Page 1


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ifn ^

v*;

FIRST AID.

The Independent Journal tor the Ambulance and Nursing Services. Edited by A R T H U R No.

259. —

V o l.

X X II

To

JANUARY,

[N e w S e r ie s .]

Our

B.

DALE.

1916

lJ/6 p ™ '®

« r . s w « « ' Hau.\

n ™ “ p“ C Free

pose of the Joint Committee, and of this ^,1,642,271 has

Readers.

been expended at home and in every theatre of war. “ F i r s t A id ” is p u b lis h e d on t h e 2 0 th o f e v e r y m o n th . T he A n n u a l Subscription is 2 s .

6 d . post free ; single copies 2d.

T h e E d ito r invites readers to send articles and reports on subjects of interest to am bulance w orkers, these should be addressed to him at 46, Cannon Street, Lo ndo n , E .C .

Wherever our Armies have gone, wherever our Allies have been in need of help and could be reached, the Red Cross has gone on its mission of mercy, with

willing workers

prepared to face all trials and dangers. The figures set out in the report which are published

A ll articles and reports must be accom panied by the name and address of the w riter, not necessarily for publication but for the use ot the E d ito r.

in another column, will enable the reader to ascertain the principal heads

of expenditure, the greater part of the

money has naturally been spent abroad, the heaviest item

Subscriptions, A dvertisem ents and other business com m unications connected w ith

should be addressed to the Publishers,

F ir s t A id

DALE,

REYN O LDS 46,

&

C annon

C O .,

being the cost of motor ambulances.

though one-half of the amount subscribed went to the

L t d .,

Street, L ondon,

general account, more than half a million sterling was

E .C .

specifically

L a st Year.

to

“ the

Transport

of

Wounded

motor ambulances, of which particular vehicles the Society have

year just closed,

directed

Fund ” ; in other words, to the purchase and upkeep of

ED ITO R IA L. T he

It is useful to note

the interest of the public in the allocation of the funds, for

with its hack-

897 at work.

management

The

expenses

Joint Committee

regard the

as eminently satisfactory.

They

ground of war, has presented ambulance

amount to i ’46 per cent, or 3^d. in the £ .

work in a totally different aspect to that

are extremely low, and are due, in a great measure, to the

in which we were formerly accustomed to view it. times gone by we have recorded

In

the work which was

accomplished by ambulance workers in civil life. have to do so under war conditions.

We now

These figures

voluntary service rendered in many ways.

In all the

report reflects what a vast work has been achieved, and it should ensure extended support to the Joint Committee

The noble work of

responsible for the organisation, and it should be a source

mercy which has been performed by the members of the

of gratification to the nation to be in possession of an

Red Cross and the Order of St. John during the past year

organisation that has won the admiration of the world.

is a record which the nation must feel proud of.

How

We now turn to the Record of the S.J.A.B., a body,

by the Red Cross and its

if we may say so, which has hidden its light under a bushel

sister Society, which must otherwise have been lost must

in the past inasmuch as the public have not realised the

necessarily

useful work it has done in peace times.

many lives have been saved

be

speculative.

But

it

needs no

special

The last official

imagination and no particular knowledge of events of the

figures

last sixteen months to obtain some idea of the invaluable

members of the Brigade are serving their country in the

work performed in this direction.

which

are

to

hand

show

that

R .A .M .C. or the Naval Sick Berth Reserve.

over

20,000

These men

It is not without justifiable pride that the Joint War

for many years past have trained to become efficient for

Committee of the British Red Cross and the Order of

the work which they are now doing, and they are carrying

St. John have issued the report for the year’s operation to

it out in a manner which can only be spoken of in the

the 20th of October.

Rarely can it have chanced that a

highest terms of commendation, and as being worthy of

statement of accounts has brought such a consolation to

the tradition of the Brigade.

the nation as is imparted by the study of the return of

that the work will go on while the war lasts, and that we

income and expenditure of the Joint War Committee-

may confidently expect that when we address our readers

It is almost needless to add

Their budget is truly a collossal one, no less a sum than

this time next year it will be one of realised assurance—

; £ i , 864,036 has been provided by the public for the pur­

the word of success achieved or assured.


— FIRST

122

tJhe Srand ?riorg of the 6rder o{ the Kospital o{ St. John of Jerusalem in Sngland. AM BULANCE

Jhe

St.

DUTY

N o. 1 D is tr ic t. A ctin g

deputy

W.

com m ission er

H.

DEPARTM EN T.

John J\mbulance Brigade.

:

ROSTER. ------

W IN N Y . FEBRU A RY,

1916.

S u n d a y D u t y , S t. P a u l’s C a t h e d ra l. Sunday, „ „ „

6 th .— N o . 5 D iv is io n , C h ild r e n ’s H o m e . 1 3 t h .— N o . 7 „ T o y n b e e H a ll. 2 0 th .— N o . 44 „ W est London. 2 7 t h .— N o . 7 0 „ R o y a l B o ro u g h o f K e n s in g t o n .

2 .3 0 p .m . to 6 p .m . S t. T o h n ’s G a te , 2 p .m . E X A M IN A T IO N

FO R

A s p e r s e p a ra te o rd e rs .

M E D A L L IO N ,

LABEL,

Key &C.

M e m b e r s o f th e B r ig a d e , in a c c o r d a n c e w ith the m e m o ­ r a n d u m is s u e d b y tb e S t . J o h n A m b u la n c e A s s o c ia t io n d a te d 21 st O c to b e r, 19 1 5 , w ill n o t o n ly be e x c u s e d the a n n u a l r e ­ e x a m in a tio n fo r B r ig a d e , b u t, o n a p p lic a t io n , in a c c o rd a n c e w ith B .O . 2 83, w ill be g ra n te d t h e ir m e d a llio n , la b e l, etc., if tb e q u a lif y in g p e rio d h a s b e e n p a ss e d a n d a n e x a m in a tio n p a ss e d w it h in tw e lv e m o n th s o f th e o u t b r e a k o f w a r. T h i s p riv ile g e is a ls o e x te n d e d to m e m b e rs o f N u r s in g D iv is io n s w h o a re g iv in g t h e ir w h o le tim e to w o rk in h o s p it a ls o r in s e c r e t a r ia l w o rk c o n n e c te d w ith o n e o f the d e p a rtm e n ts of th e O rd e r. ANNUAL

IN S P E C T IO N S .

F o r v a r io u s re a s o n s it h a s n o t b e e n p o s s ib le to in s p e c t c e r t a in A m b u la n c e D iv is io n s o f th e P r in c e o f W a le s ’s C o rp s . T h e s e D iv is io n s w ill b e e x c u s e d fo r th e y e a r 19 1 4 -1 5 , b u t s h o u ld h o ld t h e m s e lv e s in r e a d in e s s to b e in s p e c te d d u r in g th e c u rr e n t y e a r. STO RES ON LO AN . D iv is io n s w h ic h h a v e s to re s o n lo a n fro m h e a d q u a r t e rs s h o u ld fo r w a r d a r e tu r n n o t la t e r th a n 2 9th F e b r u a r y to the In s p e c t o r o f S to re s , g iv in g f u ll p a r t ic u la r s . R E G IS T E R E D

NUM BERS.

A l l c o m m u n ic a tio n s a n d fo rm s r e fe rr in g to r a n k a n d file s h o u ld b e a r th e r e g is t e re d n u m b e r o f th e m e m b e rs fo r r e fe r ­ e n ce . TEM PO RARY

A P P O IN T M E N T S .

S e r g t . J . J . C h a s e a n d S e rg t. E . J a c k s o n , o f St. M a r k ’s D iv is io n , h a v e b e e n a p p o in te d A c t in g A m b u la n c e O ffic e rs to d a te fro m 1 7 th D e c e m b e r , 19 1 5 , a n d a ls o P r iv a t e W . T r a c e y , o f W a lt h a m s t o w D iv is io n , to d a te fro m 15th D e c e m b e r, 1915. A IR

R A ID

DUTY.

T h e A c t in g D e p u t y C o m m is s io n e r w ill be o b lig e d if O ffic e rs in c h a r g e o f D iv is io n s w ill se n d in as q u ic k ly a s p o s s ib le r e v is e d lis t s o f the n a m e s o f m e n a v a ila b le fo r A i r R a id d u ty , a s, o w in g to e n lis tm e n t, e tc., th e o r ig in a l lis ts r e q u ir e m o d ific a ­ tio n . ANNUAL

RETURNS.

T h e is s u e o f th e a n n u a l B r ig a d e re p o rt is b e in g d e la y e d o w in g to a n n u a l re tu r n s b y D iv is io n s u p to 30 th S e p te m b e r, 19 15, n o t b e in g s e n t in p ro m p tly . T h e s e m u s t be s e n t in at o n c e o r a re a s o n g iv e n fo r th e d e la y . (S ig n e d )

W . H . W IN N Y ,

A c t in g D ep u ty -C om m ission er. H e a d q u a r t e r s :— St. J o h n ’s G a te , C le r k e n w e ll, E . C . N o . 44 ( W e s t L o n d o n ) D i v i s i o n . — A n e v e n in g c o n c e rt w ill b e h e ld o n J a n u a r y 2 5th at th e C h u r c h f ie ld H a l l A c t o n ,

AI D. —

January, 191 6.

in a id o f the u n ifo rm a n d e q u ip m e n t fu n d o f the D iv is io n . D u r ­ in g th e e v e n in g a w a rd s o f c e rtific a te s , etc., w ill be p re s e n te d b y A c t in g D e p u t y C o m m is s io n e r W . H . W in n y . A n e x c e lle n t p ro g ra m m e h a s b e e n p ro v id e d a n d a g o o d a tte n d a n c e is a n t ic ip a t e d . A d m is s io n 2s., is . & 6d. T ic k e t s c a n be o b ta in e d fro m C o r p l. C . H . F a r is , 18, D e rw e n t- r o a d , E a li n g , W . N o . 3 7 ( G . W . R . ) D i v i s i o n . — M r . A lf r e d E . E v a n s , w h o is F ir s t A m b u la n c e O ffic e r N o . 3 7 ( G . W . R . ) D iv is io n , w as, o n th e 6 th u lt., m a d e th e r e ­ c ip ie n t o f th e lo n g s e r v ic e m e d a l at th e h a n d s o f L a d y M a u d W ib r a h a m at St. J o h n ’s G a te , C le r k e n w e ll, in re s p e c t o f 15 y e a r s ’ s e r v ic e in the b rig a d e . M r. E v a n s ' is a v e te ra n w o rk e r in th e a m b u ­ la n c e c a u s e , a n d h a s b e e n a m e m b e r o f th e S t. J o h n A m b u ­ % la n c e A s s o c ia t io n fo r u p w a rd s o f fro m 20 y e a rs . H e is a n H o n o r a r y S e r v in g b ro th e r o f th e O r d e r o f St. J o h n o f J n r u s a le m in E n g la n d . M r . E v a n s is a ls o D is t r ic t A d ju t a n t N o . 1 V .A .D . , L o n d o n , A l f r e d F. E v a n s . B r it is h R e d C ro s s S o c ie ty . W e a re in d e b te d to th e G rea t W estern R a ilw a y M a g a z in e o r the lo a n o f p h o to b lo c k .

i

N o. 2 D is tr ic t. O v e r fifty O r d e r lie s h a v e b e e n p o ste d fo r d u t y d u r in g the m o n th o f D e c e m b e r. T h e y w e re s e n t to the fo llo w in g p la c e s :— S o u th a m p to n D o c k s , H e r n e B a y , K e n t , D a r t fo r d , B a n g o r , S w a n a g e , C a n t e r b u r y a n d W in c h e s t e r. T h e n u m b e r o f O r d e r lie s n o w o n s e rv ic e fro m t h is d is t r ic t is w e ll o v e r 1,300.

N o. 4

D is tr ic t.

T h e fo llo w in g w a s is s u e d fro m the N o . 4 D is t r ic t : — I am a s k in g M r . W o o d c o c k to is s u e th is m e ss a g e a s a d is t r ic t o rd e r, so th a t I m a y h a v e th e p le a s u re o f w is h in g a ll the m e m b e rs o f m y staff, c o rp s , a n d d iv is io n a l s u rg e o n s , c o rp s a n d d iv is io n a l s u p e rin te n d e n ts , n u r s in g s u p e rin t e n d e n ts , a m b u la n c e o ffic e rs , n u r s in g o ffic e rs, a n d o th e r r a n k s a v e r y h a p p y C h ris t m a s , a n d m a y th e N e w Y e a r b r in g u s a n e a r ly pe a ce . I se n d th is g re e tin g w ith th e m o st g ra te fu l a n d s in c e re f e e lin g s , b e in g c o g n is a n t o f th e g re a t w o rk p e rfo rm e d b y the S t. J o h n A m b u la n c e B r ig a d e in N o . 4 D is t r ic t , a w o rk w h ic h d e v o te d m e n a n d w o m e n h a v e la b o u re d at, h a v in g o n ly th e c o n s c io u s n e s s th a t th e y a re c a r r y in g o u t a n a t io n a l a n d C h r is t ia n - lik e e ffo rt a s t h e ir re w a rd . H a v e th e se p a trio t s s u c c e e d e d ? I s a y y e s, ten th o u s a n d tim e s o v e r. S o m e e ig h t t h o u s a n d m e n o f th e B r ig a d e fro m N o . 4 D is t r ic t a re n o w s e r v in g t h e ir K in g a n d c o u n t r y in the tre n c h e s , o n b a tt le s h ip s , a n d b a ttle c r u is e r s in S o u t h e rn a n d E a s t e r n E u r o p e , a n d E g y p t ; in fa ct, w h e re v e r th e B r it is h s o ld ie rs o r s a ilo r s a re u p h o ld in g the E m p ir e ’s fla g , th e re y o u fin d th e m e n o f St. J o h n out to s u c c o u r th e s ic k a n d w o u n d e d , r e a d y to g iv e t h e ir liv e s in c a r r y in g o n t h e ir h u m a n e w o rk , w h ils t w a v in g a lo ft th e fla g s o f E n g la n d a n d th e a n c ie n t O r d e r o f St. J o h n o f J e r u s a le m . O u r n u r s in g s is te r s a re e q u a lly s u s t a in in g w ith lo y a lt y a n d p a trio t is m a n d C h r is t ia n s a c rific e o f o u r d e a r o ld O r d e r ' T h e y , lik e th e m e n , a re u b iq u it o u s . T h e r e liv e s a re n o th in g to th e m w h ils t th e y k n o w t h e ir s e r v ic e s a re r e q u ir e d a s a n a u x ilia r y h e lp to th e t ra in e d s is te r s ; a n d , a s a la s t e x a m p le o f w h a t o u r O r d e r h a s d o n e , I a s k th o se w h o d e s ire to b e in t e r ­ e ste d to c a s t t h e ir e y e s a c r o s s to F r a n c e , a n d , i f ra n g e o f v is io n c o u ld p e rm it, th e y w o u ld see the fin e st h o s p ita l in F r a n c e o p e ra tin g u n d e r th e tim e -h o n o u re d C ro s s o f St. J o h n . Y o u h a v e a ll h e lp e d in th is g re a t w o rk , a n d w e fee l a jo y at h a v in g th e p r iv ile g e o f h e lp in g o u r w o u n d e d s o ld ie r s a n d s a ilo rs .


January, 1916.

— F I R S T

W h e n the h is t o r y o f th is g re a t w a r c o m e s to be w ritte n , the q u ie t C h r is t ia n - lik e , u n o s te n ta tio u s w o rk o f th e O r d e r o f St. J o h n o f Je r u s a le m in E n g la n d w ill s ta n d o ut d is t in c t a n d s h a r p a s a n e x a m p le o f the b e st ty p e o f c u lt u r e d c h iv a lr y . T o m y d e a r frie n d s in N o . 4 D is t r ic t I s e n d a m o st c o r d ia l C h r is t m a s g re e tin g :— M a y th e s e a so n be jo y o u s a n d h a p p y , a n d m a y n o tro u b le o r s o rro w a p p ro a c h a n y o f yo u . K e e p th e fla g f ly in g .— C h a r l e s J . T r i m b l e , M a jo r , R . A . M . C . , D e p u t y C o m m is s io n e r , N o . 4 D is t r ic t S .J .A .B .

N o. 5 D is t r ic t . N o t t i n g h a m . — O n D e c e m b e r 1 7 th a b o u t 100 m e m b e rs o f th e N o t tin g h a m C o r p s o f the B r ig a d e a s s e m b le d to b id f a r e ­ w e ll to 21 o f th e ir c o m ra d e s w h o w e re p ro c e e d in g o n a c t iv e s e rv ic e . T h e N o t tin g h a m C o r p s h a s n o w s e n t 141 m e n to s e rv e e ith e r in H o m e H o s p it a ls o r a b ro a d . A m b u la n c e O ffic e r L . S u lliv a n , n o w in th e r a n k s o f the R . A . M . C . , a n d th e m e n , r e c e iv e d g ifts o f c ig a re t te s a n d to b a c c o fro m t h e ir c o m ra d e s as a s lig h t to k e n o f t h e ir re g a rd a n d g o o d w ish e s. T h e re c e n t a p p o in tm e n t o f S e rg t. W . P a r k in s o n to be A m b u la n c e O ffic e r h a s b e e n a g re a t c a u s e o f p le a s u re to a ll m e m b e rs, fo r h is ta c t a n d k in d n e s s , c o u p le d w ith a b ilit y as an in s t ru c t o r h a v e re n d e re d h im d e s e rv e d ly p o p u la r.

I23

AID. —

fre y H a r v e y , D iv is io n a l S u r g e o n to W . & R . J a c o b & C o .’s D iv is io n , D u b lin . A n I r i s h W a r H o s p it a l S u p p ly D e p o t h a s b e e n s ta rte d u n d e r th e a u s p ic e s o f th e S t. J o h n A m b u la n c e B r ig a d e a n d th e B r it is h R e d C r o s s S o c ie t y , a t 4, M e r r io n - s q u a r e , D u b lin . T h e P r e s id e n t o f th e J o in t C o m m itt e e is th e M a r c h io n e s s o f W a t e r f o r d , L a d y S u p e r in t e n d e n t o f P o r t la w N u r s in g D iv is io n , w h ile M r s . D a lla s P ra t t , w ife o f D r . D a lla s P r a t t , w h o fo r so m a n y y e a r s a c te d a s H o n . S e c r e t a r y to the D u b lin C e n t r e o f th e St. J o h n A m b u la n c e A s s o c ia t io n , h a s d o n e a n e n o rm o u s a m o u n t o f w o rk a s o n e o f th e c h ie f o r g a n is e r s , a n d is a ls o a c t ­ in g a s H o n . S e c re ta ry . T h e D e p u t y C o m m is s io n e r a n d M r s . L u m s d e n a re a ls o a m o n g s t th e m o st p r a c t ic a l m e m b e rs o f the C o m m itte e . L a d y S u p t. M is s B e r t ie B r u c e is H e a d In s t r u c t r e s s , M is s O v e re n d is h e a d o f th e S to re s D e p a r t m e n t , w h ile a lm o s t e v e ry

N o 8 D is t r ic t . M a i d s t o n e . — T h e firs t a n n u a l m e e tin g o f th e D iv is io n w a s h e ld la s t m o n th , o v e r w h ic h th e M a y o r o f M a id s to n e p r e ­ s id e d . S u p t. H a w k e s , in p re s e n t in g h is a n n u a l re p o rt, sa id “ T h e D iv is io n w a s fo rm e d in A p r i l la s t y e a r. T h e D e p u t y C o m m is s io n e r, D r . C o tto n , a n d S e rg e a n ts J . T . P ic k a r d a n d W . J . B e e c h e r, h a v e a c t iv e ly a s s is te d in the fo rm a tio n o f the D iv is io n , a n d a re s t ill w o r k in g m o st e n e r g e t ic a lly to m a k e it a g re a t s u c c e s s . P r a is e is a ls o d u e to the la n c e -c o r p o r a ls a n d p riv a t e s fo r th e in te re s t th e y h a v e d is p la y e d , as e v in c e d b y th e ir r e g u la r a tte n d a n c e at d r ills a n d le c tu re s , a n d the ze a lo u s m a n n e r in w h ic h th e y h a v e p e rfo rm e d th e v a r io u s d u tie s th e y w ere c a lle d u p o n to c a r r y out. D r . T r a v e r s w a s a p p o in te d D iv is io n a l S u rg e o n , a n d h is s e rv ic e s h a v e be en o f th e u tm o st v a lu e a n d a s o u rc e o f e n c o u ra g e m e n t to the m e n , w h o h a v e lis te n e d to h is le c tu re s w ith g re a t in te re st. “ T h e s tre n g th o f the D iv is io n at the p re se n t tim e is 48, a lth o u g h s e v e ra l o f the B r ig a d e m e m b e rs h a v e re s ig n e d to jo in H i s M a je s t y ’s N a v a l a n d M ilit a r y F o r c e s , a n d we h a v e a ls o 20 m en in t r a in in g w h o a re n o t ye t e n ro lle d in th e D iv is io n . “ T h a n k s to th e g e n e ro s it y o f th e p u b lic the to w n h a s been e q u ip p e d w ith th re e a m b u la n c e s ta tio n s , b e s id e s s e v e ra l s tre tc h e r d e p o ts, w h ic h a ls o c o n ta in a g o o d s u p p ly o f firs t a id re q u is ite s . T e le p h o n ic a rra n g e m e n t s h a v e b e e n m a d e, w ith the c o n se n t o f th e C h ie f C o n s ta b le , fo r th e p o lic e to c a ll out the D iv is io n in the e v e n t o f a n a c c id e n t, a n d a ls o to a s s is t in the c a s e o f a n a ir ra id . S e rg t. B e e c h e r, a s tre a s u re r, s u b m itte d th e b a la n c e -s h e e t, s h o w in g b a la n c e to c a r r y f o rw a rd £ 9 12s. A ft e r the a d o p tio n o f th e re p o rt a n d a c c o u n ts , the D e p u t y M a y o r g a v e h is p r e s id e n t ia l a d d re s s , c o v e r in g so m e o f the p h a s e s o f the re p o rt a n d t e s tify in g to th e v a lu e o f the D iv is io n A n u r s e r y D iv is io n w ill s h o r t ly be fo rm e d u n d e r the s u p e r ­ v is io n o f D r . L o b b a n d M r s . B la c k e t t, w h o w ill be re c o m ­ m e n d e d fo r L a d y S u p e r in te n d e n t ; 20 n a m e s h a v e a lr e a d y b e e n g iv e n in o f th o se h o ld in g c e rtific a te s b o th fo r first a id a n d n u r s in g ; th is a ls o is lik e ly to b e a g re a t s u c c e s s .

N o. 12 ( I r is h ) D is t r ic t . T h e I r i s h D is t r ic t is t e m p o r a rily lo s in g th e s e rv ic e s o f its p o p u la r D is t r ic t S u p e rin te n d e n t , D r S e to n P r in g le , F . R . C . S . I . , w h o is g o in g to F r a n c e a s s u rg e o n to the “ B r it is h U r g e n c y C a s e s H o s p it a l.” D r . P r in g le , w h o is a w e ll- k n o w n D u b lin s u rg e o n , is a tta c h e d to M e r c e r ’s a n d D r u m c o n d r a H o s p it a ls in th a t c ity , a n d h a s b e e n D is t r ic t S u p t. o f N o . 12 D is t r ic t s in c e its fo r m a ­ tio n . T h e “ B r it is h U r g e n c y C a s e s H o s p it a l” h a s a ls o o n its s ta ff a n o t h e r B r ig a d e o ffic e r fro m the s a m e d is t r ic t — D r . G e o -

D

r.

S eaton P r in g l e -

N u r s in g D iv is io n in th e C o u n t y D u b lin C o r p s is re p r e s e n te d in th e w o rk ro o m s . T h e A m b u la n c e D iv is io n s a re re p re s e n te d b y S u p e r in t e n d e n t R . Iv e a tin g e , w h o se p r a c t ic a l a n d s o u n d a d v ic e h a s b e e n o f th e g re a te s t a s s is ta n c e , a n d n o o n e d e s e rv e s m o re c r e d it fo r h is u n t ir in g e n e rg y . A lr e a d y s e v e ra l la r g e c o n s ig n m e n ts o f b a n d a g e s , s u r g ic a l d r e s s in g s , e tc. h a v e b e e n d e s p a t c h e d to F r a n c e a n d th e M e d it e r r a n e a n . T h e R o y a l C o lle g e o f S c ie n c e V . A . D . h a s s ta rte d a s u b ­ d e p o t in th e a d v a n c e d B a c t e r io lo g ic a l L a b o r a t o r y in th e C o l ­ le g e o f S c ie n c e , a n d it is c o n fin in g its a tte n tio n e n t ir e ly to th e u se s o f S p h a g n u m m o ss a n d it s s t e r ilis a t io n , a n d h a v e m a d e m a n y u s e fu l in v e s t ig a t io n s on t h is lit tle k n o w n s u b je c t. D u b l i n . — L a s t m o n th C o r p s S e c r e t a ry J. T h o m p s o n , w ho is le a v in g D u b lin w a s th e r e c ip ie n t o f a p re s e n t a t io n b y the m e m b e rs o f th e 12th C o m p a n y , C it y o f D u b lin D iv is io n . O v e r fifty m e m b e rs a tte n d e d , a n d D r . P u g in M e ld o n , D iv is io n a l S u rg e o n , w h o p re s id e d , to g e th e r w ith M e s s r s . H o m a n , W e in s to c k , a n d I le y , re fe rre d to th e m a n y e x c e lle n t q u a lit ie s o f the g u e st o f the e v e n in g . M r . T h o m p s o n h a s p r a c t ic a lly b e e n th e p io n e e r o f a m b u la n c e w o r k in D u b lin a n d d is t r ic t . F o r ten y e a rs h e h a s b e e n S u p e rin te n d e n t o f th e C it y o f D u b lin D i v i ­ s io n , w h ic h w a s th e firs t o p e n d iv is io n in D u b lin , a n d w h ic h w a s fo rm e d in D e c e m b e r , 1905, as th e o u tc o m e o f th e B u r g h q u a y s e w e r d is a s t e r. H e h a s a lw a y s b e e n z e a lo u s in its in te re s ts , a n d th r o u g h h is c a p a b le in s t ru c t io n th e d iv is io n team t h is y e a r c a r r ie d off, in o p e n c o m p e t it io n , th e c u p o ffe re d b y L o r d Iv e a h . S in c e th e w a r b r o k e o ut h e h a s d o n e y e o m a n s e r v ic e in e n a b lin g la r g e n u m b e r s to q u a lif y fo r h o s p it a l s e r ­


— FIRST

124

v ic e , b o th at h o m e a n d a b ro a d , a n d m a n y o ld m e m b e rs o f the d iv is io n a re n o w s e rv in g t h e ir c o u n t ry . T h e p re s e n t a t io n to o k th e fo rm o f a v a lu a b le g o ld w a tch , s u it a b ly e n g ra v e d , a n d g o ld c h a in , a n d M r . T h o m p s o n , in a c k n o w le d g in g th e sa m e , s p o k e o f h o w m u c h the s e v e ra n c e fro m th e d iv is io n m e a n t to h im , a n d e x p re s s e d th e h o p e th a t the o ffic e rs a n d m en w o u ld c o n ­ tin u e to c a r r y o n a n d m a in ta in the d iv is io n in its p re se n t h ig h s ta te o f e ffic ie n c y . A v e r y e n jo y a b le m u s ic a l p ro g ra m m e w a s re n d e re d d u r ­ in g the e v e n in g .

AID. -

A

R

I In te m b e r th e St. he w as

th e R o le o f H o n o u r w h ic h w a s p u b lis h e d in o u r S e p ­ is s u e o f la s t y e a r w e sta te d th a t P te . W h a rt o n w a s o f J a m e s ’ G a te D iv is io n . W e re g re t th is w a s a n e r ro r , as a tta c h e d to th e C it y o f D u b lin D iv is io n .

E

J an ua i y,

1916.

particularly necessary when progress seems to cease. A m usem ent becomes essential to relieve the weariness of recovery. Anything which occupies brain aud hands , e.g., a puzzle, will be most acceptable. R e s t , apart from Sleep, either during morning or afternoon, will be welcome to the patient and beneficial to Nature’s efforts at recovery. I n f e c t i o n , and the danger of Complications — e.g., in Typhoid and Scarlet Fevers— may still exist and must be carefully guarded against. E x e r c i s e , properly carried out, will still further assist by giving play to the muscles. It must, however, be graduated, and stop short o f

fatigue.

Aids By

N.

to

Home = Nursing.*

CORBET B.C.,

FLETCHER,

Cantab.,

B.A.,

MB,

D E T A IL S

V I I — CARE

OF

OF

1.— E X T E R N A L

N U R S I N G — (Continued)

(i.)

PA TIE NTS.

One Nurse— Arm behind patient’s shoulder and at nape of neck, crossing over towards small of back. Support head, neck and spine. Two Nurses— Stand either side, hands inter­ twined or fingers bent and interlocked. Support shoulders and hips. (2) Improvised Hammocks. (a) Blanket rolled beneath lower sheet. Roll completed and kept open with transverse supports, e.g.. two sticks. (ft) Poles rolled in length of lower sheet and blanket. (3) Improvised Chair-bed. If second couch not available— improvise with three or four straight-backed chairs, seats of which are towards bed. Level with blankets. (4) Improvised B ed rests and Cradles. Inverted chair; pillow placed beneath knees. Cradles (three-legged stool, bandbox, child’s hoop) remove weight of clothes, especially for fractures, burns, and operation wounds.

D u rin g

OF

CONVALESCENT

C o n v a le sce n ce ,

R u le s

P A TIE N T S. are

VAR IED .

During convalescence the Nurse must still adhere to the General Rules and be consistent in her care of the patient. Some variation, however, is introduced by the change of circumstances. V

V a rie ty

will

A PPLICA TIO N

OF

HEAT.

(2) I n d i c a t i o n s .

in diet, surroundings, a n d in occupation all t e n d to h a s t e n r e c o v e r y , a n d is

* These papers are selected from D r. C orbet F le tc h e r’s Aids to Home-Nursing, w hich is published by M essrs. Bale, Sons & D anielsso n, 83-91, G reat Titch field -street, L o n d o n , W ., and is now on sale, price 6d. net.

P a in — especially when due to inflammation.

(ii.) Inflammation — whether Acute (Leading Signs:— Pain, Redness, Swelling) or Chronic; whether Superficial ( e g , skin) Deep (e.g., Pleurisy).

(1) L ifting , raising , 6rc.

IX .— C A R E

R E M E D IE S .

(1) A c t i o n . — Heat causes increased flow of blood to part and diminishes any local congestion which is present. In fact, it either disperses inflammation or hastens the formation of matter (pus).

X.

HELPLESS

LOCAL

(/)

( Continued from page 1 1 0 .) (ft)

The clothing must be warm and com­ fortable, and should aim at keeping the whole body at a uniform temperature.

D ress.

M.R.C.S.

Author of A Compendium of Aids to First Aid, &c. No.

D

(iii.) Wound-poisoning. ( 3 ) E s s e n t i a l s . — (i.)

Warmth, (ii.) Moisture, and (iii)— especially for open wounds— Antisepsis.

(4) A p p l i c a t i o n . — The

three outstanding Application are :—

(i.)

H ave patient and starting.

rules

of

appliances ready before

(ii.) M ake poultice or fomentation on the spot. (iii.) Take steps to keep appliances hot throughout. (5) V a r i e t i e s . — D r y — scorched

flannels, bottles, &c. M oist — poultices, fomentations.

A .— P

o u ltice s

hot-water

.

(1) E s s e n t i a l s . — Thickness— |-inch, retains heat not oppressive to part.

Edges — protected by covering, neat, retains heat.

Covering — two layers lint or flannel, cotton­ wool and waterproof.

Intervening m uslin — inadvisable because it produces moisture, conducts away heat; soils sheets. (2) V a r i e t i e s . — Bread, Linseed, Mustard, Linseed and Mustard, Charcoal.

Mixed

(3) A p p l i c a t i o n . — Success in preparation is proven by the Spoon Test (spoon stands erect in mass) and Clean-Bowl (sides of bowl clean when mass turned out) Tests. All poultices


January.

1916.

F I R S T

(except Mustard) are made with boiling water and applied directly to the skin. B.— F o m e nt a ti o ns . (1)

or

The

Red Cross

B udget.

t h r e e la y e r s o f

Red Cross Society and the Order of St. John of Jerusalem

Covering — cotton wool or flannel, and water­

for the year ending October 20th, 1915 which was issued at the latter part of last month, is an imposing document of

or flannel. proof (j iconette). (2) V a r i e t i e s — P la in — lint, flannel for relief of pain.

Medicated — e.g ,

Boracic as A n tisep ic; Poppy Capsules as Sedative ; Turpentine as Counter-irritant.

(3) A p p l i c a t i o n . — Fomentations are lighter, cleaner,

less painful and more simple in preparation.

Success depends on the maximum heat being combined with the minimum moisture. All fomentations must be thoroughly wrung out — preferably between two sticks. II — L E E C H E S . (1) A c t i o n — Application of leeches results in local withdrawal of blood (i£ teaspoonfuls per leech) and consequent relief of congestion of part affected. (2) I n d i c a t i o n s . — (i.) P a in

and (ii.) Acute Inflam ­

mation. ssen tials

— H o t fom en ta tion s

m ay be ordered

to follow removal of leech and to augment its effects. Boracic lint ( Antiseptic) is most serviceable. (4) A

125

T h e Report of the Joint Finance Committee of the British

E s s e n t i a l s . — Thickness — t w o

(3) E

A I D . —

pplicatio n .

(i.)

Choice

o f Site. — position on necessary, be ing, e g., over

(ii )

Preparation

When possible, select a which pressure may, if applied to control bleed­ bone.

o f Site. — Clean with warm water. Do not use soap. Warm milk and sugar solutions encourage leech to bite.

(lii ) Removal o f Leech.— Leech drops off when surfeited with blood, but may be re­ moved by application of salt. Do 7iot pull leech away lest teeth remain and cause inflammation, ulceration, and gangrene. Treat leech-bites as wounds with antiseptic precautions. (iv.) Control o f Bleeding.— Spontaneous arrest of bleeding usually occurs. The wound, however, may require pressure with fineer, with compress, with graduated compress, or with needle and thread.

(T o be continued.)

In an address before the Paris Surgical Society recently, Professor Tuffier said that of the 14,000 surgeons in the Army, 6,5 0 0 were at the front. Of these 93 had been killed, 26 0 wounded and 4 4 1 missing; 1 3 5 had been menlioned in orders for gallant conduct on the battlefield.

W h e n co rr e s p o n d in g w it h A d v e r t is e r s p le a se m en tio n “ F ir s t Aid ”

,

ninety pages, and one of the most interesting publications which the war has produced. T he Red Cross and St. John Societies were working separately until October 20th, 1914, when they agreed to combine forces, with the result that they have since worked hand in hand under a Joint War Committee. A glance at the following figures will give some idea of the work of the Committee during the year :— Total income for the year... Total expenditure for the year ... Total management expenses at home and in every theatre of war, excluding hospitals

.£1,864,036 1,642,271

o o

o o

7 3 , 3 io 12

4

............. ^463,455 Hospital stores and comforts handled ..............................................2'96 per cent. Cost of handling Spent in France and Flanders (not including motor ambulances) ................................... £,293,509 Spent in Malta and Near East (mainly for Gallipoli)........................................................ £'194,812 Spent in Serbia and Montenegro ... ... ... £43,846 Spent on “ transport of wounded (mainly motor ambulances) ................................... £615,963 Number of motor ambulances, cars, kitchens, etc., at w o r k ........................................................ 1,301 Spent on hospital trains ................................... £48,097 Spent on maintenance of British RedCross Hospital, Netley ................................... £69,758 Spent on St. John Brigade Hospital, Etaples ... £42,818 Spent on King George Hospital, Stamford-street, L o n d o n ........................................................ £ 49,1 53 Spent on Calais Enteric Hospital........................ £17,643 Spent on hospitals and convalescent homes in Egypt ........................................................ £25,604 Spent on Australian Forces in Egypt ....... £21,054 Besides the heavy cost of the great hospitals estab­ lished by the Societies in London, Netley and Etaples, contributions have been made towards the care of blinded and crippled soldiers and sailors, while other sums have been used for the Base Hospital, Nairobi, the Cameroons Field Hospital, the wounded in the North-Eastern Rhodesian Field Force, the Anglo-Russian Hospital, and others. A schedule appended to the accounts shows that on October 20th the Societies had 897 motor ambulances at work, making together with the lorries and repair wagons for such a fleet, the touting cars, motor-cycks, and so on, which work in conjunction with them, no fewer than 1,301 vehicles. Complementary to the motor ambulance are are the hospital trains, and for this purpose 37,995 was con­ tributed. The system of enabling individuals to endow hospital beds, a ward, or a hut was, doubtless, mainly responsible for the handsome sums subscribed towards the British Red Cross Hospital at Netky, the St. John Ambu­ lance Brigade Hospital at Etaples, and the King George Hospital, Stamford-street, London. It is interesting to note as an instance of the difficulties which beset the" ad­ ministration, that while some of the special funds have had to be heavily supplemented from the general fund, others have a considerable unused balance outstanding, and it is not surprising to find the Finance Committee pleading that their work would be simplified “ if a larger


1 26

— F I R S T

proportion of our receipts came into the general fund, rather than into earmarked funds.” The year’s expenditure was ,£ 1,642,271— a great sum, but happily well within the income. In this connection, a remark of the Joint Finance Committee is worth quoting. “ We have charged,” they say, “ the whole of our capital outlay on motor ambulances, hospital equipment, trains, etc., against the income of the year, and in doing so we feel we are following a practice which will be approved.” T he chief reasons for this course are the short life of most of the assets and the cost and labour of obtaining a reliable valuation of those assets at the date in question, spread as they are over the various theatres of war. The greater part of the money has been naturally spent abroad, and the heaviest item is for the transport of wounded— that is, the motor ambulances. The sum ex­ pended on1 the purchase of vehicles was ,£446,400; to work and maintain them cost £ 1 6 9 , 5 6 2 . ^ By far the greater part of the fleet is working in France and Flanders, the remainder being distributed between Egypt, Malta, Serbia, Italy and Great Britain. In addition, there was spent in France and Flanders ; £ 293' 5° 9> ° f which £ 149 ,83 8 was for equipment, general and medical stores. T o this must still be added £42 ,8 18 for the St. John Hospital at Etaples, and £ 1 7 ,6 4 3 for the Enteric Hospital at Calais, so that in the aggregate the Societies have spent nearly a million pounds for the welfare of the sick and wounded from our splendid armies on the Western front. Malta and the Near East cost £ 19 4 ,8 12 , of which the bulk was spent for the sick and wounded from Gallipoli. For the wounded heroes of Serbia and Montenegro the Societies spent £43.846, for the Persian Gulf Expedition they spent £ 5 , 6 1 1 , and for Italy £ 9 3 6 . Hospital equipment and medical necessaries and com­ forts of all kinds, which were purchased during the year, cost £263,573, in addition to which nearly £200,000 worth were presented to the Societies by the generous pub’ic. “ The large expenditure on stores,” the Finance Committee write, “ gives some idea of the demands which have had to be met in this area (in the Mediterranean), particularly in the early stages of the campaign. The need was extreme, and we believe that in no case did we fail to meet the demand.” On the question of “ management expenses” the Joint Finance Committee write: “ The management ex­ penses (including the cost of receiving, handling, distribut­ ing, and recording at head office, the whole of the funds received by the Joint Committee) would amount to £ 2 1 , 2 2 1 6s. 3d., representing i f per cent., or 2fd. in the pound, on the whole of the income, or if we add the cost of appeals (£ 6 ,1 3 7 01. n d . ) 1-46 per cent., or 3^d. in the pound. These figures we regard as eminently satisfactory. That they should be so low is due largely to the fact that so many of our workers are unpaid. We have no head of a department in receipt of a salary.” Another cause of the low proportion is the practical absence of the items, “ Rent, rates, &c.,” thanks to the generosity of friends. In the Stores Department, thanks to the devoted labours of volun­ tary workers, the expenses rose no higher than 2 96 per cent, of the value of the goods handled. The report is published at is., and may be obtained post free from the Joint War Committee, 83, Pall Mall London, S.W.

When corresponding w ith A dvertisers please mention “ F irst A id.”

A ID . —

January, 19 1 6 .

The D eath of P te. T. Benfold w h ile on Active Service. P t e . R i c h a r d B a n k s has written to Mr. and Mrs. Benfold with respect to the death of their son Thomas, who was a member of the Wigan Division, S.J.A.B. Pte. Banks, who was serving with the Sub - Division, 1st Field Ambulance, R.N.D., of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force, was a very close friend of the late Pte. Benfold. In his letter, which is dated October 23rd, he says:— “ No doubt you will have heard of the sad news by the time you receive my letter, of which I am about to inform you. It is with the deepest regret and sympathy that I write you these few lines, hoping you will bear up as well as you can over the loss of your valuable son, Thomas. He died whilst in the execution of his duty, and died a hero’s death. ‘ He gave his life to save a comrade.’ The following is an account of his death, which was instan­ taneous. “ He left camp at 7.30 a.m. on Wednesday morning, quite cheerful and happy, and was going up to our ad­ vanced dressing station, called ‘ Pink Farm.’ The stretcher bearers convey the wounded from the regimental aid post to the dressing station. They had just got into the reserve trenches and put their overcoats and haversacks down, when Tom and a comrade named Tom Yeomans were called to take a man down to the dressing station, he hav­ ing been wounded in the head. They had the stretcher on a litter, Tom at the front end and his mate at the back. There were some troops going across the open in massed formation, and the Turks, seeing this, started sending the deadly shrapnel. His mate tells me they were going at a pretty good pace to get the wounded man to the dressing station to be attended to by the surgeon. Then all at once Tom stopped, turned round, looked at him, and got quietly down and stretched himself out. His mate tells me he did not think it was anything serious, and the only words he muttered were 1 Oh, dear ! ’ As he got down he crossed his hands across his breast and fell asleep. It was over in less than a couple of m'nutes. His mate ran for the surgeon, who had just finished fastening a tourniquet on a man’s leg which had been badly damaged by the shrapnel, and said to him, ‘ Surgeon Calthrop, Benfold’s got done.’ He picked up his haversack and ran off, Tom following him, only to find that poor Tom had passed away. This was about 8.45 a.m. last Wednesday morning. He was taken to the dressing station and sent down to the hospital at the bottom of our camp. “ A fellow came and told me that my pal had got in­ jured, so I ran down to the hospital to meet the motor ambulance wagon, and after waiting about ten minutes the wagon came, but when I saw him it brought tears to my eyes to think that I had lost my best pal. He was laid to rest at five o’clock in the R.N.D. Cemetery, Orchard Gully.”

A large number of men are still required for the Military Home Hospitals Reserve. Officers in charge of Corps and Divisions should forward names of volunteers as soon as received to their Deputy Commissions. Vacancies are availabie for members who have been rejected, and also for men enlisted under Lord Derby’s Scheme. It should be noted that no members can be accepted for duty from Groups 2 to 9, unless the written consent of the Attesting Officer is produced, stating he will enlist the member concerned for General Service in the R.A .M .C.


Roll of Honour. MEMBERS OF THE SJ.A.B. WHO HAVE DIED IN THE EXECUTION OF THEIR DUTY. N P te . J . R ic h a r d s o n „ F . P a rk e r „ H . J o h n s o n ... „ T . W ass „ T . B e n fo ld L - C o r p . R . W h it e s id e P te . H . B la c k b u r n „ H . C . M a ste rs

„ „ „

M . D o y le H . A . B a ile y ... H . H eys

P te . G . W h it e „ T . M o rg a n S e rg t. S. B u s h P te . J . J . S k i n n e r ... „ F . N e w b u r y ... „ G . C le w e r „ F . C . H ill ... „ H . R . E v a n s ... „ R . Y o rk „ T . B ro s c o n ib e „ F . A . S h a w ... „ W . G. H ughes „ G . H in e „ J . C o w il „ J . M a w le

D istrict.

.. . C la r e V a le C o llie r y . . . ... ...A d lin g t o n ...C r e s w e ll • ...B r o a d s w o r t h ••• ... . ..W ig a n ... ...B la c k p o o l ...N e ls o n ... ... ...A lv e r s t o k e ...

...S t . J a m e s ’ G a te .. .T ib s h e lf .. .A c c r in g t o n ...

M Name.

a v a l .

Division.

Name.

6 . ..M e d . E x . F o r c e , R . N . D . 4 .. . „ „

5 *** 5 •••

» »

» »

4 ... 4 ...

,, ,,

„ ,,

4-•■

)>

?>

2 . . . In v a lid e d h o m e fro m H a s la r a n d s u b s e ­ q u e n t ly d ie d . ... 1 2 . . . H . M . S . “ F o r m id a b le .” ... 5 ...M e d . E x . F o r c e , R . N . D . ... 4 ... „ ,,

i l i t a r y .

D ivision.

.. .E x e t e r ...G n llw y n ...B r o m le y .. .N o . 6 ...O ln e y ...B r a d f o r d ...S t o n e h o u s e ... ...E r y r i... .. . D u b lin ... B r a d fo r d T r a m s . ... L a n g le y ...E r y r i... ...D a r w e n ... W e a rm o u th .. .H a s t in g s ...

D istrict.

W here serving.

... 9 . . . M il it a r y H o s p it a l, C o r k . ...1 1 ...3 r d W e ste rn G en. H o sp . ... 1 ...C o n n a u g h t H o s p it a l. ... 1 ...C a t e r h a m . ... 3 . ..4 3 r d F ie ld A m b u la n c e . ... 5 ...3 3 r d F ie ld A m b u la n c e . ... 2 .. . V . R e in f o r c s . ( M . E . F . ) .

... 7 . . . 1 2 . . .L im e r ic k . ... 5 ...O v e rs e a s . ... 3 . ..O v e rs e a s . ... 2 . ..1 4 t h C a s . C l. S ta tio n . ... 4 ... 1 it h C o . R . A . M . C ... 6 . . . i 2 i h „ . . . 8 . . . 7 th


128

— FIRST

a i d

-

January, 1 9 1 6

We feel sure that legislation compelling men to hold a

B revities.

first aid certificate who go down a mine would be the means of procuring assistance as soon as possible in cases

S i r A n t h o n y B o w l b y , Surgeon to the King, who attenJed

his Majesty after his recent accident in France, in deliver­ ing his annual Bradshaw lecture at the Royal College of Surgeons, on “ Wounds in War,” said that in the South

of accident,

but,

educated to the adopted

by

at the same time, miners should “ safety” movement

several

Railway

which

Companies, as

be

has

been

so

many

acci ents happen through sheer want of ordinary care.

African War wounds were not so severe, and there was less smashing than in the present campaign.

In South Africa

bullets had frequently travelled for more than half a mile,

In order to stop an incipient epidemic of malingering

and thus lost much of their velocity, whereas in the present

among the men, an R .A .M .C. surgeon, with the divine

war the bullet only travelled a few yards.

gift of humour, affixed the following notice to the “ Surgery lent

* *

*

:

“ Hints to those who for one reason or another

wish to ‘ go s ic k ’ (1) Don’t spring smartly to attention

The ordinary type of stretcher was too long to go

and walk briskly up to the Medical Officer when you have

round the traverses of the present-day trench, and men had

chosen

to be moved to the dressing-stations by trench stretchers

sprained wrists and ankles are always swollen.

on which the man sat with his back resting against the

on emerging from ‘ the presence,’ let your friends shout

back of one of the bearers.

In the early days of the war

before the long communication trenches were constructed,

an

injured

any luck ?

knee-cap.

(2)

Don’t

forget

that

(3) Don’t,

Those wishing for further advice, should

apply for my various illustrated pamphlets, price 6d. each.

wounded men had to be kept in the advanced trenches

The most popular are— (1) How to raise and lower your

until night afforded some protection.

temperature.

One man with whom

he had had to deal had lain on the strip of land between

pulse.

the opposing trenches for ten days before he could

very

be

rescued, and he lost both his feet as the result of gangrene. Another man was discovered in a German dug-out lying

(2) How to strengthen and weaken your

(3) How to get a bad tongue. bad tongue (price

(4) How to get a

How

to make joints

* * *

* * * I

The ordinary bullet wounds of the South African War was

quite small, as though it had been made

awl.

This kind of wound was quite rare in

thepresent

war,

for there was much more tearing of the

tissues.

witha brad­

Shrapnel shells inflicted such numerous and varied wounds on the head and shoulders that

it

was impossible to

Much damage was also

done by the various kinds of bombs and grenades, which exploded at close quarters, and the wounds were aggravated by the quantity of dirt thrown up by the explosion.

One

thing that had struck him was the extreme rapidity with which wounds became infected.

(5)

swell. (6) Paleness. (7) Useful illnesses ; their duration, symptoms and remedies.

between two dead Germans.

describe a typical shell wound.

is.).

He reckoned that about

30,000 bombs were exploded in the course of a day.

n

his dispatch, dated December n t h , 1915, issued by

the War Office on January 6th, 1916, Sir Ian Hamilton makes the following reference to the work of the Army Medical Services : — A feature of every report, narrative, or diary I have read has been a tribute to the stretcher bearers.

All ranks,

from generals in command to wounded men in hospital, are unanimous in their praise.

I have watched a party

from the moment when the telephone summoned them from their dug-out to the time when they returned with their wounded.

T o see them run light-heartedly across

fire-swept slopes is to be privileged to witness a superb example of the hero in man.

No braver corps exists, and

I belive the reason to be that all thought of self is in­ jr

Mr. W. H. Chambers, District Supt. of the No. District,

stinctively flung aside when the saviDg of others is the

* 5

motive. •* *

speaking recently on the occasion of the pre­

*

sentation of awards to the members of the Mexborough Division, said the St. John’s movement had plodded quietly along for many years, and now it had been able, at a given

This

reference to the stretcher bearers,

many of

whom are St. John Ambulance men, bear out the remarks

moment, to place at the service of the country large bodies

which were published in our last issue, and the correspond­

of splendidly efficient men.

ent who wrote to the Bolton E vening N ew s “ that the man

He should not be surprised if

legislation were not shortly introduced for the purpose of

who joins the St. John Ambulance is not doing his best

compelling every man who went down a mine to hold an

either for himself or his country ” will perhaps withdraw

ambulance certificate. hands.

He would vote for it with both

his disparaging remarks on a body of men who have done, and are still doing, such a noble work.


- F I R S T

January, 1 9 1 6

5tailwau Jlmbutance. C a m b r i a n . — Mr. Hodson, whose portrait we re­ produce on this page, has been associated with the ambulance movement since its inauguration on the Cambrian Railways twenty-one years ago. first as Class Secretary, then assistant to the late Mr. J. D. Andrew, and from 1909 he has acted as Secretary to the Centre of which the Right Hon. the Earl of Powis is President. In 1901 Mrs. Denniss and Mrs. Parry Jones gave a challenge shield to be competed for annually, and each year since then Mr. Hodson has been practically responsible for the organisation of these competitions. So successful has he been that the late Dr. Christian was loud in his praise of the organising abilities of Mr. Hodson whom he remarked “ was everything to everybody, which made these com­ petitions a pleasure to judge.” In connection with the Cambrian Railways Centre

M r . T . A . C. H o d s o n .

there are nine classes, and since its formation no less than 1,587 employes of the Company have obtained certificates, vouchers, medallions and labels, denoting proficiency in the noble art of life saving. Notwithstanding a sympathetic Board of Directors and Management, yet there remained the need of an organiser to link up the management and the men, and it would be difficult indeed to find the equal of Mr. Hodson for this position. T he men have implicit faith in him and he has proved himself a genius in overcoming obstacles and getting the best co-operation ’twixt officers and staff. The ambulance men have on several occasions shown that Mr. Hodson is held in high esteem by them, and at Aberystwyth recently presented him and his daughter with a token of their respect.

A 1 D.

129

Mr. Hodson was recently selected an Hon. Serving Brother of the Order of St. John in recognition of his services to the ambulance movement, and the whole of the ambulance men on the Cambrian Railways are delighted at the honour conferred upon him. L.B. & S .C .R .— The Company has constructed to the order of the War Office a Red Cross Train for use in France. It is composed of 16 coaches and is 931 ft. over buffer. There are two kitchen cars, one pharmacy car (with operating theatre), one staff car for the accommoda­ tion of four nurses and three doctors, elaborately fitted, having separate dining-rooms and shower bath for ladies and gentlemen respectively ; one personnel car for the accommodation of 28 R .A .M .C . men ; five coaches for setting cases, capable of carrying 320 men ; four ward cars, each with accommodation for 36 cot cases, or 144 in the four; one isolation brake ward car, capable of carrying two distinct bunches of fever or other infectious cases ; one store and brake car. T he train has been on exhibition at several stations on the Company’s system ; close on 20,000 paid to pass through, and nearly ^ 1 , 7 0 0 was taken to aug­ ment the funds for providing comforts for the Royal Engi­ neers Corps raised by the railway executive and now serv­ ing in France. The total that the train can carry is 162 cot cases, 320 sitters, 6 cooks, 28 orderlies, 4 nurses and 3 doctors. S.E. & C .R .— A well attended and successful smoking concert was held at Canterbury on January 8th, the event being made the occasion for presenting awards to two members of No. 9 District. Mr. E. A. Richards, the chairman of the centre, presided, and was supported by various officers of the Company and other influential gentlemen. The awards presented were to Dr. G. Copping, of Folkestone, for his efficient first aid treatment of a child who had been run over by a motor omnibus, and Mr. G. Vidler, the energetic secretary of the Wye class. In making the presentations, Mr. Richards enlarged upon the value of a knowledge of first aid, and sought the support of those present in securing new members. Surely such times as these should enable every thinking man to realise the value of this knowledge. He was bound to say that, considering there were over 4,000 members of the staff qualified in this respect, the number of recruits secured annually was not as great as it should be, and he asked for the support of those present in this direction. No first aider had the right to keep the knowledge he had gained in this respect to himself. It was his duty to dis­ seminate that knowledge as far as possible and do all that he could to support the Order of which he was a member} Many members of the centre were on Active Service, and it was up to those who were left behind to see that the gaps were filled up, and filled up promptly, so that the centre might continue in its usefulness. A tribute was also paid to the labo irs of the district secretary, Mr. A. Batt, who, it was said, embodied all that a district secretary should be, and who was ready to do all that he could to further the work of the district. A pleasing musical programme was provided by Messrs. [Noakes, Clifford, Burchett, Bitt, Highley and others. N . E . R y . — Mr. George Jackson, whose name w ill be familiar as general secretary of the N .E .R. Centre of the St. John Ambulance Association, has been offered and accepted a commission as Quartermaster and Hon. Lieu­


—FIRST

130

tenant of the R.A .M .C., and has been posted to the 104th Field Ambulance, now training at Warminster, Wilts. Lieut. Jackson is one of the best-known figures in the N.E .R. service, for during the term of his secretaryship of the N.E.R. Centre he has visited regularly almost every corner of the system, earning, indeed, the title of the “ Travelling Secretary.” The total mileage covered by him during his term of office (19 years) aggregates to over 168,000 miles— truly a wonderful record. Mr. Jackson was

2>V courtesy)

L ieu t.

[North-Eastern R ailw ay Magazine.

G. J a c k s o n ,

R.A.M.C.

appointed general secretary in July, 1896, at the first general meeting of the Centre after its formation. Since then',the ambulance work on the system has developed enormously, and with the assistance of the district secre­ taries over 45 classes each year have been run. Most of this work, it may be said, has been done after office hours and on Saturdays. A large part of Mr. Jackson’s time has been occupied in organising the district and final competi­

AI D. —

January, 1916.

tions, which were held each year from 1897 until last year, when they were suspended during the duration of the war ; and perhaps his proudest moment was when the Hull Goods Team, in 1901, won for the N.E.R. Centre the National Ambulance Shield in competition with teams re­ presenting the railways of Great Britain. Mr. Jackson entered the service of the Company in 1883, at Malton, from which place he was transferred to York in 1891. Since 1893 he has been en­ gaged as storekeeper in the Engineers’ Department at York. His only son is with the Colours as bombardier in the R.F.A. During Mr. Jackson’s absence on military duties the secretaryship of the Centre will be carried on by Mr. W. Hollings, inspector, Yardmaster’s Office, Gateshead. Mr. Hollings, who is one of the pioneers of the North Eastern Railway Centre, was Mr w h H o llin g s, elected chairman at the first N e w c a stle meeting of the Newcastle District Council on September 15th, 1895, and attended the first meeting of the General Council of the Centre held in York on 29th September, 1895. He was chairman of the Newcastle District Council in 1896, and, owing to the illness of the district secretary (Mr. J. T, Bates), arranged for the first District Competition. In 1897 he was elected district secretary for New­ castle, and still holds that position.

G.W .R .— We understand the Great Western Railway have had another good year of ambulance work, apart from the fact that classes have been conducted under consider­ able difficulties owing to the exigencies of the railway busi­ ness arising out of the war, and the fact that such a large number of members of the staff are serving with the Forces. T he actual figures in respect of examination awards are not yet available, but we hope to give them in our next issue. It will be remembered that the results achieved in 1914 were far in excess of any previous year, and in fact are understood to constitute a record for any railway centre. It is anticipated that whilst the figures for 1915 will neces­ sarily be lower than those for 1914, they will be in excess of those for any other year, and, in all the exceptional circum­ stances which prevail, such a result can only be regarded as gratifying. The interest taken in the ambulance movement by Mr. Frank Potter, general manager, is well known throughout the system, and was evidenced recently by his visit to Didcot to distribute the examination awards gained by members of that class. In the course of an inspiring address, Mr. Potter referred to the growth of the move­ ment in recent years and the value of an ambulance train­ ing in these times. The gathering took the form of a con­ cert, which was contributed to by members of the Army Ordnance Corps stationed at Didcot. The programme in­ cluded demonstrations in bandaging by Red Cross nurses and in first aid by members of the class. Mr. T. Robins Bolitho, a director of the Company, has offered a challenge shield for competition between teams composed of members of the staff drawn from stations west of Truro. This should prove a further incentive


January, 1916,

— FIRST

A I D , —

to the railwaymen of the “ West Countree ” to acquire and maintain efficiency in ambulance work, and will, doubtless, infuse a healthy spirit of rivalry between the various classes B y E. L. B. F O R S T E R . on that part of the line. First aid classes for members of the fair sex employed M em ber of th e S o ciety of C h e m ic a l I n d u st r y . by the Company were organised during last year, with remarkable success, at Paddington and Birmingham, and it T h e g r o u n d w o r k o f d i s p e n s i n g is t h e w e i g h t s a n d m e a ­ is understood that in addition to these, which will in all sures. If it falls to t h e lo t o f a n a m b u l a n c e w o r k e r t o g e t probability be reformed during the present session, similar t h e d i s p e n s a r y r e a d y it is i m p o r t a n t to u n d e r s t a n d t h e classes are in course of formation at Bristol and Birken­ s y s t e m in use. head. That the lady clerks and telegraphists take a keen interest in the movement is proved by the fact that many There are two sets of weights. All prescriptions are who took the first aid courses have recently formed them­ dispensed b y the Apothecaries weight, which has a scruple selves into a class of instruction for home nursing, in con­ dram, and an ounce containing 480 grains, but all the nection with which they were fortunate enough to secure official preparations of the British Pharmacopoeia are made the services of Dr. Carvell as lecturer. It is testimony both b y the Avoirdupois weight with its 437-5 grain to the ounce. to the doctor’s ability as a lecturer and the interest taken It is this latter that drugs are sold by. in the work by the students that in the examination no The metric system is not in use for dispensing in fewer than 41 of the 43 candidates were successful. England but is on the Continent. We regret to hear After the weights that Mr. F. Stadward, the most important the popular secretary point in a dispensary of the Bristol Division, is perfect cleanliness. who has been associated Accidents have oc­ with ambulance work curred through neglect at that station for many of this. If a measure is years, has had to te'innot absolutely clean the quish office owing to next drug may set up ill-health. The position chemical action with is being filled by Mr. even a trace of the J. A. Reynolds, of the previous. Iron salts in District Goods Man­ solution shows this very ager’s office. clearly if even a faint Owing to the re­ trace of tannic acid moval of Mr. W. T. Carr comes in contact with from Chester to Exeter, them. a vacancy occurs in the T he danger is that secretaryship of the a reaction may occur, Chester Division which, and if colourless, pass we are informed, will be unnoticed. filled by Mr. R. H. It is a good plan to Pryce, of the Divisional keep separate measures Superintendent’s office. for making up outward During the period in­ preparations. W e l s h p o o l T e a m , W i n n e r s o f t h e C a m b r i a n R a i l w a y S h i e l d . tervening between Mr. It is also safe to Carr’s removal and the S t a n d in g — H . M ills , A . J o n e s , E . H o w e lls , M r. P r y c e (S t a t io n m a s t e r). keep a small measure appointment of his S i t t in g — D r . R . D . T h o m a s , T . J o n e s (c a p t a in ), M r. H o d s o n (C e n t r e S e c.). just for the very successor, the work is F r o n t ro w — E . S to k e s , S. C ro x to n . poisonous drugs. being carried on by Mr. N othing must ever S. J. Richards, of the Chief Inspector’s office, Chester. be placed direct on to the scale pan in weighing, unless Other changes have been necessitated by divisional there is a movable glass pan. secretaries joining the Colours, and the following are filling A tared glass must be uied. the positions temporarily vacated :— Very often it is permissible to weigh on paper, if a London (No. 1) Division— Mr. A. J. Stroud, Engineer’s very large quantity is to be made. Then the papers’ must office, Paddington. be tared against a similar piece in the opposite pan (they Exeter (No. 5) Division— Mr. J. Parr, Telegraph can be cut out together). Of course this only applies to office, Taunton. rather rough work, making up such a thing as a stock Gloucester (No. 10) Division —Mr. R. P. Sims, Sheet bottle of boracic acid. department, Gloucester. Always test the scales before use. If they are “ out ” Birmingham (No. 12) Division— Mr. F. S. Bolton, they can be rectified by the addition of an extra weight on Divisional Superintendent’s office, Birmingham. the light side. A small piece of paper is usually sufficient.

H ints on D ispensing.

Some enterprising tradesmen in Battersea have com­ bined to provide a set of apparatus for first-aid require­ ments for use in accidents and emergencies occasioned by the darkened streets. On a wall opposite a shop in Wandsworth-road, Battersea, is fixed a small case containing splints, bandages and dressings.

On no account must an amateur attempt to interfere with the “ machinery” of the scales unless the error is due to a twisted chain— this is not uncommon. If the dispensary is a temporary one, the drugs must all the same be placed in a systematic order. All poisonous drugs must be kept together in a separate place, to correspond to the poison cupboard of an ordinary dispensary.


I32

— F I R S T

If a label comes off a bottle, and there is the slightest doubt as to its contents, it must not on any account be used, there must be no guess work in a dispensary. It is an essential point that every dispensary has a good supply of bottles, both for internal and external use ; also labels. If there are no “ Poison ” libels, if there is any red ink they can always be made, a red band should be placed around the label, and “ Poison ” printed in the centre. Labels keep on much better if the corners are rounded off. If helping in a dispensary, and unskilled in chemistry, it is best to avoid the use of an iron knife no matter how hard up we may be for a spatula. If there is no bone one forthcoming a wooden spoon makes an excellent substitute. If an iron knife were used with certain chemicals, chemical action would be set up. In dissolving or mixing solutions a glass rod must always be used, if one is not forthcoming resort must be had to shaking. In shaking a bottle care must be taken to hold the cork or stopper wtll down, to prevent it jumping out. Some stoppers have a trick of refusing to come out. The best way to treat them is by gentle but decisive tapping on the side of the neck of the bottle. If this is of no avail, boiling water dropped on to the neck in turn with the tapping will, in nearly every case, loosen the stopper. If a wash bottle is handy it is most convenient to use for boil­ ing water. In giving odd help in a dispensary great care must be taken to alter nothing, bottles must be taken down singly, and replaced before another is taken. Great care must also be used in pouring out not to soil the label. Nothing should ever be poured out the label side, yet how strange it is that the majority of people always do so, just because it is that side that is towards them. If working in a dis­ pensary it is well to practice pouring out small quantities, and “ dropping ” over the cork, stopper or a glass rod. In pouring out oils they must be directed into the centre of the measure. The same rule applies to any thick preparation. A measure must be used only just the size required ; not too large In preparing stock solutions, all chemicals must be reduced to powder, if they are kept in the crystalline state. T he amount required must be weighed, and after pow­ dering weighed again, as doubtless some loss will have occurred. It is very bad dispensing to have resort to hot water for dissolving, cold should be used, or in making saturated solutions on cooling some of the salt is apt to crystallise out. In some dispensaries a number of the salts in general use are kept ready in solution, so that when a definite quantity is added the dispenser adds the necessary amount of solution containing the equivalent of the salt. In storing, ether must never be kept near a fire or light. It should be placed on a bottom shelf. Ammonia is also best kept low down, or there is difficulty in keeping in the stopper. Should there be any phosphorus, that must be kept away from the fire or light. As far as possible all drugs must be kept in jars or bottles with a wide mouth. Several things may come from the wholesale houses in paper, but they must be turned out at once. It will save a good deal of trouble to be careful that the stopper is quite clean, that there is no chemical on i t ; also that the inside of the neck is perfectly clean. It must be wiped with a fresh cloth. If these simple precautions are not taken, the dis­ penser is to blame if the stopper sticks. Certain chemicals

AID. —

January, 191 6.

and acids are very trying in this respect, but fortunately they are not much used in a dispensary. It is attention to these little details that makes all the difference between good and bad dispensing. A carelessly-managed dispen­ sary is the way to seek for accidents. When a stock bottle is empty it must be filled as soon as possible, and in the meantime not returned to its place. On filling up a stock bottle, now is the time to make sure that there is plenty of that special drug in the reserve stock. The quantity of each drug kept in stock must, of course, vary with each dispensary and each drug. While some will require to be kept in large quantities, a very small quantity of another will suffice. The same will apply to making up stocks. In some cases— for example, carbolic— it is well to have two or three bottles of varying strengths. The strengths must be stated very clearly on each bottle. All labels must be so written that any doctor or dispenser can at once tell the contents of the bottles. On no account must any private form of marking be employed. All preparations for external use must be placed in special bottles. They are either blue or green, and ribbed, They must have the “ external labels on,” and if they con­ tain a poison must have a poison one as well. Ointments, if poisonous, must be labelled as such. If it is a case of great emergency, and there is no proper bottle forthcoming, on no account put a lotion into a bottle graduated for doses. Rather put it into an old beer bottle, or anything, instead of letting such a risk be taken. It is not always necessary to use distilled water in a dispensary. For certain preparations it is essential, such as hyperdermic injections, when the measure must be washed out with it previous to using. Or again, if nitrate of silver is used, were tap water added to the silver salt a dense, heavy white precipitate would be thrown down, a drop or so of tap water would be sufficient to cause a milky appearance.

Am bulance

Tables.*

B y C H A S . J . R . M c L E A N , M .D ., M .C ., D . P . H . , L e c t u r e r , E x a m in e r a n d H o n o r a r y L if e M e m b e r o f St. J o h n A m b u la n c e A s s o c ia t io n . (1) 1. B a ll a n d e lb o w , k n e e . (2)

K

in ds

of

Jo in ts.

so c k e t, e.g., h ip , s h o u ld e r.

R e spir a tio n C onsists

2.

H in g e , e.g.,

of—

(a ) In s p ir a t io n : i.e., th e d r a w in g o f p u re a ir in to the lu n g s to p r o v id e o x y g e n fo r the b lo o d . (1b) E x p ir a t io n : i.e ., the fo r c in g o f im p u re a ir o ut o f th e lu n g s (c h ie f ly c a r b o n ic a c id ). R e s p ir a t io n s o c c u r 15 to 18 tim e s e a c h m in u te . (3)

C ircu la tio n

of the

H e a r t ( F o u r C a v i t i e s ).

B e g in n in g at th e le ft a u r ic le th e b lo o d g o e s in to th e le ft v e n t ric le , fro m th e re in to th e a o rta , th e n th ro u g h th e a rt e rie s , c a p illa r ie s a n d v e in s o f th e b o d y , w h e re the b lo o d g iv e s u p o x y g e n a n d n o u ris h m e n t , a n d ta k e s u p im p u ritie s , th e n b a c k to th e r ig h t a u r ic le , fro m th e re to th e r ig h t v e n t r ic le , w h ic h fo rc e s th e b lo o d th ro u g h the p u lm o n a ry a rt e r y to th e lu n g s , fro m w h ic h it g o e s b y th e p u lm o n a r y v e in s to th e left a u r ic le . V a lv e s in th e o rific e s o f th e h e a rt p re v e n t re flu x o f the b lo o d . * T n ese A m bulance T ab le s are circulated amongst the members o f the D ew sbury C entre, S .J .A .A ., being printed in leaflet form. P e r­ m ission to reprint the T ab le s can be obtained.


— F I R S T

January, 1 9 1 6

(4) U s e s o f t h e B l o o d . C a r r ie s o x y g e n to th e tis su e s . „ n o u ris h m e n t to the tissu e s. „ h e a t, m o is tu re to th e tis su e s . „ / c a r b o n ic a c id ) fro m the tis s u e s to the e x„ /r e f u s e m a tte r J c r e t in g o rg a n s , e.g., lu n g s , k id n e y s , s k in .

1.

(5 ) D i f f e r e n A rtery. 1. C a r r ie s b lo o d from he a rt. 2. Pure b lo o d . 3. W a lls s tro n g , e la s tic .

ce

V ein . C a r r ie s b lo o d to h e a rt. Im p u r e b lo o d . W a lls n o t so s tro n g , e la stic . V a lv e s .

4. N o v a lv e s . (6) K i n d s A

r t er ia l

.

C rim s o n . S p u rt s .

V

B etw een

of

en o us

.

C

a n d s u r r o u n d in g s , if a n y s m e ll o f liq u o r , b o tt le s o r k n iv e s , e tc ., a b o u t. 3. L a y fla t i f n o t so a lr e a d y . A r r e s t b le e d in g if, a n y . 4. L o o s e n t ig h t c o lla rs , b e lts , e tc. 5. L e t fre s h a ir g e t to p a t ie n t — n o c r o w d in g . 6. I f p a le f a c e , lo w e r h e a d ; if flu s h e d , r a is e h e a d . 7. I f a fit, p re v e n t p a tie n t fro m h u r t in g h im s e lf. 8. I f n o t b r e a t h in g , c o m m e n c e a r t if ic ia l re s p ir a t io n . 9. D o n o t t ry to g iv e a n y t h in g b y the m o u th . 10. D o n o t le a v e p a tie n t u n t il p la c e d w ith r e s p o n s ib le p e rso n . (1 4 ) O p iu m

.

2.

In t e rm e d ia t e . O o ze s.

(7) T r e a t m e n t o f R u p t u r e d V a r i c o s e V e i n . 1. R a is e a n d e x p o s e th e p a rt. D ig it a l p re s s u re o n w o u n d , then

3.

2. P a d a n d p re s s u re w ith b a n d a g e : (a) O n th e w o u n d . (6) O n v e in , o n sid e , re m o te fro m h e a rt, a n d , if n e c e s s a ry , o n s id e n e a re st h e a rt, a lso 3. R e m o v e p re s s u re o n h e a rt s id e : e.g., g a rte rs , if leg. (8) G e n e r a l T

reatment

W

of

(9) K i n d s o f F r a c t u r e . 1. S im p le : i.e., b o n e b ro k e n o n ly , n o s k in w o u n d . 2. C o m p o u n d : i.e., w h e re th e re is w o u n d in s k in c o m ­ m u n ic a tin g w ith b r o k e n b o ne. 3. C o m m in u t e d b o n e b ro k e n in to s e v e ra l p ie c e s . 4. C o m p lic a t e d : i.e., b o n e b ro k e n a n d in ju r y to n e ig h ­ b o u rin g p a rt : e.g., lu n g , jo in t , a rte ry , etc. 5. Im p a c t e d : e n d s o f b ro k e n b o n e d r iv e n in to o n e a n o th e r. (10) D i f f e r e n c e B e t w e e n — F racture. D isl o c a t io n . (a) I n th e b o n e . I n the jo in t. (A) T o o m u c h m o tio n at sp o t. T o o lit tle m o tio n at spo t. ( c) C r e p it u s : i.e ., g r a tin g . N o c re p itu s . (ti) I f re d u c e d it re tu rn s . I f re d u c e d it re m a in s . (e) P a in . ( / ) D e fo rm it y . S w e llin g . (g) L o s s o f p o w er. N .B . I n im p a c te d fra c t u re c r e p it u s a n d u n n a tu ra l m o b ility a re a b se n t. T

r e a t m e n t

of

B

ro ken

C

ollar

B

o n e

1. L a r g e p a d in a rm pit. B e n d fo re a rm w e ll up. 2. S u p p o r t a rm in S t. J o h n s lin g . 3. B r o a d b a n d a g e : (a) T o k e e p e lb o w b a c k . le v e r s h o u ld e r o ut.

.

1. 2.

G e n er a l R ules

in

L oss

of

4.

O p iu m s m e ll.

5.

C o n scio u sness.

S e n d fo r a d o c to r, s ta tin g w h a t h a s h a p p e n e d . F in d o ut h o w it h a p p e n e d . N o t e .— P o s it io n o f b o d y

B e tw e e n — C o n c u s s io n

.

A po plex y.

P a le , e x c e p t F lu s h e d . at first. P u p ils c o n - P u p ils d ila t e d , tracted, e q u a l, c o n equal to t r a c t to p in p o in t. lig h t. P u ls e s lo w , P u ls e q u ic k . e x c e p t at M o u t h not first. d ra w n .

F lu s h e d . P u p i l s une q u a l, d o n o t re a c t to lig h t. P u ls e s lo w , fu ll, m ay b e q u ic k , fe e b le at first. M o u t h d ra w n o n e sid e .

o f

B r a in .

P a le . S k in c o ld . P u p i l s con­ tra d e d e q u a l, P u ls e fu ll,

q u ic k ,

L iq u o r s m e ll. B o th s id e s u s e le s s , s e n s it iv e to p a in .

O n e s id e u se le s s , in s e n s it iv e to p a in .

M a y b e b le e d in g fro m e a r o r n o se fro m fra c ­ tu re d s k u ll.

6. B r e a t h in g s lo w in a ll m a y be s n o rin g . 7. N o t e .— D r u n k e n n e s s m a y c o - e x is t w ith e it h e r of th e o th e rs . (15)

(2 c la s s e s ).

P o is o n s

1. T h o s e w h ic h s ta in o r b u r n m o u th , e.g ., s tro n g a c id s o r a lk a lie s , s u lp h u r ic a c id , n it r ic a c id , c a r b o lic a c id , c a u s t ic s o d a o r p o ta sh . E m e t ic s m u s t N O T be g iv e n . 2. T h o s e w h ic h d o n o t s ta in o r b u r n th e m o u th , e.g., o p iu m (la u d a n u m , c h lo r o d y n e ), a lc o h o l, a rs e n ic , s t r y c h n in e , p h o s p h o ru s , b a d m e at o r fish , fu n g i. G iv e e m e tic in a ll c a se s.

(16)

T ra n s p o rt

1.

O n e H e lp e r . A r m ro u n d w a ist.

2. 3.

C a r r y in a rm s . C a rry on back.

1.

O n e H e lp e r . A r m b e tw e e n le g s , p a tie n t o n s h o u ld e r.

in

A c c id e n t.

(S e n s ib le ).

S lig h t

T w o H e lp e r s . 1. A r m u n d e r h ip . A r m r o u n d n e c k . T w o - h a n d e d sea t. 2. T h r e e - h a n d e d sea t. 3. F o u r - h a n d e d seat. 4. S to u t c h a ir.

S e v e re

( In s e n s ib le ) . T w o H e lp e r s . 1. O n e g r a s p s w a is t fro m b eh in d . T h e o th e r o n e le g u n d e r e a c h a rm in fro n t

2. S t r a p u n d e r k n e e s b a c k to back. Im p r o v is e s tr e tc h e r w ith c o a ts , s a c k s o r c a rp e t a n d p o le s , h u r d le s , s h u tt e r o r la d d e r.

(6) T o

(1 2 ) C a u s e s o f L o s s o f C o n s c i o u s n e s s . 1. I n j u r y in a n y p a rt o f b o d y : e.g., f ra c t u re d le g c a u s in g sho ck. 2. I n j u r y to b r a in ; e.g., c o n c u s s io n (s t u n n in g ) fro m fa ll. C o m p re s s io n . 3. D is e a s e o f b r a in : e.g., a p o p le x y (s tro k e ). E p ile p s y . 4. P o is o n : e.g., o p iu m , a lc o h o l. 5. F a in t in g : e.g., f rig h t, lo s s o f b lo o d . 6. E le c t r ic s h o c k . 7. S u n s tro k e . (13)

n e s s

ounds.

1. L a y p a tie n t flat. T h i s (a) s lo w s c ir c u la t io n a n d th e re ­ fo re le s se n b le e d in g , ( i ) P r e v e n ts fa in t in g . 2. W a s h a n d c le a n s e w o u n d w ith w ater. R e m o v e a n y fo re ig n b o d y . 3. B r in g e d g e s to g e th e r a fte r s to p p in g b le e d in g . 4. A p p ly c le a n d r e s s in g a n d p a d a n d b a n d a g e firm ly . 5. I n s e v e re b le e d in g fro m lim b : (a) I f a rte ry , a p p ly p re ss u re o n h e a rt sid e . (6) I f v e in , a p p ly p re s s u re o n s id e re m o te fro m h e a rt. 6. S u p p o rt th e in ju re d p a rt.

(11)

D iffe r e n c e

D r u n k e n -

P o is o n in g .

1. apilla r y

*33

not

B l e e d in g .

P u rp le . F lo w s .

A ID . —

(17) T o 1.

2. 3.

C a r r y

a

S tr e tc h e r .

C a r r y w ith h a n d s , n e v e r o n s h o u ld e r. D o n o t k e e p step. A v o id jo lt in g , h u r r y in g , c r o s s in g fe n c e s , fin d g a te o r

gap. 4. G e t b e a re r s th e s a m e h e ig h t , o r t a lle s t a t h e a d . 5. I n a s c e n d in g g o h e a d firs t ; d e s c e n d in g , g o feet fiis t . E x c e p t io n , b ro k e n le g .

(18) 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

P r e p a r a tio n

fo r

A c c id e n t.

S e le c t lig h t, c h e e r f u l b e d ro o m . C h o o s e s in g le b e d , if a v a ila b le . M a k e b e d a n d p la c e h o t w a te r b o ttle s in it. R e m o v e u n n e c e s s a ry f u r n is h in g s . C le a r th e w a y to ro o m . H a v e h o t w a te r, b a s in s a n d to w e ls re a d y .


— F I R S T

134

AID.

January, 1916.

BRITISH RED CROSS SOCIETY.

N otes

and

N ew s.

Mr. Ian Maldolm, M.P., returned recently from a visit to Russia in connection with the Red Cross work in that Country, having made an entensive tour of inspection from Finland to the Black Sea. He was greatly impressed with the magnitude of the scale upon which this beneficial work is carried on in the dominions of the Czar. It may not be generally known perhaps that each year the Red Cross department is fully mobilised in order that at a moment’s notice it may be ready, when called upon, to take its place in the field of active service. * * * The Red Cross of Gloucestershire has just published its report for the year 1915. It is a volume of 136 pages, which sets out the work which has been accomplished by the Voluntary Aid Hospitals in the County, it is also pro­ fusely decorated. Since the war started the various V.A. hospitals in the County have dealt with 5,717 patients. The Cheltenham Hospital is unique, it being the largest Voluntary Aid institution in the country, having over 1,000 beds, with its own offices and stores, and takes all cases just as they come from the port of disembarkation.

The total number of V . A . D .’s is now 2,599, and the

persotinel numbers 71,719, of whom 36,373 are women; 132,594 certificates have been granted, of which 63,942 were for first aid and 49,274 for nursing; 54,392 pro­ ficiency, technical and fire brigade badges have been issued. The number of Red Cross Manuals sold to date is

435. 5°°-

*

Evidence of German secret service activity throughout Canada, seeking to injure the Canadian Red Cross Society, is thought to be the explanation of a recent series of rumours and stories, whose evident object was to inter­ fere with the popularity of the Society in the public mind and to prevent, as far as possible, further contributions to its work. T he stories generally took the form of a state­ ment that the Red Cross was selling socks that had been knitted by persons who desired to contribute these to the soldiers, two of the commonest tales being that of a lumber­ man in Winnipeg who found a card from the donor in the foot of one of a pair of socks he bought, and the second that of an old lady of 80 living in the Niagara district, who knitted t o o pairs of socks, and in the last pair enclosed a card of good wishes, which a soldier, who, according to the story, bought the socks at the front, acknowledged. Mr. Noel Marshal, the chairman of the Canadian Red Cross, personally offered a reward of 100 dollars for the con­ viction of any person repeating this libel upon the Society.

A correspondent writing to the D a ily Telegraph last month said :— “ Why should not women take the place of the Red Cross men who are now enlisting as soldiers ? For my own part, during the last six months, I have written again and again to different societies and hospitals offering my services as an ambulance driver. Some of my letters were ignored, all answers were that women could not be accepted in that capacity, but even now I venture to think that I — with my six years’ experience of practical motoring first aid certificates, and fluent French— would be quite as, efficient as some of the men who are now driving.” Since the Red Cross Society has now lost a good number of its ambulance drivers this proposal should be considered. + * * The Leicester V.A.D. have arranged an original form of obtaining funds. By permission of the management of the various theatres in the town collection boxes have been passed round the audiences during the intervals between the acts by members in uniform, with the result that nearly £ 3 5 has been raised up to the present.

* * * A tribute to the work of the Red Cross was paid by Lord Derby at Bolton when he inspected part of a convoy of ambulance cars, costing ^36,000 in all, which the coalowners and miners of Lancashire and Cheshire are jointly providing. Lord Derby said that in no war and in no country had the wounded been looked after better than our wounded had been by the Royal Army Medical Corps, aided by the Red Cross and the St. John Ambulance Asso­ ciation. Their work had been simply magnificent, and he was indeed proud to think that it was his own brother (the Hon. Arthur Stanley) who was at the head of that work

The Corporation Parks Committee have granted the application of the Staffordshire Branch of the British Red Cross Society for permission to use Lightwoods House, Lightwoods Park, as a hospital for wounded soldiers. Lightwoods House will be handed over to the Society forthwith, and it is expected it will be ready for the recep­ tion of 40 patients within a month.

On behalf of the Red Cross Society and the Order of St. John, an “ Active Service Exhibition” will be held at Prince’s Skating Club at Knightsbridge Hall from March 18th to April 8th next. One of the features of the under­ taking will be realistic representations of the actual con­ ditions under which our soldiers and sailors fight and live. These will be designed and arranged by experts returned from the various theatres of war.


— F I R S T

January, 1916.

A ID . —

India. We now have before us the third interim report of the Red Cross work of the Indian branch of the St. John Ambu­ lance Association, which took up the role of a Red Cross Society in India at the beginning of the war, and its remarkable achievements have called forth the warmest praise from the highest authorities. The Association can boast that it has collected the splendid sum of over three-and-a-half lakhs, and that it has despatched Red Cross gifts and material to the value of no less than ten lakhs to the various theatres of the war. In addition to organising a scheme for supplying Red Cross gifts, the Indian Association has raised 14 motor ambu­ lances which are serving either at the front or with the war hospitals in India. It has sent a small fleet of motor ambulance boats up the Persian Gulf. It has provided personnel for ambulance duties. It has assisted to equip military war hospitals in India with all sorts of ^comforts and with special apparatus for the treatment of the wounded.

135

Setters to the Sditor. We

a re

in

no m ay

sta tem en ts

L O A D IN G

re sp o n sib le f o r

m a d e, by

th e o p in io n s

C o r r e s p o n d e n ts .— E

M OTOR

e x p re ssed ,

d it o r

AM BU LAN CES

or the

, E tc.

FRO M

T R A IN S . D e a r S i r , — I h a v e re a d , w ith p le a s u r e a n d in te re s t, th e a r t ic le o n p a g e 115 o f th e D e c e m b e r is s u e , re th e lo a d in g o f m o to r a m b u la n c e s fro m t ra in s . N o d o u b t so m e o f y o u r re a d e r s w ill be in t e re s te d to re a d o f a n o t h e r in s t a n c e w h e re c o m m o n s e n s e h a s b e e n a p p lie d a n d h a r d a n d fa s t T e x t B o o k t e a c h in g p u t a sid e . A t th e c o m m e n c e m e n t o f th e w a r th e s e r v ic e s o f the la ilw a y a m b u la n c e m e n w e re r e q u is it io n e d fo r th e u n lo a d in g o f R e d C ro s s at B r ig h t o n a n d e ls e w h e re . A t th e o u tse t I r e a lis e d the a b s u r d it y o f th e d r il l a s la id d o w n fo r lo a d in g w a g o n s , a n d a s a firs t m o v e I a b o lis h e d th e fo u r m e n fo r s t r e t c h e r a n d in p la c e a d o p te d tw o , a n d la id d o w n th a t s lin g s w e re n o t to b e

A W o u n d e d S o ld ie r a t “ G r e e n b a n k ” M ilit a r y H o s p it a l, B o lto n . M j s s , S c b s l e s (C o m m a n d a n t ), M r s . G r a y (M a t r o n ), D r . J o h n s t o n ( M e d ic a l ^ O ffic e r).

It has helped the sister Red Cross Societies of all the Allies by gifts of money and material. It has endowed nearly a ward and a half in the war hospitals now, I be­ lieve, at the front which the Order of St. John of Jerusalem has recently founded in accordance with its ancient tradi­ tion of establishing hospitals for armies in the field. It has sent religious books for Sikhs and Mahomedans to the military hospitals in Europe, and comforts for the Indian Soldiers’ Fund. And last, but by no means least, the Association is providing a war hospital in India for the reception of severely wounded officers and men requiring electrical treatment. These achievements are, indeed, remarkable, especially if we bear in mind the fact pointed out by the Treasurer that about five years ago the total assets of the Association in India amounted to only a few hundred rupees.

W hen corresponding w ith Advertisers please m ention “ First Aid.”

u se d . W h e n t h is w a s firs t trie d , J a n u a r y 9th , 1914, 1 d id n o t lik e it, a n d se t to w o r k a n d p la n n e d the f o llo w in g m e th o d , w h ic h h a s b e e n u s e d fo r th e r e m o v a l o f h u n d re d s o f o u r T o m m ie s w ith o u t a h it c h o f a n y k in d . P r io r to th e a r r iv a l o f a t ra in fo u r o f th e t a lle s t a n d s tro n g e s t m e n a re to ld o ff a s lo a d e r s a n d n u m b e r e d 1, 2, 3 a n d 4, th e la tte r, to e n s u re u n is o n o f m o v e m e n t, g iv e s a ll o rd e rs . T h e y ta k e u p t h e ir p o s it io n s a t th e r e a r o f a n d a b o u t o n e p a c e fro m th e v e h ic le to b e lo a d e d , 1 a n d 2 n e a re s t th e v e h ic le a n d 3 a n d 4 fa rth e st a w a y ; 1 a n d 2 f a c in g 3 a n d 4, le a v in g ro o m fo r a s tr e tc h e r to co m e b e tw e e n th e m . T w o m e n a re to ld o ff fo r th e e x it fro m th e w a r d c a r, if m o re t h a n o n e e x it u s e d tw o m e n fo r e a c h . A l l th e o th e r a v a ila b le m e n a re p a ire d o ff a s s t r e t c h e r b e a r e rs , a n d w ill be s t a n d in g to t h e ir s t r e t c h e r a s th e t r a in r u n s in , re a d y to e n te r th e c a r s a s a llo w e d b y th e O f fic e r - in - C h a r g e o f th e t ra in . T h e s t re t c h e r in v a r ia b ly c o m e s o u t o f th e t ra in feet first. T h e s tre tc h e r b e a r e rs a re in s t ru c t e d to t u r n a w a y fr o m th e w a itin g m o to r o r o th e r v e h ic le s ; it is th e d u t y o f th e m e n s t a t io n e d a t t h e e x it t o s t e a d y t h e s t r e t c h e r d o w n t h e g a n g w a y , a n d w h e n it is p a r a lle l w ith th e t ra in fo r o n e to ta k e h o ld o f th e p o le s o f the s t re t c h e r b e h in d N o . 1 (a t th e fee t) a n d th e o th e r in fro n t


— F I R S T o f N o . 3, (a t th e h e a d ), a llo w in g b o th b e a re rs to tu rn ro u n d (n o w h e e lin g ), T h e h e a d is th e n to w a rd s th e w a itin g v e h ic le . I n s t e p p in g o ff N o . 3 w ill g o o ff w ith th e r ig h t foo t to e n s u re a b r o k e n s te p ; t h e y c a r r y t h e ir b u rd e n b e tw e e n th e fo u r m en te rm e d “ lo a d e r s ” w h o g r a s p th e p o le s. A t a s ig n a l g iv e n b y the m a n in c h a r g e the b e a re rs r e lin q u is h t h e ir s tr e tc h e r a n d d o u b le b a c k fo r a n o th e r. B y t h is m e th o d a h u n d re d s o ld ie rs h a v e b e e n ta k e n fro m a t ra in , lo a d e d in m o to r a n d o th e r v e h ic le s , a n d se n t o ff to H o s p it a l in s id e th e h o u r ; s o m e o f th e m e n w e re c a r r ie d too y a rd s . T o a n y o n e e n g a g e d in th is h u m a n e w o rk I c a n re c o m m e n d th e m e th o d .— I a m , d e a r S ir , Y o u r s t ru ly , W .

L.

A ID . —

January,

1916.

lik e m a d , a n d th e tre e s see m to b e d a n c in g . A ft e r th a t y o u fee l y o u a re b e in g lifte d a n d tw o m e n b e n d in g o v e r yo u . I t is th e n y o u r e a lis e , if y o u h a v e s tre n g th to te a lis e , th a t yo u a re in the h a n d s o f the R e d C ro s s a n d that fro m h e n c e fo rth yo u w ill be lifte d a n d c a r r ie d lik e a c h ild , a n d th a t a ll th a t is g o in g to h a p p e n to y o u lie s at th e d o o r o f th o se m en w h o a re r is k in g t h e ir liv e s to s a v e y o u r s .” F r o m th is p e rio d the a u th o r d e s c r ib e s th e v a r io u s s ta g e s a w o u n d e d F r e n c h s o ld ie r g o e s th r o u g h , w h ic h is o f a b s o r b in g in te re s t th ro u g h o u t.

F IR S T

A ID

IN

TH E

LABO RATO RY

AND

W O RKSHOP.

G ir l in g ,

D iv is io n a l S u p t. (B r ig h t o n ) R a ilw a y D iv is io n S .J . A .B ., a n d A s s is t a n t S e c. L . B . & S . C .R . C e n t re S .J .A .A .

B y A r t h u r A . E ld r id g e , B .S c ., a n d H . V in c e n t A . B r is c o , D .S c . L o n d o n : E d w a r d A r n o ld .

Price is. net.

R eview s. P H IL IP S ’

PO PULAR OF

TH E

E d it e d b y W illia m

M ANN IKIN : HUM AN

OR

M O DEL

BODY.

S. F u r n e a u x , a u t h o r o f “ A n im a l

P h y s io lo g y ,” & c ., & e. L o n d o n : G e o . P h ilip & S o n , L td .

T h e a u t h o rs o f th is b o o k , w h o h a v e b e e n in c h a rg e o f a first a id o r g a n is a tio n in c h e m ic a l a n d p h y s ic a l la b o ra t o rie s , h a v e fo u n d th a t e x is t in g b o o k s o n first a id d o n o t d e a l in s u ffi­ c ie n t d e ta il w ith the s p e c ia l c a s e s w h ic h a re m et w ith in c h e m ic a l w o rk s , s u c h a s b u r n s p ro d u c e d b y c h e m ic a l a g e n ts, in ju r ie s to the e ye, p o is o n in g , e tc. F r a n k ly , we t h in k th is b o o k d o e s n o t e x te n d its sc o p e m u c h b e y o n d the tre a tm e n ts la id d o w n in the o r d in a r y t e x t b o o k s , w ith th e e x c e p tio n th a t it g iv e s th e tre a tm e n ts o f p o is o n in g o f a v a r ie t y o f c h e m ic a ls w h ic h ca n be g e n e r a lly c o v e re d b y g e n e ra l tre a tm e n t fo r p o is o n in g . T h e c h a p te r o n b u r n s a n d s c a ld s is d is p e n s e d w ith o n tw o p a g e s.

Price 3s. 6d. net. F IR S T T h e a b o v e is a s c h o la r ly - c o m p ile d tre a tise o n the h ig h ly , im p o r t a n t s u b je c t o f the h u m a n b o d y , a n d p re s e n ts an illu s t r a t e d r e p re s e n ta tio n w ith f u ll a n d d e s c r ip t iv e le tte rp re s s , th a t s h o u ld p ro v e in v a lu a b le to th o se w h o se b u s in e s s it is to d is s e m in a t e k n o w le d g e o f th is n a t u re to th e s tu d e n t. The w o r k is d iv id e d in to ten s e c tio n s , to g e th e r w ith a k e y to the m o d e l, a n d a ls o c o n ta in s s e v e ra l c o lo u re d p la te s. In the in t r o ­ d u c t o r y r e m a r k s th e c o m p o s it io n o f th e b o d y is d e a lt w ith . R e fe r e n c e is t ra d e to th e s k in , a n d so m e v e r y in t e re s tin g in fo r m a t io n is fo r t h c o m in g w ith r e g a r d to t h is s u b je c t ; w h ile th e t h ir d s e c tio n d e a ls w ith the s k e le to n , in c lu d in g p a r t ic u la r s o f th e v e r t e b r a l c o lu m n , th e s k u ll, fra m e w o rk o f the ch e st, u p p e r a n d lo w e r lim b s a n d jo in t s a n d lig a m e n ts . T h e k e y to th e m o d e l o f th e h u m a n b o d y in d e x e s the o r g a n s o f th e c h e st a n d a b d o m e n , th e a n t e r io r m u s c le s o f the b o d y , th e h e a rt a n d b lo o d -v e s s e ls , the n e rv o u s sy ste m , the s k e le to n , a n d th e in t e r n a l o rg a n s , a ll m o re o r le s s c o lo u re d to e m p h a s is e th e d e s c r ip t iv e m a tte r.

TH E

W O UNDED

FREN CH

S O L D IE R .

A ID

AT

A

G LAN CE.

A d a p te d fro m th e F r e n c h b y C la r a B lo u n t , C o m m a n d a n t V . A . D . S u s s e x 68. ■ L o n d o n : G o o d , L td .

Price id. T h i s p a m p h le t g iv e s the o u t lin e s o f firs t a id tre a tm e n t. I t is a v e r y h a n d y lit tle b o o k w h ic h c a n b e c a r r ie d in the p o ck e t, a n d s h o u ld s e rv e a u s e fu l p u rp o s e a s a id s to m e m o ry to th o se w h o h a v e a k n o w le d g e a f first a id . I t s p r ic e h a s a lo t to r e c o m m e n d it.

M e s s r s . C h a r le s L e tt s & C o . h a v e c o m p ile d a d ia r y a n d n o te b o o k on b e h a lf o f the B r it is h R e d C ro s s S o c ie t y s u ita b le fo r m e m b e rs o f V . A . D . I t r o n t a in s a w id e ra n g e o f in f o r m a ­ tio n o n s u b je c ts o f in te re s t to a ll R e d C r o s s w o rk e rs , b o th at h o m e a n d a b ro a d . P ro fit s o n th e s a le o f the p u b lic a tio n w ill b e d e v o te d to the fu n d s o f the R e d C r o s s S o c ie ty , a n d it c a n b e o b ta in e d fro m a ll b o o k s e lle r s a n d s ta tio n e rs .

B y D io n C la y t o n C a lth r o p . L o n d o n : T h e S t. C a t h e r in e P re s s .

Price is . 6d. net. T h i s lit tle b o o k , w h ic h is p u b lis h e d in a id o f th e F r e n c h R e d C r o s s , is a n in t e re s t in g a n d d e s c r ip t iv e s to r y o f the w o r k o f th e F r e n c h R e d C ro s s . I t g iv e s th e a u t h o r’s im p r e s ­ s io n s o f a t o u r o f th e b a ttle fie ld s a n d a d e s c r ip t io n o f so m e o f the r u in e d c it ie s o f N o r t h e r n F r a n c e . H e d e s c rib e s v e r y v iv id ly a m a n ’s e x p e r ie n c e o f b e in g w o u n d e d , w h ic h is a s p e c im e n o f h is s ty le : — “ J u s t fo r a s e c o n d o r so y o u w ill n ot k n o w w h e re y o u h a v e b e e n h it, b u t y o u w ill fee l a n u m b e d , s tu n n e d s e n s a tio n , a n d w ill re a lis e , w ith s u r p r is e , th a t th e m a n n e x t to y o u is g e t­ t in g s lo w ly w h ite a n d th a t a d a r k s t a in is s p r e a d in g a c r o s s th e fro n t o f h is tu n ic . T h e n y o u w ill s m e ll th e c u r io u s sw e e t s m e ll o f b lo o d , a n d fin d y o u r o w n h a n d s t ic k y , a n d see th a t i t is c o v e r e d w ith b lo o d a n d th a t y o u c a n n o t h o ld y o u r rifle . T h e s c e n e th e n b e c o m e s c o n fu s e d a n d y o u r a rm b e g in s to th ro b

At a smoking concert held at Worksop on January 13th, arranged by the local Division of the Brigade and Worksop Volunteer Citizen Army, the main feature was the presentation of a handsome silver cup to First Class Sergt.-Major H. Makin, of the local ambulance Division. T he cup, the gift of Mrs. Wetwan, of Bridlington, is annually awarded to the member obtaining the largest number of recruits during the year. This is Sergt.-Major Makin’s second victory, l'he recipient has had a remark­ able career in ambulance circles. He has seen no less than twenty years’ service with the Worksop Division.

WHEN CORRESPONDING WITH ADVEE TISERS PLEASE MENTION “ FIRST AID.’’


— F I R S T

January, 1916.

FIRST-AID

137

A I D . —

FOREIGN or HOME SERVICE.

O

U R longstanding intimacy with the varying condi­ tions of Nursing Service in all parts of the World is at the present time put to a very practical account in our Special Nurses’ Equipment Section. All Nurses, both Professional and Voluntary, who are taking up duties abroad or at home are invited to take full advant­ age of our knowledge of just those things that will be found so essential for their comfort and proper equipment.

A B L A N D & P A IN L E S S — IO D IN E D R E S S I N G . — As eptic.

A ntise p tic.

I O D E X is a First-Aid Dressing of great merit— painless and bland It promotes rapid healing and is ideal in septic wounds, tears, abrasions, bruises, burns, scalds, inflamed feet, etc.

IO D E X has been supplied to : H .M . F l e e t S u r g e o n s , R .A .M .C . Surgeons, Red C r o s s S u r g e o n s , Croix R o u g e Francaise B e l g i a n F ie ld h o s p i t a l s ,

I O D E X is non-staining, non­ irritating F r e e Iodine of great penetrative power. It is a power­ ful absorbent and antiseptic, and rapidly reduces inflammation.

F r e n c h F ie ld H o s p i t a l s , N um erous M ilitary H o s p it a ls , M e m b e r s of St. John A m b u lan ce.

C O M P L E T E RED CROSS O U T F I T S A L W A Y S IN S T O C K . C a ll, 'P h o n e o r W r ite fo r I llu s t r a te d C atalogue.

IODEX is sold in 1 oz. Pots, Price 1/1J.

Hospital & General Contracts Co., Ltd.

I O D E X lias benefitted thefollowing and numerous other conditions. E n la r g e d G la n d s . G o itr e . T u b e r c u lo u s J o in ts , B u r s itis . S y n o v it is . S c ia tic a , N e u r it is , G ou t, R h e u m a to id A r t h r it is , H y d r o c e le . P a r a s it ic S k in D is e a s e s . R in g w o r m , C h ilb la in s , A cn e, B o ils , M u m p s , S p r a in s , AND

A L L

IN F L A M M A T O R Y

L ite ra tu re

on

(N u rses’ E q u ip m e n t

C O N D ITIO N S.

a p p lic a tio n

S e c t i o n ) , Dept. 6.

21, MORTIMER STREET, W 'P h o n e: M U S E U M 3/40-1.

to—

Agents f o r the well-known Benduble Shoes.

Menley & James, L t d . A K s r ir 1’

Aids to Memory lo r ‘ First Aid’ Students. B y L . M . F r a n k C h r i s t i a n , M .B ., C .M . E d in . Author (join tly v ith IV.R .E.) o f “ Prob lem s in F irst A id ," S t. John A m b A sso c.

S e v e n t h E d it io n n o w r e a d y .

The

Great

Question

REGARDING

Uniform s&Equipm ents for A m b u l a n c e Co r ps is — W I L L T H E Y W E A R ? I f th e y a re m a d e b y H a z e l th e a n s w e r e m p h a t ic a lly is Y E S ! — b e c a u s e th e H o u s e o f H a z e l la id the fo u n d a tio n o f its r e p u ta tio n a c e n t u r y a g o u p o n T H O R O U G H N E S S , a n d h a s r ig id ly a d h e re d to th a t p r in c ip le to t h is d a y . L e t H a z e l’s q u o te fo r a n y u n ifo rm s e q u ip m e n t r e q u ir e m e n ts of the

or

ST. JOHN AMBULANCE B rigade, all r a n k s Red Cross, and

of t h e R.A.M.C , B r i t i s h kindred organisations.

Revised to date (Sept. 1915.)

“ N o a m b u la n c e m a n n e e d e v e r fe a r h e w ill g o l u s t y i f h e w ill t a k e an o c c a ­ s io n a l d o s e o f t h e m e n ta l m ix tu r e c o n t a in e d w it h in th e c o v e r s o f th is s p le n d id hook . . . c a n n o t c o n c e iv e a b e t te r u t ilis a t io n o f s p a c e , a b e t te r t r e a t is e o n t h is subject c o u ld n o t h e w r it te n . . . t h e h o o k fo r a l l , w h e t h e r o ld h a n d s or s t u d e n t s .” “ A ‘ m u ltu m in p a r v o ’ o f th e g r e a t e s t v a lu e ." P rice : In C loth , 6d. net— b y post 7<h

In L e ath er, 2s. net— b y post 2s. 2d.

S t o c k p o r t : C o n n e l l & B a il e y , L t d ., “ E x p r e ss O f f ic e , S t . P b t e k s S ql a n d The St. John Ambulance Association, S t . J o h n ’ s G a t h , L o n d o n .

3 h e 3 n d ia n

J lt n b u la n c e G a z e tte .

A J o u r n a l o f A m b u la n ce W o rk in I n d ia , B u r m a a n d the E a s t.

P ric e 2 s h i l l i n g s p e r a n n u m

p o st f re e .

P u b l i s h e d Q u a r t e r ly . Can be obtained on atplication to the E d itor, Jutogh, Sim la H ills, India

HORLICK’S -

MALTED MILK

A S A D I E T IN R E D C R O S S N U R S I N G .

CONTRACTORS

TO

H M.

16, N ile S t r e e t , C i t y

GOVERNM ENT.

Ro a d,

LONDON, N.

Branches :— 51a. B erners S treet, O xford S treet, L O N D O N , W .; 6, Y o rk P la c e , L E E D S ; 84, M iller S tre e t, G L A S G O W ; and 137, L o n g m a rk e t S treet, C A P E T O W N .

arv

C on tain s a ll th e food v alu e o f pure full-cream m ilk enriched and m odified w ith th e solu ble n u tritive e x tra c ts o f ch o ice m alted cereals. T h e ratio o f protein to carb o h y d rate and its perfect d ig e stib ility com m end this food as a reliab le recon stru ctive w h ich m a y be g iv en fre e ly in sep tic conditions and su rg ic a l cases.

R E A D Y IN A M O M E N T . R E Q U R I E S N O C O O K I N G . L ib era l Sam ples J o r tr ia l w ill be sent to the Profession Post Eree on application.

H o r lic k 's M a l t e d M ilk Co., S l o u g h , B u c k s .

,


— F I R S T

(pueries and Answers Correspondents.

January, 191 6.

A ID . —

to

Queries w ill be dealt with under the following r u les:— 1 . — Letters containing Queries must be marked on the top left hand corner of the envelope “ Query," and addressed— F i r s t A i d , 46, Cannon-street, London, E .C . 2 .— A l l Queries must be accompanied by a “ Query Coupon” cut from the current issue of the Journal, or in case o f Queries from abroad from a recent issue. 3 .— Queries arc invited on F irst-A id , H om e-Nursing and HomeHygicne as these are o f general interest. These w ill be answered in F i r s t A i d i f space permits. 4 .— Queries, accompanied by stamped addressed envelope, w ill be answered by post.

A . B . — W h y is a p p lic a t io n o f c o ld to n a p e o f n e c k re c o m m e n d e d fo r b le e d in g fro m n o s e ? T h e c o ld s tim u la t e s th e H e a t C e n t re , w h ic h is s itu a te d in t h is r e g io n o f the s p in a l c o rd , a n d so in d ir ectly b r in g s a b o u t c o n tr a c t io n o f th e p e r ip h e r a l v e s s e ls .— N . C o r b e t F l e t c h e r _

C . H . — I n a c a s e o f s im p le fra c t u re o f tw o u p p e r r ib s f ra c t u r e d c la v ic le o f s a m e s id e , h o w s h o u ld F ir s t A id be r e n d e r e d a s to b a n d a g in g a n d p o s it io n o f th e p a t ie n t ? T r e a t the fra c t u r e d c la v ic le a n d th e r ib s w ill lo o k a fte r t h e m s e lv e s ! T h e S t. J o h n S lin g w ill p re v e n t m u s c u la r s tr a in o n the r ib s , a n d th e t ra n s v e r s e b a n d a g e , b y f ix in g the a rm to th e b o d y , w ill s e rv e th e p u rp o s e o f the tw o b a n d a g e s u s u a lly a p p lie d fo r s im p le fra c t u re o f rib s . T h e a tten tion to d e ta il o f t h is Q u e r y is c o m m e n d e d .— N. C o rb e t F le tc h e r .

J . F . (S it t in g b o u r n e ).— U n d e r n o c ir c u m s t a n c e s c a n a V . A . U . a u x ilia r y h o s p ita l fly th e R e d C r o s s fla g u n le s s it h a s s p e c ia l a u t h o r it y fro m the W a r O ffice .

T

he

St. John Ambulance

Brigade has made such

rapid progress in India of recent years that it has been found necessary to appoint a Commissioner, and we under­ stand Sir Pardey Lukis has accepted the office.

to the members of the Bombay Corps, he said the appoint­ ment was not in any way intended to deprive the various superintendents of

their powers or in any way

interfering with the internal management of the various brigades and divisions.

A w o u n d e d soldi er wr ot e the o t he r d a y : “ I f p eo p l e only k n e w the o-ood that H a l l ’s W i n e does, e v e r y b o d y wo u ld be t a k i n g it.” The very strongest of us needs some re­ inforcement for our strength under the burdens of anxiety and strains we bear to-day. Hall’s Wine gives the very help you need, gives it rightly and pleasantly, without fa il. It has proved a friend to thousands since the war began, bringing strength to those who carry on at home, working marvels for our invalids from the front. Let it help you—-from to-day. A w ell-kn ow n D o ctor w rites: “ It is im possible to take H a ll’s W in e w ithout being benefitted.”

In refer­

ring to this at a recent presentation of Long Service medals

district

A Soldier’sWord!

The only advantage in having a

Commissioner for all India would be with a view to co­ ordinating the work, thus placing the Brigade on a firm and solid basis with a view to future developments, which would not only he of advantage to the Order of St. John but the whole British Empire.

WHEN CORRESPONDING WITH ADVER­ TISERS PLEASE MENTION “FIRST AID.”

HallsWine The Supreme Restorative

G U A R A N T E E . — B u y a b ottle o f H a ll’s W in e to-d ay. If, after tak in g half, y o u feel no real benefit, return us the h alf-em p ty b o ttle, and w e w ill refund you r entire ou tlay.

L arge size , y/6. O f W ine M erchants , and Grocers a n d Chem ists w ith W ine Licences. S T E P H E N S M I T H & C O ., L T D ., BOW , LO N D O N .


January, 1916,

—FIRST

AI D. —

i 39

HUMPHREYS’ SECTIONAL BUILDINGS

T e le p h o n e No

6447 K e n sin g to n . 3 L in e s .

T e le g ra m s : “ H u m p h re y s , K n ig h ts h r id g e , London, ’ *

Portion of Australian Hospital ( 1,000 Beds), Harefield Park, Middlesex, on Humphreys’ Sectional Building System.

The Latest and Best System of Building’s for Mobile Hospitals. Convenient for Transport. Quickly Erected or Dismantled. Reasonable in Price. Immediate Delivery from Stock.

HUMPHREYS LTD., KNICHTSBRIDGE, LONDON, S.W.

FOR MOBILE HOSPITALS.


140

— F I R S T P ric o 6 d . n e t.

NOTES

ON By

P ost fro o 7 d _

FIRST S id n e y

AID H.

SIMPLIFIED.

Lamb.

A Handbook in a tabulated and simplified form giving the main points ot first aid, so arranged as to impress them on the memory of the student. DALE, REYNOLDS & CO., L td ., 46, C a n n o n S t.

LONDON, E.C.

AID. —

January, 1916

On First Aid, Medicine. Surgery, and all other Scien­ tific and Literary subjects, S e c o n d - H a n d at H alf Prices. N ew at 25 per cent. --------------- ■ — discount. Catalogues free. State wants. books sent cn approval, books bought. W . & Q . F O Y L E • 21 and 123, C haring Cross Road, London, W .C .

IMPORTANT BOOKS DEALING WITH FIRST-AID. THE

COMPLETE

MANIKIN.

H A N M E R ’S

Systems of Body accurately indexed. Invaluable to Students of Anatomy, Medicine, First-Aid and Allied Subjects. Price 2 s . net; postage, 2d. T H E TR IAN G U LAR B A N D A G E : Its Application shown by Words and Diagrams.

Illustrated Ambulance Lecture.

Illus. Price, is . net, postage 2d. AID S T O H O M E -N U R S IN G

SEASON BOOKED

By

HOW ARD

M.

PRESTO N ,

D em onstrator to the Polytechnic.

116

B y N. C O R B E T

FLETCH ER,

B .A ., M .B . , M .R .C .S .

Ilome-hursing Simplified and Tabulated, with Aids to Memory. Post free, 7 d . A ID S T O F I R S T - A I D .

1915 16 UP!! !

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A Compendium of Aids to Memoiy, invaluable to all Students. 2nd Edition. With an introduction by James Cantlie, F.R.C.S. Post free, 7 <i. W H Y A N D W H E R E F O R E IN F I R S T - A I D . B y th e S am e A u th o r.

Difficulties in Study and Treatment solved by Question and Answer. Royal i6mo. Post free, 7d. AN IN D E X O F FIR S T-A ID .

Particulars, id. stamp to C.

HANMER,

By J.

205, D o n c a s t e r R o a d , G o l d t h o r p e , N

r.

R otherham.

Wires : Hanmer, Ambulance, Gold horpe.

Best Stretcher on the Market. BE ST QUALITY CANVAS.

SPRIN G

GEARING W HEELS.

Price iSX 2s (A S

S U P P L IE D

TO

H .M .

6d.

G O V E R N M E N T .)

L ig h t D u ra b le S t r e tc h e r for B o y S c o u ts , 12s.

W.

G.

HELPS

(L a te P o a d , H

elps

6d.

& Co.),

S t . P h i l i p s B r id g r e , B R I S T O L . M a k e rs ot A m b u la n c e W a g o n s a n d R e q u is ite s .

P O STAL IN S TR U C TIO N in “ PRESCRIPTION READING ” and “ ELEM ENTARY DISPENSIN G.” Everyone engaged in FIRST AID work should tsd<e up the above Courses at once. A member of S.J.A.B. writes:— “ I feel deeply indebted for the courses of instruction received, have often wanted to take such courses, but could never find where to get such.” (T.B ) S pecial te rm s n o w —half fees— t o members of S.J.A .B ., &c. A pply (stamp) to M r . J. E . W a l d e n , Sec., Westminster College (Lady Dispensers Section of the Westminster College of Chemistry and Pharmacy, estd. 1874), 112 . S t . G e o r g e ’s R oa d , S o u t h w a r k , L o n d o n .

S

T

A

T>

Officers’ Regulation Great Coats. Dark • tl Grey beaver cloth, 39s. 6d. to measure. Superior quality Men’s Great Coats, 16s. 6d.— Write for patterns and particulars, Thornton & Co., tailors, Brighouse. OR SALE, a quantity of Men’s Ambulance Uniform Trousers, all sizes, quite new, 5s. ud. a pair.— Thornton and Co., 24, Commercial-street, Brighouse.

F

M. C A R V E LL,

M .R .C .S .,

L .S .A .L o n d .

A vade-mecum for the Ambulance Worker. Fcap.8vo. Post free, i s . 2 d . F I R S T - A I D A N A T O M I C A L D IA G R A M S . Twehe in set, on Roller. Post fiee, 2 S . t o d . Each Diagram separately, 2 d . 5 and 6 (coloured), 6 d . each. THE

WHOLE

ART

By T H EK LA

OF

BANDAGING.

BO W SER,

F .J .I.,

Introduction by James C a n tlie , F.R.C.S.

Illus. Post free, is .

2d.

PRACTICAL IN S TR U C TIO N IN C U T T I N G O U T AND M AKING UP HO SPITAL GAR M ENTS FOR SICK A N D W O U N D E D By

M IS S

E M IL Y

PEEK.

Illustrated. Post free, IS. 2 d . A S H O R T C O U R S E O F P H Y S I C A L T R A I N I N G FO R T H E R E C R U I T S O F T H E N E W A R M IE S .

(Approved by the Red Cross Society). By

A LLAN

BROM AN,

of the Royal Gymnastic Central Institute, Stockholm. Foolscap 8vo. Illustrated. Price is. 6 d . net ; postage, 2d. JO H N

BALE,

SO NS

&

D A N IE L S S O N ,

L td .,

83-91, G r e a t T it e h fle ld S t r e e t, L o n d o n , W .

