Page 1


FIRST AID.

The Independent Journal for the Ambulance and Nursing Services. Conducted b y A R T H U R No.

X X I.

2 4 1.— V o l .

To

JULY,

[N e w S e r ie s .]

Our

1914.

B.

DALE,

M.J.I. PRICF TWOPENCE

is»t*rtdatst*nt»*n'HaU.\

[2,6 Per

A nn u m ,

P o st

F ree

Associations are clearly charged by the War Office with the

Readers.

responsibility of organising Voluntary Aid Detachments in “ F i r s t A id ” is p u b l i s h e d on t h e 2 0 t h o f e v e r y m o n t h . The

A n n u a l S u b s c rip tio n is 2 S.

6d.

p ost free ; s in g le c o p ie s 2 d.

T h e E d it o r in v ite s rea d ers to sen d a r tic le s an d re p o r ts o n s u b je c ts o f in te r e s t to a m b u la n c e w o r k e r s , th e se sh o u ld b e a d d re s s e d

to h im at

46, C a n n o n S t r e e t, Lon d on -, E . C .

their respective counties, but by Paragraph 15 of the War Office Scheme they are empowered to delegate the organi­ sation and formation to other responsible outcome of this arrangement

A l l a r tic le s an d re p o rts m u st b e a c c o m p a n ie d b y th e n am e an d a d d re ss o f th e w r ite r , n o t n e c e s s a r ily fo r p u b lic a tio n b u t fo r th e u se o f th e E d ito r .

bodies.

The

is that the action of the

Territorial Associations has varied throughout the country and has resulted in a varied and disconnected supply of voluntary aid to the Territorial Force.

T he urgent need

S u b s c r ip t io n s , A d v e i t is e m e n t s a n d o t h e r b u s in e s s c o m m u n ic a t io n s c o n n e c t e d w it h

F

ir s t

DALE,

A

id

at the present time is a central guiding authority which

s h o u ld b e a d d r e s s e d to th e P u b lis h e r s ,

REYN OLDS 46 , C

&

a n n on

C O ., S

t r e e t

L

td

,

L

should be directly responsible to the War Office for the

., o n d o n

,

E .C .

carrying out authority

of

the

should

scheme

be

a

of

Neutral

voluntary National

aid.

This

Organisation

composed of representatives of each society raising Volun­

EDITORIAL.

tary Aid Detachments, and its business should be to see that detachments all work under the same rules and con­

As a result of Colonel Seely’s speech at

T h e V o lu n t a r y A id C o m m it te e .

Ilkeston some five months ago, we are pleased to hear that the

War

announce that a committee has

Office been

appointed to inquire into the working and organisation of Voluntary Aid Detachments.

It is an

ditions of training and service. The need of a central authority is being well illus­ trated at the present moment in Kent. came into

operation

the

Kent

When the scheme

T .F .A .

delegated

organisation of voluntary aid to the B.R.C.S. graph 15 of the War Office Scheme,

the

under Para­

but in

1910

the

exceedingly strong committee, composed of representatives

Association withdrew the “ delegation ” on account of want

of the Territorial Force Association,

of working machinery, and undertook to do the work them­

the

St.

Andrew’s

Ambulance Association, the St. John Ambulance Associa­

selves with the assistance of the B .R C S. and the S.J.A.A.

tion, the British Red Cross Society and the War Office.

as organising societies.

The terms of reference of the committee are as follows :— “ T o inquire into and report upon the difficulties which

under this system,

The

B.R.C.S.

complained

that,

as soon as V .A .D .’s were registered

it practically lost control of them, and to obviate this the society appointed a County

Director

societies and associations in forming, registering, training,

organising detachments itself.

The result of this has been

administering and controlling Voluntary Aid Detachments,

that in some cases three societies are organising V . A . D .’s in

have been experienced in co-ordinating the work of the

and

commenced

and to make suggestions for amending the existing schemes

the same towns.

for the organisation of voluntary aid, with a view to the

the only solution, in

removal of such difficulties.”

friction and overlapping as this, and we hope the com­

As has been emphasised in these columns over and over again, the present methods of raising and organising voluntary aid leaves much to be desired.

The appointing of a central authority is our

opinion,

to

overcome

such

mittee appointed by the War Office will see the advisa­ bility of recommending such a central authority.

The overlapping

and element of competition which exists

between

the

several societies, in our opinion, is not in the best interests

On the occasion of the King’s visit to Shrewsbury the

of this national and patriotic work, and the committee will

many divisions of the No. 7 District were on duty, and the

no doubt direct its immediate attention to co-operating this disconnected method of supplying and organising volun­ tary aid.

As matters at present stand the Territorial Force

Deputy-Commissioner (Col. E. Cureton) presented Corps Superintendent S. T.

Beard, of the South Wales Border

Corps, Abergavenny, with the long service medal of the Brigade.


2

— F I R S T

Jfie

Jo h n .Ambulance S rigade.

--------

C O M M IS S IO N E R :

L IE U T .-C O L .

LEES

DEPARTM EN T.

DUTY ROSTER.

No. 1 District. DEPU TY

S t.

HALL.

AUGUST,

19 1 4 .

S u n d a y D u t y , S t . P a u l ’s C a t h e d r a l . S u n d a y , 2 n d . — N o . 17 D i v i s i o n . 9 th .— N o . 33 „ „ 1 6 th .— N o . 28 „ „ 23rd .— N o . 30 „ „ 30th.— N o . 2 „ 10.30 a .m . to 2.30 p .m ., a n d 2.30 p .m . to 8 p .m . sep a ra te o rders. K e y f r o m S t . J o h n ’s G a t e , 10 a . m .

(H a lf- y e a rly r e tu r n o f D rills a n d D uties). S ev eral D ivisions h a v e n o t s e n t in th e s e re tu rn s , n o tw ith s ta n d in g m y re q u e st. T h e y m u s t b e s e n t in a t o n c e. DUTY.

M o n d a y 3rd (A u g u st H a n k H o lid ay ), see se p a ra te O rd ers. PARADE ANNUAL

IN S P E C T IO N ,

STATES. HYDE

PARK,

JU L Y

4th.

I a m v e ry d is a p p o in te d w ith th e n u m b e r o f m e n w h o p a r a d e d on th e a b o v e o c ca sio n — only a b o u t 40 p e r cent, o f th e s tre n g th o f th e C o rp s. T h i s m e a n s t h a t a b o u t 1,500 m e n w e re a w a y , a n d I feel q u i t e s u r e t h a t s o m a n y w e r e n o t o n d u t y o r a t w ork. O f f i c e r s w ill, t h e r e f o r e , s e n d i n , a t o n c e , a l l l e t t e r s fro m th e ir m e m b e r s a s k in g for leav e, to g e t h e r w ith a c e rtific a te s h o w in g th e n u m b e r o f m en w ho w ere a t w ork, a n d th e n u m b e r w ho w e re on d u ty p rev io u sly sa n c tio n e d b y m e. TH EA TR E DUTY. A ll m o n t h l y r e t u r n s a r e r e q u i r e d a t o n c e. P R O M O T IO N OF SERGEANTS AND CORPORALS. I t d o e s n o t se e m to b e u n d e rs to o d th a t th e n o tificatio n f r o m t h e O ffice, t h a t c e r t a i n m e m b e r s h a v e p a s s e d th e r e q u ir e d e x am in atio n , d o e s n o t en title m e m b e rs to w e ar th e c h ev ro n e, u n til D / F 8 h a s b e e n s e n t in a n d t h e p r o m o t i o n o fficially m a d e a s fro m a c erta in d ate. B / F 8 a r e r e q u i r e d f r o m N o s . 25 a n d 11 D i v i s i o n s f o r t h e p r o m o t i o n o f m e n p a s s e d a t t h e l a s t e x am in atio n . W E A R IN G OF U N IF O R M . O ffic e rs a n d m e m b e r s - i n - c h a r g e a re , b y s p e c ia l o r d e r , to d r a w th e a tte n tio n o f th e ir m e m b e r s to th e fo llo w in g e x tra c t fro m G e n e ra l R eg u latio n s. “ T h e B rig a d e U n ifo r m sh all only b e w o rn o n B rig a d e D u ty a u th o rise d or o rd e re d by B rig a d e or D istrict H e a d ­ q u a rte rs , o r o n su c h o c c a s io n s a s m a y b e p e rm itte d w ith th e s p ec ia l s an c tio n o f th e D e p u ty C o m m is sio n e r o f th e D istrict, w h ic h s a n c t i o n m u s t h a v e b e e n p r e v io u s ly o b t a i n e d in w r iti n g .” PU B L IC DUTY ORDERS. I n f u t u r e all o r d e r s fo r d u t y m u s t b e a c k n o w l e d g e d b y th e officer o r m e m b e r - i n - c h a r g e r e c e i v in g t h e m . T h i s is o b v i o u s l y necessary. It h a s h a p p e n e d th a t m e m b e rs , e x p ec te d on du ty , h a v e n o t re p o rte d , a n d o n e n q u iry , I a m in fo rm ed , th a t th e O r d e r h a s e ith e r b e e n o v erlo o k ed o r h a s n o t b e e n received. D IS T R IC T

OPEN

ORDERS.

These have to be prepared by the 14th of the month, in

SPACE

DUTY,

AUGUST D iv . 1/C.

51 13

70 24

3° 7 41

B/ F 3

SPACE

M ONTHLY DUTY ROSTER. O n e c o p y is s e n t t o e v e r y o f f i c e r , i n c l u d i n g D i v i s i o n a l Surgeons. T w o c o p ie s a r e s e n t to e a c h m e m b e r in c h a r g e a n d a n e x tr a c o p y for e a c h s e c tio n o f a D iv isio n . A c o p y is t o b e p o s t e d u p in a p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h it is a v a i l a b l e t o e v e r y m e m b e r . I r e g r e t t h a t I h a v e t o c o m p l a i n t h a t t h i s is s t i l l n o t d o n e in m a n y cases. F o r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o f all r a n k s , I a p p e n d a n e x t r a c t fr o m a le tte r w hich I h a v e receiv ed from th e C lerk o f th e L o n d o n C o u n t y C o u n c i l :— “ I a m d e sire d b y th e C h a irm a n o f th e C o u n cil to a sk you to b e s o g o o d a s to c o n v e y to t h e St. J o h n A m b u l a n c e B r i g a d e th e e x p re s s io n o f h is th a n k s for th e S e rv ic e s o f th e B rig a d e o n th e o ccasio n o f th e In sp e c tio n on S a tu rd a y last o f th e L o n d o n F ire B rig a d e b y H is M aje sty th e K in g .”

As per

I M P O R T A N T . — R .N .A .S .B . R E SE R V IST S . T h e a n n u a l i n s p e c t i o n o f t h i s R e s e r v e w ill b e h e l d a t t h e S o u th M e tr o p o lita n G a s W o r k s , O ld K e n t- r o a d , S .E ., o n Ju ly 2 5 th . “ F a ll I n ” a t 4 p.m . s h a rp . A ll R e s e r v i s t s m u s t a t t e n d o r o b t a i n le a v e o f a b s e n c e . A n y m e m b e rs of th e C o rp s w ho are th in k in g of jo in in g th is R e s e r v e a r e in v ite d to a tte n d . U n i f o r m w ill a d m i t .

OPEN

July, 1914.

o r d e r t h a t / t h e y m a y b e p u b l i s h e d in F i r s t A id , w h i c h is i s s u e d o n th e 20th. C o p ies o f su ch O rd e rs a re usu ally d is p a tc h e d fr o m t h e D i s t r i c t O ffice a b o u t t h e 2 5 th , b u t if t h e y a r e n o t r e ­ c e i v e d b y officers b y th e 3 0 th o f t h e m o n t h , e n q u i r y s h o u ld b e m a d e of th e D istrict S u p e rin te n d e n t at once.

JJhe Grand iPriorg of the Grder of the K ospital of S t. John of Jersusalem in Sngland. A M I 1U L A N C E

AID. —

45 21

2 33 is 29 24 23 5N

37 40 60 19 S 46 20

9 20 20

54 56 70

54 66

54 22

38 17 22 62

7 7 17 29 19

4 52 17 60

19

BANK

3rd,

Open Space.

A nib. D iv s.

A d d in g to n H ills A le x an d ra P alace B arnes C om m on B a t t e r s e a P a r k ... B lack heath .................... B o stal W o o d s

N o. N /S .

51 & 6 6 1, 1 3 & 25 70 24 16, 30 , & 4 7

,,

3

13

4

2 21

4 3 3

4' 45

2

21

2 & 10

4 4 3 3

33 & 6 15 & 6 29 24 & 68

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2 2 2 2 2 2

40 60

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54 56 70

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54 22 38 17 22 62 7 ( S ’e n d s e c t i o n )

7 17 29

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3 HALL,

Deputy-Commissioner. H e a d q u a r t e r s : - - S t . J o h n ’s G a t e , C le rk e n w e ll, E .C .

14

2 2 16 16 26

3 3

9

LEES

N u r. D iv .

2 2

7 & 49

B r o c k w e l l P a r k ... B r o m l e y ... C h in g fo rd , F o r e s t H o tel „ R i s i n g S u n ... „ R o b in H o o d „ W h i p p ’s C r o s s C lap h am C om m on C ry stal P a la c e ... „ (D e p o t)... E a l i n g C o m m o n ... E p p in g F o rest, W a k e A rm s „ T h e y d o n B ois G ran g e W ood, T h o rn to n H th H ack n ey M arshes H a i n a u l t F o r e s t .................... H a m p ste a d H eath , U p p e r statio n „ Low er „ „ G o l d e r ’s H i l l „ G arden Suburb H a m p to n C o u rt P a la c e ... H en d o n A erodrom e H o r s e n d e n H ill, S u d b u r y K ew B rid g e M itc h am Com m on and F i g g ’s M a r s h O ld D e e r P a rk , R ic h m o n d P a r l i a m e n t H i l l .................... Peckham Rye ... P u tn ey H eath R e g e n t ’s P a r k ... R id d le sd o w n S o u th e n d -o n -S e a S o u th M ill F ie ld s T o o tin g C om m on W a lth a m s to w A m . S tatio n W a n d s w o r t h C o m m o n ... W a n s t e a d F l a t s .................... W e l s h H a r p , H e n d o n ... W im b led o n C o m m o n ... W oodford W o rm w o o d Scrubbs (S ig n e d )

H O L ID A Y ,

191 4.

7 11 2


- F I R S T

July, 1914

A n n u a l I n s p e c t i o n — T h e w hole o f th e co rp s com i s i n g 1 , 5 1 7 m e n a n d 3 4 2 n u r s i n g s i s t e r s w a s i n s p e c t e d in y d e P a rk , o n J u ly 4th, by C o lo n el T y re ll, C o m m is s io n e r of t e B rig ad e. A m o n g s t th o s e p re s e n t w ere C o lo n e l C an tlie M r. W . H . M o rg a n , A s s is ta n t C o m m is s io n e rs V ilv en a n d W in n y . T h e c o r p s a s s e m b l e d a t 3.30 p .m . a t W e l lin g to n B a r r a c k s , in c h a r g e o f D i s t r i c t S u p t . P o n t i n , a n d m a r c h e d to H y d e P a rk , w h ere th e p a ra d e w as ta k e n c h arg e o f by th e 1 e p u ty C o m m issio n e r, C o lo n el L e e s H all. T h e v ario u s D iv is io n s w e r e m a d e u p in to c o m p a n i e s in c h a r g e o f th e fo llo w in g O fficers N o . 1 C o m p a n y , S u p t . L i d d e l l ; N o . 2, S u p t . O l l e y ; N o . 3, S u p t . J o n e s ; N o . 4, S u p t . H u d s o n ; N o . 5, u p t . C o o p e r ; N o . 6 , A m b u l a n c e O f f i c e r G o d d e n ; N o . 7, S u p t . A t k i n ; N o . 8, S u p t . O r c h a r d ; N o . 9, S u p t . H e a l e y ; N o . 10, S u p t. S t r a t h a m ; N o . 11, S u p t . M a u n d e r ; N o . 12, S u p t . ' o u r n e t ; N o . 13, S u p t . M a g n u s ; N o . 14, S u p t . S a u n d e r s ; N o . 15, S u p t . W a l l i s . O n e n te rin g th e P a rk p a ra d e g ro u n d t ie c o r p s a d v a n c e d in q u a r t e r - c o l u m n to t a k e u p its p o s itio n o a th e in s p e c tio n g ro u n d , w ere C o lo n e l T y r e ll in s p e c te d th e line. T h e m a r c h - p a s t w a s i n b a t t a l i o n s in c o l u m n o f c o m ­ p a n ie s, e a c h b a tta lio n b e in g h e a d e d b y its b a n d . A t th e o n c l u s i o n of t h e i n s p e c t i o n m e d a l s f o r l o n g - s e r v i c e w e r e p r e ­ s e n te d b y S u r g e o n - G e n e r a l M a y , C .B ., D ir e c to r G e n e r a l o f le d ic a l S e rv ic e s for th e R o y a l N a v y . T r o p h i e s w e re also p r e s e n te d to th e w in n e rs . T h e O s b o r n e C h a l l e n g e S h ie ld for im p ro v ised w o rk w as w on by L e y to n a n d L e y to n s lo n e (N o . 4 D i v i s i o n ) ; t h e S l e a t h G e n t C h a l l e n g e C u p f o r t h e b e s t m a n in le d i s t r i c t b y L a n c e - C o r p o r a l M i l b u r n ; t h e E f f i c i e n c y C u p f o r

AID. apply to S u p e r in te n d e n t

he

“ S ilv e rd a le ,1 F ui ness-road,

N o . 20 H a m p stead D iv isio n .— A s u c c e ss fu l w e e k e n d c a m p w a s h e l d t h i s m o n t h b y t h e N o . 11 V . A . D . C o m p a n y ( H a m p s t e a d S .J.A .B .), b y k in d in v ita tio n o f W . W . B irrell, E s q ., o n h is e s ta t e a t P o tt e r s B ar. T w e n t y - f o u r m e n , i n c l u d i n g o fficers a n d s e c tio n l e a d e r s , w e re p re s e n t, w ith th e C o m m a n d a n t, D r. C ecil J. R. M a c F a d d e n , a n d w ere u n d e r can v as. T h e field k i t c h e n w a s u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f C o r p o r a l W . R o u s t , w h o a c t e d a s c o m p a n y c o o k in a m o s t e f f i c i e n t m a n n e r . In f a n tr y a n d s tre tc h e r drill o c c u p ie d th e m e m b e r s d u rin g p o rtio n s o f e a c h d ay , a n d on S u n d a y c h u rc h p a r a d e w as h eld a t th e c h u rc h o f th e E a r ls o f S traffo rd , clo se to th e cam p . T h e w e a t h e r d u r i n g t h e w e e k e n d w a s fine b u t h o t. On S a t u r d a y e v e n i n g a c a m p fire w a s lit a n d a r o u s i n g i m p r o m p t u c o n c e rt w as held, w h ic h a d d e d to th e e n jo y m e n t o f th e c a m p a n d th e m a n y visitors w h o h a d a sse m b le d . T h e c a m p w as in sp ected on S a tu rd a y afte rn o o n b y M ajo r E . T . B irre ll, R .A .M .C ., a n d s e v e r a l h i n t s o n i m p r o v e m e n t s for f u tu re c a m p s w e re giv en .

Photo by]

T

Jo u rn et,

W illesd en .

S t . J o h n ’s G a t e N u r s i n g D i v i s i o n . — W e r e g r e t t o re c o rd th e d e a th o f M rs. B a rn e s , F ir s t O fficer a n d H o n . S e c re ta ry o f th e D ivision. D u r in g h e r tw e n ty -o n e y e a r s ’ service. M rs. B a r n e s w a s k n o w n to m a n y m e m b e r s o f th e B r i g a d e w h o w ill r e g r e t t o l e a r n o f h e r d e a t h .

[London P ress Sendee.

M arch Past

at th e

In s p e c t io n

of th e

: r il l b y t h e S o u t h M e t r o p o l i t a n G a s C o m p a n y D i v i s i o n ; t h e M a s s e y M a in w a rin g C u p for F ir s t A id b y th e H a m p s te a d D iv i s i o n ; a n d t h e N u r s i n g B o w l fo r t h e b e s t w o m a n in th e d istrict b y M iss N e llie J e n n in g s , B a lh a m a n d S tr e a th a m N u r s in g D ivision. T h e efficiency o f th e B r i g a d e w a s c o m ­ m e n te d o n v e ry fa v o u ra b ly b y th e In s p e c tin g O fficer a n d others. N o . 44 W . L o n d o n D i v i s i o n . — T h e W e s t L o n d o n D iv is io n h a v e m a d e a v a lu a b le a d d i t i o n to its s t r e n g t h b y fo rm in g y e t a n o th e r section, k n o w n as th e “ N a p ie r a n d A c to n ” branch. A n e x c e l l e n t s t a r t h a s b e e n m a d e w ith 23 'e m b e rs , m o s tly r e c r u ite d fr o m a s u c c e ss fu l c la ss h e ld a t M e s s r s . N a p i e r & S o n ’s m o t o r w o r k s a t A c t o n . A ll t h e m e m ­ b e r s a r e n o w in u n i f o r m a n d p r o p e r l y e q u i p p e d . M essrs. N a p ie r & S o n h a v e r e n d e re d excellent a ss is ta n c e ; h e y h a v e p a i d all t h e e x p e n s e s a t t a c h e d to t h e c la s s , a r e v i n g a n a n n u a l d o n a t i o n o f £ 2 2 s ., o f f e r i n g a S h i e l d f o r t h e ' ist s q u a d , a n d f r e e h e a d q u a r t e r s fo r d r il l a n d p r a c tic e . M o n t a g u e N a p i e r , E s q . , h a s g i v e n £ 2 2s. a n d H . T . m e , E s q ., £ 1 is. to t h e fu n d s , a n d E . D a l s t o n , E s q ., a G o ld .ed al a n n u a lly for th e b e s t a ll-ro u n d m e m b e r. A successful c o n cert given b y th e m e m b e rs o f th e c lass also re a lised a g o o d i ro f it, s o t h a t t h e b r a n c h s ta r ts o ff w ith a b o u t ,£50 w o rth o f eq u ip m en t. T h e b r a n c h is n o t e x c l u s i v e t o m e m b e r s o f t h e f i r m , s o t i i d h o ld e r s o f first a id c e r tific a te s d e s i r i n g to j o i n s h o u ld

P rin ce

of

W

a l e s ’s

C orps, H yde P a r k .

No. 2 District. C h e l t e n h a m C o rp s .— T h e f o u r th a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f th e N u r s in g D iv isio n o f th is C o rp s w as th e o c ca sio n o f a v ery p le a s a n t fu n c tio n o n S a t u r d a y , J u n e 2 0 th . In s te a d o f b e in g held, as o n p re v io u s o c ca s io n s, a t th e h o u s e o f th e L a d y -S u p t. th e fo u rth a n n u a l m eetin g w as h eld a t “ L o tsw o ld ,” th e re sid en c e of th e A ssista n t C o m m issio n e r o f N o. 2 D istrict, by h is k i n d in v ita tio n , in c o m m e m o r a t i o n o f h is fiftie th b i r t h d a y . P rev io u s to th e b u sin e ss o f th e m e e tin g , M a jo r a n d M rs. G. S h ew ell e n te rta in e d th e N u rs in g D iv isio n , a n d th e te n p r o ­ b a t i o n e r s w h o s i g n e d t h e roll o n t h a t o c c a s io n , w ith t h e i r c u s to m a r y h o sp itality . S e v e ra l frien d s o f M a jo r a n d M rs. S h e w e ll w e r e a ls o i n v ite d to s h a r e in t h is m o s t e n j o y a b l e e n te rta in m e n t, in c lu d in g th e D e p u ty C o m m is sio n e r o f N o . 2 D is tric t, a n d M rs. G riffiths, th e C o rp s S e c re ta ry , D r. P o w e ll D r . H e p p l e t h w a i t e , C h i e f S u r g e o n C h e l t e n h a m C o r p s , a n d Dr> B l a k e n e y , H o n . A s s o c i a t e O r d e r o f S t . J o h n , H o n . S u r g e o n toth e N u r s in g D ivision. A fte r tea, th e L a d y S u p t. M rs. M c C i a i t h B la k e n e y , on b e h a lf o f th e N u r s in g O fficers a n d S is te rs , p r e s e n te d M a jo r P e rc y S h e w e ll w ith a h a n d s o m e ly b o u n d v o lu m e , w ith illu m in ate d in scrip tio n , a s a m e m e n to o f th e o ccasio n , a n d p r e ­ s e n te d M rs. S hew ell (w ho h a s alw ay s sh o w n h e r k in d in te re st in th e N u rsin g D iv isio n , and has g iv en it a silv er c h a l l e n g e b o w l, w ith a b a s k e t o f c a r n a t io n s . T h e s e g ifts h a v in g b e e n a c c e p te d a n d gracefu lly a c k n o w le d g e d by M a jo r a n d M rs. S hew ell, th e L a d y S u p t., M rs. B la k e n e y , re a d th e a n n u a l


— F I R S T

4

re p o r t, w h ic h s h o w e d a y e a r o f p r o g r e s s a n d efficiency, a n d th e te n n e w m e m b e rs w h o jo in e d th e N u rs in g D ivision w ere p r e ­ s e n te d w ith th e ir c lo a k a n d a r m -b a d g e s by th e A ssista n t C o m m issio n er. T h e D e p u t y C o m m is s io n e r ( D r. G riffith s) h a v in g e x p re s s e d h is satisfa c tio n a t th e p ro g r e s s o f th e D iv isio n , th e L a d y S u p t. th a n k e d h im for h is k in d w o rd s, s a y in g th a t th e p ro g r e s s w as la r g e ly d u e to h e r m o s t e x c e lle n t officers, a n d t h a n k s to M a jo r a n d M rs. S h ew ell for th e ir n e v er-failin g k in d n e ss a n d in terest b r o u g h t a m o s t d e lig h tfu l a n d s u c c e ss fu l a fte rn o o n to a close. T h e N u r s in g D iv is io n h a s b e e n o n p u b lic d u ty o n sev eral o c c a s io n s o f la te , in c lu d in g th e G lo u c e s te rs h ire A g ric u ltu ra l S h o w , th e lo cal A l e x a n d r a D a y c e le b ra tio n s , a n d s e v e ra l fetes a n d s u m m e r outin g s.

No. 4 District. B o lt o n .— S o m e 600 m e m b e rs of th e M .H H .R . d ra w n fr o m all p a r t s o f L a n c a s h i r e , p a r a d e d a t B o lto n o n J u n e 2 0 th for th e ir a n n u a l in sp ec tio n . T h e i n s p e c t i n g o fficer w a s S u r ­ g e o n G e n e r a l S ir A. W . M a y , C .B ., w h o w a s a c c o m p a n i e d b y S taff S u rg eo n R . W . S tew art, R .N . T h e St. J o h n A m b u l a n c e B r i g a d e w a s r e p r e s e n t e d b y C o l. C. J . T r i m b l e , C .M G ., V .D ., A s s t . - C o m m i s s i o n e r A . L. G a r n e t t a n d D i s t r i c t S e c r e t a r y W.

AID. —

July, 1914.

A s s o c ia t io n o f C h e s h i r e D iv isio n s.— T h e th ird a n n u a l rev iew w as h e ld a t W h a lle y B rid g e o n Ju ly 4th , w h e n 2 41 a m b u l a n c e a n d n u r s i n g o f f i c e r s ( m e n a n d s i s t e r s ) w e r e i n ­ s p e c t e d b y t h e D e p u t y C o m m i s s i o n e r , C o l o n e l C. J . T r i m b l e , C .M .G ., V .D . A v e r y s u c c e s s f u l d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f first a i d a n d h o s p ita l w o rk w as g iv en before a g o o d cro w d , a fte r w h ich the D e p u ty C o m m is sio n e r c o n g ra tu la te d th e m e m b e rs p re s e n t on th eir e x c e l l e n t s h o w , w h ic h , h e s a id , w a s c le a n , o r d e r l y a n d w ell tu r n e d out. I t r e f l e c t e d g r e a t c r e d i t o n t h e o f f i c e r s in c h a r g e o f units. H e w e n t fu rth e r, a n d s a id th a t h e c o u ld n o t recall a n y o c c a s io n w h e n h e s a w th e m e n b e t t e r b r u s h e d u p o r w ith m o re care b e sto w e d on th e u n ifo rm s th a n h e h a d seen th a t aftern o o n . T h e n u rs e s w ere s m a rt, n ice a n d cred itab le. C olonel T r im b le a fte rw a rd s p re s e n te d th e L o n g S erv ice M e d a ls to S u p t. B a g s h a w , S e rg t. W h ite , P r iv a t e s H o w a r t h a n d P r o c to r , all o f W h a l l e y B r id g e , a n d P riv ate T h o m a s , of Sto ck p o rt. D u b lin .— O n J u n e 2 0th th e a n n u a l in s p e c tio n a n d c o m ­ p e t i t i o n s w e r e h e l d , b y k i n d p e r m i s s i o n , in t h e g a r d e n s o f L o r d I v e a g h ’s r e s i d e n c e i n S t e p h e n ’s G r e e n . C o l . S i r J a m e s A n d r e w C l a r k , C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r , in -

R . N . A . S . B . R . I n s p e c t i o n o f L a n c a s h i r e R e s e r v i s t s .— O f f i c e r s in f r o n t

B o lto n Town H a ll.

F r o m left to r i g h t — S t a n d i n g : C o r p s S u p t. F . L o m a x , A s s t . - C o m m i s s i o n e r A . L. G a r n e t t , D is t. I n s p e c t o r o f S t o r e s A . V. D a v i e s , t h e C h i e f C o n s t a b l e o f B o l t o n , M a y o r ’s a t t e n d a n t , M a j o r E . B . P o o l e y ( D i s t . S u r g e o n ) , t h e T o w n C l e r k o f B o l t o n , D is t. S e c . W . S. W o o d c o c k , C ol. J. W . S l a t e r , V .D . S e a t e d : S ta f f S u r g e o n R . W . G . S te w a r t, R .N ., C ol. H . G . P a r k e r , R .A .M .C .( T .) ( S u r g e o n - G e n e r a l) , S ir A. W . M ay , K .C .B ., R .N . ( D ir e c to r G e n e ra l), H i s W o r s h i p th e M a y o r o f B o lto n , D e p u t y C o m m i s s i o n e r C o l. C. J. T r i m b l e , C . M . G . , V . D . , D i s t . L a d y S u p t . M r s . T w e e d a l e . S. W o o d c o c k . T h e p a ra d e w as u n d e r th e c o m m a n d of M ajo r E . B. P o o le y , D is tr ic t S u r g e o n , D r. A. V. D a v ie s o f th e D i s ­ tric t S ta ff as A d ju ta n t. C o rp s S u p t. F . L o m a x w as also a ctiv ely i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e a f t e r n o o n ’s w o r k . C ol. J. V . S la te r , V .D ., a n d C ol. H . G. P a r k e r r e p r e s e n t e d t h e lo c a l T e r r i t o r i a l F o r c e s . T h e r e w ere also p re s e n t D r. J o h n so n , D r. T h o m p s o n , D r. R ig b y (H o n . D iv isio n al S u rg eo n s), D r. Y o u n g (ex -M ay o r), a n d M r. M u llin eu x (C h ie f C o n stab le). T h e M a y o r o f B o lto n h eld a re c ep tio n a t th e T o w n H a ll a n d e n t e r t a i n e d th e p r in c ip a l o fficers a t lu n c h e o n . S u r g e o n G e n e r a l M a y , in a d d r e s s i n g t h e R e s e r v i s t s , a t th e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e i n s p e c t i o n , s a i d t h a t it h a d a f f o r d e d h i m t h e g r e a t e s t p le a s u re im a g in a b le to s e e s u c h a g r e a t a s s e m b ly . H e h a d n o t h a d th e slig h test id e a o f seein g su ch a la rg e m u ster, or s u c h a s m a r t b o d y o f m e n , w h o c o u ld p e rfo r m th e ir w o rk w ith s u c h a m a r k e d d e g r e e o f a b ility . H e c o u l d s p e a k in t h e h i g h e s t t e r m s o f t h e w a y in w h i c h t h e m e n h a d r e n d e r e d f i r s t a i d t o t h e wounded. T h e i r w o r k w a s o f a m o s t d e f i n i t e c h a r a c t e r , a n d i ts u s e f u ln e s s w a s b e y o n d all q u e stio n . T h e C h ie f C o m m is s io n e r S ir J a m e s C la rk a n d M r. P. G. D a rv il S m ith o f th e H e a d q u a r te r s w ere u n a b le to b e p re s e n t h ro u g h o th e r im p o rtan t en g ag em en ts.

s p e c te d th e v ario u s c o rp s o n p a r a d e ; a n d after th e a d ju d ic a ­ tio n s d e liv e re d a n in te re s tin g a d d r e s s ; a n d J u d g e R o ss, w h o is C h a i r m a n o f t h e I r i s h B r a n c h o f t h e S . J . A . A . , t e n d e r e d t h e t h a n k s o f t h e B r i g a d e to S ir J. A. C l a r k fo r h is a t t e n d a n c e , a n d also to D r. L u m s d e n , D r. S te v e n s o n a n d o th e rs , for th e c o n ­ s ta n t a n d stre n u o u s w ork o n b e h a lf o f th e m o v em en t. D r . F . P irn, D r . S t e v e n s o n a n d D r . d e C o u r c e y W h e e l e r a c t e d a s a d j u d i c a t o r s in th e c o m p e t i t i o n for t h e D u b l i n A m b u ­ la n c e C h a lle n g e C up, p re s e n te d b y L o rd Iv e a g h , a n d w hich h a s b e e n w o n a g a i n t h i s y e a r b y a t e a m f r o m S t . J a m e s ’s G a t e D ivision, e ac h m e m b e r o f w h ich w as p re s e n te d b y M essrs. W . a n d R . J a c o b w ith a g o ld m e d a l. I n t h e w o m e n ’s c o m p e t i t i o n s , f o r w h i c h t h e H o n . M r s . E r n e s t G u in ess h a s p re s e n te d a h a n d so m e c h allen g e cup, th e A l e x a n d r a C o l l e g e D i v i s i o n , s c o r i n g 1 66 o u t o t a m a x i m u m 200, w e re d e c l a r e d th e w in n e rs , w h ile e a c h m e m b e r o f th e t e a m w ill r e c e i v e a m i n i a t u r e s i l v e r c u p . D u r in g th e a fte rn o o n a n d for th e m a r c h p a s t th e B a n d of th e H ib e r n ia n M ilita ry S c h o o l p la y e d in s p iritin g selections. T h e re w as a g o o d a tte n d a n c e o f th e su p p o rte rs of th e a m b u ­ l a n c e m o v e m e n t , w h i c h , t h o u g h p r o g r e s s i n g i n I r e l a n d , is w o rth y o f g re a tly a u g m e n te d su p p o rt.


— F I R S T

July, 1914 No 5 District.

S h e f f i e l d a n d R o t h e r h a m C o rp s.— M a y o r W in s l o w n s p e c te d th e V .A .D s. o f th e tw o c o rp s on J u n e 2 7th a t R in g in g low e. A f t e r w a r d s field o p e r a t i o n s w e r e c a r r i e d o u t o n a n e la b o ra te scale. C o rp s S u p t. M a jo r P hillips, o f R o th e rh a m , w a s in c h a r g e o f t h e p a r a d e , w h i c h n u m b e r e d 200 m en. O t h e r o ffic e rs p r e s e n t w e r e A s s i s t a n t C o m m i s s i o n e r H . C. E l s e a n d H . C. C h a m b e r s , C o r p s S u r g e o n D e a r d e n , S u p t s . B all, W y s e a l l a n d B u x to n , a n d A m b u l a n c e O ffice rs C h r i s p a n d Tuke. T h e a r ra n g e m e n ts w ere m a d e b y S u p t. B uxton, o f th e S h e ff ie ld C o r p s , w h o is t h e H o n . S e c r e t a r y o f t h e S h e ff ie l d V .A .D .

No. 6 District. T h e m u s t e r o f all r a n k s o n p a r a d e o n t h e o c c a s io n o f th e R o y a l V is it to H u l l w a s 305 officers a n d m e n a n d 189 n u r s i n g s iste rs, th e o r g a n is a t io n w a s ex cellen t. A b o u t 300 case s, m o s t o f th e m slight, w ere tre a te d .

O n J u n e 27th a n in sp ec tio n a n d rev iew o f th e V o lu n ta ry A id D e ta c h m e n t, G ro u p E . (C o u n ty o f D u r h a m ) o f N o . 6 D is tr ic t o f St. J o h n A m b u l a n c e B r i g a d e to o k p la c e a t S e a h a m H arbour. T h e S e n i o r I n s p e c t i n g O f f i c e r w a s L i e u t . - C o l o n e l N . C. F erg u so n , C o m m issio n e r of th e M ilitary H o sp ital a t Y ork, w ho w as a ss is te d b y M a jo r M a c k e n z ie , R .A .M .C ., of T h e C astle, R ic h m o n d , a n d C ap t. W o o d , R .A .M .C ., C o m m is s io n e r of th e H o sp ital at R ich m o n d . T h e c e n tre o f o p e ra tio n s w as th e p a r a d e g r o u n d o f th e 3rd N o rth u m b r ia n R .F .A ., a n d th e a d jo in in g P rin c e s s -ro a d U p p e r S ta n d a r d C o u n c il S ch o o l. T h e g e n eral sc h e m e w as th a t an in fa n try e sc o rt to a c o n v o y h a d b e e n b a d l y c u t u p in P r i n c e s s - r o a d , a n d t h e O f f i c e r C o m m a n d i n g I n f a n t r y h a d s e n t w o r d t h a t h e h a d left h is w o u n d e d , a n d h a d g o n e o n w ith th e c o n v o y . H is m essage w as re c eiv ed b y th e M u rto n , S h o tto n , S e a h a m , D a w d o n , a n d S ilk s w o r th V o l u n t a r y A id D e t a c h m e n t s a s s e m b l e d a t t h e drill fie ld . A field h o s p i t a l h a d b e e n e r e c t e d , w ith a n o p e r a t i n g te n t for 20 p a tie n ts. A c l e a r i n g h o s p i t a l w a s a l s o a r r a n g e d in th e P r in c e s s - ro a d S c h o o l for 20 b e d s, w ith re c e iv in g w a rd , a n d o t h e r n e c e s s a r y a d j u n c t s for d e a l i n g w ith th e w o u n d e d . A fter th e in sp ectio n o f the h o sp itals, th e w hole of th e d e ta c h m e n ts a n d n u rs in g d iv isio n w ere re v ie w ed o n th e p a ra d e ground by D e p u ty - C o m m is s io n e r C. B. P a lm e r , a n d th e N u r s in g D iv is io n s M rs. P a lm e r, L a d y S u p t.-in -C h ief. T h e r e w e r e o n p a r a d e 162 m e n a n d 5 0 w o m e n , t o g e t h e r w ith th e b a n d s o f th e M u r t o n a n d S h o t t o n D iv is io n , n u m b e r i n g 54, a t o t a l o f 2 6 6 . T h e a m b u la n c e v a n s o f th e vario u s D i v i s i o n s w 'e re a l s o o n t h e g r o u n d . A fter v ario u s evolutions, w h ich w ere c a rrie d o u t u n d e r M r. E . S. W o o d , I n s p e c t o r o f S to r e s , t h e w h o le o f th o s e o n p a ra d e w ere a d d re ss e d by th e D e p u ty C o m m issio n e r, w h o said h e w as very p leased to see th e s m a r t a p p e a r a n c e o f th e m e n and w om en.

Seaton

D e la v a l.— A m id

id e a l s u rro u n d in g , on J u n e 2 7 th , th e m e m b e r s o f th e C ram lin g to n A m b u lan ce an d C ra m lin g to n D istric t a n d N u rs in g D iv isio n s h eld a g a rd e n p a rty at H a stin g s C o ttag e, S e a to n D elav al, th e re sid en c e of A ss is ta n t C o m m is sio n e r D r. J a m e s a n d L a d y S u p t. M rs. A nderson. D u rin g th e a fte rn o o n te a w as se rv e d b y the N u r s in g S isters, law n te n n is a n d o th e r g a m e s b e in g p la y e d . T h e m e m b e r o f b o t h D i v i s i o n s r e c e i v e d t h e i r a w a r d s g a i n e d in t h e e x a m in a ti o n o n M a r c h 2 5th last, a t th e h a n d s of M is s J e a n a n d M i s s B e t ty L o c k h a r t o f A r c o t H a ll, in t h e u n a v o i d a b l e a b se n c e of M rs. L o c k h a rt. M r. L o c k h a r t w as a lso p re sen t.

AID. —

5

J u l y 2 5 th to A u g u s t 6 th in c lu siv e. A p p r o x i m a t e l y a b o u t 850 m e n a n d w o m e n a r e e x p e c te d to a v a il th e m s e lv e s o f th e t r a i n ­ i n g , a n u m b e r w h i c h i s c o n s i d e r a b l y in e x c e s s o f t h a t a t P o r t h caw l last year. D u r i n g t h e first w e e k t h e e n c a m p m e n t w ill b e r e s e r v e d to th e n u rs in g sisters. W e also h e a r th a t so m e o f th e n u rs in g s i s t e r s o f t h e N o . 6 D i s t r i c t w ill b e p r e s e n t . T h e s e c o n d w e e k ' s t r a i n i n g is r e s e r v e d f o r t h e m e n . O n F r i d a y , A u g u s t 7 th , a fie ld d e m o n s t r a t i o n w ill b e g i v e n b y th e m e n a n d n u r s in g siste rs, fo llo w ed b y th e in s p e c tio n o f t h e w h o l e o f t h e m e m b e r s in c a m p b y t h e C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r o f th e B r ig a d e , S ir J a m e s C la rk , C .B . T h e L ad y -S u p erin ten d e n t - i n - C h i e f , L a d y P e r r o t t , w ill a l s o v i s i t t h e c a m p d u r i n g t h e tra in in g a n d in s p e c t th e n u rs in g d ivisions. T h e c a m p w ill b e in c h a r g e o f t h e D e p u t y - C o m m i s s i o n e r for th e D istric t, M r. H e r b e r t L ew is, w h ile th e a s s is ta n t d ire c to r o f t h e m e d ic a l s e r v ic e s to t h e W e l s h T e r r i t o r i a l D i v is io n , C ol. J. A r n a l l t J o n e s , M . D . , w ill a l s o p a y f r e q u e n t v is i ts to t h e

T

he

C h ief

C om m issioner, T

he

C om m issioner,

A s s t .-C o m m i s s i o n e r D r . L u m s d e n

at the

and

D ublin

In spection. cam p. D u r i n g t h e t r a i n i n g in c a m p a c o m p e t i t i o n w ill t a k e p lace for th e L a d y L ew is C up. W i t h t h e W e l s h T e r r i t o r i a l s in c a m p i n t h e i m m e d i a t e v i c i n i t y d u r i n g t h e s a m e p e r i o d , t h e b r i g a d e w ill h a v e a d m i r ­ a b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s fo r c a r r y i n g o u t p r a c t i c a l field w o rk .

No. 11 District.

A military band is being formed by No. 13 Company, comprising the West London, Brentford, Southall and Kensington Divisions. There are a few vacancies for instrumentalists. If any holders of S.J.A.A. certificate would care to join they should communicate with Sergt. H. H. Utting, 82, St. Dunstan’s-road, Hammersmith, W.

T h e d istrict a g a in p ro p o se h o ld in g an a n n u a l cam p . The c h o s e n v e n u e is C a p e l B a n g o r , i n t h e d e l i g h t f u l V a l e o f R h e i d o l , n e a r A b e r y s t w y t h , a n d t h e p e r i o d is f r o m S a t u r d a y ,

m e n tio n “ F i r s t A i d . ”

W h e n c o r r e s p o n d in g w i t h

A d v e r t i s e r s p le a se


6

— F I R S T

A m b u l a n c e Q ueries a n d D ifficu lties. Bv

N.

CORBET

FLETCHER, M.R.C.S.

( Concluded

MB,

B.C.(Cantab)

^ !•— P o i s o n i n g (Continued). (<?•) W ith Poisoned M ea l why give Castor O il when the patient has diarrhaa ? Castor Oil is given because the diarrhoea demonstrates the presence of the poison in the bowel. The diarrhoea is evidence of the irritating effect of the Ptomaine poisons (Irrito-Narcotic) in the bowel, so that Castor Oil by stimulating the bowel to more rapid action will the more quickly get lid of the poison.

(10) W ith Poisoned M eat , why w ithhold Castor O il u n til emetic acts I increased risk of

Our object being to get rid of the poison as quickly as possible, we withhold the Castor Oil until the emetic has acted, because the oil would tend to drive the poison on­ ward from the stomach into the bowel. fVe must, there­ fore clear the stomach before we administer the purgative.

W ith Carbolic Acid, what are the

Nervous

Symptoms I Signs of Collapse due to effects of poison on Brain Centres. Carbolic Acid, as we have seen, has not only a local corrosive but also a central paralysing action. In conse­ quence of this latter effect Collapse may supervene, and will show itself in a cold, clammy skin; a weak, feeble pulse and faint, shallow breathing; and the patient may die in a comatose condition.

(12 ) S alts ?

W'.th Carbolic A cid , w hat is the action o f Epsom

The Salts combine with the Acid to form a harmless soluble salt. Epsom Salts provides the best antidote for Carbolic Acid, because they consist of sulphates which interact with the Acid and give a harmless salt; but they must be dis­ solved in milk or water (1 oz. to 1 pint), and administered very freely, if we would neutralise a ll the acid, Sodium sulphate is equally useful. Failing these, chalk may prove a good substitute; but oil, in which Carbolic Acid is soluble, should be withheld until we believe that the poison has been removed from the stomach.

(/.]■)

July, 1914.

must invariably be used, because Soda and Potash com­ bine with Oxalic Acid and form a very soluble poisonous

(14 )

W ith Prussic Acid, should an emetic be given 1

If possible, an emetic should be adminstered without a moment’s delay.

from page 2j g . )

Stimulation of the bowel causes absorption of poison.

AID. —

W ith O xalic Acid, what is the great danger ?

Rapid and fatal Collapse. In its local effects Oxalic Acid presents symptoms which closely resemble those of Sulphuric Acid ; in its central effects it is like Carbolic Acid, but differs in that the Nervous Symptoms are far more urgent and serious. In treatment, the Salts of Lime (chalk, plaster, whiting)

The effects of Prussic Acid on the Nervous System are almost instantaneous and death may result within two minutes; but, if life can be preserved for half an hour, then, the elimination of the poison being as rapid as its absorption, recovery is almost certain. The immediate administration of an emetic, therefore, is indicated, and should precede the removal of the patient. V II.— S h o c k , & c. (/ )

In Shock, how does S a l

Volatile stimulate the

heart i Sal Volatile contains Ammonia and some Alcohol, which are both Brain and Heart stimulants. Shock being a condition of depression of the Nervous System, in which there is a marked inhibition of the heart, the combination of Ammonia and Alcohol, which are our most reliable stimulants and which have a direct action on Brain and Heart, is very efficacious; but the first step in treatment is to discover and remove if possible the Cause of the Shock.

(2) heart ?

In Shock how does sprinkling the face stimulate the

Sprinkling the face acts through the Brain Centres and thus indirectly stimulates the heart. T he sprinkling of the face with hot and cold water produces an alternate dilatation and constriction of the vessels of the face, and stimulates the Brain Centres through the sensory nerves in the skin. This results indirectly in a corresponding stimulus from the Brain Centres to the heart.

(3) necessary I

In Shock, what degree

of external warmth

We require just enough warmth to produce a Reaction. In the treatment of Shock, which is not necessarily attended by insensibility, we strive to obtain what is known as a Reaction— by which we mean an improvement in the patient’s general condition, which shows itself in the return­ ing colour of the face, the increasing strength of the pulse, and the greater depth and regularity of the breathing. The reaction is the response to treatment and corre­ sponds to the sensation of warmth, of which the patient may be conscious. This, then, is our best guide ; and, when our patient tells us he feels warm and comfortable, then we know that our object is accomplished ; but, as we have seen under Drowning, it is a mistake to stifle the patient with blankets.

(4) In Syncope, w hat is the action o f Smelling Salts ? Smelling Salts stimulate the Respiratory Centre through the sensory nerves of smell, and thus produce an indirect effect on the heart. Syncope is essentially a disturbance of the heart. Unlike Shock, it is always associated with insensibility,

is


July, 1914.

— F I R S T

which is caused by the resulting interference with the Brain Circulation. In such cases, therefore, our treatment is directed to the heart itself; and Smelling Salts, rthich are usually composed of Ammonium Carbonate, are a useful adjunct to treatment in consequence of their stimulating effect on the Respiratory Centre. (5) In Collapse what is the reason o f a sudden Relapse I A relapse may be due to failure of treatment or to injudicious handling of the patient.

7

AID. —

at the wrist, then we shall feel justified in resorting to bandaging the limb with its attendant dangers and dis­ comforts to the patient. With this paper, our series of six articles on Ambulance Queries and Difficulties is concluded, and we have answered all the questions, which at one time or another have been asked by First Aiders. Further, the use of a tip or key­ word ( m i s h a p s ) — see Compendium o f A id s to F ir s t A id — has enabled us to set down our answers in a systematic fashion. T

Collapse is a condition in which the Brain Centres are gravely depressed. Relapse, which signifies a “ falling back ” or a recurrence of the original symptoms may set in either because we have failed to carry out our treatment efficiently, or because the depression of the Nervous System is such that it cannot be made to respond to treatment; but the most common cause is the injudicious handling of

h e

C o m in g

E

n d

.

E vents.

Particulars o f forthcoming events w ill be inserted in this column tree of charge, i f received not later than the 14th ot each month D on ca ster . — B r o d s w o r t h M a i n C o l l i e r y A m b u l a n c e B r i g a d e .

B a l h a m a n d S t r e a t h a m N u r s i n g D i v i s i o n , P r i n c e o f W a l e s ’s C o r p s . T h i s y e a r ’s h o l d e r s o f N u r s i n g

the emergency, which may result either from the unwise administration of alcohol or the exposure of the patient to excitement.

(6) the limbs ?

S isters C h a lle n g e

R ose

B ow l.

T h e 5th A n n u a l O p e n A m b u l a n c e C o m p e t i t i o n , A u g u s t 15th. V a lu a b le prizes a n d T h e llu s s o n C h a lle n g e C up. P articu lars fro m M r. L . N u t t o n , 101, T h e P a r k , W o o d lan d s, near D o n c aste r.

E l l a n d .— A m b u l a n c e

c o m p e titio n

for

th e

“ D e m p ste r”

In Collapse , w hat is the indication f o r bandaging C h a l l e n g e S h i e l d w i l l b e h e l d a t E l l a n d o n S a t u r d a y , J u l y 2 5 t h ,

Alteration in our standard guides, especially approaching disappearance of the pulse at the wrist.

P a rtic u la rs o f M r. H . A in ley , W h itw e ll G re e n , D e w s b u ry .

the

Bandaging the limbs is an extreme measure in treat­ ment because, if it is to serve its purpose, it must be done slowly, deliberately, 'and carefully. This will occupy an appreciable amount of valuable time, which can only be justified by the results of treatment. In this condition, therefore, we rely completely on our standard guides ; and if we find that, in spite of our sup­ portive measures, the face is becoming more pallid, the breathing more shallow, and the pulse tending to disappear

London.— T h e P o ly te c h n ic O p e n A m b u la n c e C o m p e titio n s for th e “ G r a n t ” m e d a l ; “ W illia m H e y w o o d ” sh ield , a n d th e “ R o b e r t M i t c h e l l ” s p e c ia l t h r e e - y e a r s m e d a l , w ill t a k e p l a c e o n S a t u r d a y , O c t o b e r 2 4 th , 1914, c o m m e n c i n g a b o u t 2 p .m . F u ll p a r tic u la r s c a n b e h a d f to m th e H o n . S ec., 309, R e g e n t s t r e e t , W . , o r W . H e y w o o d , 81, D a v i e s - s t r e e t , O x f o r d - s t r e e t , W. R a in h a m . — M e t r o p o l i t a n P o l i c e F i r s t A i d C o m p e t i t i o n . T h e F i n a l o f t h e G r o u p C o m p e t i t i o n s for th e “ St. J o h n " sh eld, p r e s e n t e d b y M a j o r P a r s o n s , C h i e f C o n s t a b l e , w ill t a k e p l a c e a t R a i n h a m , E s s e x , o n t h e 2 3 r d inst., c o m m e n c i n g a t 1 1 a .m , o n th e o c c a s io n o f th e 5th a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f th e M e tr o p o lita n P o lice S h o o tin g L eag u e. T h e S .J.A . A h a v in g k in d ly c o n ­ se n te d to c o n d u c t th e ju d g in g .


— F I R S T

AID. —

July, 1914.

possible to repair the damage to the water pipes owing to

B r e v itie s .

the fumes and smoke.

In all probability, if each mine

were equipped with a permanent rescue brigade of its own, S o m e comment was expressed in the last issue of “ F .A .” on the results of the Dartford competition.

In

provided with an efficient breathing apparatus, an attempt would have been made much earlier to reach

the men.

justice to the organiser we would like to state that he was

Rescue parties should never wait until the canary dies, as an

in no way responsible for the tests set, nor had he any

atmosphere highly

idea of what they would be.

before the bird succumbs.

From what we can gather, it

dangerous

was clearly laid down in the conditions that the judging would be based on the St. John book.

*

*

The winning team

to

life may be

reached

*

treated the fractured thigh in the flexed position; whereas,

I n the treatment of miners overcome by after-damp,

in the official text-book, the method given is the straight

Dr. Davies rightly laid stress upon the importance of apply­

position.

ing restorative measures in the mine itself as far as possible,

This is where the trouble arose. *

*

for the difference of temperature and pressure on reaching

*

the surface may lead to a relapse, as happened in several

I n our opinion the flexed position is the better of the two;

Dr.

Cantlie has adopted this in the Red

Cross

cases at Senghenydd.

This precaution is similar to that

adopted in the case of the divers, where decompression

Manual, but quite apart from this the conditions should

must of necessity be carried out gradually before the men

have been strictly adhered t o ; for even if the competitor

return to

knew the flexed position was the better, he would not have

methods of administering oxygen should be included in

used it in this case knowing it was contrary to the condi­

instructions given to miners, and a supply of this gas might

atmospheric

pressure.

A

knowledge

of

the

tions and for which he would have expected marks to be

well he kept handy.

deducted.

The average competition team is little better

should, says Dr. Davies, assume a semi-recumbent position,

than a machine, its members train in the same position in

and they should partake of food and beverages if necessary.

the squad each year and learn the text-book by heart.

These reconmmendations, based upon practical experience

Ambulance work on these lines is of very little value.

The

and a sound knowledge of applied physiology, may be com­

object of the judges is to test the ability of the men to deal

mended to district inspectors and other mining authorities.

with cases of actual emergency, and with hard and fast rules it is sometimes difficult for them to do so.

men overtaken by gases

* * *

In this

particular case the position of the men in the teams were

Finally,

A

c o rr e s p o n d e n t

on the Midland Railway says its

changed, and they were not allowed to ask questions of the

very much to be regretted that

judges in order that some idea of their real knowledge

allowed to compete in the inter-railway competition.

the employes are not

might be obtained, but it is a great pity that the conditions

Company have not any organised centre, although they do

The

of the competition were not such as to give the judges more

give certain facilities to ambulance men who qualify, these

scope in their judging without causing dissatisfaction.

are very meagre, and we think it is time they fell into line with the other railway companies and organised ambulance

V

work on a proper basis with a proper centre.

O n the occasion of the Royal visit to Hull last month H.M.

the King presented long service

medals

to

V

six

members of the No. 6 District, they were Corps Treasurer

T h e Brigade Badge, which was suggested by a reader

J, Knowell, Div. Supt. Krause, Div. Supt. H. Humphreys,

of F i r s t A i d , seems to be attracting a considerable amount

1 st. Officer Durham,

of interest, and all sorts of suggestions have been offered.

Sergt. Rhodes and Nursing Sister

Miss Vaughan, all members of the Huli Corps. *

The

*

*

It would appear that something of the kind would

be

appreciated by the rank-and-file, and a move should

be

made to approach headquarters on the subject.

difficulties of rescue work in mines after an

jp

*

explosion has occurred depend upon many different cir­ cumstances.

Some of these are

connected with local

I

th a n k

you Lancashire lads

for

the

splendid

peculiarities of the pit itself, while others depend upon the

example you are setting to the rest of England,” were the

nature of the pit itself, while others depend upon the

words with which Surgeon General May greeted the mem­

nature of the apparatus employed and the distance from

bers of the Lancashire Royal Sick Berth Reservists at their

help.

review and inspection at Bolton

An interesting lecture was delivered at the Royal

Society of Medicine

on

June

20th.

The

by Dr. Ivor Davies, of Cardiff, on

inspection was the first of its kind held by the Admiralty

“ The Senghenydd Explosion from a Medical Standpoint.’’

in the provinces, and Bolton was selected for this honour

It was pointed out that the first rescue car arrived an hour

owing to the strong support given to the movement since

and a half after the explosion, thus losing valuable time,

its inception.

for, upon the arrival of the brigades, it was found im­

another column.

The report of the inspection is given in


- F I R S T

July, tg t4.

O ur

C o m p e titio n s.

T h e June competition brought in a fair numher of entries, and the first prize has been awarded to :— Miss F l o r e n c e M. G ib b o n s , 58, Fitz James-avenue, West Kensington, and the 2nd A i d , to:—

Prize,

a

year’s

subscription

to

F irst

M i s s K. L . S c a r l e t t , City View, Dereham-road, Norwich. The paper submitted by Miss L. Garnham, of Nor­ wood, is specially mentioned by the Judge and placed 3rd.

AID.

-

9

Treat shock if it occurs. When indoors :— Carefully supporting limb, removing clothing from it. Place patient on a bed or couch, with the limb resting on a pillow in a comfortable position, and apply ice or cold water dressings to the joint until they cease to give comfort, then apply flannels or towels rung out of hot water. Treat shock. Send for a doctor to reduce dislocation. I I — The bones which enter into the form ation o f the thorax are :—

The dorsal vertebrae behind (12 in number). The twelve ribs on either side. The sternum in front.

The structures contained in the thorax are :—

T h e W in n in g Paper.

T he gullet. I. — To distinguish between a dislocation and a fracture Part of the trachea. a t the shoulder, the following points must be observed :— T he bronchial tubes. For F racture. F o r D is l o c a t io n . T he heart. P a in , o f a sh a rp s ta b b in g c h a ra c O f a s e v e r e s ic k e n in g ch a ra c te r , T he lungs. ter. Part of the aorta. Position o f P a in at s e a t o f fra cA t o r n e a r s h o u ld e r jo in t, The thoracic duct. lu re . S w ellin g, a t s e a t o f fra ctu re . A b o u t a n d b e lo w th e jo in t. The endings of the superior and inferior vena cavas. D e fo rm ity , b e lo w sh o u ld e r jo in t. A t s h o u ld e r jo in t. The sympathetic system of nerves, part of it, and in­ Irreg u la rity o f b o n e m a y b e te lt, T h e en d o f th e d is p la c e d bone voluntary muscles. o r i f a co m p o u n d fra ctu re b o n e m a y h e fe lt in its u n n a tu ra l The pleura. b e see n . p o s itio n u n d er th e s k in , b u t no ro u g h e d g e o f b o n e fe lt, an d T he pulmonary artery and pulmonary veins (4). n o b o n e se e n th ro u g h sk in (u n le ss arm lo rn rig h t off). VVouiid p resen t if co m p o u n d fracA b s e n t (u n less arm w r e n c h e d oft tu re. a t s h o u ld e r). ( N . B . — A lim b to rn o ff is n o t u s u a lly co u n te d as a d is lo c a tio n , th o u g h th e d is lo c a tio n ta k e s p la c e .) Crepitus m a y b e fe lt o r h e ard . A b sen t. N um bness n o t u su a lly p re s e n t, P re s e n t, i f p a r t’s b e lo w th e th o u g h th e b ro k e n en d o f b o n e s h o u ld e r jo in t, p re s sin g on n e rv e s m a y p r o ­ d u ce it. P a tien t m a y h a v e fe lt o r h e a rd M a y h a v e fe lt th e w r e n c h an d b o n e sn ap . d is p la c e m e n t. B ystan der m a y h a v e h eard b o n e sn ap . U n n a tu ra l M obility m a y b e fe lt F i.s ity at th e s h o u ld e r jo in t, o r seen (u n less a n im p a c te d fra ctu re . Comparison w ith S o u n d A r m , L o n ger, sh o rter. L o s s o f p o w e r w ill b e p re sen t in b o th .

