decide which of several injuries presses most for treatment by himself, what

Kathleen Laura, Mrs. Hugh Nicholson. Eleanor Jane, Miss Alexander. The Hon. Essex Eleanora French, O.B.E. The Hon. Agnes Freda, Lady Williamson. Alice Sedgwick, Lady Wernher. Eliza Frances, Lady Caillard.

A s E s q u ir e : Major Evelyn Milnes Gaskell.

A s Honorary Serving Brothers : Thomas McBride. Thomas Gillespie Shields. William Evison. William John Waite. Frank Edward Stallard.

F o r Enrolm ent as Honorary Associates : John Giles Denison Cort, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. William McLaren Macllraith, L.R.CP. and S.Edin. William Stacey Aslett, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. Frederick John Walton, M.B., Ch.B. The Hon. Norah Dawnay. Lieut.-Colonel Harold Samuel Peeke, M.RC.S., L.R.C.P., R.A.M.C.

Ambulance

Competition.

A c o m p e t i t i o n in which teams of local units of the St. John Ambulance Brigade and Association, and of the Regular and Special Constabulary, took part, was held in the Whitgift Grammar School, Croydon, on Sunday, July 24th. The Earl and Countess of Ranfurly, who arrived be­ fore the competition began, inspected a number of ambu­ lance workers drawn up to receive them. T he result of the competition was that No. 51 Division


August,

1918.

— FIRST

AID

&

THE

ST.

of the Prince of Wales’s Corps secured the first prize for men, and the Croydon Nursing Division that for women. The judges were Mr. W. R. Edwards, secretary of the Order of St. John, with whom were Colonel Dean, Com­ mandant of military hospitals to the Croydon area, and Major Chambers, acting as medical referees, and Dr. T. Halliwell, of Forest Hill. The proceedings terminated with a vote of thanks to Lord and Lady Ranfurly, proposed by the Mayor of Croy­ don, Alderman Houlder, to which his Lordship replied. In the course of his remarks, he thanked the organisers of the competition and the judges for their services in aid of the work of the Order of St. John, and expressed approval of the arrangements made by Mrs. Morris Chapman and others concerned.

The

G rand

P r io r ’s

In terest

in

th e

S .J .A .B . A pleasant instance of the interest taken in the Order and its work by the Grand Prior was afforded on the occa­ sion of their Majesties’ Silver Wedding. A member of one of the Nursing Divisions of the Prince of Wales’s Corp*, not sure of her way, asked an officer in khaki to direct her to her destination. After giving the desired information, he asked her whether she was going on duty and remarked that she wore the ribbon of St. John. She replied that she was an Honorary Serving Sister, and in answer to a fuither question stated her rank in the Brigade. The officer said, “ I am pleased to see you wear the ribbon ; I, too, have the pleasure of being in a position to wear it, as I am the head of your Order.” His Royal Highness the Duke of Con­ naught, for he it was, continued : “ Now tell me. Why do all the members of the Brigade wear the Prince of Wales’s feathers ?” to which the reply was given that the privilege had been granted by King George, when Prince of Wales and Grand Prior of the Order, to the London District only. The Duke added : “ l a m glad I asked you. I have often wondered just why they were worn. I am very glad to see you taking duty to-day. Good morning”— and saluting, the Grand Prior passed on.

O p e n = A ir

T rea tm en t.

JOH N

AM BULANCE

“ The prevailing epidemic of influenza has made its inroads upon our hospital, but the shortness of the attacks, seldom exceeding two days, and the entire absence of complications is, I venture to think, a veiy satisfactory tribute to the effectiveness of the open-air wards in dealing with this complaint. There has been marked contrast in the progress of these casts compared with those which are seen in private houses. Although special arrangements have been made in the command for the isolation of influenza patients, the temperature of our men falls so rapidly that they are practically well before the notification of the disease could be received and dealt with. We have reported altogether 33 cases, but now at the end of the month we are quite free.”

23

This hospital, which was organised in connection with the Southport and Birkdale Brigade Voluntary Aid De­ tachments, is the largest V.A.D. hospital in the country, and, with the exception of two or three small wards, is run on the open-air principle, which has proved most successful.

S t.

John

A m b u la n c e

B rig a d e

O verseas.

C anada T w e n t y -f o u r

m em bers

o f the

B rig ad e e m b a rk e d

on

ss.

“ T u n i s i a ” o n July 6 t h .

These V .A .D .’s were asked to assist in the hospitals, and throughout the voyage several members were 011 duty continuously in relays. They were ably helped by Miss E. Yates of the Canadian Red Cross Nurses, and later by two trained nurses who took night work in one hospital. Miss Ethel Goodhugh (Montreal Central Nursing Division) took charge ; she was on duty constantly. Miss Frances Johnson, Miss Ethe Cummins, Miss Phyllis Coles fof the same division), Miss Grace Holmes (Toronto C o l ­ lege. N .D ) , and Miss Jessie Holliday (N. Toronto, N D.) assisted with tne responsible work and were on duty frequently. Miss Tucker took work from midnight, when a night nurse was considered desirable, and Miss G. Walker assisted first in the hospitals and afterwards with massage. Besides these members considerable help was given in many cases daily by the following members of the party :— Miss Margaret Carlyle, Miss Eva Mundy, Miss Margtret Whittaker and Miss B. B iptiste (Toron to); Miss Eva Pitblado, Miss Yvonne Morrill and Miss Margaret Ducles (Montreal). These ladies were glad to go wherever their services were required, and would willingly have worked much longer hours. (Signed) H e n r i e t t a F. W i l s o n , Member in Charge.

G eneral

L e tte r

C o m m itte e The following interesting paragraph is taken from the report, covering the period of June 1st to July 1st, of Dr. W. C. Bentall, the Medical Officer in charge of the St. John Hospital of 500 beds at Southport : —

GAZETTE. —

to

of

th e

C o u n ty

J o in t

V .A .D .

D ire c to rs.

D e a r S ir , I s e n d you the following for your information:—

Uniform. I have been asked by the Secretary of the British Red Cross Society to send you the enclosed amend­ ments to Form D (7). Aliens. May I again draw the attention c f County Directors to the necessity of sending with the first applica­ tion all possible information of a personal kind in favour of any alien applicants whom they put up for the sanction of the War Office. I have been asked by various County Directors to approach the War Office a second time in order to persuade them to reverse an adverse decision, and forwarding additional reasons for doing so. To-day I re­ ceived a letter from the War Office stating that, in future, no decision would be reconsidered, and requesting that County Directors would be good enough to send all neces­ sary information in the first instance. Flag Days. The Central Joint V.A.D, Committee passed an amendment at their last meeting to the effect


24

— F IR ST

A ID

&

THE

ST.

JOH N

that application for permission to collect in V.A.D . uniform for purely local funds of the British Red Cross Society need not be made to this Committee, only the sanction of the County Director being necessary. Blue Stripe. The questions for the examination for this stripe are now being printed. County Directors may make their own local arrangements for the examinations, provided the conditions laid down in J.V.A.D. 164 of the 17th April are faithfully adhered to. The questions may be obtained on application by the County Director to ihis office giving the name and address of the Medical Exami­ ner to whom the questions will be sent. Application for the Blue Stripe will be made in duplicate on J.V.A.D. 80a, to the Secretaries of the British Red Cross Society and St. John V .A . D .’s, exactly in the same way as for the War Service Bar. War Service Bar. Attention is drawn to the fact that permission to count the extra hours from one year to another will not enable a member to obtain more bars than there have been years of war, and must not be taken to encourage slacking. It is only intended to help a member who, through no fault of her own, cannot serve the requi­ site number of hours in a subsequent year. V.A.D. members who have gained the scarlet effici­ ency stripe may now wear the white stripe on their outdoor uniform. Please also note para. 6 of the amendments to D (7). Monmouthshire. Mr. J. W. Benyon, 35, Stow-hill, Newport, has been appointed County Director in the place of Col. Wallis. Catering Notes and Cookery Recipes. There are still many copies of Catering Notes for sale. I shall be glad to receive orders ; price 6d. Uniform for General Service Members. The War Office has now arranged to issue uniform in lieu of grants to General Service Members. A store for this purpose is being established at Devonshire House. V.A.D. Allowances. The Finance Committee has agreed that the grant for uniform for V.A.D. membe/s working in Auxiliary Hospitals, originally fixed at j £ 5 may now be raised to ^ 8 , providing the total amount of _£i per bed is not exceeded. Nursing Members. Lady Ampthill asks me to say that owing to tha. shortage of Nursing V .A .D .’s, it is im­ possible for her to supply Auxiliary Hospitals, and such members will in the future have to be drawn from local sources. Purchase of Uniform. M y attention has recently been drawn to two instances where shops have supplied V.A.D. members with regulation uniform without asking to see J.V.A.D. 84. Please ask] your Commandants to im­ press on all members at the time of enrolment the necessity or showing this certificate whenever they desire to purchase any uniform. Yours faithfully, C h iltso n ,

C h ie f County Director.

An examination for the Demonstrator’s Certificate in First Aid and Home Nursing will be held in the first week in September at the undermentioned places, provided that sufficient applications are received. London Birmingham Southampton

Hull Mancherster Dublin

Newcastle Leeds Belfast

Applications should be addressed to the Chief Secretary, St. John’s Gate, as early as possible.

AM BULANCE

GAZETTE. —

V o lu n ta r y

A id

A u gu st, 19 18.

D eta ch m en ts.

V . A . D Chauflfeuses who received the Military Medal 22-7-18, for Conspicuous Bravery and Devotion to Duty :— Batten, Winifred Eleanor Sarah, Somerset 74. Davidson, Margaret Elizabeth, Aberdeen 6. Dickson, Stella Primrose, London 198. Fabling, Katherine, Sussex 2. Elwes, Winifred Millicent, London 146. Pennell, Rosamond Josephine, Kent Res. 88. Cuthbert, Galantha Mildred, London 62. Mellor, Juliet Vivian, London 268. Johnston, Gertrude, Kent 132.

Selected V.A.D. Members who have been awarded the Military Medal, 31-7-18 :— Brampton, Winifred A (wounded), Beds. 48, B.R.C.S. Campbell, Mary Gwynnedd, Denbigh 8, B.R.C.S. Cavanagh, Moyrs, Maidenhead N.D., S.J.A.B. Crewdson, Dorothea M. (wounded), Notts 36, B.R.C.S. Freshfield, Katharine M. (severely wounded), Sussex 77 B.R.C.S. Gregory, Lily A., Glam. 10, B.R.C.S. Hounslow, Edith, Oxford 44, S.J.A.B.

The following is an extract of a letter received from a Commandant recently sent to Salonika :— M adam,

1 beg to report that the majority of our members have now arrived. Our Camp is situated on one of the best sites within this Base. We overlook the sea, with Mount Olpympus in the background, and, in consequence, there is a eool breeze blowing over the Camp every afternoon. The girls are permitted to bathe on return from duty, and a great amount of pleasure is thereby derived. ' A cricket team is also in existence and we have played our first match, and won it. Our opponents were the Sergeants of the 43rd General (most of the members are posted to that Hospital), The men were handicapped in various ways, and we won simply because we were not taken as serious cricketers. I hope when the weather is cooler that we may have a hockey team. These games, together with the bathing, will give the necessary amount of exercise necessary to maintain health. The members are settling down very well and the Camp is beginning to look spruce and neat. A consider­ able amount of labour is entailed in keeping the tent trenches properly dug out and clear of stones, grass and rubbish, and this work is entirely done by our own members; the D.M.S. having given permission to retain sufficient of thzpersonnel for this purpose. With regard to work, every one seems to have come out with the idea of doing her best, and those who have been placed for some time are very well spoken of, particu­ larly those in the Base laundry. I have the honour to be, Your obedient servant, (Signed) J a n e K. E a g l e s o n , Commandant.

The following Members have died on Service :— Keetch, Catherine Winifred (London Reserve, S.J.A.B), 2nd July, 1918. Flint, Doreen (Leicester 32), 4th July, 1918. Carter, Vera Lorance (Bucks 44), 8th July, 1918. Slallard, Alice May (Worcester Reserve), 14th July, 1918. Morrison, Lizzie Neill (Co. Antrim 22), Snd July, 1918. Evans, Margaret Mary (Carnarvon 22), 20th July, 1918.


August,

—FIRST

19 1 8

CONTENTS

OF

THIS

AID. —

25

Ambulance arrangement for the treatment of accidents at

NUMBER.

factories or parts of factories employing twenty-five or more persons, which are saw mills or in which articles of wood

E ditor ial — The Brigade Report

17

D istrict R ep ort s —

are manufactured.

The proposed Order requires the pro­

vision and maintenance of first aid appliances, and, in the

No. 1 j No. 5 ...

18

case of factories employing 500 or more persons, of an am­

No. 4 Np. 5; No. 11

19

bulance room and ambulance carriage. * * * T h e annual report on the examination of the accounts

T he St . Joh n ’s A m bu lan ce G a z e t t e — Official Brigade News

...

20 21

The Eight-Pointed Cross

of auxiliary Red Cross Hospitals in England, and Wales for

The Grand Priory of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England

22

Ambulance Competition...

22

The Grand Prior’s Interest in the S.J.A.B... Open-Air Treatment ... St. John Ambulance Brigade Overseas

23 23 23

largely increased support extended by the Central Com ­

General Letter of the Joint V.A.D. Committee to the County Directors

23

with its inevitable drain on private purses continues, is

Voluntary Aid Detachments

24

only to be expected.

system introduced for the prevention of waste, and proof of

St. John Ambulance Association

25 26

First Aid and Business Output

26

Brevities

...

last year has been presented to the Joint War Committee

...

27 27

The Report of the S.J.A.B., 1917 and

A nswers

27

C or r e s p o n d e n t s —

to

Treatment of Snake Bites

28

Treatment of Burst Varicose Veins

28

Fracture of Clavicle and Humerus

28

Vagaries of Textbook

28

...

Opium Poisoning

28

Strychnine Poisoning

This, as the war

Considerable space is devoted to the

its success is given in the fact that, despite the very large increase in the cost of food during the year, the amount expended in this way in the hospitals has only increased by

Transient Hemiplegia ... Q ueries

As might be expected, it

presents many interesting features, notably the fact of the mittee to the counties during the year.

P ractical P o i n t s — Resourceful First Aid

of the B.R.C.S. and the Order of St. John, and has been approved by the Army Council.

...

i'34d. per head.

A great divergence in expense still con­

tinues, however, and seems to point for further need for control in

some

quarters, though

doubtless

conditions

which are not represented in the report have a bearing on this side of the question.

In many cases neither rent nor

rates come into the account, owing to the generosity of different donors.

The value of gifts in kind during 1917

stands at ,£151,680, while voluntary contributions amount

93°>496 against

28

t0 ^

Office and Ministry of Pensions— stupendous figures. * * * “ T a k e care of shock and Nature will do the rest”

the .£2,549,077 provided by the War

Camphor Poisoning

28

Transport of Fractured Pelvis and Ribs ...

29

Doses of Emetic

29

Indication for Artificial Respiration

summarises the teaching

29

Treatment for Infantile Convulsions

Scalds delivered at the College of Ambulance (3, Vere-

29

Meddlesome First Aid ...

street,

29

London,

of the

W.) on July

lecture on Burns and

nth

by

Dr.

J.

M.

H.

MacLeod, physician for diseases of the skin at Charing Cross Hospital.

The lecture was the ninth of a series on

ambulance work and first aid intended for medical prac­

B re v itie s.

titioners as well as ambulance workers.

Sir James Cantlie,

I n the United States the “ Safety First ” Movement is

who presided, spoke of the growing importance of burns

receiving a very considerable amount of attention in con­

and scalds, on account of the improved methods of dealing

nection with all branches of railway working, and a leading

with

American contemporary has discussed the methods

recently completely revised.

by

which

the St. John

Ambulance

Handbook

had

The lecturer referred to the

which this movement may best be adapted to railway loco­

increased number of accidents in factories due to war con­

motive shop operations.

ditions, to the action in the war area itself of liquid fire,

In order, it says, that the best

results may be obtained from the “ Safety First ” propa­ ganda in any railway shop, it is of paramount importance

mustard

gas,

and the like, and to the terrible burns

the idea that their enthusiasm will be evidenced, not by

resulting from aeroplane accidents and air raids at home. * * * E x p e r i e n c e had already taught much. He described

words but by action.

the differences between the injuries caused by dry heat and

that the employees in that shop become so infused with A notice posted in one shop to the

effect that “ The greatest safety device known is the careful

moist heat.

man ” speaks volumes.

deeper than scalds, and nearly twice as fatal.

***

T h e Home Secretary gives notice that he proposes t o

make an Order to require the provision of First Aid and

As a rule burns

were

less

extensive and The im­

mediate gravity in either case depended more upon the extent injury.

of

the surface injured

than the depth of the


— FIRST

26

St. John Jlmbulance dissociation. A nnual

R eport

of

I n d ia n

C o u n c il,

1917.

F o r the 9th year since the re-organisation of the Indian Branch we are able to report good progress in all directions, and the year under review is exceptional, having in view the times and the counter activities. During the year 16 new Centres were formed, and during the year ended 30th September, 1917, 23,218 persons have been instructed in First Aid, 1,684 in Home Nursing, 1,636 in Home Hygiene, and 136 in Sanitation, whilst 8,947 certificates, 237 vouchers, 112 medallions, and 79 labels have been awarded to successful candidates in First Aid, 932 certificates and 12 pendants in Home Nursing, 496 certificates in Home Hygiene, and 76 certificates in Sanitation. The above figures are an advance upon those of the previous year, and, with one exception, Sanitation, are the best obtained since the Indian Council was reorganised in 1909. An important feature during the year was the estab­ lishment of the Indian Defence Force, and the Commander-in-Chief has issued orders to the effect that all mem­ bers of this force should receive instruction in First Aid under the rules of the S.J.A A. T he railways of India are making steady progress. A new centre was formed by the Burma railways, making the number of railway centres up to seven. Nine hundred and sixty-three persons have received instruction during the year under the auspices of their centre. T he public schools and colleges in India are now re­ ceiving special and systematised attention. The progress and prospects here may therefore be said to be quite satis­ factory ; also the Police Forces, which have a strong body of ambulance men. During the year 11,616 men were trained, and 2,827 received certificates. This seems to us to be a low percentage of passes. The enrolment of members has continued to have the best attention of the Executive Committee. During the year under report 111 Life Members have been added to the list, bringing the present total to 915. Many new Annual Members and Associates have also been en­ rolled. Complete returns of these are not yet to hand, but their number, old and new, is expected to reach probably considerably in excess of 6,500 and 2,500, respectively, or a total of 9,915-

C an ad ia n

B ranch— A nnual

R eport.

During the year the work of the Canadian Branch has been carried on with great activity. The kindly interest of Their Excellencies, the Governor General and the Duchess of Devonshire, and the faithful and conscientious work of the officials of the various Pro­ vincial Councils, are to a large extent responsible for the splendid showing made. Since 1911, the first year of the Association’s instrucstructional activities, 62,923 candidates have passed through the various courses of study provided, 41,622 were success­ ful in securing certificates, and 6,154 received awards for re-examinations. T h e record for the past twelve months shows the work to be increasing in every department. During this period 13,076 individuals took one or other of the courses of lectures, compared with 10,024 in the pre­ vious year.

AID. —

A u gu st, 19 18.

During the past year, first aid instruction in connection with the Canadian Overseas Forces showed a natural de­ crease over the previous twelve months, due to the regretably smaller number of men enlisting and partly to the lack of opportunity. As a result of the introduction of first aid among the troops in Canada the policy has been continued overseas, and has become one of the most essential features of the soldiers’ efficiency. The Canadian Branch has received many congratulatory messages from officers and men at the front, in testimony of the high esteem in which the training is held. Largely due to the efforts of the Association, first aid instructions have been adopted by the Workmen’s Com­ pensation Board of Ontario, making it compulsory for all establishments having fifteen or more employers to supply suitable first aid equipment. Factories or workshops with 300 or more employee are required to have a first aid room fitted with beds, and a complete equipment for the care of the sick and injured.

F irst By

Pte.

A id A.

de

and

B u sin e ss

L. JON ES,

No. 7,

O u tp u t (T oynree

H all)

D i v i s i o n , S.J.A.B. h e relation between “ First Aid to the Wounded” and the output of a factory may not be discernable at first by the uninitiated, but there is a very real connection between the two can easily be shown. Take the case of a factory where there is no first aid organisation. A worker cuts his hand, and in a primitive fashion he usually wraps a handkerchief roughly round it, the consequence being that the handkerchief continually slips out of position during his work. The man then stops work to re-adjust the bandage and probably spends five minutes in so doing— this may occur half-a-dozen times in a day, the result being that the man loses at least half an hour from his work, and if there is a large number of workers it can easily be seen that a few similar cases may mean several hours’ work completely lost. On the other hand, if an injury occurs in a factory with efficient first aid assistance on the staff the case is attended to at once and properly bandaged up, the result being that the man returns to work in the majority of cases in a few minutes and no great stoppage of work ensues. In the same way the efficient ambulance worker can take charge of a fainting case single-handed ; whereas, if the case occurs in a factory or work-room where no such aid is provided there is usually a cluster of employees who have left their work to gather round and offer suggestions, &c., as to the treatment. Thus, perhaps, six or seven people each lose ten minutes’ work, and such losses in time have quite a considerable influence on the quantity of output made by a business firm. Another important aspect of the case for the provision of first aid treatment in all works is the fact that, properly tabulated injuries to the workers often reveal defects in plant and machinery, or faulty lighting of some part of the premises. For instance, if the first aid register shows a number of accidents have occurred by employees falling down some steps in the dark part of the works it is obvious that the lighting is defective, and further accidents of the same character can be obviated by increased light.

T


— FIRST

August, 19 1 8 .