E S T A B L IS H E D

1887.

JOHN SULLEY

STOCKS TAKEN

Auctioneer, Valuer, A rb itra to r, Estate and Business A g e n t, Fire Assessor.

MONTHLY, QUARTERLY OR HALF-YEARLY

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Published on the 15th o f e very Month. Annual Subscription, 5s., post free. Sinale Copies, 6d.

"FIRST AID’’ QUERY and REPLIES COUPON. To be cut out a n d enclosed w ith a ll Queries.

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REYNOLDS

4 0 , CANNON

STR EET,

& CO., Ltd., LONDON,

J a n u a ry ,

1916.

E.C.

P rin te d a n d P u b lish ed by M essrs. D a l b , R b y n o l h s & C o ., L td ., 46 , C an n o n S t. L o a d e r , B .C ., to w hom all com m unications should be a d d re sse d .


F IR ST AID.

The Independent Journal tor the Ambulance and Nursing Services. Edited by A R T H U R -----------------------------------1--------------- — — ---------

No. 2 6 0 . — V o l . X X I I To

Our

B.

DALE.

~ :------------------------------------------------------------F E B R U A R Y , 1916. [ E n u r t d a t s t a n o n . n ' H a ii. \

[N ew S e r ie s .]

P R IC E TW [m P e r Annum, p o s t F r e e

mention this to in any way detract from the excellent work

Readers.

“ First Aid ” is published on the 20th of every month.

which has and is being done by the Society, for it has undertaken activities of extraordinary range and volume,

The Annual Subscription is 2 S . 6d. post free; single copies 2 d . The Editor invites readers to send articles and reports on subjects o f interest to ambulance workers, these should be addressed to him at 46, Cannon Street, London, E.C.

but we do so in fairness to the O rder of St. John, and to dispel a common error which exists. 1 his fact should be

All articles and reports must be accompanied by the name and address of the writer, not necessarily for publication but for the use ot

is playing in this war should be realised by the nation.

the Editor.

has been undertaken by the O rd er apart from the Joint

S u b s c rip tio n s , A d v e r t is e m e n t s a n d o th e r b u s in e s s c o m m u n ic a tio n s co n n e c te d w ith F i r s t A i d sh o u ld b e a d d re s s e d to th e

Publishers,

W e therefore propose to deal with some of the work which Committee.

F o r the past eighteen m onths its work has

been colossal, and the La d ie s’ Com m ittee, of w hich H e r M ajesty the Queen is President, A deline, D uchess of B ed ­

D A LE, REYNOLDS & CO., L t d . , 46, C a n n o n S t r e e t , L o n d o n , E.C.

ford, Chairm an, and Lady Perrott, La d y Superintendent-inC h ie f of the W om en’s V o lnntary A id Detachm ents of the

EDITORIAL.

S .J.A .B ., has shown a capacity for organisation and unre­ m itting hard work which compels adm iration.

O u r National Organisation, the “ R ed “ Red Cross.”

widely known, for although the O rder of St. Jo h n carries on its work quietly and unostentatiously, the part w hich it

C ro ss,” which has been on the lips of everyone since the commencement of

the war, is an institution, the constitution of which the general public has little conception, and it would not be out of place to give a few details of its creation. At the outset of the war the B ritish R ed Cross Society and the O rder Of St. Joh n were working independently of of each other in the relief of the sick and wounded, but early in October of 1914, at the request of the W ar Office,

It has sup­

plied hospital clothing and comforts, articles of surgical and m edical equipm ent to the 200 V .A .D . hospitals which are connected with the St. 828,968 articles.

John,

and

has

distributed

T h e St. John A m bulance B rigade has

since the outhreak of war supplied to the N aval and M edical Services 21,608 hospital o rd e rlie s; thus the B rigade con­ spicuously effective in time of peace is rendering very effective and material aid in the time of war. No. 11 D istrict of the Brigade has raised the

130th

F ie ld A m bulance of the 38th W elsh D ivision , the p erso n n el

the efforts of the two Societies were co-ordinated, and a

being composed entirely of men of the Brigade.

Joint W ar Committee composed of an equal num ber of members of the two Societies was formed, this Joint Com-

two hospitals in F ran ce entirely m aintained by the Order, and the members of the Brigade and Association Overseas

mitteee being responsible for the adm inistration of the

are serving practically in every theatre of war.

funds placed at its disposal by a generous

In

mention many other activities of the Order, but space

other words, the Joint Comm ittee constituted the R ed W e pub­

precludes us from doing so. It only rem ains to add that this record shows that

lished in the last issue of F ir s t A id details of the report of

every effort is being made successfully to meet all the

the Joint Committee, which shows the adm irable way in

exceptional calls made

which it has handled and adm inistered the funds entrusted

emergency, and that it has been an invaluable institution

to i t ; but the point we wish to emphasise here is, that

to the country in this crisis.

since the R e d Cross of the Geneva Convention is em bodied

generally recognised, so that when the words R e d C ro ss

in the badge of the B ritish R e d Cross Society, it is a

are m entioned they are understood to convey

Cross Organisation of the U n ite d Kingdom .

public.

It has

W e could

upon the O rder in the present W e want these facts to be to

the

common error to ascribe all the activities of the Joint W ar

general public that the O rder shares in the great responsi­

Committee to the B ritish R ed Cross Society, whereas they

bility of adm inistering to the relief of the sick and wounded

ate equally shared by the Order of St. Jo h n .

in war,

W e do not


142

- F I R S T 3"he Srand 9*riorij of the 0rder of the Jtospital of S t. Jo h n of Jerusalem in Sttgland. AM B U L A N C E

Jh e

No. A ctin g

S t.

1 District.

deputy

W.

H.

Jo h n

DEPARTMENT.

.Ambulance

Brigade.

DUTY ROSTER.

co m m issio n er

:

------

W IN N Y .

M A R C H , 1916. Sunday Duty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. Sunday, 5th.— No.47 Division, L.B. & S.C.R., W illow W alk. „ 12th.— No. 15 „ East Ham. „ 19th.— No. 20 „ Hampstead. „ 26th.— No. 4 „ Leyton and Leytonstone. 2.30 p.m. to 6 p.m. As per separate oiders. Key St. John’s Gate, 2 p.m. D U T Y A T K IN G G E O R G E ’S H O S P IT A L . Volunteers are required from Nursing Divisions for this Hospital. The hours of duty are from 7 a.m. to 1 p.m. one week, and 2 to 8 p.m. the following week. Travelling expenses will be paid. Names should be sent to the Lady Supt.-in-Chief, at St. John’s Gate. M IL IT A R Y H O M E H O S P IT A L S R E S E R V E . The W ar Office have intimated that owing to Lord Derby’s Scheme, alterations in the supply of personnel for the Arm y Medical Service have been found necessary, consequently no further calls for men for service in the R.A.M .C. through the M ilitary Home Hospitals Reserve will be made for some time. A ll men attested under Lord Derby’s Scheme, who have enrolled in the M .H .H .R ., must therefore join the unit or branch of the Army they have selected or to which they have been detailed when called up under their group. They are, however, eligible to join the R .A.M .C. through their groups if at the time vacancies in that Corps exist. M O N T E N E G R IN R E D C R O S S M E D A L . Members of the District will learn with pleasure that Pte. Lines, of the Walthamstow Division, and Pte. Rosenblatt, of the East London Division, have been awarded the Montenegrin Red Cross Medal by the Montenegrin Govern­ ment. P R O M O T IO N S . The following promotions which have not previously been published, have been made in the No. 1 D is tric t:— Ambulance Officer S. J. W arren, No. 20 D ivision (H am p­ stead), to be Corps Secretary, No. I District. To Ambulance Officer— Sergt. E. T. Milburn, No. 20 Division. To Sergeant— Cpls. G. R. Richardson, No. 11 D ivisio n ; W. J. Gobey, No. 13 Division ; C. M. Fowler, No. 20 Division; T. S t e v e n s o n , No. 19 D ivisio n ; H. Simons, No. 72 Division. To A cting-Sergeant-Pte. P. G. Jones, No. 29 Division. To Corporals — Ptes. H. E. Clements, J. R. Blackwell, W. Cheshire, E. Standing, of No. 19 Division ; Pte. A. J. Green, No. 45 Division ; Ptes. C. W. J. Taylor, A. E. Blarney, and B. C. Tomes, No. 28 Division. Nursing Divisions.— To be Lady Divisional Supt.— Mary the Viscountess Falkland, No. 33 Division. To Nursing Officers— Nursing Sisters Mrs. G. Goodser, B. Songest, K. Bates, A. James, No. 13 D ivisio n ; Mrs. F. Brennan, No. 7 Division ; E. Cole, D. Finch, and A. Tucker, No. 26 Division ; R. F. May and L. Haines, No. 19 Division. (Signed)

W . H. W IN N Y ,

A ctin g Deputy-Com m issioner.

AI D. —

Feb ruar y, 1916.

No. 44 ( W e s t L o n d o n ) D i v i s i o n .— On January 25th Mr. E. Bruce Ball presided at a concert and presentation in connection with the Division at the Churchfield Hall, Acton. The room was well filled, the proceeds being devoted to the fund for purchasing uniforms, equipment, &c. The programme, which was a long one, was much appreciated by the audience piesent, many encores being demanded. D uring the interval, the Chairman (Mr. E. Bruce Ball) read a few details of the work of the Division. A Home Nursing Class was examined in October last, 32 candidates were successful, 16 being Brigade members. For the three classes organised during the year, the percentage of passes was over 90. Messrs. Napier had placed at the disposal of the Division a van, quickly convertible into an ambulance capable of accommodating four loaded stretchers, for use on air raid duties. Acting-Supt. E. A. Dalston was appointed as Officer, taking full command in April last. Under his charge the Division had considerably increased in numbers. Mr. H. W. W inny (Acting Deputy Commissioner) said he did not intend to make a speech, but would like to say how pleased he was to present the certificates. To those who had from passed their examination for first aid and home nursing, and were not yet members of the Brigade, he would say that the knowledge acquired would need to be kept up, and there was no better way of doing this than joining the Brigade. The West London Division was much to be complimented on its smartness. It was not only the soldiers who were making sacrifices, concluded the speaker ; the men of the St. John Ambulance Brigade were giving up their time all over the world to be of use to their fellow men, and their work was one of the grandest known.

No. 2 District.

D IS T R IC T M ilita r y

H ome

ORDERS.

H o spita ls

R eserve.

The W ar Office have intimated that, owing to Lord Derby's Scheme, alterations in the supply of personnel for the Army Medical Service have been found necessary ; con­ sequently no further calls for men for seivice in the R.A.M .C., through the M ilitary Home Hospitals Reserve, will be made for some time. A ll men attested under Lord Derby’s Scheme, who have enrolled in the M ilitary Home Reserve, must therefore join the unit or branch of the Army they have selected, or to which they have been detailed, when called up under their group. They are, however, eligible to join the R.A.M .C. through their group if at any time vacancies in that Corps exist. R oyal

N a v a l A u x il ia r y S ick B e r t h R e se r v e a n d t h e R o y a l N a v a l D iv isio n .

A notification of the probable requiiements in the future for the above will be forwarded later. C orps and

D iv isio n a l A p p o in t m e n t s .

It is notified for information that all future appointments in Corps and Divisions, with the exception of the posts of Inspector of Stores and Treasurer, will not be ratified by the Deputy Commissioner until the member has passed a written examination on Brigade General Regulations. Syllabus of any particular examination will be supplied on application to the Deputy Commissioner by Officers or Members in Charge. D eaths of M embers of th e

B r ig a d e .

Officers and Members in Charge are asked to report to the Deputy Commissioner immediately he receives notification respecting the death of a member of his or her Division. The member’s period of Brigade service should be given, as well as a short obituary notice. Salutes.

Brigade Standing Orders No. 10, page 35 of Brigade General Regulations, should be thoroughly understood by all ranks ; Corps and Divisional Officers are asked to see that the men under them are fully acquainted with and carry out the same. N.C-0 ’s should also be addressed by their rank and


- F I R S T

February, 19 1 6

nam e—e.g., “ Sergeant Smith,” “ Corporal Jones,” and net by their Christian or Surnames only. This should be observed by all ranks on every occasion when members are in uniform.

AI D. —

143

Ptes. W. H. Bates, J. Howard, E . Hughes, J. Summerfield, E. Toseland, H. W ills. Died at Suvla Bay Pte. Dyson. A ll R. 4 .M.C., Med. Ex. Force.

T ra n s fe rs .

Cases having occurred where members are transferred to and from Divisions in this District without the knowledge of the Deputy Commissioner, attention of Officers in Charge is drawn to Brigade General Regulations, No. 22, paragraph 3, which states : —“ Members transferring to other Divisions or Brigade Overseas should be suppliea with a personal Record Sheet B. F. 4, filled up under the various headings, and signed by his Divisional Superintendent and by himselI, and approved by the D eputy Commissioner."

Part of the second paragraph No. 2 must also be observed. It person who is, or has been, enrolled of the Brigade shall be allowed to Division without the consent o f the

of General Regulations reads :— “ . . . and no in any Corps or Division join any other Corps or

D eputy Commissioner in •whose D istrict he or she last served.” {Signed) John

S.

G r if f it h s,

D eputv Commissioner.

Headquarters :— Redland Park House, Bristol. No. 3 District. K e t t e r i n g .— The strength of this Headquarters Division has been reduced by men ioining H is Majesty’s Naval and

T a m w o r t h . — T his Division held a most successful whist drive and dance at the Town H a ll on Jan. 26th. At the finish of the whist drive the Mayoress presented the prizes. D iv i­ sional Surgeon and Supt. D r. M cColl thanked the M ayor and Mayoiess for their support, and went on to state that he desired to publicly thank Lieut. Journet, R.A .M .C., M .H .H .R ., for his services in re-organising the D ivision and instructing them in brigade work. He desired to state that a number of members were now in uniform purchased by themselves, and were doing public duty in the borough. The proceeds of the evening were to be devoted to equip­ ment. He further went on to thank the Committee, which had worked for the success of the evening. The Mayor, in a few remarks, spoke encouraging words to the members of the Division, stating that their services would be greatly appreciated in the borough, and that they were deserving of every support, and he wished the movement every future success. The whist drive was followed by a most successful dance which finished up at 3 a.m. The result of the evening showed a net profit of f \ 9s. The Mayor acted as M.C. for the whist drive, and Pte.Smith, S.J.A.B., M.C. for the dance.

The Napier motor ambulance van which the Napier Co. has placed at the disposal of the No. 44 (West London) Division, to be used in the event of hostile air raids. On the extreme right is Acting-Supt. E. G. Dalston and next to him Mr. E. Bruce Ball, W orks Manager of the Napier Co. Military Forces to under a dozen members. Brigade members on active service were not forgotten at the Festive Season, and they and their wives received substantial Christmas greetings from their fellow members at home. Two Classes for First Aid Certificates were held at the end of the year under the supervision of Dr. L. W. Dryland and Dr. O. Van Vestrant, and thanks to the careful tuition of Staff-Sergt. C. W . Curtis and Corporal W. Dyson, fifty-four certificates were awarded by the examiner, Dr. Audland. From the successful candidates it is hoped to strengthen the Division. Roll of Honour.— Members of the Kettering Corps, Headquarters Division S.J.A.B., who have died in the execution of their duty. Drowned in “ Royal Edward,” /Egean Sea: —

No. 5 District. B o s t o n .— A smoking concert was held on January 21st, Mr. G. Enderby occupied the chair and was supported by D ivisional Supts. W. J. Husson and W. Stanley Dickinson, and Ambulance Officers A. Hackford and L . M. Gaze, and a large company of non-commissioned officers and men was present. It was a fitting occasion on which to celebrate the resumption of Brigade duties now being undertaken by Divisional Supt. W. J. Husson, after a long and tiring illness There were many expressions of the excellent work done in the past by Supt. W. J. Husson, and all hoped he would be able to continue as an active worker for a long time to come It was known that Divisional Snpt. W . S. Dickinson was about


J 44

— F I R S T

to leave the Division very shoitly for active service, he having joined the London Artists’ Rifles (O .T.C.) preparatory to re­ ceiving a commission offered him. A ll present felt that it was with extreme regret the Division had to part with such an ex­ cellent officer, and trusted it would be only for a short time. In wishing him God-speed and a safe return, Supt. W. J. Husson then presented, on behalf of the officers, non commissioned officers and men of the Division, an attache case containing first aid requisites to Supt. W . S. Dickinson, to which Supt. Dickinson suitably responded. No. 6 District.

In connection with the Voluntary and Transport Organ­ isation of the District, a motor ambulance garage has been opened at Newcastle. The garage provides accommodation for twelve cars and two trailers, which constitute a complete unit. Mr. C. B. Palmer, in addressing the assembly on the occasion of the opening ceremony, said the new garage marked another onward step in the work of the S.J.A.B. in the North of England. In the northern district, he said, their present membership exceeded 10,000. Of these 4,000 men were serving with the forces in medical units, and 58 women were serving in the m ilitary hospitals at home and abroad. Mr. Palmer alluded specially to Mrs. Mullen, of Gosforth, who had been awarded the Gold Medal of the Montenegro Red Cross Society by the Queen of Montenegro, and had also received the Royal Medal of the Order of Prince Danlo at the hands of Montenegro’s king. In addition to these totals, 4,000 members, of both sexes, were working in connection with the V.A.D . The men were mostly assisting the work of transport on the arrival of the wounded at various northern centres, whilst the women were largely engaged in the hospitals. There were 20 St. John Hospitals in the north, wherein were 1,289 beds, and 10,000 British soldiers and sailors had received treatment. Mr. Palmer dealt with the progress in the transport work, describ­ ing how, after first using the works and colliery horse ambul­ ances, they had received gifts of motors from time to time through the generosity of private gentlemen and thej‘general public. They had now eleven cars, including two stationed at Sunderland; and two cars and four other cars were supplied by private owners at Sunderland. There had been need for a garage, as it was inconvenient for the cars to be distributed over the town. They had been able to take that garage through the help received from the city and district on the Flag Day. A Northern Counties W ar Exhibition, organised by the S.J.A.B. and the British Red Cross is being held at Newcastle from Feb. 19th to March n th , which will be in aid of the funds of the branches of the swo societies. The exhibition embraces sections relating to Trophies of W ar, Women’s Work, St. John Ambulance Brigade and Red Cross Work, Food and Hygiene, Equipment, Maritime and Aerial Section and Art Galleries and’ Cartoons. The patronage which has been afforded the E x h i­ bition should make it a great success. No. 7 District. R O L L o f H o n o u r .— The following men rom No. 7 District have given their lives for their country since the begin­ ning of the war Pte. H. R. Evans and Pte. W. G. Hughes both belonging to the E ryri (W elsh name for Snowdon) D iv i­ sion, the former serving with the Mediterranean Force and the latter with the 14th Casualty Clearing Station ; also Pte George Overton, of Chirk Division, died of disease whilst serving with the R.A .M .C. A ll these men were mobilised from the M .H .H .R . There may be other names to add to this list and if any reader is aware of such would he please write to the Acting Deputy Commissioner, Dr. S. Hamilton, Newport Mon. r ’

No. 10 District. L o w e s t o f t .—

The first annual report of the Division

AID. —

February, 1916

shows an excellent year’s work, and that the members have progressed rapidly under the tuition of the Hon. Surgeon, Mr. J. C. Mead, and the Division Supt. T. E. Foort. E arly last year some fifteen members joined the East Anglian Casualty Clearing Hospital, and it has to be regretted that no less than twelve of these lost their lives through the sinking of the trans­ port Royal Edward. In addition to those already alluded to, two privates left for service in the Royal Hospital, Woolwich, one of whom has since been promoted to corporal, while in July another private joined the St. John Ambulance Brigade Hospital for service in France, and in September five privates joined the 1st Birmingham W ar Hospital. No. 12 (Irish) District. C i t y o f D u b l i n N u r s i n g D i v i s i o n .— On Feb. 1st a most enjoyable evening was held at the Cafe Cairo in order to make a presentation to Mrs. Middleton Curtis, Corps Treasurer. The presentation took the form of an illuminated address, an album of all the subscribers’ names, and a lovely gold watch wristlet with inscription. Nearly all the present and many past members gathered together. Dr. Mathew Thomson, Commandant of the City of Dublin V.A.D., made a most suit­ able address, mentioning the work done by Mrs. Cuitis. He also alluded to the splendid work done at Temple H ill Conva­ lescent Home, by the City of Dublin V.A.D ., to the great satisfaction of the medical and military authorities. It was greatly to be regreted that the present Divisional Surgeon, Dr. M cDonell Cosgrave, was unable through illness to be present. Dr. Charles, 1st Division Surgeon, was present and spoke in the highest terms of Mrs. Curtis and her work. Mr. Weinstock, late Corps Supt., also spoke. The Lady Supt., M iss Mowbray, thanked the Division and the doctors for their support. Mrs. Middleton Curtis suitably replied. A splendid concert, arranged by Mr. W ilson Kelly, was much enjoyed by all. The City of Dublin Ambulance Division was also present under Division Supt. Robt. Jameson.

D u b l i n .— The City of Dublin Division had its origin and cause in the Burgh Quay sewer disaster of May 6th, 1905, in which two lives were lost and many others endangered. The only person on the spot who could render effective first aid was Mr. John Thompson. Shortly afterwards that gentleman called a meeting at his house in Lower Gardiner-street, at which it was resolved to start a Division of the S.J.A.B., whose membership would be open to every citizen of Dublin. The Division was formed and officially recognised in December of the same year, with its headquarters in the European Hotel in Bolton-street, a historic building since demolished to make way for the splendid new Technical Schools. After that, the Division led a somewhat nomad existence, with headquatters sometimes south of the Liffey, sometimes north, until at length, by the kindness and foresight of General Friend, C.B., Com­ mander of the Forces in Ireland, it settled down in what will probably prove its permanent residence, Ship-street Barracks, beside Dublin Castle. During all that time, amid varied fortunes, the discipline, camaraderie, and earnestness of the men surmounted every difficulty, and rendered splendid services to the community, attending racing, athletic, and other large gatherings, and saving very many valuable lives. The Division at present holds the highest and most valued ambulance trophy in all Ireland, the Challenge Cup, presented by the Viscount Iveagh. Some of its members did duty at the K ing’s Corona­ tion at London in 1911, as well as H is Majesty’s Visit to Ireland, and at the Review at Windsor. At the outbreak of the war the Division numbered 49 members, it has now 105, of whom 53 are on active service in the M ilitary Home Hospi’tal Reserve, the Royal Naval Sick Berth Reserve, and the St. John Hospital at Etaples in France. At the conclusion of the class for beginners, now in progress, the Division will probably be 120 strong. For ten years Mr. John Thompson was Supt. On the 29th December last, however, to the regret of all its members' he left to take up his permanent residence in England. A few days later came the transfer of headquarters to the fine rooms in Ship-street Barracks where, under popular young Supt.


February, 1916.

— F I R S T

F. W. Jameson, its capable Ambulance Officers J. F. Homan and C. E. Iley, and the learned and eloquent Dr. Pugin-Meldon as Surgeon, it is safe to predict for this fine Division further vigorous development in numbers, influence and usefulness. First Officer Gillespie, of this Division, has just been ap­ pointed Acting Corps Officer in the City of D ublin Corps. S t . J a m e s ’ s G a t e . — In the winter 1903/04 Dr. Lumsden gave a series of lectures to the staff and employees of the St. James’s Gate Brewery for the first aid certificates of the Associatian. Following these, Dr. Lumsden threw himself enthusiastically into ambulance work, and on March 30th, 1904, the St. James’s Gate Division was registered with Dr. Lumsden

AID. —

'45

bers, and the number of cases treated annually number over 1,ooo. In 1915 the Chief Commissioner sanctioned the No. 12 (Irish ) District, the former Supt. of the St. Jam es’s Gate D iv i­ sion was appointed Deputy Commissioner, and another of its members joined the D istrict Staff as Secretary. On the outbreak of the war, 47 members in the R .N .A .S.B .R . were mobilised, and were on duty at Chatham the day after war was declared, since then practically the whole of the Division, including its Supt., joined the M .H .H .R . and were mobilised, and a large number of recruits have since been trained and added to the Reserve. One member, Pte. Michael Doyle, R .N .A .S.B .R ., lost his life when H .M .S. Form idable was sunk. At present the Division has serving:— R .N .A .S.B .R ., 43 ; M .H .H .R ., 63 ; St. John Hospital, Etaples, 2 ; total 108 ; and besides a number who have joined the combatant rank. The remaining [members have assisted on all occasions when the wounded arrive in Dublin. Supt. Holden Stodart, of this Division, has recently been appointed Corps Officer in the Co. Dublin Corps.

L e i c e s t e r . — A t the dem onstration at the D e M ontfort H a ll, on Feb. 3rd, A id. T o llin gto n announced that the total proceeds of the Leicester effort in aid of the R ed Cross and Order of St. Joh n am ounted to £ 12,000 , the expendi­ ture being within £ 1 0 0 . A hope was expressed that further amounts received might enable a clear ,£ 12 ,0 0 0 to be forwarded to the R e d Cross, and subsequently the M ayor received a cheque for £ 1 0 0 from Messrs. G. H . and A. W. Faire, so that the full sum of £ 1 2 ,0 0 0 will be forwarded as Leicester’s contribution to a noble institution. It should be added, however, that this sum, large though it be, does not represent all that Leicester has contributed to the R ed Cross. M any months ago the Boot M anufacturers’ Federation inaugurated a fund in aid of the society, as a result of w hich movement ,£ 16 ,0 0 0 in round figures has been raised in the various centres’ of the trade. Leicester’s share of that total is about £ ,3,0 0 0 , so that the aggregate from the town is at least £ 1 5 ,0 0 0 , and may be even more if sim ilar efforts are made in other industries.

D r. John

L um sden,

Deputy Com m issioner No. 12 (Iris h ) District. as Supt. and Surgeon. Thus the St. John Ambulance Brigade was introduced into Ireland. The Division is confined to the staff and employees of the St. James’s Gate Brewery, and efficient membership of the Division is a necessary qualification for members of the Brewery Fire Brigade. Very early the Division took up the R .N .A .S.B.R., and most of its members joined. W ith the growth of the Brigade in Ireland, Dr. Lumsden was appointed Assistant Commissioner, and was succeeded as Supt. by 2nd Officer G. Dick. The Division supplied a contingent for duty in London at the K ing’s Coronation, and was represented at the Review at Windsor. On the occasion of the King’s entry into Dublin the D iv i­ sion turned out for duty at almost full strength, when much useful work was done. Teams from this unit have always been foremost in the various ambulance competitions in Ireland, and it has from time to time held all the different trophies. When the Chief Commissioner inspected the Irish Divisions in 1914, St. James’s Gate Division organised a bugle and drum band. A ll the first aid work in the Brewery is done by the mem­

L i v e r p o o l . — On January 17th, in the police paraderoom, Hatton-garden, some 100 qualified lady members of the V .A .D . No. 70 of the T e rrito ria l Force A sso­ ciation were presented by La d y H arm ood B anner with badges. Mrs. R ayner (e x -L a iy M ayoress) presided, and was supported by La d y H arm ood Banner, Mrs. C a ld ­ well, Mrs. Cartwright, Mrs. G irdlestone (com m andant), Sister M ayse (lady superintendent), Mrs. N ixo n (adjutant)’ M iss M ills (secretary of the Liverpo ol Centre of the St.’ Joh n A m bulance Association), and A lderm an F. J. Leslie. Prior to the distribution the members of t h e 'D iv is io n gave an exhibition of their work, and A lderm an Leslie spoke on the origin and work of the V .A .D . Mrs. Rayner, in addressing them, said it gave her great pleasure to see the very efficient manner in w hich they had gone through their drills. T h e work they had taken up was most hon­ ourable and praiseworthy, and she felt sure that they would all do their utmost to uphold the splendid record of use­ fulness they had established. It may be mentioned that M r. Joh n S. Adam son and M r. Percy H . Robinson, com ­ mandant and quarterm aster respectively of M e n ’s West Lancs. T .F .A . V .A .D . No. 27 have produced such a state of efficiency amongst the members that 17 hospitals have availed themselves of their services. Others have taken up duties abroad.


146

— F I R S T

Aids to

AID. —

Home * Nursing.* (2)

By

N.

CORBET B .C .,

FLETCH ER,

Cantab.,

B.A ., M .B .,

M .R .C .S .

Author of A Com pendium of A ids to F irst A id, &c.

pose. T h ey are used to carry some medicament and are applied to diseased part. A p p l i c a t i o n . — Ointments may be applied on lint or directlv to the part. A l l scabs, drv., m ust be removed before application. T h e lint is secured in place by bandage or plaster.

(3) V

( C o n tin u ed fro m page I 2 j .) LOCAL

R E M E D I E S — Continued).

I I I . — C O U N T E R - IR R IT A N T S . (1)

Counter-irritation is the production of an artificial irritation at one part to oppose and remove an irritation already existent at that spot or elsewhere. Congestion of the true skin by the irritating body is followed by exudation of serum and formation of blister beneath the outer skin. T h is stim ulation of the local nerves is trans­ mitted to the brain, which is in turn stimulated to action either at the same place or elsewhere.

V .— IN H A L A T IO N S . (1 )

A c tio n .—

(4)

(3) V

T h ere are three most important R u le s of A pplication which must be thoroughly understood at the outset, viz. :—

(m)

(i)

N .B .— It is wise to let the blister alone, lest the dangers of infiam mation, ulceration and gangrene be realised. T h e best plan is to cover up with Boracic oint­ ment. (3) V

a r ie tie s

of

C

o u n t e r -Ir r it a n t s .

(i) T ru e C oun ter-L rritan ls — such as Flyin g Blisters— which are F ly Blisters applied to different parts for five minutes o n ly ; M u s ta r d P o ultice or Leaf, applied for five or fifteen minutes ; T in ctu re of Io d in e painted over area under treatment. (ii) B lis te r in g A g en ts — such as F ly Blisters, which are applied for five to twelve h o u rs; BlisterF lu id , the effects of which vary with the amount applied ; and strong Am m onia applied by thim ble for ten minutes. I V . — O IN T M E N T S . (1 )

A c tio n .- —

Ointments are composed of fatty mattei usually vaseline or lanoline, which will not decom­

* These papers are selected from Dr. Corbet Fletcher’s Aids to Hume-Nursing, which is published by Messrs. Bale, Sons & Danielsson,

83-91, Great Titchfield-street, London, W ., and is now on sale, price 6d. net.

a r ie t ie s.

(i) P la in . (ii) Medicated, such as Vinegar, Turpentine, F ria r’s Balsam, &c., the usual proportion of these drugs being one teaspoonful to the pint of boiling water.

A p p lic a tio n .—

W hether C oun ter-irritation or B lis te r in g is required. (ii) T he P o sitio n a n d L en g th 0/ A pp lication oj the A g en t (iii) T he A n tise p tic precautions essential to B lis te r.

Inhalation is the breathing of air or steam prepared for diseased conditions of the throat or for absorption in the lungs.

inhalation is carried out by applying some drug, or com bination of drugs, to the sponge of a metal mask or respirator, which is fixed by elastic, so that the nose and mouth are covered. M o ist inhalation is conducted by means of a special inhaler, or by burying the nose and mouth in a towel which is so wrapped round the top of a jug that a circular opening is left available for the escape of vapour. T h e inhaler or jug should be only half filled with boiling water.

or D e e p , e.g., Bronchitis. C ounter-Irritants are used either (i) to redden and cause congestion of the surface, or (ii) to raise a blister. In the former case the agent must not be applied too long.

A c t i o n .—

(2) A p p l i c a t i o n .— D r y

(2 ) I n d i c a t i o n s . — (i) P a in , a n d (ii) C h ron ic Inflatnm ation, whether Superficial, e.g., Sprained A n k l e , (3 ) E s s e n t i a l s . —

a r ie t ie s.

(i) P la in , e.g , vaseline rubbed on after removal of poultice. (ii) Medicated, e.g., Antiseptic (B o ra c ic ); Seda­ tive (Zinc), and Caustic (C arbolic), &c.

No.* X I .

(/)

February, 1916.

O B S E R V A T IO N

OF

P A T IE N T .

T h e im portance of O b s e r v a t i o n has been shown in the Principles of H om e-N ursing and elsewhere. Its practical significance is further emphasized when we consider the S y m p t o m s , the causes and va ria tion s of which must be carefully studied. Symptoms are the effects of a Cause in contrast to the Signs which are the tangible evidence of a Cause. Further, if the Symptoms specified in the Text-B ook be exam ined, it becomes apparent that these are divisible into two groups, S u b j e c t i v e and O b j e c t i v e — the latter being in point of fact Signs. Some of the latter, owing to their vital im ­ portance in the formation of conclusions as to Cause and Progress of the Case, are included in a special class as M eans

of

D ia g n o sis.

I.— SUBJEC TIVE

SYMPTOMS.

P a in .

A ppetite

T h ir st . L earn P

the

P a i n .—

P. A.

7. N.

S u b je c t iv e

Symptoms

PAT.

O bservation is directed to the following P rin cipal Points, and it is noteworthy that pain is always a com parative symptom. P o s itio n — local or m oving; superficial or deep. A g gra va tion — e.g., food (Ind ig e stio n ); move­ ments (P leurisy), &c. In ten sity — slight or se v e re ; transient or progressive. N a tu re — darting (N e u ra lg ia ) ; gnawing (R heum atism ) and cutting (Pleurisy).


— F I R S T

February, 1916. A

T

T h is indicates the state o f the D igestive and N ervou s Systems, and the following P rincipal Points must be observed (See S le e p ):— N a tu re — perverted ; capricious ; natural. A m ount— d e ficie n t; excessive. Effects o f Fo od — satisfying ; digested ; accompanied by pain, flatulence, nausea and vomiting. h i r s t . — T h is indicates the state o f the blood C ircu la to ry System), and is a sensation due to changes in the blood consequent upon an inefficient supply of liq uid in the body.

A p p e t i t e .—

T

AID. —

147

A Valuable Combined Portable ham m ock and Stand. O u r attention has been drawn to a new invention o f a bed-stretcher manufactured and exported by M essrs. F. G oddard & Co., of 30, Coleman-street, Lo ndon, E .C . T h is is made of strong rot-proof canvas, and can be erected in less than one m inute and taken down and packed in a sim ilar period of time. We learn that the great advantage that this stretcher offers is that, when standing, the occupant is raised seven

T h e Principal Points a r e :— A . Causes. (1) Fevers and Inflam m ation— poisoning and - concentration of blood. (ii) Exhausting Diseases— poorness of blood. (iii) Profuse Perspiration— loss of fluid of blood. (iv ) A rticles of D ie t— e.g., salt, alcohol, & c., cause concentration. B . Effects o f Remedies. (i) F lu id in Stomach— weak tea or coffee (tepid); oatmeal or rice water (te p id ); currant or raspberry juices ; slightly acid drinks. (ii) F lu id in large Bowel— rectal enema. XI.

— O B J E C T IV E SYM PTO M S. Sleep. Rigor. Expectoration, Be

S

SURE

of

the

O bje c tiv e

Vomit-

or eight inches above the ground, thus preventing him coming into contact with the mud and snow. T h e whole thing is very strong and secure, and weighs only about 20 lbs. complete, and its cost is less than the ordinary stretcher. It measures 7 ft. 6 in. in length, and is perfectly hygienic, as it can easily be taken apart and disinfected. T h ere is no woodwork whatever in the con ­

S ym ptom s.

T h is indicates the State o f the N ervou s System. Rest is necessary for all vital tunctions and sleep may be a sign either of exhaustion or of improvement. T h e following are the Principal Points (See A p p e tite ):— N a tu re — -intermittent : broken by dreams, talking, movements, &c. A m ou tit— d e fic ie n t; excessive. A n exact re­ cord must be kept. Effects— satisfying and refreshing or vice versa.

Sleep.

Sleeplessness.

T h is indicates disturbance o f N ervous

System. A.

Common Causes : — (i) M ental E xcite­ ment. Nos. i and iii increase sup­ (ii) Physical e x ply of blood to b ra in ; haustion No. ii causes fatigue to (iii) Coldness of nerve shell. extremities

B.

Sim ple Rem edies — (i) C o ld applica-' tions to head (ii) H o c - w a t e r bottle to feet A ll act by dim inishing the (iii) F o o d in supply of blood to the stomach, e.g., brain. biscuit (iv) Repeated deep inspirations

N.B. — T h e hot-water bottle must alw ays be well pro­ tected, especially when patient is unconscious or paralysed, otherwise serious burns may result. (T o be continued .)

struction to warp, rot or break, or to harbour germs of any kind. T h e ham mocks are in use at present at the W arw ick­ shire and Coventry H ospital, and are very handy for tak­ ing the patients out. T h ey are also being supplied to the Belgian Governm ent, while the manufacturers are in negotiation with other Foreign Governm ents for their use.

T h e staff of the S .J.A .B . at St. Jo h n ’s Gate held a dinner at the Popular Cafe, P iccadilly, on Jan. 31st. Mr. P. G. D a rv il Sm ith presided, and amongst those present were :— M essrs. B lum , Boone, C u ll, E arly, Fisher, Harm esworth, H ayes, H ig h , L id d e ll, Parker, Pearce, StallaTd, Statham, W ild , W illm ot, and Wrigglesworth. T h e dinner was quito inform al and M r. D a rv il Sm ith conveyed the wishes of the A cting C h ie f Com m issioner (C o l. T y re ll) for' a happy evening. T h e party afterwards adjourned to the Coliseum , thus bringing to a close a most enjoyable evening.


1 48

— F

i r s t

Brevities. T h e following letter comes to use from France “ I have received the four copies of F i r s t A i d which you sent to me to the 29th C.C. Station, B.E.F., France, and I am sure they are much appreciated out here where we get but little news of what is going on in the S.J.A.B.” Another old member writes to us from Egypt: “ Your paper is passed round to several members of the Brigade here, and it is looked forward to with a great amount of pleasure, as it tells us what our old comrades are doing at home. The illustrations of the Brigade Hospital in France, whichyou gave in the December issue, are excellent, and shows the latest phase of the woild wide work of the Brigade.” i

*■

* W e receive many letters in the same spirit as these,

which go to show us what F i r s t A i d means to many thousands of Brigade men and women who are serving their country all over the world— in fact, it is the only medium which they have of keeping in touch with the movement which they hold dear, and it is a great source of encouragement to us, who produce the paper, to make it as entertaining and helpful as possible. ■* *

* O n the nomination of the Sub-Prior, Lord Plymouth,

and with the approval of the Grand Prior, the Duke of Connaught, Mr. Evelyn Cecil, M.P., has been appointed Secretary-General of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem in England, in succession to the late Rt. Hon. Sir Claude Macdonald. Mr. Cecil is already a Knight of Grace of the Order; he was assistant private secretary to his uncle, the Marquis of Salisbury, when Prime Minister in 1891-92 and 1895-1902. His wife, a daughter of the first Lord Amherst of Hackney, is a Lady of Justice of the Order 01 St. John. Mr. Cecil has been a member of Parliament since 1898. *

*

*

A w r i t e r on Field Ambulance work on Gallipoli in a recent issue of C ountry L ife , says Field hospital work proved in practice very different from the previous conception of it. H e says men trained as yeomanry expected to chase the Huns over battlefields, and field ambulance dressing stations with operating tents, and all the surgical gear and tackle methodically arranged for slight and serious cases, were to be set and arranged with orderly precision. But in actual fighting it was much otherwise. Nursing orderlies, bearers and medical officers had to come on shore in boats with the troops laden each with his own baggage, and in the early stages the wounded had to be carried over rough ground to lighters which naval pinnaces towed out to hospital ships. Later, the nursing orderlies and bearers had to turn out tons of earth in order to dig safe and suit­ able dressing stations. This was all very different from their anticipation, and it says much for the adaptability of the R.A.M.C. that the difficulties were overcome and the work performed with great efficiency.

a i D.

February, 1916.

A p h a s e of the St. John Ambulance Brigade work, which is developing in the Colonies, is the Civil Ambulance Service. The annual report of the Civil Ambulance and Transport Corps of the S.J.A.B., Sydney, which has just come to hand shows us the ambulance service is not only a municipal convenience, but also an asset to the State. The equipment of the Sydney Corps consists of 3 motor ambulances, 2 horse waggons and 9 litters, and during the year 9,021 calls were received and 41,000 miles travelled, the work for the same period costing ,£4,625. Where no municipal ambulance service exists in provincial towns in this country the Brigade has an opportunity to organise something on similar lines.

V

In the January number of the P ra ctitio n e r , SurgeonGeneral (Temp.) H. D. Rolleston, consultant physician to the Royal Navy, writes on the subject of the health of the Navy and Army in war time. He notes with satisfaction that as the result of the labours of those responsible for the sanitation of our defenders, the health of both forces, with the exception of the men at the Dardanelles, has been remarkably good. The health of the regular Navy has even been better than in peace time. In the Grand Fleet the percentage of men on jhe sick list is under 1 per cent.

V is making ample provision in the event of hostile air raids, and the following are the arrangements : — Police motor ambulances, manned by the Special Constables, will be stationed at various central points in the city to deal with any emergency that may arise in that particular area. The Red Cross Society will provide forty motor ambulances, efficiently equipped and staffed by medical men, which will be stationed at ten different parts of Manchester. Every part of Manchester will therefore be covered by a motor ambulance service. The National Motor Volunteers will provide at very short notice thirty motor-cars to parade in Albert-square in readiness to remove the police or other persons to various parts of the city where their services may be required. M anchester

ir tr *

A g e n e r a l m e e t i n g of members of the National Council of Trained Nurses of Great Britain and Ireland was held in the Lecture Hall of the Royal Society of Medicine, on February 12th, to consider the circular letter of the Hon. A. Stanley, M.P., chairman of the Joint War Committee of the Red Cross and the Order of St. John, in reference to organisation of nurses. This letter pro­ posed the establishment of a College of Nursing on a voluntary basis, governed by a council of management nominated by the chairmen and governors of leading hospitals, physicians, and surgeons lecturing to nurses, the principals of nurse training schools, and other persons interested in the education of women. Miss E. M. Musson moved a lesolution (which was carried unanimously) sup­ porting the State registration of Trained Nurses and declaring that any voluntary scheme, such as that proposed, was calculated to impede such legislation.


February, 1916

— F I R S T

149

AID. —

20hP AMBULANCES USTIN Ambulances have already been successfully employed on the various Fronts, and have proved to be satisfactory in every respect, both as to design, utility and construction. Many Public Institu­ tions, in addition to H.M. War Office, have preferred them. A

The Company have a limited number of chassis available for the purpose, which will be allocated in rotation. Prices and particulars on application.

You will hardly need reminding' of the other im­ portant work upon which we are engaged, which prevents the immediate supply of Pleasure Vehicles, hut— we shall be ready when the time comes to resume.

Catalogue on Request.

The AUSTIN MOTOR - CO. ( 1914), LTD, ----Longbridge Works, N O R T H F IE L D ,

BIRMINGHAM. LONDON: 479 to 483, Oxford Street (near Marble Arch, W .) R E P A IR S A N D A D J U S T M E N T S CAN BE U N D E R T A K E N AT T H I S D E P O T . -----------

M A N C H ES T ER : I 30, Deansgate. N O R W IC H : 18 to 22 and 25. Prince of W ales Road. And at PARIS.


r S°

FIRST

HORLICK’S

M ALTED

A I D. -

* * * * * * * *

MILK

A S A D I E T IN R E D C R O S S N U R S I N G . Contains all the food value o f pure full-cream milk enriched and modified with the soluble nutritive extracts o f choice malted cereals. The ratio of protein to carbohydrate and its perfect digestibility commend this food as a reliable reconstructive which m ay be given freely in septic conditions and surgical cases. R E A D Y IN A M O M E N T . R E Q U R I E S N O C O O K IN G . L ib er a l Sam ples f o r tr ia l w ill be sent to the Profession P o st Free on application.

1916.

Benger’s Food is a cereal food, specially free from rough indigesti­ ble particles. It contain s th e n atu ral d igestive principles, tr y p sin and am ylopsin, and is exp ressly devised to be used w i t h fr esh n e w m ilk or m ilk and w a ter.

Benger’s is unique among foods in being selfdigestive to any extent desired, and this is simply tegulated by allowing the Food to stand from 5 to 45 minutes at one stage of its preparation. The digestive process is stopped by boiling up.

*

* *

H o r l i c k ’s M a l t e d M ilk Co., S l o u g h , B u c k s .

February,

Aids to Memory for ‘ firs t Aid’ Students. .

, 1

. . .

B y L. M.

F r a n k

C h r is t ia n ,

M .B ., C .M . Edin

rs i v e n t h WE d l t J n f ' f J ° f " J ° blen,i in .F irst A id ,” St. John Amb

x

t

i Ed,tion nof

ready.

Revised to date (Sept. 1915.)

Assoc.

F ood

Iso ambulance man need ever fear he will go lusty if he will take an occa sional d o s^ o ^ h e mental mixture contained within the covers o f this splendid book . . .c a n n o t conceive a better utilisation o f space, a better treatise on this snhiert could not be written. . . the book for all, whether old hands T s i u L n V f ' . A multum m parvo o f the greatest value.” Ci 0th’ 6d‘ P°st 7d. In Leather, 2s. net— by post 2s 2d Sto ck po r t

: C o n n ell &

is unequalled w h en th e d ig e stiv e s y s t e m is w ea k en ed th r o u g h accident, pain or illness, and w h e n e v e r a lig h t sustain in g diet has become a n ecessity.

B a i l e y , L t d . , “ E x p r e s s ” O p p i c h , S t . P e t e r 's S q u a r e S t ^ J o h n 's G a t e , L o n d o n .

and The St. John Ambulance Association,

A sample w ith f u l l particulars w ill be sent post free to Members o f the M edical Profession, on application to the Sole M anufacturers—

Jhe 3ndian Ambulance Gazette.

B E N G E R S FOOD, Ltd., Otter Works, Manchester.

A Journal o f A m bulance W ork in In d ia , B u rm a a n d the E a st.

P ric e 2 s h i l l i n g s p e r a n n u m

B ran ch

O f f ic e s :

N e w Y o r k (U .S .A .), 90, Beekman Street. S y d n e y (N .S .W .), n 7> P * 1 1 Street. And Depots throughout C a n a d a .

p o st free.

P u b lis h e d Q u a rterly .

3146

Can be obtained on application to the Editor, Jutogk, Simla H ills, India

jtailwaij Jlmbulance. S.E. & C.R.— We have much pleasure in congratulat­ ing the No. 1 District Corps on the result of their first year’s work, as evidenced by the excellent report and balance sheet read at the first annual meeting held on 4th February. The Corps, which already has a membership of 89, is in a sound financial condition, and excellent work has been performed by many members during the departure of the troop trains from Victoria, and in the unloading of ambulance trains at various stations. Members of the Corps, in conjunction with the Hither Green Corps, were privileged to be in attendance and act as guides on the ambulance train which was exhibited at Cannon-street Station recently. The two corps were after, wards inspected by the Lord Mayor, who congratulated the men on their smart appearance and wished them success in the work they had undertaken. It gives us pleasure to announce that the No. 4 Dis­ trict intend to repeat, at an early date, their successful concert of 1914, in the Town Hall at Chatham. An ex­ cellent programme is being provided, and a pleasant even­ ing is assured. G.W .R.— As foreshadowed in our last issue the ex­ amination results in respect of the Great Western Railway Centre for the year 1915 have turned out to be very satis­ factory, having regard to the exceptional condition which have militated against the formation and conduct of classes.

The following Table gives the figures for the past decade, and it will be seen that the results achieved during the year I 9I 5 3-tc second only to those in respect of the previous year, which constituted a record. The defection in the number of certificate awards gained is attributable to the very large proportion of the younger members of the staff who are serving with the colours, as well as the difficulties experienced in securing regular attendance at lectures owing to traffic requirements. N u m b e r o f A m b u l a n c e A w a r d s g a i n e d in E x a m i n a t i o n by

M embers of th e

Year 1906 ... 1907 ... 1908 ... 1909 ... 1910 ... 1911 1913 ... 1913 ... 1914 ... 1915 ...

G .W .R.

Sta ff from

1906

to

1915.

Certificate Voucher Medallion Medallion (is ty r.) (2nd yr.) (3rd yr.) Labels for Total Re-exam. 703 447 399 481 55< 510 368 823 1,798 639

326 268 216 238 269 215 185 367 617 639

123 208 181 163 147 157 150 215 434 363

_ 22 I 235 320 357 355 381 608 823 856

1,152 1,144 '.OS1 1,202 1.324 '.237 1.084 2,013 3,672 2,497

The Great Western Railway Magazine for the current month contains an article dealing with ambulance activities throughout the system during the past year, which should prove of interest to railway ambulance men, and it affords some idea of the value to the country in the present crisis of the large number of skilled ambulance workers who have


February, 1916.

— F I R S T

enrolled in the M edical departments of the N avy and Arm y. T h e report discloses the fact that during the year four members of the Com pany’s staff, and two members of the m edical profession, who haved rendered gratuitous services of exceptional character to the A m bulance movement on the Great Western Railway, have been recognised by the Order of St. Joh n of Jerusalem, by selection, as H onorary Serving Brothers and H onorary Associates of the Order, respectively. W e understand that it will be im practicable for the Great Western R ailw ay to carry out their usual competition programme this year owing to the shortage of staff and the exceptional calls which are being made upon the railway in connection with m ilitary and other traffic arising out of the war. It w ill be remembered that in the face of con­ siderable difficulties the Great W estern held the com­ petitions as usual last year, although it was one of the few railways to do so. It is hoped that when the time for the annual contests comes round next year the war w ill be over and the large numbers of am bulance men at present on service with the Forces w ill then be available to take part again in these competitions, which are regarded by the staff, not only as a means of measuring efficiency in am bu­ lance work, but also as an integral part of their first aid training.

Tfie general service superintendent— a new class in ­ troduced for m ilitary hospitals— will be responsible to the C .O . for the discipline and general welfare of all members except those working inside the wards, who while so em­ ployed will be under the supervision of the matron. T h e general service superintendent will be chosen for her reliability, tact, discretion, and should be of a suitable age.

AID. —

The Grand Priory of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England. Chancery o f the O rd e r , St. fo h n ’s Gate , C le rk e n w e ll , London, E .C . H is Majesty has been graciously pleased to sanction the following promotions in, and appointments to, the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England :— A s K n ig h t o f fusticc. Inspector-General Belgrave Ninnis, C.V.O ., M .D., R .N . A s L a d ie s o f fu stice : The Lady Catherine M ilnes Gaskell. Beryl Carnegy, Lady Oliver. The Lady Constance Milnes Gaskell. A s K n ig h ts of G race : Sir James Scorgie Meston, K .C .S .I,, I.C.S., L L D . Sir Michael Francis O’Dwyer, K .C .S .I., I.C.S. Sir Hedley Francis Le Bas. Francis Barton Langridge. Captain Francis Frederick Daniell. Charles Campbell McLeod. Lieut -Colonel The Hon Sir George O laf Roos-Keppell, K .C .S .I., K .C .I.E . A s L a d ies o f G ra c e : Florence, Lady Butler. The Lady M uriel Paget. Mai Alice Magdalene, Lady Philipps. Sarah Louise, Mrs. Sherwell. Sarah Ann, M iss Swift. A s E s q u ir e s :

It was reported at the annual meeting of the H andsworth Centre of the Association that the classes held d u r­ ing 1915 had beaten all records. N o fewer than 281 students had gained the first aid certificate, 147 the home nursing certificate, 36 the medallion, and 30 the label, a total of 494 awards. T h e Centre had raised the sum of ^ 2 0 0 10s. id . for the endowment of two beds in the St. Jo h n Am bulance H o spital at Etaples. T h e accounts showed a balance in hand of ^ 3 8 17s. n d . T h e lady superintendent of the Handsw orth N ursing D ivision re­ ported that the members, including officers, num bered 67, of whom 52 possessed the uniform. Eighty-four attend­ ances had been made at the hospitals in Birm ingham for instruction, members had met 74 trains of wounded, and bad made 336 attendances at the Birm ingham M edical M ission. One member had been accepted for m ilitary hospital work, 247 articles of clothing had been made by the working party and had been sent to the Lady M ayoress’ D e p o t; and 42 cases had been treated by the members in the streets and at business. T h e super­ intendent of the am bulance division of the brigade reportedthat over 20 of the members were serving with the forces or in m ilitary hospitals. Others had assisted with the removal of the wounded from the railway stations to the hospitals and as orderlies at the V .A .D . hospital at H ig h ­ bury. Two-thousand six hundred and eighty-one cases of first aid had been treated during the year, of which 225 required medical attention. M r. J. F. Pearson was re-elected president, D r. F. H . M aberly chairm an of committee, Mr. E. T . Awdry, treasurer, and M r. A . E. Jorden, hon. secretary.

Geoffrey Howard. A s H o n o ra ry S erv in g B ro th e rs : Frederick Mortimer Barwick, Francis Edward Adams. George Herbert Nutter. Albert Washington. Hervey Cdrter, A s H o n o ra ry S erv in g S isters : The Reverende Mere M aria Legrand. M arie Guislaine Ursule, Madame Candillon. Effie Maud, M iss Roberts. Caroline Helen, M iss Keer. Henrietta, Mrs. Edred Corner. Charlotte Elizabeth, Miss Hughes. A s H o n o ra ry Associates : John Terrell W illiam s, M .R .C .S .E . Harold Hebblethwaite, M .R.C.S.

La d y M aud W ilbraham , who is assisted by M iss H o p e Clarke, Crescent-road, W im bledon, has met with so m uch success in her “ Siver T h im b le ” m otor-am bulances for the front, that she is now, as the result of a special request, and with the approval of the W ar Office, endeavouring to raise 4,000 guineas, towards w hich about ^ 6 0 0 has been raised, for a motor disinfector, w hich w ill be of great service to the men in the trenches. W h e n c o r r e s p o n d in g w i t h A d v e r t is e r s p le a se m e n tio n “ F ir s t A id ”


— F I R S T

The

R.A.M.C.

A

“ S a fe ”

Job.

D u r i n g the passage o f the Military Service (No. 2) Bill— better known as the “ Compulsion ” Bill— through the Committee stage in the House of Commons, frequent re­ ferences were made by speakers in discussing the case of the conscientious objector to the employment of men with the forces on red cross work who had religious objections to serving with a combatant corps. Such references went to show that there were a good number of men who, whilst not prepared to take human life, they were quite ready to risk their own and instances were cited of ambulance workers serving in shell-swept hospitals who felt it contrary to their religious and conscientious instincts to engage in taking life. We do not propose to here discuss the case of the conscientious objector, but the references which have been made to ambulance workers in this connection bear upon another point which has more than once been brought to notice, but which has previously been dismissed as un­ worthy of consideration. We refer to the insinuation that men join the R.A.M.C. to ensure a “ sa fe” job. On several occasions suggestions of the kind have been thrown out, in some cases at recruiting meetings, and we have in mind an instance in which it was reported that men looking for something “ safe” were recommended to try the medical department. It may be that the proper way to deal with such sug­ gestions is to ignore them, but as they are levelled at a service which is to a large extent recruited from the “ ambulance men ” of this country— those in whose interests this Journal is published— we cannot continue to allow such charges to be made without dissent, or it may be argued by those who know no better that silence gives

AID. —

1916.

enlisting with the R.A.M.C. for general service are liable for service abroad, and many hundreds are now serving on the various fronts on which our Army is engaged. Further, we are advised that many who have hitherto been serving in home hospitals are to proceed overseas and that the men have asked to be sent out. Those who would criticise the R.A.M.C. should read what Lieut,-Colonel Mackie Begg, of the New Zealand

B y courtesy)

[ “ M o to r Tra ctio n .'

Interior view of a Dennis Motor Ambulance used by the Melbourne Centre, Australia, in the course of a year the four motor ambulances of the Centre travelled over 60,000 miles.

JOHN AMBULANCE

B y courtesy)

February,

[“ M otor T ra ctio n ."

The Headquarters of the Melbourne Centre, Australia, of the S.J.A.A. The Centre undertakes the ambulance service of the city.

consent, and that after all there is something in these suggestions that have been made against the ambulance workers who have joined the forces. It is, of course, quite obvious that in the R.A.M.C., as in many other departments of the Army— particularly in the non-combatant corps there are, and must be, a con­ siderable number of men employed on duties in which the risk of danger is small, but whilst this is the case, men

Medical Corps, has to say in the B r it is h M ed ica l J o u rn a l of the work of the ambulance service in Anzac. Those who regard the R.A.M.C. as a “ safe” job should hear what the Anzacs have to say about the medical service in Gallipoli, and what the heroes of Sulva Bay think of the men who had to carry out their work under continuous shell fire in the teeth of the deadly machine-gun, and all this in a rough and precipitous country affording little or no cover, with no roads and where, consequently, horse or motor transport was impossible. If this is not sufficiently convincing let them read the testimony contained in Sir Ian Hamilton’s despatch, dated n t h December last. He says :— “A feature of every report, narrative or diary, I have read has been a tribute to the stretcher bearers. All ranks, from Generals in command to wounded men in hospital, are unanimous in their praise. I have watched a party from the moment when the telephone summoned them from their dug-outs to the time when they returned with their wounded. To see them run light-heartedly across fire-swept slopes is to be privileged to witness a superb example of the hero in man. No braver corps exists, and I believe the reason to be that all thought of self is instinctively flung aside when the saving of others is the motive.” Let them hear what the wounded have to say about the R.A.M.C. men in France and Flanders, what the patients in base and field hospitals— many of them exposed to shell fire for days on end—as well as on the


February, 1916.

— F I R S T

hospital trains and boats have to say about the R .A .M .C . O rderlies before they offer any gratuitous criticism about a corps which has recently been referred to as “ the eighth wonder of the world.” T h en let them peruse the casualty lists and see with what painful frequency the initials “ R .A .M .C .” recur before voicing the “ safe” jo b gag in connection with the M edical Corps. T h is is not the place, and now is not the time, to indulge in panegyrics on the ambulance men at the front and fulsome eulogies on the men and their work can better be obtained first hand from the sick and wounded. T h e work of the R .A .M .C . is above criticism , at any rate by the arm chair critic. There are, unfortunately, people who regard only as effectives in this struggle the men who shoulder rifles and man the trenches. A ll honour to these, as to men of other branches of the combatant forces, who have done their work so well. We want more of them, but the taking of life is not the work of the trained am bulance man. H is object is to save life, by skilled treatment to reduce the period of ineffectiveness of members of the fighting force and in so doing he is in ­ creasing its efficiency. In the execution of his duties there is overwhelming evidence that the am bulance man shirks no risks. H e makes sacrifices and may have made the supreme sacrifice in carry­ ing out the duties involving upon him in filling what his self appointed critics are pleased to term a “ safe ” job.

AID.—

r 53

when with his unit, composed of three nurses and three dressers, he left Brussels for G em bloux in the neighbour­ hood of Nam ur to tend the Belgian w ounded in a chateau there. On getting near their destination they discovered themselves close to the firing lin e and had some narrow escapes. O n arriving at the chateau they found it was in the possession of the enemy, who insisted that they should attend to the Germ an wounded, and would not perm it them to attend to the Belgian wounded prisoners. T h e Germ an patients at first stoutly refused to be tended by the English, consequently, they had plenty of time on their hands to observe the G erm an methods of surgery, with the result that they were very surprised at what they saw. T h ere was a com plete absence of any antiseptic precautions. A n instrum ent might be carefully washed, but it would then be passed across the surgeon’s sleeve to dry it. T h e field dressings were not satisfactory. A com pound fracture would be found placed in plaster of P aris— a most unsatisfactory method of procedure.

Wounds in War. O n M onday, January 17th, M r. Osborn lectured to the M ayfair detachment of St. John Am bulance Association on his experiences at “ T h e Front.” H e was one of the first to take a hospital unit to Belgium on the outbreak of the war, and has been there or in France practic­ ally ever since. H is previous experience both in the Boer W ar and the Balkan B y co u rte sy ] W ar placed him in an unique position to (“ M o to r T ra ct ion.' compare various methods of treatment. The Melbourne Centre Australia, possesses four motor ambulances. The one shown above s an 18-25 h-P- Uelaunay Belleville. M r. Osborn congratulated the mem­ bers of the St. Joh n Am bulance on their not being caught unprepared when the war broke out. It T h e G erm an am bulance system was very retarded came suddenly, but they were ready. H e considered that owing to the shortage of am bulances, and local field cars had in many cases they had not been put to do the work to be used. T h e arrangements for transit by train was they had been instructed in, rather many had been called also very bad. W ith regard to food the patients were fed upon to do house work. on black bread and G erm an sausage. T h e dearth of surgeons was entirely the fault of the M r. Osborn witnessed several operations, and con­ Government. There were plenty of elderly medical men sidered the preparations made were very bad. A n esthetics whose services could be requisitioned for war work. M edical students should not be taken from the hospitals, were not often given, and the fortitude of the patients was but should be allowed to finish their studies. wonderful. W hen plaster of Paris was used for a first D uring the present war we have learned much. dressing, it left no room to allow for sw e llin g ; in many Treatm ent varies in each battlefield, as we have different cases that came to the hospital the only course was to conditions to cope with. T h e clim atic conditions counted remove it at once, or else the lim b would shortly afterwards have to be amputated. for much. In France and Flanders we had to contend with mud, wet and c o ld ; in the Balkans, d ir t ! T h e general treatment of the wounded was such that a In South A frica the soil was advantageous for surgery, soldier shot through the abdomen was made to walk a quarter of a mile. while in Belgium it was bad. In the present war we had to fight against all the scientific methods that were B y degrees the men allowed the E ng lish to attend to employed— bombs, hand-grenades, gasses, etc. them, and were quite satisfied with their treatment. After Mr. Osborn’s first experience of the present war was a few days, however, they were told in very strong language


—FIRST that they could “ clear out” as the requisite Germ an doctors were coming. T h e mode of their departure from the chateau showed the ill-w ill of the Germ ans toward them. F o r the journey they were given a loaf of bread and some water, while some Germ an officers whom they had treated at the hospital travelled first class, they had to content themselves to travel in cattle trucks. At Liege they were turned out of the train, and met with the greatest incivility. T h ey were not allowed to proceed to Brussels until the following morning. Once there they soon returned to England, and in a short time were again at the Front tending, this time, our wounded. In speaking of different branches of surgery, M r. Osborn said bullets, unless pressing on a vital part, or un­ less they had carried any foreign matter in with them, had best be left alone. X R ay work was very useful, but two views were necessary— a side and a front view. I f a bone was badly smashed amputation was necessary, but when possible it was always avoided. Some of the wounds were extremely bad owing to the short distance between the trenches in this war. Frost bites had various stages according to the severity of the case. There might be only redness or a blister, or there might be sloughing. In a severe case mortification was apt to set in. Frost bites resembled burns and required the same treatment, but prevention was better than cure, and the best preventitive treatment was to rub plenty of fish oil on the feet (porpoise oil being the best to use). Mr. Osborn com pared the difference between the Belgian methods and what he practised. T h e Belgian surgeons did all their own dressings and allowed the nurses to do none, and all dressings were done in the m inor operatingroom adjoining the ward. In referring to the first aid dressing supplied to the soldiers, he said they were undoubtedly useful as they kept out the dirt, and prevented the clothes rubbing the wound. In his flight from Bruges each o f his patients had a “ d re ssin g ” placed in his clothing, which enabled the wounds to be dressed on the journey.

Lo rd Aberdare opened, on Jan., 15th the St. John A u xilia ry H ospital at Southerndown. T h is hospital is under the control of the St. D a v id ’s Centre, S .J.A .A . T h e com m andant of the hospital is M rs. K ate Lewis, and the matron is M iss E . M . Ruffle, who has been matron of the Southerndown “ R e s t ” since its establishment. D e v o n s h i r e R e d C r o s s H o s p i t a l . — T h e fifth V.A. H o spital in the Totnes D ivision was opened on Tuesday, Jan uary 18th. A shley A . Froude, Esq., C .M .G , R .N V R , and M rs. Froude having placed her residence at Kingsbridge, at the disposal of the D ivision for the duration of the war and it has been accepted by the W ar Office for convalescent soldiers. T h e residence is beautifully situated overlooking the estuary, with extensive grounds, and will accommodate 25 patients. It is staffed by V .A .D . Devon 70 officers and M is. Lindesay, matron ; Drs. W ebb and H arston, medical officers ; Sister Sutor, trained n u rs e ; M is B ourchier, com mandant of V .A .D .; M iss A. E. Tw ysden, quartermaster. M rs. M ildm ay is the VicePresident of the D ivision.

W hen corresponding w ith A dvertisers please m en­ tion “ F irst A id.”

AI D. —

February, 1916.

Queries and Jlnswers Correspondents.

to

Queries w ill be dealt with under the following rules :— i - — Letters containing Queries must be marked on the top left hand comer of the envelope “ Query,’’ and addressed— F i r s t A i d , 46, Cannon-street, London, E .C . 2 .— A l l Queries must be accompanied by a “ Query Coupon” cut from the current issue op the Journal, or in case of Queries from abroad from a recent issue. J . — Queries are invited on F irst-A id , Home-Nursing and HomeHygiene at these are o f general interest. These w ill be atiswered in F i r s t A i d i f space permits. 4.— Queries, accompanied by stamped addressed envelope, w ill be anssvertd by post.

A. E. (Abercarn).-— I shall be glad if you will kindly answer the following question which was asked at a recent examination : — “ In what accident, happening underground, would pain act as a splint ?” Pain is a comparative symptom It locates the situation — but not the extent — of the mischief present, and also serves as a guide to the efficiency or lack of efficiency in treatment. In the case of a fracture, pain limits both active and p assive movements which might aggravate the injury. If, therefore, the pain is strong enough an d long enough to keep the adjacent jo in ts at rest, then it conforms to Dr. Cantlie’s famous definition, and is a true splint. T his Query probably relates to an accident associated with some special occupation and can only be answered completely by someone fully acquainted with the local conditions.— N. C orbet F le tc h e r .

Paper Scarcity and “ First Aid.” W e venture to think that hardly any apology is needed to readers of F i r s t A i d in reiterating the wide-spread warn­ ing with regard to the prospective paper scarcity, conse­ quent upon the Government’s restriction, among other imports, that of wood-pulp for paper manufacture. It is not within our province to judge whether or not the Gavernment is pursuing a wise policy in adopting this course, but certain is it that, like all others engaged in educational work, technical or otherwise, we shall have to conform to the rules and regulations laid down and to cast about to obtain the best means to meet the emergency of the case. A deputation representing the Master Printers’ Associ­ ation and the Printing and Kindred Trades’ Federation of the United Kingdom was recently received by Sir Geo. Barnes at the Board of Trade, when the question of the restriction of the importation of wood-pulp was fully dis­ cussed. It is understood that the serious consequences to the printing trade which would result from any great re­ strictions on wood-pulp imports were explained to Sir George, and it was pointed out that the printing trade had already suffered considerably as a result of the war. Sir George Barnes, in reply, promised that the matter would receive full consideration, and stated that a repre­ sentative of the Masters’ Association would probably be appointed on the forthcoming Commission and, possibly, a representative of the Men’s Federation.


February ^[916 .

—' FIR

It was stated by a member of the deputation that Mr. R uncim an had already consented to lower the rate of restriction from 60 to 50 per cent. Meanwhile, let us endeavour to see how the restriction affects us, individually. Every copy issued of F i r s t A i d will henceforth be considerably increased in the cost of production, and it behoves us, therefore, to tread warily. In this connection we ask our readers and agents to render us all the assistance possible, so that we may be enabled to obviate a superfluity of copies by keeping well within the margin of demand. Naturally, with others, we have been more or less hit by the great wars, but we have never swerved from our responsibilities nor curtailed our literary columns through false economy. D urin g the whole of the 18 months of hostilities, F i r s t A i d has fully catered for its patrons, and it is our honest intention to continue to do so until the end. A ll we ask our readers is to do their part. First, our aim and ambition is to get as nearly as possi-

T

A ID —

155

Reviews. THE

T R IA N G U L A R

BANDAGE.

By Howard M. Preston. London : John Bale, Sons and Danielsson, Ltd. P r ice is .

The multifarious uses of the triangular bandage are amply demonstrated in this little book and, from a first aider’s point of view, it should be found extremely useful. It is essential for the ambulance student to have a sound knowledge of the triangular bandage, for it is perhaps more in use than any other form of bandage. The author^ of this book is demonstrator at the first aid and home nursing classes at the Regent-street Polytechnic, and his knowledge of the triangular and roller bandaging, is thorough and complete; he is moreover

T h e motor am bulances of the West R id ing. 31 Detachm ent, outside an A uxiliary H o sp ital at Y ork. ble an idea of the approximate num ber of copies required each month and thus prevent a wastage. W e would prefer to take the minimum of risk in order that unsold copies might be fewer and grow beautifully less each month. W e shall be glad, therefore, if all intending new subscribers will kindly notify us as to their requirem ents and our publishing department will do the rest. M eanw hile we rely upon our large clientele of supporters to continue on our books, and, in thanking our advertisers for past con­ sideration, trust they will continue to give us all the help they can, and by their example and influence induce other firms to back up F i r s t A i d in further propagating the good work it has striven ardently to accom plish for so many years past on behalf of so noble and righteous a cause.

A ccording to a Geneva despatch, it is unofficially stated that the delegates of the International R ed Cross Society who have just returned from a visit to prisoners’ camps in Siberia deny the Germ an reports of R ussian harshness.

epdowed with the rare gift of conveying his knowledge to others. The book is well illustrated and should be of consider­ able assistance to students.

T h e yield of the sale recently organised by the A uctioneers and Estate Agents’ Institute, on behalf of the Liverpo ol R ed Cross, with subscriptions, am ounts to ,£2,000.

U n d e r the illustration w hich appeared on page 135 of our last issue, we stated that the lady on the left of the illustration was M iss Scholes, we regret this was an error, the lady being La d y Supt. M iss E . W hittle.

WHEN CORRESPONDING WITH AD VER­ TISERS PLEASE MENTION “FIRST AID.”


BRITISH

F I R S T

and

February, 1916.

RED CROSS SOCIETY. ■

Notes

A I D. —

News.

The London Gazette , of February 2nd, publishes a further list of Red Cross awards (1st Class) in recognition of valuable services rendered in the organisation of nursing service, and of the organisation and training of Voluntary Aid Detachments in connection with the war. Those receiving the decoration are Miss S. A. Swift (Matronin-Chief), Mrs. Edred Corner, Miss E. M. Roberts (Matrons); The Viscountess Esher, Lady B. C. Oliver, and Mrs. K. Furse (Voluntary Aid Detachments). * *

An Active Service Exhibition is to be held at Prince’s Skating Club, Knightsbridge, next month in aid of the funds of the Joint War Committee. Men of the Grenadier Guards will be seen making trenches, dug-outs, and wire entanglements. The earthworks will be full size, so that visitors may pass through them, and will be of exact official pattern in every case. This miniature battlefield will be on a tented plot of land adjoining Knightsbridge Hall. Mr. Dudley Hardy has designed the panoramic scenery surrounding the trenches. * * *

A new scheme for collecting and distributing comforts for the armies in the field has been drawn up by Sir E. V ard, Director-General of Voluntary Organisations, approved by the General Officer Commanding-in-Chief’ and sanctioned by the War Office. The office of the Director-General of Voluntary Oganisations, it may be recalled, was created with the object of co-ordinating and directing all voluntary effort throughout the United Kingdom in connection with the supply of mufflers, mittens and other articles of clothing and comfort for the troops, whether at the front or in the military hospitals. In order to secure co-operation and prevent overlapping and waste, county and borough asso­ ciations were formed to link up the various societies, guilds, groups of workers and individuals engaged in making such articles. Standard patterns were supplied, finished articles were inspected by experts, material for certain articles were supplied free of charge, and free transport was pro­ vided for articles requisitioned by the Director-General. Special arrangements were made in the case of Queen Mary’s Needlework Guild, the Red Cross Society, and Order of St. John, war hospital supply depots unattached to any central organisation, and regimental associations. * * *

It has been found, after careful inquiries, made by a representative of the department in France, that the rapid movement of troops from place, to place and sometimes from one theatre of war to another, has made increasingly difficult the problem of securing prompt delivery of con­ signments earmarked for particular units. To meet this difficulty, is is proposed under the new scheme that all gifts forwarded through the department shall be consigned

“ for the benefit of the troops generally-,” and shall be sent to the Military Forwarding Officers Overseas for dispatch to the distributing points. Commanding Officers in the field will make known the needs of their units to Assistant Military Forwarding Officers at these points, and the gifts will then be sent to the soldiers’ billets for distribution among the men. The Assistant Military Forwarding Offi­ cers will keep the Director-General fully informed cf the quantities each unit receives, and will requisition articles for which there may be a big demand. The DirectorGeneral will thus be in a position to advise the local or regimental associations of the number and nature of articles issued to each unit, and to requisition articles in their place. In short, while a regimental or county association will have no guarantee that the actual comforts which it sup­ plies will go to the regiment or other unit in which it is particularly interested, it will have an assurance that similar articles are supplied from the general “ pool ” to that unit more promptly than under the old system, and that the actual articles which it is providing will replenish the store thus depleted. *sk*

In the House of Commons, Mr. Watt asked the Under Secretary for War whether his attention had been called to the fact that nurses in uniform passing back and forward to France were not granted the same privileges as soldiers or any advantage over the general public in having their passes examined ; that this frequently subjected them to long waits, sometimes exposed to the weather ; and, if so, would he see that such nurses, being on war service, were put on the same level as soldiers in the way of journey privileges.— Mr. Tennant answered : Nurses in the uniform of Queen Alexandra’s Imperial Military Nursing Service and others who travel with military warrant embark and disembark from military gangways and are on the same footing as soldiers. Ladies temporarily employed as nurses with certain voluntary organisations who do not travel on military warrants, or under military orders, pass the examination of passports as all passengers do. ***

The number of enemy doctors and Red Cross workers who have been allowed to go through our naval blockade under safe conducts to Europe is eighty-six, and the num­ ber of those who have been allowed to pass without safe conduct is sixty-nine. Lord Robert Cecil, who made a statement to this effect in the House of Commons, added that the Government had not so far felt obliged to refuse requests made to them, on the ground of the Geneva Con, vention, for the free passage of enemy doctors and Red Cross employees returning to their own country from over­ seas. In most cases Red Cross workers captured or de­ tained by the Germans had also been released, but, as in some cases they had not been released, the Government was considering the advisability of detaining similar Ger­ man individuals who would otherwise be returned.


-FIRST

F e b r u a r y , T916,

AID. —

>57

PERFECT SERVICE iODEXj

FIRST-AID

O U R long-standing and inti­

mate knowledge of hospital life and its re­ quirements makes our Special Nurses’ Equipment Section replete with all possible out­ fitting needs, each in strict accordance with the models set for Professional and Volun tary Nurses by various London and Provincial Hospitals and Nursing Homes. All Nurses are cordially in­ vited to avail themselves of this perfect Service, which en­ sures not only correctness of style and durability, but also the most economical charges.

A BLAND & P A IN L ESS — IODINE D R E S S I N G . —

* A septic.

A n tise p tic .

IODEX has been supplied to : H .M . F le e t S u rg e o n s , R .A .M .C . S u rg e o n s, Red C ro s s S u rg e o n s , C ro ix R o u g e F ra n c a is e B e lg ia n F ie ld h o s p it a ls , F re n c h F ie ld H o s p ita ls , N u m e ro u s M ilit a r y H o s p ita ls, M e m b e rs of S t. Jo h n A m b u la n c e .

IODEX is a First-Aid Dressing of great merit— painless and bland It promotes rapid healing and is ideal in septic wounds, tears, abrasions, bruises, burns, scalds, inflamed feet, etc. IODEX is non-staining, non­ irritating Free Iodine of great penetrative power. It is a power­ ful absorbent and antiseptic, and rapidly reduces inflammation.

I0DEX is sold in 1 oz. Pots, Price 1/3.

C a ll , ’Phone o r W rite fo r Illu stra te d Catalogue.

I O D E X has benefitted thefollow ing and numerous other conditions: E n la r g e d G la n d s , G o itr e . T u b e r c u lo u s J o in ts , B u r s itis , S y n o v it is , Sela-tlca, N e u r itis , G ou t, R h e u m a to id A r t h r it is , H y d r o c e le , P a r a s it ic S k in D is e a s es . R in g w o r m , C h ilb la in s , A cn e, B oils, M u m p s , S p r a in s , AND A L L IN F L A M M A T O R Y C O N D IT IO N S .

Hospital & General Contracts Co., Ltd. T h e “ Red C ro s s C o a t ,”

L ite ra tu re

on

a p p lic a tio n

Menley & James, Ltd.,

to—

39, F a r rin g d o n R oad, LONDON, E.C.

U n iform s& E qu ip m en ts

in N avy. Stocked in lengths 48m., soin., 52m., 54111., 56m. Cheviot Serge .. .. 23/6 All-W ool Serge .. 34/6 West of England Serge 36/6

16, N I L E ST., CITY RD., LONDON. N., C l o t h i n g ’, C a p s , A e c o u t n e m e n t s , Leggings, Water Bottles, Belts, Pouches and similar Equip­ ment for Rank and File, while the W EST

END

BRANCH

4, PRINCES ST., HANOVER SQ., LONDON, W., furnishes e v e r y detail for the Officer— his Clothing, Weatherproofs, Sam Browne Belt, Field Equip­ ment—all at the lowest prices. The Hazel Kit has been one of the greatest successes of its kind during the War. W R IT E FOR L IS T S .

21, MORTIMER STREET, W. ’Phone : M U S E U M 3140-/. A gents / o r the w ell-known Bendable Shoes.

FOR EVERY AMBULANCE MAN AND MEMBER OF V.A.D. THE

have two great departments. They produce at the factories at

( N u rs e s ’ E q u ip m e n t S e c tio n ) , D ep t. G.

AMBULANCE

VADE

MECUM .

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In ju re d

and

S ic k

(Forty-six pages, with ten diagrams, two coloured).

3 8 t h E D I T I O N — 6 0 ,0 0 0 . E d ite d by H A L L I D A Y S U T H E R L A N D . M D , Emergency Surgeon in H is M ajesty's Fleet. “ A thirty-eighth edition speaks volumes for its popularity. I his is a veritable m ultuni in parvo, and can easily be carried in the waistcoat pocket. It has been kept well abreast o f the times. W e feel sure that the popularity of this booklet, the cost o f which is threepence, w ill be main­ tained. — T h e Prescriber, Ja n uary, 19/5. “ Th is compact little booklet (compact in m atter and sizeJ can be carried in the vest pocket, and be im m ediately con­ sulted in almost an y em ergency This is the only book on First A id — as far as we know— published in so convenient and compendious form .” The Great C en tra l R ailw ay Jc u rn a l, October, iq /j .

Supplied by

S. G. M A D G W I C K , 26, i v y Lan e, London, E .C ., and by

JOHN M E N Z I E S & CO., L t d ME d in b u r g h & G l a s g o w .

Bookstalls and Stationers. Price Threepence.


— F I R S T

A I D —

February, 1916.

“ A valuable first-aid d re ss in g for w o u n d s ” Q^UCH is the testimony to Sphagnol of a wellknown London Surgeon, whose report we quote below in full. All medical men should avail them­ selves at this time of this strikingly successful healing ointment. It is a distillate of Peat— is antiseptic— possesses remarkable healing properties — and is easily applied. Jan. i6th, 1915.

/ have trted your Sphagnol preparations, ointment, ana cream in certain chronic ulcers with remarkable success, and have recommended Sphagnol to a large number of people under tra mng as a valuable first-aid dressingfo r wounds.”

c^PHAGNOL is the standard remedy of medical men in all cases of skin disease and inflamma­ tion. It is invaluable in the treatment of “ T R E N C H S O R E S ,” E C Z E M A , U L C E R S , P S O R IA S IS , R IN G ­ W O R M , A C N E , D A N D R I F F , P R U R I T IS , H E R P E S , H AEM O R R H O ID S . p H E In stitute of Hygiene have awarded their

certificate for purity, merit, and quality to all Sphagnol Soaps and Ointment.

‘Cheer up!’ I T ’S all very well for kind friends to come along with “ cheer up ” when y o u ’re feeling weak and down, but that will not restore wornout nerves or set your over­ w rought energies to rights. Gst body and nerves re-nourished and re-invigorated with a course of Hall’s Wine and you will “ cheer up ” happily and readily enough ! “ I felt I was in for at least a three months’ illness,” writes a lady, “ but the effect of five or six doses of Hall’s Wine was wonderful, and to say I am delighted with the good it has done me would be feeble praise.” ( Original letter on our file . )

For a cheerful, bright outlook in life you need circulation right, digestion right, nerves right, and for restoring these there is nothing to equal

Important Offer. Doctor’s Outfit of Sphagnol Preparations, consisting of Ointments, Soaps, and Suppositories will be sent to every Doctor, R.A.M.C. Officer, and Red Cross Hospital Nurse on receipt of professional card. A First-aid Outfit containing a liberal supply of Ointment and Soap will be sent upon request to any First-aid or Red Cross Worker. W rite to-day fo r the F ree O utfit and medical testimony to

Peat Products (Sphagnol) Ltd 18a Q u e e n h it h e , U p p e r T h a m e s S tre e t, L o n d o n , E .C

HallsW ine The Supreme Restorative

G U A R A N T E E .— If, after buying a bottle of H all’s Wine and taking half of it you do not feel decided benefit, sim ply return us the half empty bottle, and every penny of your outlay will be refunded.

Large size 3I6. Steph en

S m it h

O f W ine Merchants, drY. a n d

C o .,

L t d .,

B ow ,

L ondon.

528


February, 1916.

— F I R S T

AID. —

159

HUMPHREYS’ SECTIONAL BUILDINGS

T e le p h o n e No

6447 K e n sin g to n . 3 L in e s .

T e le g r a m s : “ H u m p h re y s , K n ig h ts h r id g e , L o n d o n ,”

Portion of Australian Hospital ( 1,000 Beds), Harefield Park, Middlesex, on Humphreys’ Sectional Building System.

The Latest and Best System of Building’s for Mobile Hospitals. Convenient for Transport. Quickly Erected or Dismantled. Reasonable in Price. Immediate Delivery from Stock.

HUMPHREYS LTD., KNIGHTSBRIDCE, LONDON, S.W.

FOR MOBILE HOSPITALS.


— F IR S T

AID. —

February, 1916.

A N A TO M IC A L M O D ELS FOR

STUDENTS

On First Aid, Medicine. Surgery, and all other Scientific and Literary subjects, S e c o n d - H a n d at H al t Prices. N ew at 25 per cent.

|| ----------

t h e

f e m a l e

h u m a n

G EO RG E

b o d y

By

A N A T O M Y & PHYSIOLOGY

P H IL IP

&

S O N . L td ..

P ric e 6 d . ne t.

NOTES

ON

32,

AID

St

I

SIMPLIFIED.

B y S id n e y H. L a m b . A Handbook in a tabulated and simplified form giving the main points 01 first aid, so arranged as to impress them on the memory of the student. DALE, REYNOLDS & CO., L td ., 46, C a n n o n S t.

di scount .

HOW ARD

Catal ogu es free.

W. Jk Q. F O Y L E

M.

PRESTO N,

D em onstrator to the Polytechnic.

116 Illus. Price, is. net, postage 2d. A ID S T O H O M E -N U R S IN G

B y N. C O R B E T F L E T C H E R ,

l- le e t

Post fre e 7d.

FIRST

T H E C O M P L E T E M A N IK IN . Systems of Body accurately indexed. Invaluable to Students of Anatomy, Medicire, First-Aid and Allied Subjects. Price 25. net j postage, 2d. T H E TR IA N G U L A R B A N D A G E : Its Application shown by Words and Diagrams.

Five Coloured Plates movable with Letter­ press. io J by 8 inches. 2 s . net, by Post (Inland) 2s. 2d. L ^ s L o n d o n :

-------

IMPORTANT BOOKS DEALING WITH FIRST-AID.

Six lolcuied Plates movable with Letter­ press. 19A by 7 i inches. 4 s . net, by Post (Inland) 4s. 3d. T H E CHiLD:

-------

S tate wants. Books sent on approval. Books Fought. 12t and 123, C h arin g Cross Road, London, W .C.

P H IL IP S ’ “ P O P U L A R M A N I K I N ” Five Coloured Plates with Organs movable and adjustable. Explanatory Text and Key. New Edition, 16A by I7iin s., 3 s . 6 d . net, by Tost (Inland) 3s. I id.

LONDON, E.C.

B y th e S am e A u th o r.

A Compendium of Aids to Memory, invaluable to all Students. 2nd Edition. With an introduction by James Cantlie, F.R.C.S. Post free, 7 d . W H Y A N D W H E R E F O R E IN F I R S T - A I D . B y th e S am e A u th o r.

Difficulties in Study and Treatment solved by Question and Answer. Royal l6mo. Post free, 7 d . AN IN D E X O F F IR S T-A ID . By J.

H A N M E R ’S

B .A ., M .B . , M .R .C .S .

Home-Nursing Simplified and Tabulated, with Aids to Memory. Post free, 7 d . A ID S T O F IR S T -A ID .

M.

CARVELL,

M .R .C .S .,

L .S .A .L o n d .

Illustrated Ambulance Lecture.

A vade-mecum for the Ambulance Worker. Fcap.8vn. Post free, is .2 d . F I R S T - A I D A N A T O M I C A L D IA G R A M S . Twelve in set, on Roller. Post free, 2 S . i o d . Each Diagram separately, 2 d . 5 and 6 (coloured), 6 d . each. T H E W H O L E A R T O F BAN D AG IN G .

SEASON 1915-16 BOOKED U P ! ! !

Introduction by J a m e s C a n t l i e , F'.R.C.S. Illus. Post free, I s. 2d. P R A C TIC A L IN S T R U C T IO N IN C U T T I N G O U T A N D M A K IN G UP H O S P IT A L G A R M E N T S FOR S IC K A N D W O U N D E D

By T H E K L A

By

M IS S

BO W SER,

E M IL Y

F .J .I.,

PEEK.

Illustrated. Post free, is . 2 d . A S H O R T C O U R S E O F P H Y S I C A L T R A I N I N G FO R T H E R E C R U I T S O F T H E N E W A R M IE S .

(Approvedby the Red Cross Society).

Particulars, id. stamp to C.

By

HAN M ER,

205, D o n c a s t e r R o a d , G o l d t h o r p e , N

r.

R otherham.

JO H N

Wires : Hanmer, Ambulance, Gold horpe.

P r ic e (A S

S U P P L IE D

SPRIN G

£ 1 TO

H .M .

GEARING W H EELS.

2 s.

6 d .

G O V E R N M E N T .)

L ig h t Durable S tretcher for Boy Scouts,

W.

G.

HELPS

(L a te P o a d , H e lp s

1 2 s. 6 d .

& Co.),

S t. P h ilip s B r id g e , B R IS T O L . M a k e rs ot A m b u la n c e W a g o n s and R e q u is ite s .

POSTAL INSTRUCTION in “ PRESCRIPTION READING ” and “ ELEMENTARY DISPENSING.’’ Everyone engaged in FIRST AID work should take up the above Courses at once. m e m b e r o f S.J.A.B. w r i t e s : — “ I fe e l d e e p ly in d e b te d fo r th e

A c o u rs e s o f in s tru c tio n re c e iv e d , h a v e o fte n w a n te d to ta k e such co u rs e s , b u t c o u ld n e v e r fin d w h e re to g e t s u c h .” (T.B.) Special term s now — h a l f fe e s — to m e m b e rs o f S.J.A.B., & c . A pply (stamp) t o M r. J. E . W a l d e n , Sec., Westminster College (L ad y Dispensers Section o f the Westminster College o f Chemistry and Pharmacy, estd. 1874), 112. S t. G e o r g e 's Road, S o u th w a r k , London.

S

T

Officers’ Regulation Great Coats. Dark .t J Grey beaver cloth, 39s. 6d. to measure. Superior quality Men’s Great Coats,' 16s. 6d.— W rite for patterns and particulars, Thornton & Co., tailors, Brighouse. A

BRO M AN,

B aT e T

SONS

&

D A N IE L S S O N ,

L td .,

83-91, G r e a t T it e h fie ld S tr e e t, L o n d o n , W .

Best Stretcher on the Market. BE ST QUALITY CANVAS.

A LLAN

of the Royal Gymnastic Central Institute, Stockholm. Foolscap 8vo. Illustrated. Price is. <5d. net; postage, 2d.

L?

O R S A L E , a quantity of Men’s Ambulance Uniform Trousers, all sizes, quite new, 5s. n d . a pair.— Thornton and Co., 24, Commercial-street, Brighouse.

F

P rin te d a r d P u b lish ed b y M essrs. D a l b . R b y n o l d s & Co., L td ., 46 , C annon

E S T A B L IS H E D

1887.

JOHN SULLEY

STOCKS TAKEN

A uctioneer, Valuer, A rb itra to r, Estate and Business A g e n t, Fire Assessor.

MONTHLY, QUARTERLY OR HALF-YEARLY

S p e c ia lis t t o th e B u ild in g , &c., T r a d e s . 4 6, CANNON

S T .,

LONDON,

E.C.

AT AN INCLUSIVE CHARGE.

Te leg ra m s: “ P ierrette, London." Telephone 307 Central.

“ FIRST AID” QUERY and REPLIES COUPON. To be cut out and enclosed w ith a ll Queries. F fb ru ary, 1916.

St., L o n d o n , E .C ., to whom all com m unications should be a d d ressed .


F IR ST AID.

The Independent Journal for the Ambulance and Nursing Services. Edited b y A R T H U R

No. 261.— V

o l.

X XII.

To

Our

[N ew

S e rie s .]

B.

MARCH, 1916.

Readers.

“ F i r s t Aid ” Is published on t h e a o th of e v e r y m onth.

The Annual Subscription is 3s. 6d. post free ; single copies 2d. The Editor invites readers to send articles and reports on subjects of interest to ambulance workers, these should be addressed to him at 46, Cannon Street, London, E.C. All articles and reports must be accompanied by the name and address of the writer, not necessarily for publication but for the use ot the Editor. Subscriptions, Advertisements and other business communications connected with F i r s t A i d should be addressed to the Publishers, D A LE, REYNOLDS & CO., L td ., 46, C a n n o n S t r e e t , L o n d o n , E . C .

DALE.

IE n u r'd at St*mnUr,'H all.\

[2/6 Pk*r“ n ^ P o ^ F r e e

there has, unfortunately, been more than enough since the historical 4th of August, 1914, to last for many years to come. T here are, doubtless, many directions in w hich the service can be im proved, and a closer co-ordination be­ tween the various associations having for their object the alleviation o f hum an

suffering in peace and war is one

point which obtrudes itself for consideration. It is, probably, a foregone conclusion that after the war the am bulance movement will be accorded a greater measure of public appreciation than it has enjoyed in the past, for, whilst the typical am bulance worker asks for no flourish of trumpets and is prepared to carry on his good work with fitting modesty, it is felt that the time has arrived when the am bulance service as a whole should be afforded that appreciation of the great B ritish public which

EDITORIAL.

is its just due.

It has worked more or less in the dark in

the past, but during the war the light of publicity has been turned upon it and the “ world and his w ife ” have been

F o r some weeks past peace rumours

have been in the air and, whilst it W ork A fter may be that there is a little hope of a the W ar. speedy conclusion to hostilities, there appears to be good reason for the belief that at any rate the allies of the chief enemy have “ had enough ” and would not be unwilling to nego­ tiate for peace. In addition to this, the steadily declining value of the German mark is, perhaps, the best evidence that the beginning of the end cannot be far off, for the resources of our enemy must be fast approaching the break­ ing point. Am bulance

Be that as it may, it is, indeed, a hopeful sign that our Government are now giving consideration to the question of the country’s commerce after the w a r , and it is not with­ out significance that committees dealing with similar ques­ tions have recently come into being at many of the com­ mercial centres of our allies. It is without doubt well that questions of after-the-war procedure should be discussed whilst the experience gained in the conflict is fresh in memory, and whilst the lessons resulting from war experi­ ence are clearly engraved upon the mind of the nation. This is as true in regard to the ambulance service as in any other connection, and in the matter of experience

astonished to know that they have had in their midst such a highly-organised and efficient service at their disposal. T h e valuable assistance which has been afforded to the country by large employers, such as railway com panies and others in training in times of peace large bodies of men in the application of first aid methods, num bers of whom enrolled in the ranks of the R .A .M .C ., is a point which will, doubtless, not escape notice. M en highly skilled in am bulance work available for service with the Forces at any time is no sm all national asset, and, un­ doubtedly, w ill be encouraged and systematised in the future. Surgeons who have been on service on the various fronts w ill be able to advance valuable suggestions in con­ nection with first aid training and practice, and alterations and additions to the prescribed course of instruction may result.

In regard to treatment and dressings for wounds

and other forms o f disab ility met with in modern w arfire, and in regard to general questions of treatment, much has yet to be learned from those who day after day have been continually associated with the m edical departments of the Forces, and am bulance workers of pre-war days may be asked to part with some of their cherished ideas and adopt newer ones resulting from recent experience.


- F I R S T

162

iVfALfc.-.

3Thc Grand J n o r g of the Grder of the Jtospital of S t. Jo h n of Jerusalem in Sngland. AMBULANCE

fjhe

No. . District. A ctin g

deputy

W.

H.

S t.

Jo h n

DEPARTMENT.

.Ambulance

Srigade.

DISTRICT ORDERS.

c o m m issio n er

:

AID. -

March, 1916.

W a l t h a m s t o w ( N o . 29) D i v i s i o n .— The Division had a record audience at the concert which was held at the Walthamstow Baths on March 2nd, in aid of the funds of the Division. In recent years the Division has made rapid progress, and it has now well over 200 members, with six permanent ambulance stations distributed over the town and is doing most useful work— its members having treated during the past over 2000 cases of accident or illness. Supt. A. E. Blum and his Officers are to be congratulated on these results.

------

No. 4 District.

W IN N Y .

A P R IL , 1916. Sunday Duty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. Sunday, 2nd.— No. 56 Division, Cricklewood. „ 9th.— No. 9 „ St. John’s Gate. „ 16th.— No. 17 „ Merton and Wimbledon. ” 23rd.— No. 10 „ St. M ark’s. „ 30th.— No. 58 „ London Post Office. 2.30 p.m. to 6 p.m. As per separate orders. Key St. lohn’s Gate, 2 p.m. ARM LETS. The S.J.A.B. Armlets issued in connection with A ir Raid W ork are the property of the District and not of the individual to whom they have been loaned. Officers and Members-inCharge of Divisions therefore should be very careful to see, when men are called up for Service, that their Armlets are obtained from them and returned to Headquarters, giving particulars of the name of the member and the number of the Armlet. M E M B E R S H IP O F T H E D IS T R IC T . The following was the strength of the various ranks of the D istrict on September 30th, 1915 :— Ambulance Divisions, 3,804; Nursing Divisions, 1,691. The total strength of the District on September 30th, 1914, was Ambulance Divisions, 2,643 ! Nursing Divisions, 843. A N N U A L IN S P E C T IO N S . It will not be possible to hold the Annual Inspection of the Prince of W ales Corps in Hyde Park this year, but in view of the importance of keeping in close touch with such of the Divisions which are on active service, arrangements will be made to inspect the Divisions as far as possible in groups. Officers in Charge of Divisions should therefore notify the Deputy Commissioner as soon as possible on which days of the week it will be convenient for their Inspections to be held. As many days should be quoted as possible. A IR R A ID S C H E M E . Arrangements have now been made for the Nursing Sisters of the District to render assistance in the event of an expected A ir Raid. F u ll particulars have already been sent separately to Officers in Charge of Divisions, and on no account should local arrangements be made with the Police or other bodies without first consulting the Deputy Commissioner. I f any Officers in Charge have made such arrangements they should immediately notify the fact, and ask for further instructions. More volunteers are required in some of the rendezvous, especially in the North and East of London. Lady Divisional Superintendents are desired to make special efforts to obtain volunteers. CO RRESPO N DEN CE. Members are again reminded that letters are occasionally received at headquarters insufficiently stamped. A ll corres­ pondence should be addressed to the Deputy Commissioner, by whom it will be opened each day and circulated if necessary to the member of the staff specially concerned. (Signed) W . H. W IN N Y , A ctin g Deputy-Cotnmissioner.

Headquarters :— St. John’s Gate, Clerkenwell, E.C.

M a n c h e s t e r C o r p s .— The North Manchester Ambu­ lance and Nursing Divisions of the Brigade, held a very successful conversazione at St. George’s Presbyterian School, Moston, on February 26th. Despite the bad weather there was a large attendance of members and friends, and Sergeant Luchinski and Lady Supt. Miss M. Dunn acted as host and hostess. An excellent programme was arranged, and the applause the artistes received showed how much their talents were appreciated. Dr. McGowan, of Cheetham H ill (who is the senior surgeon of the Divisions), was chairman, and during from the interval Mrs. McGowan distributed the labels, medallions, and certificates to the successful members of the Ambulance Division, and presented a beautiful mirror to Sergt. Luchinski as a token of their appreciation of his work among them.— Sergt. Luchinski thanked his comrades for their gift, and announced that a new class for first aid would be started in another week. He gave a cordial invitation to any who would like to join. At the close of the evening Dr. McGowan proposed a vote of thanks to the artistes, which was cordially responded to, and Sergt. Luchinski proposed a vote of thanks to Dr. and Mrs. McGowan, which was also heartily carried. An enjoyable evening concluded by all singing the National Anthem.

No. 5 District. S h e f f i e d C o r p s . — An interesting ceremony took place at the parade of the Sheffield Corps on February 25th, at the Corn Exchange. This was the first distribution in the City of Long Service Medals. Divisional Supt. Baggs, who made the presentation, stated that the Corps was started in 1899, and First Class Sergt. J. W. Beasley, “ A ” D ivisio n ; Sergt. E. H. G. W ynyard, “ B ” D iv isio n ; Sergt.-Major W. A. Browne, “ C ” Division ; and Cpl. A. Fawcett, “ D ” Division, had all been members since the commencement. There were few towns where ambulance men had such opportunities of using their abdity as Sheffield, and few had such a good record for long service. Sergt.-Major Browne being on active service in the Mediterranean, his medal was received by Mrs. Browne, the others being handed to their winners. It is interesting to know that Sergt. W ynyard was the only member of the St. John Ambulance Brigade to win the D .C.M . in the South African War. During the evening several old comrades who had been on active service attended, and were heartily cheered.

L e e d s C o r p s .— The Corps has sent 24.0 men and nurses on active service, and has a further 157 in readiness. A number of men, too, have been trained to render special assistance in the event of air raids, invasion, etc. The Corps, which was 306 strong at the outbreak of the war, has now increased its membership by 204, making the total strength 510. One of the members has been awarded the D.C.M . for meritorious service in the field, and several members on active service have received promotion in recognition of their valuable services. Worthy of special mention, too, is the fact that during the last few days Long Service Medals (15 years’ service) have been awarded to the following Officers :— Corps Supt. A. Eddison (Leeds), Corps Inspector of Stores I. Kaye (Leeds), Divisional Supt. J. M cCullagh and Divisional Supt. F. W hitaker, both of the Armley and W ortley Division).


March, 1916.

— F I R S T

No 9 District.

Formed in 1893 the Dawlish Division of the Newton Abbot Corps, St. John Ambulance Brigade, had two or three years of prosperity, but then the interest waned, with the result that the Division was more or less inactive. A few months ago an appeal was issued, for the purpose of obtaining proper equipment. The men worked zealously under Dr. M. Cutcliffe, the Honorary Surgeon, with the result that Mr. H. Holman, J.P., accepted the Presidency, and other well-known residents offered and gave financial assistance. On March 2nd a public meeting and demonstra­ tion was held in the Victoria Hall, and the members of the Dawlish Division paraded for the first time in uniform, and presented a smart appearance. N e w t o n A b b o t C o rp s.—

Hints on Dispensing Antiseptics. B y E. L . B. F O R S T E R (.M em ber o f the Society o f Chem ical In d u s try ). T h e m edicinal preparations, both for internal and external use, are divided into certain classes, and we venture to say there is no more important one than that of “ Antiseptics.” Just before the outbreak of war they were in some

AID. — other products have passed over, the “ deal oil ” containing the phenol is obtained. From this is got the carbolic acid which, at the end of the process, is in crystalline, colourless needles. It is very deliquescent, has a peculiar odour and a sweet, pungent taste. A lthough carbolic is not a true acid (it is a phenol) it behaves lik e one. I f touched by the hand it w ill burn like a strong acid, and is very poisonous. It is on Part I I . of the poison schedule, consequently, it must be kept under lock and key. W hen weighing it must be placed on a watch glass, and weighed off as q u ick ly as possible as it is so very deliquescent. F o r dispensing a weighing bottle need not be used. It is soluble in water— 1 part of carbolic acid to 16 parts of water. In dispensing it is generally dissolved in a little glycerine and then the water added, as it is freely soluble in glycerine. It is also soluble in alcohol, Chloroform and carbon hysulphide. It w ill often be noticed that the crystals become slightly coloured— a pinkish brow n— on exposure to the air, as when a bottle has been in use some time, and a stopper does not fit well. N o notice need be taken of this, it is a slight chem ical action that is harmless. In the B ritish Pharmacopoeia there is a liq uid carbolic acid called liquefied phenol— one part of the phenol to 10 parts of water. It is colourless but frequently acquires

B y courtesy] T he

M em bers

o f

[ “ The Ladies F ie ld . 1 t h e

N ew

C o u r t

R ed

C ross

H o s p it a l ,

respects going out of favour, but the conditions of the majority of wounds in France and Flanders has done much to reinstate them again. T h e best known and one of the most useful is C a r b o lic

A c id .

Phenol, com m only called carbolic acid, is obtained from coal tar by fractional distillation. Its formula is C gH 6O H . It is sometimes called hydrate of phenol, or phenic acid, and is found in small quantities in nature— in urine, but com m ercially it is obtained from one of the bye products of the manufacture of coal gas. T h e coal is placed in a retort, heat is applied, the gas evolved and other products are led away by pipes, and the tar is deposited in the hydraulic main. T h is tar contains the phenol and various other sub­ stances, which are separated by fractional distillation. T h e tar is he ate d ; at first water is distilled off, and after various

C h elten h a m

(F ifty

B e d s ),

C o m m a n d a n t,

M iss

K in g .

a pinkish hue, and it is this preparation that is mostly used in dispensing, as it is so m uch more convenient to handle. Great care must be taken that none gets on to the fingers, as, like the crystals, it has a very powerful caustic action. T h e uses of carbolic acid are many. A s an antiseptic it is quite a household word, but its m edicinal uses do not only consist of this one form that is in such general use, e.g., the plain solution ; it enters into an ointment, an o il’ there is a glycerine of phenol, a suppository, and even a lozenge containing one grain. I t enters into several disinfectant preparations made by various firms. C arb o lic powder is one of the best known. In surgical work there is a gauze used for dressing wounds, which is prepared by saturating it with a m ix­ ture of pure paraffin, wax and carbolic. T h is is never made in a hospital dispensary, it is always bought.


— FIRST

164

T h e solution is kept in various strengths, such as 1 in 20, 1 in 30, and 1 in 40, according to the use that is to be made of it. It is not unusual for a hospital to keep it in 3 different strengths, but care must be taken that it is very clearly labelled. O rdinary tap water is used as a rule for diluting. In making the ointm ent the carbolic must first be m ixed with a little glycerine before adding the paraffin base, which must be added a little at a time. T h e suppository generally has o il of theobroma and beeswax as the base ; these are dissolved by the aid of heat, and then the carbolic added. P e r c h l o r id e

o f

M e r c u r y.

T h is is frequently called corrosite sublimate. Its official name it hydragyri perchloridum . It is the m ercuric chloride. A n old name for it is muriate of mercury, and its form ula is H g C l2. It is obtained by heating together m ercuric sulphate, sodium chloride and a little black oxide of manganese, when the perchloride sublimes as a white translucent mass

AI D. —

the dispensing bench. It should be weighed on to a watch glass. T h e special tabloids in use at the present day are very handy. T h ey dissolve rapidly in water, and have much to recom mend their use, while, at the same time, some prefer a solution made of the strength ordered. T h e well-known blue gauze so m uch used in surgery, called “ sal alem broth,” is gauze treated with the double salt perchloride of m ercury and ammonium chloride. Although perchloride of m ercury is such a deadly poison it is often ordered for internal use— just a fraction of a grain. T h e official liquor is given sufficient to contain the dose ordered, the most usual being i-32 n d of a grain. It is sometimes ordered in a pill. B o r a c ic

A c id

S o l u t io n .

A cidum boricum, or boric acid, is a weak a c id ; it is obtained by the interaction of sulph uric acid and borax, and occurs in nature in an im pure form. T h e acid is in crystalline plates and needles soluble 1 in 30 of cold water, 1 in 3 of boiling water, 1 in 4 of

By courtesy} A

March, 1916.

[ “ The Ladies Field.' W ar d

in

N ew

C o u r t

R ed

in prism atic crystals. It is highly poisonous, and the greatest care must be taken both with the salt itself and with the preparations, all of which must be kept under lock and key. T h e salt is soluble in water 1 in 16. In boiling water it w ill “ go ” 1 in 2. W hen the perchloride is used as an antiseptic, the official solution is used and diluted to the strength ordered. T h is official solution is sim ply made by dissolving the salt in water. W hen dispensing the solution the greatest care must be taken that the measures used are thoroughly washed ; if possible, special measures must be kept for poisonous drugs. A ll bottles containing solutions of perchloride must be clearly labelled, and the strength must always be stated. I n many hospitals colourless antiseptics, such as carbolic or perchloride of mercury, are coloured by an inert substance sim ply as a safeguard. Should a solution be required stronger than the official strength a special one must be made. In weighing out such a deadly chemical the greatest care must be exercised that none is upset on

C ross

H o sp it a l ,

C h elten h a m .

glycerine. It is one of the best known of the antiseptics of the present day. It is only a weak one, but all the same it is useful. It must always be remembered it is bad dis­ pensing to run to hot water to dissolve crystals, but if the boric acid is well under what w ill “ go ” in cold water re­ sort may be had for quickness to hot water. T h ere are several antiseptics, but the three we have touched on are what we may call the most “ popular.”

R ed Cross envelopes and stationery, with designs and sketches by noted artists, are to be sold in packets at from id . to 2s. 6d., and a lim ited collectors’ issue at prices up to 10s. T h e envelope bears a design by Mr. Joh n S. Sargent, R A.

W hen corresponding w ith A d vertisers please m ention “ F irst Aid ”


March, 1916.

— F I R S T

AID. — P r in c ip a l P o in ts —

B.

Aids to Bv

N.

Home = Nursing.*

CO RBET B .C .,

FLETCH ER,

Cantab.,

(i) T im e — Frequency, quantity. (ii) C ause— e.g., its relation to food, strain­ ing, &c. (iii) Character of V o m iting— e.g., associated with pain, flatulence, nausea, &c. (iv) Effects of vom iting— exhaustion or relief. (v) Nature of V o m it— undigested food, blood (coffee grounds), &c. (vi) Effects of R em edies— decreased in quantity or frequency, longer intervals after food, less pain, flatulence, nausea, etc.

B.A., M .B .,

M .R .C .S .

A uthor o f A Com pendium of A ids to F irst A id, &c. No.

X II.

( C ontin ued from page 1 4 7 .) (m)

O B S E R V A T IO N

I I . — O B J E C T IV E V

P A T IE N T .

R

( “ stiff coldness” ). T h is indicates disturbance I t is associated with an abrupt rise of Tem perature and is usually the first symptom in Fever and inflam m ation. B e fo re a n d d u rin g rigor there is a feeling of extreme coldness.

R ig o r .

S Y M P T O M S ( C ontin ued).

T h is indicates N erv ou s Systems.

V o m it in g .

or

OF

o f N erv ou s System.

disturbance o f D igestive The act o f vom iting

consists of deep inspiration, closure of glottis, contraction of abdom inal muscles, and expulsion of stomach contents. Com pare Coughing.

A.

P r in c ip a l P o in ts —

Tim e, D uration and Degree of Perspiration.

By courtesyj T h e

["T h e Ladies Field." C en tr al

W ard

a t

N au n to n

P a r k

Causes o f V om iting—

A.

(1) Lo cal (G astric)— (1) Irritatio n of stomach (food, secretions). (ii) Disease of stomach (ulcer, cancer, & c.). (iii) O bstruction of bowel. (iv ) Poisoning. N . B . — In these cases there are usually p resen t nausea, retching, f u r r e d tongue— a n d the vom iting gives relief.

(2)

Central (C e reb ral)— (i) D ire ct— e.g., poisoning of blood in d is­ ease. (ii) R eflex— e.g., worms.

N . B . — N a u sea a n d retching usually absent, an d there is no fe e lin g o f relief. * These papers are selected from Dr. Corbet Fletcher’s Aids to Home-Nursing, which is published by Messrs. Bale, Sons & Danielsson,

83-91, Great Titchfield-street, London, W ., and is now on sale, price 6d. net.

R ed

C ross

H o sp it a l .

T rea tm en t —

B.

Bed, Blankets, Hot-water Bottles, D rin ks, D octor. E

W arm

C oughin g indicates disturbance o f R espiratory o r N erv ou s System s. T h e act o f C ough­ in g consists of deep inspiration, temporary closure

E x pe cto r a tio n .

ot glottis, contraction of abdom inal muscles, forced opening of the glottis, and expulsion of air from lungs. Com pare Causes and P rin cip al Points of Vom iting. Causes of coughing.

A.

(1 )

Lo cal (Pulm onary)-— (i) Irritation of lungs, e.g., mucus. (ii) Disease of lungs, e.g., Bronchitis. (iii) O bstruction of air passages, e.g., foreign body. (iv ) Poisoning, e.g., strong am m onia, &c.


— FIRST

i66

(2)

(2 ) R eg ularity in strength and rate. (3 ) R a te . — Adults, 72 per m in ute; Y outh, 8 0 ; children, 96.

Central (C e re b ra l)— (i) D ire ct— B rain disease. (ii) R e fle x— Stomach disease.

P u lse

P r in c ip a l P o in ts of coughing and E xpecto­

B

(vi) Effects of Rem edies— A lleviation, especially at night. Attacks less frequent and pro­ longed. Expectoration dim inished in quantity. N o te. — T h e word e c c e n t covers the P rin cipal Points applicable to V om iting and also to Coughing, i.e., Effects of Vom iting, Cause, Character of Vom it, Effects of Rem edies, Nature of Vom it, Tim e, &c., of vomitiug.

OF

Skin. Pulse. Tem perature. N urse S

SPRATT

D IA G N O S IS . Respiration. A ltitude. K new

the

M eans

of

Tongue'

D iag n o sis.

T h is indicates the State o f the C irculatory and N erv ou s Systems.

S k in .

P rin cipal Points Com pare Tongue— (1) C o lou r. — R e d (F ever); W h i t e (Syncope, la p se; B l u e (Asphyxia, C o m a ); and l o w (Jaundice).

C o l­ Y el­

(2) D egree o f M o istu re .— L ik e pain, this is of com parative value only : D ry — Fever : M oist— Rheum atic Fever and T uberculo sis of lungs. (3 ) Surface. — E ruptions in Infectious Diseases. (4) E ffects o f Rem edies. — T e p id sponging reduces Tem perature and makes skin less dry. P

T h is indicates the S ta te o f the C ircula tory and N erv ou s System s and teaches- -

P u lse.

(1) T h e f o r c e a n d c o n d i t i o n o f H e a r t ( ii) T h e f u l n e s s a n d c o n d i t i o n o f A r t e r i e s

(iii) T h e excitability of the

N ervous

System .

P rin cip al Points (compare R espiratio n )— (1 ) S tren g th. — Sm all, thready (E x h a u s tio n ); hard (K id n e y d isease); full, bounding (In fla m ­ mation, Fever, and Haemorrhage).

T a k in g

— Best taken at wrist (radial).

Use

tips of second and third fingers ; keep patient

ration. (i) Tim e. Frequency. Severity. ( ii) Cause, e.g., its relation to posture, cold air, &c. (iii) Character of C ough— dry or loose with expectoration. Bronchitis, short, h a ck in g : deep, distressing. T u b e r­ culosis, hoarse (cow cough). L a ryn ­ gitis, diphtheria, paroxysmal. W hoop­ ing Cough. (iv ) Effects of C ough— exhaustion or relief. (v) Nature of Expectoration— (a) Scanty— early Bronchitis. Profuse — C h ro n ic Brochitis, T uberculosis, & c. ( b ) M ucous--Catarrh, early Bronchitis. Purulent (mattery— Bronchitis. B loody and heavy (lung tissue— Tuberculosis. P utrid— rare lung diseases.

III. — M EAN S

March, 1916.

AI D. —

R

R

calm and make him rest arm on bed or table, first note strength and regularity of pulse, then count rate for a f u l l minute. N .B .— T h e norm al ratio of Pulse to R espiration is 4 :1 . e s p ir a tio n . T h is indicates Sta le o f C ircu la to ry , N ervou s an d R espiratory System s.

P rin cipal Points (see P ulse)— (1 ) S tren gth. — Feeble and Shallow (S h o c k ); deep and laboured (A poplexy). (2 ) R eg u la rity in strength and rate. (3 ) R a te . — Adults. 18 per m in u te ; youth, 20; children, 24. Slow (S h o ck ); rapid (Pueumonia). T a k i n g . — Always take the patient unawares. In spiratio n and expiration are one respiration ; count for one minute by sight, plac­ ing hand on abdomen as last resource. N .B .— (i) Proper aeration of blood im possible if respirations less than 8 or more than 40 per minute. (2) Pulse and R espiration vary with age, posture, exercise, disease, &c.

R e s p ir a tio n

( T o be concluded.)

Wounds

in

War To=Day.