Treatment f o r the Fracture. Caution against movement, and at once support the arm, and place the patient in a resful and comfortable position, and with tact gain his confidence and consent to be treated, and encourage him with cheering words. If a compound fracture, expose wound, paint it with iodine if obtainable, and put on a light dressing. Apply a broad bandage, with the centre above the middle of the arm, round the limb and body, and tie it on the opposite side, knot just in front. Support fore-arm by a small sling. Treat shock.

Treatment f o r the Dislocation. Caution against movement, support the arm, and care­ fully place patient in sitting position (if out of doors), and after gaining his confidence and consent to be treated, and using cheering words. If out of doors :— The limb must be supported in the most comfortable position for the patient, with due regard to lessening the effects of jolting during transport. The patient must be taken to a doctor or hospital, or a doctor sent for when he gets home, to reduce dislocation.

The muscles which close in the cavity art : — The intercoated mucsles at the sides between the ribs. The diaphragm below. The muscles at the root of the neck above. I I I .— Shock is a profound depression of the nervous system usually gradual at onset, may proceed and termi­ nate in collapse ; marked fall in body temperature. The depression of the nervous system affecting the vital functions, and so interfering with the circulation and respiration.

Treatment o f Shock. Remove cause, or patient from the cause, and keep people from crowding round. Arrest haemorrhage if present. Lay patient down on back, with head low and lower limbs raised. Loosen all tight clothing, attend to injuries if present. Cover up patient , and hot bottles, i f possible, to feet and p it o f stomach (see bottle are well covered). Have plenty of fresh air and fan patient. Stimulate heart’s action by giving sal volatile and water, hot sweetened drinks of tea, coffee or milk ; if no haemorrhage and if patient conscious, smelling salts to nose; use encouraging words and remove any distressing sights. Artificial respiration if breathing cannot be discerned. If shock continues and collapse threatens, raise limb and bandage firmly from toes to hips and fingers to arm­ pits. But the great object in view in the treatment of shock is to prevent collapse. Get patient to bed in a well ventilated room as soon as possible, and keep him warm. A

1st Prize, 5s.

u g u st

C

o m p e t it io n

.

2nd Prize, a year’s subscription to A id. Q

u e s t io n s

F ir s t

.

(1) Trace the course of the principal arteries in the lower extremity.


IO

- F I R S T (2)

How would you proceed to examine an in­

sensible person ; to find out the cause of the insensi­ bility? ? (3)

Give the composition of blood, and state

how nature assists in the arrest of haemorrhage. C

o n d itio n s.

The following conditions must be noted and adhered t o :— M S .S . m u s t b e w r itt e n o n o n e s id e o f th e p a p e r only. T h e r e is n o r e s t r i c t i o n a s t o l e n g t h o f a n s w e r s , b u t s a m e sh o u ld not b e u n d u ly e x ten d ed . C o m p e tito rs m u s t c u t o u t the “ C o m p e titio n C o u p o n ” f r o m t h e c u r r e n t i s s u e , a n d fill in t h e i r n a m e s a n d a d d r e s s . T h e ir n a m e s m u s t n o t a p p e a r on th eir pap ers. T h e E d i t o r re s e r v e s th e rig h t to p u b lis h a n y p a p e r s u b m itte d to co m p etitio n . A n y p a p e r s elected for p u b ­ li c a tio n w ill b e r e g a r d e d a s th e p r o p e r t y o f th e E d i t o r , w h o d o e s n o t g u a r a n te e to r e tu r n a n y o f th e m , n e ith e r d o e s h e h o l d h i m s e l f r e s p o n s i b l e for a n y p a p e r s lost. E n t r i e s in t h i s c o m p e t i t i o n w ill c lo s e o n A u g . 10 th , 1914, a n d a l l m a t t e r m u s t b y t h a t d a t e b e i n t h e h a n d s o f t h e E d i t o r , F i r s t A i d O f f i c e s , 46, C a n n o n - s t r e e t , L o n d o n , E .C ., a n d th e e n v e lo p e m a rk e d “ C o m p e titio n .”

London

and

N o r th

W estern

W embley O

R a i lw a y .

u tin g

T h e annual outing and competition for the London Goods

Department ambulance men was held on the Athletic Clubs’ ground at Wembley on June 30th last, and com­ bined with this a contest was arranged between teams of three fire brigade men from the various stations. F. A. Sargent, Esq. had kindly provided prizes for the successful men in the contests, which resulted as follows :— 1st, Broadstreet “ C,’’ 278 marks; 2nd, Broad-street “ A ” 257^; 3rd, Camden “ A ,” 2 5 7 ; 4th, Camden “ B,” 256; 5th, Haydon-square, 243 ; 6th, Broad-street “ B,” 220 ; 7th, MaiJen-lane, 165J. The judges were Dr. Fletcher, on Stretcher, Dr. Vosper, on Practical and Dr. Clark, on Viva-Voce. J. A. Picknell, Esq., presented the prizes at the close and par­ ticularly complimented Mr. R. D. Simmonds, of Camden, on securing the best Individual prize. Mr. Judd, of Camden,, Mr. Smally and Mr. Milburn, of Broad-street, were only iA and marks respectively behind the winners, having earned 46, 45^ and 44^ marks In the Stretcher section, the test was made as nearly realistic as circumstances would allow. It was supposed that four of the team were travelling to Wembley, No. 2 in the front part of the train, No. 3 in the centre, and Nos. 3 and 4 in the rear. No. 1 bearer was on the platform awaiting the arrival of the train, and as this runs into the platform an open door strikes him in the bank. No. 2 sees this happen and is able to get to his help at once and get the symptoms from the patient. On calling for help, No. 3 arrives and a few minutes later Nos. 4 and 5 come up. By that time, however, the “ patient” was unable to answer any questions, and the team captain had to gain information from his men. They assisted him according to their ability and knowledge in first aid, and obviously the team were hampered if No. 2 was not fully clear in telling the others the history of the case. The surprise of the day was the announcement that a team of beginners, led by an experience competitor, had secured first place with a total of 287 marks out of a possible 350. We have obtained from the judge a criticism of the work, which appears below.

A I D . —

July, 1 91 4 Str e tch er T est.

R a p id a d v an ce.— Sup po rt No. 1 ... ... .. 2 H is to r y — N o. 2 p e rtin e n t qu estio n s. S h o u ld e r— ch arac te r of p ain ? B lo w ? K nee— C h aracter? S ite? ... 3 N o . I. P e r t i n e n t re p li e s a n d a c t i n g ... ... ... 5 N o . 1. L a y p r o n e — b e s t i n c l i n e d t o le ft s i d e ... ... 2 K e e p r i g h t leg e x t e n d e d — h e e l r a i s e d ... ... 2 S u p p o rt h e ad a n d sh oulders ... ... ... 2 E n q u ire o f p o rte r n e a re s t d o cto r, now ... ... 2 S u m m o n y o u r c o lleag u es (m e th o d s delay ... ... 2 C riticism o f te a m s a n d p e n alty sh eet ... ... 20 C a r d t o N o . 3. — I n r e s p o n s e t o y o u r c a l l , N o . 3 h a s arriv ed . T h e p a t i e n t is c o m p l a i n i n g o f f e e l i n g f a i n t a n d is c a llin g for a g la s s o f w a te r . A c t a s is b e s t . R a p i d e x p l a n a t i o n o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e t o N o . 3. N o . 1. Fu lly c o n scio u s ... ... ... ... 3 S e n d p o r t e r o r b y s t a n d e r f o r w a t e r (2), g i v e d r i n k , s l o w l y s i p s (2) ... ... ... ... ... 4 E a c h b e a re r m a k e s sim u ltan eo u s ex am in atio n ... 3 N os. 2 or 3 a ssu m e s p ro tectio n a n d e x am in atio n o f k n ee 2 N o s. 2 or 3 a ssu m e s pro tectio n a n d e x am in atio n of shoulder ... ... ... ... ... 2 C a r d t o N o s. 4 o r j . — B e a r e r s 4 a n d 5 h a v e j u s t r e c e i v e d y o u r m e ssa g e a n d are p resen t. T h e p a t i e n t is c o n s c i o u s , a n d t h o u g h h i s c o n d i t i o n d o e s n o t g i v e r i s e t o a n x i e t y , h e is n o t fit to a n sw e r fu rth er q uestions. E x p l a in c ir c u m s ta n c e s to N o s. 4 a n d 5 ... ... 3 S e n d f o r d o c t o r ( N o 3, l a t e r N o . 1) ... ... ... 3 C l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f k n e e a n d s h o u l d e r ; feel, l o o s e n clo th e s, e x c lu d e face, sig n s ... ... ... 4 E x c lu d e fu r th e r in ju ries. H a n d l e p a r t s , f o u r l i m b s (2), h e a d (1 ) , b r e a s t (1 ) ... ... ... ... 4 D o n o t r e m o v e c o a t, v est, o r slit tr o u s e r s . N o in d icatio n 5 J u d g e a s k s : “ W h a t injuries a re p ie s e n t a n d on w h a t g ro u n d do you b ase diagnosis ? B ru ised S h o u ld er. H i s t o r y (£), p a i n ( J ) s i g n s , b r u i s e (1). M o b i l i t y (1) ... ... ... ... ... 3 F r a c tu r e d P atella. H i s t o r y (1), p a i n (A), w e a k n e s s ( A \ fra c tu re d p elvis ... ... ... ... 3 T r e a t m e n t :— S h o u l d e r , s l i n g ... ... ... 6 K n e e , c o n t i n u o u s e x t e n s i o n o f l e g (2), b a c k s p l i n t (2) ... 4 T w o b a n d a g e s t o p a r t (2), t w o b e s s . s p l i n t (2), h e e l u p (2 J 6 C a r d t o N o . 4 .— Y o u r p a t i e n t is q u i t e c o m f o r t a b l e n o w h i s in ju ries a re tre a te d . H e a s k s t o b e t a k e n t o h i s h o m e in S o m e rs T o w n ? A ct as you th in k best ? Im p ro v ise d stretch er. ( I f s t r e t c h e r is u s e d i n s p i t e o f n o t i c e J m a r k s o n l y w ill b e a l l o w e d ) ... ... 8 C r o s s p i e c e s (to c o a t s a n d p o le s) firm ly a p p lie d ... 4 T e s t s t r e t c h e r o f b y s t a n d e r ... ... ... ... 2 L o ad in g stretch er. C o m fort of patien t ... ... 3 L ifting, c a rry in g , lo w e rin g ... ... ... ... 5 D e s t i n a t i o n — t o d o c t o r ’s , o r a c r o s s b r i d g e . R e t u r n to E u sto n . U n iv ersity H o sp ital ... ... ... 2 E x a m in a tio n o n th e m a r c h . — F a c e , pulse, b re a th in g . ... 1 G ro ss to tal ... ... ... ... ... 100

J u d g e ’s R e p o r t . In the London District we endeavour to set Stretcher Tests which shall both establish the relative merits of the competing teams and shall also demonstrate some definite object— lessons in First Aid. In the recent Wembley competition, while introducing a novelty of procedure, we succeeded in combining both of these objects, the lessons taught being, briefly put— the futility of fixed positions in a Team, the far-reaching im­ portance of the powers of observation, and the share which the patient could and should take in the Stretcher Test. In such tests the patient is not a dummy and, provided the supposed conditions allow, e.g., complete consciousness, etc.— has in the solution of the problem to play a part which is in every way as important as the Team Captain. The Teams were marshalled in such a position that when summoned, they could each and all have noticed dur­ ing their Approach two cricket stumps which were standing upright behind the Judge’s chair. No. 1 Bearer, who was


July, X914.

— FIRS'!'

first c a lle d , w a s s u p p l i e d w ith a p artic u la rs

o f th e

card

e m e r g e n c y — i.e.,

w h ich scene,

h im f u ll

gave

h isto ry ,

cause,

a n d s y m p to m s — a n d w h ich n e c e ssita te d n o fu rth er q u e s tio n ­ in g o f th e J u d g e e x c e p t w ith he

w as

success

sp ecially and

w arned

referen ce

th a t

ex am in atio n

th e

to

signs.

chances

depended

upon

d e f in ite ly a s k e d if t h e c o n d i t i o n s w e re

F u rth er,

o f his h im ,

t e a m ’s

and

was

p e rfe ctly

clear.

Of

th e sev en c o m p e tin g team s, o n ly o n e m a n a sk e d

if h e

was

to a ssist his s id e as m u c h a s p o s s ib le 1 I n th e m ean w h ile, N o . 2 B ea re r m o n e d , w as e sc o rte d to a c o rn e r im m e d ia te ly in f r o n t o f tw o

who

of th e

cap sta n

had

p o les,

necessary

details.

ack n o w le d g e d th a t th ey

Several saw

o n e s to p p e d to a sk h im s e lf in W e m b l e y field

th e

do

sum ­ p la c ed

he

h im

c o m p etito rs p o le s ; b u t

w hy c a p s t a n

was

w i t h all

w hat

he

asked f o r a s s i s t a n c e , w h e n

Test

co u ld

afterw ard s

not

p o les

a

sin g le

w ere

No. 3

began;

and

sin g le-h an d ed

was

c alled .

w ere th e n re q u ire d to re n d e r F irst A id

ly in g No.

u n til

2 he

T hese

tw o

and

after

to g e th e r,

a s h o r t p e r io d N o s. 4 a n d 5 B e a r e r s w e re a llo w e d to jo in in th e w ork.

B y th is tim e 30 p er cen t, o f th e m a rk s h a d b e en

allo tted , a n d th e p a tie n t was n o w to ld to

keep

silen ce

and

l a b e l l e d “ u n lit to a n sw e r fu r t h e r q u estion s, tho u g h n o t in

a

con d ition to cause a n y a n x ie ty ."

T h e o b je c t w as th a t th e T e a m C a p t a i n s h o u l d b e h a n d i c a p p e d i n h i s w o r k , u n less

Nos

2 a n d 3 B e a r e r s c o u l d s u p p ly h i m w ith fu ll p a r tic u l a r s .

O f all t h e c o m p e t i t o r s t h e r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s te a m a lo n e g av e a satisfacto ry a cc o u n t. T h e in ju ries p re s e n t w e re sim p le, a”

The Captains of three out of the seven competing teams realised the need of an improvised stretcher, the con­ struction of which with special reference to the comfort of the patient was carried out efficiently only by the winners, who for crosspieces requisitioned the cricket stumps and did not omit to protect the spiked ends. T he outstanding feature of the Competition was the victory on merit of a team of first year men, who, in defeat­ ing senior teams of many years standing, did full justice to Mr. F. T. Milburn’s splendid instruction and able captaincy. They alone succeeded in defeating the real object of the Test, which was the demonstration of the importance of individual action. N. C o r b e t F l e t c h e r .

A

New

M otor

A m b u lan ce.

1

W h e n N o. 1 w as ready, th e B e a re r h a d to

and

w here

to ld to re a d h is c a rd , w h ic h , in tu rn , s u p p lie d th e

been

field,

AID.

a

o f th e b ru ise d

a ^ a c tu r e d k n e e c a p ; a n d th e stretch er,

on

w in n in g sh o u ld er

w h ich

was

c h a l k e d i n a r g e l e t t e r s , “ T h i s str etc h er is torn a n d u seless," w as a v a ila b le for th e r e m o v a l o f th e p a tie n t. A t th is p o in t t h e l a c k o f ob serv a tio n o f t h e b e a r e r s w a s d e p l o r a b l e , a n d w as alm o st h e a rtb re a k in g C'h all r m a r i n e u n fK t ^

to

w atch

th em

co v erin g °

up

^

it

th e

O n e of the latest types of motor ambulance for general municipal work has been installed by the City Corporation

of Bradford (Yorks ). T he special equipment includes an aseptic sterilisable interior (with zinc lining finished in hard white enamel), steel stretchers, air-beds with water­ proof covers, and the interior instantly convertible into a comfortable car, with cushioned rests and backrests, for crippled children. The work has been executed by' the ambulance specialists, J. & A. Carter, 2, 4 and 6, New Cavendish-street, London, W., who recent contracts for motor ambulances include also Woburn, Pretoria (2), Buenos Ayres (2), Barrow-in-Furness, etc., etc. The makers’ world-wide reputation in connection with ambulance work and furniture and appliances for invalids is enhanced by this latest development, and it is under­ stood that many other local authorities are interested in such a useful combination, which provides, in a perfectly practical manner, for municipal ambulance work of every description. Any chassis of moderate power is suitable fur use with this tjpe of body and fitting.


— F I R S T

K ent

V .A . D .. T .F .

C am p .

U n d e r the command of Mrs. Bruce Culver (Gravesend), assisted by Adjutant Dr. Prideaux Selby (Teynham) : Lady-Supt. Miss Latham, lately in service in the Bilkan Wars; Quartermasters, the Hon. Florence Daly (Folke­ stone), and Mr. Stephen Henry Barnwell (attached), and Assistant-Adjutant Miss Beryl Hall-Hall (Chevening), the second County Camp has come and gone, leaving its Staff filled with profound sense of good work accomplished and, what is still better, knowledge that next year should see an even greater advance in Voluntary Aid training. As last year, the camp was divided into six commands. Officered:— No. 1 Company, Mrs. Voelcker (Chevening); No. 2, Mrs. Laurence Gadd (Gravesend); No 3, Mrs. Lee-Wllliams (Gloucester): No. 4, Miss Dale (Folkestone); No. 5, Miss Waterfield (Canterbury), and No. 6 (Foreign Legion), Miss Norton (Sussex). The most important features of the camp were sanitation, training for quartermasters and sound field work. More may be written on these subjects in a future article, the present being but a brief account of what was actually done at Herne Common. The earliest arrival at camp on the afternoon of the opening day was the camp cow. Among the members were numbered some skilled dairymaids, and the cow was installed that they might initiate others into the mysteries of securing from the fountain-head a flow of such an essential to the commissariat of sick-nursing as a proper milk supply. One of the most exciting happenings was a fire-alarm ; this took place a couple of nights after settling in. Members were, for the most part, comfortably in their first sleep when the bugle sounded the alarm, and the Adjutant sped along the lines, calling in blood-curdling tones— “ Fire, fire ! ” A baleful glare from the rear of the Messtent completed the illusion, and within 3J minutes from the first alarm buckets of water were along the chain and poured on a large straw bonefire, which was quickly sub­ dued. A notable performance under the circumstances, seeing that fully three-fourths of the members had never

F ire D r ill

at th e

K ent Camp.

before taken part in fire-drill. Next day, Lieut.-Colonel W. Laurence Gadd, K .G A., who had arrived as a week-end guest helpfully criticised the methods used, and showed how time, labour, spilt water and dropped buckets might have been spared, with the result that at the next fire alarm on Visitors’ Day but one minute was required from the bugle alarm to form the chain from tank to fire and throw on the first bucket of water.

AID.

-

July, 1914

Field work, field hospital, improvising, field cookery, field hospital and operating theatre all showed much im­ provement. One of the inspecting officers indeed remarked that he would not hesitate to use the operating-tent in the event of sudden need. There was nothing flimsy or artificial. Hygiene, too, had been studied and put into use. T h e camp was visited and inspected by many high R .A.M.C. officials, but no visit gave more real pleasure and gratification to V.A. officers and members than the informal one paid by the Lady President of the Kent Detachments, the Marchioness Camden, who, accompanied by the Lord Lieutenant, motored down satis ceremonie and saw her people at work on ordinary daily duties. The President was much impressed by the business-like methods of the camp, by its cleanliness and order, and by the seriousness and keenness with which members applied themselves to

T h e C a m p 's C o w . their tasks. Although the day was one of storm and rain, neither Lady Camden or the V.A. nurses permitted occasional deluge to interfere with inspection or work. The President donned a mackintosh, and members “ doubled” to secure a greatcoat, whereupon tent pitching and striking, cooking, drill, or inspection resumed its course uninterrupted. Surgeon-General H. R. Whitehead, accompanied by Colonel Shanahan and Colonel Pye-Oliver paid a visit of inspection on Thursday, June 25th, and in view of the Commission sitting to enquire into the V .A .D .’s, at which the General was to report, it was matter for congratulation that the Inspecting Officer was so evidently well impressed with the work. On the same day the camp was honoured by a visit from L td y Perrott, Commandant-in-Chief of the Women’s Detachments of the St. John Ambulance Association, Territorial Branch. Lady Perrott’s wide practical knowledge greatly impressed V.A. officers who, not belonging to St. John, first made her acquaintance at Herne Camp. Test of the nurses’ powers of endurance was made on Friday preceding the closing day when, under a very hot sun, a hundred officers and members made a route march a distance of five miles to Fordwich. The column was followed by an R A.M.C. water filtering cart, and on arrival at Fordwich, the Lady-Supt, Miss Latham, gave an able demonstration at the river Stour, which, flowing through the picturesque village, collects sufficient dirt on its journey past a sewage farm in the vicinity to render its water more or less dubious in quality for the refreshment of troops on the march. The dttachments swung back to camp in the cool of the evening, marching like old cam­


— F I R S T

July, 1914

paigners, to the inspiring strains of “ John Brown’s Body.” In the evening Miss Latham gave a delightful lecture, illustrated by lantern slides taken by herself, on the Balkan War, thus bringing the camp to a close. The next day, amid universal chorus of regret, camp was struck. Ten days later the Staff Officers met for their first monthly meeting to discuss weak points whilst fresh in memory, and to put things in train for the 1915 camp— now only eleven months distant !

£etters to the Sditor. We are in

no way responsible fo r the opinions expressed, or the

statements made , by Correspondents. —

U N IF O R M IT Y

Dear

OF

TEX T

E

d it o r s

,

E

t c

.

BOOKS.

S ir ,— I n o tic e th a t at la st friction h a s o c c u rre d

th r o u g h th e O fficial T e x t B o o k s o f t h e S .J .A .A . a n d th e B .R .C .S . n o t c o r r e s p o n d in g , as to th e m e t h o d o f tr e a tin g a fra c tu re o f th e u p p e r th ir d o f th e fem ur. U n f o r t u a t e l y , t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a s e is n o t t h e o n l y o n e w h e r e m e t h o d s differ, a s a c o m p a r i s i o n o f b o t h b o o k s w ill s h o w , a n d it s t r i k e s o n e a s r a t h e r s t r a n g e t h a t s u c h a t h i n g c o u l d b e p o ssib le, s e e in g t h a t D r. C a n t l i e is t h e a u t h o r o f b o th publications. M a n y m e m b e rs o f th e B .R .C .S . re c e iv e d th e ir tra in in g u n d e r th e a u sp ic ie s o f th e S .J.A .A ., a n d I k n o w fro m p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e t h a t s u c h a s t a t e o f a f f a i r s is v e r y a n n o y i n g t o f i r s t aid e rs, w h o se e x a m in e r h a p p e n s to b e m o re fa m ilia r w ith th e m e t h o d t a u g h t in t h e St. J o h n , s a y — if h e is a R e d C r o s s s t u d e n t — o r vice v ersa. T h e N o . 2 M a n u a l ( N u r s i n g ) o f t h e B . R . C . S . is s i m p l y r id ic u lo u s w h e n c o m p a r e d w ith th e St. J o h n p u b lic a tio n , a n d I d e s ir e to d r a w y o u r a tte n tio n to th e c h a p t e r o n ro ller b a n d a g ­ ing, w h ic h a r e c e n t e x a m i n e r c h a r a c t e r i s e d a s w h o lly w ro n g , a n d m a n y c a n d i d a te s lo st m a rk s , s im p ly b e c a u s e th e m e th o d s d id n o t c o r r e s p o n d w ith t h e St. J o h n m e th o d s . In our d e ta c h m e n t th ere are a goo d n u m b e r o f m em b e rs w h o a r e q u a l i f i e d u n d e r t h e S t . J o h n c o n d i t i o n s , a n d it is r a t h e r a n n o y i n g t o b e t o l d t h a t y o u r p a r t i c u l a r m e t h o d is n o t t h e c o r ­ re c t o n e , p ro b a b ly b y y o u r c ritic d r a w i n g y o u r a tte n tio n to th e i l l u s t r a t i o n in h is T e x t B o o k . I b e g , th e r e f o r e , in t h e i n t e r e s t o f all first a i d e r s , fo r u n i ­ f o r m i t y o f m e t h o d s in a l l O f f i c i a l T e x t B o o k s , a n d , b y a l l m e a n s , l e t u s h a v e t h e best t r e a t m e n t , e v e n t h o u g h it c o m e s from th e o p p o s ite c a m p . O u r a i m is a c o m m o n o n e , a n d s u r e l y t h e m o s t e ffic ie n t m e t h o d is the o n e t o a d o p t f o r all. T h e c o m p e t i t o r s a t D a r t f o r d h a v e r e n d e r e d a s e r v i c e t o a ll h a v i n g a n y i n t e r e s t in a m b u l a n c e w o r k , a n d , a l t h o u g h t h e l o s e r s m u s t h a v e s u f f e r e d d i s a p p o i n t m e n t , if t h e i r p r o t e s t is t h e m e a n s w h e r e b y u n i t y is s e c u r e d , s u c h a t h i n g w i l l n o t b e p o s s i b l e in t h e f u t u r e . — B e l i e v e m e , y o u r s , & c.,

Ja m e s S t a n t o n . H o w a rd H o u se,” N e w b rid g e -la n e, S to ck p o rt.

V .A .D .

PU B L IC

PARADES.

S i r , — I n r e g a r d t o V . A . D . ’s, I s h o u l d l i k e t o a s k i f p u b l i c p a r a d e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y , a s t o m e it s e e m s t h a t t h e y c a n b e o v e r d o n e . F o r i n s t a n c e , w h i l e a t t h e W o m e n ’s C o u n ty C a m p (K e n t) th is year, w e a tte n d e d a sp ecial serv ice a t C a n t e r b u r y C a t h e d r a l , p a r a d i n g in t h e p r e c i n c t s a f t e r t h e s e r ­ v ice, w h e r e w e f o r m e d “ fo u rs,” a n d “ tw o d e ep ," a n d “ ’s h u n ’d , ” a p p a r e n t l y f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e b y s t a n d e r s . In m y o p i n i o n , a s w e a r e n o t so ld iers , t h o u g h b e l o n g i n g t o t h e T e r r i t o r i a l F o r c e , b u t n u rses , t h i s p a r a d i n g m i g h t h a v e b e e n o m i t t e d , t h e d e t a c h m e n t s m a r c h i n g s t r a i g h t o u t i n t h e o r d e r in w h ic h t h e y left t h e C a t h e d r a l . O f c o u r s e , in t h e c a m p i t s e l f , a c e r t a i n a m o u n t o f p a r a d e s

AID. —

i3

for in s p e c tio n a n d drill, a r e n e c e s s a r y a s c o n d u c i v e to s m a r t ­ n e s s , b u t t h e p u b l i c i t y o f o u t s i d e p a r a d i n g is, I f a n c y , m u c h d islik ed b y th e m a jo rity , a n d m a y le a d to a d e c re a s e , in ste a d o f a n i n c r e a s e , in t h e n u m b e r o f r e c u its . — I a m , S ir, y o u r s faith fu lly ,

A n In q u ir in g M em ber .

D A RTFO RD

C O M P E T IT IO N .

D e a r S ir, — In a n s w e r to a le tte r in s e rte d b y M r. M illb u rn in y o u r l a s t is s u e , I c a n o n l y s a y t h a t I w a s s o r r y t h a t t h e d e c isio n a s g iv e n b y th e E x a m in e r s , d id n o t m e e t w ith th e e n t i r e a p p r o v a l o f t h e c o m p e t i t o r s i n D i v i s i o n I. I s h o u ld like to p o in t o u t to th e m th a t I k n e w n o th in g of w h a t th e te s t s w o u ld b e, n e i t h e r a m I re s p o n s ib le for th e m . I h a v e a lw ay s k e p t m y s e lf re lig io u sly a lo o f from th e E x a m in e r s so th a t th e r e s h o u ld b e n o c h a n c e o f a n y h in t a t collusion. I s h o u l d a l s o l i k e t o a d d , t h a t t h e c o m p e t i t o r s in f u t u r e wall h a v e n o n e e d f o r a n y c o m m e n t , b e c a u s e it is m y i n t e n t i o n to in v ite th e c o -o p e ra tio n o f t h r e e o r fo u r in flu en tia l g e n t le m e n in t h e “ F i r s t A i d ” w o r l d , t o a s s i s t m e i n d r a w i n g u p t h e c o n ­ d itions. S h o u ld a n y se c re ta ry or co m p e tito r have a n y s u g g e s ­ tio n s to m a k e , I s h a ll b e p le a s e d to re c e iv e th e m b e tw e e n n o w a n d th e e n d o f S e p te m b e r, w h e n w e sh all s ta r t to o rg in ise o u r C o m p e t i t i o n f o r 1 9 15. A p o lo g is in g for th e le n g th of th is le tte r, a n d h o p in g th a t t h i s w ill b e a c l e a r a n s w 'e r to M r . M i l b u r n , — I a m , y o u r s tru l y , F . J. P ile , O rg a n is e r. 7, T o w e r - r o a d , D a r t f o r d , J u l y 1 3 t h , 1914 -

D ear. S i r , - - T h e l e t t e r o f M r . E r n e s t M i l b u r n in y o u r la s t issu e , u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g “ D a r t f o r d C o m p e t i t i o n ," p r o m p t s m e to a reply. M r. M ilb u rn s u g g e s ts th a t th e ju d g e s d id n o t a b id e b y th e co n d itio n s o f th e co m p e titio n . M a y I b e g o f h im to a s s u m e , fo r a m o m e n t o r tw o , t h e j u d g e s to h a v e b e e n m o s t c o n s c i e n t o u s in t h i s r e s p e c t . H e r e w 'a s a c a s e o f a f r a c t u r e o f t h e u p p e r p a r t o f t h e f e m u r ; t e a m a f t e r t e a m c a m e u p a n d t r e a t e d it w i t h t h e o rd in a ry s tra ig h t sp lin ts a n d e x ten sio n . W e ll, for th is c e r ta in m a rk s w ere a llo tted th e m . T h e n c a m e a lo n g a te a m w hich s e e m e d to realise m o re th a n th e o th e rs, o n e o f th e c a rd in a l r u le s to b e o b s e r v e d in d e a l i n g w ith f r a c t u r e s , a n d th is ru le p r o m i n e n t l y e n u n c i a t e d i n C a n t l i e ’s “ F i r s t A i d , ” t o o see p a g e 4 1 ) : — “ . . . . to g u a r d a g a i n s t f u r th e r m is c h ie f a n d e s p e c ia lly to p r e v e n t a s im p le f r a c tu r e fro m b e c o m in g c o m ­ p o u n d o r c o m p lic a te d .” T h e y p e rc eiv ed th e lik elih o o d of th e f r a c t u r e b e c o m i n g c o m p o u n d if t r e a t e d b y th e o r d i n a r y m e t h o d a n d so t h e y a c t e d in s u c h a w a y a s to o b v i a t e th is p o s s ib il ity . N o w , c o u ld a n y e x a m in e r h a v e failed to re c o g n is e th e b e tte r w o rk o f su ch a te a m , o r a n y ju d g e h a v e failed to a w a r d e v e n s p e c ia l m a r k s fo r th e i r s u p e r io r efficien cy ! O f c o u r s e , in a c t u a l p r a c t i c e a n y g o o d t e a m s w o u l d h a v e n o tic e d , w hilst b u s y w ith th e ir tr e a tm e n t, th e p o s sib ility o f th e u p p e r p iece of b ro k e n b o n e d a m a g in g th e s u rro u n d in g tissu es a n d e v e n fo r c in g its w a y t h r o u g h t h e sk in , a n d w o u ld h a v e m odified th e ir tr e a tm e n t acc o rd in g ly , n o m a tte r w h a t th e usual or text b o o k m e th o d m ig h t h a v e been, a n d , o f c o u rse, a te a m w h ic h h a d m a d e itse lf fa m ilia r w ith th e tr e a tm e n t b y “ d o u b le in c lin e d p l a n e ” w o u ld h a v e h a d th e ir p a tie n t in th e s a fe s t con d itio n w ith th e le a st p o s sib le d e la y . In th is c o n n e c tio n D r G l a n v i l l e M o r r i s ’s r e m a r k s o n c o m p e t i t i o n w o r k i n y o u r c u r r e n t is su e a r e to th e p o in t : “ T h e y s h o u ld a t all tim e s tr y to r e a lis e a n d d e p ic t th e tests g iv en a t c o m p e titio n s a s a c tu a l a c c id e n ts w ith c erta in v a ry in g c o n d itio n s a n d s u r ro u n d in g s to b e c o n ­ sid ered .” In co n clu sio n . I f t h e o b j e c t o f t h e s e c o m p e t i t i o n s is »o g a m k n o w le d g e a n d e x p e r ie n c e ,” s u re ly M r. M ilb u rn a n d his c o lle a g u e s h a v e little r e a s o n to c o m p l a i n T h e y sh o u ld a t a n y ra te , h a v e th a t ru le c o n c e rn in g th e fr a c tu r e s — q u o te d a b o v e e n g r a v e d m o r e c le a rly u p o n th e ir m in d s , b o th to th e ir o w n a d ­ v a n ta g e a n d to t h a t o f th e ir p a tie n ts .— I a m , y o u rs faithfully, A. A l la n

Bone, M .P .S ,

P r i n c e o f W a l e s ’s C o r p s , C S e c t i o n , 21 D i v . , S J A B C h isleh u rst.


— F I R S T

14 TH E

B R IG A D E

BADGE.

D e a r S i r , — I q u i t e a g r e e w i t h t h e w r i t e r o f a r t i c l e , re “ W e a r i n g o f d istin ctiv e b a d g e for B rig a d e m e n .” H is reasons a re , a n d m u s t te n d , to th e a d v a n t a g e o f th e B rig a d e . And w h i l s t h i s r e a s o n s f o r a b a d g e b e i n g a d o p t e d b y t h e B r i g a d e in g e n e ra l a re certa in ly to b e c o n sid e re d as b e in g m o re e co n o m ica l, I w o u ld s u g g e s t a b a d g e w ith th e n a m e o f D iv isio n u n d e r th e c re s t o f B r i g a d e .— Y o u rs tru ly ,

R. W . S t o n e , Supt.

D e a r S i r , — I n r e f e r e n c e to t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e in th e M a y a n d J u n e i s s u e of F i r s t A i d in r e g a r d s t o t h e w e a r i n g o f a d is tin c tiv e b a d g e for B rig a d e m e m b e rs , s h o u ld th is b e a d o p te d , m a y I s u g g e s t a special b a d g e b e in stitu te d b y th e v a r i o u s R a i l w a y C o m p a n i e s f o r th e ir m e m b e r s , w h o ( w i t h a ll d u e re s p e c ts to th e B rig a d e ) a re q u ite as c a p a b le o f re n d e rin g first a i d a s a B r i g a d e m e m b e r . T h e b a d g e to b e w o rn t h a t th e y a lso m a y b e re c o g n is e d w h e n r e n d e r i n g f i r s t a i d in a p u b l i c t h o r o u g h f a r e , a n d t h a t t h e p o l i c e a n d p u b l i c m a y k n o w t h a t t h e p a t i e n t is r e c e i v i n g e v e r y a tte n tio n p e n d in g th e a rriv a l o f a d o c to r, o r b e fo re rem oval. In th e event o f B rig a d e b a d g e b e in g a d o p te d , a m e m b e r w e a r i n g t h e b a d g e o f t h e S . J . A . A . t r e a t i n g a n i n j u r e d p e r s o n , in a n efficient m a n n e r , w o u ld b e s c o r n e d a t b y th e p o lic e a n d pu b lic, s i m p l y b e c a u s e h e is n o t w e a r i n g a B r i g a d e b a d g e . W h a t is t h e o p i n i o n o f o t h e r r a i l w a y a m b u l a n c e w o r k e r s ? — Y o u r s faith fu lly . “ A R a ilw a y E m p lo y e e.”

T h e G r a n d P r io r y of t h e

O rder of

the

H o s p ita l of S t . Jo h n of J e r u s a le m in E n g la n d . I t was notified in the London Gazette of June 23rd, 1 9 1 4 , that the King has sanctioned the following promotions in and appointments to the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England :—

AID. —

July, 1914

J o h n C r a ig '( S u p e r in te n d e n t , B a r ro w -in - F u rn e s s D ivision, S .J.A .B .) W illia m E d w a r d C asw ell (M id d le sb ro u g h a n d C lev elan d C e n tre , S .J.A .A .) W illia m F u lle r P a lm e r (M id d le sb ro u g h a n d C lev elan d C e n tre , S .J.A .A .) D e n ie l H a ll ( A s h to n -u n d e r-L y n e C e n tre , S .J.A .A .) S o lo m an R o b e rts (L an c a sh ire a n d Y o rk sh ire R ailw ay C e n tre , S .J.A .A .) G eo rg e B o sson s (L an c a sh ire a n d Y o rk sh ire R ailw ay C e n tr e , S .J.A .A .) W r i g h t R u s h t o n ( B o lto n B r a n c h , S .J.A .A .) J o s e p h H a r d y (B o lto n B r a n c h , S .J.A .A .) T o m S w in d a ll ( W e llin g b o r o u g h C e n tre , S .J.A .A .) A lb e rt O w e n G r o o m e (W e llin g b o ro u g n C e n tre , S .J.A .A .)

A s Honorary Serving Sisters : E liza, M rs. L o c k e ( S o u t h a m p to n C e n tre , S .J.A .A .) M iss L ilian L a fo n e (S o u th a m p to n C e n tre , S .J.A .A .) T h e H o n o ra b le C h arlo tte F ran c e s, M rs. E . A. P alk (S o u th ­ h a m p t o n C e n tre , S .J.A .A .) M iss E m ily A d a O s b o r n ( N o r t h a m p t o n C e n tre , S .J.A .A .)

A s Honorary Associates : A lfr e d O s b o r n e K n ig h t, M .R .C .S . ( A u c k la n d , N .Z ., C e n t r e , S .J.A .A .). E n r o lm e n t p o s tp o n d e d from last C h ap ter). F r e d e ric k W illia m R o b e r t J o h n K in g , M .R .C .S ., L .R .C .P . ( A u c la n d , N .Z ., C e n t r e , S .J.A .A .). ( E n ro lm e n t p o s tp o n e d from last C h ap ter). J a m e s H e n r y G ilb e rtso n , M .R .C .S ., L .R .C .P . (H itc h in B ra n c h , S .J.A .A .) C a p ta in R ic h a r d M ilb o u rn e W e s t, M .D ., R .A .M .C . (T .F .), (L e ic e s te r C e n tre ,.S .J.A .A .) R o b e r t S e v e rtre , M .D . (L e ic e s te r C e n tre , S .J.A .A .) D u n c a n M c F a y d e n M iller, M .B ., D .P . H . ( F e ll in g B r a n c h , S .J.A .A .) J o h n H il t o n T h o m p s o n , M .B . (B o lto n B r a n c h , S .J.A .A .) J o h n L a w e n c e , M .R .C .S ., L .R .C .P . (L o n d o n a n d N o r th W e s t e r n R a ilw a y C e n tre , S .J.A .A .) C h a rle s V in c e n t M c C o rm a c k , M .R .C .S ., L .R .C .P . ( L a n c a ­ s h ir e a n d Y o r k s h ir e R a i lw a y C e n tr e , S .J.A .A .) J a m e s M iln e H e rm o n M .D . (L a n c a sh ire a n d Y o rk sh ire R a ilw a y C e n tre , S .J.A .A .)

A s K n ig h t o f fusticc. L o rd H e rb e rt S c o t t ; C h ap lain , B ro w n in g , D e a n o f B ocking.

th e

V ery

R ev.

J.

S

A s K nights of Grace : C a p ta in F . R. A. N . K nollys, S ir G u y L a k in g , C o lo n el D . J. M a c k in to s h , M r. J o h n M a c in ty r e , M r. J. L. L u d d i n g to n , M r. P. M . G . T o m b s , S u r g e o n - G e n e ra l W . W . K e n n y , V is co u n t N o rth la n d , a n d M r. C. G. K ek ew ich .

A s Ladies o f Grace : M rs. H e n r y W ils o n , M rs. E d w a r d L a scelles.

J.

L.

L u d d in g to n ,

and

M rs.

Corporal Dickinson and Private Aldridge, shown in the photograph of the aeroplane in our last issue, are members of the No. 56 Division and not 58 as stated.

Surgeon-General Sir Pardey Lukis has been appointed chairman of the executive committee of the Indian Council of the St. John Ambulance Association in place of Sir Trevredyn Wynne, who has taken up an appointment at the India Office.

A s E squ ires: M r. L. F. B u rg is, M r. S ta n le y Q u ic k , a n d M r. D . G. M o n teith . H is M a je s ty h a s a lso s a n c tio n e d th e fo llo w in g a d m is s io n s in r e c o g n i t i o n o f lo n g a n d e m i n e n t s e r v ic e to t h e A m b u l a n c e D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e O r d e r :—

A s Honorary Serving Brothers : P h ilip P h e lp s , M .R .C .S ., L .R .C .P . (from H o n o r a r y A s s o ­ ciate). (S e le c tio n p o s tp o n e d from last C h a p te r). W illia m T h o m a s A tk in s o n ( H u ll C e n tre , S .J.A .A .). H e rb e r t L a n g le y J o n e s (W e stc lifF -o n -S e aD iv isio n , S .JA .B .). A lfred B a r t l e t t M o o r e ( B a th C e n tre , S .J.A .A .). W illia m T h o m a s F u lf o rd ( S o u th a m p to n C e n tre , S .J.A .A .).

On June 27th a new rescue, ambulance, and fire station, which has been built and equipped by the Newbiggin Colliery Company, at a cost of £ 4 ° ° , w* s formally opened on the occasion of the presentation of certificates, medallions, etc., to the members of the Newbiggin Colliery Ambulance Class.

W h e n co r re sp o n d in g w i t h A d v e r tis e r s p le a s e m e n tio n “ F ir s t A id .”


July, 1914.

— F I R S T

Notes

and

News.

This month a new patriotic song has been published, which, we feel sure, will be of considerable interest to those who take an interest in the British Red Cross movement. The words, by Mr. T. A. Bennett (a Norfolk gentleman), are a rally to help in finding the necessary equipment, and the music is by Mr. J. W. Bampfylde, of 205, Kingshallroad, Beckenham. The band parts for a full orchestra are on hire. The song is called “ Our Red Cross Nurses,” and may be sung in public anywhere, except in theatres and music halls, for which the rights are reserved. We understand that the first edition has to a considerable extent been bought up by the various V.A. Detachments in the county of Norfolk. *

*

*

A letter in the Times, of July 7th, points out that the committee appointed by the War Office to inquire into the working of V .A .D .’s is composed exclusively of men. The writer indicates that as V .A .D .’s are composed chiefly of women that it is scarcely appropriate that this inquiry should be conducted solely by the male sex. The work of V .A .D .’s is primarily women’s work, for it concerns the care of the sick and wounded, and the writer suggests that the committee should include some women doctors, some fully qualified nurses and organisers. The committee as at present constituted is composed of the following repre­ sentatives Chairman, Sir W. R. Lawrence, Bart., G . C . I . E . ; members, Lieut.-General Sir E. R. Elies, G .C .I .E , K.C.B., and Colonel H. Streatfeild, C.V.O., C.B.’ representing the Territorial Force Associations; Colonel Sir G. T. Beatson, K.C.B., M.D., V.D., representing St. Andrew’s Ambulance Association; Colonel Sir J. R. A. Clark, Bart., C.B., F.R.C.S.Edin., and Lieut.-Colonel Lord Herbert A. Montagu Douglas-Scott, D.S.O., representing the St. John Ambulance Association ; Major Sir A. A Bowlby, Kt., C.M.G., F.R.C.S., and Mr. E . A. Ridsdale, representing the British Red Cross Society; Sir R. H. Brade, K.C.B., and Surgeon-General W. G. Macpherson, C.M.G., M.B., representing the War Office; secretary’ Lieut.-Colonel G. B. Stanistreet, M.B. *

*

*

In consequence of the favourable experience during the last manoeuvres, the French Minister of War has decided on the regular employment of dogs specially trained to accompany the bearers when searching for wounded, hor the training of the dogs instruction kennels had been established at Fontainebleau, and the non-com­ missioned officers and the hospital orderlies put each dog through a three months’ course of training there The

15

A I D -

military kennel, now officially established, has been trans­ ferred to the camp at Chalons, where the dogs are regu­ larly exercised in searching for wounded. T h e dogs sub­ sist on a ration of soup from the regimental supplies, a daily allowance of 10 centimes per dog being made.

The casting away of the hospital ship Maine has in one sense inflicted more loss upon the Navy than the sinking of a Dreadnought. We have plenty of battleships, but we now have no hospital ship. If the less of the Maine draws attention to the utter inadequacy of the resourses for dealing with the wounded in war time, she will not have perished in vain. With a battleship transformed into a shambles in action salvation for the sufferers can only lie in a Red Cross auxiliary. It is presumed that the Admiralty would improvise a floating hospital for each fleet from a chartered merchantman should war come. *

*

*

The past month has been one of camps, as appears from the pages of F i r s t A i d . In addition to those re­ ported, many others equally successful have been held all over the country. From a training point of view, these camps do an immense amount of good— more can be learnt in a week under canvas than all the rest of the year studying text books. All the members of V . A . D .’s who attended the Kent Camp seem delighted with their experi­ ence, and many have already signified their intention to attend next year. *

*

*

We learn that an effort is being made to provide a motor ambulance in connection with the Hammersmith Detachments of the B.R.C.S. A motor ambulance is much needed in a large populous borough like Hammer­ smith, and it is understood that when the ambulance is provided that it will be available to convey persons injured in accidents to the West London Hospital and sick persons to the infirmany.

Queen Alexandra gave her patronage to a field day in connection with the British Red Cross Society, which was held at Brooklands, Weybridge, on June 20th. Colonel Marriott, D.S.O., commanding the Surrey Infantry Brigade, directed the field operations, which included gun-carrying and scout aeroplanes by the troops engaged. Red Cross field hospitals were equipped and staffed by 500 members of the Surrey Voluntary Aid Detachments, directed by the County Director, Colonel Grier, and aeroplane search parties were employed to look for the wounded. A report of the meeting appears in another column.


— F I R S T

Red

C ro ss

F ield

Day

at

B ro o k la n d s.

T h e Surrey Branch of the Society carried out an elaborate

plan of field operations at Brooklands track on June 20th. The importance of the occasion was indicated by the presence of Her Majesty Queen Alexandra and the Empress Marie Feodorovna of Russia, President re­ spectively of the British and Russian Red Cross Societies, who were attended by Sir Dighton Probyn, the Hon. Charlotte Knowles, Captain Stratfield, the Hon. Minnie Cochrane, and Sir Frederick Treves. The Royal visitors arrived by motor-car at 4 p.m. and were received by Sir Frederick Treves. Major Richardson’s ambulance dogs were led into the royal enclosure and inspected. Meanwhile a fierce sham fight was taking place

P hcto by /he Cen/ral Nesus, L td .) Q ueen A lexandra

w ith

S ir

AID. —

the Thames. Cover was found along the western bank of the VVey, and from this position the defenders kept up a steady fire with rifle and maxim. The severity of the fight had resulted in many casual­ ties, and aeroplane search parties were sent out to locate the wounded. Stretcher-bearers, on receiving the signals from the aeroplanes, doubled out to the wounded lying in the grass and conveyed them to the dressing station, where, after receiving attention, the men were transferred to the field hospital of the 3rd Homes Counties. Here they received treatment, and urgent operations were performed. The wounded men were then taken charge of by the Men’-, Voluntary Aid Detachments and taken to the clearin^, hospital, where the medical officers, surgeons, ward sisters and nurses rendered further treatment. In order to make room for the wounded men still coming in from the field

F rederick

in the broad plain which is enclosed by the race track, and military aeroplanes whirling high overhead located the whereabouts of the wounded and signalled directions to the ambulance bearer parties. T he British troops had attempted to check the enemy’s advance along a line between Guildford and Dorking, but were forced to retreat with great loss towards the Thames at Walton. The retiring force reached Weybridge at 3.30, and the rear­ guard, consisting of two cyclist companies, one R.F.A. battery, 6th Batt. East Surrey Regiment, and one section No. 3 Field Ambulance was instructed to hold back the invaders at all costs until the main body was safely over

July, 1914.

T reves

a t

1B y courtesy “ The Queen. the Inspection.

ambulance to the clearing hospital, the men already treated at the latter were transferred to the large stationary hospital as rapidly as possible, where beds were in readiness to receive them. Four rest stations were established be­ tween the clearing hospital, near the front, and the stationary hospital in the rear, and food, restoratives, and such treatment as was deemed necessary was given. The Royal Party made a tour of inspection of the Rest Station, Clearing Hospital and Stationary Hospital, this contained one medical and one surgical ward, with 25 beds in each, an operating tent, dispensary, pack-store, as well as isolation tents for infectious cases.


— F I R S T

July, 1914

Lord Roberts and Sir Frederick Treves also visited hospitals and both expressed their satisfaction at the anner in which the display had been conducted. The concluding operations in the afternoon terminated near the western boundary of the racing track, where a fully-equipped ambulance train was in readiness on a branch line of the London & South-Western Railway to convey the “ wounded ” away. During the progress of the “ battle” a programme of music was excellently performed by the band of the 6th ^fcfct-Surrey Regiment, under the conductorship of Band1 : W. Manester, near the Royal box. W The military operations were directed by Colonel r ott, M.V.O., D.S.O., commanding the Surrey Infantry ^.igade. The 6th East Surrey Regiment was commanded by Lieut.-Colonel A. P. Drayson, and the third Home Counties’ Field Ambulance by Lieut.-Colonel Edsell, M.D., R .A .M .C.T . The Military Aeroplane Service, attached to the 6th East Surrey Regiment, was under Capt. H. F. VVood, 9th Lancers Special Reserve. The medical service was under the direction of Mr. James Cantlie, M.B., F .R .C S ., V.D., and was carried out by 600 members of the Surrey Voluntary Aid Detachments, drawn from the Camberley, Chertsey, Guildford, Wimbledon and Woking ^ D :","sions, commanded by Colonel Grier, County Director. Mrs. Locke King, vise-president of the Chertsey Divi­ sion of the Red Cross Society, who was responsible for the general organisation, has received the following letter from Queen Alexandra :— M a r l b o r o u g h H o u s e , J u n e 21st, 1914 D e a r M rs. L o c k e K in g ,— I am d e sired by Q u e e n A le x ­ a n d r a to tell y o u h o w p le a s e d t h e E m p r e s s a n d s h e w e re w ith th e ir v isit to B ro o k la n d s y e s te rd a y . H e r M a j e s t y t h o u g h t e v e r y t h i n g w e n t o ff s o w ell, a n d w is h e s m e to t h a n k M r. L o c k e K in g a n d y o u m o s t s in c e re ly for th e k in d a r r a n g e m e n ts you m a d e for h e r re c ep tio n . Q u e en A le x a n d ra a n d th e E m p re s s w ere m u ch in te re sted in all t h e y s a w o f t h e R e d C r o s s w o r k in t h e field. T h eir M a j e s t i e s t h o u g h t all t h e d e t a i l s w e r e w ell c a r r i e d o u t, a n d t h e “ p la n o f c a m p a i g n ” m o s t realistic, a n d w e re p a rtic u la rly s t r u c k w ith t h e e a r n e s t k e e n n e s s o f t h o s e e n g a g e d in t h e i r v a rio u s duties. H e r M aje sty realises how v alu ab le in stru c tio n o f th is k in d i s in p e a c e t i m e , a n d a l s o a p p r e c i a t e d t h e t h o u g h t a n d c a r e w h i c h m u s t b e b e s t o w e d in o r g a n i s i n g a n d a r r a n g i n g a d e m o n ­ stra tio n u p o n so la rg e a scale as th a t w hich to o k p la c e at B ro o k lan d s y esterd ay . Q u e e n A l e x a n d r a h o p e s y o u w ill a c c e p t a n d c o n v e y to y o u r c o m m i t t e e , t h e l a d y n u r s e s , t h e m e d i c a l o fficers, a n d all t h o s e w h o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n y e s t e r d a y ’s p r o c e e d i n g s h e r c o r d i a l c o n g r a t u l a t i o n s a n d b e s t w is h e s for c o n t i n u e d s u c c e s s in t h e g r e a t n a t i o n a l w o r k to w h ic h y o u a r e all d e v o t i n g s o m u c h o f y o u r tim e. B eliev e m e, y o u rs sincerely,

(Signed) H e n r y S t r a t f i e l d .

O w in g to th e p re ssu re

on

our

space

we have been co m ­

p e l l e d t o h o l d o v e r D r . H a l l i d a y ’s a r t i c l e “ X R a y s P h o t o g r a p h s o f F r a c t u r e s ” a n d s e v e ra l r e p o r ts k in d ly s e n t to us, in c lu d in g the

D e v o n sh ire

N ew s,

th e se

w ill

be

in serte d

in

our

next

O n J u n e 20th D e p u ty - C o m m is s io n e r T . H . W o o ls t o n in ­ s p e c te d the m e m b e rs o f th e L e ic e ste r C o rp s a n d th e N u r s in g D iv isio n s a n d V o lu n ta ry A id D e ta c h m e n ts , a t V ic to ria P a rk , L eicester. T h e m e n m u s te re d 215, u n d e r th e d ire c tio n of C o r p s S u p t. J. L. K in g , a n d th e N u r s i n g D iv is io n s in c lu d in g a c o n tin g e n t fro m H in c k le y a n d E a r l S h ilto n , p a r a d e d 81, M iss M N o b l e , t h e L a d y C o r p s S u p t . , b e i n g in c h a r v e .

AID. —

Queries and Answers Correspondents.

to

Q ueries w i ll be dealt w ith u nd er the follow in g ru les :— 1 .— Letters containing Q ueries m u st be m arked on the top left hana corner o f the envelope “ Q u ery ," a n d addressed — F i r s t A i d , 46, Cannon-slreet, Lon don, E . C . 3 .— A l l Q ueries m u st be accom panied by a “ Q u ery Coupon ” cu t from the curren t issue o f the Jo u rn a l, or in case ot Q ueries jro m abroad from a recent issue. j >.— Reader

r e q u ir in g a reply by to st m ust enclose a slam bed addressea

envelope.

S.

W . ( M e r t h y r T y d v i l ) a s k s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e f o l l o w i n g :— A t a re c en t e x am in atio n o n e o f th e te a m w as ask e d to d e sc rib e th e c irc u la tio n o f th e blood. In g iv in g th e d o c t o r t h e g e n e r a l ( s y s t e m i c ) c i r c u l a t i o n , h e s a i d t h a t in th e c a p illarie s a n in te r c h a n g e o f g a s e s a n d fluids ta k e s place, w h e re a t th e d o c to r c o n tr a d ic te d h im , te llin g h im th e re w as n o su ch th in g . S o w h a t I w a n t to k n o w is, w h e r e is i t t h a t it d o e s t a k e p l a c e , i f i t is n o t i n t h e cap illaries ?

“ I n th e c a p i lla r ie s a n i n t e r c h a n g e o f g a s e s a n d flu id s ta k e s place, w h e re b y th e n o u ris h m e n t a n d m a in te n a n c e o f the t i s s u e s a n d o r g a n s o f t h e b o d y a r e p r o v i d e d for, a n d t h e b l o o d b eco m es d a rk a n d im p u re.” S e e p a g e 72 C a n t lie . — L. M .

F ra n k C h ristian . J . W . ( U i t e n h a g e ) a s k s f o r i n i o r m a t i o n o n t h e f o l l o w i n g :— (a) W h a t is t h e c o m p l e t e S t . J o h n a r m s l i n g . I s t h e sling c o m p le te w ith o u t th e b ro a d b a n d a g e ro u n d th e elbow a n d t r u n k , o r is t h e b r o a d b a n d a g e o n l y t o b e u s e d in t h e c ase of frac tu re d c la v icle? O n p . 4 9 t h e s l i n g is e x p l a i n e d i n p a r s , a, b, c, b u t w h e n r e a d i n g f u r t h e r o n it s e e m s t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e b r o a d b a n d a g e is u s e d t o l e v e r o u t t h e s h o u ld e r o n ly for f r a c tu r e d clav icle. (b) I n c a s e s o f b l e e d i n g f r o m t h e p a l m o f h a n d a n d f r a c t u r e d s c a p u l a is i t c o r r e c t t o p u t o n t h e b r o a d b a n d a g e r o u n d e l b o w a n d b o d y o r m u s t it b e o m i t t e d ? I h a v e a lw ay s in stru c te d c la sses as I a m d o in g at th e p re s e n t t i m e t h a t t h e S t . J o h n s l i n g is n o t c o m p l e t e w i t h o u t th e b ro a d b a n d a g e ro u n d th e body.

i

(a) T h e “ S t . J o h n ” s l i n g is c o m p l e t e w i t h o u t t h e b r o a d b a n d a g e , a n d is d e s c r i b e d i n p a r a g r a p h a, b, c, o n p a g e 4 9 C an tlie. T h e b r o a d b a n d a g e (w ith th e a d d iti o n o f a n axillary p a d ) is f o r t h e s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e o f l e v e r i n g o u t t h e s h o u l d e r to o v e r c o m e t h e s h o r t e n i n g t h a t o c c u r s in f r a c t u r e o f t h e c l a v i c l e , a n d w h i c h is d u e t o m u s c u l a r c o n t r a c t i o n . (b) T h e b r o a d b a n d a g e a r o u n d e l b o w a n d b o d y i s n o t re q u ire d .— L. M . F r a n k C h r is t ia n .

W . C. B. ( W a k e f ie ld ) a s k s fo r in f o r m a tio n o n th e fo llo w in g (1) A m a n h a s b e e n b u r i e d fo r s o m e t i m e u n d e r a fall o f c o a l , w h e n t h e a m b u l a n c e m e n a r r i v e h e is e x t r a c a t e d . = H i s b r e a t h i n g h a s c e a s e d , b u t h e is n o t d e a d , a s i n d i c a t e d b y s m a r t s p u rtin g a rte ria l b lo o d from a w o u n d a t th e w rist; h e h a s a ls o tw o s i m p l e f r a c t u r e s , left le g a n d r i g h t a r m . Is it p o s s i b l e to h a v e s m a r t s p u r t i n g b l o o d w h e n a p e r s o n i a s p h y x i a t e d , a n d if so, w h y d o t h e j u d g e s a s k u s to r e s t o r ' c i r c u l a t i o n a f t e r b r e a t h i n g h a s b e e n s t o p p e d , a n d giv> , p o i n t s f o r it. T h e j u d g e in t h is c a s e w a s g i v i n g p o i n t s f o : h e s : a r r e s t i n g b l e e d i n g first, w h ic h I ig n o r e d , a n d a t t e n d e d t t h e b r e a t h i n g first t h e n t h e b l e e d in g . ayers (2) H o w w o u ld y o u t r e a t a c a s e o f f r a c t u r e d e lb o v jo in t a n d clavicle, b o th o n s a m e e x tr e m ity ? tf0 n

(1) T h e e ffe c t o f c u t t i n g o f f a i r f r o m t h e l u n g s is t h a t t h b l o o d is n o t a ; r a t e d a n d it is t h e r e f o r e c i r c u l a t e d i n a s t a t e q u it* T h e u n fitte d to s u p p o r t th e n u tri tio n o f th e h e a r t a n d b r a i n — w ith e J t e x w h i c h life c o u l d n o t c o n t i n u e b e y o n d a fe w m i n u t e s . E x p e t •j . m e n ts h a v e p r o v e d t h a t in s p ite o f th e im p u r ity o f th e b i o ’ . , t h e h e a r t w ill c o n t i n u e t o a c t a n d t h e c i r c u l a t i o n b e m a i n t a i n l s l 0 n ’ for tw o o r th r e e m in u te s , o r lo n g e r, a fte r b r e a t h i n g h a s e n t i r n e a n ceased. T h i s is a p o i n t o f e x t r e m e p r a c t i c a l i m p o r t a n


i8

— F I R S T

C o m p a r e r e p l y p a g e 5 6, S e p t . 1 9 1 3 i s s u e o f F i r s t A i d . If the s u s p e n s i o n o f r e s p i r a t i o n is c o m p l e t e , t h e b l o o d v e r y r a p i d l y l o s e s its o x y g e n a n d a b s o r b s p o i s o n o u s m a t e r i a l , t h e h e a r t g r a d u a l l y s l a c k e n s a n d f in a lly s to p s . I t is a t t h i s m o m e n t t h a t a sp h y x ia p a sse s in to d e ath . G i v e n a b s o l u t e f a i l u r e o f r e s p i r a t i o n , a s i n t h e c a s e in q u e s ti o n , u n d o u b t e d l y t h e a l l - a b s o r b i n g first d u t y o f th e a m b u l a n c e w o rk e r s h o u ld b e to a tt e m p t to a v e r t d e a t h b y r e s t o r i n g th e v ita l f u n c tio n o f r e s p ir a tio n . T ill th e b r e a th in g is in s o m e d e g r e e r e s t o r e d a ll o t h e r p o i n t s m u s t f a d e i n t o c o m ­ p a ra tiv e in significance. (2 ) F u r th e r d e ta ils m u s t b e k n o w n to p e rm it a c o n siste n t a n d i n t e l l i g e n t r e p l y t o t h i s a m b u l a n c e q u e r y ; v i d e p a g e 118, e tc ., “ P r o b l e m s in F i r s t A i d . ”— L . M . F r a n k C h r i s t i a n .