The writer once treated a girl for a cut on the hand, received while running a machine in some cable works. Hardly had this been attended to when the worker who had taken the injured girl’s place at the machine also came in with a similar injury, and later a third girl appeared similarly wounded. It was thus evident that carelessness was not the cause of the injuries but some defect in the machine, and instant examination was made, with the result that a piece of broken glass with a sharp edge was discovered in a part of the machine constantly handled by the girls. This was immediately remedied on the machine and no further injuries were reported from that quarter. On another occasion an epidemic of splinters broke out, and after four or five girls had splinters extracted from their hands an investigation disclosed that a moving wooden drum revolved by hand had become damaged on one side, thus providing a plentiful crop of splinters for the girls engaged in handling the drum. The drum was handed over to the carpenter for repairs and this particular class of injuries ceased. It will thus be seen that first aid organisation has an important bearing of the efficient running of a workshop and the output thereof.

Jractical Joints. The Editor invites Notes on actual Cases— with special reference to gooa and bad boints in Treatment— for inclusion in this Column.

R

e s o u r c e f u l

F

ir s t

A

id

.

A man on one occasion attempted suicide. He attached a rubber tube to a gas-pipe, fixed this to his mouth, turned on the gas, and then deliberately slashed his wrist with a razor, sever­ ing both radial and ulnar arteries. By a fortunate chance he was discovered ; and the First-Aider who came to his assist­ ance was for a moment puzzled how to deal with an asphyxi­ ated patient, suffering from arterial bleeding, in a gas-laden room. Exercising his discrimination and resourcefulness, how­ ever, he first hurled a chair from the open door through the window and so let in fresh air ; next, covering his mouth and nose with a scarf, he dashed for the gas tap, which he turned off; next, bending low, he hastened to the patient, grasped the limb with his right hand, and controlled the hiemorrhage partly by raising it and partly by pressure on the arteries ; finally, re­ taining his grip of the patient and placing his free hand in the opposite armpit of the patient, he quickly dragged the man out of the room into the passage, where there was a free supply of fresh air. He then, without delay, delegated the digital control of the arteries to an assistant, while he himself immediately adopted Schaefer’s method of artificial respiration, and within four minutes had the satisfaction of restoring his patient to consciousness. Subsequent treatment was uneventful.— A. I. M. (Kentish Town).

T

r a n s i e n t

H

e m ip l e g ia

.

During a forward rush in a Rugby football match a man was kicked on the left side of the head and rendered momen­ tarily insensible. After a few minutes he recovered consciousnesss and was being assisted from the field when it was noted that his right foot was bent inwards, dragging and palpably deficient in power. An Ambulance man rushed up, and insisted that the leg was broken, and questioned the decision of one of the players who was a doctor, and had diagnosed “ temporary concussion of the brain with signs of hemiplegia.” Within ten minutes the patient recovered and resumed active participation in the game.— B.A., Cambridge.

AI D. — The

27

R eport

of

th e

S .J .A .B .,

1917.

T h e Chief Commissioner’s report for the Brigade year end­

ing September 30th, 1917, is not of such a complete nature as in previous years— this is due to the temporary dispersal of members of the Brigade over land and water engaged on active war work ; nevertheless, it is a report showing a year of splendid work and progress. T h e total strength of the Brigade is now 65,391 members, showing an increase of 2,550 over 1916. This increase is not so large as previous years since the outbreak of war, but this can be accounted for by the operation of the Military Service Acts, and in many cases difficulty has been experienced in obtaining annual returns, as some divisions have been depleted ot their members. During the year under review the following new units have been formed:— Two Corps, forty-nine Ambulance Divisions and forty-three Nursing Divisions. In connection with Home Civil Work very valuable services have been rendered on occasion of raids, explo­ sions, mine and railway disasters and public street d u t y ; in connection with the last named the No. 1 District has carried out more duties than in peace times. It would be difficult tc give anything like an adequate account of the work done by members of this district on the occasion of air raids, which has been done sometimes in circumstances which entailed considerable risk of their lives. The members of the No. 4 District have collected ,£12,400 for the Brigade Hospital, and they rendered valu­ able assistance in connection with munition explosions in Lancashire, while the members of the No. 5 District ren­ dered service at the Minnis Pit disaster. The No. 6 Dis­ trict has raised a complete Medical Volunteer Corps of three Field Ambulances in Northumberland. In Durham one and another is in the course of formation. The personnel supplied by the S.J.A.B. to the Naval and Military Authorities, Private Hospitals and Hospital Ships, e t c , from the outbreak of war is as follows :— N aval A u th o r ities. R oyal N aval R oyal N aval Do. B ranch.

A u x iliary S ick B e rth R e s e rv e ... 2,056 D iv isio n (M e d ic a l U n it) ... 1,248 (S u pp lied by th e T e rrito ria l S . J . A A . ) ...................................... 240

4,444 M ilita r y A u th o r itie s. M ilitary H o m e H o sp ita l R ese rv e s ... ... 14,402 Do. (S u p p lied by th e T e rrito ria l B r a n c h , S . J . A . A . ) ....................................... 1,469 R .A .M .C . E x p e d itio n a ry F o r c e ............... L 43I S . J . A . B . H o s p i t a l , E t a p l e s , F r a n c e ...... 172

17,474 P r iv a t e

H o s p it a l s , S h ip s,

& c.

At Hom e ..................................................................... A b r o a d ......................................................................... 158 O n d e m a n d of J o in t C o m m itte e o f th e O rd e r o f St. J o h n a n d t h e B r i t i s h R e d C r o s s

Society

.............................................

170

393 T o tal

7 21 22,569

T h e fo re g o in g figures o n ly re p r e s e n t th e n u m b e r o f m e n w h o h a v e en listed th ro u g h th e B rig ad e. I n a d d itio n to th e above, m a n y m e m b e rs h a v e jo in e d th e c o lo u rs direct. V .A .D . M e m b e r s p o s te d to M ilita r y a n d A u x ilia ry H o sp itals ..................................................................................... V .A .D . M em bers e n ro lled tor lo c a l s e rv ic e in A u x ilia ry H o s p i ta l s ... ... ... ... ...

12,029

Total

14,989

2,960


28

— F I R S T

T he Brigade has sustained by casualties of war during the past year the heavy loss of 230 of its members, making a total of 608 since the commencement of the war. A list of the former is given in Appendix III. It has also suf­ fered the loss of two of its most active workers— Dr. R. H. Grimbly, D.C.., No. 9 District, and Dr. T. Nelson, A.C., No. 8 District. T he report of the Lady Superintendent-in-Chief con­ tains a list of the nursing divisions she inspected during the year, upon which she reports that she was everywhere much struck by the excellent work being done. The Brigade Hospital Depot at Halkyn House, Belgrave-square, has done admirable work, over 70,970 dress­ ings and bandages having been despatched.

Queries and Jlnswers to Correspondents.

AI D. —

A u g u s t , 19 18.

F racture

of

C l a v ic le a n d

H um erus.

S. T. (Mexbre).— With a comminuted fracture of left clavicle and a simple fracture of left humerus (one and a half inches below the shoulder joint) (1) would you apply extension of the shoulders by two handkerchiefs and a spinal pad, after passing a broad bandage round the body to secure the fractured humerus ? (2). The application of a broad bandage round the body and forearm appears to be the most suitable treat­ ment, but would it not cause crepitus and discomfort, especially during transport? (1), No. I should not. If I did, I should probably convert the simple fracture of humerus into a compound or compli­ cated fracture. Incidentally, a comminuted fracture of clavicle is exceedingly rare. (2). Treatment of a fracture which “ causes crepitus, especially during transport,”' is usually called Meddlesome First Aid ! ! As a fact, your suggestion is on the right lines. The fractured humerus demands priority in treatment as the more serious injury. So treat this fracture in the usual way with broad bandage above the middle of arm round the limb and body, but in place of the small arm-sling use a second broad bandage to bind elbow and forearm to body. This done, the broken clavicle also is controlled.— N.C.F.

Queries w ill be dealt with under the following rules :— 1 . — Letters containing Queries must be marked on the top left hana comer of the envelope “ Q u ery ” and addressed— F i r s t A i d , 46, Cannon-street, London, E .C . 2.— A l l Queries must be accompanied by a “ Query Coupon ” cut from the current issue of the Journal, or in case of Queries from abroad from a recent issue.

?. — The Textbook, to which lejereme may bemad, in 1hesc columns, is the Revised (igif) Edition of S .f.A .A . Manual of Fiist-Aid. T reatm ent of Snake

V a g a r ie s of T e x t b o o k .

E. C. (Tufnell Park).— The Textbook, on page 25; gives the dose of Sal Volatile as h a lf a teaspoonful, and on page 143 as one teaspoonful. Which is correct ? The official dose of Sal Volatile is about half a teaspoonful for repeated and from one to one and a half teaspoonfuls for single administration. In most emergencies the smaller dose is sufficient, and in any case, can be repeated if necessary.— N. C. F.

B ites.

C. M. (Sydney, N.S.W.).— In a recent S.J.A.A. examination I was asked what I would do in the case of snake bite. I gave the correct answer as far as a limb. The examiner than asked what I w;ould do if the bite was upon the abdo­ men, and himself suggested that I sh.ould cutout the bitten area. Is this correct ? Surely this would be Meddlesome First Aid ! Also, what should be done if the bite were situated on the eye-iid ? Your examiner was not teaching Meddlesome First Aid. He was laying down the correct treatment from the medical point of view, but he failed to appreciate the real objects and also the limitations o f First Aid, which aims at prevention of aggravation of injury and not at cure. In short, excision of a snake bite is one of “ the duties and responsibilities of a doctor which the First Aid student must on no account take upon him­ self (Textbook p. 25). In such cases the Textbook instructions must be followed except that (1) the application of ligatures (which could not be used for the abdomen or eyelid) must be omitted and (2) steps taken to ensure the more speedy arrival of the doctor. Per­ sonally, I would commend the First Aider who exercised his discrimination in this instance and decided to administer alcoholic stimulants, which would counteract the depressing effects of the poison and also overcome the difficulty of pro­ moting free haemorrhage by dependent position of part, etc.— N. C o r b e t F l e t c h e r . T r e a t m e n t o f B u r st V ar ic o se

V e in .

S. T. (Mexbro).— With bleeding from a varicose vein where the blood has clotted, would it be advisable to remove clots and apply instrumental pressure or would you allow Nature’s efforts to arrest haemorrhage to remain ? Accept my condolences on the most foolish query of the year ! First, how can bleeding occur when the blood has clotted ? Secondly, why not be truly resourceful, leave blood clots alone, avoid Meddlesome First Aid, and read your Text­ book (pp. 23 & 85)? Nature is evidently a better First Aider than you are !— N. C. F.

O piu m

P o iso n in g .

J. C. (Barbican).— The Textbook instructs us in Opium Poison­ ing to “ give ten grains of Permangamate of Potash in a p in t o f water and repeat in half an hour.” Is this correct or must the patient be thirsty ? Permanganate of Potash oxidises Morphine and is there­ fore an antidote to Opium Poisoning. Excess of fluid passed into the stomach will serve to dilute the poison and also to facilitate the act of vomiting. For these reasons two pints of fluid is good treatment and by no means excessive.— N. C. F St r y c h n in e

P o iso n in g .

E. C. (Tufnell Park).— With reference to this poison the Text­ book (p. 157) reads— “ The patient rests on his head and feet, and the body is arched.” I suppose that additional words “ during convulsions ” are understood. Your suggestion is correct. If adopted, it would prevent the very common misconception that cases of Strychnine Poisoning spend their time continuously in the arched back position. Refer to Query of July, 1917.— N. C. F. C a m p h o r P o iso n in g.

J. C. (Barbican).— A child aged three years swallowed a table­ spoonful of strong Camphorated Oil. What is the right treatment? Under which group of poisons does this case come ? Poisoning by Camphorated Oil frequently gives rise to alarming symptoms with profound Collapse, but is rarely fatal. A tablespoonful of the oil would contain about a teaspoonful of Camphor, which is an Irrito Narcotic poison. Death has re­ sulted in a child from swallowing a piece the size of a nut. The treatment is (1) doctor at once ; (2) emetic of mustard and water ; (3) external warmth by blankets, hot bottles, fric­ tion, etc. ; (4) stimulation by inhalation of ether or ammonia. Withhold administration of Alcohol and Sal Volatile which would dissolve and hasten absorption of Camphor.— N. C. F.


— FIRST

August, 19 18. T ransport of F ractured

P elvis a n d

R ibs.

S, T. (Mexbro).— With simple fractures of pelvis and ribs, what is the correct method of transport if the patient is lying in a confined space where it is not possible for bearers to work on both sides of patient ? My experience is that Exercise No. Ill, is unsuitable, and causes increased pain to the patient during the necessary movements. The best method would be to pass bandages under patient and tie to the poles as for Fractured Spine (Textbook, p. 52), and then to remove patient as in Exercise No. III. (p. 193) by three bearers, who would support the Weight by means of the poles and bandages instead of passing their hands under patient’s body. This combination of methods ought to meet the difficulties of the situation and save the patient much pain and jolting.— N. C. F. D oses o f E m e t ic .

1.

29

AID.—

H. (Dudley).— (1) Why have the doses of mustard and salt been doubled in the Revised Textbook ? In my experience of over fourteen years’ Brigade work I have always suc­ ceeded in obtaining the desired result with half a tumbler­ ful of the emetic (old dosage). Again, (2) in a recent S J.A.A. examination, a candidate gave the new doses and was promptly corrected by the examiner, who halved his quantifies according to previous issues of Textbook.

(1) Ask the Committee of Revision. As a fact, the quanti­ ties now given are the ordinary official doses for emetics, and even with these (unlike yourself) I have seen patients slowly swallow a tumblerful and still smile ! If, however, the draught is made sufficiently nauseous and swallowed rapidly , then no stomach can retain it. (2) I presume your examiner had not observed the altera­ tion of doses in the Revised Textbook.— N. C. F.

A S K

Y 0 U R C

H E M I

S T F 0 R

SEPTIC WOUNDS Cuts, tears, scratches, abrasions, bruises, sprains, burns, scalds, etc., are rapidly healed by I o d e x . It presents the antiseptic, pene­ trating, and healing properties of Iodine in a bland, absorbable and painless base, and is free from stain, irritation, or corrosion. As a first aid dressing I o d e x is ideal. In field and home, munition and other works, where minor injuries are of daily occurrence, a supply of I o d e x ensures complete antisepsis and rapid healing. For inflamed conditions I o d e x is ideal. Try it. All good chemists stock it.

REGULARLY H .M . F l e e t Surgeons, R A .M .C . Surgeons, R ed C r o s s Surgeons, C r o ix R o u g e F r a ii c a i s e .

USED

BY:

B e l g i a n Field hospitals, F r en ch Field H osp itals, N u m e r o u s M ilitary h osp itals, M e m b e r s of S t . John A m bulance.

M E N L E Y & J A M E S , Ltd., 39, Farrlngdon Road, LONDON, E.C.1.

In d ic a tio n

for

A r tificia l

R e sp ir a t io n .

Contractors to H.M. Government.

D. B. (York) sends a lengthy letter in which he complains that an examiner penalised him for omitting Laborde’s method of artificial respiration in a case of complicated fracture of ribs and dislocation of knee joint, and asks for an explana­ tion of such treatment. It is impossible to answer this query in view of the absence of all the facts. No examiner would expect a candidate to resort to artificial respiration with such injuries unless and until there were indications of cessation of breathing. I suspect that a serious change was supposed to have taken place in the condition of the patient while under your observation, and that you failed to ascertain this fact by judicious questions addressed to the examiner.— N.C.F. T reatm ent of

In f a n t il e

C o n vu lsio n s.

D. M. (Bedlinog).— How long should a child in convulsions be kept in a warm bath, and what would be the next step in treatment ? The utility of the warm bath for infantile convulsions is questionable. It is probably of real service only when the on­ set of fever is the exciting cause, and is contra-indicated if the child cannot be placed in bed between warm blankets imme­ diately after the bath. The Textbook (p. 148) now gives 1520 minutes as the maximum period for immersion in water.— N.C.F. M eddlesom e

F irst A id .

W. B. (Victoria).— In a recent railway accident the fireman 01 a train found a man ’with simple fractures of both legs. He told the bystanders to leave the patient alone until he came back with splints, &c. On his return, he found that some soldiers had picked the man up and, in so doing, had converted the simple into compound fractures. There is now every possibility of the patient losing one of his legs. Could the First Aider have done more ? Yes. Reference to the Qualifications of a First Aider (Textbook p. 22) suggests the following criticisms. First, the

U n ifo rm s an d E q u ip m e n t Vast modern factory resources, added to a century’ s experience, enables us to supply First A i d and all other Services with uniforms and e q u i p m e n t of g u a r a n t e e d materials, workmanship and finish — at prices that challenge compari­ son with an y other clothing of equal quality. Prices and Samples on request.

16,

NILE

C ITY

ROAD,

STREET, LONDON,

N . 1.,

a n d a t 6 , Y O R K P L A C E , L E E D S , and 8 4 , M IL L E R S TR E E T, GLASGOW .


— FIRST

fireman by reason of his knowledge of First Aid was in charge of the case. If he had been truly resourceful he would not have left the patient except in charge of some responsible person. Secondly, if it was essential for him to leave the patient and if such assistant was not available, then he should have been more explicit in explaining the dangers of careless manipulations and more discriminating in taking care that his orders would be accurately carried out. Further, the fireman could have at least tied limb to limb or have improvised some appliance found on the engine (e.g., spanner) as emergency apparatus.— N.C. F.

AID. —

August, 1918.

a

r

The St. John Ambulance Association.

T lF E -S A V IN G LECTURES.

J. G. S. (Tipton).— If by “ S.J.A.B.” you mean the St. John Ambulance Brigade, then you cannot be a member of two Divisions. So you must make a choice, otherwise you can seek practice where you like and in as many divisions as you like.— E d i t o r .

Below are outlined five of the LectureDemonstrations given by

Miss Croft, of 119, Church-road, Hove, Sussex, has started a class on Home Hygiene, commencing on August 2nd. If a sufficient number join there will be an examina­ tion at the end of the course of about 10 lectures. Fee, 3s. 6d. for the course.

Ambulance Officer C. HANMER in any part of Engtand, Ireland or Wales, as an aid to students and to promote interest in the

A M B U LA N C E AND M IN E S R ES C U E M O VEM EN TS.

Ambulance Officer C. Hanmer gave his lecture to the members of the Pontefract Corps on August n th . The proceeds, which amount to ^ 7 0 , will be devoted to the Brigade Hospital. The secretary of the corps says —“ My advice to all divisions who have not heard Hanmer is : hire a picture house or theatre and get the services of Hanmer. They will never regret it.”

A

I.— L IF E S A V IN G . P opular F irst Aid Lecture.

Illustrated by an unrivalled collection of Lantern Slides and Chemical Demonstrations, and an exhibition of the

O f f ic ia l F i r s t A id F il m . The film is at piesent shown in licensed Halls only. Sunday demonstrations can be arranged.

The Americans are understood to be organising a sys­ tem of first aid by aeroplane. The doctor takes the place of the observer. The immediate object seems to be to render prompt assistance to men whose aeroplanes have been seen to fall from the flying aid posts which are part of the system. According to Pearson’s Weekly a fire-engine and an ambulance follow, so "that the effects of accident are remedied by every means. An air-man’s Ambulance Service has an up-to-date sound which we hope will fulfil expectations. Dr. J. Johnston, the well-known Bolton practitioner, has been presented with the Long Service silver medal of the Order of St. John, in recognition of his twenty-seven years’ service to the St. John Ambulance Association and Brigade. Dr. Johnston has for some time past be en en­ gaged as medical officer at the Townley Hospitals, Bolton ; and the presentation was made by Corps Supt. F. Lomax, at the request of Colonel Trimble, C.B., C.M.G., V . D , commanding the North-Western District. For a long period Dr. Johnston has been an enthusiast in ambulance work in Bolton and district— as Voluntary Instructor to a great many classes, Examiner for the Association, and Judge of railway ambulance competitions. M <1------ -----------Co. S l i g o N u r s i n g D i v i s i o n .— Lady District Officer Miss Blandford, accompanied by Lady Supt. Mrs. Woodward (Earlsfoot Nursing Division) inspected this Division on July 16th. Lady Supt. Miss Woodmartin, recently returned from active service in a military hospital in France, was in charge. Nursing Officer Mrs. Perceval lent her beautiful grounds at Hazlewood for the inspection, and afterwards entertained the company to tea and supper. Miss Olive Jackson, Nursing Officer and Commandant, who takes charge during Miss Woodmartin’s absence, has proved a most efficient officer. All on parade were in uniform and showed great efficiency in drill, first aid and home nursing. The inspecting officer had the helpful co-operation of Dr. McDowel, County Director. It is interesting to note that the Co. Sligo Nursing Division is one of the oldest units in Ireland, having been registered in July, 1914.

II. Similar to the above, but without the film.

III. — R E S C U E W O R K IN M INES. A peep into th e life of a Miner, Showing the miner at work, at play and on the battle­ field. Calculated to create new interest in Rescue Work in Coal Mines.

IV.

— N A T U R E A S A F I R S T AIDER . N a tu re ’ s m eth od s and h o w to f u r t h e r them .

First Aid is discussed in an entirely original manner with the object of showing how Nature prevents and heals injuries and warns us of dangers. This lecture is suitable alike for the novice or expert, and includes several radiogiaphs and a number of slides of artistic merit directly or indirectly illustrating the subject.

V. — P R A C T I C A L

FIRST

AID.

W h y e v e r y o n e should have a k n o w le d g e of F irst Aid. A practical display suitable for indoors or the open air. The demonstrations are not confined to text-book methods, but show a variety of novel variations which have proved their practical worth. S p e c i a l I n d u c e m e n t s a r e o f fe r e d to M i n i n g D i s t r i c t s .