In a paper by D r. W. Earle Drennen, Birm ingham , Ala., read at the annual session of the Am erican M edical Association in San Francisco in June, he states that the modern sharp-pointed, steel-jacketed, so-called humane rifle-ball, despite all claim s to the contrary, is remarkable for its severe and mutilating trauma. T h e point of entrance may be a small slit, or round wound, but the wound of exit is quite often large and ugly. T h e modern sharppointed bullets are all potentially dum-dums, for it is the rule rather than the exception that the ball, after striking, pivots and turns sidewise. T h is is explained by the fact that the centre of gravity is situated far back, near the base. T h e terrible efficacy of modern artillery has not been exaggerated. Shrapnel wounds are more frequent than rifle injuries, and are often multiple. T h u s in 260 wounded French soldiers 169 were injured by artillery projectiles ; 127 by fragments of shells ; 41 by shrapnel bullets ; only 99 by rifle-shot. D uring a service covering the latter part of 1914 and early in 1915 this observer saw no wounds made by the bayonet. A Warsaw dispatch of June 20th, says :— “ SurgeonM ajor Lesghintseff, who is back from the big battle in G alicia, says that seven-eighths of the wounds were from shells, half of these were from big calibre shells and the rest from field howitzers and field guns, in clud ing shrapnel shells. ‘ B ullets,’ says this authority, ‘ played no role. T h e rifle is the infantrym an’s toy. T h e infantrym an does not fight. W hen the big guns have finished the fighting he occupies the trenches which they have won.’ ”


March

1916

— F I R S T

Jlailwaij Jlmbulance. G .W .R .— T h e Great Western Railw ay Centre have good reason to be proud of one of their members who joined the R .A .M .C . at the outbreak of war. SegreantM ajor E. T . M oxham , formerly a clerk in the office of the divisional traffic superintendent at Cardiff, has recently been awarded the M ilitary Cross for valorous conduct at the Front. H e was attached to the 7th Cavalry Field Am bulance B .E .F ., and it appears that his station was in great danger and the staff had been ordered to leave. T h is Sergeant-Major and his colleagues declined to do so as they had a large num ber of serious cases in "their hands, and about two hundred others waiting to be dealt with. They eventually found themselves in the hands of the enemy for a short time, but they stuck to their post and the trenches were afterwards recaptured by the B ritish and the dressingstation secured. D uring the whole of these incidents the station had been more or less under fire. Sergeant-Major M oxham was a keen am bulance worker prior to joining the Colours and had rendered valuable assistance in the forma­ tion and conduct of railway classes. D uring the last few weeks a num ber of new am bu­ lance classes have been formed throughout the line, and it appears that, despite the steady reduction of staff, due to men jo in in g the Forces, those who remain in the railway service are determined as far as possible to maintain their first aid efficiency. W hilst a num ber of men who have previously taken little or no interest in the work have been attracted to the classes by the prominence given to the value of first aid knowledge in connection with ihe war, others who have lost touch with the movement for years are again taking steps to acquire am bulance efficiency. Enthusiasm in the work is not confined to the male mem­ bers of the staff, for with the increasing number of female clerks, telegraphists, e tc, employed, ambulance classes for the gentler sex have been formed and attended with regularity by large numbers who are evidently keen on making themselves as efficient as possible in this work S .E . & C. R y .— I t gives us great pleasure to announce that we learn on enquiry, the num ber of men attending the Exam inations of this Centre bid fair to equal, if not exceed, last year’s total. T h is must be very gratifying to the Class Secretaries, the members of the committee and the officers of the Com pany alike. A G rand Concert, in aid of the funds of the No. 4 D istrict Corps, w ill be held in the Tow n H a ll, Chatham, on W ednesday, 5th A p ril next. W ell known London artists have been engaged, and the high standard of excellence of the concerts arranged under the auspices of this Centre in the past, is sufficient to guarantee that a musical treat is in store for the mem­ bers of the corps and their friends.. Tickets, 2s., is., and 6d., may be obtained from the Corps Secretary, M r. A. Browning, 8, Ingle-road, Chatham, any members of the corps, or at the doors. W e have no doubt that the am bulance men serving with H .M . Forces, and now stationed in this important Naval and M ilitary District, will be glad to support the efforts of their railway colleagues. When corresponding w ith Advertisers please m en ­ tion “ First Aid.”

167

AID.—

Reviews. T H E O R D E R O F T H E H O S P IT A L O F O F J E R U S A L E M A N D IT S G R A N D OF EN G LAN D .

ST. J O H N P R IO R Y

By W . H . Fincham. London : W. H. & L. Collingridge. Price., 6s. net. No one is better qualified to write a book on this subject than Mr. W. H. Fincham, for he was associated with the pub­ lication of the Guide to the Remains o f the A n cie n t P r io r y , and he has more or less made a life study of the history of the Order. It is now twenty-five years ago when, on his appoint­ ment as Rector’s W arden, he descended into the Priory Crypt and cleared away the accumulated earth, nearly 2 ft. deep, from the foot of one of the Transition responds, and laid bare the charming details of its base. W ith a comrade Mr. Fincham spent many hours digging, pulling down brick partitions, and getting loads of rubbish carted away, until at last the beautifully proportioned Nave and charming little Chapel, clean and welllighted, were again devoted to their original purpose. Mr. W. R. Edwards, the Secretary of the Order, has con­ tributed a chapter on the present day work of the Order, and to those who wish to have an authentic account of its history, without hesitation, we can say a better record it is not possible to find. The book is very fully illustrated and it reflects the greatest credit on all concerned.

The Order of St. John. A n interesting lecture was given on M arch 2nd at T rin ity C h u rch H a ll, Ham pstead, by M r. H . W. Fincham , on “ T h e Order of St. John in the Past and Present,” which was pro­ fusely illustrated by lantern slides. T h e lecturer told the history of the old K nights H o spitallers from the foundation of the O rder in the eleventh century to the present time, and laid particular stress upon the good work now being done in the present war by the St. Joh n A m bulance A sso­ ciation and Brigade and the St. Joh n V o lun tary A id D etach­ ments. H e mentioned that, at the present time, there were over 22,000 Brigade men and over 16,000 V .A .D . women serving with H .M . Forces, in hospitals and on board ships. Col. H endley, C .I E , introduced the lecturer, and, in moving a vote of thanks, urged the audience to further the work of the A ssociation in the No. I D istrict by attending the courses of instruction now being held and in prepara­ tion. D r. C. J. R . M acFadd en seconded, and the lecturer suitably replied. T h e hon. secretary for the district is M r. C. M. F o w ­ ler, of 12, Ancona-road, H arlesden, and the assistant hon. secretary is M iss E. Newm arch, of 4, Crossfield-road, N .W ., who w ill be pleased to give any inform ation desired.

M em bers of the V oluntary A id Detachm ents now working in great numbers at R ed Cross H ospitals have supplemented their uniform s with startling ties and jewellery, said the Essex D irector of the R ed Cross Society, recently. T h ey had every reason to be proud of the uniform, and they should avoid such ornaments. In ­ structions were given to Com m anders to stop these decorations.


— F I R S T

1 68

March, 1916.

AID. —

r HORLICK’S

J MALTE_D MILK * a

A S A D I E T IN R E D C R O S S N U R S I N G .

A

A

Contains all the food value of pure full-cream milk enriched and modified with the soluble nutritive extracts of choice malted cereals. The ratio of protein to carbohydrate and its perfect digestibility commend this food as a reliable reconstructive which may be given freely in septic conditions and surgical cases.

A Y • A

% A t

A t

f

R E A D Y IN A M O M E N T .

A ▼

A

R E Q U R IE S N O C O O K IN G .

f

L ib e ra l Sam ples f o r t r ia l w ill be sent to the Profession Post F re e on application.

A T

H o r l i c k ’s M a lt e d M il k Co., S l o u g h , B u c k s .

Aids to M em ory lo r ‘ t-irs tA itT b iu a e n ts .

m m

Nerve Strength

Sto ck po r t

a1 a■

1

After illness, overwork, or in convales­ cence, H a ll’s W ine is of the greatest value. It starts its good work at once, restoring the tissues, feeding the nerves, im proving the circulation, and strengthen­ ing digestion, so that you get the fullest benefit from your food. Y o u feel its splendid power in every fibre of your being, and realise to the full the jo y of being alive.

13

:C o n n e ll &

T ry

a

H a ll’s W ine y o u r s e lf — to -d a y

HaUsW uie

m m

3he 3ndian Jlmbulance 6azette.

!! S3

A Journal o f Am bulance W ork in In dia , B urm a and the E a st.

P rice 2 s h i l l i n g s p e r a n n u m

Can be obtained on abplication to the Editor, Jutogh, Sim la H ills,In d ia

U n ifo rm s& E q u ip m en ts

have b uilt up, during the past 100 years, a great reputation for efficient products in two great departments. The factories at 16, Nile^ptreet,

13

11

C ity

13

L t d ., B o w , L o n d o n .

H^538

N.,

including Clothing, Caps, A c ­ coutrements, Leggings, Water Bottles, Belts, and other E q u ip ­ ment. Send for quotations. T h e West E n d Departm ent at 4, Princes Street, Hanover Square, London, W ., is

Large size j/6 . O f W ine Merchants, Licensed Grocers. & C o.,

London,

EVERY REQUIREMENT FOR RANK AND FILE,

G U A R A N T E E .— Buy a bottle of H all’s W ine to-day. If, after 1'taking half o f it, you feel no benefit, return us the half-empty bottle and your outlay will be refunded.

S t e p h e n S m it h

Road,

are magnificently equiped to produce

The Supreme Restorative

El 1 13

p o s t fre e .

P u b lis h e d Q u a rterly .

m

m

S t . J o h n ’s G a t e , L o n d o n .

11

S h a t t e r e d N e r v e s R e s to re d “ H a ll’s W in e has done a ll you say it w ill,” w rites a sufferer. “ M y nerves were com pletely shattered, but thanks to H a ll’s W in e I am rap id ly im p ro v in g .” ( Original on our files.)

m

B a i l h y , L t d ., “ E x p r e s s ” O f f i c e , S t . P e t e r ’s S q u a r e ,

and The St. John Ambulance Association,

W e a k nerves are the signals of o a w eakened system ; and there is no surer or safer way of setting these matters to rights than a short course o f H a ll’s Wine.

I

B y L. M. F r a n k C h r i s t i a n , M .B ., C.M . E d i n . Author (jo in t ly w ith W .R .E .) of “ Problems in First A id ,” St. John Amb Assoc. S e v e n th E d it io n n o w re a d y . Revised to date (Sept. 1915.) “ N o ambulance man need ever fear he will go rusty if he will take an occa­ sional dose of the mental mixture contained within the covers of this splendid book . . . cannot conceive a better utilisation of space, a better treatise on this subject could not be written. . . the book for all, whether old hands or students.” “ A ‘ multum in parvo ’ o f the greatest value.” Price : In Cloth, 6cL net— by post In Leather, as. net— by post as. ad.

devoted

HAZEL

to

SERVICE

the

well-known

KITS

FOR

of all fighting, R ed Cross, and St. Joh n A m bulance Services. W R IT E FO R L IS T S .

OFFICERS


March, 1916.

F I R S T

Brevities. “ W e need your help— you may need ours.” T h is ex­ cellent point is contained in an appeal made by the Walthamstow D ivision of the Brigade to the local inhabitants. T h ere is a lot of truth in these few words, and if brought home forcibly to the genera' public— which is extraordinarily ignorant of the objects and services of the S .J.A .B .— many Corps and D ivisions would not be so crippled in their work from lack of funds. Particularly in these times should the Brigade be appreciated for the services which it is doing in connection with air raids is of the utmost use and importance.

*** W h i l e on this subject we notice that a correspondent in the N o rth -E a ste rn G azette suggests that am bulance men and women should attend their places of W orship on Sunday night in uniform with equipment. H e says that it is a great mistake to think that this precaution would tend to cause alarm. T o be forewarned is to be forearmed.

V A m b u l a n c e w ork ers w h o are on the sp o t c o u ld ren d er first a i d

at o n c e

in c a s e o f a n

air

raid, a n d

then

their fe llo w w o r k e r s fo r h e lp a t t h e s a m e tim e. farce fo r

a m a n s k i l l e d in a m b u l a n c e

a b o u t w ith o u t his

w ork

to

It

send

to

seem s a

h av e to go

“ to o ls.”

v < y-

A nother writer in the W estern E v en in g H e ra ld makes the excellent suggestion that the townspeople should train in first aid in order to render assistance in case of an air attack. W hile the subject is red hot in the minds of many people, Centre Secretaries and those interested in classes should be active to rope in those persons who have the inclination to take an interest in am bulance work.

* A n o t h e r addition to the laurels of the St. John A m ­ bulance B rig a d e ! Sergeant T . M cN eill, of the Chopwell Division, has won the Distinguished Conduct Medal. Sergeant M cN e ill brought a wounded comrade out of the firing line under heavy shell fire, and probably saved his life in a double sense. H e got him under cover, and dressed the wounds with promptitude— a most important thing in war time.

*** a few people must have opened their eyes when they read M r. Ten nant’s statement in the H o use of Commons relating to the R oyal A rm y M edical Corps, whose prim ary function, he said, was the prevention of disease. T h is is the first war in which we have had the benefit of an organised sanitary service, and we owe it to that much maligned M inister, Lo rd H aldane. T h e need for it was emphasised by Mr. Tennant by reference to the arresting fact that in the N apoleonic wars only three per N ot

A I D ; —

1 69

cent, of the deaths was due to wounds, and ninty-seven per cent, to disease. T o prevent a recurrence of a lik e pro­ portion from disease, there has been evolved a system of sanitary squads, with water purifying sections and motor bacteriologilcal laboratories, w hile a Sanitary Com m ission sits perm anently at the W ar Office. S im ilar m achinery is being evolved for the A rm y in training at home. * * ii I n the Q ueen's N u r se s' M a g a zin e appears an article by Mrs. R id ding, hon. secretary, D istrict N ursing, St. Joh n A m bulance Brigade, Birm ingham Corps, on “ Organisation of St. John N ursin g D ivisio n s for H e lp in D istrict N ursing.” T h e writer describes how, follow ing an appeal by M iss Hayw ard, superintendent of the B ir­ mingham D istrict N ursing Society, St. Jo h n V .A .D . mem­ bers undertook to help the district nurses. It was arranged that visits were to be paid with a trained district nurse until the member was considered competent to deal with light cases under her supervision. “ N o infectious work, no Sunday duty, and no m idwifery.” A bag was to be provided by the Society containing all necessaries for the patients. T h e hours were to be 8.45 a.m. to 1 o’clock and 4.30 p.m. to 8 o’clock. M em bers were to be asked to

volunteer for a month of m orning or evening duty, were to present themselves at the headquarters of D .N .A . every day before beginning work. Out of first thirty volunteers only one was prepared to give

and the the any

continuous tim e ; she, however, was reported as very satisfactory. Other offers came in gradually, but there were not nearly enough to carry on the work, w hich was getting more urgent every week, and the creation of a new band of workers had to be undertaken. T h e workers, writes Mrs. R idd ing, “ frequently hesitate in an in ­ explicable manner, but I often find I can dispel their doubts by pointing out that they are only to be looked upon as women who are w illing to help, and not as responsible trained nurses.” T h e plan has the approval of the Q .V .J .I., w hich considers that in view of the present shortage m inor cases can very well be undertaken by V .A .D . membdrs (o f course, under supervision), and the associations have been written to to that effect. * * * A m b u l a n c e men of the County of D urham are pleased to learn that the com petitions under the auspices of the D urham M ines Inspection A m bulance League are to be continued this year. It would have been an un­ desirable policy to abandon these highly beneficial com pe­ titions, w hich have been the means of doing such a splendid work among the m ining classes. T h e league was inaugurated by Mr. R . D onald Bain, of D urham , form erly chief mines inspector in the county, who presented a shield. T h is trophy and others which have been added are com ­ peted for annually. T h is year’s com petitions will begin in A pril, and will conclude on M ay 16th.


170

— F I R S T

Railway Ambulance Men and the War. By kind perm ission of T h e Itid ia n A m bulance Gazette.

AID. —

March, 1916.

the benefit of something like 7,000 men, whose mental equipm ent in am bulance matters the railway companies stood sponsors. T h e num ber of railwaym en who can be perm itted to jo in the colours is necessarily lim ited, and it is well known that, with the full approval and concurrence of the G overn­ ment, the companies have been reluctantly com pelled to withhold perm ission in the case of a num ber of their ser­ vants desirous of entering the Forces. T h at they can be of equal value to the State in their railway capacity is evidenced by the response which has been forthcom ing to the exceptional calls made upon them in the conveyance of troops and war materials, quite apart from the every-day services necessary for the movement of people and the materials upon which the domestic welfare of the realm depends. It is pleasing to learn, however, that many rail­ waymen who have not enlisted have enrolled themselves in the V oluntary A id Detachm ents organised by the British R ed Cross Society, St. Joh n A m bulance Association, and sim ilar am bulance institutions, for duty in adm inistering to the needs of those members of the khaki-clad fighting line, now no longer thin, who have returned from the Front wounded, taking duties by rota often in the long night vigils which are not the least wearisome among hospital requirements. Others, whose calls will not perm it of their enrolling for such continued service, have readily voluntered to act as stretcher-bearers between train and hospital when special R ed Cross trains with their suffering freight arrive, bringing urgent demands for immediate removal to the sick ward. It is here that the value of the trained man is specially appreciated by the w ounded— the man who is skilled in the lifting and carrying of the injured, and is able to carry out the removal of stretchers, with their suffering burdens, from train to platform, with as little discom fort as possible to the patients. Those who so readily volunteer to assist in the transport often sacrifice many hours of their wellearned rest, although it need not be remarked that the sacrifices are w illingly made, those assisting being more than repaid by the knowledge that they have done their share in assisting the wounded. M any an ex-railwayman in

of course, not prim arily designed to subserve m ilitary exigencies, it is none the less a fact that the con­ tinuous stim ulus which the railway companies have infused into their employees has produced a large body of valuable human m aterial— anything but raw— upon which the country has drawn to meet the innum erable demands for trained am bulance practitioners. It may be useful to emphasise the fact that the trained am bulance worker usually becomes something more than that. H aving, step by step, proceeded through the first aid course, i.e., having gained the first-year proficiency the voucher of the second year, the m edallion of the third year, and label for m ain­ tenance and efficiency in succeeding years, the time arrives when he looks round for other worlds to conquer. H e not infrequently undergoes a course of instruction in home nursing ; jo in s the St. Joh n A m bulance Brigade or volun­ tary aid detachm ents; possibly enrols for voluntary service at m ilitary or naval nursing hospitals ; or enters the ranks of the R oyal A rm y M edical Corps, T e rrito ria l Forces. T h e point to notice is that, although these are outside the railway am bulance organisation, yet the initial im pulse which led the railwaym an to interest him self in these insti­ tutions is directly due to the active efforts of the railway company, who persuaded and encouraged him into his original bent, the study of first aid. H o w many railwaym en are at present strving their country and hum anity in field work, rest hospitals, or auxiliary m ilitary hospitals, during the prosecution of the war, it is im possible to sa y ; but of upwards of 72,000 railwaymen serving with the colours— about 11 per cent, of the railway p er so n n e l — it will be safe to assume that at least 10 per cent, are trained am bulance men, that being approxi­ mately the average proportion of am bulance workers to the total railway staff. A n d it is worth considering what this actually means. In the first place the railway am bulance worker, as a rule, stands for the best type of am bulance man. Not only is his actual experience of first aid treat­ ment more extensive and more varied, but, compared with others, his knowledge is also developed in other directions. W here else are organisations such as those upheld by the railway companies ? W e see all expenses covered, i.e., everything is provided free including text books, bandages, stretchers, first aid outfits, in fact all appliances required by the railway students ; and there is no class fee. N or is this more than the suit­ able setting in which the am bulance develop­ ment is conducted. Supervising the whole are am bulance committees, formed of specially experienced workers, who know that behind every well directed endeavour is the ready assistance and open purse o f their Com pany ; and, ready to help these committees with un­ stinted sympathy and ready co-operation may be indicated the whole body of railway officials. Perhaps, however, one of the most important first aid factors in the training available to the railway employee may be found in the annual com petitions which each Com pany organises on its own system, bearing the entire cost of judging and of the monetary or other B y courtesy ] [G. W .R . M agazine. awards. T h e contests culm inate in the com ­ The winning team of the G .W .R . final ambulance competitions (Newport, petitions for the Inter-R ailw ay Challenge Shield. Dock St.) in the stretcher test, and Dr. J. M. Carvell, judging. The T h e naval and m ilitary forces now fighting have Directors’ Challenge Shield in the background. W h il st ,


— FIRST

March, 1916.

the combatant ranks has found grounds for thankful­ ness in his am bulance training, and cases are on record where the knowledge gained in classes sup­ ported by the railway companies has enabled lives to be saved by the im provised tourniquets or bandages, fashioned from handkerchief or torn-up clothing, turned to good purpose in arresting severe haemorrhage, and continu­ ance of which would have led the patient to death from loss of blood, allied to the inevitable shock of the injury. Enough, however, has been said to show that the railway ambulance workers constitute an invaluable asset in the widespread struggle into which the B ritish Em pire has thrown its battle forces. It is gratifying to record that the first Distinguished C onduct M edal gained by a member of the R .A .M .C . has gone to Sergt. E. W alch, hitherto an inspector in the goods department at Bolton of the L anca­ shire and Y o rksh ire Railway, and an am bulance enthusiast of long standing It only remains to add that among benefits that accrue from the diffusion of ambulance knowledge is the stim ulus to railwaymen to continue am bu­ lance work in the principle that underlies the whole of its activities, i.e., asking no other reward than the opportunity to relieve the sufferings of fellow creatures, as so many men are finding satisfaction in doing, realising that it is indeed a work in which consideration for others is the creative impulse and motive.

St.

John

Men

in

France.

W r i t i n g t o M r. H erbert Lewis, the deputy-commissioner of the St. John A m bulance at Cardiff, Colonel J. E. H . Davies, officer com m anding the 130th (St. Jo h n ) F ield Am bulance of the 38th W elsh D ivision, says :— “ I have not had the slightest trouble with the u n it ; every man is doing well and the unit retains the good record it had in England. We are now, I am glad to say, fairly hard at work. I have two sections up at advanced dressingstations, where I myself have spent a week. I am now a few miles behind the line with a hospital which holds, at a push, 60 patients, and I have one officer with me here. Besides sick, we have a num ber of bomb-wound cases, trench feet, etc. W e are gradually relieving t h e ------D ivision. T h e men are all keeping fairly well and fit, and so far we have had no fighting casualties in the unit. T h e weather has been hopeless since we have been out in France— rain every day alm ost— and flooded fields, swollen rivers, and bridges impassable in places. M y brother-inlaw, Peebles, is about fifteen miles away, and is S 1S.O. for a cavalry division. H e has a second time been mentioned in French’s dispatches.” M ajor A. W. Anderson, of the same unit, writes to Mr. Lewis :— “ There is one thing perhaps you might be able to help us in. A ll the units about here have gramophones, and they are really splendid things for those men who are off duty at night. Y o u see, they are billeted in barns, and there is absolutely nothing for the men to do with themselves in the evenings............................. U n fortu ­ nately, we have lost our mascot bloodhound, and even if we had not lost it we would have had to get rid of it now, as an order has just come out saying that all dogs must be destroyed. T h e address of the unit, and the address that will always find us, is the 130th (St. Jo h n ) F ie ld Am bulance, 114th Brigade, 38th W elsh D ivisio n .”

AI D. —

S t John Jlmbulance Jlssoeiation. C a n a d i a n B r a n c h .— T h e annual report for 1915 announces that during the four years active work of the organisation in Canada, over 26,000 men and women have taken advantage of the opportunity offered through the classes of instruction to fortify themselves with a better knowledge of how to be of assistance to their fellow men in time of need. These figures tell a story of rem arkable progress in the work w hich the A ssociation has undertaken, and, in addition, provides proof of the eagerness with w hich the p u blic have taken advantage of the teaching provided. F o r the first three years of the active work of the A ssociation in 1911, 1912 and 1913, close upon 15,000 people had taken in ­ struction of one kin d or another, and this was considered a remarkable record. D urin g the past twelve months, over 10,000 people have taken instruction, an increase on the previous year of over 4,000, and less than one-third below the figures for the three previous years. T h e instructional work has been taken up generally all over the D om inion, and while some of the P ro vin cial Councils have been more active than others, there has been a desire on the part of all to advance in the work. T h e R ailw ay Centres have continued to show progress, and the splendid record of the C anadian P acific R ailw ay Centre is particularly gratifying. T h e Inte rco lo n ia l R a il­ way has taken hold in a manner w hich has resulted in sub­ stantial progress, bringing up the percentage of trained men in the employ of this system to a m arked degree. T h e G rand T ru n k R ailw ay Centre is the infant organisation among railway employes, but as an organisation only, as many employes of the Com pany, in M ontreal particularly, have for several years taken up the work under the Q ue­ bec Centre, and are well qualified. At the present time the officials are spreading the good work over the entire system, until at this date classes have been started in twenty-six localities. One feature w hich the reports of the R ailw ay Centres serve to illustrate is the importance of the work from an econom ic standpoint, in addition to its hum anitarian side. T h e Canadian Pacific Railw ay Centre report shows over 1,000 accidents attended to by first aiders in one sm all shop alone, and the 800 cases handled by the intercolonial R ailw ay employes are but instances of what is going on every day in industrial establishments where first aid in s tru c tio n ^ encouraged.

I p s w i c h . — T h e annual report of the Centre shows that the year has been one full of activity. T h e work has been very hard, and great sacrifices of time and strength have been made by the members of the Ipsw ich Centre and Corps. T h e public response has been most generous, and the Centre can rejoice in seeing the fruits of its long years of preparation. E leven classes in first aid and home nursing were held during the year, and altogether 270 cer­ tificates, three vouchers. 15 m edallions and six labels were gained. T h e motor am bulance w hich began its work in Ju ly , 1914, has been a most useful asset to the Centre, travelling many thousand miles to and from hospitals and nursing homes. T h e report records the death of Col. G ibbs, who was on the D istrict Staff of the Brigade, and also Supt. Roberts, late of St. Jo h n ’s D ivision, who was lost in the “ R oyal E dw ard.” T h e finances of the Centre show a balance in hand of £ 2 2 15s. 9d.


BRITISH

Notes

and

RED CROSS SOCIETY.

News.

T h e hospital suits, say T he H o sp ita l, issued to patients in the V oluntary A id Detachm ent hospitals have been severely criticised, particularly at Cam bridge, where the County Director, the Vice-Presidents, and Com m andants of this branch of the B ritish R ed Cross Society have applied to the Surgeon-General for an issue of the ordinary blue hospital suits. T h is is not the first time such an appli­ cation has been made, but it has generally been refused on the ground of an insufficient supply of the material. Grey clothing has been permitted, but this is what is objected to so strongly, on the ground, it was urged, that the cut of the clothes made them resemble pyjamas ! T h e colour, though apparently not very popular, was not so much criticised as the cut, or absence of cut. So keenly is this defect felt that one speaker at a meeting of Cam bridge Com m andants suggested starting a fund to provide the men with an alternative to “ this terrible dress.”

* * * Scotland’s first R e d Cross hospital ship, S t. M a rg a ret o f Scotland, was formally inspected at Glasgow on M arch 7th, and the following day Lady Beatty declared the vessel open for public inspection prior to sailing for service. T h e vessel has been entirely fitted out and equipped, under A dm iralty supervision, by the Scottish branch of the R ed Cross Society, which raised ^ 2 1 ,0 0 0 from flag days in 700 towns and villages in Scotland. * * * A n im portant extension of the work of the Joint Com ­ mittee of the R ed Cross Society and the O rder of St. John is the appointment, with the approval of the W ar Office, of a R ed Cross Com m issioner for B ritish East Africa. T h e Joint Committee has been fortunate in securing the services of Colonel James Montgomery, C.S. I., who w ill start at once for East A frica with a staff and a large consignm ent of stores.

In the H ouse of Com m ons last month M r. Watt questioned the Under-Secretary for W ar with regard to the fact that nurses in uniform passing backward and forward to France are not granted the same privilege as soldiers, or any advantages over the general public, in having their passes examined. M r. Tennant replied that nurses in the uniform of the Queen A lexandra’s Im perial M ilitary N ursing Service, and others who travel with m ilitary warrant, embark and disem bark from m ilitary gangways, and are on the same footing as soldiers. Ladies tem­ porarily employed as nurses with certain voluntary organisations, who do not travel on m ilitary warrants or under m ilitary orders, pass the exam ination of passports as

all passengers do. T h e regulations to this effect were drawn up by the Fren ch and B ritish M ilitary Authorities, and are necessary in order to prevent impersonation. * * * A correspondent, writing to the N u r s in g T im es, says : I t is with much regret we learn from V .A .D . nurses re­ cently returned from France that in many of the hospitals these untrained women with scarcely any, or at the most, only a few months’ training are left “ in ch arg e ” of our really sick and wounded soldiers, while so many trained and capable nurses have to remain at home in V .A .D . con­ valescent hospitals. W hat is the reason of th is? Is it that the B ritish R ed Cross Society thinks that trained women require to go on probation in convalescent hospitals while the V .A .D .’s (untrained) are considered capable of taking charge of those who should be having the very best of our nursing skill ? O r is it they prefer to accept these V .A .D .’s because the majority of them will give their ser­ vices free ? W e think this correspondent has a very vague idea of the system of caring for the wounded which now prevails. These outbursts of professional jealousy, to say the least, are in very bad taste. T h e work which the V .A .D . members are doing has received praise from all quarters, and because in a few instances they have been placed “ in charge ” of a hospital over the head of a trained nurse they should be stigmatised in the press is very unfortunate. After all merit will tell. * * * T h e following announcem ent appeared in the London G azette of M arch 3rd :

H is M ajesty the K in g has been graciously pleased to confer the R oyal R ed Cross, 2nd Class, on the underm en­ tioned ladies, in recognition of their valuable services and devotion to duty from August to November, 1914, whilst working under the Belgian R e d Cross in F la n d e rs :— M iss C. E . A . Thorpe, M atron. T h e H onourable Angela M anners, Sister (organiser of the “ M anners A m bulance ”). * * *

L ib e l damages, amounting to ^ 5 0 0 , were awarded in the K in g ’s B ench on the 14th inst. to M iss Swanhilde Bulau, editor of th e N u r s in g Tim es, and Messrs. M acm illian, the publishers, against Mrs. Bedford Fenw ick and the N ursing Press, Ltd. Certain statements were com plained of appearing in the B r itis h J o u r n a l o f N u r s in g as being untrue. M rs. Bedford Fenw ick, in evidence, said she wrote the article without spite and on patriotic grounds. T h e Judge held that M iss B ulau was undoubtedly a B ritish subject now, and an undertaking was given not to repeat the attacks.


— F I R S T

March, 1916.

i 73

AID. —

EVERYTHING

IODEX | (Unft todi M *J)

A septic.

FIRST-AID

that the Professional or Voluntary Nurse requires can be obtained instantly at our Nurses’ Equip­ ment Section with everything correct as to detail, and reliable in every possible way. F ro m the bonnet to the shoes we supply the outfit complete or as desired, with an expert regard to the requirements of whatever Hospital or Nursing Establish­ ment for which it is intended. Nurses speak in the most gratifying manner, of our quick, thoughtful service, and of the great durability and reliability of the articles we supply.

A BLAND & PA IN LESS — IODIN E D R E S S I N G . —

A n tise p tic .

IO D E X has been supplied to : H .M . F le e t S u rg e o n s , R .A .M .C . S u rg e o n s , Red C ro s s S u rg e o n s , C ro ix R o u g e F ra n c a ls e B e lg ia n F ie ld H o s p ita ls , F re n c h F ie ld H o s p ita ls , N u m e ro u s M ilit a r y H o s p ita ls , M e m b e rs of S t. J o h n A m b u la n c e .

IO D E X is a First-A id Dressing of great merit— painless and bland It promotes rapid healing and is ideal in septic wounds, tears, abrasions, bruises, burns, scalds, inflamed feet, etc. IO D E X is non-staining, non­ irritating Free Io d in e of great penetrative power. It is a power­ ful absorbent and antiseptic, and rapidly reduces inflammation.

I0D EX is sold in 1 o z. Pots, Price

A ll N u rses are co rd ia lly invited lo v isit this departm ent w ithout being placed under any obligation to purchase.

C a ll, 'P hon e o r W rite f o r Illu s t ra te d Catalogue.

1/3.

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10 D E X has benefitted the follow ing a?id numerous other conditions: E n la r g e d G la n d s , G o itr e . T u b e r c u lo u s J o in ts , B u r s itis , S y n o v it is , S c ia tic a , N e u r it is , G ou t, R h e u m a to id A r t h r it is , H y d r o c e le , P a r a s it ic S k in D is e a s e s . R in g w o r m , C h ilb la in s , A cn e, B o lls , M u m p s . S p r a in s , AND A L L IN F L A M M A T O R Y C O N D IT IO N S .

( N u rs e s ’ E q u ip m e n t S e c tio n ) , D ep t. 6 . in N avy.

L ite ra tu re

on

a p p lic a tio n

Menley & James, Ltd.,

to—

39, F a r rln g d o n R oad, LONDON, E.C.

British Red Cross Society. C ounty of L ondon B r a n c h .— T h e County of London Branch has suffered a heavy loss by the death of Sir George Pragnell, who had closely identified him self with Red Cross work in a variety of ways. O nly last year he successfully formed a division in the Borough of Lewisham, and so well directed were his efforts that he achieved ad­ mirable results in a com paratively brief period. H e was unceasing in his efforts on behalf of the wounded soldiers, and, happily, he infused the p erso n n el of the division with his enthusiasm. H is influence w ill long be felt by R ed Cross workers in the borough.

C h e l s e a . — In this division there are five women’s detachments, having an aggregate strength of 501 members. D uring the last month there were five resignations and 28 enrolments. As to employment, it is stated that there is no change to be noted, except L 172 has withdrawn from the Chelsea V .A .D . hospital. There were 38 members on special nursing s e r v ic e 18 at home and 20 abroad. Fifty-five volunteered for general service. H .R .H . Princess V icto ria takes a great interest in the local R ed Cross V .A .D . hospital. She and H .M . Queen Alexandra visited the hospital on the 21st of last month. Mrs. A lla n offers some criticism s on the work done by the County Office and on the financial position of the

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County of London Branch. H e r report w ill be laid before the Branch Com m ittee and her comments will, no doubt, receive the consideration they merit. Hackney. — T h e Storm ount H o use R ed Cross V.A.D., which was opened by the R t. H o n . the L o rd M ayor of London on the 29th January, is now in full operation and the hon. secretary of the division is to be congratulated on the success that has crowned her efforts. D ifficulty is experienced in finding suitable officers for new detachments and the extension of R e d Cross work in the borough is in consequence impeded. E a rly last year it was pointed out by the County Secretary that a Central T rain in g College or School is needed. But so far as is known no definite step has been taken to meet the requirement, though a notice has lately ap­ peared in the Press that a proposal to establish a C entral T ra in in g College for R e d Cross nurses is under considera­ tion. It might be thought that this requirem ent could be met in the large m etropolitan hospitals.

A ll com m unications with regard to work in M ilitary H ospitals (other than that of the T ra in ed N urse) should be addressed to the Chairm an (M rs. Furse), Jo in t W om en’s V .A .D . Committee, D evonshire House, P iccadilly, London, W ., who will put inquirers in touch with the various County Organisations. W e are glad to note that the appointment of a man to supervise the work of the women V .A .D . members has been rescinded. T h ere w ill shortly be many openings for dispensers and typists.


174

Queries and Jlnswers Correspondents.

— F I R S T

to

Queries w ill be dealt with under the following rules :— 1 . — Letters containing Queries must be marked on the top lept hand corner of the envelope “ Query," and addressed— F i r s t A ir>, 46, Cannon-street, London, E . C. 2 .— A l l Queries ?nust be accompanied by a “ Query Coupon ” cut from the current issue op the Journal, or in case of Queries from abroad from a recent issue. 3 . — Queries are invited on F irst-A id , Home-Nursing and HomeHygiene as these are o f general interest. These w ill be answered in F i r s t A i d i f space permits.

4•— Queries, accompanied by stamped addressed envelope, w ill be answered by post.

F. D .— I should be glad if I could trespass on your valuable space so far as to ask for a concise statement of the exact distinctions between PPeatstroke and Sunstroke. Both the B.R.C. Manual and W arwick & Tunstall’s Manual appear to differ on several points, e.g., as to the (a) Causes, (b) Signs and symptoms, (c) The giving or withholding of any form of stimulant. W arwick & Tunstall give as one of the signs of Heatstroke a low body temperature, whilst, on the contrary, the B.R.C. Manual denotes a temperature of 107— n o degs. or over in the same case. Presumably the general First-Aid treatment is broadly the same in both instances. The discrepancy noted is more apparent than real, and rests on the difficulty of summarising a very wide subject for First-Aid purposes. Each Authority sets out what are to him the most striking features of the conditions, which vary in their effects with some well known contributory causes, especially fatigue, dissipation, ill-health, & c. I f we realise that Sunstroke and Heatstroke are due to the depressant effects on the Nervous System of H eat alone, and that certain Brain Centres may he.prim arily affected, then our difficulties are minimised. Thus, they may show them­ selves in three form s- ( 1 ) Syncope (heart centre), (2) Asphyia (respiratory and heart centres), or (3I High Fever (vaso-motor centre)— and the symptoms will vary with the form presented. A p a rt, therefore, from the source of heat, solar or artificial, there is absolutely no difference in Cause, Signs, Symptoms and Treatment.— N. C o r b e t F l e t c h e r . V .A .D . (Gloster /60) asks for a brief review of the origin of “ First-Aid.” First A id — as a Science — is the direct outcome of war. Following the Geneva Convention (1864) a wave of enthusiasm for ambulance work in time o f w ar spread throughout Europe, and National A id Societies were founded in the various countries. It was soon realised that such Voluntary Aid could avail little, unless and until its exponents were prepared and trained in days o f peace. The result was that in 1877 the Order of St. John inaugurated a special department— known as the St. John Ambulance Association— which instructed, examined and certified its members in the science and art of First Aid. Experience again proved that for ambulance work in war individual excellence was not sufficient, and that individuals must learn the value of co-operation and combination. To further this object, the St. John Ambulance Brigade was founded in 1883, and the English National Aid Society received in 1908 the Royal Charter with the title of the British Red

AID. —

March, 1916.

Cross Society. These two Societies, then initiated, under the direct control and supervision of the W ar Office, the Voluntary Aid Detachments, whose prime object is to anticipate the requirements of war in days of peace. Thus, the needs of war started the study and practice of First-Aid, which was— for tuition purposes— adapted to the necessities of civilian emergencies and in process of time again modified to comply with the special exigencies of war. First A id — as a Title — is an abbreviation for “ First-Aid to the Injured.” Its precise origin is obscure, but Dr. Cantlie says that it was proposed by some person unknown at one of early meetings in 1877. I surmise that, as the problem of treating wounded soldiers involves three stages —f ir s t treatment, transport, and base hospital—and that, as National A id Societies occupied much popular attention at that time, the combination of F ir s t A id suggested itself as a natural sequel. Incidentally, Dr. Esmarch introduced civilian First Aid into Germany, and hit upon the term “ Samaritan Society” as the only equivalent translation of our title “ First Aid.” It is interesting to know that he received his introduction to the subject in London, where he witnessed at a Medical Congress a demonstration by some members of the City Police under Dr. Cantlie’s supervision and instruction. F i r s t A i d — o r a P eriodical — w a s e s t a b l i s h e d in 1885, a n d fo r t h e p a s t t w e n t y - o n e y e a r s h a s s t e a d i l y p u r s u e d its p u r p o s e o f i n s t r u c t i n g c i v i l i a n s in t h e s t u d y o f F i r s t A i d .

It first used the term “ First Aider ” ; and, as an indepen­ dent organ devoted to Ambulance W ork, it has favoured in noteworthy fashion that combination of medical and lay enthusiasm, without which First Aid could not have originated or have prospered as it has done, and upon which the steady development of First A id into an exact science— allied to, but independent of, M edicine— has gradually been evolved.— N. C o r b e t

Fletcher.

St. John

V.A.D.

Voluntary A id Detachment London 248 of the St. Joh n Am bulance will open a H ospital at 87, Eatonsquare, for W ounded Soldiers. T h e house is given by the Countess of Dundonald. T h e Detachment propose to start sixty beds, named by donors of p f i o each. Subscriptions are also asked towards the upkeep of the H ospital, as, owing to the increase in the price of food and drugs, the W ar Office grant will by no means cover it. About two shillings per day extra per man is needed, and subscriptions of 5s , 103 , and _£ 1 weekly would be most gladly received. T here will be a trained Nursing Staff, and the loan of furniture for their quarters would be most acceptable. T h e Com m andant is M rs. Georges, 32, Dover-street, London, W., who will gladly receive all contributions sent to her. T he

M r. E M. Clarke, head of the M otor Department of the Joint W ar Committee, reported at a recent meeting of that Com m ittee that, including the new convoys just com ­ pleted, there would soon be five full convoys of am bulance cars at work on the B ritish Front, two on the French Front, and one on the Ita lia n Front. In addition, there are con­ voys at Boulogne, H avre, R ouen, Calais and Etaples. In ­ cluding Hom e convoys, there have already been provided 1,171 ambulances, 84 Lorries, 9 repair wagons, 15 soup kitchens, 304 touring cars, and 70 motor bicycles ; making a total of 1,653 motor-driven vehicles. O R Sale.— Part-worn Grey Overcoats, good condition, 9s. 6d. each. Very suitable ambulance work.— Apply, Follett, 4, Victoria-avenue, Bishopsgate, E.C .

F


— F I R S T

March, 1916.

i 75

AID. -

The Work for every earnest First Aid Worker Subjects T reated ; Anatomy. Physiology. Bacteriology. Elementary Pharmacy. Public Hygiene. Hygiene for Nurses. A ir, W a te r, Soil, etc. Houses for the People. T he Nursing of Phthisis. T rop ical Diseases. Electrical Treatm ent. X -R a y Treatment. Invalid Cookery. Sickroom Recipes. Massage. C are of the Insane. M id w ifery and M onthly Nursing. Inflammation and Gangrene. C erebral Concussions. Hot Packs: Fomentations. Arterial Haemorrhage. W ashing out the Stomach. C u p p in g : Leeches. Gunshot W o u nd s. Enemata. Neurasthenia. Injections. Infected W o u n d s. Application of Heat. Leiter's Tubes. H o w to lay out the Dead. Cerebral Excitement after Injury. Functional Disorders. M ale Nursing. Army Nursing. Queen A lexan d ra's M ilitary Nursing. Royal Arm y M edical Corps. Heart A ffections. Chest Affections. Nursing Staffs in Hospitals. C are of the Aged. C are of C hildren. Practical Details. Splints. Fractures. Bandages. Tourniquets. Diets and Treatm ents (Special). Surgical and A ccident Cases. Haemorrhage. W o u n d s. Epileptic Fits. Fainting Fits. Common Poisons. A ll First A id Treatments. Accidents and Emergencies. Burns and Scalds. H o w to Prepare for an Operation. After the Operation. Appliances, etc., etc. Exercises. Prescriptions. Training Schools and Nursing Institutions. Nursing in Poor L a w Institutions. T h e L a w Relating to Nurses. M edical Glossary.

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Invaluable to all interested in First Aid and Am bulance W ork, W a r Nursing, Hygiene, and Public Health, and indispensable to N ursing O rderlies, Policemen, and members of Am bulance and First Aid C lasses.

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M is s S Y D N E Y

B R O W N E , R .R . C . , late Matron-in- chief, Territorial Nursing Service Advisory Committee (who is respon­ sible for the organising o f 3,000 Trained Nurses for the War), writes:— “ T he most up-to-date work on N ursing (written by experts in each branch) that is published.”

A

Few

Q u e s tio n s :

H o w w ould )o u massage for co n stipa­ tion, indigestion, and sciatica respec­ tively ? See “ M assage.” W h at are antip yretics, aphrodisiacs, caustics, diuretics, sedatives and styptics respectively ? G iv e exam ples o f two drugs in each of these classes W h a t are hyperderm ic injectio ns, enemata, oleates and suppositories re­ spectively ? See “ E le m e n ta ry P h a rm a cy .” D efine the difference between sym p­ toms and signs of disease. IIo w w ould you deduce, m erely from the attitude of the patient in bed, the presence o f cere­ bral irrita tio n , ch ron ic m eningitis, acute pleu risy, bro nchitis, pericarditis, heart disease and angina tespeclively ? O f what is cyanosis (blueness) an in ­ dication ? A n d dilatation of the n ostrils ? Puffiness under the eyes? W h a t is the H ippocratic face? A n d w hat does it denote ? W h at is a “ stom ach cough ? ” O f what is in distin ct, stum bling speech a sign ? D escribe the sputem in acute pneu­ m onia ; and in early and late br nchitis respectively ? In what diseases does oedema o f the feet and legs occur? Nam e three conditions w hich produce distension of the abdom en? Flo w w ould you test for blood in the urine ? H o w do you recognise an outbreak of “ shingles ? See “ S ig n s and Sym ptom s of

D isease.”

S e n d For t h i s "little p a m p h l e t w i t h o u t d e la y .

To th e W averley Book Co., Ltd., 7, 8 & 9, Old Bailey, London, E .C . Please send me your F R E E B ooklet on “ The S cien ce and A rt of N u rsin g ,” with particulars as to your offer to d e live r the com plete w o rk for a first paym ent o f 2 S. ( id . , the balance to be paid by a few sm all m onthly payments. N A M E ........................................................................................................................................................................ A D D R E S S .................................................................................................................................................................

F.A .E., 1916.

.............................. ..................................................................


176

— F I R S T

A N A TO M IC A L M O D ELS FOR

STUDENTS

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F IR S T-A ID .

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F I R S T AID AND

ST.

JO H N

THE

AM BULANCE Edited by A R T H U R

No.

262.

VOL.

XXII To

[N ew S e r ie s .]

Our

APRIL,

1916.

Readers.

" F irst Aid ” Is published on the 20th of e v e r y m onth. The A n n ual Subscription is 2 S . 6 d . post free j single copies 2 d . T he E d ito r invites readers to send articles and reports on subjects of interest to am bulance w orkers, these should be addressed to him at 46, Cannon Street, Lo nd o n , E .C . A ll articles and reports must be accom panied by the name and address of the w riter, not necessarily for publication but for the use ot the Editor. Subscriptions, A dvertisem ents and other business com m unications connected w ith F i r s t A i d should be addressed to the Publishers, DALE,

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ED ITORIAL W hen

A N ew Development,

ance,

F irst

now

announced

22

made its appearyears ago, we then

A id

that “ in

introducing

a

Journ al of this k in d we acknowledged the responsibility to be great, and we know that such a Journal as this

----

B.

GAZETTE.

DALE. [E n tered a t S ta tio n ers’ H a ll.]

'26

NUftL^PoST^F re

f

practical stim ulus to hum anitarian endeavours, and con­ tribute to the growth of the St Joh n m o vem en t; at any rate it w ill lead to a better understanding of the work and its difficulties and a fuller recognition and appre­ ciation of each. T here is no necessity to point to the striking record of the St. Joh n A m bulance Association and Brigade, for the past 19 months of war has shown the value of its w o rk ; but never was a field more inviting and fertile than that in w hich it finds itself to-day. T h e value of first aid training has been demonstrated beyond peradventure, and its teaching is now being recognised as a necessary adjunct to everyone’s education. M ore par­ ticularly should this fact be recognised in in du strial districts, for the taking care of accidents that are an unavoidable accom panim ent of industry is a valuable addition to its working m achinery. In our new sphere, as being so closely identified with the St. Joh n movement, it w ill be our endeavour to give each month a complete record of the various phases of its work, and at the same time to publish practical articles which are of use and interest to our readers.

may have a powerful influence which

should only be used

for the furtherance of good and

have received several letters from our readers who are members of the H o m e H o sp ital Reserve asking us endeavoured, as earnest supporters of the F irst A id move­ what is their position under the M ili­ ment, to make the Journ al serve the purpose for which tary Service Act, 1916. Th ese men it was originated, and that our efforts have not been came up for service before the order was issued by the in vain is evidenced by the fact of the testimony we Brigade A uthorities that no more men were to be constantly receive o f its useful purpose. O nly this enrolled in the Reserve except for general service. It month we received the following message from the must be borne in m ind that when members of the Officer in Com m and of the No. 4 Cavalry F ie ld Am bu­ M .H .H .R . were called up they were drafted into the lance : “ T h e publication is most useful and greatly R .A .M .C ., and autom atically ceased to belong to the appreciated by the unit.” Such remarks as these are a source Reserve. A s members of the R .A .M .C . they are entirely of gratification to us, and is the bestreward we can have. under the control of the M ilitary Authorities, and are W ith this issue of F i r s t A i d we are launching on subject to the M ilitary Service and other A cts neces­ a new era of our history. O ur readers will observe that sitated by war exigencies in the same way as civilians the title of the Journal has been changed to F i r s t A i d of m ilitary age are com pelled to com ply with orders a n d t h e S t . J o h n A m b u l a n c e G a z e t t e , and from this issued by the Governm ent. month onward there will be incorporated the official Some members o f the Reserve inform us that if news of the Am bulance Departm ent of the Order of St. they had been aware they would have been called up John, w hich will be published under the sub-title of the for general service they would not have joined that “ St. Jo h n A m bulance Gazette.” W ith this incorporation Reserve. B ut under existing conditions, if eligible, they we hope the Journ al will be able to serve as a more would have to come up under the M ilitary Service A ct useful objects.”

Throughout these past years we have

W e

The M ilitary Home Hospital Reserve.


i

- K 1 R S T

78

Jh e Grand ?riocg of the Grder of the Jtospital of S t. Jo h n oi Jerusalem in Sngland. AMBULANCE

Jh e

No. . District.

S t.

H.

J\mbutance

Srigade.

DISTRICT ORDERS.

A c t in g , d e p u t y co m m issio n e r :

' W.

Jo h n

DEPARTMENT.

------

W IN N Y .

M A Y, 1916. Sundry Duty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. Sunday, 7th.— No. 46 Division, Ilford. „ 14th.— No. 42 „ Barnet. „ 21 st.— No. 64 „ St. Pancras. „ 28th.— No. n „ Wembley and Harlesden. 2:30 p.m. to 8.30 p.m. As per separate orders. Key from St. John’s Gate, 2 p.m. R E V IE W

O F S P E C IA L C O N S T A B L E S , “ W ” D IV IS IO N . At the Review of Special Constables “ W ” Division by Sir Edward W ard, on Streatham Common, on Saturday, April 8th, various Ambulance organisations working m that district in connection with am raid work were invited to be present. O f the total the St. John Ambulance Brigade members and Nurses formed a large proportion. The Commander of the Special Constables in expressing his thanks for the attendance of the St. John contingent, says that it contributed in no small degree to the unqualified success of the parade, and that S ir Edward W ard was greatly interested in it. ARM LETS. A further supply of armlets has now been obtained, and will be issued to members registered at Headquarters for air raid work who have not already received them. It will be convenient if Superintendents and M /i/c will apply, giving the names for whom the armlets are intended for air raid work only, and must be returned when no longer required. A few respirators are still available. C A L L S T O M IL IT A R Y S E R V IC E O R W A R W ORK. Superintendents and Members in Charge of Ambulance and Nursing Divisions should, where there is any likelihood of a member holding office in the Division being called up for Service or Hospital work, arrange well in advance for the provision of a substitute to carry on the work. For example, the Officer in Charge ought to be replaceable at once by a member as well qualified as possible, and the Secretaries of all Divisions should be assisted by another member who should be in a position to take up the work in the event of the Secretary or other Officer being called for Service. As members are called up for Service and become unavailable for the work of the Brigade, notification should be sent to Headquarters stating for what kind of Service the men or Nursing Sisters have been called. It will be a great convenience if this return can be made monthly. A N N U A L IN S P E C T IO N S . The replies to D.O. 70 issued last month have been very poor, and valuable time is being lost. Members in Charge should give the matter careful consideration and reply at the earliest possible moment. A P P O IN T M E N T S . The following have been appointed Ambulance Officers after passing the prescribed examination :— E. G. Dalston, No. 44 West London Division ; F. Claridge, No. 11 Wembley and Harlesden D ivision ; J. J. Chase, No. 10 St. M ark’s Division ; E. W . Jackson, No. 10 St. M ark’s Division. The appointments to date from A pril 5th, 1916. Nursing Sister, Mrs. M. Read, has been appointed as

AI L)

Apri l, 1 9 1 6

Nursing Officer of the East Ham No. 8 Division to date from March 18th, 1916. (Signed) W. H. W IN N Y , A ctin g Deputy-Commissioner.

Headquarters :— St. John’s Gate, Clerkenwell, E.C. No. 3 District. K e t t e r i n g . — T his Division, which owing to the war had become seriously depleted in numbers, has by the exertions of the Officers been brought up to strength and is now in a flourishing condition. Enemy air raid Stations have been established at seven points of the town and have been fully equipped with men and material. On Tuesday, A pril 4th, over a hundred first aid certificates were presented to success­ ful candidates in recent examinations by Mr. W . Timpson who has been a keen supporter of the movement for many years. Promotion E. Claypole to be Divisional Secretary, and Hon. Hon. Sergeant (temporary) to date from February 22nd, 1916.

No. 4 District. S a l f o r d . — The members of this Nursing Division held a very successful social evening on March 30th, at their Head­ quarters, Broughton-road Schools, Pendleton, the occasion being the presentation of an entre-dish to Dr. W. H. Prentice, of Pendleton, Hon. Surgeon to the Division. The invitation was extended to the Salford Division S.J.A.B., several members being present, including a surprise visit from their Hon. Divisional Surgeon-Captain R. D. Cran,, R .A .M .C.(T.), who is at present home on short sick-leave. Lady Supt. Cran made the presentation on behalf of the Nursing Division and Dr. Prentice suitably replied. Capt. Cran, who spoke of the work of the R.A.M .C., gave some humorous illustrations of army life and complimented the Nursing Division on its developement and efficiency. The evening progressed splendidly with songs and recitations, etc., by members, light refreshments being partaken of in the interval. The proceedings closed with the whole gathering standing and singing the National Anthem, and “ Auld Lang Syne.”

No. 6 District.

The Year Book and Directory for 1916 of the District has just been published. It contains a record of the district for the year October 1st, 1913, to September 30th, 1915. During this period the membership of the district has increased by leaps and bounds. In the year 1913-1914 the total membership was 5,613, it now stands at 10,062, consisting of 6,660 members of ambulance and 3,402 members of nursing divisions. Thirty-two ambulance and 31 nursing divisions have been formed in 1915, One new corps was established by the members of the Elsw ick W orks Division, known as Armstrong-Whitworth Corps, and promises to be one of the most useful in the brigade. Some members of the corps are on constant duty at the Elsw ick Works. At Newcastle-on-Tyne the greatest energy is shown in brigade organisation. The Newcastle-on-Tyne Division has so outgrown its size that has been split up into four divisions— there are now 11 ambulance and seven nursing divisions in the City of Newcastle. The district has lost 25 members by death on active service including Dr. A. W. Scott, district superintendent, and 15 by death from other causes. The work of tbe corps and division has been almost exclusively on W ar Service, and the district has mobilised 2,843 members for the Reserves, in addition to 324 members having enlisted in the R.A.M .C. direct. Thirty-one V.A. Hospitals have been established in No. 6 District up to September 30th, 1915, and all are doiug good service, some 7,891 cases being treated in them. The transport


— F I R S T

Apr i l , 1 91 6.

work has developed into a most important section, especially in the counties of Northumberland and Durham. In Northumberland, the work is under the charge of District Transport Officer Reuben Hodgson, who carries out the transport work of sick and wounded, arriving by convoys at the ist Northern General Hospital and the Northumber­ land W ar Hospital. Nearly 3,000 patients have been dealt with—a fleet of twelve motor ambulances being at the disposal of the brigade. Tbe Cinematograph Exhibitors’ Association gave one car outright to the brigade. In Durham, Transport Officer Q. A. Nicol has, at Sunderland, carried out the transport of 1,100 cases arriving by train for the hospitals in the Sunderland area, and, in addition, has removed all patients to conva­ lescent homes. An important branch of transport work has been the organisation of transport for the medical arrangements in coast defences of the Tyne and Tees Garrisons, in event of emergencies. For this, a large number of motor cars are under the control of the transport officer of each county. There is also contained in the Year Book a list of the members of the district who have died on active service, and it also contains much other useful information concerning

179

A I D -

A special course of training in Home Nursing has recently been given by Dr. Southey, assisted by Sergt. W. Beecher, B.A., and the examination was held on A pril 14th, report not yet to hand. It is the object of the Divisional Surgeon and the Superintendent to raise the brigade up to the highest state of efficiency for public service. Arrangements are now in hand for an Ambulance Satur­ day, to be held on May 27th, in the form of a house to house collection, with flags in the street for sale at id. in support of a scheme the President desires, that is an up to date and fully equipped ambulance service for this old and ancient Borough town of Maidstone, also to assist the newly-formed Nursing Division in its equipment for service locally. The Nursing Division under Acting Lady Superintendent Mrs Blackett, steadily increases, and it is hoped to raise its numbers up to 30 before the end of the Brigade year. They have been receiving a special course of training under Dr. Lobb during the past three months, who as Acting Divisional Surgeon, is taking a keen interest in its formation and establishment. It is worthy to record that Superintendent P. W. Hawkes has completed over 16 years ambulance service, and it is a great help to any division to have an officer in charge with such a

Photo by]

N u r sin g

Staff

of

the

Suffolk

H all

R ed

C ross

H ospital,

[M a rty n Bros., Cheltenham C heltenham .

the district, including a tabulated list of the various corps and divisions.

splendid voluntary service as the Superintendent of M aid­ stone.

No. 8 District.

No. 10 District.

M a i d s t o n e . — T his

division still continues to make steady progress, its present strength is now 65 ; many members have joined up with the colours, besides practically all the remaining are doing V.A .D . work, either at V.A .D . hospitals or transport duty. The Town Council has provided a central ambulance station for the town under the control of the Division, which has been fully equipped with all up-to-date first aid appliances. Several more prominent gentlemen have become vice-pre­ sidents of the Division, and it is receiving the support of the public generally, it being a general custom for the men to be on duty at all public functions. Thanks to the energy of Sergt. A. J. S. Maxted, the hon. secretary, assisted by Sergts. A. J. Pickard and W. Beecher, and members, complete arrangements have been made to call out the brigade in the event of an air raid, which has already proved satisfactory by the summons given when hostile craft has been in the district.

F e l i x s t o w e . — Two members of this Division, Supt. W . G. Em ery and Sergt. E. A. Burrows have been awarded the Service Medal of the Brigade. At a recent gathering of the Division, Colonel Elliston, the Deputy Commissioner of the District, presented the decorations, and in congratulating the recipients, thanked them for the help they had given him dur­ ing the war. The Felixstowe Division has 24 men out of a total strength of 48, on active service. L o w e s t o f t .— On March 25th the Brooke Ambulance Division held a competition amongst its members for the “ Brooke ” challenge cup. The competing squads were drawn up as follows :— Squad No. 1, B. Hancock (capt.), H. Howes, J. Fletcher, S. Chaplin and S. Belts. Squad No. 2, H. Juler (capt.), C. Edwards, S. Artis, F. Capps and S. Meadows. Squad 3, H. Coleby (capt.), G. Harrison, C. Larke, W . Leist and G. Coleman.


i8o

— F I R S T

After taking all points into consideration, Dr. Perryawarded the cup to No. 3 Squad. W hen the result was declared, Supt. A. J. Harper thanked Mr. Mawdsley Brooke (who was accompanied by Mrs. Brooke) for the generous support he had always given to the Division ever since its formation, and for his generosity in presenting the cup to the division. Mr. Mawdsley Brooke replied, saying that he was very pleased indeed to see the keenness amongst the members, and the way they were making themselves proficient in first aid, and that he'had great pleasure in presenting the Challenge Cup to the winning squad, and’ handed the cup to H. Coleby, the winning captain. No. 12 (Irish) District.

W . & R . J a c o b & Co.’s D i v i s i o n . — In the winter of 1905-06 a men’s first aid class was formed in connection with the well-known biscuit factory in Dublin, as it was felt by many connected with this business that in a large industrial organisa­ tion where accidents, despite all precautions, are almost inevit­ able, there should be persons trained to afford first help to injuries. The lecturer, Dr. G. P. Cope, had the satisfaction of seeing his pupils of this class, with one exception, pass suc­ cessfully and start a division of the brigade, which is, in point of seniority, fourth in the Irish District. From its formation to the present day the division has preserved its keenness and has done consistently good first aid work. The average number of accidents treated by its members for the past five years has been from 800 to 900 per year. Wherever Dublic duty has been ordered a full muster was always present, and during the visit of King George to Ireland in 1911, the division was on duty in the streets and at the Royal Review. In 1912. the Iveagh Cup, the blue riband of the Irish ambulance world, was won by this division. At the outbreak of war, almost all members volunteered for service with the R.A .M .C., and slightly over three-fourths were accepted and are serving in various parts of the world. Another member, ineligible for army service, is with the Hospital of Friendship in Belgium. T h is division owes much to the keen interest and generosity of the directors of W . & R. Jacob & Co., who have helped and supported its work in every possible manner, and who have fitted out two motor ambulances for the transport of wounded from hospital ships, at which work the remaining members of the division are engaged. The division have had the honour of having its divisional surgeon and divisional superintendent appointed on the district staff, as district treasurer and district superintendent respectively. C l o n m e l . — The annual meeting of the Division and Detachment of the St. John Ambulance Brigade was held in the Town Hall, Clonmel, on the 19th of March. The Hon. Mrs. De la Poer, the Lady Superintendent, was in the chair. Prior to the meeting the nurses were in­ spected by Dr. Lumsden, the Deputy Commissioner. The Hon. Mrs. De la Poer gave a very interesting account of the work accomplished by her detachment. She said a num­ ber of the members were now serving abroad in military hospitals, and the V.A .D . had collected a substantial sum of money, had sent a very large number of articles of clothing to the Central Depot, and had organised a sub-depot under the Irish W ar Hospital Supply Depot scheme, the latter branch of their work being now carried on with enthusiasm and success, and they had been complimented many times for the excellence of their supplies. It was now proposed to hold a Farmers’ Gift Sale in the district to raise funds to carry on, and also to assist the Lim erick Soldier Buffet and Prisoners of W ar Fund, and they hoped to raise a very substantial sum in this tway. Interesting speeches were made by several speakers, in­ cluding the Deputy Commissioner, Mr. Bagwell, and Mr. M cClel­ land. Dr. Lumsden complimented the members on their splendid efforts, telling something of the work done by the No. 12 D is­ trict since the war began, and he paid tribute to the splendid organising power and solid work of the popular Commandant, Major Dobbin, to whose efforts, tact and mature judgment a

AID. —

April, 1916.

great deal of the success of the Clonmel U nit was due. Dr. Lumsden also explained the new Joint V.A .D . scheme for V .A .D .’s in Ireland, which in future would come under the jurisdiction of the Joint Irish V.A .D . Committee, of which a well-known local man, Lord Donoughmore, was chairman. At the conclusion of the meeting a series of groups of photographs of the Nursing Division was presented to Mrs. De la Poer by the Deputy Commissioner on behalf of the Detachment, which he said was a small momentoofthe esteem, respect, gratitude and loyalty of her officers and nursing sisters. D U B L I N . — During the past quarter the Building Trades’ Division has men every Monday night for practice and drill. The constant attendance and keenness displayed by the members has been very gratifying. A First Aid Class has been held, by kind permission of the Dublin Building Trades Employers’ Association, in the Council Chamber, Commercial Buildings. Dr. C. F. M. Judd kindly gave his services as lecturer, and about thirty men attended the course. Some of the more efficient members acted as instructors for the practical work at the close of the lectures. . . A large number of members of the Division attended a course of advanced First Aid Lectures held by Dr. Mather Thompson, which were of great value to the men. Great assistance has been given by members of the Division to the Irish W ar Hospital Supply Depot, 40, MernonSquare. The men have attended every Thursday night to pack boxes and address bales, etc., and in many ways have given most valuable aid. On St. Patrick’s Day the Division paraded at Rathfarnham and joined the other D ivisions in the Dublin District and marched to the C ivil Service Rifle Club Grounds on Tick Knock. The day was spent in field exercises, stretcher work, etc. After a most enjoyable and strenuous day’s work the parade dismissed at Rathfarnham. The Division has now reached the necessary number of men to form a Corps, and therefore a Dublin Trades’ Corps is now to be formed. The Divisions will in future be known by their firm’s n a m e , the firstfour c o m p l e t e d Divisions being Messrs. McLaughlin & Harvey’s Division ; Messrs. Keatinges, Ltd., D ivision ; Messrs. R o m e & Co.’s Division and Messrs. Brooks, Thomas & Co.’s Division. Officers for these various Divisions will be appointed in due course.

A d v a n c e d L e c t u r e s i n F i r s t A iD .- O n March 14th was concluded the last of a series of six lectures given by Dr. Mather Thompson, district surgeon in No. 12 District, on “ First A id.” These lectures were advanced in character, and were in­ tended for those who had already passed an examination in first aid. The first lecture was given in the Royal Dublin Society’s Lecture Theatre, and the remaining five in Messrs. W . & R. Jacob & Co.’s Recreation Hall, Bishop-street, Dublin (by kind permission of the directors). The attendance was large, averaging from 500 600, principally composed of members of the St. John and British Red Cross Society’s V .A .D .’s. The chairmen at these lectures were : Dr. Lumsden, deputy-commissioner No. 12 District, S.J.A.B. ; Mr. W. Geoghegan, B.R.C.S. ; Mrs. Heppell-Marr, b.R.C.S. ; Dr. Reginald Peacock, B.R.C.S. ; Capt. W alter Stevenson, R.A.M .C., district surgeon, S.J.A.B. ; Dr. Ella Webb, lady district superintendent, S.J.A.B. The lecturer, who has a vivid and interesting style, dealt with the treatment of fractures, haemorrhage, unconsciousness, poisoning, etc., in a manner which made his listeners feel like Oliver Twist, that they wanted “ more” ; and the remark of Dr. Lumsden, the deputy-commissioner, at the concluding lecture, that Dr. Mather Thompson might be described as the “ star turn ” of the brigade in Ireland was loudly applauded. It is felt that these lectures have been of much benefit to all first aiders who had the privilege of hearing them, and it is hoped that at a future date the gifted lecturer may be in d u ce d jo extend the series to an even larger circle of hearers.


April, 1916.

— F I R S T

^

THE ST . JOHN A M B U L A N C E G AZETTE.

great

T he

development

the outbreak

which has taken place since

of war in

the activities,

“ pro utilitate

hom inum ,” under the Order of St. John, has proved the need of some official

medium

of communication

between the A m bulance Department of the Order and its supporters.

Arrangements

have

accordingly

made whereby a certain number of pages of

been

F ir st

A id

will be reserved exclusively for matters concerning the St. John Am bulance Association and Brigade, and will be entitled the

S t .

Joh n

A m bu lan ce

G azette,

which the present is the first number.

of

T h is will be

entirely independent of the rest of the Journal. It

is

hoped

that

the regular

publication of the

rules and standing orders and specially written articles dealing with the work of the various Am bulance

Department at home

branches of the

and abroad,

in

an

official but readily accessible form, will conduce to the smooth working of this ever-expanding institution, and that

AID. —

by enabling

workers

more intimate knowledge

and

supporters

c f its

to

gain a

methods and of the

results attained, it w ill serve to knit into closer union the widely scattered branches of the organisation.

become entitled to the Voucher, M edallio n or L abel (as the case may be) without re-exam ination, on the date the annual re-examination becomes due if such date falls w ithin the period between the commencement of hostilities and the 31st Decem ber, 1 9 1 5. After the latter date the foregoing regulations will apply only to men who have jo in ed the R o y a l A rm y M edical Corps, M edical U n its R oyal N aval D ivision, or R oyal Naval A u xiliary Sick Berth R e s e rv e ; and to mem­ bers of Voluntary A id Detachm ents actually serving con ­ tinuously in M ilitary and A u xilia ry M ilitary H ospitals, on the recom mendation of the Com m andant of the H o spital As, however, many holders of M edallions have been in the habit of qualifying for the L abel each year for many years, any person who has obtained either M edallio n or Lab el within 12 months prior to jo in in g H is M ajesty’s Forces in the present emergency, and is thereby prevented from attending subsequent re-examinations, shall be entitled, provided he passes for a Label w ithin 12 months of the conclusion of hostilities, to all back Labels for which he was unable to be exam ined owing to the fact that he had enlisted. In subm itting applications for such awards, it is very essential, in order to avoid correspondence, that lu ll inform ation should be given in the first instance on a form (Service W .L .) which can be obtained from St. Jo h n ’s Gate. R e-E x a m in a t io n

l'he C h ie f Secretary will be glad to receive articles and photographs on matters of interest connected with the work of the Order, seas, for publication John

A m bu lan ce

especially from Centres Over­

(subject to approval) in the St.

G a zette .

M anuscripts and photographs will be returned if so desired. Supporters

of

St.

habit of contributing to do

so.

should, F ir st

D istrict as

Joh n

Orders,

heretofore,

who

F ir st

be

A id

have

been

in

the

should continue to

reports and correspondence addressed

to

the

Editor,

A id .

Official News. R e v isio n

o f

M em o ran d u m

A.S .C .

It is notified for information that owing to the intro­ duction of Lord D erby’s Recruiting Scheme and C om pul­ sory Service it has become necessary to modify the in ­ structions issued in M em orandum A .S.C., which is hereby cancelled and the following substituted ;— M en who have passed an examination in F irst A id (or Hom e Nursing if to count for M edallion) within 12 months prior to joining any branch of H is M ajesty’s Forces, w ill

in

H ome

and

N u r sin g , H om e

H yg ie n e

S a n it a t io n .

T h e Central E xecutive Com m ittee has decided to introduce a re-examination in H o m e N ursing, Hom e Hygiene, and Sanitation for holders of the M edalliun under the following conditions : — In order to m aintain the preponderating im portance of First A id instruction, the M edallion regulations (w hich require that candidates for that award must be successful at three F irst A id exam inations, or if preferred, two First A id and any one of the other three subjects above men­ tioned under the conditions specified in paper No. 62) will remain unaltered. M edallion holders who are in posses­ sion of an adult certificate for H om e Nursing. H om e H ygiene or Sanitation will be eligible to attend the new re-examinations, and if successful may obtain for each pass on any of these subjects a Pendant corresponding to the L abel issued for F irst A id. T h is Pendant w ill be inscribed with the year, the in itial letter of the subject for which it is awarded, and the m edallion num ber of the holder. T h ere w ill be no lim it to the num ber of times candidates may be re-examined for Pendants, provided that the specified interval of one year is observed between each re-exam ination on the same subject. St . Joh n

V o l u n t a r y A id D e t a c h m e n t R e g u la tio n s.

U n if o r m

( W o m e n ’ s D e t a c h m e n t s .)

Commandants.

Regulation Dress.— Black and white washing dress, re­


— F IR S T

A ID

&

THE

ST.

JOHN

gulation material, full housemaid’s skirt with three one-inch tucks at the bottom, to be at least two inches off the ground all round. Plain bodice with coat sleeves, moderate size, and straight neckband under the linen collar. A grey petersham waistbelt may be worn without apron out of doors in hot weather. Bonnet.— Fine black straw, open front, slightly fluted, curtain turned up on crown across back, faced black, trimmed single Alsatian bow, rolled hemmed piece velvet, finished black velvet box pleated ruche under brim round front, and white sarcenet strings to be tied in the middle under chin. Cap.— W hite lawn “ Sister D o ra ” shape, with a goffered frill and strings. Officers working in M ilitary Hospitals may, if preferred, wear cap registered pattern as for members. Apron.— Plain white linen, no hemstitching, with two pockets, and the skirt to be gathered into the waistband, and to reach within one inch of the bottom of the dress. Round bib to reach under the collar, and with straps to cross over the shoulders and fasten at the waist. Collar.— Plain white linen 2§ inches deep, to be fastened with a white stud. Cuffs.— To match coliar, 3§ inches deep, to be fastened with white studs. Belt.— Stiff white linen belt, 2J inches deep, to wear over the apron. Boots or Shoes.— Black. Veils and Jewellery.— Must not be worn. Cloves.— W hite for parade. For other occasions grey may be worn. Cloak.— Fine black serge, yoke with inverted box-pleat in centre of back, and deep pleat on either side to cover handhole. Shoulder-cape (without fullness) inches deep, trimmed i j inch mohair braid, straight neckband for the linen collar to turn over. Coat.— Dark grey cloth, reaching to the bottom of the dress, double-breasted, with lap seams, and two rows of buttons (6 in each), in front, two welted pockets at sides, one inside breast pocket in lining ; stand and fall collar; full back, with 14-inch belt of same material three inches wide, fastened with two buttons and buttonholes at top end, two buttons at each sleeve end. Brigade V.A.D . Officers will wear Brigade regulation buttons, Reg. No. 13 (large), and 14 (small). Association V.A .D . Officers will wear Association re­ gulation buttons, Reg. No. 15 (large), and 16 (small). The coat may be made in thinner material of the same shade for summer. Hat (W inter).— Plain black soft felt hat, with a band of grey corded ribbon 2 inches wide edged on either end with a white ribbon J inch wide, tied in a stiff bow on the left side, brim of hat 2^ inches wide, crown 3^ inches high. Hat badge to be worn on the centre of ribbon in front. Hat (Summer).— Black straw hat, trimmed with similar ribbon to winter hat. The follow ing Uniform is o p tio n a l :—• Jacket.— Black serge double-breasted lap-seam panel coat, turndown collar and revers, outside patch pockets, each with flap, buttonhole and button, one inside breast pocket in lining, shoulder straps 2^ inches at base, finished with button and buttonhole at top end, two rows of b’uttons (3 in each), on front, two buttons on each sleeve. Brigade V.A.D. Officers will wear Brigade bottons, as above. Association V.A .D . Officers will wear Association buttons, as above. Skirt.— Black serge gored skirt with panel front and boxpleated back with lap seams, with two rows of stitching at hem. Blouse. — White, with turndown collar, detachable recom­ mended. T ie .— Plain black crepe de chine, wide ends. Belt.— Black patent leather. Jersey.— Ladies’, knitted woollen, colour grey, plain back, full length sleeves, two hip pockets, six small black buttons in front ; only to be obtained from Messrs. Harrod. Brigade or Association buttons, Reg. No. 14 and 16, respectively. Motor Cap.— A registered pattern Motor Cap in black gaberdine. Hat badge to be worn in front.

AMBULANCE

April, 1916

G A ZETTE. —

Mackintosh.— Black rubber waterproof, stand and fall collar, five black buttons to front, strap and button on cuff, two square hip pockets, Brigade or Association buttons, as above. Quartermaster.

Same as for Commandant. Lady Superintendent.

Same as for Commandant, with the exception that if she is a trained nurse she will wear a dress of a small black and white check washing material, instead of the striped material. Pharm acist.

Same as Commandant. Trained Nurses.

Navy blue canton dress, otherwise as for members. Section Leaders and Members.

Dress : — Grey washing dress, regulation material, made as for Commandants. In the summer the dress may be worn without an apron, with a grey petersham waistbelt the same shade as the dress. On no account is the while linen belt to be worn without an apron. Oversleeves may be worn in hospital. Bonnet.— Fine black straw, open front, slightly fluied curtain turned up on crown across back ; faced with while sarcenet ribbon, trimmed single Alsatian bow, rolled hemmed piece velvet, finished white sarcenet ribbon, box-pleated ruche under brim, round front, and white sarcenet strings to be tied in the middle under the chin. Caps.— Cap Registered Pattern : An oblong of white cambric or linen, unstarched, in two sizes, 27 inches by 18 inches and 28 inches by 19 inches, hemstitched all round two inches from the edge, placed centrally on the head, the front edge to be worn straight across the forehead, and the two corners of the front edge brought straight round the head, fastening at back with plain safety pin over the folds When working in civil Hospitals, the plain Sister Dora cap should be worn if preferred by the matron. Apron, collar, cuffs, belt, boot or shoes, veils and jewellery, stockings, gloves, cloak, coat, and coat lor summer, as for Commandants. Hat (W inter).— Plain black soft felt, band of plain black ribbon 2 inches wide, edged on either side with a white ribbon J inch wide, tied in a stiff bow on the left side ; brim of hat 2 i inches wide, crown 3^ inches high. Hat badge to be worn in the centre of ribbon in front. Hat (Summer).— Black straw hat, trimmed similar ribbon as winter hat. The follo w in g uniform is o p tio n a l:

Jacket.— As for Commandants. Brigade V.A.D . members will wear Brigade buttons, and Association members will wear Association buttons, as above. Skirt, Blouse, l ie, Belt, Jersey, Motor Cap, Mackintosh.— As for Commandants. N ote.— The bonnet may be worn with the coat as well as with the cloak, and this will be permitted for inspections, but the uniforms worn by a detachment at an inspection must be identical. A d d it io n a l U n ifo r m

V .A .D . A broad.

for

M em bers on

S e r vice

A D ark Grey Dress of thin woollen material or alpaca, the same shade as the grey washing dresses, to be worn with turn over muslin collars and cuffs. Bodice fastened in front with button holes and small Brigade or Association buttons. For the

M e d it e r r a n e a n .

W hite Solar Topee may be worn. Hat badge in centre of front. W hite Linen D rill Jacket and Skirt to be made as the black jacket and skirt and to be worn with the same shoulder titles, stars, stripes and buttons. Collars and Cuffs, plain white muslin may be substituted for the stiff linen ones. Shoes and Stockings, white may be substituted for black. B adges and

O f f i c e r ’s B a d g e s o f R a n k .

Commandant.

Arm y Badge.— Commandants will wear special V.A.D.


April, 1916.

— FIR ST

A ID

&

THE

ST.

badge Reg. No. 38 on the left arm, half-way between the shoulder and elbow, on black silk or petersham armlet. Coat Badge.— If Brigade, according to Brigade rank ; if Association, Reg. No. 42 to be worn on right breast of cloak on pleat immediately below shoulder cape, or on coat on outer side of right row of buttons, centre of badge in line with second button. Shoulder Straps.— One star, pattern A, Reg. No. 36, and on line of silver Russia braid at base of shoulder strap. Stripes on Sleeves.— Five stripes on each cuff of each sleeve of jacket of outdoor uniform, but not on the coat. The first, third and fifth stripes to be of white herringbone pattern, J-inch wide woven into black braid, with a clear half-inch be­ tween each stripe. The second and fourth stripe shall consist of plain white Russia braid, £-inch wide, and shall be sewed on half-way between the first and third and third and fifth stripes respectively, the last stripe to be 2 inches from the bottom of sleeve. Hat Badge.— Brigade, Reg. No. 20; Association, Reg. No. 14L ady Superintendent.

Arm Badge.— I f a trained Nurse, Reg. No. 40 ; otherwise, Reg. No. 39. Coat Badge.— I f Brigade, according to rank in Brigade ; if Association, Reg. No. 3522. To be worn as for Com­ mandant. Shoulder Straps.— One star, pattern A, Reg. No. 36. Stripes on Sleeves.— Three stripes on each cuff, the first and third to be herringbone pattern, and the second plain Russia braid. To be cerise in colour if a trained nurse ; other­ wise, white. Quartermaster.

Arm Badge.— Reg. No. 39. Coat Badge.—I f Brigade, according to rank in Brigade; if Association, Reg. No. 3522. Shoulder Straps.— As for Lady Superintendent. Stripes on Sleeves.— Same as for Lady Superintendents, only in white. Pharm acist.

Arm Badge, Coat Badge and Shoulder Straps.— As for Quartermaster. Stripes on Sleeves.— Two stripes on each cuff, the first to be herringbone pattern and the lower to be white Russia braid, sim ilar to those used for Commandant. Trained Nurse.

Arm Badge.— Reg. No. 40. Coat Badge.— As for Section Leaders. Shoulder Titles.— As for Members. Stripes on Sleeves.— Two stripes, same as for Pharmacist, only cerise in colour. Section Leaders.

Arm Badge. — Reg. No. 39. Coat Badge.— I f Brigade, Reg. No. 3521 ; if Association, Reg. No. 11. Shoulder Titles.—As for Members. Stripes on Sleeves.— One stripe on each sleeve, herring­ bone pattern in white. ' Members.

Arm Badge.— Reg. No. 39. Coat Badge.—I f Brigade, Reg. No. 35-1 ; if Association, Reg. No. 11. Shoulder Titles.— If Brigade, S.J.A.B. and No. of District, if Association, S.J.A.A., to be worn on shoulder straps. Hat Badges.— I f Brigade, Reg. No. 20; if Association, Reg. No. 14. N ote. — A ll ranks of the Brigade will wear the Brigade badge on the right sleeve of the dress, on a black silk or petersham armlet, as per regulations. The V.A.D. badges will be worn on the left sleeve of dress, half-way between the point of the shoulder and.elbow, also on a black silk or petersham armlet. The above uniform can be obtained from : — Messrs. Harrods, Ltd., Brompton-road, S.W. Messrs. J. Shoolbred & Co., Ltd.,Tottenham Court-road.W. Messrs. E. & R. Garrould, 150, Edgware-road, W .; except the black mackintosh-coat, which can only be obtained from Messrs. Hobson & Sons, 1, Lexington-street, W.

JOHN

AMBULANCE

GAZETTE. —

Hats and gaberdine cap can be obtained from Messrs. Scotts, 1, Old Bond-street, W. A price list, a description of the General Service Uniform and Regulations regarding the supply of badges, buttons, &c., is held over for next month's issue.

Motor Ambulance Department. I t was natural that the moment war was declared in August, 1914, the O rder of St. Joh n and its A m bulance Departm ent should he called upon once more to place at the services of the nation its experience and all its stores of materials. A n d indeed within a very few hours of that historical event requests for am bulances were received from the military authorities. T h e development of m echanical traction since the conclusion of the South A frican W ar rendered the problem of the provision of am bulances m uch more com plicated and difficult than in previous campaigns, and it became necessary to open at once a special department to deal with the matter. Its management was entrusted to Lo rd Norreys, who applied him self to his task with energy and enthusiasm. Needless to say he met with warm and generous support from members of the Order, many of whom placed their private cars at his disposal for conversion into am bu­ lances, whilst gifts of money poured in from all quarters of the globe. N or were the activities of the department lim ited to assisting our own services, for in the first ftw weeks L o rd Norreys was able to send over some 80 cars for the use of the French troops, whose need in those earliest days was pressing indeed. T h e field of activity of this department rapidly ex­ tended, and by the time L o rd Norreys laid down the reins he had succeeded in sending to the Front and to various parts of the country some 200 am bulances, besides various cars fitted up as kitchens. H e had supplied about 35 cars direct to the W ar Office, and in com bination with the C o m ­ mittee of the In d ia n Soldiers’ F u nd he had obtained for use in the various hospitals at home and abroad de­ voted to the service of the In d ia n troops a further 25 cars. N or should the help he was able to extend to the Belgians be omitted, though space is too lim ited to allow of anything like an adequate account of all that was done by the Order of St. John in the first 15 months or so of the war while Lo rd Norreys was directing the M otor A m bu ­ lance Department. When, owing to his having been gazetted to a com m is­ sion in the army, Lo rd Norreys resigned, the work was taken up by the E a rl of R anfurly, assisted by M r. F. S. P hillips, and was thenceforward carried on in closer co ­ operation with the sim ilar department at the B ritish Red Cross Society in P all M all. T h at does not mean that the work at St. Jp h n ’s Gate was allowed to languish. Indeed the record for the last few months bears wonderful tribute to the extent to which the seed sown by the A m bulance Departm ent of the Order of St. Joh n has borne fruit. I t must suffice here to men­ tion only one or two examples of the result of Lo rd R a n fu rly ’s work, leaving a more detailed account till a later issue. It having become known at St. Joh n ’s that the health of one of the D ivisions of the British Arm y would greatly benefit by the provision of a second disinfector for the clothes of the troops, it was decided, with the consent of


184

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the W ar Office, to accept from the two ladies who organised the “ Silver T h im b le ” F u n d the offer of the necessary money, am ounting to over ^,'1,000, to provide a complete D isinfecting U n it, composed of a 5-ton Foden steam wagon, on which is mounted a pair of huge Thresh disinfectors. By the time this article is in the press this magnificent gift will be ready to take its place with the D ivision to which it has been allotted. T h e “ Silver T h im b le ” was not, however, content, though it had previously provided the money for no less than three motor ambulances. A cting on the suggestion of the M otor Departm ent they promptly decided to pro­ vide the funds for a M otor A m bulance Boat for work in Mesopotamia, where the river is practically the only means by which the sick and wounded can be carried. A boat designed on lines which actual experience has shown to be suitable to the geographical and clim atic conditions, capable of conveying nine “ stretch e r” or about forty “ sitting-up” cases at a time, was at once ordered. T h e work was pressed forward, and within a fortnight of the order being placed the boat was to be shipped from the C lyde and the “ Silver T h im b le No. 1 ” boat when this Gazette is published, w ill be well on its way to M esopo­ tamia. But our ally the “ Silver T h im b le ” does not rest upon its laurels. H a rd ly had the first boat been completed when an intim ation arrived at St. Jo h n ’s that another might be ordered at once, and this boat is already nearing completion. It should be mentioned that the “ Silver T h im b le ” is the name chosen for a collection of a very original character started by two ladies on behalf of the sick and wounded. T h e promoter and organiser, M iss H ope C lark, of 2, Crescent-road, W im bledon (assisted by Lady M aud W ilbraham , 26, Lower Sloane-street, S.W .), hit on the practical and b rillian t idea o f asking people to search for and send them any old bits of jewellery, whether gold or silver, for which they had no further use. T h e suggestion met with imm ediate response and the above account, though very inadequate, will give some conception of the amazing success which has attended their efforts. Possibly some of our readers may find in their trinket cases something which w ill be suitable for sending to the “ Silver T h im b le ” and thus help in the good work. T h e following extract from the C o u r t C ircu la r , of W ednesday, M arch 15th, records an interesting little ceremony :— “ T n e K in g and Queen inspected in the G arden of the Palace an X -R a y motor-car which has been presented to the St. Joh n A m bulance Association by Sir John H older, Bart. “ T n e following gentlemen were present and had the honour of being presented to their M aje sties.— T h e E a rl of R an furly (D ire cto r of the Am bulance Departm ent of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem in E ngland), Sir Joh n H older, Bart, (donor of the car), C olonel S ir H erbert Je k y ll (C h ancellor of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem in England), Sir Dyce Duckworth, Bart. (A lm oner), M r. E velyn Cecil, M .P. (SecretaryGeneral), Mr. F . S. P hillips (H o n orary Assistant Secretary), and M ajor Joh n H a ll-E d w ard s (X -R a y Specialist). “ T h e Ladies and Gentlemen of the H o usehold in W aiting were in attendance.” T h e X -R a y motor-car referred to is an independent travelling installation for radiographic research, and is intended to be moved from hospital to hospital where such apparatus may be lacking. T h e ir M ajesties were much

AMBULANCE

GAZETTE.

-

April

1s»16

interested in the demonstration and graciously expressed their appreciation of Sir John H o ld e r’s noble gift. W ithin a few days the car was on its way to the H ospital M ilitaire A u xiliaire at Arc-en-Barrois, a H ospital some 90 miles from Verdun, founded by M iss Brom leyM artin in the Autum n of 1914, and since then entirely m aintained and staffed by the English, where owing to the severe fighting a radiographic apparatus was sorely needed. It is gratifying to know that at a period when our A lly is arousing the adm iration of the whole world by its magnificent defence of Verdun, the O rder of St. Joh n has been enabled, by the m unificence of one of its members, to help in some measure to alleviate the sufferings of her brave soldiers. ( To be continued.)

In a Small Hospital in France. By

a

M ember

of

a

V .A .D .

W e left Boulogne on February 29th, 1915, for a small market town in the north of France, where we had in­ structions to establish a hospital for the use of men em­ ployed in two large veterinary hospitals and a Rem ount Depot in the neighbournood. T h e house allotted to us was in a very convenient and sunny position. It was a typical French building filled with heavy French furniture, which we quickly relegated to an empty loft in some outbuildings in order to make room for the hospital equipment which had arrived from R , the rooms and landings having been thoroughly scrubbed down. Our staff consisted of a trained sister, Com m andant, two general members who took alternate weeks in ward and house work, and, last but not least, the cooking mem­ ber. A n officer of the R .A .M .C . already attached to the Veterinary hospitals took charge, and very glad he was to have a regularly organised hospital in which to treat his patients, as formerly those suffering from pneum onia or severe internal or head injuries had had to be sent to R . T h is meant a long jolting ride in an ambulance or a two hours’ train journey with m uch delay at stations. Needless to say, this had proved fatal in some cases. W e started the hospital with three wards, each con­ taining two beds, and now at the end of the year we have enlarged to five wards, holding in all 14 beds. D urin g that time hundreds of cases have passed through the hospital, among them being patients suffering from pneumonia, bronchitis, scarlet fever, poisoning, spotted fever, heart cases and fractures of all sorts. W e had one case of special interest— a severe fracture at the base of the skull caused by a kick from a horse. T h e unfortunate man hovered between life and death for a week, but ultim ately recovered sufficiently to be sent to a base hospital at R and subsequently home to England. These, of course, are but a few cases out of many, and will help to show the use of such a hospital. A s our m edi­ cal officer remarked, it had been heartbreaking previously to treat a severe case of pneum onia with tablets in a bell tent having a floor of ashes ! N o one could have been more grateful than the men themselves, and many are the letters of appreciation which have been received from them. I must add that at one of our inspections we were in ­ formed that we held the reputation of being the cleanest hospital in France.


April, 1916.

— FIRST

Notes

and

AID

&

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ST.

News.

In Canada, the M inister of M ilitia has caused all men undergoing m ilitary training to be instructed in the principles of first aid under rhe Canadian Branch of the Association, and the Order has agreed to waive the copy­ right of “ C an tlie’s F irst A id to the In ju re d ,” in order that the instruction may be more efficiently carried out, *

*

*

In subm itting applications for re-examinations secretaries of detached classes should be careful to provide the information required by the latter part of paragraph 6 of paper 62-1916. * * *

It should be noted that the Hom e Nursing exam in­ ation now consists of six tests instead of five as formerly. The increase is due to the fact that a satisfactory knowledge in reading the thermometer and taking the pulse and respiration is now com pulsory for all candidates in that subject. * * *

A card index has been instituted at Headquarters since January 1st, 1916. A record of all the awards made by the Association w ill be contained therein in future. U p to M arch 31st no fewer than 26,400 cards have already been entered. * * *

Papers 62 (M edallion, Label and Pendant Regulations, 80 (Instructions to Lecturers and Class Secretaries) and 81 (Regulations for Exam iners) have all been revised recently. *** Madame C lara Butt will give six performances of the “ Dream of G erontius,” in aid of the funds of the Order of St. John and the B ritish R ed Cross Society at the Queen’s H a ll on M onday, May 8th, at 2 30 p.m. ; Tuesday, May 9th, at 7.45 p .m .; Wednesday, May 10th, at 2.30 p .m .; Thursday, M ay n t h , at 7.45 p.m .; Friday. M ay n t h , at 7 4 5 p .m .; Saturday, May 13th, at 2 3 0 p.m. T h e per­ formance is under the immediate patronage of their Majesties the K in g and Queen. Seats may be booked at the Q ueen’s H a ll and from all the leading agents. * * *

T h e medallion of the St. John Am bulance Association is intended to be a certificate of proficiency in first aid to the injured. T h e greatest care is taken by the Association in checking all applications for the award of m edallions, and unless each applicant has strictly conformed to the rules, and there is a file record of each examination passed, the m edallion is withheld. T h e reason for this will be obvious. T h e m edallion of the St. Joh u Am bulance Association is only issued from St. Jo h n ’s Gate, Clerkenw ell, London, E .C ., and cannot be purchased anywhere else, either in this country or abroad. H itherto all medallions granted by the St. Joh n A m b u­ lance Association have been engraved with the name of the holder, and unless this appears on each m edallion, and can be verified at St. Jo h n ’s Gate, the m edallion is not genuine, and under no circumstances should such a m edallion be accepted as proof of efficiency. As a further guarantee and protection, each medallion will in future be stamped as follows :— “ Registered at St. Jo h n ’s Gate, Clerkenw ell.”

JOHN

AMBULANCE

GAZETTE.

T h e m edallion and label of the St. Jo h n A m bulance A ssociation are made of coinage bronze, but when desired, duplicates in gold and silver have been supplied. Recognising the present necessity for preserving go , the Association has decided to issue no more go m edallions or labels during the period of the war. W ill all Centre and Class Secretaries, to whose notice this tion may come, be good enough to bear this in m ind when accepting orders from those entitled to the award ol a m edallion or label.

Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Co. Centre. T h e Lancashire and Y o rksh ire R ailw ay has one of the most active centres of the St. Joh n A m bulance A ssocia­ tion, a fact w hich is in no sm all measure due to the interest ^nd encouragement received from the railway authorities. Its team won the inter-railway am bulance challenge shield in 1914, and previously in 1906 and 190S. Tw o of its members have obtained the D istinguished Service M edal while serving with the R oyal N aval A u xiliary Sick Berth Reserve. M em bers of the centre have voluntarily taken duty on every occasion when a train conveying wounded soldiers has arrived at Aintree Station, Liverpool. T h e Com pany has supplied four am bulance trains for service at home and on the Continent, and has initiated a novel means of raising money for the local hospital by ex­ hibiting them to the p u blic for a sm all fee. T h e am bulance trains have been constructed at the carriage works of the Com pany at Newton H eath, and the latest one constructed is for use on the Continent in con ­ veying our troops to the base hospitals. T h is train consists of 16 bogie carriages, with a total length of 939 ft. 7 in. over buffers, and weighing, when loaded 492 tons ; the vehicles were withdrawn from o rdi­ nary traffic and are of the modern elliptical roof design of the Com pany, being equipped in accordance with arrange­ ments made through the Railw ay Executive Com m ittee, several of the principal railway com panies acting in co n ­ cert to provide the num ber of trains required. T h e train is vestibuled throughout and fitted with electric light and fa n s; some of the latter in each ward being of the portable type to fix opposite any cot for “ gassing ” cases. T h e ward cars are enam elled throughout in w h ite ; the cots are in three tiers and. are interchange­ able ; they can be used as stretchers or folded against the sides when not in use— the m iddle berth can also be lowered to form a back for sitting-up cases when required. T h e kitchens are fitted with the French A rm y ranges coupled to a hot water installation providing a constant supply of 50 gallons of hot water in each kitchen car ; the water on the train generally is very important, and ample supply is carried on each car, the total for the whole train being 2,353 gallons. T h e staff car is provided with messrooms for the m edical officers and nurses, and berths arranged so that they are convertible for day or night use by hinging the backs of the seats ; this also applies to the presonnel car, and both of thase vehicles can either be heaten by steam from a locom otive sim ilar to other parts of the train or independently from a stove and hot water system according to the circum stances. T h e whole of the exterior is painted khaki with a red cross in the centre of each v e h ic le ; W estinghouse automatic air brake, of the French standard pattern is fitted throughout, and all the coupling-up arrangements


i86

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JOHN

have been made suitable for connecting to the continental locomotive. T h is am bulance train provides m uch greater accom­ m odation than those in use in this country— perhaps one of the chief features is that every advantage has been taken in utilising the space for the comfort of our sick and wounded under all their many varying conditions, and also for the convenience and requirements of the medical officers, nurses, and personnel.

AMBULANCE

Apri l , 1916.

GAZETTE

W illiam Edward Connelly. W illiam Henry Joshua Daniell. Henry Davies. John Stratford. W illiam Phillips. W illiam Charles Packham. W illiam John Cardo. W illiam Fargher. Joseph James Burton. Martin Williamson. Alonzo Cotton. Lieut.-Colonel Robert W illiam Hughes Thomas. A s H onorary Serv in g Sisters :

The Grand Priory of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England. Chancery o f the O rd er , St. fo h n 's G a te , Clerkenwe/l, L on d on , E . C ., A p r i l 10 th, i g i 6 .

H is Majesty the King has been graciously pleased to sanction the following promotions in, and appointments to, the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England :— A s K n ig h ts o f fu sticc (from K n ig h ts o f G race ) : Charles Granville Kekewich. The Lord Chelmsford, G.C.M .G. Evelyn Cecil, Esq., M.P. A s L a d y o f fu stice (from L ad y o f G r a c e ):

Agnes Lowndes, Lady Jekyll. A s K n ig h ts o f G race :

Major John Bernard Arbuthnot, M.V.O. (from Esquire). The E a rl of Powis. Colonel Henry Blackburne Hamilton. The Right Hon. Sir Frederick George Milner, Bart. Claude Hamilton Archer H ill, C.S.I. C .I.E . Oswald Vivian Bosanquet, C ,S .I„ C .I.E . Major-General Sir Francis Lloyd. K.C.B., C.V.O., D.S.O. The Viscount Chilston. jonkS.Ljr'i Lieut.-Colonel Sir James Robert Dunlop Smith, K.C.S.I., K.C.V.O ., C .I.E . Captain Edgar Sheppard. The E a rl of Donoughmore, K.P. A s L a d ies o f G race :

Violet Mary, Lady Earle. Jeanie, Lady Meston. M ary Helen Elizabeth, The Lady Carmichael. Marjorie Adeline, The Lady Pentland. Ellenora, Mrs. Blackham. Amy Gertrude, Mrs. W allace Nesbitt. Frances, Lady de L ’Isle and Dudley. Ethel Louise, the Hon. Mrs. Charles Burn. Violet Hermione, The Duchess of Montrose. Isabella Janet, Mrs. Robert Mitchell. M ary Elizabeth, Mrs. Warneford. Rose, Mrs. Arthur Rhodes. A s E s q u ir e s :

Captain Arthur Perry Stocking. Cartain Harold Ernest Weeks. Major Frank Augustus Douglas Stevens. A s H o n o ra ry Servin g B ro th ers :

Frederick Ellison. Robert Arthington. Lieut.-Colonel Robert de la Poet Beresford, M .D. W illiam Burns Lindley. Lieut.-Colonel Edward Charles Bayley, C .I.E . Lieut.-Colonel Charles Henry Cowie, C .I.E . M ajor H arris Grant Warburton, I.A.R.O . Augustus Orlton Cooper. Henry Alfred Cross. John James Connelly.

Agnes May, M iss Waterhouse, R.R.C. Lizzie, Mrs. Morgan. M illicent Mary, M iss Graham-Smith. Eliza Ann, M iss Everett. Helen Constance, Miss Everett. Helen Augusta, Miss Allen. Ethel Ellen, Mrs. Metcalfe. Jane Elizabeth, Mrs. Cross. A s H onorary Associates :

Richard Oxley Bowman, M .D. Matthew Caldwell, L.R .C.P . & S. Thomas Walmsley Heywood, M .R.C.S. Lieut.-Colonel Louis Petro Demetriadi, M.D. Lieut.-Colonel Charles Montague Mathew, I.M .S. Lieut.-Cononel Frank W arburtonJ^Begbie, M .R.C.S., L.R.C.P., R.A .M .C. jf e Edward Albert Houseman, M.B. W iliiam Ferriday Jackson, M .R.C.S., L.R .C.P. George Thomas Woods, L.R .C .P . & S.Ed. W alter Reyner Brunton, M.B.

Middlesex. S t.

John

V oluntary

A id

D etachm ents.

are 1 4 Mens, and 2 7 W om ens’ Detachments duly registered at the W ar Office with a total strength of 1 9 4 0 ( 6 4 6 men and 1 , 2 9 4 women), of w hich total over i.co o have been m obilised for nursing and general service in the auxiliary hospitals in the county. Over 1 0 0 V .A .D wemen have been posted to m ilitary hospitals at home and abroad. One hundred members of the mens’ detachments form 4 0 per cent, of the p erso n n el for the transport service in the county, which service has dealt with 9 0 7 cases ( 5 0 9 cot and 3 9 8 sitting) from convoys at Edm onton and W illesden Stations, and which has carried over 1 , 0 0 0 transfers to the auxiliary hospitals during the past three months. T h ere are 14 St. John A uxiliary H ospitals in the county with accommotation for 853 patients. T h e loyal and devoted services given voluntary by the St. Joh n V .A .D . officers and members in M iddlesex is evi­ denced by the way in which the M ilitary Authorities have, since the establishment of such hospitals, made full use of them, and expressed their complete satisfaction with the way in which they are conducted. T h e weekly reports giving the num ber of cases under treatment at each hospital show an average of 60 per cent, of beds occupied weekly, and the statement of accounts from each hospital up to 31st Decem ber, 1915, show most satisfactory balances. In the majority of cases, local com­ mittees are responsible for the finance, equipment and maintenance of the hospitals, and to these committees the indebtedness of the O rder of St. Joh n is due for the adm irable way in which they are promoting and m aintain­ ing its interests.

T here


April, 1916.

— F IR ST

Brevities. T hat

the

a m b u la n ce

m ovem ent

has

com e

in to

o w n a s t h e d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e w a r , is a f a c t w h i c h

its

cannot

fa il t o b e r e c o g n i s e d , a n d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t u r n i n g t o t h e best a c c o u n t th e o p p o r t u n it y w h ic h this e v e n t h as a ffo rd e d o f s t i m u l a t i n g a g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t in t h i s h u m a n i t a r i a n w h ic h has e n o rm o u s resp o n sibilities

before

w ork,

it, s h o u l d

not

be o verlo o k ed .

M any Centres of the St. Joh n Association and Corps and D ivisions of the Brigade have risen nobly to the occa­ sion, and others might well follow their exam ple; men and women who before the war never gave a thought to the movement have now taken it up as a National Duty, and are doing most useful public service. There is a vast num ber of men and women who are eager to do likewise, and such enthusiasm should not be allowed to run to waste. W herever possible, classes for first aid instruction should be organised ; these classes are the primary basis of getting people interested in the movement, and at their conclusion there is the material for the formation of a D ivision of the Brigade. W ith a little imagination and much enthusiasm it is surprising what can be accomplished, and with this spirit im bued in am bulance workers the movement will bound ahead. *** It is curious that in different stages of the Great W ar different kinds of wounds are common. “ It was very curious how special groups of cases with special characteristics had come at different times. At first they had men with sore feet. T h is was after the retreat from Mons. A little later they had whole batches of men whose wounds were extraordinarily sim ilar— wounded shoulders. T h at was before the elaborate sys­ tem of entrenchments, and the wounds were received when the men lay on the ground to fire. After the battle of the A isne they had a considerable group of tetanus cases, and ever since the month of December the most prom inent type of case had been frostbites. They were not the typical frostbites of Canada, but were caused by men standing for long periods in very cold water, and having to sleep in cold, wet boots and stockings. M any of the cases were very painful, and with loss of vitality amputation was the only treatment. T h is type of case was being con­ siderably lessened by the use of waterproof stockings. E arlier in the war almost all the wounds were shell wounds. Now a shell wound was exceptional. The explanation given by the men was that the shells used now by the enemy did not in a large number of cases explode. M ost of the wounds now were bullet wounds.”

T h e President of the U nited States has appointed a com mission to investigate first-aid methods, packages, the standardisation of first aid equipment, and an identical

A I D —

l8

course of instruction to be followed throughout the country. G eneral W . C. Gorgas, Surgeon-General of the U nited States Arm y, is P re s id e n t; R u p ert Blue, SurgeonGeneral of the P u b lic H e alth Service, is V ice -P re sid e n t; and the A m erican M ed ical A ssociation, A ssociation of R ailw ay Surgeons, and Surgical A ssociation are repre­ sented. Great interest in first aid has developed every­ where throughout the U n ite d States. *** A d a i l y paper says that one of the surprises o f the war is the aptitude women have shown as masseuses at the war hospitals. “ T h e results have surpassed our expectations,” said a R .A .M .C . captain, “ the women showing that they have plenty of strength and a decided aptitude for the work. T h an ks to their efforts, thousands of soldiers have recovered the use of injured arms or legs weeks or even months earlier than otherwise w ould have been possible. yr

*

A n electrical apparatus has been installed in the is at present being employed as a hospital ship for the M editerranean E xpeditionary F o rce — under the supervision of Dr. D ak in and at the instance of the M edical R esearch Com m ittee o f the N ational In ­ surance Act, for the purpose of the production of sodium hypochlorite for use as an antiseptic for wounds and for disinfecting purposes. A cco rdin g to T h e Tim es , the cost of roo gallons of a solution containing two parts of sodium hypochlorite to 1,000 pints works out at 3d. It is esti­ mated that the economy in largely replacing expensive coal-tar disinfectants by electrolytic hypochlorite will pay for the cost of the apparatus in the course of a single trip of three weeks. A q u ita n ia — which

V commence in this issue of F i r s t A i d a series of articles on “ H in ts to H o spital O rderlies,” from the pen of Dr. N. Corbet Fletcher.] H a vin g in view the num ber of am bulance workers who are occupied on hospital duties these series of articles should prove of use and interest. It is our intention at a later date to publish these articles in booklet form if there is a dem and for it. + * W e

*

M r . J a m e s C a n t l i e , speaking at a meeting at the Regent-street Polytechnic recently, related an anecdote of Surgeon-General S ir A lfred Keogh, which reveals the director-general of the A rm y M ed ical Services in a very hum an light. In the early days of the war Sir A lfred was at the front as a R ed Cross Com m issioner, and he had since adm itted that after witnessing the spectacle of the wounded, crowded into luggage vans with nobody to relieve their misery, “ I cried m yself to sleep when I went to bed on two nights.” M r. C antlie said we had never had a better director-general than Sir Alfred.


— F I R S T

1 88

Aids By

N.

to

Home = Nursing.*

CORBET

FLETCH ER,

B.A ., M .B .,

B .C ., Cantab., M .R .C .S . A uthor of A Com pendium of A id s to F irst A id , &c. No.

X III.

( Concluded fro m page 1 6 6 .) I I I. — M EAN S

OF

D IA G N O S IS

( Contin ued).

T h is is im portant as M ea n s o f D ia g n o sis a n d as G uide to Progress. Further, its significance in

A

A t t it u d e .

prolonged Fevers is noteworthy on account of the dangers of Congestion of Lungs, Bed-sores, and Footdrop. A — P rin cip al Points— H o r iz o n ta l P o stu re

long illness. R a ise d P o stu re occurs in Diseases of the Lungs and Heart. L a te r a l P o stu re occurs in P leurisy (free action of unaffected lung). Sem i-flexed P o stu re occurs in Peritonitis (any pressure distresses). P r o n e P o stu re occurs in R enal, B iliary, and Intes­ tinal C o lic (pain eased by pressure). B — Treatm ent.

Stu dy com fort an d help m aintain position o f ease. R a ise d P o stu re m aintained by Bed-rest, Bed-rope,

Pillow under knees. L a te r a l P o stu re m aintained by Pillow in sm all of

back. T ongue.

T h is indicates State o f the D ig estiv e System

P rin ciple Points (com pare S k in )— (1 ) C o lou r. — R e d (F e v e r); brown (T yph oid ). W h i t e and furred in Indigestion : pale, flabby in Anremia). B l u e , swollen (Asphyxia. (2) Degrees o f M o istu re. — Dry, cracked (Influenza, T yph oid). (3 ) S urfa ce .-— F urred (In d ig e s tio n ); strawberry (Scarlatina) ; swollen and tooth indented (Constipation). (4) E ffects o f Rem edies.— Im provem ent in colour, moisture 'and surface ; cleans first at tip and sides. (5) M ovem ents. — Protruded with difficulty (A p o ­ plexy, F e v e rs ); protruded to one side (Apoplexy). T

— T h is indicates State o f an d N erv o u s Systems.

T e m p e ra tu re

(i) M outh.— Place thermometer under the tongue w ith lip s tightly closed. Never register immediately after hot or cold food has been taken. (ii) A rm pit.— W ipe out armpit and place patient’s h a n d on opposite shoulder and elbow pressed against body. (iii) R ectum .— R e lia b le if bowel empty, other­ wise fteces may prevent contact of thermometer with walls of rectum. (iv) G ro in.— Least satisfactory. T h ig h must be pressed on abdomen. ( 3 ) T im e o f R egistering. — Periods vary with ther­ mometer, but most accurate results are obtained if time is prolonged— 5 to 10 minutes. (4) M ea n s o f Recording. — Record accurately by Chart. C L IN IC A L

occurs in Exhaustion after

Circulatory

P rin cipal Points— (1 ) M ea n s o f R egistering.— C lin ic a l Therm om eter. (2) Sites o f R egistering. — T h e sites selected are practically closed cavities in which the blood-vessels are superficial. * T hese papers are selected from D r. Corbet F je tch e r’s A ids to Home-Nursing, w hich is published by M essrs. B ale, Sons & D anielsson, 83-91, G reat Titch field-street, Lo nd o n , W ., and is now on sale, price 6d. net.

April, 191 6.

AID. —

THERM O M ETER.

T h e outstanding peculiarities of the C lin ic a l as distinct from R oom or Bath Therm om eters are that the former is— S Sm all. It can b e carried in the waistcoat pocket. S S e l f - r e g i s t e r i n g . T h e m ercury is contained in the bulb, and a small portion is cut off from the rest by two constrictions in the tube. T h is portion remains perm anently above the upper constriction, and, if it should be shaken into the bulb, then the utility of thermometer is lost. B y this device, any rise of Body-Tem perature rem ains as registered f o r any length o f tim e , and is not subject to changes of external atmosphere. T h e thermo meter can only be re-set by shaking the m ercury down. S S p e c i a l l y - g r a d u a t e d . T he range o f temperature is 95 degs. to n o d e g s . Fahr., which coincides with that of W arm and H o t Baths. E a c h degree is subdivided into i-5ths. The figures represented are 95, 100, 105, 110, and an arrow at 9 8 - 4 to indicate norm al temperature. T h e time o f the thermometer is usually plainly marked on the back. C H A R T IN G . Charts are prepared by the Nurse for the Doctor, and Various kinds are available for registering the Body-Tem perature, some being figured for morning and evening records, others every four hours, &c., &c. Sum m ing up the P rin cipal Points of Charting we find that a Chart (like a R o lle r Bandage) must be— (1 ) E f f e c t i v e . T h e effectiveness of the Chart depends on its completeness. Therefore, the Chart must record not only the range and time of the tem perature but also those of the p u lse and respiration. Further, the n a tu ra l Junctions (e.g., urine, bowels), and any outstanding symptoms (e.g., rigor) or treatm ent (e.g., tepid sponging) should also be recorded. are best kept away from the Patient.

(2) N e a t . Neatness is attained by m aking all figures, letters, & c., small and distinct, by using printed characters, where possible, and by always ruling the lines w hich con­ nect the dots of the temperature. (3) C o r r e c t . Correctness depends on the powers of Observation of the Nurse. T h e temperature is recorded by sm a ll dots, placed accurately on the equivalent line of the Chart and connected by ru led lines. T h e resulting curve is typical in many diseases.


April. 1916

— F I R S T ROLLER

CO RRECT

AID. the peculiarity of w hich is that one loop is larger than the other ; suitable for union of lim bs to trunk of body— e.g., S h o u l d e r , g r o i n , and also t h u m b

BANDAGE.

B a n d a g in g

E sse n t ia l

is

to

H ome-

N u r sin g .

R o lle r bandages are lengths of cloth, varying in width, length, and also material, e.g., linen, calico, gauze, &c. Ttiey are used for two main purposes— the Comfort of the patient and the Control of the part affected. I . — S IZ E

OF

T h e

E n d .

The Earl of Ranfurly, P.C., G.C.M.G.

BANDAGE.

A v e r a g e w id th a n d le n g th , 1 in c h w ide,

3 yards

E arly of R anfurly, the D irector of the A m b ulance Departm ent of the O rder of St. Joh n, was born in the year 1856. In 1895 he was appointed a L o rd-in -W aitin g to Queen V ictoria, w hich post he held till 1897, when he was

T he

long,

for F i n g e r s . A v e r a g e w id th a n d le n g th , 2 to 3 in c h e s w ide, 6 y ar d s lo n g , for H e a d a n d L i m b s .

Average width and length, 4 to 6 inches wide, 8 yards long, for C h e s t and A b d o m e n . I I . — U T IL IT Y (1)

OF

B A N D A G IN G

C om fort of

P a tien t.

(i) T o keep injured parts at rest. (ii) T o support injured.parts, e.g., slings, &c. (2) C o n t r o l

of

P art.

(i) T o control bleeding by pressure. (ii) T o control and fix fractures and splints. (lii) T o control dressings and cover wounds. I I I .— R E Q U I R E M E N T S

OF

B A N D A G IN G

T h e correct application of bandages requires much patience, practice and experience, because it must be— (1 ) E f f e c t i v e — that is, attain its objects of Com for and C o n tro l; ( 2 ) N e a t — that is, upper and lower edges must lie f l a t ; tu r n s m u s t b e s y m m e t r i c a l ; reverses m u s t f o l l o w s t r a i g h t l i n e s ; a n d ends m u s t b e s e c u r e d ; (3) C o r r e c t —

that is, the accepted R u le s o f R o lle r B a n d ag in g , w h i c h m a y b e e p i t o m i z e d , m u s t in e v e r y in s t a n c e be c a r r ie d out.

C

O

R

K eep bandage under C o n t r o l througnout, i.e., at the start, during and at the con­ clusion of its application. Stand O p p o s i t e to patient and use either han d — i.e., right hand lor left lim b and vice versa. R estr ain

and

fix

bandage

a t sta rt an d con­

clusion o f a p p l i c a t i o n .

C

in straigh t lin e a n d a l s o on outside o f limb. B a n d a g e E l b o w ^and a ll j o i n t s ) in f i n a l p o si­ tion of limb. C a r r y b a n d a g e f r o m w ithin out a n d f r o m

T

Make each Turn overlap two-thirds of pre­

R

E

Keep

lin e

b e lo w up.

turn. IV .— M E T H O D S (1)

OF

B A N D A G IN G .

S p i r a l . — S eries o f o b liq u e circles o f part o f lim b

;

su ita b le for f i n g e r s .