A I D . -

July, 1914.

F E R R IS

«Ss CO.’S

“U N IV E R S A L ’ First-Aid Cupboard.

F i r s t A i d e r . — ( 1 ) Y o u r q u e s t i o n is t o o v a g u e t o a d m i t o f a rep ly . (2 ) T h e r e is n o a g e l i m i t f o r m e m b e r s r e t i r i n g f r o m th e B rig ad e.

P. E . (F arn h am ).— Y our query n e x t issu e.

* Y R O Y A L W A R R A N T OF A PP O IN T M E N T

w ill b e

rep lied

t o in o u r

N E S T LE S SW ISS M ILK

T O H IS M A J E S T Y KJNG G EO RG E V

A

c o m p le te O utfit, s u ita b le for F a c to rie s , W o r k s , P u b lic O ffices, &c. S i z e , 19 in . h i g h , i 8 i i n . , w i d e , 8 in. d e e p .

P r ic e ,

fitted

c o m p le te

35s. 6d.

FERRIS & CO., Ltd., BRISTOL, C o m p le t e A m b u l a n c e O u t f it t e r s .

Aids to M em ory fo r ‘ F irst Aid* S tu d e n ts. B y L . M . F r a n k C h r i s t i a n , M .B ., C .M . E d i n . A u th or ( jointly v ith 1V .R .E .) o f “ Problem s in F irst A id ,” St. J ohn A m b A ssoc. S ix th E d itio n n o w r e a d y . R e v is e d to d a t e ( J u n e 1914.) P r ic e : I n C lo th , 6 d . n e t— b y p o s t 7d. I n L e a th e r , 2s. n e t — b y p o s t 2s. 2d. Sto ck po r t : C o n n ell &

B a i l b y , L t d . , “ E x p r e s s " O f f i c b , S t . P e t e r ’s S q u a r e ,

a n d T h e S t. J o h n A m b u la n c e A s s o c ia tio n ,

SIMMONS

&

S t . J o h n ’s G a t e , L o n d o n .

THE ‘MIDGET’ FIRST-AID CASE 1/- e a c h .

Post F re e 1/2.

CO.’S

‘Standard’ Ambulance (A s supplied to the M arylebone C o rporation , the P lym outh P o lice , & c.), P rice C o m p le te ,

£13

15s.

A lw a y s ready in S tock , .tan d ard A rm y F o ld in g S tretch ers, 3 3 /= ; B o y S co u ts S tretch ers, 2 5 / - . S I M M A M C

Jft

r n

5 I i r l I T I U l l O (X V U . ,

1. 3 , 5 a n d 7 , T a n n e r S t r e e t , B e r m o n d s e y S t . , LO N D O N , S .E ,

i n t h e Hand-Ambulance B uilders to the Metropolitan Asylum Board , the m i l i t a i ^ onc*°n County Council, the Metropolitan Electric Tramways, etc. w here th e a a ttem j b etw e-

with. ->

j

ULy . ,9 ,4.

C O M P E T IT IO N

COUPON.

Name ....................................................

re tirin g guard, battery ,

A d d r e s s ................................................................

No. 3 F ................................................................ i n v a d e r ; -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

In D eco rated M eta llic B o x , con tain in g T w o R o lle r Band ages, T a p e , Pins, N eed les, L in t, A b so rb en t P ad , S ilk L igatu re , B ottle each A m m on ia and C a rb o lic O il, C am el-h air P e n cil, and A d h esive Plaster.

C a ta log u e sen t p o s t free on ap p lication .

CUXSON, GERRARD & CO., Ltd., O L D B U R Y and B I R M I N G H A M .


FIRST AID.

The Independent Journal for the Ambulance and Nursing Services Conducted by A R T H U R No.

242.— V o l .

XX I.

AUGUST,

[N ew S e rie s.]

B.

DALE,

1914.

M.J.I. PRICE TWOPENCE

[E n tered a t S ta tio n ers' H a ll.)

[2 6 P e r

A n n u m , P ost

F ree

tion, after working day and night, is now well nigh com­

To

Our

Readers.

pleted and in a position to meet any likely emergency.__ As far as the reserves of the S.J.A.B. are concerned,

“ F i r s t A i d ” is p u b l is h e d on t h e 2 0 t h o t e v e r y m o n t h . T h e A n n u al Subscription is 2 S. 6 d . post free ; sin gle copies 2 d . T h e E d ito r invites readers to send articles and reports on subjects of interest to am bulance w orkers, these should be addressed to him at “ 6, Cannon S treet, L o n d on , E .C . A ll articles and reports m ust be accom panied b y the nam e and address o f the w riter, not necessarily for publication but for the use o f he Editor. Subscriptions, A d vertisem en ts and other business com m unications connected w ith F i r s t A i d should be addressed to the Publishers, DALE,

REYN OLDS 46,

C

&

an n o n

C O ., S

t r e e t

L

t d

,

L

they

have not been insensible of the obligations which rest upon them, for when the Proclamation ordering the general mobilisation of the Naval Reserves was issued an instant* : response was made by those who

belonged

to

the

members

R .N .A .S .R .

mobilisation was given on

July

of the S.J.A.B

T he

31st,

and

waining

o

the

mobilisation took place on August 1st, and by A u g i ^ ^ v j 800 men of the Reserve were at Portsmouth, Plymouth Chatham, and they have since been drafted to the battik

., o n d o n

,

E .C .

ships or naval hospitals, according to the class of thl Reserve they elected to join.

Thirty four men are beinl

held in readiness to proceed to Hong Kong.

EDITORIAL.

On Augusi

3rd the War Office called for 450 men of the M.H. Reserve to join an Expeditionary Force abroad, and theij^

The

calls to arms which

has rever-

C a r i n g for t h e berated through this country with such S i c k an d W ounded.

was an immediate response of 1,510

men.

On Augie

5th the M .H .H . Reserve was ordered to mobolise, a r

suddenness since our last issue appeared

2,000 men were drafted to the various military hospitals [

has its echo in the equally urgent call to

the 10th. T he foregoing shows

ambulance workers to be prepared to respond to any summons to place their services at the dis­

the

patriotic response wh'r

voluntary ambulance workers have made to the counuj

It is in a time of national

call, and we earnesly trust that the authorities are ovi

crisis, such as the present, that the value of training and

looking nothing in their organisation of the medical servic

discipline are apparent, and the magnificent way in which

so that it will not be found as it was in South Africa that

posal of the sick and wounded.

members

of V .A .D .’s

Brigade

have responded

have not All

the

and

the to the

been unmindful of the V .A .D .’s

throughout

St. John call shows part they

the

country

Ambulance that

they

are to play. have

been

was insufficient for the work thrown upon it.

One of 1'

lessons which we learnt from that war was that the medii; and hospital work at the bases was seriously defective organisation.

The Nursing Service was remodelled aft

mobilised, and have been actually engaged in preparing

those

and equipping hospitals, but so far they have not been

Alexandra’s Imperial

taken over by the War Office, which can call upon 2,390

and

detachments, representing a total strength of 71,000 mem­

capable of ready expansion, for several base hospitals wi

bers, of whom about two-thirds are women.

If they were

called upon for serious work to-morrow at least 95 per cent, would obey the call.

experiences, more

and

under

the

title

of

Military Service acquired

honourable

status.

It

will,

Quee a

doubtless,

ne\ b

be necessary, and the number of sisters and staff nurs' will have to be largely increased.

In the present circumstances,

there is reason to believe that none of them will be asked to go on foreign service, being held in reserve in this country, though at present it may be said no decision has actually been arrived at as to what course will be adopted. The Red Cross Society has been inundated with volunteers and has accepted the services of many, and the organisa­

We have many friends who have eagerly and willingl responded to the call at this great crisis in the history the country— which involves us in the greatest war known; and whatever the result, we shall pursue oui\,’ to the end calmly, without panic, all petty differer forgotten. T o those of our friends who have left t peaceful home for the camp our best and most he wishes are extended for their safe return.


— F I R S T

Cc

3"he Grand SYiorg of the Grder of the h o sp ita l of S t. John of Jersusalem in Sngland. AM BU LANCE

3"he S t.

Jo h n A m bulance S rigade.

C O M M IS S IO N E R :

L IE U T .-C O L .

LEES

--------

191 4.

a S u n d a y D u t y , S t . P a u l ’s C a t h e d r a l , t i u n d a y , 6 t h . — N o . 19 D i v i s i o n . „ 13th.— N o . 24 „ „ 2 0 th . — N o . 52 „ n „ 2 7 t h . — N o . 25 „ “ 10.30 a .m . to 2.30 p .m ., a n d 2.30 p .m . to 8 p .m . “ p a ra te orders. K e y f r o m S t . J o h n ’s G a t e , 10 a . m . BUGLE

As per

BAND.

P r a c t i c e a t H e a d q u a r t e r s , F r i d a y s 4 t h a n d 18 t h , a t 8 p . m . I

M O B IL IS A T IO N .

O f f Y e r s w ^ ° *i a v e S o n e o n S e r v i c e h a v e n o t n o t i f i e d t h e >0! l > w ( O o m m i s s i o n a s t 0 w h 0 | s jn t e m p o r a r y c h a r g e o f t h e i r p ectiv e D ivisions. O fficers to w h o m th is a p p lie s a re a t o n c e n o t i f y t h e ( n e x t s e n i o r ) m e m b e r t h a t h e is i n c h a r g e , a n d v ise th e D e p u t y - C o m m i s s i o n e r t h a t th is h a s b e e n d o n e , i n g t h e n a m e a n d a d d r e s s o f t h e m e m b e r in c h a r g e . 'O L U N T E E R S

W IL L IN G

TO

JO IN

RESERVES.

.

A r o l l — i n t r i p l i c a t e — is t o b e m a d e i n e a c h D i v i s i o n o f m b e r s w h o a r e w illing to jo in . 1. T h e R o y a l N a v a l A u x iliary S ick B erth R e se rv e ; a : 2. T h e M i l i t a r y H o m e H o s p i t a l R e s e r v e . T w o c o p i e s s h o u l d b e s e n t t o t h i s office a s s o o n a s p o s s i b le , Auth a d d i t i o n a l n a m e s a r e t o b e s e n t in w e e k l y . . T h e s e a r e n o t f o r i m m e d i a t e m o b i l i s a t i o n b u t t o fill STOc'neies a s t h e y o c c u r f o r s e r i o u s e m e r g e n c y . I t is t o b e TOCr l y u n d e r s t o o d t h a t a l l m e m b e r s , b e f o r e e n l i s t i n g , m u s t b e ; e d a s m e d i c a l l y fit. —

^E X A M IN A T IO N ' , SERG EA NTS

FOR AND

P R O M O T IO N TO CORPORALS.

O w i n g t o t h e p r e s e n t c r i s i s , n o e x a m i n a t i o n w ill b e h e l d in item b er. T h e d a t e o f t h e n e x t e x a m i n a t i o n w ill b e o u n c e d la te r. B R IG A D E

r e la x n o effo rt to m a i n t a i n t h e s t a t e o f efficiency to w h ic h th e C o rp s h a s attain ed . T h e y s h o u l d a ls o e n d e a v o u r to o b t a i n s u i t a b l e r e c r u i t s to fill t h e p l a c e s o f t h o s e n o w s e r v i n g i n t h e N a v y a n d A r m y . (S ig n ed )

LEES

HALL,

D ep u ty -C om m ission er. H e a d q u a r t e r s : - - S t . J o h n ’s G a t e , C lerk en w ell, E .C .

No. 2 District.

HALL.

SEPTEM BER,

A u g u s t, 1914.

DEPARTM EN T.

DUTY ROSTER.

No. 1 District. DEPU TY

A ID

B r i s t o l . — T h e a n n u al com p etitio n s o rg a n ised b y th e B r i s t o l C e n t r e o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n w e r e h e l d o n J u l y 18 t h The tro p h i e s c o m p e t e d for w e re th e “ B e a v is ” C u p , for h o ld e rs o f t h e St. J o h n fir st- a id c ertific a te , th e “ S q u i r e s ” C u p (h a n d ic a p ) , for h o l d e r s o f th e St. J o h n m e d a llio n , a n d th e “ N o v i c e ” C u p , fo r h o l d e r s o f th e S t. J o h n c e r tific a te w h o h a v e n o t c o m p e t e d for e ith e r o f th e o th e r cups. T h e r e w a s a ls o a c o m p e t i t i o n for te a m s o f la d ie s , th e p rize b e in g g iv e n b y th e B ris to l C e n tre . T h e e n trie s for th e c u p s th is y e a r w e re la rg e , b u t o n ly o n e t e a m e n te r e d for th e la d ie s ’ c o m p e titio n . A m o n g s t th o se p re ­ s e n t w e r e M r . A . S t . J o h n B u r r o u g h s ( s e c r e t a r y ) , D r . . B. R o g ers, M essrs. W . T r a tt, T h o r n to n W ills a n d T w iselto n T h e w i n n i n g t e a m s w e r e a s f o l l o w s :— “ S q u ir e s ” C up, G re a t W e s te rn R ailw ay N o. 1 T eam . “ B ea v is ” C u p , M id la n d R a ilw a y (B ristol), “ N o v ic e ” C up, G re a t W e s te rn R ailw ay N o. 3 T eam . A s p e c i a l p r i z e f o r l a d i e s w a s w o n b y M i s s S m a r t ’s t e a m , o f M essrs. W . D . a n d H . O . W ills. T h is w as th e only team e n te re d , b u t th e te st c a s e w as c a rrie d out, th e ju d g e b e in g D r. R eynolds.

No. 4 District. C o lo n e l C. J. T r im b le , D e p u t y C o m m is s io n e r o f th e D i s ­ tric t, r e c e i v e d a w ire o n A u g u s t 1st fr o m t h e C h i e f C o m m i s ­ s io n e r a s k in g h im to m o b ilise a s m a n y o f th e M ilita ry H o m e H o s p i ta l R e s e rv e s as w e re w illin g to v o lu n te e r for s e rv ic e w ith th e E x p e d itio n a ry F o rce. H e at once d esp atch ed a h u n d red te le g r a m s to th e d iffe re n t c e n tre s, a n d w ith in a s h o r t w hile re c e i v e d 500 n a m e s . H ig h ly g ra tified a t th e result, C olonel T r im b le p o in ts out t h a t it is a r e m a r k a b l e e x a m p l e o f p a t r i o t i s m a n d e n t h u s i a s m , as th e se m e n d id n o t jo in th e H o sp ita l R e s e rv e to g o o u t o f th e c o u n try , b u t as soon as th e a p p e a l w as m a d e th e y in sta n tly o ffered th e ir serv ices. T h e s a m e t h i n g h a p p e n e d in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e A u x i l i a r y R o y al N a v a l S ick B e r th R es e rv e . O u t o f all t h e r e s e r v e v o lu n te e rs w h o w e n t to th e N a v y o n m o b ilis a tio n ; s o m e t h in g like h a lf w ere from th e N o. 4 D istric t.

FORM S.

O f f i c e r s a n d m e m b e r s in c h a r g e a r e r e m i n d e d t h a t t h e ' ‘ d e y e a r e n d s o n t h e 3 0 t h a n d t h a t B / F 1 ( o r 2), 3 a n d 5 Id b e s e n t in a s s o o n a s p o s s ib le a f te r t h a t d a te . Prom pt itio n to t h i s w ill g r e a t l y h e l p t h e D i s t r i c t O ffice rs. I n t i m a t i o n h a s b e e n r e c e i v e d t h a t t h e r e is a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t V o lu n ta ry A id D e ta c h m e n ts m a y b e m o b ilise d for serv ice he n e a r fu tu re, a n d t h a t o r d e rs to th is effect m a y b e issu e d .t h e C o u n ty D ir e c to r s d ire c t to th e C o m m a n d a n ts . S p ecial e n tio n s h o u ld b e p a id to th e s e o rd e rs . C o m m a n d a n t s s h o u ld J o n c e p r o c e e d to o b ta in p r o m is e s o f th e lo a n o f s u ita b le b u ild J r S, b e d s , b e d d i n g , & c . , s o t h a t o n r e c e i p t o f M o b i l i s a t i o n , d e r s th e y m a y b e p r e p a r e d for serv ice. . e - S i n c e t h e i s s u e o f l a s t m o n t h ’s o r d e r s t h i s C o u n t r y h a s litai— p p lu n g e d in to w a r, in v o lv in g th e m o b iliz a tio n o f th e N a v y , ere ny a n d R eserv e Forces. ; a A m o n g th o s e w h o h a v e re s p o n d e d to th e call h a v e b e e n =m j e R eserves re c ru ite d from m e m b e r s o f th e St. J o h n w e , n b u la n c e B rig ad e. , I a m c o n f i d e n t t h a t a l l m e m b e r s o f t h e P r i n c e o f W a l e s ’s . . C p s w h 0 a r e n o w o n A c t i v e S e r v i c e w ill s e r v e w ith c r e d i t to irln S elves a n d th e D is tric t th e y rep re s en t, ird, n c o n s e q u e n c e o f th e d e p le tio n o f th e C o rp s , d u e to th e tery , g u p o f t h e R e s e r v i s t s , m e m b e r s in c h a r g e o f D i v is io n s 3 F g e d to im p re s s u p o n th e re m a in d e r o f th e m e m b e rs th e a d e r s — t a n c e o f m e e t i n g a ll c a l l s f o r p u b l i c d u t y , a n d s h o u l d

No 5 District. D e w s b u r y . — T h e c o r p s , w h i c h h a s 25 m e n e n r o l l e d in t h e R . N . A . S . B . R , r e c e i v e d its m o b i l i s a t i o n o r d e r s o n A u g u s t 1s t, a n d a t a s p e c i a l p a r a d e o n S u n d a y , a t w h i c h a m a j o r i t y o f m e m b e r s a t t e n d e d , 18 m e n w e r e m o b i l i s e d , a l l o f w h o m w i l l ­ in g ly a c c e p te d th e call o f d u ty . O n M o n d a y m o rn in g C orps S e c r e ta r y C. T h o r n e s re c e iv e d a w ire to s e n d th e m e n a t o n c e d ire c t to C h a t h a m N a v a l H o s p ita l. A t n i n e o ’c l o c k t h e s a m e e v e n i n g t h e m e n p a r a d e d in f u ll u n i f o r m u n d e r O f f i c e r H . F o w le r, s u p e r in t e n d e n t o f th e d iv isio n , a t th e a m b u la n c e ro o m s in N e lso n -stre e t. A c c o m p a n ie d b y th e D e w s b u ry B o ro u g h B ra s s B a n d , w h o h a d o ffered th e ir se rv ic e s to p la y to th e s ta tio n , th e m e n m a r c h e d to th e D e w s b u r y C .N . S ta tio n , w h e r e a b i g c r o w d h a d a s s e m b l e d in e x p e c t a t i o n o f t h e a r r iv a l h o m e o f t h e T e r r i t o r i a l s , a n d d i f f i c u l t y w a s e x p e r i e n c e d in m a k in g a w ay o n to th e p latfo rm . H e re th e m e n w ere a d d re s s e d by M ajo r P. B. W a lk e r (corp s su p e rin te n d e n t), a n d C olonel E . L e e s (corps su rg eo n ).

No. 6 District. S u rg -G en. W . W . K en n y , D e p u ty D ire c to r M ed ical S e r­ vices, N o r t h e r n c o m m a n d , in s p e c te d th e m e m b e rs o f th e B r i g a d e in t h e F e l l i n g d i s t r i c t o n J u l y n th . O v er 400


— F I R S T

August, 1914-

members were present, representing F ellin g Corps, G ates­ head D ivision, G ateshead Borough, A lhusen D ivision, Dunston, H eworth and W ard ley. T h e contingents were under the com ­ mand o f Supt. W . H andyside. Prior to the inspection Surg.Gen. K enn y was presented with a gold key after opening the new drill hall. W e are pleased to hear the seventeen new divisions have been formed in this district since O ctober last, ten o f these are nursing divisions. T h e S.J.A .B . is increasing by leaps and bounds in the N orthern Counties. T h e annual church parade of the district was held at N e w ­ castle on July 12th. T h e Cathedral A uthorities gave a special service in the afternoon, the choir and organist givin g their services free. T h e service was attended by the following A m bulance D ivisons, 813 ; N ursing D ivisions, 246. In addition there w e re :— First aiders, 1st Northum brian

AI D

The

First

F ield

D ressin g.

T h e first field d ressin g o f th e B ritish A rm y is n o t as sim p le as that used b y so m e c o n tin e n ta l arm ies. It co n sists o f— (1 ) O u ter co ver, sew n clo th . (2) T w o safety pins, w ra p p ed in w ax p ap er. (3) In s id e c o v e r o f w a te rp ro o f ja c c o n e t, th e ed ges ce m en ted w ith ru b b e r so lu tio n , so as to re n d er th e p a ck e t a ir t ig h t ; a p o rtio n o f o n e o f th e co rn ers is tu rn ed b a c k and n ot ce m en ted . (4) L o o s e w oven b a n d a ge , 2$ in ch es by 4\ yards, fo ld ed flat in to 2^ in ch es b y 4 in ch es.

Photo : Parisian Sckool of Photogi afhy. ] S o u th

M e tro p o lita n

Gas

Com pany, St.

John

A m b u lan ce

(N o.

19) ■D i v i s i o n .

N early all the m embers o f this D ivision belon g to the R .N .A .S .B .R ., and have gone on active service. Fiel i Am bulance, 1st Northern G eneral H ospital, N o rth u m -' bfian C learin g H ospital (all T erritorial units), ^’ t h e 'C h u r c h N ursing and A m bulance B r ig a d -. T h e se would "amount to nearly 500 T h e total, therefore, would b e ’about 1,500 people in the Cathedral. A most im pressive sermon was preached on on the objects o f the O rder by the R ight Rev. Bishop O rm sby, sub-Prelate. T h e Lord M ayor o f N ew castle and Sh eriff attended in State.

W H E N C O R RESPO NDING W IT H A D V E R ­ T ISE R S P L E A SE M ENTIO N “F IR S T

A TTY "

(5 ) T w o p ieces o f g a u ze, 17 in ch es b y 13 in ch es, fo ld ed sep arately to suit th e size o f th e p a ck a g e. (6) C o m p re sse d a b so rb e n t co tto n -w o o l b etw een layers o f gauze. T h e p iece s o f gauze, th e co m p re sse d a b so rb en t c o tto n ­ w ool, an d the la yers o f ga u ze co n ta in 1 p er cen t, b y w eigh t o f sal-alem bro th , an d are tin te d w ith a n ilin e blue. The c o n te n ts are co m p re sse d so th at th e p a c k a g e do es n o t e x ­ c e e d th ree-quarters o f an in ch in th ick n essT h e outside c o v e r co n ta in s th e w ords, “ W ar O ffice, M e d ic a l D iv is io n ,’ an d d irectio n s are g iv e n for u sin g th e d ressin gs for o n e an for tw o w ou nds, an d how th e y m ust b e a p p lied .


24

— F I R S T

Our T h e first prize aw a rd ed to : —

C om p etitio n s

for th e

A u g u st

C o m p e titio n

has

been

M is s L . G a r n h a m , 2, C a rlto n V illa s, F o x-h ill, N o rw o o d , S .E . and the se co n d prize to :— M is s C . R o b i n s o n , 25, C a m b rid ge-terrace, H y d e P ark, W . T h e p ap er su b m itted by M r. W . T a y lo r is sp ecia lly m en tio n ed b y th e J u d ge and p laced third. T he

W in n in g

Paper.

(1 .) T r a c e the co u rse o f the p rin cip al arteries in th e low er extrem ity.

Course of Principal Arteries in th e low er e xtre m ity ■ ’ — T h e fem oral artery (a co n tin u a tion o f th e iliac) enters the th igh in th e ce n tre o f the fold o f the groin, an d passes dow n the th igh in a d irectio n in d ica te d by a line draw n from th e cen tre o f th e groin to the in n er sid e o f the back part o f th e kn ee. A fte r traversin g tw o-thirds o f this line th e fem oral artery passes b eh in d the th igh b o n e to th e b a ck o f the k n ee jo in t w here it is kn ow n as the p o p liteal artery. Ju st belo w an d b eh in d th e k n ee jo in t th e p opliteal artery d iv id es in to the an terio r an d p osterior tibial arteries. T h e p osterior tib ial artery passes dow n the b a ck o f the leg 1 to th e in ner sid e o f the an k le. A t first it is d e e p ly p laced b etw een th e m uscles o f th e calf, but gets n earer the surface as it p ro ceed s, and can be felt p u lsatin g b eh in d th e large b o n e at in n er side o f an kle. I t then enters th e sole as th e p lan ta arteries w hich run forw ard a m o n g th e m uscles to ^supply th e foot an d toes. T h e anterior tib ial artery (on STOncies dS *he p o p liteal) passes forw ard betw een the leg bones rly und<runs dow n th e le g — d e ep ly p laced am on gst the ,ed as rues— to th e cen tre o f th e fron t o f the a n k le ; then as — o ^ x ^ l artery o f th e foot it passes forw ard o ver th e tarsus, d ow n to the so le b etw een th e first and seco n d 0 wjn ita rsa l bones, an d th ere form s with th e plan tar arteries tem bd t ’ s k n o w n as th e p lan tar arch. ourn ** O

(2.) H o w w ou ld you p ro ce ed to exam in e an in se n sib le p e r s o n ; to find o u t th e cau se o f the in se n sib ility ?

^ In p ro ce e d in g to e xa m in e an in se n sib le person, to itcfind out th e cau se o f in se n sib ility :— Note position and surroundings o f patient. \ N o te w h eth er the b o d y is ly in g still, or th ere are h co n v u ls iv e m o vem en ts, and also if th e m o vem en ts are ttl ge n era l or o n ly co n fin ed to one side o f the body. If .e p o ssib le to d o so obtain in fo rm atio n as to history o f illness. 'c A rre st haem orrhage if p resent. L a y p atien t in th e p o sitio n in w h ich b reath in g is m ost ie easy ; th is is u su a lly on the b a ck or in clin e d to one side, ta Notice colour of face— if flushed, raised head and re sh o u ld e rs s lig h tly ; if pale, k e e p th e h ead low. £ Undo all tight clothing at n eck , ch est and w aist— unme fa sten in g the braces an d to p b utto n o f trousers in m en, and fC th e co rsets in w om en , so as to reliev e p ressu re on the air t p assages, lun gs, heart, an d a b d o m in a l organs, ing e j Examine mouth for foreign bo d y, and to see that there d, n ( n o o b stru ctio n to air p assages by the to n gu e or false ery> g ,5th. 3 I gei N o tic e if m o u th be stain ed, in d ica tin g co rro sive d e r tanSon.

AID. —

August, 1914.

N o tic e if m outh draw n to o n e side, in d ica tin g paralysis. N o tic e if b lo o d from m outh, in d ica tin g w ou n d o f m outh or throat, fractured jaw , fractu red ribs, or fractu red base o f skull. N o tic e if froth from m outh, p ro b a b ly m ixed with blood, in d ica tin g epilepsy. Odour o f breath m ay suggest : O p iu m , p ru ssic acid, ca rb o lic acid , a lco h o lic p oison ing, etc. B u t sh o u ld not n ecessarily co n c lu d e th at p atient m ust b e in sen sib le as a result o f drin k, m erely b ecau se the breath m igh t sm ell o f alcoh o l. I f o d o u r or stains lead to p oison ing b ein g susp ected, look round for bo ttle or other vessel. Examine neck for signs o f strangulation or hanging. Provide for a sufficien t su p p ly o f fresh air, by h avin g doors an d w indow s o p en ed if in doors, or by k e ep in g crow d b a ck i f in th e street. Send for doctor as soon as possible, and in m ean w h ile m ake use o f any o th er h elp availab le.

Peel pulse,

w h ich may b e e ith er :—

U n n a tu ra lly slow , as in co m p ressio n and apo p lexy. Q u ick , as in su n stro ke or p tom ain e p oisoning. F e e b le , as in co n cu ssion , syn co p e, sh o ck or co llap se. I f in term itten t (m issing a beat o cca sio n a lly ) or irregular th ere is da n g er o f heart failin g altogether. I f p ulse can n o t be felt, as so m etim es in co llap se, p lace the han d over the heart, or a p p ly ear to the ch est to find out w hether th e heart beats.

Observe whether patient breathes, and th e n ature o f breathing. I f su sp en d ed , m ay in d icate sh o ck (electricity, efc.), ep ilep sy (in early stage), in fan tile co n vu lsio n s, suffocation, stry ch n in e p oison ing, prussic a cid poison ing. I f labou red, m ay in d icate epilepsy, suffocation. I f stertorous, m ay in d icate com p ression , ap o p lexy, opium p oison ing, sun stroke, d eep in to xicatio n . I f feeb le an d shallow , m ay in d ica te co n cu ssio n , syn cop e. I f feeb le and shallow , m ay in d icate sh o ck , dan gerous op iu m p oison ing, in juries to th e chest. I f em otio n al, m ay in d ica te H ysteria. I f difficult, with yaw n ing, sigh in g and m u ch restlessness, m ay in d ica te severe haem orrhage, eith er internal or ex­ ternal. I f panting, m ay in d icate prussic a cid poison ing. Examine eyes. H aem orrhage in to eye b a ll m ay in d icate fractu red base o f skull. P u p ils fixed m ay in d icate com p ression , a p o p lexy, opium , or bella-don n a poison ing. P u p ils u n eq u al m ay in d icate co m p ressio n , ap o p lexy. P u pils d ila te d m ay in d icate b ella-don na, epilepsy, a lc o h o lic poison ing. P u p ils co n tra c te d m ay in d ica te opium , rem ain in g co n ­ tra cted in b righ t light. E y e lid s qu iv er an d resist attem p t to open m ay in d icate hysteria. Examine the scalp, tem p les, and b a ck o f head for in ju ry, ears and n ose for signs o f haem orrhage. Examine the body and. extrem ities for signs o f fractures, d islo catio n s or w ounds. Compare th e tw o sides o f b o d y as to lim p ness or h elp ­ fulness. Notice temperature o f th e skin , also w h eth er it be dry on m oist. T h is m ay be d o n e by p la cin g th e b a ck o f the han d on n ak ed ch est o f patient.


August, 1914

— F I R S T

If a b n o rm ally co ld , th ere m ay be eith er freezing, in to xicatio n , co llap se or fainting. I f very h o t— sun stroke or high fever. I f in doubt as to w hether p atien t is really in sen sible, raise th e eye lid and to u ce w hite o f eye. B lin k in g , w hich ca n n o t be a v o id e d if the person is co n scio u s w ou ld not o ccu r d u rin g in sen sibility. (3.) G iv e the co m p o sitio n o f b lood, an d state how n ature assists in th e arrest o f haemorrhage. Blood consists of:— (i.) A ligh t yello w transp arent liquid ca lled plasm a, in w hich float (ii.) M in u te solid particles, the b lo o d co rp u scles, in enorm ou s num bers. T h e s e co rp uscles are o f tw o kin ds, v i z . :— (a) T h e red co rp u scles, w hich co n tain the co lo u rin g m atter, due to a co m p o u n d o f iron term ed haem oglobin. (b) T h e w hite co rp u scles or len co cy tes, w h ich are larger than th e red, but n ot n early so n um erous. T h e y possess the pow er o f a b so rb in g an d d estro yin g foreign p articles and d isease germ s w hich h ave g a in ed a ccess to th e blood. A m o n g the co n stitu en ts o f b lo o d m ay be m en tio n ed : — W ater, album en , fibrin, fat, salt, sm all q u a n ties o f sugar, extract salivatin g m atter, urea, an d co lo u rin g m atter o f bile. B lo o d possesses th e p ro p erty o f clo ttin g or co a g u la tin g on bein g shed, b e co m in g — after leavin g th e b lo o d v e sse ls— first th ick an d viscid , and then fo rm in g a jelly , w hich in a short tim e becom es firmer, and finally separated} into tw o parts— a p ale yello w a lk a lin e fluid c a lled scrum , an d a solid red m ass term ed the clo t. T h is latter is co m p o se d o f a net work o f fine fibres o f a su b stan ce ca lled fibrin, w ith th e red and w hite co rp u scle s h eld in its m eshes. The natural arrest of hamorrhage is due to this clo ttin g o f the b lood at th e m ouths o f o p en b lo o d vessels ; th e clo ts b lo ck up th e op en ends, an d later on b e co m e organised.

S e p te m b e r C o m p e t it io n . 1st Prize, 5s.

2nd Prize, a yea r’s su b scrip tio n to F i r s t A id . Q u estio n s.

(1) D e s crib e how you w ou ld p ro ce ed to deal w ith a case o f p o iso n in g from un kn ow n cause. fish.

(2) W h ilst bath ing, a person is stun g b y a je lly W h at treatm en t w ou ld yo u g iv e ?

(3) G iv e the signs and sym p to m s o f in ju ry to the liver. C o n d itio n s.

T h e fo llo w in g co n d itio n s m ust be n o te d an d ad h ered

A I D . —

25

Report

of

the

S.J A .B .

F e w can a p p re cia te th e b en efits th e S .J .A .B . co n fe r upon th e gen era l co m m n n ity un til th ey rea lise th a t o v e r 129,000 cases w ere treated d u rin g th e p ast year. T h e s e figures are set in th e rep ort o f th e C h ie f C o m m issio n e r for th e year e n d in g S e p te m b e r 19 1 3 . T h e stren g th o f th e B rig ad e, e x clu siv e o f D iv isio n s m a k in g no rep o rt for th e p eriod u n der review , was 2 5,56 0 co m p a red w ith 23,323 in 19 1 2 , sh o w in g an in cre ase o f 2 ,2 3 7. A s m an y D iv isio n s h ave n o t m ade returns th e in crease is grea ter than the figures show n. A s far as the B rig a d e R e serv e s are co n c e rn e d o ver 10,000 m em bers b e lo n g to e ith er o n e o f th e five R e serve s w hich m em bers o f the B rig a d e are e lig ib le to jo in . The N o . 6 D istrict head s th e list w ith 2 ,10 2 m em b ers on th e R e serve s, the greater m a jo rity b e lo n g in g to V .A .D ., w hereas N o . 4 D istrict co m es s e c o n d — th e g rea ter part o f its m em bers b e lo n g to th e R .N .A .S .B .R ., a n d th e M .H .H .R . It is p o in ted o u t in th e rep o rt th at th e w h o le q u estio n o f A rm y R e serv e s su p p lie d by th e B rig a d e is at p resen t u n d er co n sid e ra tio n . T h e C h ie f C o m m issio n e r in sp e cte d rep resen ta tive units in each o f th e d istricts d u rin g the year, a n d he says : — “ I h a ve b een very fa v o u ra b ly im p ressed w ith the ge n era l im p ro v em e n t in th e a lrea d y e x c e lle n t stan d a rd o f e fficie n cy and gen era l to n e o f the m a jority o f th e o fficers and m em bers I h a ve thus co m e in co n ta ct w ith. T h is m ay be in part d u e to th e v a lu a b le lesso n s o f the R o y a l R e v ie w o f 19 1 2 , and its effect on th e esprit de corps e x istin g in th e B r ig a d e .” T h e rep ort o f th e L a d y -S u p t.-in -C h ie f an d th e D e p u ty C o m m issio n e r o f e ach d istrict is e n tire ly sa tisfa cto ry and in e ach m ention is m ad e o f th e lo y a l co -o p eratio n o f a ll th e officers. T h e rep o rt o f th e C h ie f C o m m is s io n e r o f the B rig a d e O verseas, M a jo r-G e n e ra l D a lto n , states :— “ T h e year u n der review has b een o n e o f stea d y p ro gress a n d has in m any w ays illu stra te d th e great v a lu e in o ur O ve rsea s d o m in io n s o f a train ed b o d y o f a m b u la n ce w orkers. T h e r e has been u n fo rtu n ate ly in m an y o f o ur co lo n ie s a te n d e n c y to lab ou r un rest, an d co n se q u e n t p u b lic d istu rb a n ces w h ich has led in so m e cases to serio u s rio tin g an d b lo o d sh ed . In every ca se the m em bers o f th e B rig a d e — bo th m ale an d fem a le — h a ve show n a h ig h spirit o f patriotism a n d h a ve g iv en th eir services w ith th e b est results, o ften at co n sid e ra b le risk. T h e stren gth o f th e B rig a d e O verseas, ca lc u la te d from the returns, re ce iv e d up to S e p te m b e r 30th, was 4 ,6 1 9 m em bers, co m p ared w ith 3 ,5 5 5 in 1 9 1 2 , an in cre ase o f 1,064. In d ia h ead s th e list w itn an in crease o f 298. T h e C h ie f C o m ­ m issioner an d th e L a d y -S u p t.-in -C h ie f o f th e B rig a d e O ve rsea s rep o rt satisfacto ry p rogress in e ach co lo n y .

'• to :— M S.S. must be written on one side o f the paper only. T h ere is no restriction as to length o f answers, but sam e should not be unduly extended.

[

Com petitors must cut out the “ Com petition Coupon1' from the current issue, and fill in their nam es and addressT h eir nam es must not appear on their papers. T h e E ditor reserves the right to publish any paper submitted to competition. A n y paper selected for pub­ lication will be regarded as the property o f the E ditor, who does not guarantee to return any o f them, neither does he hold him self responsible for any papers lost. Entries in this com petition will close on Sept. ioth, 1914, and all matter must by that date be in the hands o f the E ditor F i r s t A i d Offices, 46, Cannon-street, London, E .C ., and the envelope m arked “ Com petition ”

M essrs. H . S im o n is & C o ., o f P a rk R o y a l, W ille sd en , N .W ., in form us th at th ey h a ve a la rge sto c k o f “ L X . R . ” fittin gs

rea d y

to

m eet

an y

d em an d .

The

“ L .X .R .”

app aratu s co n sists o f a n u m b er o f rods p a c k e d a n d w h ich can, in th e sp ace o f a few

togeth er,

m in utes,

be put

to g e th er an d form an a b so lu te ly rig id fram e th at ca n give a cc o m m o d a tio n u sefu ln ess

of

for four th ese

stretch ers

fittin gs

m ust

o f any be

type.

o b v io u s

The to

all,

e sp e cia lly railw ay co m p an ies w ho are fittin g up h o sp ita l trains.


26

X=Ray

— F I R S T

Photographs By

Dr.

R.

T.

of

Fractu res. -II.

H A L L ID A Y ,

P h y sicia n to the G la sg o w P o lic e F o rce an d F ire B r ig a d e ; L ie u t.-C o lo n e l, R .A .M .C .( T .F .) . T h e first tw o skiagram s o f fractu red b o n es represent o rd in ary o b liq u e fractures o f th e leg. In th e first o f th ese

AID. —

August, 1914.

go n e the le g w ill b e shorten ed. T h is w ill b e e v id e n t from th e p osition o f th e ends in the p icture. T h e great lesson to be learn ed from th ese tw o sk ia ­ gram s, how ever, is th e m anifest dan g er w h ich m ay result from an y u n sk illed in terferen ce. In each ca se there is a sharp -p oin ted fragm ent o f bon e no m ore than co ve re d by th e soft tissues. T h e least attem p t at m o vem en t o f the lim b w ill cau se furth er m ischief. I f th e p atient is allo w ed to stan d w ith su ch an injury, the result w ou ld be disastrous. T h e sharp p oin t in eith er ca se w ould at o n ce

\From Skiagraphic Atlas, bv D 1 . D. /. Mackintosh, M. V.O. S k ia g r a m

of

the fracture is o f the tib ia on ly, th e fibu la rem ain in g intact. A s a result w e find no d isp la ce m e n t o f th e fra ctu re d ends o f th e tibia, th e fibu la a ctin g as a sp lin t to k e e p th ese ends in p o sitio n an d thus p reven tin g th e u sual d efo rm ity. In th e se co n d illu stratio n bo th b o n es are b ro k en , alth ou gh o w in g to th e p o sitio n from w hich th e skiagram is taken th e fibu la ca n n o t be m ad e out. B u t th ere is m ore d e ­ fo rm ity in this case, an d th e sup po rt o f the fibu la b ein g

F ractured

T ib ia .

be run throu gh th e soft tissues and a sim p le fracture would b e tran sform ed into th e m uch m ore d an g ero u s co m p o u n d fracture. T h is is q u ite e vid e n t from th e p o sitio n o f the fragm ents in th e skiagram . In su ch a ca se th e first aid et m ust fix th e lim b w ith sp lin ts befo re rem oval, an d ir d o in g so m ust m an ip u late th e leg very ca refu lly, anc on n o a cco u n t a ttem p t e ven to e licit crep itu s b; m o vin g th e b ro k en en d s o f th e bo n e. T h e re is s<


— F I R S T

August, 1914

27

A I D -

little co verin g for the sharp p o in t— in front in the first case, and b eh in d in th e se co n d — that very little m o vem en t is required to m ake th e fracture co m p o u n d . In the first picture the fragm ents are in p osition for N a tu re to begin her process o f r e p a ir ; th e ends are a lread y set. In the seco n d there is d eform ity w hich the first aider m ust n ot try to adjust. I f he p revents any further m isch ie f th e rem ainder can be left for the surgeon.

Gunshot

W ounds.

w ou nds are p ierced an d o ften torn w o u n d s . L ik e o th er w ou nds, th ey sh o u ld be treated by c h e c k in g b lee d in g, re m o vin g su p erficial dirt, a p p ly in g a n tisep tic co m p resses, a n d lastly, sp lin ts to p re v e n t u n n ecessa ry m o vem en ts. O fte n th e b le e d in g from th ese w o u n d s is very sligh t, an d is c h e c k e d by the sim p le p ressu re o f th e dressings. T h e r e is a p t to be m u ch d ep ressio n an d o th er G unshot

{To be continued).

{From Skiagraphic Atlas , by D r. D. /. Mackintosh, M. V. 0 . S k ia g r a m

ot

F racture

C h a m o is skin has been fo un d useful both in the p re­ ven tio n and treatm en t o f bed-sores. I t is a p p lied w ith its softer sid e to th e area o f th e skin a ffected or th reaten ed , an d acts as a b etter p ro tectio n than bed-rings or o th er p arap h ern alia with th e e x ce p tio n o f th e w ater-bed. If a la rge p iece is used, the p atien t can c o n v e n ie n tly b e lifted b y it.— Nurses' Journal of the Pacific Coast.

W hen corresponding w ith A d vertisers p lease m en ­ tion “ F ir st ASd.”

of

isoth

B ones

of

L eg.

sym p to m s o f sh o ck , w h ich sh o u ld be t r e a t e d by h ot d r i n k s a n d h o t d ry fo m en tatio n s. T h e b u lle t is a p t to b e th e so u rce o f m uch a n x ie ty to th e u n in itia ted . O rd in arily , th e re is n o d a n g er w h atever in th e p re se n ce o f a b u lle t in th e tissues. It is th e w ou nd m a d e b y th e b u lle t th at bo th ers us. T h e r e are th o u sa n d s o f m en w alk in g a b o u t th e c o u n try to -d ay w ith b u llets in th eir bo dies, w h ich are n o t o f th e least tro u b le to them . A sh o t w ou nd, th en , s h o u ld b e tre ate d lik e an o rd in ary w ou n d , an d w ith o u t rega rd to th e p re se n ce o f th e bullet.


28

— F I R S T

T h e S .J . A , B . has th e cred it o f b ein g the first to b e ca lled

The

n a v a l reserves w ere th e first to be ca lled upon, and, w hen it th at

m any

of

th e

m em bers

of

the

R .N .A .S .B .R . w ere a w a y from th eir hom es, it reflects the grea test c red it that th ey we all at their o rd ered stations 36 hours after m o b ilizatio n . _ T h is n ecessita ted sen d in g tele ­ gram s to e ach m an an d th e h ead qu arters staff w ere kep t bu sy in to th e late hours o f the night.

P rin c e

of

W a le s ’s an d

w e w ere

sp e a k in g

Supts. th e and

C o rp s

th ey

o th er

th e y all

o ver day,

seem

o f g a in in g a

g re a t

are

seem

at

to

the

in

be

h a vin g

M illb an k

w ith galvan ised co rru gated iron and lin ed w ith sh eetin g.

T h e cen tral office o f the

w ill be at the c h ie f station o f the p ro p o sed

to

order

im m ed iately

asbestos

A m b u la n c e F ire

th ree

S e rv ice

B rigad e. th o u san d

It

is

tablets

w ith a letter “ A ” in red on a w hite groun d, w hich are to

be

fixed

to

buildin gs,

the

ow ners

w h ich w ill allow p o lic e officers a ccess

or to

o ccu p ie rs the

of

telep h o n e

for th e p urp ose o f sum m o n in g th e am bulan ce.

ran ks

a m p le

o f k n o w le d ge .

R a ilw a y C o m p a n y h a ve expeciti-

w ou n ded.

of

the

m ated to th e co m p an y that th ey w ou ld require im m ed iately

S ergt-M ajo r,

an a m b u la n ce train with a cco m m o d a tio n for 100 patients

one

as

T h e N o rth B ritish

ou sly fitted up an a m b u la n ce train for the co n v e y a n ce o f

spirits

ch eerfu l

tele p h o n e to now

d eal

R e serve s o f the

p resen t at

be

he

to

th e

* * *

great n u m b er o f th e M .H .H .

B a rrack s

that

a m b u la n ce station sh o u ld be a b u ild in g o f w ood co vered

* * * The

In five cases new

b u ild in gs w ill be required, and it is su gg ested

upon to g iv e a ssistan ce to both the arm y and navy. co n sid e re d

August, 1914.

d isab le m e n t and repairs is p ro vid ed .

B revities.

is

AID. —

o p p o rtu n ities A ll

th e

o th er

On

A u g u st 8th the m ilitary

au th o rities

in ti­

and for officers, orderlies, and nurses to th e n u m b er o f a b o u t 20.

T h e m atter was p erso n a lly taken in h an d by

m em b ers o f th e reserve, 2.000 in all, w ith the exce p tio n o f

M r. W h itelaw , th e ch airm an o f th e directors, an d the w ork

th e

was carried on so rap id ly that th e train, w hich was a dap ted

450

w ho

h a ve

v o lu n te e d

for foreign

service,

are

statio n ed at th e m ilitary h o sp itals th ro u gh o u t th e coun try,

from existin g sto ck , was co m p lete d the fo llo w in g day.

w e shall, no d o u b t, be h a vin g new s from them w hen they

was exam in ed b y M a jo r N ico l, m ed ical officer, w ho said

are settled d o w n in th eir n ew surroun dings.

that it was a d m ira b ly suited for th e p urp ose desired.

*

The

vans, w h ich are e ach a b o u t 60 ft. in len gth , h a ve been

*

*

It

cle an ed and d isin fected , and will perm it o f m attresses bein g

O f n ece ssity all th e cam p s and o th er arran gem en ts o f

th e S .J .A .B . h a v e b een ca n ce lled , as, n ot o n ly are m any

laid on the floors. steam

heatin g.

T h e y are fitted w ith e le ctric ligh t and In th e k itch e n car, w h ich is situated in

D iv isio n s \ . A . D . ’s and others, but m any m em bers belon g

th e ce n tre o f th e train, b e e f tea, etc., c o u ld be prepared,

to o n e o f the reserves.

a nd, if n ecessary, fo o d for the attendan ts.

V A

letter

A

large red

cross has been p la ce d on the side o f each carriage.

The

train has been rem o ved to L e ith C e n tral Statio n , w here it

app ears in this issue on th e serious co n se ­

q u e n ce s w h ich resu lted in th e re-dressing o f a w ound.

In

this p articu lar ca se w e d o n ot kn o w w h eth er the in d ivid u a l

was fitted by th e m ed ical auth o rities w ith the n ecessary app lian ces. * * *

was a S .J .A .B . m em ber, but in an y case, it is laid dow n in th e gen eral regu latio n s that n o re-dressing is to b e done,

The

hosp ital ship “ M a in e ,” w hich ran agro u n d on

a n d this ca se sh o u ld p ro ved an e xa m p le to n on -B rigad e

th e Isla n d o f M u ll, was d ism a n tled last m onth, efforts to

m en o f the serious co n se q u e n ce s w h ich m ay arise o f their

salve her h avin g been a b a n d o n e d by th e A d m ira lty.

u n d e rta k in g such a task.

was 27 years old, and in view o f this age and presen t value, an d after co n sid eratio n o f th e p ro b a b le co st o f salving the

ir * * It

now

seem s

h ig h ly

ship and tow in g her to a port for repairs, to geth er w ith the

p ro b a b ly

th at

th e

London

C o u n ty C o u n c il’s A m b u la n c e S e rv ice w ill be in op eration b y th e en d o f th e

year.

Sh e

N in e m otor a m b u la n ces h ave

very h e av y e xp en d itu re that w ou ld n ecessa rily be in cu rred in m akin g her seaw orth y and fit to resum e her duties for fleet h o sp ital w ork, it was d e c id e d to secu re the stores and

a lrea d y been o rdered, and th e co n stru ctio n o f them is be­

p o rtab le articles

in g p ro ce e d e d w ith rap id ly.

m em b ered that the “ M a in e ” was su b scrib e d for by the

o f th e first a m b u la n ce a m b u la n ce station s h ave

It is h o p ed that the d e live ry

w ill

b e m ade in

been

sele cted ,

O cto b e r. th ese

Six

b ein g

at

and

a b an d o n

the

hull.

I t w ill be re­

w om en o f A m erica , and p resen ted to the n ation by the A tla n tic T ra n sp o rt C o m p a n y d u rin g th e B o e r war.

To

N o rth E n d -ro ad , F u lh a m ; H erb ran d -street, E usto n -ro ad ;

p reserve th ese m em ories, th e “ M e d ia to r,” w h ich is now

th e

fitting o u t as an a d d itio n a l hosp ital ship, and w ill be co m ­

B o u n d a ry -street

a n d C a stle , hill.

In

th e

E state,

N e w in g to n ; six

S h o r e d it c h ;

H ig h -ro a d ,

statio n s

vid e d for seven a m b u la n ces,

th e

Lee;

E lep h a n t

and B rixton-

a cco m m o d a tio n w ill w h ich

be in a ctiv e service sim u tan eo u sly. n in e a m b u la n ce s it is felt that an

w ill

not

be

n ecessa rily

B y th e p u rch ase a d eq u a te

p leted as soon as p ossible, w ill be re-nam ed “ M a in e .”

p ro ­

m argin

of for

W h en corresponding; w ith A d vertisers plea* m ention “ F irst A id .”


August, 1914-

— F I R S T

W AR M r. A . T . A k e ro y d , o f Ilk ley , w rites su gg estin g that lo ca l authorities in each tow n or d istrict sh o u ld ca ll a p u b lic m eeting and enrol as N a tio n al C iv il G ja r d s all m em bers o f the co m m u n ity betw een 15 an d 55 w ho are not en gaged in other p u b lic service. T h e s e G uards, he urges, should assist to safeguard the d istrict in w hich they live, un dergo elem en tary m ilitary training, jo in a lo cal R ifle C lu b , and a branch o f the S .J .A .A . T h e w ou nded sailors from th e A m p h io n arrived at C h ath a m , on A u g u st 10th, in m otor a m b u la n ce s w hich w ere form erly L o n d o n om n ibuses. T h e y w ere tak en to the tem p orary hospital in M ilitary-road. T h e p u b lic elem en tary sch o o l cu rricu lu m sh o u ld be altered on th e resum p tion o f w ork after the h o lid ays ; the girls to be tau ght first aid, nursing, co o k e ry , h yg ie n e, & c., and th e boys a m b u la n ce w ork, co o k e ry , sp licin g, tentpitch in g, and b icyclin g. B o th sexes to learn sw im m in g .— E m i l y L . T a y l o r , B in co m b e S ch o o l, D o rch ester. Dr. E. L lo y d O w en, o f the St. Joh n A m b u la n c e A sso cia tio n and the B ritish R e d C ro ss S o cie ty , w riting from C riccieth , suggests that a room or co u p le c f room s, or a vacan t h ouse sh o u ld be secu red in every tow n and village for co n su ltatio n purposes on m atters a p p ertain in g to the war. T h e B ritish R e d C ro ss S o cie ty is h o ld in g m eetin gs at St. J am es’s P a la ce in co n n e ctio n with its w ork. Local m eetings are also b ein g h e l d ; at the M a n sio n H o u s e a m eeting was presid ed o ver by th e L a d y M ayoress. At C h ich este r a m eeting was ca lled by L a d y M arch . The S o cie ty asks esp ecially for w om en w ho can sp eak F re n c h and G erm an , for they m ust be prepared to serve in a n y part o f E uro pe. T h e Sin ger C o m p a n y h ave len t a large n u m ber o f their sew ing m achin es to the B ritish R e d C ro ss S o c ie ty for use in the various bran ches th ro u gh o u t th e co u n try A p p lica tio n s for m achin es sh o u ld be m ade d irect to the S in ger C o m p a n y , 42, St. P a u l’s C h u rch y a rd , L o n d o n , E C . It is p articu larly req u ested that lad ies o rg an isin g w ork parties sh o u ld em p lo y sem ptresses, blouse-m akers, & c., w ho are tem p orarily out o f w ork ow in g to th e presen t crisis. T h e D u ch ess o f Som erset has allo w ed 35, G rosven orsquare to be used as a W e st E n d D e p o t for th e re ce ip t o f clo th in g, hosp ital and o th er gifts n ow b ein g c o lle c te d by the A m b u la n ce D ep artm en t o f the O rd e r o f St. J oh n o f Jerusalem , and has u n d ertak en to forw ard them to the St. Joh n A m b u la n ce W arehouse, 56, St. Tohn’s-square C lerk en w ell, E C . T h e Q u e e n has gracio u sly a cce p te d the p o sitio n o f P resid en t o f a C o m m ittee o f L a d ie s o f Justice, L a d ie s of G ra ce, and H o n o ra ry A sso cia tes o f th e O rd e r o f the H o sp ita l o f St. Joh n o f Jerusalem in E n g la n d . T h is . C o m m ittee will m eet for th e p urp ose o f p ro vid in g ho sp ital -an d m ed ical com forts for the w ou n d ed d u rin g th e cam aign . A m o n g st th o se on the C o m m itte e are A d e lin e juchess o f B ed fo rd , th e D u ch e ss o f Som erset, th e D u ch e ss

A I D

29

ITEMS. o f B u ck in g h a m , th e C o u n te s s o f Y a rb o ro u g h , th e C o u n te ss o f D u d le y , C o u n te s s B e au ch am p , V is c o u n te s s E sh e r, V is co u n te s s F a lk la n d , L a d y J e k y ll, an d L a d y Perrott. S ir A rth u r S lo g g ett, D irecto r-G e n e ra l o f the A rm y M e d ic a l S erv ice, w ish es it to be clearly u n d e rsto o d th at the W ar O ffice c a n n o t u n d e rta k e to u tilise an y h o sp ital un less it is sp e cia lly a p p ro v ed by th e B ritish R e d C ro ss S o cie ty . T h e r e has been a great rush o f w om en o f all classes to jo in th e vario u s d iv isio n s o f th e C o u n ty o f L o n d o n B ran ch , B .R .C .S ., C r a ig ’s C o u r t H o u se , W h ite h a ll, S .W ., e ith er for n eed lew o rk , or o rd in ary h o u se h o ld w ork, in w h atever tem ­ p o rary hosp itals m ay be organ ised in th e future. T h e B ra n ch is en d e a v o u rin g to arran ge th e utilisatio n o f all th ese vo lu n tee rs by esta b lish in g e m e rg e n cy classes in first aid and hom e n ursin g, w hich are filled to over-flow ing, and by o rgan isin g w o rk in g parties in co n n e ctio n w ith the d ifferen t d ivisio n s o f th e bran ch. T h e d e ta ch m en ts are e n g ag ed in ren d erin g th e m selve s as efficient as p ossible. M r. C . B. P alm er, w ho has been a p p o in te d C o u n ty D ire cto r for N o rth u m b erla n d in the p la ce o f C a p ta in C u th b e rt, D . S .O , w ho has been ca lled up for se rv ice has issued th e fo llo w in g o rders :— N o d e ta ch m en t is to be m o b ilised for service, or m ake requ isition on th e E d u c a tio n A u th o rity for th e use o f sch o o ls to be fitted as tem p o rary hosp itals, w ith o u t d irect orders from th e C o u n ty D irecto r. N o brassards are to be worn, e x ce p t th ose o f the a u th o r­ ised pattern issu ed by the W ar office. T h e s e brassards w ill be issu ed to co m m a n d an ts o f d e ta ch m en ts by th e C o u n ty D ire cto r on ly, w ith in stru ctio n s as to th eir issu e to th e m em bers, and are o n ly sent to d e ta ch m en ts ca lle d up for service b y proper a u th o rity — th at is, by the C o u n ty D irecto r. S trict d iscip lin e m ust be m aintained, an d u n au th o rised m o b ilisatio n o f d e ta ch m en ts, h o w ever p raisew orth y th e in ten tio n m ay be, o n ly leads to co n fu sio n an d o verla p p in g. T h e c o llectio n o f stores n ecessa ry for th e care o f the sick and w ou nded, so that th e y m ay b e a v a ila b le for th e use o f any d e ta ch m en ts w h ich is ca lle d up for service, is th e best o u tlet for th e very grea t e n ergy an d w illin gn ess n ow b ein g show n th ro u gh o u t th e co u n try. E x c e lle n t organ isatio n w ork is b ein g d o n e b y th e m en an d w om en co n n e cte d w ith th e St. J o h n A m b u la n c e A s s o ­ cia tio n , w hose h ead qu arters are at St. J o h n ’s G ate, C le r k e n ­ w ell. F irst aid and h o m e n ursin g classes w ill soon be gen eral all over th e co u n try. W o m e n are th row in g th em ­ selves in to th e w ork w ith keen en thusiasm , an d very sh o rtly th e o u tp u t o f garm en ts for the so ld iers w ill b e enorm ou s. T h e Q u e e n h a vin g a c c e p te d th e p re sid en cy o f Q u e e n M a ry ’s R o y a l N a v a l H o sp ita l, So u th en d -o n -S ea , has s a n c ­ tio n e d an ap p eal to the E m p ire in her n am e for fun ds to su p p o rt the hosp ital. D o n a tio n s and su b scrip tio n s sh o u ld be sen t to L a d y W ilb rah am , h o n . treasurer, 26, L o w e r S lo an e-street, S .W ., or to M essrs. C o u tts & C o ., 440, S tran d , W .C . R e c e n t su bscrip tio n s re ce iv e d at D e v o n s h ire H o u s e in clu d e ^ '5 ,0 0 0 from L o r d Iv ea g h , an d ,£ 1,0 0 0 from M r. H u g h M o rrison , o f 53, C o le m an -stre et, E .C .