No entertainment tax is payable in respect of any of the above, provided that no music or other extraneous amusements are included in the proceedings.

F or terms and dates available apply to

Ambulance Officer C. HANMER, 2 0 5 . D o n caster Near

R oad, G o ldth o rp e, R otherham .

Telegrams : “ Hanmer, Ambulance, Goldthorpe.” V -

J


— FIRST

August, 19 1 8

HOM E

O F F IC E

FOR

AID. —

3i

ORDER

F A C T O R IE S .

An Order made by the Secretary of State, requires that the Occupier in all Factories in the following classesBlast Furnaces, Copper Mills, Iron Mills, Foundries, Metal Works shall provide F I R S T AID C A B I N E T S in the proportion of at least one to every 150 persons, where 25 persons or more are employed. We supply for this purpose two Cabinets: — No. I, containing the minimum requirements of the Order. Prices, 1 to 4 Cabinets, 2 5 / - ; S to 10 Cabinets, 23/9; 11 to 20 Cabinets, 22/6; over 20, 21/3 each nett. No. 2, containing in addition, the Dressings recommended by H.M. Medical Inspector of Factories in the First Aid Leaflet for the Treatment of Minor Injuries. Prices, 1 to 4 Cabinets, 60/- ; 5 to 10 Cabinets, 57/-; II to 20 Cabinets, 54/-; over 20, 51/- each nett. C ab inets for Works in which Bichromate of Potassium or Sodium is used— see Oiders 368 and 369— No. la, 32/6, con­ taining the minimum requirements of the Order: No. 2a, con taining in addition the Dressings recommended by II M. Inspector of Factories in the First Aid Leaflet for the Treatment 1 f Minor Injuries, 67/6 each 1 ett. Term s:— Packing free, carriage fa id .

NURSES’ O U TFITS R E G U L A T IO N

J

Advice on all outfiltirg matters gladly given by post to those pre­ vented from visiting the Nurses’ De­ partment (on Plarrods 2nd Floor). U N IF O R M C O A T A N D S K IR T

N .U . 142 *~ Well tailored uniform ( oat and Skirt in showerproof and shrunk cloihs. Khaki D r ill .. £ 3 3 S . Od. Khaki G ab Cord £ 7 7 S . Od.

Cash with order.

A M B U L A N C E ROOMS must be provided where 500

U N IF O R M

persons or more are employed in Factories to which this Order applies. We supply estimates for the equipment required, also for the construction of the Ro, ms where necessary.

N .U .

M ills ,

H A R R O D S

L T D

Woodman Buibldge, Managing D irector

LO N D O N S

B IR M IN G H A M .

HUSSEY & CO.,

HAT

C o.—In Khaki and N igger Felt 5 /1 1

Southall Bros. & Barclay, Ltd., C h a rfo rd

PATTER N S

TJ ERE at Harrods the Private or A Professional Nurse will find every rtquisite of her calling, and she may depend implicitly upon the correctness, the quality, and the service of everything supplied.

lt d .,

W i

Specialists in Nurses’ Wear,

Regulation Outdoor O U T F IT S FOR MEMBERS OF indoor Uniform, Uniform for both T H E B.R.C.S. and S . J . A . A . s.j.a .a . these Societies. an(j BRIGADE: and Brigade.

O U T F IT S and

indoor Uniform, B.R.C.S.

FOR DOCTORS, NURSES CANTEEN WORKERS.

Nurses’ Uniforms of all descriptlous.

Doctors’ Operating Coats. Et*“

Fine Muslin V .A.D . Caps, 1/- each, in two regulation sizes, 18 in. by 27 in., 19 in. by 28 in. Storm Caps, 6/9 each.

In 4 siz s.

In Black or Navy Garberdine.

ICollars,

w'ith 2 stud hole*, in all sizes, 8 £d. each. Sleeves, with wrist­ band and finished with elastic a t top. C o tto n .. .. 1/2i U n io n .. 1/11 i Pure L inen.. 2/11| Stiffened Belts in all sizes, aim* depth, 1/- each.

Summer Coals.

In Cranenette, lined to waist, 65 /Or unlined, 47 /6 . Alpaca, 4 2 /In Navy for B R.C.S. In 3 sizes—Small, Medium and Large.

Blue Lustre Overall, 9/6, 12/6.

In lengths 48 in., 50in. 52 in., 54 in., 56 in. Aprons, well-fitting Gored

for

P rice

L ist

Washing Dresses Ladies’ Overalls

on well cut lines. For Canteen Work an i W ar Service. Fastened down the front, and finished with belt r utid waist. In W hite and Colours. 7/11,9/11,11/9, etc.

Grey Cotton Washing Dress, in 4 sizes,

Best quality Irish Calico

W rite

Well made

our

Skirts. In lengths 34 in., 36in., 38in., 4 0 in.

E.

As illustration, 3/11 each.

HUSSEY & CO., Ltd.,

34in., 36in., 38in., 40m ., 1 0 /6 each. M hite Apron, regulation pattern, with two patch pcckets, in lengths, 34 in., 36 in., 38 in., 40 in., 3/11 each. Sister Grace Collar, with one stud, 8 /d. each. Sister Grace Cuffs, 1 0 /d . per pair. Oversleeves, for wear in hospital, 1/2£, 1/6/, 2/3£ per pair. Stiff White Belts in all sizes, 2J in. wide, 1/- each. Hemstitched Obloug Cap, in fir.e Lawn, 18 in. by 27 in. and 19 in. by 28 in., 1/each. Sister Dora Cap, 7 * d ., 1/Oi, 1/1l£ each.

116

in Zephyr and M atron Cloth, in self colours and stripes, from 13/11 each. In 3 stock sizes.

w

Fine Muslin Army Caps,

36 in. square, 2 / 3 i and 3 / 3 J, 27 in. square, 2 / 6 i each. Finest Irish Collars, Cuffs and Belts, in various depths, and all sizes kept in stock.

“ St. Cecilia Apron.” W ith extra large bibs and wide curved straps over the Operating Coats, as worn in shoulders, and well cut gored the M ilitary Hospstals. skirt measuri .g 72 in. at foot. In fine Irish Calico, light yet M ade in Linen-finished Cloth, with or without pocket, strong, 14/11 each. 5/3 each. In Cream Linen-finished Stocked in 3 lengths, 36 in ., Cloth, 9/11 each. 38 in., and 4 0 ins. Special measurements for larger or smaller Coats care­ fully followed, or different styles made according to C a rr ia g e Paid on custom ers’ requirements. Linen Masks, 1/6 * each.

, Bold Street, LIVERPOOL.

all Orders overlO/Established - - 1859. Telephone : 5162 Royal.


— FIRST

32

A u gu st, 19 18,

AIR —

M ANUALS OF FIR ST -A ID , &e., By N. CORBET FLETCHER, B.A., M.B., B.C (Cantab), M.R.C.S. A ID S T O F IR S T -A ID . Third Edition.

Post free, 7 d .

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Home-Nursing Simplified and Tabulated, with Aids to Memory. T h is book w onderfully sim plifies a complex subject a n d should be read by a ll students." —L. & N.W. Ry. G a z e t t e .

44 NOW

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IN

F IR S T -A ID .

Difficulties to Study and Treatment solved by Question and Answer.

41We oommend this book to Lecturers and Students who w ill fin d it o f great

ALTERATIONS IN REVISED TEXTBOOK, By

Dr.

N.

CORBET

FLETCHER,

M .B . ,

serviee." — F i r s t A

E F F IC IE N C Y

IN

id .

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A

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SHORT

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NOTES Officers Regulation Great Coats. Dark Grey beaver cloth, 54s. to measure. Superior quality Men’s Great Coats, 45s. — Write patterns and particulars, Thornton & Co., tailors, Brighouse.

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Apply ( i t a m p ) to M r . J . E. W a l d e n , Sec., W estminster College (Lady Dispensers Section of the W estminster College of Chemistry and Pharmacy, estd. 1874),

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Systems of Body accurately indexed. Invaluable to Students of Anatomy, Medicine, First-Aid and Allied Subjects. Price 2S. net; postage,----2d.

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D A L E , R E Y N O L D S & C O ., L td ., 4 6 , C a n n o n S tr e e t, L on d o n , E.C. 4 .

above

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ON

T)

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FIRST S id n e y

AID H.

SIMPLIFIED.

Lam b.

A Handbook in a tabulated ard simplified form giving the main points in first aid, so arranged as to impress them on the memory of the student.

DALE, REYNOLDS & CO., Ltd., 46, Cannon St., I ONDON, E,C.4.

F

OR SALE, a juanlily of Men’s Ambulance Uniform Trousers, all sizes, quite new, 12s. 6d. a pair.— Thornton and Co., 24, Commercial-street, Brighouse.

F

OR S A L E .— Regulation Brown Leather Belts and Pouches; also Caps and Overcoats; samples on approval.— Follett, 4, Victoria-avenue, Bishopsgate, London, E.C.

“ F IR S T Q U ER Y

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R E P L IE S

CO U PO N .

To be cut out and enclosed with a ll Queries A ugust,

1918.

Printed and Published by Dale , R eynolds & Co., Ltd., 46, Cannon St., London, E.C.4., to whom all communications should be addressed.


F IR S T AID AND

THE -----

ST. JOHN AMBULANCE GAZETTE. Edited b y A R T H U R No. 291.—

V

o l

XXV.

.

SEPTEM BER,

B.

DALE. {Entered at Staitoners’ Hall.]

1918.

PRICE TH R E E P E N C E

( 3/8

P er

A n n u m , P ost

ately attended, no matter of what trivial nature.

N O T IC E

TO

READERS.

Free]

It is only

by this means that fatal accidents arising from such cases can be reduced.

FIRST AID is published on the aoth of each month. The Annual Subscription is 3s. 6d. post free ; single copies 3d. Its aim and object being the advancement of Ambulance Work in all its branches, the Editor invites Readers to send Articles and Reports on subjects pertaining to the Movement and also welcomes suggestions for Practical Papers. All Reports, &c., should be addressed to the Editor, and should reach him before the 12th of each month, and must be accompanied (not necessarily for Publication ) by the name and address of the Correspondent. Subscriptions, Advertisements and other business Communications connected with FIRST AID should be forwarded to the Publishers, DALE,

REYNOLDS & 46,

C

a n n o n

S

C O .,

t r e e t

,

L L

t d

o n d o n

,

E.C. 4.

ED ITO RIAL. c a s e

was reported in the Press this

First Aid to

month of a child pricking its face with

Minor

a pin, thereby setting up acute mening­

Injuries.

itis, which resulted in death. this

case

because

it is

the

We cite second

which has come to our notice within a short time, the other being a girl who pricked her finger with a loom needle, which, owing to neglect of treatment, resulted in amputa­ tion of the forearm.

There seems to be a tendency among

workpeople to neglect to seek treatment for their minor injuries, looking upon them as trivial.

In 99 per cent, of

the cases they a r e ; but as the two cases recorded above show, there is the risk, which could be greatly reduced if proper treatment were at once obtained.

good in reducing street and workshop accidents

by in­

structing people to exercise care, in the same way its scope could be increased by instructing them to have their minor injuries attended, and we would suggest that the committee should print a small poster dealing with this subject, for we feel sure it would be the means of reducing unnecessary suffering, and at the same time perhaps prevent the loss of life.

.,

Telegraphic A ddress: “ Twenty-four , London." Telephone No. 3477 Bank.

A

The Safety First movement has done a great deal of

Many of the

workshops of this country have properly equipped ambu­ lance stations on their premises, but a great many of these minor injuries do not come within their scope, for the simple reason that the workpeople will not trouble themselves to have these minor cases of injury attended to.

It is for

those who are in charge of these stations to impress upon workpeople the necessity of having their injuries immedi­

H ow

to

G et

a

C in d e r

Out

of

th e

Eye.

N i n e persons out of every ten, with a cinder or other foreign substance in the eye, will instantly begin to rub the eye with one hand while hunting for the handkerchief with the other. They may, and sometimes do, remove the offending cinder, but more frequently they rub till the eye becomes inflamed, bind a handkerchief around the head and go to bed. This is all wrong. T he better way is not to rub the eye with the cinder in at all, but rub the other eye as vigorously as you like. A few years since I was riding on the engine of the fast express from Binghamton to Corning. The engineer, an old schoolmate of mine, threw open the front window, and I caught a cinder that gave me the most excruciating pain. I began to rub the eye with both hands. “ Let your eye alone, and rub the other 'eye ” (this from the engineer). I thought he was chafing me, and worked the harder. “ I know you doctors think you know it all, but if you let that eye alone and rub the other one, the cinder will be out in two minutes,” persisted the engineer. I began to rub the other eye, and I soon felt the cinder down near the inner canthus, and made ready to take it out. “ Let it alone and keep at the well eye,” shouted the doctor pro tem. I did so for a minute longer, and, looking in a small glass he gave me, 1 found the offender on my cheek. Since then I have tried it many times, and have ad­ vised many others, and I have never known it to fail in one instance (unless it was as sharp as a piece of steel or some­ thing that cut into the ball and required an operation to remove it). Why it is so I do not know. But that it is so I do know, and that one may be saved much suffering if they will let the injured eye alone and rub the well eye. Try it.

— M edical Summary.


— FIRST

34

3h< Grand f r io r g of th i G rd ir of the h ospita l of S t. Jo h n of Jerusalem in Sngland. AMBULANCE

fjhe S t.

e p u t y

C

o m m is s io n e r

DEPARTMENT.

.Ambulance Brigade.

DISTRICT ORDERS.

No. 1 District. D

Jo h n

:

W. H. W IN N Y , O.B.E. O C T O B E R , 1918. Sunday Duty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. Sunday, 6th.— No. 1 Division, St. John’s Gate. „ 13th.— No. 2 „ Haggerston. „ 20th.— No. 5 „ Hackney. „ 27th - No. 10 „ St. Mark’s. From 2.30 p.m. to 8.30 p.m. Key from St. John’s Gate, 2 p.m. P R E S E N T A T I O N O F M E D A L S BY T H E CH IEF C O M M I S S I O N E R A T C O M B I N E D DRILL. On Saturday, September 14th, the Chief Commissioner, Colonel Sir James Clark, Bt., C.B., attended at Temple Gardens to present Medals and Bars to the members of the Prince of Wales’s Corps. The meeting was the last of a series of combined drills which have been held for the purpose of giving new Divisions of the Prince of Wales’s Corps the practice of drilling together under the Corps Superintendent, and at the conclusion of the drill the Chief Commissioner presented Medals, etc., to the following members :—

Medals. Dr. J. Stanley Davies, No. 16 New Cross Division. Sergt. Richardson, No. 11 Wembly and Harlesden Division. Acting-Cpl. Hayes, No. 11 Wembly and Harlesden Division. Pte. A. J. Shrimplin, No. 6 Cyclist Division. Nursing Sister H. Arnold, No. 1 Nursing Children’s Home Division. Nursing Sister E. Arnold, No. 1 Nursing [Children’s Home Division. Nursing Sister V. Pell, No. 2, St. John’s Gate Division.

Bars. Nursing Officer A. M. Dicketts, No. 2 Nursing, St. John’s Gate Division. 1st Class Sergt. Lomas, No. 7, Toynbee Hall, Division. Sergt. Storrar, No. 9, St. John’s Gate, No. 2 Division. Sergt. Gray, No. 10, St. Mark's Division. Nursing Sister Huggins, No. 2, St. John’s Gate Division. A Certificate from the Order of St. John was also pre­ sented to Sergt. E. M. Polan, of the No. 1 Division, for recog­ nition of War Services. The Commissioner, addressing the gathering, stated that Sir James Clark attended at great personal inconvenience, as he was at present acting as D.D.M.S., London District, but he had managed to snatch a short time from his duties to which he would return at the close of the ceremony. Sir James Clark then addressed the Parade, congratulated them on their smart appearance, and mentioned the valuable services the members of the Brigade had rendered throughout the country through the Military Home Hospital Reserve and the Royal Naval Sick Berth Reserves. He stated they had rendered a service to the country which could hardly be estimated. He was aware that some of them might feel they had a grievance, inasmuch as some of them were drafted into Infantry Regiments later on, and this may have implied a breach of contract. He could assure them that this action was only taken in consequenee of severe National stress, and he felt sure they would recognise this and remain loyal to the Brigade after the war was over. D IVISIO N AL O ffic e rs

and

M em b e rs

in

DR ILL. C h arg e

of

D iv is io n s

are

AID. —

S eptem ber, 19 18.

requested to notify Headquarters as to the day, hour, and place of meeting for their Divisional Drills, as it is proposed to arrange for the Corps Superintendent in conjunction with another Officer from Headquarters to visit the various Divi­ sions from time to time. P O L IC E C O M P E T I T I O N . The Annual Fete in aid of the Police Orphanage was held at Regent’s Park on August 29th last. Advantage was taken of the opportunity to hold competitions amongst teams of the various air raid workers registered with the Police for that duty. A representative team of various bodies assisting the police took part, and in the men’s competition resulted in the St. John Ambulance Brigade team coming first with a score of ninety-six marks, followed by a team from the South Eastern and Chatham Railway Corps with forty-one marks. In the women’s competitions the St, John Ambulance Brigade team were winners with fifty-nine marks as against fifty-six marks gained by teams sent from Addiscombe, Croydon. The British Red Cross entered a team, and succeeded in obtaining twentynine marks. The result must be highly gratifying to the District, and reflects great credit on the competitors, and especially District Surgeon C. J. R. MacFadden, who devoted considerable time to the training of the respective teams. (Signed) W. H. W IN N Y ,

Deputy-Commissioner. Headquarters :— St. John’s Gate, Clerkenwel

E.C.

IM P O R T A N T N OTIC E. Divisional Secretaries are requested when sending news­ paper cutting of their meetings, etc., to give the date of publi­ cation of the newspapers.— E d i t o r .

No. 4 District. B i r k e n h e a d . — On August 29th a presentation was made to Mr. W. Johnson on his resignation from the Cammell Laird Corps. Mr. Johnson held the position of Corps Supt. and his resigning has caused much regret. Mr. H. M. Hinchliffe presided, and in the course of his remarks spoke most highly of the splendid work done by Mr. Johnson in the shipyard of Messrs. Cammell, Laird & Co., Ltd. The presentation, which was made by Corps Officer F. Phoenix, took the form of a handsome silver tea-service from the officers and men of the Corps. Mr. Phoenix gave many instances of the work accomplished by Mr. Johnson in the works, town and hospitals among the wounded soldiers and civilians. Mrs. Murray Mackie, Lady Divisional Superintendent, pre­ sented a silver hot-water jug on behalf of the Nursing Division, and thanked Mr. Johnson for the help and instruction given so willingly to the members. Mr. Johnson, in his reply, thanked them for their kind remarks and the tokens of their appreciation for his work among them, and then gave a brief history of the S.J.A.B. work done since 1912, when the Cammell Laird Corps started. In 1914, when the war began, this Corps was the only organ­ ised body of men in Birkenhead trained in first aid and able to do hospital duty. Since then the good work had gone on, and now there were six ambulance divisions, three nursing divisions and three St. John V.A.D.’s in the town. A hearty vote of thanks was passed to Mr. H. M. Hinch­ liffe for presiding.

No. 5 District. S h e f f i e l d . — There are two General Military Hospitals in Sheffield, besides numerous Auxiliary Hospitals, consequently, the Sheffield Corps has been, and is, able to maintain the standard of efficiency of the organisation, by taking full ad­ vantage of the scope thus provided for its utility. By their willingness, devotion, and self-sacrifice, the mem­ bers have been able to fill a real gap in the Hospital personnel, e.g., the Corps provides men for orderly duties every night, the members selected commence duty at 8 p.m., and remain until relieved at 5 o’clock the next morning.


September, 19 18.

— FIRST

Further, in the event of a convoy of wounded arriving, no matter at what hour, all members turn out to assist at the Station in the detraining. As practically the whole of the work falls upon the Corps, a squad of men are always on duty at the Corps headquarters, and when the news of the arrival is re­ ceived, their duty is to warn other members. As a result of this arrangement, sufficient willing hands are always present awaiting the arrival of the train. Apart from these, and other public duties which the Corps perform, must be mentioned those which are carried out on the alarm being given of the approach of enemy aircraft. As a mark of appreciation of all the work done by the Corps since the commencement of the war, the*Corps Officers invited members and their wives and friends to a Field Day. On Bank Holiday, August 5th, the Corps betook itself to the beautiful Bagshawe Park, kindly lent for the occasion by Mrs. Isherwood Bagshawe, of Norton Hall. Here, in the afternoon, a series of sports was arranged, the prizes for which were very kindly given by the members and friends of the Corps. In all there were 233 entries for 13 events, with 46 prizes, which Assistant-Commissioner H. C. Else presented on the ground after the sports. An excellent tea was provided by the Corps Officers at the Bagshawe Arms close by, to which 180 persons sat down. After the tea, a concert was given by members and friends, at which the Assistant-Commissioner presided. This brought to a close what will be remembered by the Corps as a Red Letter day in its history.

No. 8 District. M A I D S T O N E . — A plucky action was performed by one of the members of the Division— Mr. Pargeter— on August 14th. While attending a school fete one of the children fell down a disused well 100 ft. deep. Mr. Pargeter immediately on learn­ ing of this occurrence volunteered to descend the well, and by the aid of ropes he was lowered, and was the means of recover­ ing the body of the child. The coroner and foreman of the jury complimented Mr. Pargeter on his plucky action.