(2)

R e v e r s e .—

(3)

F ig u r e

L ord

R a n f u r l y ,

P .C .,

G .C .M .G .

of R everses

Com bination of oblique circles and complete folding of bandages (T u rn s) round lim b ; suitable for u p p e r a n d l o w e r l i m b s . o f E i g h t .— S e r i e s

of loop s

w h ich

cope

with any irregularity of surface, and ensure Correctness of bandage, suitable for j o i n t s . (4) S p i c a . — A com bination of the previous three methods— that is, a spiral bandage with reversed turns, forming a sort of figure eight,

appointed Governor of New Zealand. F o r seven years he held this office, having been invited by both H ouses for a second period. H is time in New Zealand was one of great activity. D urin g his term of office he received our present K in g and Queen, who visited the four chief cities, as well as the H o t Lakes, where there was a great gathering of Maories. D urin g the South A frican W ar he saw off ten contin­ gents from New Zealand, and the difficulty was not toget men w illing to fight for the Em pire, but to select from the num erous volunteers. H e had the good fortune (possessed by few living ) of adding a little to our Em pire. Besides establishing several island B ritish Protectorates, he annexed the Cook and H ervey Is la n d 1-', etc. These islands, though small, have benefited largely by this, and their export trade is now ten times what it used to be. L o rd R an furly has been a K n ig h t of Justice of the O rder o f St. John for nearly 20 years, and he greatly encouraged the work of the O rder in New Zealand. At one hospital, whose principal cases came from a bush d istrict,


— F I R S T he was inform ed on his last visit before leaving that many a life and many a lim b had been saved owing to the teaching of first aid ; that now the sufferer arrived often so well bandaged for, say, a broken lim b, that the doctors were quite content. T o o old for active work, Lo rd R an furly devotes the whole of his time to the A m bulance Departm ent ; he also is a member of the Joint W ar Com m ittee at 83, P all M all, and many other committees which have the care of our sick and wounded at heart.

Hints for Hospital Orderlies. B y N. C O R B E T F L E T C H E R . B.A., M.B., B.C., Cantab, M .R.C.S. Author of “ A ids to F ir s t A i d " “ A id s to Hom e N u rsin g ,” and “ W hy and Wherefore in F r s t A id ." C h apter

I. —

In tr o d u cto r y

T H E H O S P IT A L O R D E R L Y is a unit of the R o )a l Arm y M edical Corps, which is maintained, fir s t, for the prevention of disease and, secondly, for the care and treat­ ment of the sick and wounded. (1 .)

R E L A T IO N

O F H O S P IT A L O R D E R L Y T O R .A .M .C . Though the O rderly is only a unit in the Arm y Corps, yet he is an integral part of this organisation, though he may com plain that he must possess much Know ledge in order to attend to a patient’s cleanliness and to scrub and dust a ward, in which the germs of disease flourish and through which infectious diseases are propagated. Tn is, however, is the first step in the P r e v e n t i o n o f D i s e a s e . T h e O rderly’s position is exactly paralleled by that of the civilian Surgeon, who, when drafted in time of war into the R .A .M .C ., protests that— instead of performing major operations to which he is accustom ed— he is told off to treat whitlows and other m inor ailments. In each case the apparently trivial work is of utmost importance, and both are perform ing valuable services. T h e Surgeon, by his prompt cure of m inor ailments and the quick return of the soldier to duty, is increasing the fighting efficiency of the a rm y ; while the Orderly, by promoting cleanliness and removing dust, is attacking the prime cause of infection. T h is is the more important when we remember that Infectious Diseases— especially T y p h o id Fever, Diarrhoea, D ysentery and C holera— provide the bulk of the work of the R .A .M C. Officer, alike in peace and w ar; and that it has been estimated that in war-time for every case under treatment for wounds, there are twenty-five cases of sickness. Again, the H o spital O rderly must remember that his K now ledge and Experience are necessary because there may be occasions on which, in the absence of the Sister of the W ard, he may have to undertake more conspicuous (though not more im portant) duties, such as m inor dress­ ings, temperature recording, etc. T h e O rderly’s part in the prevention of disease being thus established, we may pause to consider the O rigin of H ospitals and also certain factors which have led to a m odification of O rderly Duties. (2 .)

O R IG IN

OF

H O S P IT A L S .

H ospitals, as the word signifies, were originally “ guest

AID. —

April, 1916.

houses,” instituted p rim a r ily for the shelter of strangers, pilgrim s and travellers, and occasionally for the reception of the sick and infirm. T h ey are essentially the outcome of Christianity, though modified forms of hospitals (usually com bined with Schools of M edicine) are recorded here and there in the histories of the ancient G reek and Rom an Em pires. In point of time the first H ospital is said to have been established at Caesarea, by the Em peror Valens, towards the end of the 4th Century ; but in point of its far-reaching influence on civilisation the first H ospital must be regarded as the institution which was established at Jerusalem in the year 1048 a . d . by certain merchants of Am alfi. Created first as a H ouse of Refuge for weary, way-worn pilgrim s to the H o ly Sepulchre, it gradually developed until it became a large hospital, which was equipped, staffed and maintained by the members of a new religious order who styled themselves “ H ospitallers of St. Joh n of Jerusalem .” T h e opening of the Crusades, and especially the capture of Jerusalem (1099 a d ) by the Crusaders, brought about a change in the status of this society of well-doers, devoted to the relief of suffering ; and Pope Pascal I I . gave his consent to the formation of a definite “ Order of C h iv alry ,” which was to be known as “ T h e O rder of St. Joh n of Jerusalem .” T h e Order became world-famous, exceedingly wealthy, and was later converted into a m ilitary com m unity ; but its members were sworn to poverty and chastity as well as obedience. T h e meaning of the term “ Hospital ” was afterwards extended until it included all institutions dedicated to the reception of any class of persons dependent on outside assistance and unable to supply their own requirements. Thus, we find H ospitals for children, for old and infirm people (e .g , Chelsea and Greenwich H ospitals), for sick, injured and incurable patients as well as Hospitals, for the education of children of parents in poor circum ­ stances (e.g., C h rist’s H ospital). In its more modern sense, the term is restricted to buildings which are intended for the treatment of sick and injured, and which are again divided into General and Special, amongst the latter being the M ilitary (e.g. Netley and Cam bridge) H ospitals and the N aval (e.g., H a slar and M e lville) Hospitals. (3 )

M O D IF IC A T IO N

OF

O RDERLY

D U T IE S .

A n O rderly is defined as “ one who carries official messages for his superior officers.” In days of old the H ospital O rderlies were responsible for nursing the sick and wounded as well as for various duties in the Wards. T n e ir duties, however, have been considerably modified since the Crim ean W ar (1854-5), when Florence N igh tin ­ gale created the modern nurse who for the first time in history took her part in nursing sick and wounded soldiers, and who was, from this time onward, to assume her im portant position in the care and treatment of sick and injured civilians. Florence Nightingale has been called the H ero ine of the Crim ean War, because, having already spent many years in the investigation of hospital and nursing methods and organisations, she was pre-eminently fitted— both personally and professionally— to take supreme com­ mand of the nursing arrangements. Further, she was able to suggest and carry out the various improvements which have helped m aterially to better the circum stances of the sick and wounded soldier on active service. In short, she introduced cleanliness and discipline into chaos, and, displaying exceptional tact in overcom ing m ilitary and (1C o n tin u ed on page I Q 2 ) .


April, 1916.

—FIRST

AI D. —

HUMPHREYS’ MOBILE PANEL BUILDINGS.

T e le p h o n e No. 6 4 4 7 K e n sin g to n . 3 L in e s . T e le g r a m s : “ H u m p h re y s , K n ig h ts h rid g e , L o n d o n ,*’

Australian Hospital ( 1,000 Beds)ion Humphreys’ Sectional Building System.

The Best System of Building’s for the N av y and Army. Convenient for Transport—being in interchangeable parts. Simple in Construction and easily erected by ordinary labour. Visitors to “ The Exhibition” now being held at K nightsbridge can see a Section of one of our Mobile Hospitals and Soldiers’ Huts. Immediate Delivery from Stock.

HUMPHREYS LTD., KHIGHTSBRIDCE, LONDOH, S.W.


192

- F l k s T

( C oncluded from page i g o .)

m edical prejudice, was so successful in eliciting the active support of all those in authority that, as the direct result of her efforts, the mortality from sickness and wounds fell from 6 0 per cent, during the first six months of the Crim ean W ar to 1 0 per cent, during the last six months. H isto ry shows that, previous to these alterations and the re-organisation of the R .A .M .C . which was the natural and inevitable sequel, any person— excluded from the army by reason of bodily infirm ity or deform ity— was con­ sidered suitable for and undertook the responsibilities of hospital orderlies, stretcher bearers, &c., and that unfitness for m ilitary service rather than previous Knowledge and Experience of these duties was the all-important factor. In these days, since it is recognised, fir s t, that the speedy return to the firing line of the sick and wounded soldier may make all the difference between victory and defeat, and, secondly , that rapid recovery must be facilitated in all m ild and moderate cases of wounds and illness, the modern R .A .M .C . endeavours to solve the problem by dealing with it in three stages— first aid, transport and hospital. T o accom plish this purpose, it follows that there must be trained men who can adm inister the immediate treatment on the field as well as trained orderlies who shall be capable of attending to the requirements of the patients both during their transport to the base in am bulance car, train or ship, and also during their sojourn in the military hospital while they are recovering from their ills and injuries. In effect, the solution of the problem demanded an unlim ited supply of men and material, which, if maintained during times of peace, would handicap the progress of civilisation and would enorm ously increase the cost of upkeep of the A rm y M edical Corps. T o cope with these difficulties, many suggestions were made and many plans were tried without avail, until a Swiss gentleman, ignorant of m edicine and unskilled in m ilitary science, succeeded where all others had failed. H e n ri D unant had been present at the Battle of Solferino (1859 a .d .) and had personally witnessed the unspeakable horrors and awful destruction of human life which occurred in this, the most blood-thirsty, battle of modern times. H e realised— 1st, that for the adequate assistance of the wounded in battle the m ilitary organisation must be augmented by voluntary aid. A n d 2nd, that this was only possible if those assisting the wounded were recognised as neutral and free from attack. Dunant devoted all his time, fortune and energies to

H axe k

April, 1916.

A I D. —

the purpose of converting to his view the authorities of all the European Powers, and crowned his life’s work by bringing about the Geneva Convention of 1 8 6 4 , when all the signatories agreed to respect the rights of the wounded man and adopted as their international emblem the red cross on a white ground, which is the reversal of the national flag of Switzerland. Subsequent to this historic meeting and compact, enthusiasm for am bulance work on the battlefield increased greatly, and National A id Societies (afterwards designated R ed Cross Societies) were organised in every c o u n try ; but it soon became evident that, if a National Society was to offer effective help in time o f w a r then it must train its orderlies, stretcher bearers and nurses in days o f peace.

On these grounds certain members of the O rder of St. Joh n of Jerusalem , foremost amongst whom was Sir John Furley, urged the establishment of an organisation devoted to this purpose. A s the result of their efforts, the St. Joh n A m bulance Association was instituted in 1877 to instruct the laity in F irst-A id to those injured in civil occupations. Further experience proved that better results would be obtained if the holders of certificates were fully trained, and especially if they were taught how to act together in com bination. T h e St. Joh n A m bulance Brigade, therefore, came into being in 1887, and the country was mapped out into D ivisions. In 1888 the S .J.A .A . was incorporated by Royal Charter, but twenty years elapsed before the E ng lish National A id Society received the same official recognition and adopted the title 01 British R td Cross Society. Dur-

HORLICK’S

MALTED MILK

*

A S A D I E T IN R E D C R O S S N U R S I N G .

^

Contains all the food value of pure full-cream milk enriched and modified with the soluble nutritive extracts of choice malted cereals. The ratio of protein to carbohydrate and its perfect digestibility commend this food as a reliable reconstructive which may be given freely in septic conditions and surgical cases.

A ^ % A T A

R E A D Y IN A M O M E N T .

R E Q U R IE 3 NO C O O K IN G .

t

^

A

L ib e ra l Samples J o r t r ia l w ill be sent to the Profession Post F re e on application.

T

H o r l i c k ’s M a l t e d M ilk Co., S l o u g h , B u c k s .

|

for Uniforms & Equipment

ALL REQUIREMENTS FOR RANK AND FILE

COMPLETE

are produced by this century-old firm in a factory equipped, staffed, and organised with the supreme object of producing D E P E N D A B L E uniform s and equipm ent at reasonable prices. F or quotations in this department write to

in all fighting and non-com batant Services have been a s p e c ia lity ^ of H azel and Co. for many years, and d u rin g 4the present war H azel K it has won an even greater reputation for its serviceableness. W rite for lists to

KITS

F OR O F F I C E R S

16, NILE S T., CITY ROAD, LONDON, N.

4, PRINCES ST., HANOVER SQ., LONDON, W.


- F U S T

April, 1916,

P

IODEX J

Iodi. M * « d

A sep tic.

193

AI D. —

r

o

f

e

FIRST-AID

has bun supplied to : H .M . F le e t S u rg e o n s , R .A .M .C . S u rg e o n s , Red C ro s s S u rg e o n s , C ro ix R o u g e F ra n c a is e B e lg ia n F ie ld H o s p it a ls , F re n c h F ie ld H o s p ita ls , N u m e ro u s M ilit a r y H o s p ita ls , M e m b e rs of S t. J o h n A m b u la n c e .

A BLAND & PA IN LESS

IO D E X is a First-A id Dressing of great merit— painless and bland It promotes rapid healing and is ideal in septic wounds, tears, abrasions, bruises, burns, scalds, inflamed feet, etc. IO D E X is non-staining, non­ irritating Free Io d in e of great penetrative power. It is a power­ ful absorbent and antiseptic, and rapidly reduces inflammation.

a p p lic a tio n

Menley & James, Ltd.,

to

39, F a r rin g d o n R oad, LONDON, E.C.

ing the interval there was instituted the R .A .M .C . T e rri­ torial Force, which as the voluntary m edical service owed its initiation to Colonel James Cantlie, the present-day pioneer of Am bulance W ork and worthy successor of H e n ri Dunant. Subsequently, the idea of training laymen and laywomen to assist civilians in accidents and sudden illness was again extended to war conditions, and Voluntary A id D e ­ tachments (whose members prepared themselves for various duties contingent upon invasion of this country) were organised by the S .J.A .A . and the B .R .C .S . under the direct supervision and command of the W ar Office. * * * * * * T h e sum-total of all these efforts (which originated in D unant’s early attempts to relieve the woes of those wounded in battle) is that F ir s t , the necessity for and the value of voluntary and civilian aid has been fully proven, and Secondly , there have been evolved from this source two supplementary lines of defence which can be utilised by the regular R .A .M .C . in the stress and turm oil of an im portant war. I f further proof is needed, this we can find in the official figures of the S J A.B. These show that during the present European W ar 21,058 male and 1,803 female mem­ bers of this organisation were on M arch 1st, 1916, actively employed in Naval and M ilitary H ospitals at home and abroad. As far as the Orderly is concerned, the introduction of the professional nurse may have modified the scope of his duties, but his preliminary training and certification in First-A id, H om e-N ursing and Hygiene, have enorm ously

a

l

Hospital & General Contracts Co., Ltd.

10 D E X has benefitted the follow ing and numerous other conditions:

on

n

M ake a personal call 01 w rite or 'phone f o r catalogue.

I0DEX is sold in 1oz. Pots, Price 1/3.

L ite ra tu re

i o

Every detail of a Nurse’s outfit, pro­ fessional, or voluntary, is thoroughly thought out and can be supplied wholly or in part at a moment’s notice in accurate harmony with the require­ ments of any Hospital or Nursing Home. It is impossible to over-estimate the value set by Nurses upon the service rendered them by our equipment section, for not or.ly can you rely upon getting always the correct style, but you can rely upon the fact that every­ thing supplied by us is of the best quality, and can be depended on in every possible way.

— IODINE D R E S S I N G . —

E n la r g e d G la n d s , G o itr e . T u b e r c u lo u s J o in ts , B u r s itis , S y n o v it is , S c ia tic a , N e u r itis , G ou t, R h e u m a to id A r t h r it is , H y d r o c e le , P a r a s it ic S k in D is e a s e s . R in g w o r m , C h ilb la in s , A cn e, B o lls , M u m p s, S p r a in s , AND A LL IN F L A M M A T O R Y C O N D IT IO N S .

s

service in the matter of equipment is what we have given to members of the Nursing Profession for many years and what we are offering now.

A n tise p tic .

IODEX

s

( N u rs e s ’ E q u ip m e n t S e c tio n ) , (D e p t. 6 ). T h e “ Red C ro s s C o a t ,” in N avy. Stocked in lengths 48m., soin., 52m., 54in., 56111. Cheviot Serge .. 23/6 All-W ool Serge .. 3 4 /6 West of fcngland Serge 36/6

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increased the potential value of his services and have facilitated his task of conform ing to the D iscip lin e and Routine W ork w hich are so essential to the effective treat­ ment of sick and wounded soldiers in H ospital. ( T o be continued.)

£etters to the Sditor. liee are in no w a y responsible fo r the opinions expressed , or the statem ents m ade , by C orrespondents. — E d i t o r , E t c .

T H E O R IG IN O F F I R S T A ID . D e a r S IR ,- W it h regard to your reply to V.A .D . Gloster (60). I have a small volume with the following title :— “ First Help in Accidents : being a Surgical Guide, in the absence or before the arrival of medical assistance, for the use of the public, especially for the members of both the M ilitary and N aval Services, Volunteers and Travellers, etc., by Charles H. Schaible, M.D., P h.D .” T h is work was published in September, 1864, price 2S. 6d.; 5 ^ x 3 ^ in., p. 225, illustrated. In intention and system it is obviously the same as our own manual. It is divided into chapters and paragraphs in just the same way, but no heavy type. T h is gives the rather large period of thirteen years in which the term “ First H e lp ” was changed to “ First Aid.” I hope some reader will be able to give particulars of a manual published within this time.— Yours truly, J. R. M. A i .b r e c h t , Hon. Sec. Salford D ivision S.J.A.B. Manchester, A pril n th , 1916.


— F I R S T

'9 +

Apri l, 1916.

AID. —

“ A valuable first-aid d re ss in g for w o u n d s ” C U C H is the testimony to Sphagnol of a wellknown L o n d o n Surgeon, whose report we quote below in full. A ll m edical men should avail them­ selves at this time of this strikingly successful healing ointment. It is a distillate of Peat— is antiseptic— possesses rem arkable healing properties — and is easily applied. Jan. ibth, 1915. iiI have tried your Sphagnol preparations, ointment, ana cream in certain chronic ulcers with remarkable success and have recommended Sphagnol to a large number o f people under training as a valuable first aid dressing fo r wounds. *

SphaOnol C P H A G N O L is the standard remedy of medical men in all cases of skin disease and inflam m a­ tion. It is invaluable in the treatment of “ T R E N C H S O R E S ,” E C Z E M A , U L C E R S , P S O R IA S IS , R I N G ­ W O R M , A C N E , D A N D R I F F , P R U R I T IS , HERPES, H E M O R R H O ID S . ' T H E In s t i t u t e of H y g ie n e have awarded their certificate for purity, merit, and quality to all Sphagnol Soaps and Ointment.

W eakness,

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broken

sleep, poor appetite, all that

y o u ’re

prove you

run

need

prove

down, H a ll’s

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I f you’re always catching cold or can’t shake colds off, if influenza or other illness has left you “ more dead than alive,” that also proves you need H a ll’s W ine. Y o u feel its strengthening power even from the first dose, and a short course restores joyous health— to last. W e guarantee H a ll’s W in e.

HMne The Supreme Restorative

Important Offer. D o cto r’s O utfit of S p hagnol P reparations, consisting of O intm ents, Soaps, and Suppositories w ill be sent to every D o ctor, R .A .M .C . Officer, and R e d C ross H o sp ita l N urse on receipt of professional card. A F irst-a id O utfit containing a lib e ra l supply o f Ointm ent and Soap w ill be sent upon request to any F irst-a id or Red C ro ss W o rk e r.

W rite to-day fo r the F ree O utfit and medical testimony to

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Large size g!6. O f Wine Merchants^ and Grocers and Chemists with W ine licences.


April, 1916.

A 1 L>. —

— F I R S T

195

The Work for every earnest First Aid Worker Su bjects T reated : Anatomy. Physiology. Bacteriology. Elem entary Pharmacy. Public Hygiene. Hygiene for Nurses. A ir, W a te r, Soil, etc. Houses for the People. T h e Nursing of Phthisis. T ro p ica l Diseases. Electrical Treatment. X -R a y Treatm ent. Invalid Cookery, Sickroom Recipes. Massage. C a re of the Insane. M id w ife ry and M onthly Nursing. Inflammation and Gangrene. C ere b ral Concussions. H ot Packs: Fomentations. A rterial Haemorrhage. W a sh in g out the Stomach. C u p p in g : Leeches. Gunshot W o u nds. Enemata. Neurasthenia. Injections. Infected W o u n d s. A pplication of Heat. Leiter's Tubes. H o w to lay out the Dead. C ere b ral Excitement after Injury. Functional Disorders. M a le Nursing. Arm y Nursing. Queen A lexan d ra's M ilitary Nursing. Royal A rm y M edical Corps. H eart Affections. Chest Affections. Nursing Staffs in Hospitafs. C a re of the Aged. C a re of C h ild re n . Practical Details. Splints. Fractures. Bandages. Tourniquets. Diets and Treatm ents (Special). Surgical and A ccident Cases. Haemorrhage. W o u nd s. Epileptic Fits. Fainting Fits. Com mon Poisons. AN First A id Treatments. Accidents and Emergencies. Burns and Scalds. H o w to Prepare for an Operation. A fter the Operation. Appliances, etc., etc. Exercises. Prescriptions. T rain in g Schools and Nursing Institutions. Nursing in Poor L a w Institutions. T h e L a w Relating to Nurses. M ed ical Glossary.

T H

E

Science and Art of Nursing An Encyclopaedia o f M e dical and N u rs in g K now ledge

WRITTEN

BY

MEDICAL,

SURGICAL

AND

HOSPITAL

EXPERTS.

Invaluable to all interested in First Aid and Am bulance W ork, W a r Nursing, Hygiene, and Public Health, and indispensable to N ursing Orderlies, Policemen, and members of Am bulance and First Aid C lasses.

Issued at a Popular Price and de^ livered at once on the convenient and popular W a v e r l e y term s of paym ent by small m onthly su m s w hile the b o o ks are being used by the buyer.

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You m a y pay the Balance by a few sm all m on thly sums

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M is s S Y D N E Y

B R O W N E , R .R . C . , late Matron-in- chief, Territorial Nursing Service Advisory Committee (who is respon­ sible for the organising o f 3,000 Trained Nurses for the War), writes:— “ Th e most up-to-date work on N ursing (written by experts in each branch) that is published.”

A

Few

Q u e s tio n s :

H o w w ould you massage for co n stipa­ tion, indigestio n , and sciatica respec­ tively ? See “ M assa g e.” W h at are antipyretics, aphrodisiacs, caustics, diuretics, sedatives and styptics respectively ? G iv e exam ples o f two drugs in each of these classes. W hat are hyperderm ic injectio ns, enemata, oleates and suppositories re ­ spectively ? See “ E le m e n ta ry P h a rm a cy .” D efine the difference between sym p­ toms and signs of disease. H o w w ould you deduce, m erely from the attitude of the patient in bed, the presence o f cere­ bral irrita tio n , ch ron ic m eningitis, acute pleu risy, bro nchitis, pericarditis, heart disease and angina respectively ? O f what is cyanosis (blueness) an in ­ dication ? A n d dilatation of the n ostrils ? Puffiness under the eyes? W h at is the H ipp ocratic face? A n d what does it denote ? W h at is a “ stomach cough ? ” O f what is in distin ct, stum bling speech a sign ? D escribe the sputem in acute pn eu­ m onia ; and in early and late bronchitis respectively ? In w hat diseases does oedema o f the teet and legs occur? N am e three conditions w hich produce distension o f the abdom en? H o w w ould you test for blood in the urine ? H o w do you recognise an outbreak of “ shingles ?” See “ S ig n s and Sym ptom s of

D isease.”

S e n d f o r t h i s little p a m p h l e t w i t h o u t d e la y .

F R E E

T o th e W averley Book Co., Ltd., 7, 8 & 9, Old B ailey, London, E.C .

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T o You Get to know all about it fro m the

FREE

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Please particulars balance to

send me your F R E E B ooklet on “ The S cien ce and A rt of N u rsin g ,” w ith as to yo ur offer to d e live r the com plete w ork for a first paym ent o f 2 S. 6d., the be paid by a few sm all m onthly payments.

N A M E ........................................................................................................................................................................

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.......................... ....................................................................


— F I R S T

196

April, 1916

AID. —

First Aid, Medicine. Surgery, and all other Scien­ tific and Literary subjects. On

Aids to M em ory fo r ‘ F irst A id ' S tu d e n ts . B y L. M. F r a n k C h r i s t i a n , M .B ., C .M . Edin. Author (jo in tly w ith IV .R .E .) of “ Problems in First A id ,” St. John Amb Assoc.

Seventh Kdltion now ready.

Revised to date (Sept. 1915.)

“ N o ambulance man need ever fear he will go rusty if he will take an occa­ sional dose of the mental mixture contained wiihin the covers of this splendid book . . . cannot conceive a better utilisation of space, a better treatise on this subiect could not be written. . . the book for all, whether old hands or students." “ A ‘ multum in parvo ' o f the greatest value.” Price : In Cloth, 6d. net— by post 7<i. In Leather, 2s. net— by post 2s. 2d. Sto ck po r t

:C o n n ell &

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ON

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TH E

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Its A p p licatio n shown by W o rd s and D iagram s.

A H a n d b o o k in a tabulated and sim plified form givin g the main points ol first aid, so arranged as to im press them on the memory of the student. DALE, REYNOLDS & CO.. L td ., 46, C a n n o n S i.

at

Systems of Body accurately indexed. In v alu a b le to Students of Anatom y, M edicine, F irs t-A id and A llie d Subjects. Price i s . n e t ; postage, 2d.

Post fre e 7d.

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- -

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and The St. John Ambulance Association.

NOTES

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AIDS T O

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A Com pendium of A id s to M em ory, in valuable to a ll Students. 2nd E d itio n . VI ith an introduction by Jam es C an tlie , F . R .C .S . Post free, 7 d .

WHY

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\ o d 1v (stamp) to M r. J. E . W a l d e n , Sec., Westminster College (Lady Dispensers Section of the Westminster College of Chemistry and Pharmacy, estd. 1874), 1 1 2 . S t . G e o r g e ’s R o ad , S o u t h w a r k , L o n d o n .

. , I r r ) Officers’ Regulation Great Coats. Dark S J .iV .lJ . Grey beaver cloth, 39s. 6d. to measure. Superior quality Men’s Great Coats, 16s, 6d.— W rite for patterns and particulars, Thornton & Co., tailors, Brighouse. O R S A L E , a quantity of Men’s Ambulance Uniform Trousers, all sizes, quite new, 5s. lid . a pair. Thornton and Co., 24, Commercial-street, Brighouse.

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3he 3ndian Jlmbulance Gazette. A Journal o f Am bulance W ork in India, B urm a and the E ast.

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Everyone engaged in F IR S T A ID w ork should take up the above Courses at once. . A member of S . J . A .B . writes I feel deeply indebted for the courses of instruction received, have often wanted to take such courses, but could never find where to get such .” ( T . B . ) „ Special term s n o w — h alf fees— to members of b .J. A. tL, <xc.

free, is. 2d .

of the R o y a l G ym nastic C entral In stitu te, Stockholm . F o o lsca p 8vo. Illu strate d . P rice IS . 6 d . net ; postage, 2d.

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P R A C TIC A L IN S T R U C T IO N IN C U T T I N G O U T A N D M A K IN G UP H O S P IT A L G A R M E N TS FOR SIC K A N D W O U N D E D . By

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P u b lish e d Q u a rterly . Can be obtained on application to the Editor, Jutogh, Sim la H ills, India I R S T A I D C A S E S , s u ita b le fo r a m b u la n c e s ta tio n s o r u se in c o n n e c tio n w ith a ir r a id s , in s tro n g ja p a n n e d tin. C o n te n ts : 1 r o ll A d h e s iv e P la s t e r, | in c h ; 1 doz. N o . o a n d A doz N o 1 A s e p to In s t a n t a n e o u s B a n d a g e s ; 2 T r ia n g u la r B a n d a g e s • 40Z. P a c k e ts C o tto n W o o l ; 6 A m p u le s T in c t u r e o f Io d in e ;’ 4 R o lle r B a n d a g e s , 2 in c h ; 1 b o ttle S a l V o la t ile ; 1 St. J o h n ’s T o u r n iq u e t ; S a fe ty P in s . P r ic e 17s. 6d. c a r r ia g e p a i d . - T h e A s e p to B a n d a g e C o ., 46, C a n n o n -s t ., L o n d o n , E . C .

F

“ FIRST AID” QUERY and REPLIES COUPON. To be cut out and enclosed w ith a ll Queries.

O R S A L E .— Regulation Brown Leather Belts and Pouches; also Caps and Overcoats; samples on approval.-Follett, 4, Victoria-avenue, Bishopsgate, London, E.C.

F

A pril,

1916.

---------------------------------------„ ,, . . . . , T T H r to w hom all com m unications should be a d d re sse d P rin te d and P u b lls o e d by M essrs. D a l b . R b y n o l d s & C o .. L td ., 46 . CaDnon S t. L o n d o n , H .L ., to wo


F I R S T AID AND

ST.

JO H N

THE

AM BULANCE Edited b y A R T H U R

No. 263.

VOL.

X X II To

[N ew S e r ie s ,]

Our

------

M A Y , 1916

B.

GAZETTE.

DALE. [E nltrtd at Sta tto n trs' Hall. 1

^2/6

P e r * ^ A nn uju ,^ P o s t - F r e e

called upon to work among running m achinery has resulted

Readers.

•* F ir s t Aid ” Is published on th e 20th of e v e r y month. The A n n ual Subscription is 2 S . 6 d . post fre e ; single copies 2 d . T h e F.ditor invites readers to send articles and reports on subjects of interest to am bulance w orkers, these should be addressed to him at 46, Cannon Street, Lo ndo n , E .C .

in risks of in jury from w hich the workman, who has generally made the acquaintance of the workshop as a lad, is more or less exempt.

Again, the conditions of em ploy­

ment are frequently such a complete change from the quiet and restful atmosphere of the home, which many have only

A ll articles and reports must be accompanied by the name and address of the w riter, not necessarily for publication but for the use ot the E dito r.

the start at any rate, a good num ber of m inor accidents

Subscriptions, A dvertisem ents and other business com m unications connected w ith F i r s t A i d should be addressed to the Publishers,

appreciate the value of a training w hich will enable them

DALE,

R E Y N O L D S & C O ., L t d . , 46, C a n n o n S t r e e t , L o n d o n , E .C .

now left for the first time, that it is not surprising that, at are likely to occur.

T h at the women have been ready to

to m inim ise the effect of such accidents, and have taken steps to acquire it, is testimony alike to their foresight and hum anitarianism .

EDITO RIAL

Cases have been reported where large classes of women workers have taken a course of first aid training and, not

M uch

has been written upon the sub-

content with that, have followed it up with instruction in

E m p lo y m e n t

ject of employment of women for what

Hom e Nursing, so as to equip themselves for service as

of W o m e n

had, prior to the war, been regarded as

assistants in the hospitals w hich have recently come into

a n d F i r s t A id . “ man’s work,” particularly in connec­

being all over the country.

T h e conditions which obtain

tion with making of m unitions of war. We see women to-day piloting motor cars and horsed

and one can have nothing but adm iration for the woman

vehicles through the congested traffic of the Metropolis,

worker who, after a long day in the workshop or office, will

acting as porters, ticket collectors and carriage cleaners

spend an hour or more in obtaining instruction which w ill

upon our railways and filling a hundred and one other

enable her to take a hand in alleviating the sufferings of

have, no doubt, influenced many in taking up such work,

positions which, but a short time ago, were considered to

her fellow workers, or qualify her for duty at one of our

be suited only to male employes.

hospitals.

T h e war has revealed to

us many things, and one of the most valuable, perhaps, is

W om en railway workers have, in several instances,

the ability of our women to promptly and adequately under­

organised themselves into classes for instruction in both

take duties on the land, on the railways and, also, in the

first aid and nursing, and at one of our great London

workshop when the men have been withdrawn for sterner

termini, where our soldiers leave their wives and families

work over seas.

en route for the trenches, a uniform ed corps of women rail­

“ T h e women are wonderful,” has by

repetition become almost a classic doubtedly a great truth.

phrase.

It is un­

way employes may be seen ready to deal with any case of disability which may arise.

It is testimony to our women­

Large numbers of the women who have now joined

folk that many will, by an almost super-human effort, keep

the industrial ranks have engaged upon work of a more or

a “ straight lip and dry e y e ” until their soldier-heroes have

less hazardous character, and it is gratifying to know that

been lost to sight in the departing train only to collapse

where their duties permit they have readily sacrificed some of their lim ited leisure hours in order to qualify themselves

afterwards when there is no chance of “ him ” witnessing

to render first aid to their fellow-workers should occasion

such as these that the W om en’s A m bulance Corps are

arise. W hilst women are, perhaps, as careful and pains­ taking as the sterner sex, the conditions under which such large numbers have been absorbed into workshops and

the breakdown.

It is on occasions and in circum stances

doing such a good work— essentially women’s work— and applying skilled and sympathetic distressed sisters.

treatment

for

their


— F I R S T

May, 1916.

AID. No. 2 District.

3Fe Srand SViorg of the 6rder of the Hospital of S t. Jo h n of Jerusalem in Sngland. AMBULANCE

tfhe S t.

Jo h n

DEPARTMENT.

.Ambulance

Srigade.

DISTRICT” 1ORDERS. A c tin g

d e p u t y

W.

H.

:

c o m m is s io n e r

W IN N Y .

D IS T R IC T K h aki

A N N U A L R E - E X A M IN A T IO N S . Officers or members in charge of divisions, if they wish the annual re-examination to count towards the Association awards such as medal or label, etc., should themselves apply direct to the Chief Secretary, St. John Ambulance Association, giving the following particulars (1) The number and sex of the candidate, (2) the subject, (3) date, (4) the date of the previous examinations of the candidates on that subject, (5) name and address of the medical man who has consented to conduct the re-examination. Failure to carry out these instructions may entail considerable annoyance and delay. B R IG A D E R E G U L A T IO N S . Considerable inconvenience is caused both to members of divisions and to headquarters, by the failure of officers in charge of divisions to make themselves sufficiently acquainted with the Brigade Regulations. Officers are reminded that the Regulations should be carefully studied, especially as by doing so a considerable amount of correspondence would be saved. Officers in charge of divisions should see that their Brigade notepaper is in accordance with the Regulations. Brigade correspondence should not, if it can be avoided, be conducted on V .A .D . notepaper. A P P O IN T M E N T . M iss Rideout, Lady Superintendent of No. 18 Whitehall Nursing Division, has been appointed Acting Lady District Secretary, to date from 6th May, 1916. C O M P E T IT IO N F O R A IR R A ID VO LUN TEERS. A special prize is being offered for competition by the Police. Those eligible to compete will be members of A ir Raid parties furnished by the St. John Ambulance Brigade, Red Cross and other societies, whose members were registered f o r this work on 1st April, 1916. Each organisation will be permitted to furnish one team of men and one team of women to compete, five in each team. The competition will take place at the Botanical Gardens, Regent’s Park, on July 6th. Further particulars will be given later. W . H. W IN N Y ,

A ctin g Deputy-Com m issioner.

Headquarters :— St. John’s Gate, Clerkenwell, E.C.

A m bu lan ce

G a zette .

Arrangements have now been completed, with the approval of the Chapter General of the Order, for the publication of the “ St. John Ambulance Gazette ” as part of the monthly journal F i r s t A i d . The attention of all ranks is therefore drawn to this periodical, in the hope that it will be supported, both financially and also with news. Reports and notices from Divisions should be forwarded to the Deputy Commissioner, at the end of each Key from month, in time to reach headquarters by the 3rd of the follow­ ing month.

M IL IT A R Y S E R V IC E B IL L . When this B ill becomes law it is probable that the ranks of the men who have volunteered their services for A ir Raid work will be seriously depleted. 11 is important therefore that officers or members in charge of divisions should at the earliest possible moment report the present number of men in their division registered for A ir R aid work, and approximately the number of these men who may be called up for service.

(Signed)

U n if o r m .

Referring to Brigade Order 279, instructions have been issued by the Arm y Council necessitating the following modi­ fications being effected forthwith :— I he wearing of the shoulder brace of the Sam Browne belt by Officers of the Brigade or Voluntary Aid Detachments, who do not hold Commissions, to be discontinued, and shoulder cords substi­ tuted for shoulder straps. The badges of rank should be worn on the lapels of the jacket. St . Joh n

J U N E , 1916. Sunday Duty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. Sunday,4th.— No. 68 Division, City of London. „ 1 ith.— No. 7 „ Toynbee Hall. „ 18th.— No. 40 „ Beckton. „ 25th.— No. 53 „ Watford. 2.30 p.m. to 8.30 p.m. As per separate orders. St. John’s Gate, 2 p.m.

ORDERS.

In d e x

C ard s.

The Deputy Commissioner would like to ask all divisions who use the card index for tabulating the details of their members, to forward a specimen card at their earliest con­ venience. O b it u a r y .

It is with sincere regret the Deputy Commissioner records the death of the undermentioned members of the BrigadeDivl. Supt. A. W. Agg, J.P., Andoverford Division, Chel­ tenham Corps, April, 1916. . Pte. H. E. A. Verrinder, Clifton Division, City of Bristol C o r p s , died o n m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e , 30/11/15. Pte. J. S. Tomlin, Maidenhead Division, died on military service, 30/1/16. . . . Pte. H. Griffiths, Oxford City Division, Oxford Corps, died on military service, 22/2/16. H o sp it a l

S e r v ic e

f o r

N u r sin g

M em ber s.

Members of Nursing Divisions can now obtain a month’s experience in either the Charing Cross Hospital or Kensington Infirmary, London. Those desirous of further particulars should apply, through their Superintendent, to the Deputy Commissioner ( Signed) J o h n S. G r i f f i t h s , D eputv Commissioner.

Headquarters :— Redland Park House, Bristol. No

3 District.

— Members of the Headquarters Division who have joined the R.A .M .C. have been particularly successful in promotions, and news has now come to hand that Stan-Sergt. Scarr has been “ Mentioned in Despatches” for Distinguished Conduct in the Field. K e t t e r in g

No. 5 District. B O S T O N — This Division, which now has 49 officers, non­ commissioned officers and men on active service, has, through the untiring energies of its popular Commanding Officer, L)ivl. Supt W J Husson, been able to obtain ten new members. Boston being on the East Coast, the Division is frequently on duty through the night, in readiness for air raids. During the past few weeks several courses of instruction in first aid have been held One course for females has just been completed, with the pleasing result of all the candidates being successful. Ambulance Officer Lewis M. Gaze has been instructing seven­ teen boys of the Boston Troop (Baden-Powell Scouts), all of whom have obtained the Ambulance Badge. Thanks to the h a r d w o r k of Ambulance Officers G. A. Enderby and W . H. T nnn the new officer being a fresh asset to the Division, the


May, 1916,

- F I R S T

division funds have been enhanced by the sum of £25, being the proceeds of a concei t, entirely organised by these officers, ably assisted by the N.C.O.’s and men. S u p t . H u s s o n is j u s t c o m m e n c i n g a c l a s s o f i n s t r u c t i o n in N u r s i n g , fo r w h i c h t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e l a s t r e c r u i t s h a v e h a n d e d in th e ir n a m e s .

Councillor J. W. Hinder has presented the Division with a handsome Roll of Honour, which has been decorated by Messrs. F. B. Pearson & Sons. T his meritorious piece of work has been placed in the Orderly Room at the headquarters, St John’s Hall. Owing to the heavy duties of the Division, which entails a deal of night work, Ambulance Officer Gaze has taken up his abode at the headquarters.

No. 12 (Irish) District.

It is not many years since the St. John Ambulance B ri­ gade was started in Dublin. For a time its members were looked upon as well-intentioned but unneeded, and they lacked the full measure of public support and sympathy which their work deserved. Its usefulness is no longer doubted. On Easter Monday, when the Sinn Fein rising broke out, Dist. Supt. W. G. Smith, Dist. Officer Moore and Corps Supt. Stodart were early in touch with the various ambulance divi­ sions, and shortly after Brigade men were to be seen tending the wounded and acting as stretcher bearers all over the city. The Deputy Commissioner was away from home, but on returning to Dublin on Tuesday night, took entire charge of all ambulance arrangements, and was in constant communication with the military authorities. On several occasions Dr. Lumsden acted in the most gallant manner— tending wounded for some hours under a heavy cross-fire, getting supplies to hospitals in very dangerous areas, going himself with the wagons. Lady Dist. Supt. Dr. E lla Webb, with her customary promptitude, mobilised many of the nurses early in the week, and set about turning the Irish W ar Hospital Supply Depot, 40, Marrion-square, into an auxiliary hospital. In three hours the house was ready with fifty beds, and even an operating theatre was prepared for the surgeons. About forty patients were admitted during the ten days. This hospital was used for wounded, for which there was no room in Sir Patrick Dunn’s Hospital, and as the fighting was very desperate in that neighbourhood the hospital was soon filled. The Matrons-in-Charge were Miss A. M. McDonnell, R.R.C. (night) and Miss Carson-Rae (day). The District was particularly fortunate in obtaining the services of these ladies. Dr. E lla Webb was Commandant, Mrs. Lumsden, wife of the Deputy Commissioner, an untiring worker, Quartermaster, and Mrs. Hignett head of the Canteen. The hospital’s auxiliary to 40, Merrion-square, with staffs, were— Mrs. Heppell M arr’s, 29, Lower Fitzwilliam-street. Com­ mandant, Mrs. Heppel Marr, Assistant, Miss Mabel McCarthy. Litton H all (by permission of the Rev. Percy Phair, M.A.). Commandant, Miss Archer, Matron, Miss Buckley. High School, Harcourt-street, Commandant, Miss Bird. No. 11, Bushey Park-road (kindly lent by Mrs. Jackson). Commandant, Mrs. Jackson. Miss Meade’s, 32, Fitzwilliam-square. A ll these were started by St. John or Red Cross Voluntary Aid Detachments. Altogether there were 300 ambulance men and over 300 nurses engaged during those anxious ten days, and it would be utterly impossible to mention the names of all who specially distinguished themselves. Discipline of men and nurses was perfect all through. Even the nurses were frequently under fire, as they had to come on duty at the hospitals in very dangerous areas, and which most of all proved their worth, did work of the most uninteresting nature with the same spirit of unselfishness. ? 've vvRh pride the General Officer Commanding-inChiefs tribute to the,work

AID.

199

-

Headquarters, Irish Command, Parkgate, Dublin, 7th May, 1916. “ I desire to express my sincere appreciation of the services rendered during the recent disturbances in D ublin by the medical, surgical and nursing staffs of the many city hospitals, and particularly [of the gallantry shown by those nurses who exposed themselves to a heavy fire in attending to and removing the wounded. “ Also to the members of the Red Cross and St. John Ambulance Societies and the many medical men and private individuals who gave assistance in attending to the wounded or placed their houses at the disposal of the military for use as dressing stations. “ In numerous instances these services were rendered at considerable personal risk and under circumstances reflecting the greatest credit on those engaged in them.” (Signed) J. G. M a x w e l l , General, Commander-in-Chief of the Force in Ireland. Next month it is hoped to give for publication a report of the work of each unit separately.

Colonel T he

L ate

E d it o r

of

Blackham. the

“ I n d ia n

A mbulance

G a z e t t e .”

O u r readers in In d ia and elsewhere will be interested to hear that C olonel Blackham . C .I.E ., who was for so many years the H onorary Secretary of the St. John A m bulance in India, has been in France for about six months. H e is now the Assistant D irector of M edical Services of a D ivision. Colonel B lackham ’s work in In d ia included the foundation and honorary editorship, since its foundation, of our contemporary the In d ia n A m bulance G azette. H is labours were shared almost equally between the Association and Brigade, Amongst his Association services may be mentioned the establishment in In d ia of no less than 300 centres of the Association, the formation of a large reserve fund for the St. John A m bulance Association in In d ia , the collection of ,£4 0,000 for R ed Croes work in Ind ia, the despatch of consignments of R ed Cross gifts valued at many thousands of pounds to various theatres of War, the organisation of the In d ia n Branch as sole R ed Cross Society of Ind ia. E ven contributions to R ed Cross Societies of A llies pass to In d ia n St. Jo h n A m bulance Treasury, the organisation of St. Jo h n A m bulance W ar H ospital in Ind ia. Col. Blackham was also identified with the first W ar H ospital of the O rder in the East since Acre, and the training and employment of St. Joh n men on m ilitiry war work. In the Brigade C o lo n el B lackham has rendered equally conspicuous services. O nly one D ivisio n was working in In d ia when he started. Now the Brigade is well known, and few great p ub lic gatherings take place without the presence of a St. John Detachment. H is services in organising the Coronation D urbar Contingent of the Brigade, which was the largest gathering of St. John men ever organised for so long a period in peace time, attracted a great deal of attention, but his most remarkable services were at the State E n try at D elhi, in 1911, when the C olonel and his contingent picked up and rendered first aid to no less a personage than the V iceroy of In d ia himself. T h is event was so im portant that a Special Brigade O rder was published on the subject. H is comrades in the Brigade w ill watch with interest Colonel B lackham ’s work in his high m ilitary command, and pray for his safe return to their ranks in “ the piping days of peace.”


— FIRST

200

AID —

May, 1916

THE ST. JOHN AMBULANCE GAZETTE. Official News. U n if o r m T h e fo llo w in g g i v e n :—

decision

of

R e g u l a t io n s. the

Arm y

C o un cil

has

been

“ The uniform worn by members of Voluntary Aid Detach­ ments raised under the auspices of the St. John Ambulance Association, the British Red Cross Society, and the St. Andrew’s Ambulance Association, may be considered to be official uniform for the purposes of Regulation 41 of the Defence of the Realm Regulations.” Regulation 42, Defence of the Realm Regulations.— I f :— (a) any unauthorised person uses or wears any naval, military, police, or other official uniform, decoration, medal, or any badge supplied or authorised by the A d­ miralty, Army Council, or Minister of Munitions, or by the police or other official authority, or any uniform, decora­ tion, medal or badge, so nearly resembling the same as to be calculated to deceive ; or (ib) any person falsely representing himself to be a person who is or has been entitled to use or wear any such uniform, decoration, medal or badge as aforesaid ; or (c) any person without lawful authority or excuse sup­ plies any such uniform, decoration, medal or badge, as aforesaid, to any person not authorised to use or wear same ; such person shall be guilty of an offence against these regulations. G e n e r a l S e r vic e

U n if o r m .

Dispensers , Clerks , Cooks and Chauffeurs. Outdoor Uniform.— A ll ranks for the General Service Section shall wear the regulation coat and hat, and jacket and skirt, with white shirt and black regulation tie and belt. Badge.— A ll ranks of the General Service Section shall wear on the left forearm of the outdoor uniform a badge Reg. No. 43, with the emblem of the British Red Cross Society on the right, and of the Order of St. John on the left, enclosed in a double circle containing the words, “ V.A .D . General Service,” the outer circle to be 2§ inches in diameter, to be obtained from the Stores Department, St. John’s Gate. Indoor Dress.

Clerks.— Overall of grey cotton material, regulation pat­ tern, with full length sleeves, black regulation belt. Cooks.— Grey regulation cotton dress. Grey regulation cotton overall. Regulation pattern apron, with square bib. Regulation cook’s cap. W hite regulation collars and cuffs. Dispensers.— Grey cotton coat or overall. Dispensers who are members of a V.A .D . may wear the black and white striped dress, with regulation apron, collars and cuffs, and cap, as for Commandant. Honorary members of Brigade and Association Detach­ ments shall wear the St. John Ambulance Association hat badge No. 14, and Association buttons, Reg. Nos. 15 and 16. Titles for shoulder straps, S.J.A.A. Members of the Brigade who are not honorary members should wear their Brigade uniform and badges, with the addition of the overalls if they desire to have them, and title S.J.A.B. and number of their district on their shoulder straps. Chauffeurs. —Regulation motor cap. The above V.A.D . uniform can be obtained from :— Messrs. Harrods, Ltd., Brompton-road, S.W. Messrs. J. Shoolbred & Co., Ltd., Tottenham Courtroad, W. Messrs. E. & R. Garrould, 150, Edgware-road, W.,

except the black mackintosh coat, which can only be obta ned from — Messrs. Hobson & Sons, 1, Lexington-street, W. Hats and Gaberdine cap can be obtained from : — Messrs. Scotts, 1, Old Bond-street, W. A pproxim ate P rices o f Uniform.

56 Summer hat, black s t r a w ............................................... W inter hat, black felt ... ... ... ... 0611 Summer coat ... ... ... ... ... 1 13 o W inter coat ... ... ... ... ... 1 5 0 Jacket and skirt, black ............................................ 2 5 6 Mackintosh ... ... ... ... ... ... o 19 o Garbardine waterproof cap ... ... ... 0 5 0 Price L is t o f Badges , B uttons , etc. To be obtained only from the Stores Department, St. John Ambulance Association, St. John’s Gate, Clerkenwell, London, E.C. B r i g a d e V.A.D. Officers.

Lady D istrict Supt. Cloak No. 3658, 3 Stars A „ „ „ Arm No. 3659, 3 Stars A Lady Corps Supt., Cloak No. 3658, 2 Stars A „ „ „ Arm No. 3659, 2 Stars A Lady Divisional Supt., Cloak No. 3658, I Star A ,, „ „ Arm No. 3659, I Star A Nursing Officer, Cloak No. 3655 ............... „ „ Arm No. 3656 W hite box cloth backs, per pair Badges of Rank Stars A , No. 36, each Black silk armlet for Arm Badge, all ranks Pin cushion badge, all ranks, No. 37 Hat badge, all ranks, No. 20 ... Buttons, all ranks, No. 13 (large), per doz. ... „ „ No. 14 (small), per doz. ...

°

o

9

N u r sin g Sisters.

Cloak badge No. 3521 ... Arm badge No. 3522 ... District number, single 3d. double ... Shoulder titles, S.J.A.B., 1 to 12, per p a i r .............. A ss o c ia tio n

V.A .D .

Officers.

Hat badge, all ranks, No. 1 4 ...................................... Cloak badge, Commandant, No. 42 ... „ „ all other ranks, No. 11.......................... Arm badge, Commandant, No. 38 ... „ „ Lady Superintendent, Quarter master and Pharmacist, No. 39 ... Trained Nurses’ badge, No. 40 Black silk armlet, all officers ... General Service badge, No. 43 Badges of Rank, Stars A, No. 36, each .............. Buttons, all ranks, No. 15 (large), per doz................. „ „ No. 16 (small), per doz.................

1 2

0 1 I I 0 1 0 1 o

Other Ranks.

Shoulder title, S.J.A.A., per pair.......................... o 8 Stripes for sleeves to be obtained only from :— Messrs. Hobson & Sons, 134-164, Tooley-street, London Bridge S.E. P rice List.

Commandant Medical Officer ... Q u arte rm a ste r.............................................................

» 4 1 2 1 o


May, 1916.

— F IR S T

A ID

&

TH E

Lady S u p e r in te n d e n t....................................................... Trained Nurse ... ... ... ... ... ... Pharmacist ... ... ... ... ... ... Section L e a d e r .................................................................... R e g u la tio n s Buttons

the S upply of T itles of V o lu n ta r y D etachm ents.

r e g a r d in g and

ST.

JO H N

1 o o 0

tw o or th ree yards and la n d e d on his flat feet. It is, perhaps, id le to sp ecu la te as to w hat w ou ld h a p p en , th o u g h it is certain that so m eth in g w ou ld g iv e w ay ; m a y b e th e d am age w ou ld be lim ited to so m e o f the bo n es o f th e fo ot and ankle, but m ore p ro b a b ly th e n eck o f e ith er or bo th o f the fem urs w ou ld snap or the b a ck -b o n e w ou ld be driven th rou gh the base o f th e skull, or even th e sacru m m igh t be je rk e d from betw een th e h a u n ch b o n es an d c o n c e iv a b ly th e w hole b o d y w ou ld co llap se as a co n fu se d h eap o f debris. E x a m in e the form ation o f the u p p er lim b ; th e c o lla r­ bon e with its d o u b le cu rve d e sig n e d to yield a little w hen a thrust o f the hand is s u d d e n ly s to p p e d — n ot alw ays enough, it is true, as e v id e n ce d by the fre q u en t fractures g iv ­ o f that b o n e — but still u n q u e stio n ab ly tb e b est form w h ich co u ld be a d o p te d for the part it has to p lay ; th e m o b ility o f th e sh o u ld er blade w ith its so ck e t to re ce iv e th e b a ll o f th e hum erus and form with it a jo in t a llo w in g o f m o vem en t in all d irectio n s ; the stru ctu re o f th e fore-arm w ith th e ulna firm ly hin ged to the h u m erus a n d ju s t fallin g sh o rt o f the wrist bones with a p ad o f gristle in terven in g, th e radius with m erely a p ivo t en d at th e e lb o w and an e xp a n d e d en d to sup port the wrist b o n es and han d, so that w hen th e han d is turned th e m o vem en t is m ade by th e rad iu s p assin g over the ulna (w hich ca n n o t ro tate at the e lb o w ) an d ca rry ­ ing the han d with it. T h u s p ro visio n is m ade for all usefu l m ovem ents o f the lim b, an d th e aw k w ard sid e to sid e m o vem en t from the elb o w w h ich w ou ld result if a ball and so ck e t jo in t h ad been used th ere is a vo id e d , w h ile th e sh o ck s cau sed by th e m any uses to w hich th e lim b is put are ab so rb ed sufficien tly to p reserve it in tact in th e vast m ajority o f cases. O th er exam p les o f N a tu re ’s d e fe n siv e arm am en t c o u ld readily be given , but en o u g h has been said to show the provision m ade for th e truest and b est form o f first a id — p revention. N e x t in im p o rtan ce to p reven tio n co m e w arn in g o f im p en d in g tro u b le an d in d icatio n s o f ill results a lrea d y attained. T h e s e are kn ow n as sym ptom s, w h ich th o u g h ge n era lly un p leasan t, h ave their d efin ite uses an d th e m ore read ily th e powers o f o b servatio n and tact are b ro u gh t into p lay to d e te ct them , an d reso u rcefu ln ess, in its w idest sense, is used to rem o ve th eir ca u se an d co n se q u e n tly th em selves, th e b etter is th e co o p eratio n w ith N a tu re ’s effort. O n e is too a p t to lo o k upon pain as so m eth in g w h o lly bad, forgetting that w ithout it calam ities o f all sorts w ou ld pass u n h eed ed until dire results en su ed . W ith o u t pain a red-hot iron m ight be grasp ed an d th e h a n d b e re d u ce d to cin ders with the un fo rtu n ate p ossessor in blissfu l ign o ra n ce o f w hat was b efa llin g him , w hereas as things are, the m om ent th e iron was to u ch e d a m essage w ou ld travel alon g sen sory n erves to th e brain, c o n v e y in g n o tic e o f pain, and back alo n g m otor nerves w ou ld co m e an o rder to th e m uscles to m ove the part to u ch in g th e iron. M o re o v e r d iseases m ight d e ve lo p w ith ou t w arnin g and the p atien t w ou ld, perhaps, pay no atten tio n un til he g o t in to su ch a state that the b o d y refu sed to do its w ork an d still he w ou ld h a v e no precise in d icatio n o f w hat was the m atter. P a in , therefore, is usefu l as a w arn in g an d a lso as a g u id e to th e seat o f m isch ief, w h ile its ch a ra cter w ill often be o f m uch h elp in determ in in g the n atu re o f the d isab ility, and its re lief or in ten sificatio n w ill form a g u id e as to the co rrectn ess or o th erw ise o f th e treatm en t afforded. A k in to pain are o th er sym p to m s w h ich a ct as w arn ­ ings o f so m eth in g w orse to follo w an d often afford the person affected an o p p o rtu n ity o f m a k in g som e p reparatio n to m eet the affliction a b o u t to b efall him . O f su ch a

0 10 10 6

B adges, A id

T he Regulation B adges, Buttons and T itles of Voluntary Aid D etachm ents will only be supplied under the following conditions ; — (а) T o V oluntary A id D etachm ents on the written order o f the Com m andant. (б) T o an individual member on production of an authority, givin g the name of the member and a list o f the articles required, and signed by her Commandant. (c) T o tradesmen on production of an authority, ing the names o f the members and a list o f the articles required, and signed by the Com m andant of the detach­ ment to which they belong. (tf) In every instance the authority must be written on official stationery, and the official number of all badges and buttons quoted. Non-observance o f the above conditions will cause un­ necessary work and delay:

N ature By

as

W IL L IA M

a

First R.

Aider.

ED W AR D S.

I n the all im portan t in tro d u cto ry chap ter to the St. Joh n text b o o k o f first aid it is stated as a fun dam en tal p rin ciple that the first aid stu d en t m ust be resourceful, so that he may use to the best a d va n ta ge w hatever is at hand to prevent further d a m ag e and to assist N a tu re ’s efforts to repair the m isch ie f a lread y done. It will be p rofitable to co n sid er how N a tu re guards against injury and sp on tan eo u sly takes h ealin g m easures, w hich those w ho h ave to deal with em ergen cies o f a ccid e n t and illness m ust be carefu l to assist and su p p lem en t but not to com bat. O n e has only to th in k o f th e frightful injuries inflicted on each other by w ild beasts w here th e re are no veterinary surgeons to lo o k after them , a n d o f th e fact that the various species o f th ese beasts co n tin u e to exist, to realise that N ature left to h e rse lf m ust be w on d erfu lly e qu ip p ed both as a preventer and healer o f injuries. W h at is true o f the lower anim als is true also o f hum an beings, though ow ing to the artificial circu m stan ces in w hich we live and to our disregard to N a tu re ’s laws we are m ore p ron e to suffering than anim als in their natural surroundings. First let us co n sid er sh o rtly how th e fram ew ork on w hich the hum an b o d y is built serves to perform its functions and to resist w hat m ight be th e fatal results of carrying on even our e ve ry d a y avocation s. T h e strength o f th e skeleto n is that o f th e w illow , not o f the oak, and arises largely, if not entirely, from the elasticity due to th e m aterial o f the bones and the superb design, p add in g and lu b ricatio n o f the jo in ts. The thoughtless observer m ight be tem p ted to thin k that the bones and jo in ts c o u ld be better d e s ig n e d ; for exam ple, why should so m any structures be cu rved an d w hy sh ould there be so m any form s o f jo in ts ? T h e answ e has alread y been given :— the skeleto n resists by yield in g. Im ag in e that the d o u b le arch o f the foot and th e four curves o f the spinal co lu m n — at the n eck, b ack, w aist and c o c c y x — were straightened and all gristle p ad d in g was hard en ed or wanting, and th in k w ith w hat dangers the sim p le act o f w alking w ou ld be fraught. Im ag in e further that the possessor o f the altered sk eleto n ju m p e d from a heigh t o f

AMBULANCE

GAZETTE. —

201


202

— F IR S T

A ID

&

TH E

ST.

JOHN

ch a ra cter are th e gid d in e ss and b lu rred vision w hich so often p re ced e an a tta ck o f sy n co p e an d th e co n fu sio n o f th o u g h t w h ich is o n e o f the first results or perhaps w arn ­ in gs o f ce re b ra l haem orrhage. A n “ o u t o f sorts feelin g ” is th e fo reru n n er o f m any form s o f d isease, an d w ithout go in g as far as to say that N a tu re n ev er fails to p rophesy ap p ro a ch in g illness, her failure, to do so is th e exce p tio n rath er than the rule. E q u a lly im p ortan t w ith p reven tion and w arning are th e efforts w h ich N a tu re m akes to rem ed y ill results after th e y h a ve co m e ab ou t, an d here again signs and sym ptom s m ust n ot be lo o k ed upon as h a vin g o n ly their bad side. A t first sigh t it is difficult to th in k that there is a n y­ th in g go o d to say a b o u t bleedin g. N e ve rth e less it is not so lo n g ago that vein s w ere d e lib era tely cut in o rder to get rid o f w hat was righ tly or w rongly su p p o sed to be a plethora o f blood. B le e d in g from the n ostrils is often th e plan a d o p te d by N a tu re to a ch iev e th e sam e result, and for this reason w hen su ch b lee d in g is clearly not d u e to a ccid e n t or w hen it arises from an in ju ry lik ely to cau se effusion o f b lood on th e brain o n e sh o u ld n ot be in too great a hurry to stop it, th o u g h on the o th er han d the p atient m ust not b e a llo w ed to lose so m uch b lood as to cau se him w eakn ess. VVhen a b lo o d vessel is w ou nded, the first effect o f th e esca p e o f b lo o d is to w ash aw ay from w ithin outw ards so m e part at least o f any in ju rious m atter w hich has been in tro d u ce d in to th e w ou nd by w hatever ca u sed it. W hen an artery is w ou n d ed its w alls con tract, as they are elastic, thus re d u cin g the size o f th e op en ing. In ad d itio n to the m ain arteries th ere are sm aller ones in their vicin ity, w hich, as soon as th e bore o f the w ou n ded artery has been red u ced by the co n tractio n o f its walls, begin to en large and by ca rryin g m ore than th e n orm al q u a n tity o f b lood p revio u sly a llo tted as th eir share re d u ce the pressure in the m ain artery and co n se q u e n tly the escap e o f blood. T h e next step is the form ation o f a clo t to seal th e w ound, with the d o u b le o b je c t o f p reven tin g furth er b leed in g and o f c h e c k ­ ing the en try o f harm ful germ s. T h is brings us to a n o th tr p oin t for co n sid era tio n . W h at w ou ld be th e effect o f lea v in g w ou nds un sealed by th e blood clo t and u n p ro tected by d ressin g s? C o u n tless germ s, m any o f them harm ful, w ou ld find th eir w ay in to th e system , and w hen it is rem em b ered that the sigh t o f blo o d is n o t in frequ en tly the first in tim atio n o f a w ou nd, it w ill be realised that b leed in g has several g o o d features. O th er exam p les o f N a tu re ’s efforts to rem ed y m ishaps are the tears w hich freely flow to wash aw ay an irritating su b stan ce in the eye, th e co u g h to get rid o f o bstru ctio n s in th e w in d p ip e or throat, th e sneeze to clear the nostrils an d the vo m it to e m p ty th e stom ach , w hile even in flam ­ m ation has its use, as is show n by th e fo llo w in g extract from R o s e & C a rle s s ’ S u rgery :— F orm erly inflammation was looked on by pathologists as alw ays o f a destructive and harmful nature, but at the present time bacteriological research has dem onstrated that it is often rather o f a protective or conservative character, being N ature’s means o f limiting the advance o f noxious m icro-organism s and o f finally elim inating them from the system. R e st h o w ever m ay fairly be said to be th e m ost efficien t o f N a tu re ’s rem edies. T h e brain and o th er n erve ce n tre s relax their a ctiv ity, with a co rresp o n d in g red u ctio n in th e w ork o f the variou s organs co n tro lled by them ; the b o d y in stin ctiv e ly assum es a p o sitio n o f e a s e ; th e m uscles b e co m e relax ed ; the repair o f tissues e xceed s their w astage, w h ile sleep, th e m anifestation o f th e best form o f rest, both m ental an d p h ysical, ensues.

AMBULANCE

G A Z E T T E .—

May, 1916.

T h e m ore p erfectly N a tu re ’s first aid is un d erstoo d the m ore in harm on y w ith it w ill be the efforts o f th o se anxio u s to assist. W arn in gs w ill be d u ly h e ed e d and in d icatio n s afforded w ill be traced to their origin so that app ro p riate rem edies m ay be used to e ra d icate or ch e ck th e causes from w hich the sym p to m s spring. N a tu re ’s efforts w ill n ot be thw arted by the use o f a tight co n strictin g band in stead o f a p rop erly a p p lied to u rn iq u et with the pad a ccu ra tely p laced on th e pressure point, in th e en d eavo u r to stop bleedin g. N o o b jectio n can be raised to th e tight ban d w hen part o f a lim b is cu t off and the ban d is p laced as near as p o ssib le to th e en d o f th e stum p for in such a case th ere can be no return flow o f b lo o d throu gh the veins. If, how ever, th e lim b is co m p lete the effect o f the tight band w ill p ro b a b ly be to co n strict the veins w hile allo w in g som e blo o d to pass alon g the arteries, w ith the result that b lo o d w ill a ccu m u la te in the vein s and w ill cau se a back pressure on the arteries and co n gestio n in th e part. T o assist N a tu re th e w ou n ded part will be k e p t e le va ted and a b lo o d clo t o ver a w ou nd will be studiously left alon e, and given a ch a n ce to b e co m e firm ly e stab lish ed by w ith h o ld in g stim ulan ts from th e patient. R e s t w ill be en co u rag ed by avo id in g every a ctio n or so un d lik e ly to d istu rb th e patient and by, w hat is perhaps m ore im portan t, that tactful and co m fo rtin g treatm ent w hich is evo lve d from in telligen t sym pathy.

N otes

and

N ew s.

A s we go to press reports are co m in g to han d w hich show that St. Joh n organ isations in Irelan d have been d o in g e x ce llen t work during the crisis in that coun try, and that m em bers h ave greatly distin gu ish ed th em selves. No e xa ct d etails or official reports are yet to hand, but it is kn o w n that the W ar S u p p ly D e p o t was p rom p tly co n verted in to a hospital, and by the aftern oon o f th e first d a y o f the o u tb re ak was ready to receive p atitn ts, and that two surgeon s w ere g iv in g their services. T h e p erso n n el— fem ale as w ell as m ale— was co n sta n tly u n der fire, and there was, at least, o n e fatal casu alty am on gst them , w hile others w ere w o u n d ed . F u rth er d etails w ill be p u b lish ed in our June issue. * * * In the re ce n tly revised issue o f paper 80 19 16 I I . 1 G en eral R u le s, it is p ro vid ed that “ not m ore than thirty ca n d id ates can be exam in ed at one tim e.” T h is statem en t m ay, perhaps, co n v e y a w rong im pression. It is, therefore, d esired to m ake it q u ite clear that n ot m ore than thirty can d id ates can be reckoned as one class, and co n se q u e n tly , if that n um ber is e x ce e d e d an extra fee becom es p ayable. *

* *

In order to facilita te the w ork o f card in dexin g, class secretaries are p articu larly requ ested w hen co rrectin g F orm s W .L ., w hich refer to first exam in atio n s in an y particular s u b je c t,to m ark in red ink thus / any ca n d id ate w ho has p revio u sly o b tain ed an aw ard o f th e A sso cia tio n for any o th er su bject. * * ♦ T h e C h ie f C o n sta b le, N e w S co tlan d Y a rd , gives n o tice that at the M etro p o litan P o lic e F ete, w hich is to be held at th e R o y a l B o tan ica l G ard en s on the 6th J u ly next, there w ill be a F irst A id C o m p e titio n , for w hich prizes w ill be presen ted, op en to team s sele cted from the St. Joh n A m b u la n ce A sso cia tio n an d k in d re d corp oration s w hich h ave offered vo lu n tary assistan ce to the p o lice in the event o f air raids. E a c h S o cie ty m ay o n ly be rep resen ted by o n e team in th e final rounds.


May, ,916

The

— F IR S T

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JO H N

Brigade and th e W om en’s V.A.D. C om m ittee.

W e have re ce iv e d the follow in g letter from the C h ie f C o m m issio n er, C o l. Sir Jam es C la rk :— S i r , — A s there appears to be some misapprehension, with consequent unrest, am ongst members of the St. John A m bu­ lance Brigade concerning its relations with the new W om en’s V .A .D . Com m ittee, I shall be glad if you will give space to a few words from me on the subject. W ith the increasing flow of sick and wounded to hospitals at home it becam e necessary to institute some central body to deal with the supply o f women helpers. A t the suggestion of the W a r Office a W om ens V .A .D . Com m ittee was formed, on which representatives of the various bodies enrolling and training personnel in the work required were appointed. T h e duties o f this Com m ittee are : — 1. T o select from am ongst those submitted to them by the heads of the various bodies those they consider suitable for the work. 2. T o keep in touch with those selected and finally appoint them to the posts where their services are required. I wish this to be clearly understood, nam ely : — 2. T h at each body, whether St. John, B .R .C .S., or other, submits to the Com m ittee the nam es of those am ongst its members who are willing and who are considered suitable for the work. 2. T h a t the Com m ittee in turn select from these those it considers suitable. 3. T h a t these when finally selected pass under the control of the Com m ittee for future disposal, and the body raising them ceases for the time to have jurisdiction over them. 1 went home to E n glan d to discuss the position of the Brigade in this matter with the D irector of the Am bulance Departm ent and the Chairm an o f the W om en’s V .A .D . Committee, with the result that the following resolution was agreed to by us, which resolution I consider efficiently protect's the interests o f the Brigade, should protection be needed : — W om en V .A .D .’s and N ursing D ivisions o f the B rigade required for work with the sick and wounded will, in the first instance, be selected and called up by the L ady Superintendent in C h ief on the request of the Chairm an of the Joint V .A .D . Committee. T h e y will be approved by the Com m ittee of selection, and those approved will then com e under the control o f the Joint W om en’s V .A .D . Com m ittee, and their papers of reference and qualifications will be kept at D evonshire House for the use o f the Committee. T h e Joint Com m ittee will assign them to the various hospitals and notify them when and where to proceed. T h ere is a m isapprehension on the part o f some mem­ bers of the Brigade that they are being turned over to the control of the British R ed C ross Society. T h is is not the CaSCT hose members o f the B rigade V .A .D .’s or N ursing Divisions who are selected for work with the sick and wounded by the W om ens V .A .D Com m ittee, on selection pass under its control, as stated above. T h is Com m ittee, as also already stated, is a Joint Com m ittee representative o f the O rder and of the Brigade, as well as other bodies training personnel for the work. It is therefore entirely wrong to state that those selected pass under the control of any particular body, whether St. John or British R ed Cross Society. A t their final distribution it may be the lot of some indi­ viduals to find them selves serving under superior officers who do not belong to their own particular organisation. T h is should not, in m y opinion, be a m atter o f grievance. It is not going to break up their particular organisation, or, as far as I can see, be even hurtful to it. On the contrary, if the indi­ viduals so situated accept the position loyally and do their best to help those who need their help, as I have not the least

AMBULANCE

GAZETTE.

20 3

doubt they will do, it will add to the credit of, and respect for, and will thus strengthen, the particular body to which they bel° T h e r e is a saying, “ Save me from my friends,” which is somewhat applicable to the oresent case Individual grievan ce (real or im aginary) are put prom inently forward, and are take up and enlarged by others havin g no g r i e v a n c e o f their own but ready to swell the chorus, regardless o f the first object in view — help to the helpless— and regardless of w hether the grievan ce put forward is o f sufficient im portance to hinder that T h e B rigade will, I am sure, see this and sink all party feeling, and join loyally in givin g its service where needed, even though the conditions m ay som etim es appear irksom e. T h e highest officers o f the O rder and the whole O rder recognise the m agnificent work o f the B rigad e, and will unite in upholding it now and in the future against all encroachm ents on its right. , . , , ., It is not, I think, fully realised that it has been the privilege of the O rder o f St. John since its first co n cep ­ tion in the beginning o f the eleventh century to give its services to the succour o f the sick and wounded in peace and in war. . . ., . A s long as the O rder exists this privilege must rem ain to it. It is its raison dHre. I have the honour to be, Sir, Y o u r obedient servant, J a m e s R. A n d r e w C l a r k . St. John A m bulance B rigade H ospital, F rance.

A V.A.D. M em bers’s Experience on th e “ M aloja.” I w a s go in g o u t to B o m b a y and e m b a rk e d at T ilb u r y in all co n fid e n ce, b u t before I had been on b o ard tw en ty-four hours th e “ M a lo ja ” was at th e b ottom o f th e sea. W h en the aw ful so u n d o f th e exp lo sio n was heard, th e steam w histle im m ed iately blew four tim es, an d this was our sign al to put on life-belts an d m ake for the boats. I was a m o n g st q u ite the m ost fortun ate o f the survivors, h a vin g been a b le to find a seat in a bo at w hich, a lth o u g h low ered w ith d iffi­ cu lty, one end at a tim e, did rea ch th e w ater safely. I saw a bo at clo se to m e w hich ca p sized befo re re a ch in g th e water, and a n o th er was im m ersed by a boat in the a ct o f b ein g low ered, u n der w h ich it h a d u n fo rtu n ate ly d rifted ow in g to th e sh ip ’s w ay w hich c o u ld n ot be stop p ed . T h e r e were very m any p eo p le in th e w ater, so m e h avin g ju m p ed in, and the rest b ein g throw n out o f th e boats. E v e ry o n e h ad on a life-belt, in w h ich I b e lie v e it is q u ite im p o ssib le to drow n. W h en I an d m y bo at co m p an io n s fo un d our bo at full o f w ater we w ere tak en o ff by an o th er life-boat an d th en transferred to a m in e sw eeper, w here we w ere q u ite safe an d m ost k in d ly lo o k ed after by th e m in e sw eep er’s crew. T h e sea was ve ry rou gh and th ere was a high w ind w h ich was bitterly .c o ld . T h e icy c o ld n ess o f the w ater ca u sed m any d eath s an d m u ch suffering. F rom th e m ine sw eep er we w atch e d the “ M a lo ja ” rap id ly sinking, but still th ere was o n e bo at full o f people, tw o sm all boys w ith their m other am o n gst them , restin g on th e starb o ard side o f th e ship, w h ich ow in g to the heavy list, c o u ld not be go t away. T h e d ifficu lty was so sim p ly o ve rco m e after m uch a gitatin g and w aiting, for, as th e ship san k and th e w ater rose a b o v e her, th e bo at flo ated aw ay o u t o f the davits, an d there ap p ea red to be no suction. A few seco n d s m ore and the h u ge lin er was en tirely o u t o f sight. T h e m ine sw eep er o n w hich I was, co n tin u e d to p ick up p eo p le out o f th e w ater, as d id all th e m any o th er boats aroun d, an d these all retu rn ed to D o v er. I shall n ever forget how s p le n d id ly th e R e d C ro ss


204

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S o c ie ty lo o k e d after us all. W e w ere g iv en h ot d rin ks and dry clo th es, and telegram s w ere sent by th e S o cie ty to our p eo p le. T h e n in b atch es we w ere driven in m otor a m b u ­ la n ces to th e L o rd W ard en H o te l, w here in tim e all the E u ro p e a n survivors co lle cte d . E v e ry o n e was p artly or e n tire ly dressed in clo th es, or blan kets, len t by th e R e d C ro ss and several d o cto rs o f the R .A .M .C . cam e, and were k e p t very b u sy m akin g th eir p atients co m fo rtab le. I, w ith six others as fo rtu n ate as m yself, sat dow n to a ch a m p ag n e lu n ch e o n , an d later in the even in g w e seven left D o v e r for V ic to ria . W e m an aged to be a very ch e e ifu l p arty, b u t it was difficult. I h a d lost a yo u n g fox terrier o f w h ich I was very fond, also m y trousseau an d w ed d in g presents, for I was g o ­ ing o u t to be m arried. Still, th ere was m uch to b e th an k fu l for, and I h o p e for better lu ck on m y n ext ven ture.

Motor Am bulance D epartm ent. ( Concluded from page 1 8 4 .)

T he first in sta lm en t of this article e n d e d on a n ote o f satis­ factio n th at ow in g to th e gen ero sity o f one o f its m em bers, th e O rd e r o f St. Joh n sh o u ld h ave foun d its e lf d u rin g the terrific co n te st at V e rd u n in a p osition to exten d a h e lp in g h a n d to our A llie s , th e F ren ch , by sen din g to the hosp ital at A rc-en -B arro is, th e X -ray m otor a m b u la n ce p resen ted by S ir Joh n H o ld e r. It is a furth er so u rce o f gratification to learn that the app aratu s arrived safely at its d estin atio n , and has been d o in g sp le n d id w ork ever sin ce, b y n igh t as w ell as by day. F o r the p ro xim ity o f th e ho sp ital to V e rd u n has kep t its w ards full to o verflo w in g, and m any serious cases are taken

The

“ Silver

T h im b le ”

A m bulance

o u t o f th e a m b u la n ce trains at A rc-en -B arro is that co u ld n ot stan d a m ore p ro lo n g ed jo u rn e y. A m em b er o f th e staff, w ho has retu rn ed to L o n d o n after 15 m onths w ork at the ho sp ital, d e sc rib e d in vivid term s to th e w riter th e im m en se b en efit co n fe rred on m any o f th e w o u n d e d by this sp le n d id p ie ce o f app aratu s, w hich is g iv in g th e u tm o st satisfactio n to th ose a p p o in te d to w ork it. P re v io u s to its arrival, o w in g to the b rea kd o w n o f the ra d io g ra p h ic app aratu s w ith w h ich th e ho sp ital was e qu ip p ed

AMBULANCE

GAZETTE. —

M ay, 1916.

w hen it o p en ed , cases h a d b een o b lig e d to w ait till th e arrival o f a tra ve llin g app aratu s b elo n gin g to the F re n ch m ilitary a u th o rities— w hich in vo lve d a d elay so m etim es ex ­ ten d in g o ver w eeks. N o w th ey are exam in ed at o n ce an d the b en efit a c c ru ­ ing to th e suffering is untold. R e fe re n c e was also m ade in th e last issue to the gifts o f the “ S ilv er T h im b le .” O u r readers w ill be p lea sed to hear that tw o m otor a m b u la n ce boats, one o f w h ich is illustrated on this page, are alread y on their w ay to M eso p o tam ia , and that a th ird has been o rd ered — all o f them the gift o f the “ S ilv er T h im b le .” A ls o that th e d isin fecto r, to w hich referen ce was likew ise m ade in our last issue, and o f w hich w e are e n a b led this m o n th to re p ro d u ce a p h o tograp h , has been a cce p te d by the W a r O ffice and is on its w ay to “ som ew here in F ra n ce .” B y th e tim e this a rticle is in print, it w ill p ro b a b ly be at w ork brin gin g h ealth and co m ­ fort to the sorely tried units co m p o sin g th e 36th U lster D ivisio n . L e st the nam es o f th e tw o lad ies w ho are co n d u ctin g th e “ S ilv er T h im b le ” co llectio n w ith such co n sp icu o u s d e vo tio n and success, sh o u ld h ave escap ed the n o tice o f p o ssib le con tributors, w e ven tu re to rep eat that eith er L a d y M a u d W ilb rah am , 26, L o w er Sloane-street, S .W ., or M iss H o p e C la rk e, 2, C rescen t-ro ad , W im b led o n , w ill be happy to receive an y contri butic ns o f old jew ellery, or broken pieces o f go ld or silver, tow ards th e “ S ilver T h im b le F u n d .” T h e g o o d see d sown in tim es o f p ea ce by th e O rd er o f St. Joh n in our D o m in io n s and C o lo n ie s has been y ie ld ­ ing rich returns to the M o th er C o u n try o f late, as w itness w hat has been d o n e by the C ity an d D istrict o f D u rb a n d u rin g th e last few m onths. L a st autum n an e n q u iry was re ce iv e d at St. J o h n ’s G a te as to th e cost o f a co m p lete A m b u la n c e su itab le for service at th e front. A s a result o f th e rep ly to th e en ­ quiry a rem ittan ce o f the n ece s­ sary am o u n t plus sufficient to run and m aintain th e car for six m onths was forthw ith m ade to th e O rd er o f St. Joh n, in the n am e o f th e W o m en o f D u rb an and D istrict. T h is sum , am o u n t­ ing to ^ 6 5 0 , was han d ed o ver u n der th e term s o f the jo in t w orkin g agreem en t, to th e m otor a m b u la n ce dep artm en t at 83, P a ll M all. T h e result o f this c o n trib u tio n was to add to the fleet o f m otor a m b u la n ces at the a isp o sal o f th e C o m m itte e a four s tre tch er a m b u la n ce on a B u ick chassis, co n fo rm in g in every way with the requirem en ts o f the m ilitary au th o rities an d sp ecia lly d e d ic a te d to the m em o ry o f M iss C a v e ll. T h is sp len d id gift was su b ­ Launch. se q u e n tly su p p le m e n ted by a further re m ittan ce o f ^ 4 0 4 . 9s. 3d B u t th e patriotism and the gen ero sity o f th e D u rb an d istrict was not lim ited to th e fair sex. T h e O rd er o f St. J o h n has in D u rb a n a very arden t and en e rge tic rep re­ sen tativ e in D r. A . M urray-G ray. T h is gen tlem an su g­ g e sted , by a letter to th e lo cal press, th at th e farm ers in N a ta l w o u ld p ro b a b ly be w illin g to h elp the great cause. T h e id ea was w arm ly esp oused , and an ap p eal by th e H o n . J o se p h B a y n e s m et w ith im m ed iate and co rd ial respon se, an d rem ittan ces from the farm ers o f N a ta l to th e m o to r


May,

iq 16

— F IR S T

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ST.

am b u la n ce dep artm en t at Sc. J o h n ’s G a te have been rece ive d to the am o u n t o f no less than ,£ 2,20 0 , and there is reason to an ticip ate that this w ill shortly be augm en ted by further con tributions. It is esp e cially w orthy o f n ote that alth ou gh this gift com es from the N a ta l farm ers, it was acco m p a n ied b y a n otificatio n that co n trib u tio n s h ad been received from all classes in th e agricu ltu ral districts, in clu d in g B oers and natives. N or sh o u ld we o m it to add that the H o n . Joseph

JO H N

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for w hich a “ j o b ” was p ro m p tly fo u n d at th e S e a m a n ’s H o s p ita l at G reen w ich . C o n sid eratio n s o f sp ace fo rb id us to p ro lo n g the fo re­ g o in g statem en t o f the a ctiv ities o f th e M o to r A m b u la n c e D ep artm en t at St. J o h n ’s G a te d u rin g the last few m on th s. In su b seq u en t n um bers we sh all, no d o u b t, return to the su bject. F o r th e m o m en t we w ill c o n c lu d e b y p u ttin g on reco rd th e gratefu l th an k s o f the O rd e r to th e m an y co n trib u to rs w ho h ave e n a b le th e w ork to b e ca rried on, a n d to the w orkers, w ith ou t w h o se efforts su ccess co u ld n o t be attain ed .

Pair o f “ T h r e s h ” D isinfectors mounted on Foden Steam W agon. Presented to the St. John A m bulance A ssociation by the “ Silver T him ble.”

U n fo rtu n a te ly , th e m o m en t has n ot arrived , n or to th e o rd in a ry in te lle ct is it in sight, w hen th e sign al can go forth that their efforts can b e su sp en d ed . T h e n ee d for help still exists, an d co n trib u tio n s to th e T ra n s p o rt o f W o u n d e d Fund are still grea tly n eed ed . L ib e ra l as h ave been th e gifts, th e e xp en ses h a v e b e en so h e a v y as to ca u se to th o se resp o n sib le som e a n x iety as to how th e w ork is to be co n tin u e d if th e war is p ro lo n ged . E a ch a m b u la n ce in vo lve s co n sta n t exp en d itu re, an d th o u g h m an y o f them h ave been, so to sp eak, en­ d o w ed for a certain p eriod , there are still m ore that h a ve b e en pre­ s e rv e d w ith ou t a n y p ro visio n for m a in ten a n ce, th e co st o f w hich th erefo re d e v o lv e s upon th e T ra n s ­ port o f W o u n d e d F u n d .

B ayn es h im self h ead ed the list o f con tributions by a gift sufficien tly large to d efray the entire cost o f o n e a m b u la n ce car. The co n trib u tio n s received from our C o lo n ies an d D o m in io n s and from In d ia have been so co n stan t and so gen ero u s that there is perhaps a ten d e n cy to o verlo o k th eir im port. B u t surely n o th in g c o u ld m ore fu lly d e m o n ­ strate the a p p reciatio n o f th e benefits o f livin g un der the shelter o f the U n io n J a ck than these sp on tan eou s an d co stly gifts to w h ich not only the B ritish born, but also the n ative and the B o er p op u latio n s h a ve co n trib u ted . N o r are the sym path ies o f our supporters lim ited to those parts o f th e m ap co lo u re d pink. W h o am on gst our readers has ever heard o f “ T h e T o m m y A tk in s C l u b ” in N ew Y o r k ? B u t “ T h e T o m m y A tk in s C l u b ” o f N ew Y o r k has h eard o f St. J o h n ’s, and, q u ite un­ asked, has co n trib u ted a co m p lete F o rd A m ­ bulance C a r, w hich is now on its w ay to A d en . C o m in g n earer h o m e we h ave to record the gift o f a F o rd A m b u la n ce C a r from the peop le o f C o n is b o r o ’, w ho h a ve earn ed the A m bulance presented to the O rder o f St. John by the people o f heartfelt gratitu d e o f the C o m m a n d a n t o f the Conisborough, and stationed at Northvvood V .A .D . H ospital. N o rth w o o d V .A .D . H o sp ita l, by en ablin g the O rd er to su p p ly her w ith a m u ch n ee d ed m eans o f c o n ­ F u rth er gifts of cars are also req u ired , as req u ests are ve yan ce for her p atients, as show n in th e a cco m p a n y in g c o n sta n tly b e in g re ce iv e d for fresh a m b u la n ce s, n ot o n ly on photograph. th e C o n tin e n t but also in E n g la n d , w h ere th e d ifficu lty o f A n o th e r e xtrem ely in terestin g gift o f an a m b u la n ce ge ttin g p atients m o ved is gro w in g to b e a very real one, was that o f the e m p lo yes o f M essrs. L e n ch and C o ., of m any o f th o se w ho h a ve h ith erto h e lp e d b y len d in g tourin g O ld h a m (b o lt and rivet m akers). E v e ry single em ploye, cars h a vin g now given them up a lto g eth er, an d th e hospitals man, w om an and ch ild , co n trib u ted tow ards this a m bu lan ce, are thus d ep rived o f their va lu a b le assistan ce.


— FIR ST

206

M ay, 1916.

h ig h ly o f the va lu a b le w ork this co n v o y is

B revities. K in lo c h -C o o k e drew th e atten tio n o f th e F irst L o r d o f the d isab ilities affectin g th e sick berth

and that th e cars h ave h a d so m e w on d erfu l escapes.

said, h a d arisen ow in g to the ca llin g up o f m en o f th e St.

d rivers h ave been hit.

In

reply,

D r.

had

M a cn a m a ra

re­

p u d ia te d th e su gg estio n s m ade, and stated that th e ca llin g up o f th e a u x ilia ry sick berth sta ff (St. J oh n A m b u la n ce B rig a d e) d u rin g th e p eriod o f h o stilities c o u ld not p o ssib ly affect the

gen eral

rate

o f p ro m o tio n

am ong

the

a ctiv e

p an ies h a ve d e c id e d to susp en d th eir a m b u la n ce co m p eti­ tions this year, ow in g to so m any a m b u la n ce m en b ein g aw ay on war duties.

*** T h e H u n g a ria n R e d C ro ss has sent a m essage to the

will b e re m e m b ered th at the

railw ay cen tres

th ey

e xp erien ce d in

a m b u la n ce

w ork

to

win

laurels in co m p etitio n , and thus h ave their in terest stim u­ lated.

v < yW e p u b lish in this issue a m ost in terestin g article by

It

^ as to rp ed o ed

variou s

w ou ld afford an o p p o rtu n ity for th o se a m b u la n ce m en less

R u ssia n R e d C ro ss exp ressin g d e ep co n cern and sym p ath y at th e loss o f th e R u ssia n h o sp ital ship “ P o rtu g a l.”

W e th in k that if a few co m p etitio n s

w ere h eld th ro u gh o u t th e p roficien t and

service staff.

S o far n on e o f th e

* * * W e un derstan d that th e m ajority o f th e railw ay co m ­

Joh n A m b u la n c e B rig a d e, and su gg este d that p rom otion am o n g sick b erth stew ards o f m an y y ears stan d in g

O ne

d e ad in a n o th er car, w hilst o n e m an sittin g by the driver o f

staff o f th e N a v y rega rd in g pay and p ro m o tio n , w h ich , he

retarded .

He

o f th e cars w en t o ver an e m b a n k m e n t; one m an was shot a car was w ou n d ed a seco n d tim e.

th e re b y been

doin g.

states th e c o n v o y is w o rk in g u n d er sh e ll fire all th e tim e,

I n th e H o u s e o f C o m m o n s on th e 19 th A p ril, Sir C . A d m ira lty to a lle g e d

A ID . —

M r. W . R . E d w ard s on “ N a tu re as a F irst A id e r .”

N a tu re

by a G erm a n su b m a rin e w hen she was ly in g at an crjp r in

is o n e o f th e asp ects o f treatm ent w hich th e great m ajority

d a y lig h t.

o f a m b u la n ce w orkers o v e rlo o k , an d by a carefu l study o f

She

was

p lain ly

em b lem s o f a h o sp ital ship. lost.

m arked

with

all

the

usuL 1

O ve r a h u n d red lives were

T h e H u n g a ria n m essage says

th at th e d eed m ust

this article th e y w ill realise w hat an im p ortan t part it plays in their treatm ent.

W e h o p e to h ave som e m ore o f M r.

h ave b een th e result o f a “ grievous m isun derstan d’ * ^ -"

E d w a rd s’ articles in the “ St. Joh n A m b u la n ce G a z e t t e ”

T h e word's do n o t e xclu d e the u rooaoU ity t'nat the H u n ­

at an early date.

w

*

garians, w ho h ave show n several o th er signs besides this

O n e o f th e P u llm a n cars used b y the

m essage o f retain in g th eir lik in g for d e cen cy , th in k that “ grievo u s m is u n d e r s ta n d in g s ” on th e part o f their G erm an

Cross, F irst A id D iv isio n , in givin g

allies are d e p lo rab ly co m m o n .

strations

T h e in d ep en d e n t a ct o f the

in

first aid

H u n g a ria n R e d C ro ss is in itself a cu rio u s p ro o f o f d e ­

out th e U n ite d

tach m en t from G erm an y.

a

*** S o m e w h ile ago a su ggestio n was throw n out

railw ay

and d e m o n ­

and a ccid e n t p reven tio n

States was

a ccid e n t

A m erica n R e d

lectu res

near

d estro yed b y G reen w o o d ,

fire

th rou gh ­ follow in g

M iss., on

M arch

7th, D r. M . J. S h ield s, staff surgeon, b ein g in ch arge ; his by the

assistant, D r. R . H . C raw fo rd , and the n e g ro p orter barely

A sh to n -u n d e r-L y n e T ra d e s C o u n c il that th e lo ca l bran ch

e sca p ed w ith their lives.

o f th e S .J .A .A . sh o u ld affix in every m ill and

in the b u rn in g car and h ad to ch o p their w ay

w orkshop

T h e s e th ree m en w ere trap p ed out.

D r.

lists o f a m b u la n ce m en w o rk in g th ere : in fact, th e su gg es­

C raw fo rd and th e porter w ere slig h tly in ju red, but th ey had

tion was th at “ th ere sh o u ld be a list on e ve ry la n d in g .”

a veteran first aid er in D r. S h ie ld s to lo o k to their w elfare.

T h e id e a was at o n ce grasp ed as a go o d one, as it w ou ld be

T h e car and all equ ip m en t w ere a d ead loss.

in v a lu a b le in cases o f a ccid e n t for e n su rin g sp ee d y first aid.

C e n tra l R a ilro a d p ro m p tly co ve re d th e loss o f the p erson al

T h is was in a m easure a d o p te d in th e A sh to n

effects o f th e, p erso n n el a b o a rd the car, b u t th e R e d C ro ss

M ills, with

T h e Illin o is

b en eficia l r e s u lts ; b u t it n ow appears to be a d e ad letter,

is d ep rived o f its n ew est and b est d em o n stra tion ca r— a

and it is no u n co m m o n th in g in ca se o f a c c id e n t for all in

co n trib u tio n from the P u llm an C o m p a n y . *- *

the d e p a rtm en t to b e ign o ra n t o f th e p erso n a lity or w here­ ab ou ts in th e m ill o f a first aid

m an.

ca u sed

and th e

by

th e

freq u en t

ch an ges

T h is

has

d ep artu re

so m any S t. J o h n m en in co n n e ctio n w ith the war.

of

The

form er system was a sp len d id one, an d is w orth y o f revival and o f gen era l ad o p tio n .

It is w orthy o f the serious co n ­

sid eratio n o f every b ra n ch A sso cia tio n

o f th e St.

J oh n

A m b u la n c e

d esp ite th e d ifficu lties a tte n d in g the system

du rin g the year. C a p ta in

D a n ie ll,

*** the D ire cto r

*

been

T h e C e n tra l W o rk R o o m s, 48, G rosven or-square, W ., u n der th e J o in t C o m m itte e o f th e O rd er o f St. Joh n and th e

B ritish

R ed

C ro ss, h ave a few v a ca n cie s for g o o d

w orkers an d ba n d a ge m akers.

L a d ie s w illin g to offer their

services w ou ld b e a sk e d to g iv e 5 h a lf days or 2^ w hole days

w eekly.

M e m b e rs ’

A m b u la n c e A ss o c ia tio n w ho

friends w ou ld

of en ter

the as

St.

Joh n

St.

Joh n

w orkers are req u ested to a p p ly p erso n ally, or by letter, in of

T ra n s p o rt

in

th e first in stan ce, to L a d y J e k y ll (or th e S ecretary, M iss

F ra n ce, has rep o rted to th e J oin t W ar C o m m itte e on the

L aw ), at St. John W areh o u se, 56, St. John-square, C le rk e n ­

w ork o f the a m b u la n ce c o n v o y in th e v icin ity o f V erd u n ,

well, E .C .

u n der the co m m a n d o f C o lo n e l B arry.

co n trib u tio n .

H e sp eaks m ost

T h e re is a registration fee o f 5s., but no w ee k ly


M ay,

1916

- F I R S T

The By

Typhoid

Fly.

J. H E N T O N F .R .C .S . (E d in .j.

Corps Su rgeo n

W H IT E

M D

The house-fly (M u sc a d o m estica) is regard ed by the m ajority of p eo p le m erely as a som ew hat harm less but u n av o id ab le a cco m p a n im en t o f th e w arm er m onths. T h a t this in sect is re sp o n sib le an n ually for the deaths o f th ousands o f o ur infants in p e a c e tim e, and in war has been th e agen t in p aralysin g arm ies in th e field, is only too true, a lth o u gh this k n o w le d ge has o n ly been acq u ired d u r­ in g the last few years.

In order to co m p reh en d th e circu m stan ces in w hich in fectio n is sp read by the fly, the habits o f the in sect m ust be carefu lly studied , esp e cially as regards its m eth ods of feed in g an d breeding. Stages of

T h e re

are

four stages

D evelopment.

in

the

d evelop m en t

of

the

fly (а) E gg s are d e p o sited by the fem ale through a tube situated at the h in d er end o f th e ab d o m en , and called the ovipositor. B y its a gen cy the eggs are in serted at som e little d istan ce ben eath the surface o f som e substan ce chosen by her as lik ely to afford su itab le warm th and nutri­ m ent for th e grubs, or larvae, w hen they em erge from the eggs. F erm en tin g stab le m anure is the m ost favourable m edium , but hum an excreta, rotting vegetab le refuse, m eat or sputum , or, in deed, an y o rg an ic scraps will serve. The eggs are laid in b atch es o f from one to two hundred, three or four tim es d u rin g the b reed in g season (June to O ctob er). (б) In eigh t to tw enty-four hours (or longer in cold w eather) th e larva or gru b em erges from the egg. A t first a tw elfth o f an in ch long it rap id ly grows, fee d in g greed ily on the o rg an ic m aterial in its n eigh b o u rh o od . T h is stage occu p ies from five days to as lo n g as eigh t weeks, w hen the gru b grow s to a len gth o f half-an inch, and is fam iliar as the “ g e n tle ” o f the fresh-w ater fisherm an. T h e fully grown grub craw ls tow ards th e surface o f the m anure heap, its cream y-w h ite skin ch a n ges to a reddish-brow n co lo u r and form s th e o u ter co ve rin g o f a cylin d rica l pupa. (c) T h e P u p al, or ch rysalis stage, lasts from four days to as lo n g as four w eeks. N o feed in g and no external chan ge takes place, but a p rofoun d ch a n ge o ccu rs w ithin the outer shell, so that at the term ination o f this period the lid is p u sh ed o ff th e anterior en d o f the shell and the fly craw ls forth. (d) T h e p erfect insect, or Im ago, is full gro w n — no fly ever grows. W h en it em erges from th e pupa it possesses a curious g lo b u la r sw ellin g in fron t c f the head, betw een th e eyes, w hich can be e xten d ed or deflated at will. By altern ately exp a n d in g and c o n tra c tin g this sw elling, or P tilin u m as it is ca lled , th e fly reach es th e surface o f the m anure heap, unfurls and dries the wings and sallies forth to join his con freres in the air. M odes of I n fec tio n

by

F lies.

I f d u rin g th e larval stage th e gru b has fed on organ ic m aterial w hich co n tain s d isease germ s, these w ill be p resent in th e a lim en tary can al o f th e a d u lt fly, and m ay be vo id e d on any hum an fo od on to w hich the in sect m ay settle. 3 T h e b o d y o f the fly is co ve re d by n um erous hairs sp rin gin g from th e surfaces o f th e a b d o m en , legs, & c .; to

A I D .

-

207

th ese hairs germ s c lin g an d are thus tra n sferred from o n e su bstan ce on to w h ich a fly alig h ts to a n o th er. It is n ecessa ry to b riefly stu d y th e a n a to m y o f the alim en tary can al o f th e fly in o rd e r to u n d e rsta n d th e th ird an d m ost p o ten t m eth o d o f in fe ctio n by this u b iq u ito u s pest. T h e m outh o f the fly is fo rm ed so th a t liq u id s o n ly can b e su ck ed u p ; th ese pass in to th e g u lle t a n d th e n ce in to a bag situated in the a b d o m en an d k n o w n as th e crop. H e re the food rem ains un til re q u ired for co n su m p tio n , w h en ce it passes onin to th e fo re sto m a ch an d th e n c e in to thg stom ach . W h en th e fly aligh ts on a n y so lid or glu tin o u s fo o d , the fluid co n ten ts of the crop, to g e th er w ith saliva, are re g u r­ gitated on to the food , e.g., sugar. S o lu tio n tak es p lace, and the regu rgitated fluid is o n c e m ore im b ib e d an d return ed to the crop. A fly m ay thus fre q u en t a la trin e used by soldiers suffering from ty p h o id fev er or ch o lera , fill its crop w ith liq u id excreta, a lig h t on sugar or jam , e je ct the faecal co n ten ts o f its cro p on to th e fo o d in o rd er to d isso lve som e and then su ck it up again , le a v in g the food co n tam in ated by ty p h o id or ch o le ra germ s. I t has been ca lcu la te d th at a “ c l e a n ” fly ca n carry from 21,000 to 100,000 germ s, w hereas a “ d irty ” o n e m ay co n vey as m any as 500,000,000. F lie s fre q u en tly vo m it the co n ten ts o f their crop s and, b e in g d istu rb e d , fly aw ay w hen th e e je cte d m atter m ay be im b ib e d by o th er flies w ho thus th em selves b e co m e in fected . T h e ligh t co lo u re d flym arks w hich are so n u m ero u s in the sum m er m onths on m irrors, glass g lo b e s an d sim ilar surfaces, are d ried vo m it m arks, w hereas the m ore o p a q u e darker m arkings are th e d ried excreta o f th e flies. E v e n c o ld co u n tries are by no m eans im m u n e from these pests as th e fo llo w in g e xtra ct from F ra s e r’s “ T h e R e a l S ib e r ia ” in d ic a t e s :— “ K h a b e ro v s k . The statio n itself was all bu stle an d n oise. H e re was c o n sta n t teadrin k in g and the d ip p in g o f lo n g rolls in to th e tea and e atin g them in a slo p p y state. T h e s e rolls are s p rin k led with little seeds that m ake th e fo od lo o k as th o u g h it was fly-blow n. In d e ed , as every m irror and c a n d le s tic k and p ictu re in S ib eria is sp e ck le d by in d u strio u s flies I h ave an id ea that the seed is sp rin k ed on th e ca kes to d e c e iv e the eater w ho ca n n o t tell by eye sigh t w h eth er th e sp ots are seeds or flym arks.” T h e ran ge o f fligh t o f the fly is n ot exten sive : in th e o p en it seld o m e x ce e d s 1000 yards, and this is m uch d im in ish ed in cities w here houses o b stru ct flight. O ve r water, how ever, w here th e in sects ca n n o t settle a radius o f th ree m iles from the p o in t o f origin m ay be co vered . T h e feet o f flies h a ve b een show n to be in fectio u s for as lo n g as forty-eight hours after p o llu tio n . It is b elieved that in fan tile diarrhoea germ s are la rgely sp read b y flies and it is n o te w o rth y th at the d eath -rate from this d is ­ ease is in direct p ro p o rtio n to th e n u m b er o f flies p resent. T h u s an in fe cted fly craw lin g o ver th e teat o f the b a b y ’s b o ttle m ay ren d er n u ga to ry ca refu l w ashin g o f bo ttles an d the sterilization o f th e m ilk. O w in g to th e p ro tectio n o f the so ld iers by in o cu latio n against ty p h o id in th e p resen t war, this d isea se has n ot assu m ed great p ro p o rtio n s in F ra n ce. In th e S o u th A frica n W ar, how ever, 30 per cen t, o f th e d eath s w ere due to this disease. B e sid e s ty p h o id an d diarrhoea, ch o le ra an d tetanus, an d an e y e d isease very p reva len t in E g y p t, an d c a lled “ O p h th a lm ia ,” are co n v e y e d by flies. T h e in sects th em selves seem im m u n e from a tta c k by germ s ca u sin g hu m an d isease. T u b e r c u lo u s sp utum , o f w h ich flies are very fond, seem to ca u se diarrhoea, but this m erely in creases th e d a n g er as th e germ s traverse th e a lim en ta ry ca n a l o f th e fly so q u ic k ly that th ey rem ain


2o8

— F I R S T

u n o ig e ste d a n d m ay in fe ct m ilk or o th er fo o d w h ich th e fly m ay p o llu te. P r even tio n .

T h e o n ly p ra ctica b le m e th o d o f w arfare again st flies co n sists in th e elim in a tio n o f th eir breed in g p laces. S ta b le m an u re sh o u ld b e burnt or sp rin k led o ver at least o n ce a w eek w ith a m ixtu re o f paraffin an d soft soap to k ill th e larvae. B r ic k sta b le floors m ay be rep laced by c o n ­ crete as the sp aces betw een the b ricks w h ich form favourite b re ed in g p laces are th e re b y a b o lish ed . R a b b it-h u tch e s an d pig-styes are also d an gero u s as also are latrine trenches. T h e s e ca n n o t b e a vo id e d , but sh o u ld be d u g d e e p ly an d a g o c d 6 or 8 in ch es o f earth sp rin k led d aily over th e excreta in o rd er to co v e r th e larvoe so d e ep ly th at th ey can n o t craw l to th e su rface in tim e to p up ate. T h e fly is a th irsty soul, and resem b les certain sp ecim en s o f h u m an ity in exh ib itin g a fierce d esire for a m orn in g drink. T h is p ro cliv ity is tak en ad va n ta ge o f in o rder to free bake-h o u ses an d lik e co n fin ed sp aces o f these in se cts— a sau cer o f w eak form alin so lu tion is exp o sed overn igh t, at the sam e tim e o th er liq u id s are co ve re d up. A t daw n large n um bers o f flies are k ille d after d rin kin g the liq u id w h ich has th e a d va n ta g e o f b ein g n on -poison ous to the h ig h er anim als. A few drops o f c a rb o lic a cid vo la tilize d on a red-hot sh o ve l is also e ffe ctiv e a gain st flies.

AID. —

M ay, 1916

C harles W . Corley, C hecker, O akengates. Y eo va l D . W akem an, Num ber-taker, Round Oak. W illiam W illiam s, Y a rd Forem an, W ellington (Salop). Charles W . H yett, Signalm an, Coates. T om H ayward, E n gin em an, Oxford. G eorge Beynon, Signalm an, Sw ansea, High-street. G eorge A . B easley, Forem an, Paddington. H enry H arper, Station M aster, A renig. E rn est W a kely, Enginem an, Bristol (St. Philip’s Marsh). Sam uel W . M errick, Inspector, Birm ingham . A lfred E van s, Carpenter, T regaron. A lfred C. Hooper, Shop Clerk, Swindon. Benjam in T em lett, C artage Checker, Bridgwater. John E. Jones, Shipper, Liverpool. W e h ave p leasure in givin g p h o tograp h s o f th e gold, silver and bron ze m edallion ists. T h e ca se o f first aid, in respect o f w h ich the prem ier aw ard was grants, was one in w h ich a co n tracto r’s w orkm an fell from a 27 ft. lad d er at L a n d o re and sustain ed co n cu ssio n resu ltin g in semi-

5lailwan Jlmbutance. M r . J. L e g g .

G .W .R .— T h e fo llo w in g a ctiv e m em bers o f the G reat W e ste rn R a ilw a y C e n tre o f the St. J oh n A m b u la n ce A ss o cia tio n h a ve rece n tly b een sele cted as H o n o ra ry S e rv in g B ro th ers o f th e O rd e r o f St. Joh n in respect of ex ce p tio n a l services ren d ered to the A m b u la n c e M o ve m e n t o f th e R a ilw a y o ver a lo n g p eriod o f y e a r s :— John C o n n e lly , W illia m E . C o n n e lly , and W illiam P h illip s, L o c o m o tiv e D e p artm en t, B r is t o l; W illia m H . D a n iell, G o o d s D e p artm en t, G lo u ce s te r ; H e n r y D avies, L o c o m o tiv e D ep artm en t, B irk e n h e a d ; J oh n Stratford, G o o d s D e p a rt­ m ent, B risto l. D r. J. T . W a lla ce , B risto l, has b een aw ard ed the “ V e llu m V o te o f T h a n k s ” o f the O rder, in reco gn ition o f gratu ito u s services for a n u m b er o f years as lectu rer to the G .W .R .. A m b u la n c e C la sses at B risto l. T h r e e m em bers o f th e G .W .R . S ta ff at N e w to n A b b o t, w ho are also m em bers o f th e St. Joh n A m b u la n ce B rig ad e, h a ve rece n tly been m ade th e recip ien ts o f the L o n g S erv ice an d E fficien cy M e d a l. Sergt. W id d ic o m b e , S ergt W o o d , an d S e rg t. W o tten re ce ive d th e aw ards at the han d s o f D e p u ty C o m m issio n e r D r. R H . G rim b ly . A s is w ell kn ow n , the G re a t W estern R a ilw a y C o m p a n y a n n u a lly gran t a n u m b er o f m edal and certificate aw ards to m em b ers of th eir staff in resp ect o f e x ce p tio n a lly efficient first aid ren d ered . T h e recip ien ts o f th e aw ards in respect o f th e y ear 19 1 5 h a ve la te ly been a n n o u n ced , and are as follow s :— G old M edal and

C er tificate.

John L e g g , R oadm an, Landore. Silve r M e d a l a n d

C e r tifica te.

Jam es R. M artin, D istrict Inspector, W ellington (Salop). B ronze M ed al an d C ertificate.

W illiam G. Bevan, Passen ger Guard, Cardiff. C er tificates.

F rederick J. W ya tt, Forem an, Salisbury. W illiam G. W ooders, Shunter, Penzance. D an iel G. Jones, E xam iner, Southall. T h o m as W righ t, G oods G uard, Southall.

(W inner o f G old M edal.

M r . J. R. M a r t i n . (W inner o f Silver M edal.) By courtesy ]

M r. W . Bevan. (W inner o f Bronze M edal.) [G .W . R a ilw ay Magazine.

in sen sibility, cu ts upon the fa ce and d islo catio n o f tw o fingers o f the right han d. T h e treatm ent affo rd ed in th is distressin g case was so p ro m p tly and efficien tly app lied that th e S u rgeo n w ho su b seq u en tly re ce iv e d th e case in H o s p ita l d e scrib ed it as “ w orthy o f every p raise.” T w o a d d itio n a l ho sp ital trains h a ve re ce n tly been co n stru cted at th e G .W .R , C o m p a n y ’s S w in d o n W o rk s, o n e o f w h ich was on view at P a d d in gto n , B irm in gh am , Sh rew sbu ry, O x fo rd and R e a d in g and th e o th er at Cardiff, B risto l, W esto n -Sup er-M are, E x ete r an d P lym o u th . A s in th e ca se o f p revious trains co n stru cted by th e C o m p a n y , a ch a rg e o f is . per head was m ad e for adm ission , an d as a result ch a rita b le funds in co n n e ctio n w ith th e war were b en efited to a co n sid era b le extent. T h e trains both re­ p resen ted th e last w ord in “ hosp itals on w h eels,” each co n sistin g o f 16 co ach es, w ith a total len gth o f 960 feet, w eigh in g a p p ro x im a tely 440 tons, an d b ein g rep lete with o p eratin g theatre, p h a rm a cy car, in fectio u s cars, and all the m odern requ irem en ts for the co m fo rt o f our so ld iers b ro k en in th e wars.


May, 1916

— FIRST

Dublin C orps

Riots.

S u pe r in te n d e n t K ill e d

H olden

W h ilst on

Stodart

D uty.

I t is w ith extrem e regret we h ave to record the death o f C o rp s Supt. H o ld e n Sto d art, w ho was killed on the after­ noon o f W ed n esd a y, A p ril 26th, 19 16 , in D u b lin , during the Sin n F ein R isin g. D u rin g that day and the previous two days, M r. Sto d art d isp layed the utm ost gallan try, organ ising a m b u la n ce stations and co llectin g w ounded. H e was in th e a ct o f crossin g a wall, w ith tw o other

209

AID —

19 10 . H e was raised to the im p o rtan t p o sitio n o f S u p e rin te n d en t o f St. J a m e s’s G a te D iv isio n on O c to b e r 1 st, 19 14 , was m ad e C o rp s A m b u la n c e O fficer o f th e C o u n ty D u b lin C o rp s in D e cem b er, 19 1 5 , an d e arly this year was en tru sted w ith the im p o rtan t p o sitio n o f C o rp s S u p erin ten d en t o f th e C o u n ty D u b lin C o rp s. H e d e v o te d h im self during th ese years to th e w ork o f th e B r ig a d e with a d egree o f zeal, tact and a b ility b e yo n d all praise. He was a go o d organ iser and a very lo y a l co llea gu e. A t the o u tb reak o f the w ar he to o k a fo rem o st part in recru itm en t for the S ic k B e rth an d H o m e H o sp ita ls R e serve s, and en d e av o u re d to jo in th e Im p e ria l F o rce s h im se lf on tw o or th ree o cca sio n s, but p riv ate affairs p reven ted this. H e leaves a wife and ch ild , an d w ill be lo n g m ourn ed by his co llea gu es and friends in th e Irish D istrict.

H ints for By

N.

H ospital Orderlies.

CORBET

FLETCH ER.

B .A ., M .B ., B .C., C a n ta b , M .R .C .S . A uthor o f “ A id s to F ir s t A i d " “ A id s to Hom e N u r s in g " and “ W hy and W herefore in F r s t A id ." ( C o n tin u ed from page IQ J .) C h a p t e r I I .— D e f i n i t i o n , O u j e c t s a n d P r i n c i p l e s D u ties. I.

D E F IN IT IO N

OF H O S P IT A L D U T IE S .

of

ORDERLY

W e h a ve seen that the origin al w ork o f an O rd e rly was “ to carry m essa ges,” an d that he now p ossesses a d e fin ite sphere o f w ork cither in th e T ra n s p o rt o f p atien ts by a m b u ­ lan ce car, train an d ship, or in th e H o sp ita ls, w h ere th e treatm ent n ecessa ry for reco very is ca rried out. F o r this reason he m ust tak e an a ctiv e part in the o b je cts o f th e A rm y C o rp s, viz. :—

1 st, T h e P r e v e n t i o n o f D i s e a s e , and 2nd, T h e C a r e a n d T r e a t m e n t o f t h e S i c k a n d W ounded.

T he

late

C orps

S u pt. Sto dart.

m em bers o f the district, w hen he was struck by a bu llet and in stan tly k illed . A t a m eeting o f th e D istrict S ta ff and C o rp s O fficers held at H ead q u arters, on M ay 9th, th e follow in g resolution was passed :— “ T h e D istrict and C o rp s O fficers desire to offer their sincere sym p ath y to the fam ily o f their late com rade, C orps Su p erin ten d en t H o ld e n Stodart, w ho so g a llan tly fell in the d isch a rg e o f his d u ties on th e 26th A p ril, 19 16 , in D u b lin , d u rin g th e S in n F ein R isin g. “ T h e y also d esire to express their d eep sense o f the loss w hich has been su stain ed by th e B rig ad e gen erally, and them selves person ally, by th e death o f so o ld and d e vo ted a m em ber w hose exam p le w ill lo n g stan d forth in the history o f th e D istrict.” C o rp s Supt. S to d a rt was o n e o f th e o ld est m em bers o f the district, h avin g jo in e d the St. J a m e s’s G a te D ivisio n as a private on M a rch 1 8th, 1904. T h e sam e year he jo in e d the S ick B erth R e serve . H e was p ro m o ted T h ird O fficer on J u ly 23rd, 1910 , and S e c o n d O fficer on O c to b e r 2nd,

T h e p rop er p erfo rm an ce o f th ese o b je cts is p a rtic u ­ larly pressing in H o sp ita l, an d in vo lve s re sp o n sib ilitie s for the in d ivid u a l Patient n o less than for th e Officers, Sisters and Orderlies. M o reo ver, i f we see k to a p p o rtio n am o n gst the latter th eir resp e ctive shares o f th ese d u ties, th en we realise that strict and exact obedience to orders falls to the lot o f th e H o sp ita l O rd e rly w ho is h eld re sp o n sib le for th e C a re and C le a n lin e ss o f the P a tien t and th e W ard . A s we shall see, this Obedience is the outward evidence o f the D is ­ cipline w hich is so essen tial to th e sm o o th an d e ffe ctiv e w orkin g o f an y im p o rtan t in stitu tio n , su ch as a H o s p ita l— w hether M ilitary or C iv ilian . II.