— F I R S T

T h e E m e r g e n c ie s of th e B attlefield . I n no p lace is the d em an d for p rom p t atten tio n to em er­ ge n cies greater than on th e battlefield. W ith the progress o f civ ila satio n , efforts to m eet this d em an d h a ve grow n m ore system atic, until at the presen t tim e aid to the

AID. —

on d u ty at that point. H e re th e m ed ical officers a n d co m ­ pan y bearers w ith th e R .A .M .C ., w hen it shall h ave arrived at th a tp o in t, tak e m easures to prevent im m ed iate dan g erfro m w ou nds ; not. how ever, attem p tin g an y o p eration . T h o s e cases w h ich d em an d im m ed iate o p erative a ctio n are d esig­ n ated by a b ad ge w h ich is a tta ch ed to th e clo th in g by the first m edical officer in to w hose hands th ey m ay com e. T h e s e receive first a tten tio n at th e dressing station. Im m ed ia te da n g er h a vin g been tem p orarily forestalled by the atten tio n given on the line o f battle, th e bearers p lace th e w ou n d ed upon stretch ers an d carry them b a ck to th e n ext p oin t. T h e n ext p oint o f re lie f as w ell as the rem ain in g poin ts is lo cate d b y th e m edical d irecto r o f th e A rm y C o rp s or th e senior m ed ical officer present. I t is the first dressing station, and is situated as near th e lin e o f battle as possible, con sisten t w ith safety. W h en th e troops are fighting b eh in d fortified works it m ay be on the lin e o f b attle itself. T o this p oin t are bro u gh t or sen t all w ou n ded m en. H e re are perform ed all urgent op era­ tions and here th e w ou n ded are prepared for co n v e y a n ce to the field hospitals,

M ajor Richardson, with his am bulance dogs, left for Belgium on A ugust 18th. Both the French and Belgium Arm ies have his trained dogs to search for the wounded. in ju red is ren d ered by th o ro u g h ly organ ised co rp s co n sistin g o f (1 ) m ed ical officers, (2) co m p a n y bearers, (3) arm y m ed ical corps, (4) civ ilia n s assistants, w hich are organ ised th rou gh th e p ro p er sources. T h e m ed ical officers co m ­ p rise all th ose c o n n e cte d with an arm y, and in clu d e (1 ) th e surgeon s an d assistant-surgeons a tta ch e d to regim en ts and (2) th e m ed ical officers o f the gen eral staff, w ho a d m in ister the field and hospitals, & c. T h e co m p an y bearers are certain privates o f th e line, w ho, in ad d itio n to their m ilitary duties, are in stru cted in first aid and th e tran s­ p o rt o f w ou n ded. T h e s e m en are n ot d e ta ch e d from th eir co m p an ies, and b ein g presen t in th e lin e o f b attle, n atu rally bear the bu rd en o f im m e d iate a id to th e w ou n d ed . T h e R .A .M .C . is a d istin ct organ isation, co n sistin g o f m en w hose duties are lim ited en tirely to san itary w ork and th e care and transp ort o f the w ou nded, to geth er w ith c o lle c t­ in g th e w o u n d ed d u rin g an d after action . T h e w ork o f th e R .A .M .C . in th e field is a tte n d e d w ith so m e im m u n ity by the p ro visio n s o f the A rticle s o f the G e n e v a C o n v e n tio n . T h e A rticle p ro vid e for the n eu trality o f field an d p erm an en t hospitals, o f all their atten d an ts and o f th e m em bers o f th e R .A .M .C . A flag h avin g a R e d C ro ss on a w hite field ensures th e safety o f hospitals, w hile a w hite brassard on th e left arm b earin g a red cross, protects th e m em bers o f th e R .A .M C . D u rin g an en g ag em en t and until re lie f o f an R .A .M .C . d e ta ch m en t the co m p an y bearers ren d er first aid on the

line of battle under the supervision of the medical officer

August, 1914.

T h e im p o rtan ce o f this station is re co g­ n ised b y the surgeon o f th e presen t day, am o n g w hom the ch aracter o f the first dress­ ing is co n sid ered to be o f param ou nt im port­ an ce. W h e n ce th e n ecessity o f surgical assistan ce at this point, am p le both in am ount ancj jn skill, w ill be evid en t. T h e first dressing station is estab lish ed early during the en g ag em en t by th e R .A .M .C .,

A n am bulance dog barking to attract bearers. care bein g taken not to lo cate it at a p oint w here it w ill be in way of th e manoeuvres o f the com batan ts. W h en the line o f battle is o f co n sid e ra b le length, an d large bodies o f troop s are en gaged , there are a n um ber o f th ese statious, varyin g acco rd in g to th e n ecessities o f the case. T n e w ou nded havin g re ce ive d proper im m ed iate a tten ­ tion they are transported to the field hospitals. In rem o v­ ing a man care is taken to sen d with him his arm s alnd acco u trem en ts. !


August, 1914

— r 1 K b

T h e three points en u m erated all are near th e line o f battle, and are in clu d e d in the phrase as th e first lin e o f m ed ical assistan ce. T h e fourth p oin t is the field h o sp ital or d iv isio n al hospital, still further to th e rear. T h e field hosp itals form the seco n d line o f m ed ical assistan ce. T h e y are lo ca te d b y the m ed ical d irecto r at poin ts d e cid e d upon in co n su lta ­ tion w ith th e co m m a n d in g gen eral. A field h o sp ital is m ore p erm an ently organised, and here th e duties are mul-

V .A .D .’s preparing mattresses.

A I D. — a ffect th e n atu re o f th e w ou n d s in flicte d , th e m e th o d o f th eir tre atm e n t, an d th e su rro u n d in gs in w h ich it has to b e ca rried out. N a v a l m e d ica l officers h ad to re co g n ise th a t m an-of-w ar was a figh tin g m ach in e an d co u ld n ot by a n y p ro cess o f in g en u ity be tu rn ed in to a flo a tin g h o sp ita l. A rra n g e m e n ts m ad e on b e h a lf o f the w o u n d e d had, th e re ­ fore, h a d to be su b servie n t to figh tin g e fficien cy. T h e first step s h o u ld be the o rgan isatio n o f an e fficien t first aid party e sp e cia lly in stru cted in th e h a n d tran sp o rt o f w ou n d ed m en. F irst aid, usually so-called, m ust be carried out in d ressin g station s u n d er cover. T h e dan gers o f p rim ary haem orrhage w ere rare and far less than that o f sepsis from co n ta m in atio n o f th e w ou n d b y the so iled han ds o f th e bearer party. It was im p o s­ sib le to e x p ec t m en, in th e co n fu sio n and hu rry o f fightin g, to e xa m in e in ju ries ca re­ fu lly an d a p p ly d ressin gs sk ilfu lly . E a rly rem o val by sk illed bearers was th e first requisite. D ressin g station s w ere fitted up in th e larger ships, but it was d ifficu lt even in th ese to get situ atio n s easy o f a ccess, p ro tecte d b y a rm o u r and n o t to o h o t ; these d ifficu lties w ere a cce n tu a te d in sm aller craft. Su rgeo n s an d w ou n d ed sh o u ld n ot b e to o m uch k e p t togeth er, but sca ttered as m uch as p o ssible. In ships to o sm all to carry a surgeon he su gg ested th at th ree or four o f th e crew sh o u ld be care fu lly train ed in first a id by sh o rt sp ells o f w ork in n aval h osp itals. A fte r an a ctio n

tifarious, and co n sist o f arran gin g the beds for th e w ou nded, assisting th e surgeon s in op eratin g and a p p lyin g dressings, a d m in is­ tering stim ulants to this man and sedatives to that one, carin g for the b e lo n gin gs o f th e patients and m aintainin g o rder in th e hospital. T h e field hosp itals are n ece s­ sarily tem porary in character, and the sick and w ou n ded require m ore p erm an en t quarters for their ultim ate treatm ent. T h ese are fo un d in th e th ird lin e o f m edical assistance, w hich co n sist o f th e stationary hospitals in th e extrem e rear, and in clu d es the gen eral hosp itals lo cate d in the vicin ity o f the base o f o p eratio n s and still further to th e rear, and in clu d e hosp ital ships, etc F rom th e field hosp itals to the base hosp itals V .A .D .’s are em p lo y ed in certain duties in co n ju n ctio n w ith the R .A .M .C . In this w ay is p ro vid ed a co m p lete system o f treatm en t for th e sick and w ou nded, co verin g the en tire p erio d from their fall in th e b attlefield to their reco very and discharge from the gen eral hospital. Im provising an am bulance w aggon.

Naval

W arfare.

A t th e present ju n ctu re a paper read at th e ann ual m eetin g o f the B ritish M e d ica l A sso cia tio n by F le e t S u rgeo n D. W a lk e r H ew itt, on the treatm ent o f w ou n ded in n aval w ar­ fare, has sp ecial interest. H e p oin ted out th e d ifferen ces that exist b etw een the co n d itio n s o f war on sea an d on la n d — d ifferen ces w hich

w ell-equ ip p ed h o sp ital ships w ere a n ecessity , an d rem o val o f w o u n d ed from ship to ship sh o u ld be fre q u en tly p ractised in p eace, so that d e la y m igh t n ot be ca u sed in war.

W H E N C O R R E SPO N D IN G W IT H A D V E R ­ T ISE R S P L E A S E M ENTIO N “ F IR S T AID."


- F I R S T

32

A I D. -

A ugust

1914

BRITISH RED CROSS SOCIETY.

N otes

and

News.

T h i s m on th m arks the 50th an n iversary o f the first in tern a tio n al co n ve n tio n w h ich was h eld at G en ev a. The a ctu al sign ing o f th e treaty was on the 22nd o f A u gu st, 1864. T w e n ty -fiv e co u n tries were rep resen ted, o u t o f w h ich grew th e organ isatio n and reco gn ition o f p erm an en t R e d C ro ss so cieties th ro u gh o u t th e w orld. T h e rules o f in tern atio n al law w hich w ere fram ed by th e co n ve n tio n w ere :— 1st. T h a t e ach go v ern m en t exten d its san ctio n , a u th o rity an d p ro tectio n to san itary co m ­ m issions an d th eir re lie f corps. 2nd. T h a t in tim e o f war th e p rivilege o f n eu trality be exte n d e d to am b u la n ce s, m ilitary hospitals, officials and atta ch es o f th e m ed ical services, regu lars and vo lu n teers, to nurses and to th e in h ab itan ts in th e th eatre o f war w ho sh o u ld re ce ive an d ca re for th e w ou n d ed in th eir houses. 3rd. T h a t the un iversal in sign ia an d flag o f persons, officials an d vo lu n teers, w h o m ight assist in the care o f the w o u n d ed in w ar, and o f a m b u la n ce s and hosp itals in all arm ies be “ a w hite flag or a ban d w ith a red cro ss.” T h e cross its e lf was n ot o th erw ise d escrib ed .

It is a cu rio u s c o in cid e n t that w ith the 50th an n i­ versary o f th e R e d C ro ss S o cie ty that E u ro p e sh o u ld be e n g ag ed in o n e o f the m ost terrible wars in history. So far as our ow n R e d C ro ss organ isation is co n cern ed , th e w ork o f arran gin g for th e care o f th e sick and w ou n d ed has been a ctiv e ly pressed forw ard, and various co m m ittees h ave b een a p p o in te d to d eal w ith th e d ifferen t asp ects o f th e organ isation. * * * Q u e e n A lex an d ra, as P resid e n t o f th e B .R .C .S ., early in th e m on th issued th e fo llo w in g ap p eal to the n ation :— “ A war has been fo rced upon us greater and m ore terrib le even than th e N a p o le o n ic wars w h ich d evastated E u ro p e o n e h u n d red years ago. “ T h o u s a n d s o f our brave sailors an d soldiers are stan d in g rea d y to d e fe n d B rita in ’s shores an d to u p h o ld her hon our. T h e ir sufferings w ill b e great an d it is to us th at th ey w ill lo o k for co m fo rt an d relief. T h a t co m fo rt m ust n ot be d e n ie d them . “ A s P resid e n t o f th e B ritish R e d C ro ss S o c ie ty I a p p ea l for your help. I d o it k n o w in g th at you will respon d to this ap p eal in th e n am e o f hu m an ity. M u ch m on ey w ill b e n ee d e d an d m an y gifts if we are faith fu lly to d isch a rg e o ur trust an d be a b le to say w hen all is over that we h ave d o n e all we c o u ld d o for th e co m fo rt a u d re lie f o f our sick a n d w ou n ded. “ T h e heart o f th e great B ritish N a tio n w ill surely an d g e n ero u sly go o u t to th o se w ho are so g a lla n tly u p h o ld in g th e ca u se o f th eir co u n try .”

T h is ap p eal m et w ith a sp o n tan eo u s respon se, m ansions and steam yach ts for ho sp ital purposes, and m otor cars are bein g p lace d at the d isp osal o f the S o cie ty , and h elp o f all kin ds is forthcom in g. * * *

U p to the tim e o f w riting th ese notes no d ecisio n has been arrived at by th e W ar O ffice as to the tak in g over o f th e V .A .D .’s, th ey are all m o b ilised read y for any ca ll upon them and great a ctiv ity is go in g on all o ver th e co u n try in co n vertin g sch o o ls and o th er b u ild in g in to tem porary hosp itals an d p ro vid in g stores an d o th er requirem ents. In co m p arison w ith o th er nations, our organ isatio n o f vo lu n tary aid has re ce ive d m uch harsh criticism , but in this ca se o f n atio n al em erge n cy o ur m en an d w om en h a v e e x ce e d e d all exp ectatio n s. * *

*

T h o s e w ho h ave n ot alread y som e p lace in th e organ i­ sation can b est serve at th e presen t tim e by jo in in g a d e ta ch m en t in their n e igh b o u rh o o d . T h e r e is room in m any d eta ch m en ts for th o se w ho h ave a qualification.

A ll the w ork o f the S o cie ty is b ein g carried on from D e v o n sh ire H o u se , P ic ca d illy , w h ich has been p lace d at its disp osal by th e D u k e o f D e vo n sh ire . A ll offers o f assistan ce w ith regard sick and w ou n ded in war sh o u ld be m ade through th e secretary, at D e vo n sh ire H o u se . A t present, after d u e en q u iry in to p resen t needs, no surgeons, nurses, or orderlies are b ein g c a lled up for service ab ro ad b y the S o cie ty , and therefore, no a p p lica tio n s u n d er this h ead can b e received . * * * T h e S ecretary o f the W ar O ffice a n n o u n ces that the n um ber o f V o lu n ta ry A id D e ta ch m en ts registered at the W ar O ffice on th e 1st Ju ly, was 2,390 deta ch m en ts, repre­ sen tin g a total strength o f 7 1 ,1 4 7 m em bers, o f w hom ab ou t tw o-thirds are w om en. T n e s e figures show that satisfac­ to ry progress has been m ade d u rin g th e past six m onths, the n u m b er o f d eta ch m en ts on Jan u ary 1st last bein g 2,2 76 and the strength 6 8 ,4 17 . T h e lea d in g co u n ties in E n g la n d an d W ales h a vin g 50 d e ta ch m en ts or upw ards a r e :— H a n ts, 1 2 5 ; Sussex, 10 1 ; L o n d o n , 8 0 ; G lam o rga n , 80 ; S o m erset, 7 6 ; E ssex, 69 ; Y o r k , W e st R id in g , 69 ; Suffolk, 69 ; L a n ca sh ire, E a st, 6 2 ; K e n t, 6 1 ; D e vo n , 59 ; G lo u ceste r, 5 7 ; Surrey, 5 5 ; N o rfo lk , 5 4 ; D o rset, 5 4 ; and D u rh am , 50. *

* *

V isco u n te ss E s h e r has arran ged to h old em erge n cy classes in first aid an d h o m e n ursin g at th e D u k e o f Y o r k ’s head qu arters, K in g ’s-road, C h elsea , at th ree o ’clo ck . T h e y co m m e n ce d on A u g u st 10th. A p p lica tio n , by letter only\ to V isco u n te ss E sh er, 2, T iln e y -stree t, M ayfair.


— F I R S T

A u ^ st, 1914.

“ T a b lo id ”

T ria n gu lar

Bandage.

T h e use o f the triangular b an d age in first-aid w ork is w ell recogn ised, and it has been cu sto m ary to print upon the fabric o f the b an d age illustration s rep resen tin g the m eth ods o f app lication . A very strikin g a d va n ce in the q u a lity and clearness o f the p ictorial rep resen tations has re ce n tly been effected in co n n e ctio n with th e “ T a b l o i d ” T ria n g u la r B an d age. T h e designs, as will be seen from th e a c c o m ­ p an ying illustration, are plain, precise, co m p lete, an d in a cco rd a n ce w ith the latest practice. A n o th e r p oint o f im p ortan ce is that th ese “ T a b lo id ” bandages are co m p ressed in to a very sm all sp ace, o n e b andage o ccu p y in g no m ore room than a m atch b o x, and they can, therefore, be carried w ithout in co n v e n ie n ce in the p o ck e t o f the first-aid m an. E a ch p a c k e t is p ro ­ v id ed w ith a stou t co verin g w hich w ill resist w ear and tear. T h e ideal b andage is, o f course, o n e that is free from all sep tic m atter, and to p ro vid e such a d ressin g M essrs. B urroughs W ellco m e & C o . issue “ T a b lo i d ” T ria n g u la r B an d ages compressed an d sterilised, in germ p ro o f cover-

ings, w hich are read ily rem o ved and y et n ot frail. The retail price o f th e “ T a b l o i d ” T ria n g u la r B a n d a g e is 9d. per p ack et o f t w o ; for th e sterilised variety an extra p en n y is charged.

Red COURT

Cross

Funds.

A P P L IC A T IO N .

AID. —

33

o rgan isatio n w ith ou t th e co n se n t o f th e s u b scrib e rs. I hey w ere a c c o rd in g ly co m m u n ica te d w ith, a n d 2 ,3 10 o u t o f 3 ,2 54 sign ed co n se n ts for the b a la n ce o f th e ir su b scrip tio n s to be a p p ro p ria ted to th e ge n era l p u rp o ses o f th e S o c ie ty , 21 in tim a ted th eir d esire to h a ve th eir m o n ey retu rn ed , w hile 923 d id n o t sen d an y re p lies at a ll. T h e resu lt was th at th e S o c ie ty fo un d th e m se lv e s in th e p o sitio n o f possessin g a sum o f a b o u t ^,S>00° w ith w h ich th e y d id n ot kn o w how to d eal, a n d th e y so u gh t th e d irectio n o f the C o u r t. M r. R . W. T u r n b u ll, w ho re p re se n te d a M r. J o h n so n , o n e o f the 21 w ho w ish ed for th e return o f th eir m on ey, a rgu ed th at th e B a lk a n W ar a g a in st T u r k e y a n d the A llie s ’ W ar w ere d istin ct, a n d th at th e e x p e n d itu re o f th e latter ^ 2 ,0 0 0 was n o t ju s tifia b le u n d e r th e a p p ea l. T h e J u d g e h e ld that n o t to h a ve been a llo ca te d th e B a lk a n W ar, a lth o u g h th e su b scrib ers, if a p p ea led

te c h n ic a lly th e ^ 2 ,0 0 0 o u g h t for the A llie s ’ W ar, but o n ly for h e h ad n o d o u b t th at m ost o f to, w ou ld w aive th e p o in t.

H is L o rd sh ip furth er d e c id e d th at all th e su b scrib ers w ho h ad exp ressed th e m selve s u n w illin g that th eir s u b ­ scrip tio n s sh o u ld be a p p lied to th e g en era l p urp o ses o f the

S o c ie ty sh o u ld h a ve a p ortion o f su ch su b scrip tio n s re­ tu rn e d to them , th e p ro p o rtio n b e in g th at w h ich th e to tal sum e x p e n d e d on th e purposes for w h ich th e am o u n ts w ere su b scrib e d b o re to th e total sum su b scrib ed . W ith regard to th o se w ho h ad n o t rep lied , h e d ire cte d ad ve rtisem e n ts to be issu ed e m b o d y in g th e d e cisio n s o f th e C o u r t an d req u estin g th o se su b scrib ers to say w h eth er th e y co n se n te d to th e ^ 2 ,0 0 0 a p p lie d in c o n n e ctio n w ith the A llie s ’ W ar b e in g d e v o te d to the g en era l p urp o ses o f the S o cie ty .

An origin atin g sum m on s rtla tiv e to su b scrip tio n s re ce ive d by the B ritish R e d C ro ss S o cie ty for use in co n n e ctio n w ith the re ce n t B a lk a n W ar ca m e before M r. J u stice A stb u ry in the C h a n cery D iv isio n , on J u ly 16th. M r. H o w a rd W righ t said th e p ro ceed in gs h ad been tak en by the S o cie ty as trustees o f a large fun d su b scrib e d in 19 12 for the purposes o f re liev in g the sick an d w ou n d ed in the B a lk a n W ar. O w in g to th e term ination of h o stilities earlier than was exp ected , it was fo un d th at at th e c o n ­ clusion o f the first war th e S o c ie ty h ad in h an d an u n exp en d ed sum o f ^ 12 ,655. T h e n th e A llie s ’ W ar follow ed , and in co n n e ctio n w ith this a furth er ^ 2 ,0 0 0 was exp en ded, leavin g a b a lan ce o f a b o u t 0,000 on the term ination o f all hostilities. In these circu m stan ces, and h avin g regard to the term s o f th e app eal, the S o c ie ty d id n ot feel ju stifie d in app rop riating this b a lan ce to th e gen era l p urp o ses o f th e

T h e C o rp o ratio n o f G la sg o w has a p p o in te d D r. R . T . H a llid a y , the p h y sician to th e G la sg o w P o lic e F o rc e ,to be a m b u la n ce lectu rer to the G la sg o w P o lic e in p la ce o f D r. L o th ia n , w h o has re ce n tly resign ed. A w ell-kn ow n R u ssia n d o cto r has o ffered to h elp in tra in in in g th e w illin g b u t u n q u a lifie d a p p lica n ts w h o w ill b e p lace d on the reserve list, an d sp ecia l classes for them are b e in g started at th e R e g e n t-stre e t P o ly te c h n ic , at C h e ls e a , C a m b e rw e ll and P a d d in g to n . I t is p ro p o sed , as in th e d a y s o f th e B o e r W ar, to in v ite w om en to m eet to prepare b a n d a ge s an d lint.

W h e n correspon din g w ith A d vertisers p le ase m e n tio n “ F irs t A id .”


34

— F I R S T

AID. —

August, 1914. TH E

R eview s. Tv

W O M E N ’S V O L U N T A R Y A I D D E T A C H M E N T S : N O T E S F O R P R A C T IC E M E E T IN G S .

aw

London : H arrison & Sons.

Price, is. net. an*

me

T o arrange a definite program m e o f work to be undertaken at each practice m eeting is one o f the fundam ental rules for the success o f a detachm ent, and this book has been com piled to assist in this direction. It sets out the various subjects to be dealt with and the m aterials required to undertake them, these are follow ed by a series of questions and answers. T h is book has appeared at a very opportune moment, it has been care­ fully com piled and should be found extrem ely useful to com ­ m andants and those interested in the instruction o f D e tach ­ ments. TH E By

IN D IA N

M ANUAL

OF

F IR S T

A ID .

M ANUAL

TO

M EM ORY

FOR

F IR S T

A ID

STU D EN TS. B y L. M. F ran k Christian, M .B ., C .M .(Edin.). Stockport : Connell & B ailey, Ltd. London : St. John A m bulance A ssociation.

Price 6d.; by post yd. 1 t c

ir

cc g* P<

QZ s\ \ fa

P 11 T'l m tc

ar

I n little over a year a fresh edition (the 6th) has made its appearance, show ing the rem arkable reception the book is receiving. T h ere is very little alteration made in the new edition, and as we have reviewed each edition as it has made its appearance, we cannot but add that am bulance students who have not seen it would do well to obtain a copy, it is just exactly what they require. THE

T H E R A P E U T IC V A L U E O F T H E PO TATO . B y H eaton C. H ow ard, L .R .C .P ., M .R .C .P .(E n g.). London : Bailliere, T in d a ll & Cox.

FOR W OM EN V O LU N TA R Y D ETACH M EN TS.

A ID

B y P. C. G abbett, M .R .C .S . Bristol : J. W rig h t & Sons, Ltd.

C alcutta : T h acker, Spink & Co.

A ID S

BODY.

M a n has been ingenious in the invention and m aking of cunning machines, in which he takes pride and to which he pays scrupulous attention, knowing that the least carelessness or neglect would involve the m achine’s ruin. But a man’s own body is a finer, more delicate, and more complex piece o f mechanism than any that man has ever invented. M any o f us misuse this delicate and com plex machine until some part o f it is put out o f order, and then we go grum bling to a doctor. T h is book, in plain and sim ple talks, tell us som ething about ourselves and how to keep fit, and the author aptly sums up by sayin g H ealth is a duty and a man’s first duty. It is most readable and interesting.

M ajor R. J. Blackham , C .I.E ., D .P .H .(L on d.), R .A .M .C .

T h e Indian M anual o f F irst A id is the official text book of the Indian Branch o f the S .J.A .A ., and is the standard book for all am bulance com petitions in India, it has been translated into the Indian vernaculars so as to place an am bulance know ledge within the reach o f all com m unities in India. T h e fifth edition o f the manual, which is now issued, show's that the S .J.A .A . has acquired an extensive position in British India and its native states, and this is due in a great measure to M ajor Blackham , the author of the manual, who is also the Hon. Gen. Sec. o f the Indian Branch.

OF

Price is. net.

Sim la : T h e St. John A m bulance Association. th< do frc pa th* ba arl arl T1 to be as be pi; su

P R ID E

B y H ugh de Selincourt. London : T h e St. Catherine Press.

Price is. Net. T h e 3rd edition of this manual has appeared at a very opportue moment, when everyone is interested in the care of the sick and wounded. T h is manual is intended to teach the som ewhat specialised nursing which is necessary in a tem porary hospital, and it has many excellent suggestions for im provisation and field work, and it also deals with the difficult question of equipment. It should prove o f the utmost value to V .A .D .’s.

“ WHY

AND

W H EREFORE

IN

F IR S T

A I D .”

B y N. Corbet Fletcher, M .B ., B .C . (Cantab), M .R .C .S . London : John Bale, Sons, & Danielson, Ltd.

Price, 6d. net. T h e series o f articles o f am bulance queries and difficulties which have recently been appearing in F I R S T A i d have been considerably elaborated and published in book form under the title of “ W h y and W herefore in F irst A id .” T h e letters of appreciation which this series o f articles brought to this Journal is ample indication that the book will meet with a ready sale. T h e particular feature o f it which appeals to us is the concise and practical w ay in which signs and symptoms are given so that an am bulance student can readily m ake a diagnosis o f sickness or injury, and a valuable feature is the way the whole book is arranged, and the style is particularly simple and lucid, a m atter of great importance. W e can recommend this book to both lecturers and students who should find it of great service.

Price is. net. “A T h e author is well known to m any o f our readers by his

long connection with am bulance work. In his investigations into the therapeutic qualities o f the raw ju ice o f the potato, shows that it possesses two great properties. T h ese are the rapid absorption of the fluid in acute synovitis o f the knee, and a great alleviation o f pain in acute gout, subacute gout, rheu­ m atism, fibrositis, etc. T h e preparations made from the ju ice o f the potato are the liquid extract, ointment, a plaster and ampullae. F ull directions are given as to the class o f cases for which the preparations are most suitable and the method o f application. It is not claim ed that the potato rem edy is a cure for these com plaints, but it is m aintained that it alleviates the pain more q uickly than any other treatm ent at present used, whether internal or external.

M ANUAL

OF

A M B U L A N C E .”

B y J. Scott R iddell, M .V.O ., M .A ., M .B., C.M . London : C harles Griffin & Co., Ltd.

Price, 6s. T h e sixth edition o f this work has been revised and con­ siderably enlarged by additions to the sections dealing with artificial respiration, electrical accidents, and ambulance transport. M any new illustrations show ing recent m ethods of im provising stretchers, railw ay w aggons, carts and motors for the conveyance o f the injured have been added. T h e chapters on F ractures and D islocations and on foreign bodies in the tissues are further illustrated by X -R a y photographs. This book em braces a com plete course o f am bulance instruction, and we can heartily recom m end to those who wish to go into the subject very thoroughly.


— F I R S T

August, 1914 ■“ F I R S T

A ID

IN

A C C ID E N T S

AND

SU D D EN

IL L N E S S E S . B y D uncan M acartney, M .A., M .D . Glasgow : St. A ndrew s A m bulance Association. T h is book is one of the official publications o f the St. A ndrew ’s Am bulance Association and is intended for those beginning to study First Aid. T h e first chapters deal with the theoretical portion o f first aid, and with the text numerous diagram s are given ; other chapters deal with first aid treat­ ment, transport and rescue work in mines. T h e photographic illustrations of the book are most excellent and in them selves explanatory.

Railway Jlmbutance. L . & Y . R y .— T he ann ual rep ort for 19 1 4 has ju st been issued, it p laces on reco rd the results in regard to classes and co m p etitio n s, w hich are h ig h ly satisfactory. S ix trophies were offered for co m p etitio n , w h ich has co n ­ sid erably stim ulated in terest in A m b u la n c e w ork on the system . T h e reports m ade by th e ju d g e s in the P relim in a ry and F in al C o m p e titio n s, and the test papers for th e L . and Y . P relim in ary and F in a l C o m p e titio n s an d for th e P re ­ lim in ary and F in a l R o u n d s o f th e In ter-R a ilw a y C o m p e ti­ tion are set o u t in the report. T h e y sh o u ld be carefu lly stu d ied by th e m em bers o f th e C e n tre, as th ey w ill p rove o f interest and a d va n ta ge to them in future com p etition s. W e co n gra tu le th e C e n tre S ecretary M r. G. H . N utter, on th e exce llen t rep ort he has c o m p ile d >

AID. —

35

(pueries and Answers Correspondents.

to

Queries w ill be dealt with under the following rules :— 1 .— Letters containing Queries must be marked on the top left kana corner of the envelope “ Query,” and addressed— F i r s t A i d , 46, Cannon-street, London, E .C . 2.— A ll Queries must be accompanied by a “ Query Coupon ” cut ft om the current issue op the Journal, or in case ot Queries j rom abroad from a recent issue. p .— Reader requiring a reply by host must enclose a stamted addressea envelope.

S. J. L. (M erthyr T yd fil).— T h e ribbon, bar and pendant of the B .R .C .S . is granted for three successes at Red C ross F irst A id E xam inations, provided that an interval o f at least tw elve months has elapsed between each exam ination, or a success at both R ed Cross F irst A id Exam ination and a R ed Cross N ursing Exam ination, subject to a third success at a further exam ination in first aid or nursing held by the R ed Cross S o ciety and taken at a period o f not less than tw elve months from the date o f the previous examination. R e c r u i t . = If a stretcher squad passes a t h e p e r s o n in c h a r g e s h o u l d o n l y sa lu t e .

funeral co rte g e

L. H. (Portsm outh).— M edical opinion seem s to differ as to which is the correct side o f boric lint to place next the wound, but the rough side is gen erally applied. R e g u l a r R e a d e r . — A s far as the replies received, the youngest m ember who received the K in g G eorge Coronation A m bulance M edal was M iss M. M. Skinner, o f R ochester, who was 17 years o f age at the time.

T h e S e co n d A n n u a l C o n feren ce o f R a ilw a y A m b u ­ lan ce S ecretaries was h eld at Y o r k on J u ly 16 th, u n d e r th e p resid en cy o f M r. G . J ack so n , the C e n tre S e cre ta ry o f th e N o rth E astern R ailw ay. T h e p ro ceed in gs o f th e C o n fe r­ e n ce w ere o f a p rivate n ature, and we are un ab le, th erefo re; to give a d eta iled rep ort o f w hat transp ired, but w e h a ve no d o u b t that th e d ecisio n s arrived at w ill be for th e b en efit o f railw ay a m b u la n ce w ork gen erally. T h e s o cia l sid e o f th e C o n feren ce was n ot n eg le cted , the d e leg a tes b ein g m ost k in d ly en tertain ed by th e N o rth E a stern C o m p a n y . A t the co n clu sio n o f th e m eetin g d in n er was p artaken by the m em bers o f th e C o n fe re n ce at th e Statio n H o te l, Y o r k , after w hich an ad jo u rn m en t was m ade to th e M a n sio n H o u se, w here the m em bers w ere m et by H is W o rsh ip the M a y o r o f Y o r k , w ho co n d u cte d th e p arty o ver th e M an sio n H o u s e from the basem en t to the roof, a n d p erso n ally exp lain ed th e m any o b jects o f in terest to be fo u n d therein. O n the day fo llo w in g, th e N o rth E a ste rn C o m p a n y g e n e r­ ously p lace d a saloon at th e disp osal o f the p arty, an d a very p leasan t excu rsio n was m ade to W h itb y and S c a r­ borough. W e u n derstan d that n ext y e a r’s C o n fe r e n c e is to be held at F urn ess A b b e y .

M r. C . H a n m er writes to us sayin g he w ill b e p leased to giv e his Illu stra ted A m b u la n c e L e c tu r e free o f charge, excep t travellin g exp en ses, to e m erg e n cy first a id classes for V .A .D .’s.

A p p lica tio n s sh o u ld

be

m ade

to him at

205, D on caster-road, G o ld th o rp e, near R o th erh a m .

Photo by D a ily Sketch . ]

Q ueen

A m e lie o f

P o rtu g a l

b u s i l y e n g a g e d a t t h e H e a d q u a r t e r s o f t h e B .R .C .S .


— F I R S T

36

Setters to the Sditor. T as

IVe are in no way reseonsibte for the opinions expressed, or the statements made, by Correspondents. — E d i t o r s , E t c .

RE

tt d fr P: tt b ai ai T tc b a: b P St

t f

BADGE.

D e a r S i r , — I desire to take this opportunity o f .thanking you for the interest you have taken in the suggestion o f a Mufti B ad ge for m em bers o f the S .J.A .B ., also to thank those m em bers who have used the columns o f F i r s t A i d to offer their suggestions and approval o f its adoption. I am pleased to be able to inform my com rades in the B rigad e that the suggestion is receiving favourable con ­ sideration, and that we m ay shortly expect to hear something further on the m atter through our D ivisions, and 1 hope that if adopted every m ember will wear it and use it as an introduction one to another and thus fraternise the Brigade. W ith reference to “ R ailw ay E m p lo y e e ” reply, I would like to point out that I have alw ays acknow ledged th a tS .J .A .A . men do in some cases keep up their know ledge, and are good men ; but, the fact remains, they are not organised, do not do public duty, and thus do not get the practical experience o f a B rigad e member. M ost S.J.A .A . R ailw ay men recognise this, and thus we find R ailw ay D ivisions in the B rigad e and men in open D ivision s in the district to which they belong. W ith regards to P olice recognition— take the police as a whole— they are excellent men to work with ; but, like all other organisations, they have good and b a d — and can be summed up under two headings. T h e one that has taken up first aid because he has to ; the other, who has taken personal interest in what he has learnt. T h e first, as a rule, is only too pleased to get rid o f the responsibility, and will accept services when it is offered ; the other knows his work and will accept or offer assistance as he thinks necessary, and as a first aider does, uses his own judgm ent. Re R. W . Stones’ reply, this would, to my mind, spoil the badge and prevent it from being universally adopted, the ex ­ pense would be one o f the main factors. T h e B rigad e could order in 1,000s. and the average for a D ivision would be about 60. A gain , say a D ivision has all its badges issued out, they get two or three recruits, how much is it go in g to cost to get these few extra b a d ges? also the length of name of D ivisions vary and would mean badges being worn all shapes and sizes ; again, there are D ivisions with Sections, and the m embers of those sections think as much o f the name o f the Section as the nam e o f the D ivision to which they belong. N o ! I think a universal is to be preferred to badges all shapes and sizes, and I do not think a {setter one can be adopted than the present collar badge on a sm aller scale, with the valuable suggestion of a D istrict Officer added, by having it black enam el filled. A g a in thanking you, Mr. E ditor, for the interest you have taken on our behalf.— Y o u r’s faithfully, A. R e a d e r .

AM BULANNCE

f

M U FTI

Q U E R IE S

AND

D IF F IC U L T IE S .

D e a r S i r , — I shall be obliged if you will grant the hospitality o f your colum ns to answ er several enquiries re my A rticles on Ambulance Queries and Difficulties, which were concluded last month. A t the request of these readers of F i r s t A i d , the A rticles have been considerably extended and will shortly be published in booklet form under the title o f “ Why and Wherfore in First Aid" (price 6d.), by M essrs. Bale, Son & D an ielson, o f T itchfield-street.— Y ours faithfully, L. C o r b e t F l e t c h e r .

August, 1914.

AI D. —

fore, o f very grave results to the man who interfered unneces­ sarily is, in my opinion, worthy o f publication. A certain First A ider was asked to look at a poisoned finger, which had already been lanced. F inding that the patient was suffering from intense pain and that the incision had closed, he proceeded to re-open the wound with a needle. D uring re-dressing, he pricked his own finger accidentally with the infected needle, and is now lying dangerously ill with Septic Poisoning. T h e lesson is obvious, and the unfortunate man is paying a heavy penalty for his M eddlesom e First Aid. A s the case was under m edical treatment, he shoud have applied a hot fomentation and advised the girl to consult her doctor at the earliest m om ent.— Yours, &c., “ O n - l o o k e r .”

AM BULANCE

A ID .

S i r , — Num erous applications are being received from the centres, branches and detached classes o f the A m bulance D epartm ent o f the O rder ol the H ospital o f St. John o f Jeru­ salem in E n gland as to how assistance can be afforded during the present war, as was done in the South A frican Cam paign, when the St. John A m bulance Association was entrusted by W a r Office with the despatch of hospital m aterial and m edical comforts for the sick and wounded, and the St. John A m b u ­ lance B rigade furnished over .2,000 hospital orderlies to the R o yal A rm y M edical Corps. T h e St. John A m bulance B rigad e has already supplied on m obilisation a large number o f men for the R oyal N aval A uxiliary Sick Berth Reserve, the Brigade B earer Com panies, and the M ditary H om e H ospital Reserve. Further effective assistance can be provided in the follow ­ ing way :— (a) By the collection o f cash contributions for local use or for transmission to the H eadquarters Fund at St. John’s Gate. (b) B y the formation o f a guarantee fund, to be used only in case o f necessity. (c) B y the formation o f working parties for the provision' o f comforts and material for the sick and wounded. (A list of the most useful articles can be supplied on application to St. John’s Gate). (d) B y the formation o f first aid and nursing classes under the St. John A m bulance A ssociation, from which can be sup­ plied recruits for the local units of the St. John A m bulance Brigade, from which are recruited the Service units above mentioned. (e) B y male holders o f the first aid certificate of the St. John A m bulance A ssociation enrolling in the nearest division of the St. John A m bulance Brigade ; by fem ale holders of the first aid and home nursing certificates o f the A ssociation enrol­ ling in the nearest N ursing D ivision o f the Brigade- In the case of paragraphs a, b, c and d, local com m ittees should be formed which should m ake the necessary arrangem ents. M aterial collected or made can in due course be forwarded in bulk to a warehouse in London which has been engaged for the purpose by the St. John A m bulance A ssociation, which will gladly supply a list o f suitable requirem ents, or send any further information which m ay be required.— Yours, & c., H e r b e r t C. P e r r o t t , C h ief Secretary. St. John’s G ate, Clerkenwell. A ugust 6th.

T h e p h otograp h s o f th e K e n t C a m p w h ich were rep ro ­ d u c e d in our last issue w ere tak en by M r. F . T o w e r S tu d io ,

H e rn e B a y, from w h o m

C.

co p ies

Palm er, can

be

o btain ed.

ir g :te'§

ad

M ED D LESO M E D ear

F IR S T

A ID .

S i r , — M eddlesom e F irst A id is usually supposed to

be detrim ental to the patient.

T h e follow ing instance, there­

G E N T S W an ted for a profitable selling line o f ambulance goods.— A pply, Box 20, “ F irst A id ” Office, 46, Cannonstreet, London, E .C .

A


— F I R S T

August, 1914-

AID. —

37

Phenom enal Dem and•

C o m in g

E v e n ts .

M a n u a ls

f o r P r a c t i c a l H e lp e r s .

Particulars offorthcoming events w ill be inserted in this column tret of charge, if received not later than the 14th ot each month ' Accrinsfton.— M o n d a y , A u g u s t 3 1 st, a t A m b u l a n c e H e a d ­ q u a r te r s , B u ll B r id g e , H a n m e r ’s I llu s t r a t e d A m b u la n c e L e c t u r e . Evening, a ll a m b u la n c e w o r k e r s in v ite d .

Lotidon.—T h e

P o l y t e c h n ic O p e n A m b u la n c e C o m p e t it io n s

for the “ G r a n t ” m e d a l ; “ W illia m H e y w o o d ” s h ie ld , a n d th e “ Robert M it c h e ll ” s p e c ia l t h r e e - y e a r s m e d a l, w ill t a k e p la c e on S a t u r d a y , O c t o b e r 2 4 th , 1 9 1 4 , c o m m e n c in g a b o u t 2 p .m . Full p a r t ic u la r s c a n b e h a d fro m th e H o n . S e c ., 309, R e g e n t street, W ., o r W . H e y w o o d , 8 1, D a v i e s - s t r e e t , O x f o r d - s t r e e t , W. London .— V is c o u n t e s s E s h e r w ill s t a r t fir s t a id a n d h o m e nursing c la s s e s a t th e D u k e o f Y o r k ’s H e a d q u a r t e r s , K i n g ’ sroad, C h e ls e a ( c lo s e to S lo a n e - s q u a r e S t a t io n , o n th e D is t r i c t Railway), in N o v e m b e r n e x t. H o m e N u r s in g a t 11 a .m . a n d 8 p .m :, o n N o v e m b e r 10 th ; F ir s t A i d a t r 1 a .m . a n d 8 p .m ., on Novem ber 1 1 th .

T h e transference o f th e w ou n d ed G erm an seam en from the ships afloat to th e ho sp ital on shore at H arw ich after th e sinking o f th e m ine layer w ou ld seem to h a ve been p rom p tly carried out, and to in d icate that in this d irectio n also the A d m ira lty, th rou gh the dep artm en t o f the M e d ica l D irecto r-G en eral, has been w ell prepared.

BRITISH RED CROSS MANUALS. F I R S T AID M A N U A L , N U RSIN G MANUAL, T R A IN IN G MANUAL, H Y G IEN E AND SA N I­ T A TIO N M A N U A L

No. No. No.

2 3

No.

4

1

T h e se are the O fficial G u id es used b y the R ed C ross S o cie ty in train ing their helpers. E v e ry branch o f R ed C ross w ork is covered and the inform ation con veyed is succinct and easi y follow ed.

P ro fu s e ly Illu s tra te d .

1s. n e t e a c h .

O f a ll Booksellers, or p o st free is . 2d. each.

Aids to M em ory fo r ‘ First Aid ’ S tu d e n ts. B y L. M. F

CASSELL & C O ., LTD,, LA BELLE SAUVAGE, LONDON E C

M .B ., C .M . E din . A uthor ( jointly w ith W .R .E .) o f “ Problem s in F irst A id ,” St. J ohn A m b A ssoc. Sixth Edition now ready. Revised to d a te (Jun e 1914.) P rice : In C lo th , 6d. net— b y post yd. In L eath er, 2s. net— b y post 2s. 2d. S t o c k p o r t : C o n n e l l & B a i l e y , L t d . , “ E x p r e s s " O p f i c e , S t . P e t e r ’s S q u a r e , and T h e S t. John A m bu lan ce A sso c ia tio n , S t . J o h n ’ s G a t e , L o n d o n . rank

C h r is t ia n ,

A LLM A N HAVE

3 ,

REM OVED

& SON,

FROM

NEW

M A R G A R E T

OXFORD

S T R E E T ,

F ir s t Aid to t h e Injured, Illustrated.

S k e le to n

R oller)

...

...

C

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COM PLETE

L IS T

... One

0

7

5

o

5

O

0

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##

Home N ursin g and Hygiene, by D r. C ritch ley

IV .

..........................................................................

A r t e r i a l a n d V e n o u s S y s t e m ... F r a c t u r e s a n d D i s l o c a t i o n s (2 o n

H.

G

o ON

A P P L IC A T IO N .

for transport of W o u n d e d in R ailw ay and Transport W aggons, also for emergency and Field Hospitals. T h e Fittings consist of a number of bars and tubes packed compactly in bundles. T h e y take less than five minutes to erect, and are absolutely staple. A n y size of stretcher can be used. A w a rd ed F ir s t P r is e International R e d Cross E x h ib itio n , used w ith immense success du rin g Russo Japanese and B a lka n Wars. Su p p lied to the B ritish W ar Office, India Office, a n d to the Government, R e d Cross Societies a n d R ailw ays in every p art o f the W orld.

W e c a n a lso s till g i v e d e liv e r y of A r m y p attern S tretch ers.

A U G U S T . 19 14 .

C O M PETITIO N

“ L.X .R .” P a te n t A m b u la n c e F ittin g s

TO

* d 0 i

b y a M ed ica l O fficer ( C lo t h 6 d .n e t ) ... All m an s P o c ket Anatomic al Atla s, 6 i b y c i. 12 Plates. In C olours ............................. ... Diagrams, printed in C olou rs. M ounted on L in en and R ollers and Varnished. 6 0 b y 2 2 — 128 pages.

W e are still in a position to take orders for early delivery of the famous

L td.,

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W AR.

C O U PO N . W r it e

j£ N am e ..................................

A ddress ............

or

W ir e

yo ur

R e q u ir e m e n t s

e a r ly

.

Henry Simonis & Co., P a r k Royal, WILLESDEN, N.W .


— F I R S T

AID. —

August, 1 914.

F E R R IS

c Pp . v iii. + 79.

P rice 15.

6d.

V o l u n t a r y Ai d Detachments in Campaign B y C A P T A IN

& CO.’S

“U N IV E R SA L ”

n et, w ith tw o diagram s.

First-Aid Cupboard.

S Y L V E S T E R B R A D L E Y , R .A .M .C .

The N ation in A rm s s a y s :— “ T h is b ook sup plies a lo n g felt w a n t.”

Pp . x i i . + 4 4 .

P rice

is . 6d.

net.

Atlas of First=Aid Treatment D E D I C A T E D TO

L t .- G e n . S IR R O B E R T B A D E N - P O W E L L , K .C .B . E x p la n a to r y

T ex t

by BERNARD

M Y E R S , M .D .,

L a te S u rgeo n to the S t. John A m b u lan ce A ssociation .

This Pocket Atlas consists of double-page coloured plates con­ taining 42 figures and describes First A id in all its varied forms. AM BULANCE

W O R K . Q u estio ns and A n sw ers upon “ F irst A id to ih e In ju re d ,” b y J o h n M a r t i n , M .D . S t. A n d ., F .R .C . S . E d in ., E xam in er and L ectu rer to the S t. John A m b u lan ce A ssociation . S even teen th E d ition . S ix ty -sev en th T h o u and. Pp. 108. P rice is . net. A

Q U E S T IO N S A N D A N S W E R S ON N U R S IN G , for the S t. John A m b u lan ce A sso ciatio n and O thers. E d ition . S even teen th T h o u san d . Pp. x + 138. is . 6d. net.

F ifth Price

P r ic e ,

B A IL L IE R E , T IN D A L L & C O X , ^

8, H enrietta

Street, Covent

Garden, London,

For UNIFORMS or GREAT COATS

com plete Outfit, suitable for Factories, W orks, Public Offices, &c. Size, 19 in. high, i 8 i in., wide, 8 in. deep.

j

fitte d

c o m p le te

3 5 s . 6d.

FERRIS & CO., Ltd., BRISTOL, C o m p le t e A m b u l a n c e O u t f it t e r s .

THE ‘MIDGET’ FIRST-AID CASE 1/- e a c h .

Post F re e 1/2.

t h a t a r e well-cut, splendidly tailored, m a d e from cloth t h a t will r e n d e r g r e a t service, w rite to

HERBERT E. COLE, U n i f o r m S pecialist,

L E IC E S T E R . R e pr e senta tive sent to mea su re a n y B rigade free of charge. N a t. Te l. 4352.

In D ecorated M eta llic B o x , con tain in g T w o R o lle r Band ages, T a p e , Pin s, N eed les, L in t, A b so rb en t P a d , S ilk L igatu re, B o ttle each A m m on ia and C a rb o lic O il, Cam el-hair P en cil, and A d h esive Plaster.

Catalogue sent post free on application.

CUXSON, GERRARD & CO., Ltd., O L D B U R Y and B IR M I N G H A M .


FIRST AID.

The Independent Journal for the Ambulance and Nursing Services. Conducted b y A R T H U R No.

2 4 3.— V o l . X X I .

To

[N ew

Our

SEPTEM BER,

S e rie s.]

B.

DALE,

1914 -

M.J.I. [2/6 ppehk‘ aENnum °Pust kRrf.

\ E n t . r , d a t S ia .n o n .r s 'H a m

e x ce p t in th e ca se o f a sm all su p p ly o f drugs an d dressings,

Readers.

s h o u ld n ot n ecessa rily co n sist o f a rticles e x ce p t su ch as

“ First A id” is published on the 20th of every month. T h e A n n u al Subscription is 2 S . 6 d . post free ; single copies 2 d . T h e E d itor invites readers to send articles and reports on subjects of interest to am bulance w orkers, these should be addressed to him at 46, Cannon S treet, L o n d o n , E .C .

can

be o b ta in e d from n eigh b o u rin g houses.

W e q u o te

th e final w ords o f the m em o ran d u m in full :— “ It is m ost im p ortan t, a ctu a lly

th erefo re— (1 )

p repared

befo re

That th e

no

h o sp ita l

m o b ilisatio n

sh o u ld

be

o rd er o f that

A ll articles and reports must be accom panied b y the nam e and address o f the w riter, not necessarily for publication but for the use o f

h o sp ital has been rece ive d from th e m ilitary a u th o rity , in

the E ditor.

o rder that

S ubscriptions, A d vertisem en ts and other business com m un ication s connected w ith F i r s t A i d should be addressed to the Publishers,

n ee d e d else w h ere sh a ll n ot be u selessly lo c k e d up.

DALE,

R E Y N O L D S & C O ., L t d . , 46, C a n n o n S t r e e t , L o n d o n , E .C .

personnel and

e qu ip m en t w h ich m ay b e urgen tly

T h a t fun ds sh o u ld riot b e p rem atu rely la id

(2)

o u t on the

p reparation o f th ese hosp itals w hich m ay be m ore u sefu lly e xp e n d e d

in

o th er

d irectio n s.

(3)

That

the

w ork

of

in stitu tio n s in te n d ed for other p urp oses, su ch as sch o o ls

EDITORIAL.

and

co lleg es,

m ust n o t

be

in terfered

w ith,

e x ce p t

on

m ilitary req u isition o r in co n su lta tio n w ith th e e d u ca tio n a l the past m on th m an y D e tach -

D u rin g

T h e P o s it io n

m ents

of

have

been

b u ild in gs in to

co n v e rtin g

p u b lic

h osp itals, an d e q u ip in g

V o lu n t a r y A id them , regard less o f th eir ge o g rap h ica l D e ta ch m e n ts,

position s w ithout

or

o rg an ised

authority.

sch em es,

The

n u m b er

authorities.

(4) T h a t V o lu n ta ry A id D e ta ch m en ts h a ve no

a u th o rity w h atever to tak e o ver o f th e m selve s any p u b lic or private b u ild in g .” T h is m em o ran du m cle arly show s th at V . A . D . ’s sh o u ld

and

h old th em selves in a p o sitio n o f readin ess in the eve n t o f

of

th eir services b ein g re q u ired at short n o tice, an d h ave their

buildin gs offered an d prepared is far in e xcess o f th e funds

plans co m p le te in e ve ry detail.

or the person n el at the disp osal o f th e b o d ies resp o n sib le

qu ite u n n ecessa ry at th e p resen t stage for V . A . D . ’s to p u r­

for their organ isation.

ch a se qu a n tities o f stores w h ich m ay n ev er be requ ired ,

W h ile this zeal is to be adm ired,

m uch energy and m on ey w ill

be lost,

as

m an y o f the

but co n tracts in w riting sh o u ld be m ade w ith tradesm en and others to su p p ly stores an d equ ip m en ts at sh o rt n o tice

co n verted bu ild in gs w ill be needless. A cco rd in g to the W ar O ffice sch em e, V . A . D . ’s were o n ly to be e m p lo y ed w hen th e T e rrito ria l F o rc e to o k the field, and in this presen t crisis it is difficult to say w hat is their actu al position.

A s is p o in ted out, it is

sh o u ld th ey be required, an d at th e p resen t ju n ctu re no exp en se sh o u ld be in curred , b u t a p ru d en t C o m m a n d a n t sh o u ld h ave m ade p ro visio n an d kn o w w here to g e t her fin an ce

im m ed iately.

We

learn th at

D e ta ch m e n ts can

S o m e D e ta ch m e n ts are at presen t

o b tain a loan from th eir m u n icip al a u th o rities, w h ich is

b ein g utilised in form in g rest stations in su ch p laces as

gu aran teed by th e W ar E m e rg e n cy F u n d , s h o u ld th e y be

S outh am p ton , w hile others w h ich are anxio u s an d eager to

ca lled upon for service.

share in th e w ork do n ot kn o w how th eir services w ill be em plo yed . extracts from

At

this stage it

w ou ld

the m em orandu m

be

w h ich

w ell

q u o te

has been issued,

regard

to

th e

registratio n

se le cte d w ith ou t fu lfillin g

th e

of

b u ild in g s

m any h a ve

stru ctu ra l

for been

co n d itio n s .

It

m ust be b o rn e in m ind th at th e b u ild in g m ust not o n ly

N o V o lu n ta ry A id D e ta ch m e n t w ill be u tilised e x ce p t

co n ta in th e m ain room or w ard, but su b o rd in a te room s fit

th e district in

w hich

it is

registered ,

a lth o u gh

the

m ilitary authorities m ay ask for vo lu n teers for d u ty e lse ­ w here. A id

W ith

T e m p o ra ry H o sp ita ls or rest stations,

It states :

n on e too soon, by the B ritish R e d C ro ss S o cie ty . in

to

“ A t p resen t,” th e circu lar p ro ce ed s,

D etach m en ts

are a sk ed

not

to

“ V o lu n ta ry

prepare an y a ctu a l

hospitals, b u t to h a ve sch em es for them re a d y to o p en at any m om ent w hen re q u ired .”

S u c h h o sp itals b e lo n g to

the catego ry o f T em p o ra ry H o sp ita ls, an d th eir e q u ip m e n t,

to serve as k itch en , store-room , d isp en sary, e tc.

M u ch

m aterial assistan ce can be ren d ered to D e ta c h m e n ts in th e s ele ctio n o f b u ild in gs by lo ca l m e d ica l officers o f h ealth , and d istrict a rch ite cts and san itary engin eers. As

we kn ow ,

m an y

D e ta c h m e n ts are anxio u s

that

th eir services sh a ll b e u tilised at th e p resen t tim e, b u t th ey m ust h u sb an d their reso u rces an d rem ain rea d y to p ut th eir plan s in to e xe cu tio n w hen c a lle d upon.


— F I R S T

44

JJhe Srand ?riorg of the Order of the Kospital of St. John of Jersusalem in Sngland. AM BULANCE

Jh e

St.

DEPARTM EN T.

John .Ambulance Brigade.

September, 1914

AID. -

On

N igh t

D uty

w ith

St.

John.

T h e r e are four o f us :— tw o a m b u la n ce nurses in our grey

fro ck s an d w hite aprons ; tw o o f the lo cal V .A .D ., one m iddle-aged, square an d sturdy, w ith an exp a n sive sm ile,

one a m ere lad o f tw e n ty — all o f us w ith th e eigh t p oin ted No. 1 District. cross o f St. Joh n , one p oin t for each o f the B eatitu d es, D E P U T Y C O M M IS S IO N E R : -------on our arm s. L I E U T .- C O L . L E E S H ALL. It is 9 p.m . an d we are stan d in g in th e villa g e sc h o o l­ room , transform ed in to a tiny hosp ital w ard. N e at, narrow, w hite beds m ade an d stuffed by our ow n hands, stretchers, O C T O B E R , 19 14 . rugs, sterilizer w ith its lam p, dressings, bandages, hotS u n d a y D u t y , S t. P a u l’s C a t h e d r a l. w ater bottles, io din e, sal vo la tile an d a n tisep tics n eatly S u n d a y , 4 t h .— N o . 16 D iv is io n . arran ged on low, n arrow tables. C a rd s h an gin g on the „ n t h . — N o . 19 „ w alls “ N earest T e le p h o n e ,” “ D rs ’. n am e an d n u m b e r,” „ 1 8 th .— N o . 51 „ “ M o to r cars a va ilab le, an d how to get th e m .” The „ 25 th .— N o . 7 „ 10 .30 a .m . to 2 .30 p .m ., a n d 2.30 p .m . to 8 p .m . A s p e r V ic a r ’s d augh ter, h e rse lf a Sister o f St. J oh n , has co m e to se p a ra te o rd e rs. K e y fro m S t. J o h n ’s G a t e , 10 a .m . see if w e h a ve e ve ry th in g rea d y for use, before she says B R IG A D E FO RM S. “ G o o d n i g h t !” “ H o w are you go in g to get h o m e in the O ffic e r s a n d M e m b e r s - in - C h a r g e o f D iv is io n s a r e r e m in d e d m o r n in g ? ” O n e n urse has her b ic y c le ; th e other has t h a t B ' F i a o r IN , B / F 3 a n d B / F 5A o r 5N a r e d u e on w alk e d three m iles to help, b ecau se this little villa ge has O c t o b e r 1st. I t w ill g r e a t ly fa c i lit a t e t h e w o r k o f th e S t a f f if n ot q u ite e n o u g h m em bers in its V .A .D . to k e ep tw o on th e s e fo r m s a r e s e n t in w ith a s lit t le d e l a y a s p o s s ib le . d u ty d ay and n igh t so lo n g as th o se lads in k h ak i are AN N U AL GEN ERAL M E E T IN G . gu ard in g th e railw ay lin e and brid ge, un der w h ich th e T h e s e s h o u ld b e h e ld a s s o o n a s p o s s ib le a ft e r S e p t e m b e r h e av y troop-trains are co n tin u a lly passing, grin d in g their 3 0 th , a n d b o o k s s h o u ld b e s u b m it t e d to H e a d q u a r t e r s fo r way to th e sea. “ Oh ! W e m ust get M r. S o -& -S o ’s car e x a m in a t io n a t o n c e . for you, then, in th e m orning. G o o d n igh t!” It has been O VERCO ATS. a gloriou s day, but now the th u n d er is ru m b lin g in the O ffic e r s a n d M e m b e r s - in - C h a r g e w ill p le a s e fu r n is h th e n u m b e r s o f o v e r c o a t s in t h e ir p o s s e s s io n w h ic h h a v e b e e n distan ce, an d the brilliant fo rked -ligh tn in g is m akin g the is s u e d fro m H e a d q u a r t e r s . oil lam ps lo o k yellow and garish. W e sit w atch in g the FOOTBALL D U T IE S . dazzling, steely flashes sp littin g th e h e av y m asses o f p urple M a n y D iv is io n s w h ic h p e r fo r m t h e s e d u t ie s d o n o t s e n d in clo u d , ta lk in g — now o f th e war, now o f our last c rick et t h e ir r e tu r n s r e g u la r ly . R e p o r t s s h o u ld b e s e n t in a t le a s t m atch. T h e eld er o n e o f our m en is great on his gard en : o n c e a m o n th . his ca ctu s d a h lias are th e finest an yw h ere round, he tells F IR S T A ID CLASSES FOR M EN. us. T h e yo u n ger o n e is in th e C h u rch C h oir, an d tells us D iv is io n s in t e n d in g to ru n F ir s t A i d C l a s s e s d u r in g th e p ro u d ly the d ate o f th e o ld grey tow n we can see throu gh w in t e r a r e r e q u e s t e d to n o t ify H e a d q u a r t e r s , a s a p p lic a t io n s our w indow s, an d the nam e o f his favourite chan t. B o th a r e o fte n r e c e iv e d fo r th is in fo r m a tio n . T h e fo llo w in g m en, we find presen tly, are en th u sia stic m em bers o f the p a r t ic u la r s s h o u ld b e s u p p lie d , v i z . :— D a t e , tim e , p la c e a n d fe e . R ifle C lu b — th ey can sh o o t straigh t as w ell as dress D iv is io n s a r e u r g e d to c o n s id e r t h e d e s ir a b ilit y o f h o ld in g o n e w ounds. T h e n w e begin “ shop ” — w h ich team g o t the c la s s b e fo r e C h r is t m a s , a n d a s e c o n d to fin ish b e fo r e th e e n d o f F eb ru ary. T h e s e c la s s e s a r e fr e q u e n t ly t h e m e a n s o f m ost m arks from “ th e C o l.” in the last F irst A id c o m ­ in t r o d u c in g fr e s h b lo o d . petition. W h ich V .A .D . has its equ ip m en t m ost up-to( S ig n e d ) LEES H ALL, date. B y an d by th e lad begins to nod, and the eld er Deputy- Commissioner. m an ’s p ipe go es out, th e tw o sisters take their chairs to th e H e a d q u a r t e r s : - - S t . J o h n ’s G a t e , op en do o r and sit there. It is rain ing h e av ily now , and C le r k e n w e ll, E .C . th ey p ity “ those poor bo ys ” gettin g w et dow n b y th e bridge. T h e ligh tn in g is still p layin g on th e horizon , but that is not ligh tn in g o ver there. T w o brilliant p en cils o f e le ctric ligh t are sw eep in g across th e sky. I f “ T o m m y ” is m arch ing M r. W . H . F in ch a m is g iv in g his lectu res on the sto lid ly forw ard to figh t for us o ver th e earth, “ J ack ” is “ O rd e r o f St. Joh n ” at th e fo llo w in g places. H e w ill k e ep in g w atch for us on th e sea. W e fall very silen t g la d ly g iv e this lec tu re on b e h a lf o f an y D iv isio n or C la ss presen tly, listen in g as a d u ll roar in th e d ista n ce grad u ally of th e S .J .A A . if th ey can p ro vid e an efficien t lantern and gets louder, an d a troop train rushes un der th e brid ge, the lanternist. T h o s e desirous o f fixing up th e lectu re sh ould glare from its fu rn ace reflected on th e steam left b eh in d ; co m m u n ica te with th e E d ito r o f this J o u r n a l:— W o o d g reen they co m e at regu lar in tervals, th o se grim m onsters each P u b lic L ib ra ry , O c to b e r 2 2 n d ; H o rn se y P u b lic L ib ra ry, w ith its load o f fightin g m achin es, ru shing on to -----N o v e m b e r n t h ; E p so m L ite ra ry In stitu te, N o v e m b e r w hat ? T h e re are tim es w hen w ords do n ot co m e easily 1 2 t h ; S to k e N e w in g to n P u b lic L ib ra ry , N o v e m b e r 1 4 t h ; e ven to w om en ! C r o y d o n P u b lic L ib ra ry , N o v e m b e r 1 7 t h ; W o o d fo rd T h e n igh t w ears on and, as th e ligh t begins to P h o to g ra p h ic S o cie ty , D e c e m b e r 2 n d ; W alth am sto w brigh ten in th e east, th e clo u d s part an d co m m e n ce to roll P u b lic L ib ra ry , J an u a ry 1 4 t h ; E a lin g P h o to g ra p h ic aw ay, the rain ceases and a co o l little w ind brings w ith it S o cie ty , M a rch 1 7 th ; St. A n d r e w ’s L e c tu r e H a ll, d e licio u s scen ts o f clo v e r an d rain-w ashed grass. M u sw ell H ill, M a rch 23rd. T h e big m an puts out th e lam ps and ligh ts the oil stove, the bo y fills th e k e ttle and o n e o f the nurses finds the teapot. T h e o th er n urse gets her therm os o u t o f her W h en corresponding w ith A d ve rtisers please b icycle-b ag an d w alks o ff dow n th e w et co u n try road to m ention “ F irst Aid ”

DUTY ROSTER.