No. 12 (Irish) District. We are pleased to note the names of the following mem­ bers of the No. 12 (Irish) District recently mentioned by the Secretary of State for War for Red Cross Services :— Mrs. Harry Greer, Mrs. D. H. Lane, Mrs. Leslie-Ellis, Mrs. Horace Law, Miss Rachel Mahaffy, Miss Muriel Pde' Mrs. Ramadge, Mrs. E. H. Oiseau Robinson, The Marchioness of Waterford, Mrs. Isobel Watson and Mr. Reginald H. Keatinge. The annual cup competition and inspection of the Nenagh and Borrisokane Nursing Divisions were held at the Tennis Grounds, Nenagh, on August 28th. The examiners were Dr. Morton, Birr ; Lady Divisional Supt. Mrs. Woodward and Lady Corps Officer Miss Blandford. Four teams competed two from each division, and the cup was won by a Nenagh team composed of Miss Poe (captain) the Misses M. and' A. Hodgins and Miss M. Dagg. A Borrisokane team (runners up for the Irish Women’s Challenge Cup in June) was second. Sir John Lumsden, K.B.E., M.D., subsequently inspected the divisions and inspected the prizes. He heartily congratu­ lated the members on their efficiency and smart appearance. Dr. G. A. Johns, who from 1913 onwards has been giving lectures to the Nenagh Division and helping in its work was the recipient of a handsome presentation. In connection with the competition and inspection a fete was held for the Co. Tipperary “ Our Day ” effort, which it is hoped will result in a substantial addition to that fund. Much credit is due to the organisers of the fete and to the divisional officers of the S.J.A.B., who are untiring in their efforts in connection with their work. An interesting item of ambulance work in Dublin is the attendance, by request of the management, at all performances at the Empire Theatre of men of the City of Dublin Division

AID. —

35

under Supt. R. W. Jameson, and nursing sisters of the St. Stephen’s Green Nursing Division, under Lady Supt. Mrs. R. J. Rowlette. During the past year many cases of accident and illness have been attended to, and the service rendered is much appreciated by the management, staff, artistes, and the public attending the theatre. N a a s N u r s i n g D i v i s i o n . — This Division w a s the out­ come of a very small First-aid class, started by Miss Moore, at her home, in August, 1911. Classes in first aid and home nursing, taught gratuitously by Dr. O’Donel Browne, M.D., continued thoughout 1912, and on February 19th, 1913, the Naas Nursing Division came into existence. Its officers were Lady Divisional Supt. Mrs. Mills, Lady Divisional Sec. Miss Mills, Lady Divisional Treasurer, Miss V. Moore, and Divi­ sional Surgeon Dr. O’Donel Browne. In June of that year a team of four of its members, won the Irish Women's Ambulance Cup, at the Dublin Competition. On September 2nd, 1914, the Division was registered as a Voluntary Aid Detachment— S.J.A..B 536, Kildare 2— with Dr. Browne as Commandant, Miss Moore as Lady Divisional Supt. (Mrs. Mills being second for active service in Siberia), Miss V. Moore as secretary, Lady Albreda Bourke as quarter­ master, and Lady Borrowes as treasurer. The latter, however, being obliged to go to England, the treasurership was kindly undertaker by Mrs. Barton, of Straffen. A small branch of the Division was established at Car­ nalway, in 1915. In May, 1916, when the county hospital was started at Firmount, Dr. O ’Donel Browne was appointed county director and medical officer, and some of the members of the detachment who had been unable to volunteer for active ser­ vice, offered their services to the hospital and were accepted. About fourteen of the members have been, or are on active service since 1915 j two have qualified at massage ; two others run an auxiliary war hospital supply depot, and in all ; threefourths of the entire detachment are engaged in war work of some sort or another. Since the first seed of ambulance work was planted in 1911, Dr. Browne, as Divisional Surgeon, has given his services as lecturer gratuitously, and has spared neither time nor trouble in instructing the many candidates who have attended his classes. Recently,, owing to his being county director as well as divisional surgeon, he resigned the post of Commandant, which was then given to the Lady Divi­ sional Supt. Miss Moore. There are three nursing officers in the Division, Miss Violet Moore, Sister D. Gray and Mrs. Greer, and 34 nursing sisters.

In t e r -A l l ie d E x h i b i t i o n . — An exhibition illustrating the aftercare of wounded men took place in the Mansion House, Dublin, by kind permission of the Lord Mayor, during the week of August I2th-I7th. Demonstrations were given of the many appliances recently invented for the greater comfort of the maimed and the methods of using them. The St. John Ambulance Brigade and the British Red Cross Society were represented by a First Aid Dressing Station and by an Information Bureau, where recrpitingof new V.A.D. members was busily carried on. Mrs. Rowlette, Lady Supt! of St. Stephen’s Green Nursing Division, and Mrs. Worralli Commandant Co. Dublin No. 10 B.R.C.S., were in charge, and were assisted by V.A.D. nurses, who gave a most interesting exhibition of applying first aid dressings. The appreciation of the visitors were represented by un­ solicited donations of £4 2s. 8d. deposited in a collecting box.

Two First Aid Classes will be held at Toynbee Hall Commercial-street, E.

For men, Tuesday, Oct. 8th, at

7 o’clock ; women, Friday, Oct.

n t h , at 7 o’clock.

Lec­

tures by Dr. Benton, M .R .C.S , M.R.C.P. Any further particulars can be had by applying to the Secretary, Toynbee Hall,

or to Class Secretary,

street, Walthamstow, E.17. and examination.

16, Daventry-avenue, Hoe-

Fee 5s , including Text Book


— F IR ST

36

A ID

&

THE

ST.

JOH N

AM BULANCE

GAZETTE. —

S eptem ber, 1 9 ) 8

THE ST. JOHN AMBULANCE GAZETTE. O fficia l

B r ig a d e

A

u g u s t

,

N ew s.

1918.

T he Chief Commissioner has sanctioned the following appointments, promotions, transfers and resignations :— No. 2 D i s t r i c t . City of Bristol Corps (J. S. Fry & Sons Division).— Hugh Hampden Pridie, M.B., C.M., to be Divisional Surgeon, 12.8.18., vice Divisional Surgeon E. G. Hall, M.B., resigned. No. 3 D i s t r i c t . Leicester Corps (Syston Nursing Steeds to be Nursing Officer, 3.8.18. be Nursing Officer, 4.18 .8. Birmingham Nursing Corps Division).— Miss Rose Edith Toney

Division).— Mrs. Marion Mrs. Annie Hopcroft to (Headquarters Nursing to be Nursing Officer,

3 .1 8 .1 8 .

North-East Warwickshire Corps (White and Poppe’s Nursing Division.— Choyce A. Bott to be Nursing Officer, 3 1.8 .1 8 .

No. 4 D i s t r i c t . Kirton Division.— Arthur Ward to be Ambulance Officer, 7 .8 .1 8.

No. 5. D i s t r i c t . Spen Valley Corps (Heckmondwike and Liversedge Nurs­ ing Division.— Mary Ellen Chappell to be Lady Divisional Supt., 17.7.18, vice Lady Divisional Supt. Miss H. Thornton, resigned. Derby Nursing Division.— Mrs. Alice Haddon to be Nurs­ ing Officer, 7.8.18, vice Miss Field resigned. N o .

6

D

i s t r ic t

.

Dunston-on-Tyne Nursing Division.— Lady Divisional Supt. Miss I. Maughan resigned her appointment, 9.8.18. Stella Coal Co. Corps (Addison Colliery Nursing Division). — Lady Divisional Supt. Mrs. S. B. Robson resigned her appointment, 1 5 .6 .1 8 . Mrs. Alice Mary Simpson to be Lady Divisional Supt., 6.8.18. Sunderland Transport Division.— Arthur Sinclair Young to be Divisional Supt., 7.8.18. Malton and Norton Nursing Division.— James E. Long, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., to be Divisional Surgeon, 10.8.18. Hull Corps (N.E.R. Hull Nursing Division).— Miss Ethel May Grove to be Lady Divisional Supt., 10.8.10. Hull Corps (Young Peoples Institute Nursing Division.— Mrs. Agnus Skelton to be Nursing Officer, 10.8.18. Willington Quay and N. Howden Nursing Division.— Miss Hannah Maddison to be Lady Divisional Supt., 29.8.18. No. 7 D i s t r i c t . Shrewsbury Corps (Hanwood Division-).— Samuel Joseph George to be Divisional Supt., 17.8.18, vice Divisional Supt. Dr. Riley, resigned. No.

8

D

is t r ic t

.

Dover Nursing Division.— John Reginald Long, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., D.P.H., to be Divisional Surgeon, 1.8.18. Maidstone Nursing Division.— Mrs. Charlotte Falwasser to be Lady Divisional Supt., 28.8.18. Miss Evelyn M. Dunmill to be Nursing Officer, 28.8.18. Brighton and Hove Corps (Hove Nursing Division).— Elizabeth Baldwin Ireland to be Nursing Officer, 22.8.18, vice Miss Clemante promoted to District Officer. Brighton and Hove Corps (Brighton Nursing Division).— Miss Edith Dorothy Andrews to be Nursing Officer, 28.8.18.

Tunbridge Wells Division.— William Ambulance Officer, 31.8.18.

Harmer to be

No. 9 D l S T R f C T . Newton Abbot Corps (Newton Abbot Division).— James John S. Scrase, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., to be Divisional Surgeon, -3.8.18. No. 12 D i s t r i c t . Portarlington Nursing Division.— Mrs. C. Dorothy Odium to be Lady Divisional Supt., 6.8.18. Mrs. Florence Fincher to be Nursing Officer, 6.8.18. Thomas William Rice, L.R.C.P. and S., L.A.N., L.M., to be Divisional Surgeon, 6.8.18. A

m a l g a m a t i o n

N

o f

D

u r s i n g

i v is io n s

.

Temple Ewell Nursing Division amalgamated with Dover Nursing Division, which will in future be known as ‘ Dover and Temple Ewell Nursing Division.” N

e w

D

iv is io n

.

No. 2 D i s t r i c t . Cheltenham Corps.— Sunningend Division, 12.8.18. R

o l l

o f

H

o n o u r

.

Appleton, Corpl. A. F., Reading, M.H.H.R. Athorn, Pte. H., Pontefract, M.H.H.R. Bell, Corpl. H. S., Blaydon-on-Tyne, Royal Engineers. Bishop, Pte. H. G., Gloucester Wagon Works, M.H.H.R. Chapman, Miss M. D., South Shields, V.A.D. Cowley, Pte. N., Hetton-le-Hole, M.H.H.R. Foxton, Pte. G., Walthamstow, M.H.H.R. Hemming, Sergt C. H., Rugby, M.H.H.R. Hill, Pte. G. H., Whitworth, M.H.H.R. Holt, Corpl. J. W., Crawshawbooth, M.H.H.R. Kavanagh, Pte. Wm., Dawdon Colliery, M.H.H.R. Martindale, Pte. H., Bradford Tramways, R.A.M.C. Tottle, Pte. J., Exeter, M.H.H.R. The Chief Commissioner regrets to report the death of Ambulance Office R. M. Saville, Pease’s West Division. M

i l i t a r y

D

e c o r a t io n s

a n d

A

w a r d s

.

Smith, Pte. F., Toynbee Hall, French Croix de Guerre. Truslove, Pte. L., Smethwick, Military Medal. In "the Brigade Orders, |“ Military Decorations,” in the August issue, W. R. Knaggs, Whitby Division, No. 6 District, was described as a Private, R.A.M.C., this should have been Sergeant. F ir s t A id in D r e a m l a n d . — An active member of one of the Nursing Divisions of the Brigade in the London area, troubled with mosquito bites on the leg, before going to bed secured an alkaline dressing on the affected part in the most approved fashion with a figure of 8 bandage, fastening off with a safety pin in the usual way. In the middle of the night she dreamed that there was an air raid and amongst the casualties was a patient whose leg required bandaging. Finding herself short of apparatus and being of a resourceful turn of mind, she instinctively bethought herself in her dreams of the bandage on her own leg, which she proceeded to take off and roll up preparatory to treat­ ing the patient. Here the dream broke off, as dreams have a habit of doing . . . . but on awakening in the morning she found the bandage lying on her pillow, neatly and tightly rolled up and fixed with the safety pin !


Septem ber, 1 9 i 8

— F IR ST

A ID

&

THE

ST.

T h e L a t e E d w in F re sh fie ld , L L .D ., F .S .A . B y the death of Dr. Freshfield, who passed away at his home at Lower Kingswood, Surrey, on Sunday, ist Sep­ tember, the Order of St. John has lost one of its oldest and most zealous workers. Dr. Freshfield was born on 26th November, 1832, was educated at Winchester and Trinity, Cambridge, and, after serving eighteen months on H.M.S. “ Firebrand” in the Black Sea during the Crimean War, entered the legal profession, and in 1858 succeeded his father and grand­ father as one of the solicitors to the Bank of England. In 1861 he married the daughter of Mr. J. F. Hanson, of the Levant Company, whom he first met at Smyrna while the “ Firebrand ” was refitting there. Through her he inherited property in Smyrna, which he used to visit

T

h e

l a t e

E

d w in

F

r e s h f i e l d

,

LL.D., F.S.A.

every autumn, until the outbreak of war. In the course of his travels he acquired an exhaustive knowledge of the geography of the Near East and was able from intimate first-hand knowledge to describe the journeys of St. Paul, especially those in Asia Minor. He was also an authority on the liturgy of the Greek Church and on Byzantine archi­ tecture. Amongst the ways in which he turned this knowl­ edge to account was by designing a Mission Church on the plan of St Eirene at Constantinople, which was built at Lower Kingswood and dedicated to “ The Wisdom of God.” He presented to this Church a collection of marbles, chiefly connected with the Church of St. John at Ephesus and the Monastery at Constantinople, which he had made at Smyrna and Ephesus. Amongst his early pastimes was the rubbing of brasses, and he used to tell how, after the restoration of Winchester

JOHN

AM BULANCE

G A Z E T T E .—

37

College Chapel, during which the brasses there were destroyed, he had duplicates made from his rubbings and presented them to the Chapel, where they still remain. He was a vice-president of the Society of Antiquaries and for several years its treasurer. Dr. Freshfield joined the Order of St. John as a Knight of Grace in 1877, was promoted to Knight of Justice on the Eve of St. John in 1888, to Honorary Co m ­ mander in 1903, and to Honorary Bailiff in 1910. He held the office of Librarian from 1878 to 1884, when he was appointed Receiver-General, which office he held until the autumn of 1917. It was largely through his efforts that the Order obtained its Charter of Incorporation in 1888, and he closely identified himself with the restora­ tion of St. John’s Gate and the erection of the Chapter Hall. In recognition of his distinguished services his arms were placed in 1911 in one of the lights of the north window of the Council Chamber. During the restoration of the crypt of the Prioiy Church in Clerkenwell, excavations disclosed masonry, which proved that the nave was originally round, and Dr. Freshfield defrayed the expense of further excavations, which brought to light further portions of the foundations of the early nave. His interest in the Church led him to take the initiative in the purchase of its advowson by the Ordt r He also was the prime mover in the acquisition of the advowson of Little Maplestead Church, which is one of the four round-nave churches still existing in England, the others being the Temple Church, London, and churches at Northampton and Cambridge. Shortly before his death he became the Lord of the Manor of Little Maplestead. In January, 1890, he founded an Ambulance Station beneath the steps of the west front of St. Paul’s Cathedral. As Receiver-General he was Chairman of the Finance Committee of the Order and Treasurer of the British Ophthalmic Hospital, Jerusalem. On the Wednesday following his death he was buried at Kingswood, the first part of the service being read at the Mission Church at Lower Kingswood which he built. On the following day a Memorial Service was held at the Priory Church, Clerkenwell, when the Bishop of South­ wark, formerly head master of Winchester, and for many years an intimate friend of Dr. Freshfield, gave a short address, in which he referred to the diversity of Dr. Freshfield’s interests and bore personal testimony to his fine character, sound judgment, loyalty to the Order and his friends, and his love for his old school. Canon Sheppard, the Archdeacon of London, and the Rev. T. C. Elsdon (rector of the parish) also took part in the service, which was attended by many members of the Order and Dr. Freshfield’s friends. Amongst those pre­ sent were Sir John Hewett (Chancellor), the Rt. Hon. Evelyn Cecil, M.P. (Secretary-General), Sir Dyce Duck­ worth (Almoner), Sir Alfred Scott-Gatty (Genealogist), Mr. W. R. Edwards (Secretary), Sir John Furley, Mr. A. F. G. Leveson-Gower, Sir Edward Thackeray, Sir William Bennett, Sir John Freshfield and daughters, Sir William Leese, Colonel Browne-Synge-Hutchinson, General Sir Leslie Rundle, Sir Mackenzie Chalmers, Mr. E. C. Cole, Sir Gordon Nairne, Sir Thomas Sutherland and Mr. J. F. P. Rawlinson, K.C., M.P. The St. John Ambulance Bri­ gade was represented by Commissioner W. H. Winny and a number of other officers and members of the Prince of Wales’s Corps. Mr. F. W. Pixley (Receiver-General) was unable, owing to illness, to be present at the service for his predecessor in office. The Earl of Plymouth (Sub-Prior), Sir Herbert Perrott (Bailiff of Eagle), the Earl of Ranfurly (Director of the Ambulance Department), Sir Herbert


— FIR ST

38

A ID

&

THE

ST.

JOHN

Jskyll (late Chancellor), Sir James Clark (Chief Commis sioner of the Brigade), and Major-General J. C. Dalton (Chief Commissioner of the Brigade Overseas) were also unavoidably absent.

The

O rder of

of

th e

J e r u sa le m

B

r ig a d e

Y

H o sp ita l P rio ry

e a r

A

of

fo r

n n u a l

R

S t.

John

W a le s.

e t u r n s

-

Brigade year for the futuie, and including the current year shall commence on the 1st January and terminate on the 31st December. Returns for the current year should be made up to the 31st December, and the figures for the 15 months included.

T

h e

W

a r

S

B

e r v ic e

a d g e

.

A list of those qualified for the War Service Badge, as approved by the Chapter General of the Order, shall be submitted. T he award of the Badge is limited to certificate holders, whose work has been voluntary, and are able to comply with the following conditions :— (1) Workers in hospitals for two years. (2) Members of V.A.D.s with two white or red stripes. (3) Ambulance drivers or attendants who have responded to a minimum of 100 calls for duty involving in all a minimum of 250 hours’ work. (4) Workers in buffets, canteens, or workrooms, having made a minimum attendance of 1,000 hours. ( 5 ) Airraid relief workers and others undertaking perilous duties, whose cases will be con­ sidered on their merits. If you or any of your members are entitled to receive the Badge, please let me have, for certain, before Septem­ ber 7th, their names and addresses, with particulars of the work done, and the dates. In each case the account of the work done should be signed by the matron of the hospital, the officer in charge of the ambulance transport, canteen, workroom, or air raid squad respectively. M

R

o n s

ib b o n

P

a r a d e

,

J

u n e

15th, 1918.

I have pleasure in circulating the following letter re­ ceived from the Right Honourable The Earl of Plymouth, Sub-Prior of the Order of St. John, Priory for Wales :— D

e a r

M

r

.

L

e w i s

,—

I s h o u l d l i k e t o t e l l y o u h o w m u c h p l e a s u r e it g a v e m e a s S u b - P r io r o f th e P rio ry for W a le s to in sp ec t s u ch a s p le n d i d g a t h e r i n g o f m e m b e r s o f th e St. J o h n A m b u l a n c e B r i g a d e o n p a r a d e o n J u n e 15th a t C a r d iff, o n t h e o c c a ­ sion of th e d is trib u tio n o f th e R ib b o n o f th e M e d a l g a in e d b y t h o s e m e m b e r s o f t h e B r i g a d e w h o h a d s e r v e d w ith th e E x p e d i t i o n a r y F o r c e i n B e l g i u m a n d in F r a n c e i n t h e a u t u m n o f 1914. W e d e s i r e d to d o all h o n o u r to t h o s e to w h o m th is m e d a l w as a w ard ed , a n d th e p re se n c e on p a r a d e o f N u r s in g D iv isio n s, so m e o f w h o m h a d ta k e n a lo n g jo u r n e y from d is ta n t p a rts o f W a le s , su ch , for in s ta n c e , a s th e N u r s in g D iv isio n s from W e ls h p o o l, a n d o th e rs, g re a tly a d d e d to th e im p o r ta n c e o f th e o ccasio n . T h e d ifficulties o f tra v e llin g a r e g r e a t a t th is tim e , a n d I w is h t o g iv e t h e s p e c ia l t h a n k s o f t h e P r i o r y to all t h o s e w h o by th e ir a tte n d a n c e on p a ra d e e n a b le d us to m a k e th e c e r e m o n y w o rth y o f th e sp ecial o ccasio n . I s h o u l d b e v e r y g l a d if y o u w o u ld , t h r o u g h th e O ffic e rs in c h a r g e o f t h e D i v i s i o n s , m a k e k n o w n t h e s e few w o rd s o f t h a n k s to th o s e p r e s e n t o n p a r a d e o n J u n e th e 1 5 th .— I a m , Y o u rs sin c e re ly , P

l y m o u t h

.

AM BULANCE S

u p p l y

GAZETTE. — D

e p o t

W

Se p te m ber, 19 1 8 . P

o r k i n g

a r t ie s

.

I am wishful to include in my report a list of the St. John Supply Depot Branches and Working Parties in the Principality. Will you kindly let me know if there are any such in your district, together with the name of the Presi­ dent and Secretary, and if you are able to obtain for me the number of articles sent from each Depot to the various places, it would be interesting. We much need clothing at this Central Depot for dis­ tribution to the St. John Hospitals in Wales, and if you are able to assist us in this direction I shall be glad. B

M

r ig a d e

e m b e r s

o n

S

e r v ic e

,

&

c

.

Will you please let me have the following informa­ tion :— (1) A list of members of your Division who are serving in any of His Majesty’s Forces, at home or abroad, with the full name of the Regiment or Hospital. (2) A list of those who have received Decorations or been mentioned in Dispatches, with par­ ticulars. (3) A list of those who have died on Service. (4) A list of those who have been discharged from the Service. A PPO IN T M E N T S

AND

P R O M O T IO N S .