O B JE C TS

An O rd e rly

OF H O S P IT A L D U T IE S .

m u s t be P A T

ORDERLY

in h i s O b e d i e n c e .

U n d e r these circu m stan ces th e O b je c ts o f O rd e rly D u tie s are th reefo ld , and e ve ry O rd e rly m ust bear in m ind his d u ties tow ards his Officers, his Patients , an d his Ward. T h e a p p re cia tio n o f this fact will go far tow ards the a tta in ­ m ent o f E fficien cy , which constitutes the power to carry out the results intended an d w hich is at all tim es th e aim and o b je c t o f his office. In o th er w ords, E fficie n cy is the p ra ctica l a p p lica tio n


2t 1

— F I R S T

o f th e P rin c ip le s in v o lv e d , and th e O b je c ts o f O rd e rly D u tie s are to — P. P r o m o t e th e re co v e ry o f the Patient b y all m eans in th e O rd e rly ’s power, m ore esp e cially by carefu l co n ­ sid eratio n o f his cleanliness, comfort and convenience. A. A t t e n d to th e requ irem en ts o f th e Ward (an d its e qu ip m en t), e sp e cia lly th e cleanliness, w arm ing' and ventilation— for all o f w hich th e O rd e rly is h eld respon sible. T . T r a n s a c t the o rd ers o f all his Officers on every o c c a ­ sion promptly , cheerfully an d accurately, esp e cially th o se o f th e Sister and N .C O . in ch arge, un der w h o se im m ed iate in stru ctio n s th e O rd e rly m ust act. III.

P R IN C IP L E S

OF H O S P IT A L D U T IE S .

A H o s p i t a l O r d e r l y m u s t be T R U E

A I D (3)

E X P E R I E N C E is o b tain ed only by P ra ctice , and assists an O rd e rly to realise th e im p o rtan ce o f—

S.

S k i l l in p erfo rm an ce o f duties, e.g., w ard-cleaning, b ed-m akin g, diet-serving, etc., etc. S k ill is the cor­ rect application o f knowledge, and d ep en d s on pre­ cise atten tio n to details. A ll m an ip u latio n s (fe ed ­ ing an d n ursin g) m ust be carried out w ith a m irim um o f pain and d isco m fo rt to patient. E x a c t n e s s in all v e .b a l and w ritten reports. E xact­

E.

ness is the demonstration o f the powers o f Observation,

ORDERLY R.

T O S E R V IC E .

I f an O rd e rly w ou ld attain E fficien cy in the p erfo rm ­ a n ce o f his d u ties, then he m ust estab lish certain defin ite P rin cip les, by clo se a tten tio n to w hich he m ay hop e to a cco m p lish th e o b je cts o f his office. F urth er, if he has en­ jo y e d a p relim in ary stu d y o f First A id and H o m e-N u rsin g,

V.

which combination may be said to cover the essential points of Hospital Orderly Duties , then he will rem em ber that the P rin c ip le s o f th ese su b jects are based on th ree prim ary fa cto rs— K n o w l e d g e , C o m m o n s e n s e and E x p e r i e n c e . T h e s e sam e factors again co n tro l the situation , and m ust be a p p lied u n der all the varyin g circu m stan ces o f d a ily service ; but to them a fourth facto r m ust be a d d ed — viz., D i s c i p l i n e — the im p o rtan ce o f w h ich in the m a n a gem en t o f a H o sp ita l has a lread y been em ph asised. (1 )

K N O W L E D G E is a cq u ire d by S tu d y and m akes an O rd e rly —

T.

T r u s t e d by P a tie n t and all his O fficers. T ru st dt" p en d s on an e xa ct Obedience to orders, w h ich we re co g n ise as th e first d u ty o f the O rd erly, and in the a b se n ce o f w hich the p atien t’s reco very m ay be d e ­ la yed and e ven im p erilled. R e s o u r c e f u l in p erfo rm an ce o f d u ties. Resourceful­ ness in carrying out orders is the seco n d duty, and w ill p rove or d isp ro ve the skill o f th e O rd e rly in h a n d lin g patients ren d ered cap ricio u s and irritable by suffering and w eakness. U n t i r i n g in his efforts for his patient's welfare and comfort. S e rv ice m ust be free and w illin g— both w ith regard to th e nursing and also to the personal requirements o f th e patient, for the latter o f w hich th e O rd e rly is p ecu lia rly resp o n sib le. E n c o u r a g i n g and sy m p a th e tic tow ards his patient. T h e m ental a sp ect o f th e T re a tm e n t o f D ise ase m ust n o t n ot be o v e rlo o k e d ; an d a ch eerfu l look, a hop eful word, or a co m p a ssio n a te touch m ay facilita te a p atien t’s reco very.

R.

U.

E.

(2)

C O M M O N S E N S E is m akes an O rd e rly —

T.

T actfu l

in

relation

th e to

gift

his

of

P ro v id e n c e

P a tien ts and

and

Officers-

Tact is the art o f saying and doing the right thing at the right moment. It in vo lve s th e pow er o f co n tro llin g p atients, an d is essen tial to an O rd e rly ’s d u ty o f p reservin g order in his W ard . O . O b s e r v a n t in n otin g im m e d iate ly any ch a n g e o f sy m p to m s. Observation is the habit of seeing and noting, an d requires th e use o f all th e senses. Any ch a n g e o f sym p to m s, however slight, m ust be re­ p o rted at o n ce. T h e m ore p recise the pow ers o f o b serva tio n , the greater is the valu e o f th e O rd e rly ’s service.

May, 1916

I.

C.

and is a sure gu id e to th e in te llig e n ce and c o n ­ scien tio u sn ess o f the O rderly. It presupposes n eatness, e fficie n cy and a ccu racy in the details o f his work. R e s t for the p atient and th e part. R e st and sleep, so essential to health, are urgently requ ired in sickn ess and reco very from injuries. T h ro u g h th ese N atu re is ab le to m aintain th e proper w orkin g o f th e V ita l F u n ctio n s and to facilitate any n ecessary repairs o f the body. V e n t i l a t i o n o f th e W ard, for w hich he is resp o n ­ sible. W ith o u t a free su p ply o f fresh air and o xygen , the p atien t’s V ita l F u n ctio n s (already seri­ o u sly h a n d icap p ed by sickn ess) can n o t perform their duties efficiently. I n f e c t i o n , w hich m ay be sp read by Patient, Nurse and Orderly, e sp e cially in In fectio u s Illn ess. A ll are requ ired to carry out carefu lly th e R u le s o f D is­ in fectio n , but if th e patient is very ill, then his share o f th e resp o n sib ility falls to the O rd erly. C l e a n l i n e s s , w hich ap p lies e q u ally to the P a t i e n t and his A t t e n d a n t s — their persons and their clothes; an d to the W a r d — its air, food and equipment.

Cleanliness is the essence o f health and o f recovery from illness and is in d isp en sa b le to th e Preven tion

E.

(4)

o f D isease. T h e O rd e rly is d e ta iled to m aintain the R u le s o f C lean lin ess. E q u i p m e n t o f the W ard , w hich m ust be kep t clean and in g o o d order. In the a b se n ce o f th e Sister, the O rd erly m ay be also req u ired to a ccep t resp o n sib ility for the p erson al equ ip m en t o f the patient. D I S C I P L I N E is su b jec tio n to con trol. It is the o u tco m e o f E x p e rie n c e and m akes an O rd e rly ap p re ci­ ate th e true sign ifican ce o f—

O b e d i e n c e , w ith ou t w h ich order ca n n o t be m ain tain ed in th e W ard . O b e d ie n ce in vo lves the p recise— neither more nor less— p erfo rm an ce o f all duties, w hich, o n ce exp lain ed , m ust never require re-explanation. P u n c t u a l i t y in k eep in g tim e and in p erform ing duties. In th e a b se n ce o f this, the rou tin e w ork o f the W a rd (w hich has been sy stem atica lly ap p o rtio n ed ) w ill be disturbed.

(To be continued.) T h e M ix e d C o m m issio n o f the R e d C ro ss So cieties m et at S to ck h o lm on M a y 2nd, th e G o vern m en ts co n ­ ce rn ed h a vin g given their co n sen t and all difficulties havin g been o verco m e. T h e C o m m issio n , w h o se aim it is to in sp ect war prison ers’ cam p s in R u ssia, G erm a n y , and A u stria -H u n g a ry , w ill co n sist o f th ree d elega tes o f the R u ssia n R e d C ro ss and o n e d e lega te each from th e G e r­ m an, A u stro -H u n ga ria n , D u tc h , D an ish , and Sw iss R e d C ro ss S o cieties.

W h en c o rre sp o n d in g w ith A d v e rtis e rs p le ase m e n ­ tio n “ F ir s t A id .”


M ay, 1916.

F I R S T

A I D .

HUMPHREYS’ MOBILE PANEL BUILDINGS.

T e le p h o n e No

6 447 K e n s in g to n . 3 L in e s .

T e le g r a m s : “ H u m p h r e y s , K n lg h ts h r id g e , L o n d o n ,”

A u stralian H osp ital ( 1,000 B eds) on H u m p h reys’ Section al B uilding System .

The Best System of Building’s for the N avy and Army. Convenient for Transport—being in interchangeable parts. Simple in Construction and easily erected by ordinary labour. Visitors to “ The E xh ibition” now being held at K n igh tsb rid ge can see a Section of one of our Mobile Hospitals and Soldiers’ Huts. Immediate Delivery from Stock.

HUMPHREYS LTD., KNICHTSBRIDGE,

LONDON,

S.W.


212

Queries and Jlnswers Correspondents.

F I R S T

A I D .

M ay,

to

Queries w ill be dealt with under the following rules :— I •— Letters containing Queries must be marked on the top left hand corner of the envelope “ Query,’’ and addressed— F i r s t A i d , 46, Cannon-street, London, E .C . 2.— A ll Queries must be accompanied by a “ Query Coupon" cut from the current issue of the Journal, or in case of Queries from abroad from a recent issue. S- — Queries are invited on First-Aid, Home-Nursing and HomeHygienc as these are of general interest. These w ill be answered in F i r s t A i d i f space permits. 4.— Queries, accompanied by stamped addressed envelope, w ill be answered bypost.

stood by “ D ilute A m m onia,” and by “ D ilute V in egar.” T h e former in reference to stings and bites of insects, and the latter in reference to lim e in the eye. For lime in the eye the vin egar is diluted with six parts o f water. F o r stings of insects, See., the sam e dilution (1 in 7) o f strong am m onia will prove satisfactory. In other words, the addition of six parts o f water in each case can be accepted in explanation o f the term “ D ilute.” For Corrosive Burns more concentrated lotions are neces­ sary and the wound m ay be m opped— when due to A lkali, with solution o f V in egar (1 in 2 ); when due to A cid, with solution of A m m onia (1 in 4).— N. C o r b e t F l e t c h e r . “ A d e l a i d e . ” — I should be much obliged if you could kindly inform me why the sm all arm sling is applied differently in each o f cases mentioned on pages 53 and 156 o f the St. John A m bulance T ex t Book.

FIRST-AID

[IODEXI

A BLAND & PA IN LESS

(V s c jo a y v u J )

A sep tic.

— IODINE D R E S S I N G . —

A n tise p tic .

IO D E X has been supplied to : H .M . F le e t S u r g e o n s , R .A .M .C . S u r g e o n s , R ed C ro s s S u r g e o n s , C r o ix R o u g e F r a n c a is e B e lg ia n F ie ld H o s p ita ls ,

1’ . J. C .— K in dly inform me through your Journal what is under­

F r e n c h F ie ld H o s p ita ls , N u m e r o u s M ilit a r y H o s p ita ls , M e m b e rs of S t . J o h n A m b u la n c e .

I O D E X is a F irst-A id D ressin g o f great m erit— pain less and b la n d It p ro m o tes rap id h ealin g a n d is id eal in sep tic w ounds, tears, abrasion s, bruises, burns, scalds, in flam ed feet, etc. I O D E X is non-staining, n o n ­ irritating Free Io d in e o f great p en etrative pow er. It is a p ow er­ ful a b so rb en t and a n tisep tic, and ra p id ly red u ces in flam m ation .

IODEX is sold in 1o z. Pots, Price 1/3. I O D E X has benefitted thefollowing and numerous other conditions: E n la r g e d G la n d s . G o itr e . T u b e r c u lo u s J o in ts , B u r s itis , S y n o v itis , S c ia tic a , N e u r itis , G o u t, R h e u m a to id A r th r itis , H y d r o c e le . P a r a s itic S k in D is e a s e s . R in g w o r m , C h ilb la in s , A c n e , B o ils , M u m p s , S p r a in s , AN D A L L IN F L A M M A T O R Y C O N D IT IO N S .

L ite ra tu re

on

a p p lic a tio n t o 3 9, F a r r i n g d o n R o a d , LONDON, E.C .

Menley & James, Ltd.,

T h e difference in diagram s probably arises from the fact that the application o f the sling is described reversely on page 1 5 6 . T h ere is, however, no reason for this variation, and the student will be wise to follow the method laid down on page 39 and figured on page 53, whereby the weight o f the arm is car­

F IR S T

ried by the sound shoulder.— N . C o r b e t F l e t c h e r .

B y J. M. Carvell, M .R .C .S ., L .S .A ., Lond.

M. L. (H arrow) ask’ :— “ H ow would one treat severe com ­ pound fracture of fem ur? Should leg be strightened ?” T h is Q uery was fully dealt with in issues o f N ovem ber and D ecem ber last, to which M. L. can refer. Briefly, correct treatm ent requires first, that hmmorrhage be controlled, secondly that fracture be fixed as firm ly as is possible under the circumstances, and lastly that patient be rem oved in recum bent position. Extension of limb is abso­ lutely forbidden, because in such a case the dangers of aggravation o f injury are urgent.— N . C o r b e t F l e t c h e r .

HORLICK’S M ALTED

MILK

A S A D I E T IN R E D C R O S S N U R S I N G . C o n ta in s a ll th e fo o d v a lu e o f p u r e fu ll-c re a m m ilk e n ric h e d a n d m o d ifie d w ith t h e s o lu b le n u tr itiv e e x tr a c ts o f c h o ic e m a lte d c e re a ls . T h e r a t i o o f p r o te in to c a r b o h y d r a te a n d its p e rf e c t d ig e s tib ility c o m m e n d th is fo o d a s a r e lia b le re c o n s tru c tiv e w h ic h m a y b e g iv e n f re e ly in s e p tic c o n d itio n s a n d s u rg ic a l c a se s.

R E A D Y IN A M O M E N T .

1916.

R E Q U R IE 8 N O C O O K IN G .

L ib er a l Sam ples J o r tr ia l w ill be sent to the Profession P o st Free on application.

H o r l i c k ’s M a l t e d M ilk Co., S l o u g h , B u c k s .

R eview s.

* *

IN

A

FEW

W O RD S.

London : John Bale Sons & D anielsson, Ltd.

Price 2d. In the 12 pages, which com pose this card, D r. Carvell has em bodied the prim ary information on first aid treatment in a clear and explicit manner, and as a pocket companion it should prove useful. T h ere are three anatom ical diagram s — one of the body show ing bones and arteries, with pressure points ; another the vicera, with names of organs; and, third, a sectional diagram o f the heart. W e cannot see the use o f the two latter in a pam phlet o f this kind, as it only deals with first aid treat­ ment and not anatom y. C O M P E N D IU M

*

A ID

OF

A ID S

TO

HOME

N U R S IN G .

B y N. Corbet Fletcher, B .A ., M .B ., B .C .C an tab., M .R .C .S. London : John Bale Sons & D anielsson, Ltd.

Price 6d.

*

$ $ t

D r. Fletcher’s compendiums in the form o f memories have proved very popular, and “ A id s to H om e N ursing,” like its predecessor, “ Aids to First A id,” has now run into a 2nd edition. T o concentrate a know ledge of the text books, Dr. F letch er’s “ A id s” should be of much service, for they are co m ­ plete and concise.

*

m e n tio n “ F ir s t A id ”

*

W h e n c o rre sp o n d in g w ith

A d v e r tis e r s p le a se


M ay, 1916.

FIRST

A I D . —

Mutual satisfaction-that is what we aim at I. you are a nurse we know that you will be satisfied with every part of your outfit purchased from our Nurses Equipment section, and we will be satisfied because we know that our service will be appre­ ciated. Professional or voluntary nurses can be supplied, at a moment’ s notice if necessary, with every sing e article of out­ fit in true accord with the requirements ot the particular Hospital or Nursing Home to which they will be attached. We have studied Nurses’ Uniforms and Oulfits for years, and are thus able to give attention to detail such as no other house can equal; the complete equipment or the smallest accessory receives equal attention, and Nurses who have been supplied by us speak in glowing terms of our organisa­ tion and of the r. liability and durability of the goods that we supply.

Hall’s Wine and Overstrain

M ake a personal ca ll or w rite or 'phone f o r catalogue.

Hospital & General Contracts Co., Ltd. ( N u r s e s ’ E q u i p m e n t S e c t i o n ) , ( D e p t . 6). in N a v y .

S to c k e d in le n g th s S4!n ” 2 3 / 6

A ll-W o o l S e rg e .. W est o f E n g la n d S e rg e

34/6

19-35, MORTIMER S T., W. 'P h o n e: M U S E U M 3>40-. Ao-ents fo r the tuell-kno^vn Benduble Shoes.

3 6 /6

Uniforms and Equipment. “ H I R S T A I D ” may mean, I “ for the time bein g,” but the uniforms and equipm ent made by the H ouse of H azel for First A id and all other M edical Corps are guaranteed to give lasting wear and true British ser­ vice. A nd, rem em ber, a H azel guarantee is the guarantee o f a firm with 100 years reputation. T o ask us for a quotation for Officers’ or R an k and File R e ­ quirem ents will com m it you to nothing— but it w ill show you what we can do.

16,N I L E S T R E E T , C I T Y R O A D , L O N D O N , N., a n d 4, P R I N C E S S T R E E T , HANOVER

SQ.,

LONDON,

W.


— F I R S T

M ay, tq t6 .

A I D . —

THE

ST. JO H N

AMBULANCE H.M . T H E

H.M, Q U E E N

KIN G

ALEXANDRA

BRIGADE. H ATTERS TO H /M .T H E f^T N G

M essrs. SCOTTS have been appointed to supply th e Su m m er and W inter H ats to th e m em bers of th e S t. John A m bulance Brigade and St. John V oluntary Aid D etach m en ts. Officers’ Felt and S tr a w Hats h a v e gre y band w ith w h ite edging. M em bers’ Felt and S t r a w Hats have black band w ith w h ite edging.

P ric e 6 d . e x tra for P o sta ge.

-

-

5 6.

A l s o in a s u p e r i o r q u a l i t y , 10 /6 .

Hat B ad ge No. 20 is worn in front by Brigade Members, and Hat B a d ge No. 14 by Territorial Branch Members.

P ric e -

-

1/3 each •

BR ITISH

RED

B a n d s S e p a r a t e , 1/6 e a c h .

CROSS

S O C IE TY .

A ll The Sum m er S t r a w Hats quite re ad y — no w aitin g. Badges can be supplied by Return Post in an y quan tity, 1/- each.

S C O T T S , Ltd., 1, O L D BOND ST., LO N D O N , W. W A R

E M E R G E N C Y w ill

do

w ell

to

B R IG A D E S

c o n s u lt

EATON for AMBULANCE STORES. OTHER

N o. 3 5 F IR S T A ID

CASE

IS TH E M O S T S U IT A B L E FO R TH E O F F I C E R ’S HAVERSACK.

P r i c e - 4 2 s . Soz. S a m p le , p e r P o s t ,

3 s . l id . S i z e 7 ! in. x 3J in. x

POCKET

O U TF ITS : 6 d .

by

Post

1 /-

8d. i /3

1/6

,,

1/10

2 /-

,,

2/4

are of the same

High

Standard of value. in.

H a m p e r s H a v e r s a c k s , C a b in e t s , S t r e t c h e r s , a n d a ll k i n d s of A m b u l a n c e E quip m ent. S p e c ia l T e r m s to Officers a n o t h e r m u l t i p l ^ B u y e r s , w h o a r e in v ite d to send

rl. O. E A TO N ,

r?S?h,338, Dewsbury Road, L


May, 1916

— FIRST

AID.—

SPECIALIST

215

KNOWLEDGE

— Medical, Surgical, Scientific and Hygienic—

Should

Distinguish the First Aid Worker.

A n d all w ho are co n cern e d with F irst A id and A m b u la n ce W ork, W ar N ursing, H y g ie n e an d P u b lic H e a lth , O rderlies, P o licem en , San itary O fficers require

to

be co n tin u a lly

stu d yin g

th e

sp ecia list k n o w le d g e b e lo n g in g to

this im p ortan t dep artm en t o f the n atio n ’s life.

Get the Specialist Work that teaches. S tu d y it T h e best

R ead it

th in g is to get a soun d

R efer To It on E v e r y O cca sio n .

w ork

w ritten

by

H o sp ita l, M e d ica l

and

after the F irst A id classes are over, and to keep it han dy so as to be ab le to refer

S u rgica l to

it

E x p e rts, to stu d y it

on

e ve ry o cca sio n

of

d o u b t or difficulty. a w ork is T H E

S u ch

SCIENCE

&

ART

OF

N U R S IN G ,

co m p lete in four h a n d y vo lu m es, with

sp ecialist articles on the follow in g m atters and on a th o u san d and one o th er

su b jects w h ich it is im p o rtan t that

th e F irst A id e r sh ould m ake h im se lf th o ro u gh ly m aster of.

T hese are The S u bjects You W ish to M aster, and th ese are th e su b jects T reated by Qualified Men in “ The Science and Art of Nursing. Anatomy. Physiology. Bacteriology. Elementary Pharmacy. Public Hygiene. Hygiene for Nurses. Air, Water, Soil, etc. Houses for the People. The Nursing of Phthisis. Tropical Diseases. Electrical Treatment. X'Ray Treatment. Invalid Cookery. Sickroom Recipes. Massage. Care of the Insane. Midwifery and Monthly Nursing.

THE

SCIENCE

Inflammation and Gangrene. Cerebral Concussions. Hot Packs: Fomentations. Arterial Haemorrhage. Washing out the Stomach. Cupping: Leeches. Gunshot Wounds. Enemata. Neurasthenia. Injections. Infected Wounds. Application of Heat. Leiter's Tubes. How to lay out the Dead. Cerebral Excitement after Injury. Functional Disorders.

&

ART

OF

Male Nursing. Army Nursing. Queen Alexandra's Military Nursing. Royal Army Medical Corps. Heart Affections. Chest Affections. Nursing Staffs in Hospitals. Care of the Aged. Care of Children. Practical Details. Splints. Fractures. Bandages. Tourniquets. Diets and Treatments (Special). Surgical and Accident Cases. Wounds.

N U R S IN G

is su p p lied

o nce for

a m erely n om inal F irst p aym en t o f half-a-crown

favourite

“ W a verley ” term s, i.e.,

after the

first paym ent.

sm all

You p a y

m o n th ly

for the

S en d at o n ce for th e free exp lan ato ry o bligatio n w h atever to o rder the w ork.

This

only.

p aym ents

p o pu lar price, and can be a cq u ire d at be

paid

for on th e

o f th ree shillings, or even less,

books while you b o o k le t

at a

It m ay

Haemorrhage. Epileptic Fits. Fainting Fits. Common Poisons. All First Aid Treatments. Accidents and Emergencies. Burns and Scalds. How to Prepare for an Operation. After the Operation. Appliances, etc., etc. Prescriptions. Exercises. Training Schools and Nursing Institutions. Nursing in Poor Law Institutions. The Law Relating to Nurses. Medical Glossary.

w hich

co n v e n ie n t

b e gin n in g

and

th irty d ays

are using them.

w ill tell

you

all

a b o u t this

h elp fu l

w ork.

No

Explanatory Book is yours for the asking. N o c h a r g e a n d n o o b l i g a t i o n to O r d e r a n y t h i n g . S e n d f o r t h is little p a m p h l e t w i t h o u t d e l a y .

To th e W averley Book Co., Ltd., 7 , 8 & 9, Old B a i l e y , L o n d o n , E .C . Please send me your F R E E Booklet on “ T h e S c i e n c e a n d A r t o f N u r s i n g , ” with particulars as to your offer to deliver the complete work f o r a f i r s t p a y m e n t o f 2 S . 6d. the balance to be paid by a few small monthly payments. N A M E .............................................................................................................................................. A D D R E S S .............................................................................................................................................. F .A .G ., 1916.

................................................................................................


— FIR ST

2l6

A ids to M e m o ry f o r ‘ F irs t A id ’ S tu d e n ts . B y L . M . F r a n k C h r i s t i a n , M .B ., C .M . E d in . A u t h o r (jo in tly with. W .R .E .) o f “ P r o b le m s in F i r s t A i d ,” S t. J o h n A m b

S e v e n t h E d itio n n o w re a d y .

A sso c.

Revised to date (Sept. 1915.)

“ N o a m b u la n c e m a n n e e d e v e r f e a r h e w ill g o r u s t y if h e w ill t a k e a n o c c a ­ s io n a l d o s e o f th e m e n ta l m ix iu r e c o n ta in e d w ith in th e c o v e rs o f th is s p le n d id b o o k . . . c a n n o t c o n c e iv e a b e tt e r u t il is a ti o n o f s p a c e , a b e tt e r t r e a ti s e o n t h is s u b je c t c o u ld n o t b e w r itte n . . . th e b o o k fo r a ll, w h e th e r o ld h a n d s o r s tu d e n t s ." “ A ‘ m u ltu m in p a rv o ’ o f th e g r e a t e s t v a lu e .” P r ic e : I n C lo th , 6 d . n e t— b y p o s t 7d. I n L e a th e r , 2s. n e t— b y p o s t 2s. 2d.

May, 1916.

AID. —

On First Aid, Medicine. Surgery, and all other Scien­ tific and Literary subjects. S e co n d -h a n d a t h a lf P r ic e s . New B o o k s at Discount Prices. Catalogues free^ ^ tate wants. B o o k s sent oa approval. Book;, bought. W . & Q . F O Y L E , i2 i and i2q, C haring Cross Road, London, W .C . ___________________

TH E BOOKS

FOR LECTURERS AND STUDENTS FIRST AID.

S t o c k p o r t : C o n n h l l & B a i l b y , L t d . , “ E x p r e s s " O f f i c e , S t . P e t e r ’s S q u a r e , a n d The St. John Ambulance Association, S t . J o h n ’s G a t e , L o n d o n . ___

P r ic e 6 d . n e t.

NOTES

P ost fre e 7d.

ON

FIRST

By

AID

S id n e y

H.

SIMPLIFIED.

TH E

A Handbook in a tabulated and simplified form giving the main points ol first aid, so arranged as to impress them on the memory of the student.

TH E By

HOW ARD

TR IA N G U L A R

LONDON, E.C .

HANMER’S Illustrated Ambulance Lecture. H a n m e r w ishes to thank D octors, A m bulance W orkers

and others, who have so kin dly assisted him in the organising of last season’s tours. T h eir w illing help has enabled him to visit 150 towns, and the tours have included E n glan d, Ireland and W ales. N ext season’s fixtures are now being arranged, and intend­ ing applicants for the L ecture should apply early, for the vacant dates are lim ited. (No. 6 D istrict Septem ber). Send three penny stamps, to cover postage, for “ N ovelty Illustrated Booklet,” and full particulars to C. H A N M E R , 205, D o n c a s t e r R o a d , G o l d t h o r p e , N r . R o t h e r h a m .

N ote. — N o charge beyond w orking cost is made for these Lectures.

M.

PRESTO N ,

116 Illus. By

M r.

N.

A ID S

QU A LIT Y

CANVAS.

P r ic e (A S

SPRING

£ 1

S U P P L IE D

TO

G E A R IN G

2 s

H .M .

BANDAGE:

CORBET

WHEELS.

6 d .

G O V E R N M E N T .)

Dem onstrator to the Polytechnic. I S . net, postage 2d.

Price, TO

H O M E -N U R S IN G .

FLETCH ER,

B . A . , M . B ., M .R .C .S .

Home-Nursing Simplified and Tabulated, with Aids to Memory. Post free, 7 d . A ID S

TO

F IR S T -A ID .

B y th e S a m e A u th o r .

A Compendium of Aids to Memory, invaluable to all Students. 2nd Edition. With an introduction by James Cantlie, F .R .C .S. Post free, 7 d . _ WHY

AND

W HEREFORE

IN

F IR S T -A ID .

B y th e S a m e A u th o r .

Difficulties in Study and Treatment solved by Question and Answer. Royal l6mo. Post free, 7 d . F IR S T -A ID

IN

A

FEW

W ORDS.

B y t h e S a m e A u th o r .

With Coloured Anatomical Diagrams 12 pp. Folder. Cloth, 4 d . By

J.

AN

IN D E X

M.

OF

CARVELL,

Paper,

2d.

F IR S T -A ID .

M . R .C . S .,

L .S .A .L o n d .

A vade-mecum for the Ambulance Worker. Fcap.8vo. Post free,

I S .2 d . A N A TO M IC A L D IA G R A M S . Twelve in set, on Roller. Post free, 2 s . l o d . Rach Diagram

F IR S T -A ID

separately, TH E

5 and 6 (coloured),

2d.

W HOLE By

Introduction by J a m e s

ART

OF

6d.

BO W SER,

F .J .I .,

C a n tlik .

F .R .C .S.

Illus. Post free,

P R A C T I C A L I N S T R U C T I O N IN C U T T I N G UP H O S P IT A L G A R M E N T S FO R S IC K By

M IS S

E M IL Y

(Approved by the Red Cross Society). A

each.

B A N D A G IN G .

TH EKLA

PEEK.

Illustrated.

I s. 2 d .

O U T & M A K IN G & W OUNDED.

Post free.

is . 2d.

S H O R T C O U R S E OF P H Y S IC A L TR A IN IN G FO R T H E R E C R U IT S OF T H E N E W A R M IE S . By

Best Stretcher on the Market. BEST

M A N IK IN .

Systems of Body accurately indexed. Invaluable to Students of Anatomy, Medicir.e, First-Aid and Allied Subjects. Price 2 S. n et; postage, 2d. Its Application shown by Words and Diagrams.

Lamb.

DALE, R E Y N O L D S & C O ., L t d . , 4 6 , C a n n o n S t .

COM PLETE

OF

ALLAN

BROM AN,

of the Royal Gymnastic Central Institute, Stockholm. Foolscap 8vo. Illustrated. Price i s . 6 d . net ; postage, 2d. JO H N BALEj SO N S & 8 3 - 91, G r e a t T lt e h fle ld

D A N I B L S S O N , L t d ., S tre e t, L o n d o n , W .

L ig h t Durable S tretch e r for Boy S couts,

12s. 6d.

W W .

3he 3ndian JUnbulance Gazette.

B R IS T O L .

A Journal o f Am bulance W ork in In dia, B urm a a n d the E a st.

G. V *.

HELPS

(Lates Pt t

oad,

H elp s

p ^ 1U p s

& Co.), B p id g e i

M a k e r , o l A m b u la n c e W a g o n s a n d R e q u is ite s .

P O STAL READING ”

IN S TR U C TIO N In “ PRESCRIPTION and “ ELEM ENTARY DISPENSIN G.”

Everyone engaged in FIRST AID work should take up the above Courses at once. .

member of S . J . A . B . writes I feel deeply indebted for the courses of instruction received, have often wanted to take such courses, but could never find where to get such.” ( T. B. ) S p e c ia l t e r m s n o w — half fees— to members of b.J.A. B., etc. A

A n n lv fsta m D l to M r . T. E . W a l d e n , S e c ., W e s tm in s te r C o lle g e ( L a d y D is p e n se rs S e c tio n o f t h e W e s tm in s te r C o lle g e o f C h e m is try a n d P h a r m a c y , e s td . 1874),

1 1 2 . S t. G e o r g e ’s R o ad , S o u t h w a r k , L o n d o n .

O fficers’ R egulation G reat Coats. D ark G rey beaver cloth, 39s. 6d. to measure. Superior quality M en’s G reat Coats, 16s. 6d.— W rite for patterns and particulars, T hornton & Co., tailors, Brighouse.

S

F

t

J

a

T )

O R S A L E , a quantity of M en’s A m bulance Uniform Trousers, all sizes, quite new, 5s. I id. a pair.— T hornton and Co., 24, Com m ercial-street, Brighouse.

F

O R S A L E . — R e g u la tio n B ro w n L e a th e r B e lts and P o u c h e s; a lso C a p s and O v e r c o a ts ; sa m p le s on a p p ro v a l.— F o lle tt, 4, V ic to ria -a v e n u e , B is h o p s g a te , L o n d o n , E .C .

P rinted a n d

Puhlisned by

M essrs. D a l b , K b w o l d s

P r ic e 2 s h i l l i n g s p e r a n n u m

p o s t fre e .

Published Quarterly. Can be obtained on application to the Editor, futogh, Simla H ills, India

TO

NURSES.

Nurses requiring rest and change, will W A RHom e at the W est Kensington N urses

find quiet Club, 54, Perham -road, W e st Kensington ; 14s. per week inclusive ; first-class food and every com fort ; within four minutes o f two T u b e Stations and busses.— F o r all particulars apply to the M atron, who has also arranged for the sam e accom m odation at the Seaside.

“FIRST A ID ” QUERY and REPLIES COUPON. To be cut out and enclosed with a ll Queries. M a y , 19 16 .

& C o ., L td ., 46 . Cannon St. L o n d o r, B .C ., to whom

a ll

communications should he addressed.


FIRST AID , -------

ST.

JOHN

A N D T H E --------

AMBULANCE Edited b y A R T H U R

N o . 2 6 4 .— V o l .

X X II.

To

JU N E,

[N e w S e r ie s .]

Our

B.

19 16 .

Readers.

GAZETTE.

DALE. [E n itr td

at Stationin' Hall.]

[2/8

P e e

A nnum ,

P o st

F r e e

than th e fact th at apart from th e M e d a llio n s a n d L a b e ls

“ First Aid ” Is published oo the 20th ol every month.

issued , n early 138,038 C e rtifica te s w ere issu ed in th e year

The Annual Subscription is 2 S. 6 d . post free ; single copies 2 d . The Editor invites readers to send articles and reports on subjects of interest to ambulance workers, these should be addressed to him at 46, Cannon Street, London, E.C. All articles and reports must be accompanied by the name and address of the writer, not necessarily for publication but for the use ot

en d in g S e p te m b er 30th, ig J S i as c o m p a re d w ith 5 7>9 7 2 *n

the Editor.

F o rc e shall be tau gh t th e p rin cip les o f F irst A id u n d er

S u b scr ip tio n s, A d v e r tis e m e n ts an d o th e r bu sin ess c o m m u n ic a tio n s c o n n e c te d w ith

19 12 and 19 1 3 .

H o w great a part first a id is d e stin e d to

p lay in m ilitary in stru ctio n is show n by th e fact th a t th e M in ister o f M ilitia in C a n a d a has issu ed in stru ctio n s th at all new troops u n d ergo in g train in g for th e E x p e d itio n a ry

arran gem en ts

m ad e

by

th e

C a n a d ia n

B ra n c h

of

th e

F i r s t A i d sh o u ld b e a d d r e s s e d to th e P u blish ers,

DALE,

R E Y N O L D S & CO., L 46, C a n n o n S t r e e t ,

A sso cia tio n .

td .,

E.C.

L on don ,

official

T h u s has first a id b e co m e an in tegral an d

part o f m ilitary

in stru ctio n

in

th e D o m in io n o f

C a n ad a . It is p lea sin g to reco rd th e rap id p rogress th e A s s o ­

E DITORIAL.

ciatio n is m akin g in our co lo n ie s, an d a referen ce m ust be T

Th e S .J .A .A .

C e n tra l

he

report for th e

E x e c u tiv e tw o

C o m m itte e ’s

years en d in g

the

m ade to w hat has b een a cco m p lis h e d in In d ia in c o n n e c ­ tion

w ith

W ar W o rk .

At

th e

an n u al

m eetin g

of

th e

and

30th S ep tem b er, 1 9 1 5 , w h ich has ju st

In d ia n B ran ch , h eld at Sim la, H is E x c e lle n c y , th e V ic e r o y ,

Brigade

been p u b lish ed , is th e m ost im portan t

said that few p eo p le had realised th at on th e o u tb re a k o f

Reports.

w h ich has been issued, for it covers the

war th e A sso cia tio n w ou ld assu m e th e ro le o f a R e d C ro ss

p eriod

N early forty years o f p ion eer w ork d irected w ith a d m irab le

S o ciety. I t is in terestin g to learn that so far as th e B r ig a d e is

foresight in tim e o f p eace, th e organ isation o f the A m b u ­

co n cern e d , it show s

lance D e p artm en t o f the O rd er has stoo d the severest tests

w ith a total o f 5 3 ,4 2 1 , as co m p a red w ith 29,560 m em b ers in

of

the

war

up

to

that date.

a co n sid e ra b le in cre ase

o f war, an d has been ab le in the hour o f da n g er to m eet

1 9 1 3 -1 9 1 4 .

the urgent requirem en ts of the E m p ire, an d w ill afford

h ostilities,

legitim ate an d

m aintained after th e co n clu sio n o f th e war.

lastin g

satisfaction

to

th o se

w ho

h ave

w atched an d fo stered the grow th o f the great w ork w hich

o f stren gth

T h is in crease is m a in ly d u e to th e o u tb re a k o f an d we a n ticip a te th a t th is

stren g th

w ill

be

I n view o f the

fact that o ver 20,000 B rig a d e m en are servin g w ith H .M .

will co n stitu te in itself a fittin g rew ard for their un w earying

F o rces, th e seven ty-n in e death s w h ich are re p o rted to d ate

labours.

can n o t be co n sid e re d e x ce ssiv e, b u t it lea ves no d o u b t as

The

exp erien ce

g a in ed

in

p revious

cam p aign s

de­

to th e

dan ger

to

w h ich

th e se

m en

are

exp o sed .

The

m onstrated to the A m b u la n ce D e p a rtm en t the n ecessity o f

B a rn o ld sw ick D iv isio n o f th e N o . 5 D is trict suffered very

being p rep ared for an y e m ergen cy at th e shortest n otice,

h eavily in th e early days o f th e war, w hen th ey lo st tw elve

and it is w ith ou t d o u b t that it has ju stifie d th e hopes o f its

o f th eir m em bers w h o w ere servin g o n th e h o sp ita l ship

organisers by th e respon se it has been ab le to m ake to th e

“ R o h illa .”

dem ands o f th e

I t is

e sp e cia lly as th e y h a d o n ly b een registered a sh o rt tim e.

satisfactory to reco rd th at th e A rm y C o u n c il has stated

T h e rep o rt deals w ith th e variou s p hases o f th e B rig ad e,

that

in clu d in g th e

it

w as

N a v a l and

d e e p ly

M ilitary A u th o rities.

gratified

which the S .J .A .A . h ad

at

th e

been ren derin g

in va lu ab le to

th e

help

M e d ica l

Services during the p resen t war.

T h is

was

a

heavy

b lo w

to

th e

e sta b lish m en t o f th e B rig a d e

D iv isio n ,

H o s p ita l

in

F ra n ce, w h ich is co n sid e re d o n e o f th e b est o f its kin d. T h e rep ort, w h ich is d e a lt w ith in a n o th e r p age, is a reco rd

is g ratifyin g also to n ote that d u rin g the period

w h ich a ll th e m em b ers o f th e B rig a d e ca n w ell b e p ro u d

under review is show n a great in crease in the a ctivities o f

of, and it w ill b e a testim o n y to th e v a lu a b le service s th ey

the A sso ciation .

h a ve re n d ered to th e n ation .

It

No

b etter e v id e n ce o f this is n eed ed


F I R S T

A I D .

June, 1916.

T h e L ady M aud W ilbraham , L ad y D istrict Superintend­ ent, was in charge o f the parade, and there was a very large attendance. D r. C arvell assisted in inspecting the bandaging. A t the close of the proceedings the L ad y Superintendent-inC h ief highly com m ended those present on the sm artness of AM BULANCE D EPA R TM EN T. their uniform and the excellence o f their work, thanking the lady superintendents for the very great assistance given by Jh e S t. Jo h n .Ambulance Srigade. them to headquarters in carryin g out instructions, and urging their m embers to volunteer for service in m ilitary hospitals. No. 1 District. It is interesting to note that in the W estm inster D ivision, which is almost the latest formed, the L ady Superintendent is D e p u t y C o m m is s io n e r : the wife of the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and the husband W . H. W IN N Y . of the 1st N ursing O fficer is Chancellor of the O rder o f St. John. A m ong other m embers o f this division are Mrs. Lulu H arcourt, Mrs. W inston Churchill, Mrs. R aym ond Asquith J U L Y , 1916. and Mrs. Bonham Carter. Sunday D u ty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. A ll the divisions on parade can show an excellent record Sunday, 2 n d — N o. 48 D ivision, H aggerston. of work done, and the Post O ffice D ivision never fails to show g th.— N o. 22 „ H ospital Saturday Fund. the greatest keenness in all the work it undertakes, and when ” 16th.— N o. 1 „ St. John’s Gate. we realise the very busy lives o f the members, especially during „ 23rd.— N o. 37 „ G reat W estern R ailw ay. the stress o f tbe war, it is an especial cause o f gratification to 30th.— N o. 67 „ Borough o f St. Pancras. see how excellent is the work they do, and what a large number 2.30 p.m. to 8.30 p.m. A s per separate orders. K e y from o f them appeared on parade. St. John’s G ate, 2 p.m. No. 3 District. B R IG A D E R E G U L A T IO N S . K e t t e r i n g . — On M ay 23rd the usual w eekly drill o f the Considerable inconvenience is caused both to members of H eadquarters D ivision was followed by a social, during the D ivisions and to H eadquarters, by the failure o f Officers in course o f which the members were entertained by Dr. M aunsell C h arge o f D ivisions to m ake them selves sufficiently acquainted to a “ talk ” on personal experiences in m any parts o f the with the Brigade R egulations. Officers are reminded that the world and under varied circum stances. A most instructive R egulations should be carefully studied, especially as by doing and enjoyable evening was spent and, at the conclusion, the so a considerable am ount o f correspondence would be saved. thanks of those present was voiced by Supt. R ay, supported O fficers in C h arge o f D ivisions should see that their Brigade by Staff-Sergt. Curtis and Sergt. Groom. notepaper is in accordance with the .R egulations. Brigade correspondence should not, if it can be avoided, be conducted on V .A .D . notepaper. No. 7 District. A N N U A L RETU R N S. R o l l o f H o n o u r . — Lieutenant H arry R. Griffith, M .D ., Certain D ivisional Returns which were due last O ctober a m ember o f the staff of No. 7 D istrict, died on m ilitary service hat e not yet com e to hand. In some cases there is apparently at Press H eath Camp, W hitechurch (Salop), on 21st M ay. He no excuse for this serious delay. It causes great inconvenience had been in practice at Portm adoc and was Superintendent of at H eadquarters, and may probably prejudice the interests of the Portm adoc D ivision and afterwards D istrict Inspector of the m embers. U n less returns which m ight be sent in do not Stores o f the No. 7 D istrict. In 1915 he obtained a com m is­ com e to hand prom ptly it m ay be necessary to take serious sion in the R .A .M .C . T h e death o f this valued officer at the early age o f 50 is much regretted by his com rades of the notice of the omission. m edical and am bulance services. Privates H. R. E va n s and C A N D I D A T E S F O R B R IG A D E M E M B E R S H IP . W . G. H ughes, o f E ryri D ivision, and Private Geo. Overton, It has been decided by the C h ief Com m issioner that only Chirk D ivision, have also made the supreme sacrifice for their persons o f British birth can be adm itted to the B rigade ; King and country. naturalised aliens will consequently be ineligible. dt**1-**,

3fhe Sraud 3*riora of the 0rdet of the O-Cospital of S t. Jo h n of Jerusalem in Sngland.

DISTRICT ORDERS.

IN S P E C T IO N O N S T . J O H N ’S D A Y . A portion of the A m bulance D ivisions o f the D istrict will be inspected at the Charterhouse Grounds on St. John’s D ay, June 24th. (See separate Orders.) T h e R igh t Hon. the E arl o f Plym outh, P .C ., C .B ., Sub Prior of the O rder, has kindly consented to distribute awards and service m edals at 5 p.m. (Signed) W . H. W I N N Y , Deputy-Com m issioner. H eadquarters :— St. John’s Gate, Clerkenw ell, E .C . On T u esd ay, June 6th, the L a d y Superintendent-in-Chief o f the St. John A m bulance B rigade, L ady Perrot, R .R .C ., accom panied b y A ctin g S ta ff Officer, M iss K atherine M ylne, inspected at the Burgess H all, Berw ick-street, Ecclestonsquare, the follow ing nursing divisions o f the Prince o f W ales Corps :— W h iteh all N ursing D ivision : T h e L ad y Superintendent, M iss E . M. Rideout, and 1st N ursing Officer, M iss A. H an sley Sm ith, were present. Post O ffice N u rsin g D iv isio n : T h e D ivision al Surgeon, D r. E . S. C ooke; the L ad y Superintendent, M iss A. M. W alker, and 4th N ursing Officer, M iss A . D. A rcher, were present. T h o rn ey Island N ursing D ivision ; T h e L a d y Superin­ tendent, M rs. Brooks, was present. W estm inster N u rsin g D ivision : T h e L ad y Superintend­ ent, M rs. R egin ald M cK enn a, and 1st N ursing Officer, L ad y Jekyll, were present.

No. 8 District. D IS T R IC T A

ORDERS. R

ir

a id s

.

I am directed to state that if members o f Voluntary A id D etachm ents are called out by the P olice or other Civil A uthorities to succour the civil population in the event o f an air raid, or on any other occasion, com pensation for injury or death is not payable from the A rm y funds. A claim would arise only if the m embers of the detachm ents were acting under the orders o f a m ilitary officer and were attending to the troops. K

h a k i

S

e r v ic e

D

r e s s

U

n i f o r m

.

W ith reference to B rigade O rder 279 regarding the w ear­ ing o f khaki uniform, instructions have been issued by the A rm y Council necessitating the follow ing modifications being effected forthwith :— T h e w earing o f the shoulder brace o f the Sam Brow ne B elt by officers o f the B rigad e or V olun tary A id D etach m en ts who do not hold com m issions, to be discontinued ; and shoulder cords are to be substituted for shoulder straps. T h e badges o f rank are to be worn on the lapels o f the jack et above the brigade badge, which is to be placed just above the step, and care is to be exercised that these are strictly according to B rigad e Regulations. S

t

.

Jo

h n

A

m b u l a n c e

G

a z e t t e

a n d

“ F

ir s t

A

i d

.”

A rrangem ents have been com pleted, with the approval o f the Chapter G eneral o f the O rder, for the publication of the


June, 1916.

— F I R S T

“ St. John A m bulance G a z e tte ” as part of the monthly Journal F I R S T A i d . A rticles o f interest and notices o f events intended for publication in this Gazette, should be sent to the D eputy Com m issioner not later than the first of every month. C

o p ie s

D

o f

O

is t r ic t

I

n n u a l

n s p e c t io n s

.

D istrict S ta ff Officers are requested to arrange, without delay, for the Annual Inspection of the A m bulance and N urs­ ing D ivisions within their respective areas, and to report the dates fixed to the D eputy Com m issioner as soon as possible. Members of D ivisions who are on active service, or who are mobilised and on continuous duty in V oluntary A id Hospitals, are to be excused attending the Annual Inspection and Annual Re-exam ination, and will be entered accordingly on B .F . 1, in triplicate. S

h o r t

T

r a in i n g

f o r

H

M

e m b e r s

o s p it a t s

219

Report of th e A m bulance W ork done on th e O ccasion of th e Sinn Fein Riots.

.

r d e r s

D istrict O rders are issued to superintendents in charge o f Divisions, and further copies may be obtained on application to district headquarters if necessary. D ivisional Superintend­ ents are to deliver a copy of these Orders to every officer attached to the D ivision o f which they are placed in com ­ mand, and they will be held responsible that the uniforms and badges o f rank, etc., of all the members o f their Divisions are correct, as otherwise they are liable to come within the pro­ visions o f the D efence of the Realm Regulations. A

A I D .

L

in

this b rie f re co rd o f th e w ork d o n e d u rin g the Sinn F ein in su rrection by th o se w o rk in g u n d e r th e S .J .A .B ., there will foun d no m en tio n , save in o n e in sta n ce, o f

T r o u g h o u t

in d ivid u a l nam es. It is felt that w here so m u ch g a lla n try an d h ero ism was d isp layed , it w ou ld be in vid io u s to sin g le o u t p articu lar in stances for m ention. T h e p ea cefu l citizen o f D u b lin w h o a w o k e from his slum bers on E a ste r M o n d a y , 19 1 6 , w ith th o u g h ts on h o lid a y bent, lo o k e d upon as fair a m o rn in g as his heart co u ld desire, for blue skies an d soft breezes w e lco m e d to sea and shore and w ind an d w eath er h ad tem p e re d th e m ­ selves to th e spirit o f festival. E v e ry th in g s p o k e o f p ea ce

o n d o n

.

A rrangem ents have been made whereby members of Nursing D ivisions and V oluntary A id D etachm ents can obtain a month’s experience in certain London Hospitals. T hey can attend at the Kensington Infirm ary from 9 a.m. till 7.30 p.m. daily for a month. T h e y will pay 6s. a week, and in return will be provided with three m eals a day, but must find their own lodgings. T h e y m ay attend C haring Cross H ospital, and will pay 10s. a week and find their own lodgings, or they may be taken at this hospital for night duty from 9 p.m. to 7.30 a.m. T h e y will be provided with one meal during the night and will p ay no fee, but o f course find their own lodgings and food during the day. Also, one or two m embers m ay be placed to assist in the T heatre at C haring Cross H ospital for a month at a time. A ll com m unications with regard to this training should be addressed to L ad y Perrott, L ady Superintendent-in-Chief, St. John’s G ate, Clerkenw ell, E .C ., who will be pleased to see members in reference to the above at St. John’s G ate any Tuesday or T h u rsd ay afternoon, and at other times at D evo n ­ shire House, Piccadilly, W . C

h a r l e s

C

o t t o n

,

Deputy Commissioner. Com m anding No. 8 (South-Eastern) D istrict, S .J.A .B .

No. 12 (Irish) District. Mrs. E lla G. A . W ebb, M .D ., L ad y D istrict Superintendent, No. 12 (Irish) D istrict, who has recently been appointed L ady of G race o f the O rder of St. John, has been a keen am bulance worker for some time, having given about fifty courses of lectures in first aid, home nursing, sanitation and hygiene since 1904. She was appointed D ivision al Surgeon to the C ity of Dublin N ursing D ivision in 1911, and L ady Corps Superinten­ dent o f the newly-form ed C ity o f D ublin Corps in A ugust 1914, and in O ctober o f the sam e year becam e L ady D istrict Super­ intendent. In addition, Dr. W eb b is an Hon. Life M em ber and Exam iner o f the St. John A m bulance Association. Sin ce August 1914, she has done an enorm ouse amount o f adm inis­ trative work, and it would be im possible to pay full tribute for all she has done to put the B rigade in Ireland on a sure foundation. It is hardly necessary to add that the honour conferred on her has given unqualified satisfaction to every member of the D istrict. W h e n c o rre s p o n d in g w i t h A d v e r tis e r s p le a se m ention “ F ir s t A id ”

M r s . E l l a G. A . W e b b , M .D ., L ad y D istrict Superintendent, No. 12 (Irish) D istrict. and p ro m ised a p leasan t day in w h ich o n e m igh t forget, for a short sp ace, th e great w orld war an d its a tte n d a n t horrors. H o w little th e h o lid a y m aker d rea m ed th at ere e ve n in g th ose horrors w ou ld be e n a cte d befo re his eyes, or that th e b e au tifu l m orn in g but u sh ered in a d rea d fu l day th e p relu d e to m any dread fu l days to co m e, to that w eek that has b een a p tly ca lle d “ D u b lin ’s b la ck e st w e e k .” T h e o ld city by the L iffe y has seen m an y b la ck scen es, p lague, p estilen ce, fam in e, w ar, but surely, n ev er in its ch e q u e re d history, has it w itn essed su ch scen e s m ore strange and sad den ing. O n ce , in its far o ff past, on E a ste r M o n d a y , 12 9 9, we find a stran ge p arallel, w hen th e in su rgen ts from W ic k lo w surprised an d k ille d 500 o f its citizen s w h en h o lid a y m akin g at C u lle n sw o o d , th e d a y b e in g k n o w n for m an y ce n tu ries after as “ B la c k M o n d a y .”


220

F I R S T

T h u s in our d ay, h isto ry rep eats itself, with m ore d rea d fu l a d d ition s, and our m odern “ B la c k M o n d a y ” w ill lo n g b e re m e m b ered b y sorrow in g and stricken hearts. W h en th e first in cred u lo u s surprise h ad p assed aWay an d it b e ca m e e v id e n t that a serious in su rrectio n was in p rogress, th e first qu estio n that arose in th e m in ds o f m ost a m b u la n ce m en and w om en was, “ W h at is th e best thin g for m e to d o ? ” D ifficu lties lo o m ed la r g e ; th e tram an d train service h a d c e a s e d ; postal a n d telegrap h ic facilities no lo n ger e xisted ; th e tele p h o n e was c o n tro lled for m ilitary s e r v ic e ; all th e usual w ays an d m eans o f co m m u n ica tio n w ere cut o ff and the in d iv id u a l w ho w ish ed to h e lp was co n fro n ted w ith a situation difficult in th e extrem e. M u ch m igh t b e w ritten o f th e o b sta cle s w h ich were su rm o u n ted and o f th e dan gers th rou gh w h ich m any o f our h elp ers h a d to pass in o rder to offer their services. O n e, re p u lsed by the in su rgen ts at tw o p laces, s u cce ed e d in g e ttin g th rou gh at a th ird p l a c e ; another, d rivin g in, was tw ice fired a t ; still a n o th er w alk e d a circu it o f tw elve m iles to get th r o u g h ; w h ile in stan ces m igh t b e m u ltip lied , but sufficien t to show the en thusiasm and d esire to h elp w hich in sp ired so m any. T h e first m o ve to w ard s th e organ isation o f first aid w ork was m ade by th e late C o rp s Supt. S to d art, w ho was in tow n on E a ste r M o n d a y , an d w ho telep h o n ed the m ilitary a u th o rities offering h elp w hich, at the m om ent, w as n ot req u ired . O n T u e s d a y a M ilitary a p p lica tio n was m ade for a n u m b er o f m en to act as orderlies w ith the R .A .M .C . at P o rto b e llo M ilitary B a rra ck s and D u b lin C a s tle H o sp ita l. T h e s e m en w ere at o n ce d e ta iled and by this tim e tw o officers o f th e D istrict S ta ff h ad arrived in tow n an d were in to u ch w ith affairs, an d it was d e c id e d to start an a m b u la n ce patrol with a head qu arters in H arcou rt-street R a ilw a y Station . O n W e d n esd a y, 26th, a n u m b er o f officers and m en rep o rted to th e D e p u ty C o m m issio n e r at th e d ep o t, 5 1, D aw son -street, to g e th er w ith som e m em bers o f th e p u b lic p o ssessin g “ F irst A id ” certificates w ho w ere anxious to assist, an d as h elp was w an ted at variou s m ilitary hospitals, d ressin g stations, etc., all w ere soon a llo tted w ork. P rev io u sly , it h a d b een arran ged that certain m em bers s h o u ld rep ort at th e C ity o f D u b lin H o sp ita l, B aggot-street, w here th e a u th o rities h a d k in d ly arran ged that a room s h o u ld be p la ce d at th e disp osal o f the B rig ad e, an d as e ven ts tu rn ed out h elp was b a d ly n ee d ed in this d irectio n , as th e S h e rw o o d F o resters w ere a m b u sh ed in N orthu m berland-road w hilst co m in g into th e city, an d a fierce fight to o k p la ce in this d istrict, the m ilitary lo sin g 160 k ille d an d w ou n d ed . H e r e th e B rig a d e sustain ed the loss o f one o f its m ost zealou s and co n scie n tio u s officers, C o rp s Supt. H o ld e n Sto d art, w ho was sh ot w hilst p ro ce ed in g w ith a stretch er party to the re lie f o f a w ou n d ed soldier. H is h e ro ic d eath and n o b le exa m p le m ust ever b e rem em bered a m o n g st th o se w ho serve u n der th at o ld O rd er w hose m otto is “ P ro u tilitate h o m in u m .” T h e a ssistan ce given in this area b y our m em bers is show n in th e fo llo w in g extracts from letters re ce iv e d from th e M a tro n o f th e C ity o f D u b lin H o s p ita l an d th e officer in ch a rg e o f th e troops. D ear

D r. L um sden,

T h e D irectors I know are sending you a resolution o f thanks for all the help you gave us during the past sad weeks, but 1 feel I should like to add my own thanks. I don’t know what we should have done without your men. T h e y were most w illing and helpful in every way, both day and night, and 1 am sure the patients were most grateful for the care and gentleness with which they were

June, 19 16 .

A I D . —

handled. I am sorry to have been so long in writing, but am sure you will understand the reason. B elieve me, yours very truly, (S ign ed)

E. A. E d d iso n .

T h e C o m m a n d er o f th e 17 8 th (S h erw o o d F oresters) B rig a d e w rote to th e D e p u ty C o m m issio n er after this fight, as follow s :— I write on beh alf o f m yseh and the Brigade which I com m and to express our gratitude and appreciation o f the work done by the St. John A m bulance Brigade during and after the action in Northum berland-road on A pril 28th. T h e y cam e up regardless o f risk and carried away our wounded to hospital. T h ere were other associations who also assisted, and I am unable to discrim inate between them, but all behaved most gallantly and have since tended our wounded with the greatest care and attention. O ur casualties were heavy, amounting to over 160 killed and wounded on that day. W ill you please accept my most grateful thanks for yourself . . . and all your staff. T h e casualties from this sectio n o f the figh tin g area bein g so h eavy, an d the hospitals, p articularly Sir P a trick D u n s an d C ity o f D u b lin , b e co m in g so cro w d e d w ith our patients, it was d e cid e d to estab lish a u xiliary hospitals, and th e W ar H o sp ita l S u p p ly D e p o t, 40, M errion -square, from its p ro x im ity to th e scen e o f a ctio n an d its gen eral su itab le­ ness for such a purpose, was ch o sen to start w ith. By a fortun ate circu m stan ce th ere was a large sto ck o f dressings, b an d ages, etc., in th e d ep o t at th e tim e, o ver 200 bales b ein g read y for desp atch , in a d d ition to th e usual stock. M a n y o f th e city hosp itals h a d alm ost run out o f dressing m aterials, and as th ere was no m eans o f gettin g supplies, part o f th e sto ck in th e W .H .S .D . was sen t to th e various hospitals. U p o n d e cid in g to start 40, M errion -square as a hospital, an ap p eal was m ade to th e residen ts o f th e n eigh ­ b o u rh o o d for beds, b e d d in g , fo o d supplies, etc., and in the e x tra o rd in a rily ’sh o rt tim e o f th ree hours all was read y for the recep tio n o f patients, and a m edical, nursing and o rd erly staff a p p o in te d for day and n ight. A t 2 p.m . th e first o f th e nurses was co m in g in, an d at 5 p.m . an am pu tatio n was go in g on in the im p rovised o p eratin g theatre, and ab ou t h a lf o f the 3 ° beds w hich w ere rigged up in the w ards w ere full. A s this w ork en tailed the ca rryin g in b y h a n d o f all m attresses, beds, bedding, an d utensils from n eigh b o u rin g houses, and the clearin g aw ay o f large h e av y w ork tables, w ith w h ich th e room s were o rig in a lly filled, it is a p erfo rm an ce on w h ich the V .A .D .’s. h ave every righ t to be p roud. T h is was d o n e in th e face o f co n sta n t danger, as all rou n d the v icin ity o f M errionsquare sh o o tin g was go in g on from e ve ry d irectio n , and all th o se b rin gin g in m aterial w ere exp o sed to grav e risks. T h e ho sp ital was e q u ip p e d for ab ou t 40 beds, but th ese w ere n ever all used, for w e sent th e m ilder cases on to th e n um erous au xiliary hospitals, w h ich w ere p repared b y o th er division s. O f the cases, o n ly o n e died, an old m an o f e ig h ty — the others all reco vered , a lth o u gh th ey in­ c lu d e d tw o very serious lu n g cases, tw o am pu tation s, as w ell as m any m inor op erations. T h e can teen an d th e w h o le o f th e k itch e n staff w ere m ost efficient, and there alw ays seem ed a p len tifu l su p p ly o f p articu larly n ice fo o d for bo th patients an d th e staff at a tim e w hen p rovision s o f a n y sort w ere m ost d ifficu lt to obtain. F o llo w in g this q u ic k ly cam e th e e sta b lish m en t o f o ther overflow hospitals, the B .R .C .S . F itzw illiam , H ig h S ch o o l, H a rco u rt, L itto n H a ll, L e e so n P ark, 1 1 , B u sh y Park-road, m akin g in all a to ta l o f 250 beds.

(To be concluded).


Jnne, 1916.

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THE ST. JOHN A M B U LAN CE GAZETTE. R em iniscences of Early Am bulance W ork in India. By

COLONEL I n d ia n

T.

H.

M e d ic a l

H ENDLEY, S e r v ic e

C .I .E .,

V .D .,

(R e t ir e d ).

I n a paper o f m in e on the exten sio n o f a m b u la n ce w ork in India, w h ich was read at th e G en eral A sse m b ly at St. J oh n ’s G a te on June 25th, 1883, by th e late Sir V . B arrington K e n n e tt, D e p u ty C h airm an o f the A sso cia tio n , referen ce was m ade to th e extraord in ary n eed in the great D e p e n d e n cy for a w ide-spread system o f first aid, n ot only in cases o f a ccid en t, but o f disease. A s that paper has lo n g been out o f print rather full referen ce to its co n ten ts w ill n ot be o u t o f place. I wrote that in In d ia , o u tsid e th e large tow ns surgical aid w as rarely ava ilab le d irectly an a ccid en t o ccu rred , an d that som etim es m any hours, and even days, elap sed before it co u ld be o b tain ed . M o reo ver, in cases o f sunstroke, sn a ke­ bite, in juries from w ild beasts or poison ing, and in such diseases as ch o le ra or p lague unless im m ed iate treatm ent was a va ilab le there was little or no h o p e for th e sufferer. T h e n um ber o f q u a lified surgeons and physician s, both E uropean and In d ia n , though large, was quite in ad eq u ate to the n eeds o f th e vast p opu lation , and for Z en a n a (i.e. purdah) w om en th ere was at that tim e p ractically no pro­ fessional help at all. T h e re was, how ever, a large class o f hospital assistants and lo cal n ative d octors, besides co m ­ pounders and vaccin ators, w ho co u ld ren der assistance, but even the p rovision o f first aid, throu gh the latter, was totally inadequate. T h e re w ere also m any other person s w ho, I thought, co u ld be m ade q u ite co m p ete n t to a ct if th ey re­ ceived such in stru ctio n as was given in th e a m b u la n ce classes o f th e A sso cia tio n o f St. J oh n o f Jerusalem . In a d d ition to th ese th ere w ere the in digenous practitioners o f m e d icin e — baids and koberajas an d o f surgery— hakim s and jh a r a s , w ho if ju d icio u s ly m anaged m ight be m ade useful, w ith the aid o f vern acu lar m anuals w hich w ere care fu lly prepared for th e purpose. I urged, how ever, that m ost go o d w ou ld be effected by teach in g volunteers, railw ay servants, planters, sportsm en and the officials in th e F o rest, C u sto m s, R e v e n u e , T e le g ra p h and sim ilar departm en ts, but m ore esp e cially p o lice co n stables who served in every part o f the E m p ire and w ere hab itu ally the first to be co n su lted in, or to hear o f cases o f injury, and sudden disease, or a ccid en ts o f all kinds. It had long been re co gn ised th at sp ecial in struction in sanitation an d in th e p rin cip les o f P u b lic H e a lth and Preven tion o f D ise a se as w ell as in th e em ergen t treatm ent o f acu te disorders and a ccid en t, was requ ired at least for m em bers o f the p u b lic services w ho w ere statio n ed in rem ote places, and attem p ts had been m ade to m eet the difficulty by the p reparation o f sim p le m anuals o f in struction. Dr. W a rin g’s “ B azaar M e d icin e s ” was a private p u b licatio n o f this kin d, but th e m ost ge n era lly useful w ork, and the most popular, was th e official Vaae Mecum or F am ily M e d icin e o f th e late S u rge o n -G e n e ra l Sir W illia m M oore. I o bserved in m y pap er that I had little h o p e that the

in d igen o u s p ro fessio n al e le m e n t o f m y tim e w o u ld be o f m uch use, but w ith th e sp read o f e d u c a tio n a n d the d im in ution o f p re ju d ice, co u p le d w ith th e d rea d o f loss o f p ra ctice and in flu en ce, it is p ro b a b le th a t w e n e e d n ot now be so pessim istic. I th o u gh t that m ore lastin g g o o d w ou ld be e ffe cte d by tea ch in g th e yo u n g in In d ia the first p rin cip le s o f san itatio n and p u b lic health, to w h ich m igh t be a d d e d so m e in stru c ­ tion in “ first a id .” I t w ill be seen that later on th ese id eas b o re fruit. M y earliest effort, how ever, was th e p u b lica tio n in th e M arw ar or J o d h p u r G a z e tte o f a series o f sh o rt a rticles on th e m an agem en t o f a ccid en ts a n d a cu te diso rd ers. The pap er was a b ilin g u al one, th e co n te n ts b e in g p rin te d in E n glish and M arw ari, the d ia le ct o f H in d i, w h ich is sp o k en in th e great R a jp u t S ta te in th e W e st o f R a jp u ta n a , in w hich I was servin g as R e s id e n c y S u rg e o n in 187218 73. I had every reason to b e lie ve th at th e p ap ers w ere o f use. T h e jo u rn a l was rather an am u sin g one. O n th e d a y on w hich a fam ous V ic e r o y arriv ed in J o d h p u r, th e cap ital o f the State, the e d ito r o f the jo u rn a l h e ad ed his le a d in g a rticle, w h ich was p rin ted in red ink, w ith th ese w ords, “ T h is is a d ay b e lo v e d o f gods, m en an d m a m m a ls.” O n a n o th er o cca sio n he co m p ared th e w ell-kn o w n H o li, a som ew h at B a cch a n a lia n festival o f sp rin g an d o f flow ers— in H in d i P h u l— w ith th e “ A ll F o o ls ’ D a y o f A p ril 1st, w h ich is so p o pu lar in E n g la n d .” H e was m isled by th e sim i­ larity of p ro n u n ciatio n o f th e tw o le a d in g w ords. N ever­ theless, th e G a z e tte was in fluen tial. T h e St. Joh n A m b u la n c e A ss o cia tio n was o n ly d e fi­ n itely e sta b lish ed early in 1878, a n d S h e p h e r d ’s “ H a n d ­ b o o k o f A m b u la n c e In s tr u c tio n ” was p u b lish ed in th e sam e year. V e r y little, how ever, was heard o f th e m o vem en t in In d ia, but a co u rse o f lectu res was g iv en in A lla h a b a d a b ou t r 881-2 by S u rgeo n H e a th e r B igg , an officer o f the A rm y M e d ica l D e p artm en t, an d M r. H a ro ld K in g , a brother o f Sir S e ym o u r K in g , w ho is n ow a m em ber o f our O rder, to o k up th e ca u se w ith en th u siasm in B o m b a y, and carried it on w ith vig o u r until his la m en ted p rem ature d ecease. T h e C e n tre was fo rm ed on N o v. 28th, 1883, at a m eetin g at w h ich th e G o v e rn o r presid ed. A fte r an in terval it was w o rk e d w ith sim ilar zeal for m any years by M a jo r L u n d , a lth o u g h I see th at th e presen t C e n tre o n ly d ates o fficially from 19 0 1, w h ich poin ts to the fact that th ere was no gen eral o rgan isatio n in In d ia until that year, w hen th e C a lc u tta a n d o th er ce n tre s w ere fo u n d ed . A ll p revious efforts w ere th erefo re lo ca l and w ere d u e to th e in itiative an d e n ergy o f in d ivid u a ls. M r. R . T e m p le in form s m e th a t in 1 9 1 1 he fo u n d on visitin g th e M y so re G o ld F ield s, to e n co u ra g e a m b u la n ce work, that th e m ed ical m en th ere h ad been te a ch in g first aid w ith great su ccess sin ce 18 79. H e th in k s th e y w ere th e first in In d ia to do so. A s regard s m yself, M r. K in g was a b le to su p p ly m e w ith S h e p h e rd ’s H a n d b o o k , so m e g en era l in fo rm atio n and o n e or tw o diagram s. O n e o f these, a fu ll-len gth draw in g o f the m u scles an d b lo o d vessels o f a m an, m y h ead cle rk th o u g h t rep resen ted a w ild R u ssia n w ho d e v o u re d b ab ies.


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S u c h w as th e p o p u lar id e a o f our N o rth ern friends th irty years ago. In ad d itio n to th ese I co p ied on a large scale from vario u s b o o k s a set o f illustration s, an d in S e p te m b er, 1880, d e live red tw o co u rses o f lectu re s— one at Jaip ur and th e o th er at B a n d ik u i, an im p o rtan t railw ay ce n tre a b ou t 50 m iles n earer A g ra to the W est. A s m ost o f m y hearers w ere vo lu n teers on th e R ajp u tan a -M alw a R a ilw a y th e su b jects w ere treated rather from a m ilitary p o in t o f view , but I laid m uch stress on th e e arly m an agem en t o f th o se diseases w h ich are so fatal in th e T ro p ic s , and here I sh o u ld state that in later years I th o u g h th e sy lla b u s o f in stru ctio n o f th e A sso cia tio n re q u ired som e m o d ificatio n s and ad d itio n s w h ich I a c c o rd ­ in gly m ade w hen I was in B en g al. T h e re w ere in terestin g features in bo th m y co u rses o f lectures. T w o railw ay en g in eers w ho w ere a tte n d in g the Jaipur class ca m e d o w n from A g ra th e n igh t before to a tten d th e last, or reca p itu la tio n , lectu re. O n e o f them had furn ished h im se lf w ith a sm all outfit o f in strum ents an d drugs for treatin g e m ergen cies, an d on his jo u rn e y he carefu lly stu d ied th e in stru ctio n s for treatin g snake-bite. T h a t n igh t his friend was stu n g by a co b ra w h ich had go t in to his b ed . A la n ce t an d stron g so lu tion o f am m onia w ere b ro u gh t o u t ; a liga tu re was tied tig h tly aro u n d th e lim b e ffe c te d ; the w ou nd was d e e p ly in c is e d ; am m onia w as p o u red in to i t ; an d a m an was sen t off for th e surgeon. O n m y arrival, I fo u n d that th ere was very little m ore to be don e. A t thu lectu re later on th e sam e d a y th e head o f th e victim , h a p p ily in this ca se th e snake, was exh ib ited , a n d an im p ressive lesson was learn ed by all present. I b e lie v e m y patient, w ho was afterw ards a d ign itary o f the P u b lic W o rk s D ep artm en t, still carefu lly preserves the head o f this en em y in spirit, and so m etim es w hen h e lo o k s at it recalls his n arrow esca p e from death. ( T o be concluded.)

The King’s Gun from Under th e Sea. By

H.

W.

AM BULANCE

GAZETTE. —

Ju n e, 1916.

purp oses o f th e O rd er, and p ro b a b ly so m e o f th em w ere m o u n ted on th eir galleys, w h ich w ere co n sta n tly fighting th e T u r k s an d th e corsairs an d pirates o f th e eastern M ed iterran ean . D o u b tle ss m ore than o n e o f th ese galleys w ere sun k or w recked aro u n d the coasts o f C yp ru s. In th e y ear 1907 a sp o n ge fisher n am ed ^Stavrinos K o u ta le s , o f K a ste llo rizo , w h ile d iv in g for sp on ges near the harbour o f F am ag o u sta d isco ve re d a bron ze can n o n h a lf b u ried in th e san d at th e b ottom o f th e sea. O n the 1st o f N o v e m b e r, 1907, th e C y p ru s G o v e rn m en t raised the gun an d b ro u gh t it ashore. H e re it was in sp ected by the G o v e rn m e n t C u ra to r o f A n c ie n t M o n u m en ts o f C y p ru s, M r. G eo rg e Jeffrey, to w hom we are in d eb te d for its descrip tio n . T h e gun is in p erfect p reservation , but is very ro u gh ly cast, as if th e e co n o m ica lly in clin e d kin g h ad spent as little as p o ssib le on his gift. Y e t it is d e co ra tiv e in a p p earan ce, b ein g o ctag o n a l in section , and tap erin g co n sid e ra b ly from b reach to m uzzle. C a st upon the upper face o f th e o cta g o n a l surface are tw o co ats o f arm s, w hich id e n tify it as o n e o f th e 19 gu ns giv e by K in g H e n r y to D e l’ls le A d am . O n e o f them is the royal co a t o f arm s o f E n gla n d , surroun ded by th e G arter, an d su rm o u n ted by a royal crow n and su p p o rted by th e K in g ’s arm orial su p ­ porters, a dragon and a talbot. T h e o th er sh ield is th at o f the G ra n d M aster, w ith th e arm s o f th e O rd er in th e first an d fourth quarters an d th e p erson al arm s o f D e l ’Isle A d a m in th e seco n d and third. A b o v e th e sh ield is a la b el on w hich can be read a p ortion o f th e G ra n d M a ste r’s n am e. O n th e m o u ld in g o f the breach appears th e n um ber X I I I I . R e s c u e d from th e b ottom o f th e sea, w here it had lain for perhaps n ea rly 400 years, it n ow stands on an a p p ro p riate p ed esta l as a d e co ra tio n o f th e terrace o f G o v e rn m e n t H o u se , N ico sia. A p h o tog ra p h o f th e gun, tak en by C o l. A . H ick m a n M o rg an , D .S .O ., K n ig h t o f G ra ce, in th e spring o f 19 1 4 , is in the L ib ra ry o f th e O rd er at St. J o h n ’s G ate.

F IN C H A M .

O n th e terrace o f th e house o f th e H ig h C o m m issio n e r of th e Isla n d o f C y p ru s th ere stan ds to-day a fine bronze ca n n o n w ith a re m a rk a b le h isto ry clo s e ly co n n e cte d with th a t o f th e O rd e r o f St. J oh n , and o f in terest to all who care to read o f in cid en ts in its past. W h en in 1522 th e T u r k s drove th e K n ig h ts from the Is la n d o f R h o d e s , w h ich h a d been their h o m e for 200 years, th ey w an d ered for so m e co n sid e ra b le tim e a b o u t the w estern tow n s o f th e M ed iterran ean see k in g new head qu arters. D u rin g this p eriod the brave o ld G ra n d M aster, D e l ’Isle A d a m , visited th e variou s rulers o f w estern E u ro p e b e se ech ­ in g h elp for th e p ro p o sed re co n q u est o f R h o d e s , and in 15 2 7 he cam e to th e G ra n d P rio ry o f E n g la n d at C le rk e n ­ w ell to beg assistan ce from K in g H e n ry V I I I . T h e K in g visited him here, p ro b a b ly in th e room over th e arch o f the G a te H o u se , n ow kn ow n as the C o u n c il C h a m b e r, an d to d o him greater ho n o ur carried him o ff to his p a la ce o f St. Jam es th e A p o stle, w here he p resen ted him , in th e n am e o f the Q u e e n an d him self, w ith a go ld e n basin and ew er e n rich ed w ith p recio u s stones, an d p ro m ised him h elp to th e va lu e o f tw en ty th o u sa n d crow n s, w h ich he afterw ards p aid in a rtillery an d firearm s. A p ortion, at least, o f the artillery co n sisted o f 19 grea t ca n n o n s o f bronze and 1,023 b alls for th e sam e. T h e re co n q u est o f th e Isla n d o f R h o d e s failed, and th e K n ig h ts e v e n tu a lly settled in th e Isla n d o f M alta. K in g H e n r y ’s gu n s m ust h a ve b een used for o th er m ilitary

At a R est S ta tio n in France. By T H E K LA BO W SER (M em ber o f the St. J o h n 's G ate N u r s in g D iv is io n ). little is kn ow n o f the w ork that is b ein g d o n e in F ra n ce at railw ay R e st Station s. T h e m ain reason for this is b e cau se th e m ilitary au th o rities insist upon a veil being draw n o ver eve ry th in g w hich has to d o w ith th ose m ysteriou s “ L in e s o f C o m m u n ic a tio n ,’ w h ich m ean so m uch to m ost o f us w ho h ave been to F ra n ce and so little to th e gen eral p u b lic at hom e. W e have no in ten tio n o f p u llin g aside th e veil in th e sligh test d egree, but by ca re ­ fu lly sh rou d in g all n am es in m ystery w e can giv e som e little id e a o f th e w ork th at is b ein g d o n e on th ese railw ay A id P o sts w ith ou t ru nn in g co u n ter to th e very p rop er rules o f th e authorities. I t was on a very h o t J u n e d a y that w e (tw o o f us) arrived at a very sm all a n d out-of-the-w ay corn er o f F ra n ce w here an A rm y A id P o st alread y existed. It is true that it had been in b ein g for som e m on th s, but as th e w ork o n ly ca m e in big bursts it was felt a g reat w aste th at tw o fully-trained sisters sh o u ld be left th e re w ith a d o cto r and five R .A .M .C . orderlies. T h e y w ere therefore re m o ve d , an d tw o St. Joh n A m b u la n c e V .A .D . m em bers p ut in in stead. T h e d octor, w ith th ree o f th e o rderlies, was sent to th e B a se , and the station was p ut u n der the m ed ical ch a rg e o f an A rm y

Very


June, 19 16 .

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d o cto r w ho was M .O . to several C am p s co verin g a large radius in th e district. T h e railw ay station authorities had kin d ly put part o f th e C o n sig n e (lu g ga ge room ) at th e disposal o f the sister, and here th ere was a sp len d id m ed ical and surgical e q u ip ­ m ent, but no attem p t h ad been m ade to turn th e room into a sort o f C a su a lty W ard. It to o k a certain am o u n t o f tact to persuade the orderlies that th e w alls m ust (be clean ed dow n, the rusty stove p olish ed, and th e m any shelves scru b b ed into a sem b la n ce o f w hiteness. F o r a w eek we all w orked hard at clean in g the p lace and then there arrived a fine stock of stores from the R e d C ro ss headquarters. T h e re w ere a bed, chairs, tables, lam ps and cro ck ery, for we in ten d ed to sp en d our w h o le days on th e station and to take m ost o f our m eals in the C o n sign e. B y b eggin g and borrow in g we m an aged to a n n ex e bottles o f all sorts and sizes w hich were d u ly la b elled and filled with “ lo tio n s,” and two shelves were co v e re d w ith w hite A m erican clo th and on these th e h igh ly p o lish ed instrum ents, etc., were arranged in true hosp ital fashion. O n e s h e lf was en clo sed b y w hite m uslin, an d b eh in d this rep osed our food, and a fine, big cu p b o a rd was d e v o ted to dressings, n eatly stack ed and la b elled . W e also m ade cu p b o ard s out of A S .C wooden boxes. T h is all soun ds very sim ple, but it is n ot quite so easy as it w ou ld h ave been in E n gla n d , as we were in a tiny F ren ch villa ge w here very few things c o u ld be bought, and even in tow ns certain things are alm ost u n o b tain ab le in F ra n ce now adays. In the m idst o f this w ork we had the e xcitem en t o f our first “ im p rovised a m b u la n ce train .” It arrived in the m iddle o f the n igh t and we had very short n o tice o f its com ing. T h e prim ary reason for the establish m en t o f these railw ay aid posts is the feedin g an d dressing o f w ou nded m en w ho travel on th ese im p ro vised a m b u la n ce trains. W h en th ere is a big “ push ” on at the front th e regular a m b u la n ce trains can n o t deal with the thousands o f w ounded, so that th e ligh ter w alkin g cases are put into ordinary trains w ith one d o cto r in charge. T h e s e trains then stop at certain points on their lo n g jo u rn e y to the base so th at the m en m ay be given a hot drink and n ece s­ sary dressings m ay be done. E a ch train carries m any h u n ­ dreds o f men, and our first train was an un fo rgetab le sight stan din g in th e station in th e dim m orn in g light. W e very soon fo u n d that we h ad to system atise the m eth od for both m akin g and distributin g the fo od and drink. It is no ligh t task to m ake 70 gallo n s o f h ot co co a at sh o rt n otice. W e h ad a row o f Saw yer stoves on the platform , and a shed w here we co u ld cu t bread and butter and arrange our cups, etc. V e r y soon we w orked out a plan by w hich each o rd erly kn ew e xa ctly his own jo b , and by w hich I c o u ld be sure that no m an on th e train ran any risk o f b ein g m issed out. T h e M .O . o f the train was asked w hich cases he w ish ed to be dressed, and th ey were eith er brought to th e dressin g station (w hich w e had rigged up on the p latform ) or we w ent to them in the carriages. We m anaged to m ake our little dressing statio n very co m p lete, with its tab le an d chairs, stove, steriliser and rows o f old tin boxes, w hich h ad been sterilised in to b eco m in g very efficient cases for dressings. W ar alters all o n e ’s ideas o f relative values, and w ounds that are lo o k e d up on as “ ligh t ” b ecau se they are n ot so ab so lu tely terrib le as m any others, w ou ld be th o u gh t very serious in tim es o f p eace. T h u s, one often had to deal with very bad cases even on these trains. I t m ust not be th ough t that th ese m en w ere left to b e treated by too-

AM BULANCE

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w illing, but m ore or less u n sk illed , V .A .D . m em bers. O ne m em ber had been sp ecia lly ch o se n for th e post b e ca u s e o f her lo n g exp erien ce bo th in h o sp ita l a n d street wor . . so d u rin g th e big rushes o f w ork a fu lly train ed sister ca m e dow n to assist w ith th e dressings. S o m etim es th ese trains w ou ld c o m e clo se u p on e ach o th er’s heels, th ro u gh out th e n igh t a n d day, an d m ore than o n ce it h a p p en ed in our statio n th at th ere w ere tw o trains full o f w o u n d ed in at th e sam e tim e. T r y a n d p ictu re th e scen e for yo u rselves. A d ark a n d sto rm y n igh t and t e train so lo n g that it stretch es far b e y o n d th e p latfo rm . O rd erlies servin g o u t co c o a a n d food, b a tch es o f w o u n d e d m en m akin g th eir w ay slo w ly to th e d ressin g statio n on th e platform , w here th e nurses an d th e d o cto r w ork at top speed so that as m an y m en as p o ssib le s h o u ld h a ve th eir w ounds m ade m ore co m fo rta b le. O n e o f th e n urses w o u ld be p assing a lo n g th e train w ith feed in g cu p s o f b e e f tea for the m en w ho h ad m outh w ou n d s an d c o u ld not d rin k o u t o f a mug, w hilst a n o th er w ou ld be go in g in to th e ca rriag es to a tten d th o se m en w h o w ere n o t fit to m ove. T h e in d e ­ scrib a b le d irt o f th e trains, th e d ifficu lties o f h a v in g o n ly oil lam ps or e le ctric flash lam ps, the p lo u g h in g a lo n g th e perm an ent w ay in th e dark n ess, th e risk o f b e co m in g c a re ­ less o f th e trains, th e to m clo th es o f th e m en (so torn that on e d id not kn o w w here to begin to pin them to g e th er so that th ey sh o u ld resem b le a n y th in g lik e a ga rm en t), th ese are a few o f th e d etails w hich g o to m ake R e s t S ta tio n w ork arduou s and far m ore in th e n ature o f “ a ctiv e se rv ice than can be th e ro u tin e w ork o f an y hospital. M a n y a tim e th ere ca m e a clu tch in o n e ’s th roat at th e p iteousn ess o f it all. N e v e r sh a ll I forget th e m o m en t w hen a troop train stea m ed in to the station an d th e sturdy, clean, exu b eran t y o u n g m en, ju st out from h o m e an d th en on their w ay to th e front, ca u g h t sigh t o f th ese b ro k en co m rad es an d ch e ered them to th e e ch o . B u t the w ou n d ed m en w ere “ g a m e ,” an d ch e ered a n d a ctu a lly la u gh e d b a ck w ith m agn ificen t co u rag e. N e v e r a gru m b le or a bad w ord d id I hear ; n oth in g but g ra titu d e for our help an d attention. It m ad e o n e p roud to claim th em as o n e ’s own co u n trym en . T h e q u estio n o f k e ep in g e n o u g h sto ck o f m ugs for these trains is a very big one, as “ T o m m y ” has a n au g h ty h abit o f clin g in g to th em in stead o f g iv in g them b ack. T h u s we lost large n u m b ers o f m ugs an d bow ls in an alarm in g way. W e k n ew th at at a n o th er R e s t S ta tio n the m em bers h ad m an aged to m ake co n d e n se d m ilk tins in to m ugs and w e determ in ed to follow suit. H a p p ily o n e o f our o rderlies was a m e ch a n ic an d h e ta u g h t o n e o f us the m ysteries o f so ld erin g. O u r spare hours w ere o c c u p ie d in this w ay an d we tu rn ed o u t m any se rv ice a b le m ugs with handles, but w e c o u ld n ever h a ve k e p t p a ce w ith the dem an d h ad n ot th e m en o f a certain cam p, n o t far from us, co m e to our aid. T h e y h eard o f o ur d ifficu lty, and, by p erm ission o f their officers, w orked in th eir sp are tim e an d used to sen d us h u n d red s o f b e au tifu lly m ade m ugs. T h a t is how th e h e alth y “ T o m m y ” in F ra n ce h elps his w ou n d ed brother. W e fo un d our so ld erin g k n o w le d g e was o f great use, an d lo n g after th e o rd e rly h ad left us we co n tin u e d to m ake variou s a rticles o u t o f o ld tin b iscu it bo xes an d also d id all th e so ld erin g m e n d in g for the little E n glish H o s p ita l w h ich was a b o u t tw o m iles aw ay from us. W e also used, o cca sio n a lly , to brin g aw ay big b u n d le s o f ordin ary m en d in g to do for this H o s p ita l as we h a d a go o d deal o f sp are tim e betw een our rushes o f w ork. D u rin g the n in e m on th s th at th e w riter was in ch a rg e at this S tatio n th ere were o ver five h u n d red en tries in th e C a s e B o o k , e x clu siv e o f a n y dressings d o n e on th e im ­ p ro vised trains. M a n y o f th ese cases w ere o f m en go in g


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up in tro o p trains, k ic k e d by horses or suffering from in ju ries o r su d d e n illness. O u r o n e b e d was often o ccu p ie d for th e n ig h t by a sick soldier, tak en from a train. T h e M .O . w ou ld co m e an d see him and th en th e n ex t m orning h e w ou ld b e sen t dow n to a B a se H o sp ita l. T h e n we atte n d e d to a great m any F re n c h an d F lem ish soldiers and d id no little n ursin g in th e village, w here th e p eo p le were very b a d ly o ff for a n y sort o f sk ille d h elp d u rin g illness. 1 he F re n c h p eo p le w ere in ten sely gratefu l to us an d we fo un d a grea t p leasu re in b ein g o f use to th e m — it was, in d ee d , a very real entente cordiale. L ife on a F re n c h railw ay station is in te n se ly in terestin g, b u t a certain a m o u n t o f tact has to be exercised . W e were e xtre m e ly lu ck y in our R . T . O .’s ^vho ce rtain ly h ave it in th eir p ow er to m ake or m ar th e h ap pin ess o f th ose at an A id P o s t. W e alw ays re ce ive d e ve ry p o ssib le h elp and k in d n ess from th ese officers, and also from th e C h e f de G are and th o se u n d er him . In o ur “ o f f ” tim e we ran a sm all can teen for the 1 om m ies w ho ca m e to th e Statio n , stay ed a few hours and p assed on again, an d w e m an aged to get a R e cre a tio n H u t for th e han d fu l o f m en w ho w ere p erm an en tly at w ork on an d ro u n d th e Statio n . B o th o f th ese thin gs we lo o k e d up on as o ur p leasu re an d recreation , as th ey h a d to be d o n e en tire ly un officially, sin ce the G e n e v a C o n v e n tio n do es n o t allow R e d C ro ss w orkers to d o a n y th in g o fficially for any but th e sick and w ou n ded. T h e fun ds for both C a n te e n and R e cre a tio n H u t w ere su p p lied by ourselves an d our friends p rivately, n ev er a p en n y o f R e d C ro ss m o n ey b ein g used for either. W e w ere an e x ce e d in g ly h a p p y little co m m u n ity in th at tin y F re n c h village. T h e o rd erlies slep t in railw ay carriages on a siding, b u t w e tw o slep t in a h ouse in the village, an d I h ad a p rim itive bell arran ged out o f m y w indow , so that the o rd erlies c o u ld ca ll us at an y tim e if we w ere n eed ed . W e h a d a go o d deal o f snow th ro u gh o u t th e w inter and it was n ot e x a ctly am usin g to be c a lled out in th e m id d le o f the n igh t to p lod throu gh in ch es o f snow to the S tatio n , b u t n o n e o f us ever dream ed o f grum blin g. W e w ere to o gratefu l for th e p riv ilege o f b ein g th ere to do o ur w ee “ bit ” for th e m en w ho h a ve suffered so m u ch for us. N o o n e in E n g la n d can ever q u ite u n derstan d the h u g e sacrifice o f o ur m en as w e do, for w e h a ve seen them co m e straight from the tren ch es w ith, perhaps, o n ly first field dressin gs on their w o u n d s— dirty, hungry, w orn-out an d yet sm iling.

The Journey, Life and Experiences of a V.A D. in M ontenegro. J u s t o ver a y ear a g o we started forth a sm all party o f three

d o cto rs, tw o train ed sisters, tw o V .A .D .’s (o f w hom I was one), and four o rderlies, to th e w ild little co u n try o f M o n te ­ negro. W e w ere d e la y e d three an d a-half w eeks in M a lta aw aitin g new s from th e M o n te n e grin G o v e rn m en t as to w here w e w ere to p ro ce ed an d by w hich ro u te to travel. T h e stay in M a lta was m ost e n jo y ab le . W e had left L o n d o n in fog an d rain, and in M a lta we had w arm th and sun shine. W e tw o V .A .D .’s sp en t m ost o f our tim e in tak in g lo n g w alks in to th e su rro u n d in g co u n try o f V a le tta , a cco m p a n ie d by our surgeon, a very cle v e r C an ad ian . T h e o b je c t o f th ese lo n g w alks was to harden us for any co m in g strain w h ich m igh t fall to o ur lot. T h e other V .A .D . (b e in g o f an in d u strio u s turn o f m in d ) o ccu p ie d her m orn in gs by ta k in g c o o k in g lessons. H a v in g sp en t th ree an d a h a lf h ap py w eeks in V a le tta ,

JO H N

AM BULANCE

GAZETTE. —

June,

1916.

orders at last cam e. W e w ere to take th e n ex t b o at to S a lo n ica , and th ere aw ait further orders. L u c k ily , o ur c h ie f foun d a F re n ch M essagerie bo at starting th e n ext day, so w e e m b ark ed on her. T h e jo u rn e y to S a lo n ica was a short on e, five days, tw o o f w h ich w ere sp en t in A th en s. T h e bo at was very dirty, an d th e food very bad. B e in g a poor sailor, the last item tro u b led me but little, but th e dirt was trying. B a th s w ere out o f the question , o n e em erged from them dirtier than o n e w en t in. S a lo n ica was rea ch ed on F eb ru a ry 28th. W e fo un d hotel a cco m m o d a tio n difficult to procure, th e town b ein g full o f refugees. E v e n tu a lly we foun d three room s in a very in ­ ferior hotel, and a room elsew h ere for th e four orderlies. N o m eals co u ld be served in o ur h otel, so we had to go o u t for these, an d lu ck ily hit u p on a p lace w here th e food was good. S a lo n ica was rather a dreary, dirty, n oisy town, w ith go o d shops, w here seem in gly one co u ld bu y alm ost an yth in g. W e sp en t five days there; and w an dered ab ou t sight-seein g an d tak in g m ore lo n g w alks. O n T u e sd a y , M a rch 2nd, at 8 a.m ., we left S alo n ica, and started our train jo u rn e y th rou gh Serbia. T h e train (there is o n ly o n e d a ily) was p ack ed , an d we h ad m uch difficulty in findin g p laces for ourselves. T ra in tra vellin g was slow w ork, an d o n e really co u ld often get out and walk a b o u t and ca tch the train a little further on. A t a ju n ctio n w e all h ad to ch an ge, and a scen e o f co n fu sio n and bustle ensued, each party tryin g vain ly to get go o d seats and k e ep togeth er. I thin k the shiftin g to o k a b o u t o n e hour, and even then all w ere n ot satisfied w ith th eir p laces. T h e S erb ia n trains w ere fairly go o d , old F re n c h carriages, but th ey carry no w ater for w ashin g purposes, and are far from clean . O n en terin g th e train, e v e ry b o d y ’s first a ctio n is to sp rin kle th e seats and floor w ith som e stron g in sect pow der an d d isin fectan t, as o n e n ever know s w ho has been in the carriage, and e ven th e best o f S erb ian s ca n n o t be certain that th ey are free from in sects w hich seem to over-run th e coun try. I m ust say the railw ay au th o rities do their best to clean out th e co m p artm en ts, and d a ily a man com es rou n d and swills the floors o f carriages and passages with som e stron g sm ellin g disinfectan t, but th e seats o f th e ca r­ riages are o ve rlo o k e d , and it is th ere th e great dan g er lies. W e tra velled all d ay in th e train, w h ich w ent terribly slow ly. T h e scen ery was gorgeou s, and o n e was n ever tired o f g a z ­ ing out o f th e w indow . . A t 8 p.m . we rea ch ed U sk u b , but bein g d ark n o th in g c o u ld be seen but large b u ild in gs full o f lights. T h e s e I was to ld w ere hosp itals w hich were full o f sick and w ou nded. T y p h u s was ragin g there, and a m an I sp ok e to said the death s w ere so n um erous that it was d ifficult for the authorities to co p e with the dead. C a rts w en t rou nd all n igh t p ick in g up th e b o d ies w h ich w ere put o u tsid e the houses and hospitals. It m ade o n e th in k o f th e great p lag u e o f L o n d o n . L a d y P a g e t was on th e p latform w elco m in g a co n ­ tin gen t o f R .A .M .C . officers, tw en ty-eight in num ber, un der C o l. H u n ter, w ho had been sent o u t from h o m e w ith the o b je c t o f tryin g to co p e w ith the typ h u s question . H a v in g kn ow n L a d y P a g e t w hen we w ere ch ild ren togeth er, I w ent up and sp o k e to her, and she in stan tly in vited our unit to sup per in th e station-m aster’s room . W e had a g o o d m eal, o f w hich we were grea tly in n eed , as w e had o n ly “ b u lly b e e f ” w ith us, and w ere all co ld and tired. A t 10 p.m . our train started o ff again for N ish . I ca n n o t say I slep t m uch. W e w ere o n ly four in m y ca r­ riage, but it was very co ld , an d every few m in utes m y c o m ­ pan ion k ick e d m e in her e n d e av o u r to ch a n ge her cram p ed p o sitio n ; or else I k ic k e d her. A t 7.30 a.m . w e r e a c h e d N ish. O u r c h ie f w ent up to


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th e tow n to see th e M in ister th ere and to arran ge our n ext m ove. W e had in th e m ean w h ile to w alk up and dow n th e railw ay track. T h e platform and w aiting-room were th ro n g e d w ith sick m en and soldiers go in g to th e front, and every ca ttle tru ck in th e p lace was full o f sick soldiers, so w e th o u g h t it as w ell to steer clear o f these. I t m ade o n e’s h eart a ch e to w itness th e p atient suffering o f th ese poor m en. T h e y w ere under-clad, som e b ein g in a b so lu te r a g s ; th eir ch e e k s hollo w , and in m any cases death was plain ly w ritten on their faces. Y e t for hours I have seen these m en sit, or lie, on the dam p earth w aiting for a train to ta k e them on to th e hospital or n ext town. H a v in g w alked up an d dow n the railw ay for over an hour, feeling co ld and hu ngry, our c h ie f ca m e alon g and told us that we were to stay in the tow n for one night, and that all arran ge­ m ents for our future were in the hands o f a M r. P ichard, th e secretary o f th e S erbian M inister. T h is was in d eed go o d new s, we felt that it required so m eo n e o f the co u n try to carry us throu gh th e lo n g and ted io u s jo u rn e y w hich we kn ew to be in front of us, and I kn ow now that we can n ever .half than k M r. P ich ard for all he did for us d u rin g the n ext eigh t days. H e was a w on ­ derful organiser, an d n o detail for our co m fo rt was for­ go tten . I m ust tell you that our ab lu tion s that m orning were p erform ed on th e railw ay track. S o m eo n e foun d a pum p, and o n e o f our party had a sm all jug. I p ro d u ced a p iece o f soap and a tow el. T h e w ater was icy c o la , but we m an aged to get a little o f the dirt o ff from faces and hands. M y tow el had a lot o f w ork to d o — I ’m afraid that by the tim e th e tenth m an go t it its in ten d in g purpose was gone, and it certain ly lo o k ed m ore like a b la ck rag than a tow el. ( T o be continued.')

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o f the R o y a l N a v a l D iv isio n was th en b e in g fo rm ed a n d h e jo in e d at M a n ch ester as a p riv ate w ith th e first b a tch w h o en rolled . H e ga in ed rapid p ro m o tio n a n d is n ow w ith th e D iv isio n a l H e a d q u a rte rs o f th e D iv is io n in the E a st. T h e m edal has been gran ted for g e n era l g o o d serv ice a n d for atten d in g w ou n d ed on o n e o cca sio n w h en he was o u t in the open for four hours, all th e tim e u n d e r a v e ry h e a v y shrap nel fire. M a n y m en w ere k ille d ro u n d him a n d m a n y m ore serio u sly in ju red b u t h e g o t th ro u gh w ith o u t a scra tch , a lth ou gh he h ad m an y very n arrow esca p es. T h e re are n ow in th e M e d ic a l U n it fo u r D .S .M .’s a n d this M .M . A ll St. J o h n m en. * * *

T h e M a n ch ester an d S a lfo rd C o r p s are s u p p ly in g th e R o y a l A g ric u ltu ra l S h o w d em an d s for A m b u la n c e S u rg e o n , A m b u la n c e N u rsin g Sisters a n d A m b u la n c e M e n , at M an ch ester, in June-July.

The Grand Priory of th e Order of th e H ospital of S t. John of Jeru salem in England. Chancery o f the O rd er, St. fo h n 's G a te, C lerkenw ell, L o n d o n , E . C . , A p r i l 10 th , 1 9 1 6 . His M ajesty the K in g has been gracio u sly pleased to sanction the following promotions in, and appointm ents to, the O rder of the H ospital o f St. John of Jerusalem in E n gla n d :— A s K n ig h ts o f fu sticc (fr o m K n ig h ts o f G race) : A rthur E dw ard G rosvenor Rhodes. T h e E a rl of D erb y, K .G . Sir Owen C osby Philipps, K .C .M .G . A s K n ig h ts o f G race :

N otes

and

N ew s.

L etters h ave been received at St. J o h n ’s G a te from the H o n . Secretary (at C h ristch u rch ) o f the C a n terb u ry, Nt-lson, M a rlb o ro u gh and W e st C o a st C e n tre, N ew Z ealan d , stating that, d u rin g the early part o f A p ril, th e fo llo w in g ship m en ts had been sent off to the various destin ation s in d icated :— C a ses o f R e d C ro ss g o o d s — In dia, 1 0 3 ; N ew Z eala n d H o sp ita l, W a lton -o n -T h am es. C a ses o f H o sp ita l b a n d a ge s— In d ia, 25 ; E g y p t, 36. T his is o n ly the last o f a lo n g series o f sp len d id gifts from N e w Z e ala n d , an d is really a very in ad e q u a te sam ple o f the m agn ificen t g e n ero sity o f the C o lo n y . * * W e regret t h a t in l a s t m o n t h ’ s i s s u e o f t h e G a z e t t e , in th e a rticle on “ T h e M o to r A m b u la n c e D e p a rtm e n t,” M essrs. T . W . L e n c h , L td ., w ere erro n eo u sly referred to as o f O ld h a m , in stead o f B la ck h e a th , B irm in gh am . *

* *

T h e fo llo w in g is an extract from a D iv isio n a l O rd er by M a jo r-G en eral Sir A . Paris, K .C .B ., C o m m a n d in g R o y a l N a va l D iv isio n : “ T h e fo llo w in g h a ve been aw arded ‘ F re n ch H o n o u rs and D e co ra tio n s,’ w h ich m ay be w orn : “ M e d a ille M ilitaire. “ S ta ff S e rg ea n t Josep h W ilso n , D e a l /S/ R .M ., M e d ica l U n it.” Se rg ea n t W ilso n was form erly a C o rp o ra l o f the B arrow -in -F urn ess D ivisio n , b u t was in the A rg e n tin e w hen war b ro k e out, an d he cam e hom e, som e 7,000 m iles, to offer his services th rou gh th e S .J .A .B . T h e M e d ica l U n it

Sir John Charles H older, Bt. Surgeon-G eneral T om P ercy W oodhouse, C .B ., M .R .C .S ., A .M .S . Surgeon-G eneral Sir Richard H avelock Charles, G .C .V .O ., I.M .S ., M .D . Lieut.-Colonel P atrick Fen elon O ’Connor, C .B ., I.M .S ., M .D . A s L a d ie s o f G race : M ary E thel, Mrs. Lew is H arcourt. E lla Gertrude A m y, M rs. W eb b , M .D . Elizabeth A nn, Mrs. T w eed ale. M abel A nn ie Stobart-G reen halgh, Mrs. St. C lair Stobart. Laura, the L ad y A berconw ay. M uriel, the H onourable M rs. E . A . F itzR o y. K atherine, Mrs. C h arles W . Furse. A s H o n o rary S erv in g B ro th e rs : Captain A ndrew Sin clair Buchanan. A lexan der W illiam Saunders. A rthur E dw in G eorge H ayw orth Blum. John W illiam Bellam y. A s H o n o rary S erv in g Sisters : Gertrude, Mrs. Smith. Letitia, Mrs. M agow an. K atherine Florence, Mrs. W ilkinson. H arriet Sophia, Mrs. N ash. A s H o n o ra ry A ssociates : M ajor Paul M cK en n a T erry. R ich ard W h yto ck L eslie, M .D . Surgeon-Lieut.-Colonel John H erbert H a ckin g, M .R .C .S ., L .R .C .P . T hom as H alliw ell, M .R .C .S ., L .R .C .P . H arry John M ann ing-W atts, M .R .S ., L .R .C .P . F ran cis M arm aduke Sealy, M .R .C .S . Lieut.-Colonel Clarence Isidore E llis, M .D .


226

F I R S T

A u strian s a g re ed re a d ily to th e proposals, but the G erm an s

B revities.

w ere bitterly h o stile to th e idea, and refu sed to en tertain

I n th e list o f th e K in g ’s B ir th d a y H o n o u rs, w h ich was p u b lish e d on J u n e 3rd, th ere ap p ea red the n am e o f L a d y

it, in sp ite o f a visit to B e rlin o f a S w ed ish d e p u ta tio n in su p p o rt.

P e rro tt, aw a rd ed the F irst C la ss o f th e R o y a l R e d C ro ss for v a lu a b le W ar S e rv ic e s .”

L a d y P e rro tt has been the first

L a d y S u p e rin te n d en t in C h ie f o f th e St. J o h n A m b u la n ce B r ig a d e for o ver five years, for four y e a rs jo f w h ich sh e has been th e first L a d y C o m m a n d a n t-in -C h ie f o f the St. J oh n V o lu n ta ry

A id

D e ta ch m en ts, w h ich

owe

m uch

to

her

in iative an d pow ers o f organ isation .

***

B rig ad e, C o lo n e l Sir J am es C la rk , B art., C .B ., w ho is also of

th e

O rd e r

of

St.

J oh n

H o s p ita l

in

F ra n ce, has b een crea te d a C o m p a n io n o f th e O rd e r o f St. M ic h a e l an d St. G e o r g e ; and the C h ie f M atro n , M iss C . D o d d , has also re ce iv e d the F irst C la ss o f th e R o y a l R e d C ross. e

feel

last m onth.

It con sists o f five parts, co n ta in in g 45 clauses.

In co m e -tax re lie f is giv en w orkers

ab ro ad

A m b u la n ce . pound

in

th e

to sailors and soldiers an d to R ed

sure th e m em bers

C ro ss

an d

th e

St.

Joh n

T h e y are to b e taxed at the rate o f 9d. in th e

if th eir total

in co m e from all so u rces

2s.

sd.

n ot e x ce e d in g ^ 1 ,5 0 0 : 2s.

,£ 2 ,0 0 0 ;

do es

not

e x ce ed in g

9d.

n ot e x c e e d in g

3s. 3d. n o t e x ce ed in g ^£ 2,500;

an d 3s. 6d. if

^£2,500.

C la u s e

o f th e

22

w ill

m eet the h ard sh ip

arising from a higher rate o f tax b ein g im p o sed on a person w hose in co m e happens to e x ce ed b y certain lim it.

a sm all am o u n t a

In th ese cases th e a d d itio n a l am o u n t o f tax

p ay a b le w ill n o t e x ce e d th e am ount by w hich th e total in co m e e xce ed s th e lim it.

V W

* * * text o f th e F in a n ce (N o . 2) B ill was p u b lish ed

T he

e x ce e d ^ 3 0 0 ; 2s. id . on in co m es n ot e x ce e d in g ; £ i , o o o ;

T h e C h ie f C o m m issio n e r o f th e St. J oh n A m b u la n c e

C om m andant

June, i 916.

A I D . —

* * *

B rig ad e w ill be

im p ortan t p oin t in th e B o a rd o f T ra d e exa m in ­

An

g ratified to learn o f th e d istin g u ish ed reco gn ition w hich has been co n fe rre d by H is M a je sty th e K in g u p on their

ation s, so far as R .N .R . O fficers are co n cern e d , has been

leaders.

e sla b lish ed ,

an d

w ill

co m e as

w elco m e new s

to

those

O fficers w ho are at p resen t on a ctiv e service, an d w ho are

V S i r J o h n M a x w e l l , w ho was in ch a rg e o f th e troops

p reparin g for h ig h er grad e exam in ations.

C e rtifica te s o f

d u rin g th e D u b lin riots, sp o k e gen ero u s w ords o f praise at

p ro ficien cy in first aid to the in ju red issued by a M e d ica l

a

O fficer o f the R o y a l N a vy , after a co urse o f lectu res in

re ce n t g a th e rin g

for th e

brave

m en

w ho

p erform ed

a m b u la n ce services d u rin g th e tryin g days o f E a ste r W e e k

first aid, w ill be a cce p te d in lieu o f th e St. Joh n A m b u la n c e

in D u b lin .

c e rtifica te for th e p urp ose o f p aragraph 26 o f the regu latio n s

T h e y had, he said, to risk their lives during

th o se e x citin g days, an d th e y did their d u ty n obly.

T h is

for th e

e xa m in atio n o f m asters and m ates.

T h is in fo r­

trib u te o f p raise was w ell d eserv ed as th e report o f th e

m ation re a ch ed th e

w ork a cco m p lish e d , w h ich w ill be fo u n d on an o th er page

few days ago, and it w ill assist O fficers in o b tain in g their

o f this issue, testifies, and it is a furth er proof, if an y be

certificates, as th e y can tak e th e

n e e d e d , o f the m a gn ificen t w ork o f th e St. J oh n A m b u la n ce

w hilst on

B rig ad e.

n avigatio n , seam anship , an d sign allin g for th eir exam in atio n

The

* * * R e d C ro ss C o n fe re n ce w h ich was to b e h eld in The

o ste n sib le ca u se o f th is regrettab le eve n t is th e refusal o f th e G erm an d e leg a tes to agree to a reso lu tion exp ressin g regret

over

th e

“ P o r tu g a l.”

sin k in g

o f the

R u ssia n

H o s p ita l S h ip

It w ill be re ca lled th at th e G e rm a n s— or the

T u r k s on their b e h a lf— issu ed a statem en t o f that in cid en t d e sig n e d

to

crea te

the

im p ression

that

th e

subm arin e

co m m a n d er th o u g h t he was a tta ck in g a w arship.

M u ch

The

first aid

G u ild a

e xa m in atio n s free to study

* * * first n u m b er o f th e R . A . M .C . D e p o t M a g a zin e

has ju st been issu ed at p rice o f id . up

S e rv ice

a ctiv e service, an d leaves them

on shore.

S to c k h o lm has co m p le te ly bro k en dow n, an d th e p rin cipal o b je c t o f th e p ro m o ters has th e re b y been defeated .

Im p e ria l M e rch a n t

an d illustrated, and

in clu d in g

a

“ S e ria l,”

It is a ttra ctiv ely go t

co n ta in s a n um ber o f features, “ B arrack -ro o m Y a r n s ,” an

“ Im -

gin ary In te rv ie w ,” n otes on sports an d g en era l new s a b o u t th e C o rp s, & c.

M em b ers o f th e R .A .M .C . at h o m e and

ab ro ad can o b tain

co p ies

by

ap p ly in g

to th e

office

of

th e M a g a zin e, R .A .M .C . D e p o t, A ld ersh o t. -t <

th at a p p ea red in that statem en t was to ta lly at va ria n ce with F r o m A u g u st 2nd, 19 14 , the first d a y o f m obilisation ,

the official R u ssia n a cco u n ts o f w hat to o k p l a c e ; and if it was really true, w h ich n o o n e believes, that the “ P o rtu ga l ” w as to rp ed o e d by o versigh t, w e ca n n o t im agin e why the G e rm a n R e d C ro ss sh o u ld not be w illin g to express regret

to

Jan u ary

1st, 19 16 , th e

Societe F ran caise

de

Secours

a u x Blesses M ilita ire s, o n e o f th e th ree S o cie tie s w hich m ake up the F re n ch

R ed

C ro ss, has a d m in istered 796

hosp itals co n ta in in g 6 7,0 8 1 beds.

It is now organ isin g at

th at the “ P o rtu g a l ” in cid e n t was n ot th e m ain cau se o f

S a lo n ik a a h o sp ital o f 500 beds.

T h e train ed nurses o f

the break-up o f th e C o n fe re n ce .

P a rt o f th e program m e

th e

C o m m ittee s

servin g

for th e error.

H o w e v e r th at m ay be, it is q u ite p ro b a b le

was the a rran gin g o f In sp e ctio n C a m p s in th e b ellig eren t co u n tries.

for P riso n

T h e H u n g arian s and

S o cie ty in

n u m b er th e

15,000

M ilitary

o f w hom

H o sp ita ls.

ab ou t The

3,000

are

S o c ie ty ’s

ex­

p en d itu re has a m o u n ted to o ver thirty-tw o m illion francs.


June. i q i 6 .

W illiam

F I R S T

Humphris W inny, A.M.I.E.E.

M r . VV. H . W i n n y , w hose portrait we rep ro d u ce below , was a p p o in te d last m on th D e p u ty C o m m issio n er o f the N o. 1 D istrict o f th e B rig ad e. M r. W in n y has had a lo n g co n n e ctio n w ith the district, and his prom otion w ill be re ce iv e d with m uch p leasure by all th e m em bers o f the B rigad e, for, if we m ay say so, he is “ th e right m an in the right p la c e ,” an d u n d er his gu id an ce we feel co n fid en t the N o . 1 D istrict will forge a h ea d after the co n clu sio n o f the war. M r. W in n y first becam e asso cia ted with a m b u lan ce w ork m any years ago w hen he organ ised classes at the K in g E d w a rd In stitu te in E a st L o n d o n , and arran ged for m o n th ly p ra ctices for th o se w ho had o b tain ed certificates. L a te r he form ed the K in g E d w ard In stitu te D ivisio n , w hich su b seq u en tly b ecam e th e T o y n b e e H a ll D ivisio n . W h ilst

A I D .

227

a cte d as hon. secretary, a p o sitio n he c o n tin u e d to h o ld as lo n g as th e co n fe re n c es w ere h eld . M r. W in n y jo in e d th e H e a d q u a rte rs S ta ff in 18 9 7, and a b o u t th e sam e tim e b e ca m e an H o n . S e rv in g B r o th e r o f th e O rd er. In 1 9 1 5 he was p ro m o te d to th e g r a d e o f K n ig h t o f G ra ce. H e is a m e m b e r o f th e te c h n ic a l s ta ff o f th e G en eral P o s t O ffice a n d an A s s o c ia te M e m b e r o f th e In stitu tio n o f E le c tr ic a l E n g in e e rs, a n d it is g r a tify in g to n ote th at th e P o stm a ste r-G e n e ra l, in th e c irc u la r w h ich is sen t to e ve ry post office in G re a t B rita in an d Irela n d , c a lle d atten tio n to this p ro m o tio n . A m o n g st his o u tsid e a c tiv itie s h e was le c tu re r for ab o u t ten years at the N o rth a m p to n In s titu te P o ly te c h n ic on T e le g r a p h y and T e le p h o n y , etc. In 19 14 , w hen C o l. L e e s H a ll w as s e c o n d e d fo r service in th e p ro vin ces, M r. W in n y , w ith a sta ff m u ch d e ­ p leted ow in g to th e war, to o k ch a rg e o f th e N o . 1 D istrict. In A u g u st, 19 1 5 , after th e d e a th o f C o l. L e e s H a ll, he was con firm ed in th e p o sitio n o f A c tin g D e p u ty C o m m issio n e r. In M a y o f this year he was a p p o in te d D e p u ty C o m m is ­ sioner. In this war p eriod , o w in g to th e fa ct that m an y m en h ave been sen t to th e m ilitary an d n a v a l reserves, th e dis­ trict has been serio u sly h a n d ica p p e d . Y e t , in a d d ito n to carryin g o u t all th e o rd in a ry p u b lic d u tie s to th e sa tisfa c­ tion o f th e p o lic e au th o rities, it has b e en fo u n d p o ss ib le to o rgan ise a lo cal an d a c e n tra l air ra id s ch e m e to w ork in co n ju n ctio n w ith th e M e tro p o lita n P o lic e , a n d to k e e p a n igh t gu a rd o f a m b u la n ce m en e v e ry n ig h t at St. J o h n ’s G ate.