— F I R S T

S eptem ber, 1914-

th e bridge, a quarter-of-a-m ile off. A c o ld little C o c k n e y “ T o m m y ” is very glad to h ave a d rin k o f h o t coffee an d a ch at with a fellow creature. H e co m es from a W o o lw ich boiler yard, and rem arks “ the q u iet ’ere fair gives m e the ’um p ! “ F irst nights we was ’ere,N u rse, I th in ks e ve ry n oise was a G erm an — rats and bats th ey was, but I ’aint used to ’em .” “ Is that th in g l o a d e d ? ” N u rse asks, rega rd in g the h e av y rifle w ith a d o u b tfu l eye, and is n ot ren d ered m ore co m fo rtable by h avin g its m echanism e xp lain ed to her in detail, havin g been bro u gh t up with the fixed id ea that firearm s are in th e habit o f go in g off sp on tan eo u sly. I “ A n y false alarm s ? ” “ N e arly got shot m y self th e o th er n ight. M y m ate e ’ears a noise and ’e blazes off— ju st m issed m e e did ! S o the tiny, im p rovised hosp ital n early had an in m ate ! A w hite figure app ro ach es, th e farm han d is fetch in g the cow s hom e to be m ilked. T h e y b lu n d er h e av ily past, tw en ty o f them , regard in g th e grey and k h a k i figures with m ild surprise. N urse, w ho has a p ro fo un d resp ect for horned anim als, is gratified to find th at th e ga llan t w arrior at her side is n ervously flatten in g h im se lf again st the bridge. C o w s are not fam iliar o b jects at W o o lw ich at such close quarters eviden tly. T e a and biscu its are go in g on w hen N u rse gets b a ck to the school-room , and all four begin to lo o k at the clo ck at frequen t intervals, for eigh t o ’c lo c k brings th e m aid

A'lD

43

M e m b e r s o f N o . 37 ( G . W . R . L o n d o n ) D i v i s i o n , N o . I. D i s t r i c t , P r i n c e o f W a l e s ’s C o r p s . T h e stren gth

o f th e D iv isio n , w h ich co m p rises th ree Section s, viz.:— A , P a d d in g to n ; B , V ic to ria an d A lb e r t D o c k s ; C , S m ith field ; is 77 o f all ranks. O n a ca ll b ein g re ce ive d from H e a d q u a rters for A m b u la n c e V o lu n te e rs for th e G re at E u ro p e an W ar, a b o u t 50 per cent, o f th e m em bers o f th e D iv isio n ga ve in their n am es for S erv ice. T h e D iv isio n was form ed d u rin g th e B o e r W ar, w hen upw ards o f forty m em bers o f th e G re a t W estern R a ilw a y C o m p a n y ’s S ta ff w ent to S o u th A frica , a tta ch e d to N o . 37 D iv isio n , five o f w hom laid dow n th eir lives in the S e rv ice o f their C o u n try . A d e ta ch m en t from P a d d in g to n fo rm ed part o f the personnel o f th e Im p e ria l Y e o m a n ry H o sp ita l at D ie lfo n tein . O n th e o cca sio n o f th e u n ve ilin g b y H is M a je s ty K in g G eo rg e (then P rin c e o f W ales) th e m em orial in St. J o h n ’s C h u rch , C le rk en w e ll, to th e m em bers o f th e B rig a d e w ho died in S o u th A frica , m em bers o f the D iv isio n fo rm ed part o f th e gu ard o f honour. T e a m s , co m p rised o f m em bers o f th e D iv isio n , h a ve

By courtesy “ G .W .R . M agazine."

The

No.

37

(G .W .R .)

from the V ica ra g e with ho m e-m ad e bread, y ello w butter, and d elicio u s H a m p sh ire bacon. A t 8.30 the “ r e l ie f ” co m es in, a n o th e r ch e e r­ ful villager, w ho exp lain s he ca n k n it so ck s an d m eans to get a few d o n e for th e hosp itals w h ile h e ’s on duty. T h e tw o m en go off w ith ch e ery “ G o o d -b y e s ,” e ach to d o ’ his d a y ’s w ork, ap p aren tly as a m atter o f course. A little trifle lik e a sleepless n ight o n ce or tw ice a w eek d o esn ’t ca ll for any com m ent, it’s all in th e co u rse o f the “ A m b -lan ce ” work, an d N u rse gets on her b icy cle and rides o ff in the d irectio n o f a bath and clean uniform . S h e has go t a streunou s day before her, to o ; but, then, these are strenuou s days for all o f us, and St. Joh n exp ects us all to do our duty. Q u a r t e r m a s t e r , V .A .D .

N e a rly 100 St. Joh n A m b u la n c e m en a tta ch e d to R o th e rh a m d istrict co llieries h ave v o lu n tee re d for service. A s a result, it has been fo un d im p o ssib le to p ro ce e d w ith th e co m p etitio n for th e R h o d e s C h a lle n g e C u p an d for first year m en, fixed to be h eld on O c to b e r 3rd. C o m p e titio n s arranged in co n n e ctio n w ith th e R o th e rh a m M ain classes are for a lik e reason postp oned.

A m b u la n ce

D iv isio n .

been su cce ssfu l in w in n in g th e “ D e w a r ” S h ield . The “ O sb o rn ” S h ie ld an d “ M a sse y -M ain w arin g ” C u p h ave also been w on tw ice re sp e ctive ly , w hilst p rivate W . G affn ey carried o ff the “ S le ath G ent ” C u p in in d ivid u a l co m p etitio n . A large n u m b er o f th e m em bers possess K in g E d w a rd ’s C o ro n a tio n M e d a l an d a lso th at o f K in g G eo rge. D iv isio n a l Sup t. W . H . M a u n d er, w ho has h a d ch a rg e o f the D iv isio n since its form ation , to g e th er w ith A m b u la n c e O fficers A . E . E va n s and W . A . G . F u rb er, are H o n o ra ry S e rv in g B roth ers o f the O rd e r o f St, J o h n o f Jeru salem in E n g la n d , have had aw ards g ran ted for services ren d ered to th e St. J oh n A m b u la n c e A sso cia tio n . T h e N o n -C o m m issio n e d O fficers o f th e D iv isio n are : Sergt. J. S c ip le h o rn , Sergt. G . A . B u rgess, S ergt. S. C . B a rn e tt (in ch a rg e o f C . S e ctio n ), a n d C o rp o ra l W . G affn ey. T h e D iv isio n is fo rtu n ate in h a vin g for its D iv isio n a l Surgeo n , J. M a clea n C a rv e ll, M .R .C .S , L S. A ., w ho has d e v o te d m uch tim e in th e in terest o f its m em bers, h avin g, in a d d itio n to th e in stru ctio n in first a id on the usual p ra ctice nights, giv en lectu res to tw o n u rsin g classes an d a M ilita ry san itation c l a s s ; as a re su lt m any o f the m em bers h o ld the N u rsin g and M ilita ry S a n ita tio n certificate s resp ectively.


— F I R S T

44

On

A ctive

S ervice

W e p u blish b elo w extra cts from letters, so m e o f w hich have b een sen t to us, an d o th ers h a v e a p p ea red in the d aily press. F irst O fficer J. S tep h e n so n , o f th e C o ln e D ivisio n , w rites from C h a th a m , w here he is servin g with the R .N .A .S .B .R . : — “ I am p leased to in form yo u th at the tw en ty m em bers o f th e C o ln e A m b u la n c e D iv isio n w ho are statio n e d here are in g o o d h ealth and spirits. A t presen t th ere are seven tyo n e St. J o h n ’s m en on d u ty h ere an d sixty m ore co m e up e ve ry m o rn in g from th e barracks, m arch in g b a ck to din ner. “ T h e w ork o f our m en befo re last T u e s d a y was ch iefly th e cle a n in g o f w ards an d fitting w ards w ith extra beds, & c. P rev io u s to war b ein g d e cla red this h o sp ital h a d a cco m m o d a tio n fo r 600 p atien ts ; n ow th at has been in ­ crea se d to 1,10 0 . W o o d e n b u ild in gs are b ein g bu ilt as q u ic k ly as p o ssible, th e m en on this jo b w orkin g from 6 a.m . till dark, an d also on S u n d a y s. T h e a cco m m o d a tio n for th e S ic k B e rth S ta ff was o rig in a lly for 100 m en ; an d w hen th e sixty m en from th e barracks co m e up here for go o d th ere w ill th en be a staff o f 230. T w o big hu ts are now b ein g bu ilt for th e St. Joh n m en. “ T h e m a jority o f the R e serv e s here co m e from L a n c a ­ shire an d Y o rk s h ire , an d th ey ca u se m u ch a m u sem en t by sp ea k in g th e L a n c a s h ire or Y o r k s h ire d ia lects. Y o u will, n o d o u b t, h ave read o f the b rillian t v ic to ry o f o ur N a v y , an d h a ve seen th e lists of k ille d an d w o u n d e d . It fell to m y lot last S a tu rd a y to tak e ch a rg e o f a n u m b er o f m en to carry th e d e a d sailors in to the m ortuary, an d th e sights we saw we shall n ever forget. I w ill not d e sc rib e w hat I saw, but I w ill say th is — that d eath in the m ajority o f cases m ust h a ve been in stan tan eo u s. T n e d e ad w ere bro u gh t up first, an d sh o rtly after th e w o u n d e d w ere bro u gh t in by m otor 'b u ses w h ich h ave been c o n v e rte d in to a m b u la n ce w agons, e ach o n e h o ld in g four ca n v as bed cots. W e h ad ab ou t fifty m en on p arad e for the p urp ose o f u n lo ad in g, and as the m en w ere b ein g lifte d o u t o n e w ou ld say, “ M in d m y le g ,” or “ M in d m y arm ” ; so m e w ho h ad been hit on th e h e a d lay as i f d ead . E a c h co t was p lace d on a w h eel litter an d w h ee led dow n a co rrid o r, and th e m an was n u m b ered an d a paper p la ce d in th e han ds o f th e bearer statin g w hich w ard he was to b e tak en to an d th e n u m b er o f th e bed. W e w ere k e p t bu sy on S a tu rd a y aftern o on and n ight u n lo a d in g th ese w agon s an d again on S u n d a y . A s so o n as th e p atients w ere settled in b e d th e su rgeo n an d a tte n ­ dan ts e xa m in ed th e p atients an d d ressed th e w ou n d s, and in a very sh o rt tim e the o p era tin g th e atre staff was w orkin g at high pressure. T n e r e w ere five o p eratio n s on Sa tu rd a y n igh t, a n d th ere h a ve been several s in c e ....................... “ I sin cere ly h o p e th at every m an w ill d o his d u ty, and th en th e B ritish p u b lic w ill be ab le to see th at th e m o tto o f th e St. J o h n A m b u la n c e B rig ad e, “ D e ed s, n ot w o rd s,” is n o t an id le boast. I m ust n ow co n c lu d e w ith the h o p e th at this w ill be th e last war betw een civ ilis e d and C h ristia n c o u n trie s.” S u p t. H . G re e n w o o d , o f th e B a tle y D iv isio n , w ho is sta tio n e d on th e N o . 1 H o s p ita l T ra in , w rites an in terestin g a c c o u n t to th e Batley Reporter :— “ A ll w ell ! D e scrip tio n o f N o . 1 H o s p ita l T ra in : T h e train co n sists o f L o n d o n a n d N o rth -W este rn R a i l ­ w ay sto ck , an d is co m p rised o f e ig h t co a ch es, m ad e up a s fo llo w s ; F iv e co t co a ch es, tw o co rrid o r carriages, a n d on e d in in g -car an d k itch e n . T h e staff for th e train co n sists o f

A ID .—

September, 1914.

tw o surgeon s, D r. B o w e y an d D r. E l d e r s ; tw o n u rs e s ; o n e sick berth stew ard, M r. H . H a d d e r ; o n e su p erin te n ­ dent, M r. H . G re en w o o d (B a tle y ), and 80 S .J .A .B . M en. “ T h e co t co a ch e s are each fixed up w ith 24 cots, m akin g a total o f 120 cots for th e train. In cases o f em erge n cy we co u ld d eal with ab ou t 200 cases. The din in g-car and k itch e n are to be used for in v a lid co o k e ry , m akin g B o vril, co co a, tea, & c. T h e re is a go o d su p p ly o f first a id a p p lian ces a b o a r d ; also all su rgical ap p lian ces w h ich m igh t be n eed ed . E a c h co t co n tain s o n e bed d in g , o n e pillow , tw o b lan kets, and are slun g from th e ro o f o f the co ach . O n the ou tsid e o f th e train alon g each side are p ain ted seven la ge red crosses, and all th e ro llin g stock b ein g n ew ly p a in te i, th e train lo o ks q u ite sm art. The B a tle y m em bers w ho are on th e train say th at it is the finest train in this coun try, “ T h e train crew are put th rou gh lo a d in g and u n lo a d ­ in g drill d aily, un der th e ch a rg e o f D r. E ld e rs. W h en the tim e co m es for us to do our d u ty we h o p e to be as sm art w ith our w ork as th e train lo o k s sm art in a p p e a ra n ce .” A co rresp o n d en t w ho is w ith th e M .H .H . R e serve s statio n e d at A ld ersh o t, w riting to th e Bromlev Telegraph, says :— “ W ith tw o excep tio n s the w h o le o f th e R eg u la rs ( R .A .M .C .) h ad go n e to the front w ith the E x p e d itio n a ry F o rce . T h e B ro m le y m en an d th o se with them , fo un d th em selves in en tire co n tro l an d resp o n sib le for the hospital. W h a t see m ed at first an a lm ost im p o ssib le task grad u ally rig h ted itself, and to-day th e m en are e n jo y in g their labou r to the full. B u t it has n ot been all p lain sailin g by any m eans. “ It seem s that th ere w ere som e difficulties at first w ith regard to rations, ow in g to the en o rm ou s n um ber o f th e troop s in th e cam ps, but e n e rg e tic m easures are now b ein g tak en to ob tain the n ece ssa ry supplies. “ T h e re are b etw een tw o and th ree h u n d red p atien ts in th e h o sp ital at p resent, th e m ajority b ein g reservists ca lled to th e colours. A rran ge m en ts h ave been m ade for th e e rectio n o f m arquees an d ten ts sh o u ld the ho sp ital and h u ts n ot b e sufficien t. T h e r e is a cco m m o d a tio n for 2,500. S o m e o f the m en are d e ta iled for d u ty at th e R o y a l M ili­ tary C o lle g e , San dh urst, and at th e M ilitary H o sp ita l, D e e p c u t.” D r. J. R o b e rtso n C rea se, o f S o u th S h ield s, has three b u ild in gs w h ich h a ve been co n v e rted in to hosp itals and are w orkin g u n d er his d irectio n s. T h e A m b u la n c e C o m m itte e o f the M etro p o litan A sy lu m s B o a rd has d e c id e d to tak e steps for b u ild in g ten m otor a m b u la n ce s on a cco u n t o f th e calls th at h a ve b een m ad e on th e a m b u la n ce service o f th e B o ard . M id d le se x V. A. O r g a n i s a t i o n . — T e m p o ra ry hospitals, co n v a le sce n t h o m es a n d rest stations have been e sta b lish e d in all th e p rin cip a l p laces in th e co u n ty. T h e r e is a ce rtificate d an d train ed personnel o f 150 nurses w ith a reserve o f 100 m en and 150 nurses u n d ergo in g trainin g. M a jo r G en eral L o r d C h ey lesm e re , ch airm an o f the C o u n ty T e rrito ria l A sso cia tio n , is tak in g a a ctiv e lead in the R e d C ro ss w ork o f th e C o u n ty , w h ich is en tirely u n der the co n tro l o f his A sso cia tio n . M r. D a rvil-S m ith has b een a p p o in te d C o u n ty D irecto r. It is o f in terest to n ote that w h ile th e d e ta ch m en ts are c o n tro lled by the M id d ld s e x T e r rito ria l A ss o c ia tio n , o n ly St. J oh n units are re co g n ised in th e co u n ty.


Septem ber, 19 14 .

— F I R S T

W AR T h e A u stra lia n B ran ch o f the B ritish R e d C ro ss S o cie ty has forw arded th rou gh th e H ig h C o m m issio n e r for th e C o m m o n w ealth , Sir G eo rg e R e id , a furth er d o n atio n o f .£ 3,0 0 0 to the B ritish R e d C ro ss S o cie ty in L o n d o n . T h is m akes a total o f £ 8 ,9 0 0 a lrea d y su b scrib e d by the A ustralian branch.

T h e In tern atio n al C o m m itte e o f th e R e d C ro ss S o cie ty , says R eu ter, has op en ed, at 3, R u e A th en es, G en ev a, an a g en cy for prisoners o f war, in ten d ed to furnish in fo rm a­ tion to prisoners and their fam ilies, and w ill forw ard to prisoners co rresp o n d en ce and m on ey a d d ressed to them .

T h e M etro po litan A sy lu m s B o a rd has statio n e d a m otor-van am bulan ce, w ith d river and atten d an t, at S o u th ­ am pton D o ck s for service in th e co n v e y a n ce o f th e sick to N e tle y H o sp ita l. A t the req u est o f th e M ilitary A u th o rities th e B o a rd h ave also u n d e rtak en to su p ply, as required, am b u lan ces for th e co n v e y a n ce o f co n sid e ra b le num bers o f sick soldiers to the several m ilitary hosp itals in and near L on d o n . T h e B ritish R e d C ro ss S o cie ty is in d e b te d to M r. A . O. R ich ard so n for h a vin g d e sig n e d an d p resen ted , free o f cost, to the so ciety over a quarter o f a m illion R e d C ro ss war stam ps. T h e series v iv id ly d e p icts in co lo u r the hum an itarian work o f th e R e d C ro ss in tim e o f war. Sets o f these stam ps m ay be o b tain ed , p rice 6d. per set, on a p p licatio n by w riting or p erson ally to the secreta ry o f the B ritish R e d C ro ss S o cie ty , D e v o n sh ire H o u se , P ic c a ­ dilly, VV.

L ast July the E arl o f P ly m o u th , D irecto r an d C h a ir ­ man o f the A m b u la n ce D e p artm en t o f th e O rd e r o f St. Joh n o f Jerusalem , and L ie u t.-C o l. Sir R ich a rd T e m p le , Bart., the A ssistan t D irecto r, were e le cte d m em bers o f the E x ecu tiv e C o m m ittee o f th e B ritish R e d C ro ss S o c ie t y ; and on the sam e day L a d y P erro tt, L a d y S u p erin ten d en tin -C h ie f o f N u rsin g C o rp s and D iv isio n s o f the St. Joh n A m b u la n ce B rig ad e an d L a d y C o m m a n d a n t-in -C h ie f o f St. Joh n W o m e n ’s V o lu n ta ry A id D e ta ch m e n ts , was elected a m em ber o f the R e d C ro ss S o cie ty Sta n d in g C o m m ittee, w hich m eets d aily at th e presen t tim e.

T h e B ritish R e d C ro ss S o cie ty has issued (th ro u gh the O xford U n iv ersity Press, and H o d d e r & S to u gh to n , L o n d o n ) a note-book with diagram s for use d u rin g a tte n d a n ce at R e d C ro ss courses and first aid. O n the left-h an d p ag e are clear rep ro d u ctio n s o f th e d iagram s show n d u rin g the le c tu r e s ; the right-hand p ag e is b la n k for n otes. The illustration s have been p repared, u n der the d irectio n o f the E d u catio n S u b -co m m ittee o f th e B ritish R e d C ro ss S o cie ty , by D r. G eo rges D u p u y. T h e price o f th e n ote-b o o k, w hich is quarto shape, is is . net.

Sir Joh n F u rley p oin ts o u t in th e Times th at co n ­ siderable d elay is ca u sed to nurses b e cau se th e R e d C ro ss

A ID .

ITEMS. brassards h a ve to be e x ch a n g e d w hen th e bearers pass th ro u gh the F re n c h or B e lg ia n lines. H e th in k s an arra n g e m en t sh o u ld be m ade so that th e official stam p o f o n e c o u n try w ou ld be re co g n ised also in th e others.

T h e Q u e e n has sent th e F re n ch R e d C ro ss in L o n d o n (U n io n des F em m es de F ra n ce ) a gift o f 640 garm en ts. It was re ce iv e d with d e ep gratitu d e, and w ill be m u ch a p p re ­ cia te d in F ra n ce, w here the large bales are to b e sent im m ed iately.

T h e St. J o h n A m b u la n c e A ss o cia tio n has re ce iv e d new s from the nurses sent to B e lg iu m that all th e E n g lish nurses o f th e p arty are in B ru ssels an d w o rk in g to g e th e r ; th ey are q u ite well. T h e y are un der G erm an rule. T h e co n tin g e n t that left for Paris on A u g u st 29th w ere sent b a ck from th ere ow in g to th e risk.

H e len a M o o re w rites from T h e M e w se , M a rk e th ill, Irela n d :— “ R e d C ro ss w ork is e sse n tia lly w o m e n ’s w ork. W h y n ot issue a ‘ R e d C ro ss ’ e n v elo p e, a sk in g e v e ry w om an in B rita in to co n trib u te som e sum , la rg e or sm a ll ? T h e ch u rch es an d all th e o th er e x istin g a g en cie s w ou ld see to the d istrib u tio n o f th ese en v elo p es. W o m e n eve ry w h ere w ou ld be ro u sed to the n ee d o f h elp in g, an d th e resp o n se m igh t be rather a sto n ish in g .”

T h e B ritish co m m u n ity in A n tw e rp has o rg a n ised and e q u ip p e d a hosp ital for th e care o f w o u n d e d so ld iers o f the A llie d A rm ies. T h e ho sp ital has been e sta b lish ed in th e new b u ild in gs o f th e C h u rc h o f E n g la n d M ission s to S e a ­ m en an d is u n d er th e co n tro l of, an d o fficia lly re co g n ised by, th e B e lg ia n R e d C ro ss S o cie ty .

T h e Press fo llo w in g :— T he

St . John

B u rea u ,

on

A mbulance

A u gu st

2 1st,

B r ig a d e

and

issu ed the

th e

W ar.

T h is B rig a d e is o fficially a u th o rise d by th e G o v e rn ­ m ent to assist the m ed ical services in tim e o f war, an d th o ro u g h ly d eserves th e gen ero u s su p p o rt o f th e p u b lic in the in v a lu a b le assistan ce it is re n d erin g to th e m e d ical services o f th e N a v y an d A rm y . O v e r o n e th o u sa n d m en o f th e B rig a d e h ave m o b ilised for th e R o y a l N a v a l S ick B e rth R e serve , and m ore th an 2,500 for the M ilita ry H o m e H o s p ita l R eserve, w h ile so m e 600 m en from re serve co m p an ies an d from th e rest o f th e B rig a d e h a ve en listed in to th e R o y a l A rm y M e d ic a l C o rp s an d h a v e jo in e d th e E x p e d itio n a ry F o rce . T h e V o lu n ta ry A id D e ta c h m e n ts are also stan d in g ready to be m o b o lised . O rd e rlie s for th e D u c h e ss o f W e stm in ster’s a n d th e C o u n te s s o f D u d le y ’s h o sp itals are also b e in g su p p lie d b y th e B rig ad e.

U n d e r the su p ervisio n o f L o r d N o rrey s a n d Sir F re d e ric k T re v e s , a m o to r co rp s has b e en e sta b lish e d for R e d C ro ss w ork in G re a t B ritain .


— F I R S T

46

The

Red

Cross O rgan isatio n St. John.

T h e p rin cip a l w ork w ith w h ich

c o n c e rn e d

is su p p ly in g

of

the O rd e r o f St. J oh n is

personnel

at the seat o f war, o f

c o lle c tin g co m fo rts an d m aterial for the sick and w ou n ded,

AID. —

September, 1914.

and great care is e xe rcise d that no nurses are sent w ith ou t the fu llest qualifications. A s a typ ica l in sta n ce o f a d a y ’s w ork at the G a te the fo llo w in g is a g o o d exa m p le A fte r a party o f nurses and d o cto rs left for a b ro ad early o n e m orn in g th ere ca m e a req u est for fifty ho sp ital orderlies to be sen t to H a vre. W ith in a very few hours fifty p ick e d m en o f the St. Joh n A m b u la n c e B rig a d e w ere e m b ark e d for H a v re . L a te r in th e d a y ca m e a w ire from th e W a r O ffice for sixty-eight m en for w ork as o rd erlies in hom e hospitals, an d b y n igh t th ey w ere all at their posts. T h e S o ld ie rs’ and S a ilo rs’ H e lp S o cie ty is reco gn ised by th e A d m ira lty and W ar O ffice as th e b o d y w hich is to p ro vid e co n va lesce n t hom es, but a C o m m ittee at St. J o h n ’s G a te codifies all offers and arranges them w ith due regard to their situation, and a sp ecial list is kep t n otin g these facts an d all o th er p articulars lik e ly to be useful. S o m e fo rty offers o f p rivate h ouses h ave been m ade, in w h ich every th in g w ill be foun d for eith er th e co n v a lesce n t so ld ier or sailor. W ith regard to th e V o lu n ta ry A id D e ta c h ­ m ents in th e P ro v in ces and L o n d o n , n inety-seven h osp itals h ave been p lan ned, o n e o f these b ein g e q u ip p e d with 300 beds, three w ith o ver 200 beds, an d several with o ver 100 beds.

T h e H all at St. John’s G ate where all the organising work is clone. A t the formost table is seated L ad y Perrott, who is the Hon. Sec. of the O rgan isin g Committee.

S o m e sp len d id p arcels of clo th in g, w hich had a lread y been received , and are sorted and stored iq a w arehouse clo se to th e G ate. A ll th ese ga r­ m ents are b ein g rece ive d on b e h a lf o f the Q u ee n M ary N e ed le w o rk G u ild , an d so far som e 4,000 garm en ts have co m e in, and several consign-

besid es re n d erin g as m uch a ssistan ce as p o ssib le to H e r M a je s ty ’s “ N e e d le w o rk G u ild .” T o u n d er­ ta k e all this m ay seem a co m p arativ ely sim p le m atter, b u t if a n y o n e tak es th e tro u b le to visit St. J o h n ’s G a te this id ea w ill im m e d iate ly be d isp e lle d an d an in sigh t g iv en in to th e en orm ou s am o u n t o f o rg an isatio n th at is req u ired . In ord er to co p e w ith th e w ork a sp ecia l C o m m itte e has b een form ed, w h ich is again d iv id e d in to SubC o m m itte e s to deal with the variou s d epartm en ts. T h e Q u e e n is P resid e n t o f th e C o m m itte e , w ith A d e lin e D u ch e ss o f B e d fo rd as C h airm an , and oth ers servin g u p on it are the D u ch e ss o f So m erset, th e D u ch e ss o f P o rtla n d , th e D u ch e ss o f W e llin g to n , the D u ch e ss o f A b e rco rn , the D u ch e ss o f B u ck in g h a m , th e C o u n te ss o f D e rb y , th e C o u n te s s o f S ca rb o ro u g h , th e C o u n te ss B e a u ­ ch am p , th e C o u n tess o f Y a rb o ro u g h , th e C o u n tess o f D u d le y , L a d y R a n d o lp h C h u rch ill, V isco u n te ss F a lk la n d , V isco u n te ss G alw ay , L a d y M a u d W elbraham , F ra n ces L a d y d e St. Isle, L a d y P erro tt, L a d y T e m p le , L a d y J e y k ll, L a d y F u rley , and M rs. C a lv in L in e s. O n e o f the m ost im p o rtan t C o m m itte e s is A section o f the R eceiving Room . E ve ry garm ent is inspected to see that it meets the requirem ents before going into the W arehouse. th a t w h ich deals w ith F o re ig n S e rv ice an d trained nurses. A lre a d y 133 fu lly train ed nurses and m cnts d esp a tch ed , 261 garm en ts and m any m ed ical co m ­ several su rgeo n s h a ve beer, sen t a b ro ad at th e req u est forts h a vin g been sen t to A n tw erp e arly in th e m onth. o f e ith er th e F re n c h or B e lg iu m R e d C ro ss S o cie tie s, T h e Q u ee n sh o w ed her p erso n al in terest in th e w ork a n d in so m e cases th e y h a ve b een sen t w ith in tw elve by p ayin g a surprise visit to th e G a te on T h u rsd a y , A u g u st ho u rs o f th e req u est b ein g m ade. M iss C la rid g e , o f 2 7th, w hen H e r M a je sty was re ce ive d by L o r d P ly m o u th , P rin c e ss C h ris tia n ’s A rm y N u rsin g R e se rv e , w h o w ent d irecto r an d chairm an , an d by S ir H e rb e rt an d L a d y th ro u g h th e S o u th A frica n ca m p aign , m akes th e selection ,


— F I R S T

September, 1914

AID. —

47

w ith its h ead qu arters at Su b a th u . T h e tw o fo rces h a d m et a t J u to gh , an d th e n orthern b rigad e h ad d riven th e so u th ern b rig a d e b a ck on S u b ath u . B o th fo rces su stain ed h e a v y losses, an d the St. J oh n A m b u la n c e B rig a d e was c a lle d out to tak e o ver the care o f the w o u n d e d an d s ic k a n d to re liev e th e regu lar m ed ical services w h o w ere re q u ired to a c c o m p a n y th e n orthern b rig ad e m a rch in g on S u b a th u . T h e S im la co rp s o f th e St. Joh n A m b u la n c e B rig a d e p arad ed un der the co m m a n d o f a m b u la n ce officer P. H . M arsh all, and the n ursin g sisters o f th e S im la N u rsin g C o rp s p arad ed u n d er th e c o m m a n d o f L a d y S u p e rin te n d en t th e H o n o u ra b le M rs. S p en ce. T h e n u m b er o f ca su alties in th e e n g a g em e n t b etw een th e n orthern and th e so u th ern brigad es was giv en as 84. O f th ese th ere w ere 20 a b le to w alk, 50 fit for transp ort sittin g up, 10 fit for transport ly in g dow n, an d 2 unfit to b e m o ved . In ad d itio n to th e 12 w o u n d e d th e south ern b rig ad e left b eh in d tw o m ed ical ca ses— viz., a case o f rh eu m atic fever and a ca se o f sm all pox. The 20 fit to w alk and th e 50 fit for tran sp o rt sittin g up were sen t to S im la in rickshaw s, 100 o f w h ich had been co m m a n d ee re d for th e p urp ose. N o form o f transport for lying-dow n cases was a va ilab le. T h e y th erefo re had 14 severe cases to deal w ith, and th e b rig ad e personnel in less than an hour im p ro vised from sca n ty m aterial an d th ree e m p ty room s a g en era l ward, an o p era tin g theatre, an d an isolation ward. T h e sick an d w ou n ded w ere dressed and a ctu a lly put to bed, an d th ose requ irin g it w ere go t read y for o p eratio n in 45 T h is illustration shows a section o f the W arehouse in St. John’s Square where the clothin gIfor the sick and wounded is carefully m inutes. T h e in sp e ctin g officer, C o lo n e l P a trick stored, awaiting its despatch to H ospitals or C onvalescent Homes. H eh ir, D e p u ty D ire cto r o f M e d ic a l S erv ices, A rm y

P errott. T h e Q u ee n was d e e p ly in terested in hearin g ab ou t the parties o f nurses an d surgeons w ho h ad been sent abroad , and m ade a co m p lete tour o f in sp ectio n o f the various departm ents. A t th e w arehou se H e r M a je sty m ade m any p ractical suggestions, and sp o k e to several m em bers o f nursing sisters o f the B rig a d e w ho are h elp in g in the w ork o f u n p ack in g an d storing. T h e Q u ee n p erson ally ch o se the garm en ts that were to be sent o u t to

B elgiu m , and then sp o k e very k in d ly to a party o f w orkin g w om en w ho h ad been throw n out o f em plo ym en t by the war, and are n ow e n g a g ed on m aking to u rn iqu ets for the N a v y an d A rm y . S u b ­ sequ en tly H e r M a je sty visited th e a n cien t C ry p t below th e C h u rch o f St. Joh n , C le rk en w e ll.

C olon ial C an terb u ry (N ew

and

News. W est

Coast

C en tre

Z e a l a n d ) . — T h e 29th ann ual rep ort o f the

C en tre has ju st co m e to hand. T w e n ty -fiv e classes o f in struction in first a id to th e in ju red, and hom e nursing an d h yg ie n e w ere fo rm ed at C h ris t­ church, A sh b u rto n , E a st O xfo rd , P le asa n t P o in t, R an giora, T e m u k a , T im aru , W a im a te an d W e st­ port, and th e exam in ation s show ed results w hich were cred ita b le alik e to in structo rs and students. T h e n um ber o f those w ho a tte n d e d courses o f n ot less than four lectu res, in clu d in g m em bers o f the St. J o h n A m b u la n c e B rig a d e w ho a tten d ed corps lectures, was 570, as co m p ared w ith 631 in 1 9 1 2 ; 422 are en titled to certificates, as c o m ­ pared w ith 469 in 19 1 2 , and o f th ese 39 qu alified for the m ed allio n an d 60 for th e label, as co m p ared with 32 and 72 resp e ctive ly in 19 12 .

H e ad q u arters, at the clo se o f th e p ro ce ed in g s co n gra tu la te d all co n cern e d .

I n d i a . — T h e first a m b u la n ce field d a y in In d ia was organ ised re ce n tly at S im la by the A ssistan t C o m m issio n e r o f the St. J o h n A m b u la n ce B rigad e. T h e gen eral idea o f th e sch e m e was that a n orthern b rig ad e w ith its h e a d ­ quarters at S im la was o p eratin g again st a so uth ern brigad e

P riv a te G eo rg e W h ite, o f th e E x e te r D iv is io n S .J .A .B ., w ho was servin g w ith th e M ilita ry H o m e H o s p ita l R e s e rv e at th e V ic to ria H o sp ita l, C o rk , d ie d o f d o u b le p n e u m o n ia on A u g u s t 27th.

T h e D espatchin g Room.


— F I R S T

48

September, 191 b,.

AID. —

th at in o rder to sim p lify th e p ro m p t d istrib u tio n o f the

B revities.

variou s

a rticles

o f clo th in g, h o sp ital b e d d in g , bandages,

e tc., now b ein g p rep ared by vo lu n ta ry w orkers in th e W est A n a rticle in an o th er co lu m n w ill show our readers th e m a gn ificien t w ork w h ich is b ein g d o n e by th e O rd e r of St. J o h n in aid in g th e sick an d w ou n d ed . gen eral

p u b lic th in k b y

S o c ie ty w ork.

th e y

U n fo rtu n ate ly, the

su b scrib in g

are su p p o rtin g all

to

th e

th e

R ed

vo lu n ta ry

C ro ss

hosp ital

T h is is n ot so for, a lth o u g h th e O rd er o f St. John

form s part o f th e R e d C ro ss O rga n isa tio n an d is reco gn ised b y th e B ritish G o ve rn m en t, it does n o t re ce ive any o f th e m o n ey that go es to th e R e d C ro ss S o cie ty .

R id in g , it has

been

d e cid e d that co lle c tin g

d ep o ts

be

form ed at or near th e head qu arters o f th e V o lu n ta ry A id D etach m en ts un der th e m an agem en t o f th e V ice -P resid en ts o f each

district.

B y this m eans it is h o p ed to ensure

e ve ry th in g b ein g sen t p ro m p tly w here m ost n ee d ed , an d to k e e p th e ch airm an o f w orkin g co m m ittee s in form ed w hat articles are m ost n eed ed .

T h is id e a is w ell w orth fo llo w in g

o u t in o th er districts. ■ * * *

It w ou ld be

T h e fo llo w in g letter o f a p p re cia tio n has been sen t b y

w ell if m em bers o f bo th th e S .J .A .B . and S .J .A .A . w ere to m ake kn o w n th rou gh th e press o f th eir d istrict th e w ork

th e A rm y C o u n c il to L o rd R o th s c h ild , P resid e n t o f the

w h ich is b ein g d o n e by th e O rd er, for we are sure their

R e d C ro ss S o cie ty :—

m em bers do n ot w ish th e w ork to b e h am p ered

W ar O ffice, L o n d :n , S .W .

throu gh

Sep tem b er, 6th, 19 14 .

la ck o f funds.

W

L o r d , — I am co m m a n d ed

My

* * *

by the A rm y C o u n c il

to inform yo u th at th e y are w atch in g w ith clo se in terest the Am bu­

a ctiv ities o f th e B ritish R e d C ro ss S o cie ty , and n ote w ith

la n ce A sso cia tio n an d th e B ritish R e d C ro ss S o cie ty h ave

satisfactio n the gen ero u s respon se w hich has been given by

su n k their d ifferen ces an d jo in e d han ds to u n d e rta k e the

our co u n try m e n to your a p p ea l in

e

are p lea sed to see that bo th the St. J oh n

re lie f o f th e sick an d w ou n ded.

St. Joh n issued a m em o­

The Times.

T h e y are e sp e cia lly glad to learn that you are w orkin g

ran dum on th e su b je c t this m on th , w h ich w e q u o t e :— It is

in

to be la m en ted th at in th e past th ere has been frictio n in

G o v e rn m en t as fo rm in g part o f th e R e d C ro ss O rgan isatio n

variou s parts o f th e co u n try b etw een th e St, J o h n A m b u ­

o f G re a t B ritain .

la n ce A ss o cia tio n an d the B ritish R e d

o p eratio n

lo cal a d m in istratio n .

C ro ss

S o c ie ty

in

It is felt b y the C o m m itte e s o f both

th ese b o d ies th at in th e p resen t circu m stan ces

all these

clo se

a sso cia tio n

A m b u la n c e

of

th e

w ith

o th er

b o d ies

reco gn ised

by

A great w ork can b e effected by th e c o ­ B ritish

D e p a rtm e n t

R ed of

th e

C ro ss

S o cie ty

O rd e r

o f St.

an d

th e

J oh n

of

J eru salem , and I am to say that th e C o u n c il realise the

past differen ces sh o u ld be forgotten , in o rder that th ey m ay

h e a v y an d resp o n sib le d u ties w h ich th ese tw o b o d ies and

w ork in c o m p le te h a rm o n y for the fu llest p o ssib le use

others h a v e so p atrio tica lly a cce p te d .

to

be m ade o f both o rg an isatio n s in th e in terests o f the sick and

w ou n d ed .

It

is e sp e cia lly

D irecto rs an d o th er officials

d e sira b le

sh o u ld

that

co -o p erate

p o ssib le w ay to assist e q u a lly th e w ork

C o u n ty in

every

o f both organ isa­

tions.

T h e d em an d s on yo u r a ctiv ities m ay b e lo n g

con­

tin u ed , but th e C o u n c il feel sure th at yo u r so cie ty and that o f the O rd e r o f St. J o h n w ill h u sb a n d e v e ry p en n y w hich flow s in from th e gen ero u s p e o p le o f

G re a t B rita in .

T h e C o u n c il are co n fid en t th at the p u b lic w ill co n ­ * * *

tinu e to h elp both your so ciety and the St. J oh n A m b u ­

u n d erstan d that th e R e d C ro ss S o cie ty has issued

la n ce D e p artm en t, an d in d o in g so w ill reco gn ise also th e

a sim ilar m em o ran d u m , and feel sure it w ill p ave the w ay

share o f th e w ork on b e h a lf o f the sick an d w ou n d ed w hich

to so lve the p ro blem o f th e d ifferen ces w h ich h ave been

is d o n e b y th e S o ld ie rs ’ and S a ilo rs’ H e lp S o c ie ty an d th e

exp erien ce d in th e past.

S t. A n d r e w ’s A m b u la n c e A sso cia tio n .

W

e

I am, m y L o rd ,

* * *

Y o u r L o rd s h ip ’s o b ed ie n t servant,

O w i n g to our h a vin g to deal so

e xte n sive ly w ith war

R. H. B r a d e .

new s th e fact has e n ta iled th e tem p o ra ry d isap p ea ra n ce o f so m e o f our usual features. grap h s o f F ra ctu res

T h e a rticle on “ X -rays P h o to ­

for th e tim e b ein g is stop p ed ow ing

to the au th o r, D r. H a llid a y , b ein g on m ilitary service. hope

that

th e

a rticles

we

are

g iv in g

in

this

We issue

w ill be h elp fu l to R e d C ro ss w orkers, an d as soon as th ere is a lu ll in new s o f th e war o ur o rd in a ry features w ill be resum ed.

M endes,

A

n

im p ortan t letter ap p ea red in the

Times

last m onth

from D r. R o b e rt S a u n d ley, o f B irm in g h am , d ep reca tin g the p o lic y o f co n v e rtin g in to hosp itals at grea t exp en se b u ild ­ ings n eith er d e sig n e d n or su itab le for that purpose, and ca llin g atten tio n , from th e p a th o lo g ica l p o in t o f view treatin g w ounds, as n early as m ay be, in th e op en

of air.

T h e r e is no d o u b t air has a w on d erfu l h e alin g effect on

* * * B rig a d ie r-G e n e ra l

* * *

w ou nds, an d this w ou ld p oin t to th e d esirab ility o f h avin g C o u n ty D ire cto r and

h o sp itals in th e co u n try in stead o f in th e cen tre o f large

D iv is io n a l C o n tro lle r o f th e T e rrito ria l B ra n ch o f th e St.

tow ns.

J o h n A m b u la n c e A ss o cia tio n (W est R id in g S e ctio n ), states

a cco u n t by th e authorities.

W e h o p e this co n sid era tio n has been tak en into


— F I R S T

September, 1914.

Our

C om petitio n s.

T h e first prize for the S e p te m b er C o m p e titio n has been aw arded t o :— M is s L . G r a h a m , 2, C a rlto n V illa s, F ox-hill, N o rw o o d , S .E . and the seco n d prize t o :— M r.

R. M a r t i n , 52, A b b ey -ro a d , T o rq u a y .

AID. —

49

w h eth er th e illness o ccu rred after h a v in g p artak e n o f a m eal, or w h eth er th e result o f p o iso n k n o w in g ly sw allo w ed . I f th e latter, e u d ea v o u r to p ersu ad e p atien t to d isclo se th e n am e o f th e p oison an d q u a n tity taken , or lo o k a ro u n d for any b o ttle or o th er vessel lik e ly to h a ve c o n ta in e d it. S h o u ld th ese efforts p ro ve su ccessfu l, a d o p t w h ate ve r tre a t­ m en t m eets th e sp ecia l n eed s o f th e case. I f n ot p o ssib le to o b tain an y “ h isto ry ,” e x a m in e p up ils, n ote o d o u r o f breath , an d be on th e lo o k o u t for a n y dan gers that m ay arise, an d treat a c c o rd in n ly — e.g., stup or, k e e p aroused. S tu p o r.— K e e p aroused.

G o in g off in to a fit.— D a sh c o ld w ater on h ead , face a n d n eck . (1) In d ealin g with a case o f p o iso n in g from an u n ­ A sp h y x ia .— A rtificia l respiration . I f th e th rea te n ed kn ow n cause, p ro ceed as follow s :— a sp h y x ia is d u e to sw ellin g o f th e tissues o f th e throat, Sendfor a doctor at once, stating what has occurred. a p p ly large fo m en tatio n s to front o f n eck , p la ce p atien t near W h en th e patient is not in sen sib le :— fire, an d g iv e co ld w ater to drin k, or ice. A ls o o liv e or I f lips and m outh are not stain ed or burned, p ro m p tly salad oil, in sips. give an em etic (if p atient can be p reva iled u p on to tak e it.) T he

W in n in g

Paper.

M ilk, eggs beaten up w ith m ilk or w ater, or cream an d flour beaten up togeth er m ay be given freely e ith er before

C o lla p s e .— G e t p atient to bed, a p p ly e xte rn al h e a t— h o t flan n els or h ot bottles (w ell m oisten ed, an d g iv e stim u-

By courtesy “ The Queen.’ [

Photograph taken at the G uildhall o f the V .A D etach m en t o f the R ed Cross Society, C ity o f London Branch the O rganiser, is seen sittin g on the left o f the front row o f Nurses. or after the em etic, as th e y m ay co a gu la te in the stom ach and m ay therefore e n clo se th e p oison (or w hat rem ains o f it) in the clot. O il is sooth in g, an d is th erefo re e sp e cia lly useful in p oison ing by corrosives, but m ust not be giv en if phosphorus is su sp ected o f b ein g the cau se o f trouble. In th e latter case thin gruel or barley w ater m ay be g iv en in stead , and it w ou ld also be w ell n o t to g iv e cream . Stro n g tea a cts as a n eutralizer o f m any p oison s and is alw ays safe. ’ E n d e a v o u r by tactfu l en q u iry to e licit from p atien t

L ad y Crosby,

jan ts such as sal-volatile in water, or h o t m ilk, tea, co ffee o beeftea. ’ I f p to m a in e p o iso n in g be s u sp ecte d a d o se o f casto oil m ay be giv en after th e e m e tic has acted , to g e t rid o an y p oison that has p assed in to th e bow els, an d fo m en ta tions or h ot flannels m ay be a p p lie d to th e a b d o m en foi re lie f o f pain. P rese rv e a n y vo m ite d m atter for th e d o c to r’s in sp ec ti°n , also an y fo o d or o th er su b sta n ce s u sp e cte d o f beinc th e poison, an d do n ot w ash vessels w h ich m ay h a ve com tam ed the poison, but gu ard ca refu lly.


— F I R S T

I f the patient is insensible : — N o te o d o u r o f breath. E x a m in e eyes, w ith regard to c o n d itio n o f pupils. E x a m in e m outh an d lip s for stains or burns. L o o s e n all tigh t clo th in g, an d en d eav o u r to rouse p atie n t b y h o ld in g sm ellin g salts to nostrils, flick in g face, n eck , an d ch est w ith a w et to w el, an d slap p in g p alm s o f h a n d s and soles o f feet. I f b reath in g ca n n o t be d isce rn ed a p p ly artificial respiration . S earch p atien t’s p o ck e ts for an y bo ttle or o th er vessel w h ich m ay h a ve c o n ta in ed th e poison , also o b serve all th e su rro u n d in g s care fu lly for the sam e purpose. I f th ere is an y sign th at th e p atien t has v o m ite d before b e co m in g u n co n scio u s, d o n ot h ave it in terfered w ith, but lea ve for th e d o c to r’s in sp ection .

In all cases of poisoning treat shock. (2.) F o r a p erson stun g by a je lly fish w hilst b ath in g : -— In th e m a jority o f cases th e person w ou ld m erely suffer a little tem p o rary d isco m fo rt, th e c o n d itio n n ot b ein g such as to ca ll for any first aid treatm ent. If, how ever, th e person w ere co n stitu tio n a lly d e lica te (su ch as an an iem ic girl) th e p oison in je cted in to the system m ight, in a d d itio n to th e lo ca l irritation, p ro d u ce q u ite a co n sid e ra b le am o u n t o f sh o ck. In su ch a case, sen d b y sta n d er to n earest ch e m ist for sm ellin g salts, sal vo la tile, b i-carbo n ate o f soda, and som e d rin k in g water. T a k e p atien t in to b a th in g tent, an d get her d ried and clo th ed , b ein g carefu l th at n o th in g is tig h tly fasten ed, as p ressu re on air p assages, heart, e tc., m ust be a vo id e d . W h en m essen ger returns h o ld sm ellin g salts to p atie n t’s nostrils, then, if a b le to sw allo w giv e her a d o se o f sal vo la tile (from \ to 1 teasp o o n fu l) in w ater. M ake a p aste o f bi-carb o n ate o f so d a an d sal vo la tile an d a p p ly to the part stun g, co ve rin g w ith a clean h a n d k erch ief. B rin g o u t o f ten t again in to th e air, and w hen suffici­ e n tly re co v e d to p ro ceed , a cco m p a n y her to her h o m e (or tem p o ra ry re sid en ce ) an d a d vise rest, an d eith er h ot m ilk, coffee, or B o v ril to drink. (3.) S ign s an d sym p to m s o f in ju ry to th e liver :— Pain.— I f in ju ry is ca u sed by fracture o f low er ribs, p ain w ou ld e sp e cia lly be felt on a tte m p tin g to tak e a d eep breath . C o n s e q u e n tly in su ch a ca se the b reath in g w ou ld b e shallow . Swelling at seat o f injury.

A ll the signs and symptoms of internal haemorrhage, viz :— 1 R a p id loss o f strength , g id d in e ss an d fain tness, p ar­ tic u la r ^ if th e u p rig h t p o sitio n b y assu m ed. P a llo r o f face an d lips. C o ld n e s s o f th e extrem ities. B re a th in g b e co m es h u rried , an d a c co m p a n ied by y a w n in g an d sigh in g. P u lse g ra d u a lly fails a n d m ay d isap p ea r a lto g eth e r at th e wrists. T h e p atien t m ay throw th e arm s a b ou t, b e co m e dis­ tressed a n d ca ll for air. F in a lly p atien t m ay b e co m e to ta lly u n co n scio u s.

October Competition. 1st P rize , 5 s .

2nd P rize , a y e a r’s su b scrip tio n to F i r s t A id . Q u e stio n s.

(1 .) H o w w ou ld y o u treat a ca se o f co m p o u n d fra ctu re o f the leg ?

September, 1914.

AID. —

(2.) D istin g u ish b etw een a ca se o f a p o p le x y and a ca se o f co lla p se from drink. (3,) M e n tio n th e variou s classes o f jo in ts a n d d e scrib e their form ation.

m o ve a b le

C o n d itio n s.

T h e fo llo w in g co n d itio n s m ust b e n oted an d ad h ered t o :— M S.S. must be written on one side o f the paper only. T h e re is no restriction as to length o f answers, but sam e should not be unduly extended. Com petitors must cut out the “ Com petition Coupon ’ from the current issue, and fill in their names and address. T h eir nam es must not appear on their papers. T h e E ditor reserves the right to publish any paper subm itted to competition. A n y paper selected for pub­ lication will be regarded as the property o f the E ditor, who does not guarantee to return any o f them, neither does he hold him self responsible for any papers lost. E n tries in this competition will close on Oct. 10th, 1914, and all matter must by that date be in the hands of the E ditor, F i r s t A i d Offices, 46, Cannon-street, London, E .C ., and the envelope m arked “ Com petition.”

Tem porary

H osp itals.

B y H . M A I N W A R I N G H O L T , M .R .C .S ., L S . A . . D . P . H . H o n . A ss o c ia te o f th e O rd er o f St. Joh n , L ife M e m b e r of, an d L e c tu r e r an d E x a m in e r of, th e S .J .A .A ., D istrict In sp ecto r o f Stores (E .R . Y o r k s .) N o. V I . D istrict, S .J .A .B . T h e p ro visio n o f tem p o rary h o sp ital

a cco m m o d a tio n has exe rcise d th e e n ergy an d in gen u ity o f variou s w ell-m ean ing person s d u rin g th e p ast m on th , and th e results o f such efforts sh o u ld afford su b je c t m atter o f in terest an d p rofit to m any e n g ag ed in a m b u la n ce w ork. T h e d e lay in sen d in g o u t d efin ite in stru ctio n s from h ead qu arters left organ isatio n pretty m u ch to th e im a gin atio n o f lo ca l co m m ittees, co m ­ p o se d for th e m ost part o f p eo p le w ho h ad n ever given the su b je c t o f such p ro visio n a m o m e n t’s co n sid e ra tio n un til th e o u tb re ak o f th e war, and, as m igh t h ave been ex ­ p e cte d , u n d er the stim ulus o f this u n to w ard even t, zeal far outran d iscretio n . B u ild in g s w ere h a stily e q u ip p e d w ith­ o u t co n sid e ra tio n o f th eir a d ap tab ility , m o n ey was lib erally su b scrib ed , go o d s o f all k in d s w ere freely p rom ised , and m en an d w om en w ith very little k n o w le d g e an d still less e xp erien ce, v o lu n tee re d to staff such p laces. T h is o u t­ burst o f g e n ero sity affo rd ed a glo riou s o p p o rtu n ity for th e p ra ctical d em o n stration o f th e use o f a m b u la n ce teach in g, an d in m any in stan ces V o lu n ta ry A id D e ta ch m e n ts set th em ­ selves to w ork in e q u ip p in g tem p o rary h o sp itals an d co n ­ v a le sce n t hom es, th e re b y gain in g v a lu a b le p ra ctical k n o w ­ led ge an d exp erien ce o f the w ork th e y m igh t b e ca lled u p on to d o at an y m om ent. In a M em o ra n d u m from th e W a r O ffice, d a ted A u g u st 22nd, 19 1 4 , it is stated th a t “ A s it is v e ry u n d esirab le in th e in terests o f th e p u b lic th at e d u ca tio n a l b u ild in g s sh o u ld b e d iv erted from th eir p rop er use, it is p ro p o sed to inform th e E d u c a tio n a l A u th o ritie s th at su ch b u ild in gs tak en over b y V o lu n ta ry A id D e ta ch m e n ts are n ot re q u ired a t p resen t for m ilitary purposes, an d sh o u ld this b e n ece ssa ry at a later stage, prior n o tice w ill be giv en w h erever p o ssib le by th e resp o n sib le M ilitary A u th o rity .” T h e r e ca n b e no d o u b t th at this tard y a n n o u n cem e n t d a m p ed th e ard o u r o f


September, 1914.

— F I R S T

m any w illin g w orkers an d led to so m e co n fu sio n . S c h o o l m anagers, w ho h ad allo w ed th e use o f sch o o ls for this very im p ortan t and a b so lu te ly n ecessary p ra ctical te a ch in g o f a m b u la n ce m en an d w om en, felt th e m selve s in an un co m fo rtab le position , to say th e least o f it, w h ilst th e efforts o f th ose lad ies and gen tlem en w ho h a d m ad e th e m ­ selves respon sible for the tea ch in g an d o rg an isatio n o f a m b u la n ce an d n ursin g w ere m ade to lo o k lu d icro u s. M o st o f the sch o o ls w ere clo sed for th e h o lid a y s and m ight easily h a ve been m ade ava ilab le for th e p u rp o se o f dem onstrating th e w ork n ecessary in settin g up a tem p o rary hospital or co n va lesce n t hom e. E ve ry o n e seem ed to su d d e n ly realise his ow n ign o ra n ce in w ork o f this nature. T h e re was a great d esire for the p articular k in d o f tea ch in g th at co u ld show how to reliev e hum an suffering ; each was anxio u s to co n trib u te his share o f self-sacrifice, in his own p articu lar w ay, to that high form o f service w hich we kn ow as p atriotism . W e learn by our m istakes, and it is with th e o b je c t o f p re ve n tin g others fallin g into such errors that I ven tu re to n ote a few p oin ts w hich m ay be o f service in the selection an d fu rn ish in g o f buildin gs a d ap tab le for use as tem p orary hosp itals or co n valesen t hom es. O n e o f th e first p oin ts to be n o te d is the distan ce o f a bu ild in g from th e p la ce o f d etrain in g or disem barkation , and this again w ill h a ve to be co n sid ered in asso ciatio n w ith th e m eans o f transport p ro vid ed , w hether by han d stretch ers, o r by horse or m otor a m b u la n ce, for tim e is the im p ortan t facto r rather than distan ce, and I w ou ld suggest that n ot m ore than ten to fifteen m in utes be allo w ed for transport frrm station o r la n d in g to the hospital. W e m ust alw ays rem em b er that n u m b ers o f sick persons are m erely bro u gh t to geth er in order that m edical assistan ce an d n ursin g m ay b e the m ore easily and p erfectly perform ed . F o llo w in g up o n this, the first co n sid era tio n is to p reven t o vercro w d in g, w hich can o n ly be m et by p ro vid in g sufficient am o u n t o f sp ace in and aro u n d th e buildin g. W ith o u t the latter p rovision I sh o u ld not be in clin ed to co n sid er a n y room or room s fit for the purp ose o f bein g used as a tem p o rary hospital. P atien ts sh o u ld h ave th e m eans o f tak in g exercise in th e open air, th e re b y assistin g in their co n va lesen ce, re liev in g th e w ork o f th e n u rsin g and m ed ical staff, and at th e sam e tim e p re ve n tin g th e vitiatio n o f the atm o sp h ere o f th e hospital. I h ave sk e tc h e d th e su b jo in e d d iagram from an O rd n a n ce S u rv e y m ap w ith a view o f illu stra tin g in a p ra c­ tical w ay som e o f th e c h ie f p o in ts to be k e p t in m in d w hen the selectio n o f a b u ild in g for use as a tem p o rary ho sp ital is u n der co n sid eratio n . In the diagram , th e roads, river an d railw ay are show n p lain ly en o u gh , the situ atio n o f th e p assen ger station (p .s.) the go o d s station (g.s.), w ith the re la tiv e p o sitio n o f the tem porary hosp ital, are also in d icate d ; th e houses and o th er bu ild in gs on eith er sid e o f th e roads an d streets are show n b y h a tch ed lines. I h ave a lrea d y referred to th e im p o rtan ce o f d istan ce, an d w ou ld p o in t o u t th at in th e ca se here illustrated, th e d ista n ce o f th e h o sp ita l from th e railw ay station is a b o u t 900 yards. F re ed o m from the noise an d d ust o f traffic is o f th e h ig h est im p o rtan ce, a n d it will be seen on referen ce to the diagram , th a t th e d ista n ce o f such ho sp ital from the m ain ro ad is n early 200 yards. T h e ap p ro ach to th e ho sp ital is th ro u gh a sh o rt street co m p o sed o f houses o c c u p ie d b y a rtisan s, a n d here is an o th er c o n s id e ra tio n ; th e residen ts in su ch h o u ses w ou ld

A 1 I). -

51

n o d o u b t be a b le to p ro vid e a cco m m o d a tio n for n u rses a n d o th er m em bers o f th e staff o f th e h o sp ital, th e re b y re lie v in g th e w ork o f th e h o sp ita l a n d a llo w in g its full stren g th o f b ed s to b e co m e a v a ila b le for p atien ts. It is a g rea t h e lp to h ave shop s w here o rd in a ry p u rch a se s ca n b e m ad e, sin ce su ch freedom m ay w ell b e a llo w e d to m en w ho are c o n v a lescin g , an d b esid es it ten d s to re lie v e th e m o n o to n y o f h o sp ita l life. A ll o rd in a ry re q u irem e n ts m ay b e o b ta in e d w ith in 150 yards o f the site o f the h o sp ita l as in d ic a te d in th e diagram . In th e su c c e e d in g a rticle I in te n d d e m o n stra tin g th e p o in ts to u ch e d u p on in th e a b o v e rem arks, an d w ill, as far as p o ssib le , illu stra te su ch a rticle w ith p h o to g ra p h s ta k e n from a b u ild in g a ctu a lly set up for th e p u rp o se o f re ce iv in g w o u n d e d soldiers an d sailors from “ th e fro n t.”