I c o n f i r m t h e f o l l o w i n g :— C

o r p s

O

f f ic e r s

.

W i l l i a m s , D r . D . C ., B r y n f e d w a n , A s s i s t a n t S u r g e o n , R h o n d d a F a w r , 17-6-18 M o rris , T h o m a s , 97, T r e a la w - r o a d , T r e a la w , A s s is ta n t S e c r e ­ t a r y , R h o n d d F a w r , 17-6-18 W i l l i a m s , A ., 137, W i l l i a m - s t r e e t , Y s t r a d , R h o n d d a , A s s i s t a n t T r e a s u r e r , R h o n d d a F a w r , 17-6-18 E n r i g h t , D a v i d T . , 25, N a n t g a r n - r o a d , C a e r p h i l l y , T r e a s u r e r , C a e r p h i l l y a n d D i s t r i c t , 17-6-18 H

o n o r a r y

M

e m b e r s

.

W y n n , H o n . M r. G ., R u g , N o r t h W a l e s , C o r w e n , 8-8-18 D iv is io n a l

S u p e r in t e n d e n t s .

J o n e s, M iss H ., D ry s c o e d , Sm ith field , P o n ta rd a w e , P o n ta rd a w e N u r s i n g , 17-6-18 R o b l i n g s , G e o r g e , L l w y n c e l y n , P o n t h e n r y , P o n t h e n r y , 17-6-18 S t r i c k l a n d , M r s . j O . , 2, B l y t h e - s t r e e t , A b e r t i l l e r y N u r s i n g , 1 7 -6 - 8 J o n e s , M rs . C. E ., H illfield , L l a n s m le t, L l a n s a m l e t N u r s i n g , 17-6-18 P a y n e , M rs. J a n e ,

F o u n d ry H o u se , T reala w ,

L lw ynpia N u rs ­

i n g , 5 -7 - 1 8 D a v i e s , T . L ., G a r d e n V illa g e , T r e h e r b e r t , F e r n h i l l , 5-7-18 L e w is , M rs . M ., 2 6 , W i l l i a m - s t r e e t , Y s t r a d , Y s t r a d N u r s i n g ,

5-7-18 D

iv is io n a l

S

u r g e o n s

.

M c C o r m a c , D r . S ., 179, C o m m e r c i a l - r o a d , N e w p o r t , M o n . , N e w p o r t R a i l w a y , 17-6-18 D a v i e s , D r . T . B ., G i l f a c h - r o a d , T o n y p a n d y , L l w y n y p i a N u r s in g , 5-7-18 B a k e r , D r . W . L . , 9 , A l m a - s t r e e t , T r e h e r b e r t , F e r n h i l l , 5 -7 - 1 8 T e r r y , D r . R . H e r b e r t , P e n y b r y n , N e ls o n , N e l s o n , 31-7-18 N u r s in g

O ffic e r s .

G i b b s , M r s . M . , 30, R i c h m o n d - r o a d , A b e r t i l l e r y , A b e r t i l l e r y N u r s i n g , 17-6-18 E v a n s , M r s . R . D . H . , 16, B e e c h f i e l d - a v e n u e , H e n g o e d , P e n a l l t a N u r s i n g , 17-6-18 S e w a r d , M is s E . M ., S tr a w b e r r y - p l a c e , M o r r is to n , L l a n s a m l e t N u r s i n g , 17-6-18 J o n e s , M i s s K . M ., 75, T r e h a r n e - r o a d , L a n d o r e , L l a n s a m l e t N u r s i n g , 17-6-18 W i l l i a m s , M r s . S., 76, L o w e r T h o m a s - s t r e e t , M e r t h y r T y d f il, M e r t h y r N u r s i n g , 24-8-18 W i l l s , M i s s E . M . , 3, V i c t o r i a - s t r e e t , M e r t h y r T y d f i l , M e r t h y r N u r s in g , 24-8-18


Septem ber,

1918. A

— FIRST m b u l a n c e

O

AID

&

f f ic e r s

THE

ST.

JOH N

Vaughan,

D

iv is io n a l

S

.

e c r e t a r i e s

Caradog, 278, Bridgend-road, Maesteg, Maesteg, 17-6-18 Rogers, Miss E., Belmont House, Grove-road, Pontardawe, Pontardawe Nursing, 17-6-18 Saunders, Fred, The Bungalows, Coedely, Tonyrefrail, Tonyrefrail, 17-6-18 Isaac, John, 16, Brookland-terrace, Nantymoel, Nantymoel, 17-6-18 Lewis, Mrs. M., 22, Gelli Crug-road, Abertillery, Abertillery Nursing, 17-6-18 Jones, Miss E. M., The School House, Bedwas, Bedwas Nurs­ ing, 17-6-18 Davies, Miss E. J., 154, Kenry-street, Tonypandy, Llwynypia Nursing, 17-6-18 Caple, Walter, I, Pengam-road, Ystrad Mynach, Penallta, 17-6-18 Williams, Leonard, 66, Shingrig-road, Nelson, Nelson, 31-7-18 D avies,

D

iv is io n a l

T

r e a s u r e r s

e r g e a n t s

.

Williams, David, Ponthenry, 17-6-18 Thomas, Frank, Abertillery, 17-6-18 Targett, A. J., Cymmer, Porth, 17-6-18 Thomas, I. G., Cymmer, Porth, 17-6-18 Elkins, Albert, Blaina, 17-6-18 Martin, George, Bedwas, 17-6-18 Baker. Reginald, Nelson, 31-7-18 Matthews, William R., Llwynypia, 6-8-18 Williams, David O., Llwynypia, 6-8-18 Davies, W. J., Fernhill, 6-8-18 C

o r p o r a l s

.

Purnell, John, H., Abertillery, 17-6-18 Davies, Lewis, Cymmer, Porth, 17-6-18 Russell, R., Cymmer, Porth, 17-6-18 Trow, R. W., Cymmer,. Porth, 17-6-18 Watkins, Watkin H., Blaina, 17-6-18 Williams, Herbert, Blaina, 17-6-18 Rossiter, James, Blaina, 17-6-18 Jenkins, William, Blaina, 17-6-18 Jones, David H., Nelson, 31-7-18 Harris, Jacob, Nelson, 31-7-18 Owen, Thomas T , Llwynypia, 5-7-18 Tudball, Samuel, Llwynyp;a, 5-7-18 Tudball, Frank, Llwynypia, 5-7-18 Williams, D., Fernhill, 6-8-18 Marston, James, Fernhill, 6 1-18 D

iv is io n a l

I

n s p e c t o r

o f

S

39

N

D

e w

iv is io n s

.

Since the establishment of the Welsh Priory on March 1st, 1918, the following Divisions have been formed 1— Rhyrriney Nursing, Mrs. J. W. Price, The Terrace, Rhymney, 25-4-18 Llwynypia Nursing, Mrs. J. Payne, Foundry House, Trealaw 13-5-18 Tonyrefail and Coedely Nursing, Mrs. £. M. Brereton, Wood­ lands, Coedely, Tonyrefail, 12-6-18 Percyrhun Nursing (Penybank), Mr. T. Davies, Brynbyfryd, Penybank, Ammanford, 31-7-18 Pontlottyn (Male), Mr. D. H. Phillips, 8, Waterloo-terrace, Pontlottyn, 12-6-18 Tonyrefail and Coedely (Male), Mr. A . Davies, The Bungalow, Coedely, 14-6-18 Nelson (Male), Mr. S. Lloyd, 36, Long Row, Nelson, 31-7-18 V

o l u n t a r y

A

id

D

e t a c h m e n t s

.

The undermentioned Detachments have been registered:— Llwynypia (Female), Mrs. J. Payne, Foundry House, Trealaw, 13-5-18, Glam. 236 Kenfig Hill (Female), Miss Jenkins, 59, High-street, Kenfig Hill, 31-7-18, Glam. 242 H E R B E R T LEWIS,

Commissiencr for Wales. September 12th, 1918.

.

Thomas, Richard, 229, Bridgend-road, Maesteg, Maesteg, 17-6-18 Mathews, Garfield, High-street, Tonyrefail, Tonyrefail, 17-6-18 Thomas, Miss L., Glyndwr, Pandy-road, Bedwas, Bedwas Nursing, 17-6-18 Jones, Miss M., 6, Sherwood, Llwynypia, Llwynypia Nursing, 17-6-18 Morgan, Mrs. Mary, 44, Penrhys-road, Ystrad Rhondda, Ystrad Nursing, 5-7-18 S

G A Z E T T E .—

Newbury, Mrs. S. J., 17, Trafalgar-terrace, Ystrad, Rhondda, Ystrad Nursing, 5-7-18

.

Wm., 34, Glyn-street, Cymmer, Porth, Cymmer, 17-6-18 Gardner, Wm., T., 23, Church-street, Blaina, Mon., Blaina, 17-6-18 Cadogan, Sydney, 2, Ardwyn-terrace, Ton Petre, Maindy and Eastern, 5-7-18 R e e s , John, 12, Ton Row, Ton Pentre, Maindy and Eastern, 5-7-18 Lloyd, Stanley, 56, Heol Vawr, Nelson, Nelson, 31-7-18

AM BULANCE

t o r e s

.

Davies, Miss M., Cynlais House, Grove-road, Pontardawe, Pontardawe Nursing Division, 17-5-18 Lewis, Arthur W., 70, Pritchard-street, Tonyrefail, Toneyrefail, 17-6-18 Garnett, Richard, 28, Waunlwyd, Nantymoel, Nantymoel, 17-6-18 Jones, Miss M., 2, Sherwood, Llwynypia, Llwynypia Nursing, 17-6-18 Thomas, Robert, 2, Donald-street, Nelson, Nelson, 31-7-18

The

D octor

at

th e

F ro n t.

h e Battalion or Unit Medical Officer is the keystone of the arch on which the Medical Services rest. In the front line of the battle, he bears the heat and brunt of the day, and a glance at the casualty lists will bring home to the reader the dangers, if not the difficulties, of his posi­ tion. Acting primarily in a purely advisory position, he can, by the exercise of tact, patience, and discrimination, win for himself a position in which he wields executive power. If he wins the confidence of his Commanding Officer, his way is smooth, and the battalion reaps the benefit of the harmonious co-operation. A good Battalion medical officer knows all his men, and can pick out the genuine case from the shirker, with ease. His primary duty is to keep men is the firing line, and everything which affects the health of the men, the provision of a pure water supply, the supply and preparation of food, and the supervision of the sanitary area all come under his control. T o assist him in his duties, the Regimental Medical Officer has the following personnel:— N.C.O.s. Other Ranks. Medical Orderlies ... 3 1 Batmen ... ... 1 Sanitary Detachment, (2 per Company) ... ... 1 8 Water Duty Men ... 1 4 Stretcher Bearers ... 1 16 In addition, the services of the pioneers are available. The sanitary personnel is often increased by the employ­ ment of men at transport lines. In addition to the 16 regular stretcher bearers, a reserve of at least 16 trained men is available. In a Rest area, the duties of a Battalion medical officer start with morning sick parade, which is usually held at an early hour, and are more or less continuous during the day. The camp or billets have to be inspected daily ; the

T


40

FIRST

AID

& TH E

ST.

JOHN

sanitary men require supervision and training, and the cook­ house requires constant attention. These duties, especially if the billets are scattered, occupy the whole morning. In the afternoon the stretcher bearers are trained. Routine inspections of the men for the prevalence of scabies and lice, are held, and water cart orderlies require instruction. Rest rooms are established in which men not seriously ill are admitted and treated. In this manner beds are saved at Field ambulance, and men are kept in their unit. In the trenches the medical officer is generally pro­ vided with a dug-out in one of the communication or support trenches, near Battalion headquarters. In this dug-out he establishes his Aid-post, which, in stationary trench warfare, is handed on from one medical officer to another. The Aid-post is equipped with drugs, dressings, stretchers, blankets (see schedule), and is kept in order by the medical orderlies. While in the trenches, the medical officer keeps in close touch with the Field Ambulance Officer of the sector, and makes himself thorougly familiar with the geography of the land and the general scheme of evacua­ tion.

Wounded .— In most cases the medical officer sees the case for the first time at his Aid-post, but he should always be ready to go forward. If the bearers have been well trained they are capable of giving first aid to the great majority of cases. The medical officer should remain as far as possible at his Aid-post so as to be available in the event of any rush of work.

AMBULANCE

Septem ber,

1918.

saves his own stretcher bearers a long carry and makes the Field ambulance commander responsible for an additional portion of the line of evacuation. It is his duty also to assure himself that the battlefield is cleared of wounded, and to do this he must utilise his own extra stretcher bearers and those provided by his Brigade. If these bearers are not sufficient he must report to the Field ambulance com­ mander and his Commanding Officer, asking for more help. The officer in charge of the evacuation of the Divi­ sional front is one of the Field ambulance commanders. It is his duty to make the most elaborate preparations be­ forehand, so that he may deal with any emergency which may arise. Under his command he has all the R.A.M.C. bearer officers and the stretcher bearers of the Division. In addition, he has about 50 trained men of the Employ­ ment Company and 100 untrained men from the Brigade in reserve, placed at his disposal by the Division. The Divisional front is divided into sectors, over each of which is placed a Field ambulance officer. At the advanced dressing station, officers and stretcher bearers are held in-reserve, so that they may be sent to that portion of the front which requires most attention. The Field ambulance commander is responsible for the evacuation of the wounded from the Regimental Aidpost to the advanced dressing station. It is not his duty to send out search parties beyond these posts. If, however, the Regimental medical officer moves forward, then auto­ matically the Ambulance Commander becomes respon­ sible for a further section of evacuation.

The medical officer makes any necessary alteration to the dressings, paying special attention to the treatment of fractures. In the majority of cases the first aid dressing has been so well applied by the bearers that no further treatment is necessary. N o case of fracture of the lower extremity should be sent further without taking the greatest care to immobilise the limb affected. T he use of the St. Thomas’s splint over the boot and clothing provides a quick means of securing this result, and this method has proved an inestimable boon to many patients, Shock, and the risk of sepsis are lessened and the journey down the line rendered bearable. In the event of a raid being undertaken, the medical officer should make his arrangements beforehand, and establish himself in a front line dug-out, with a reserve of stretcher bearers. The wounded are brought to this advanced Aid-post and kept there until the enemy’s barrage has died down. In active operations the Regimental medical officer has very onerous and responsible duties to perform. It is in the first place, his duty to make himself acquainted with the general scheme of operations, and the system of evacua­ tion is determined by the A . D . M . S , after consultation with his Field ambulance commanders. T h e Regimental medical officer must keep in the closest touch with the Field ambulances, and for this pur­ pose, two Field ambulance runners should be attached to Aid-post. During the first few hours of the fight the Regimental medical officer will be unable to leave his dug-out on ac­ count of the constant stream of walking cases which will arrive. One of the most striking features about a big fight is the quickness with which these early cases come back to the Collecting posts. If the attack has been a success the Regimental medical officer must be prepared to move forward his Aid-post to a dug-out or shelter in the enemy’s old line. In this way he

GAZETTE.—

(T o be concluued).

V o lu n ta r y

Selected V.A.D. Members, &c.,

A id

D eta ch m en ts.

and St. John

mentioned in

Ambulance Brigade

Despatches

for

Nursing

Services, 12.8.18.:— Alton, Mary Annie, Durham 64, S.J.A.B. Bowman, Hannah, W. Lancs. 60, S.J.A.B. Budgeon, Muriel Elizabeth, Salop 34, S.J.A.A. Clarke, Mabel Alice, E. Riding, Yorks. 48, S.J.A.B. Cocq, Rosomon E. le, London 148, S.J.A.A. Crosland, Mary Kilner, W.R. Yorks. 60, S.J.A.B. Crowther, Constant Harriet, W.R. Yorks. 60, S.J.A.B. Davies, Lilian W., W. Lancs. 24, S.J.A.B. Gibson, Ida L. W., Bucks 38, S.J.A.A. Hall, Alice Mary, London 138, S.J.A.A. Hill, Emily, W.R. Yorks. 12, S.J.A.B. Hutchinson, Frances F., Middlesex 54, S.J.A.A. Jones, Elsie A., Kent 124, S.J.A.B. Lord, Letitia, Cavan, S.J.A.A. Mackie, A. Winifred, London, 128, S.J.A.A. Marsden, Winifred, W. Lancs. 50, S.J.A.B. Newton, Vera Rosabel, Middlesex 6, S.J.A.A. Ogilvy, Muriel Beatrice, W. Lancs. 26, S.J.A.B. Parkinson, Ethel, Cheshire 68, S.J.A.B. Pearce, Florence Jane, Kent 70, S.J.A.B. Pewsey, Ellen Mary, Essex 94, S.J.A.B. Preston, Alice, W.R. Yorks. 66, S.J.A.B. Raymond, Mabel, Middlesex 4, S.J.A.A. Strickland, Emily, E. Yorks. 48, S.J.A.B. Walker, Violet, Co. Donegal 670, S.J.A.A. Watkin, Beatrice, Leicester 8, S.J.A.B. Welch, Grace, W.R. Yorks. 60, S.J.A.B. West, Gladys, Hepden Bridge N.D., S.J.A.B. Whitsitt, Nannie E., Armagh 722, S.J.A.A.


September, 1918.

—FIRST

41

Alt).—

I n France the latest addition to “ First Aid for the

CONTENTS

OF

THIS

NUMBER.

Wounded ” is the construction of a squadron of surgical aeroplanes called aerochirs.

E di torial — First Aid to Minor Injuries

33

How to (let a Cinder out of the Eye ...

33

D istrict R epo r ts — No. 1 j No. 4 ; No. 5

...

34 35

T he St . Joh n ’s A mb ulance G a z e t t e — ...

The late Edwin Freshfield, LL.D., F.S.A.... The Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, Priory of Wales ... ... ... ... The Doctor at the Front Voluntary Aid Detachments

40

41 42

...

Mines Rescue Work

43 43 43 43

Dangers of First Aid Abuse of Stimulants Foreign Body in Stomach Water Bottle

Q ueries

a nd

A nswers

C o r r es po n d e n ts -

to

Alterations in Textbook...

...

Treatment of Fainting ... Use of Smelling Salts

...

Method of Bandage Drill Treatment of Alcoholic Poisoning Letters

to t h e

machine will supply the current necessary for working the more quickly to the badly wounded.

It seems a risky

game, but so much has been achieved already in this war This squadron will be named after the famous French surgeon who was murdered recently by a mad patient May the aerochirs be remembered with as much gratitude as Professor Poz/.i— in the years to come. * * ♦ T

hc

following hint to stretcher

bearers appears in

"Eastern Command Volunteer Ambulance Journal” :—

Pra ctical Poin ts —

A New

X ray

T h e dynamo of the

that nothing surprises us.

3<i 37 38 39

Brevities

apparatus, and an X-ray operator.

apparatus, and it is hoped in this way to bring succour

No. 8; No. 12 ... Official Brigade News

Each machine will carry an

army surgeon, a complete outfit of surgical and

44 44 44 44 44

E ditor—

The Brigade Uniform

...

45 45

Change of Uniform

Stretcher bearers are well versed in the practical details of convoy work, and the management of their stretchers ; but there is just one point that is sometimes overlooked at the hospital end.

When the bearers have reached the bed,

and placed their stretcher in position for the patient to be transferred, it often happens of course that the nurse or orderly receiving the patient must be helped by someone standing on the other side of the bed, 011 the far side of the stretcher.

That “ someone" cannot help effectively

unless the bearers, on the weight being taken from them, lower the far side of the stretcher so that the extra helper has not to reach across it.

46

A Suggestion ...

46

Railway Ambulance

This is very obvious, but

nevertheless it is often forgotten. V A ccor ding to the report of the Royal National l.ifeBoat Institution, it has, since its formation in 1S24, been instrumental in saving no less than 56,000 lives, and at the

B re v itie s.

end of last year it had at its disposal and under its control a fleet of 261 life boats.

Last year the number of lives

Wk have received a copy of the first issue of “ The

saved was 1,34s, and since the outbreak of war the number

Journal of the Eastern Command Volunteer Ambulance

of lives rescued has been 4,180, and nearly t5o vessels

Convoy."

have been saved.

It is the outcome of the “ Highgate Transport

* * *

Journal, which was the organ of the No. 7 Company of the Convoy.

The primary object of the Journal is to foster a

greater esprit <te corps amongst the members, at the satne

S u r g e o n - M a jo r

H utton ,

the

veteran

ambulance

time it should be the means of increasing efficiency in the

worker, celebrated his SStlr birthday this month.

work.

nately, for some years past he has suffered from heart weak­

The Journal is well made up, and all concerned are

ness and is only able to get about in a bath-chair, but it as

to be congratulated upon its production.

keen as ever in bis interest in the work of the St. John

* * * T

he

Unfortu­

Ambulance Association, and especially in its progress in

article, “ The Dr. at the Front,” which we publish

Cleveland.

It will be remembered

that he began

his

in this issue, will give our readers a good insight into

crusade on behalf of it in the year t88o, and for about

the

years examined most of the ambulance classes in this area.

wonderful

France.

medical

organisation which prevails

in

Very few have any conception of the services

50

It was due to bis inspiration and encouraging addresses

which have been rendered by the medical services in this

that the work was so enthusiastically taken

war, and until its history comes to be written we shall not

miners, workmen and railway servants, and the Middles

have the complete details.

However, the low percentage

of sickness is a proof of its efficiency.

up by the

brough and Cleveland Centre soon became the strongest and most active of all the local centres in the Kingdom.


— FIRST

42 M in e s

R escue

W o r k .*

B y R. W A T T . T

importance of mines rescue work at once makes it of

he

such a serious nature that its first lesson to those intending to take it up should be, that they are genuinely interested, there being no room for half-heartedness.