H ints for

H ospital

O rderlies.

By N. C O R B E T FLETCH ER. B .A ., M .B., B .C ., Can tab., M .R .C .S . A uthor o f “ A id s to F ir s t A i d “ A id s to H om e N u r s in g " and “ W hy and Wherefore in F r s t A id ." ( C o n tin u ed from page 2 10 .) C h a p t e r T h e

W illia m

H u m p h ris

W in n y ,

at T o y n b e e H a ll M r. W in n y threw his en ergies into the m any a ctiv ities o f that In stitu tio n . H e was a m em ber of the e x e cu tiv e o f the E d u c a tio n C o m m ittee , an d as secre ­ tary o f th e S c ie n c e T e a c h in g C o m m itte e d e v o te d esp ecial attention to th e tea ch in g o f p h ysical scien ce. A s lo cal secretary for th e St. J oh n A m b u la n c e A sso cia tio n , he organ ised classes in F irst A id N u rsin g and H y g ie n e , so m e ­ tim es as m any as six classes in a w inter session. He foun ded, an d was respo n sible for, th e T o y n b e e N u rsin g G uild, w h ich gave its services to the sick poor o f W h ite ­ chapel. In 1896, w h en it was d e c id e d to h o ld a co n fe re n ce o f a m b u la n ce officers at N o rth a m p to n , M r. W . R . E d w ard s was ele cted hon. secretary, and M r. W in n y assistant secre ­ tary. W h en th e co n fe re n ce was at L e ic e s te r M r. W in n y

m u st

I I I .— b e

C a r e

o f

c a r e f u l l y

W a r d .

W ATCHED.

is the p lace w here (as th e root m ean in g o f the w ord sign ifies the p atien ts are “ g u a r d e d ” an d w here th e C a r e a n d T r e a t m e n t o f t h e S ic k a n d W o u n d e d are carried out. T h e C h o ic e , P rep a ra tio n and F u rn ish in g o f th e W a rd are b e y o n d th e O rd e rly ’s ju risd ictio n ; b u t th e C le a n in g , W arm in g, V e n tila tio n an d ca re o f E q u ip m e n t rep resen t som e o f his m ost im p o rtan t d u ties and w ill o c c u p y a c o n ­ sid erab le p ortion o f his tim e. A n O rd e rly , therefore, m ust ca re fu lly w atch the W. W a t e r - S u p p l y o f th e W a rd , w h ich m ust be clean, p u r e and p le n tifu l. W a ter is o n e o f th e essen tials o f life and is n ecessa ry for C o o k in g , W a sh in g, L in e n an d W a rd -W a sh ­ ing, D rain a g e, & c ., & c ., for w h ich p u rp o ses— in d e p e n d e n t o f m u n icip al requirem ents-— it has been estim a ted that 1 6 g a llo n s per person , per day are n ecessary. T h e r e is little d ifferen ce b etw een th e a llo w an ce s o f civ ilia n an d m ilitary co m m u n ities. A n O rd e rly m ust p ro tect th e su p p ly o f w ater w h ich is easily contam inated, and, if re q u ired for d rin k in g , m ust n ot be le ft exposed in the W ard. F u rth er, w h ile h e tak es p recau tio n s to p reven t in fectio n , he m ust d o his b est to gu ard again st d a m ag e to the drains, resu ltin g from b lo c k a g e o f slop-sin ks, w ater-closets, & c ., by p ap er, d ress­ T h e

D eputy Com m issioner No. 1 District.

w a r d

W a r d


2 28

— F I R S T

ings, & c. In view o f this sp ecia l d u ty he sh o u ld alw ays b ear in m in d th e p o ssib le im p u rities o f w ater, w h ich m ay b e e ith er so lu b le or su sp en d ed . T

he

I m pu rities

of

W

ater.

(1 ) S o l u b l e — soda, lime, iron a n d lead salts. (2) S u s p e n d e d — i. G rit, sand, clay, m ud. ii. G erm s, e sp e cia lly th ose of E n te ric, D y se n tery , C h o lera . iii. P arasites, e.g., ro u n d , tape and th read w orm s. I t is n o te w o rth y that th e so lu b le su b stan ces (excep t lea d ) are u su ally h a r m le s s ; that grit, sand, & c., are in ju rio u s b y reason of m ech a n ica l irritation o f th e stom ach a n d b o w e l; an d th at th e m ost im p o rtan t so u rce o f dan ger is h u m an co n ta m in atio n . * * * ■ * ■ * A. A i r S u p p l y o f th e W a r d jw h ic h m ust also be clean, p u r e an d p len tifu l. L ik e the w ater, it is essential to life, b e ca u se — w ith ou t th e o x yg en it c o n ta in s — th e in ter-action o f the V ita l F u n ctio n s w ou ld be im p o ssible. T h u s, o x yg en is e xtra cted from th e air by the lun gs an d passed in to the b lood, w here it en ters in to ch e m ica l co m b in atio n w ith th e fo od elem en ts su p p lied th rou gh d ige stive th e organs — w ith th e result th a t th e h eat and en ergy o f th e b o d y are g en era ted an d sustain ed. In sick n ess th e V ita l F u n ctio n s are w orkin g u n der d ifficu lties an d th e need f o r p len ty op fr e s h a ir is all the greater, b e ca u s e — even in n orm al h e a lth — the co n tin u ed b re a th in g o f foul air, co 7nbined w ith excess op moisture an d heat, w ill lead to the d e ve lo p m e n t o f anaemia, p rogressive loss o f stren gth , p ro fo u n d w eakn ess, & c. T o th e O rd e rly , therefore, is d eta iled , un der th e S ister’s au th o rity, th e sp ecial d u ty o f arran gin g for the ren ew al o f the a ir o f th e W ard , viz., for V e n tila tio n , as it is ca lled . O n this a cco u n t he m ust fu lly a p p re cia te (1 ) th e p o ssib le im p u rities o f th e air in th e W ard , (2) the R u le s o f V e n tila tio n , an d (3) th e T e s t o f V e n tila tio n . (1 ) T

he

I m pu rities

of

A

ir

in t h e

W ard.

A n O r d e r l y kn ow s t h e w h o le G R O U P o f Causes. G. G as. A s th e result o f th e C o m b u stio n o f fuel (e.g., co a l, gas, oil) used for h eatin g, ligh tin g, co o kin g, e tc., C a rbon ic A c id gas, dust, soot, & c ., are giv en o ff an d ren d er th e a tm o sp h e re im pure. R. R e sp iratio n . T h is is th e ch ie f so u rce o f Carbonic A c i d ; but th e heat an d moisture, w hich a cco m p a n y e ach a ct o f respiration , m ust n ot be forgotten as im p o rtan t cau ses o f co n ta m in atio n o f th e air. O. O r g a n i c M a t t e r , w h ich is b ein g co n sta n tly throw n o u t from th e lun gs, skin , teeth, & c., and assists in fo u lin g th e air o f th e W ard . U. U n cle a n lin e ss o f P erso n and C lo th in g . The grea ter th e n e g le ct o f these, th e greater th e a c c u m u ­ lation o f d irt, d ried sweat, & c., and th e m ore m ark ed th e co n ta m in atio n o f the air. T h e w eek ly ch a n ge o f u n d e rclo th es, th erefo re, is as im p o rtan t as the d a ily bath or sp o n gin g o f th e bo d y. P. P ersp ira tio n . E x u d a tio n an d eva p o ratio n are alw ays ta k in g p la ce from th e skin , an d in co n se q u e n ce m oisture (co m b in e d w ith heat) is alw ays b ein g a d d ed to th e cau ses o f co n ta m in atio n o f the air. (2) T h e R u l e s o f V e n t i l a t i o n . T h e aim o f V e n tila tio n is to p reven t th e p rop ortion o f C a rb o n ic A c id in the air o f th e W a rd from risin g a b o v e 6 parts in 10,000— w ith ou t lo w erin g th e T e m p e ra tu re b elo w 60 degs. F ah r. F o r this p u rp o se exp erim en ts h ave show n

AID. -

June, 1916.

th at 3000 c u b ic feet o f fresh air per person per h o u r are n ecessary. T h e A i r o f t h e W a r d m ust be P U R E . B rie fly sum m arised, th e R u le s o f V e n tila tio n are— Open the w indow s a n d sh u t the doors, and th ey m ay be sch e d u le d as follo w s :— P.

T h e air m ust be P u r e in q u a lity . T h e extern al atm o sp h ere p ro vid es th e p urest air and sh o u ld be a d m itte d th rou gh th e w indow s. B e in g co ld e r than th e in tern al air, it m ust be w arm ed on entry. In som e w ards w here th e h eatin g is by th e cen tral, hot-w ater system th e p ipes are p lace d below th e w indow s.

U.

U p w a r d in d irectio n . In som e w ards th e su p ply o f air is regu lated by artificial m eth ods. In others, n atural ven tila tio n is utilised, as in a d w ellin g house, an d th e en terin g air is d ire cte d upw ards eith er by the H in c k e ’s B ird b lo ck p la ce d b en eath th e low er sash or by th e H o p p e r sash-lights situ ate d in th e up p er sash. B y th ese m eans th e air is w arm ed and d raugh ts are p reven ted.

R.

R e d u c e d i n R a t e o f entry. T o o rap id en try o f the air results in d raughts, w h ich can be re m e d ied e ith er by e n largin g the o p en in g (e.g., the w in d o w ) or b y brea k in g the current o f air en terin g (e.g., several poin ts o f entry).

E.

E x p e lle d t h r o u g h E x its. T h e E x it (n o less than th e E n try ) o f air m ust re ce ive atten tio n , and the ch im n e ys (th ro u gh w hich th ere is a t the outset a dow nw ard esca p e o f foul air) and th e ven tilators (w hich p ro vid e throughout an upw ard esca p e) m ust be alw ays k e p t open.

(3) T h e T e s t o f V e n t i l a t i o n . A clo se or stuffy W ard is d u e either to o verh ea tin g or to im p u rities o f the atm o sp h ere. B y lo o k in g at th e room th erm o m eter, th e O rd e rly can at o n ce d em o n strate th e fo rm er cause, and h e ca n q u ic k ly p ro ve th e latter by g o in g in to th e fresh air for five m in utes an d by return in g direct to th e ward. T . T e m p e r a t u r e o f W ard, w hich sh o u ld be m ain ­ tain ed d a y and n igh t at 60 degs. F ah r., an d sh o u ld be c h e c k e d by freq u en t referen ce to th e th erm o m eter. T h e co m p lete d iscu ssio n on this p oin t is deferred until th e p ro b lem o f H e a tin g th e W a rd is review ed. * * * * * C. C l e a n l i n e s s o f th e W ard , w ith o u t w h ich any treatm en t o f th e p atients w ill avail little. T h e o u tstan d in g p ro o f o f its in estim ab le va lu e has a lrea d y been q u o te d in th e n arration o f th e w ork o f F lo re n ce N ig h tin g a le in th e C rim ea . F urth er, in H o sp ita ls ban efu l germ s can a n d do flourish, as is show n b y th e fact that, p revious to the in tro ­ duction o f antiseptics, it was safer for a w om an to be d e live red in th e b a ck slum s rather than to seek a d m issio n to th e lyin g -in hosp itals o f th e city. T h e dangers o f In fe c tio n va ry w ith (1 ) the reserve stren gth o f th e in d ivid u a l an d (2) the n u m b er an d viru le n ce o f th e germ s o f in fectio n . T h e re fo re , in th e P r e v e n t i o n o f D i s e a s e our o b je cts are to in crease th e first-nam ed and to d e stro y (if w e can) th e seco n d . In certain diseases, i.e., S m a ll P o x , D ip h th e ria an d E n te ric F e v e r w e can directly a u gm en t th e resistin g p o w er o f th e in d iv id u a l b y p re ve n ta ­ tive in n o cu la tio n ; but in the m ajority o f d iseases we ca n o n ly do this in d ire ctly b y m easures d irected to su stain in g th e p atie n t's strength, o f w h ich C le a n lin e ss is th e m ost im p ortan t. C l e a n l i n e s s o f t h e W a r d m ust b e e x te n d e d to its


June,

1916.

— FIRST

ann exes (viz,, th e bath room and lavatories) and is p ro cu red b y carefu l dusting o f the floor, beds, tables, & c., o n ce daily a n d b y scrubbing th e floor, w oodw ork, furniture, & c ., o n ce a w eek. T h e re are th ree p o ten t foes to the C le an lin e ss o f a W ard , viz., d u st, flies an d im p rop er d isp o sa l o f refuse. (1).

D u st.

B u lk y furniture, carpets, curtains, p ictures and o rn a­ m ents are e x clu d e d from the W ard because th ey co lle ct an d h arb o u r dust, dim in ish air sp ace, and n ecessitate in ­ creased lab ou r in clean in g , & c. A i r is infectious by reason o f dust. T o this en d the d u stin g is effected by m eans o f clo th s w rung o u t o f an tisep tic solution . I f this is n ot done, then the d ust an d germ s are scattered far and w ide so that efforts for go o d result in evil. (2).

F lies.

C lo s e ly related to the d ust p roblem is the risk o f in fe ctio n by flies,, w h ich p rop agate in filth and co n stitu te a very real dan g er to th e W ards. F lie s infect food . T h ere­ fore, all fo o d — e sp e cia lly m ilk an d w ater— is e x clu d ed from th e w ard e x ce p t at m eal tim es or if required for cases o f u rgen cy is kep t in vessels w ith close-fittin g lids. (3).

D is p o s a l o f Refuse.

L a stly , th e m eth ods o f rem o val o f refuse from the W a rd m erit th e ca refu l a tten tio n o f th e O rd erly, because any risk o f sp read in g in fe ctio n w ill be th e re b y m inim ised. T h e R u le s for th e D isp o sa l o f R e fu se in vo lve :— 1., th e carefu l sep aration o f liq u id and solid refuse. 11., th e co n sisten t use o f co vers for all receptacles. 111., th e sy ste m atic and frequen t cle aran ce o f the refuse. T h e grea ter the n eg le ct o f th ese sim p le R u le s, the m ore im m in en t are th e dangers o f in fectio n and the risks o f a p lag u e o f flies. F o r sim ilar reasons the lavatories n ecessitate on the part o f the O rd e rly a tte n tive supervision in th eir care an d cle a n lin e ss— the c h ie f points bein g caution in use an d flushin g, th e a vo id a n ce o f b lo ck a g e by large p ieces o f to ilet paper, and the p eriod ical clean in g o f w o o d ­ w ork an d fittings. * * * * *

229

AID.—

tim es p ro te ct— rep o rtin g if n ece ssa ry a n y w ilfu l d a m a g e or m is-handling. T h e sam e d u ty a p p lies (in th e a b se n c e o f th e Sister) to th e p erso n al e q u ip m e n t o f a p atie n t w h o is to o ill to a tten d to this. F urth er, th e O rd e rly m ust at o n c e re m o v e from th e W ard an d e x ch a n g e a n y s o iled lin en , b e d d in g a n d c lo th ­ ing, and return to th e p ro p er p la ce a ll m e d ica l b o ttle s w h ich are e ith er em p ty or co n ta in m e d icin e w h ich has been o m itte d by th e m ed ical o ffice r’s in stru ctio n s. * * * * * D. D be carried out.

o f th e W a rd w hen this d u ty has to D isin fe ctio n is a m ost esse n tia l step in th e P r e v e n t i o n o f D i s e a s e an d is th e d e stru ctio n o f th e in fectio n w hich transm its d iseases. I t is effected eith er by H e a t or by C hem icals— vapour o r liquid. A D isin fe cta n t destroys germ s and m ust b e d istin g u ish e d from an A n tisep tic, w h ich o n ly retards the gro w th o f germ s and a D e o d o ra n t w h ich m erely conceals the sm ell o f products o f germ s. In m ost in sta n ce s e v e ry th in g d e p e n d s on th e strength o f th e so lu tion used. T h u s , th e S o lu tio n o f C re s o l (otherwise know n as L y so l) m ay be used in va ryin g strengths ( e . g , 1-40, 1-80) an d w ill serve as d isin fe cta n t or an tisep tic. F u rth er, it is a d e o d o ra n t. A n O rd e rly , th e re ­ fore, m ust a p p recia te th e S o u rces o f In fe ctio n as w ell as th e R u le s an d O b je c ts o f D isin fe ctio n . (1)

is in f e c t io n

Sources

of

I n f e c t io n .

In fe ctio n is th e transm ission o f d isease w h ich m ay tak e p lace th rou gh th e R e sp ira to ry (e.g., M e asles, S ca rle t F ever), th e D ig e stiv e (e.g., E n te ric F ev er, D y s e n te ry ) or th e C ircu la to ry (e.g., M alaria, P la g u e ) system s. (T o be continued).

The Minor D iscom forts of W ar. By

CORPS

S U R G E O N J. H E N T O N M .D ., F .R .C .S ., E d i n .

W H IT E ,

P r o b a b l y at no tim e w ith in re ce n t years has th at lo a th ­ H. H e a t i n g o f a W ard , w hich is clo s e ly related to som e an d irritatin g d isease co m m o n ly k n o w n as “ th e itc h ” the ven tilation an d m ust be so re g u lated that a uniform been m ore p revalen t than at th e p resen t tim e — m ilitary d egree o f tem p eratu re is m aintained. hosp ital nurses, d o cto rs, V .A .D . m em bers, an d even T h e H e a tin g m ay be effected by op en coal-fires, by the gen eral p u b lic are a tta ck e d in d iscrim in ately . gas stoves o r b y hot-w ater pipes. W h ere coal-fires are O u r troops in th e tren ch es are, in so m e lo calities, used, it is th e d u ty o f the O rd e rly to u n d ertak e both the in fested by the it c h - m it e ; th ey carry them h o m e w hen keeping up o f the fir e s a n d the constant supply o f fu el. A s is in va lid ed or on furlo u gh , an d m ites are d issem in a te d in w ell kn ow n , th e heat and ligh t em itted by coal-fires are the tram s and railw ay carriages. result o f the co m b in atio n o f o xyg en o f th e air and gases in Su ch b ein g th e ca se it m ay b e in terestin g to stu d y th e the co al, so that th e m ore co m p lete th e co m b u stio n the life h istory o f th e S arco p tes S c a b e i— this b ein g the scie n ­ greater th e heat. T h e fires, therefore, m ust be carefu lly tific n am e w ith w h ich the itch -m ite is en d o w ed . b a n k ed up w ith large lum ps o f co al, w hich sh o u ld be set in W h en seen u n der th e m icrosco p e, for to th e n ak ed p o sitio n w ith gloved h a n d a n d w ith their g ra in vertical, in eye th e y are a lm ost in visib le, th ese little anim als such a w ay that th e esca p in g gases m ay be co n su m ed by resem b le g ro te sq u e to r t o is e s ; th ey possess e ig h t legs th e flam es. arran ged in p a ir s : th e tw o front pairs are clo s e to th e G a s - f i r e s , in w h ich th o ro u g h ly co n su m ed gas heats h ead an d p o in t forw ards ; the tw o h in d er pairs are a tta ch e d pieces o f asbestos, resem b le coal-fires in th eir ch eerfu l to th e b a ck part o f th e a b d o m en and p oin t backw ard s. a sp ect and in h eatin g the W ard by radiation , T h e y are clean, In the m ale, w h ich is sm aller than th e fem ale, th e labour-saving a n d convenient, but th ey require carefu l regu­ th ird pair o f legs en d in hairs, th e o th er th ree pairs term i­ lation b e cau se th e y ten d to rob the air o f m oisture an d are n ate in th e su ck ers, w h ich e n a b les th e m ite to c lin g to his exp en sive in up keep . host. In th e fem ale the tw o an terio r pairs o f legs are p ro­ T h e c h ie f a d va n ta ges o f c e n t r a l h e a t i n g b y hot-w ater v id ed w ith su ck ers, th e h in d er pairs en d in g in hairs. pipes are th at th e y do n ot use up th e air o f th e w ater or W h en first h a tch e d th e m ale an d fem ale w an d er on the give o ff harm ful p ro d u cts o f co m b u stio n . su rfa ce o f th e skin until pairing has tak en p lace. A t this * * * * * p erio d th ey are easily go t rid o f b y w ash in g a n d ch a n g in g E. E q u i p m e n t o f the W ard , for th e cleanliness and good the clo th es, but in tren ch life th ese luxuries o f civ ilisa tio n order o f w h ich he is resp o n sib le an d w h ich he m ust at all are on o cca sio n s u n o b ta in a b le for m a n y c o n se c u tiv e days.


23°

— F I R S T

A fte r p airin g th e m ale soon dies ; the fem ale, how ever, begin s to burrow u n d er th e skin o f her host, m in in g her w ay b e n e ath th e su rface ju st as her host is m in ing his way tow ards th e tren ch es o f th e en em y. A s she burrow s she lays her eggs b e h in d h e r— th o se laid first are th erefo re n earer th e o p en in g in to the burrow , and as th e m ites hatch

A I D

June, 1916.

I f a fine n ee d le be in serted in to a burrow and forced upw ards throu gh th e skin, the S a rco p tes m ay be extracted on its p oin t an d exa m in ed u n d er the m icrosco p e. T h e itch-m ite also a ttacks th e horse, cow , sheep and dog, an d it m ay be from th ese anim als that the in fectio n is first carried in rare cases. U su ally , how ever, in co m p an y o f m en, o n e or m ore un fo rtu n ate in d ivid u a ls harbour m ites, a n d un der trench co n d itio n s en o u g h are soon h a tch ed to d istrib u te w idely. P

Itch-mite in burrow— Eggs left behind as she advances. Black dots represent excreta. o u t th ey craw l on to the su rface o f th e skin an d m ake way for th eir ju n io rs to follow . j y T h e fem ale m ite lays o n e or tw o eggs per day ; the e ggs are, co m p ared w ith th e size o f the m ite, enorm ou s, b ein g a b o u t a third the m o th er’s dim ension s. L a y in g co n ­ tin u es for as lo n g as three m onths, so that the pow ers for o ffen sive o f a sin gle fertilised fem ale itch-m ite are c o n ­ siderable. T h e m ite burrow s best w hen th e skin is w arm , h en ce th e irritation is w orse w hen the host is warm before a fire or is co ve re d up in bed. S le ep is thus p reven ted and the n ervo us system upset. A s th e m ite is egg-sh aped, with th e legs p o in tin g b a c k ­ w ards an d forw ards, she ca n n o t turn ro u n d in her burrow w hen she has co m p lete d her m atern al fu n ction s, so she d ies at the far e n d o f her burrow at the post o f duty. T h e fingers, feet, and low er parts o f the tru nk are the

Female of Sarcoptes Scabei.— Under surface of mite, showing four eggs within body. Note suckers on front pairs of legs and bristles on hinder pairs. parts o f th e b o d y m ost affected by the itch-m ite, the face u su a lly escap ing. T h e co n tin u a l irritation an d co n se q u e n t scratch in g m ay p ro d u ce an eczem ato u s co n d itio n o f th e body, so o b scu rin g th e tiny burrow s w h ich o th erw ise can be seen by th e u n aid ed e ye ben eath th e surface o f th e skin.

r e v e n t i o n

.

F u m ig atio n o f the in fected clo th es w ith super-heated steam in “ T h re s h ” travellin g d isinfectors. W ell scru b th e b o d y in a h ot bath with p len ty o f soft soap, and follow up w hen dry with a g o o d ru b b in g o f sulp hur oin tm en t. R e p e a t this for th ree or four co n se ­ cu tiv e days. A s sulphur is irritating to th e skin this treatm ent m ay aggravate the ecze m a sligh tly, but w hen the m ites are k ille d a cu re sp eed ily results. L ittle bags o f sulp hur w orn ab ou t the b o d y are effec­ tive in k e ep in g aw ay m ites.

Railway Jlmbulance. S .E . & C R .— A large n um ber o f m em bers and friends o f th e L a d ie s ’ A m b u la n ce C la ss at S w an ley a tten d ed a so cial gath erin g rece n tly in the S w an ley C o n greg atio n a l L e c tu re H a ll, w here an id e ally in terestin g vo ca l and instru­ m ental p rogram m e was carried throu gh an d m uch ap p re­ ciated . D u rin g the eve n in g M rs. Stares, w ife o f the m edical lectu rer o f th e class, d istrib u ted certificates gain ed by th e m em bers. In the aftern oon o f th e sam e day, the m em bers o f the class and friends en tertain ed th e w ou n d ed soldiers quartered at th e K e ttle w e ll C o n v a le sce n t H o m e , Sw an ley. T h e 70 guests sp en t an e n jo y a b le tim e, an d after various m usical item s had been go n e th rou gh, were given a m eat tea. T h e p ro ceed s o f the social, w hich was in every w ay a huge success, w ere d e vo ted to the St. Joh n H o sp ita l A m b u la n ce B rig a d e in F ran ce. M iss E th e l C . B u ck in g h a m , the secretary o f the class, an d her hard-w orking com m ittee, are to be h eartily co n gra tu la ted on the results o f their efforts. O n Su n d a y, 2 1st M ay, 150 m em bers o f the N o s. 1, 2 and 4, S .E . & C .R . C e n tre A m b u la n c e C o rp s a tten d ed a C h u rch P a rad e at St. G a b r ie l’s C h u rch , W arw ick-square, S .W ., h e ad ed by the S p rin gfield H a ll P rize B an d . T h e w h o le o f the m en w ere in uniform an d p resen ted a very sm art app earan ce. T h e serm on was d e live red by the V ica r, the R e v. C a n o n M orris, D .D ., w ho, in his discourse, gave a b rief history o f the O rd er o f St. J oh n ge n era lly and the S .E . & C .R . C e n tre o f the A sso cia tio n in p articular. T h e flag o f the O rd er was h u n g from the screen and th e pulp it was d rap ed with th e flag bearing th e eight-p oin ted cross. T h e cerem o n y was a very im p ressive one, an d this was ad d ed to by th e band p layin g th e N a tio n al A n th e m at the co n clu sio n o f the service. T h e w h o le of the p ro ceed s o f th e co llectio n w ere d e v o ted to th e fun ds o f th e B rig a d e H o sp ita l in F ran ce. T h a t a m b u la n ce w ork on this railw ay co n tin u es to progress is e v id e n ce d by the fact that d u rin g the last 12 m on th s new corp s h ave been fo rm ed at C h ath a m . H a stin gs, and F aversh am , w h ilst th ere has been a m arked in crease in th e m em bersh ip o f th e existin g corps. M em ­ bers o f th ese co rp s a tten d th e a m b u la n ce trains on arrival and assist in u n lo ad in g, and are d o in g a very e x ce lle n t w ork in a q u iet way.


June,

1916.

— F I R S T

St. John ^Ambulance dissociation. B IE N N IA L

REPORT.

T h e recen tly-issu ed rep ort o f th e C en tral E x ecu tiv e C o m m itte e o f th e a b ove-n am ed organ isatio n for th e tw o years en d ed 30th S ep tem b er, 19 15 , m akes very in terestin g reading, illu stratin g as it does th e p ion eer w ork o f n early 40 years p erfected in tim e o f p eace, and thus en a b lin g the A m b u la n ce D e p artm en t o f the O rd er to co p e with any and every e m ergen cy . E s p e cia lly has this been the ca se in the p resen t w orld-w ide war, w hen every effort has been su b ­ je c te d to th e severest test with th e result o f affording legitim ate an d lastin g satisfaction to th ose w ho have w atch ed an d fostered th e grow th o f th e great w ork, and will co n stitu te in its e lf a fittin g rew ard for the un w earying labou rs o f all w ho h ave been en gaged in it. T h e rep ort o b serves th at the present, how ever, is not th e first o cca sio n upon w hich the A m b u la n ce D ep artm en t has been ab le to offer its resources to th e State, for in the E gy p tian W ar o f 1882, and in th e N ile C a m p aig n o f 1885, a m b u la n ce m aterials an d com forts for the sick and w ou nded were su p p lied from St. J o h n ’s G ate. L a te r ca m e th e South A frica n W ar (18 9 9 -19 0 2 ) w hen th e St. Joh n A m b u la n ce A ss o cia tio n 'w a s en tru sted by the C en tral B ritish R e d C ro ss C o m m itte e with the entire arran gem en ts for the d esp atch o f stores and m ed ical and o th er com forts from its special w arehou se in T o o ley -street. D u rin g th e S o u th A frica n C a m p aig n and th e C h in e se W ar o f the sam e period th e St. Joh n A m b u la n ce B rig ad e su p p lied the R o y a l A rm y M e d ica l C o rp s w ith betw een 2,000 and 3,000 hospital orderlies, upw ards o f 70 o f w hom laid dow n their lives in the service o f their S o vereign and coun try. W h en it is born e in m ind the very large n um bers, re ck o n ed by thousan ds, o f m em bers o f th e B rigad e, in­ clu d in g n ursin g sisters, m em bers o f V o lu n ta ry A id D etach m en ts an d a m b u la n ce m en o f all ranks, w ho have been, an d still are, servin g in alm ost all parts o f the world, it m ust b e a ck n o w le d g e d that the p erso n n el o f the A m b u ­ la n ce D e p artm en t is carryin g out its d u ty in a p atriotic m anner w orthy o f all praise. T h e lib eral do n atio n s re ­ ce ive d in aid o f a m b u la n ce w ork o f th e O rd er during the p resen t war h a ve been the so u rce o f co n sid era b le gratifi­ cation . T h e C o m m itte e regret the resign ation o f L ie u t.-C o l. Sir R ich a rd C . T e m p le , B t., C .I .E ., from th e a pp o in tm en t o f A ssistan t D irecto r and D e p u ty C h airm an , a p osition he has filled with d istin ctio n for the past 12 years. T h e retirem en t o f C o l. Sir H e rb e rt C . P erro tt, B t. C .B ., from th e post o f C h ie f Secretary o f th e A m b u la n ce D e p a rt­ m ent has also been a cau se o f m uch regret. T h a t the A sso cia tio n has attain ed to the position it now ho lds as the p ion eer o f first aid to the injured, and to the system o f in­ struction it o rigin ated has been a d o p te d in p ra ctically every quarter o f the civ ilise d glo b e, m ay u n d o u b ted ly be attri­ bu ted in a great m easure to Sir H e rb e rt P e rro tt’s u n stin ted labou rs, e x te n d in g o ver a period o f n early forty years. T h e G ra n d Prior has ap p o in ted M a jo r W . O . P rich ard , late S o u th W ales B ord erers, w ho was w o u n d ed in the battle o f th e A isn e and in cap a cita ted from furth er service, to be ch ie f secretary o f tb e A m b u la n ce D ep artm en t in Sir H e rb e rt’s stead. T h e p eriod d ealt with b y the rep ort has n ot u n n aturally brou ght a b o u t a v e ry great in crease in th e activ ities o f the A sso cia tio n . N o b etter e v id e n ce o f this is n eed ed than the fact that apart from th e M e d allio n s and L a b e ls, nearly 1 38,038 C e rtificate s w ere issued in the year en d in g S e p ­

AID. —

Z3 1

tem ber 30th, 1 9 1 5 , as co m p a re d w ith 57 972 in 1 9 1 2 -1 3 A very gratify in g feature o f th is in cre a se d a c tiv ity lies in tn e fact that it is n o t lim ited to a n y p a rticu la r area, but e x te n d s to all parts o f the E m p ire , a n d w h erev er c e n tre s h a v e b e en esta b lish ed th e w ork o f th e A s s o c ia tio n has been p ro se cu te d with e ver-gro w in g e n ergy . O n e in sta n ce a m o n g m a n y m ust suffice. In th e N e w S o u th W a les C e n tre , in 1 9 1 3 , the aw ards gra n ted b y th e A s s o c ia tio n n u m b e re d 9 0 1. In 19 1 5 th e y n u m b e re d 7,898. H o w great a part in m ilitary in stu c tio n F irst A id , as ad vo ca ted by the A ss o cia tio n for so m a n y years, is d e stin e d to play, is e v id e n ce d by the fact th at th e M in iste r o f M ilitia in C a n a d a has issu ed in stru ctio n s th at all n ew troop s u n d ergo in g tra in in g for the E x p e d itio n a ry F o r c e sh a ll be tau gh t th e p rin cip les o f first a id u n d e r a rra n g e m e n ts m a d e by th e C a n a d ia n b ran ch o f th e A ss o cia tio n . O n th e re co m ­ m en dation o f H is R o y a l H ig h n e s s th e G ra n d P rio r, G o ve rn o r G en era l o f th e D o m in io n s, th e c o p y rig h t o f th e official tex t-b o o k has been w aived by th e C h a p te r G e n e ra l in o rder that in stru ctio n m ay be th e m ore e fficie n tly c a r­ ried out. T h u s has first a id b e co m e an in tegral and official part o f m ilitary in stru ctio n in th e D o m in io n o f C a n ad a . T h e h e av y resp o n sib ilities u n d e rta k e n b y th e A s s o ­ ciatio n and B rig a d e w ill be a p p re cia te d w hen it is stated th at th ere are no few er than 200 St. J o h n H o sp ita ls, w ith an a ggregate o f 9,300 beds, ap a rt from th e B r ig a d e H o s p ita l at E ta p les w hich, w ith its 520 b ed s, m ay, w ith p a rd o n a b le p ride, be regard ed as a m odel o f efficien cy. In th e early part o f S e p te m b er, 19 14 , th e offers o f gifts and loans o f m o to r cars a n d m o to r a m b u la n ce s assu m ed su ch p ro p o rtio n s as to n ece ssita te th e o p e n in g o f a sp ecial d epartm en t. L o rd N o rrey s k in d ly u n d e rto o k the du ties o f C h airm an o f th e M o to r C o m m itte e , a n d d e v o te d h im se lf to th e w ork un til O c to b e r 1 9 1 5 , w hen he re ce iv e d a m ilitary ap p o in tm en t. T h e w ork has still b een co n tin u e d un der th e d irectio n o f th e E a rl o f R a n fu rly , a ssisted by M r. F. S. P h illip s. N o t o n ly w ere a large n u m b e r o f a m b u la n ces su p p lie d to th e W ar O ffice for th e B ritish troop s at th e F ron t, but a large c o n v o y was sent, jo in tly w ith th e In d ia n S o ld ie rs ’ F u n d , for the sp ecia l use o f In d ia n troop s, w hile cars w ere also d e ta ile d for th e use o f th e sp ecia l hosp itals a ssig n ed to them in E n g la n d . M a n y a m b u la n ce s w ere sen t to hosp itals w h ich at th e b e g in n in g o f th e war w ere esta b lish ed by vo lu n ta ry effort in F ra n ce, a n d a large n u m b er are n ow ren d erin g in va lu a b le service w ith th e B elgian s. T h e rep ort co n ta in s a len g th y list o f d o n o rs and len d ers o f am b u la n ce s for w ar p urp oses, an d in clu d e s th e n am es o f co n trib u to rs o f fun ds for th e p u rch ase o f a m b u lan ces. C o n tin u in g , the rep ort a n n o u n ces that at th e an n u al m eetin g o f th e St. J o h n A m b u la n c e A ss o cia tio n in In d ia, h eld at Sim la, H is E x c e lle n c y th e V ic e r o y stated th at 3 I lakh s o f ru pees h a d been c o lle c te d , w h ile gifts an d m aterial to th e valu e o f a fu rth er 10 la kh s had b een d istrib u ted . T h e A sso cia tio n h ad raised a fleet of 14 m otor a m b u la n ce s and p ro vid ed th e p erso tm el for a m b u la n ce d u ties. H is E x c e lle n c y a lso referred to th e fact that the su cce ss o f the A ss o cia tio n was d u e to p erso n al effort, a n d p aid a trib u te to th e lib era lity o f th e R u lin g C h ie fs o f In d ia , w ho h ad n o t o n ly co n trib u te d la rgely, but, in so m e in stan ces, had o rg an ised cen tres in th e ir States. H e drew sp ecia l a tten tio n to the u n p aralleled ge n ero sity o f H is H ig h n ess th e M a h a ra ja S cin d ia , and a n n o u n ced that H is H ig h n e s s th e M a h a ra ja o f Jaip u r had sen t a d o n atio n o f 5,000 ru pees to be a llo ca te d as H is E x c e lle n c y th o u g h t fit. T h is n o b le co n ­ trib u tio n w ou ld be d e v o te d to th e m a in te n a n ce o f bed s at


232

F I R S T

D e h ra D u n W a r H o sp ita l. A n u m b er o f o th er in terestin g features figu red in th e V ic e r o y ’s sp eech . T h e E x e c u tiv e su bm it a len g th y list o f adm ission s to g rad es o f th e O rd er, also p ro m o tio n s in re co g n itio n o f lo n g a n d v a lu e d services o f th e St. Joh n A m b u la n c e A sso cia tio n , a n d d e a l so m ew h at e x h a u s tiv e ly w ith rep orts from the n u m ero u s C e n tre s in th e U n ite d K in g d o m and th e overseas D o m in io n s. M a tters o f a fin a n cial ch a ra cter are also su b ­ m itted, to g e th er w ith a full list o f ho n o rary life m em bers. A n a lp h a b e tica l list o f C e n tre s o f th e A sso cia tio n follow s, g iv in g d ate o f fo rm ation an d n am es o f presid en ts, ch airm en a n d h o n o rary secretaries. W ith referen ce to th e T e rrito ria l B ran ch , it is stated th at d u rin g the past tw o years satisfactory progress has been m ade. T h e a ctiv ities o f its V o lu n ta ry A id D etach m en ts sin ce th e o u tb re a k o f war h a ve been e xce p tio n al, an d reflect m ost cre d ita b ly on its p rom oters and w orkers. T h e r e are n ow 298 d e ta ch m en ts w ith a to tal stren gth o f 9,429 m em ­ bers (2,009 m en a ° d 7i 4 20 w om en). T h e W ar O ffice is u tilisin g the services o f w om en V .A .D . m em bers in a va riety o f w ays, and th ere are m any o th er sp heres o f a ctiv ity in w h ich th ese m em bers are w orkin g. S in ce A u g u st, 1 9 1 5 , th e T e rrito ria l B ran ch has su p p le m e n ted the N a v a l an d M ilitary R e serv e s o f the St. Joh n A m b u la n c e B rig ad e, by w h ich 1,4 69 m en h ave been su p p lied for ser­ v ic e in the R .A .M .C . at h o m e an d ab ro ad an d 240 for ser­ v ic e w ith the m e d ica l unit, R o y a l N a v a l D ivisio n . In Irela n d th ere are 12 9 V o lu n ta ry A id D etach m en ts w ith a to tal p erso n n el o f 3,400 m em bers. T w o auxiliary h o sp itals in th e C o u n ty o f D u b lin (each o f 20 beds) are staffed en tirely b y St. J oh n V o lu n ta ry A id D etach m en ts, an d h ave been m ade full use o f by the m ilitary authorities. Irish W o m e n ’s D e ta ch m en ts, to th e n u m b er o f 1 1 5 m em ­ bers, h a ve been p o sted for d u ty in m ilitary hosp itals at h o m e an d abro ad . A grea t deal m ore is fo rth co m in g with referen ce to the T errito ria l B ran ch , w h ich sup plies a store o f in form ation o f th e progress o f this section . St. John

A m bulance

B r ig a d e .

A c c o rd in g to th e rep ort o f th e C h ie f C o m m issio n er, from O c to b e r 1st, 19 1 3 , to S e p te m b er 30th, 1 9 1 5 , the B rig a d e has g a in ed co n sid e ra b ly in stren gth d u rin g the in terim . T h e fo llo w in g new units h ave been form ed, viz. : 14 c o r p s ; 197 a m b u la n ce d iv is io n s ; 13 a m b u la n ce se c­ tio n s, an d 182 n ursin g division s, m akin g a to tal o f n early 8,000 n ew personnel. T h e stren gth o f th e B rig a d e on S e p te m b er 30th last w a s : corps, 81 ; a m b u la n ce division s, 887 ; n ursin g division s, 443 ; perso n n el, m en, 36,348 ; w om en , 1 7 ,0 7 3 ; total, 5 3 ,4 2 1. R e g re t is exp ressed at th e loss by d eath o f E d m u n d O w en , E sq ., L L .D ., F .R .C .S ., surgeon-in-chief, St. Joh n A m b u la n c e B r ig a d e ; L t.-C o l. J. L e e s H a ll, D e p u ty C o m ­ m issioner, N o . 1 D is t r ic t ; an d M a jo r P. Sh ew ell, A ssistan t C o m m issio n e r, N o . 2 D istrict. S ir W illia m H e n ry B e n n ett, K .C .V .O ., F .R .C .S ., has b een a p p o in te d su rgeo n -in -ch ief in p la ce o f th e firstnam ed. In respon se to the orders re ce iv e d from the A d m ira lty an d W a r O ffice at variou s p eriod s sin ce A u g u st 1st, 19x4, th e B rig a d e N a v a l an d M ilitary R e serve s h ave been ex ­ c e e d in g ly activ e. T h e totals su p p lied to D e ce m b e r 3 ist, 1 9 1 5 , s h o w : N a v a l au th o rities, 3 ,4 12 ; M ilitary authorities, 1 5 ,9 9 5 ; p riv ate h osp itals, ships, & c ., 3 2 8 ; J o in t C o m ­ m ittee, O rd e r o f St. J oh n an d B ritish R e d C ro ss S o c ie ty — o rd erlies su p p lie d for service a b ro a d — 323 ; total, 20,058. T h e St. J o h n V o lu n ta ry A id D e ta ch m en ts (B riga d e) h a v e also co m e o u t stron g an d a cco m p lish e d som e g o o d w ork. B y th e efforts o f the B rig ad e, assisted by friends

A I D .

June, 1916.

and w ell-w ishers, a G en eral H o sp ita l has b een e stab lish ed in F ra n ce w ith 520 beds to be fully equ ip p ed , officered an d m aintained out o f the su b scrib e d fun ds. T h e w ork that has up to th e presen t been d o n e by this H o sp ita l is a ck n o w le d g e d to be seco n d to n on e in F ran ce. S everal o th er m atters are d ealt w ith in this report, in clu d in g the R o ll o f H o n o u r statistics. T h e rep ort says : — In view o f th e fact that o ver 20,000 B rig ad e m en are servin g w ith H is M a je sty ’s F o rces, th e n u m ber o f deaths (79) rep o rted to date, th o u gh d e e p ly regretted , can n o t be co n sid ered as excessive, b u t it leaves no d o u b t as to th e dan g er to w h ich th ese m en are exp o sed. T h e B arn oldsw ick D iv isio n (N o . 5 D istrict) suffered very h eavily in the early days o f th e war, w hen th ey lost tw elve o f their m em bers w ho were servin g on th e H o sp ita l S h ip “ R o h illa .” T h is was a very h eavy blow to th e D iv isio n , esp e cially as they h ad o n ly been registered a short time. A co m p lete list o f casualties, as rep orted to date, is a tta ch ed as an app en dix.

R eview s. H O M E N U R S IN G . By E dith N ewsom e, M .R .B .N .A . London : T h e Scientific Press, Ltd. P rice 2s. 6d. net. T h e author’s object and reason for writing this book are based upon experience gained in her work o f giving lectures to various Voluntary A id Detachm ents, and it com prises lec­ tures on all points mentioned in the British Red Cross So ciety’s Syllabus on H om e N ursing. It is a closely printed book of 160 pages and contains much valuable in­ formation. F o r th e benefit o f th e funds o f th e B ritish R e d C ro ss S o cie ty and the O rd er o f St. Joh n o f Jerusalem a song en titled “ M a rch in g F orw ard ” is p u b lish ed by F. W h ea tley, John-street, Stro u d , G lo u cestersh ire. T h e w ords by Sir R ich a rd T e m p le express the n ational spirit w ith ou t b o m ­ bast, and th e m usic by the H o n . M rs. T e n n a n t is a go o d sw in gin g m elod y, w ith a su ggestio n o f folk-song w h ich will ensure its im m ed iate adoption.

*

HORLICK’S M ALTED

4

♦ • 4 4 4 4 4 )

MILK

A S A D I E T IN R E D C R O S S N U R S IN G . C o n ta in s a ll th e fo o d v a lu e o f p u r e fu ll-c re a m m ilk e n ric h e d a n d m o d ifie d w ith t h e s o lu b le n u tr itiv e e x tr a c ts o f c h o ic e m a lte d c e re a ls . T h e r a t i o o f p r o te in to c a rb o h y d r a te a n d its p e rf e c t d ig e s tib ility c o m m e n d t h is food a s a r e lia b le r e c o n s tru c tiv e w h ic h m a y b e g iv e n f re e ly in s e p tic c o n d itio n s a n d s u rg ic a l c a se s.

R E A D Y IN A M O M E N T . R E Q U R I E 8 N O C O O K IN G . L ib eral Sam ples J o r tr ia l w ill be sent to the Profession P o st Free on application.

H o r l i c k ’s M a lt e d M ilk Co., S l o u g h , B u c k s .

CHOCOLATES

A s k for "D E L E C T A " —t h e n a m e d e s c rib e s th e m .

\

\ 4 4

4

4 * 4 4 4


June, 1916.

jlQDEX]

F I R S T

A I D

233

R eliability

FIRST-AID

A

A BLAND & PA IN LESS

1

has been supplied to : R .A .M .C . S u r g e o n s , R ed C ro s s S u r g e o n s , C r o ix R o u g e F r a n c a is e B e lg ia n F ie ld H o s p ita ls , N u m e r o u s M ilit a r y H o s p ita ls , M e m b e rs of S t . J o h n A m b u la n c e .

all. in

strict

&

STRETCHER

a p p lic a tio n

to —

P ro v in c ia l H o sp ita ls,

CARRYING

MADE

w ith

th e

b u t yo u ca n

th in g yo u b u y is o f an absolutely reliable

qu altity — d e p e n d a b le

in

e ve ry sen se o f th e w ord. M ake a p erso n a l ca ll or w rite or 'phone f o r catalogue.

Hospital Contracts

&

General Co., Ltd.

( N u r s e s ’ E q u i p m e n t S e c t i o n ) , ( D e p t . 6). in N a v y .

James, Ltd„"ffiS8rE£*i’

a c c o rd a n c e

rely also u p on th e fact th at e v e ry ­

E n la r g e d G la n d s , G o itr e . T u b e r c u lo u s J o in ts , B u r s itis , S y n o v itis , S c ia t ic a , N e u r itis , G o u t, R h e u m a to id A r th r itis , H y d r o c e le , P a r a s itic S k in D is e a s e s . R in g w o r m . C h ilb la in s , A c n e , B o lls , M u m p s , S p r a in s , AN D A L L IN F L A M M A T O R Y C O N D IT IO N S . on

N o r is this

N o t o n ly ca n y o u re ly upon

m o d els set by vario u s L o n d o n a n d

I O D E X has benefitted thefollowing and numerous other conditions:

Menley

p o ss ib ly

o b ta in in g in e ve ry in sta n ce style s

IODEX is sold in l o z . Pots, Price 1/3.

L ite ra tu re

ca n

hom e, finds a p la ce in o ur N u r s e s ’

I O D E X is non-staining, n on ­ irritating Free Io d in e o f great p en etrative power. It is a p ow er­ ful a b so rb en t and antisep tic, and rap id ly red u ces in flam m ation .

F r e n c h F ie ld H o s p ita ls ,

n u rse

E q u ip m e n t S e ctio n .

I O D E X is a F irst-A id D ressin g o f great m erit— painless and bland It prom otes rap id healing and is ideal in sep tic w ounds, tears, abrasions, bruises, burns, scalds, in flam ed feet, etc.

H .M . F le e t S u r g e o n s ,

e v e ry th in g

requ ire in a n y h o sp ita l o r n u rsin g

Antiseptic.

IO D E X

and

that a P ro fe ssio n a l or V o lu n ­ tary

— IODIN E D R E S S I N G . — Aseptic.

N Y T H IN G

S to c k e d in l e n g th s

Chev'iot°Se'rge2' '

541"^’’

A llA V o o l S e r g e W e s t o f E n g la n d S e r g e

19-35, MORTIMER S T .,

23/6 3 4 /6 3 6 /6

W.

'P h o n e: M U S E U M 3140-1. A rents f o r the well-known Benduble Shoes. * J

EASY

by using the

( S tr e tc h e r

Bearers’

Friend).

Go to the Source fo r Uniforms and Equipment for First Aid and all other Services— Hazel & Co.

carrying squad is greatly increased. A d v a n ta g e s . — The “ S . B . F . ” (1) fits any width of shaft; (2) grips and releases instantly; (3) permits an “ over­ hand” grip ; (4) allows the arm to be at full length ; (5) distri­ butes the patient’s weight; (6) reduces the “ spring” of stretcher; (7) tucks under belt when not in use ; (8) weighs only 902.

W ith 100 Y e a r s reputation for reliable uniform s, H azel’ s are today producing cloth in g that saves even more in w ear than it does in first cost. T r y H azel’ s —ask for quotation for O fficers or R a n k and F ile Requirem ents.

P r ic e 2 s . p e r p a ir . S a m p le p a i r 2 s . 3 d . p o s t p a i d , f r o m

S W IF T

&

SONS

( Makers and Sole Distributors J,

.Athletic Outfitters, S C A R B O R O U G H .

16,

N ILE

C ITY and

ROAD, LONDON, N ., 4, P R IN C ES STR EET,

HANOVER

SQUARE,

STREET, LONDON,

W.


234

FIRST

AID.—

June, 19 16 .

What First Aid Dressing* do Y O U use A w e ll k n o w n London S u rg e o n re c e n tly used S P H A G N O L w i t h r e m a r k a b le success, and rec o m ­ m en ds it in th e fo llo w in g te r m s “ I h ave tried yo u r S p h a g n o l preparations, o in tm en t an d cream , in certain ch ro n ic u lcers w ith rem a rk a b le su ccess and h a v e re co m m e n d e d S p h a gn o l to a large n u m b er o f p eo p le u n d e r'tra in in g 'a s a valuable first

aid dressing for w o un ds.”

Spha$nol is a d istilla te o f P e a t— is a n tisep tic— possesses re­ m ark ab le h e alin g p ro p erties— and is easily app lied . L e a d in g m en in th e m ed ical profession regard it as th e stan dard re m e d y for skin diseases and in flam ­ m ation. It is in va lu ab le in th e treatm en t o f Trench

Sores, Sore Feet, Eczema, Ulcers, Psoriasis, Ringworm, Acne, Dandruff, Pruritis, Herpes, Hsemorrhoids. T h e In stitu te o f H y g ie n e h a ve ce rtificate for purity, m erit, and S p h a g n o l So aps and O in tm en t.

aw ard ed their q u a lity to all

FREE TRIAL.

Shock With shocks of many kinds daily throwing fresh strains upon our harassed nerves the supreme value of Hall’s Wine as a stand­ by should indeed be known. “ Hall’s Wine,” says a doctor, ‘‘ is the best I know for keeping one up during times of strenuous pressure.” And to quote yet an­ other doctor : “ Hall’s Wine is in­ valuable, especially where vitality is low or nerves are shattered." Even in normal years the restorative powers of Hall’s Wine won enormous recogni­ tion, so perhaps it is not surpiising that in these incredible days of stress and national anxiety Hall’s Wine finds itself the most widely trusted preparation of its kind.

HallsWine The Supreme Restorative

G U A R A N T E E .— Buy a bottle of Hall’s Wine to-day. If, after taking half of it, you feel no real benefit, return us the half-empty bottle, and we will refund your entire outlay. Doctor’s Outfit of Sphagnol Preparations, consisting of Ointments, Soaps, and Suppositories will be sent to every Doctor, R .A .M .C . Officer, and Red Cross Hospital Nurse on receipt of professional card. A First-aid Outfit containing a liberal supply of Ointment and Soap will be sent upon request to any First-aid or Red Cross Worker.

Peat Products (Sphagnol) Ltd 18a, Queenhithe, Upper Tham es St., London, E.C

Large sizeyjl6 . O f all Wine Merchants, and Licensed Grocers and Chemists. S te p h e n

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L td ., B ow , L o n d o n .


June, 1916,

— F I R S T

AID. —

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T e le p h o n e N o. 6 4 47 K e n s in g t o n . 3 L in e s . T e le g ra m s : “ H u m p h r e y s , K n lg h ts h r ld g e , L o n d o n ,”

A ustralian Hospital (

1,000

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236

— F I R S T

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F r a n k

C h r is t ia n , M .B ., C .M . E d in .

A u th o r (jo in tly w ith W .R .E .) o f “ P r o b le m s in F i r s t A i d ,” S t. J o h n A m b . A sso c.

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:C o n n e ll &

AID. —

June, 1916.

On First Aid, Medicine. Surgery, and all other Scien­ tific and Literary subjects, S e c o n d -H a n d a t H alt P r ic e * . N ew Books at . Discount Prices. Catalogues free. State wants. ^ Books sent oa approval, f Books bought. W* Jk Q . F O Y L E , 1 2 1 and 1 2 3 , C haring Cross Road, London, W .C .

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Everyone engaged in FIRST AID work should take up the above Courses at once. A member of S .J.A .B . writes:— “ I feel deeply indebted for the courses of instruction received, have often wanted to take such courses, but could never find where to get such.” (T .B .) Special te rm s n o w — half fees— to members of S .J .A .B ., &c. A p p ly (s ta m p ) to M r . J . E . W a l d e n , S e c ., W e s tm in s te r C o lle g e ( L a d y D is p e n s e rs S e o tio n o f th e W e s tm in s te r C o lle g e o f C h e m is tr y a n d P h a r m a c y , e s td . 1874),

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F IR S T AID — AND

THE —

St. John Ambulance Gazette. —

^ ------------

VOLUME XXIII. (No. 265, July, 1916, to No. 276, June, 1917)-

LONDON. DALE,

REYNOLDS

&

CO .,

L td .,

46,

CANNON

STREET,

E .C . 4 -


INDEX. A

H

A m bulance A rran gem en ts for H ostile A ir R aids, 15, 34 „ Class, by “ H aversack,” 168 Am endm ents in, and A dditions to, the Rules and R egulations of the S .J.A .A ., 176

f o r H o s p it a l O r d e r l i e s , by N. C orbet Fletcher B .A ., M .B., &c., 11, 32, 53, 73. ” 8 H ostile A ir Raid D uty, 15, 34 “ Humorous Side of a First A id B eginner,” 36

B

I

B lackham , Col. R. J., C .I.E ., D .S .O ., 175 B r e v i t i e s , 10, 3 1, 51, 72, 93, 120, 137, 154, 174, 19 5 ,2 10 , 227

H in t s

Im provised Motor Am bulances, by F. C. Bottom ley, 56 India’s Red Cross Support, 177 Interchangeable Sidecar on a Standard Chassis, 203

C L

C ollege o f A m bulance, 212

D D eath o f Col. T . H. H endley, 148 D is t r ic t

No. » „ „ „ „ „ „

O r d e r s

:—

1— 2, 22, 42, 62, 82, 102, 126, 146, 166, 186,202, 218 3— 3. 22> 62, 82, 102, 127, 166, 202, 218 4— 3, 22, 42, 62, 82,102, 127, 146, 166, 186, 218 5— 4, 102, 147, 166, 202, 218 6 — 4 2,62, 83, 103, 147, 166, 186, 203

L e t t e r s

t o

t h e

E d it o r

:—

A m bulance Benevolent Fund, 177 “ N ursing Sister,” 230 L ife in Salonica, 166

M M etropolitan Police A m bulance Corps, 121

7—4

8— 103, 186 n -8 3 12 (Irish)— 4, 24, 43, 103, 128, 147

E E

L adies’ N ew Service H ats, 43

d i t o r i a l

N N ew C h ief Secretary o f the A m bulance Departm ent of the Order o f St. John, 11 „ Stretcher T rolley, 155 N oted W ar T im e Firm , 83

:—

A ctivities o f the A m bulance D epartm ent o f the O rder of St. John, 125 C arry On, 81 F irst A id a Form o f Insurance, 217 „ in W orkshops, 1 „ to the Uninjured, 41 Future Prospects of the V .A .D .’s, 201 Joint W a r Com m ittee’s Finance, 165 N ational Service and the V .A .D .’s, 145 Present N eed for A m bulance W o rkeis, 185 Safety and First A id, 21 „ M ovem ent, 101 V .A .D ., 101 V .A .D .’s and the N ursing Profession, 61 Efficient First A id, 34

F F atigu e and Its E ffects on Industry and E fficiency, by Profes­ sor W m . Stirlin g, M .D ., D .Sc., L L .D ., 182 F eig n in g Illness, 176 F irst A id Com petitions at the R oyal Botanic Gardens, 14 „ „ in W orkshops, 43 „ „ Instruction by Popular D em onstration, 104 „ Lesson in First A id, by Charles Phelps Cushing, 177

G G arden P a rty at Blackrock, 52 G reat Explosion in E a st London, 198

P Professional E tiqu ette— a London Sketch, by Pt. A . de L. Jones, 63 Q Q

u e r ie s

A

a n d

A

n s w e r s

t o

C

o r r e s p o n d e n t s

:—

Com pound Com plicated Fracture o f Fem ur with Haemorrhage, 142 „ Good First A id D ressing for Burns, 119 A dm inistering an E m etic in Strychnine Poisoning when Respiration has Failed, 214 A pplication of H eat to U nconscious Person, 36 „ R oller Bandages in Fractured Lim bs, 179 Arm Sling for Fracture of Hum erus and Forearm , 160 Artificial Respiration in C ase of Choking, t8o B andage for Hand, 196 Bandagin g the Hand, 219 „ Lim bs in Collapse through Internal Htem orrhage, 140 Bennett’s Fracture of Thum b, 219 Boards on Stretcher in C ase of Fractured Pelvis, 180 Books on First A id, 214 Brigade Efficiency, 18 Collapse in Case o f Severe and U ntreated W ound of T em poral A rtery, 36 Com plicated Fracture of Ribs, 198 Covering Patient in C ase of Shock, 196 D ressin g W ounds o f Y oun g Children with Iodine, 198 E a sy W a y o f M aking Em brocations, 179


I N D E X . Fractured Pelvis and Com plicated Fracture o f Ribs, 219 „ W rist and Bleeding from Palm ar Arch. 214 Fracture o f Fem us of L eg, 76 Fractures o f Skull, R ibs and Spine, with Injured Lungs, 179 Inducing Circulation to A pparently Drowned, 140 Iodine on Boric Lint, 198 Maximum H eight of Sick Room, 18 Pupils of F y es in M aims and Haemorrhage, 180 Picric A cid C a u g e Steeped in O live Oil for Burns, 142 Pressure on A rteries in Bleeding from Palm ar A rch, 219 Reason for W ithholding Em etics with Corrosive Poisons, 179 Rem oval o f Boot in Foot Injuries, 17 St. John’s Sling for W ound of Palm of H and, 219 Saluting A m bulance Officers, 18 Scalp W ounds, 180 Signs of Burning by E lectricity, 214 Sm elling Salts as Stimulant, 196 Stretcher Drill, 196 Sym ptom s o f E pilepsy, 196 T ransport o f C ase of Fracture o f Clavicle and Bleeding from Sub-Clavian A rtery, 142 T reatm ent o f Burns, 17 !> D islocated R ight Shoulder and Respiration Suspended, 36 „ Fractured Clavicle, 219 „ Com plicated Fracture o f R ibs and Internal Haemorrhage, 95 " ii ii ,, ,, Simple F racture o f Collarbone, 18 „ Compound Fracture of R igh t T high with Severe A rterial Bleeding, 95 „ Concussion of Brain, 17 „ Crushed Sternum, 214 „ Sim ple Fractures o f Fem ur, Clavicle and R ibs, 196 11 n 11 1, Collar Bone and Shoulder Blade, 142 U se of Iodine for Cuts, 140 „ Splints in Cases o f Fracture, 56 U nconsciousness After a Blow in Low er Abdom en, 95 W earing of Arm B adge of the R .N .A .S .B .R ., 18

R ailw ay Am bulance, 74, 157, 176, 187, 203 „ „ W ork, 1916, 128 R eal Safety Spirit Stove, 55 R eport of the A m bulance W ork done on the O ccasion o f the Sinn Fein R iots, 12 R est as a First A id Measure, by S. Ham ilton, B .A ., M .D ., 16 R e v i e w s :—

Compendium o f A id s to F ir s t A id , by N. Corbet Fletcher M .B., &c., 57 Efficiency in F ir s t A id , by N. Corbet Fletcher, M .B., &c.,

95 F ir s t A i d f o r the Trenches, by Som ervile H astin gs, M .S , F .R .C .S ., & c., 76 Guide to Pharm acy a n d Dispensing, by C. J. S. Thom pson,

•5 Hanm ePs L ife-S a v in g Lecture, 58 Indian Am bulance Training, by Col. R. J. Blackham C .I.E ., & c „ 96 M artin's Questions and A nsw ers on Hom e Nursino- by Leonard S. Barnes, 76 M en ta l N ursing, by W . H. B. Stoddart, M .D ., F .R .C S

58 Our H osp ita l A .B .C ., 104 P rim er o f Tropical Hygiene, by Col. R. J. Blackham , C .I.E ., &c., 95 R ed Cross in France, by G ranville Barker, 98 S h o rt Course in F ir s t A i d in Accidents, by Lieut.-Col. Sir John Collie, M .D . and M ajor C. F. W ightm an F .R .C .S ., 57

St. John A m bulance A sso ciation , 175, 187 Scotts, Ltd., 148 S.J.A .B . H ospital in F rance, 117 Stretcher Bearing, by A . H am m ersley Johnston, L .R .C .P ., 35 ,, for T rench U se, 94 Substitute for the T w o -H an ded Seat, 73 St .

J o h n

A m b u la n c e

M .R .C .S .,

G a z e t t e :—

A natom y L ectures, 71, 136 A pp eal for V .A .D . Volunteers, 189 B ailiff of E gle, 105 „ „ and his B ailliw ick, b y H. W . F inchham , 68 B rigade W o rk in Germ an W est A frica , 91 Budrum — a C astle of the K n igh t of St. John, by H. W . Fincham , 224 Canadian Branch S .J.A .A ., 88 „ V .A .D . U nit, by Mrs. H enderson, 89 Central W o rk Room s, 71 Cyprus and the H ospitaller’s Castle at K olossi, by H. W . Fincham , 28 D eath o f Lieut.-Col. T . S. Parrott, 192 u em o n strato r’s Certificates, 152 D epot for S.J.A .B . Hospital in France, 112 Finding Y o u r W a y at N igh t, by Lionel J. Picton, M .A ., M .B., 26, 44 First N ursing Sisters o f the S .J.A .B ., by T h e k la Bow ser, 110 G eneral L etter o f the Joint V .A .D . Com m ittee to County D irectors, 149, 159, 208, 221 Grand Priory o f the O rder o f the H ospital o f St. John of Jerusalem in E n gland, 8. 22, 30, 70, 88, 109, 132, 153, 206, 220 Hospitals of the No. 6 D istrict, S .J.A .B ., 135 H oy, Sir W illiam , 149 Im provisation and A daptation, by T h e k la Bow ser, 225 Indian Branch of the S.J.A .A ., 1908-1915, by Col. R. I. Blackham , C .I.E ., D .S .O ., 220 Investiture at the Brigade H ospital, 133 Joint V .A .D . Com m ittee’s Letter, 169 Journey, Life and E xperiences o f a V .A .D . in M ontenegro 9. 26 Low e, Mr. E. C., 169 M echanics o f Circulation, by W . R. E dw ards, 64, 84, 106 129 Mention in D espatches, 29 M iddlesex T ransport Service, 49 N otes and N ew s, 7, 29, 50, 71, 88, 194, 209, 226 „ on the O ld H ospital o f the O rder, by the late R ev W . K. R. Bedford, M .A ., Chaplain o f the O rder 170' 188 ’ ’ Opening of H alkyn ’s H ouse, B elgrave Square, 150 O rigin o f H ospitals, by Col. H endley, C .I.E ., V .D . 46 Practical A m bulance W o rk at Southend, 6 R adiography at the Front, by A. W ilson Crew dson 2? Rattray, Mr. W illiam , 204 ’ Red Cross in the W est R idin g, 209 Rem iniscences o f E a rly A m bulance W o rk in India hv Col. T . H. H endley, C .I.E . 5, 48 R equirem ents o f the Joint Societies, 70 St. John A m bulance Association, 136 11 11 11 B rigade H ospital, 193 » >> 11 11 „ D epot, B elgrave Square, 205 , 11 11 „ O verseas, 170 „ „ D em onstrator’s Certificates, 8 S ecretary-G eneral o f the O rder o f St John, 131 Smith, Mrs. Louisa, 188 Som e Causes o f Failure in A m bulance Exam inations 1 -4 11 Suggestion s for the T raining of W om en V .A d ’ ’ s in Future, 173 U se o f “ O d d ” K now ledge, by T h e k la Bowser, i q i U rgen t A ppeal, 5 V .A .D . W om en ’s W ork, by W ilson Crewdson 132 „ ^ N ew s, 45, 66, 91, i n , , 34j I52, I72)’ lg0) 20?;


INDEX.

IV.

V .A .D . E xperience D urin g the R etirem ent of the M onte­ negrin A rm y, 67, 86. 108 W h o m ay W e ar the G eneva R ed C ro ss? Bowser, 47

By

Thekla

U U se and A buse o f First A id Outfits, by N. Corbet Fletcher, M .B., & c., 138, 156, 2 11, 228

V V .A .D . Item s, 259

Y e a r in Canada, 204

W W altham stow A m bulance Station, 175 W ardell, Mr. & Mrs. Stuart, 52 W o rk of the V .A .D .’s 63 „ „ S.J.A .B . D urin g the Y e a r 1916, by Col. Sir James Clark, 102

T T ea ch in g First A id by Popular D em onstrations, 37 T h ree Purpose Side-Car, 158

Illustrations. A skern A m bulance and N ursing D ivision, No. 5 D istrict, 223 Contingent o f Japanese R ed Cross N urses, 3 Conversion o f a Ford Motor V an into M otor A m bulance, 56 D ispensary of the B rigad e H ospital in France, 171 First A id D isp lay by Police, 127 Group o f First A id Instructors to Canadian Troops, 167 ,, St. John and R ed Cross M em bers Doing Transport D u ty in Cheltenham , 33 ,, Portrait of T h ree of the V aughan F am ily A w arded the St. John Service M edals, 23 Inspection o f M iddlesex V .A .D .’s by Surgeon-G eneral fencken at G unnersbury Park, 83 In terchangeable Side-C ar on a Standard C h assis, 203 M echanics o f Circulation, D iagram s R elatin g to the, by W m . R. Edw ards, 64-66, 84, 106-107 M iddlesex V .A .D . T ransport, 49 O perating T h eatre, B rigad e H ospital, France, 193 „ T heatres, St. John A m bulance Brigade H ospital, France, 139 P athological L aboratory o f the St. John A m bu lan ce in France, 117 Personnel of the A lexan dra H ospital, Cosham , H ants, 16

Portrait o f Col. Sir H erbert-Perrott, Bt., 105 „ „ R. J. Blackham , C .I.E ., D .S .O ., 175 „ F. Cook, E sq., 135 „ First A id Class of Prisoners o f W a r in Switzerland, 207 „ Hon. Sir L. H . D avies, K .C .M .G ., P.C ., 89 „ J. H. Courtney, C .M .G ., I.S.O ., i l l „ M ajor W . O. Prichard, 11 „ Mr. E velyn Cecil, M .P., 131 „ „ E . C. Low e, 169 „ ,, W m . R attray, 204 „ „ W . S. W oodcock, 42 „ Mrs. Louisa Smith, 188 „ Sir W illiam H oy, 149 Show ing Substitute for T w o -H an ded Seat, 73 S ta ff of the Sum m erdown C onvalescent H ospital, 36 .“ Stretcher B earer’s F riend,” 35 „ for T rench U se, 94 „ T rolley. 155 Three-Purpose Sidecar, 158-159 W inners of the C hallenge Cup, 1916, 75 X -R a y Room, St. John A m bulance Brigade H ospital in France, 151


FIRST AID AND

ST.

JOHN

THE

AMBULANCE Edited by A R T H U R

N o. 265. —

X X III.

V o l.

To

[N ew

Our

-----

JU LY,

S e r ie s .]

19 16.

B.

GAZETTE.

DALE. [E n ttr td a t

[2/6

H a ll.]

P e r

A nnum ,

P o s t

F r e e

how ever, that w h atever d ifferen ces th ere m ay be betw een

Readers.

m em bers with regard to certain a sp ects o f th e B ill th ere

“ F ir s t Aid ” is published on th e 20th of e v e r y month. The Annual Subscription is i s . 6 d. post free; single copies 2 d.

appears to be p erfect u n an im ity o f o p in io n w ith regard to

The Editor invites readers to send articles and reports on subjects of interest to ambulance workers, these should be addressed to him at 46, Cannon Street, London, E.C.

factory and w orksh o p em p lo y ees.

the d esirab ility o f secu rin g

th ese

w elfare

co n d itio n s for

T h e su p p ly o f a m b u la n ce and first aid a p p lia n ce s in

All articles and reports must be accompanied by the name and address of the writer, not necessarily for publication but for the use ot the Editor.

vision w here th e co n d itio n s o f e m p lo y m e n t are su ch as to

Subscriptions, Advertisements and other business communications connected with F i r s t A i d should be addressed to the Publishers,

o verd u e.

To

em p lo y ees

how to m a k e in te llig e n t an d e ffe ctiv e use o f

DALE,

REYNOLDS 46,

& CO .,

C annon

L td .,

S tre e t,

L ondon,

factories is d esirab le, and leg islatio n to e n fo rce th e p ro ­

exp o se th e

w orkers

to

p ro vid e

risk o f p erson al in ju ries a p p lia n ce s

w ith ou t

is lo n g

tra in in g

th e

them is, how ever, o n ly h a lf m e etin g th e n eed s o f th e case.

E.C.

F rom the trend o f th e d iscu ssio n s w h ich h ave tak en p lace it w ou ld app ear that th e co st o f p ro vid in g first a id and

ED ITO RIAL

o th er eq u ip m e n t w ill p ro b a b ly b e c o m e a ch a rg e u p on th e em plo yer, an d if this is th e case it is o n ly re a so n a b le to

tim e to tim e in this Jou rn al we

F ro m

First Aid in

have

draw n

ad van tages

Workshops,

em p lo yer

C o m p a n ies

em plo yers

w ou ld

p eo p le

a cq u ire

to

and

the

o th er

exten d first

w hich and

fo llo w in g R a ilw a y

attention

to

w ou ld

e m p lo y ee exam p le

of

th e

that

th e

w orkers

on

th eir part w ill d e v o te

the

n ecessary tim e in o rder to a cq u ire th e k n o w le d g e w hich

to

will e n a b le them in tim es o f e m e rg e n cy to m ake th e best

alike,

if,

use o f the e q u ip m e n t w h ich is p ro v id ed for a lle v ia tin g their

th e

large

in dustrial con cerns,

kn o w led ge, an d

assu m e

a ccru e

en co u rag em en t to th eir aid

m any

the

w ork­

en list

the

sym path ies o f e m p lo y ee s to a cq u ire such k n o w led ge. W h at was true in the past obtain s in greater m easure in

ow n sufferings an d th o se o f th eir fellow s. It

is w ith ou t d o u b t

the

hu m an itarian

sid e

of

th e

qu estio n w h ich w ill ap p eal to em p lo yers, an d th ere is no d o u b t a m oral o b lig a tio n upon them to tak e all rea so n ab le steps to m in im ise th e results o ccu r to th eir e m p lo y ee s.

o f such a ccid e n ts as

m ay

A t th e sam e tim e th ere is a

th ese days in w hich all a va ila b le w orkm en and w orkw om en

sim ilar o b lig a tio n

are b iin g em p lo y ed to their utm ost ca p a city , and m any are

fellow -w orkers,

daily b ein g drafted into em p lo ym en t the surroun dings o f

k n o w le d g e

w hich th ey are unfam iliar, and in d eed co n stitu te a radical

suffering an d p o ssib ly save the life n ot o n ly o f a w o rk m a te

ch a n ge from th eir n orm al

in th e facto ry but o f a fello w -bein g elsew h ere.

environm en t.

W e are glad,

therefore, to o b serve th at in clu d e d in th e p rovision s o f a

up o n

an d to

w h ich

m ay

th e w orkm an th e in

to his

co m m u n ity tim es

of

to

crisis

fam ily, his a cq u ire

th e

m itigate

th e

A p a rt from this, th ere is a n o th er a sp ect w hich, from

B ill now un der co n sid eratio n b y the H o u s e o f C o m m o n s —

the co m m e rcia l p o in t o f view , th e em p lo y er ca n n o t afford

P o lice ,

to o v e rlo o k , n am ely, th at the

& c.

(M isce lla n eo u s

P ro visio n s)

B ill is a clause

result o f train in g

o f the

w hich req u ires in ter a lia th e provision o f a m b u la n ce and

w orker to a d m in ster first a id p ro m p tly and efficie n tly m ust

first aid equ ip m en t in factories or w orksh op s w here such

be re flected in th e co st in cu rred

equ ip m en t appears d esirab le.

C o m p e n sa tio n A c t, w hilst also ten d in g in a large m e asu re to

A n um ber o f co n d itio n s are in clu d e d in the B ill as it

re d u ce

th e

a ggreg ate

p eriod

of

u n d er

rhe W o r k m e n ’s

in effectiven ess

of

th e

now stan ds w ith regard to th ese and o th er provisions, and

em p lo y ees.

from th e

co u rag e th e a cq u isitio n o f a m b u la n ce k n o w le d g e by the

d iscu ssio n w hich

has

taken

place,

it is only

F o r this last reason also any m o v e m e n t to e n ­

reason able to assu m e that som e a m en d m en t w ill be in tro­

in d u strial classes sh o u ld b e fostered by our

d u ced befo re it b ecom es law.

B e n e fit S o cie tie s th ro u g h o u t th e coun try.

It is gratifyin g

to note,

W e F a r e an d


2

n'he Grand 3*riorg of the Order of the Jtospital 0} S t. Jo h n of Jerusalem in Sngland.

0<'8ALtsi f

\

"

AMBULANCE

fjhe

e p u t y

W.

C

H.

o m m is s io n e r

S t.

Jo h n

DEPARTMENT.

.Ambulance

Srigade.

DISTRICT ORDERS.

No. . District. D

F I R S T

:

----------

W IN N Y .

A I D .

J u ly , 1 9 1 6 .

few weeks members will avoid, unless absolutely necessary, correspondence with H eadquarters. M EM BERS

ON

S E R V IC E .

A s m any of the D ivisions have not com plied with the instruction contained in D .O . 78, with regard to furnishing a return o f the number of m embers called up for active service, it is proposed to issue a special form to D ivisions shortly, which must be filled in and returned to H eadquarters promptly. A P P O IN T M E N T . C. J. R . M acF add en , M .D ., has been appointed A ctin g D istrict Treasurer, dated July 10th, 1916. (Signed)

AU G U ST,

1916.

Sunday D u ty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. Sunday, 6th.— N o. 38 D ivision, „ 13th.— N o. 5 „ „ 20th.— N o. 11 „ „ 27th.— N o. 16 „

L .B . & S .C . R ailw ay. H ackney. W em bley and Harlesden. L .B . & S.C . R y., N ew Cross.

H eadquarters

W . H. W I N N Y , Deputy-Commissioner. -St. John’s Gate, Clerkenwell, E .C .

I n s p e c t io n a t t h e C h a r t e r h o u s e . — A fter the annual assem bly of the m embers o f the O rder at St. John’s Gate, on St. John’s day, June 24th, an inspection o f a portion o f the 2.30 p.m. to 8.30 p.m. A s per separate orders. K e y from A m bulance D ivisions o f the Prince o f W ales’s Corps was held St. Tohn’s G ate, 2 p.m. in the Charterhouse Grounds close by ,by the kind permission o f the M aster o f Charter House. T h e inspection was con­ C O M P E T IT IO N F O R A IR R A ID V O L U N T E E R S ducted by Mr. W . H. W in n y, D eputy Com m issioner of No. 1 AT TH E P O L IC E F E T E . D istrict, who was accom panied round the ranks b y the Rt. M em bers o f the D istrict will learn with pleasure that the H on. T h e Earl of Plym outh, C .B ., Sub-Prior o f the Order, and Com petition organised by the M etropolitan Police, on T h u rs­ Mr. E velyn Cecil, M .P., Secretary G eneral o f the Order. day, July 6th, for A ir R aid volunteers belonging to the various It was evident from the careful manner and the frequent am bulance organisations, both the wom en’s team and the men’s rem arks that the Sub-Prior made, that he took a keen interest team won the first prizes. T h e follow ing are the successful in the general bearing and appearance o f the men. Som e 800 com petitors :— men were on parade, most o f whom were in the regulation St. W om an ’s T eam .— N ursing Sisters J. W . Porter and G. E. John black uniform. A fter the inspection a march past took M organ ( N o. 38 D ivision) ; D. Pearce and E velyn Randall place, which was performed in an exceed ingly creditable (No. 24 D iv is io n ); L. R ussell (No. 3 Division). and steady manner, and gave no evidence o f the fact that the M en’s T ea m .— A m bulance Officer Furber (N o. 37 D iv i­ men, some o f whom were M unition workers, had not been able sion), Sergeant A . G. Barker, Corporals A . B. H ains, H. M ayto drill for some time, and no rehearsal o f the march past had bu ry'an d Private W . Roberts (No. 4 D ivision). taken place. A m ongst the visitors present were L ad y M aud W ilbraham , C E R T IF IC A T IO N O F U N IF O R M . L ad y O liver, M iss Coulcher, L ad y D istrict Secretary No. 3 It is proposed to issue a certificate to every member of the D istrict, Sir D y ce Duckw orth, Bart., Sir W illiam Portal, Bart., D istrict in uniform, who is not a m ember o f a V .A .D . certify­ Mr. W . R. Edw ards, Secretary of the O rder o f St. John ; Mr. ing that the person nam ed is entitled to wear the uniform of W . H. M organ, D eputy Com m issioner o f B rigade O verseas; the St. John A m bulance B rigade. T h is certificate should be M ajor Barclay, D eputy Com m issioner B rigade O verseas (N ew carefully preserved for production whenever required. In Zealand) ; D r. Cotton, D eputy Com m issioner, No. 8 D istrict ; order that the certificate may be issued onlyto persons entitled Mr. D. D. Robertson, F .C .A ., and numerous old m embers of to them, the D ep uty Com m issioner will be glad if all Officers the Brigade. and M em bers in C h arge will send in a return at the earliest A fter the distribution o f the follow ing awards, viz. ;— possible moment, givin g the names o f all their members H onorary Serving Brothers, Supts. Blum and S o u n d ers; L on g possessing the R egulation uniform who are not m embers of S ervice M edal. Hon. Surgeons Southcom b and W a rd ; D iv i­ V olun tary A id Detachm ents. sional Supt. O lley, L ad y Supts. D an ks, H ankey and Scott, N ursing Sister A shcroft, A m bulance O fficer Selinger, S E R V IC E IN M I L I T A R Y H O S P I T A L S B Y Sergeants G o ggs, Silvester, W arren and W icken s, Corporal N U R S IN G S IS T E R S . Colyer, Private Slade; Service B a r s : Supt. L iddell, L ady It is proposed to form a N om inal R oll o f all m embers of Supt. Bourke, N ursing Officer E . Bourke, A m bulance Officers N u rsin g D ivisions who are not m obilised as V oluntary A id N ew ton, F itch, C. Joslin, Sergeants H ayes, F isk and R ose, D etachm ents, and therefore not earm arked by County N ursing Sisters A ttw ell, Barnard, D ow n and Tunstall, the D irectors, who are w illing and able to assist at M ilitary E a rl o f Plym outh, in addressing the men, said he considered it H ospitals. N ursing Probationers and C ooks are most needed, a privilege to be there that day. H e thought the general bear: but typists are also wanted. M em bers who volunteer for this ing of the men was extrem ely good, and he wished the N o. 1 work will be required to give their whole time, and m ay be D istrict every success in its future work. sent a distance from their homes. A copy o f conditions of A fter the inspection was over, the men under the com m and service (J.W . 56) and also form (J.W . 19) are enclosed. T he o f A ctin g Corps Supt. C. Statham , went for a route march. latter form when filled in, should be returned to the D eputy Som e members of the Bugle Band, under the charge of Com m issioner at St. John’s G ate. It is hoped there will be a Sergt. Lom as, were in attendance. T h e following members o f good response from N ursing D ivisions, as there may be heavy headquarters staff were on duty— A ssistant Com m issioner dem ands shortly for women to look after our sick and wounded. V ilven, D istrict Surgeon Col. J. Cantlie, D istrict Inspector o f It will probably be desirable for L ad y Superintendents to call Stores S. B. Piers, Corps Officers Pape and S. J. W arren. a special m eeting o f the D ivision to consider the matter. If further copies o f form J.W . 19 are required application should M e r t o n a n d W i m b l e d o n ( N o . 17) D i v i s i o n .— A t be m ade as soon as possible. Roeham pton H ospital, on June 29th, B adges in recognition o f B A N K H O L ID A Y D U T Y . their services were presented to the members of the division who have for the past twelve months been doing voluntary A s the A ugu st B an k H olidays are cancelled by the G overn­ night orderly work. T h e hospital in question is the Queen ment no open space duty will be arranged. M a ry’s Convalescent M ilitary H ospital, Roeham pton House, C O R R E S P O N D E N C E W IT H H EADQ U ARTERS. w here lim bless soldiers are fitted with artificial limbs. T he m em bers, who paraded under the supervision o f Supt. Chas. It is hoped, owing to shortage of staff, that during the next


July, 19 1 6 ,

— F I R S T

O rchard, were warm ly thanked for their services. A garden fete and tea followed, and it was, to say the least, interesting to watch the maimed and limbless sol­ diers com peting for the prizes offered in the Sports section. T h e presentation o f prizes, which took place in the dining-hall, concluded a most interesting and agreeably spent afternoon. W a l t h a m s t o w ( N o . 29) D i v i s i o n .— Superintendent A. Blum, of the W altham stow D ivision of the St. John Am bulance D ivision of the A m bulance Brigade, and H onorary Serving Brother of the O rder o f St. John, is to be con­ gratulated on his schem e to provide W altham stow with a per­ manent A m bulance Station. Foundation stones will be laid on Thursday, July 20th at 3 p.m., and am ongst those laying stones are— T h e Earl of Ranfurly, P .C ., G .C .M .G ., D irector o f the A m bulance D e p art­ ment of the O rder o f St. John, who is to lay a portion o f the

A I D

-

3

M aurice Peel, V ica r o f T am w orth . A n entertain ing m usical program m e was provided, and the display was lucidly explained by D ivisional Surgeon Dr. D . M cC oll. T h e M ayoress pre­ sented the m edallions and labels to the successful m em bers. Dr. M cC oll said he had a pleasing duty to perform — to acknow ledge with gratitude and in a tan gible way, the services Lieutenant and Q uarterm aster Journet, R .A .M .C ., had rendered to the division during the past tw elve months. Lieut. Journet had undertaken the organisation and the instruction o f am bu­ lance drill, which he had carried out with credit to him self and with satisfaction to the brigade.

No. 4 District. M a n c h e s t e r . — A t the R oyal A gricu ltu ral Show , held in M anchester, June 27th to July 1st, the M anch ester and Salford Corps undertook am bulance duty. T h e arrangem ents were carried out by Corps S ecretary W . A . Brunt, under the

By courtesy ]

1. 1 uc juaay. T h e contingent o f Japanese Red Cross N urses who fulfilled a year’s duty at the R oyal V icto ria H ospital, N etley. Front row, from the l e f t : Miss k ly o o k a , Dr. O shim a, Dr. Suzuki, Mr. O saw a (interpreter), M iss Yam am oto. O ld Priory Church, presented by the R ector and C h urch­ wardens. On the ground floor o f the building provision is to be made for a motor am bulance, which it is hoped to obtain from a generous donor; a casualty room fitted up in every detail and finished in white enam el Room s will also be provided for the nursing sisters and members. Doors leading into the p lay­ ground of the school attached will enable the m embers to carry out their drills, etc. On the first floor will be a spacious Lecture H all, and Superintendent’s and Secretarial Offices. O ver 2,000 cases are attended to during the course of twelve months by No. 29 Division and No. t i N ursing Division, the Station being open day and night.

No. 3 District. T a m w o r t h .— T h e Tam worth D ivision held a successful concert and display at the T ow n H all on June 21st. T h e M ayor presided, supported by the M ayoress and the Hon.

direction o f Corps Surgeon and Corps Superintendent Dr. J. Cryer. A ll the divisions, both am bulance and nursing, took an equal share in the work. T h e A m bulance P avilion was trans­ form ed into a m iniature tem porary hospital, havin g four beds and two L iv ese y ’s “ h y g ie n ic ” portable beds, and other appliances. In addition to the w heeled litters belon gin g to the divisions, the C h ief Constable, R. Peacock, E sq., M .V .O ., kindly placed two of the new motor am bulances in attendance, T h ese were standing in readiness from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m., and were often requisitioned for the rem oval of patients. A large number o f cases were dealt with, and after a b rief stay in the pavilion were able to return hom e or to their work in the grounds. T h e officers on duty were Corps Surgeon Dr. J. Cryer. D iv. Surgeons D rs. W est, Crom pton and M agian, Corps S e cre ­ tary W . A . Brunt, Corps Inspector o f Stores R. C. D one, D iv. Supts. M orrison, M cK in ley and W orth ington , D iv. L ad y Supts. Mrs. Cowan, M iss D unn and M iss N icholson.


4

— F I R S T

T h e follow ing has been received from the Council of the Show ;— “ A t the m eeting o f the Council of the Society, held this week, I was directed to convey to you an expression o f their appreciation at the very efficient services rendered by the M anchester and Salford Corps of the St. John A m bulance B rigad e on the occasion of the S o ciety’s Show in M anchester.”

No. 5 District. It is with deep regret we have to record the death o f Mr. and Mrs. Stuart C. W ard ell, the D ep u ty Com m issioner o f the D istrict, who passed aw ay on July 1st, and his wife pre­ deceasing him. Mr. W ard ell caught a chill a short ago, and pneumonia supervened, and term inated fatally. It was only three weeks previous that his wife died from the sam e complaint. F o r 21 years he was D ep uty Com m issioner o f the No. 5 D istrict, and during that period he enjoyed a great popularity am ongst the m embers of the brigade. Mr. W ard ed formed the first colliery centre o f the S.J.A .A . at Birchwood in 1888, and one of the first corps of the B rigade was formed by him at these collieries. Mr. and Mrs. W ard ell had for years held an unique posi­ tion in the affections o f the people of Tibshelf. T h e ir com ­ bined and outstanding service for the cause o f am bulance work cannot be over-stated, and it would require a full chapter to do ju stice to their efforts. She was a staunch and earnest ally in all her husband’s work. She was the L ad y Superintendent o f the T ib sh e lf and Birchw ood Nursing Corps, and was a L ady o f the O rder of St. John of Jerusalem. N o t t i n g h a m . — Mr. T . R . Scott was recently the recipient o f a presentation made on behalf of the corps in recognition of the services he had rendered. Mr. Scott, in acknow ledging the gift, said that he wanted all the m em bers to assist him all that lay in their power and he was determ ined that the N ottingham Corps would be the largest in the country. H e mentioned that the last class that he had instructed had only two failures out o f 58, and that the m em bership o f the corps was now over 800 m embers. One hundred and sixty of whom were serving with the colours, and 146 under the St. John call.

No. 7 District. P o w y s l a n d . — Steady work is still being accom plished by this corps, which has a very creditable past record o f war work. D urin g 1915 the sum of ,£100 was raised in order to present a bed to the S .J.A .B . H ospital at Etaples. T h e bed has been duly presented and has for over six months been in use at that m ilitary hospital, and properly designated the "W e lsh p o o l Bed.” A fter this highly gratifying success the m embers of the corps looked round for further labour in the glorious field o f M ilitary A m bulance work. T h e idea o f rais­ ing funds to present a M otor A m bulance to the M ilitary A uthorities was suggested, and Mrs. E verall, Corps Super­ intendent, aided loyally and zealously by all the members of the corps, plunged into their new venture with the sam e spirit w hich has in the past successfully carried their corps through so m any praisew orthy undertakings. A fter months of patient toil the end has been accom plished and a fine 20 H .P., “ S t a r ” M otor A m bulance has been accepted by the Secretary of State for India for the use o f our troops in M esopotam ia.

No. 12 (Irish) District. T h e annual com petitions for the Irish W om en ’s Challenge Cup and the D ublin A m bulance C hallenge Cup were held on F rid ay and Saturday, June 16th and 17th, in Lord Iv ea g h ’s G ardens, St. Stephen ’s Green. T h e com petitions o ccupied several hours, and were confined to St. John B rigad e D iv i­ sions, the cups having been given for this purpose some years ago. It is hoped, how ever, that next year the R ed Cross units will be able to enter for sim ilar prizes. A bout a thousand nurses and nearly five hundred am bu­

AID. —

Ju ly, 1 9 1 6 .

lance men paraded on Saturday in Lord Iv ea gh ’s gardens, St. Stephen’s G reen, D ublin, for the joint inspection, and upwards o f 5 , 0 0 0 visitors passed through the turnstiles. M usic played by the band o f the 12th R oyal Lancers enlivened the proceedings, and contingents representative o f all the four provinces were on parade. T h e march past follow ing the inspection was an im posing spectacle. A t the saluting base were the flags of the two organisations, and the pipers of the D ublin U n iversity O .T .C . played for the march past. T his over, the nurses and am bulance men were drawn up on three sides o f a square. W ith G eneral M axw ell were M ajor-G eneral Sandbach, M ajor-G eneral F o x and Surgeon-G eneral Ford. G eneral M axwell, addressing the units, described it as a great honour to have been asked to make an inspection of them. N ever before had he attended a parade in which so many ladies took part, and he congratulated those before him upon their good work and efficient appearance and what they had done for the Arm y. He would not allude to the part many of them took during the recent disturbances in Dublin because he believed the less said about certain things the soonest mended, but it was a great satisfaction to find so many people ready to help the sick and wounded whenever the occasion arose. T h e work done in D ublin, not only assisting in the hospitals, but in bringing wounded from ships to hospital, was worthy o f the greatest thanks the A rm y could give. L ad y Perrott rem arked that it gave her great pleasure to see the two organisations working so harm oniously together, and the British Red Cross Society had done her very great honour in asking her to inspect them with St. John A m bu­ lance Brigade. T h e two organisations had between them 4,584 women m embers on service in m ilitary hospitals at home and abroad, and 2,511 were w aiting to be called up. T he women o f Ireland had provided 42 beds, at about , £ 1 0 0 each, in France. She congratulated the nurses on their smart turn-out that day. Dr. Lum sden, D eputy Com m issioner, said that the organ i­ sations were proud to have G eneral M axwell and L ady Perrott with them. He, Dr. Lum sden, announced that the winners of the Irish W om en’s C hallenge Cup were the Dundrum N ursing Division. T h e Harcourt N ursing D ivision came second. T h e Dublin A m bulance C h allenge Cup had been won by the C ity o f Dublin Corps for the second year. L ady Perrott presented the awards. Mr. Justice R oss, Chairm an of St. John A m bulance A sso ­ ciation, thanked G eneral M axw ell and L ady Perrott for their attendance. In no part o f the Em pire had such an advance been made in am bulance work as in the neighbourhood of Dublin. A few years ago the work was alm ost extinct, but ow ing to the efforts o f D r. Lum sden and others it had made splendid progress. In the recent rebellion the risk of death did not deter am bulance men and women from going under fire. T h e y had borne the supreme test, and shown that nothing would prevent them doing their best in the cause of humanity. Cheers were given for L ad y Perrott and G eneral M axwell, and the proceedings concluded with the p layin g of “ God Save the K in g.” A reception was held on Saturday in the Aberdeen H all, Gresham Hotel. In honour of the presence o f L ady Perrott a guard of honour was posted at the entrance of the hotel. T h e guard was com posed of men drawn from the D ublin D ivision, the G len ageary D ivision and the Dublin Building T rad es’ D ivision, in com m and of Corps Supt. W ebb. T h e guests were received by Dr. Lum sden, D eputy C om ­ missioner and Mrs. Lumsden.

T h e part tak en by th e R e d C ro ss is seco n d o n ly to that o f the arm y its e lf in im p o rtan ce and m agn itu de. It has been stated that 80,000 person s are fu lly en g ag ed in th e field and at h o m e in the w ork o f th e B ritish R e d C ross, an d th ere is no reason to d o u b t the estim ate that th e so cieties o f th e R e d C ro ss in all b ellig eren t co u n tries at the present tim e h ave the full p erso n n el o f m ore than 500,000, while m illions co n trib u te o f their m eans an d tim e as m uch as th ey can.


Jul y, 1916 .

— FIRST

AID

&

THE

ST.

JOHN

AMBULANCE

G A Z E T T E .—

THE ST. JOHN A M B U LA N C E GAZETTE. U rgent Wi£

are

seriously

shortage

of

Appeal.

d istressed

V .A .D .

by

m em bers

the an ticip atio n

for

service

in

of

a

M ilitary

H osp itals. A ll th e m em bers w ho can give w hole tim e sh ould now be d o in g so eith er in their local A u x ilia ry H o sp itals or in M ilitary H osp itals. It is p ro b a b le that the beds will be fuller in the near future and we m ust n ever fail the S ick and W o u n d ed .

If

m ore n am es are not sent up by m em bers w illing to rep lace the N u rsin g O rd erlies in M ilitary H o sp ita ls we shall fa il; but, su rely both O fficers and m em bers will help again as they h ave h elp ed in the past. I sh o u ld lik e to ad d that our new volu nteers must give g e n ero u sly as

th o se

in

the past have given .

som etim es feel as if the “ eager h e a r ts ” had

all

We co m e

forw ard an d that now we h ave to d ep en d m ore on those who have w aited and

n eed en co u rag em en t to give what

they sh ould giv e o f their ow n free will. P le ase do n ot th in k that

we are ca llin g

upon

the

d evo ted m em bers w orkin g in their own H o sp ita ls who are ju st as m uch w anted as th ose in the M ilitary H osp itals. W e are ca llin g to those, w ho though free to giv e w hole tim e, are o n ly p uttin g in part tim e, becau se they have not yet u n derstood that their C o u n try needs them and that the S ick and W o u n d e d will suffer if they do not giv e all th ey have to giv e w hich is d e vo tio n and sacrifice. {Signed)

K a t h a r in e

F u rs e ,

i/c W o m e n ’s V .A .D . D ep artm en t. D e vo n sh ire H ouse, P ic ca d illy , W ., J u ly 19 16 .

R em iniscences of Early Am bulance W ork in India. By

COLONEL I n d ia n

T.

H.

M e d ic a l

H END LEY, S e r v ic e

C .I .E .,

V .D .,

(R e t ir e d ).

( Concluded from page 222.) A t B a n d ik u i so m uch in terest was aroused that the sch o o l b e ll was rung and an a u d ien ce o f a b ou t tw o h u ndred m en, w om en and ch ild ren arrived, w hich led to the lectu re being turned in to a p o p u lar address in stead o f an a m b u ­ lance d em on stration . A t th e b egin n in g o f 1883, M r. (afterw ards Sir) V . B a r­ rington K e n n e tt visited Jaip ur in the co u rse o f a tour

throu gh In d ia , b u t the tim e was n o t yet rip e for o fficial rep resen tation o f th e A sso cia tio n , h e n c e no sp e cia l results follo w ed his m ission, e x ce p t th e pap er w h ich h e read for m e later in th e year an d th e in itia tion o f the B o m b a y C e n tre . I had little o p p o rtu n ity o f fu rth erin g th e ca u se u n til I was transferred to B e n g a l in 1898 as In s p e cto r G e n e ra l o f C iv il H o sp ita ls in th at great P ro v in ce , w h ich was as y et u n d ivid ed , an d th erefo re h ad a p o p u la tio n o f a b o u t 75 m illion souls. M y diagram s an d o th er m aterials w ere used at Jaip u r b y m y friend, th e R e v . G . M a calister, D .D ., in his large m ission sch o o ls for m any years, and n o t very lo n g ago he h elp ed our w ork by p reparin g th e U rd u or H in d u s ta n i version o f the A ss o cia tio n m anu al on “ F irst A id for the W o u n d e d .” I also ca u sed th e g en era l p rin cip les o f first aid and h yg ien e to be tau gh t to a large sta ff o f v a ccin a to rs w ho tra velled o ver the Jaip u r State, an d th e h o sp ita l a ssist­ ants in ch a rg e o f rural d isp en saries w ere e n co u ra g e d to stu d y sim p le w orks on veterin a ry m e d icin e w h ich w ere s u p ­ p lied to them in o rder that th ey m ight a d vise th e a g ric u l­ turists, and thus n o t o n ly reliev e suffering a n im a ls but m a k e friends o f th e p eo p le, for I h o ld th at a m b u la n ce w ork in the true sen se in vo lves a v e ry w id e-sp read a b ility an d desire to a lle via te m isery o f all kin ds. In m y trien n ial rep ort on th e w orkin g o f th e c h a rit­ ab le disp en saries o f B e n g a l for th e years 1896-7-8, I find that I n oted that m e d icin e ch ests co n ta in in g sim p le m e d i­ cin es and in stru ctio n s for th eir use w ere su p p lie d to the h ead m en o f villages, an d that I a d v o c a te d th e a p p o in tm e n t o f tra vellin g ho sp ital assistan ts or dressers, as is the custo m in rural areas in R ussia. I also drew a tte n tio n to the d e sirab ility o f in stru ctin g th e p o lic e in first aid so that th ey m ieht be a b le to afford it at th e thanas (p o lice station s or posts), at fairs (m elas); at th e villa ge m arkets (h ats), and on railw ays or stea m b o at lines. T h e railw ay and stea m b o at au th o rities sh o w ed th eir w illin gn ess to co -o p erate w ith us in this m atter, sp e cia lly in p ro vid in g eq u ip m e n t and in arra n gin g for th e in stru ctio n o f their servants. T h e greatest a d va n ce, how ever, was m ade in th e p o lic e d ep artm en t u n der Sir E d w a rd H e n ry , w ho is now , as C o m m issio n e r in L o n d o n , so w ell kn o w n as a frien d o f th e a m b u la n ce cause. A ll civ il surgeon s w ere re q u e ste d by m e to arran ge for classes to be h eld at th e p o lic e hosp itals w h ich w ere u n der th eir sup ervision, w ith th e a ssistan ce o f th e ho sp ital assistants, w ho w ere ch a rg ed w ith th e d irect in stru ctio n o f the co n sta b les. T h e In sp e cto r-G e n e ra l o f P o lice an d I d e c id e d th at th e train in g sh o u ld be as sim p le as p ossible, but that it sh o u ld be c o n tin u e d un til th e m en w ere th o ro u gh ly efficient. In th e m ain th e sy lla b u s o f th e A sso cia tio n was follo w ed , but stress was la id upon sp ecia l points, w h ich w ere m ark ed in italics. C la sses w ere also h eld at th e T ra in in g S ch o o l for P o lic e O fficers at B h aga lp u r, and th e m o vem en t sp read so w id ely that n early all the co n sta b les w h o w ere on d u ty in th e B e n g a l C a m p at tb e D e lh i P ro cla m a tio n D u rb a r o f Jan uary, 1903, had re ce iv e d certificates o f p ro ficien cy in a m b u la n ce work. T h e circu lar letter to all C iv il Su rgeo n s in B e n g a l, in


6

F IR ST

A ID

&

TH E

ST.

JO H N

w h ich I e m b o d ied m y view s on first a id and th e em ergen t treatm en t o f su d d en illness, was issued on D e c e m b e r 9th, 1899. In th e w inter season o f 190 0 -19 0 1, L ie u t.-C o lo n e l A . C . Y a te , o f th e In d ia n A rm y , H o n o ra ry O rgan isin g C o m m issio n e r for In d ia o f the St. Joh n A m b u la n c e A s s o c i­ ation , m ade a tour th rou gh th e co u n try, and on M a rch 1 8th, 19 0 1, a p u b lic m eetin g was h eld in C a lcu tta , at w h ich Sir E d w in C o lle n , th e M ilita ry M e m b e r o f th e V ic e r o y ’s C o u n c il, was present. A n In d ia n bran ch o f the A sso cia tio n w as form ed, and from th at d ate its o fficia l p o sitio n in the E m p ire was fu lly establish ed . T h is form al re co gn itio n o f th e im p o rtan ce o f a m b u ­ la n ce w ork was d u e to C o lo n e l Y a t e w ho had lo n g been in terested in th e ca u se and en th u sia stic in its p rom otion in N o rth In d ia. S ir R ich a rd T e m p le , w ho had p revio u sly tak en an in ­ terest in th e hosp itals in th e P u n ja b , started in 1901 a sp ecia l system for the in stru ctio n o f m ale an d fem ale co n victs at P o rt B la ir in th e A n d a m a n s. H e was a id ed by L a d y T e m p le and th e sch e m e was a great success. A fte r his d ep artu re in 1903 it was allo w ed to drop and was only re viv ed in 19 10 . H is e x p erien ce is very sign ifican t. It show s th e va lu e o f p erson al enthusiasm , but at th e sam e tim e th e im p o rtan ce o f official support if a m ove­ m ent is to b e o f a p erm an en t ch aracter. I kn o w th is was th e ca se in m y o ld p ro vin ce in B en g al, as th e late L ie u t'-G o v e rn o r S ir N o rm an B a k e r w rote to m e in D e cem b er, 1909, that great a d va n ces had been m ade in a ll d irectio n s, b u t esp e cially in th e p o lice, o f w hom n o fewer than 1,440 h ad re ce ive d in stru ctio n in 1908, o f w hom 897 had been gran ted certificates o f efficien cy. In C a lcu tta a lo n e betw een 1904 and th e d ate o f his letter no few er than 1,7 6 5 co n sta b le h ad g a in ed certificates. G re a t progress has been m ade in recen t years, and p articu larly sin ce M arch , 1905, w hen L o r d C u rzon , w h o was th en V ic e r o y o f In d ia, fo rm ed the C e n tra l In d ia n C o m ­ m ittee, an d V is c o u n t K itc h e n e r, the C o m m an d er-in -C h ief, b e ca m e its P resid e n t, but th is b egin s a n o th er ch a p te r in th e h isto ry o f th e A sso cia tio n in In d ia. It w ill h a ve b een g a th e re d from m y p revious rem arks that I ta k e a very w ide view o f the sco p e o f first aid in In d ia . H o w c o u ld it be o therw ise w hen, as I h ave a lread y u rged, we reflect on the a p p a llin g loss o f life from the bites o f snakes, w ild anim als an d cro co d ile s, as w ell as such diseases as ch o le ra or plague, in all o f w h ich cases prom pt a n d e n e rg e tic treatm en t a lo n e can save from d eath or suffering. T h e s e view s im p ly in stru ctio n in p re ve n tive m easures as m u ch as in a ctu al treatm en t o f in juries an d em ergen t ca ses o f disease. L e ctu re s an d classes in san itation and h y g ie n e are th e re fo re q u ite as im p o rtan t as are th o se in first aid. T h e s e are n ot o n ly n ecessa ry in th e in terests o f in d ivid u a ls, but in o rd er th at the p eo p le m ay be e d u ca te d to u n d erstan d , an d carry o u t with sym p ath y and in te llige n ce th e leg isla tiv e en a ctm en ts o f G o ve rn m en ts w h ich are m ade for th eir g o o d , as, for exam p le, for th e p reven tio n o f p lague, ch o lera, or m alarial fevers. In the b e lie f that e d u ca tio n o f this ch a ra cter m ust b egin at th e top, in M arch , 1900, I p ro p o sed to the C a lc u tta U n iv e rs ity th at in stru ctio n in san itary scien ce s h o u ld be a d o p te d as o n e o f th e su b jects in th e F irst A rts co u rse. T h e su gg estio n was ap p ro v ed , as was also a re co m ­ m en d a tio n o f a C o m m itte e o f the F a c u lty o f A rts, o f w hich I w as C h airm an , th at san itary s cie n ce co u ld e q u ally w ell be in c lu d e d in the co u rse o f E n g lish for the B .A . an d M .A . d egrees re sp e ctive ly , by th e selectio n o f w orks o f stan dard au th o rs in w h ich su b jects co n n e cte d w ith h ealth or san itary scie n ce are a llu d e d to or discu ssed . In a seco n d co m ­

AM BULANCE

GAZETTE. —

July, 1 9 1 6 .

m ittee we drew up a S an itary S c ie n c e for th e F irst E x a m i­ n ation in A rts in th e U n iv ersity , an d our reco m m en d a tio n s w ere a cce p te d by the S e n a te an d a p p ro v ed by th e G o v e rn ­ m ent o f In d ia. A t my request D r. (now Sir C h arles) B ed fo rd , M .D ., D .S c ., p repared a tex tb o o k on m ilitary h yg ien e for In d ia n studen ts w h ich clo sely follow s the syllabus. T h e prin ­ cip a l sectio n s w ou ld serve as a co m p lete syllabu s for the co u rse o f lectu res for th e H y g ie n e or H e a lth C e rtifica te o f th e St. Joh n A m b u la n c e A sso cia tio n in In dia. T h e d ecisio n o f th e U n iv ersity o f C a lcu tta had a far rea ch in g effect, b ecau se orders w ere issued by S ir A . P ed ler, the D ire cto r o f P u b lic In stru ctio n and by me, as the In sp ecto r G en eral o f C iv il H o sp itals, that, all other th in gs b ein g equ al, ca n d id ates for ap p o in tm en ts in our resp ective departm en ts sh ould be p referred w ho had o b tain ed th e sanitary qualification. It w ill b e seen from th e a b o v e a cco u n t th at B engal was fully ripe for th e official actio n o f the St. J o h n A m b u la n c e A sso cia tio n , and th ere is every reason to b e lie v e that o th er In d ia n p rovin ces, ju d g in g by th e p ro ­ gress w hich has sin ce b een m ade, w ere e q u a lly read y to w elco m e its efforts.

P ractical

A m bulance Southend.

W ork

at

h e exp erien ce we have had in S o u th e n d in the organ i­ sation and trainin g o f m en for V .A .D . w ork and the transport o f w o u n d ed m ay afford su ggestio n s to other a m b u la n ce w orkers w hich m ay be o f va lu e to those facin g sim ilar difficulties. In A u g u st, 19 1 4 , th ere w ere o n ly tw elve m em bers o f th e St. J oh n A m b u la n c e B rig a d e in the borough, an d it was o b vio u s that this n um ber w ou ld be in su fficient to co p e w ith th e war w ork w h ich m ight d e v e lo p in a tow n o f 87,000 in habitants. A first aid class wa im m ed iately organ ised and very sh o rtly a full D e ta ch m en t was form ed as St. J oh n A sso cia tio n V .A .D . 43. W h ile the class was p ro ce ed in g the B rig a d e m em bers trained the class in stretch er w ork, so that by the tim e th e pass list was re ce ive d the m en had had co n sid e ra b le exp erien ce o f stretch er drill. T h e first difficulty was th e provision o f c o n v e y a n ce for transp ort o f w ou nded. T h e r e was no a m b u la n ce, horse or m otor, ava ilab le in Ithe tow n an d very few horse-draw n v e h icle s su itab le for the c o n v e y a n ce o f stretch ers. M o st o f su ch veh icles had very h eavy springs an d w ou ld cause u n d u e jarrin g to patients w hose stretch ers w ere laid on th eir floors. T h e r e w ere only o n e or tw o m otor w agons a v a ila b le w h ich c o u ld be used for c o n v e y in g stretch ers rap idly. B earers w ere, therefore, p ractised in lo ad in g stretch ers w ith p atients u p on th ese cars and lash ing th e stretch ers in p o sitio n with ropes. W e rece ive d o n ly tw enty-four h o u rs’ n o tice o f th e arrival o f the first H o sp ita l train for H .M . Q u e e n M a ry ’s R o y a l N a va l H o sp ita l on O c to b e r 15th , 19 14 , an d with the a ssistan ce o f th e S o u th e n d an d D istrict A u to m o b ile C lu b , th e m em bers o f th e S o u th e n d an d W e s tc liff S e ctio n St. J oh n A m b u la n ce B rig ad e an d St. Joh n V .A .D . 43, all the stretch er and sitting cases w ere co n v e y e d to th e hosp ital ra p id ly and efficien tly a lth o u gh th e w ork was carried out in early hours o f the m orning. A fte r som e m o n th s’ exp erien ce o f this m eth od o f transport we co n stru cted a w oo d en fram e w ith runners w hich c o u ld be la sh ed upon a m otor car to re ce iv e a

T


July, 1916

— FIR S T

A ID

&

TH E

ST.

stretch er in th e sam e w ay as an a m b u la n ce w agon. A b o u t fifteen o f these fram es are regu larly in use at the present tim e, alth ou gh we h a ve now five a m b u lan ces ava ilab le un der the co n tro l o f th e various V .A .D .’s. W e b elieve that this m eth o d o f co n v e y in g in ju red persons m ay be va lu a b le in o th er tow ns or co u n try districts w here th ere is sh ortage o f a m b u lan ces, and as th e cost o f the fram e is very sm all there is no reason w hy one or m ore sh ould not be kep t for use upon privately-ow n ed cars and used in em ergen cy for th e co n v e y a n ce o f m ilitary or civilian patients. W ith regard to the use o f horse-draw n w agons as a m bu lan ces, the heavier typ es, even w hen th e floors are laid with lo o se straw, c o n v e y very co n sid erab le vibration to p atients, as th e stretch er rollers w ork throu gh the straw to th e floor o f the w agon. I f a m attress or straw boun d in rolls b e used, th e co n d itio n is greatly im proved, but in both cases th e stretch er m ust be lifted in to the w agon and laid upon th e straw or m attress, this operation bein g reversed in un lo adin g. T h u s , w hile lo ad in g upon a m attress is fairly co m fo rta b le for th e p atient it is a slow m ethod. We have, therefore, fitted th e p revio u sly m en tion ed w ooden fram e w ith le a f springs at each end, w hich rest upon the floor o f a w agon, and th e fram e is stea d ied by the sam e cord s as are used o n a m otor car. S o m e vans are wide enough for tw o o f th ese fram es, but leave no room for an orderly. V ib ra tio n is very m uch re d u ce d by this arran ge­ m ent and lo ad in g exp ed ited . W e are now regu larly using with satisfactory results several horse-draw n brew ers’ d elivery vans and m otor d elivery vans fitted in this mannerA n orderly is d e ta iled to each ve h icle with stretch er cases, to h orsed vans as w ell as to a m bu lan ces. In several o f the m otor a m bu lan ces difficulty has been exp erien ced w ith the runners. E ith e r th ey w ere not w ide enough to tak e both F u rle y and R .A M .C . stretchers, or the b o d y o f th e w agon was n ot lo n g en o u gh , an d it w ou ld be w ell if a stan dard w idth an d len gth o f runner co u ld be a dopted, th e d etails o f w hich m ight be p ro vid ed by the A sso cia tio n to th o se V .A .D .’s o rderin g a m b u la n ce bodies fitted to seco n d -h an d chassis. T h e average train lo ad o f w ou n d ed arrivin g here consists o f a b o u t 150 cases, the n um ber o f co t cases varyin g from 25 to 100, an d as th e ligh tin g regu lations h ave b een extrem ely strin gen t a great deal o f the lo ad in g upon the cars has b een d o n e in dark n ess with th e aid o f e lectric torch es. S o m e sev erely w ou n d ed patients h ave co m p lain ed o f the w eigh t o f b la n k e ts— in one case th e p atien t refu sed to be co vered at a ll— and in o rder to rem ed y this discom fort, we have p ro vid ed iron springs to fit eith er th e R .A .M .C . or the F u rley stretchers. T h e s e are half-hoop sh ape and can be in stantly clip p e d to the stretch er poles. B la n k ets are throw n over th e irons an d clip p ed with o rd in ary b icy cle trouser-clips, this form in g a crad le or hood. T h is arrangm ent is also useful to p ro tect patients on a m otor-car w hen the cape h o o d ca n n o t be used. W e h ave exp erien ced an o th er difficulty in several cases w hen patients have arrived in box-splints o f the B ryan t, or sim ilar pattern, so w ide that th e y c o u ld n ot be lo ad ed in to a m otor a m b u la n ce. In th ese cases the stretch er fram e u p on a to u rin g car or horse-draw n ve h icle is a great co n ve n ie n ce , as such veh icles are alw ays in atten d an ce for such an em ergen cy. O th er cases have been a sittin g p osition , an d again co u ld n ot be p lace d in the m otor am b u la n ce s in use w ith th e u p p er tier o f runners fixed, an d the horse-draw n veh icles are m ost co n ve n ie n t for these cases allo w in g, as th ey do, am p le h ead room . O n several o cca sio n s we h a d a large n u m b er o f cases

JO H N

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GAZETTE. —

7

o f “ trench fe e t,” m any w ith both feet b a n d a ged , an d we foun d the best m eth o d to c o n v e y th ese from th e train was pick-a-back, th e p atien t b ein g lifted back w ard s in to a touring-car with the a ssistan ce o f a bearer in th e car. W e h ave th ree or fo u r A sh fo rd litters in th e to w n a n d use th ese to re liev e th e p h y sical strain u p on th e bearers w hen a large n u m b er o f co t cases h a v e to be c o n v e y e d from the p latform to th e street. W h en th ere is a lim ited n um ber o f bearers and a carry o f 200 yards, th e strain u p o n the bearers is n atu rally co n sid e ra b le. In o rder to ensure th e regu lar a n d ste a d y su p p ly o f p atients at th e statio n e xit an d for sen d in g vario u s m essages, a field tele p h o n e is fixed from th e p latform to the e x i t ; this tak es o n ly a b o u t ten m in utes to p la ce in position. T h r e e p ick e d lo ad in g squads, e ach u n d e r a S e ctio n L ea d er, are d e ta iled at th e statio n an d tw o u n lo ad in g squads at th e hosp ital. T h e stre tch er bearers do n o t lo ad th e ve h icle s. B y usin g this sp ecia l lo a d in g sq u a d th e safety o f the p atien ts is secu re d an d rap id w ork effected . T h e m eth o d o f carryin g stretch ers up a staircase m ust, o f course, d e p e n d upon the p itch an d w ith o f th e stairs as w ell as the n ature o f th e turns. T h e w ide staircase w ith one turn and w ide treads at Q u ee n M a ry ’s h o sp ita l e n a b les tw o bearers q u ite co m fo rta b ly to carry up a stre tch er h e a d first, th e bearer at fo ot liftin g th e p oles to ch e s t lev el. F ractures are, how ever, tak en up feet first. O w in g to th e n u m b er o f m en n ow a ctin g as stre tch er bearers, w ho are o ver m ilitary age, w e h a ve fo u n d it a d v is­ ab le to carry o u t stretch er an d w agon e xercises w ith p atients up o n the stretch ers so that th e m u scles o f the bearers m igh t be d e v e lo p e d and, in ad d itio n , in stru ctio n is given e ach drill-n igh t in p h y sica l drill with th e sam e o b je ct, we co n sid er th at in p ea ce tim e a tten tio n s h o u ld h a ve been giv en to drill in stru ctio n w ith lo a d e d stretch ers in o rd er to train m en to carry p atients both on th e lev el and upstairs. H. L a n g le y J o n e s, C o m m a n d a n t V .A .D ., E s s e x 4 5.