A m b u la n c e an d R e d C ro ss w orkers ca n re ce iv e gratis a b o o k le t in E n g lis h an d F re n c h (w ith th e F re n c h p ro n u n ­ cia tio n im itated ), co n ta in in g th e p hrases re q u ired b y a

n urse, etc. A p p ly , H u g o ’s L a n g u a g e In s titu te , 64 an d 66. O xfo rd -street, 33, G ra ce c h u rch -stre e t, a n d 205, E a r l’s C o u rt-ro a d , L o n d o n . M essrs. H o d d e r & S to u g h to n , o f W a rw ick -sq u are, L o n ­ do n , E .C ., in fo r m u s o fa p retty id e a w h ich has b e en su gg este d to them by a R e d C ro ss h elp er. I t is th a t la d ies all o ver th e co u n try w ho are m a k in g clo th in g for sailo rs and so ld iers w ou ld lik e so m e little p erso n a l m e m en to to slip in to th e p o ck e t or o th erw ise a tta ch to th e ga rm en ts th ey are m akin g. I t is th o u g h t th a t th e m o st a c c e p ta b le form su ch a m em en to co u ld ta k e w o u ld b e th at o f a b o o k le t o f sy m p a th y an d e n co u rag em e n t, in w h ich th e w orker m igh t w rite her n am e an d address. T h e b o o k le ts w ill b e sm all a n d q u ite in ex p en siv e, an d M essrs. H o d d e r & S to u g h to n w ill b e g la d to hear from a n y s o c ie ty o f la d ies d o in g s u ch w ork w h o w ou ld lik e to o rd e r sm a ll (or la rge) q u a n ti­ ties o f them . T h e y regret th a t th e y find it im p o ss ib le to su p p ly th e b o o k le ts singly.

W hen corresp ond ing w ith A d v e rtise rs p lea se m e tion “ F ir st A id .”


52

R T) pli T1 pr Ei sp wl Cl C( wc an ini

— F I R S T

M etrop olitan P olice A m b u la n c e C om petitio n . -----C o m p e t i t i o n s in F irst A id h a ve ju s t tak en p la ce in the M e tro p o lita n P o lic e . T h is n ew m o ve m e n t is d u e to the k e e n in terest o f M a jo r P arso n s, C h ie f C o n sta b le, w ho has p re se n te d a very h a n d so m e sh ie ld for co m p etitio n , ca lled th e “ St. J o h n C h a lle n g e S h ie ld for F irst A id .” T h e sh ield , tw o feet in d iam eter, w ith a silver m ed allio n d e p icts an e very-d a y street scen e, w ith p o lic e ren d erin g first aid, an d th e u su al cro w d o f o n lo o kers. T h e m ed allio n su rm o u n ts an ele ctro G e n e v a cross on b ro n ze an d o ak base. T w e n ty -tw o d ivisio n s e n tered rep resen ta tive team s, an d fo r th e p urp o ses o f elim in a tin g th e b est team s the d iv isio n s w ere d iv id e d in to five districts. T h e five team s

M e t r o p o l i t a n P o l i c e , “ R ’: D i v i s i o n . — W i n n e r s o f t h e “ St. J o h n ” S h ie ld .

in m wl th at bt wi re gi bs N

w h o g a in ed th e h ig h est m arks co n te ste d in th e final at R a in h a m , on T h u r s d a y , J u ly 23rd, w ith the fo llo w in g r e s u lt :— R , or B la c k h e a th D iv isio n ... F irst M . or S o u th w a rk D iv isio n ... S e co n d X . or H arrow -road D iv isio n ... T h ird B . or C h e ls e a D iv isio n ... F o u rth N . or S to k e N e w in g to n D iv . ... F ifth T h e w in n in g team h o ld s th e sh ie ld fo r o n e year. S ilv er m ed als w ere p re se n te d by M a jo r P a rso n s to th e w inn ers an d bro n ze m edals to the se co n d team . T h e ju d g in g at th e elim in a tin g and final co n tests was ve ry k in d ly c o n d u c te d by th e St. J o h n A m b u la n c e A s s o ­ cia tio n , to w hom th e M etro p o lita n P o lic e are in d e b te d for th eir v a lu a b le assistan ce. T h e M etro p o lita n P o lic e F o rc e are to be co n gra tu la ted u p o n th e k e en n ess th at has been e v in c e d b y th is new m o vem en t, a n d th e w ork o f th e team s in the co m p etitio n s augu rs w ell for th e future. T h e k n o w le d g e o f first a id is essen tial to a p o lice o fficer’s p ro ficie n cy in th e street, for he kn o w s n ot w hen h e m ay b e req u ired to ren d er it, and it is n ecessary that his k n o w le d g e in first a id s h o u ld be k e p t a c t i v e ; the m ere stu d y to o b tain a ce rtificate is n ot su fficien t to ren d er him e q u a l to m eet an y e m e rg e n cy that m ay co m e alon g, It is w ith a view to m ain tain in g in d iv id u a l efficie n cy and stim u latin g in terest in first a id th at th ese co m p etitio n s h ave b e en in stitu ted , an d th e en th u siasm w ith w h ich th e m ovem en t has b e en tak en up for th e first year, lea d s o n e to a n ticip a te furth er d e v e lo p m e n ts for such a p raisew orth y

in

o b ject.

AID. —

September, 1914

L ectu re on

the

m aster By

C a p ta in

and

W ork in

of

the

Q u arterm aster

a

Q uarter=

Field. H. SPACKM AN ,

R o y a l A rm y M e d ic a l C orps.

(By kind permission of the m o b ilisatio n at o n c e p ro ce ed for th e p urp oses been p o sted to a

R.A.M.C . (Journal.")

b ein g o rdered th e Q u arterm aster w ou ld to th e p lace o f asse m b ly o f his unit, a n d o f this lectu re w e w ill assu m e that he has F ie ld A m b u la n ce . Ordnance Stores. — H is first d u ty w ou ld b e to get in to u ch w ith th e A rm y O rd n a n ce D e p a rtm en t b y a p erson al visit to th e O rd n a n ce Stores to see that th e eq u ip m e n t is ready, an d to ascertain w h at arran gem en ts h a v e been m ade for its issue. I f the field a m b u la n ce is a b o u t to em b ark for service ab ro ad it w ou ld be tak en o ver at th e O rd n a n ce yard, an d p ro b a b ly lo a d e d straight in to railw ay tru cks for transport to th e port o f e m b arkatio n . I m ay at this p o in t say that m y e x p erien ce has tau gh t m e that th e e qu ip m en t is in va ria b ly co rrect an d in p erfect order. T o ob tain this equ ip m en t no requ isition is n ecessary, for it is issu ed on A rm y F o rm G , 1098-63 w hich answ ers th e d o u b le p u rp o se o f store tables and receip t and d elivery vo u ch ers. T h e e qu ip m en t requ ired for each sectio n o f th e field a m b u la n ce is en u m erated sep arately, th e to tal b ein g giv en in the last co lu m n . It w ill be n o tice d that th ere is very little d ifferen ce in th e quan tities a llo tted to each sec­ tion. T h e fact o f S e ctio n “ A ” h avin g an a d d ition a l am b u la n ce w agon w ill a cco u n t for th at sectio n h o ld in g o n ch a rg e m ore p ick e tin g gear, n ose bags, horse brushes, etc. T h e sca le is ca lcu la te d on th e assu m ption that blan kets, e x ce p t for the sick, are n ot required, and that b u ild in gs w ill b e ava ilab le for their acco m m o d a tio n . B u t, if sp ecia lly o rdered, b lan kets for p erso n n el (on e per m an), a d d itio n a l ten ts for acco m m o d a tio n o f th e sick, or both, and a d d itio n a l transport to carry them w ou ld b e draw n. O ne extra forage ca rt per sectio n is a llo w ed for th e a d d itio n a l ten ts and blankets. F ittin g o f harn ess an d sad d lery on m o b ilisatio n an d th e repair o f e qu ip m en t an d sh o ein g o f anim als on a ctiv e service, are carried o u t by artificers o f th e D iv isio n a l or A rm y T r o o p T ra n sp o rt an d S u p p ly C o lu m n (see n o te 6 on A rm y F o rm G, 1098-63). I f repairs o f o rd n a n ce eq u ip m e n t ca n n o t be d o n e regim en tally, A rm y F o rm G , 1045, sh o u ld be su b m itted to th e nearest O rd n a n ce O fficer, w ho w ill issue in structions. O n the field th e a d v a n c e d O rd n a n ce D e p o t is n e t very far b eh in d , and a lth o u gh it do es n ot d o m uch in th e w ay o f repair, yo u can alw ays rely on gettin g new w heels, ten t p egs, ten t poles, etc., w hen required. S a d d le ry is n o t stored d u rin g p e a ce for officers w h o are o n ly m o u n ted on a ctiv e service. It is a sk e d for sep ar­ a te ly on A rm y F o rm G , 997. from A rm y O rd n a n ce D e ­ partm en t, q u o tin g for a u th o rity th e o rder for m o b ilisatio n . T h is , I n ee d h a rd ly say, is a m ost u n satisfacto ry state o f affairs, for a lth o u gh in all p ro b a b ility th e O rd n a n ce w o u ld b e a b le to m eet th e req u irem en ts o f th ose field m e d ica l un its that w ere a m o n g st th e first to m o b o lise, th e su p p ly o f sad d les w ou ld b e sure to g iv e o u t o w in g to th e en orm ou s calls that w o u ld b e m ade on them by o th er units, R e g u la r an d T errito ria l, an d th e m ed ical officer w ou ld p ro b a b ly b e g iv en a m o n ey a llo w a n ce to p ro v id e his own sad d le, w h ich m igh t m ean lea v in g his u n it for a d ay, at a On


September, 1914.

— F I R S T

tim e w hen his services w ere m uch w anted, to p ro ce ed to a tow n to m ake th e n ecessary purchase. S a d d les o u g h t to be stored in the sam e m anner as all o th er e qu ip m en t. D u rin g the So u th A frica n ca m p aign co lo n ia l sad d les were issued to our officers on arrival in that co u n try , and very go o d sad dles th ey p roved to be. . . . Medical and Surgical Equipment. T h e m e d ica l and surgical equ ipm en t is h eld in m ed ical m o b ilisatio n stores, or in A rm y M e d ica l Stores, W o o lw ich , and is sen t to the places o f m obilisation o f units. In d e n ts are n ot n ecessa ry . F o r scale, see A p p e n d ix 50, “ R e gu la tio n s, A rm y M e d ic a l S e rv ice,” or A p p e n d ix 4, “ F ie ld S e rv ice M a n n u a l n !b

.— T hese articles do n o t app ear in m o b ilisatio n

store tables.

Veterinary Equipment.— T h e veterin a ry e q u ip m e n t is h eld on ch arge by the A rm y V ete rin a ry D e p a rtm en t, an d is issued on m o bilisatio n un der arran gem en ts m ad e b y th e W ar OfficeIn d e n ts are un n ecessary. It co n sists o f : 1 veterinary ch est for S e ctio n “ A .” x „ w allet „ “ B .” 11r' » » >> ” ” T h o u g h issued by the A rm y V e te rin a ry D e p a rtm en t these item s appear in the store table. F o r co n ten ts see A p p e n d ix 31 and 32 (p. 1 1 3 ) “ F ie ld S erv ice M a n u a l.” O n p. 1 1 4 o f th e “ F ie ld S e rv ice M an u al ” will be foun d som e in stru ctio n s for u sin g th ese stores. T h e y sh o u ld be p lace d in ch a rg e o f the sen ior N .C O . I o f transport w hen no officer is app o in ted . Grocery Panniers.— E m p ty gro cery p an n iers are supS plied by th e A rm y O rd n an ce D ep artm en t. T o co m p lete ’ them draw from th e supply depot, see A p p e n d ix 1, I (p. 67) “ F ie ld S erv ice M a n u a l.” It will be o b served that th e so ld ier carries a h a lf ration o f m eat and biscuit, an d the p an n ier con tain s tw o d a y s’ groceries for him.

AID. — T h e ration is n ever to be eaten e x ce p t by th e o rd er o f an officer, or w hen in extrem ity. Brazzards.— B razzards are stored at the R o y a l A rm y C lo th in g D e p o t an d issu ed on d em an d . T h e y are w orn by o fficers a n d m en as w ell as b y th e A rm y S e rv ice C o rp s a tta ch e d to the field a m b u la n ce. T h e req u isitio n o f th ese w ou ld be o n e o f the first sent in by th e Q u arterm aste r on jo in in g. Hospital Clothing.— -Boots, pairs 20, aprons (o p e ra t­ in g) 28, ja c k e ts (flann el sleep in g) 60, an d trousers (p yjam a s) 60, w ill be issued to th e officer in ch a rg e at p la ce o f m o b ilisatio n by th e R o y a l A rm y C lo th in g D e p o t, an d w ill be rep laced in th e field by th e A rm y O rd n a n ce D e p artm en t as required. T h e y are n ot in clu d e d in the m o bilisatio n store table. A tte n tio n is in v ite d to p aragrap h 35, “ C lo th in g R e g u la tio n s ,” part 3.

(To be concluded.)

E x am in a tio n s w ill be h eld on O c to b e r 14 th in H y g ie n e an d

F irst

A id ,

u n der

R ed

C ro ss

co n d itio n s,

at

the

B ro n d e sb u ry P a rk S y n a g o g u e H a ll, C h ev en in g -ro a d , N .W . F ee s for m em bers o f V o lu n ta ry A id

D e ta ch m e n ts

o th er

than th o se o f the W e st H a m p ste a d D iv isio n , 5s. for e ith er exam in atio n .

T h e r e w ill also b e an e xa m in atio n in H o m e

N u rsin g on O c to b e r 15 th . at th e sam e p lace, fee 5s. M e m b ers o f V o lu n ta ry A id d e ta ch m en ts w ho w ish to be exam in ed at this C e n tre, are req u ested to co m m u n ica te w ith th e D iv isio n a l Secretary, M rs. F . D a vid so n , M a rb ru k is, 3, E xeter-road, B ro n d e sb u ry , N .W .

Medical Comfort Panniers.— M e d ica l C o m fo rt P an niers are now held on ch arge at certain large hospitals, ready sto ck ed for issue on m obilisation . Six are allow ed for a field a m b u lan ce, b ein g tw o per section . F o r co n ten ts see A p p e n d ix 3 (p. 70) “ F ield S ervice M a n u a l.” T h e y can be rep len ish ed on th e field from th e supply depot. D u rin g th e So u th A frica n W ar, it was foun d that the qu an tities o f m ed ical co m fo rts carried in the pan n iers w ere q u ite insufficient, even alth ou gh th e su p ply d e p o t was o n ly a few hours’ ride behind. A co u p le o f h u n d red w ou n d ed ad m itted after a b a ttle w ou ld use all th e m ilk and bovril at once, it was therefore fo u n d n ecessary to carry cases o f m ilk and bovril on th e w agons. Field Dressings.— F ie ld dressings h a ve also to be d em an d ed from the R o y a l A rm y C lo th in g D e p o t for th e full strength o f the unit. S ee paragraph 15, part 3, “ C lo th in g R e g u la tio n s .” E v e ry m an is su p p o sed to h ave a field d ressin g in a p o ck e t sp ecia lly p ro vid ed ju st in sid e the right side o f th e skirt o f his service dress ja c k e t. Emergency Rations.— E m e rg e n cy rations are supplied from the A rm y S e rv ice C o rp s S u p p ly R e serve D e p o t, W o o lw ich . In d e n ts are u n n ece s­ sary. T h e y are rep len ish ed on th e field from the sup ply d ep o t as required. One emergency ration in the haversack by each

would be carried soldier on service.

Photo by\

[ Topica. Press.

L ast m onth the British Field H ospital left F olkeston e under the directlon o f S ister T h eresa Bryan (with bouquet). T h e ladies in the top boots drive the am bulance to the hospital. T h e photo shows the nurses em barking on the O stend boat.


54

i

— F I R S T

A' l D. —

September, 1914.

BRITISH RED CROSS SOCIETY. fill

p i

c C

N otes

and

News.

I t has b een d e c id e d that d u rin g th e war the T errito ria l F o rc e V o lu n ta ry A id D e ta ch m en ts, th e B ritish R e d C ross, an d th e St. J o h n ’s D e ta ch m en ts in the C o u n ty o f K e n t sh o u ld a m alg am a te and w ork as the K e n t V o lu n ta ry A id O rga n isa tio n . D r. Y o lla n d is a ctin g as th e hon. treasurer an d hon. secretary. D r. C o tto n is th e C o u n ty D irecto r. * * * O u r readers w ill find in this issue an a rticle on th e O rg a n isin g an d F u rn ish in g o f a T e m p o ra ry H o sp ita l, by Dr. H . M . H o lt. In this sh o u ld be fo un d m any usefu l hin ts w h ich at the m om ent are o f th e utm ost value. * * * T h e A m e ric a n R e d C ro ss S o c ie ty has ch a rtered the H a m b u rg -A m e rik a lin er Hamburg, w hich has been re-nam ed the Red Cross. T h e Red Cross sailed this m onth for E n g la n d , e q u ip p e d w ith a do zen hosp ital units, and m a n n ed by an A m e rica n C rew u n d er the A m e rica n flag. T h e vessel is in te n d ed for th e re lie f o f th e w ou n d ed o f the E u ro p e a n b a ttlefield s irresp ective o f n atio n a lity. 1r * T h e W a r O ffice has d irected atten tio n to the n ecessity o f rigid co m p lia n ce w ith th e a rticles o f th e G e n e v a C o n ­ ven tio n . O n ly the p erso n n el and m aterial o f th e units and fixed esta b lish m en ts o f th e m ed ical service o f arm ies are p erm itte d to w ear th e R e d C ro ss brassard, to be m arked w ith a R e d C ro ss bad ge, or fly th e R e d C ro ss flag. V T h e first d e ta ch m en t o f the R e d C ro ss S o cie ty , co n ­ sistin g o f 20 nurses, 10 s u r g p ''^ a h d 10 dressers, arrived at B ru ssels on 1 6th T h e sectio n was u n d er the ch a rg e o f M a jo r-th e H o n . R o b e rt W h ite and M r. W yatt, h ead su rgeo n at St. T h o m a s ’s H o sp ita l, an d had a co m p lete field e qu ip m en t. T h e y p la ce d th em selves at the disp osal o f th e B e lg ia n R e d C ro ss. It is th o u g h t that the d e ta ch ­ m en t w ill be statio n ed at one o f the n um erous tem p orary h o sp itals esta b lish ed . Surgeo n s, dressers, and nurses were all draw n from L o n d o n hospitals, an d were chosen by Sir F re d e ric k T re v e s.

•y

c to q

*

**

T h e seco n d d e ta ch m e n t left L o n d o n on the 1 8th A u g u st u n der th e ch a rg e o f Sir F re d e r ic k K e o g h , K .C .B ., late D irecto r-G e n e ra l o f th e A rm y M e d ic a l S erv ice, and w h o w ill a ct as C h ie f C o m m issio n e r o f the B ritish R e d C ro ss S o cie ty at th e seat o f war. T h e S o cie ty w ill c o n ­ tin u e to sen d o u t sim ilar d e ta ch m en ts o f forty as required. S o m e o f th e dressers h a ve a lrea d y h a d e x p erien ce in the B a lk a n W ar. T h e nurses are fu lly tra in ed ho sp ital nurses o f n o t less than th ree y ea rs’ stan din g. T h e m em bers o f the d e ta ch m en t to o k lig h t equ ip m en t, an d on arrival th eir ser­ vices w ere p la ce d at th e d isp osal o f th e war authorities. S ir F re d e r ic k T re v e s is re sp o n sib le for th e sele ctio n o f the personnel. N o o n e w ill b e sen t out un less seen p erso n a lly,

and so far no m ed ical m an o ver forty has been a ccep ted . T h e rates o f p ay are :— Su rgeo n s, £ 1 a day, w ith uniform and ra tio n s ; dressers, jQ2 a w eek w ith outfit, uniform and rations ; and nurses, ^ ,2 2s. a w eek, w ith un iform , rations, etc., and an a llo w an ce for outfit. * * * A useful H a n d b o o k and R u le s o f th e E a st L a n ca sh ire B ra n ch o f th e B ritish R e d C ro ss S o cie ty has been p re­ pared by C o lo n e l W m . C o a tes, C .B ., w ho is ch a irm an o f the E x e c u tiv e C o m m itte e o f th e B ra n ch and H o n o ra ry C o u n ty D irecto r, T h e E a st L a n ca sh ire B ra n ch was c o n ­ stitu ted in A p ril, 19 10 , and now co m p rises tw en ty-eight D ivisio n s, co ve rin g the w h o le o f E a st L a n ca sh ire as far north as C lith e ro e and C o ln e . T h e h a n d b o o k co n tain s a sk etch m ap show ing th e p osition s, and a large diagram illu stratin g the use o f vo lu n ta ry aid d e ta ch m en ts o f the bran ch in tim e o f war. In a d d ition to th e rules o f the bran ch, full in form ation is given for both m en ’s and w o m en ’s vo lu n ta ry a id d e ta ch m en ts as to organ izatio n , d uties, training, equ ip m en t, exam in atio n s, & c. It w ill be alm ost in d isp e n sa b le to all m em bers o f the bran ch , and even to n on -m em bers it is interesting, as sh o w in g the high d egree o f organ ization w h ich th e en thusiasm o f th e bran ch has reached . * * * O w in g to the war th ere has b een a d e cid e d boom in a m b u la n ce w ork. T h o u s a n d s o f first aid m anuals have b een so ld d u rin g the last few w eeks, and person s w ho n ever ga ve a th o u g h t to tak in g a first aid co u rse o f in struction h ave ru sh ed to classes in o rder to gain a certificate in the shortest p o ssible tim e so that th ey can be o f service to the coun try. N o w is th e o p p o rtu n ity to p ersu ad e th ese p eo p le to jo in e ith er a V .A .D . or th e St. Joh n A m b u la n ce B rig ad e. *

**

I f w e m ay cred it stories from variou s sources, the G erm an s seem ru th lessly to cast a sid e all the solem n o b liga tio n s e n tered in to, sh ellin g hospitals, w ou n d in g a m b u ­ la n ce m en and even sh o o tin g w om en nurses. O n Sept. 8th four w ou n d ed A rm y Sisters arrived at th e R o y a l H e r ­ bert H o sp ita l, near W o o lw ich , from th e front. O ne of them h ad been b a d ly sh ot in th e h ead w h ile d o in g her d u ty in a field ho sp ital. T h e y w ere later re m o ve d to A le x a n d ra H o sp ita l, M illb a n k . * * *

A.n E n glish m a n w ho jo in e d th e B e lg ian R e d C ro ss in L ie g e , an d was p ro b a b ly th e o n ly person o f his n atio n ality in that ill-fated town, affirm s e m p h a tica lly th at the G erm an s d irected th eir fire on to the R e d C ro ss, h a vin g first re m o ve d th eir ow n w o u n d ed on th e p lea that they were n o t w ell treated. T h e sam e th in g h a p p e n e d again at M o n s. The ho sp ital to w hich a n um ber of th e A rg y ll and S u th erla n d H ig h la n d e rs w ere co n v e y e d was p itilessly sh e lle d by the en em y, an d m any d eath s o ccu rred , th e m en b ein g k ille d in th eir beds.


— F I R S T

September, 1914

C o n vertin g M otor C ars A m bu lan ces.

in to

T h e r e is at th e presen t m om ent a great n ee d for m otor am bulan ces, a n eed with w h ich th e o u tp u t o f the few firms w ho sp ecialise in this w ork ca n n o t cop e. M essrs. H . S im onis, o f P a rk R o y a l, W illesd en , h ave d e v ised a m eth o d by w hich an ordin ary m otor chassis can be co n ve rted into an a m b u lan ce at very sm all cost. T h e illustration given on this p age show s a co m p lete d am bulance, w hich is neat in design an d w orkm a n lik e in

AID. —

55

AN INVALUABLE BOOK FOR ALL RED CROSS WORKERS. By

DR.

ANDREW

W IL S O N .

In the p resen t gra v e e m erg e n cy e ve ry R e d C ro ss and A m b u la n c e w orker sh o u ld sen d the form b elo w for full and in terestin g p articulars o f an in v a lu a b le b o o k th a t is really an e p ito m e in clear la n g u ag e o f all th at sp e cia lise d m e d ica l a n d su rgical k n o w le d g e n ecessa ry for F irst A id e rs. In “ T h e M o d e rn P h y sic ia n ,” by D r. A n d r e w W ilso n , fu llest sp ace is d e vo ted to “ F irst A i d ” a n d A m b u la n c e W o rk . In resp ect o f co m p leten ess, a c c u r a c y o f d e sc rip tio n a n d w ealth o f illustration , “ T h e M o d e rn P h y sicia n ” stan ds w ith ou t a rival am o n gst the w orks p u b lish e d on th is im ­ p o rtan t su b jec t in th e U n ite d K in g d o m . It is s cien tific a lly a ccu ra te an d re lia b le w ith ou t b ein g d u l l ; th e n am e o f its editor, so lo n g k n o w n as an a u th o rity on th e su b jec t, is a gu aran tee o f this. EVERY

appearance. T h e chassis is fitted with an op en box b o d y with d e ta ch a b le can vas cover. In to this is fitted a set o f their patent “ L X . R . ” p o rtab le a m b u la n ce fittings with tw o regu lation stretchers. T h is apparatus has been a d o p te d by th e B ritish R e d C ro ss Society.

A

New

T o u rn iqu et.

M e s s r s . J .L . H a t w i c k & C o . , L t d . , o f 7 0 - 7 2 , St. John-street,

L o n d o n ,E .C ., have ju st p lace d on th e m arket a to u rn iq u et w hich is kn ow n as the “ W e ste rn .” It is co n stru cted on an entirely new p rin ciple by w hich th e d raw b ack s existin g

P O IN T

COVERED.

T h is w ork is p ro b a b ly th e o n ly w ork th at co vers all th e m an y b ra n ch es o f th e s u b je c t in c o m p le te d etail, an d in w h atever d irectio n o n e m ay be h e lp in g this w ork w ill be foun d in d isp e n sa b le. In v a lid co o k in g , h o m e n u rsin g o f th e w ou n d ed , b a n d a gin g an d dressin g w ou n d s, in stan t and e m erg e n cy treatm en t, th e settin g an d a fter ca re o f b ro k en bones, the treatm en t o f co n v a lesce n ts, th e fittin g up a n d san itary care o f th e tem p o rary “ h o s p ita l” — th ese are a few o f th e th o u san d s o f su b jects u p on w h ich R e d C ro ss w orkers n eed sp ecia l in fo rm atio n now , an d this in fo rm atio n is giv en in this w ork in an u n iq u e m anner. A s a k n o w le d g e o f th e b o d y in H e a lth is n ece ssa ry to th e d u e u n d erstan d in g o f the b o d y w hen its fu n ction s are d e ra n g ed by disease, a d e sc rip tio n o f e v e ry part o f th e fram e w ill be foun d here. T h e sk eleto n , m u scles, d ige stive system , heart a n d lun gs, brain a n d n ervo u s system , organ s o f sense, skin , k id n e y s a n d the b o d y ’s m icro sco p ic stru ctu re are d u ly d e scrib ed . In this c o n n e ctio n th e illu stra tio n s are o f p articu lar value, th e “ m an n ikin s ” or d u m m ies m ore e s p e c ia lly ; in th ese th e organ s are m a d e to o verla p each o th er e x a ctly as th ey d o in th e h u m an bo d y.

T h is f o r m m u s t b e s e n t w it h o u t d e la y .

A FREE BOOKLET. TO

TH E

CAXTON

P U B L IS H IN G

COM PAN Y,

156, S u rrey S treet. L o n d on , W .C . P lea se send me, F r e e o f C h a r g e and w ith o u t a n y o b lig atio n on m y p art *_ Illu strated B o o k let on “ T h e M o d e r n P h y s i c i a n . ” P a rticu la rs o f you r offer to deliver th e com p lete w ork for a first p aym en t o f is . 6d., the balan ce io be p aid for b y a few sm a ll m on th ly p aym ents.

( 1)

(2)

N a m f

...................................................................................................................................................

(Send this form or a p ostcard .)

in other ap p lian ces o f this k in d are c o m p lete ly overco m e. It is ca p a b le o f bein g a p p lied or relea sed in stan tan eo u sly, and the pressure exerted w hen th e a p p lia n ce is in use is

A d d r e s s ............................. ..............................................................................


— F I R S T

56

d ire ctly do w n w ard on th e p ressu re p oin t on ly. T h is is an e x tre m e ly im p o rtan t feature, as the m a jority o f o th er to u rn iq u e ts eith er co m p le te ly re strict th e cirru la tio n o f th e lim b , w hich is alw ays a tte n d e d w ith co n sid e ra b le risk to th e p atien t, or are secu re d b y m eans o f a sp ik ed b u ck le on o n e sid e o f th e p ad or b lo ck , w ith th e result that w hen p ressu re is exerted th e p ad is d isp lace d an d the strap w ea k e n e d w here it is p u n ctu red . In a p p ly in g the “ W e ste rn ” to u rn iq u et th e strap is n ot p u n ctu red in any w ay and th ere is no o n e-sid ed pull. W e h a ve ca re fu lly exa m in ed th e to u rn iqu et, an d are c o n v in c e d that it is o n e o f th e best on the m arket. It is sim p le in co n stru ctio n and ca n n o t get out o f order, and, in a d d itio n , th ere are n o ru b b er parts to perish. I t is h y g ie n ic (all parts b ein g w ashable), an d th e p ad is n o n ­ ab so rb en t. It is so co n stru cted as to b e c a p a b le o f a p p lica tio n b y the sen se o f to u ch a lo n e — a v a lu a b le feature w h en it is re m e m b ered th at a to u rn iq u et has often to be a p p lie d in th e dark. T h e “ W e s te r n ” to u rn iq u et is retailed at 3s. 6d., and is su p p lie d in a n eat m etal box.

The

U nito

A m bu lan ce C ou p lin g.

C ycle

T h e p ro b lem o f how to im p ro vise transp ort for th e carriage

o f sick and w o u n d e d has alw ays been an in terestin g one. N o real use has yet been m ade o f the b icy cle , an d still it presen ts m any o b v io u s ad van tages. It is o b ta in a b le e v e ry ­ w here ; it is ch ea p , ligh t and ru b b er tyred, and all th at is

AID. —

September, 1914.

Setters to the Sditor. We are in no way responsible for the opinions expressed, or the statements made, by Correspondents.— E d i t o r s , E t c .

RE

M U FTI BADGE. kin dly allow me through your w idespread Journal to correct an error which was made by “ A R e a d e r” in his letter published under the heading o f the above in your July issue. H e says that “ he has alw ays acknow ledged that S .J.A .A . men do in some cases keep up their knowledge, and are good men ; but the fact rem ains they are not organised to do public duty, and thus do not get the practical experience o f a Brigade m em ber.” H e then goes on to say, “ M ost S.J.A .A . railw ay men recognise this, and thus we find railway divisions in the B rigade,” etc., etc. I should like to point out to “ A R e a d e r” that, as a railway am bulance man, I am attached to a railway centre o f the S .J.A .A ., which is thoroughly organised and, in addition, has more to do than the am bulance corps equipped with uniform which does various kinds of public duty. A part from this I should like to say that railway am bulance men treat more cases o f injury, etc., to the public than is com m only supposed, and a recent railway accident gave d e a r proof o f this when all the injured (who were passengers on that occasion) received first aid treatm ent from the railw ay staff. I am also attached to a railway division o f the S .J.A .B ., but I wish to inform “ A R e a d e r ” that the cost o f the exam ination of every mem ber of this division and the necessary lectures that preceded the same was this year borne by the railw ay centre and not by the S .J .A .B .— Yours truly, D ean

S i r , — W ill you

“ A m b u l a n c e r .”

Jtailwaij Jtmbulance.

w an ted is a m eth o d o f rig id ly c o n n e ctin g th e two h alves so as to p ro v id e a w eigh t-b ea rin g fram e, and to co-ord in ate th e steerin g. T h e U n ito C o u p lin g C o ., o f V a n g e , P itse a, E ssex, h a ve p la ce d on th e m ark et a co u p lin g by w h ich two b icy cle s, e ith er la d y ’s or g e n tle m a n ’s, can be fixed togeth er, an d are c a p a b le o f ca rryin g a stretch er. T h e a b o v e illu s ­ tration w ill giv e a go o d id ea o f th e app aratu s, w h ich can be fixed to o rd in ary b icy cle s in a few m inutes. T h e p rice o f the c o u p lin g is 35s., an d the U n ito C o u p lin g C o . w ill be p lea sed to sen d full p articu lars to our readers.

W H E N C O R R E SPO N D IN G W IT H A D V E R ­ T IS E R S P L E A S E M ENTIO N “F IR S T A ID .”

S .E . & C . R .— W e h ave been favo ured w ith an a d va n ce c o p y o f the ann ual rep ort o f th e C e n tre, and are p leased to see that a m b u la n ce w ork has been w ell m ain tain ed on the system . S in ce 1906, w hen the reco rd was in stituted , first aid has been perform ed by m em bers o f th e staff in no less than 20,945 cases o f a ccid en t. In th e rep ort the directors reco rd their a p p recia tio n o f th e e x ce llen t w ork w hich has been perform ed an d giv e exp ressio n to their hearty sup port o f the m ovem en t. W e a ttrib u te th e su ccess o f th e a m b u ­ la n ce m o vem en t on th e S .E . & C .R . is d u e in a great m easure to the p erson al in terest w h ich is tak en in it by the d irecto rs and to th e un tirin g efforts o f M r. E . A . R ich ard s, th e ch airm an o f the C e n tre. A full rep ort o f th e ann ual m eetin g an d co m p etitio n s is set out, and a great deal o f in terestin g m atter relatin g to w ork on th e system is given . It is g ratifyin g to n ote th at the services o f the S .E . a m b u la n ce m en h a ve been used in co n n e ctio n w ith th e a m b u la n ce trains c o n v e y in g th e sick and w o u n d e d from the war, and th e D ire cto r o f M e d ic a l S e rv ice has exp ressed his a p p recia ­ tion o f th e m anner in w h ich th ose assisting h ave p erfo rm ed their w ork. In view o f th e existin g crisis no e lectio n o f co m m ittee m en w ill tak e p lace, th e p resen t personnel w ill rem ain in office th ro u gh o u t th e p erio d 1 9 1 4 -15 . N .E . R .— T h e an n u al m eetin g o f th e N o rth E a stern R a ilw a y A m b u la n c e C e n tre was h eld in July, w hen d e le ­ gates from all o ver the system w ere p resent. M r. F. P e n ty p resid ed , an d M r. G eo . J ack son , gen era l secretary, pre­ sen ted his an n u al rep ort as follow s :— It stated that 42 classes h a d b een form ed, in clu d in g D a rlin g to n (5), H u ll (5), L e e d s (4), M id d le sb ro u g h (3), N e w ca s tle (2 1), an d Y o r k (4). R e-ex a m in a tio n s h ad been


— F I R S T

September, 1 9 1 4 .

held at Y o rk , H u ll, D a rlin g to n , S ta rb e c k , a n d B ish o p A u ck la n d . R a ilw a y e m p lo y es h a d p assed exa m in atio n s at Shildon, G o o le , VVearhead an d A p p le b y , in p riv ate classes. T h e num bers w ho h ad p assed exa m in atio n s d u rin g the year w e r e :— F irst 343, seco n d n o , th ird 87, and labels 240, m aking a total sin ce N o vem b er, 18 95, o f : F irst 7,503, secon d 4,034, third 3,027, and lab els 1,7 5 9 . T h e a ccid en t returns w e r e D arlin gto n 5,78 5 , H u ll 3,269, L e e d s 1,408, M id d lesbro u gh 1,75 2 , N e w ca s tle 4 ,5 12 , and Y o r k districts 1,607, total 1 8 ,3 3 3 ; m a k in g a to tal sin ce Jan uary, 1896,

57

AID. —

— HQRUCK’S— MALTED MILK A N IN V A L U A B L E A ID R E D C R O S S N U R S IN G .

IN

T h e u n riva lled n utrition o f rich m ilk and ch o ic e m alted gra in s. E a s ily assim ilated an d m ost efficien t to g iv in g and m ain tain in g stren gth .

In v a lu a b le to N u rs es personally. Increases v ita lity and en d urance.

o f 289,626.

Keeps indefinitely— Ready in a m o me nt — No cooking

Queries and JUiswers Correspondents.

to

Queries will be dealt with under the following rules t betters containing Queries must be marked on the top lejt liana corner of the envelope “ Query” and addressed— F i r s t A i d , 46, Cannon-street, London, E .C . 2 jin Queries must be accompanied by a " Query Coupon ” cut from the current issue oj the Journal, or in case of Queries ) rorn abroad from a recent issue. 2 ' Reader requiring a reply by host must enclose a stamted addressea envelope. P. E. (Fareham ) asks for information on the follow ing :— A t our brigade drill recently while collectin g wounded one squad found a patient with card show ing “ compound fracture o f collar bone.” Is the “ co m p o u n d ” possible except by direct violence. If caused by direct vio len ce— bullet wound, for instance— would there be much h e m o rr­ hage if the subclavian artery is not dam aged ? H ow should the dressing be fixed ? T h e shoulder bandage (triangular) would mean pressure by the lesser arm sling ; the chest bandage would seem to hardly control the dress­ ing, but the shoulder spica seems to hold dressing with least direct pressure. Compound fracture o f the clavicle occurs only as the result of direct violence. Haemorrhage would not be severe when the subclavian artery or vein were injured. In first aid work the simpler the m echanical apparatus the better. T h e “ shoulder bandage ” should not be put on, neither should the breast bandage, nor the shoulder spica. T h e case would be easily and efficiently met by covering the projecting dressing with a broad bandage, securing both ends by pins to the bandage applied for retention of the fractured clavicle. — L . M. F rank Ch r istia n .

N. N. K. (N. D evon) jasks “ W h y do varicose veins often re­ appear after the person has been operated on for them ?” T he operation referred to does not rem ove the cause o f the varicosity. T h is may be persistant, and so long as a latent cause of trouble exists there will be a tendency to recurrence of mischievous results.— L. M. F r a n k C h r i s t i a n . S. T . G. (D urhan).— D ysentery, unfortunately, is too well known in arm ies in war time. T h e acute variety is caused by bacilli. T h e chronic kind is due to a very low form o f animal life, called an amoebae, it is a preventable disease and can nearly always be traced to an impure w ater supply.

IVrite f o r

inform ation,

H o r l i c k ’s M a l t e d M i l k C o ., S l o u g h , B u c k s .

MOTOR

AMBULANCES

40 50 H .F . R O L L S - R O Y C E W O LSELEY AM BULANCE delivery.

and a 16-20 H .P for S A L E , for quick

A

o to r a m b u la n c e fo r im m e d ia te d e­ l i V E R Y .- C h a s s i s , 25-h.p. .“ Silent K n ig h t ” P A N H A R D , run only 500 m iles and not soiled. A M B U L A N C E B O D Y by B A R K E R , fitted with stretchers, etc. L ow price.

M

B A R K E R & CO. (Coachbuilders), L t d , Coachmakers to H.M. the King and Contractors to the War Office, 66.

SOUTH

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T e le p h o n e

E d i t i o n , Thoroughly Revised, very greatly Enlarged. Large Crown Svo. Handsome Ctoth. Pp. i-xv i + 254, with j 6 Plates, iR X-Ray Plates, and 166 Figures in the Text. 6s. net.

S ix th

A MANUAL

OF

AMBULANCE.

B y J. S C O T T R I D D E L L , M . V .O ., C . M ., M .B ., M .A . G e n e r a l C o n t e n t s . — O u tlin es o f H u m an A n a to m y and P h y si­ o lo g y — T h e T ria n g u la r B an d ag e and its U s e s— T h e R o lle r B and age and its U s e s — F ra ctu res— D islo catio n s and S p ra in s— H tem orrhage— W ou n d s— In sen sibility and F its — A sp h y x ia and D ro w n in g — S u ffo ca ­ tio n — P oison in g— Burns, F ro st-b ite, and S u n stro k e— R em o va l o f F oreign B od ies from {a) T h e E y e ; (b) T h e E ar ; (e) T h e N o se ; (rf) T h e T h r o a t ; (e) T h e T issu es— A m b u lan ce T ran sp o rt and S tretch er D r ill— T h e A fter-treatm en t o f A m b u la n ce P a tie n ts— O rgan isation and M anagem ent o f A m b ulan ce C la sse s— A p p e n d ix : E x am in a tion P apers on F irst A ;d. “ T h is m anual stands u n riva lled . . . o n ly one o f the au th o r's k n o w led g e could h ave produced such a p ractica l an d up -to-date te x t-b o o k . ”— M ed ica l Tim es.

London:

C harles

G riffin

&

C o .,

L td .,

E xeter

S treet,

S tran d .

Aids to M em ory fo r ‘ F irs t A id ’ S tu d e n ts . B y L . M . F r a n k C h r i s t i a n , M .B ., C .M . E d in . A u th or (jo in tly w ith W .R .E .) o f “ Prob lem s in F irst A id , ” S t. J ohn A m b A ssoc.

S ix th E dition now re a d y . P rice : In C loth , 6d. n et— b y post 7d.

Revised to date (June 1914 .) In L e a th e r, 2s. n et— b y post 2s. 2d.

S t o c k p o r t : C o n n e l l & B a i l e y , L t d . , “ E x p r e s s ” O f f i c e , S t . P e t e r ’s S q u a r e and T h e S t . J o h n A m b u la n c e A s s o c ia t io n , S t . J o h n ’ s G a t e , L o n d o n . ’

T r ia n g u la r B a nd a ges.

S E P T E M B E R . 19 14 .

CO M PETITIO N

A ls o av a ila b le in tab let form , to be disso lved in the m outh w h en needed. C on ven ien t to ca rry , a v a ila b le a n y w h ere, p reven t fa tig u e , restore en e rg y an d reliev e thirst.

COUPON.

N am e................................................................

40

C A M B R IC .

1,000 24/-

gross, su b ject to bein g unsold, per gross, n e t t cash w ith order.

A d d ress..................................................

THE

DARTON

GIBBS

CO.,

OLDBURY.


— F I R S T

58

AID. —

September, 1914.

F E R R IS Pp. v iii . + 79.

is.

P rice

6d.

“U N IV E R S A L ”

net, w ith tw o diagram s.

V o l u n t a r y Ai d Detachments in Campaign B y C A P T A IN

& CO.’S

First-Aid Cupboard.

S Y L V E S T E R B R A D L E Y , R .A .M .C .

The N ation in A rm s sa y s :— “ T h is b ook sup plies a lo n g felt w a n t.”

Pp. x i i . + 4 4 .

P rice

is . 6 d.

net.

Atlas of First=Aid Treatment D E D IC A T E D TO

L t .- G e n . S IR R O B E R T B A D E N - P O W E L L , K .C .B . E x p la n a to r y

T e x t

by

BERNARD

M Y E R S , M .D .,

L a te S u rgeon to the S t. John A m b u lan ce A ssociation .

This Pocket Atlas consists o f double-page coloured plates con­ taining 42 figures and describes First A id in all its varied forms. AM BULANCE

W O R K . Q u estio ns and A n sw ers upon “ F irst A id to ihe In ju re d ,” b y J o h n M a r t i n , M .D . S t. A n d ., F .R .C .S . E d in ., E x am in er and L ectu rer to the S t. Joh n A m b u lan ce A ssociation . S even teen th E d ition . S ix ty -sev en th T h o u san d . Pp. 108. P rice Is. net.

A

Q U E S T IO N S A N D A N S W E R S ON N U R S IN G , for the S t. John A m b u lan ce A sso ciatio n 'a n d O thers. E d itio n . S even teen th T h ou san d . Pp. x + 138. is . 6d. net.

F ifth Price

P r ic e , fitte d

8, H enrietta

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Garden, London.

c o m p le te

35s. 6d.

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com plete Outfit, suitable for Factories, W orks, Public Offices, & c. Size, 19 in. high, l 8 i in., wide, 8 in. deep.

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THE ‘MIDGET’ FIRST-AID CASE 1/- e a c h .

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t h a t a re well-cut, splendidly tailored, m a d e from cloth t h a t will r e n d e r g rea t service, w rite to

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L E IC E S T E R . R e p r e se n t a ti v e sent to m ea su re a n y B rigade free of ch arge. N a t. Te l. 4352.

In D ecorated M eta llic B o x , con tain in g T w o R o lle r Band ages, T a p e , Pins, N eed les, L in t, A b so rb en t P ad, S ilk L igatu re , B ottle each A m m on ia and C a rb o lic O il, C am el-h air P en cil, and A d h esive Plaster.

Catalogue sent post free on application.

CUXSON, GERRARD & CO., Ltd., O L D B U R Y and B IR M I N G H A M .


FIRST AID.

The Independent Journal for the Ambulance and Nursing Services Conducted b y A R T H U R N o.

2 4 4 -—

V o l.

X X I.

To

[ N e w

Our

OCTOBER,

S e r ie s .]

B.

DALE,

M.J.I.

\E n t.r .d a tsta n o n e rs'H a lt.]

1 9 1 4 .

Readers.

[2/6 p * * '

A ll ca n n o t be in the firing line, n or ta k e part in the

“ F ir s t Aid ” Is pu blished on t h e 2 0 th of e v e r y m o n t h . T h e A nnual Subscription is 2 S . 6 d . post free ; single copies 2 d . T h e E ditor invites readers to send articles and reports on subjects of interest to am bulance w orkers, these should be addressed to him at

a ctu a l hostilities, b u t e v e ry a b le -b o d ie d B ritish e r ca n find usefu l w ork in c o n n e ctio n w ith this tita n ic stru g g le for the o verth ro w o f G erm an m ilitarism and the future m a in te n ­ a n ce o f p ea ce, and n o n -co m b a tan ts can h a rd ly b e b etter

46, Cannon Street, L o nd on , E .C . A ll articles and reports must be accom panied b y the nam e and address o f the w riter, not necessarily for publication but for the use o f

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R E Y N O L D S & C O ., L t d . , 46, C a n n o n S t r e e t , L o n d o n , E .C .

A

very

large

n u m b er

of

a m b u la n ce

been a c c e p te d ; S o cie ty ,

St.

h a ve

an d m em bers o f the B ritish R e d C ro ss

John

A m b u la n c e

A ss o cia tio n ,

organ isatio n s are d o in g e x c e lle n t w ork.

EDITORIAL.

w orkers

a lrea d y offered th eir services to th eir co u n try , w h ich h a ve

and

M any

sim ilar m e d ica l

m en are at th e front, and it m ay be that d ifficu lties w ill, in co n se q u e n ce , be e x p erien ce d in p ro cu rin g lectu rers for the

The A m b u la n c e

T h e tim e has now arrived w hen, un der

co m in g session.

norm al co n d itio n s, in terest in first aid

m ed ical profession at hom e, fu lly o c c u p ie d as th e y u n ­

and k in d re d

d o u b te d ly a lrea d y are, will, how ever, m eet this n eed.

su b jects

q u ick en s, w hen

W o r k e r ’ s P a r t , new in stru ctio n classes are form ed and g en era l arran gem en ts are m ade for the w inter sessio n s’ work.

T h is year th e organ isers o f classes,

etc., find th em selves co n fro n te d w ith a new an d u n iq u e set o f circum stan ces.

T h e co u n try is in n eed o f sk illed first-

aid ers— the n eed has n ever b een grea ter— an d th ousands who h ave h ith erto taken little or no interest in a m b u la n ce m atters w ill com e forw ard to a cq u ire the k n o w le d g e w hich w ill en ab le them to take their part in a lle v ia tin g th e suffer­ ings o f our brave soldiers and sailors. S in ce our last E d ito ria l was p en n ed , our forces h ave m et with a catastro p h e by sea, e q u a llin g in loss o f life the fo u n d erin g o f the “ T it a n ic ,” and m an y o f the su rvivo rs are b ein g treated in our h osp itals.

A t the tim e o f w riting

the greatest battle that th e W o rld has ever kn o w n is p ro ­ gressing, and the w o u n d ed are c o n tin u a lly b ein g brou ght to th e base, and in d u e co u rse transferred to the various

A m o n g th e first to vo lu n tee r for a m b u la n ce se rv ice w ith the F o rce s w ere so m e o f th o se k e en first-aid ers— the very life b lo o d o f th e a m b u la n ce m o ve m e n t, w h o are to be fo un d a sso cia ted w ith a lm o st e ve ry cla ss— w ho so w illin g ly sacrifice their leisure hours in in stru ctin g oth ers in first aid m eth ods, an d by th eir e x c e lle n t exa m p le in stil and m a in ­ tain

in te re st in

th e

w ork.

T h ese

m en,

w ho

m ay

be

n u m b ered in their h u n d red s, w ill b e so rely m issed at th e classes, an d it b eh o ves th o se at h o m e to ca rry o n their w ork

an d

see

that th e

m o tto

“ B u sin ess as u s u a l”

is

a d o p te d in a m b u la n ce circles up and d o w n th e co u n try. T h e fo rm ation o f first a id a n d n u rsin g cla sse s for a m b u ­ la n ce in stru ctio n is a d u ty to o ur c o u n try as a w h o le, and p articu larly

to

th ose

of

our

co m ra d e s

w h o se

v a lu a b le

services are, for a tim e, b ein g u tilised for th e m ore p ra ctical w ork in N a v a l an d M ilita ry H o sp ita ls. I t is in tim es such as this th at th e v a lu e o f first a id

hospitals p repared to re ce ive them . N o one fears but th at w e shall get satisfactio n from the enem y, or that right w ill p revail.

W e b elieve, how ever, that m em bers o f the

train in g is ap p recia ted at its full valu e.

L e t us put o ur

T h e u ltim a te issue is

sh o u ld e rs to th e w h eel an d see to it th a t, th in n e d as are th e

assu red w hilst B rito n s resp o n d to their c o u n try ’s ca ll as

ran ks o f m an y o f our lead ers in this h u m an itarian w ork,

th ey h a ve don e.

th e re is no cessation

T h e ir cau se is ju s t and, su p p o rted by our

faith ful A llie s , th e result is a fo re g o n e co n clu sio n .

In the

of

in stru ctio n

d u rin g th e

co m in g

sessio n , but, rather, that the stim u lu s th at a m b u la n c e w ork

m ean tim e, M r. W in ston C h u rc h ill tells us we m ust prepare

w ill re ce iv e as a resu lt o f th e crisis th ro u g h w h ich we are

to p ut a m illion B ritish troops in to th e field.

p assing, first a id k n o w le d g e is im p arted to all w ho co m e

will be forthcom in g.

T h o s e troops

fo rw ard to acq u ire it.


-

n n

*,

jc .

wt3 h ’o

R

w ai ir

62

FIRST

AID.—

October, 1914.

T h e Bearer Com pany is the personnel attached to the D uchess o f W estm inster’s W ar H ospital o f 200 beds, equipped on the official scale and accepted by the W ar Office, and will be situated in Paris. M ajor H enry E . M. D ouglas, R .A .M .C ., V .C ., D .S .O ., is the M ilitary Com m andant-in-Charge o f the AM BU LANCE DEPARTM EN T. H ospital, and M ajor C. Gordon W atson is the Surgeon-inCharge, and in addition there will be a com plete m edical and Jh e S t. John .Ambulance Srigade. surgical staff and a body o f fully trained nurses. T h e Duke and D uchess o f Beaufort accom panied the No. 1 District. D eputy Com m issioner of the D istrict (Dr. J. S. Griffiths) at -------D E P U T Y C O M M IS S IO N E R : the inspection L I E U T .- C O L . L E E S H A L L . D r. Griffiiths in addressing the men after the inspec­ tion, encouraged them to remember that our men had gained a high character during the war am ong all the N O V E M B E R , 1914. A llies, and were looked up to as the em bodim ent o f chivalry, and he urged them to rem em ber Lord K itch en ers advice to Sunday D uty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. the troops. Sunday, 1st.— N o. 10 D ivision. T h e D uke o f Beaufort stated that it afforded him very „ 8th.— N o. 5 „ great pleasure to see such a fine body o f men. T h e y looked „ 1 5 th.— N o. 7 „ so fit and well. T h e y had got a very fine com m ission to fill, „ 22nd.— No. 21 „ and he was sure they would be a credit to it, and do their 29th.— No. 4 work well. 2.30 p.m. to 8 p.m. A s per separate orders. K ey from T h e D uchess o f Beaufort said when informing her patients St. John’s G ate, 2 p.m. at Southend o f her visit to Bristol, the men replied “ that’s all O VERCO ATS. right, because if it was not for the St. John A m bulance men we should not be here now.” She was proud to belong to St. Officers are rem inded that very few returns have been John. H er two sons were go in g abroad for active service, and received up to date. T h ese must be sent in at once. if ever they should meet with misfortune she only hoped they P U B L IC D U T Y . would fall into the hands o f the Bristol men. Mr. H. G. H ill, proposed a vote o f thanks to the Duke Officers and M em bers I/C o f D ivisions are at once to and D uchess o f Beaufort for their presence, and Mr. J. S. G. W . furnish the probable num ber o f men who will be able to Stroud seconded. parade for Street D u ty on N ovem ber 9th, should they be D r. H aym an then called for three cheers for the Duke and required. It is probable that a M ilitary parade will be held on D uchess o f Beaufort, who were so kind to come and wish them that date in place o f the usual Lord M ayor’s Show, which G od-speed, and this was carried out with great acclam ation. jS abandoned. T h is is the first body o f am bulance men from the W est of A N N U A L S U B S C R IP T IO N S TO O F F IC E R S ’ FU N D . E n glan d to leave for foreign service, and a grand lot o f fellows O fficers are rem inded that Subscriptions are now due, and they were— a credit to their ancient order, and also to the city should be forw arded to the D istrict T reasurer, St. John’s Gate, to which they belonged. —B risto l Times 6 ° M irror. Clerkenw ell. It is hoped that Officers will, in view o f the pressure ow ing to the depletion o f the Staff at H eadquarters, S O U T H H A M T O N . — T h e new motor am bulance, which has rem it their Subscriptions without delay. been provided through the energy and enterprise of Lieut.-Col. (Signed) L E E S H A L L , and Mrs. Tw iss, and the St. John A m bulance enthusiasts of Southam pton, has been duly handed over for use. T h e St. Deputy-Com m issioner. John A m bulance coffee stall, on Southam pton Common has H eadquarters : — St. John’s Gate, supplied free meals to 20,000 soldiers arriving at odd times day Clerkenwell, E .C . or night.

JJhe Srand friorg of the 0rder of the hospital of S t. John of Jerusalem in Sngland.

DUTY ROSTER.

On W edn esday, 7th ult., the m embers o f the Sergeants M ess at M illbank B arracks, who are m ostly m embers o f the Prince o f W a les’s Corps, held a most enjoyable m usical even ­ ing, attended by the wives and friends o f all the members, about 70 in all. So successful was the result o f the under­ tak in g that it is suggested to repeat the event monthly, should circum stances permit. A ll is goin g well at Queen A lexan dra M ilitary H ospital. T h e m em bers o f the M .H .H .R . have all now settled down to work and everything is running sm oothly. T h ere are at present 108 m em bers of the B rigade, these including Dis.-Supt. Pontin (Lieut. Q uarterm aster), Supt Journet (Sergt. M ajor), 1st O fficer S elin ger (Q uarterm aster-Sergt.), 1st Officer D arler (S.M .O . Clerk), 1st O fficer H all (Steward), 1st Officer W arnett, (D ispenser), and Sergts. W ickins, Phillips, Bonham , Rouse, C larke, U ttin g, C arley, R iley and Rushm ere. B E R M O N D S E Y . — In consequence o f the great stress of work at headquarters, in connection with the war, the m embers of St. John’s G ate N ursing D ivision will, through the kindness of the R ector, hold their m eetings in the Chutch room o f St. Lukes.

No. 2 District. B R I S T O L . — On Saturday afternoon, Septem ber 26th, the “ F ” F earer C om pany of 56 men in the C ity o f Bristol Corps, under Sergt.-M ajo r W . Jones, paraded at the Drill-room , M arybush-lane, for inspection, prior to their departure for Southam pton, en route for Paris.

No. 4 District. T h e follow ing appointm ents have been made to the Asst.Com m issioner’s headquarters staff as corps officers :— Corps Superintendent, Captain W alter C. Stevenson, M .D . ; Corps C h ief Surgeon, Seton Pringle, E sq., F .R .C .S . ; L ad y Corps Supt. Dr. E lla W eb b ; A ssistant Corps Surgeon, R. de C. W heeler, E sq., M .D . P r e s t o n (Lancashire).— T h e annual distribution o f service m edallions, m edals, certificates, and rose bowl, in connection with the St. John A m bulance N ursing D ivision, N o. 4 D istrict took place on the 29th ult., in the Preston Parish Church School, when the presentations were made by L ad y H ollins (L ad y President o f Voluntary A id Detachm ent). Dr. W . H. Irwin Sellers, J.P ., presided, and was supported by Sir G eorge Toulm in, M .P., Dr. R. W ilk in s (joint hon. surgeon to the d iv i­ sion), Mr. G. D. H ale (secretary o f the V oluntary A id D e ­ tachment), and Mrs. A . H ow ard (lady corps superintendent). T h e re was a large attendance o f m embers, who were inspected by L ad y Hollins prior to the distribution o f prizes. It was stated by Dr. Sellers that already eleven ladies from this corps had intim ated their willingness to go on active service, either in connection with field hospital or field am bu­ lance work, whilst thirteen men from the Preston A m bulance Corps were w orking with the H om e H ospital Reserve. T h e rose bowl com petition, which is based on a percentage o f attendances, o f m arks during the exam ination, and a final com petition was held this year, and four nursing divisions sent up fourteen representatives as com petitors. T h e rose bowl was a gift o f Alderm an W . H. W oods. T h e highest possible


October, 1914,

— F I R S T

AID. —

number o f marks was 170. T h e follow ing were the four most successful candidates : — 1. M iss K ate Turnbull, Parish School (154) ! 2, Mrs. Staveley, H igh School, and M iss M ary Jane Sumner, Parish School (150 each); 3, Mrs. Smith, H igh School (146). A cordial vote o f thanks was accorded L ady Hollins on the motion o f Sir G eorge Toulm in, M .P., seconded by Dr. Wilkins.

T h e task o f exam iner was undertaken by S ign allin g-Sergt. Inm an, o f the Y . and L. (T .) R egt., who, at the close, co n gratu ­ lated the class on their splendid work. Sergt. T orr. o f the S .J.A .B ., has acted as instructor, and last week received the official confirm ation o f his appointm ent as signalling instructor, also as brigad e signaller. N one o f the m embers o f the class had any previous kn ow ­ ledge o f signalling, and each one has put in a trem endous amount o f practice to m ake him self efficient. T h ere were no failures.

No s District. W a r r i n g t o n .— Sergt. H. Flood, a member o f the C ross­ field Division o f the St. John A m bulance Corps, who left W a r­ rington for duty with the R oyal N aval A uxiliary Sick Berth Reserve, im m ediately on the outbreak o f war, was on H .M .S. Highflyer when it sunk the G erm an transport K aiser W ilhelm der Grosse. In a letter describing the action, Sergt. Flood says :— Since my last letter I have seen things that I do not wish to seen again. A s you have doubtless seen in the papers, we were in action with the armed German trans­ port, Kaiser W ilhelm der Grosse, off the W est Coast of Africa, and succeeded in sinking her. W e got off very

Phs

S ig n a llin g

Squad

oe

63

Our

C om petition s.

T h e first prize for th e aw arded t o :—

O c to b e r

C o m p e titio n

has

been

C. R o p e r , L o c o W o rks, M e lto n C o n s ta b le , an d the seco n d prize to :— M is s F. G i b b o n s , 58, F itzja m es A v e n u e , W est K e n s in g to n , W . M r.

th e

S h e ffie ld

C orps,

S.J.A .B .

Front rowe- S W ? hF o ^ CSkPrr°tWi standi" 8 - - P r iv a t e s Senior, Cundy, D avy, A tkin, P h ilbery and Ratcliffe. gt. Fox, Sergt. Inman (Exam iner), Sergt. T o rr (Instructor) and 1st Class Sergt. W . A. Brown

!hC eml seriousl)yne

k ‘lled and fivC 'njUred> none 01

w ill W 6 r e , ^ h t i ? S f o r a n h ° u r a nd a verv lont^Bm f° r & S£a ^ ht to mo ’ an<?- Can assure y ° u it but we got bhGthe r Sadvantage H a b 'g8er ShJP than 0urs’ Out we o f position.

half, which to you it is considered a seemed like years and better athned,

b o a r d t h e H i ! f f l ddS that there is one other W arringtonian on Brother o f r 'V i o f M arines, who is the • .u c P • G ‘ ,R ' Crossfield’s chauffeur. T o -d ay (Sept

ship at Defonn'T

rhaVe ,stePPed on shore since I joined the

had a looDke3 c 3 Patient to the hospital and then naa a look round the famous rock o f G ibraltar.’’ of FibRHSTFA m D' ~ W e h a v e .Pleasure in presenting to readers of the S T A B gT hiP ° f ,s'8'nallers attached to the Sheffield this part o f ' L T h , s (body- " ’e learn, are the only corps in crossPflags under t h e ^ I J , ° ,l ° •have ^ua,ified f o i t h e of the class w a s FmM ’ r ? reg ulations. T h e exam ination gatherings under canvas

^

' 9"'

a‘

° f t’le

T he

W in n in g

Paper.