That being so,

it is necessary that those contemplating taking up a course of training should have all the likelihoods that may be their lot explained to them, and they in turn to give the matter their earnest consideration. When one has decided to offer himself as a trainee, he should be medically examined. This is absolutely essential for two reasons— namely, (1) in the best interests of the individual himself; (2) because he may be more of a hindrance than a help on any occasion where rescue work had to be carried out under the apparatus. Assuming one has received the hall-mark of being medically fit, his next step is to get thoroughly acquainted with the rescue apparatus. T o receive such training as will thus equip him, he will require to attend a class and receive a course of lessons from a capable instructor. These will include a thorough,knowledge of the apparatus and all its component parts, so that he may, in the first place, be able to look after himself, and have the confidence that he can do so. T he lessons, of course, include the wearing of the apparatus in working order, so that he may get used to breathing and other matters connected therewith. For sanitary and other reasons, it is essential that each man have his own mouthpiece, V nose clip, or mask as the case may be. T o make a complete course of training, one would also require to undergo several practices in the smoke chamber. This is an air-tight room filled with the fumes. On going there for the first time it is advisable to remain inside for ten minutes, and increase the length of time at each subsequent practice. Practising in this way seems to be the best method of gaining confidence, under what might be termed practical conditions. There is an old saying that “ familiarity breeds con­ tempt,” but the trainee can never be too familiar with his machine, so that he may be able to feel he knows it suffi­ ciently well to be able to control it, just to know when and where it is not in good working order. Make a point of attending all practices possible, so that you may gain and maintain efficiency. For the purpose of showing where and how the rescue brigade could be of service, assume that a violent explosion has occurred The rescue corps having been summoned, on arrival at the pit top they are formed into squads by the instructor. The mine manager, or other official of the colliery, takes a place in the first squad. Before attempt­ ing to make a descent into the mine a thorough inspection of the cages and the headgear should be made. All rescue members must thoroughly test their machine, and see that everything is in good working order. They require to carry with them safety lamps and mice or small birds. In this way they would be enabled to test for any further accu. mulation of firedamp. The mice or birds would enable them to know the condition of the atmosphere as they pro­ ceed. They should establish the first base at the nearest * at

Queensland Government M ining Journal

S ilk s to n e ,

train ers.

Q u een slan d ,

at

a

m eetin g

of

From

M in es

a

paper

R escue

,ead

B r /g a d e

AID. —

S e p t e m b e r , 19 1 8 .

point (that would be safe) to foul atmosphere; here relief squads Would be kept in readiness to take their turn, if such be required, or they could follow up the advance squad, making repairs or other necessary work. In this way it might be possible to form sub-base stations from time to time, so that rescurers without apparatus can follow up and lend valuable assistance. Tracings of the under­ ground workings should also be taken by the advance squad, showing, by distinctive marks, the intake and outlet airways. Where two or more roads branch off, marks should be made, these to be uniform and known to all members of the rescue brigade. This would allow subse­ quent squads to follow the track of the advance party; and each man should keep a close watch on his pressure guage, always making sure he has sufficient supply of oxygen to take him back through the foul atmosphere. If there was a possibility of the atmosphere being in such a condition as to make it awkward to see, a rope could be carried by each party to keep touch with the other Should they be in search of entombed men, they would carry with them the “ Salva­ tor” reviving apparatus. This machine was designed for resuscitating unconscious men found in a mine after a dis aster, but it may also be put to other uses. For instance, in some cases of injury to any of the tubes of a member’s apparatus, the cylinder and tube of the above could be fitted, thus allowing the rescuer a means of returning to safety. A few things worth of remembrance by any rescue corps are :— (1) Never to travel faster than will allow the slowest member of the party to feel that he can do it in comfort. (2) If anything should take place that would be the means of disabling any member of the squad, your duty is first to see him in a place of safety. (3) One member should never go exploring by himself. Leaders of squads should see that this rule is strictly car ried out. (4) Should your breathing bag become unduly in­ flated, this obstructs a free and easy breathing. Keep in mind that this can be corrected by the use of your relieving valve. All members should have a little knowledge of ren­ dering first aid to the injured, and all leaders of squads should be the possessors of a first aid certificate. In these circumstances an important part of the equipment would be ambulance outfit and appliances, as follows :— Clean water, antiseptic fluid or powder, splints, bandages, with stretchers in readiness, should they be required. F irst A id . It may not be out of place to give an explanation of how to set about rendering first aid to a person who has become unconscious, and is suffering from the following in­ juries :— Fractured thigh and scalp wound, these being the result of being near to where an explosion has occurred. T he patient being unconscious, one would make use of the “ Salvator ” apparatus by placing it on the patient, so as to restore him to consciousness. For the scalp wound, it would be necessary to apply a pad and bandage in the manner taught. Local pressure in this way is, as a rule, quite sufficient to arrest bleeding from any wounds of the head, because of the support given by the bones thereof. T o render first aid to a fractured thigh, one requires a splint long enough to reach from the armpit to the foot, and another the length of the leg. The first thing to do is to grasp the foot firmly, making some extension of the limb


— FIRST

September, 1 9 1 8

by pulling it downwards. This is to prevent all move­ m e n t , and may, to some extent, give the patient relief. Extension must be made until it is the same length as the other limb. Next, the splints should be placed-— the long one on the outside of the limb and the shorter one on the inside, and secured firmly by placing bandages as follows :— (r) Around the body, near the top of the long splint; (2) around the pelvis ; (3) around the thigh, above the fracture; (4) between the knee and the an kle; (5) above No. 4, near to the fracture, on the lower side; (6) around both ankles and crossed to pass under the feet— to be tied there; (7) passing right under both legs, just above the knees, and drawing the legs fairly firmly together. This having been completed, the patient should be laid on a stretcher, making him as comfortable as possible b y placing something under the head, so that it might be slightly raised ; also covering over the body with a blanket or any clothing to keep him warm during transport. When brought into purer atmosphere stimulants may be given— strong coffee or tea being quite equal to this purpose. The following traits of character are necessary for a man to be a successful member of a rescue corps :— (1) Not to be of an excitable nature ; (2) to be able to grasp an idea of any situation that may arise, and to determine which is the best way to deal with it effectively and as speedily as possible (especially leaders of squads); (3) to be temperate in habit, so far as alcohol is concerned, because anyone addicted to drink cannot be a successful trainee; (4) to remember always that although he may know a lot, there is still something yet to learn.

AID.—

43

quantity of blood, and, in consequence of this Meddlesome First Aid and unwarrantable interference, was reduced to a condition bordering on fatal collapse. N.B.— The use of Stimulants— both direct and indirect— requires, in all cases, great discrimination and must not be adopted as routine treatment.— A. M. (Regent’s Park). F

o r e ig n

B

o d y

in

S

t o m a c h

.

An interesting case of Foreign Body is recorded in The British Medical Journal for July 13th. An old man, over 70 years, who suffered from Chronic Bronchitis, swallowed a tea­ spoon which he passed naturally during an evacuation of the bowels one month later and without having complained of any pain, discomfort or inconvenience.— M.B., London.

A

N ew

W a ter

B o ttle .

P t e . T. H u n t , City of Exeter Division, S.J.A.B., has recently designed a most useful and compact water bottle (which is being protected) an illustration of which is given. The holding capacity is 5^ pints of water, a glass tumbler, a moveable shelf, on which a sponge, &c., may be carried. The dimensions ar e : Length, 9 inches; height 6 inches ; and depth 3 inches. It is worn with perfect ease and comfort, by two hooks resting upon the belt, and partly supported by strap over the shoulder, which can be liberated from the bottle by unfastening one safety hook

Jractical Joints. The Editor invites Notes on actual Cases— with special reference to gooa and bad boints in Treatment— for inclusion in this Column.

D

a n g e r s

o f

F

ir s t

A

i d

.

A curious First Aid accident once occurred, as follows :— A man was seen by a barman in a public house to empty the contents of “ a small white paper” into his glass of beer. The barman suspecting attempted poisoning sent for a police officer who administered a strong dose of common salt. The emetic, however, failed and the man died. At the inquest medical evidence showed (1) that the white p a p e r had contained a small quantity of zinc sulphate, which in the ordinary way would have made the man vomit and would h a v e had no injurious effects ; and ( 2 ) that the administration o f salt converted the harmless sulphate of zinc into the deadly chlorate of zinc, with fatal results. Fortunately for the police officer the absence of any “ intention” saved him from a verdict of manslaughter, although the man died as the result o f this interference and would not otherwise have succumbed. F. A., Canonbury. A

b u s e

o f

S

t i m u l a n t s

.

In a busy London street a man was seen to stumble and fa l l . The First Aider, who went to his assistance, found him in a collapsed state -dazed ; face pale ; breathing shallow ; pulse feeble- and complaining of pain in the pit of the stomach. Pending the coming of the ambulance, therefore, he treatedi the patient on general lines, by keeping him supine, loosening clothes, covering with coats, &c. While his back was momentarily turned, however, a V.A.D. member rushed up and stuck a bottle of smelling salts under the patient’s nostrils. The patient was immediately seized with a most violent attack of vomiting and brought up a

a nd attaching same to second button of tunic and then lifting from belt, the bottle will then swing around into position ready for use, leaving the wearer with hands free, this being a great advantage. This bottle can also be used as a hot water bottle when wrapped in flannel, as its shape will fit different parts of the body and feet where heat is required. This bottle comprises everything that is required for an ambulance man, and will be found a most useful addition fjr any men on public duty. Pte. Hunt will be pleased to supply further particulars and prices for any quantity, address Pte. T. Hunt, Headquarters, Waterbeer-street, Exeter.

A First Aid Class was started on the 18th inst. at the Church Institute, Three Colt-street, Limehouse, E. Ap­ plication for membership should be made to Mr. J. G. Hillier, 22, Arbour-square, Stepney, E .i.


— FIR St

44

Queries and Jlnswers to Correspondents.

AID.—

S e p te m b er , 19 18.

squarely beneath the nostrils, the stimulation may, as you know, be intense and may have grave consequences, as is recorded in Practical Points this month. It is interesting to note that the use of Tourniquet, Bandaging limbs, and Stimu­ lation with brandy and smelling salts- are pregnant with potential dangers (see Query above) and should only be adopted when specially indicated.— N.C.F.

Queries w ill be dealt with under the following rules :— 1 •— Letters containing Queries must be marked on the top left hana corner of the envelope “ Query," and addressed— F i r s t A i d , 46, Cannon-street, London, E .C . 2 .— A l l Queries must be accompanied by a " Query Coupon" cut prom the current issue of the Journal, or in case of Queries from abroad from a recent issue. 2. — The Textbook, to which tejerence may be made in these columns, is the Revised ( 7 9 / 7 ) Edition o f S .J .A .A . M anual o f F iist-A id .

A

l t e r a t i o n s

in

T

e x t b o o k

.

B. N. (Hampstead) asks (1) if we can suggest any reason why Ipecacuanha Wine has been omitted in Revised Text­ book from list of emetics, and (2) if he should discontinue its use, should opportunity arise in an emergency.

T

r e a t m e n t

o f

A

l c o h o l ic

P

o is o n in g

.

P. T. (Netherton) asks what is the best thing to do when a patient suffering from Alcoholic Poisoning refuses to take an emetic. He writes that he met with this experience recently in the case of a patient who recovered conscious­ ness soon after his arrival on the scene, and who had been insensible for a total period of three hours. If the patient was so far sensible that he was able to refuse your dose of mustard, then he was already sufficiently recovered to need no further First-Aid treatment. With sane patients no law exists which compels acceptance of any treatment— medical or otherwise. So next time your offer of help is rafused, the best thing for you to do is to say “ Good day” and attend to your own affairs. In the case quoted, I would like to know why an uncon­ scious patient was left without medical assistance for three hours !— N. C. F.

(t) Ask the Committee of Revision. I can only suggest that salt and mustard are named because they are both effica­ cious and also more likely to be available in an emergency, whereas Ipecacuhana Wine is usually not procurable except U se o f S m e l l in g S a l t s. under special circumstances (e.g., proximity of chemist’s shop). (2) Certainly not. It is a most useful emetic and may be C. B. (Bristol).— In a recent examination I was asked to name freely used without fear of complications.— N . C o r b e t any conditions in which I should withhold the use of F l e t c h e r . Smelling Salts. I was unable to answer the question and so turn instinctively to you for help. T

r e a t m e n t

o f

F

a i n t i n g

.

A. M. (Hendon).— In a recent S.J.A.A. examination the ques­ tion was asked— “ In faintiug what differestce would you make in your treatment of an old and young person ?” The candidate replied that to an old person, if conscious, he would give an alcoholic stimulant, but not to a young person. The doctor made no comment but appeared satisfied. Please let us know if this answer was correct. I don’t know. Why not ask the examiner? If, however, I had been the examiner, then the answer, as given, would have been heavily penalised. Everything depends on the cause of the fainting, which is not stated, and I suspect that the examiner wanted the candi­ date to say that he would be more anxjous as to the conse­ quences of a fainting attack in an old person than in a healthy young adult, and that he would keep him under observation for a longer period. The only justification for alcoholic stimulant— in old or young— would be the failure of ordinary methods of treatment (removal of cause ; recumbent position ; external warmth ; hot drinks, &c..) after fa ir and efficient trial and the utter impossibility of securing medical aid.— N. C. F.

U

se

o f

S

m e l l i n g

S

a l t s

.

W. S. (Finchley) returns thanks for benefits received from these columns which, he says, are of great assistance to him, and asks if he is right in supposing that there is no point in offering Smelling Salts to a patient suffering from Shock unless the form of Shock threatens to go on to col­ lapse ? He adds that, in his opinion, such direct form of stimulation— while obviously correct and necessary in the case o f Syncope— is not specially indicated for Shock unless insensibility threatens and that the other methods of treating Shock should be first adopted. I am in full accord with your view, though, of course, a good deal depends on the strength and mode of administration of the Smelling Salts. If these be freshly prepared and planted

Haemorrhage, Head injuries and Apoplexy In the first named such stimulation might cause the heart to act vigor­ ously and re-start the bleeding. In the remaining two condi­ tions the stimulation might bring about increased pressure within the skull with consequent aggravation of the condition, be this Compression or Apoplexy.— N. C. F.

M

e t h o d

o f

B

a n d a g e

D

r i l l

.

J. S. (Cleckheaton).— Which is the proper method for bandage practice, two deep, in Brigade Drill ? In the old method the front rank bandage the rear rank ; then the front rank turn about, step forward one pace and bandage, On the order “ Rear rank bandage front rank,” the rear rank men take a side pace to left with one pace to front on right, then both front and rear rank men turn inwards together and bandage. In the other method the men line up in double rank and number off, the rear rank taking their numbers from the front rank men, each odd number bandaging his even number. Brigade Orders contain no Bandage Drill which would be contrary to the Principles of First Aid. Imagine yourself try­ ing to bandage up a man with a fractured clavicle while he re­ mained standing. If you did, then you would expose the patient to the danger of falling as the result of shock associated with the fracture, which might consequently be complicated by concussion of brain, if not by fractured base of skull. In prac­ tice of First-Aid, therefore, we first place the patient in the posi­ tion most suitable to the condition under treatment— sitting, semi-recumbent, recumbent, etc. The only advantage of Bandage Drill is that large num­ bers may be more easily educated in routine and technical part of the work— and of the two methods described the second is more serviceable because it is the less complicated.— N. C. F.

W hen

c o rre sp o n d in g w ith A d v e rtise rs

p le a s e m e n tio n

“ F ir s t A id .”


Septem ber,

— FIRST

19 18.

Setters to the Sditor. THE

BRIGADE

E d ito r,

S Y

E tc.

0 U R

UN IF OR M .

M 1 S

issu e o f

T

ir s t

A

id

.

I understand by these alterations that Divisional Supts. and Surgeons, although allotted officers tunics of military pattern are excluded from the Sam Browne belt, and that Ambulance Officers are to wear a dress similar to that of a private. It appears to me that this matter is worthy of the attention of the Brigade Authorities, and that the best way out of the difficulty would be to recind the regulations or to allow all grades of officers to wear the Sam Browne.— Yours truly, “ A

CHANGE

OF

m b u l a n c e

O

f f i c e r

UNIFORM .

Food F o r v a l id s

I n f a n t s , e n d th e

a g e d

.

U s e d e x t e n s i v e l y in B r i t i s h , C i v i l a n d M i l i t a r y h o s p i t a l s , an d b y th e R e d C r o s s S o c ie t ie s of G r e a t Britain, the o v e r­ s e a D o m in i o n s , a n d th e Allies.

Cuts, tears, scratches, abrasions, bruises, sprains, burns, scalds, etc., are rapidly healed by I o d e x . It presents the antiseptic, pene­ trating, and healing properties of Iodine in a bland, absorbable and painless base, and is free from stain, irritation, or corrosion. As a first aid dressing I o d e x is ideal. In field and home, munition and other works, where minor injuries are of daily occurrence, a supply of I O D E X ensures complete antisepsis and rapid healing. For inflamed conditions I o d e x is ideal. Try it. All good chemists stock it.

C H

E

F 0

R

REGULARLY

.”

S i r , — I notice with great pleasure the change of uniform tunic to the usual Military Service pattern, as being much more useful and convenient; but I regret exceedingly the abolition of the pouch for Divisional Superintendents. Though it did not hold much, yet in country districts, where the Supts. often have to work almost single handed, at school treats, bean­ feasts, &c., it held sufficient to be most useful. I carried in mine scissors, roller bandage, smelling salts, iodine tubes,

In

SEPTIC WOUNDS

K

D E A R Sir,— In the past there has been a good deal of controversy over the Brigade Uniform, but it is not my inten­ tion to raise such an issue now. However, it would appear to me to be putting Brigade Officers to needless expense in making such drastic alterations in the uniform in war time as were contained in the new Dress Regulations published in the July F

45

A

IVe ore in no may responsible for the opinions expressed, or the

statoments made, by Correspondents.—

a i d

Royal Navy.

IIODEX 1/3

I

Royal A rm y M edical C orps. B r i t is h Red C ross Society. C roix R o u g e Francaise.

USED

B Y :—

B e l g ia n Field H osp itals, F ren ch Field H osp itals, N u m e r o u s M ilitary H ospitals, M e m b e r s of 5 t . John A m bulance.

M E N L E Y & J A M E S , Ltd.,

^I

39, Farrlngdon Road, LONDON, E.C.1.

H

Contractors to H.M. Government.

U n ifo rm s an d E q u ip m e n t

Sold in tins by Chemists,etc.,everywhere B E N G E R ’S

FOOD

L T D ..

O tte r W o r k s ,

M A N CH E STE R ,

E ng.

Branch Offices : NewYork & Sydney. DepOts throughout Canada.

c o st - '/ts so r diffesty"

VI C O C O A restores _ ..lost energy and builds both brain and body. The ideal mid -morning beverage.

THE FOOD BEVERAGE

V a st modern factory resources, added to a century's experience, enables us to supply First A i d and all other Services with uniforms and e q u i p m e n t of g u a r a n t e e d materials, workmanship and finish — at prices that challenge compari­ son with an y other clothing of equal quality. Prices and Samples on request.

16,

NILE

C ITY

ROAD,

STREET, LONDON,

N . 1.,

and at 6 , Y O R K P L A C E , L E E D S , and 8 4 , M ILLE R S TR E E T, GLASGOW .


— F I R S T

46

boric lint and ointment, and adhesive plaster ; and on many occasions have been able to treat rapidly and effectively the usual minor casualties, but now I shall be helpless, merely an appendage, having no material at hand. I trust it will be restored to us.— Yours, &c., “

A

A

W

o r k i n g

S

u p t

.”

SU G G ESTION.

S i r ,— B e i n g v e r y m u c h i n t e r e s t e d in a m b u l a n c e w o r k a n d l i v i n g in a c o l l i e r y v i l l a g e w h e r e w e d o n o t h o l d a c l a s s a t t h e co lliery, a m b u la n c e w o rk ers do not h a v e the o p p ortunities o f g a i n i n g k n o w l e d g e a s t h o s e in t o w n s . I f I a m n o t a s k in g too m u c h , I s h o u l d l i k e to m a k e a s u g g e s t i o n w h i c h m i g h t m e e t w ith y o u r a p p r o v a l, a lso o th e r r e a d e r s o f F IR S T A i d w h o are in a s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n t o m y s e l f . I f y o u c o u l d p u b l i s h a c a s e w h i c h m i g h t h a p p e n d a i l y in t h e m i n e , s t r e e t o r h o m e , a n d let t h e r e a d e r s g i v e t h e i r a n s w e r s t o s a m e , I t h i n k it w o u l d b e a g r e a t h e l p to m e m b e r s o f first a i d c l a s s e s w h i c h a r e n o t c a r r i e d o n a ll t h e y e a r r o u n d , a s I k n o w in s o m e c a s e s n e i t h e r b o o k n o r b a n d a g e is t o u c h e d a f t e r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n u n ti l t h e n e x t s e s s i o n s t a r t s . — Y o u r s t ru ly , A R egular R eader.

Sailwatj Jimbulance. Mr. Richard Bagnell, the hon. secretary of the Centre, was on August 30th presented with a cheque for ^ 3 4 subscribed by the directors and officials of the Railway Company and the officer and men of the Corps, upon his completion of 25 years service in that position. The presentation was made by Mr. W. D. Phillipps, and Lord Anslow, the Chairman of the Directors, presided. N

o r t h

S

t a f f s

R

y

.—

A Home Nursing Class was started at the General Electric Company, 67, Queen Victoria-street, E.C.4, on the 19th inst. Application should be made to Mr. F. W. Jackson, 6, Norwich-road, Forest Gate, E 7.

T he following Classes will be held at Tothill-street :— First Aid, Oct. 1st at 3 p.m., and Oct. 3rd at 8 p.m.; Home Nursing, Oct. 4th at 11 a.m. A First Aid Class for Women at King’s College will start on Nov. 4th at 5 p m. Applications for these Classes should be made to Miss E. Fraser Baddeley, 87, Cadogan-gardens, SW.