N otes

and

N ew s.

I n the b rie f sp ace o f th ree years, th e A u c k la n d C e n tr e o f th e St. J o h n A m b u la n c e A ss o cia tio n has in cre a se d its m em b ersh ip from 389 to 2,675. *

*

*

In the sp ace o f a w ee k last m on th , th e C h ie f C o m ­ m issioner en tertain ed th e fo llo w in g visitors at the B rig a d e H o sp ita l at E t a p le s :— -O n th e 1 8th, th e D irecto r-G e n e ra l o f the F re n ch M e d ic a l S e rv ices a n d his Staff, G e n e ra l V a llie re and several d istin g u ish ed civ ilia n ge n tle m en , a m o n g them b ein g M . C o o m b ; 19 th, L o r d C r e w e ; 25th, th e F re n c h M in ister, M . B rian d, I t is hard ly n ecessa ry to a d d th at all w ere grea tly im p ressed w ith w hat th e y saw. * * * W e tak e th e fo llo w in g ex tra ct from a letter re ce iv e d from th e P rin c esse d e C h im a y . R e fe rrin g to th e gift o f a m o to r a m b u la n ce to th e Q u e e n o f th e B e lg ia n s ’ H o s p ita l at L a P a n n e , w h ich was sen t by th e “ S ilv e r T h im b le ” last O cto b e r, she w rites :— “ T h e eig h t p o in ted w h ite cross o f th e O rd e r o f St. Joh n is now alm ost as w ell k n o w n th rou gh all B e lg iu m as the G e n e v a C ross.

W h e n c o r r e s p o n d in g w i t h m e n tio n “ F ir s t A id

A d v e r t is e r s p le a se


8

— FIRST

AID

&

THE

ST.

JOHN

The Grand Priory of th e Order of th e H ospital of S t. John of Jerusalem in England. Chancery o f the O rder, St. fo h n 's G ate, Clerkenw ell, London, E . C . , J u l y 13 th , i g i 6 . H is M ajesty the K in g has been graciously pleased to sanction the following promotions in, and appointments to, the O rder of the H ospital o f St. John of Jerusalem in E n gland :— A s K n ig h t o f fu sticc (from K n ig h t o f Grace) : T h e Lord Claud Ham ilton, M .V .O ., M .P. A s K n ig h ts o f G race : S ir W illiam Lam ond A llardyce, K .C .M .G . L ieut.-Colonel F ran cis F rederick Perry, C .I.E ., F .R .C .S . T h e E arl o f H arewood. T h e Lord T redegar. A s L a d ies o f G r a c e :

G A Z E T T E .—

Jul y

[916.

D etachm ent m ay prove that they have qualified at two re-exam inations subsequent to the year in which the M edallion was gained. (4) E xam ination s fo r Dem onstrator’s Certificates.— Exam inations will be held quarterly in London, N ew castle, M anchester, Leeds, Birm ingham , Southam pton, Cardiff, D ublin and Belfast, and such other large towns as m ay be selected. A t each of them a Surgeon Exam iner will be per­ manently appointed. N otice o f such exam inations will be given from time to time in the S t . J o h n A m b u l a n c e G azette.

(5) E n try f o r E xa m in a tion .— Candidates must send their names and addresses to the C h ief Secretary at least 21 days before the date fixed for the exam ination, specifying at which o f the Centres mentioned in the preceding paragraph it will be most convenient for them to attend, together with a fee of 5s. for each subject on which they wish to be exam ined. T h e C h ief Secretary will then cause the names to be entered on the report form (introduced for the purpose) and despatch it to the Surgeon Exam iner concerned, who will notify the candidates when to attend if it is found necessary to extend the examination over more than one day. (6) Syllabus o f E xa m in a tion .— E ach candidate will have to answer questions viva voce, or at the discretion of the Surgeon Exam iner in writing, give practical dem onstrations and afford evidence o f his capacity for im parting instruction by delivering a short lecture on any subject w hich the Exam iner m ay select from the First A id or H om e N ursing Syllabus, as the case m ay be, and must obtain not less than 65 per cent, of marks allotted. If in the opinion of the Surgeon Exam iner he has, although obtaining 65 per cent of the aggregate, failed in an essential subject he will not be awarded a pass. T h e result o f the exam ination will be notified to candidates only through the C h ief Secretary ; no particulars o f marks gained will be furnished.

Sarah, M iss M acnaughtan. T h e Countess o f H arewood. Sarah F ran ces Graham , L ad y W akefield. C onstance A ngel, L ady A llardyce. E dith Florence, Mrs. E . M. G rant-D uff. A s E sq u ires. Lieut. Piers K eane K ekew ich, R .N . Capt. R onald D o ck ray W aterhouse. A s H o n o ra ry A ssociate : W illiam Calw ell, M .D . A s D o n a t. (S ilv e r LSadge): F rederick Solom on Phillips.

S t. John D em onstrator’s C ertificates T h e atten tio n o f readers is in vited to the follow in g rules g o v ern in g th e issue o f St. Joh n D e m o n stra to r’s C ertificates. T h e s e rules w ill co m e in to force as and from 1st O cto b e r next, on w h ich d ate the p rovision s o f p ap er N .F .C .2 w ill be w ith draw n exce p t in so far as they refer to the exam in ation o f sm all n um bers o f ca n d id ates at a re d u ce d fee. T h e s e regu latio n s h a ve re ce iv e d th e app roval o f the J oin t V .A .D . C o m m itte e for a d o p tio n on b e h a lf o f the b o d ies it represen ts :—

R E G U L A T IO N S G O V E R N IN G T H E IS S U E D E M O N S T R A T O R ’S C E R T I F I C A T E S .

AMBULANCE

OF

(1) Object.— T o relieve Surgeon Instructors from giving practical instruction in First A id to the Injured and Home N ursing which can be adequately afforded by com petent assistants o f either sex. (2) Responsibility o f Surgeon Instructors.— T h e Surgeon Instructor will be responsible for the general conduct o f the class, and must him self give not less than six out o f twelve hours’ instruction, spread over not less than three weeks during the war, and six weeks in peace time. H e may, however, d ele­ gate parts o f the practical instruction to an assistant of either sex in possession of the St. John D em onstrator's Certificate in the subject, provided that no male may assist in a female class, and vice versa. It must be distinctly understood that the possession o f this Certificate does not entitle the holder to give instruction except under the direction of th e Surgeon Instructor and that the em ploym ent o f a dem onstrator is optional. ( 3) Qualifications o f Candidates.— T o be eligible to be ex­ am ined tor a D em onstrator’s certificate in F irst A id or H om e N ursing,, candidates must hold a certificate o f the A ssociation in the s u b j e c t and also a M edallion and two Labels ; or, instead of two L abels, m embers o f the B rigad e or o f a V olun tary A id

(7) N othing in these R egulations shall affect the existing rule which provides that trained nurses m ay lecture in Home N ursing, or prevent for the present Surgeon Instructors from availin g them selves o f the help of lay dem onstrators (though not holding a St. John Dem onstrator’s Certificate) for such parts o f the syllabus as bandaging, carrying and stretcher drill. (8) W hen a trained nurse is the lecturer in the Hom e N ursing Course she m ay not delegate any part o f the instruc­ tion to a demonstrator. E x am in a tio n s for the quarter en d in g 30th S eptem ber, 19 16 , w ill tak e p lace as follow s :— London ... 2nd S eptem ber. N ew ca stle . . ... 7th S eptem ber. M a n ch ester ... ... 2nd Septem ber. L eeds ... ... 2nd Septem ber. B irm in gh am ... ... 2nd S eptem ber. D u b lin ... 10th Septem ber. S o u th a m p to n ... • • • I t, , , . C a rd iff n otified in our B elfa st

::: j

next issue'

S Y L L A B U S O F E X A M IN A T IO N FOR TH E F IR S T A ID D E M O N S T R A T O R ’S C E R T I F I C A T E . 1.— The Scope o f F ir s t A id — principles and limitations. D iagnosis, determ ining needs o f a case, improvisation. N ature’s efforts and how to assist them. 2.— Elem entary Anatom y and Physiology and their A pplication to F ir s t A i d — sufficient to show a clear under­ standing of the reasons for the various steps to be taken when rendering F irst A id, including especially— (a) T h e skeleton, muscles, tendons, etc. (.b) T h e blood ; the heart and blood vessels ; the cir­ culation o f the blood. (c) T h e air, air passages and lungs ; respiration. (d) T h e organs o f digestion and their functions. (e) T h e brain, nerves and gan glia, and their functions. 3.— S u rg ica l Cleanliness— Infection. Germ s. T h e heal­ ing of wounds. Dressings.


J u ly , 1 9 1 6 .

F IR ST

A ID

&

THE

ST.

JO H N

4.— A l l other Subjects com prised in the First A id syllabus (paper 38). Textbooks recomm ended:— T h e official textbook of the A ssociation on the subject. “ Problem s in First A id ,” Christian & Edw ards. “ P h ysiology for Beginners,” Foster & Shore. S Y L L A B U S O F E X A M IN A T IO N FOR TH E H O M E N U R S IN G D E M O N S T R A T O R ’S C E R T IF IC A T E . 1.— Elem entary Anatom y and Physiology, and their Application to Hom e N u r sin g — sufficient to show' a clear understanding of the reasons for the various steps to be taken in connection with Home Nursing, especially— • (a) T h e skeleton, muscles, tendons, etc. (b) T h e blood ; the heart and blood vessels ; the cir­ culation of the blood. (c) T h e air, air passages and lungs, respiration. (d ) T h e organs of digestion and their functions. (e) T h e brain, nerves and ganglia, and their functions. 2.— Su rg ica l Cleanliness— Infection. Germs. T h e healo f wounds. Dressings. 2.— Enem ata and their administration. 4. — A l l other Subjects comprised in the Hom e Nursing syllabus (paper 60). Textbooks recommended T h e official textbook o f the Association on the subject. “ Physiology for Beginners,” Foster & Shore.

The Journey, Life and Experiences of a V.A D. in M ontenegro. {Con/inued fr o m page 223). O n our c h ie fs return to th e station, we were told to pick out sm all hand baggage an d to p ro ceed to two carriages ou tsid e the station. T h e s e so-called carriages w ere broken-dow n veh icles, w hich I regard ed with grave suspicion . I ch o se th e least gro ggy-lo o kin g and scram bled in fo llo w ed by th e tw o sisters an d one V .A .D . T h e tw o horses w ere then put to th e gallop, and kept up th e p ace right through the town, regardless o f the other traffic, holes in the road, or th e nerves o f the four o ccu p an ts. T h r e e tim es we w ere n early overturned. T h e streets w ere all h u ge co b b les, one m ight alm ost say rocks. In som e p laces th ese boulders had go t d isp lace d and the w heel on o n e side w ou ld d e scen d ab ou t 2 ft. M y nerves being fairly sound, and my clu tch on to the o th er V .A .D . bein g still soun der, I m anaged to su rvive th e jo u rn e y o f m iles w ith ou t givin g ven t to m y feelings. T h r e e room s w ere co m m a n d ee re d for the sisters, V .A .D s ., and d octors in different parts o f the tow n. I was extrem ely lu ck y in m y room . It was very clean , and th e bed a g o o d o n e with plen ty o f co ve rin g though som ew hat hard. It was arran ged that we w ere all to m eet at the restaurant in the tow n for our m eals, and at half-past tw elve I set off to it. T h e p lace ch o sen lo o k e d terrible from the outside, an d still w orse from th e in side. It was very close, full o f sm oke, and th e debris on th e various tables far from ap p etisin g to behold. T h e m eal, how ever, prepared for our unit, and for th e party o f the R .A .M .C . men, w ho had co m e on from U sk u b , was o f th e best, and I, bein g extrem ely hungry, th o ro u gh ly e n jo y e d it in spite o f the atm osp here. A fte r din ner we tw o V .A .D s ., w ith the surgeon, p ro ce ed e d to in sp ect the town. It was a cru el d a y — bitterly co ld , a gale blow in g, and at tim es there w ere h eavy sleet show ers. T h e tow n was

AMBULANCE

GAZETTE. —

full o f w ou n d ed an d sick S erb ia n so ld iers, a n d we saw h u ndreds o f A u strian prisoners, all lo o k in g starved an d on y cla d in rags. It was o ur first real in sig h t o f th e h orrors ot th e war, and we w ere all very d e p ressed a n d g lo o m y . E v e ry seco n d m an w ore a strain ed , starved loo in is eyes. W e w ere to ld fo o d was very scarce. 1 he dirt, squalor, and forlorn lo o k a b o u t th e w h o le p lace all vow that we n ev er w ish ed to visit N ish again. VV e w ent over to see the big m ilitary h o sp ital o u tsid e th e station. T h e re were a b o u t seven h u n d red w o u n d e d m en in the surgical section . T h e in fectio u s sectio n , w h ich I d id n ot visit, was full o f typh us. W e w ere tak en ro u n d th e h o sp ita l by a S erbian d o cto r w ho, lu c k ily for us, sp o k e g o o d F re n ch . B e in g a fluen t sch o lar in that to n g u e I was a b le to glean all the k n o w le d g e our surgeon w an ted. T h is h o sp ita l was th e first o n e w e had visited in this part o f th e world. It stru ck m e as b ein g terrib ly d irty, o v e rcro w d e d , and but p o o rly m anaged. F u rth er k n o w le d g e o f th e co u n try sh o w ed m e th at the ho sp ital was w ell m an aged, an d th a t e v e ry th in g th at c o u ld b e d o n e for th e p atients was b ein g ca rried o u t w ith care. O rders w ere giv en us that e ve n in g th at w e w ere all to be at the railw ay station at 9 a.m . th e fo llo w in g m orn in g. I got up at 7 a.m . and h ad a sm all cup o f cafe au lait very w eak, and n on e too sw eet, also a p iece o f b la ck bread. A t 8.30 I h ad o n ce again to trust m y self to th e ca rriag e o f the day before. I t was n o t a lo n g jo u rn e y, but q u ite far enough, e sp e cia lly as our driver th o u g h t it rather sport to race th e carriage. F rom 9 a.m . to 10 a.m . we again p a ce d th e lin e w ait­ in g for our train. A t ten o ’c lo c k we w ere to ld it w o u ld n ot start until eleven , so o n e o f our sisters, a very k in d w om an, cam e and in sisted u p on our o th er V .A .D . g o in g up w ith her and o n e o f th e d o cto rs to the tow n to try and get so m e food. E ve n w eak ca fe au lait had n o t falle n to th eir lot, and they w ere bo th h u ngry and co ld . T h e s e fo rtu n ate, or un fortun ate, p eo p le h ad h a rd ly left th e station w hen we w ere to ld the train w ou ld start in fifteen m in utes. W e all to o k our seats w h en told, an d th o u g h th e gu ard k in d ly w aited ten m iuu tes o ver tim e for th e a b sen tees it was u se­ less, and w e w en t o ff m inus th ree o f o ur p arty. W e left w ord w ith th e a u th o rities that the th ree w ere to follo w as soon as p o ssible, and a p o licem a n was to ld o ff to brin g them safely. W e tra velled “ en lu x e ,” a w h o le first class c a r­ riage was reserved, an d as our party was re d u ce d by th ree we had p len ty o f room to m o ve abou t. M r. P ic h a rd had arran ged all this co m fo rt for us, and h a d tele g rap h e d to K ru sh iva tz, our n ext stop p in g p lace, for a g o o d d in n e r to be in readiness. W e reach K ru s h iv a tz at 3.30 and h a d to w alk 1^ m iles th rou gh m uch m u d up to the tow n to th e H o te l E u ro p e, w here our d in n er a w aited us. T h e less said a b o u t th e m eal th e better. W e w ere all h u n gry, I e sp e cia lly so, as I h ad h ad n o th in g w hatever sin ce 7.30 a m. W e started on a soup w h ich was so greasy it really slid dow n o n e ’s throat. B u t in this so up w ere bits o f m eat, and I m urm ured m y fears to th e surgeon , w ho p ro m p tly la id d o w n his sp oon , w ith th e rem ark “ he had h ad e n o u g h .” I had had m ore than en o u g h , I alw ays th o u g h t if h u n g ry o n e co u ld eat a n y ­ thing, but th ere are lim its ! T h e soup was fo llo w ed by c o ld braw n. M y p iece defies d escrip tio n an d I b egan to lo n g “ for m y little grey h o m e in the W e s t ” ! T h e third co urse w as a su ck in g pig (favourite S e rb ia n dish) an d I did full ju s tic e to th e p ie ce d o led o u t to me. I h ad but o n e fault to find and that was it was to o s m a ll ! ( T o be continued.)


— F I R S T

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AID. —

J u ly , 1 9 1 6 .

stores ; on the official n otep ap er o f and o th er official

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d o cu m en ts issued b y th e S o cie ty or b y its affiliated E

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... ... ...

2 3 4

U rgen t A p p e a l... ... ... ... ... Rem iniscences o f E a rly A m bulance W ork in In d ia... Practical A m bulance W o rk at Southend ... ... N otes and N ew s ... ... ... ... T h e G rand Priory of the O rder o f the Hospital of St. John o f Jerusalem in E n glan d ... ... St. John D em onstrator’s Certificate ... ... T h e Journey, Life and Experience of a V .A .D . in M ontenegro ... ... ... ... B revities ... ... ... ... ... T h e N ew C h ief Secretary o f A m bulance D epartm ent the O rder of S t.J o h n ... ... ... H ints to H ospital O rderlies ... ... ... R eport o f the A m bulance W o rk D one on the O ccasion Sinn Fein Riots ... ... ... F irst A id Com petition at the R oyal Botanic G ardens H ostile A ir Raid D u ty ... ... ... R

e v ie w s

O n th e o th er hand, th e use o f th e em blem on p lacard s is regard ed by the W ar O ffice as u n desirable, and can o n ly b e p erm itted on th e un d erstan d in g th at such use is ca refu lly

w atch ed

an d

co n tro lled .

It

m ust

be

lim ited to p lacard s or notices issued by the S o cie ty or its affiliated su b o rd in ate bran ch es for th e purp ose o f raising funds for th e S o cie ty .

S h o u ld it be used on

8 8 9

d e vo ted in th eir en tirety to the S o cie ty .

w hole o f the profits o f such en tertain m en ts m ust be In cases

w here the profits are d ivid ed , the em blem s m ust on no

... of ... ... of ... ... ...

10

...

15

soldiers and has been h a n d ed o ver to th e

16

authorities.

a cco u n t be used. 11 11 12 14 15

T h e use o f th e R e d C ro ss em blem

in any form upon p rivate m otor cars is p rohibited , even w hen th ose cars are b ein g used for th e co n ve ya n ce o f sick and w ou nded soldiers.

Perm issio n can o n ly be

given for a p rivate m otor-car to carry th e em blem if it is used so lely for th e co n v e ya n ce o f sick and w ounded

R est as a F irst A id M easure... u e r ie s

th e S o cie ty for p ro ficien cy in nursing, first aid, etc.

p lacards ad vertisin g en tertain m en ts, bazaars, etc., the

A G uide to Pharm acy and D ispensing Q

5 5 6 7

su b o rd in a te bran ches, an d on th e badges gran ted by

a n d

A

n s w e r s

t o

C

...

...

...

o r r e s p o n d e n t s

... —

R em oval of Boot in Foot Injuries ... ... 17 T reatm ent o f Burns ... ... ... ... 17 T reatm ent o f Concussion of Brain ... ... 17 T reatm ent o f Com plicated F racture of R ibs and Sim ple Fracture of Collarbone ... ... 18 M axim um H eight o f Sick R o o m ... ... ... 18 W earing an Arm B ad ge o f the R .N .A .S .B .R . ... 18 B rigade Efficiency ... ... ... ... 18 Saluting A m bulance O fficers ... ... ... 18

m ilitary

In such ca ses w ritten

p erm ission from

the m ilitary a u th o rities is n ecessary.

W ith regard to

th e use o f the R e d C ro ss flag, p rivate houses, w hich h ave been h an d ed o ver to the m ilitary authorities for the

recep tio n

of

sick

an d

w o u n d ed

soldiers

are

en titled to fly th e flag w hen w ritten a u th o rity for this purp ose has been rece ive d from the W ar O ffice.

In

all cases w here th e R e d C ro ss flag is flown o ver such estab lish m en ts the U n io n J ack m ust be flown alon g­ side it.

B revities.

C h ie f co n sta b les h a ve rece ive d in struction s on th e a b o v e lines, and they w ill brin g to n o tice an y irregular uses o f the

W e

p u b lish

in

this

“ H o s tile A ir R a id

issue

of

F ir s t

A id

an

article

D u ty ,” and sh o u ld lik e to ca ll

on

em blem .

* * *

par­

ticu la r atten tio n to the su ggestio n throw n o u t in th e article

M r .

J o y n s o n

H ic k s

a sk ed the Secretary for W ar, in

us par­

th e H o u se o f C o m m o n s recently, w hether the volu ntary

ticu la rs o f th e arran gem en ts that h ave been m ade to co p e

a m b u la n ce co lu m n a tta ch e d to the L o n d o n d istrict had

w ith air raids.

d ealt with o ver 100,000

th at su p erin te n d e n ts or secretaries sh o u ld

sen d

N o d o u b t it is the d esire o f all a m b u la n ce

cases

at no co st o f the

S ta te ;

d iv isio n s to p erfect th eir organ isatio n s in this respect before

w hether th e organ isation was now on the verge o f collap se

th e

o w in g to th e drivers b ein g co n scrip te d ; and w hat steps h e

d ark

even in gs

return, and

it

is

by

learn in g

w hat

can be

p ro p o sed

ga in ed , so we h o p e som e o f our readers w ill co n fo rm to

w ou nded.

others

are d o in g

th at

usefu l

k n o w le d g e

to

tak e

to

ensure th e

safe

M r. F o ster, F in a n cia l S e cre tary

th e su gg estio n . A

m uch

* * * on the use o f th e R e d C ro ss em blem ,

m e m o ra n d u m

w ith the a p p ro val

o f th e W ar O ffice, d efin in g its e m p lo y ­

to

m o vin g the

of

th e

W ar O ffice,

said he b e lie ve d that this organ isation h ad carried a large n um ber o f w ou n d ed at no co st to th e State, but he was not in fo rm ed as to th e e xa ct n um ber.

H e was not aw are it

m ent on uniform s, p laca rd s, p rivate m otor cars and p rivate

was on the verge o f collapse-

hospitals, has re ce n tly been issued .

o f th e question , he su ggested that th ose w ho co n tro lled th e

T h e essen tial poin ts

In answ er to th e last part

o rgan isation sh o u ld su bm it a list o f th e drivers w ho were

are as follow s :— T h e em b lem

m ay be p ro p erly d isp lay ed on the

uniform o f th e p erso n n el o f th e S o c ie ty and o f re co g.

e m p lo y ed on the w ork

o f the

a m b u la n ce colum n .

He

co u ld not, how ever, u n d ertak e that this organ isation should

n ised V o lu n ta ry A id D e ta ch m en ts ; on the a m b u lan ces

be treated

and

S o cie ty , or the R o y a l A rm y M e d ica l C o rp s, as regard ed th e

o th er

v e h icle s

m aterial,

used

so lely

in clu d in g for th e

cases

of

co n v e y a n c e

stores and of

su ch

an y differen tly

from

th e

B ritish

en fo rcem en t o f th e liab ility to gen eral service.

R ed

C ross


J u ly ,

— F I R S T

1916

The N ew Chief S ecretary of Am bulance D epartm ent of th e Order of St. John. W O . P r i c h a r d , w hose p h o tograp h we rep ro d u ce below , has re ce n tly been a p p o in te d by the G ra n d Prior to th e post o f C h ie f S e cre ta ry o f th e A m b u la n ce D ep artm en t o f the O rd er o f St. Joh n on the retirem en t o f C o lo n e l Sir H e rb e rt C . P erro tt, Bart., C .B . M a jo r P rich a rd jo in e d the A rm y from the M ilitia on Jan uary 4th, 1899, and was po sted to th e S o u th W ales B o rd erers, O n the o u tb reak o f th e war in So u th A frica , M ajor P rich a rd p ro ceed ed with his regim en t to the front and served th rou gh o u t that cam p aign , bein g m entioned in M a jo r

A I D

H ints for

ajo r

W. O

P r ic h a r d

desp atch es for his services. A fte r som e six years sp en t in In d ia he return ed to South A frica, and su bsequ en tly a cco m p a n ied his regim en t to C h in a , return in g hom e on leave ju st prior to the o u tb re ak o f th e present war R e jo in in g his regim en t, he lan d ed in F ra n ce on A u g u st 22nd, and served in the earlier stages o f th e war until severely w ou n ded tow ards th e clo se o f th e B a ttle o f the A isn e . F o r his service on this occasio n M a jo r W . O . P rich a rd was again m entioned in desp atch es, but his injuries ren d ered im p o ssib le further a ctive p articipation in the war, an d he was in va lid ed out o f the S e rv ice tow ards th e clo se o f last year. W e are sorry to see b y th e urgent ap p eal issued by M rs. K . F u rse that there is lik ely to be a sh ortage o f V .A .D . m em bers in M ilita ry H o sp itals. O w in g to the greater req u irem en ts o f th e w ou nded, m em bers are n eed ed for this s e rv ice in ever-in creasin gly greater num bers, and we hop e that th o se w ho are not alread y on service will respon d to Mr. F u r s e ’s appeal.

H ospital

Orderlies.*

By N. C O R B E T FLETCH ER. B .A ., M .B ., B .C ., C a n ta b , M .R .C .S . A uthor o f “ A id s to F ir s t A id ; ' “ A id s to H om e N u rsin g ;' and “ W hy and Wherefore in F r s t A id ."

( Continued from page 22Q ) T

h is

L

ist

is

th e

A ,B ,C ,

of

I n f e c t io n .

A. A i r . — F o u l a tm o sp h e re — especially bv_ reason op dust— co n veys an d p ro gagates d isease. T h e vario u s germ s show varyin g pow ers o f resista n ce. T h u s , th e germ o f S m all-p ox can be carried a lo n g w ay, w h ereas th a t o f T y p h u s F e v e r q u ic k ly d ies in fresh air. B. B e d d i n g , B e d -c l o t h e s , & c .— T h is so u rce o f In fectio n is p ecu lia rly fertile in E n te ric F ev er, D y s e n te ry and C h o le ra , in w h ich diseases the draw -sheet is v a lu a b le on a cco u n t o f th e p ro tectio n affo rd ed to th e m attress. C. C l o t h e s , C a r p e t s , C u r t a i n s . — T h e p erso n al e qu ip m en t and th ick w oo llen a rticles are very a p t to sp read som e diseases, e.g M e asles, S ca rle t F e v e r F o rth is reason th e clo th es m ust always be d isin fe cted after in fectio u s illness, and curtain s, carp ets, & c ., are e x c lu d e d from th e W ard. D . D r a i n s . — D e fe c tiv e drain s m ay be a so u rce o f In fectio n , e sp e cia lly w hen th ere is a le a k a g e w ith c o n ­ seq u en t co n ta m in atio n of th e w ater su p p ly. The a sso ciatio n o f oysters w ith E n te ric F e v e r is th e resu lt o f in fectio n o f the o yster-beds w ith p o llu te d w ater c o n ta in in g the sp ecial germ s, E. E x c r e t a . — T h e organ s o f e xcretio n are th e m ost com m on sources o f In fectio n . T h u s , th e skin o f the patient ( e g . Sm all-pox, C h ick e n -p o x , S ca rle t F e v e r) m ay d istrib u te the germ s b r o a d c a s t ; th e bowels (e.g. E n te ric F ever, D y se n tery , C h o le ra ) m ay sp read th ese d is e a s e s ; an d the breath m ay scatter the p oison s o f D ip h th eria , T u b e rcu lo s is o f th e L u n g , an d P lagu e. (2). R u l e s o f D i s i n f e c t i o n , T h e s e m ay be briefly su m m arised thus :— 1st, the d isin fe ctan t m ust be s u ita b le to th e p urp ose. 2nd, the d isin fectan t m ust be su fficien tly strong, 3rd, th e ap p lica tio n m ust b e su fficien tly p ro lo n g ed . (3 ) O

M

bjecss

of

D

is in f e c t io n .

D isin fe ctio n m ay be ca rried o u t by H e a t — viz., bu rn ­ ing, boilin g, hot dry air, stea m — and b y C h e m i c a l s — e.g., vap ours (S u lp h u r, F o rm a lin ) and so lu tio n s (C a rb o lic , C reso l). D

D.

E.

is in f e c t io n

is

d ir e c t e d

a g a in s t

DEATH.

o f W ard . C h lo r id e o f L im e (1-10 0 ) or C a rb o lic A c id (1-20) so lu tion s are m ost s erv ice a b le for d isin fe ctin g drains. T h e O rd e rly , h o w ever, is m ore co n ce rn e d in the p reven tio n o f b lo c k in g o f drains with its in creased da n g er o f in fectio n . E x c r e t a o f P a tien t. T h e sam e d isin fe ctan ts w ill serve as for drains. T h e y m ust be a d d e d bulk for bulk a n d m ust remain in contact at least one hour. T h e E x c re ta (fseces an d urine) o f E n te ric F ever, D y se n tery and C h o le ra m ust n o t b e throw n dow n drains, un less and until th e y h a ve been efficien tly d isin fected . A n a lte rn ativ e m eth o d in the absence o f drainage

D

r a in s

* By arrangement with Messrs. John Bale, Sons and Danielsson, Ltd., 83, Gt. Titchfield-street, these Papers (when complete) will be published as a booklet, price 6d. net.


is to m ix saw dust freely w ith excreta, sp rin k le w ith paraffin, an d burn. A.

A i r o f W ard . D isin fe ctio n m ay b e carried out eith er by sprayin g th e w alls, ceilin gs, floor and furniture w ith a F o rm a lin so lu tion (8 oz. to a gallo n ), or by fu m iga tion w ith S u lp h u r, C h lo rin e or F o rm alin vap our. In each case th e d isin fectio n affects the surfaces an d the W a rd is sea led up so th at th ere is a c o m p le te stilln ess o f th e atm o sp h ere an d ab se n ce o f drau gh ts. T h e p ro cess is co m p lete d by free perflation o f air, a m ost n ecessa ry aid to d isin fe c­ tion.

T.

H.

T r a p p i n g s o f W ard .

T h e cotton a n d linen go o d s m ay e ith er be b o ile d for 30 m in utes or so ak ed in 2 per cen t. C reso l (or 5 per ce n t. C a rb o lic ) so lu tion for at lea st 2 hours. B la n k e ts a n d woollen goods are sterilised by steam d isin fection . A l l bulky articles— e.g., m attresses, pillow s, clo th suits, & c., are sim ilarly treated by steam . B edsteads, tables, chairs m ust be s cru b b e d w ith soap and w ater, and w ashed over w ith stron g d isin fe ctan t so lu tion . F eed in g and d rin k in g cups m ay b e cle a n ed by free use of sm all brush an d w ater co n ta in in g som e w ashing soda, and m ay be d isin fe cted eith er by p la cin g in a n tisep tic so lu tion for th irty m in utes or, b etter still, by p lacin g in co ld water, w h ich is grad u ally raised to and m ain ­ tain ed at b o ilin g p oin t for five m inutes. B ed p a n s, spittoons, u rin a ls requ ire carefu l d isin fectio n and m ust be critica lly in sp e cte d befo re th ey are regard ed as free from p o llu tio n . T h e ir clean sin g m ay be a cco m p lish e d by su b m ittin g them first to a stream o f w ater from th e tap, th en by a llo w in g them to so ak in w ater co n ta in in g som e s o lv e n t— e.g, soda, for b e d p a n s ; salt, for sp ittoons ; som e w eak n itric a cid , for u rin als— and by co m p letin g the process w ith a m op of co tto n w oo l a tta ch e d to a p iece o f stick and carefu lly w orked rou n d and a b ou t th e vessels. A sm all q u a n tity o f an tisep tic lo tion sh o u ld be p laced befo re use in each vessel, w h ich (in th e case o f urinals and bed p an s) sh ould be em p tied im m ed iately afterw ards, or (in th e ca se o f sp ittin g cup) at least tw ice a day.

H a n d s o f A tte n d a n ts.

I n In fectious Illn ess the hands are the real so u rce o f dan g er to S ister and O rderly. In su ch cases, therefore, th e A tte n d a n ts — after every m a n ip u latio n o f th e patient, and e sp ecially b efo re p artakin g o f fo o d — m ust scru b their hands w ell w ith soap an d w ater, p ay in g p articu lar a tten ­ tion to th e finger-nails, and co m p lete the d isin fec­ tion by so ak in g them in an tisep tic so lu tion (P e r­ ch lo rid e o f M ercu ry, 1-2000; C a rb o lic A cid , 1-40) for at least tw o m inutes. I n the dressing of Septic W ounds th e h a n d s p ro vid e th e so urce of in fectio n to th e A tte n d a n ts, a m o n g w hom cases o f A c u te S e p tic P o iso n in g o cca sio n a lly occur. For this reason, any w ounds, cuts or a b ra sio n s— however sm a ll or insignificant— o i the hands, m ust be im ­ m e d iately d isin fe cted and k e p t co ve re d eith er with flex ib le c o llo d io n or w ith the p rep aratio n of co llo d io n , o th erw ise k n o w n as N ew -Skin. ( T o be continued).

W hen corresponding w ith A dvertisers please m en tion “ F irst Aid.”

Report of th e Am bulance W ork done on th e Occasion of the Sinn Fein Riots. ( Concluded fro m page 2 2 0 .) T h e m a rvello u sly short tim e in w hich th ese hospitals w ere started and e q u ip p e d sp eak m uch, n ot o n ly for the kin d n ess and gen ero sity o f th ose w ho len t b e d d in g and equ ipm en t, but for th e high organ ising pow ers o f those w ho staffed them . A cco m m o d a tio n now bein g ready, th e evacu atio n o f w ou n d ed from cro w d e d hosp itals began , Sir P a trick D u n ’s an d th e A d e la id e b ein g th e first to be relieved. T h e latter ho sp ital b ein g short o f fo o d stuffs, provisions w ere also tak en in, and rum our sp read am on gst th e in­ surgents that th e hosp ital was b ein g e va cu a te d in order to allow th e m ilitary to o ccu p y it as a p oint from w hich to a tta ck M essrs. J a c o b ’s factory. It was th ereu p on resolved to fire u p on the hospital, and this was o n ly p reven ted by the persu asion s o f one o f the rebel leaders, w ho forced the in su rgen ts to vo te upon the m atter, w hen a few votes d e cid e d against the p ro p o sed a ttack. O th er d u ties tak en o ver by the d ivisio n s or isolated m em bers w ere th e ho u sin g o f refugee w om en an d children , h elp in g th e R .A .M .C . dressing stations, ca rryin g bales o f dressings on stretch ers to th e variou s G e n e ra l H o sp ita ls that w an ted them (often through the firing line), feedin g th e poor, and ren d erin g first aid to n um erous civilian s. T h e division s and m em bers livin g in th e n eigh b o u r­ h o o d o f K in gsto w n and B la ck ro ck were p reven ted from gettin g into tow n, an d o ccu p ie d th em selves in a m ost use­ ful m anner in lo o k in g after the w ants o f th e la rg e b o d y o f troops w ho were co n tin u a lly arriving. T h is in clu d e d the p reparatian o f beds, fo od and, in som e cases, clothin g. O u r auxiliary ho sp ital at M o n kstow n h ouse to o k in large n um bers o f c a s u a ltie s as well. A large n um ber o f m em bers also were h a n d ed o ver to the C ity B ra n ch o f the B .R .C .S ., and u n d e rto o k a large q u an tity o f w ashin g from the C a stle H o sp ita l. In gen eral it m ust be said that the w ork o f th e N u rs­ in g D iv isio n s was extrem ely go o d , and, w hat is even m ore co m m e n d a b le , th e spirit w hich an im ated every in d ivid u al m em ber was b e yo n d all praise. N e a rly e very o n e show ed that they h ad learn t two great lesson s, first to be p lu ck y , resourceful and co m p eten t, and s eco n d ly to obey. W e were p articularly struck with the w ay in w hich m em bers took orders to d e v o te th em selves to dull, arduou s an d u n in terestin g w ork w ith the sam e ch e er­ fulness as to nursing in th e wards. I t was particularly try in g for m any w ho had lab ou red to equ ip the auxiliary hosp itals and then foun d th at no cases were to be sent them , but th ey show ed an ad m irab le spirit o f cheerfulness th rou gh it all and seem ed quite co n te n t so lo n g as they co u ld be o f use. A s an exam p le o f this w e ap p en d a report tak en at random from th e m any we h ave received , not b e ca u se this D iv isio n was any better than others b u t because it show s w ell the ch eerfu l spirit o f everyone. M y husband and I were spending E aster out of town. On M onday a report cam e that there was a rising in Dublin, and as the telephone and telegraph were cut off we could get no reliable information, but the few people who got through brought such grave news that we felt we must get home, so packed up to be in readiness for a start in the morning. W hen we got to the station we found no trains were running and a lot o f people who wanted to get to Belfast were waiting for hours.


J u ly , 1 9 1 6 .

F I R S T

A s it was evidently useless to wait we left all our lu g ga ge and started on foot. W e had no difficulty till we got to the C ity, but from that on we were turned back at so m any barricades that we almost despaired of crossing the river, but by dint o f perserverance and a good deal of w alking at length succeeded finally in crossing Carlisle Bridge. Next day at 12 noon I and other members o f the D ivision were at the W .H .S depot, where we were told to make em ergency dressings. W hile working at these we were told that the house was to be converted into a hospital and beds were wanted, could we get som e? W e all went home and gathered beds, bedding and necessary household utensils which we carried down to 40, Merrion-square. W e then went to various houses in M errion-square and neighbourhood and carried in beds, etc. T h e next problem was to provision the establishm ent, and we went to Ireland’s provision shop and after long knocking succeeded in getting in, and Mr. Ireland made up parcels of provisions with which we loaded ourselves. On our return, we w ere goin g on an errand to E lpis, when, just as we were close to it, furious shooting began from the window on the entrance floor next to Elpis •* between us and our goal at some soldiers across the street who at once replied in kind, so we thought discretion the better part o f valour and reluctantly had to return without fulfilling our errand. T h e rest o f the day we worked about the house gettin g things in order, helping with the wounded and doing various errands. One member undertook the laundry and washed steadily all day and every day from the opening till the close, sending everything home clean. She washed all the things used at operations, including some very soiled blankets, and was assisted at times, when the quantity of clothes was too great for one person to deal with, by members o f my own and other Divisions, who also helped at the mangle. In the intervals of house work or nursing, we made em ergency dressings, and while working at them volunteers were asked for to fetch coal. Several at once jum ped up and the coal was got. T h e next call was for volunteers to do laundry for the Castle H ospital, which was undertaken by three members and a couple o f members o f another Division, who were sent into Sir Robert W oods who kindly lent his laundry for the purpose. T h e y washed steadily as long as required ; the clothes were m angled and hdng out to dry in Merrion - square, on lines erected by some of the stretcher bearers and orderlies. M any o f my members were from home ; others had the care of aged relatives or young children, and though unable to work at the Centre, did whatever they could in their own vicinity. O ne member treated, in her own house, a soldier suffering from what seemed like sun or heat stroke, and when able to be moved brought him to B aggot-street Hospital. A ll the members looked after soldiers in their own neighbourhood and made comforts for them. W hen the hospital was evacuated the members worked at providing meals for soldiers, m aking dressings and shirts. In conclusion, I would like to express my great satisfaction at how adm irably the whole organisation worked, the sole anxiety o f everyone I met was to be o f use, no matter in how humble a capacity, and we all felt it a great privilege to have an opportunity o f doing even a little.” A sp le n did feature was the way in w hich girls who were un able to report themselves the first day and found wards arranged w hen they cam e were quite willing to un dertak e the laundry, etc., even though they were skilled hospital workers. T h e courageous, cheerful spirit o f the m em bers was even more adm irable than their actual achievem en ts, excellen t as these were. T ribu te

m ay be

p a i d h e r e to t h e tr u l y m a g n i f i c e n t

A I D . —

13'

w ork d o n e by th e m otor a m b u la n c e s e rv ice p ro v id e d by the Irish A u to m o b ile C lu b and th e s p le n d id co u ra g e an d b ravery show n by th e drivers. A n u m b e r o f th ese am b u la n ce s staffed b y our o rd erlies w ere p la c e d u n d e r th e R .A .M .C . at vario u s centres, an d o th ers w o rk e d w ith th e civ il a m b u la n ce u n der th e d irectio n o f th e D e p u ty C o m ­ m issioner. T o say th at th eir service s w ere in v a lu a b le is to use a h a ck n e y e d w ord th at sca rce ly co n v e y s e n o u g h m ean ­ ing. It is difficult to im a gin e how a n y re a lly a ffe ctiv e h elp to w ou n ded or to hosp itals c o u ld h a ve been giv en in the ab se n ce o f th ese cars, for w ith ou t them th e w o u n d e d co u ld not h ave been carried in to h o sp itals in m a n y cases ow in g to the d ista n ce to be tra ve lled , an d in o th ers ow in g to the great dan ger; certain p o sitio n s c o u ld n ot h a v e been re a ch ed and, co n se q u e n tly , m uch suffering w ou ld h ave been en ta ile d up o n the w ou n ded, an d m any lives w ou ld in ev ita b ly h a ve been lo st. D a y by d a y th ese cars ran th e gau n tlet o f bullet-sw ep t streets, fre q u en tly stru ck by sh o ts w hilst on their jo u rn e y s to an d f r o ; th e d an gers alw ays present by day in creased a h u n d red fo ld by n ight, w hen streets sh rou d ed in C im m eria n d a rk n ess an d e n cu m b e re d with o b sta cle s had to be n eg o tia te d w ith o u t th e aid o f lights. M a n y and vario u s a d ve n tu res befell th e sq u a d s with these cars, but am o n gst th e rep orts furn ished o f their work, the fo llo w in g extract m ay be giv en as illu stra tiv e o f typ ica l o f th e service s ren d ered . “ T h e n orth sid e o f th e q u a y s ju s t o ver C a p el-stre et B rid ge had alw ays to be ru sh ed at as high a sp eed as p o s­ sible, it b ein g co n sta n tly sw ept by fire from the F o u r C o u rts, an d our w on derful driver ju st g lo ried in th e p ace he g o t out o f our very fast a m b u la n ce . O n several o c c a ­ sions elsew h ere we w ere very th a n k fu l in d ee d it was so fast, and w on d erfu lly driven. W h ile n ot sayin g w e were d e lib ­ erately fired on, th e fact rem ains, w e c a n n o t re ca ll a sin g le jo u rn e y on w h ich we d id n ot get a bu llet th ro u gh so m e ­ w here. P ic tu re th e co n d itio n s, no traffic o f course, but glass eve ry w h ere aro u n d ; tram w ires co ile d in big lo o p s ly in g abou t, and o n ce we h ad to stop m u ch a gain st our w ill at th e top o f C a p el-stre et an d re m o ve yards o f te le ­ ph on e wire co ile d rou n d our w heels m akin g progress im ­ p o ssible ; houses p artly dow n e v e ry w h e r e ; m ilitary barri­ cades, etc., all to be n o te d and re co g n ised in the d a y ­ tim e, for it was in d ee d n ecessa ry to rem em b er them w fv.n o u t at n ight. N o street lam ps ligh ted , no h o u ses ligh ted, no head lam ps on th e a m b u la n c e — n o th in g but S ty g ia n darkness, so if o b sta cle s w ere n ot rem em b ered th e c o n se ­ q u en ces m ight be aw kw ard. Y e t our d rive r n ev er m ade a m istake, he d ro v e ca refu lly, but very s k ilfu lly an d fast, and brou ght us h o m e safe. H e m ade ligh t o f all d ifficulties, and we feel m ost gratefu l to his skill and co u rag e, and h ave sin ce ten d e re d him o ur thanks. O n e run was very lik e another, w h eth er w e p ick e d up w o u n d ed in C ap el-street, N o rth K in g ’s-street, G re a t B ritainstreet, U s s h e r’s Irlan d , etc. ; th ere was little differen ce, and a string o f p laces say we p ick e d up tw o here a n d tw o th ere w ou ld be m ost un interestin g, suffice it to p ut one run in w hich all to o k part w ill alw ays rem em ber. C a p ta in S ta n le y a sk ed us at 9.20 on S a tu rd a y even in g w ou ld we go to C h u rch -stree t an d tak e in tw o very b ad ly w o u n d ed soldiers ; it was, he said, h azard ou s an d (w e all k n ew he was up to his eyes in w ork) co u ld n o t a cco m p a n y us. L ie u te n a n t A lle n was aw ay on th e o th er a m b u ­ lan ce. W h en our squ ad was a sk ed th ey said n o th in g — th en our d river sim p ly cran k ed up, so m eo n e re p o rted “ all a b o a rd ,” an d w ith ou t a n o th er w ord w e w ere off. W h en we re a ch ed the m ilitary b a rricad e in N o rth K in g -stre et w e w ere to ld we co u ld go no furth er w ith th e a m b u lan ce, as it was m ost unsafe, th e o u tly in g en e m y


- H R S T n o t y et h a v in g re ce iv e d any new s o f th e surrender o f their lead ers. W e left th e a m b u la n ce and put our stretch ers in th e a rm o u red m otor ca r an d p ro ce ed e d , as it seem ed to us after o ur fast a m b u la n ce , at a sn a il’s p ace to C h u rch -street a n d sto p p ed o u tsid e a p u b lic house at a p lace w here “ F o u r w ays m e et.” T h e arm o u red car tu rn e d so as to in terp ose its b u lk , as far as p o ssib le, betw een th e snipers an d our­ selves, an d we o p e n e d the door, threw out th e stretchers, an d a ctin g on in stru ctio n s ju m p e d out ourselves, lay dow n in th e street a n d craw led , d rag g in g the stretch ers after us, in to th e house. T h e sh o p was sm all, a w o o d e n co u n ter in front, no p late-glass w indow s, six or seven soldiers (tw o d ead ), tw o R .A .M .C . m en, five o f our squ ad and the sergean t in ch a rg e o f so ld iers all ly in g d o w n . O n e o f us lifte d his head to see w here th e w o u n d e d lay, an d was to ld m ore fo rcib ly th an p o lite ly to k e e p his head dow n unless we h ad a spare stretch er. It was n ot easy in a n y ca se to load a m an on to a stretch er, b u t ly in g dow n y o u rse lf in the dark, and un der fire, do es n ot m a k e m atters m ore easy. H o w ev er, w e got th e m en on the stretch ers an d lo a d e d in to the arm oured ca r safely. T w o bearers h ad very n arrow escap es, bullets p assin g th rou gh th eir clo th in g ; one stretch er h a n d le had a sp lin ter k n o c k e d out o f th e extrem e end. T w o stretch ers lo a d e d tak e up a great deal o f room , an d h a vin g seen all safely aw ay, our su p erin ten d en t h ad to rem ain b eh in d , th e arm oured car p ro m isin g to return later on a n d tak e him an d th e soldiers away. T h e snipers w ere very b u sy w hen the arm o u red car w en t off, several bu llets strikin g the floor a short d istan ce from th e b u lk h e a d b eh in d w h ich th e soldiers w ere lying. A n o ta b le feature was th e extrem e care an d co rrect h a n d lin g giv en by the stretch er bearers am id the m ost n erve-trying co n d itio n s. T h e ir first th o u g h t was for the co m fo rt o f the p atien t an d th e best m eth o d o f ensuring safe and co m fo rta b le carriage, n ot alw ays an easy m atter w hen , perhaps, the bearers had to w alk half-a-m ile at n ight w ith a cross-fire settin g th eir th o u g h ts on o th er m atters than text-b o o k rules for ca rryin g p atien ts, or w hen w ou n d ed had to be tak en from th e to p o f a five storey b u ild in g w ith steep an d n arrow stairw ays. M e m b ers o f the b rigad e p erfo rm ed d u ty in all the zon es w here figh tin g was tak in g place, an d ro u gh ly these m ay be d iv id e d in to th ree large areas— from th e C u sto m H o u s e H o u s e to K in g s b r id g e on o n e han d, from K in g sb rid ge to D u b lin C a stle , an d from the C a s tle to R in gse n d , em b ra cin g all w ith in th e city boun dary. F ro m th ese areas w o u n d e d w ere c o lle c te d by m en and nurses, w h o w en t on fo ot an d in a m b u la n ce w agons ren d erin g first a id a n d tran sp ortin g patients to hospital, un d er circu m stan ces o f great da n g er and d iffic u lty ; and w h en it is re m e m b ered that the m ilitary ca su alities during th e in su rrectio n a m o u n te d to over 500, an d the civilian losses in k ille d an d w o u n d e d to m ore than 1,000, som e id e a m ay b e form ed o f th e em erge n cy w h ich th e a m b u ­ la n ce m en an d w om en o f D u b lin face d d u rin g th e “ B la c k W e e k .”

T h e d irecto rs o f the R u ssia n R e d C ro ss S o cie ty , h ave a d d re ss to th e R e d C ro ss in vario u s co u n tries and to the in tern a tio n al co m m ittee at G e n e v a a telegram exp ressin g p rq fo u n d in d ign atio n and its p rotest again st th e latest crim e c o m m itte d b y a n en e m y su b m arin e w h ich on J u ly 8th to rp e d o e d th e R u s s ia n h o sp ita l ship V p e r io d in th e B la c k S ea.

AID. —

July, 1916.

F irst Aid Com petitions a t th e Royal B otanic Gardens. F i r s t A id an d H o m e N u rsin g C o m p e titio n s w ere h e ld at th e R o y a l B o ta n ic G ard en s, R e g e n t’s P ark, on the 4th inst., th e o cca sio n b ein g the seven th ann ual m eetin g o f the M etro p o litan P o lic e S h o o tin g L ea g u e , in aid o f th e funds o f the M etro p o litan an d C ity P o lic e O rp h a n a ge and other p o lic e charities. T h e re was a large an d in flu en tial gath erin g, an d great in terest was tak en in the first a id co m p etitio n s by th e visitors, large n um bers w itn essin g co n tests and g iv in g the co m p etito rs h earty recep tio n s. T h e results w ere as follow s :— T h e St. J o h n C h a lle n g e S h ield , p resen ted by M ajo r P arson s (C h ie f C o n sta b le ) in 19 14 , with a view to stim ulate interest in first aid in th e M e tro p o litan P o lice , an d to m aintain in d ivid u a l efficien cy, was co n te ste d for. O f 18 team s co m p etin g in th e p relim in ary con tests, th e 7 gain in g the high est m arks co m p ete d in th e final, w ith th e result that “ R ” (B la c k h e a th D iv isio n ) w ere w inners and “ S ” (H a m p ste a d D iv isio n ) secon d. In view o f th e h earty co-op eration in p o lice d u ty with the M e tro p o litan P o lic e and the keen in terest tak en in ren derin g first aid, a co m p etitio n op en to the S p ecia l C o n ­ stab u lary o f th e m etropolis was held to re cip ro ca te th e spirit o f co m radesh ip , and to en co u rage an efficient kn o w ­ le d g e o f first aid. T h e 6 team s w ho gain ed the high est m arks in th e prelim inary co n tests co m p eted , an d “ R ” (B la ck h e a th D iv isio n ) w ere w inners, w ith “ N ” (S to k e N ew in gto n D iv isio n ) seco n d . A co m p etitio n , p ro m o ted as a sm all m ark o f a p p recia ­ tion o f th e p ublic-sp irited w ay in w h ich the m em bers o f the various so cieties w ho h ad registered to assist th e M e tro ­ p olitan p o lice in the eve n t o f casualties arising from h o stile air raids, was an item o f m u ch interest. T h e St. Joh n A m b u la n ce B rig ad e, the B ritish R e d C ro ss S o c ie ty (C o u n ty o f L o n d o n B ran ch ), th e C o u n ty o f M id d le se x V o lu n ta ry A id O rgan isatio n (T o tte n h a m an d E d m o n to n C e n tre), and the n t h V o lu n ta ry A id D e ta ch m en t, e n tered team s for this event. T h e co m p etitio n was o p en to m ale and fem ale team s, and the St. Joh n A m b u la n c e B rig a d e were w inners an d the B ritish R e d C ro ss S o cie ty seco n d , in bo th classes. T h e hom e n ursin g co m p etitio n was op en to all p o lice officers an d m em bers o f their fam ilies, an d was ju d g e d by M iss Sw ift, m atron-in-chief, B ritish R e d C ro ss S o cie ty , assisted by co m m an d an ts o f the St. J o h n an d R e d C ro ss So cieties. T h e 1st prize for lad ies was w on by M iss A . B. C la y d e n ; 2nd, M rs. E . M u n d a y . T h e 1st prize for m en was secu red by Sergt. S co tt, “ X ” D iv isio n , w hose son also g a in ed a sp ecia l prize k in d ly p resen ted by M iss Sw ift, w hile each co m p etito r re ce iv e d a souvenir. T h is co m p eti­ tion is in itiated w ith a view to in crease th e k n o w le d ge o f n ursin g in th e h o m e o f p o lic e officers, and such a ve n ­ ture is deservin g o f success. T h e ju d g in g o f the first a id co m p etitio n s was k in d ly u n d ertak en b y R . B . D u n ca n , E sq ., M . D . ; C . J. R . M a c F a d d e n , E sq ., M .D ., and C o l. C a n tlie , R .A .M .C .( T .F .) . T h e prizes w ere p resen ted by L a d y H en ry. T h e fo llo w in g was the m arkin g sh eet o f the p o lice c o m p e titio n :—

A t the B otanical G ardens, R egent’s Park, you see this man lyin g on the ground. W h en spoken to he answers in a drow sy manner which arouses your suspicion that there is


J u ly ,

— FIRST

1916

something seriously wrong. T h e ju d ge will only answer questions if satisfied that the examination justifies it. N .B .— Patient lyin g on left side with hand in right pocket. P

r e l im in a r y

.

E nquiry as to sym ptom s (Says he has hurt his left foot) Exam ination o f patient. (M uch swelling about ankle. N o signs of fracture observed. N o indication of injury to head or rest o f body) ... ... Finding bottle in pocket ... ... ... ... O bserving that bottle is full ... ... ... ... Preserving bottle ... ... ... ... ... O bservation o f surroundings ... ... ... F ind ing a partly full bottle by wall ... ... ... Sm elling contents ... ... ... ... ... Preserving bottle ... ... ... ... ... Prom ptly asking patient his name and address (5, Smithstreet, Berm ondsey ; will only be given if question promptly put) ... ... ... E nquiry as to m edical help. (D octor and Hospital J-mile off in opposite directions) ... ... ... P

o is o n in g

F

oot

5 5 5 2 2 5 2 2

3 10 2 5 2 2 5 2 3 6 2 2 5

... ... ...

3 2 4

Q uick preparation of stretcher ... ... ... Q uick loading ... ... ... ... ... Q uick carryin g to Hospital ... ... ... ... C h an gin g bearers and exam ining breathing (breathing very slow and stertorous) ... ... ... U n loading ... ... ... ... ... M essage home ... ... ... ... ... E xtra marks including tact, discretion, & c. ... ...

10 10 20

G

e n e r a l

... ... ...

... ... ...

.

5 5 2 14

R eview s. A

G U ID E

TO

PH ARM ACY

AND

D IS P E N S IN G .

B y C. J. S. Thom pson. London : T h e Scientific Press, Ltd. P r ice is . net. T h e success which has attended the many previous editions o f this little book proves it to have served a useful purpose, T h e present edition has been com pletely revised, in accordance with the British Pharmacopoeia o f 1914, and a chapter has been added indicating the course o f study n eces­ sary for those who are desirous of qualifying as pharm acists. T he subject is carefully explained in simple language, and it includes much valuable information, which should be o f service to all those interested in R ed Cross work.

W h e n c o rre sp o n d in g w ith A d v e rtis e rs p le ase m e n on “ F ir s t A id .”

H ostile

Air

Raid

D uty.

B v R . H . G I B S O N , C o rp s S e cre ta ry, M a n c h e s te r S p e cia l P o lic e A m b u la n c e C o rp s.

A r r a n g e m e n t s

for this m ost im p o rtan t d u ty has

been

en g ag in g the serious a tte n tio n o f m any co rp s a n d d iv isio n s for som e m onths, and, co n se q u e n tly , a desire

for

w ou ld

be

division s

in fo rm atio n both

w id e ly e x te n d e d

an d a ctu al e x p e rie n ce s o f o th ers

in terestin g

an d

h ave w ritten to m e

in stru ctive.

a sk in g

S e v e ra l

for d e ta ils o f o ur

arran gem en t, an d to th ese req u ests I h a ve very w illin g ly rep lied, for

3

.

T igh t bandage over boot ... W etted ... ... ... F eet and knees tied lest fracture

15

5

.

D etectin g smell o f breath ... ... ... ... E xam ining eyes (pupils small) ... ... ... T ick lin g back of throat ; head to one side (no effect) ... Sending for mustard, salt and water (arrives in due course) ... ... ... ... ... A ttem pts to obtain perm anganate o f potash (not available) M aking em etic ... ... ... ... ... A ttem pts to make patient drink. (T oo drowsy to drink from glass ; he is worse than he w a s )... ... T estin g eyes. (Pin point pupils, but respond to to u ch )... Introducing em etic between teeth and cheek ; head on one side. (N o effect, patient now unconscious) A gain testing eyes. (D o not respond) ... ... Exam ining breathing (slow and stertorous) ... ... Further attem pts to arouse, shouting, slapping, & c. (N o effect) ... ... ... ... ...

AID.—

requirem en ts

th e of

su b je c t each

bristles lo c a lity

w ith vary

difficulties. so

grea tly

The

th at n o

stan dard sch em e can b e fo rm u la ted th at w ou ld be a p p lic ­ able to all, so that each d iv isio n m ust be la rg e ly left to m ake its ow n arra n gem en ts a c c o rd in g to lo ca l re q u ire ­ m ents. T o assist d ivisio n s to p erfect th eir plans, I re sp e ctfu lly suggest that th ey s h o u ld each sen d a rep o rt to th e E d ito r o f F i r s t A i d , g iv in g d eta ils o f th eir arran gem en ts for this duty, also th e p ecu lia r d ifficu lties th e y h ad to face an d o verco m e. N o d o u b t th ese reports w o u ld p ro vid e a series o f in terestin g an d in stru ctive articles, and th e p ages o f F ir s t A id w ou ld also p ro vid e “ m utual a i d ” for its readers— a th in g I am assu red w ou ld be grate fu l to th e heart o f our re sp e cted E d ito r. W ith this o b je c t in view , I offer d eta ils o f th e a rra n g e ­ m ents m ade by the M a n ch e ste r S p e cia l P o lic e A m b u la n c e C orps. O u r C o rp s S u p e rin te n d en t an d C h ie f C o n s ta b le , R o b e rt P e a c o c k , E sq ., M . V . O , w ho is also H o n . S e rv in g B roth er in th e O rd er, a llo tte d to o ur co rp s six a m b u la n ce and dressin g stations, an d w e are resp o n sib le for the ce n tra l portion o f th e city . T h e station s bein g fixed, our officers n ext so u gh t to find th e n earest co n v e n ie n t room w h ere the m en c o u ld a ssem b le w ith ou t crea tin g u n n ece ssa ry alarm and be sh eltered in b a d w eather. T h e ow ners o f the n eigh b o u rin g bu ild in gs w ere m ost w illin g to assist, an d gran ted th e use o f a room in e ve ry ca se free o f ch arg e. W e h ave also at every p la ce o f a sse m b ly th e p riv ile ge o f usin g th e telep h o n e. T h e p erso n n el o f e ach statio n c o n ­ sists o f the o fficer in ch arge, tw o a m b u la n ce officers a n d 15 to 20 m en, in clu d in g o n e or m ore c y c le o rd erlies for use in case o f b rea kd o w n by te le p h o n ic co m m u n ica tio n . A tele p h o n e o rd erly is a p p o in te d for e ach station w ith in stru c­ tions to w rite all m essages in a p ro v id ed ca rb o n bo o k. A n a tte n d a n ce register is k e p t at e a ch station, an d e ach m em b er w rites dow n th e tim e o f his arrival. A horse or m otor a m b u la n ce van, u n d er the co n tro l o f a C it y P o lic e a m b u la n ce driver, w ill be in a tte n d a n ce at each a m b u la n ce station. T h e van w ill b e used for c o n v e y ­ in g th e m em bers to th e scen e o f a c t io n ; it co n ta in s a lso an a d d itio n a l q u a n tity o f dressings an d an a m b u la n ce bed, also a n u m b er o f oil lam ps for use in ca se o f b rea k in g dow n o f ligh tin g arran gem en ts. E a c h statio n is e q u ip p e d with tw o stretch ers, four arm y rugs, tw o h a versa cks co n ta in in g dressings, large splints, an d a lib eral q u a n tity o f carron oil. E a c h m em ber w ill carry a t least his e m e rg e n cy b a g o f “ first a id ” requirem en ts. H e w ill w ear his S p e c ia l P o lic e kit, or p refera b ly his b rigad e cap, p o lic e w h istle an d p o lic e a m b u la n ce brassard, a p o ck e t flash lam p, a pair o f scissors w ith b lu n te d poin ts, a w ater-bo ttle and d rin kin g-cu p . M e m b ers are a d vised for e m erg e n cy to alw ays ca rry a


— F I R S T

i6

R est

as By

S.

a

F irst

Aid

M easure.

H A M I L T O N , B .A ., M .D .

th e a d m ira b le a rticle by M r. W . R . E d w ard s in the M a y n u m b er o f F i r s t A i d , o n “ N a tu re as a F irst A id e r ,” h e referred very briefly to the in flu en ce o f rest. T h e true sig n ifican ce o f rest as N a tu re ’s great restorer in “ the th o u sa n d n atural sh o ck s that flesh is heir to ” is not fully a p p re cia te d by th e a vera ge a m b u la n ce student. O n e m ight even argu e that p ro vid ed a su itab le am o u n t o f rest were m ain tain ed , m ost ills an d in juries w ou ld reco ver w ithout furth er assistan ce, o n ly to be m et w ith th e retort from

In

H a m le t— “ ’T w e re to co n sid er too cu rio u sly to co n sid er so .” In h ealth , fatigue is th e d em an d o f th e hu m an organism or r e s t ; in d isease an d in ju ry p a in is th e great cry for rest.

T h e

p erso n n el

o f

th e

tion. T h is h e ach iev es b y the ap p lica tio n o f splints. L ater, N a tu re h erself puts in a sp lin t in the form o f “ callu s ” upon the exterior o f the bon e in clu d in g th e frac­ ture, for th e purp ose o f k e ep in g th e fractured ends o f the bon e in actu al rest. In in juries to jo in ts, C a n tlie ’s m anual in structs the student to “ afford rest ” by splint or sling, as the case m ay be. In th e case o f th e k n ee and ankle, elevatio n o f the lim b w ou ld also be o f value. W h y is rest so n ecessary to an in ju red jo in t? I f th e in ju ry is a p en etratin g w ou nd (bu llet, b ayo n et, e tc.) the syn o vial fluid m ay h ave drain ed away, or the sm o o th cartilagin o u s surfaces m ay have been d a m ag ed ; a n y m ovem en t th erefo re w ou ld be a cco m p a n ied b y great friction in th e join t and further dam age. E le v a ­ tion o f th e lim b relaxes the extensors and facilitates the return o f ven ou s b lo o d from the lim b. W h at is the su itab le treatm ent for a sp rain ed a n k le w hen the sufferer returns h o m e ? R est, elevatio n of th e lim b, a ba n d a ge and c o ld w ater— but rest first and con-

A le x a n d r a

T h e y are all members o f the M .H .H .R . In h ealth sleep follow s toil ; even the heart m u scle rests after each co n tractio n . T a k e th e case o f co n cu ssio n o f the brain. In C a n tlie ’s m anu al we find “ a cau tio n should th erefo re be given to a p atien t n ot to resum e p h y sical or m ental a c tiv ity .” It is in ten d ed b y this w arning to secu re co m p lete rest to a brain w h ich has suffered co n cu ssion . S u ch a d istu rb ed brain is d e fe ctive , and w hatever th e d e ­ ran gem en t o f structu re m ay be w hich exists w ith co n cu s­ sion, the brain is u n eq u al to o rd in ary d u ties and requires a b se n ce from o ccu p a tio n or rest for its reco very. Too early a return to m ental a ctiv ity m ay lead to ch ro n ic brain lexion s. . In treatin g fractures, the aim o f th e a m b u la n ce man an d the surgeon is to k e e p the lim b a t rest in a g o o d posi-

Ju ly, 19 16 .

A I D . —

H o s p ita l,

C osh am ,

H a n ts.

T h e Hospital has 350 beds.

tin u ou sly. E le v a tio n assists by e m p tyin g the capillaries and freeing them from th eir state o f con gestion . T h e s e are a few exam p les to illustrate the n ee d for rest, but the th o u g h tfu l a m b u la n ce stu d en t w ill read ily c a ll’ to m ind m any others. I f the causes o f the various sym pto m s in any in ju ry are carefu lly tra ced o u t the danger o f m ed d leso m e treatm ent w ill be avo id ed . T h u s in co n ­ cussion o f th e brain, if the ca u se o f th e im p aired fun ction b e u n d erstoo d , th e first aider w ill avo id givin g stim u lan ts w hich excite q u ick rea ctio n and do m uch m ischief. T h e qu o tatio n from V irg il is q u ite as a p p lica b le to first aiders as to p h y sician s— “ F e l i x q u i p o tu it rerum cognoscere ca u sa s” (H a p p y th e m an w h o ca n u n d erstan d th e causes o f things).


July, 1916.

F I R S T

co u p le o f triangular ban dages, tw o co m p ressed d re ssin g s and the p o lice a m b u la n ce brassard. E a ch a m b u la n ce o fficer m ust see that all his m en (and esp e cially his cy clist ord erlies) are fam iliar with their stations, and the shortest routes therefrom to the follow in g points : T o w n H all, C o ie f A m b u la n ce S tatio n , C en tral F ire S ta tio n , and the tw o n earest M ilitary or R e d C ro ss H o sp itals, T h e C h ie f C o n s ta b le has arran ged that on the ap p ro ach o f h o stile air craft a w arning will be given by the a ltern ate low erin g and raising o f th e e le ctric lights for a p eriod o f ten m inutes before current is cut o ff alto geth er T h e re w ill also be a grad u al low erin g o f the pressure o f the gas supply. W h en ever these signals are given, all the m em bers o f the S p ecia l P o lice St. Joh n A m b u la n ce B rigad e w ill at o n c e cease their ordin ary patrol work, and m ake their w ay as q u ic k ly as p o ssib le to the A m b u la n ce Station to w hich they have been a lloted. If, w hen ever a w arning is given , it is p ossible for men to ch a n ge into uniform w ith­ out d elay they sh ould do so, but if aw ay from hom e they sh ould at o n ce p ro ceed to their resp ective station, th ereb y a vo id in g u n n ecessary d elay by return in g hom e to chan ge into uniform . F o r use o f m em bers thus fixed a n um ber o f extra sets o f equ ip m en t are kep t at each station, S h o u ld the w arning co m e late at night, a t'e v e ry P o lice Station a list o f nam es and addresses o f m em bers is kept, and the p o lice see to th e ca llin g up, T h e a b o v e arran gem en ts are for a gen eral “ call u p ,” but th ere are o cca sio n s w hen it is d esirable to “ call up " a few. F o r this purp ose “ H ead q u arters ” have a sp ecial list o f the nam es and addresses o f four men belo n gin g to each station. O n receivin g th e call each o f these m en are respo n sible for callin g up four others. T h is m eth od is the m ost direct, and relieves th e gen eral bo d y from m any dishearten in g “ false alarm s.” F o r th e callin g up o f officers and cy clist orderlies, an em ergen cy chart has been printed and a co p y h an d ed to every m em ber ; it con tain s the night and d ay addresses, n ight and day telep h o n e num bers, telep h o n e num bers o f e ach station and particulars relating to apparatus and hospitals. E a ch m em ber is left to his own resources to get to his app o in ted station as q u ick ly as possible. C y c lis t m em bers are a d vised to use their m achin es. A n arran gem en t has been m ade with the V o lu n te e r M o to r Section to carry our m em bers w ho live in the suburbs to the C ity . O ur m em bers get to one o f the main thoroughfares, alon g w hich th ese m otors are lik e to p roceed and hail them as they pass. G ro u p s o f m em bers h ave m ade arran gem en ts to give each other th e “ c a ll,” and p ro ceed to the C ity by use o f a n eig h b o u r’s m otor. T h is part o f the sch em e has cau sed endless discussion, w ith ou t our findin g a perfect s o lu tio n ; how ever, it is open for am endm ent. W e h ave had a trial drill to test the arrangem ents m ade, and go t the men fam iliar with th e w ork and stations. In sp ecto r V erd u n , C h ie f A m b u la n ce O fficer for the C ity P o lice , rep orted upon it very favourably. W e were also able to im p rove som e o f the m inor details.

A I D .

17

(Juertes and Jlnsw ers Correspondents. Queries w ill be dealt w ith under the fo llo w in g rules

to

:—

/ .— Letters containing Q ueries m ust be m arked on the top left h a n d corner of

the envelope “ Q u ery ,”

a n d addressed — F

ir s t

A i i >,

46, Cannon-street, Lon d on, E . C . 2 .— A l l Q ueries m u st be accom panied by a

Q u ery C o u p o n ” cu tJro m

the curren t issue of the J o u rn a l, or in case of Q ueries from abroad from a recent issue. ? .— Q ueries are in v ite d on F ir s t- A id , H o m e-N u rsin g a n d H om eH ygiene as these are o f g en era l interest. These w i ll be answ ered in F

ir s t

4 . — Q ueries,

A i d i f space perm its.

accom panied by

stam ped

addressed envelope,

w i ll be

answ ered by post.

REM OVAL

OF

BOOT

IN

FOOT

IN J U R IE S .

A. I. M. (Kentish T ow n ) asks with reference to rem oval o f the boot (Cantlie, p. 19), if it is correct in a l l cases to rem ove boot as stated. S p eakin g from practical experience he suggests (1) that if a person is suffering from an injury to the bones o f leg (especially fracture) it would aggrav ate the injury to rem ove boot as stated, and (2) that it would be much better after cutting laces an d fr o n t o f boot down to toe cap to pull the leather well open so that the boot will slip off quite easily, w hereby the chances of m aking the fracture com pound or the injury worse, are reduced. T h is suggestion is correct. T h e original instructions as to rem oval o f boot are said to have reference to W ellin gto n boots, which can only be taken off as stated in the T ext-book. Further, the cut o f the modern civilian lace-up boot renders the latter method well-nigh im possible, quite apart from the pressing danger of aggravation o f injury. — N. C o r b k t F le tc h e r .

TREATM ENT

OF

BU RN S.

L. (W . Sm ethw ick) asks for the correct first aid treatm ent in the case o f severe burns on the face, shoulders, arm s and slight burns on body and leg, caused by “ back fire ” from a furnace, i.e., the accum ulation of gas which is confined in the furnace and suddenly ignites. T h e flash of fire with dust, caused by the ignition, not only produces burns, but also covers the body with soot, dust, etc., the man being clad only in shirting. W h at is the most efficient, up-todate m ethod before patient is conveyed to hospital, and why such treatm ent ? Shock is inevitable as the skin is charred and blackened and in some cases the deeper tissues burned. Ref. St. John F irst A id, page 103 ; R ed M anual, page 120. In this Q uery the Causes and Com plications are so clearly set out that the F irst A ider requires only resourcefulness and discrim ination in the application o f the G eneral R ules of T re a t­ ment of Burns (C antlie, p. 103). F irst-A id does not pretend to teach the most efficient, upto-date methods. T h ese devolve upon the D o cto r and not upon the F irst-A ider, who m ight otherwise be encouraged to practise M eddlesom e First-A id. Refer to Cantlie, p. 20.— N. C o r b e t F le tc h e r .

A n o th e r effort on a grand scale to sup po rt th e w ork o f th e B ritish R e d C ro ss S o cie ty and the O rd e r o f St. Joh n has to be a d d ed to th ose w hich the great in dustries o f the co u n try h ave m ade. T h e B ritish M eat an d A llie d T ra d e s F u n d has sent to the chairm an o f the C o lle ctio n C o m m ittee a ch e q u e for ,£ 50,0 00, the first o u tco m e o f the organ isation set on foot by Mr. G o rd o n C a m p b e ll, p resi­ dent o f th e In co rp o ra ted S o cie ty o f M e at Im porters.

TREATM ENT

OF

C O N C U S S IO N

OF

B R A IN .

G. C. O. rem arks that, in the treatm ent o f Concussion of the Brain, Cantlie (p. 128) sa y s : “ A s a general rule, keep the head low when the face is pale.” H e also asks— (1) W ould it be correct to anticipate certain C o m ­ pression, and raise the head with a view to preventing or delayin g Com pression ? (2) W ould keep in g the head low tend to promote


— FIR ST

i8

Com pression, in spite o f any cold applications that might be applied lo cally ? (3) W o u ld raising the head tend to delay recovery from Concussion ? T h e G eneral R ules of T reatm ent of Insensibility are based on the assum ption that the F irst-A ider does not knoyj the actual C ause, and that he can only treat the sym ptom s (viz., the effects of the cause) as they arise. Com pression of the Brain is a very rare com plication of Concussion, and for this reason the rule of keepin g the head low, when the face is pale, must always be observed. K e e p ­ ing the head low would not precipitate the onset o f C om ­ pression, but raising the head would tend to delay recovery from Concussion. F o r further discussion refer to W hy and Wherefore in F ir s t A id , pp. 12, 27 seq.— N . C o r b e t F l e t ­ cher.

T R E A T M E N T O F C O M P L IC A T E D F R A C T U R E O F R IB S A N D S IM P L E FRACTURE OF COLLARBONE. T.

B. (D urham ) asks what is the correct treatm ent o f complicated fracture o f ribs and sim ple fracture o f collar­ bone, both injuries being on sam e side.

If we exercise our discrim ination (Cantlie, p. 16), we realise that the fractured ribs— owing to involvem ent of lung— requires prior treatm ent as the more pressing in ju r y , and also that they must be so treated that there shall be no aggravation o f the broken collarbone. T h is we can do, if we modify the treatm ent laid down in Cantlie, p. 48, and use the St. John instead of the Broad Sling, which would press on the collarbone. Further, if we p in the slin g to the coat, keep the elbow constantly applied to the side, and rem ove patient as for F ractured Spine, we can, at the same time, fix the fractured collarbone, since the broad transverse bandage and axllary pad are not permissible. It is worthy of note that with sim ple fracture o f ribs and collarbone the reverse method is correct, i.e., the treatment of collarbone controls the ribs (see Q uery of January issue).— N. Corbet F

letch er.

M A X IM U M

H E IG H T

OF

S IC K

ROOM .

F . N . C. (N ew castle) asks why 12 ft. is the maximum height allow ed when estim ating the cubic capacity of a sick ­ room. E xperience has fixed this limit. E xpired air rises at first because it is ligh ter than atm ospheric air. Soon, however, it cools, condenses and falls u n til— by reason o f its impurities^ especially carbonic acid— it quickly contam inates the lower’ air o f a room and renders it irrespirable.— N . C o r b e t F letch er.

W E A R IN G

July, 19 16 .

AID. —

exam. 12 months hence and attend the Annual Inspection before bein g considered efficient, and thereby losing credit for his attendance from A p ril 25th to Septem ber 30th, 1915? A person joinin g the B rigad e on the A pril 25th, 1 9 1 5 . must put in at least 12 drills and attend the annual inspection of his unit between that date and the 30th o f Septem ber, 1 9 1 5, in order to becom e efficient for that B rigade year.

S A L U T IN G

AM BULANCE

O F F IC E R S .

T . G. (D ublin) asks W ould you kindly let me know if— (a) A m bulance Officers (S .J.A .B ., F irst or Second) should be saluted. (1b) H ow should an Officer return a salute when with­ out a cap. (<r) W h y do N .C .O .’s salute with the right hand only. (d) Should F irst and Second A m bulance Officers salute the Superintendent and other superior officers (Corps). T h e above queries not being very clear in standing orders have raised some discussion which you I am sure can settle. {a) Y es, certainly. See B .R ., page 36, paragraph 10 (\b) A s he thinks fit. (c) T h e re is no authority for N .C .O .’s saluting with the right hand only. (,d) Yes.

T h e B ritish A m b u la n c e days

C o m m itte e

sin ce th e

early

o f th e war has been d o in g sp len d id w ork for our

F re n ch A llies, to w hose A rm y it is fo rm ally a tta ch e d . T h is C o m m itte e has been ab le to sup ply throu gh the gen ero sity o f the B ritish p u b lic 150 m otor a m b u lan ces, stre tch er cars, etc., for the F re n c h w ou n d ed , and [the F re n ch authorities h ave again and again a ck n o w le d g e d th eir gratitu d e for this help.

T h e bravery o f th ose w orkin g the m otor a m b u ­

lan ces

can

co v e ted

be

ga u g ed

M iM aille

w hen

it is m e n tio n e d th at

M ilitaire and

tw en ty-n in e

C r o ix

ARM

BADGE

OF

TH E

R .N .A .S .B .R

A u biu u iu r n,

(Sydney) asks :— “ -Is a member o f the S.J.A .B entitled to wear the arm badge of the R .N .A .S .B .R . when he transfers to a division o f the Brigade O versea, there bein g no R eserve that the arm badge refers to in the O ve r­ seas Dom inion ? ” T h e R o yal N a va l A u xiliary Sick Berth R eseve badge should not be worn by a m ember o f an O verseas D ivision. In any case the badge should not be worn at the present time, as all the men who were originally in the Reserve have been called up. B R IG A D E

HORLICK’S M ALTED

MILK

C o n ta in s a ll th e fo o d v a lu e o f p u re fu ll-c re a m m ilk e n ric h e d a n d m o d ifie d w ith t h e s o lu b le n u tr itiv e e x tr a c ts o f c h o ic e m a lte d c e re a ls . T h e r a t i o o f p r o te in to c a r b o h y d r a te a n d i ts p e rfe c t d ig e s tib ility c o m m e n d th is fo o d a s a re lia b le r e c o n s tru c tiv e w h ic h m a y b e g iv e n f re e ly in s e p tic c o n d itio n s a n d s u rg ic a l c a se s.

R E A D Y IN A M O M E N T .

R E Q U R IE 8 N O C O O K IN G .

L ib era l Sam ples f o r tria l w ill be sent to the Profession Post Free on application.

H o r l i c k ’s M a lt e d M il k Co., S l o u g h , B u c k s .

CHOCOLATES

E F F IC IE N C Y .

D. J. M . asks for our ruling on the follow ing m atter Is a person obtaining his first aid certificate on A pril 10th, 1915, and becom es an enrolled member of a division on A p ril 25th, 1915, attends Annual Inspection between date of e-ro lm en t and the 30th o f Septem ber, 1915, con ­ sidered efficient for that year, or, has he to pass his re­

de

G u e rre h a ve b een a w ard ed to the B ritish personnel.

AS A D I E T IN R E D C R O S S N U R S IN G . OF

the

N ougat M ontelemar A s k fo r DELECTA’ —t h e n a m e d e s c rib e s th e m .

* * * )

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J u y l, 1 9 1 6 .

F I R S T

A I D

19

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in N avy._ Stocked in lengths 48m., soin., 52in., 54m., 5fcin. Cheviot Serge .. 23/6 All-Wool Serge .. 34/6 West of England Serge 36/6

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Hall’s Wine has helped so many nerve victims to regain strength and energy that you may be sure it will help you. If

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G U A R A N T E E .— Buy a bottle to-day. If after taking half ot it, you feel no real benefit, simply return us the half-empty bottle, and we refund your entire money.

V a st modern factory resources, added to a century's experience, enables us to supply F irst A id and a ll other Services w ith uniform s and e q u i p m e n t of g u a r a n t e e d m aterials, w orkm anship and fin ish —at prices that challenge com pari­ son w ith a n y other cloth in g of equal quality. A s k us for quotation for O ffice rs or R a n k and F ile R egim ents. B ritish throughout,

Large size, j/ 6 . O f W ine M erchants a n d Grocers a n d Chem ists w ith W in e licences.

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20

F I R S T

Aids to M em ory fo r ‘ F irst Aid* S tu d e n ts. B y L . M . F r a n k C h r i s t i a n , M .B ., C .M . E d in . A u th o r (jo in tly w ith IV .R .E .) o f “ P r o b le m s in F i r s t A i d ,” S t. J o h n A m b A sso c.

S e v e n th Edition n o w re a d y .

Revised to date (Sept. 1915.)

“ N o a m b u la n c e m a n n e e d e v e r f e a r h e w ill g o r u s t y if h e w ill t a k e a n o c c a ­ s io n a l d o s e o f t h e m e n ta l m ix tu r e c o n ta in e d w ith in th e c o v e rs o f th is s p le n d id b o o k . . . c a n n o t c o n c e iv e a b e tt e r u t il is a ti o n o f s p a c e , a b e tte r t r e a tis e o n t h is s u b je c t c o u ld n o t b e w r itte n . . . t h e b o o k for a ll, w h e th e r o ld h a n d s o r s t u d e n t s .” “ A ‘ m u ltu m in p a rv o ’ o f t h e g r e a t e s t v a lu e .” P r ic e : I n C lo th , 6d. n e t— b y p o s t jd . I n L e a th e r , 2s. n e t — b y p o s t 2s. 2d. S t o c k p o r t : C o n n r ll & B a ilh y , L t d ., “ E x p r e s s ” O f f ic e , St. P e t e r s S q u a r e , a n d The St. John Ambulance Association, S t . J o h n ’s G a t e , L o n d o n .

A I D .

J u ly , 1 9 1 6 .

On First Aid, Medicine • Surgery, and all other Scien tific and Literary subjects S e c o n d -H a n d a t H al P r ic e * . New Books a m Discount Prices. Cataloguet free. State w a n ts.' B o o k s sent on approval, r Books bought. W . & G . F O Y L E , 1 2 1 and 12), C naring Cross Road, London, W .C . ________

BOOKS FOR LECTURERS & STUDENTS OF FIRST AID. By

A ID S

N. C O R B K T

TO

H O M E -N U R S IN C .

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B . A . , M .B ., M .R .C .S .

IIome-Nursing Simplified and Tabulated. A ID S T O F IR S T -A ID .

Post free, j d ,

B y th e S a m e A u th o r .

A Compendium of Aids to Memory. Introduction by James Cantlie, F .R .C .S . Post free, 7 d . W H Y A N D W H E R E F O R E IN F I R S T - A I D .

HANMER’S

B y th e S a m e A u th o r .

Illustrated Ambulance Lecture. M r . H a n m e r wishes to thank D octors, A m bulance W orkers and others, who have so kindly assisted him in the organising of last season’s tours. T h eir willing help has enabled him to visit 150 towns, and the tours have included E n glan d, Ireland and W ales. N ext season’s fixtures are now being arranged, and intend­ ing applicants for the Lecture should apply early, for the vacant dates are lim ited. (No. 6 D istrict September).

Difficulties in Study and Treatment solved by Question and Answer. Royal i6mo. Post free, 7 d . T H E C O M P L E T E M A N IK IN . Systems of Body accurately indexed. Invaluable to Students or Anatomy, M edicire, First-Aid and Allied Subjects. Price 2 S . n e t; postage, 2d. T H E TR IA N G U L A R B A N D A G E : Its Application shown by Words and Diagrams. By

HOW ARD

C.

H ANM ER,

205, D o n c a s t e r R o a d , G o l d t h o r p e , N r . R o t h e r h a m .

N ote.— N o charge beyond working cost is made for these Lectures.

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P r ic e (A S

S U P P L IE D

SPR IN G

£1 TO

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GEARING W H EELS.

2 s.

6d.

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G.

HELPS

(Late

J.

M.

CARVbLL,

M . R .C . S .,

L .S .A .L o n d .

A vade-mecum for the Ambulance W orker. Fcap. 8vo. Post free, I S. 2 d . F I R S T - A I D IN A F E W W O R D S . B y th e S a m e A u th o r .

With Coloured Diagrams 12 pp. Folder. Paper, 2 d . Cloth, 4 d . F IR S T -A ID A N A TO M IC A L D IA G R A M S. T w elve in set, on Roller. Post free, 2 S . io d . Each Diagram separately, 2 d . 5 and 6 (coloured), 6 d . each. T H E W H O L E A R T O F BA N D A G IN G . By

TH EKLA

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S

T

4

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NOTES

ON

P o st fre e 7d.

FIRST

By

AID

S id n e y

H.

SIMPLIFIED.

Lam b.

A Handbook in a tabulated and simplified form giving the main points ot first aid, so arranged as to impress them on the memory of the student. I U L E . REYNO LDS St CO.. Ltd.. 48. Cannon St.

LONDON, E.C.

M A K E Y O UR OWN L E M O N A D E ^ A Ions, cool drink m ade instantly with

G LA SS LEMON* an d pl&in o r aerated w ater. NO ADD'D SUGAR NECISS 1RY.

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“FIRST A ID ” QUERY and REPLIES COUPON. To be cut out a n d enclosed w ith a l l Queries.

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O R S A L E .— Regulation Brown Leather Belts and Pouches; also Caps and O vercoats; sam ples on approval.— Follett, 4, Victoria-avenue, B ishopsgate, London, E .C .

P rin ted

J

u l y

,

1916.

.4

a n d P u b lis h e d by M essrs. D a l b , R b y n o l p s & C o ., L td ., 46 . C an n o n St. L o n d n , B .C ., to whom all com m unications should b e a d d re sse d .


FIRST AID AND

ST.

JOHN

THE

AMBULANCE Edited b y A R T H U R

N o.

XXIII.

2 6 6 .— V o l .

To

AUGUST,

[ N e w S e r ie s .]

Our

Readers.

The Annual Subscription is 2 S. 6 d . post free ; single copies 2 d. The Editor invites readers to send articles and reports on subjects of interest to ambulance workers, these should be addressed to him at 46, Cannon Street, London, E.C. AU articles and reports must be accompanied by the name and address of the writer, not necessarily for publication but for the use ot the Editor. Subscriptions, Advertisements and other business communications connected with F i r s t A i d should be addressed to the Publishers, REYNOLDS 46,

& CO .,

C annon

B.

1916.

GAZETTE.

DALE. \ E m .r .d a ts u ^ n .r P H a iu

little v o lu m e

“ F i r s t Aid ” Is published on th e 20th of every m onth.

DALE,

-----

a dds c o n victio n

of

the

a ccid e n ts

to

pPeRr ,C a En n ™

the view

w h ic h

occur

0 p o st F r e e

that a large w ith

all

too

m uch f r e q u e n c y in the railway w o r ld — in clu d in g , u n f o r t u ­ nately, s o m e o f a distressing ch a r a c t e r — are d u e to that disregard c f p ersonal safety w h ich , it w o u ld appear, is far too co m m o n a cha ra cteristic o f the British w orkm an . re cently the L o n d o n

General

O m nibu s

Q uite

Com pany

have

follo w ed the lead o f the railways in in stitutin g a safety ca m p aign for the benefit o f their e m p lo y e e s a n d p assengers alike, and signs are n ot w an tin g that th e se e x a m p le s will be follo w ed in other quarters.

L td .,

S tre e t,

proportion

[3 / 6

E.C.

L ondon,

W e assert that the First A i d clo se relationship to

ED ITO RIAL._____

m o v e m e n t ca n claim

the S a fe ty ca m p a ig n , for whilst the

raison d"ctre o f the latter is the p re v e n tio n o f a c c id e n t s and personal injuries, that o f the form er is to m inim ise, by the a pplication o f skilled treatm ent, the effects o f a c c i ­

F

r o m

tim e to time we have referred in

S a f e t y and

these p ages to w hat is kn ow n as the

First Aid.

“ S afety M o v e m e n t ,” a m o ve m e n t which has been p ro m o ted in recent years with

dents u p o n the the h u m an b o d y w h en th e y d o arise.

The

S afety ca m p aign e rs co u n s el the a v o id a n c e o f risks w hich m ay result in b ro k en

limbs,

etc., a n d

b y the First A i d

m o v e m e n t that k n o w le d g e is im p arted w h ic h e n a b les the

the la u d a b le o b ject o f instilling into the minds o f w orking

disability w h en it o ccurs to be scien tific ally a tt e n d e d to

men a n d w om en , particularly those w ho by the character of

with the view o f alle viating h u m a n suffering a n d p re ve n tin g

their e m p lo y m e n t are exp o sed to risks o f a ccident, habits

the o ccu r re n c e o f co m p lica tio n s w h ich

o f p ru d en ce in co n n e ctio n with the

n eglect or ign o ra n c e as to the prop er treatm ent to adopt.

duties.

discharge

of

their

statistical informatio n furnished in returns o f a ccid en ts on our railways, in our mines

and

factories, etc., as issued

period ically by the B o a rd o f T r a d e and H o m e Office. The

result

from

It may be, in fact it is our s incere hope, that b y m ean s

T h a t there is room for such a m o v e m e n t in this

country, and, in. fact, that it is ove rdu e is e v id e n ce d by the

may

of

the

Safety

ca m p a ig n

a m b u la n c e

w orkers

“ ch e a te d ” out o f m a n y o f their “ best ca s es .”

may

be

T h i s is a

co n su m m a tio n d e v o u tly to be wished, but whilst h u m an nature is w hat it is, a n d m en are p repared to take risks w hich m ay in vo lve loss o f life or lim b rather than subm it

Safety M o v e m e n t has our best wishes for the

to so m e slight in co n v en ien ce, or in o rder to save a few

success w hich it assuredly deserves, and we look forward

minutes o f time, there is no n e e d for the a m b u l a n c e man

with

to despair o f ge ttin g p ractical w ork to do or for a n y ce ss a ­

co n fid e n c e to its general a doption th rou gho u t

industrial world.

the

It has been enthusiastically taken up by

tion o f activities in co n n e c t io n

with the First A i d

m ove­

many o f the railway com p an ies, and the G re at W estern

ment.

Railway,

energies on the part o f the “ first-aiders ” in the w ay o f

some a

initiated

vigorous

safety

habit

in

co n n e ctio n

with

u n derstan d

the

s ubject ha ve and

ca m p aign

the

We

form

the m o ve m e n t

in

this

country

three years ago, are co n d u c tin g m on th by month

safety in

w ho

that

m inds the a

already

distrib uted

to

G reat W e ste rn em ployees.

in order of

d ischa rg e first be en so m e

to in culca te

m em b ers series

of

of

their

of

articles

re p ro d u ce d eig hty

the

in

tho usa nd

duties. up on b o o kle t of

m aintainin g the highest stan dard o f efficiency. A t no tim e in the history o f this c o u n t r y has there

the staff

the

A perusal o f this entertaining

T h e tim e has not y et c o m e for a n y relaxation o f

be en a greater n eed for e c o n o m y in h u m an life ; men are m o re p recio us than e ve r th e y were, and industrial workers are at a prem ium .

It therefore be h o v e s all c o n c e r n e d to

a d o p t all a v a ilab le measures to re d u c e the loss o f life— partic ularly a n y loss d u e to la ck o f fore sight in the failure to

e m p lo y

“ safety”

irr e d u c ib le m inim um .

or

“ first

a id ”

m e th o d s — to

the


22

F I R S T

Jh e Grand ? rio rg of the Srder of the h o sp ita l of S t. Jo h n of Jerusalem in Sngland. AMBULANCE

JJhe S t .

W.

DEPARTMENT.

.Ambulance

Srigade.

DISTRICT ORDERS.

No. 1 District. D ep u ty

Jo h n

C om m issioner :

H.

W IN N Y . SEPTEM BER,

1916.

Sunday D u ty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. Sunday, 3rd.— N o. 47 D ivision , L .B . & S.C . R ailw ay. „ 10th.— N o. 15 „ E a st Ham. , 7th.— N o. 20 „ H am pstead. ” 24th.— N o. 4 „ L eyto n and Leytonstone. 2.30 p.m. to 8.30 p.m. A s per separate orders. St. John’s G ate, 2 p.m. A P P O IN T M E N T S .

K ey

Colonel Jam es Cantlie, F .R .C .S ., and J. M. Carvell, E sq., M R C S., have been appointed A ssistan t Com m issioners No. 1 D istrict. IN S P E C T IO N O F D IV IS IO N A L BOOKS AND ACCO UN TS. M any of the D ivision s have not subm itted the D ivisional M inute Book and A ccoun ts for the year 1914 to 1915, and as the list o f those who did subm it books is not available, it is desired that each D ivision shall, as quickly as possible, leave their books at H eadquarters for Inspection If de­ sired these books can be sent by post, as it will not be possible to deal w itb them adequately at m idday. Special attention is directed to the im portance of com plyin g with this O rder prom ptly. M E M B E R S ON A C T IV E S E R V IC E . T h e C h ief Com m issioner has asked for a return showing the nam es o f those m em bers o f the D istrict who have died on active service, and O fficers or M em bers in C h arge o f each D ivision should take im m ediate steps to forw ard such a list to H eadquarters as regards the m em bers of his own Division. T h e list should also contain the nam es of those m em bers who have been invalided hom e as unfit for further duty. S E R V IC E M ED ALS.

A ugust,

A I D . —

1916.

support and encourage any m ovem ent calculated to im prove the conditions o f its people. It is, therefore, gratifyin g to note that in no district in greater London is an am bulance service more appreciated or m ore capably adm inistrated. T h e A m bulance and N ursing D ivision s located in this district are untiring in their efforts on behalf of their fellow residents, and their am bition to possesss an A m bulance Station worthy o f the cause they so faithfully serve has at last been realised. T h e cerem ony o f laying the foundation stones o f a new A m bulance Station took place on the 20th July last and proved a highly interesting event. T h e proceedings were opened by the singing o f a hymn, follow ed by a prayer by the Rev. T . C. E lsdon, officiating Chaplain o f the O rder of St. John. After a brief account o f the work and objects o f the C o m ­ m ittee by A . A ttw ell, E sq., J.P , E .C .C ., the principal stones were laid by the M archioness o f Ripon, the E arl of W arw ick, L ad y Maud W ilbraham , L. Stanley Johnson, E sq ., J.P., and E . J. Floriman, E sq ., J.P. A piece of stone from the O ld Priory of St. John’s, C lerk en ­ from well, presented by the R ector and Churchw ardens, was laid by Lord R anfurly, who, in the course of an interesting address, referred to the link thereby established between the ancient and modern branches o f a m ovem ent whose object was the cause o f hum anity. Votes of thanks, proposed by A . T . Collier, E sq ., H. F. I. H allows, E sq ., and Supt. Blum , were heartily accorded and a prayer by the R ev. F ryer, o f St. Jam es’ Church, was followed by the singing of the D o x o lo gy and the N ational Anthem . Subsequently stones were laid by various members o f the W altham stow D istrict Council, Hon. Surgeons M ackenzie and C hallis, Supt. A. Blum , A m bulance Officr Cardo, Supt. Cam p, W .F .B . ; L ady Supt. Cardo, N ursing Officer Attw ell, and many others. Assistant Com m issioner S. H. V ivian , at the request of the members, laid the stone presented by the A m bulance D ivision, and in a short address acknow ledged the honour he felt in b e­ ing associated with the foundation of a building which would remain a monument to the energy and spirit displayed by the workers in a noble cause. H e trusted that future generations m ight be inspired by their exam ple to carry on the good work for the alleviation of the sick and suffering.

It is notified that the following m em bers of the D istrict who did not attend the distribution by the E arl o f Plym outh, on June 24th, have been awarded the Service M edal of the O rder of St. John:— . . „ D ivision al Supt. A . H . Southam , No. 23 D ivision ; Sergt. S C Barnet N o. 37 D ivision ; Corpl. Jas. Tollafield, No. 11 D ivision ; N u rsin g Sisters B. G. H arris, N o. 6 D ivision ; and E . M. Suckling, N o. 8 D ivision. P R O M O T IO N S . T h e following prom otions have been made after passing the prescribed exam ination : T o A m bulance O ffice r: Sergt. Jam es M itchell o f N o. 17 W im bledon and M erton D ivision ; Sergt. H. K. B lake, No. 28 H arrow Division. (Signed)

W . H. W I N N Y , D ep uty- Commissioner. H e a d q u a r t e r s :— S t . John’s G ate, Clerkenw ell, E .C .

No. 3 District. K e t t e r i n g . — T h e H eadquarters D ivision held a w eek­ end cam p at G reat O akley, last month. Supt. R ab y was in com m and, with S ta ff Sergt. Curtis, Sergt. W . Groom and Corpl. D yson as his assistants, while Sergt. C laypole acted as cam p orderly. A useful w eek-end was spent under canvas, and all those present had an enjoyable time.

No. 4 District. EXTRACTS

FROM

D IS T R IC T

O RDERS.

N u r sin g D u tie s in M il it a r y H o spitals.

A large number o f nursing m embers have recently been called up for service in m ilitary hospitals, and more are now required. L a d y superintendents will please com m unicate this information at once to members o f their N ursing D ivisions, who do not belon g to V oluntary A id D etachm ents, and let me know as soon as possible the number o f those able and w illing to join this service. T h e dem and for this service is now urgent, and the D eputy Com m issioner hopes that a good response will be forthcom ing as a result of this appeal. Full particulars can be obtained from the D istrict office. G e n e r a l D u t y in M il it a r y H o s p it a l s .

(N o. 29) D i v i s i o n . — W altham stow is one o f the m ost th ickly populated suburbs o f the M etropolis, and the needs o f the com m unity dem and a vast amount of care W a lth a m sto w

and F ortunately, it possesses a D istrict Council whose adm inis­ tration is actuated by the spirit o f progress and a desire to

T h e W a r Office have m ade a special appeal for women for general duty in m ilitary hospitals, and are w illing to accept them without certificates or special qualifications. Officers in ch arge o f nursing units are requested to get all the recruits they can, and notify the D istrict office the num ber a va ilab le as soon as possible.


August, 1916.

— F I R S T

R e c r u it s n o t h a v in g c e r t ific a t e s w ill b e a tt a c h e d to N u r s in g D iv is io n s a s r e c r u it s . T h e y w ill w e a r th e u n ifo rm o f th e B r i ­ g a d e , w ith s o m e s lig h t m o d ific a t io n to d e n o t e th e ir s t a n d in g . T h e y w ill n o t b e e n r o lle d in th e B r ig a d e , n o r h a v e a n y v o ic e in b r ig a d e o r d iv is io n a l m a t t e r s w h ils t r e c r u its . F u ll p a r ­ t ic u la r s c a n b e o b t a in e d fro m th e D is t r i c t o ffic e .

A ir R a id s . T h e q u e s ti o n h a s b e e n r a is e d r e g a r d in g B r i g a d e m e n b e ­ in g s w o r n in u n d e r th e P o l i c e A u t h o r it ie s fo r a m b u la n c e w o rk in c o n n e c tio n w ith a ir r a id s . B r i g a d e m e n s e r v e u n d e r th e P o lic e in th e p e r f o r m a n c e o f th e ir o r d in a r y c iv il a m b u la n c e d u t ie s in t h e s t r e e t s a n d o n p u b lic o c c a s io n s , a n d t h e r e is n o

A I D

23

c a r e f u lly p r e s e r v e d a n d p r o d u c e d w h e n d e m a n d e d b y a n y c o m ­ p e t e n t A u t h o r it y . C e r t i f ic a t e s a r e n o t r e q u ir e d b y m e m b e r s o f t h e B r i g a d e w h o b e lo n g to V o lu n t a r y A i d D e t a c h m e n t s . VOLUNTEER

TR A IN IN G

CORPS.

W it h r e g a r d to t h e p r o v is io n o f m e d ic a l u n its fo r th e V o lu n t e e r T r a i n i n g C o r p s , in fo r m a tio n h a s b e e n r e c e i v e d th a t th e V o lu n t e e r T r a i n i n g C o r p s is in t e n d e d to b e e s s e n t i a l ly a C o m b a t a n t F o r c e , a n d t h e r e is n o in t e n t io n o f f o r m in g m e d ic a l u n its in c o n n e c t io n w ith it. T h is p r e v e n ts B r ig a d e m e n a t t a c h i n g t h e m s e lv e s , a s s u c h , to a n y V o l u n t e e r C o r p s , e x c e p t in t h e o r d in a r y w a y o f e n lis t m e n t . In

spe c t io n s

.

In c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e d e p le t io n o f th e D i s t r i c t S t a f f, a n d th e la r g e n u m b e r o f m e n o n s e r v ic e , t h e A n n u a l I n s p e c t io n s w ill n o t b e h e ld th is y e a r , u n le s s s p e c ia l a r r a n g e m e n t s a r e m ade. CASUALTIES. In o r d e r to c h e c k B r ig a d e R e t u r n s , o ffic e r s in c h a r g e o f u n its a r e r e q u e s t e d to s e n d to D i s t r ic t o f f ic e , a s s o o n a s p o s s ib le , a lis t o f a ll th e w a r c a s u a lit ie s w ith in t h e ir k n o w l e d g e a m o n g s t m e m b e r s o f t h e ir u n it s in c e t h e c o m m e n c e m e n t o f h o s t ilit ie s . A u n it o f t h e S .J .A .B . h a s r e c e n t ly b e e n fo r m e d a m o n g s t th e e m p lo y e e s o f M e s s r s . C a m m e ll L a ir d & C o . a t B ir k e n h e a d . T h e m en a r e g iv e n e v e r y f a c ilit y fo r in s t r u c t io n a n d p r a c t ic e , a n d th e k e e n in t e r e s t t a k e n in t h e c o m p a n y b y t h e firm h a s c o n t r ib u t e d l a r g e l y to th e e f f ic ie n c y o f t h e a m b u la n c e w o r k e r s . T h e m e n h a v e a lr e a d y o b t a in e d t h e ir u n ifo r m s , a n d o n J u ly 1 7 th th e y h e ld th e ir first c h u r c h p a r a d e , w h e n s o m e 70 m e m ­ b e rs a tt e n d e d . T h a n k s to t h e g e n e r o s it y a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t o t M r . C a r t e r a n d M e s s r s . C a m m e ll L a ir d & C o ., th is c o r p s , c o n s is t in g s o le ly o f e m p lo y e e s o f th e firm , is in a flo u r is h in g c o n d it io n : a lr e a d y t h e r e a r e fo u r c o m p le t e d iv is io n s , w ith a n a g g r e g a t e o f 70 o ffic e r s a n d m e n , w h o , u n d e r t h e a b le in s t r u c t io n o f D r . W v s e a n d M r. J o h n s o n , a r e n o w in a h ig h s t a t e o f e ffic ie n c y , b o th in fir s t a id a n d s ic k n u r s in g .

T h ree

S t.

John

S e r v ic e M e d a ls in o n e s e r v ic e o v e r 65 y e a r s .

f a m i l y — jo in t

J. O liv e r V a u g h a n , A . R . S . I . , 23 y e a r s a m b u la n c e s e r v ic e — D is t r ic t T r e a s u r e r N o . 6 D is t r ic t ; 16 y e a r s R .A . M . C . ( T . ) S t a f f S e r g e a n t ; D e p u t y C h a ir m a n , H u ll C e n t r e , S .J .A .A . F r e d H . V a u g h a n 24 y e a r s a m b u la n c e s e r v ic e — C o m m a n d a n t S t. J o h n V . A . D . ; e x - C o r p s T r e a s u r e r ; 16 y e a r s A m b u l a n c e D e t a c h m e n t , R o y a l F ie ld A r t i l le r y ( T . ) ; S e c r e t a r y H u ll C e n t r e ; p. M .O .’s C le r k , I .Y . H o s p ita l, S .A ., 19 0 1. N u r s in g S i s t e r V a u g h a n , 18 y e a r s T r a i n e d N u r s e w ith t h e Q u e e n ’ s N u r s e s .

s e r v ic e — n o w

o b je c t io n to th o s e w h o a r e e x e m p t fro m m ilit a r y s e r v ic e b e in g sw o rn in fo r a ir r a id w o r k u n d e r th e P o lic e A u t h o r it ie s .

U niform s. A c c o r d in g to th e R e g u la t io n s m a d e u n d e r th e D e f e n c e o f th e R e a lm A c t s , it is a n o ffe n c e fo r a n y u n a u t h o r is e d p e r s o n to w e a r a n y n a v a l, m ilit a r y , p o lic e , o r o t h e r o ffic ia l u n ifo rm . O ffic e r s in c h a r g e o f u n its m u s t s u b m it to th is o ffic e th e fu ll n a m e s o f m e m b e r s , w h o in t h e c o u r s e o f th e ir d u t ie s w e a r u n i­ fo rm , in o r d e r t h a t th e n e c e s s a r y c e r t ific a t e s a u t h o r is in g th e w e a r in g o f u n ifo rm m a y b e is s u e d . T h e s e d o c u m e n t s m u s t b e

M a n c h e s t e r . — T h e a n n u a l fie ld d a y o f t h e S p e c ia l P o lic e A m b u la n c e C o r p s w a s h e ld in H e a t o n P a r k o n J u ly 2 2n d . T h e C o r p s T r e a s u r e r , W . M a x w e l l R e e k ie , E s q ., t o o k c o m m a n d , a n d th e C o r p s S u p t . o f S t o r e s , H . E a s t w o o d , E s q ., s e c o n d in c o m m a n d . T h e fo u r d iv is io n s m a r c h e d p a s t, s a lu t e d , a n d w e r e a f t e r ­ w a r d s in s p e c t e d b y th e C h i e f C o n s t a b le o f M a n c h e s t e r ( R o b e r t P e a c o c k , E ^ q ., M .V .O .) , a n d t h e C o r p s S u p e r in t e n d e n t . D u r in g t h e a ft e r n o o n a n a m b u la n c e c o m p e t it io n , a r r a n g e d b y R . T . S t a t h a m , E s q ., D iv is io n a l S u p t. o f th e S o u t h D iv is io n , w a s h e ld b e t w e e n t h e d iv is io n s , w h ic h p r o v e d h i g h ly i n t e r e s t ­ in g a n d in s t r u c t iv e , a n d in c it e d t h e e n t h u s ia s m o f t h e m e m b e r s to p r o c e e d fa r t h e r w ith t h e m e t h o d o f g a i n i n g a m b u la n c e k n o w le d g e . B y th e k in d n e s s o f t h e C h i e f C o n s t a b le a n im ­ p r o v e d c it y m o to r a m b u la n c e w a g o n w a s in a t t e n d a n c e fo r in ­ s p e c t io n b y m e m b e r s a n d fr ie n d s , a n d to d e m o n s t r a t e th e m e th o d o f lo a d i n g a n d u n lo a d in g . U n d e r th e c a t e r s h ip o f R . A . M a c e , E s q ., a m o s t e n jo y a b le te a w a s p r o v id e d , a n d a ft e r w a r d s t h e m e m b e r s r e a s s e m b le d a t th e b a s e to p a r t ic ip a t e in a “ s m e llin g c o m p e t it io n ,” a d m ir a b l y a r r a n g e d b y J. W . W h i t w o r t h , E s q ., D iv is io n a l S u p t . o f th e N o r t h D iv is io n . T h e la d ie s p r e s e n t a ls o jo in e d in t h is c o m p e ­ t itio n , a n d a ft e r a k e e n c o n t e s t M r s . F o w le r J o n e s w o n th e la d y ’s p r iz e a n d M r . C . H . R a y n e r t h e g e n t le m a n ’s p rize . A f t e r w a r d s a n u m b e r o f fie ld s p o r t s w e r e in d u lg e d in , w h ic h c a u s e d m u c h a m u s e m e n t fo r t h e s p e c t a t o r s . M a n y m e m b e r s p a id a v is it to t h e e x h ib it io n o f m o d e r n t r e n c h e s w h ic h h a v e b e e n a r r a n g e d b y M a jo r B e ll fo r th e b e n e fit o f t h e “ B lin d e d S o ld ie r s F u n d .” D u r i n g t h e m o n th , in a d d it io n to p a t r o l d u t y o f e ig h t h o u r s p e r w e e k , m a n y o f o u r m e m b e r s h a v e b e e n h e a v ily e n e n g a g e d in a s s is t in g t h e t r a n s p o r t o f t h e w o u n d e d a r r i v i n g in M a n c h e s t e r . M a jo r C u n liffe , o f t h e 2 n d W e s t e r n M ilit a r y H o s ­ p it a ls c o m m a n d , a p p lie d to th e C h i e f C o n s t a b le fo r h e lp , w h ic h w a s v e r y w illin g l y g r a n t e d . T h e m em b ers h a v e b een e n g a g e d u n lo a d in g t h e a m b u la n c e t r a in s , a n d in t h e h o s p it a ls a c t i n g on th e m o tt o o f d o in g a n y t h in g a t a n y t im e a n d a n y w h e r e fo r th e c o m fo r t o f t h e w o u n d e d s o ld ie r s .


— F I R S T

24

No. 12 (Irish) District. T h e D e p u t y C o m m is s io n e r N o . 12 ( I r is h ) D is t r ic t , h a s r e c e iv e d t h e fo l lo w in g le t t e r fro m t h e S e c r e t a r y G e n e r a l o f th e O r d e r in c o n n e c t io n w ith t h e w o r k w h ic h w a s d o n e b y m e m ­ b e r s o f t h e B r i g a d e o n t h e o c c a s io n o f th e S in n F e in R e b e l ­ lio n :— “ T h e C h a p t e r - G e n e r a l is k e e n ly s e n s ib le to t h e g o o d w o r k t h a t w a s d o n e b y y o u a n d b y t h o s e w h o a s s is t e d y o u ; s u c h a n e x a m p le is e x c e l le n t e n c o u r a g e m e n t to a ll c o n ­ c e r n e d fo r m a k in g a d d it io n a l e ffo r ts in t h e s u b je c t s w h ic h w e a ll h a v e a t h e a r t . “ T h e O r d e r w is h e s it t o b e g e n e r a l ly k n o w n h o w v e r y m u c h th e b r a v e r y o f m e m b e r s o f th e S t. J o h n A m b u la n c e B r i g a d e a n d o t h e r s is a p p r e c ia t e d , a n d h o p e s t h a t y o u w ill t a k e e v e r y c o n v e n ie n t o p p o r t u n it y o f n o t ify in g t h is a s w id e ly a s p o s s ib le , J u ly 1 3 th , 1 9 1 6 .” T h e C h a p t e r o f t h e O r d e r o f t h e H o s p it a l o f S t. J o h n o f J e r u s a le m h a s m a d e t h e fo llo w in g a w a r d s in c o n n e c t io n w ith g a lla n t r y d i s p la y e d d u r in g t h e S in n F e i n R e b e lli o n , A p r il- M a y ,

1916. S

ilv e r

M

e d a l

.

M r s . E l l a G . A . W e b b , M .D ., L a d y D is . S u p t. N o . 12 ( I r is h ) D is t r ic t M r s . C o n s t a n c e H e p p e ll - M a r r , A s s t . C o u n t y D ir e c t o r , C i t y o f D u b lin B r a n c h B r it is h R e d C r o s s S o c ie t y . M r s . E d it h C . C h a y t o r , u n a t t a c h e d . J. L u m s d e n , M .D ., D e p u t y C o m m is s io n e r N o . 12 ( I r is h ) D i s ­ tr ic t. W illia m G . S m it h , D i s . S u p t . N o . 12 ( I r is h ) D is t r ic t . B

ro n ze

M

(M

ed a l

e n

).

P t e . G e o r g e C . M a y , F o u r C o u r t s D i v . S .J .A .B . S e r g t . J o h n T u g w e ll. J a c o b ’ s D iv . S .J .A .B . C o r p s S u p t . R e g i n a l d H . K e a t i n g e , D u b lin B u ild in g T r a d e s C o rp s. C o r p s S u p t . J a m e s H . W e b b , C i t y o f D u b lin C o r p s . D is . O ffic e r A r t h u r L . B . M o o r e , N o . 12 ( I r is h ) D is t r ic t . S u p t C h a r le s T . K e a t i n g e , K e a t i n g e ’s D iv . S . J .A .B . S u p t . J o h n H e a ly , F o u r C o u r t s D iv . S . J .A .B . S u p t. R o b e r t W . J a m e s o n , C i t y o f D u b li n D iv . H e r b e r t S . C h a y t o r , E s q ., u n a t t a c h e d . S u p t . W illi a m H . R e y n o ld s , B r o o k s T h o m a s D i v . S .J .A .B . W

o m en

.