(1 ) T re a tm e n t for co m p o u n d fractu re o f th e leg :— I f arterial b leed in g, im m e d ia te ly a p p ly d igital pres sure on fem oral artery and in stru ct a b y sta n d er how t( a p p ly a to u rn iq u et to arrest bleedin g. C a u tio n p atient again st m o vem en t, sen d m essen g er fo: d o cto r w ith (if p o ssible) a w ritten m e s s a g e ; b rin g injurec leg ca re fu lly in to p o sitio n ; (if n o arterial b le e d in g a p p ly j to u rn iq u e t lo o sely for use if severe b le e d in g co m e s on) see that p atient is in co m fo rta b le p o sitio n , in stru ct s o m eo n e tc stea d y the in ju red leg by h o ld in g th e f o o t ; re m o ve clo th m g from regio n o f w ound, cu t the trousers up the seam anc not throu gh the m aterial ; w ash w ou n d w ith cle a n w ater tc w h ich has been a d d ed som e L y s o l or o th er a n tisep tic, care fu lly w atch in g for glass or o th er foreign b o d y lik e ly to be presen t, if b o n e p ro tru d in g sh o u ld n ot p ut it b a c k ; then a p p ly a d ressin g o f c y a n id e gu aze or b o ra cic lin t so a k ed in c a rb o lic oil or o th er an tisep tic, c o tto n w ool p ad and bar-


— F I R S T

64

da ge. A p p ly firm sp lin t o u tsid e o f leg (w ell p ad d ed ) re a ch in g from the th igh w ell a b o v e the k n ee to b e yo n d the foot, an d in sid e from a b o v e the k n ee to the f o o t ; ap p ly b a n d a ge s a b o v e an d b elo w th e fracture and ju st a b o v e the k n ee e n clo sin g both sp lin ts, th en o n e rou n d both ankles and tied on th e sole o f o n e foot and one rou n d bo th knees, ty in g th e kn o ts on the outer splint. C o v e r p atien t w arm ly, giv e w ater to drink, avo id e x c it­ in g stim ulan ts, w atch for signs o f co llap se from sh o ck, re m o ve to h o sp ital or h o m e if d esired on a firm stretcher. I f w orkin g sin g le-h an d ed or if p atient w ere a w om an, sh o u ld e n d eav o u r to stop arterial b lee d in g by d igita l p res­ sure and in struct p atien t how to prepare to u rn iq u et and p la ce it in position. (In th e case o f a w om an the p osition o f th e to u rn iqu et, w h eth er rou n d th e thigh , or with an extra sm all h ard pad in the ham , and the a tte n d in g to th e w ou n d w ou ld be co n sisten t w ith her w ishes). T h e in n er sp lin t w ou ld b e d isp en sed with and the b an d a ges all tied rou n d both legs. ( 2 ) — T o D istin g u ish betw een a p o p lex y and co llap se rom drink.

Apoplexy. Causes.

Collapse from Drink.

Rupture o f vessel in the brain.

A ge.

U su ally elderly or m iddle-aged. M ay not smell o f alcohol. Slow, deep, ster­ torous. Fixed and insensi­ tive. Often unequal.

A lcohol, lack of w a r m t h and food. A ny a ge after bo y­ hood. Strong odour of drink. R a p i d , shallow, may be snoring. Sensitive, blood­ shot. Equal, respond to light. Pale, normal, may be cold sweat.

Breath. Breathing. E yes. Pupils. F ace.

I nsensibility. Pulse. Paralysis.

Tem perature.

Flushed, m ay be signs of paralysis one side. U nusually c 0 m plete. Slow, full, strong. A pparent on one side o f body, but n o t alw ays a t first. Raised, skin hot.

Partial, or m ay be complete. F eeble, may be a b ­ sent. Absent.

Low ered, skin cold and clam m y,

(3 ).— T h e vario u s classes o f m o vea b le jo in ts and their form ation . J< ints. Ball and socket.

Pivot.

Formation. W h ere the end o f one bone is nearly spherical and o f the other bone cup shaped has m ovem ent in all directions, as hip joint ; also rotary movem ent, as shoulder. W ith flattened or nearly flattened surface and only a sm all amount o f movement, as between the bones o f the vertebra; or bones o f wrist or foot. W ith a to and fro m ovement of wide range, term ed flexion and extension, and with lateral ligam ent to prevent displacem ent, as elbow, fingers or toes. W iih only rotary m ovement, as atlas and axis at base o f skull, or radius on the ulna.

A ll m oveable joints have bones, cartilage, ligam ents and synovial membrane.

AID. —

October, 1914. N o v e m b e r C o m p e t it io n .

1st Prize, 5s.

2nd Prize, a yea r’s su b scrip tio n to F ir s t A id . Q u estio n s.

(1 ) M e n tio n th e signs and sym pto m s you w ould e xp ect to find in th e ca se o f a b a yo n et w ou n d o f the left lun g. A ls o w hat first aid treatm en t you w ould give. (2) H o w w ould you treat a ca se o f p o iso n in g by c a rb o lic acid ? G iv e your reasons for treatm ent ? (3) S ta te how th e fo llo w in g m eth o d s of artificial respiration act :— S ilv e ste r’s, S ch a fe r’s, L a b o rd e ’s, H o w a rd ’s. C o n d itio n s.

T h e follow in g co n d itio n s m ust b e n oted and adh ered to :— M S.S. must be written on one side of the paper only. T h ere is no restriction as to length o f answers, but same should not be unduly extended. Com petitors must cut out the “ Com petition Coupon ’ from the current issue, and fill in their names and address. T h eir names must not appear on their papers. T h e E ditor reserves the right to publish any paper subm itted to competition. A n y paper selected for pub­ lication will be regarded as the property o f the Editor, who does not guarantee to return any o f them, neither does he hold him self responsible for any papers lost. Entries in this com petition will close on Nov. 10th, 1914, and all matter must by that date be in the hands of the E ditor, F i r s t A i d Offices, 46, Cannon-street, London, E .C ., and the envelope m arked “ Com petition.”

C a s s e l l ’s

Scien ce and N u rsin g.

Art

of

form s a co m p lete gu id e to th e various bran ches o f n ursing, both th eo retica l and p ractical, co m p iled by em in en t m ed ical an d n ursin g auth o rities and com p rises a series o f four vo lu m es. T h e w ork is illustrated with figures in the text. T h e o b je c t o f th e scie n ce an d art o f nursing is prim arily to brin g to geth er w ithin th e co m p ass o f a single w ork all the k n o w le d g e w hich a n urse m ay requ ire to possess. A lth o u g h the im p o rtan ce o f th e profession has lo n g been reco gn ised , no such attem p t as this has ever been m ade before. T h is is th e o n ly w ork w hich em braces every bran ch o f n ursin g regard ed as a p rofession, a science and an art. T h e w ork w ill be h a n d so m ely bo u n d in clo th gilt, at 7s. 6d. net each , an d is sp ecia lly prepared for subscribers on ly, an d not o b ta in a b le from o rd in ary booksellers. T h e publishers are th e W a v e rle y B o o k C o ., L td ., 7, 8 and 9, O ld B a iley, L o n d o n , E .C .

T h is

It is d esirab le to em p h asise the fact th at no nurses h a ve been e m p lo y ed by th e R e d C ro ss S o cie ty for foreign service o th er than p rofessional nurses w ho h a ve produced certificates o f three y ea rs’ re sid en ce and train in g in hospital. B etw een 2,000 and 3,000 o f such trained nurses are on the S o c ie ty ’s list, apart from the o rd in ary personnel o f the S o cie ty , w hich n um bers a b o u t 60,000


October, 1914-

— F I R S T

Tem porary

H ospitals.

By

H. M A IN W A R IN G H OLT, M . R .C .S , L S . A , D P . H , H o n . A sso cia te o f the O rd er o f St. John, L ife M em b er of, and L e ctu re r and E x am in e r to, the S .J .A .A ., D istrict In sp ecto r o f Stores (E .R . Y o rk s.) N o. V I . D istrict, S J. A .B .

A I D .—

6S

for use. S o m uch for the lo ca l s o u rc e o f su p ply. The n ext q u e stio n is im portan t. H o w is th e w ater d istrib u te d th ro u gh o u t th e b u ild in g ? A re th ere an y sinks, lavato ries, baths, w .c .’s ? A re th ey in o rder ? T h e s e are so m e o f the p ractical q u estio n s that you h ave g o t to ask w hen in sp e ctin g a b u ild in g for th e p urp ose referred to. You m ay ta k e it th at an y b u ild in g, in te n d ed for use as a tem p o rary hosp ital, stan ds self-co n d em n e d if it has n ot go t an efficient w ater supply. D r a in a g e .

( Continued from page pi.) P r e l im in a r y T h e relative p o s itio n o f a station, w hich

river,

illu strated

furtherm ore, w it h

and the

m ain the

C o n s id e r a t io n s.

road,

p reviou s

im p o rta n t

the d ista n ce

from

h o s p i t a l to a r a i l w a y

tem porary was

article

factor

the

shown

p oin ts

on

o f tim e

by a

d iagram

th is

su b je ct;

in

T h e o b je c t o f d rain ag e is to carry aw ay all w aste water, liq u id filth an d o th er refuse and excreta from a b u ild in g, h en ce an in sp ectio n o f all gu llies, drains, an d th eir c o n ­ n ectio n s is a b so lu te ly n ecessary. D e fe c tiv e drain s are

co n n ection

o f d etrain in g

or

d is­

e m b a rk atio n w as d u ly c o m m e n t e d u po n . R oad.

W ith a view o f m in im isin g the dan gers and suffering attendant upon th e transport o f th e sick an d w ou n ded, it is necessary to co n sid er th e n ature o f th e road to th e hospital : if possible, a straight, open, lev el road sh ould b e chosen in preference to o n e h avin g sharp a scen ts or d escen ts ; corners sh ould be a v o id e d that d o n ot p ro vid e or allow o f am ple room for easy turning. S itu a t io n

and

S ite

of

H o spita l.

So far as a tem porary hosp ital is co n cern e d , we have no option o f ch o ice o f site, w e ca n o n ly co n sid er the situation, and, asso cia ted with this, the a d ap tab ility or n on ­ adap tability o f a b u ild in g a lread y in existen ce. C h ie f

P o in ts

to

N ote.

A p a rt from site, situation and gen eral there are the im p ortan t qu estio n s relatin g to drainage, sp ace and ven tilation , ligh tin g an d considered. W e shall tak e th ese question s

surroundings, w ater supply, heatin g to be in th e order

Lavatory

B a sin s a t e a c h

end

of

South

C o r r id o r

B.

d an gero u s to h ealth, an d o n c e th ey b e co m e in fe cted with ty p h o id stools, the p atients in a tem p o rary h o sp ital stan d greater ch a n ces o f suffering an d o f death than th ey w ou ld un der the fire o f an enem y. Space.

T h e sp ace in and aro u n d a b u ild in g, e sp e cia lly a h ospital, sh o u ld re ce iv e carefu l atten tio n , sin ce it is o f c h ie f im p o rtan ce, but m ere sp ace a lo n e is n ot s u ffic ie n t ; it m ust be such that the air can h a ve a b so lu te freedom to m o ve in and o u t an d a b o u t su ch b u ild in g. T h e m ost b e au tifu l ch u rch es and ch a p els h a ve been used in tim e past as tem p o rary hospitals, but th ey h a v e p ro ve d to be tem p les o f suffering an d d eath , pest houses rath er than hom es o f re co ve ry for th e sick an d w ou n d ed , ch ie fly b ecau se they did not allow o f th e free m o vem en t o f air th ro u gh o u t th e buildin g, an d th erefo re re tain ed the in fe ctive poisons o f th e variou s d iseases treated w ithin their sain tly walls. V e n t il a t io n .

E l e v a t io n o f T e m p o r a r y H o s p it a l , l o o k in g So u t h .

given, and m ake expedient.

such co m m en t upon them as W ater

d ir e c t ly

m ay be

Supply.

T h is is u su a lly p ro vid ed b y the lo cal san itary auth o rity and, therefore, m ay be regard ed as satisfacto ry in qu ality and qu an tity ; if, on th e o th er hand, such su p p ly is from a well sunk on the prem ises, the q u a lity o f such w ater m ay not be a b o v e susp icion , w hilst the q u an tity su p p lie d m ay be lim ited, b ecau se o f the tro u b le in v o lv e d in p u m p in g it

T o ven tila te is “ to exp o se to the free p assage o f air or w ind ” ; “ to sup ply w ith fresh air a n d re m o v e v itia ted air.” In this co n n e ctio n I m ust a sk y o u to re m e m b er th at air m ust m ove th ro u gh o u t th e room or b u ild in g ; it can o n ly do this by en terin g at o n e or m ore in lets a n d p assin g o u t at o n e or m ore o u tlets, th ese m ust be to all in tents an d p urp oses o p p o site to e ach other. T h e im p o rtan ce o f sp ace to g e th er w ith a d eq u a te m eans o f ven tila tio n ca n n o t be o ver estim a ted , th e y are essentials. B e tte r treat th e sick a n d w o u n d e d in ten ts u p on an op en m oor than co n fin e th em in an ill-ven tila ted p alace. L ig h tin g .

P ro visio n for lig h tin g a b u ild in g, as w ell by n igh t as


66

— f i r s t

by day, m ay n ext be co n sid e re d T h e p o sitio n o f w indow s w ith resp ect to th e p la cin g o f bed s m ust receive carefu l a tten tio n , as also the position o f lam p, gas b rack ets or e le ctric ligh t. It is essen tial that a w ard sh o u ld b e filled w ith ligh t d u rin g the d aytim e, un der o rd in ary circu m ­ stan ces, but it is e q u a lly essen tial that it sh o u ld not be d irected full in th e face o f th e p atients, and the sam e rem arks a p p ly to artificial light. H e a tin g .

U n d e r this head m ay be co n sid ered th e variou s m eans b y w h ich a b u ild in g is h e a te d — op en fires, stoves (gas or c o k e ) h ot pipes, & c .— -and w h eth er such m eans are efficien t for th e p u rp o se o f a tem p o rary hospital. R o o m s w ith ou t th e m eans o f h eatin g are m ere “ co ld s to rag es.” In d e e d , I h ave h eard o f so m eo n e su ggestin g a c o ld storage for th e recep tio n o f troops. H a v in g draw n a tten tio n to som e o f th e c h ie f poin ts to be co n sid e re d in the sele ctio n o f a b u ild in g for co n versio n in to a tem p o rary ho sp ital, I w ou ld n ext discuss th e question o f re sp o n sib ility in regard to su ch selection . In m y op in io n , th e sele ctio n o f a b u ild in g for use as a tem p orary h o sp ita l sh o u ld be co n firm ed or co n d em n e d by som e co m ­ p eten t au th o rity, an d I w ou ld cite the W ar O ffice and L o c a l G o v e rn m e n t B o a rd as th e A u th o rities to be c o n ­ su lted . In d e e d , I m ay state th at th ese tw o D ep artm en ts o f the G o v e rn m e n t a ct in co n ju n ctio n so far as th e health and w ell b ein g o f th e civ il an d m ilitary m em bers o f the co m m u n ity are co n ce rn e d . T h e co -op eration o f c iv il and m ilitary o fficials in th e m atters h erein referred to m ust, th erefo re, fo llo w as a m atter o f course. T h e p o ssib ility o f th e in tro d u ctio n o f sm allp ox, ty p h o id an d o th er diseases in to a d istrict by m eans o f the 5 L r[

V

o-

1 T 'V T A i A 4-

sick a n d w ou n d ed m ust n o t be lost sight of, an d it is ju st as w ell to rem em b er th at th e m ed ical o fficer o f h ealth, is resp o n sib le for th e h ealth o f th e co m m u n ity an d sh o u ld be co n su lted . C e rta in persons were a p p o in te d co u n ty d irecto rs for so m e su ch purposes as th e p ro vid in g o f tem p o rary h osp itals, an d o f m en an d w om en trained in a m b u la n ce w ork, but I am n ot aw are th at th ese high officials are p o ssessed o f an y sp ecia l q u a lificatio n s such as w ou ld e n a b le them to giv e exp ert o p in io n on th e su b jec t ju st referred to, therefore, an in sp ectio n and report upon a s ele cted b u ild in g by a co m p ete n t person sh o u ld p re ced e its o c c u p a tio n ; furtherm ore, su ch p ro ced u re w ou ld greatly facilita te arran gem en ts for su b seq u en t co n firm atio n by the cen tral authority. H a v in g draw n atten tio n to som e o f th e c h ie f points in th e selectio n o f a buildin g, we m ay now p ro ceed to giv e d etails o f an o rd in ary elem en tary sch o o l w hich was fitted up as a tem p o rary hospital. T h e plan o f th e bu ild in g is not u n like th e cap ital letter U in shape, th e corridors are show n in solid black, w ith th e w ards an d o th er departm en ts o p en in g therefrom , in outline, th ese b ein g sufficien tly d escrib ed for th e m om ent by the m ean in gs a tta ch e d to th e letters given as ab ove. A carefu l stu d y o f su ch plan, to geth er with th e a cco m p a n y in g p h o to g ra p h o f the elevatio n , sh o u ld giv e a g o o d gen eral idea o f the b u ild in g as a w hole. The plan o f the corridors, w ards an d o th er departm en ts w ill be such as to d em o n strate d etails in co n n e ctio n w ith space, ligh tin g, ven tilation , heatin g, & c., an d these sh o u ld be very care fu lly noted. E ntrances.

E , E n tra n ce for p atients w hich is d irectly o p posite gatew ay, w h ich m eans th ere is a straight drive in. E ’, sid e en tra n ce d irectly in to o p eratin g room , O .R .; E ” , side en tra n ce to o b serva tio n or isolation ward, an d n ote that this, lik e the o p eratin g room , can be e ffectu ally cu t o ff from the rest o f the w ards by a screen a cro ss the co rrid o r ; E ” ’ is th e en tra n ce for tradesm en and nurses. O b se rv e the lavato ry basins at B, each en d o f the south c o r r id o r ; the sp ace here is sufficien t to allow o f gas sto v e and steriliser. T h e en tran ces an d floors are all on th e sam e l e v e l ; there are no aw kw ard turns. T h e s e are all p ractical poin ts worth n otin g.

w

w'

w

w

. W".

w

F T w

October, 1914.

(To be continued.)

■MV

O .Yt.

AID. —

YY

VY

v*

,

W

o -n ,

/« ■D ‘A ? '4 -\

: & O V -A

in-1-’ K . , k itc h e n ; C ., k it sto re s; W ., w a r d s ; W ’ , d ay room for n u rse s; C . W ., cen tral w a r d ; R .R . , receiv in g ro o m ; O .W ., ob serv atio n w a r d ; O .R ., o p era tin g room ; E , E ’ , E ” , E ” ’ , e n tran ces; L . , la tr in e s ; M ., m o rtu a ry ; S ., s e c re ta ry ; G ., g a t e ; T . C . , tennis court. N o te space a ll around b u ild ing.

T h e R e d C ro ss S o c ie ty u rge that no ho sp ital sh o u ld be a ctu a lly p rep ared before a m o b ilisatio n o rder has been re ce iv e d from the m ilitary au th o rity, and that fun ds sh ould n ot be p rem atu rely laid out on th e p reparation o f th ese h ospitals. I t is a n n o u n ced that th e S u b -C o m rritte e o f th e St. J oh n A m b u la n c e A sso cia tio n , w h ich has been ap p o in ted to care for the w elfare o f th e In d ia n troops, p rop oses to e sta b ­ lish a ho sp ital o f 500 beds at A lex a n d ria , in o rder th at th e In d ia n w ou n d ed w ho h ave been d isch a rg ed from th e base h osp itals m ay b e given an o p p o rtu n ity o f ga in in g health and strength in a clim a te suited to them . A sm all clearin g h o sp ital at M a rseilles w ill also be u n d e rtak en , an d it is p ro p o sed to su p p ly warm clo th in g an d co m fo rts in the field. A n In d ia n S o ld iers F u n d is to be o p en ed , a n d an a p p ea l to th e p u b lic will be m ade in a few days.

W h en corresponding w ith A d ve rtisers please m ention “ F irst Aid ”


October, 1914.

C oun ty

K in d ly

— F I R S T

of M iddlesex Territorial Force A ssociation .

p lace d at the disp osal

E m ergen cy

H o sp ita l

of

the H o rn se y

D etach m en ts,

V o lu n ta ry

C e n tre A id

O rganisation, th e T o llin g to n S ch o o l P la y in g F ield , W oodside-avenue, N ., form ed the ven u e o f a very in terestin g gathering on S atu rd ay, 3rd. inst. T h is to o k the form o f the initial in sp ectio n o f th e H o rn se y sectio n o f the A s s o ­ ciation, and a large n u m b er o f friends and well-w ishers attended to g iv e co u n ten an ce , to an d en co u rag e, th e a d m ir­ able efforts that are m ade in this part o f the C o u n ty to a ckn o w led ge resp o n sibilities and to m eet em ergen cies under the p resen t stress o f co n d itio n s. T h e in sp e ctin g o fficer was M a jo r M . H . H a le, V .D . (officer co m m a n d in g th e N a tio n al R e serve , H o rn se y B att.), accom pan ied by M r. P. G . D a rv il S m ith (C o u n ty D ir e c t o r ) ; while th e o fficer co m m a n d in g th e in sp ectio n was C a p t. H . F ulham -T urner, late R .A .M .C . (V .), su p p o rted b y M essrs. J. F. A d d iso n G re e n e an d F . H u g h V a lla n c e y , th e hon. secs., the latter n am ed b ein g also o rgan isin g officer. T h e personnel o f th e d e ta ch m en t to d a te is as follow s, and m em bers are sp ecia lly req u ested to n ote the sectio n s to w hich th ey are a tta ch e d , an d also their official registered n u m b e rs:— 1st M u sw ell-h ill V .A .D .— C o m m a n d a n t and Q uarterm aster an d hon. sec., M r. F . H u g h V a lla n c e y (late R .A .M .C . (V .), e x e cu tiv e officer N a tio n a l R e serv e ); m edical officer, M r. H . F. L aw ren so n , M . D . ; la d y su p erin ­ tendent, M rs. H . F . L aw ren so n (fu lly train ed ho sp ital n u r s e ); pharm acists, M iss F. M . H o v e y a n d M rs. L in d s a y Scott (p ractical d is p e n s e r s ); S e ctio n I., M iss G eo rg e, M rs. Lew is, M rs. H e a ld , M iss T o p p i n g ; S e ctio n II ., M iss R u th erfo rd-H am s, M rs. B arn ard, M rs. R ick in s o n , M iss. E. A d d in e ll; S e ctio n I I I ., M iss Y e a x le e , M iss B row n e, M iss T alley , M iss L o v e ly ; S e ctio n I V ., M iss W alters, M iss B edford, M iss K n ig h t, M iss G r a c e y ; S e ctio n V ., M iss G reen, M rs. Stan sb u ry, M iss C o llin g w o o d , M iss E dw ards. R e serv e S e ctio n (registered to d ate), M iss L aw re n ce , Mrs. Jeffery, M iss H e n d ry , M iss B row n , M rs. W e lch , M rs. Scott, M iss S erv ice, M rs. W h ite, M rs. H o ga n . M em bers (u n registered un til fu lly qualified), M iss M orton, M iss M o u n t, M iss P ic k fo rd , M iss W a tson , M iss r lower, M iss P h illip s, M iss W ilk ie , M iss B u rgess, M iss Stevens, M iss L . A d d in e ll, M iss W a tson , M iss T u ff, M rs. Slater, M rs. M c L e a n , M rs. L a m b e rt, M rs. H u n ter, M iss Cousins. M em bers w ho are registered at th e W a r O ffice for service (tem p o rary or o th erw ise at th eir ow n o p tio n ) in the C o u n ty o f M id d le se x are e n titled to w ear the official brassard, w h ich rem ains th e p ro p erty o f the V .A .D ., and must be return ed on resignation. L ad ie s w ish ing to jo in th e V .A .D . sh o u ld register their nam es at o n ce, an d if n o t a lread y ho sp ital trained or in possession o f first aid an d h o m e n ursin g certificates, sh ould attend the lo cal lectu res w h ich h ave been arran ged for T u e sd a y s and T h u rsd a y s, at 8 p.m . (fee 2s. 6d.), o f w hich full p articulars can be o b ta in ed from the hon. sec. (M r. V a lla n cey). T h e lo cal “ R e d C ro ss ” re ce ivin g d ep o t is N o. 8, the E x ch a n g e, M u sw ell-h ill, an d to this ad d ress, w h ich is the official cen tre o f th e district, all co n trib u tio n s o f “ R e d Cross ” m aterial an d co m fo rts sh o u ld b e sent. It is stated that co lle cto rs for th e gen eral “ R e d C r o ss ” w ork o f th e d istrict are w an ted at o n ce, so that all th ose w illing to tak e resp o n sib ility for a n y p articu lar road or roads are a sk ed to sen d in th eir n am es w ith ou t d elay. T h e hon.

67

AID. —

secretary ca n b e seen e ach w eek-d ay a t th e “ R e d C ro ss ” depfit betw een th e hours o f 3 an d 4.30 p .m ., and at o th er tim es at N o . 2 1, L yn m o u th -ro ad , F o rtis G reen , N . T h e fo rego in g in form ation is b ein g giv en w ith a view to e n co u rag e this en terp risin g H o rn s e y sectio n in their en d eavo u rs, an d to en list sy m p a th y from the in h ab ita n ts o f th e d istrict round. T h e w eath er on the o cca sio n o f th e in sp e ctio n was all that co u ld b e d e sired an d th e p ro ce ed in g s affo rd ed th e ke en est in terest to th e o n lo o kers. D raw n up in lin e at th e co n clu sio n , M a jo r H a le a d d re sse d th e m em bers o f th e C e n tre, a n d e xp re ssed th e pleasure it g a v e him to be p resen t th at a fte rn o o n and w itness th e w h ole-h earted efforts o f the H o r n s e y C e n tre. H e im p ressed u p on th e m em b ers the a d v is a b ility o f m a k ­ in g th em selves efficient, in view o f the p o ssib ility o f their b ein g ca lle d upon su d d e n ly to a tte n d th e n eed s o f troop s from the front w ho m ight be re leg ate d to th e C e n tr e ’s k in d ly ad m in istratio n s in tem p o rary hospitals. In this u n d e r­ tak in g th ey h ad n ee d o f strength , fortitude, sy m p a th y and p atien ce, an d from w hat he saw ran ged in fron t th at a fter­ noon, all th ese traits w ere fo rth co m in g, h e was c o n v in ce d . M r. P . G . D a rv il S m ith also essa y ed a few p ertin en t rem arks, an d stated th at th e C e n tre was p rep a red an d w aiting for a ca ll from th e m ilitary authorities. He ten d e re d co n gra tu la tio n s to M r. F . H u g h V a lla n c e y an d th o se asso cia ted w ith him in brin gin g th e H o rn s e y C e n tre to su ch an e x ce lle n t p itc h o f p erfectio n in so sh o rt a period . T h e r e w ere 14 tem p o rary hosp itals in th e C o u n ty o f M id ­ d lesex , w h ich are prepared for th e re ce p tio n o f the sick and w ou n d ed if required. T h e s e are at N o rw o o d (2), U x b r id g e , H a n w e ll, E a lin g (2), W ille sd en (2), B ro n d e sb u ry , C rick le wood, B ren tfo rd an d H o rn se y. T h e V o lu n ta ry A id per­ sonnel a va ila b le in th e c o u n ty o f M id d le s e x is a b o u t 350 m em bers o f th e w o m en ’s d e ta ch m en ts an d 150 m en. The tem p o rary hosp itals are registered at th e W a r O ffice for use as the n ecessity arises, and as th ese h a v e to b e e q u ip p e d an d fin a n ced by the lo ca l residen ts, it is d e sirab le th at fun ds an d m aterials sh o u ld be sen t to the lo cal treasurer an d d e p o t at th e earliest o p p o rtu n ity. I t was also w orth w h ile n o tin g that the w h o le o f th o se tak in g part in th e in sp e ctio n w ere a v a ila b le for d u ty in th e tem p o rary h o sp itals o f M id d le s e x sh o u ld th eir s e rv ice s b e req u ired . T h e in sp ectio n was b ro u gh t to a clo se w ith a m arch past, an d th e gu ard, sentries, m arkers a n d b a n d o f the first sectio n o f the T o llin g to n S c h o o l (7 th M id d le s e x ) C a d e ts, w ere d u ly dism issed.

C om in g

E vents.

Particulars of forthcoming events w ill be inserted in this column tree of charge, if received not later than the 14th of each month

London. — In view o f the war, the P o lytech n ic A m bulance Com petitions will not be held this year.

Open

London.— V iscountess E sh er will start first aid and hom e nursing classes at the D uke o f Y o r k ’s H eadquarters, K in g ’sroad, C h elsea (close to Sloane-square Station, on the D istrict R ailw ay), in N ovem ber next. H om e N u rsin g at 11 a.m. and 8p .m :, on N ovem ber 10th ; F irst A id at 11 a.m. and 8 p.m., on N ovem ber n th . S u rge o n -G e n e ra l Sir A lfr e d K e o g h has b e en tem ­ p orarily a p p o in te d D ire cto r-G e n e ra l o f th e A rm y M e d ic a l S e rv ice in th e a b se n ce, th ro u gh illness, o f S u rg e o n -G e n e ra l S lo gg ett.


— F I R S T

68

October, 1914

AID. —

A c c o r d i n g to the latest reports som e 6,000 m em bers

B revities.

o f th e B rig ad e are servin g with th e N a v y or A rm y.

The

war, o f course, lifts th e B rig a d e out o f a p urely civ il in to a T h e article on T e m p o ra ry H o sp ita ls, by D r. H o lt, w hich is

now ap p earin g in F i r s t A i d , sh o u ld be o f great assistan ce to m an y o f o ur readers at th e presen t m om ent.

In the

series D r. H o lt is tak in g on th e ro le o f gu ide, exp lain in g the

d ifferen t

dep artm en ts an d their uses, d iscu ssin g the

n ational usefulness.

item s.

In d e e d , th e a rticle w ill show th e a ctu a l w orkin g

and co st o f a tem p orary hosp ital now running.

are

d e p le ted

m ade read y to respon d to a n y call w hich m ay be m ade for its services.

* * *

T h e S p ecia l C o m m itte e o f th e L a d ie s o f th e O rd er o f

St. John o f Jerusalem in E n g la n d , o f w hich H e r M a je sty the Q u ee n is P resid en t, has been earn estly at w ork ever o f su p p lyin g

W e feel sure o ur readers w ill w elco m e a n o th er article th e pen o f D r. F le tc h e r on E x am in a tio n

m ents.

D iv isio n s

sin ce war was p ro cla im ed , as it was form ed for the purpose

* * * from

m any

to ob tain the n ecessary certificate, so that the B rig ad e is

arran gem en ts o f th e m edical, n ursin g an d w orkin g s t a f f ; n ext the food, co st o f such ; also th e lau n d ry w ork and other

As

th o se left in ch a rg e sh o u ld form classes to e n a b le recruits

R e q u ire ­

personnel at

th e seat o f war and o f c o lle ctin g

com forts and m aterial for the sick and w ounded. * *

*

H e r M a j e s t y has rece n tly w ritten to th e D u ch e ss o f

T h is is a su b ject w hich is o f in terest to e ve ry first F letch er

B ed fo rd , th e C h airm an o f th e C o m m ittee, to say that she

g iv es sh o u ld p ave the w ay to a clearer un d erstan d in g o f

has read w ith great satisfactio n o f the sp ecial ap p eal w hich

a id studen t, and th e hints and tips w hich

D r.

has been m ade in th e

w hat is requ ired at an exam in ation . * of

the

hosp itals.

fire

The

p recau tio n s risk

of

n ecessary

fire

in

an

for

e m ergen cy

h o sp ital is

a

very

im p ortan t co n sid era tio n , and sh o u ld n ever be o verlo o k ed by th o se in charge, and e ve ry n ecessary p recau tio n sh o u ld be tak en to gu ard against it.

A co p y o f th e “ W arn in g ”

can be o b ta in ed from th e co m m ittee at 8, W aterloo -p lace, L o n d o n , S .W .

so gen ero u sly

su p p o rted all fun ds for th e re lie f o f the sick and w ou nded, w ill

not

fail

to

reco gn ise

the

urgent

claim s

of

the

A sso cia tio n in the presen t crisis. * * * W e are p leased to hear that a sp ecial sub co m m ittee o f the O rd er o f St. Joh n has been form ed for the purp ose o f lo o k in g after the n eed s o f In d ia n troops.

Sir Joh n

H ew ett, chairm an o f the co m m ittee, said that th e St. J oh n

* * * A t

b e h a lf o f the w ork o f St.

hop e that the p u b lic, w hich has hitherto

T h e B ritish F ire P rev en tio n has issued a tim ely w arn ­

in g

Times on

J oh n A m b u la n c e A sso cia tio n , and to express her earnest

*

A m b u la n ce A sso cia tio n and B rig a d e were d o in g a m a g n ifi­

a cro w d e d m eetin g o f m em bers o f the St. John

ce n t w ork in In d ia , and it was p ra ctica lly th e o n ly o rg an i­

A m b u la n c e B rig a d e an d R e d C ro ss S o cie ty , h eld at the

sation w hich d id a n y th in g o f the kin d .

P o ly te c h n ic ,

h o p ed to d o in E n g la n d w hat th e In d ia n bran ch was d o in g

London,

on

S e p te m b er

9th,

D r.

Jam es

T h e co m m ittee

C a n tlie p ro p o u n d ed a sch e m e to co -o rd in ate all th e a m b u ­

in In d ia.

la n ce w orkers in the co u n try.

th e n ecessary co m fo rts and, in so m e cases, w ith m on ey.

“ W e are tryin g to e sta b ­

T h e y h o p ed to su p p ly the In d ia n troops w ith all It

lish ,” he said, “ a C o lle g e o f A m b u la n ce , w h ich is to be

was not a very sim p le m atter to su p p ly co m fo rts, as e v e ry ­

a sort e f M e c c a for a m b u la n ce w orkers in this coun try.

th in g h ad to be stan d ard ised .

It w ill be fo u n d ed for th e p urp ose o f tea ch in g a m b u la n ce

from

w ork

E v e ry

friends in E n g la n d w ou ld w ait until these lists w ere out, so

class will b e c o n d u c te d in a m ost scien tific m anner, and

that th ey m ight be a b le to giv e the th in gs w h ich are read ily

m o dels o f every co n c e iv a b le a p p lia n ce in co n n e ctio n with

n ee d e d by the In d ia n troops.

a m b u la n ce w ork w ill be e x h ib ite d for the use an d benefit

sugar ca n d y and palm (a kin d o f betel nut for ch ew in g) in

in

its

h ig h est and

o f th o se stu d en ts

m ost co m p le te

w ho a tten d .

d a tes for the D ip lo m a

sense.

E x a m in a tio n s

o f the

C o lle g e

th e

T h e y w ere gettin g patterns

A rm y h ead qu arters in In d ia , and h o p e d

that

F o r in stan ce, they w an ted

o f c a n d i­

the sam e way that our m en w ant ch o co la te. It was in te n d ed

held at

that th e co m m ittee sh o u ld e sta b lish h o sp itals for the In d ia n

w ill be

stated in tervals, w h ile pup ils w ho h o ld certificates o f the

w ou n ded.

St. J o h n ’s A m b u la n c e A sso cia tio n , th e B ritish R e d C ro ss

M a rseilles to a cco m m o d a te 100 m en, an d o n e at A lex a n d ria ,

S o cie ty ,

co n ta in in g 500 beds.

th e

St.

A n d r e w ’s A m b u la n c e

A sso cia tio n , the

They

w ou ld

p ro b a b ly

h ave

a

sm all

one at

T h e y h ad n ot o b ta in ed th e official

L o n d o n C o u n ty C o u n c il, or o th er re co g n ised so cieties will

san ctio n for eith er o f th ese hosp itals, but it w ou ld m ost

be gran ted , five, ten, an d seven ty p e r c e n t, o f m irk s , a c c o r d ­

lik ely be fo rtn com in g befo re long.

in g to th e ce rtificate w hich th e y ho ld .

b ed hosp ital w ou ld be ten E u ro p e a n m ed ical m en, tw en ty

T h is C o lle g e co n sists

o f sp acio u s an d m a gn ificen t prem ises at N o s

3

an d 4,

T h e sta ff for th e 500-

n atives, tw o m atrons, tw en ty S isters, a n d so m e E u r o p e a n

V ere-stree t, w h ich h a ve been

m ost g e n ero u sly p la ce d at

n urses.

th e

C o m m itte e

n earer for them to go than from E n g la n d .

d isp o sa l o f

B o y ton,

M .P .

th e

for

tw e lv e m o n th s.”

C o lle g e

E a st

M a ry le b o n e ,

by M r. Jam es

free

of

ren t

for

T h e y w ou ld be draw n from In d ia , as it w ou ld be T h e d ifficu lty

was th e q u estio n o f funds, but Sir J o h n h o p ed w ou ld be raised.

th at they


October, 1914.

Kent

— F I R S T

D etachm ents By

E.

BRUCE

in

B eing.

CULVER.

m ade that the first five K e n t V o lu n ta ry A id D e ta ch m en ts to be m o bilised and on a ctiv e d u ty w ere th ose o f th e St. J oh n A m b u la n ce A sso cia tio n is sign ifican t. In d e ed , at th e tim e o f w riting, St. John furnishes eigh t out o f a to tal o f nine m o b ilised detach m en ts. B u t g e o grap h ica l p osition m ust be tak en in to a cco u n t. T w o at C a n te rb u ry sprang in to full e xisten ce d u rin g the first days o f th e w ar. T h e T errito ria ls, drafted in large num bers in to th e C ity , su p p lied a lo n g list o f m inor casualties, such as m ight be ex p ecte d from vo lu n ta ry troops su d d en ly c a lled to a ctiv e service. In St. A u g u stin e ’s C o lle g e , K e n t 70 (C o m m an d a n t, M iss W a terfield ), and K e n t 100 (M iss W em yss), treated cases o f cru sh ed fingers an d toes, sore feet, and k in d re d troubles. L a te r this hosp ital was d isco n tin u ed , but th e d eta ch m en ts were still Announcem ent

“ B rush

and

m andan ts, w ith zeal an d p ro m p titu d e, b e g g e d a n d b o rro w ed so su cce ssfu lly th at th e h o u se was soon th o ro u g h ly e q u ip p e d from gro u n d to top floor, an d fitted w ith bed s to h o ld fifty patients. In th e n atural co u rse o f e ven ts the first overflow o f w ou n d ed , from F o rt P itt, was tak en to S tro o d . A large p u b lic room , in b u ild in g s o p p o site th e V .A . H o sp ita l, was also b ro u gh t in to service to a c c o m ­ m o d a te th e sixty to sev en ty p atien ts tran sferred to th e care o f the S tro o d D e ta ch m en ts. T h e H o s p ita l c a n ta k e 100 p atients. A b o u t th e sam e tim e G ra v e s e n d fo u n d o p p o rtu n ity for service to the sick o f the T h a m e s -M e d w a y F orts. K e n t 16 (C o m m a n d a n t, M iss C a sw e ll), th e S e n io r D e ta c h ­ m ent to o k the first call, an d w ith th e c o n se n t o f th e M ilitary A u th o rities, esta b lish ed a sm all h o sp ita l o f tw elve b ed s in th e P arish R oom at A ll H a llo w s, w h ere p atients from C liffe, G rain , an d S lo u g h F o rts re ce iv e treatm en t. T h e cases, m inor in ch a ra cter at first, h a ve re ce n tly in creased in severity, an d th e sp ecia lise d tra in in g in ty p h o id fever n ursin g w hich the M e d ica l O fficer has system aticallyg iv en th e D e ta ch m en ts is bein g put in to p ra ctice. K e n t 42

B room

B r i g a d e .”

G ravesend Y .A .D .’s engaged in cleaning down Y a ch t Club premises for V .A . so licito u s in varied w ays for th e w elfare o f th e T errito ria l soldiers in their m idst, an d busied th em selves in w ashing and m en d in g garm en ts, and p ro vid in g co m fo rts and recreation for th e m en cast in ex p erie n ced on their own resources. N u rsin g has now been resum ed in buildin gs not requ ired for ed u ca tio n a l purposes. C a n te rb u ry ’s lead was fo llo w ed in early S e p te m b er by Strood. A d jo in in g the n aval an d m ilitary tow ns o f R o c h e s te r an d C h ath a m , S tro o d com es un der th e d irect n o tice o f L ieu t.C o lo n e l R . P . B o n d , the A ssistan t D irecto r o f M e d ica l S ervices at C h ath a m , and o f L ie u t.-C o lo n e l H a in e s, P rin cip a l M e d ica l O fficer at F o rt P itt H osp ital. K e n t 104 an d 106 have the furth er g o o d fortun e to be co m m a n d ed by M rs. and M iss S k in n er, w ife an d d a u gh ter o f D r. Skin n er, w ho su cce e d e d L ie u t.-C o lo n e l B o n d as A ssista n t C o u n ty D irecto r w hen th e latter, on the o u tb re ak o f war, was reca lled to a ctiv e service. A large h ouse clo se by D r. S k in n er’s own resid en ce had been p la ce d at his disp osal by th e ow ner. T h e C om -

69

AID. —

Hospital.

(M rs. B ru ce C u lv e r) and K e n t 92 (M rs. W . L a u r e n c e G a d d ) are also m o bilised . A very c o m p le te h o sp ital, by un an im ous co n sen t put u n d e r th e co m m a n d o f M rs. L a u re n c e G a d d , was p rep ared by m em bers o f th e th ree d e ta ch m en ts in th e prem ises o f the o ld T h a m e s Y a c h t C lu b , an d d e ta ch m en ts stan d by to re ce iv e an hourlye x p e c te d call. G ra v e sen d is a p a rticu la rly w ell o rg an ised d istrict, h avin g the a d va n ta g e o f th e clo se p erso n a l c o ­ o p eratio n o f its V ic e P resid en ts, th e C o u n te s s o f D a rn le y , an d L a d y (G ilb ert) P a rk er, o f th e C h a irm a n o f th e E x e c u tiv e C o m m ittee , Sir G ilb e r t P a rk er, an d o f th e C o u n ty D irecto r, th e E a rl o f D a rn le y . A t C o b h a m H a ll, th e seat o f L o r d an d L a d y D a rn le y , situ ate a few m iles out o f G ra ve sen d , a sp ecia l little h o sp ita l is p re p a re d to ta k e in th e co n v a le sce n t o f th e A u stra lia n C o n tin g e n t, a n d th e M e ad o w R o o m , at C o b h a m villa g e , has its q u o ta o f eig h ty w ou n d ed cases. T h e Y Iea d o w R o o m is e n tire ly a p rivate hospital. A t G ra v e sen d is e sta b lish e d a ce n tra l d e p o t for th e


70

F I R S T

c o lle ctio n an d d istrib u tio n o f garm en ts an d o th er stores. T h e D rill H a ll has b een p la ce d at th e d isp osal o f the d e ta ch m e n ts for th is p u rp o se an d for th e train in g o f recruits. S in c e the o u tb re a k o f w ar a M e n ’s D e ta ch m en t has b een ra ised an d fu lly trained, an d M r. H . L . T ath a m has b e en a p p o in te d C o m m a n d a n t. T h e M e d ica l O fficers h a ve g iv en six courses o f em erge n cy lectu res in first aid an d sick n ursin g, an d a large n um ber o f m en and w om en h a ve o b ta in e d th eir q u a lify in g St. J oh n C ertificates. R a m sg a te, K e n t 2 (M rs. G ru m m an t), th e first K e n t V .A . D e ta c h m e n t to b e raised, an d B ro a d stairs— the latest re cru it— are re a d y to tak e sick an d w ou n d ed from A n tw e rp . T h e n in e fo rtu n ate d eta ch m en ts fully realise their lu ck . N o . 2 D iv isio n , fu rn ish in g five out o f the co m p le ­ m ent, bears its glo ry w ith b eco m in g m o desty. T ru th to tell, it is to o bu sy to th in k of glory. “ T h e co m m o n ro u n d , th e d a ily task ” begin s in th e ch ill m orn in g hour w hen the still slee p y V .A . N u rse relu cta n tly puts foot out o f bed. A c o ld ba th (draw n o vern igh t in th o u gh tfu l desire n o t to d istu rb th e last p recio u s hour o f sleep for the rest o f th e h o u se h o ld ) dissipates leth argy, and glo w in g from effect o f th e p lu n g e an d w ith ardour for her duties, our m e m b er slips in to her n eat grey uniform , her sp otless cap and apron, her cuffs an d her collar, an d is rea d y for a lo n g d a y ’s w ork. It lies n ow in her p ow er to fulfil the m ission for w h ich she has d u rin g th e p ast four years so w h o le­ h e a rted ly giv en up m ost o f her leisure tim e, w ith but sm all a n ticip a tio n that her self-sacrifice w ou ld be ju stified , or that th e scoffs a n d jee rs o f m ore in d o le n t friends w ou ld ever be tran sfo rm ed in to w ords o f th an k fu l co m m en d atio n . For it’s “ ‘ T o m m y th is ,’ an d ‘ T o m m y th a t,’ and ‘ T o m m y go a w a y ,’ b u t it’s “ ‘ T h a n k you, M r. A tk in s, w hen the ban d begin s to p la y .’ ” R e p o rtin g h e rse lf on d u ty at 8 a.m ., our nurse, in the ca se o f w h ich I write, finds th e hard-w orked M .O . busily a tte n d in g to th e dressings o f th e w o u n d ed soldiers. T h is is alw ays his p erso n al care, an d in vo lve s two hours o f strenuou s la b ou r, p re ced in g his ordin ary rou tin e. B reakfast is served, th e c o o k in g d epartm en t, un der th e sup erin ­ te n d e n ce o f th e w ife o f a n o th er m ed ical officer, w orkin g to p erfectio n . B e d s are m ade, w ards clean ed , patients w ashed, and, b y th e m id d le o f th e m orning, all is in applep ie order. A ll d a y lo n g gifts o f fruit, flowers, to b a cco , n ew spapers, b o o k s, w ritin g m aterials, an d th e like, are d e live red at the door, th e n urse on d u ty th ere fin d in g b rie f leisure to re flect on th e d raw b ack s o f a ctiv e service, or how very a c tiv e th at service rea lly is. A ll day long, too, were it p erm itted , stream s o f visitors w ou ld e b b and flow, so great is th e in terest o f th e tow n in its w ou n d ed , so in tense the p erso n al d esire to do so m eth in g to help. B u t, alth ou gh grea t le n ie n ce is show n to p atien ts’ friends in this rerp ect, a firm ru le has to be m a in ta in ed — visitors o n ly on visitors’ d a y s— -with exce p tio n in favour o f relatives w ho travel from a d ista n ce to see th eir dear ones safely b a ck from the seat o f war. “ S a fe ly ,” b ecau se the large m ajority o f cases in H o m e H o sp ita ls are en tirely m inor w ounds. W ith h a p p y in sp iration the reso u rces o f a p leasant ga rd en h a ve been fu lly utilised. A m arquee, erected w ithin easy re a ch o f th e k itch e n door, p ro vid es a ch arm in g din in g h a ll for th e m en ab le to get in to the o p en air. A ftern o o n tea is a lso served alfresco, and the visito r— un fam iliar with th e a ttra ctiv e hosp ital uniform o f b righ t blue, with w hite revers a n d scarlet tie— ch a n cin g u p on the scen e m ight w ell

A ID .—

October, 1914,

be excu sed m om entary hesitation, u n der th e im pression that he had strolled u n in vited in to th e heart of a gard en party. T h e bright O cto b e r sun en h an ces th e exp ression of hap pin ess and co n ten tm en t shin ing upon th e faces of th e various groups scattered ab ou t th e lawn, w ho listen with trem en d o u s interest to the sim p le tales to ld by th e returned warriors, th e hum o f con versation , th e strains o f an ex­ quisitely-p layed violin co m in g throu gh th e op en w indow s of the house, and the ch eerfu l clatter o f tea-cups, create an atm osp here o f gaiety and ligh tn ess m ore in k e ep in g w ith a social fu n ction than th e tem porary w elco m e h o m e o f the ligh tly-w oun ded o f an arm y ju st en terin g upon the greatest struggle w hich, th rou gh o u t its lo n g history, it has yet u n d ertak en . B u t jo in o n e o f the g ro u p s— you w ill be w elcom e, th o u g h u n k n o w n — and you will find no so cial butterflies pursuin g the id le p leasure o f a sum m er aftern oon . T h e u n glo ved hands o f the w om en are co arsen ed by hard w ork. T h e ir clo th es, n eat and clean , are not the latest p ro d u ct o f “ L o u ise ” or “ E s te lle .” T h e ir eyes do not w ander in hard a rro gan ce from gro up to group, search ing out, p erch an ce, som e in tim ate for w hom they m ay co n d esce n d to soften. L ittle ch ild ren are there (how else sh ould the m others co m e ?) ru nn in g in and out am on g the various parties, un w elco m e now here. T h e rough hands ho ld ten derly and th a n k fu lly th e m ore d elicate one o f th e invalid. No scornful eyes criticise th e cu t o f th e w om en ’s garm ents. A ll are suffused with the ten dern ess o f a com m on brother­ h ood. Y o u m ay speak to w hom you will, so lo n g as you sp eak as w om an to w om an, man to man. Y o u are back in the sim p le days an d w ays that fill the stories o f W illiam M orris w ith u n d yin g charm . P resen tly, relu ctan tly, the guests drift away. A favoured few rem ain, go in g throu gh the wards, passing from bed to bed, in fin itely to u ch ed by the greatness o f th ese sim p le m en— the m en w ho have d o n e the greatest thin g o f all, their duty. H o w surprised they w ou ld be co u ld th ey realise that you felt there was an yth in g u n co m ­ m on in them . T h e y are soldiers, and th ey were sent to drive th e en em y b ack. It was each m an’s p erson al busi­ ness, and d u ty was given an a d d ed zest— a zest for mere k illin g that m ight otherw ise h ave been la ck in g — by th e p itiful scen es on w hich their eyes had fallen. T a k e the ca se o f one little co m p an y on th e outskirts o f a F re n c h village. T h e soldier co u ld n ot even rem em ber its nam e, if h e ever kn ew it. R a tio n s had a k n a ck o f disappearing, and grave doubts arose o f o n e’s neigh bour. E ve n tu a lly a p icq u et cau gh t a sm all ch ild in the a ct o f app rop riating som e o f th e food. A n in terview with th e c h ild ’s guardian was sought, an d the m en fo un d that the ch ild was one o f a fam ily o f eight, its m other a N orth am p ton w om an m arried to a F ren ch m a n who was aw ay at the war : m other and children on the verge o f starvation. “ W h en we w ent o n ,” said the narrator, “ that fam ily had enough to live on for a m on th .” O r again, in passage through a ruined village, the sudden irruption in to the ranks o f a poor F ren ch w o m an , w ho vo lu b ly and un availin gly tried to m ake the corp oral un derstan d her urgent questions, and w hen she foun d she h ad failed “ she put her head on our co rp o ra l’s ch est and cried lik e a baby. M o st o f us cried, too, and it d id n ’t m^ke us feel lik e sparing th e n ext G erm an s we cam e up again st.” T h e s e are the men it is th e V .A . n urse’s p rivilege to w ork for. It is for them that ceaseless d u ty throu gh the lo n g hours o f a lo n g day are a co ve ted r e w a r d ; and the n ight w atches en d all too soon for the tireless d evo ­ tion o f our m em bers, proud and glad that the ca ll to ser­ vice has com e. T h e seven ty o d d d etach m en ts w ho at p re­


October, 1914.

— F I R S T

sen t h a ve to “ stan d an d w ait ” m ust n ot grow im patient. T h e re is, alas, w ork in p len ty for all. T h e w eeks w ill grow in to m on th s, th e m on th s perhaps in to years. F irst enthusiasm w ill d ie dow n, but n ot am o n g th e V o lu n ta ry A id D e ta ch m en ts. A t th e o u tb re a k o f war we stood to a tte n tio n . B it by bit our great co m p an y is b ein g d eta iled for service, an d so o n er or later th e w hole arm y o f us w ill be en g a g ed in a struggle as a cu te and w earyin g as that now p ro ce ed in g, kn o w n as th e B a ttle o f th e R iv ers. O u rs is the b a ttle a gain st w ou n ds and disease. W e m ust h o ld the field a gain st th e en e m y and, by our u n rem ittin g labou r, beat h im off. N e x t m o n th I h o p e to be in a p osition to giv e a m ore d e ta iled a c c o u n t o f th e d a ily rou tin e o f the earliest V .A . h o sp itals in th e C o u n ty , b u t I am sure that any C o m m a n d ­ a n t d esirin g to visit S tro o d w ill be co rd ially w elco m e d and in fo rm ed on an y p o in t by the A ssistan t C o u n ty D irecto r, D r. S kin n er.

E xam in atio n B y N. C O R B E T

R equirem en ts.

F L E T C H E R , B .A ., M .B ., B .C .(C a n ta b ),

M .R .C .S . (A u th o r o f a C o m p e n d iu m o f A id s to F irst A id .)

A . — I N D IV I D U A L

TESTS.

relates th at in the early days th e ca n d id ates for U n iv e rs ity D e g re e s vied w ith e ach o th er in the n u m ber o f cla ssica l authors, w h o se w orks th ey h ad stu d ied ; and that th ey w ere w on t to carry all th eir b o o k s in a w heelbarrow to th e S e n a te H o u se , w here th e y in vited exam in atio n on any a n d e ve ry vo lu m e in their stock. H isto ry also tells us that th e p resen t system o f exam i­ n atio n d ates from the d a y w hen a ca n d id a te w alked up w ith o u t his barrow an d ch a lle n g e d exam in atio n on th e L a tin L a n g u a g e ; an d that, w ith the sp read o f ed u catio n , ce rtain variation s h a ve been step by step in tro d u ced until th ere has been grad u ally e v o lv e d th e e la b o ra te system with w h ich we are to-day acq u ain ted . H isto ry

I .— D E F I N I T I O N

AND

O BJEC TS

OF

E X A M IN A T IO N . E x a m in a tio n is d e riv ed from a L a tin w ord, w hich m eans th e to n g u e o f a b a lan ce, and signifies a “ testing ” or “ w eigh in g in the b a la n ce .” It is th e re co gn ised m o d e by w h ich in any su b je c t we bo th acq u ire and at the sam e tim e su b m it to the test th e K n o w le d g e and E x p e rie n c e w hich w e possess. T h a t th e trial is n ot alw ays fair an d im partial, that n ervousn ess m ay up set the m ental b a lan ce o f the brilliant stu d en t, an d th at th e fick le G o d d ess o f C h a n ce , w ho holds th e scales in her hands, presides over all exam in atio n s and at tim es giv es surprisin g results, is a d m itte d by all. In sp ite o f th e p o ssib ilities o f all th ese faults and failings, h ow ever, no o n e can su gg est an altern ativ e schem e, w hich, w h ile testin g the K n o w le d g e an d E x p e rie n c e o f a n um ber o f ca n d id ates, shall satisfy th e ru d im en tary d em an d s o f h o n esty and fair-play to all co n cern e d , a lth o u gh it is u n iversa lly agreed th at the best an d m ost satisfacto ry tests in clu d e q u estio n s on the T h e o r y and also th e P r a c tic e o f th e su b ject.

7i

AID. —

fractures a n d haem orrhage o ccu p ie s a p ro m in en t p o sitio n , and in w h ich a d efin ite p ro p o rtio n o f th e a v a ila b le m arks m ust be o b ta in ed , th e o n ly result is su cce ss o r failu re. In C o m p e titiv e E x am in atio n s, in w h ich th e w h o le ran ge o f th e su b je c t m ay be treated at th e ju d g e ’s d iscre tio n , th e c a n ­ d id ates eith er sin g ly or in team s c o m p e te a g a in st e a ch other, an d are p la ce d in th eir o rd er o f m erit. S u c c e s s in both m eth o d s d ep en d s on th e P rin c ip le s w h ich go v ern the p ra ctice o f F irst A id . T h e id eal exam in atio n , w h ereb y th e e le m e n t o f c h a n ce m ay be almost e lim in ated , con sists, as w e h a v e seen, o f tw o portions, o f w h ich the first requires w ritten answ ers to certain stated qu estio n s on th e T h e o r y , w h ereas th e s e co n d is co n d u cte d by m eans o f p erso n al tests on th e P r a c tic e o f th e su b je c t— viz., p ra ctical w ork a n d viv a -vo ce q u estio n s. (1).— W r it t e n

(2).— P e r s o n a l

OF

E X A M IN A T IO N .

E x am in a tio n s in F irst A id m ay be eith er Pass or C o m ­ petitive. In P a ss E x am in a tio n s, in w hich th e treatm en t o f

T ests.

In F irst A id , how ever, sin ce T h e o r y m ust g iv e w ay to P ra ctice, the seco n d m eth o d o f testin g a c a n d id a te ’s K n o w ­ led ge, C o m m o n sen se and E x p e rie n c e is u su a lly re lie d u p o n , w ith th e result that, often in d o u b tfu l cases a n d so m etim e s in others, ch a n ce m ay turn th e scales a n d g iv e su cce ss w here it is n o t d eserved and v ic e versa. W h e re fo re it has been w ell said that since no m ortal ca n c o m m a n d su ccess, it is better to d eserve i t ; an d if we h a ve e n d e a v o u re d in exam in atio n to set forth sy ste m a tica lly a n d c le a r ly th e K n o w le d g e w hich we h ave a cq u ire d in o ur S tu d y o f th e su b ject, th en the sting o f failu re w ill be less p ain fu l, a n d th e trium ph o f su ccess m ore e n jo y a b le . I I I .— E S S E N T I A L

FACTORS

OF

E X A M IN A ­

T IO N . T h e th ree E ssen tia l F a c to rs w h ich m ust b e c o n sid e re d in a d iscu ssio n on th e req u irem en ts in E x a m in a tio n are th e E x am in er, th e C a n d id a te , a n d th e Q u e s tio n , th o u g h o u r K n o w le d g e , C o m m o n se n se an d E x p e rie n c e still c o n tro l th e situation. (1).— T h e

I I .— M E T H O D S

T ests.

In th ese tests the p erso n al e le m e n t o f th e c a n d id a te is erad icated , an d th e exam in er arrives at his co n c lu s io n on th e answ ers a ctu a lly set dow n. In all w ritten e x a m in a ­ tions, therefore, it is a wise p lan to review at the outset all th e qu estio n s befo re us, and to m ake ro u gh n otes (and, if possible, a system atic sch em e) o f our p ro p o se d answ ers. F u rth er, it is w ell to regard the exam in er as an ign o ra n t an d an im p atien t person, w ho requires that th e d e sired in ­ form ation shall b e su p p lie d fully, freely, and in a m an n er m ost co n d u civ e to easy correction . In o th er w ords, the wise stu d en t m akes th e e x a m in e r’s task as easy as possible. H e is carefu l (i) that his answ ers are clearly and d istin ctly w ritten on o n e sid e o f th e p ag e o n l y ; (ii) that th e y are d efin ite and co n cise — th e m ain p oin ts b ein g m ade, w here p ossible, to stan d o u t p ro m in en tly so that th ey catch the eye. A b o v e all, he rem em b ers (iii) th at p ap er is cheap, and that th e m ost fatal error is to cram p an answ er, an d to run sectio n after sectio n in to each other. L a s tly (iv) he co m m e n ce s each answ er on a sep arate sheet o f paper, and is thus ab le, w h en h e has several question s before him , to m ake his ow n c h o ic e o f order. M o reo ver (v) he is d iscrim in a tin g if he a tta ck s first th e question s o f w hich he is m ost co n fid e n t, a n d th e re b y allow s h im se lf am p le tim e to co n sid e r an d s u b se q u e n tly deal with those question s w h ich p resen t so m e d ifficu lties.

E x a m in e r .

In co n sid e rin g th e part p la y e d by th e E x a m in e r, w e are never ju stifie d in cre d itin g him w ith u n ju st m e th o d s. H e h o ld s his p o sitio n b e ca u s e his g o o d faith is u n q u e stio n -


72

— F I R S T

a b le , an d b e ca u se he has e sta b lish e d elsew h ere his cred e n tia ls an d q u a lificatio n s for th e post. In fact, m any in sta n ce s o f w h at on rare o cca sio n s m ay app ear to be gla r­ in g e x a m p les o f in ju stice an d favouritism are c a p a b le o f a to ta lly d ifferen t exp lan a tio n , w hen th e excite m en t o f the m o m en t is p assed an d th e w h o le situ atio n can be review ed w ith co o l d e lib era tio n . A lth o u g h , therefore, it is n eith er w ise nor ju stifia b le at an y tim e to im p e a ch th e g o o d faith o f the E x am in er, yet it is both w ise an d ju stifia b le at all tim es to co n sid e r th e p ro fessio n al a n d perso n al e lem en ts w h ich are c o m b in ed in his p erson an d p o sitio n . (a ).—

The Professional Element.