A course of First Aid Lectures will commence on Oct. 1st at 7.30 p m., at the Northampton Polytechnic Institute, St. John’s-street, Clerktnwell, E.C. 1. The course will consist of eight lectures and the examination, and the fee will be 3s. (including the examination). Application for membership should be made to Miss A. M. Tuck at the above Institute. Bertha Webb, aged 14, of Hornsey Rise, pricked a pimple on her nose with a pin, and next day her face became inflamed, and she died. At the inquest at Islington, Dr. Robinson stated that the pin had set up acute meningitis following celluitis, which the prick had caused, and the juryreturned a verdict of Death by Misadventure. P in pr ic k

C auses

D e a t h .— Isabd

A ID .

S e p te m b e r , 19 18.

r

The St. John Ambulance Association.

LIFE-SAVING LECTURES. Below are outlined five of the LectureDemonstrations given by

Ambulance Officer C. HANMER in any part of England, Ireland or Wales, as an aid to students and to promote interest in the

A M B U LA N C E AND M IN E S R ES C U E M O VEM EN TS. A

I.— L IF E S A V IN G . P opular F ir s t Aid Lecture.

Illustrated by an unrivalled collection of Lantern Slides and Chemical Demonstrations, and an exhibition of the

O fficia l F ir s t A id F ilm . The film is at present shown in licensed Halls only. Sunday demonstrations can be arranged. II. Similar to the above, but without the film.

III.— R E S C U E W O R K IN M IN E S. A peep into th e life of a Miner, Showing the miner at work, at play and on the battle­ field. Calculated to create new interest in Rescue Work in Coal Mines.

IV. — N A T U R E A S A F I R S T AIDER . N a tu re ’ s m eth od s and how to f u r t h e r them . First Aid is discussed in an entirely original manner with the object of showing how Nature prevents and heals injuries and warns us of dangers. This lecture is suitable alike for the novice or expert, and includes several radiographs and a number of slides of artistic merit directly or indirectly illustrating the subject.

v .— p r a c t i c a l

f ir st

a id

.

W h y e v e r y o n e should have a k n o w le d g e of F irst Aid. A practical display suitable for indoors or the open air. The demonstrations are not confined to text-book methods, but show a variety of novel variations which have proved their practical worth. S p e c i a l i n d u c e m e n t s a r e o f fe r e d to M i n i n g D i s t r i c t s .

No entertainment tax is payable in respect of any of the above, provided that no music or other extraneous amusements are included in the proceedings.

For terms and dates available apply to

Ambulance Officer C. HANMER, 2 0 5 . D o n caster Near

R oad, G o ld tho rp e, R otherham .

Telegrams : “ Hanmer, Ambulance, Goldthorpe.”

V ---------------------------------- J


—FIRST

Se ptember, 19 18.

Telegrams : “ Ban g a c .es, B

ir m in g h a m

AID. —

47

Telephone : E a s t 204. (P.B. Exchange).

.

T

AM BULANCE

lc

w

u

x

t d

NURSES’ O U TFITS

AND

“ FIR ST A ID ” A P P LIA N C E S.

R E G U L A T IO N T.J ERE

P rofession al every

P ATTER N S

at H a r r o d s the P riv a te o r

requ isite

w ill

find

o f her ca llin g,

N urse

and

sh e m a y d e p e n d im p licitly u p o n the correctn ess,

the

q u ality,

and

the

service o f ev e ry th in g su p plied .

HOME OFFICE REQUIREM ENTS.

A d vice

on

all

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F IR S T AID AND

THE ----

ST. JOHN AMBULANCE GAZETTE. Edited b y A R T H U R No. 292.— V

ol.

XXV,

NO T IC E

OCTOBER,

TO

1918.

B.

DALE. [Entered at Startoners' Hall.)

PRICE THREEPENCE [ 3/0 P e k A

nnum

, P o st F

ree

]

workers in factories were determined that avoidable acci­

READERS.

dents should be prevented, and would co-operate in taking

FIRST AID is published on the a o t h of e a c h m on th. The Annual Subscription is 3s. 6d. post free ; single copies 3d.

steps to prevent them,

Its aim and object being the advancement of Ambulance Work in all its branches, the Editor invites Readers to send Articles and Reports on subjects pertaining to the Movement and also welcomes suggestions for Practical Papers.

selves and their families that result from accidents due to

All Reports, &c., should be addressed to the Editor, and should reach him before the 12th of each month, and must be accompanied [not necessarily for tublicatien) by the name and address of the Correspondent. Subscriptions, Advertisements and other business Communications connected with FIRST AID should be forwarded to the Publishers, DALE,

REYNOLDS & CO.,

L t d .,

It should be brought home to

workers the amount of suffering and extent of loss to them­ lack of care or thought in their work, and with this in view a firm in the north of England established an Accident Enquiry Committee, which was composed of officials and workpeople, with the primary object to enquire into and report on all accidents that occurred and to make such recommendations for the prevention of accidents as they considered desirable. As a result of these steps, the number of accidents in

46, C a n n o n S t r e e t , L o n d o n , E.C. 4.

Telegraphic Address: “ Twenty-Jour, London." Telephone No. 5477 Bank.

the works were greatly reduced, and the further step was taken in instituting an extensive “ Safety First” scheme, with the appointment of a Safety Inspector, who educated the workers in all safety measures.

ED ITO RIAL.

These measures in a

single year reduced the accidents in the works by more than 50 per cent. This brief description shows what can be done in the

great amount of

way of accident prevention, and such a scheme could be

S a f e ty

attention has been given to the fencing

adopted by other industrial concerns with great advantage.

Committees

of machinery and the provision of safe-

For

many years

a

in Factories

guards against accidents in general, and

and

considerable advances have been made

Workshops,

in preventing the more serious classes of machinery accidents.

This has been

effected mainly by standardising precautions. Nevertheless,

W ar S e rvi ce B a d g e .— I t has been decided by the Council of the Order of St. John that no further appli­ cations for the St. John War Service Badge will be enter­ tained except on behalf of those who were qualified for the

in spite of these efforts that have been made, the yearly roll

Badge by the 1st October, 1918, as they understand it is

of industrial accidents is still a long one.

probable that other Badges will ultimately be issued for

In .1914, 969

persons were killed, and 147,045 persons were injured by accidents in factories and workshops in this country.

the same work.

If to

these figures were added the accidents in mines, quarries, railways and other industries, these figures would be more than double. It is of the first importance to this country, both dur­ ing the war and also during the period of reconstruction that this great cause of waste and loss of efficiency in our

In reply to a question whether the appeals of the British Red Cross were intended to relieve the Govern­ ment of their responsibilities to the sick and wounded in the war, Sir Robert Hudson, the chairman of the Finance Committee of the Society, has written that the vast bulk of the expenditure upon the sick and wounded rests with the

industrial organisation should be as far as possible removed

naval and military medical services.

There is no doubt that a large reduction in the number of

Cross is to supplement the State services, and to provide

accidents would be brought about if managers, officials and

added comforts and little luxuries.

The work of the Red


— FIRST

| £

|||

jjh « Q n n d f t io r g of the 0 rd «r of the JCospital of S t. Jo h n of Jerusalem in Sngland.

* “

AMBULANCE

Jh e

o m m is s io n e r

3ohn

DEPARTMENT.

.Ambulance

Srigade.

DISTRICT ORDERS.

No. 1 District. C

S t.

:

----------

W. H. W IN N Y , O.B.E. N O V E M B E R , 1918. Sunday Duty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. Sunday, 3rd.— No. 5 Division, Hackney. „ 1o h.— No. 7 „ Toynbee Hall. „ 17th.— No. 10 „ St. Mark’s. „ 24th - No. 11 „ Harlesden and Wembley. From 2.30 p.m. to 8.30 p.m. Key from St. John’s Gate, 2 p.m. BRIGAD E m p o r t a n t

October, 1918

Division. The “ Agnew ” Medal tests had eleven entries and was won by Corpl. R. Grace (Stationmaster, Euston). District Surgeon C. J. R. MacFadden and Ambulance Officer C. T. Osborn (in charge of Hampstead (No. 20) Divi­ sion) acted as judges for the first aid events. A. R. Cooper, Esq., Line Engineer, was judge for the racing, tugs of war, &c., with Lewis Strom, Esq., as referee, and W. F. Wright, Esq., General Foreman, Mechanical Engineers Department, acted as starter. Mrs. A. R. Cooper kindly presented the prizes, which com­ pleted a very interesting'afternoon’s recreation and it is hoped a considerable number of first aid recruits will result, as that was the object of this meeting. On the 1st and 3rd inst, Divisional Supt. Atkins, East Ham (No. 75) Division, S.J.A.B., gave a very interesting and instruc­ tive lecture on First Aid, supplemented by a collection of (X-ray) radiographs showing some unique fractures which would be impossible to locate without this wonderful discovery. The information given by Mr. Atkins is advanced first aid, and very interesting to students who find the usual routine gets stale by continual repetition.

R E -E X A M I N A T I O N S .

Officers and members in charge of Divi­ sions arranging for the Brigade Re examination should be careful to see that the B.F. 1 ib. (which is to be filled in in trip­ licate) bears the name of the Examiner, the date on which the examination is conducted, and the name and address of the officer or member in charge of the Division with whom corres­ pondence is to be conducted. Care should be taken to see that the names of all those present are entered on the gummed slip, '•h-ich is pasted on the Examiner’s form. j I

AID.—

.—

UNIFORM

PERMITS.

> Members in charge of newer Divisions are reminded that every member of the Brigade wearing the authorised Brigade Uniform must be able to produce an official “ uniform permit,” which can be obtained upon application signed by the officer or member in charge of the Division from the Commissioner. Members not possessing this permit may find themselves in a serious'position. O F F I C E R ’S

TRAINING

C O U R SE .

Two lectures have already been given in connection with this course, and drills are now being arranged for such officers as desire to attend. A general notice in future will not be sent to all officers, but only to those officers of Ambulance Divisions who have expressed their desire to attend the instruction to be given by the Corps Superintendent. “ OUR

DAY.”

It is desired that members of the Brigade shall give assist­ ance in selling flags, etc., for the benefit of the funds which are being raised for the Joint Committee on “ Our Day.” Further particulars can be obtained from Miss Beeman, 10, West Bolton-gardens, S.W. (Signed)

W. H. W IN N Y ,

Commissioner.

S o u t h e n d -o n - S e a (No. i ) D i v i s i o n . — The funeral took place on September 25th, at Southend, of the late Nurse Maud Bertha Parish, who died at Queen Mary’s Hospital. Mrs. Parish (nee Simpson) was a member of the above Nursing Division and V.A.D. A few days previously the deceased, who was only 25 years of age, developed septic pneumonia, to which she succumbed. She was nursing a naval patient suffering from the same complaint, and contracted it. The patient also died on Sunday, and the funeral of both took place at the same time with naval honours. Her husband, who is serving with the Scots Guards in France, was at once telegraphed to, but although the message had been repeated no reply is to hand, considerable anxiety is felt at the hospital as to his safety. Mrs. Parish was a daughter of Mrs. Martion, of Silverseadrive, Leigh. A memorial service was held at St. John’s Church, and was conducted by the vicar (Rev. J. J. Whitehouse), who also officiated at the graveside. The remains were borne by members of the St. John Ambulance Brigade, of which body deceased was a member. Mr. E. R. Homfray, the secretary, and Miss Finnemore (matron), and Dr. Scott (medical officer), represented the hospital, patients and many members of the nursing staff be­ ing also present. The interment took place at the Borough Cemetary, the members of the St. John Men’s V.A.D., Essex 43rd, 44th forming an escort, while the 116th Detachment Women’s V.A.D., under Mr. Bower, was also present. The deceased was a V.A.D. nurse at the hospital ; she then went to similar duties on Salisbury Plain, but returned to Southend some three month’s ago and joined the permanent nursing staff at the hospital. She was much attached to her work, and showed at all times a strong devotion to duty. She will be greatly missed by the staff and patients, with whom she was very popular. The patient, who was buried at the same time as Nurse Parish, was Deckhand Thos. Collison, age 23.

Headquarters :— St. John’s Gate, Clerkenwell, E.C. I M P O R T A N T N O TIC E. Divisional Secretaries are requested when sending news­ paper cutting of their meetings, etc., to give the date of publi­ cation of the newspapers.— E d i t o r . U n d e r g r o u n d

R a il w a y s

A m b u la n c e

( N o . 77) D i v i ­

— The annual sports meeting was held at Golders Green Institute Fields on Saturday, Sept. 28th. There were I 3 e v e n t s , including two first aid tests, as follows:— “ W ebb” Cup (per­ petual trophy) with silver medals for the winning t e a m , a n d t h e “ Agnew” Gold Medal for individual competition. Five teams contested for the “ W ebb” Cup, which w a s awarded to a women’s squad trained by the m e m b e r s of the

W a l t h a m s t o w . — A successful Church Parade was held on September the 15th at St. Saviour’s Church, under the com­ mand of Supt. Blum. The Division marched to the church headed by the fife [and bugle band. The Rev. G. Siddons preached a most inspiring sermon, taking as his text “ Be a man.” Many representatives of other divisions attended, and were afterwards conducted over the ambulance station, on which they expressed their high appreciation.

s io n .

No. 2 District. The R.R.C. (2nd class) has been awarded to Nurse Dowson, member of V.A.D. 108 Glos., nursing sister of the Nursing Division of the Cheltenham Corps, S.J.A.B., who has worked


O ctobe r, 1 9 1 8

— FIRST

continuously at St. John Hospital, Cheltenham, since June, 1915. She received the honour from H.M. the King at an In­ vestiture held at Buckingham Palace on July 25th, 1918.

No. 3 District. B ir m in g h a m N u r s i n g C o r p s . — The funeral took place on October nth of Miss Mary Rolason, a member of the Edgbaston Nursing Division and of V.A.D. Worcestershire 30. Miss Rolason died of pneumonia, following influenza con­ tracted while on V.A.D. service at Mayfield Auxiliary Hospital. She joined V.A.D. Worcestershire 30 in October, 1914, and from that time until a few days ago, except when prevented by ill-health, she gave all her time to voluntary aid work, first at Snow Hill Rest Station, then at Highbury Hospital, and latterly at Mayfield Hospital, Edgbaston. A funeral service was held at Wretham Road Church, and those present included Dr. John Griffiths, Commissioner of No. 2 District, County Director for Bristol, and Mrs. John Griffiths, O.B.E., Lady Superintendent Bristol Nursing Division, uncle and aunt of Miss Rolason ; Mrs. Arthur Cham­ berlain, A.C.D., O.B.E., representing the County Director of Birmingham and part Worcestershire ; Mrs. Oliver Lee, representing Mrs. Porter, Lady Superintendent of the Birming­ ham Nursing Corps and Commandant Worcestershire 30 ; the Matron and Sisters from Highbury; the Commandant and Sister-in-Charge from Mayfield ; and about seventy members of St. John Nursing Division. The coffin, covered by the Union Jack, was borne by staff officers of the Birmingham Ambulance Corps. Members of the Ambulance Corps and many patients from Mayfield were also present. The service was conducted and an address given by the Rev. E. J. E. Shreck.

N o r t h a m p t o n . — An examination has been held at the Ambulance Headquarters, Northampton, for V.A.D. nurses who have worked in Auxiliary Hospitals for more than two years and possess two or more white stripes, in order that they may qualify for the position of Assistant Nurse and be allowed to wear a blue efficiency stripe on their uniform. The examination was conducted by Dr. Wagstaff, of North­ ampton, and Mrs. Fidler(late principal matron of theT.F.N.S., First Western Division, Lancashire). Sixteen candidates satisfied the examiners. The examiners were very pleased with the candidates and complimented them on their work. Two of the girls did ex­ ceptionally well, obtaining 97 and 98 marks respectively out of 100. It is intended that this examination shall be held periodically in order that the nurses may qualify for the position they so richly deserve.

No. 5 District. S h e f f i e l d . — We regret to announce the resignation of Supt H E. Baggs, of “A ” Division, who, for the last three years, has carried out the duties of Corps Supt. and Financial Secretary. Supt. Baggs stepped into the breach created by other Corps Officers joining His Majesty’s Forces, and crowded into what was already a very strenuous life, the many respon­ sibilities and worries which are inevitable in an organisation of such prominence and activity as the Sheffield Corps. A nervous breakdown in the early part of the present year, made it imperative that for some time, at least, he shouli relegate his Corps duties to others. The members of the Corps will keenly feel the loss of his services. Sergt. Growdon of the Corps has obtained the long service medal of the Brigade ; he is a most active worker for the Sheffield Corps, and we hope he may be enabled to render still greater service for many years to come. During the last few weeks many visits have been paid by old members who are serving with His Majesty’s Forces. Some of the visitors went out to the East with the Bearer Com­ pany soon after the outbreak of hostilities, and the news they bring of other comrades, and the work they are doing “ over

AID. —

5i

there,” increases the pride in the Corps from which the Bearer Company came into being.

No. 12 (Irish) District. “ O u r D a y F u n d .” — As excellent working Brigade Com­ mittee with Mr. McWilliam as secretary and Mr. A. J. Connor as treasurer, has been formed to get together a second collection for “ Our D a y ” appeal. The committee is aiming at doubling the brigade subscription of last year, and Sir John Lumsden, K.B.E. Commissioner is confident that Divisional Super­ intendents will rise to the occasion.

C it y o f D u u l in D i v i s i o n was the first “ open” Divi­ sion in Ireland, being founded in 1905, under Dr. C. R. Browne, surgeon, and Mr. John Thompson, superintendent The latter gentleman held office for exactly ten years, until an important business engagement called him to reside in England. Before he left he had the satisfaction of seeing the membership rise to nearly one hundred, of whom the majority are engaged in ambulance work, in both the Army and Navy. His division had, moreover, the distinction of winning the highest ambu­ lance trophy in Ireland, the Dublin Ambulance Challenge Cup. In December, 1915, he was succeeded by Mr. Robert W. Jameson, who was until then 2nd Officer of the division, and under whose leadership the Challenge Cup was retained in 1916, and though lost by a very small margin in 1917, was re-won in 1918. During the Rebellion in 1916, Supt. Jameson was in charge of one of the two ambulance wagons attached to the Castle Hospital, which he manned day and night with teams of his own men and those of neighbouring divisions, the other car being run by the military. One of the officers, Mr. C. E. I ley, worked for the “ G.R.s” who defended Beggar’s Bush Barracks, another, Mr. J. F. Homan, carried killed and wounded, night and day, to four different hospitals.. For distinguished service during that trying time the Order of St. John awarded to Supt. Jameson a medal, and four officers and men of the division certificates of Honour for Gallantry. In no particular has the division been more fortunate than in its hononary-surgeons. Dr. C. R. Browne was succeeded Dr. Andrew J. Charles, Dr. A. E. Wynne and Dr. George Pugin Moldon, the latter gentleman is now Acting Surgeon, having been promoted to Corps rank. Probably no other division in Ireland possesses so large a number of Medallions, Labels, etc., as well as a Demonstrator, Nursing Hygiene, and Military Sanitation certificates. And no other bears any comparison with it for attendance in uni­ form at race meetings, theatres, bazaars, sports of every description, all the tumultuous activities of a crowded city, in which the members of the Brigade help in such a palpable and practical way.

On the afternoon of Saturday, September 28th, the Royal College of Science, Dublin, V.A.D. (City of Dublin, No. 11) visited G Camp in Phcenix Park, where Capt. Henson, Camp Adjutant, and Capt. Ball, R.A.M.C., very kindly explained the sanitary and camp-hospital arrangements. Under Capt. Hen­ son’s guidance, the members gained practical experience of methods of water supply, of the salving of otherwise waste material by grease-traps, and of the removal and incineration of refuse. The arrangements for washing were unconsciously demonstrated by a number of men returning from a football match. The insight thus givenqnto the absolute and systematised cleanliness of a camp of two thousand men planted on an open plateau formed a very valuable lesson in sanitation. Cordial thanks were accorded to Capt. Henson.

W hen corresponding w ith A d vertisers p lease m ention “ F irst Aid ”


52

FIR ST

A ID

&

THE

ST.

JOHN

AM BULANCE

GAZETTE. —

O c to b e r, 19 18.

THE ST. JOHN AM BULANCE GAZETTE. O ffic ia l

B r ig a d e

N ew s.

S ep t e m b e r , 1918. T he Chief Commissioner has sanctioned the following appointments, promotions, transfers and resignations:—

No.

3 D is t r ic t .

South Moor Nursing Division is in Abeyance, all members being on Active Service. Victoria Garesfield and Rowlands Gill Nursing Division. — Miss A. M. Monkhouse rejoins the Brigade, her services counting as continuous. Sunderland Nursing Division.— Mrs. Marguerite Sharp Reed, A.R.R.C., to be Lady Divisional Supt., 28.9.18.

No. 8

D is trict. Brighton and Hove Corps (Brighton Police Division).— Harold Farley Seymour, M.D., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., to be Divisional Surgeon, 7.9.18, vice Div. Surgeon E. C. Maguire, deceased, June, 1918.

Lye Nursing Division.— Miss Hannah Haywood to be Nursing Officer, 1.9.18. Henry C. Darby, L.R.C.P., L.R.C.S., to be Divisional Surgeon, 1.9.18. Miss P. Hamblett to be Lady Divisional Supt., 1.9.18. Miss Annie Cook to be Nursing Officer, 1.9.18. Northampton Corps (Headquarters Nursing Division) — Miss Emmeline Cowley to be Nursing Officer, 17.9.18.

No. 9 D is tr ict . District Sergt. A. W. H. Parker to be Acting Distict Sec­ retary during the absence of District Sec. on active service with effect from 2.9.18.