M r s . D o r o t h y H ig n e t t , D e p u t y H e a d I r is h W a r H o s p i t a l S u p ­ p ly D e p o t . M r s . C a r o l in e F . L u m s d e n , Q u a r t e r m a s t e r I r i s h W a r H o s p it a l S u p p y D e p o t. M is s M a b e l M c C a r t n e y , Q u a r t e r m a s t e r V . A , D . 18, B . R . C . S . M is s f 'l o r e n c e R e n n y - T a ily o u r , D u b lin U n i v e r s it y N u r s in g D iv . M r s . E t h e l F it z p a t r i c k , C o m m a n d a n t V . A . D . 12 , B . R . C . S . M is s K a t h e r in e O ’ N e ill, C o . D u b li n B r a n c h B . R . C . S . S is t e r M a r y M c G i n le y , S ir P a t r i c k D u n ’s H o s p ita l. S is t e r A n n a S p r o u le , S ir P a t r i c k D u n ’s H o s p i la l. S is t e r M a r j o r ie S c a l ly , S ir P a t r i c k D u n ’s H o s p it a l. M is s M a r y W o o d s , u n a t t a c h e d . C

e r tifica te

of

H

o n o u r

(G

a lla n t

C

o n d u ct

).

S u p t . P ie r s e L e s l i e P ie lo u , S t. J a m e s ’ s G a t e D iv . S .J .A .B . C o r p s S e c . J o h n G o u r lie , D u b lin B u ild in g T r a d e s C o r p s . H e n r y H u n t, M .D ., R a t h m in e s D iv . S .J .A .B . P t e . R o b e r t P e a t , V . A . D . 7, B . R . C . S , P t e . W illi a m F e t h e r s t o n h e u g h , V . A . D . 7 , B . R . C . S . D r . M y le s K e o g h , u n a t t a c h e d . P t e . W a l t e r H e r b e r t B o y d , F o u r C o u r t s D iv . S .J .A .B . Q u a r t e r m a s t e r J o s e p h B a m fo r d , R . C o lle g e o f S c ie n c e D iv . S .J .A .B . S u p t . D a v i d P e r c y R o b in s o n , R a t h m in e s a n d R a t h g a r D iv . S .J .A . B . S e r g t . V i c t o r C . C o le , C i t y o f D u b lin D iv . S .J . A .B . S u p t . H e n r y J. M o n a h e n , I r is h Land C o m m is s io n D iv . S . J .A .B . A m b . O ffic e r C h a r le s I le y , C i t y o f D u b lin D iv . S .J .A .B . A m b . O ffic e r J o h n F . H o m a n , C i t y o f D u b lin D iv . S .J .A .B . P t e . G e o r g e R . W e b b , D u b li n U n i v e r s i t y D iv . S . J .A .B . D iv . S u r g . W illia m C . C a r n e g i e , D u b lin U n i v e r s it y . D iv . S .J . A .B .

August, 1916.

AID. —

S e r g t . P a g e t H a f fie ld , G le n a g e a r y D iv . S .J .A .B . A m b . O ffic e r L e o n a r d W . J e w e ll, F o u r C o u r ts D iv ., S .J .A .B . C o r p s S u p t . A r t h u r B a k e r , M .D ., D u b lin U n i v e r s i t y D iv . S .J .A .B . P te . J o h n F . O a t e s , S t. J a m e s ’s G a t e D iv . S .J .A .B . S u p t . D a v i d S . J a r d in , R . C o lle g e o f S c e in c e D iv . S . J . A . B . M r . M a r t in R e d m o n d , u n a t t a c h e d . P t e . G r a n b y B u r k e , F o u r C o u r t s D iv . S .J .A .B . S u p t . C h a r le s S t . G . O r p e n , C a r r i c k m in e s D iv . S .J .A .B . C o r p l. E d w a r d G . K e ll y , G l e n a g e a r y D iv . S .J .A .B . D is . T r e a s . G e o r g e P C o p e , M .D ., N o . 12 ( I r is h ) D is t r ic t S .J .A .B . P t e . G e r a ld W . W ils o n , R a t h m in e s D iv . S .J .A .B . P te . S im o n N o le n , M c L o u g h li n a n d H a r v e y ’s D iv . S .J .A .B . P te . J o h n F . T r u n d le , S t. J a m e s ’s G a t e D iv . S .J .A .B . P te . J a m e s C . O ’ B r ie n , L a n d C o m m is s io n D iv . S .J .A .B . S e r g t . D a n ie l S u lliv a n , L a n d C o m m is s io n D iv . S .J .A .B . P t e . R o b e r t H . B o lt o n , R a t h m in e s D iv is io n , S .J .A .B . S e r g t . H e n r y J. S c o t t , R . C o lle g e o f S c ie n c e D iv . S .J .A .B . Q u a r t e r m a s t e r H o w a r d H e a ly , V . A . D . 6, B .R . C . S . P t e . J o s e p h G r e a v e s , R . C o lle g e o f S c ie n c e D iv . S .J .A .B . P t e . J o n a t h a n W . G r e v ille , F o u r C o u r t s D iv . S .J .A B . P t e . G e o r g e N e w c o m e n , D u b lin U n iv e r s it y D iv . S .J .A .B . P t e . H e r b e r t P . M a y n e , F o u r C o u r ts D iv . S .J .A .B . P t e . E d w a r d J. H u t c h in s o n , C i t y o f D u b l i n D iv . S .J .A .B . N e v ill e N o r w a y , u n a t t a c h e d . S e r g t . L e w is A . T o lp u t t , G a lw a y C i t y D iv . S .J .A .B . P te . H e n r y M . W h i t t o n , F o u r C o u r ts D iv . S .J .A .B . P t e . R o b e r t J . H e le n , S t. J a m e s ’ s G a t e D iv . S .J .A .B . C a p t a in J a m e s H u t s o n , P e m b r o k e F ir e B r ig a d e . P t e . W illia m J. B e d lo w , B r o o k s T h o m a s D iv . S e r g t . R o b e r t L e a s k , R a t h m in e s D iv . S .J .A .B . C o r p l. R o b e r t J. M a u d e , R a t h m in e s D iv . S .J .A .B . C o r p l. W illia m M . S t r o n a c h , R a t h m in e s D iv . S .J .A .B . Jo h n W o o d s , u n a tta ch e d . C h e v e r s R o c h e , u n a tta c h e d . D a u la t R a m K a li a , R a t h m in e s D iv . S .J .A .B . W

o m en

.

L a d y S u p t. M is s C h a r lo t t e B ir d , D u n d r u m N . D iv . S .J .A .B . L a d y S u p t. M is s W ilh e lm in a A r c h e r , L e e s o n P a r k N . D iv . S .J .A .B . M is s K a t r in e C o n r o y , C i t p o f D u b lin B . R . C . S . M is s E ile e n F . B la n d fo r d , L a d y D is . S e c ., N o . 12 ( I r is h ) D is t r ic t . M is s F r a n c i s M a n g in , C i t y o f D u b l i n B r a n c h B .R . C . S . M is s E ile e n M c C a r t n e y , C i t y o f D u b lin B r a n c h B .R .C .S . M r s . C r a w fu r t h S m ith , C o m m a n d a n t B . R . C . S . , V . A . D . 2. L a d y S u p t. M r s . M c V it t ie , F it z w illia m N . D iv . S .J .A .B . M is s P h y llis F r y , A le x a n d r a C o lle g e N . D iv . S .J .A .B . M is s E liz a b e t h F r e e m a n . M is s K a t h l e e n P ig o t t , S o u t h D u b lin N . D iv . S .J .A .B . M r s . D o r a L l o y d B lo o d , R a t h m in e s N . D iv . S .J .A .B . M is s A m y H o d g s o n W r e d e , R a t h m in e s N . D iv . S . J . A . B . M rs. A lic e M . S a n k e y , u n a tta ch e d . M is s S y b il S a u n d e r s K n o x G o r e , A le x a n d r a C o lle g e N . D iv . S .J .A .B . M is s M a y B o o t h J o n e s , B . R . C . S . 22. M is s R a c h e l G r a h a m , u n a t t a c h e d . M is s R u b y F i g g i s , L e e s o n P a r k N . D iv . S .J .A .B . M is s W in if r e d B u t le r , L e e s o n P a r k , N . D iv . S .J .A .B . M is s A d e la id e P o o le , F it z w illia m N . D iv . S .J .A .B . M is s E m i ly P o o le , F it z w illia m N . D iv . S .J .A .B . M is s F lo r e n c e R e ill y , B . R . C . S . V . A . D . 24. M is s E m i ly A . M o o n e y , C i t y o f D u b lin D iv . S .J .A .B . M is s S u s a n F . M o o n e y , C i t y o f D u b lin D iv . S .J .A .B . M is s M a r y L o u s i a S m y t h e , B . R . C . S . V . A . D . 22.

Miss L. Russell, of the No. 8 East H a m Nursing Division, was one of the successful competitors of the Air Raid Competition at the Metropolitan Police Fete on July 4th. W h e n c o r r e s p o n d in g w i t h A d v e r t i s e r s p le ase m e n tio n “ F i r s t A id


August, i g i 6 .

— FIR ST

AID

&

THE

ST.

JOH N

AM BULANCE

GAZETTE. —

THE ST. JOHN AMBULANCE GAZETTE. R ad iograph y By

A.

at

W ILSO N

the

Front

CREW DSON.

those who have had the privilege of helping in the work of Military Hospitals recognise the splendid work done by the probationers, nurses and sisters. T h e training given by the St. John Am bulance Association and the British Red Cross Society has had results which make us both thankful and proud. This, however, is not by any means the only work accomplished, and amongst their many other activities the necessity that an efficient X Ray equip­ ment should be available for use in the Hospitals in France was not overlooked. A t the beginning of the war the avail­ able X Ray apparatus was often dependent upon a small petrol engine, sometimes little better than a toy, which, in addition to the work for which it was intended, had to supply current for the electric light in the operating theatre and dispensary. T h e engine was of small size because in the X Ray cars intended for the Front it was often removed from the car in order to lessen vibration and to allow radiographic work to be carried out in the car itself. At first sight this seems very feasible, but it was found to result in much discomfort and difficulty owing to want of space and ventilation in the car. It is now arranged — and it is a 'great improvement— to have a somewhat larger engine permanently installed in the car, and to re­ move the table and X Ray apparatus into a tent or room. T h e improvements made by Messrs. Butt, of London, and Gaiffe, of Paris, have resulted in very light and portable X R a y apparatus that can be quickly placed in position, and adjusted to the requirements of wounded men ; thus facilitating the work of the X Ray operator, who frequently has to show his skill not only in his own particu­ lar work, but in assisting severely wounded men from the stretcher on which they have been brought into the X Ray room on to the radiographic table. A whole series of devices have to be resorted to in order to get, for instance, anterior, posterior and lateral radiographs where both legs are broken. T h e customary sandbags are by no means sufficient, and empty X Ray plate-boxes, bandages and sloping boards will from time to time be found useful to keep the wounded limb in the requisite position with the least possible pain to the patient. It is only those who have had special experience who can fully understand how important it is that the position should be the best possible, and that no time should be wasted. With a view to making the time spent by the patient on the table as short as possible, it is sometimes advisable to make a drawing in coloured chalks on trans­ parent celluloid stretched over the screen— or to use one of the extra large sized radiographic plates. With a radiograph or drawing the surgeon, in the case of fractured bones, finds himself in possession of information which will materially assist him in coming to a conclusion as to the best course of treatment. T h e localisation of foreign bodies calls for special care. T h e radiographer, when such have been found, has to mark their exact position and to deter­ mine their depth. There are a great number of instru­ A ll

ments, most of them modifications of the MackenzieDavidson method, which enable this to be accomplished with a c c u r a c y ; but, even then, especially when the foreign bodies are very numerous, the surgeon may prefer to re­ move them on the X R a y table, where the screen enables him to see exactly where they are, and how near his forceps are to them. T here appears to be a marked tendency on the part of surgeons to use X R a y apparatus in operations of this sort. I f possible the table should be cleaned after each case with a solution of carbolic, to prevent danger of infection. Whenever a patient is brought into the X R a y room great care should be taken as to his identity, including his name, the number o f his regiment, and of his bed in the hospital. All X Ray operators are aware of the curious way in which similar cases frequently come in series. This renders it essential that most careful entries should be made in the book, as well as on the cover of the plate, and on the plate itself when removed from its cover in the dark room. A n indelible pencil will be found to resist the action of most chemicals. As a further assistance to the correct reading of the plate, lead letters indicating the right and lelt sides of the patient should always be placed in position before a radiograph is taken. T h e correct numbering of the plates for future reference also requires care. T h e index number should be scratched on the plate itself as soon as it is dry, It will be found there are frequent requests for their radiographs after the patients have been sent on to other hospitals. T h e best method of obtaining prints from large plates may not be known to everybody, and a friend who is a most successful professional photographer says that, in order to supply these in the finished form to which we are accustomed, it is necessary after exposing the print film to film and fixing in the ordinary way, to inter­ rupt the final process of washing by dipping the print in a solution of one pound of alum to one gallon of water, then after a final washing to squegee the print on to a piece of plate glass or a sheet of ferrotype that has been previously washed with petrol and rubbed over with French chalk. 1 he print should, when perfectly dry, fall off o f its own accord. If it does not, it should be moistened with damp blotting paper, and the process repeated. T h e success of the work of the Radiographer when at the Front depends on a much wider experience than is usually considered essen tial; not only must he have a fair acquaintance with chemicals, but he must also have a good working knowledge of the petrol engine, without which he can in most cases accomplish nothing. T h e majority of the engines now supplied are admirably suited to their work, but they require cleaning from time to time ; this the Radiographer should be able to manage, as well as to execute small repairs. As a general rule the Driver, who accompanies each X-ray outfit sent to the Front, is also a mechanic, but it is not wise for the Radiographer to be dependent on his good fortune in this respect. The results obtained are far too important to the wounded for anything to be left to chance. As regards a knowledge of anatomy, whilst this is


26

— FIR ST

A ID

&

THE

ST.

JOHN

undoubtedly desirable, it is not so essential as a knowledge of the engine and electrical apparatus, for the work has to be submitted to surgeons, who will in all cases naturally draw their own conclusions, and would be apt to distrust the anatomical diagnosis of even the most learned radio­ grapher, unless he were a properly qualified medical man. Whether a patient should be allowed to know the result of the X R a y examination is a matter entirely at the discre­ tion of the Surgeon, great difficulty may be caused by unauthorised statements on the part of the Radiographer. A n excellent example of what an X-ray motor car should be is supplied by the one presented by Sir John Holder, Bart., to the Order of St. John of Jerusalem in England, and placed by the Order at the disposal of the staff of the Hopital Militaire, at Arc-en-Barrois, and to which reference has already been made in these pages. Mounted upon an Austin chassis the radiographic apparatus is care­ fully packed to enable it to travel without injury. Arrived at the scene of operations, the operating table can either be carried into the hospital and connected with the car by flexible wires, or a light-tight tent attached to the side of the car itself can be quickly erected, the table set up beneath it, and the radiograms taken, or even operations performed. T h e electric power is supplied by a small but extremely efficient petrol engine, supplemented by a storage battery. T here is a dark room on the car where plates can be developed, and there is room for two men to sleep in hammocks, if necessary. T h e radiographic apparatus was supplied by Messrs. Butt and Co., of Wardour-street, London.

T h e Jo u rn ey, L ife a n d E x p erien ces of a V .A .D . in M o n t e n e g r o . ( Concluded from page g .) Our dinner ended, we wandered back to the station. It was deemed unwise to sleep anywhere in the town, as so many houses had typhus cases in them. W e reached the station at 5 and some of the party walked down the line to where our carriage had been shunted, as we were to sleep in it in a swing. Our surgeon and I stole back again to the town to see if there was any possible place where we could get something really eatable and a hot cup o f tea. W e discovered a pastrycook’s shop which had in its window every sort of Paris fancy cakes. W e entered, and in five minutes we were both behaving like a couple of small school boys. C ak e after cake disappeared, each one being richer and better than the one before ! A deadly thirst came over us both, which had to go unquenched as water was the only beverage obtainable, and that we dared not take. H aving really enjoyed a good half-hour we waded back through rain and mud to the station, but could see nothing of the others. W e had no where to go to, the stationmaster’s office was being scrubbed out and disin­ fected, as a case of typhus had been in there that day. For two solid hours we had to tramp up and down the line in the rain and dark. Luckily it was mild, so neither of us minded. A t 9 the rest of the party turned up, and we returned once again to the hotel for supper. O ddly enough our surgeon and I were not hungry though we had to pretend to eat so as not to disappoint the proprietor, who was much pleased to welcome us! A t 1 1 .3 0 p .m . we turned in to sleep, and I had a fairly good night. N ot so the other V .A .D . and sister who arrived in a “ special ” at

AM BULANCE

GAZETTE. —

August, 1916.

midnight. T h e stationmaster kindly cleared out his wife and four children from their beds, and offered the room to the late comers. T h e V .A .D . told me the next day that half the night was spent in either killing cockroaches or else picking them out of her hair! A t 7 a .m . on the Saturday we were all told to get up, go up to the town to breakfast, return, and be ready for the train which was to start at 10. It poured nearly the whole morning and the train did not leave till 1 p.m. W e had a quantity of eggs with us, but gave them all away to some sick soldiers. It was a mere drop in the ocean. A t 1.30 we started off on the last stage of our railway journey. Nothing eventful happened, no one missed the train, and all were glad to be on the move. W e reached Uzishta at 11.30 p.m., and our chief gave orders we were to sleep in our carriages. A t 7.30 a.m., Sunday, we left the station in a motor which drove us at a neck-break pace into the town a distance of about a mile. We were taken to the “ Hotel Europe,” really a very dirty sort of public-house. It was decided we were to stay there that day and night, and to make an early start the next morning either on horse-back or in carts. A n invitation came during the day for the whole mission to dine at the officers’ mess that evening. W e gladly accepted. T h e officers were quartered in a very fine stone building, formeily, I believe, a college. About 40 of us sat down to dinner, my next door neighbour was a Serbian General, unluckily for me he spoke nothing but Serbian and German. O f the former I knew nothing and of the latter language about twenty words, which were chiefly to express wants in the food line. However, somehow or other I managed to carry on quite a conversation throughout the meal, much to most people’s amusement, as at times the poor General looked decidedly perplexed. Our host, whose name I ’ve forgotten, made a very good speech, most complimentary to the English Nation and the Unit. Our chief responded (both speeches were interpretted by Mr. Pichard). Toasts were drunk and the Serbian National Anthem sung. On our return to the hotel we found the bar full of soldiers and others, and a band playing. W e stayed and listened for a while. T h e music was extremely good, and Serbian music is fascinating.

On

Fin din g

Your

W ay

at

N igh t.

B y L I O N E L J. P I C T O N , M.A., M .B . (A Lecture given before the Holm es Chapel Amb. Div.) T h o u g h easy, to b e c o m e night p erfect requires t i m e ; it requires practice before the habit o f always k n o w in g w here y o u are, and in w hat dir ection you are travelling, N., S., E. or W., be co m es s e co n d nature ; before the sky, the wind, the blown trees, the rising a n d setting stars all tell you in­ stinctively, or at a glance, where y ou are as certainly as if it were daylight.

T h e facts you require to know are simple and few, such as can easily be learned in two or three evenings. When once they are learned you can practice yourselves in the use of these factors. Indeed, you will not be able to help doing so whenever you are out in the night, and so by the time you are half-way through your training with the colours, which I suppose many of you will shortly be called to join, you will find yourselves, to your very great advan­ tage, to be night perfect— that is, able to find your way about in the dark.


August, 1916.

— FIR ST

AID

&

THE

ST.

Y o u require to practice — (1)

S

e ein g

in

th e

D

a r k

.

This improves by practice. P ra ctice: One man of a section marches away and is stopped as soon as he is out of sight. H e calls out how many paces he has taken. H e then goes further on in the darkness, halts, turns about and comes back as silently as he can towards the rest of the section. T h e men watch for him, and stop him when he is first visible. T h en he counts his paces back to the section. Remember vision at night is easier the larger the pupils of your eyes are. More light enters them if they are large than if they are small. N ow if you peer at a thing close to you, your pupils automatically become smaller than if your glance is directed into the distance. Although look­ ing into the distance objects in the foreground are still visible to you, and in the darkness they are actually more visible than if you look right at them. It is easy to culti­ vate this way of looking into the darkness if you imagine you are looking at a church tower half-a-mile away. (2)

H

e a r in g

or

L

ist e n in g

at

N

ig h t

.

Stand when you are on sojt ground. P u t your ear close to the ground when you are on hard ground. Yo u will generally hear better on high ground than on low if the wind be towards you, or if there be no wind. Remember— woods, winds and water alter sounds. Practice listening for individuals and parties approach­ ing under varying weather conditions. Call “ Halt ” to the approaching party, and indicate in which direction it is coming. TH E Y o u will often be surprised to find D IR E C T IO N it is coming from some direction STARS other than that from which you think you have heard it. (3) L

ea r n

to in

M

th e

ove

D

N

a r k

JOHN

AM BULANCE

GAZETTE. —

27

compass, but you will need an artificial light to see the map and a luminous compass. fc) B y the fact that in the first half of the night the west is generally lighter than the east, and in the second half of the night the east is lighter than the west. I f you face the east your left shoulder points north, and your right shoulder south, so that if you know the direction you want to go in, and if you know roughly what time it is, you can often tell north and south in this simple way. (d) B y sounds, such as the sound of a river or water­ fall, of which you know the position. A steady, prevalent wind and the direction of clouds may be some guide to you at times. (e) I f you happen to be near a bush or tree and can see a star below a branch, and then if after you have kept quite still for ten minutes you see the same star above the branch, you may, o f course, conclude that star is rising. Now stars rise in the east and set in the west. I f you face the rising stars you left shoulder points north and your right shoulder south, and you are facing east and back to the west. T hus you can get your bearings, roughly, by the stars, even when you do not know what stars they are. ( / ) All the methods I have spoken of, except the map and compass, are rough methods ; but you can know your exact whereabouts if you have taken the trouble to learn a little about two or three groups of stars :— O n e little cluster of stars and about nine twinkling stars of the first magnitude, which are called Direction Stars. j. Groups o f stars or constellations. Most of you know the Great Bear, or Plough, or Charles Wain, to call it by three names. T h is is always XJan

or N o rth e rn L a t iudes. T h e y a r e a ll w in k l in g s t a r s . P la n e t s a r e n o u se .

oisele ssly

,

without rattling equipment. A wounded man being carried must be cautioned to keep quiet. In the case of a man carried by the bank of the Yser his groans drew the enemy’s fire. On short grass or hard ground put your toes downfirst. A n Italian peasant who wears soft sandals always does this, and he is a good and noiseless walker.

m m ur

In long grass you will be quicker it you put your heels down first. Remember— if you don’t know where you are, and which is north in the day time, you will be helpless to the dark. In the tiight time you can guide yourselves— («) A s in the day, by objects you have seen before and recognise, though, of course, unless you know them exceptionally well, your pro­ gress will be much slower. (b) A s in the day, by map and

-

if vnner,t,fW«yrtl - 1f arnr thiS *S

the Shy>but1 k wil1 helP you t0 do

n r n n e r n h ir £ p a p e r fo r t h e s t a r s a n d s t it c h p r o p e r p la c e s o n t h e in s id e o f a n o p e n u m b r e lla .

t h e m in t h e ir

CnVJ*


FIR ST

28

AID

&

THE

ST.

JOHN

to be seen on a clear night in northern latitudes, in E n g ­ land and Flanders, for instance. It consists of seven stars, arranged like the diagram of a saucepan. T h e Americans call it “ the Dipper.” T h e lip of the saucepan points to the North Star. L o o k at this diagram and you will see what I mean. T h e North Star is always fixed due north. It does not rise or set. T h e Great Bear revolves round it, the saucepan lip always pointing to it. T h e lip is formed of two stars called T h e Pointers. Another group of stars you should know is Orion, the most brilliant o f constellations, always seen in winter to the southward. T h ree stars form Orion’s belt, and three more form the sword— “ Orion’s belt and sworded hip.” T h e head, shoulders and feet can also be seen. Please remember that Orion is visible both in northern and southern latitudes. Roughly, Orion’s sword points north and south. More exactly, if you draw an imaginary line from the middle star of the belt through the middle star of the head, and straight on through two biggish stars to another, that third is the North Star. O n the other hand, if you draw a line from the same point again, that is to say, from the middle star of the belt, but in the opposite direction, straight through the middle star of the sword, that line points due south. T here is no South Pole Star, and even if there were, in E ngland you could not see it. N ow I have mentioned two groups of stars or con­ stellations. A third, the Southern Cross, is a splendid night guide in southern latitudes, where alone it can be seen. ij. T h e star cluster is called The Pleiades. This is the best known star cluster in the heavens. Y o u will see it on clear winter nights sparkling like a brooch of jewels. T here are seven stars in it close together. “ L ik e a swarm of fire flies tangled in a silver braid.” Y o u will see it early in Decem ber high overiiead and due south at n . o p.m. It is a useful guide in the winter, but by May it is of no help. It rises in the east at 2 o’clock in the morning in July, and, of course, gets earlier as the months go by. So much for the cluster. Now for— T

h e

D

ir e c t io n

S

t a r s

.

T h e y are :— (I.) T h e N orth S ta r itself, which is a yellow star, pointed at by “ T h e P o in te rs” of the Great Bear. (II.) Arcturus, Carry your eye along the tail of the Great Bear and beyond the end of it and the first big star you come to is Arcturus. It is the largest star in the heavens, but as it is yellow it is not so bright as one I shall name in a minute. But it is very easy to find by its position beyond the end of the tail of the Great Bear. L et me finish this list of Direction Stars before I tell you how to use them. ( I I I . and IV .) Procyon and A lta ir are two stars on the same heavenly latitude as the Sword and Belt of Orion. Procyon, a yellow star, is a useful guiding star in the winter and spring, and A lta ir , in the summer and autumn. Y o u will find Procyon a little east of Orion. Y o u will find Altair almost due east in the sky at 10 o’clock (old time) at night in the beginning of June. It is a big white star with a pair of smaller stars, one vertically above and the other vertically below it. This trio of stars, when rising, is always vertical, but when setting the trio is tilted towards the westwards.

AM BULANCE

GAZETTE. —

August

1916.

Now I mention Orion, Altair, and Procyon all together for this reason, that they rise almost due east, and they all set almost due west. W hen they are full up they are due south, and when they are half up or half down they are almost exactly south-east or south-west. A ltair is specially useful because you have only to see it alone (supposing the sky is cloudy and it is the only star visible) to know by its being straight or tilted whether it is rising or setting. Y o u do not have to get behind a tree and watch which way it is moving. As Col. Tilney says: " I t is a perfect night guide." ( To be continued.)

Cyprus

and

the of

H o sp ita lle r ’s K olossi.

C astle

B y H. W. F I N C H A M . N o w that England has formally taken possession of the island of Cyprus, which it has occupied since 1878, it is a fitting opportunity to call attention to its connection with the Order of St. John, and give some account of the Order’s ancient Castle of Kolossi. In 1195, Richard I., on his way to Syria for the third crusade, took the island from the D u k e of the Eastern Empires and gave it to G uy de Lusignan, K in g of Jeru­ salem, in whose family the sovereignty of the island remained until 1487, when it passed under the dominion of the Republic of Venice. In 1570 the Turks conquered it and held it until its occupation by England. Visitors to the island are at once struck with the large number of buildings to be seen, all in the succeeding styles of French Gothic architecture. During the 300 years of the rule of the Lusignans Cyprus must have been almost entirely French. Cathedrals, churches, monasteries and castles arose on all sides, everyone of which were in the prevailing style of architecture of the country from which their builders had come. In the town of Famaqusta alone are still standing more than 20 Gothic churches. As early as the year 1210 the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem had given them by charter from K in g H ugh I. a piece of land in the island of Cyprus, called Kollossi, close to the town of Limasol, and here they built a castle— one of the many fortifications which they erected on the main routes to Palestine for the protection of pilgrims journey­ ing to the Holy Sepulchre. When in the year 1291 the last foothold of the Chris­ tians was lost by the Saracens’ conquest of St. Jean d ’Acre, the Knights of the Temple, the Teutonic Knights, and the various other Orders, abandoned their attempts to regain the H o ly Sepulchre and returned to their homes in Western Europe. But the Hospitallers still kept before them the object for which they were founded and sought for head­ quarters as near as posible to the centre of their labours. T h e y decided to retire to their castle of Kolossi until they should be able to find some position more suited to their purpose, which could be entirely under their own rule. T hese hopes were consummated when they settled in the island of Rhodes nineteen years later, but even after this removal had taken place Kolossi remained in the hands of the Order for several centuries. T h e fortress as it stands to-day is a building of the fifteenth century and has success­ fully resisted the earthquakes of 1567 and the following year, which so ravaged Limasol and the surrounding neigh­ bourhood. In plan it is square, with sides seventy feet long and a


August, 1916.

— F IR ST

AID

&

THE

ST.

height of ninety-five f e e t ; the walls are ten feet thick. It consists of a basement or cellar divided into three aisles also a ground-floor of two aisles or galleries, and an upper floor divided into two large chambers . In the south-east angle a circular stair connects all the floors, and in the north wall a shaft descends to a well in the basement. T h e tops of the walls are crowned by a crenellated parapet. A modern stone bridge which gives access to the door of the ground-floor has replaced the ancient drawbridge, a relic of which remains in the openings in the walls for the chains used to work it. T h e defence of this draw­ bridge was provided for by a machicolated balcony near the top of the tower immediately above. T h e two upper floors are lighted by two windows in each face of the tower, and the great thickness of the walls gives the opportunity for stone window seats on either side of the internal splayed openings. Each room is separately vaulted in stone, by a pointed barrel vault, supported on one side by the partition wall which bisects each of the two upper floors, and on the other side by the outer wall. T hese rooms contain impos­ ing fireplaces and massive chimney pieces. In the middle of the east wall of the tower are carved a number of coats of arms, among which are those of the Order of St. John, Grand Masters Antony Fluvian, 1421r 4 37 >John de Lastic, 1437-1454, and John de Milly, 1 4 5 4 1461, as well as of Jerusalem, Cyprus, and Lusignan. On the internal walls are still to be found considerable traces of painted frescoes, one of which represents Christ on the Cross between the Virgin and St. John. There are signa­ tures and dates roughly scratched upon the walls, the pastime of the Knights in their idle moments. Adjoining the south-west angle of the tower are the remains of what appears to have been a chapel, five bays in length, consisting of two aisles having a row of four columns along the middle. Traces of the outer fortifications of massive walls are to be found in various directions, together with a stone aqueduct towards the west. In 1913 H . R .H . T h e D uke of Connaught, Grand Prior of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem in England, was pleased to interest himself in Kolossi and suggested that it might be acquired by the Order. T h e Chapter-General approved of the suggestion and negotiations were conducted with the owners by the High Commissioner of Cyprus, Sir Hamilton Gould-Adams. T h e castle is owned by several proprietors, and so far the Order has acquired a sufficient interest in it to stop any attempt to make structural altera­ tions in the castle or to dispose of it without their consent, so that even if it is not eventually found expedient or even possibly to acquire the whole of the building, the purchase o f these rights will have placed the Order in a very favourable position for the protection of this historical building. In April of the present year the Government of Cyprus declared the castle an ancient monument, and placed it under the charge of the Commissioner of Limasol, so that it is now completely protected from any possible injury or alteration, to which it was very liable in the past. A t Nicosia, the capital of the island, the Hospitallers also possessed a castle and a church dedicated to their patron Saint, the buildings are still of considerable im­ portance and are the most ancient Latin buildings in the capital. T h e castle sustained a memorable siege in the year 1229. T h e church is to-day the metropolitan church of the Greek archbishop, and his palace occupies the site of the ancient hospital. In the church are buried two Kings .and a-Queen of Cyprus, H ugh I. and his wife Alix de Champagne, 1257, and H ugh II., 1267.

JOHN

AM BULANCE

GAZETTE. —

29

M e n t i o n e d in D e s p a t c h e s . T h e following ladies of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem and the British R e d Cross Society were mentioned in Sir Douglas H a ig ’s Despatches published June 17th :— Miss C. Todd. Matron of the Brigade Hospital (has already received the Royal Red Cross). Miss H. M. Barry, Sister. Miss J. Freshfield, Sister. Miss K. Hallett, Sister. Miss M. A. Thomas, Sister. Miss M. Hamilton, V.A.D. Miss N. Pemberton, V.A.D.

W

o m e n ’s

V o l u n t a r y A id D e t a c h m e n t s .

The Hon. U. M. Lawley. Miss D. C. Sloggett, St. John Ambulance Brigade. Miss C. Cundell. Miss H. B. Nesbitt. Miss E. Mollett, St. John Territorial Branch Detachments. Miss E. MacCarthy, St. John Ambulance Brigade. Miss M. Skinner. Miss H. Walford. Miss C. M. Gordon.

N otes

and

News.

Joint certificates have been drawn up for Application for Admission to ( J .V .A .D . 52), and Discharge from (J .V .A .D . 53), a Voluntary A id Detachment. Applications for these certificates should be sent to the Secretary of the British R ed Cross Society, 9, Victoria-street, L ondon, S.W., in the case of R ed Cross D etachments, and to the Secretary of St. John V . A . D . ’s, St. John ’s Gate, C le rk e n ­ well, E.C ., in the case of St. John Detachments. T h e Discharge certificate should be given to each m em ber who leaves a Detachment, and produced by any mem ber who applies for admission to another Detachment. * * * T h e Joint Uniform Certificate J .V .A .D . 24, to which we referred in our last issue, is now in print, and the printers have orders to post the required supply direct to each County Director. Samples of the Uniform Certifi­ cate case have been ordered, and as soon as they are received they will be circulated to C oun ty Directors, so that they may get orders for the same from members in their counties. T h e price will be between 4^d. and 6d., according to the total number ordered.

A d d i t i o n s t o V .A .D . U n i f o r m . — It has been d e­ cided that those V ,A .D . members who have served a con­ secutive period of 13 months in military hospitals, and who are recommended by their Matron, may wear a horizontal white bar 4 inches long, just below the shoulder on the sleeve of their uniform (outdoor and indoor). T h es e should be of herring-bone material, similar to the pattern supplied. T h e y can be provided in quantities of not less than one dozen by the Secretary, Uniform Department, Devonshire House, Piccadilly, L ondon, W., at a cost of is! per dozen (postage extra). I f a member is transferred from one military hospital to another, either by the Matron-inC h ie f or the Selection Board, she is allowed to count both periods of service towards the 13 months which qualify her to wear the bar, subject, of course, to her being recom ­ mended by both matrons under whom she has served.


— FIR ST

A ID

&

THE

ST.

JOHN

In deep regret and with much sympathy to her rela­ tives from the staff at Headquarters, we have to record the death, on July 25th, of a V .A .D . member of S.J.A .B . (Londonderry/678) while on service at Northfield Military Hospital. T h e names of V . A . D . ’s who thus give up their lives in the service of their country will have earned a place, on that deathless Roll of Honour upon which those of so many of the finest of the Empire’s dauntless sons are now emblazoned. * * * During the month of July, 305 members were posted from the Joint W o m e n ’s V .A .I ) . Headquarters at D evon ­ shire House. O f this total 99 were sent abroad and 206 (including 18 General Service members) went to home hospitals. T h e grand total of 3,258 members at work on Special Service is made up of 978 Nursing members abroad, 2,108 Nursing members at home, and 172 General Service members. In the same period 285 Nursing and 68 General Service members have passed the Selection Board. -t A T h e following St. John Hospitals have recently been o p e n e d :— Moore Green House Hospital, Birmingham, 50 beds, lent by Sir John Holder, Bart. This hospital is at present regarded as an extension of Highbury, and its financial responsibilities are guaranteed by K y n o c h ’s workmen. Saltwell Towers, Gateshead, 50 beds, the cost of equipment having been largely defrayed by auctioneers and estate agents holding a series of sales in the Northern districts. Also No. 6, Kensington-terrace, Newcastle, 50 beds, opened by the Jesmond Nursing Division. * * * It is notified for information that from October 1st next the First A id and H o m e Nursing courses will each consist of twelve hours’ instruction instead of ten as heretofore. This alteration involves a revision of papers 49B, 58, 60 and V.-A. * * * From October 1st next the provisions of paper N .F .C . (2) are withdrawn, except in so far as they refer to the examination of a small number of candidates at a reduced fee. Th is latter form of examination was introduced to meet an emergency, and is only applicable to urgent cases. * * * In future application for the recognition of a Brigade member’s services to the Association need not be supTT

ported

by

form

A — , but the resolution on form

^

must be countersigned by the candidate’s Deputy C om ­ missioner, and will subsequently be submitted to the C hief Commissioner for his approval, by the C h ief Secretary before being laid before the Central Executive Committee. * * * Applicants for examination for Demonstrators’ Certificates should invariably quote the number of their medallion. *** It has been decided that when a specially meritorious case of first aid is brought to the notice of the Central Executive Committee, supported by reliable evidence, it shall be competent for the Committee to authorise an

AM BULANCE

GAZETTE. —

August, 1916.

endorsement to be made on the Certificate of the person concerned. T his rule is not retrospective. * * T h e introduction of Demonstrators’ Certificates does not at present debar the Surgeon Instructor from utilising the services of any competent person, whom he may select, to give practical demonstrations under his immediate supervision, but such person is not recognised by the Association, and is not eligible to give practical instruction when the Surgeon Instructor is not actually present.

T h e G r a n d P rio ry of th e O rd er of th e H osp ital of S t. Jo h n of J e r u s a le m in E n g l a n d . Chancery o f the Order, St. fo h n ’s Gate, Clerkenwell, London, E .C ., August 15th, 19 16 . His Majesty the King has been graciously pleased to sanction the following promotions in, and appointments to, the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England :— A s K nights o f fusticc (from K nights o f Grace) : Lieut.-Colonel Alfred Dyke Acland. The Hon. Arthur Stanley, C.B., M.V.O., M.P. A s Chaplains : The Rev. Campbell Blethyn Hulton. The Right Rev. Bishop John Taylor Smith, C.V.O., D.D. A s K nights of Grace : Colonel Howard Carr, C.B., M.D., A.M.S. Robert Martin-Holland, C.B. The Duke of Devonshire, K.G., G.C.M.G., G.C.V.O. Samuel Hamilton, M.D. (from Honorary Associate.) Lieut.-Colonel Edward Stewart, M.D., M.R.C.P., R.A.M.C. The Earl of Onslow. A s Ladies o f Grace : Frances Belt, Lady Hadfield. Hilda, Mrs. Wynne. Emily Mary, Lady Wynne Agnes, Mrs. Dennis. The Duchess of Devonshire. Sarah Anne, Mrs. Lees. The Viscountess Errington. Florence Elizabeth Mary, Lady Portal. The Countess of Onslow. A s Esquires. Roger Paul Ninnis, M.B., B.S. Major David Donald, C.A.M.C. Henry Walter Fincham.

/

A s Honorary Serving Sisters : Ida Thekla, Miss Bowser. Martha, Mrs. Cooke. Alice May, Miss Mather. Nora Kathleen, Miss Fletcher. Elizabeth, Mrs. Wakeling. Mary Richmond, Miss Easton. Edith, Miss McCall-Anderson, R.R.C. Daisy, Miss Cartmail. A s Honorary Associates : Christine May, Miss Beeman. Lieut.-Colonel Henry Charlesworth, C.M.G., M.R.C.S., R.A.M.C. Thomas Pearson, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. Claud Douglas-Pennant. Ida Elizabeth, Mrs. Bevil Smithe.


August, 1916

— F I R S T

CONTENTS

OF

THIS

NUMBER.

AID. —

31

an entirely new precedent as would be constituted by the supervisory commission suggested by the Am erican

E dito rial—

Safety and First Aid

R ed Cross, * * *

D is tric t R eports—

No. 1 ; No. 3 : No. 4 No. 12

A t a C oroner’s inquest Wales, at which a verdict of

T h e S t . J o h n ’s A m b u l a n c e G a z e t t e —

Radiography at the Front ... ... The Journey, Life and Experience of a V.A.D. Montenegro ... ... ... On Finding your W ay at Night ... ... Cyprus and the Hospitaller’s Castle at Kolossi Mentioned in Despatches ... ... Notes and News ... ... ... The Grand Priory of the Order of the Hospital St. John of Jerusalem in England ... Brevities ... ... ... ... ... Hints to Hospital Orderlies ... ... ... Ambulance Arrangements for Hostile Air Raids Efficient First Aid ... ... ... ... Stretcher Bearing ... ... ... ... Queries and Answers to Correspondents ... The Humorous Side of the First Aid Beginner Teaching First Aid by Popular Demonstration

in .. ... of ...

° 26 26 28 ->n ->g 30

34

,,, ... ... ...

36 36 37

B r e v itie s . A c o n s p i c u o u s case of first aid being rendered by a member of the S.J.A .B . is recorded in this issue. Sergt. Hafrop, of the No. 15 East Ham Division, Prince of Wales’s Corps, by persisting in performing “ Schaefer ” method of resuscitation to a man who had been submerged under water for a considerable time undoubtedly saved his life. T his case shows what may be done by skilful and timely treatment on the part of an ambulance student. V T h e C h ief Commissioner of the Brigade, after twelve

months service in command of the Brigade Hospital at Etaples has relinquished his command and resumed duty at St. John’s Gate. T h e command of the hospital has devolved upon Major Trimble, R .A .M .C ., the Deputy ’ Commissioner of the No. 4 District. * * * V i s c o u n t G r e y has sent a note refusing the request of the the American R e d Cross for permission to send medical supplies to Germany and Austria-Hungry. T h e British Foreign Secretary refutes the contention that the Allies’ blockade contravenes the Geneva Convention, which, he says, Great Britain has always scrupulously observed. H e adds that there is no reason to disbelieve that there is an absolute lack of R e d Cross materials in Germany and Austria-Hungry, but there is every reason to suppose the reverse. I f there are any deficiencies in such supplies this must be due to the fact that the Central Powers prefer to use the material in question for other purposes, and any steps taken to give them further supplies would conduce, not to the increased welfare of the sick and wounded, but merely to secure larger quantities for belligerent purposes. Therefore His Majesty’s Government do not feel able to create such

recently held in South Accidental D eath ” was

returned, the jury added a rider to the effect that first aid treatment should be provided on the spot, and the inference is that had skilled treatment been available life might have been saved. It appears that although the accident happened at docks where a large n um ber of workmen are engaged no man capable o f rendering first aid treatment was forthcoming. W e have frequently referred in this Journal to the desirability o f employers encouraging their workmen to acquire a first aid train­ ing, and many employers now afford every assistance in their power to this end. Apart from humanitarian con ­ siderations it is doubtless the case that the advantages of so doing are reflected in the compensation account. * * * I t is gratifying to hear on the testimony o f the H o m e Secretary (Mr. H. Samuel) that many of the Special Constables are qualifying in first aid knowledge. T h e information was forthcoming in the form of a reply recently to a question in the H ou se o f C o m m o n s by Mr. Jacobsen, asking that all citizens over military age on the jury lists should serve as special constables in their turn unless medically unfit or engaged in other work of national importance, and that steps should be taken to require all special constables to attain to a certain standard in A m b u lan c e work, so that in case of air raids or accidents they might be able to render efficient and organised service. In making the

statement that many of the “ s p e c ia ls ” had already qualified in first aid work, Mr. H. Samuel said he did not think that legislation of the nature suggested was either necessary or desirable W e understand that first aid classes for special constables have been formed throughout the country, and on the whole the ambulance work has been taken up enthusiastically. * * * I t has been recently represented that the demand for members of V .A .D s . is likely to greatly increase during the next few months. Recruits are now obtained with difficulty, owing mainly, perhaps, to the large demands for women workers from different quarters, and also, it is thought, to the great delay that occurred in

employing members after warning them to hold them­ selves in readiness for service. A further reason is probably to be found in tbe kind o f work on which members are generally employed. T h e ordinary member aspires to nursing duties o f a minor kind, and she is not satisfied when she finds herself relegated to polish­ ing brasses, &c.

scrubbing tables, cleaning

patient’s lockers


— F I R S T

32

H in ts

for

H o s p ita l

most carefully. Otherwise, he may pass a restless night, wondering if he gave a dose of physic or some poisonous lotion.

Orderlies.*

B y N. C O R B E T FLETCHER. B.A., M.B., B.C., Cantab., M.R.C.S. Author of “ A id s to F irst A id ," “ A id s to Home N u rsin g" and “ Why and Wherefore in F r st Aid."

C.

C l e a n l i n e s s of Patient.

T h e Orderly appreciates and pays special attention to the Cleanliness o f the Patients— their bodies, hands, faces, teeth and hair— and also to the Cleanliness o f the Bed-clothes, Bedding, & c ., as part of the requirements of treat­ ment. H e realises that Cleanliness is essential both [ox the proper working and inter action of the Vital Functions and also for the prevention of preventible complications, e.g., bedsores, the chief causes of which are pressure and moisture, due to uncleanli­ ness. Further, through the neglect of Cleanliness of the patient, the danger o f the spread of Infection is aggravated and may become very real to those in immediate attendance on a patient suffering from contagious disease, especially to the Sister and Orderly. B riefly stated, Cleanliness o f the Patient increases the rapidity o f chances o f recovery o f the patient, and, in infectious illness diminishes the risks o j his attendants. Under these circumstances the Orderly must supervise the arrangements both for the initial bath, which, whenever possible, each patient is expected to take on admission to the Ward, and also for those which must be repeated twice a week. H e must at the same time serve out a clean towel, shirt and pair of socks. • Again, he must remove from the Ward all soiled linen without delay.

T.

Thoroughness

('Continued from page 12 .) C h a p t e r IV .— C a r e o f P a tie n ts . A n O r d e r l y m ust e x e r c is e T A C T .

duties of the Orderly towards his Patients involve both personal and professional responsibilities. In his p e r s o n a l relationship with Patients the Orderly must possess an infinite amount of T a c t , which he must display in all his words and actions, and which will be more severely tested in that he has to deal with men whose temperaments are disturbed by sickness and injuries. W ithout Tact, therefore, the Orderly cannot expect to exercise control or to preserve order amongst the inmates of the Ward. In his p r o f e s s i o n a l relationship the Orderly must cultivate Thoughtfulness for the Comfort of his patients, make the most of his opportunities for developing Accuracy in Observation (on which, to a great extent, the value of his services depends), ensure at all costs the Cleanliness of the Patient, and practise with assiduous care Thoroughness in the performance of his Nursing Duties— e.g. bed-making, diet-serving, medicine-administration, &c. The

T.

T h o u g h t f u l n e s s for Comfort of Patients. Comfort

signifies relief from pain and distress, together with freedom from annoyance. T h e treatment of patients, therefore, possesses a mental and a physical aspect, the latter of which receives attention as part of the Nursing Duties. In the attainment of mental rest and quietude, which facilitate recovery, the Patients are depen­ dent on the wisdom of the Orderly, who must remember that the punctilious performance of his duties and active care for the personal require­ ments of the patients cannot replace the sympathetic interest and hearty co-operation which are so pleasing and soothing to a sick man. The secret o j Thoughtfubiess, therefore, is the old-time principle of doing to others w hat we would wish them to do to us. A,

Observation is the act of seeing and noting w hat is seen. T o the Orderly it must becomes the habit of recognising and noting the phenomena associated with sickness and recovery from injuries ; and for this purpose it requires the constant use of all the receptive senses, more especially the sight, hearing, touch and, in special emergencies, even taste and smell. A ccuracy is the practical proof of the powers of Observation, the importance of which in reports and in the performance of duties has already been insisted upon, and is further emphasised in the following section. T h e more an Orderly exercises his senses, the greater is the Trust inspired in his officers, and the less exacting become his duties. T hus, when administering medicines, the Orderly should examine both bottle and instructions

of Duties. Lastly, since neatness, efficiency, and accuracy are the hallmarks of excel­ lent service, then the Orderly must as a matter o f routine acquire the habit (which he learned in his study of First Aid) of submitting his work to a critical test before he considers it complete, and so demonstrate Thoroughness in each and every act of Duty. Thus, when recording the temperature of a patient, the Orderly will be wise if he delays shak­ ing down the thermometer until he has entered the result on the chart. This done, he can check his result and save himself the trouble (and his patient the inconvenience) of having to register the tempera­ ture a second time. * * * * *

A c c u r a c y in Observation.

* B y arrangem en t w ith M essrs. John B a le , S on s and D an ielsson , L t d ., 83, G t. T itch fie ld -stre e t, these Papers (w hen com plete) w ill be pu blish ed as a b o o k le t, p rice 6d. net.

August, 1916.

AID. —

A ccuracy

of

O bservatio n .

A n O r d e r l y m ust O b se rv e A S P E C T o f P a tie n t.

A.

T h e special points to which an Orderly must direct his observation, are the A s p e c t of the Patient. H e must note particularly the aspect of the patient and his attitude as he lies in bed. Thus, the patient may be suffering from intense pain, from the consequences of grave injuries, or from the effects of profuse haemorrhage. T h e evidence in support of these points would be contortions of the face with or without other muscular movements of the body, a listless apathetic position in bed, or marked pallor o f the face and lips. Again, the attitude may be horizontal as in Exhaustion, raised as in Heart Disease and Pleurisy, or semi-flexed (shoulders elevated, knees bent) as in Peritonitis.


August, 1916.

— F I R S T

AID. —

Much, therefore, can be learned from the Aspect and Attitude of the patient both with regard to the cause and also to the progress of the illness.

late rule that anything unusual m ust be kept and reported. A n Orderly, therefore, must observe the Stools— of which there should be at least one action per day— especially their shape, colour, and character (like pea-soup, as in Enteric Fever ; like rice water, as in Cholera , together with the presence of mucous (slime) or blood, as in Dysentery. Perspiration, which is always going on in health and sickness— and which may be deficient in Fever and excessive in A c u te Rheumatism. Urine— o f which about 2^ pints should be passed daily— especially the quantity, colour, and character (like porter, as in haemorrhage from k id n e y s ; like brickdust, as in stone of kidney) to ­ gether with any difficulty or pain and their relation to the passing of urine. Expectoration— which may or may not be present— especially the quantity (scanty, as in early Bronchitis, profuse as in chronic Bronchitis) and the character (mncous, as in Bronchitis ; blo od­ stained, as in Pneumonia ; or blood-impegnated as in Tuberculosis o f the Lungs) together with, the pre­ sence of any noteworthy, or offensive odour.

of the Patient. In this preliminary survey of the Patient an Orderly must include the degree of Consciousness which will serve him as a guide to the condition o f the Nervous System. Thus, the loss of Sensibility may be complete (Apoplexy, Compression of Brain, Epilepsy) or p a r tia l (Hysteria), or it may be complete or p a rtia l (Shock, Syncope, Collapse). Again, it may be associated with convulsions (Epilepsy, Apoplexy) or with evidence of Brain Disease or Injury— the existence of which would be suspected if, in addition to the interference with Consciousness, there were present signs of paralysis of the limbs or alterations in the creases of the face and in the reaction of the pupils to light. Lastly, the amount, character and effects of the sleep enjoyed by the patient must be noted, be cause sleeplessness indicates some disturbance of the Nervous System.

S.

S en sih iliiv

P.

1 u l s e of the Patient.

33

The pulse w ill demonstrate the

0 0 y*

[.M a rty n B ro s, Cheltenham .

A group of St. John and Red Cross Members doing transport duty in Cheltenham. T h e transport otficer is Dr. H ugh Powell. condition o f both the Circulatory and Nervous Sys­ tems, and is a most important guide to the action of the heart, the elasticity of the arteries, and the state of the nervous system. A n Orderly must by diligent practice learn to appre­ ciate tbe strength, regularity and rate of the pulse and also the significance o f any alterations on which the evidence of recovery or failing strength depends. Thus, the slow, full bounding pulse of Haemorr­ hage, Apoplexy and Compression of the Brain may become still slower in rate and reduced in strength, suggesting the onset of Collapse. Again, the slow, weak pulse of Shock and Concussion of the Brain may become rapid, feeble and thready if the dis­ turbance of the Nervous System progresses. Again, the rapid and full pulse of Fever, Inflammation and Sunstroke may regain its strength while it drops in rate until it reaches normal as the patient proceeds to recovery. E.

E x c r e t a of the Patient.

T h e excretory organs are skin, bowels, kidneys and lungs. T o his Observa­ tion of these points, an Orderly must add the invio-

N .B .— In addition to the above, an Orderly must note the quantity, colour, and character of any Vomit and its relation to food. C.

of Patient. The act o f coughing indicates some disturbance o f the Respiratory System, being usually the result of inflammation or iritation of the throat (as in Laryngitis or Swelling of Tissues of throat due to foreign body, inhalation of noxious fumes, & c .) o r of the bronchial tubes, as in Bronchitis. T h e Orderly must observe the same points as in pulse-taking— viz., the strength, regularity, and rate of the Respirations (which in the adult average 18 per minute and remain in the constant ratio of 1 to 4 of the pulsations of the heart) and also the significance o f any alterations. Thus, the feeble, shallow breathing of Shock will become strong and regular as this condition passes off, while the rapid respirations of Pneumonia will become slow and weak is Collapse sets in. Lastly, if the patient is suffering from a Cough, then the Orderly must note its frequency, severity and character (dry or loose with expectoration as in

C ough


— F I R S T

34

B ro n c h itis; short, hacking, and distressing, as in Tuberculosis of Lungs) together with its possible relation to any cause, e g., cold air, change of pos­ ture, &c. T . T e m p e r a t u r e of Patient.

The Temperature indicates the conditions o f the Circulatory and Nervous Systems and is recorded by the clinical thermometer. T h e normal temperature is 984 F., the common causes of a rise above this figure being Fever, Inflammation, and disturbance of the Brain, as in Apoplexy. A serious fall of temperature is usually due to Shock or Collapse, which are prone to occur after accident and operation. W hen the temperature is being registered, the thermometer is placed (and retained in position fo r a p u ll 5 minutes) in certain positions where the blood-vessels are superficial, viz. :— (1) M ou th .— T h e thermometer is placed under the tongue of the patient, who is instructed to close his lips tightly. Inaccurate results may ensue if the temperature is taken immediately after very hot or cold food. (2) A rm pit.— T h e thermometer is placed in armpit, the hand of the patient being fixed on the opposite shoulder and the elbow pressed firmly against the side o f the body. T o ensure correct reading, the armpit must first be dried thoroughly. (3) Rectum.— T h e thermometer is placed in the bowel. If necessary, a preliminary aperient enema is administered, because it is possible that the thermometer may be passed into faecal matter, fail to come into contact with the wall of the bowel, and so register too high a temperature. It is noteworthy that the thermometer may be artificially raised, e.g., by friction on blanket, by placing in warm water (or tea), &c. Therefore, in all cases of suspected malingering the Orderly must place the thermometer in the selected site and stand by the patient, while the temperature is being registered. (T o be continued.)

E fficien t

F irst

Aid.

A c o r r e s p o n d e n t sends us particulars of a case which may interest readers, showing the effectiveness of “ Schafer’s m e t h o d ” of artificial respiration. On Tuesday, August 1st, a man fell into the dock at Millwall from a barge and was lost sight of for some 9 or 10 minutes. T h e police used their drag, and after one or two attempts succeeded in bringing him to the surface.. H e was landed on the barge, and Sergeant Harrop, of No. 15 East H am Division, S.J.A .B ., commenced artificial respiration. All hope of any life left in the man was lost, but Sergeant Harrop kept performing for 20 minutes, when he was rewarded by a slight sound. This made him redouble his efforts, and eventually brought the man round. H e was very sick, and was wrapped in blankets and taken to Poplar Hospital, where he is progressing very favourably. In 1903 Sergeant Harrop was awarded the Diploma of Merit for saving a man’s life by first aid by the Lord Mayor of Lond on at the Mansion House.

W h e n c o rre sp o n d in g w ith A d v e rtis e rs p le a se m e n ­ tio n “ F irs* A id .”

August, 1916.

AID. —

A m b u lan ce

arran gem en ts Air Raids.

for

H ostile

D i v i s i o n a l S u p e r i n t e n d e n t P. W. H a w k e s gives below the scheme as adopted by the Maidstone Division of the St. John Ambulance Brigade :— 1 .— T h e whole town is divided into s ix Sections. 2.— Each Section has either a Dep6t Stretcher Box, or a Stretcher Depot. 3.— T h e Brigade members each have an alloted street or streets to patrol. 4.— Each member is able, under our scheme, to meet at each end of his district, another member, In this way the whole work is connected and members can promptly obtain assistance, if necessary. 5.— As far as is possible members are within reason­ able distance of their own home. 6.— Each Section is under either a Non-Commissioned Officer or Senior Member. 7.— One member is always in close proximity to a B ox or Station. 8 — T h e Supt. or Senior N .C .O . pays periodical visits to each Section. 9 ,— Arrangements f o r C alls. — W e are greatly indebted to the courtesy of the C hief Constable (Mr. A. C. Mackintosh) who, on alarm being given, telephones at once to the Superintendent and Senior Sergeant. These in turn, telephone or warn certain members of the force, who have been deputed to at once call out all members in their particular Sections. Furthermore four Hospitals have certain Brigade members allotted to each, in excess of those doing night orderly work. This plan has the co­ operation of the authorities of Hospitals, and they are giving the men every possible encouragement.

A Hull Nursing Officer gives below a short account of the arrangements at one of the many Raid Stations at H u l l :— W e are summoned by the blowing of hooters, and immediately get into uniform and proceed to our appointed place, which is the one nearest to our homes. T here are six of us, and I arrange that there shall always be four present, so that when alarms come three or four times in one week, two may remain at home. W e each take a small supply of private stores, and the Corporation have supplied a large quantity of wool, roller bandages, &c. A St. John’s Sergeant, with a squad of men, who have stretchers and rugs are also in attendance. T h e Doctor in Charge comes quite early to see that all is in order, after which the Assistant Commissioner is telephoned to so that he is in touch with all the Station s; during the night a Corps Officer also comes in on his way round to the various places in his district. W e have two long tables on which the stores are arranged— one for the men and the other for ourselves, which is screened by sheets in a corner set apart for our u s e ; we pass the time knitting and often in bandage practise and other ambulance work. About midnight some kindly disposed people bring us a tray with nicely served cups of tea, which are most acceptable, as we often have to remain until the small hours of the morning before we are dismissed by one long blast from the hooters. W e started these attendances on May n t h , 1915, and have attended thirty-three times, the Zeppellins have visited us on three of these occasions. I leave the account of work done on these visits in abler hands, as I merely wished to show how we pass the time when waiting,


August, 1916,

— F I R S T

remembering that “ T h e y also serve who only stand and wait.”

Stretcher

B e a r in g

B y A. H A M M E R S L E Y J O H N S T O N , M .R .C .S .,L .R .C .P .

Assistant-Commissioner No. 6 District, S.J.A.B . T h e carryin g o f a heavy stretcher case a con siderable distance, or o ver rough ground, calls for co n sidera b le e ndur­ a n ce from the bearers, a n d any practical a m b u la n c e worker kn o w s the valuable assistance given by additional bearers.

As the head end of the stretcher is the heavier when loaded, our attention must be directed to the method of carrying that will permit, say, with four bearers, three to share the weight of this part of the stretcher, and this means Nos. 1 and 3 between the shafts, with Nos. 2 and 4 giving inside hand support at the sides towards the head. From enquiries and practical experience, I find that stretcher bearers are less fatigued, and can get along much quicker and easier this way than by any other, particularly so when the patients have to be carried a long distance.

A I D

35

the shafts, it can be carried by the remaining bearers almost at the same rate as on the level. Not only does this invention greatly assist the bearers but, by taking hold of the sides o f the stretcher between the handles carried by Nos. 1 and 3, the spring of the stretcher is reduced and therefore the shaking of the patient is lessened. T here are other points to be said in the favour of this little and useful appliance, which can only be understood by its use, and I can without any hesitation strongly re­ commend its trial by ambulance workers concerned in the transport of the wounded. In conclusion, I may say that not only is it in use by the male members of the Brigade, but it is being used with much relief and other excellent results by female bearers, and it is remarkable how the weight of the loaded stretcher is lightened when carried by bearers in the shafts and two on either side (a method of carrying that is specially suitable for female stretcher bearers and boys) with the assistance of “ T h e Stretcher Bearers’ F riend.”

T here has been, however, one or two objections to this particular method of carry­ ing, such as the arms of the side bearers being twisted, caused by having to take hold of the stretcher with the palm of the hand uppermost, “ an underhand g r i p ” also cramp in the hand, and ofttimes “ spells ” and blisters become a serious nuisance. T hese difficulties, however, have now been overcome by an apparatus one of the N .C .O .’s of the Scarborough Division (Sergt. Colclough) has patented and named “ T h e Stretcher Bearer’s Friend,” and I desire to draw the attention of ambulance workers, both male and female, to this ingenious invention. It is a grip apparatus which can be easily carried under the belt of the bearer when not in use, and though very strong, nevertheless light in weight. The illustration shown the hand grip held by the Sergeant, It fastens itself to any width of shaft, and can be instantly released. T h e heavier the patient, or the more the bearer pulls, T h e D enaby Main Corps spent a week-end in camp at Braithwell this month. the tighter it grips. T h e handle of the grip stands away from the side of the stretcher and so permits the bearer to take a natural T h e second annual inspection of the No. 8 District of and “ overhand grip ” without the risk of jamming the the S .J.A .B . took place at Preston Park, Brighton, on July knuckles. 29th. A b o u t 150 men and 100 Nursing Sisters were on A bearer of any height can keep the arm straight parade. T h e Deputy Commissioner (Dr. Cotton) was the whilst carrying, by standing nearer to, or further from the Inspecting Officer. stretcher and this lessens the strain upon the muscles, a point greatly to be reckoned with when carrying long distances. T h e Chairman of the Joint Com m ittee of the British Should the hands of No. 3 bearer become cramped R ed Cross Society and the Order of St. John has received or tired, he can, without throwing any undue weight upon the following telegram from Italy :— “ British R e d Cross the other bearers, release his hold for a short distance in established in G o r iz ia ; Italians deeply appreciate excellent order to stretch his fingers without staying the progress of work done by British R e d Cross Am bulances under fire.” transit, and, consequently, there is no need to “ change bearers.” W h e n c o r re sp o n d in g w i t h A d v e r t is e r s Should it be necessary to carry the stretcher over ple ase m e n tio n “ F ir s t A id .” steep ground or down steps, where No. 3 cannot remain in


— F I R S T

36

Queries and .Answers Correspondents.

to

Q ueries w i ll be dealt w ith under the follow in g rules :— 1 . — Letters containing Q ueries m ust be m arked on the top left h a n d corner of

the envelope “ Q uery f

a n d addressed— F i r s t

A id ,

46, Cannon-street, Lo n d o n , E . C . 2 .— A l l Q ueries m u st be accom panied by a “ Q uery C o u p o n " cut *rom the cu rren t issue o j the jo u r n a l, or in case of Q ueries from abroad from a recent issue. y .— Q ueries are in v ite d on F ir s t - A id , H o m e-N u r sin g a n d HomeLlygiene as these are o f gen era l interest. 7 hese w ill be answ ered in F i r s t A i d i f space perm its. 4 .— Q ueries,

accompanied by stamped

August, 1916

AID. —

The prime object of First Aid being to preserve life, the solution of this problem tests the discrimination and resource­ fulness (Cantlie p. 18) of the First-Aider, while it impresses on him the lesson that in some rare emergencies he must make a choice of risks— in this case, death from drowning or conversion of dislocation into fracture-dislocation. As a fact, however, much depends on the dislocation, which may be one of several varieties, and on the position of the arm. In most instances it will be perfectly safe to adopt Schaefer’s Method, special care deing directed to the injured shoulder both during the act of rolling patient on to his face and also during manipulations. In some cases, where the possibilities of aggravating the injury are more urgent, the combination of Howard’s and Laborde’s Methods may be selected at the outset with the option of Schaefer’s Method as a last resource. — N. C o r b e t F l e t c h e r .

N o n -C o m . also asks : “ In the case of a severe and untreated addressed envelope,

w i ll be

answ ered by post.

144056 (Manchester) asks : “ How does application of heat to an unconscious person tend to overcome Shock, when the patient being unconscious cannot feel the warmth ?” Shock is a depression of the Nervous System which finds expression in loss of body-heat and, when severe, in loss of

wound of the temporal artery, how long would it take for the injured person to get into a state of Collapse through loss of blood ? Do you think a blood clot would form whilst blood flows so briskly as it did in this case?” The factors which control the situation are the degree of Shock, the variety of wound, and the reserve strength of patient. Shock, by producing insensibility and by causing patient to fall, which tend to limit loss of blood ; a contused (or lacerated) wound, will act similarly; and a vigorous consti­ tution will go far in postponing the onset of Collapse. Therefore, it is impossible to set a time limit and unprofitable to guess at the possi­ bilities of formation of blood-clot which depends absolutely on the rate of escape of blood. See Why and Wherefore in F irst A id , pp. 43-44.— N. C o r b e t F l e t c h e r .

I n s t r u c t o r 1 5 Y e a r s . — N . F . C . 2 was only intended as a temporary regulation to meet the requirements during the war. The new regulation of the S.J.A.A. recognise lay instructors, a thing for which they have been agitating for a con­ siderable time.

“ The H um orous S id e of F ir s t Aid B e g i n n e r .” A

a

SKETCH .

enthusiastic beginner in ambulance wotk often presents a curious psychological aspect to the eye of the person who chances to be The Staff of the Summerdown Convalescent Hospital, all of whom, with practically ignorant to medical knowledge. the exception of the Officer in charge and Sergeants, are As soon as the first certificate of proficiency members of the S.J.A.B. has been obtained the owner is usually burning to put his newly-acquired skill to a practical use. This desire he fans by a diligent perusal of the consciousness. If this loss of heat proceeds beyond a certain point, the Vital Functions cannot continue their inter-action accidents reported in the daily papers, usually laying and death must result. The feelings o f the patient, therefore, down the paper with a sigh and “ I wish I had been are immaterial to the object desired; but, if the patient is con­ t h e r e ! ” or words to that effect. L ik e a carrion crow scious, they are valuable, because, when he tells us that he feels warm and comfortable, the?i we know that we have established he scents trouble from afar and speeds up to the the reaction for which we aim in our treatment of Shock.— scene of an accident with a satisfied expression N. C o r b e t F l e t c h e r . on his face. It may be serious, on the other hand it may be a little boy with a slightly cut forehead. Never mind, he sets his mouth hard and feels really quite a medical N o n -C o m . (Notherton) sends this Query, and asks for treat­ man as he attaches a bit of strapping-plaster and finishes ment thereof : A man is swept off a rock into the sea. off with a handkerchief folded carefully in three, with an When found, his right shoulder is dislocated and respira­ admiring crowd looking on. H ow carefully he tries to tion is suspended. T h e


August, 1916

— F I R S T

give the finishing touch with a reef-knot. Should he find he has made a “ granny,” how keenly he feels the disgrace. W hy anyone in the crowd could tie a handkerchief on with a “ granny knot.” A n d when the little boy goes off with his wrapped-up head, how proud the first aid worker feels. A gentle glow suffuses his system as he goes off to buy a new handkerchief and reconstructs in his mind the details of his treatment of his “ first case.” For a time he revels in (imaginary) gore and walks about looking for broken limbs to try his ’prentice hand on. Should he see a man leaning against a railing looking rather white, he walks past once or twice and then asks with solicitude if “ he feels ill,” probably finding out the stranger has just lost a sovereign through a hole in his pocket, or, perhaps, discovered a letter his wife gave him to post three weeks ago. Should one of his friends fall off his bicycle and re­ count the experience to him, he looks delighted, and says, “ Why you might have fractnred your clavicle.” His friend probably looks at him dubiously, wondering whether his friendship is worth having, and also what he means by “ clavicle.” T h e exponent of first aid in the initial stage of his career is usually a small perambulating hospital and carries a large supply of bandages, lint, & c , prepared to open “ s h o p ” anywhere. H e certainly seems a diabolical kind of person as he chuckles over your fractured radius and gloats over his maiden-aunt’s dislocated humerus, but his intentions are good and the services he renders compensate his patient for the professional (?) delight he displays over the injury. After a little experience he soon discards this rather amateur display of his feelings and he may then be reckoned as a useful member of society and in a small way a benefactor to humanity.

A I D . —

U NT Q U E That is the only word that describes our service ; it is unique in its com­ pleteness, unique in its thoroughness, unique in the knowledge of the re­ quirements of nurses, both voluntary and professional. Our nurses’ equipment section is stocked with everything a nurse may require, and all things are supplied in harmony with the requirements of the particular Hospital or Nursing Institute to which the nurse is appointed. The whole equipment, or any portion of it, can be supplied correct to the smallest detail. Those who have tested our organisation speak in the highest terms of the courtesy and quick service they have always re­ ceived from us. Make a personal call or write or 'phone fo r catalogue.

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R E A D Y IN A M O M E N T .

R E Q U R IE S N O C O O K IN G .

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H o r l i c k ’s M a l t e d M ilk Co., S l o u g h , B u c k s .

CHOCOLATES

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F ir s t

A id

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D em on stration . O n August 3rd a “ Display in First A id ” was given by the “ S ” Division Metropolitan Police T e a m for the instruction and benefit of the “ L ” Division Special Constabulary, at Kennington-lane Station, S.E. T h e object of the display was to convey to the audience the action to be taken and the difficulties likely to be met in rendering first aid to the injured in the street. Each item was made as relistic as possible by the intro­ duction of some staging and conversation between the ubiquitous bystander and the first aider. Throughout the whole of the display the spirit of first aid was maintained, and the attention of the audience was completely held (in spite of a very hot evening) while the points were explained by the operators. This venture of “ T eaching First A id by Popular Demonstration ” is finding favour, and it is obvious that the interests of “ First A id to the Injured ” would be enhanced by the encouragement of such displays.

APPTP.m A s k fo r “ DELECTA” — th e nam e d e s c rib e s th em .

W HEN

C O R R E SP O N D IN G

W IT H

A D V itiR

T IS E R S P L E A S E M E N T IO N “ F IR S T A ID .”

As we go to press, we have received a most interesting account of a meeting held at the Cannon-street Hotel, a few days ago, in connection with the presentation of awards to members of the London District Staff of the S.E. & C .R ., by the Right Hon. Sir William Hart Dyke, Bart. A full report of the proceedings will appear in the next issue of F i r s t A i d .


— FIRST

38

H a v e you Treneh ^ Sores to Treat 0

August, 1916.

AID.

A ‘R e l i a b l e

There is no speedier or more effective remedy th a n Sphagnol.

T o n i c

A n R .A .M .C . Officer writes :— “ Men in the trenches are liable to develop an eczematous condition of the face which they call ‘ T rench Sores.’ I found the condition difficult to treat until I tried Sphagnol. Now I can almost guarantee a quick cure if the patient will use it for a couple of days.”

Spha^nol is a distillate of Peat— antiseptic and possesses re­ markable healing properties. Leading men in the medical profession regard it as the standard remedy for skin diseases and inflammation, and it is recom­ mended by a well-known surgeon as a valuable First Aid Dressing for wounds.

la n o n

T

H

E

r e lia b ility

a ll

c a s e s

H a l l ’s

v ita lity b e e n

o l

i n e

in

lo w e r e d

h a s

B

C ■I

n e v e r

m o r e

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W

o f

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H a l l ’s W i n e

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m o s t de fin ite b e n e f it in c a s e s o f n e r v e - s h o c k , w e a k n e s s from lo ss o f b lo o d , p r o t r a c t e d strain, or

o p e r a tio n ,

an d

r e ta rd ed

co n valescen ce. It h a s re sto re d m a n y an i n v a ­ lided w arrio r to h e a lth an d h a s given

strength

to

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e n d u r i n g civil strain at h o m e .

A Doctor s a y s : “ Where vitality is low, or nerves are shattered, Hall’s W ine is invaluable.” FO R f r e e

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D o ct o r s and R . A M . C . Officers should write for our F re e Outfit o f S p h a g n o l P r ep ara ­ tions. T h i s offer is made so that the cu ra ­ tive powers o f S ph ag nol m ay be tested under personal observation.

SO RE

FEET.

A Private in the Wor ce ster R e gim e n t, w h o has h im se lf been treating his feet with S p h a g n o l, recently wrote to us :— “ T h e O intm en t w as ttu ly a godsend, f o r it has acted like a charm upon my je e t , w hich have been so sore a n d blistered. / never knew O intm en t to giv e such r e lie f."

Peat Products (Sphagnol) Ltd n .m o n h ith e . U o o e r

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G U A R A N T E E . — B u y a b o ttle to-day. If, after tak in g h a lf ot it, you do n ot feel real benefit, return to us the h alf-em pty b o ttle, ^ and you r entire o u tlay w ill be refunded. La rge size, s/ 6 O f W in e M erchants a n d Licen sed Grocers a n d Chem ists. S T E P H E N , S M I T H & C O ., L T D ., B O W .

Tham es St. London, E.C 596


August, 1916.

— F I R S T

AID. —

39

Just what the First Aid Worker requires. T

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The

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Reading and fo r Reference.

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E v e ry earnest F irst A id W o rk e r requires a set o f b ooks o f this ch aracter at his elb ow , so that he can con tin ually refresh his m em ory b y hasty reference on points o f d oubt or difficulty and read m ore d eep ly into the understanding o f pathological principles in his tim es o f leisure. T h is is not a fam ily m edicine b o ok o f the “ W h a t to do till the doctor c o m e s” style. It is a textb o ok o f m edical and surgical and nursing and am bulance and em ergency w o rk , in valuable to all w ho are k een ly interested in H y gie n e , H ealth and the prevention and treatm ent o f D isease.

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T h e R t. H on. V ISC O U N T K N U T S F O R D ( C h a ir m a n o f th e L o n d o n H o s p ita l) w rite s :— “ 1 T h e S c ie n c e a n d A rt o f N u r s in g ’ is b y f a r th e b e s t w o rk 011 th e s u b je c t, a n d I s h a ll se e t h a t a ll m y th re e h o s p ita ls h a v e s e v e ra l c o p ie s , a n d s h a ll g iv e th e m a s p riz e s to n u r s e s .”

30 d ay s after you get the Books.

T h e s t y l e in w h i c h th e w o r k is c o m p i l e d r e n d e r s it e q u a l l y u se fu l for s u s t a i n e d s t u d y a s for re f e re n c e . A n e x h a u s t i v e i n d e x e n a b l e s a n y p o i n t to b e tu r n e d u p in an in s t a n t . A n d the colou red p la t e s h e l p th e p r i n t e d m a t t e r to e l u c i d a t e the t e a c h i n g o f j u s t t h a t s p e c i a l i s e d i n f o r m a t i o n on health and disease w h ic h the nurse, the am b u la n c e w o r k e r a n d th e first ai d e n t h u s i a s t n e e d s in o r d e r to assis t in r e s t o r i n g h is p a t i e n t s t o h e a l t h . “ T he S cience and A rt of N ursing ” is supplied at a p op ula r price an d on terms that are p e c u l i a r l y c o n v e n i e n t for s l e n d e r i n c o m e s . The b o o k s m a y b e p a id for o u t o f i n c o m e w h i l e th e o w n e r is u s i n g th e m .

M iss S Y D N E Y B R O W N E , R .R .C ., l a te M a tr o n - in c h ie f, T e r r i to r i a l N u r s in g S e r v ic e A d v is o ry C o m m itte e (w h o is re s p o n s ib le fo r tl>e o r g a n is in g o f 3,000 T r a in e d N u r s e s fo r th e W a r), w r ite s :— “ T h e m o s t u p - to - d a te w o rk o n N u r s in g ( w r it te n b y e x p e r t s in e a c h b r a n c h ) t h a t is p u b l is h e d .”

S u bjects Treated : Anatom y. Physiology. Bacteriology. Elem entary Pharmacy. Public H ygiene. H ygien e for Nurses. A ir, W a t e r , Soil, etc. H ouses for the People. T h e Nursing o f Phthisis. T ro p ic a l Diseases. E lectrical Treatm ent. X -R a y Treatm ent. Invalid C o okery. Sickroom Recipes. M assage. C a re o f the Insane. M id w ife ry and M onthly Nursing.

S u b je c ts T r e a te d :

M ale Nursing. A rm y Nursing. Q u een A lexan d ra's M ilitary Nursing. Royal A rm y M ed ical Corps. H eart A ffectio n s. C h est A ffections. Nursing Staffs in H ospitals. C a re o f the A ged . C a re o f C hildren. Practical Details. Splints. Fractures. Bandages. T ourniquets. Diets and Treatm ents (Special). Surgical and A ccid en t C ases. Haemorrhage. W ou n d s.

Inflammation and Gangrene. C e reb ra l Concussions. H ot P a ck s: Fomentations. A rterial Haemorrhage. W a s h in g out the Stomach. C u p p in g : Leeches. Gunshot W o u n d s. Enemata. N eurasthenia. Injections. Infected W o u n d s. A pp lication o f H eat. Leiter's T u b e s (C o ld ). H o w to lay out the Dead. C e reb ra l Excitem ent after Injury. Functional Disorders.

Epileptic Fits. Fainting Fits. Com m on Poisons. A ll First A id Treatm en ts. A ccid en ts and Em ergencies. Burns and Scalds. H o w to Prepare for an O peration. A fte r the O peration. A pp lian ces, etc., etc. Prescriptions. Exercises. T rain in g Schools and Nursing Institutions. N ursing in Poor L a w Institutions. T h e L a w R elating to Nurses. M ed ical Glossary.

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An E x p la n a t o r y B ook let for t h e F ir s t Aid W o r k e r w h o m ea ns to be efficient.

Sig*n t h e r e a n d Post.

P lease send m e you r F R E E B o o k on

“ T h e S c ie n c e and A r t of N u r s i n g ,” w i t h fo r a first p a y m e n t o f 2 S. 6d., t h e b a l a n c e

as to y o u r offer to d eliver the com p lete w o rk b y a few m on th ly paym ents.

p a r t ic u l a r s to b e p a id

I t is understood th at this ap p lication places me under no ob liga tio n to order the w ork . N A M E ...............................................................................................................................................................................................

AD D RESS.................................................................................................................................................... F.A.L., 1916.

.................................................... .......................................


40

— F I R S T

Aids to Memory for ‘ First Aid’ Students. By L. M.

M .B ., C .M . E d in . A u th o r (jo in tly w ith W .R .E .) o f “ P r o b le m s in F i r s t A i d , ” S t. J o h n A m b . A sso c . F r a n k

C h r is t ia n ,

S e v e n th E d itio n n o w r e a d y .

Revised to date (Sept. 1915.)

N o a m b u la n c e m a n n e e d e v e r f e a r h e w ill g o r u s t y i f h e w ill ta k e a n o c c a ­ s io n a l d o s e o f th e m e n ta l m ix t u r e c o n ta in e d w ith in th e c o v e r t o f th is s p le n d id b o o k . . . c a n n o t c o n c e iv e a b e tt e r u t il is a ti o n o f s p a c e , a b e tt e r tr e a tis e o n th is s u b je c t c o u ld n o t b e w r itte n . . . t h e b o o k for a ll, w h e th e r o ld h a n d s o r s tu d e n t s ." “ A ‘ m u ltu m in p a rv o ’ o f th e g r e a t e s t v a lu e .” P r ic e : I n C lo th , 6 a . n e t — b y p o s t 7d. I n L e a th e r , 2s. n e t — b y p o s t 2s. 2d. S to c k p o rt

:C o n n e ll &

B a ilh y , L t d ., “ E x p r e s s ” O f f ic e , S t .

a n d The S t. John Ambulance Association,

a

gu id e

P b t e r ’s S q u a r b ,

S t . J o h n ’s G a t e , L o n d o n .

HOW TO SWIM: in t h r e e le s s o n s . By

G EO R dE

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T IN N 1 0 N . 12 copies, post free, 6 d .

A p p ly — 133, D I L S T O N R O A D , N E W C A S T L E -O N -T Y N E . A rea l F ir s t A id e r is one who can rescue a d ro w n in g subject.

H ANM ER’S Illustrated Ambulance Lecture. M r . H a n m e r w is h e s to t h a n k D o c t o r s , A m b u la n c e W o r k e r s a n d o t h e r s , w h o h a v e s o k in d ly a s s is t e d h im in t h e o r g a n is in g o f la s t s e a s o n ’s to u rs.

T h e i r w illin g h e lp h a s e n a b le d h im to v is it 150 to w n s , a n d t h e t o u r s h a v e in c lu d e d E n g la n d , I r e la n d a n d W a le s . N e x t s e a s o n ’s fix tu r e s a r e n o w b e in g a r r a n g e d , a n d in t e n d ­ in g a p p lic a n t s fo r t h e L e c t u r e s h o u ld a p p ly e a r ly , fo r th e v a c a n t d a t e s a r e lim it e d . ( N o . 6 D is t r ic t S e p t e m b e r ) . S e n d th r e e p e n n y s t a m p s , t o c o v e r p o s t a g e , fo r “ N o v e lt y I llu s t r a t e d B o o k le t ,” a n d fu ll p a r t ic u la r s to :— C.

HANM ER,

205, D o n c a s t e r R o a d , G o l d t h o r p e , N r . R o t h e r h a m . N o t e . — N o c h a r g e b e y o n d w o r k in g c o s t is m a d e fo r th e s e L e c tu re s.

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POSTAL READING ”

INSTRUCTION In “ PRESCRIPTION and “ ELEMENTARY DISPENSING.”

E veryone engaged in F IR S T A ID w ork should take up the above C ourses at once. A m em ber o f S . J . A . B . w r it e s :— “ I feel d ee p ly indebted for the courses o f instruction received , h ave often w anted to tak e such courses, but cou ld n ever find w here to g e t su ch .” ( T .B .) S p e c i a l t e r m s n o w — h a lf fees— to m em bers o f S .J .A .B ., &c. A p p ly (s ta m p ) to M r . J . E . W a l d e n , S e c ., W e s tm in s te r C o lle g e ( L a d y D is p e n s e r s S e c tio n o f th e W e s tm in s te r C o lle g e o f C h e m is tr y a n d P h a r m a c y , e s td . 1874),

1 12. S t. G e o r g e ’s R o ad . S o u th w a r k , L o n d o n . A T> Officers’ Regulation Great Coats. Dark •tl .- / Y .-D . Grey beaver cloth, 39s. 6d. to measure. Superior quality Men’s Great Coats, 21s. 6d.— Write for patterns and particulars, Thornton & Co., tailors, Brighouse.

S

T

F

O R S A L E , a quantity of Men’s Ambulance Uniform Trousers, all sizes, quite new, 6s. I id. a pair.— Thornton and Co., 24, Commercial-street, Brighouse.

F

O R S A L E . — R e g u la t i o n B r o w n L e a t h e r B e lt s a n d P o u c h e s ; a ls o C a p s a n d O v e r c o a t s ; s a m p le s o n a p p r o v a l.— F o lle t t , 4, V ic t o r i a - a v e n u e , B is h o p s g a t e , L o n d o n , E . C .

AID. —

August, 1916.

On First Aid, Medicine. Surgery, and all other Scien­ tific and Literary subjects. S e c o n d -H a n d a t H a lf P ric e * . New Books a t _ — _ Discount Prices. C atalogues ee. State w ants. Books sent on approval.‘f Books bought. W . & Q . F O Y L E , 21 and 123, C haring Cross Road, London, W .C.

BOOKS FOR LECTURERS & STUDENTS OF FIRST AID. A iDS T O HOM E-NURSING. B y N. C O R B E T F L E T C H E R , B .A ., M .B ., M .R .C .S . H om e-N u rsin g Sim plified and T a b u lated . Post free, 7d. AIDS T O FIR ST-AID . B y t h e S a m e A u th o r. A Com pendium o f A id s to M em ory. Introdu ction b y Jam es C a n tlie , F .R .C .S . Post free, 7 d . W H Y A N D W H E R E F O R E IN F I R S T - A I D . B y t h e S a m e A u th o r . D ifficu lties in S tu d y and T reatm en t solved by Q uestion and A n sw er. R o ya l i6 m o. Post free, 7 d. THE COMPLETE MANIKIN. S ystem s o f B od y accurately indexed. In v a lu a b le to Stu den ts of A n a to m y , M ed icin e, F irst-A id and A llie d Subjects. P rice 2 s . n e t ; postage, 2d. T H E TRIANGULAR BAN D A G E: Its A p p lica tio n shown b y W ord s and D iagram s. B y H O W A R D M . P R E S T O N , Dem onstrator to the Polytechnic. 116 Illus. P rice, I S . n et, postage 2d. T H E R OLLER BANDAGE. B y t h e S a m e A u th o r. Its A p p lica tio n show n b y W ord s and D iagram s. 161 Illustrations. P rice, i s . n e t., postage 2d. AN IN D E X O F F IR S T -A I D . B y J . M. C A R V E L L , M .R .C .S ., L .S .A .L o n d . A vade-m ecum for the A m b ulan ce W o rk er. F cap .8 v n . Post free, I s . 2 d. F I R S T - A I D IN A F E W W O R D S . By th e S a m e A u th o r. W ith C o lou red D iagram s 12 pp. F old er. Paper, 2 d. C lo th , 4d . FIR S T-A ID AN A TO M IC A L DIAGRAMS. T w e lv e in set, on R oller. Post free, 2S. lO d. E ach D iagram separately, 2 d . 3 and 6 (coloured), 6d . each. T H E W H O L E A R T OF BANDAGING. By TH E K LA B O W SER , F .J .I ., Introduction b y jA M E s C a n t l i e . F .R .C .S . Illus. Post ree, i s . 2d P R A C T I C A L I N S T R U C T I O N IN C U T T I N G O U T Sc M A K I N G UP H O S P ITA L G A R M E N T S FOR S IC K & W O U N D E D . {Approved by the R e d Cross Society). Illustrated. Post free. i s . 2 d . A S H O R T C O U R S E OF P H YS ICA L TR AIN ING FOR T H E R E C R U ITS OF T H E N E W ARM IES. B y A LL A N BRO M A N , P r ic e is . 8d posTfree. JO H N BALE, S O N S & D A N IE L S S O N , L t d ., 8 3 -9 1 , G r e a t T l t e h f l e l d S t r e e t . L o n d o n , W .

3he Indian JUnbulanee Gazette.. A Journal o f Ambulance Work in India, Burma and the East. P r ic e 2 s h i l l i n g s p e r a n n u m p o s t f r e e . P u b lish ed Q u a rterly . Can be obtained on application to the E d ito r , Jutogh, S im la H ills ,I n d ia P ric e 6 d . n e t.

NOTES

P ost fre e 7d.

ON

FIRST

By

S id n e y

AID H.

SIMPLIFIED.

L am b .

A H an d b o o k in a tabulated and sim plified form giv in g the main points ot first aid, so arranged as to im press them on the m em ory o f the student.

DALE, REYNOLDS

&

CO.. Ltd.. 46, Cannon St. LONDON, E.C.

MAKE YOUR OWN L E M O N A D E ^ A Ions, cool d rin k m a d e instantly with

G LA S S LEMONl a n d p la in o r a e ra te d w ater.

NO ADDED SUGAR NECESSARY. W

a t f r ld

"FIRST A ID ” QUERY and REPLIES COUPON. To be cut out and enclosed with a ll Queries. A u gu st,

1916.

Printed a n d Published b y Messrs. D a l b , R b v n o l d s & C o . , L td ., 46, C an n o n S t. L e n d o n , B . C . , to w hom all com m unications sbonld be add ressed.


FIRST AID AND

ST.

JOHN

THE

AMBULANCE Edited b y A R T H U R

No. 267.— V o l . X X I I I To

[N e w S e r i e s . ]

Our

T h e E d ito r in vites readers to send articles and reports on subjects of interest to am bulance w orkers, these should be addressed to him at 46, C annon S tre e t, L o n d o n , E .C . A ll articles and reports must be accom panied b y the nam e and address o f the w riter, not necessarily for publication but for the use ot the E d itor. Subscriptions, Ad ve rtisem en ts and other business communications connected with F i r s t A i d should be addressed to the Publishers, &

46, C a n n o n

C O .,

DALE. /f^'^nnum^Post’ Free

if followed by “ T h e Man in the Street ” and his wife and

Readers.

REYN O LDS

B.

GAZETTE.

S E P T E M B E R , 1916. [Entered at Stationers'Hall.)

“ First Aid ” is published on the 20th ot every month. T h e A n n u al S u bscription is 2 s . 6d. post fr e e ; single copies 2d.

DALE,

-----

L ondon,

no small reduction inthe heavy loss of

life and limb which

takes place annually in the streets of

the Metropolis. It may probably surprise many to know that more people are killed or

injured by accidents in the streets of

London than on the whole of the railways in Great Britain put together.

Not only is the loss of life in London

appalling, but it is on the increase year by year.

It is grati­

fying to learn, however, that there has been a decrease in the number of accidents due to motor omnibuses amount­

L td .,

S tre e t,

family, should effect

E .C .

ing to no less than 24 per cent, comparing 1915 with 1914, and some 44 per cent, comparing last year with 1913. This is, doubtless, in a great measure attributable to the adoption

E D

I T O

R I A L

of the Safety Movement by the London General Omnibus Company, who have upwards o f 10,000 ’buses running on

W e

F irst

Aid

referred in our August editorial to

the growth of the “ S a fe ty ” Movement,

to the

particularly on the railways, and to the

Uninjured.

close relationship between this M ove­ ment which seeks to inculcate habits of

prudence in the minds of workers and thus avoid accident.

the London streets, and who for some time past have assiduously coached their drivers, employees in

“ safety ”

methods.

conductors and other One of the means

adopted to this end is the exhibition at the cinematograph hall, which is located at the training school at Chelsea, of moving pictures illustrating the right and wrong ways of

It is not surprising to learn that a Movement which has

controlling their vehicles when meeting or passing various

been so enthusiastically taken up by the Railway C o m ­

obstacles, and for encountering the many contingencies

panies should appeal to others engaged in passenger trans­

which are to be found in the London thoroughfares. T hese

port, and the London General Omnibus Company have adopted it wilh a whole-heartedness which does much to commend it to others.

By the exhibition of “ safety”

notices on their vehicles the public are already familiar with the pertinent enquiry : “ Is it safe?” which bids well to become the slogan of

the Safety Campaigners in this

country as “ Safety F i r s t ” is in America. In addition to a liberal display of “ safety ” posters, the L G .O .C . have issued an excellent little series of folders counselling habits of safety for he who runs— or rides. Posters and folders, however, by no means comprise

displays form an integral part of the training of the C o m ­ pany’s staff. VVe hope from time to time to have articles in these pages with regard to the Safety Movement, in order that our readers may be kept informed as to what developments are taking place in this direction, for we feel that the

two

Movements have so much in common that “ first aiders ” will assuredly also be “ safety first-ers.”

T h e connection

between the two Movements is aptly brought out in one of the safety notices which states : “ Safety is first aid to the £7«injured.”

the whole of the C om pany’s safety equipment, and the columns of the Public Press are being largely utilised for imparting similar advice for the well-being of the Londoner, W e produce on another page a selection from these Press

W e regret that we omitted to give the name of Mr. A. de Lan d e Jones, the contributor of the article entitled

announcements, and it will be seen that each and every one

“ T h e Humorous Side of a First A id Beginner,” which was

bristles with catchy phrases comprising sound advice which,

published in our last issue.


42

— F I R S T

\

3The Grand ?rio rg of the Order of the Jtospital of S t. John of Jerusalem in Sngland. AMBULANCE

Jh e No. i District. D eputy

W.

S t.

John

.Ambulance S rigade.

D ISTR ICT

C o m m issio n e r :

H.

DEPARTMENT.

ORDERS.

-------

W IN N Y.

O C T O B E R , 1916. Sunday Duty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. Sunday, 1st.— No. 56 Division, Cricklewood. „ 8th.— No. 9 „ St. John’s Gate, No. 2. „ 15th.— No. 17 „ Merton and Wimbledon. „ 22nd.— No. 70 „ Royal Borough of Kensington.

AID. —

September, i^»6

has been in charge of the No. 4 District of the Brigade for the last 12 months, in the absence of Col. Trimble, who is in com­ mand of the Brigade Hospital at Etaples. Mr. Woodcock was born in 1873, and he qualified as a solicitor in 1895. He joined the Walton-le-Dale Division in 1902, was appointed District Secretary in 1905, and is an Hon. Serving Brother of the Order of St. John. The No. 4 District is the second largest in the Brigade, and it is due to the strenuous efforts of Col. Trimble, and his able staff that it has reached such a high state of efficiency. The District contributed the sum of ,£16,607 to the Brigade Hos­ pital, and it has over 6,000 members serving in naval and military hospitals. As showing the care and forethought of Messrs. Cammell Laird regarding their ambulance corps, it is interesting to state that the firm is having what might easily be termed a miniature hospital erected in a prominent position in the yard, and several smaller ones in less important positions. The corps is making

2.30 p.m. to 8.30 p.m. As per separate orders. Key from St. John’s Gate, 2 p.m. A P P O IN TM E N T. Divisional Surgeon C. J. B. MacFadden, Esq., M.D., has been appointed District Surgeon vice Col. Cantlie promoted to date from September 7th, 1916. S PE C IA L M EETING . A special meeting of Ambulance and Nursing Officers and Members in Charge of Divisions will be held at Head­ quarters on Monday, September 25th at 8 p.m., to consider if any further services can be rendered by the members of the District in connection with the war. C O M P E N S A T IO N FO R AIR R AID V O L U N T E E R S . The Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police states that under Act of Parliament provision is now made to pay com­ pensation to those who may be injured, when employed by arrangement in assisting the Police on the occasion of hostile Air Raids. Claims should be made as soon as possible after the occurrence to which they relate. P R O B A T IO N A R Y MEMBERS. Some men are exempted by Tribunals on condition that they join the St. John Ambulance Brigade. When such men have no First Aid certificates, the Chief Commissioner has agreed that they may be attached to Divisions as probationary members, and their names should be recorded on a separate list. They must, however, attend a class of instruction and obtain the Association Certificate within three months. M E R ITO R IO U S SERVICE. Corporal Hatley, of No. 29 Division, and Private Jones, of No. 7 Division, have been specially thanked by the Police for their services to injured persons. An Electric Light Company has written to express its thanks for services rendered by members o f the District. S E R V IC E M EDALS. It is notified that the following members of the District who did not attend the distribution by the Earl of Plymouth, on June 24th, have been awarded the Service Medal of the Order of St. John :— Divisional Supt. A. H. Southam, No. 23 Division. Sergt. S. C. Barnet, No. 37 Division. Corpl. J. Tollafield, No. 11 Division. Nursing Sister B. G. Harris, No. 6 Division. Nursing Sister E. H. Suckling, No. 8 Division. (Signed) W. H. W I N N Y , Deputy-Commissioner. Headquarters :— St. John’s Gate, Clerkenwell, E.C. No. 4 District. Mr. W. S. Woodcock, whose

portrait

we

reproduce,

M r . W. S. W o o d c o c k . rapid strides, and much credit is due to Mr. William Johnstone who has made great personal sacrifice for its success. The men have recently been supplied with uniforms. There are ambulance cupboards and stretcher-boxes all over the yard, and the system is so well organised that delay in dealing with a case is out of the question. It is expected that very shortly the corps will hold a special parade to enable Mrs. Carter to show her appreciation of the work by presenting the men with the certificates and medallions gained. No.

6

District.

August 12th was a happy day for the nurses of the St. John Ambulance Peel House Nursing Division, who, leaving all work, trouble and care behind for the time, accepted the invitation of their Lady Supt., Lady Nunburnholme, to visit her at Londesborough Park. Journeying from Hull by train to Market Weighton in lovely weather, conveyances carried them thence to the Park,


September, 1916

— F I R S T

and in the delightful grounds the hours passed very quickly. The gracious kindliness of Lady Nunburnholme and the mem­ bers of her family will not easily be forgotten by their visitors on that day, whilst the music and games added a zest to the proceedings which left nothing to be desired. Sixty left Hull under Nursing Officers Mrs. Longman, Mrs. Spenceley and Miss Robinson.

No. 12 District. The Annual Inspection of the Nenagh, Borrisokane and Limerick Nursing Divisions was held at Nenagh on the 6th inst. The Inspecting Officer being the Deputy Commissioner Dr. Lumsden who was accompanied by Lady District Officer Miss Muriel and Corps Supt. James H. Webb. A fete was held and numerous stalls with useful articles were presided over by local ladies, and an American Tennis Tournament was well supported. The funds were devoted to local Red Cross objects. A competition for teams of V.A.D. Nursing members for the co. Tipperary Challenge Cup was watched by a large and interested crowd, the Examiners being the Deputy Commissioner, Mr. Webb and Miss Poe. The cup was won by the Borrisokane Nursing Division, Nenagh being second. At the conclusion of the competition there was a march past which was carried out in a most admirable fashion. The Deputy Commissioner then addressed the parade and con­ gratulated them on their excellent turn out and smart appear­ ance he also expressed his appreciation of the fine response for volunteers which had come from County Tipperary and the good work being done by the Nenagh War Hospital Supply Depot He also complimented the Nenagh Division on the recent appointment of their Commandant, Mrs. Edmund Dease, to the important position of the Head Superintendent of Women’s Welfare at the Ministry of Munitions. That such an important post should have been obtained by a Tipperary lady was a feather in their cap, and he was very sure that Mrs. Dease’s sterling qualities and abilities rerdered her a vaiuable public servant. Lord Dunally H.M.’s Lieutenant of the County then pre­ sented the cup to the winners, and medals to the members of the first and second teams. The proceedings were closed by the presentation of an address and a gold watch to Sergt.-Major Hennessy, a Nenagh man who recently won the Military Cross.

F ir s t Aid in W o rk sh o p s. T h e Police, &c. (Miscellaneous Provisions) Bill, referred to

in our July editorial, has now been passed to the Statute Book with some amendments under the title of the 11 Police, Factories, &c. (Miscellaneous Provisions), Bill, 1916.” Part II. of the A c t deals with Factories and Workshops and Clause 7 empowers the Secretary of State to require — by Order— the occupier of any factory or workshop, where the conditions and circumstances of employment or the nature of the processes carried on therein are such as to require special provision for securing the welfare of the workers, to make such reasonable provision, therefore, as may be specified, and if the occupier fails to comply with the requirements, the factory or workshop shall not be deemed to be kept in conformity with the Factory and Workshops A c t of 1901. Among the provisions which may be ordered are “ ambulance and first aid arrangements,” and the measure provides for the workers concerned being associated in the management of the arrangements in cases in which a portion of the cost is contributed by them. N o deductions may, however, be

43

A I D -

made from wages in respect of any provisions made. T h e A ct does not apply to factories of a domestic character. T h e passing of this A c t opens out a big field for the promulgation of first aid training among workpeople and every opportunity should be made to encourage and bring before their notice the benefits accuring, not only to them­ selves but to their fellow workpeople, from the knowledge of first aid training in cases of accident. It is surprising that in this country there are very many factories and workshops where no ambulance appliances are provided and not a single individual trained in first aid. W hen an accident happens in such establishments as these the poor sufferer, if he is able, is bundled off to the nearest doctor or is kept waiting until his arrival, thus losing valuable time and, perhaps, a minor injury is converted to a serious case. T im e and again has it been proved that life has been saved by the timely treatment of a first aider, and we believe if special efforts are made to bring home to employers and employees the value o f ambulance teaching it would result in the movement being extensively taken up.

L ad ies’

New

Service

H a ts .

T h e well-appointed ladies’ millinery showrooms of 1, Old

Bond-street, Piccadilly, London, W. (Messrs. Scotts), are now replete with an admirable and artistic selection o f autumn and winter hats in black and blue felt, o f the regu­ lation shape required by the British R e d Cross Society and St. John Am bulance Brigade, and Territorial Force Nursing Service, manufactured in three sizes. T hese hats are supplied from the firm’s own factory and are light and of good quality and value. T h e y are listed at 5s. 6d. and 10s. 6d. with an extra charge of 6d. for box and postage, and ladies will be well advised in placing their orders early. T h e higher priced hats will appeal more directly to the requirements of Commandants, Quartermasters and Officers, having a distinctive band and being better in quality with superior trimmings. Messrs. Scotts observe that it is not possible in the ordinary way to produce the above-mentioned hats at this low price, but they are doing so in order to help the Society, and hence the reason for the extra charge of 6d. for box and postage. T h e Matron-in-Charge of the Territorial Force having been pleased to appoint Messrs. Scotts to supply the autumn and winter hats in grey felt, in the regulation shape, the firm have fully qualified themselves to meet all requirements. T hese hats are made in three sizes and are now on sale at the showrooms. T h e price is quoted at 7s. 6d., which includes box and postage, the same figure applying to straw hats which are stocked in two sizes, large and small. Many thousands of these hats have been purchased and, by general consent, they have given every satisfaction.

When the Hon, Secretary of the St. John Am bulance Association at Capetown invited applications from young ladies to fill up seven appointments in military hospitals in England, for nursing probationers’ work, over a hundred replies were received by the next day’s post.

W h e n c o rre sp o n d in g w ith A d v e rtis e rs p le a se m e n ­ tio n “ F ir s t A id .”


44

— FIR ST

AID

&

THE

ST.

JOHN

AM BULANCE

GACETTE. —

September, 1916.

THE ST. JOHN AMBULANCE GAZETTE. On

F in d in g

Your

W ay

at

N ig h t .

B y L I O N E L J. P I C T O N , M.A ., M .B . ( A Lecture given before the Holmes Chapel Amb. Div.) ( Concluded from page 28.) (V.) S ir iu s : I said Procyon is a little to the East c f Orion, well, Procyon is part of a group of stars called ' ‘ the Little D og .” “ The Big Dog ” is another group not far off, be­ tween Procyon and Orion, but further South than either. In this group, or constellation, called the Big Dog, is the D og Sta r or Sirius, a brilliant white star, far and away the brightest star in the heavens though not the largest. (R e ­ member Arcturus is the largest) Look for Sirius, then between Procyon and Orion, but further to the southwards. It is due south at midnight (old time) in the beginning of January. There now remain four other stars to make up the list of nine Direction Stars. I have already spoken of the North Star, of Arcturus at the end of the Great Bear’s tail, of Altair with the little stars above and below it, and of Procyon a little East of Orion. Last of all I have mentioned the brilliant southern winter star Sirius, between Procyon and Orion, and more to the southwards than either. I have yet to mention : — (V I.) Vega, a big white star which has two little stars to the East of, and close to, it, so that the three form the letter “ V ” like this * J. It is placed between Arcturus and Altair, but nearer the North Star than either. ( V II.) Regnlus is a big white star in a group of stars arranged like a question mark. Regulus is like the dot of this note of interrogation. Y o u will find the star on a clear night easily in this way. Y o u remember “ the Pointers ” of the Great Bear. A line through them passes through the North Star. If you prolong the line in the opposite direction, that is, instead of looking from the Pointers towards the North Star you look in the opposite direction, the line so prolonged will pass near Regulus. ( V I I I .) Capella is a yellow star not far from the North Star itself and on a line at right angles to the line of “ the Pointers.” It is one of the brighest and biggest stars. (IX .) T h e ninth star you should learn to recognise is Castor. Sirius, Procyon and Castor together make a little half circle round one side of Orion, Castor being the most northernly and Sirius the most southernly of this group. Castor is a white s t a r ; but its twin, called Pollux, close by it, is a yellow star. T h o s e of you who are keen on all this may like to note the names of four other stars useful to learn, before I pass on to tell you how the nine stars I have already mentioned should be used as guides by which to find your way in the night. T h e four other stars are :— (1) Spica a white star : you will see it in summer time south and west of Arcturus. (2) A n tares, a red star— the only red star I have

mentioned to you, seen also in the summer, still more to the south of Arcturus but east of him. (3) Form alhaut, seen far in the south in mid-winter; and lastly ( 4 ) Aldebaran, a big yellow star between the Pleiades and Orion. Now supposing these two constellations, one cluster, nine main direction stars and four extra ones have been all learned, how are they to guide you ? I have already pointed out the rough and ready ways, the use of the constellations and how Altair, Orion, and Procion alone can guide you even accurately. But accurate guidance can be given by all these stars, or by one or two alone, if recognised, by the use of certain tables compiled by Lieut.-Colonel W. A. Tilney.* These tables tell you where the direction stars will be at such a time in such and such a latitude. A little practice with this guide in your hands will familiarise you so easily with the positions and movements and the Direction Stars that soon, except for very accurate work, you will be able to dispense with the guide altogether, except to refer to it about once a month. Let us suppose you are ordered to proceed with a stretcher party at 11 p.m. on the night of the 1st of July, 1916, to some place four miles to the S S.E. Allow for progress being slow as the party is encumbered with a stretcher and the ground is broken. Before you start you have spent five minutes with your star time table and your pencil and a scrap of paper tom out of your pocket-book. Suppose you see and recognise Altair. From the time table you will find that at 11 p.m. Altair is 135 degrees East from North. This means that you want to march S.S.E., which is the same thing as 157^ degrees East from North. D on ’t be frightened at this way of putting it. R e ­ member the compass circle is divided into 360 degrees, so that due East is called 90 degrees East from North and S.E. is called 135 degrees East from North, or

f ° r short, and so on.

Y o u also mark on your piece of paper the position of the guiding star at 11 p.m., the hour of starting, which, as I said just now, you found in Colonel T ilney’s Star Tables is 135 degrees East from North. Now, suppose you allow yourself two hours in which to march the four miles. Dur­ ing that time Altair, your guide, will be moving from S.E. westwards. ^Vhere will it be at 12o clock and where at 1 o’clock ? Your Star Tables will tell you 155 degrees East from North at midnight and due South (or 180 degrees from North) at 1 a.m. T h es e facts you also jot down on your paper. When you start you keep marching for the first half hour on a point a little to the right of Altair. After an hour you march right upon the star itself. T h e n between * M a r c h i n g a n d f ly i n g b y n i g h t w i t h o u t a c o m p a s s w i t h T i m e T a b l e o f D irection Stars, 1916- R e es , L t d . , 5, R e g e n t - s t r e e t , London, W . P r t c e , is .


September, 1916.

— FIR ST

A ID

&

THE

ST.

12 and 1 for the last two miles you keep your direction a little to the left of Altair. I have used the expression “ a little to the right ” or “ a little to the left.” That, you will say, is not very exact. Hold out your hand at arm’s length with the hack of the hand towards you. Held so, it blots out a certain portion of the horizon. If 24 hands were held in a ring round you they would blot out the whole horizon. T h e horizon is divided into 360 degrees as we have said. You have only to divide 360 by 24 to find how many degrees a single hand blots o u t — Answer : 15 degrees. Now we have seen that Altair moves 20 degrees (from 135 E f N to 155 E f N ) from 11 p.m. to midnight, and about 20 or 25 more in the next hour. So a good hand’s breadth to the right of the star will give you your line at the start r f your march, and a good hand’s breadth, or rather more, if it will bring you to your destination at 1 a.m. on July 2nd. On other nights, or with longer marches, you may have to change from star to star, according as they become visible and conveniently placed for marching on. For instance, suppose of the imaginary march we have been speaking of you had to go on yet another two miles in the same direction as before, that is S.SE, or otherwise written

you cou^ still march by Altair, but by

2 a.m. he would be rather more than two hands breadths away to the right of your line of march, that is, he would be YV^fN

^ Ut anot*ler star’ F ° rmalhaut, would be rising

almost in the direction of your line. will b e — 1 ■ and so will be E t N, easier to march on, than Altair.

A t 2 a m Formalhaut a

better

guide 6

and

T o illustrate still further how you would use various stars in the course of the same march, suppose yourself to be on the return journey. T h e line of your march should now be N .N .W ., that is 22 degrees West from North. You will thus have turned your back on Formalhaut, shine he never so brightly.

But V ega will be

IQ^ at 2 a.m. W f N Thus a moment’s reflection will show you that your line will be five hands breadths to the right, of Vega, and just over one to the left of the Pole star. That is all I have to say, gentleman, except this : Many savage races put the average Englishman to shame in their ability to find their way at night, but it is very surprising how soon you will gain confidence in this art, starting as you do on Col. T iln e y ’s carefully worked out system you should soon approach to the certainty of nocturnal movements of the savage and rival him in the accuracy of your path finding by night. Rifleman Proctor, the Liverpool Territorial winner of the Victoria Cross, in a public speech at Liverpool, said:— “ T h e distinction that had come to him was really directly through the St. John Ambulance Association and the Red Cross Society. While he was out in France he had the opportunity of putting his first aid knowledge to wonder­ ful use. H e knew how hard it was to get people interested in St. John Am bulance and Red Cross work. It proved out there its value, and, strange to say, the incentive was not so much that he went out because he was brave, but that he would be of some use to the wounded men. Everybody was doing things out there to merit the dis­ tinction.

JOH N

A M B U lA N C E

G A Z E T T E .—

V A D.

New s.

[ T h e fo llo w in g notes are k in d ly su pplied a n d edited by V . A . D . H eadquarters D epartm ent o f the Join t V .A .D . Com m ittee a n d w i ll appear m onthly under the above heading. — E ditor . W e have been notified by the War Office that the working hours and leave of General Service members of Voluntary Aid Detachments will be as follows :— (a) Working H ours.— A minimum of 48 working hours in the week will be required. One hour off should be given for dinner and half an hour for tea. (b). Leave.— O ne day off in every seven, if possible, and 14 days leave in the year. T hese instructions are issued as a working basis, and it is left to the authorities under whom the members are serving to enforce them as the exigencies of the service permit. V

With regard to uniform allowance, it has been decided by the War Office that in future all paid probationers employed on nursing duties in Military Hospitals are to receive uniform allowance at the rate of ^ 2 half-yearly, instead of^ Y i quarterly as at present. T h e allowance will be issuable in advance at the beginning of each six months’ engagement (i e , no allowance will be issuable in respect of the month’s probationary service), and any member breaking her engagement within three months of its com­ mencement, will be required to refund jQ 1 of the allowance. Probationers at present serving who receive the allowance at the rate of 1 a quarter payable in arrear, will receive their allowance under the new mode of issue the next time they sign the agreement for a further six months’ service. * * * Uniform certificate cases may now be obtained, price 6d, each. Orders should be sent to the Headquarters of the Joint V . A D. Committee, 83, Pall Mall, will only be received from the County Directors or the Commandants. In either case, the orders should be sent in bulk, so that the supply for each county may be sent at one time. * * * Under instruction from the YVar Office, inspections of personnel in V . A D. and Auxiliary Hospitals working under the British Red Cross Society or the Order of St. John, will be made periodically. T hese will be carried out by Miss Swift, Matron in Chief, Joint War Committee, or her deputy on instructions from the Chairman of the Joint War Committee, and the County Director will be notified accordingly. N o inspections, however, can take place in Hospitals where members of Queen Alexandra’s Imperial Military Nursing Service (including the Reserve;, or the Territorial Nursing Service, are employed. *** As there seems, judging from the number of appli­ cations received at Devonshire House, to be some mis­ apprehension on the subject, we have been asked to point out to Commandants that they should apply to their County Directors for Qualification Forms, which are not supplied direct from Devonshire House. * * * T h e following questions and the answers thereto may be of interest:— (1) “ I should be very much obliged if you could tell me exactly what the duties of a Quartermaster of a mobil­


— FIR ST

46

A ID

&

THE

ST.

JOHN

ised detachment should be in an Auxiliary Hospital of 40 beds staffed by one detachment. (2) “ I should also like to know the difference between a R e d Cross Hospital and a V .A .D . Hospital.” (1) T h e Quartermaster is in charge of the building, stores, equipment, and supplies, and if responsible for the reception of kits, the custody of patients’ valuables. T h e Quartermaster indents for provisions, and exercises a supervision over the kitchen. This is a short epitome of duties. Now and again, however, the officer-in-charge or commandant delegates additional work to the Quartermaster for local reasons. (2) T h e words “ R e d Cross Hospital ” are used in one county for the same class of institution that is styled “ V .A .D . H o s p ita l” in another. v /( During the four weeks ending August 25th, the Joint W om e n ’s V .A .D . Committee has received requisitions for the posting of 643 members (38 abroad and the remainder at home). New candidates during the same period total 1,851, this large number being the result of the Chairman’s Special Appeal in the Press for more V .A .D . Volunteers. T h es e 1,851 new candidates consist of (1) Members sent by County Directors in the usual manner, and who are now having their documents completed for submission to the Board. (2) Emergency members, whose papers have been completed and submitted to the Board. With regard to the Chairman’s appeal, we reckon that 2,700 women applied by post alone— it is almost impossi­ ble to give any account of the huge number who called and were interviewed at Devonshire House. * * * A pleasing and spontaneous little tribute was received the other day by the V . A . D . members who had been em­ ployed at a certain War Hospital, now staffed exclusively with trained nurses and made orderlies. It runs as follows : “ T h e Medical Staff of this Hospital take the oppor­ tunity of expressing their deep appreciation of the devotion and self-sacifice with which the V .A .D . nurses have carried out their onerous duties in this hospital during the past months, especially since the time that it has been reserved for enemy prisoners. T h e Medical Staff tender their sincere thanks for their loyal work and co-operation.”

O rigin By

COLONEL In d ia n

of

H ospitals.

HENDLEY,

M e d ic a l

S e rv ice

C .I.E .,

V .D .,

(R e tire d ).

I n F i r s t A i d for April 20th, and in The B ritish M edical J o u r n a l for April 29th, there are references to the origin of hospitals. In the former, while it is no doubt correct that they are essentially, as we now have them, the outcome of Christianity, modified institutions for the relief of the sick existed in the ancient Greek and Roman Empires. In the latter named Journal Surgeon-General Bannerman is reported to have said that in the very old days of the Emperor Asoka there were a few hospitals under his auspices, but there were none at all in India when the English arrived and began to maintain soldiers and an army. A hospital to treat soldiers was built in Madras in 1664, and was the first institution of the kind in India, and as such hospitals multiplied in the Cantonments the civil population also wished to obtain treatment accorded

AM BULANCE

GAZETTE. —

September, 1016.

therein, and thus similar buildings for their use were established. T h e above statements hardly seem to convey the full facts as known to us. It is recorded in the native chronicles, that even before Buddhism was established, in Ceylon as early as the fifth century before Christ its ruler erected in Anuradhapura, his capital— the stupendous ruins of which still exist— hospitals for the sick besides instituting admirable sanitary arrangements. As to Asoka, who ruled over the greater part of India from B C. 273 to 232, our information on such matters is chiefly derived from his famous inscriptions on rocks, pillars or in caves. In R o ck E dict No. I I .* it is stated that everywhere on behalf of K in g Priyadarsin or Piyad