No.

No.

4 D istrict.

Assistant Commissioner A. L. Garnett resigned his appointment September, 1918. Burnley Nursing Division.— Lady Divisional Supt. Miss L. Simpson resigned her appointment September, 1918. Tottington Nursing Division.— Miss Elizabeth Masser to be Nursing Officer, September 13th, 1918, vice Nursing Officer Miss Halliday resigned August 5th, 1918. Manchester Special Constables Corps (East Division).— William Thomas Hesketh to be Divisional Supt., 20.9.18, vice Divisional Supt. Charles W. E. Leigh placed on Reserve. Whitefield Nursing Division.— Miss Susannah Cook to be Lady Divisional Supt., 19.9.18, vice Lady Divisional Supt. Miss Lancashire resigned 24.4.17. Manchester Special Constables Corps (West Division).— Richard Lionel Fell to be Ambulance Officer, 24.9.18. William Cunningham Wilson to be Ambulance Officer, 25.9.18.

No.

5. D is t r ic t .

Dewsbury and District Corps (Dewsbury Nursing Divi­ sion).— Mrs. Maud Barraclough to be Nursing Officer, August 28th, 1918. Spen Valley Corps (Cleckheaton Division).— John William Swales to be Acting Divisional Supt., September 20th, 1918, vice Divisional Supt. D. P. B. Davies resigned. Bradford City Nursing Division.— George Kee, L.R.C.P. and S., to be Divisional Surgeon, 11.9.18. Heeley Nursing Division.— William Henry Helm, L.R.C.P. & S., to be Divisional Surgeon, 14.9.18. Miss Ethel Taylor to be Lady Divisional Supt., 14.9.18. Mrs. Margaret Seagrove to be Nursing Officer, 14.9.18. Nottingham Corps (Bulwell Division).— Ernest R. Collard to be Ambulance Officer, 28.9.18.

No.

6 D is t r ic t . Bishop Auckland Nursing Division.— Nursing Officer Miss M. Nevison resigned her appointment, Sept. 1918. Scarborough (Y.M.C.A. Division).— William Alfred Jaggard to be Ambulance Officer, 9.9.18. Frederick Cecil Colclough to be Ambulance Officer, 10.9.18. Stella Coal Co. Corps. (Addison Colliery Nursing Divi­ sion).— Lady Divisional Supt. appointed was Mrs, Alice Matilda Simpson. Charlaw and Sacriston Colliery Co. Division.— William Liveredge to the First Class Sergt., 239.18. Birtley Iron Co. Corps (Birtley Nursing Division).— Lady Divisional Supt. Miss Constant Kirkup resigns her appoint­ ment and is placed on the Reserve.

12 D i s t r i c t .

Bray Nursing Division.— Daniel J. Roantree, M.B., B.Ch., B.A.O., to be Divisional Surgeon, 10.9.18. Public Services Corps (Royal College of Science Division). — William Arthur Winter, M.B., B.Ch., F.R.C.P., D.P.H., to be Divisional Surgeon, 23.8.18. Nenagh Nursing Division.— Mary F. The Lady Dunalley to be Nursing Officer, 25.9.18. City of Dublin Corps (North Dublin Nursing Division).— Miss Elizabeth Whitehead to be Lady Divisional Supt., 18.9.18, vice Lady Divisional Supt. Miss Hall resigned. Mrs. Mary Barber to be Nursing Officer, 18.9.18. N ew D ivision . No. 1 D istri ct . Limehouse Nursing Division No. 43 (Prince of Wales Corps), 9.9.18. Acton Nursing Division, No. 44 (Prince of Wales Corps), 28.9.18.

No.

3 D is t r ic t . Kidderminster Division, 30.9.18.

No. 5 D istr ic t . Sonada (Bradford) Division, 13.9.18.

No. 6 D is t r ic t . Close Works (Gateshead-on-Tyne) Nursing Division, 17.9.18. Southmoor Nursing Division is in abeyance. All members are on active service. M il it a r y D ecora ti ons

a nd

A w ar ds .

Butterfield, Pte. James, Bingley, Military Medal. Hoggarth, Coy. Sergt.-Major H., Hull Central, Military Medal. Shipstone, Pte. O. H., Hull Central, Military Medal. Holmes, Pte. C. E., Newcastle Northern, Italian Croix de Guerre. Edwards, Mrs. H. (Lady Divisional Supt.), Brighouse N.D., Royal Red Cross (2nd Class). R oll

of

H on o u r .

Allen, Pte. C. E., Merton and Wimbledon, R.N.A.S.B.R. Barwood, Pte. D., M.H.H.R. Buckley, Pte. C. F., Terrritorial Branch, M.H.H.R. Burford, Pte. F., Dudley, M.H.H.R. Carruthers, A/Sergt. R.. Sleekburb, M.H.H.R.


O ctober, 1 918,

— F IR ST

A ID

&

THE

ST.

Chippendale, Pte. A., Padiham, M.H.H.R. Clarke, Pte. W. T., Gloucester Wagon Works, M.H.H.R. Crighton, Nursing Sister G. M., Sunderland N.D., V.A.D. Dyde, Pte. S., Nuneaton, R.N.A.S.B.R. Ellingham, Pte. E., Wellingborough, M.H.H.R. Foran, Pte. T., Dublin, M.H.H.R. Green, Pte. A., G.C. Railway, Pier Division, Hull Corps, R.G.A. Gregory, Pte. B., Stalybridge, M.H.H.R. Grey, Pte., J. W., Tynemouth Volunteer Life Brigade Division, R.E. Harrison, Pte. W. S., Rochdale, R.N.A.S.B.R. Higginbottom, Pte. J., Ellesmere, M.H.H.R. Hodge, Pte. A., M.H.H.R. Holmes, Pte. W., Earby, M.PI.H.R. Hough, Pte. C. W., Warsop, M.H.H.R. Jones, Pte. L., Blaenau Ffestiniog, M.H.H.R. Jowett, Pte. W., Eccleshill, R.F.A. Keen, Temporary Sergt.-Major, Toronto 1, M.H.H.R. Kershaw, Pte. P., Bolton, R.N.A.S.B.R, Lamb, Senr. Res. Attendant, W. T., Crosfield, R.N.A.S.B.R. Lancaster, Pte. A., Nelson, R.N.A.S.B.R. Lassetter, Corpl. J. H., M.H.H.R. Lingard, S/Sergt. R., Accrington, M.H.H.R. Muckle, Pte. W. J. S., Percy Main Colliery, M . H s H . R . Reader, Pte., A. R., Kensington, R . N . A . S . B . R . Robinson, Pte. A., Accrington, M.H.H.R. Robinson, Pte. N. D., Maryport, M.H.H.R. Sadler, Pte. A., Ashton-under-Lyne, M.H.H.R. Sharpies, Pte. R., Thornton, M.H.H.R. Smith, Pte. L. F., Toynbee Hall, M.H.H.R.

S t . J ohn V o l u n t a r y A id D et a c h m e n t s . The following Detachments have been registered :— Cheshire 176 (formed from the Winsford Nursing Division). Commandant, Mrs. A. Dudley, Aden Cottage, Gladstoneroad, Winsford. Northants 34 (formed from the Rothwell Nursing Division). Commandant, Miss Sarjeant, The Poplars, Rothwell. Northants 38 (formed from the Wellington Nursing Division). Commandant, Mrs. Pickering, 20, Park-road, Wellington. Queens Co. 4 (formed from the Portarlington Nursing Division). Commandant, Mrs. C. D. Odium, Kilnacourt, Por­ tarlington. A pp o in tm en ts , P romotions an d R esi gnations . Devon.— Mrs. Emsall, Acting Commandant, Devon 96, re­ signed. Durham.— Mr. E. S. Wood to be Assistant County Director, 15.4-18. Mr. A. Sinclair Young to be Assistant County Transport Officer, 3.9.15. Durham 17.— Mr. G. Watkin to be Commandant, 21.8.18, vice Mr. E. S. Wood promoted. Durham 41.— Mr. J. Steel to be Acting Commandant, 23.12.17, vice Mr. R. Stokoe, resigned. Durham 77.— Mr. W. T. Ryan to (be Commandant, 28.1.18. Durham 14.— Mrs. Margaret A. Strover to be Commandant with effect from 1.5.18, vice Mrs. A. Coulson, resigned' Durham 106.— Miss Eleanor T. Parker to be Quartermaster, 1 3-9-19; vice Miss Prudhoe, resigned. Hants.- Miss Elverett, R.R.C., to be Commandant of the Hants Reserve Detachment. Kildare.— Miss E. Moore to be Commandant of the Kildare 2, vice Dr. O’Donel Brown, resigned. Londonderry.— Miss Givene to be Commandant of London­ derry 6, vice Miss A. Murray, resigned. Northumberland 3.— Mr. M. Thompson to be Commandant, 3.11.17, vice Mr. S. Embleton, promoted to County Quarter­ master. Northumberland 9.— Mr. M. S. Freeman to be Commandant, 28.1.18, vice Mr. E. Watson, resigned. Northumberland 37.— Mr. J. F. W. Russell, to be Commandant, 23.10.17, vice Mr. H. B. Watson, resigned. Northumberland 72.— Miss Annie Carse to be Commandant, 16.8.18, vice Dr. Fraser.

JOH N

AM BULANCE

G A Z E T T E .—

53

W.R. Yorks.— Miss C. Richaby to be Assistant Commandant of W.R. Yorks 80. D e a th s . The .ollowing deaths are reported with deep regret:— Mrs. Blair Boyd, Commandant, Antrim 4. Mrs. Wilhelmina Bartley, member of Antrim 26. Miss H. Moorby, member of W.R. Yorks R. Miss Marjorie G. Kenley, member of Tyrone 22.

The

D o cto r

a t

th e

F ro n t.

( Concluded from page 40.) In the evacuation of wounded, all and every means are to be employed, and there is plenty of opportunity for improvisation. The use of ammunition and water wagons, or lorries returning from the front, the establishment of a tram service and the utilisation of the prisoners of war, all come under his influence. Care must be taken not to allow the advanced dressing station to be blocked by cases. This is especially likely to occur in the first three to six hours of a fight, when the walking wounded accumulate. These men should not be removed by ambulance car, but by motor lorries, horsed ambulance wagons, trams, and even a short way back by ambulance trains. Although the Field ambulance commander is not responsible for the evacuation beyond the advanced dres­ sing station, he must see that there is no hitch, or other­ wise his station will be blocked, and the resulting back­ pressure tell on the whole scheme of evacuation. Let us consider in more detail the preliminary arrange­ ments made by the Field Ambulance Commander for the collection of wounded. The secret of rapid evacuation depends on the amount of care and forethought which has been exercised. This preparation includes :— r. Careful reconnaissance by field ambulance com­ manders, officers, and senior N .C .O .’s. 2. The working out of schemes of evacuation, with preparation of maps and diagrammatic plans. 3. Provision for accommodation of wounded a t :— regimental aid posts, divisional collecting posts, advanced dressing stations, divisional dressing stations, casualty clearing stations, 4. Storage of materials :— Blankets, stretchers, splints, medical comforts. 5.. Provision of tea kitchens. 6. A supply of reserve bearers. 7. Evacuation. 1. Field ambulance commanders, bearer officers, regimental medical officers and senior N .C .O .’s must make themselves acquainted with the geography of the land, and mark positions where shelter may be obtained. As a part of this reconnaissance should be included the flagging out of tracks for walking wounded, and the provision of one-way lamps at night. It is not easy to exaggerate the importance of this preliminary survey. T o avoid delay and hesitation at a time when every moment is precious, and reduces the strain on the stretcher bearers. Alternative routes should always be borne in mind. 2. From these reconnaissances, often carried out under conditions of great difficulty and danger, a general scheme of evacuation is made out. Maps and diagram­ matic plans are carefully worked out, and should be in the


54

— FIRST

AID

& THE

ST.

JOHN

hands of all medical officers concerned two days before attack day. These maps should show position of R .A .P.’s, relay posts, advanced dumps of stretchers and blankets, tracks for walking wounded, light railways, divisional collecting posts, advanced dressing stations and main dressing stations. 3. Accommodation f o r Wounded.— (a) R .A .P .s . Each aid post should have an ample supply of shell dressings, stretchers, blankets, and splints. There should be room for at least six stretcher cases. A Primus stove with sup­ ply of water, and a number of rations of solidified alcohol must always be on hand. (b) Relay Posts ■ — Shelter is required for stretcher bearers, and room for two cases in the event of shelling. (c) D iv isio n a l Collecting Posts. — These posts should accommodate thirty stretcher cases. They may be im­ provised from existing dugouts, or made out of “ elephant” shelters. The large “ elephant ” shelters can be adapted to take eight stretchers a side. Three are required, two for stretcher cases, and one for personnel, walking wounded, and dressings. (d) Advanced D ressing Stations. — The present ten­ dency is to separate the walking wounded from stretcher cases, even as far forward as the advanced dressing station. Walking wounded are directed either to a separate build­ ing or to a separate department of the advanced dressing station. Arrangements must be made to issue field medical cards, and the Padres who are usually attached to^ these advanced posts can make themselves very useful by giving clerical assistance. The careful filling in of these cards saves endless trouble down the line. At the advanced dressing station a special feature should be made of the provision of hot tea, and if neces­ sary, rum. A large stock of chocolate should be available. 4. Storage o f M aterial. — The field ambulance com­ mander should assure himself that the regimental aid posts are fully equipped with stretchers, blankets and shell dress­ ings, and should obtain a statement from the regimental medical officers that they have all they require. Each regimental aid post should start with twenty stretchers and twenty blankets. Each brigade in the line should have a dump of 50 stretchers and 50 blankets. These dumps should be care­ fully selected and at as far an advanced point as is prac­ tical, so that in the event of a successful advance the stretchers may be ready to hand. At the advanced dress­ ing station it is necessary to keep a large reserve of stretchers, and 300 should be available at the commence­ ment of the action. It is important to arrange a good circulation of stretchers and blankets, by ensuring that the bearers pro­ ceeding to the front take the back blankets and stretchers. 5. Tea Kitchens. — Tea kitchens should be estab­ lished at the advanced dressing stations, and if possible, at the various collecting posts. Arrangements should be made with D.A.D.O.S. to supply Soyer’s stoves and tea urns. The field ambulance should supply Primus stoves as a stand by. The S.S.O. will supply the neces­ sary trench tea and sugar rations. These kitchens are greatly appreciated by the men, and the warm tea helps them to bear with fortitude the pain of their wounds, and often will prevent a “ walker” becoming a stretcher case. 6.— Reserve Bearers. — In an attack, the number of trained regimental stretcher bearers is increased to 32.

AMBULANCE

GAZETTE. —

October, 1918.

These men are distributed between the companies, with the exception of two squads, which are generally held in reserve at the aid post, or battalion headquarters. These stretcher bearers carry back the wounded to the aid posts, and there their responsibility ceases. At the aid post R.A .M .C. runners are stationed, and they keep the Field Ambulance Commander informed of the number of R .A .M .C squads required to clear the wounded. The Regimental Medical Officer should on no account lose touch with the Field Ambulance. The lessons of the recent battles have taught us that even doubling the number of the stretcher bearers is in­ sufficient to clear the wounded, and a further reserve of untrained bearers must be available at Brigade head­ quarters. One hundred men are required. These men should be divided into four sections, each section being made responsible for the clearing of an allotted part of the battle­ field. The Regimental medical Officer should be able to demand these bearers from brigade. 7. The Field Ambulance Commander in charge of evacuation is responsible for the clearing of the wounded from the regimental aid posts to the main dressing station. It has been found that a system of relay posts estab­ lished at fixed points is of great value. The bearers work on fixed stretches of road. The number of relay posts varies of course with the length of the carry, and they should be established at least every 1,000 yards. The last hand carry ends at the divisional collecting post, which, as the name signifies, serves as a point to which all cases are brought from the various aid posts. If necessary, two of these posts should be established, one for each sector of the field. The posts serve as temporary shelters in which patients are kept while waiting for cars, or places in which urgent surgical needs may be attended to. From the divisional collecting posts the cases are evacuated by ambulance car, tramway or light railway, directly to the casualty clearing stations concerned, For the sake of recapitulation and to present a con­ tinuous picture of the stages of evacuation, let us follow an individual case from the front back to the C C S. A / 1, Private T. Atkins, was wounded in the thigh in in the first wave of the attack at 5 a.m. He succeeded in dragging himself to a shell hole, where he was found and dressed by one of the battalion stretcher bearers at 6 a.m. In a temporary lull of the enemy’s barrage he was removed by the battalion stretcher bearers to the R .A .P , where he was dressed by the medical officer at 7 a.m. He was then carried by R .A ,M .C. stretcher bearers to the first relay post where a change of bearers was effected. The second relay post was reached at 10.30 a.m., and the divisional collecting post at 11 a.m. At this post he was given a hot cup of tea and afterwards loaded into a Ford motor ambulance car, which took him to the advanced dressing station by 11.30 a.m. At the A.D.S. his wound was dressed, an injection of A .T . [was given and the field medical card made out. At 12.30'p.m. he was loaded into a M.A.C. car and reached the C.C.S. at 1.30 p.m. No. 124, Pte. H , was wounded in the arm at 5 a.m. H e applied his field dressing, and, following the flagged track, reached the A.D.S. at 6.30 a.m. Here he was dressed, fed and given a field medical card. He was loaded in a lorry at 7.15 a.m, and reached the C.C.S. at 8 a.m. It is this collection of the wounded that appeals most to the public, and as a measure of the efficiency to which the Service has been brought, the startling achievement which landed wounded men at Charing Cross in the after­


O cto b e r, 19 18.

FIRST

AID

&

THE

ST.

noon of the same day as they had fought on the crest of Messines, speaks for itself. The battlefield of Vimy was cleared in less than twelve hours, yet it is difficult to imagine more arduous labour than the carrying of stretchers along a muddy track, winding amongst shell holes or along slippery duckboards. Add to the insecure foothold the constant screech of shells, and the frequent hail of shrapnel bullets and pieces of high explosive shell. Infantry walking along a shelled track can dodge hurriedly into shell holes out of danger, but the R. A-M.C. bearers must keep steadily on. There is no escape for them if the Bosche gunner ranges success­ fully on the track. Moreover the R.A .M .C. have none of the joy and lust for battle; no power of hitting back. They must just “ carry on ” with the satisfaction of duty well done. Their regimental comrades are the first to give them credit for their work, and it will generally be found that the group of field ambulances of a division get as much, or more, recognition for their work than any group of similar strength in the division. No one who has seen their work on the blood-stained battlefields of Flanders during the present war, grudge the R.A .M .C. its proudly humble motto of “ In Arduis Fidelis.”

E xtracts V .A .D .

fro m

L etters

M em bers

R e ce iv e d

W o rk in g

in

fro m

M ilita r y

H o sp ita ls. Sa l o n i c a . I th or ou g h ly enjoyed the journey out, and was very well looked after, both by people on the trains and the military authorities all over the place. I passed through two wellknown capitals, and saw the most important sights. The latter part of the trip was extremely hot, It is not unbear­ able here. We do not work very long hours during the summer, but make an early start about 8.15 a.m. We have to be in by 8 p.m. except on special leave, so that the evening is very short. There seems to be plenty to eat, and we always take every opportunity of having motor rides rather than walk. Pedestrians always have a weather eye on the motors, and the drivers are quite ready to help us along. The roads are very bad indeed. I thought you might care to have a few particulars of our life out here in camp, so will try and give an idea of the most interesting ones. Personally, I think if I had to choose a site for a camp this is the one I would have chosen. It is perfectly lovely with the sea in front, and be­ yond glorious purple mountains, Olympus being one of them— and mountains again, away to the back of us, and the town a most quaint and interesting old place— to the right, sloping right up, away from the sea seen at close quarters, the town is cobbled and dusty and dirty to a de­ gree, and redolent of every peculiar smell under the sun, from wine and coffee and resinous wood, aud rotting fruit and dust that seems to have had no rain on it for a hun­ dred years or so, to cresol and chloride of lime, of which the authorities love to disinfect any places with which we have to do. I generally go into town two or three times a week— in a “ Jin Lizzie”— a light Ford van, of which there are no end about— and do my shopping. A corporal drives me,

JOHN

AM BULANCE

GAZETTE. —

55

and the driving in the street would send some of the L on­ don police to distraction, as the various nationalities dart about in all directions irrespective of whether they are on their right side for driving or not. I usually go into town for vegetables and things we don’t get in rations, and as the Greeks say “ English sister plenty money,” I hasten to disillusion their minds on that point, and have now become an adept at meeting them on their own ground and beating them down— as they expect one to do, a thing I could never have thought possible at home. I could tell you many things of interest if I might. Being so close to the sea, we all bathe and swim as much as possible, and I think to that we owe the fact that we are so fit and well, and stand the heat as well as we do. It has been frightfully hot this summer, but we wear white and the minimum amount of clothes, so it is not as bad as it might be. In town I sometimes see Macedonians wear­ ing thick coats lined with fur— I suppose to keep out the heat. With regard to food, it is excellent, and we want for nothing in reason, having plenty of bread, tea, jam, meat, bacon, flour, etc, and as we have a mess fund we buy things that are not issued in rations, and try and get as much variety as possible. Heaps of dried fruit we have, too ; currents and raisins, but we miss fresh vegetables, but we are getting more of those now. It is amazing what appetities all the girls have, myself included. I think it is with being so near the sea. It is a pretty strenous life, but we get amusements, too. There are some awfully good concert parties about, and there are some really first-class professionals amongst them. I ’ve seen far better and more amusing companies here than in town, and so sometimes the singing and act­ ing has been exceptionally good. We take it in turns to go to these concerts with the girls, and sometimes we go picnics occasionally by ambulance and sometimes by the Red Cross motor boat, of w h i c h has charge ; some of us have been out with her to-day across the bay, had a l