T h e E x a m in e r co m b in es th e resp o n sib ilities o f p rose­ c u tin g co u n sel an d ju d g e , his d u ty in the latter ca p a city bein g, as th e n am e signifies, to d e cla re an d d e cid e w hat is ju s t or law. H is w ord is f i n a l ; an d th e d ip lo m a tic ca n d i­ date, re m e m b erin g th e p erso n al elem en t, w hich we shall n ex t discuss, n ev er in w ord, d eed , or facial exp ression q u estio n s th e ju s tic e o f a n y d ecisio n . A t th e sam e tim e, lik e th e J u d g e s o f th e L a w C o u rts, the E x a m in e r m ay pose an d sh o u ld be rega rd ed b y us, th e students, as an ign oran t person , w h o is w illin g an d ready to re ce iv e in stru ctio n , w h ich we m ust su p p ly in detail. T h e a ttitu d e o f E x am in ers vary w ith the in d ivid u al. S o m e e x cite our sy m p a th y at th eir ign o ra n ce until we are gu ilty o f som e error o f o m ission or com m ission , w hen w ith ­ ou t w arn in g th e ign oram us b e co m es the in d ign an t expert, a n d we are im m e d iate ly co n scio u s o f our m istake. O th ers, how ever, a d o p t a calm an d n on -com m ittal asp ect, and w ith g e n tle p ersu asio n lu re us a lo n g our m istaken path and allo w us to leave th e exam in atio n room co n v in ce d that we h a v e a cco m p lish e d a b rillia n t result. S u b se q u e n tly w e find th a t w e h a v e failed, and th at we h a ve sco red that figure w h ich , th o u g h co m p lete in itself, sign ifies n oth ing. O th ers, again, m ay d e lib era tely a ttem p t to m islead us, and, for exa m p le, m ay h o ld o u t an arm w hile th ey, in n o ce n ce p er­ son ified , ask us to com p ress p o p litea l artery ! ! In all th ese w ays m ay our K n o w le d g e and E x p e rie n c e be tested. (b ).—

The Personal Element.

T h e M e th o d s o f E x am in a tio n being, as we h ave seen, m ain ly p ractical, the p erson al elem ent, w hich som e candip ates fail to a p p re cia te and others ign ore, m ust alw ays p la y an im p o rtan t part with an E x am in er, w ho is only hum an , an d w ho, fo r this reason, m ay be a creatu re o f m o o d s an d fan cies. F u rth er, sin ce th e E x a m in e r m ay be fu lly co n scio u s, or d e ep ly u n co n scio u s o f th e subtle in flu en ce, it is w orth rem em b erin g that in th e e xa m in atio n room , as in all h u m an relation sh ips, we ten d to reflect the m o o d s an d o p in io n s o f th o se w ith w hom we find ourselves in tim a tely a sso ciated . A g a in , it is an in d isp u ta b le fact th a t m ost (if not all) E x am in e rs ten d to favour p ecu liar id eas a n d p et op in io n s, w h ich w e sh o u ld seek as far as p o ssib le to a n ticip ate.

*

*

*

*

*

*

T h e w ise C a n d id a te , therefore, exe rcisin g the P rin ­ cip le s o f F irst A id , w ill be tactful in his e n d e av o u r to esta b lish at th e very o utset a g o o d im p ression on the E x am in e r, w hose a ttitu d e he w ill stu d y, w hose p atien ce he w ill n ot u n d u ly strain, w hose ign o ra n ce he w ill strive to e n ligh ten . A ls o he will be observant in n o ticin g and resourceful in fo llo w in g up an d m a k in g the m ost o f any su gg estio n w h ich th e E x a m in e r m ay c o n sc io u sly or u n ­ co n sc io u sly d isclo se.

{To be continued).

AID. —

The

October, 1914.

“ Express(Patent) B oiler.

W ater

A t a rem a rka b ly low figure (listed at 5s.) th e M artin E n g in e e rin g C o ., L td ., o f 27, R id in gh ou se-street, G re a t Portlan d-street, L o n d o n , W ., h ave p laced u p on th e m arket o n e o f th e latest w ater h eatin g ap p lian ces, n am ed th e “ E x p ress ” w ater boiler, o f w h ich th ey are th e sole m an u ­ facturers, proprietors an d patentees. T h e “ E x p re ss,” it is stated , w ill raise w ater from o rd in ary tem p eratu re to b o ilin g p oin t (2 12 d egs.) in 17 seco n d s an d co n tin u e a t that tem perature. It w ill not ch o k e or ca k e up in side, as the bi-carbon is retain ed in th e water, and for a p en n y a d a y a co m p lete h o t w ater se rv ice m ay be o b tain ed . T h e “ E xp ress ” requires no flue, an d w ill utilise 95 p er cen t, o f th e h eat units in gas, as a gain st 25 to 30

per cent, from an o rd in ary gas stove, an d for th e bath it is cla im ed as o n e o f the greatest luxuries, as it giv es an y tem p eratu re, w hile no hot w ater cistern is required. D e s crib in g th e process, the w ater is h eated as it passes th rou gh an en tirely n ew d e v ised system o f return co ilin g, and is re ce ive d at the o u tlet at a n y req u ired tem p eratu re. F or d o m e stic purposes it is o f th e greatest use, as an y q u a n tity — large or sm a ll— o f h o t w ater ca n be o b ta in ed in stantly. C o n sid e rin g th e n eed o f q u ick service in presen t d ay requ irem en ts, th e “ E x p ress ” sho u ld , we thin k, m ake sp ecia l ap p eal to th e co m m u n ity, and readers o f F i r s t A m are sp ecia lly in vited to ca ll at th e C o m p a n y ’s show room s at R id in gh ou se-street, and w itness a sim p le d em o n stra tion o f th e b o iler’s op eratio n s an d ju d g e th em selves o f its m erits. I t sh ould be a d d e d that if after 30 d a y s’ test th e p u rch aser is n ot satisfied the boiler will be tak en back and th e m o n ey p aid refu n d ed in full.

It w ill be rem e m b ered that Sir A . K e o g h was a m em ber o f th e R o y a l C o m m issio n in 1900 on th e care o f th e sick an d w o u n d ed in th e So u th A frica n C a m p a ig n , an d was afterw ards D irecto r-G e n e ra l, retirin g in 19 10 . T h e su d d en d eath is a n n o u n ced o f C o lo n e l Jeffrey H a le B u rla n d at th e H o te l Stafford, L o n d o n , w here, w ith M rs. B u rlan d , he h ad o n ly ju st arrived a few days ago as C o m m issio n e r o f the R e d C ro ss S o cie ty o f C a n ad a , in ch a rg e o f the C a n a d ia n R e d C ro ss w ork in co n n e ctio n w ith th e C a n a d ia n troops in E n g la n d and at th e front.


— F I R S T

October 1914

*A1 D . -

73

BRITISH RED CROSS SOCIETY.

N otes

and

News.

The Englishwoman, in a series o f notes on th e care o f the sick and w ou nded, p oin ts o u t that E n glish sick-n ursin g is the ad m iration o f th e w h o le w o r ld ; n everth eless th e B ritish R e d C ross, co m p ared with th e F re n c h C ro ix R o u g e , is an a ssem b lag e o f pain stakin g, w ell-in ten tio n ed am ateurs, its 70,000 eager and e n th u siastic m em bers are b ook learn ed, but u n p ractised , but little is d e m an d e d o f them by the W ar O ffice, and their efforts to giv e m ore h ave go n e w ith ou t en co u rag em en t. T h is is a grievo u s w aste o f sp len d id m aterial w hich sh o u ld n ot be a llo w ed to con tin ue.

V M a n y circu m stan ces h ave c o m b in ed to ren d er it easy for m em bers o f the C ro ix R o u g e to gain a d m itta n ce to the F ren ch civ il and m ilitary hospitals, and even to m aintain a hospital o f their ow n in Paris. T h e e x ce lle n t m ed ical staff o f F re n ch hosp itals has to d o w ith ou t th e un failin g sup ply o f e d u ca te d train ed nurses upon w h ich th eir E n g ­ lish con freres ca n rely. T h e ladies o f th e C ro ix R o u g e do n ot d islo cate th e sm o o th ly-w o rkin g rou tin e o f the hospital w here th ey tak e the p ractical part o f th eir train in g ; on th e co n trary, th eir assistan ce is greatly va lu ed in the m ajority o f cases. T h e n , again , th e dearth o f g o o d civ ilia n nurses has led to the e m p lo y m e n t o f the C ro ix R o u g e in the case o f flood s, fires, m in ing disasters, an d o th er civ il accid en ts, an d co n se q u e n tly d o cto rs an d the gen eral p u b lic have co m e to rely u p on them , and to tak e for g ran ted that they m ust be giv en facilities for trainin g in th e hospitals, w hich in F ra n ce are, w hether civ il or m ilitary, un der p u b lic control. * * * U n til last A u g u st m ost p jo p le w ere co n te n t that the V .A .D . were a te ch n ica l reserve o f the T errito ria l F o rce, but very m uch has ch a n g e d th ese last ten w eeks, ; n early all d e ta ch m en ts h ave been train in g bard, an d th o se few w hich h ave been m o b ilised and en g ag ed in n ursin g the w ou nded h ave show n that, even w ith ou t p ractical training, their services are in va lu ab le, an d we feel sure that others, w hen th e W a r O ffice ca ll upon them , w ill be equ al to any dem an d s p lace d upon them . *** T h e W ar O ffice issued the follow in g w arning early this m on th :— -In view o f th e large n u m ber o f cases w here th e R e d C ro ss is b ein g im p ro p erly used by person s presu m ­ a b ly ign o ran t o f the statu to ry pro h ibitio n o f su ch use, the p u b lic are w arned that, u n der th e G e n e v a C o n v e n tio n A ct, 19 1 r, it is not law ful for any person to use for the purposes o f his trade or business the em blem o f th e R e d C ro ss on a w hite groun d, or the w ords “ R e d C r o s s ” or “ G e n e v a C ro ss.” A n y person a ctin g in co n trav en tio n o f this provision is g u ilty o f an offen ce against th e A c t, an d lia b le on sum m ary co n victio n to a fine n ot e x ce ed in g £ 1 0 an d to forfeit any go o d s upon or in co n n e ctio n w ith w hich th e e m b lem or

w ords are used. T h e A c t in q u estio n is th e leg islative m easure agreed to b y each o f the G o v e rn m en ts p articip a tin g in the G e n e v a C o n v e n tio n o f J u ly 6th, 1906. V D r. Jam es C a n tlie , H o n o ra ry S u rg e o n -C o lo n e l o f th e R .A .M .C . ( T .F .) , offered a prize for the m ost p ra ctical a n d su itab le m eth o d o f p o u ch or p o ck e t for c a rry in g b a n ­ dages, dressings and ap p lica tio n s re q u ired for first aid w ork by m em bers o f the M e n ’s V o lu n ta ry A id D e ta ch m en ts. M rs. C ro n e , quarterm aster o f th e B rig h to n D e ta c h m e n t (S u ssex 56) tied w ith a L o n d o n m em b er for first p la ce in the co m p etitio n , and th e prize o f £ 5 has been e q u a lly d iv id ed . T h e co m p etitio n was o p en to all b ra n ch es o f the B ritish R e d C ro ss S o c ie ty — its lectu rers, exam in ers, and d eta ch m en ts. T h e ju d g e s w ere Sir A n th o n y B o w lb y , C .M .G ., M r, G eo rg e H e n ry M a k in s, C .B ., C o lo n e l Jam es M c G ill, C B., and Sir F re d e rick T re v e s , B art., G .C .O . T h e p o u ch was d e sig n e d and m ade by the co m p etito r. V T h e fund w hich The Times is raising for th e sick and w ou n ded, and w hich is bein g d e v o te d to th e w ork o f th e B ritish R e d C ro ss S o cie ty and the St. J oh n A m b u la n c e A sso cia tio n , rea ch ed early in the m o n th a to tal of ,£ 3 2 6 ,2 4 1 . A ll sum s sen t o ver an d a b o v e £(200,000 (w ith th e exce p tio n o f su b scrip tio n s from b ran ch es o f th e B ritish R e d C ro ss S o cie ty and m on eys from so u rces o th er than th ose for w hich The Times is resp o n sib le) are to b e d iv id e d e q u ally betw een th e tw o organ isations. Sir F re d e rick T re v e s inform s the British Medical so far as th e B ritish w o u n d e d in F ra n c e are co n cern e d it is n ow p ro b a b ly safe to say that th e su p p ly o f surgeons, dressers, orderlies an d nurses m eets every d e m a n d ; in deed, m ore surgeon s an d nurses h ave been sent o u t than h a ve been a ctu a lly a p p lied for. In a d d itio n to th e large B ritish R e d C ro ss party o f su rgeo n s, dressers, orderlies an d n urses— n u m b erin g 100 in a ll— a lrea d y d e sp a tch ed to Paris, th e S o cie ty , on O c to b e r 6th, sent an o th er 15 surgeon s and 54 nurses. T h e r e are still a b o u t 200 surgeon s an d 1,000 fu lly-train ed h o sp ital nurses on the w aitin g list— a fact th at sh o u ld be n o te d in view o f the statem en ts ap p earin g from tim e to tim e in th e la y P ress that th ere is great n ee d for surgeon s a n d nurses. * * * W e are req u ested to state th at th e q u e stio n o f th e organ isatio n o f the R e d C ro ss S o c ie ty in Ir e la n d has been re ce ivin g th e a tten tio n o f the E x e c u tiv e C o m m itte e o f the R e d C ro ss, and it has been d e c id e d th a t th e b est m eth o d is to p ro ce ed by co u n ties as in E n g la n d . I t is h o p e d each co u n ty w ill form a b ran ch o f th e R e d C ro ss, w h ich w ill be in d irect co m m u n ica tio n w ith th e h e ad q u arters o f the S o c ie ty in L o n d o n , as in th e ca se o f th e E n g lis h and S co ttish bran ches. T h e H o n . A rth u r S ta n le y has n ow tak en o ver th e d u ties o f C h a irm a n o f th e E x e c u tiv e C o m ­ m ittee o f th e B ritish R e d C ro ss S o cie ty .

Journal that


74

- F I R S T

The

Great

C entral

R ailw ay.

G re a t C e n tra l R a ilw a y C o . are d eservin g o f m uch co m m e n d a tio n for th e a ctio n a d o p te d recen tly, and at short n otice, o f co n v e rtin g eig h tee n o f their vestib u led b o gie carriages, in o rd er to form tw o sep arate a m b u la n ce trains o f n in e v e h icle s each . In bo th trains bed s are p ro vid ed for sick officers and The

A I D . —

October, 191 4

ligh t and steam heaters (w h ich can be c o n tro lle d c o lle c ­ tive ly or sin gly), and also w ith n ecessary ap p lian ces, etc. B y k in d co u rte sy w e are en a b led to p ro d u ce illu stra ­ tions o f tw o interiors for the in form ation o f our readers. E a c h c o a ch is e le ctrica lly ligh ted , current b ein g sup ­ p lied from an e qu ip m en t fixed u n d ern ea th th e veh icle. T h e ca p a city o f th e batteries is such th at th e y can sup ply light co n tin u o u sly for a p p ro x im a tely tw en ty-four hours, even th o u gh th e co a ch m ay be stan d in g th e w hole o f the tim e. W h en th e c o a ch is ru n n in g th e ligh ts are su p p lied w ith current direct from the gen erato r driven by m eans o f a belt a tta ch e d to o n e o f th e axles. T h e ligh ts in th e w ard-room s are fitted w ith co vers for the p urp ose o f o b scu rin g the ligh t w hen n ecessary. T h e lights in the staff room s are e ach c o n tro lled b y a separate s w it c h ; w h ile the lam ps in th e treatm en t room are e ach o f 25 candle-p ow er, and so a rran ged as to cau se p ra ctically no shadow s, and, in a d d itio n , p o rtab le h an d lam ps are p ro ­ vid ed. T h e re are also p o rtab le han d lam ps in each o f the w ard room s. T h e trains are n u m b ered 1 an d 2, a n d are th e first to be h a n d ed o ver and bro u gh t in to use by the W ar authorities.

C o u n ty of L o n d o n B ra n ch . following changes in Detachments and Officers have occurred :—

T he

I n te r io r

of

P harmacy

G angway

sh o w in g

D oor, one

of

, through

the

open

W ards.

m en, as w ell as d a y and sleep in g a cco m m o d a tio n for d o cto rs, nurses an d personnel. E a c h train is fu rn ish ed w ith a co m p lete ph arm acy, treatm en t room , linen room , office, stores, h ot and co ld w ater, co o k in g a p p lian ces, lavato ries, e tc., to geth er w ith

I n ter io r

of

one

of

the

W a r d s, sh o w in g

B eds.

five w ards (co m p le te w ith all n ee d fu l ap p lian ces), each a c co m m o d a tin g 20 m en. T h e trains are e q u ip p e d w ith dual brakes (to travel, if re q u ired , o v e r a n y railw ay in B ritain ), to g e th er with e le ctric

Detachments Disbanded.— L o n d o n 5 (H a m m e rsm ith ) an d L o n d o n 12 (W estm in ster). Commandants.— C o l. S tep h en so n assu m ed and a fter­ w ards resign ed the C o m m a n d a n tsh ip o f 18. M iss O m m an ey has been a p p o in te d in his p lace. M rs. P h ip p s has been s u cce e d e d b y M rs. S co tt G a tty as C o m m a n d a n t o f 50, M iss P la tt by M iss B a sse tt-P o p k in as C o m m a n d a n t o f 13 6 , the R e v . W . H . M iln er by M iss M . L e e as C o m m a n d a n t o f 100, D r. M o o re S m ith by M iss M a y M a n se l as C o m m a n d ­ ant o f 14, D r. G o rd o n W ilso n b y M iss E d d e n as C o m ­ m andan t o f 38, D r. L . H o o p e r by M iss L o w as C o m m a n d ­ ant o f 24, M iss T re n d e d by M rs. M o b e r le y a s C o m m a n d an t o f 140, D r. K . R . H a y by M iss H o a re as C o m m a n d a n t o f 58, M rs. B o ile a u b y D r. M o o re Sm ith C o m m a n d a n t o f 36, D r. J. C . C o n g d o n by D r. E . M ilto n as C o m m a n d a n t o f 26. Dr. C o n g d o n has been m ade H o n . C o m m a n d a n t o f 26. Divisional Inspectors.— D r. M o rris has b e co m e I n ­ s p ecto r o f th e W estm in ster D iv isio n , M iss E n g leh ea rt o f th e K e n s in g to n D iv isio n , M r. C . E . A lle n o f th e C h e ls e a D iv isio n , an d M rs. B a g n o ld C o -In s p e c to r w ith C o l. S tep h en so n o f the G re en w ich and W o o lw ich D ivisio n . Divisional Secretaries.— M iss K in n e ll has been a p p o in te d S e cre tary o f the L a m b e th D ivisio n . A new D iv isio n has been form ed in P o p lar, and the fo llo w in g O fficers h ave been ap p o in ted :— V ice -P resid en ts, T h e L a d y St. D a v id s and th e M a y o r ; H o n . Secretary, M iss E y re C r a b b e ; H o n . T re asu rer, O cta v iu s E . R ic h e , E sq . M r. F . J. R ich a rd so n , h a vin g been giv en an A d m ira lty ap p o in tm en t, on th e o u tb re ak o f war, resign ed the C o u n ty Secretarysh ip . H e was s u c ce e d e d by L ie u t. C o l. G . H . D. G im le tte , C .I .E ., I.M .S . (retired), th e C o u n ty In sp ecto r. M o re re ce n tly th e latter has been given an a p p o in tm en t by th e In d ia O ffice, an d C o l. T . E . L . B a te , C .I .E ., I .M S. (retired), has u n d ertak en th e duties. T h e exam in atio n s at the W estm in ster T ra in in g C e n tre to o k p la ce on J u ly 15 th , w ith th e fo llo w in g results :— Y e a r. Session . E n te re d . P assed. Ist 3rd 33 33 2nd 2nd 14 14 3fd 3rd 15 15


October, 1914.

— F I R S T

A ll “ P ro gressive T ra in in g ” has been d isco n tin u e d for the tim e bein g, but o rd in ary classes in F irst A id , H o m e N ursing, H y g ie n e an d C o o k in g are b ein g held at the T ra in in g C en tres. O n th e declaratio n o f war, th e S o c ie ty ’s con trol over its V o lu n ta ry A id D etach m en ts ceased ; these now co m e un der the co n tro l o f the M ilitary A u th o rities. F o r the present, until m o bilised , they are u n der th e orders, in m ilitary m atters, o f C o l. V a le n tin e M atth ew s, w ho has w arned certain d e ta ch m en ts to be in readiness for d u ty in th e four L o n d o n G en eral H osp itals. F o r B rix to n — 28, 40, 42, to o , 50, 84. F o r G irls ’ P a trio tic S c h o o l— 122. F o r St. M a rk ’s C o lle g e — 48, 52, 72. F o r K in g ’s C o lle g e H o s p ita l— 22, 30, 46, 58, 62, 1 1 6 . C o l. V a le n tin e M atth ew s has co n ferred th e title o f “ D e p u ty A ssistan t C o u n ty D ir e c t o r ” on Secretaries o f D iv isio n s. In co n se q u e n ce o f th e ch e ck to E m e rg e n cy teach in g, th e en ergy o f th e D ivisio n s has fo u n d a fresh o u tlet in the form ation o f new D e tach m en ts. T h is m et with the app ro val o f the B ran ch A u th o rities, un til a seco n d c h e c k o ccu rred by the issue o f a W ar O ffice O rd e r tem p o rarily su sp en d in g the registration o f new d etach m en ts. B u t M a ry leb o n e had alread y p ro p o sed 4, C a m b e rw ell 10 and C h e lse a 1 fresh D e ta c h m e n ts ; an d th ey w ere ad vised that th e trainin g o f their recruits m ight usefu lly be co n tin u ed , p en d in g even tu al reco gn ition . In th e m eantim e, all D iv isio n s w ere d irected to brin g their existin g D etach m en ts up to stren gth and co n tin u e lectu res an d p ra ctical w ork on n orm al lines. T h e re q u isition in g o f a rticles and registerin g prom ises o f supplies w hich w ou ld be useful for the e qu ip m en t o f A u x ilia ry H o sp ita ls, an d o f offers o f houses an d o th er b u ild in gs as store-houses an d for in struction p urp oses h ave been a ctiv e ly carried on in all D ivisio n s. Sew in g cen tres h ave been esta b lish ed in co n n e ctio n with all D iv isio n s. N u m ero u s offers o f service and a p p lica tio n s from person s w ish ing to b ecom e “ n u r s e s ” h ave been d ealt w ith in this office. E v e ry a p p lica n t in person has been seen and furnished with full d irectio n s as to the co u rse to be taken. E v e ry ap p lica tio n in w riting has been rep lied to and su itab le d irectio n s given . O ffers from te c h n ic a lly q u a lified p e o p le — doctors, train ed nurses, in terpreters and cooks, h ave been a ck n o w le d g e d and registered. In a d d ition to th e Infirm aries, w h ich h a ve h ith erto do n e so, St. T h o m a s ’s, St. B a rth o lo m ew ’s, W estm in ster O p h th a lm ic H o sp ita ls and th e N ew H o sp ita l for W o m en h ave co n se n te d to receive a lim ited n u m b er o f V .A .D . m em bers for a th ree w eeks’ in stru ctio n in w ard work. T h e W ar R e fu g e e s C o m m itte e for th e recep tio n o f B elgian R e fu g e es have a p p lied to th e B ran ch for assistan ce in h o u sin g an d tak in g care o f th o se un fo rtu n ate p eo p le, and m any D e ta ch m en ts h ave been thus u sefu lly em p lo yed . Several co n certs h ave been held in aid o f th e fun ds o f the C o u n ty o f L o n d o n B ran ch , an d they have been w ell a tten d ed on each o ccasio n .

A testim o n ial is b ein g raised in h o n o u r o f M r. Jam es C a n tlie , w ho has been d e scrib ed as “ th e e m b o d im en t o f a m b u la n ce w ork in this co u n try for n igh 40 y ea rs.” T h e V o lu n te e r M e d ica l S ta ff C o rp s is d u e to his in itia tive, w h ile in gen eral R e d C ro ss w ork his efforts h a ve been in valu able. It is p ro p o sed that the testim o n ial to him sh o u ld tak e the form o f a sum tow ards th e fo u n d atio n o f th e C o lle g e o f A m b u la n ce an d th e H u m an itarian C o rp s, w h ich M r. C a n tlie desires a b o v e all thin gs to see in stituted.

AID. —

75

AN INVALUABLE BOOK FOR ALL RED CROSS WORKERS. By

DR.

ANDREW

W IL S O N .

I n the p resen t gra v e e m e rg e n cy e v e ry R e d C ro ss and A m b u la n c e w orker sh o u ld sen d th e form b elo w for full an d in terestin g p articulars o f an in v a lu a b le b o o k th at is rea lly an e p ito m e in cle ar la n g u ag e o f all th at s p ecia lise d m e d ica l an d su rgical k n o w le d g e n ecessa ry for F irst A id ers. In “ T h e M o d e rn P h y sic ia n ,” b y D r. A n d r e w W ilso n , fu llest sp ace is d e v o te d to “ F irst A id ” an d A m b u la n c e W o rk. In resp ect o f co m p leten ess, a c c u ra c y o f d e scrip tio n an d w ealth o f illustration , “ T h e M o d e rn P h y sicia n ” stan ds w ith ou t a rival a m o n g st th e w orks p u b lis h e d on this im ­ p o rtan t su b je c t in th e U n ite d K in g d o m . It is s cien tific a lly a ccu ra te a n d re lia b le w ith ou t b e in g d u l l ; th e n am e o f its editor, so lo n g kn o w n as an a u th o rity on th e su b je c t, is a gu aran tee o f this.

EVERY

P O IN T

COVERED.

T h is w ork is p ro b a b ly th e o n ly w ork that co vers all the m an y b ran ch es o f th e s u b je c t in c o m p le te d etail, an d in w h atever d irectio n o n e m ay be h elp in g this w ork w ill be fo u n d in d isp en sa b le. In v a lid co o k in g , h o m e n u rsin g o f th e w ou n d ed , ba n d a gin g an d dressin g w ou n d s, in stan t an d e m erg e n cy treatm en t, th e settin g an d a fter ca re o f b ro k en bones, the treatm en t o f co n v a lesce n ts, th e fittin g up an d san itary care o f th e tem p o rary “ h o s p ita l” — th ese are a few o f th e th o u san d s o f su b jects upon w h ich R e d C ro ss w orkers n ee d sp ecia l in fo rm atio n now, an d this in fo rm atio n is giv en in this w ork in an u n iq u e m anner. A s a k n o w le d g e o f th e b o d y in H e a lth is n ecessa ry to th e d u e u n d erstan d in g o f th e b o d y w h en its fu n ctio n s are d e ra n g ed by disease, a d e scrip tio n o f e v e ry part o f th e fram e w ill be fo un d here. T h e sk e leto n , m uscles, d ige stive system , heart a n d lungs, brain a n d n ervo u s system , organ s o f sense, skin , k id n e ys an d th e b o d y ’s m icro sco p ic stru ctu re are d u ly d escrib ed . In this co n n e ctio n the illu stra tio n s are o f p articu lar value, th e “ m an n ikin s ” or d u m m ies m ore e s p e c ia lly ; in th ese the organ s are m ade to o ve rla p e ach o th er e x a ctly as th ey d o in th e hu m an body.

T h is f o r m m u s t b e s e n t w it h o u t d e l a y .

A FREE BOOKLET. TO

TH E

CAXTON

P U B L IS H IN G

COM PAN Y,

156, S u rre y Street.. L o n d on , W .C . P lea se send me, F r e e o f C h a r g e an d w ith o u t a n y o b lig atio n on ray p a r t :_ (1) Illu strated B o o k let on “ T h e M o d e r n P h y s i c i a n . ” (2) P a rticu la rs o f you r offer to d eliv er th e com p lete w ork for a first p aym en t o f is . 6d., th e balan ce to be p aid for b y a few sm all m on th ly p aym ents.

N a m e ....................................................................................................................................... (Send th is form or a p ostcard .)

A d d ress

........................................................................................................


— F I R S T

Setters to the Sditor. IVe are in no way responsible /or the opinions expressed, or the statements made, by Correspondents.— E d i t o r s , E t c . TH E

A D O P T IO N

OF

A

B R IG A D E

BADGE.

S i r ,— I n reply to “ A R ailw ay E m p loyee,” in your July issue, regard in g a B rigade B adge. If I rem em ber correctly the reason such a badge was suggested was to act as an introduction to m ake m em bers o f the B rigade known to each other— thereby create a universal Brotherhood am ongst m em bers o f the Brigade. “ A R ailw ay E m p lo y e e ” advocates a Special B ad ge for R ailw ay W orkers. I f this should be considered, we should have the m iners— of whom as a class form, I think, the m ajority as far as m em bership o f the S.J.A .B . is con cerned— and the m ill-worker and others asking for a special badge not to show their claim as to mem bership of the Brigade, but as to their trade or calling. N ow why not join the Brigade, for surely the m ajority of railw ay men who can find time to study am bulance work, can find time to follow out the necessary qualifications which count towards efficiency as a m ember of the St. John A m bulance B rigad e? I am sure officers in charge of Corps or D ivisions would be pleased to welcom e a railw ay em ployee or anyone else in possession of a first aid certificate as a m em ber o f his Corps or D ivision. N ow , as regards the police or public scorning anyone who wears the badge o f the S.J.A .A . whilst rendering first aid, I think this is “ a bit too far fe tc h e d ” for any pure minded British subject to give a second thought to, for at all times I have alw ays received the greatest kindness and assistance from “ the man in blue,” and from the public also, as they do not care one iota whether you wear a badge or not, so long as you can in time o f an accident render efficient treatm ent to alleviate the patient’s sufferings pending the arrival o f a doctor. T ru stin g “ A R ailw ay E m p lo y e e ” will show a little more true sportsm anship to the police and the British public.— W ish in g to rem ain, Yours, etc., Ja s. W . N a t t r a s s ,

D ivision al Supt., S.J.A .B .

O fficial

S t a t e m e n t on th e C are of th e S ick and W ounded.

T h e fo llo w in g official statem en t was issu ed by the Press B u rea u on S e p te m b e r 26th :— “ It m ay be o f in terest to the p u b lic to kn o w how the sick a n d w o u n d e d o f th e E x p e d itio n a ry F o rc e are being re ce iv e d and d istrib u te d after th eir arrival in this coun try. “ A ll th e h o sp ital ship s p ro ce e d to So u th a m p ton , w h ere th ere is a sp ecia l staff for th e re ce p tio n and distri­ b u tio n o f the sick a n d w o u n d e d officers an d m en w ho are b e in g sen t h o m e o n them . T h e arran gem en ts are un der th e co n tro l o f a su rgeo n -gen eral, w h o h o ld s th e a p p o in t­ m en t o f a d e p u ty d irecto r o f m e d ica l services. H e has at his co m m a n d tw elve a m b u la n ce trains sp e cia lly co n stru cted for th e c o n v e y a n c e o f 4 officers and 96 m en ly in g dow n, or for a c o n sid e ra b ly grea ter n u m b er o f p atien ts sittin g up. T w ic e , w ee k ly , telegram s are re ce ive d by him from all the larger m ilitary an d T e rrito ria l F o rc e gen eral h o sp itals stat­ in g th e n u m b e r o f beds v a c a n t in e a ch . W ith this in fo r­ m ation befo re him h e arran ges co n v o y s o f sick and w ou n d ed on arrival, an d d isp a tch e s them to th eir d estin atio n in one or m o re o f th e a m b u la n c e trains. “ A lre a d y th e sick an d w o u n d e d from o verseas h ave been co m fo rta b ly p la ce d u n d er treatm en t in m ost o f the la rge m ilitary or T e rrito ria l F o rc e ho sp ital centres. A t the

AID. —

October, 1914

railw ay station s o f th ese lo calities arran gem en ts are m ade by th e m ilitary a u th o rities for co n v e y in g sick and w ou n d ed in m otor or o th er a m b u la n ce veh icles from th e railw ay station s to the hosp itals. V o lu n ta ry A id d etach m en ts have a lrea d y d o n e usefu l w ork in co n n e ctio n w ith this stage o f th e m ovem en ts o f th e sick an d w ou n ded, and it is e xp ected that th e sco p e for u tilisin g vo lu n ta ry aid in this d irectio n w ill be e x te n d e d as its valu e b ecom es b etter know n. A s the m ilitary hosp itals get filled up arran gem en ts have been m ade for transferrin g sick and w o u n d ed from them to variou s h o sp itals arran ged by vo lu n tary effort. M a n y sch em es h ave been su b m itted to the W ar O ffice, throu gh the B ritish R e d C ro ss S o cie ty , in a cco rd a n ce with F ie ld S e rv ic e R eg u la tio n s. A t presen t th e o p p o rtu n ity o f using private hosp itals to a n y great exten t has n ot arisen, as th ere are still several th o u san d beds va ca n t in the m ili­ tary and T e rrito ria l F o rce hospitals. T h e r e is no doubt, how ever, that in tim e private h oapitals w ill be o f m uch use as an overflow , an d also w hen it is n ecessary to set free a sufficient n um ber o f beds for future requ irem en ts in the larger m ilitary h o sp itals.”

The F or

som e

“ Idl ” years

devoted

to

and

v alu a b le

the

past

im p ro vin g

In dustrials, c o n sid era b le and

e xp erien ce

tr e n d o f e v e n t s h a s b e e n fast we

now

have

on

th e

atten tion

perfectin g g ain ed

surgical

a

has

num ber

been

bandages,

by the m ore

a n d furious.

m arket

Ltd.

m odern

C o n seq u en tly, of

ap p reciab le

v a rie tie s w h ic h fin d th e ir n i c h e in n u m e r o u s d ire c tio n s.

In the p resen t issue o f F i r s t A i d we w ou ld lik e to draw the atten tio n o f our readers to th e “ I d l,” cla im ed by the a b ove-n a m ed m anu facturers, o f 1 1 6 , Pilgrim -street, N e w ca stle -o n -T y n e, as th e sup erio r surgical bandage. A m o n g the several poin ts a d d u ce d in favour o f such claim it is said that strength is n ecessary to ensure effective ban d agin g, and in the “ Id l ” brand th ere are 69 threads to the square in ch, 23 o f them lyin g laterally and 46 ru n n in g lo n g itu d in ally, th e re b y g iv in g great strength in the d irectio n o f th e “ p ull ” o f th e bandage. T h e “ Id l ” is m u ch w hiter in a p p ea ran ce than o rd in a ry bandages, show ing that th e b lea ch in g o f these has re a ch ed th e high est p o ssib le level, and co n se q u e n tly they possess the greatest p ow er o f ab so rb en cy , an d take up any d isch a rg e from th e w ound, th ereb y grea tly assisting the p ro cess o f healin g. “ Id l ” b an d ages are ro lled by m ach in ery and are p erfe ctly tigh t and solid, m akin g th e w ork o f ban d agin g e a s ie r ; w hile in th e m an u facture o f the b a n d a ge clo th it is p ro tected from co n ta ct with w o rk p eo p le ’s han ds by paper, w h ich is cu t with the ba n d a ge an d co vers the co m p lete ro ll o ver its full w idth . W h en th e w rapper is torn off, the e n d w hich is a p p lied to the w ou n d is p erfectly clean, as it has has n ever been h a n d led or exp o sed. C le a n cu ttin g is an e xclu siv e feature o f “ Id l ” surgical ban dages, and is d o n e by sp ecial m achin ery. P e rh ap s o n e o f th e m ost in terestin g features that will a p p ea l to our readers is that th e prices o f the “ Id l ” ban d ages are m u ch low er than th ose ch arged for ordin ary bandages, and w e feel we ca n n o t do better than ad vise our readers to a p p ly for th e firm ’s p rice list w h ich w ill be g la d ly su p p lied on m en tio n in g F i r s t A i d .

A large n u m b er o f B e lg ia n w o u n d ed troop s w ere la n d e d at D o v e r this m on th , b ein g assisted by St. Joh n A m b u la n c e D iv isio n s from vario u s districts.


October, 1914.

— F I R S T

Queries and Jlnswers Correspondents.

A I D

77

to B enger’s F ood is a cereal food, specially free from rough indigesti­ ble particles.

Queries w ill be dealt with under the following rules :— 1 .— Letters containing Queries must be marked on the top lept hana corner of the envelope “ Query," and addressed— F i r s t A i d , 46, Cannon-street, London, E . C.

I t c o n ta in s the n a tu ra l d i g e s t i v e p rin c ip le s, tr y p s in and a m y lo p sin , and is e x p re ssly devised to be used w ith fre sh n ew m ilk or m ilk and w ater.

2 .— A ll Queries must be accompanied by a ‘1 Query Coupon" cut from the current issue of the Journal, or in case of Queries) rom abroad from a recent issue.

B e n g e r ’s is u n i q u e a m o n g f o o d s in b e i n g s e l f ­ d i g e s t i v e to a n y e x t e n t d e s i r e d , a n d t h is is s i m p l y r e g u l a t e d b y a l l o w i n g t h e F o o d to s t a n d f r o m 5 to 45 m i n u t e s a t o n e s t a g e o f its p r e p a r a t i o n . The d i g e s t i v e p r o c e s s is s t o p p e d b y b o i l i n g up.

3■— Reader requiring a rebly by tost must enclose a slamted addressea envelope. C. H. (Lincoln).— T h e services o f the S.J.A .B . men are being utilised in conjunction with the R .A .M .C ., and if you will refer to the last two issues o f F i r s t A i d you will see the number already called up. D o not be impatient, your turn will com e in due course. T . A. (W ob u rn ).— E v e ry m ember of the V .A .D . when called up for service is provided with an identity certificate and a “ brassard.”

Food is un equalled w h en the d ig e stiv e s y ste m is w eakened th ro u g h accident, pain o r illn e s s , and w h en ever a lig h t s u sta in in g diet has become a n ecessity.

F. G. E .— Solution o f soda or am m onia, applied im m edi­ ately, forms the most appropriate treatment for insect bites. A C O R R E C T I O N .— In Dr. Christian’s reply to P. E. (Fareham), which appeared in the last issue of F i r s t A i d , we regret a printer’s error occurred. It states “ Haemorrhage would not be severe when the subclavian artery or vein were injured.” T h is should be unless the subclavian artery or vein were injured. A gain , lower down in the sam e reply, it states “ T h e case would be easily and efficiently met by covering thz projecting dressing with a broad bandage.” T h is should be protecting dressing.

A sample w ith f u l l pa rticu la rs w ill be sent post free to Members o f the M edical Profession , on application to the Sole M anufacturers —

BENGER’S FOOD Ltd., Otter Works, Manchester, Eng. B ranch

O f f ic e s :

N E W Y O R K ( U .S .A .) , 92, W illiam S treet. S Y D N E Y ( N .S .W .) , 117 P itt S treet. Canadian A g e n ts : N a tio n a l D ru g an d C h em ical C o ., L td ., 34. St. G ab riel S treet, M o n t r e a l , and B ranches th rou gh out C a n a d a . B146

— HORLICK’S— MALTED MILK IN

A N IN V A L U A B L E A ID R E D C R O S S N U R S IN G .

T h e un rivalled nutrition o f rich m ilk and ch o ice m alted gra in s. E a s ily assim ilated and m ost efficient to g iv in g and m ain tain in g stren gth .

In v a lu a b le to N u rs e s personally. Increases v ita lity and en durance.

Keeps indefinitely— Ready in a moment— No cooking A ls o a v a ila b le in tab let form , to be dissolved in the m outh w hen needed. C o n ven ien t to ca rry , av a ila b le an yw h ere, prevent fa tig u e, restore en e rg y and relieve thirst.

W rite / o r

injon naiion .

H o r l i c k ’s M a l t e d M i l k C o ., S l o u g h , B u c k s .

S ix th

A

E d i t i o n , Thoroughly Revised, very greatly Enlarged. Large Crown Svo. Handsome Cloth. Pp. i-xvi + 254, with 3b Plates, 13 X-Ray Plates, and ibb Figures in the Text. 6 s . net.

MANUAL

&

CO.’S

‘Standard’ .Ambulance (As supplied to the Marylebone Corporation, the Plymouth Police, See.),

AMBULANCE.

G e n e r a i . C o n t e n t s . — Outlines of Human Anatomy and Physiology— The Triangular Bandage and its Uses— The Roller Bandage and its Uses— Fractures— Dislocations and Sprains— Hmmorrhage— Wounds— Insensibility and Fits— Asphyxia and Drowning— Suffoca­ tion— Poisoning— Burns, Frost-bite, and Sunstroke— Removal of Foreign Bodies from (a) The Eye ; {/>) The Ear ; (c) The Nose ; (d) The Throat ; [e) The Tissues— Ambulance Transport and Stretcher Drill— The After-treatment of Ambulance Patients— Organisation and Management of Ambulance Classes— Appendix : Examination Papers on First A ’d. “ T h is m anual stands u n riva lled . . . on ly one o f the au th or's k n o w led g e could h ave produced such a p ractica l an d up-to-date te x t-b o o k .” — M edical Tim es.

London:

SIMMONS

OF

B y J. SC O T T R ID D E L L , M .V .O ., C .M ., M .B., M .A.

C harles

G riffin

fi

Co.

L td.,

E xeter

S treet,

Aids to M em ory fo r ‘ F irst A id ’ S tu d e n ts . B y L . M . F r a n k C h r i s t i a n , M .B ., C .M . E d in . A u th o r (join tly w ith IV .R .E .) o f “ Prob lem s in F irst A id , ” S t. J ohn A m b A ssoc.

S i x t h E d i tio n n o w r e a d y .

Revised to date (June 1914.)

“ N o am b ulan ce man need ever fear he w ill g o ru s ty if he w ill ta k e an o c c a ­ sional dose o f the m ental m ix tu re con tain ed w ith in the covers o f this splendid book . . . can n ot con ceive a better u tilisatio n o f sp a ce, a b etter treatise on th is subject cou ld not b e w ritten . . . the book for a ll, w h eth er old han d s or students. ” “ A ‘ m ultum in parvo ’ o f the g re a te st v a lu e .” P ric e : In C lo th , 6d. net— b y post 7d. In L e a th e r, 2s. n et— b y post 2s. 2d. S t o c k p o r t : C o n n e l l & B a i l e y , L t d . , “ E x p r e s s ” O f f i c e , S t . P e t e r 's S q u a r e , and T h e S t. J o h n A m b u la n c e A s s o c ia t io n , S t . J o h n ’ s G a t e , L o n d o n .

P ric e C o m p le t e (

£11

11s.

Always ready in Stock. F O LD IN G S T R E T C H E R S , 33 /"» or Woolwich Arsenal Pattern “ Mark II.” with Shoulder Slings, 42 /6 . Boy Scouts Stretchers, 25/-.

Q I M M H N C X> r n O IIiIIiIU IIa J

Ok

t U

1. 3 , 5 a n d 7 , T a n n e r S t r e e t , i , B e r m o n d s e y S t . , LONDON, S . E .

Hand-Ambulance Builders to the Metropolitan Asylums Board, the London County Council, the Metropolitan Electric Tramways, etc.

S tran d .

O C T O B E R . 1914.

C O M PE T IT IO N Nam e. A ddress..

CO UPON.


— F I R S T

78

AID. —

O ctober, 1914.

F E R R IS T H E !

‘S A N 0 I D ’

& CO.’S

“U N IV E R SA L ” First-Aid Cupboard.

P IC T O R IA L

TRIANGULAR BANDAGE. 44d. each.

3/9 per doz.

Postage extra.

The Ideal Triangular B a n d ag e

. A

W rite fo r C a ta lo g u e a n d P a r t i c u l a r s fro m

CUXSON, GERRARD & CO., Ltd., OLDBURY.

com plete Outfit, suitable for Factories, W orks, Public Offices, &c. Size, 19 in. high, i8 iin ., wide, 8 in. deep.

P r ic e , fitte d

35s. 6d.

c o m p le te

FERRIS & CO., Ltd., BRISTOL, C o m p le t e A m b u l a n c e O u t f it t e r s .

For UNIFORMS or GREAT COATS

LISTER’S DRESSINGS and LIGATURES. All

Wound - Dressing

Materials.

t h a t a r e well-cut, splendidly tailored, A

S P E C IA L

F E A T U R E :

m a d e from cloth t h a t will r e n d e r great service, w r ite to

BANDAGE (P la in

HERBERT E. COLE, U n ifo rm Specialist,

L E IC E S T E R . R ep r esen t a ti ve sent to m ea su re a n y Brigade free of ch arge.

and

ROLLS

M e d ic a te d ).

These rolls are 18 inches wide, and by means of our special cutting block and knife any width Bandage is quickly and neatly produced.

C A T G U T in tubes. In 18-inch lengths, wound on a wooden frame, containing 50 or 100 lengths; in solution, or dry ready for sterilizing. ILLU STR A TED

CATALO CUE on a pp licatio n .

TH E GALEN M ANUFACTU RIN G CO., Ltd., N a t. Te l. 4352.

NEW

CROSS,

LONDON.


FIRST AID.

The Independent Journal for the Ambulance and Nursing Services. Conducted by A R T H U R N o. 2 4 S - — V o l . X X I .

To

NOVEM BER

[N e w S e rie s .]

Our

B.

DALE,

,I „914. T,

M.J.I. PR'CE twopence A n n u m , P os-t F r e e

[Enttrtd at Stanontrs Hall.)

[2 /8 P e r

F i r s t A i d is a J o u rn al w h ich d e v o tes its e lf en tire ly to

Readers.

a m b u la n ce m atters, an d an y p ro p o sal to ob tain ad h eren ts

“ First Aid ” Is published on the aoth of every month. 6d. post free ; sin gle copies 2d.

to th e ran ks o f a m b u la n ce w orkers has our w arm est sup port,

T h e A n n u al S u b scription is as.

but, fran k ly, w e m ust say the o b je cts o f th e C o lle g e o f

T h e E d ito r invites readers to send articles and reports on subjects of

A m b u la n c e are a lm ost id e n tica l w ith S o cie tie s a lre a d y in

m erest to am bulance w o rk ers, these should be addressed to him at 46, C annon S treet, L o n d o n , E .C .

existen ce, and in stead o f co -o rd in a tin g a m b u la n ce w ork, an o th er S o cie ty in th e field is lik e ly to ca u se o ve rla p p in g

A ll articles and reports m ust be accom panied b y the nam e and

an d co n se q u e n t co n fu sio n .

T h e o b je c t o f raisin g a m b u la n ce

address o f the w riter, not necessarily for publication but for the use ot

w ork to a h ig h er p latform and te a ch in g it in a m ore s cien tific

the E ditor.

an d te ch n ica l m eth o d is a m atter w h ich co m m e n d s its e lf

Su bscription s, A d vertisem en ts and oth er business com m unications connected with F i r s t A i d should be addressed to the Publishers, DALE,

REYN OLDS

&

46, C a n n o n

C O .,

to us, but th ere is a n o th er a sp e ct from

W h en

L t d .,

S tre e t,

London,

E .C .

a m b u la n ce w ork was first c o m m e n ce d m any

m e d ica l m en k e p t a lo o f from th e m o vem en t, b e in g o f th e o p in io n

that

o ccu p a tio n .

EDITORIAL.

it

w ou ld

in terfere

Last

College of

we

reco rd ed

a m b u la n ce

their

profession al

T im e has refu ted this idea, b u t if a m b u la n ce

th e m ed ical profession w ill n o t resen t i t ; and as th e p ro­ a

sch em e

w h ich h ad been su ggested at a m eetin g of

Am bulance,

m o n th

w ith

w ork is to be b ro u gh t to a h ig h er phase w ho is to say th at

fession is th e b a c k b o n e o f

A

w h ich th e p o in t

m ay be view ed.

w orkers at th e R egen t-

street P o ly te c h n ic to form a C o lle g e o f A m b u la n ce . Dr. C a n tlie , w ho ad d ressed

a m b u la n ce w ork this a sp ect

requires serious co n sid e ra tio n .

A g a in , a m b u la n ce w orkers

h a ve a m p le o p p o rtu n ities o f k e e p in g their k n o w le d g e fresh by tak in g th e a n n u a l exa m in atio n s o f the St. J o h n A m b u ­ la n ce

A sso cia tio n , or by jo in in g th e B rig a d e or a V .A .

D e tach m en t, w h ich also gives them o p p o rtu n ities o f p ra ctical

the m eeting on th e su b ject, said :— “ A fte r a few lectu res

w ork.

and, perhaps, o b ta in in g a certificate, the k n o w le d g e acq u ired

by th e grea t m a jority n o t to c o n tin u e the su b je c t after

after a tim e becom es hazy, and th e very fact th at w hat to

ga in in g

B u t there seem s, in sp ite o f th ese facilities, a d esire

th e first certificate, fo r sin ce

th e

S .J .A .A .

was

d o in an a ccid e n t or in a sick room was o n ce know n, and

esta b lish ed , o ver a m illion certificates h a ve been aw arded,

that th e k n o w le d g e has now faded from m em o ry renders

and

on e m ore n ervo us in h elp in g than if o n e had n ever been

m ed allio n s have been issued.

tau gh t, for th en th e ‘ valo u r o f ign o ran ce ’ is p redom inan t.

p ercen tag e o f person s g a in in g ce rtificate s d o n ot w ish to

M o reo ver, even our certificates an d an n u al re-exam in ations

p ro ce ed a n y furth er in th e su b ject, a fact to be regretted .

do n o t raise a m b u la n ce

w ork

to

th e

high est

a p p ro x im a te ly

o n ly

a

ten th

of

the

n u m ber

of

T h is show s that a great

platform .

O n e o f the o th er su b jects o f th e H u m a n ita ria n C o rp s

H a v in g been co n ce rn e d w ith the actu al tea ch in g o f a m b u ­

is to a ssu age an d re liev e distress, n o t b y g iv in g o f m o n ey,

lan ce, bo th civ il an d m ilitary, for several d ecad es, I have

but by assistin g in p ro vid in g im m e d ia te ly w an ts o f the

felt the n ecessity for furth er d e v e lo p m e n t in th e w ay o f

n ee d y until the au th o rities ta k e o v e r th e care o f them .

tea ch in g an d m eans o f stu d y in g a m b u la n ce w ork in its

T h is is a la u d a b le but, a t the sam e tim e, a g ig a n tic o b je c t

m ore scien tific and tech n ica l p h a se s.”

A t th e m eetin g it

w hich w ill requ ire a vast o rg an isatio n , an d is at p resen t n o t

was also p ro p o sed to form a H u m an itarian C o rp s in co n ­

u n d e rtak en by an y in stitution.

n ectio n w ith th e C o lle g e : bro adly, th e o b je cts o f w hich

w ish th e sch em e every su ccess, and trust th a t its m a ch in ery

w ou ld b e to

ren der first aid

F o r this o b je c t a lo n e we

and assu age suffering and

w ill b e p ut in w orkin g o rd er as q u ic k ly as is p o ssib le to

distress, a n d to esta b lish un its o f th e C o rp s th rou gh o u t

re liev e th e distress w h ich is b o u n d to be e x p e rie n ce d in

th e coun try.

this crisis.


FIRST CThe Grand SYiorg of the Grder of the Kospital of St, John of Jerusalem in Sttgland. AM BU LANCE

Jh e S t.

DUTY ROSTER.

No. 1 District. DEPUTY

C O M M IS S IO N E R :

L I E U T .- C O L .

LEES

DEPARTM ENT.

John Jlmbulance Brigade.

--------

H ALL.

D E C E M B E R , 1914. Sunday D uty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. Sunday, 6th.— N o. 10 D ivision. 13th.— No. 38 „ „ 20th.— N o. 23 „ 27th.— N o. 51 „ 2.30 p.m. to 8.30 p.m. A s per separate orders. St. John’s G ate, 2 p.m. A N N U A L R E -E X A M IN A T IO N .

K ey

Officers and M em bers in C h arge o f D ivisions are reminded that arrangem ents should be made for holding the Annual R e ­ exam inations as soon as possible, but not later than M arch 31st next. M em bers who are on A ctiv e Service with R .N .A .S .B .R ., M .H .H .R ., or E xpeditionary F orce will be excused the R e ­ exam ination. ANNUAL

GENERAL

M E E T IN G S .

AID.—

Novem ber, 1914.

A ssociate o f the O rder o f St. John of Jerusalem in E ngland, and Hon. Surgeon to the N ursing D ivision, Cheltenham Corps, has been enabled to send a cheque for ,£100 to St. John’s G ate to help to provide motor am bulances for the conveyance o f the wounded in F ran ce to the Hospitals. T h e gift was prom ptly utilized, and enabled three more motor am bulances 'o be available without delay. T h e N ursing Division, Cheltenham Corps have prepared a parcel o f 100 garm ents and articles made to the St. John A m bulance requirem ents, which were sent in O ctober, together with contributions from the other D ivisions o f the Cheltenham Corps — to St. John’s G ate for use in the hospitals abroad. T h e N ursing Sisters attend all lectures given under the auspices of the St. John A m bulance A ssociation in Cheltenham in order to dem onstrate and assist new pupils in first aid and home nursing. G o s p o r t a n d A l v e r s t o k e . — A memorial service was held at Christ Church, G osport, on W ednesday, N ovem ber from 4th, for the late Supt. G. R. E dw ards, o f the A lverstoke D ivision, who was lost in the “ F is g a r d ” A dm iralty repair ship on Septem ber 17th, 1914 . T h e service was conducted by the R ev. R. Sedgw ick, M .A., V ica r o f Christ Church, and was attended by Mrs. E dw ards (widow), M aster C. E dw ards (son), and other near relatives and friends, and also by the A lverstoke D ivision, under First Officer F. Salter, the Fareham D ivision, under Supt. J. W . D o dge, and the 1’ortsmouth D ivision, under Dr. J. H. F. W ay. Mrs. Fulljam es, L ad y Supt., was in charge of the P orts­ mouth N ursing D ivision, and the Gosport and A lverstoke

T h e se should be held as soon as possible, and books subm itted to H eadquarters. Officers and M em bers i/c are rem inded that books must be subm itted personally. They m ust not be sent by p o s t or messenger. B R IG A D E

R ESER VES.

In view o f the fact that notice has been received from the A dm iralty and W a r Office that heavy calls for men are likely to be m ade on the Brigade in the near future, Officers and M em bers i/c o f the D ivisions should do their utmost to recruit men holding F irst A id Certificates. T h e y should be between 19 and 45 years o f age and should stand not less than 5 ft. 3 in. in their socks. T h e y should be p hysically fit and able to join for duty at short notice. (Signed)

LE E S' H ALL, Deputy-Com m issioner. H eadquarters :— St. John’s Gate, Clerkenw ell, E .C . N o . 64 (St. Pan cras Y .M .C .A .) D i v i s i o n . — O n Sunday, 25th ult., m em bers o f the D ivision held their annual church parade at Cam den T ow n Parish Church, being inspected by the Officer in C h arge (Supt. W illiam J. Dobson). T h e V icar (R ev. E . Bullock, M .A .) preached a vigorous sermon on the P arable o f the G ood Sam aritan, and in reference to the am bulance work of the local Y .M .C .A ., the preacher inadverted on its practical value, and observed that during the last twelve months its m embers had rendered first aid in no less than 246 cases, while seven m embers were with H .M . Forces, m ostly in the R .A .M .C . T h e Y .M .C .A . members were also doing good work in connection with local functions which were much appreciated. N o . 70 ( R o y a l B o r o u g h o f K e n s i n g t o n ) D i v i s i o n . — T h e illustration on this page shows the perm anent am bulance station which has been erected by this D ivision on W orm wood Scrubbs. W e believe it is the only one o f its kind erected on a public place and equipped by a D ivision in London. T h e station contains all the necessary requisites and has already served a roost useful purpose— esp ecially on B an k H olidays.

No. 2 District. C H E L T E N H A M . — T hrough the generosity o f a friend— a lady long resident in Cheltenham — Dr. J. H. B lakeney, Hon.

The

A m b u lan ce of th e

S ta tio n

on

W orm w ood

Scrubbs

N o . 7 0 D i v i s i o n , S .J.A .B .

N ursing D ivision were represented, being in charge of M iss Shettle, D ivisional Secretary. T h e service was choral. T h e divisions returned to the Christ Church Institute, the place of assem bly, after the service, and First Officer Salter addressed those assem bled and spoke of the splendid exam ple set by the late Superintendent in am bulance work. D r. W a y referred to his association years ago with Supt. E dw ards in volunteer days, and said in his manner o f losing his life he had given it for his country as much as if he had fallen on the battlefield. Supt. D odge also spoke o f the great help rendered by Mr. E dw ards in starting the Fareham D ivision, and since its formation by attending the practices. T h e order to dism iss was given by F irst O fficer Salter, who returned to H asler H ospital with his men, where they have been on duty since the war began. T h e late Supt. E dw ards was a H onorary Serving Brother of the O rder o f St. John o f Jerusalem , and was in possession o f the long service volunteer medal and long service St. John M edal, and would this year have been entitled to a bar to the


November, 1914-

— F I R S T

latter medal. H is loss is a sad blow to am bulance work in Gosport and A lverstoke. S o u t h a m p t o n . — A descriptive article, “ On D u ty with St. John,” appears in this issue, show ing the work which is being done by the members of the S.J.A .B . at Southam pton, who have provided food and comforts for about 5,000 wounded and refugees who have arrived there. T h e work has been in charge o f L ad y Supt. Mrs. Tw iss, assisted by M iss Allen, Mr. E . J. Burnett and Mr. H. H. Abbott. Col. Balfour, the Em barkation Officer, has written to Mrs. T w iss with the request that she will convey to the ladies o f the S t.J o h n A m bulance his heartfelt thanks for their great assistance on the arrival of the refugees. “ T h eir work was beyond on praise, and I only hope they have not suffered from over fatigue.”

No. 6 District. On the 31st ult., ninety-nine m embers o f the N ew castle Divisions passed through London en route for F rance, where they will undertake work in the British M ilitary H ospitals. T h e m ajority of the contingent are N orthum berland miners and are under the com m and o f D eputy-Com m issioner C. B. Palm er, J.P., o f N ew castle. T h e entire expense of the co n ­ tingent, which is com pletely and efficiently equipped is being borne by the Joint Com m ittee o f the St. John A m bulance B rigade and the British Red Cross Society. H u ll.— A church parade o f the H ull Corps was held on the 25th ult., the Boulevard Baptist Church bein g the selected venue. T h e parade, o f about 302, was under the com m and o f A ssistant Com m issioner A. H am m ersley Johnston, acting corps superintendent. T h e other officers on parade were :— D istrict T reasurer J. O. V augh an ; Corps Secretary W . T. A tkinson, Corps Inspector of Stores F. W ilson (who had come over from Y o rk M ilitary Hospital, where he is mobilised as Lieutenant and Q uarterm aster), Corps T reasurer J. Howell, D ivisional Supt. H. A nthony, A. C. Carter, N. Lord, T . Lam b, T . Vincent, and A m bulance Officer W . Johnson. T h e lady officers at the church w e r e : - L a d y D istrict Inspector of Stores Mrs. H. H olm es, L ad y S u p ts. Mrs. W heatley, Mrs. Spafford, M iss H ardy, and Mrs. W illiam s, N ursing Officers M iss H ardy, and Mrs. W illiam s, N ursing Officers M iss Bailey, Mrs. G rant, Miss Johnson and M iss E n glan d. Several reserve officers, a large number o f recruits, and 45 m embers o f the new Peel H ouse D ivision were also present. Before leav­ ing the Corporation F ield A ssistant Com m issioner A. H. Johnson presented Corporal W . Burgess, of the Central D ivision, with his long service medal for 15 years’ efficient service. T h e Rev. A . H. Sutherland preached an appropriate sermon, and w elcom ed the members of the corps to the church. T h e services o f the St. John A m bulance B rigade, he observed, were unselfish, and was a calling which, with the help o f God, they should abide in, and as they went forward with it through the days and years, might they ever have as their inspiration the spirit of Him who opened the wide door to that service and who went before them in it, leading them out for the world’s good.

A m o n g th e prizes offered by the C o m p a n y o f C o a ch M a k ers and C o a ch -H a rn e ss M a k ers o f L o n d o n for c o m p e ­ tition am ong B ritish su b jects en g ag ed in co a ch and coachharness m akin g an d m otor b o d y m akin g, or m em bers o f classes in co n n e ctio n w ith th ese trades, are tw o for designs for a horse co ve re d A rm y a m b u la n ce and tw o for those o f an im p roved stretcher. F o r th e best set o f draw ings for the a m b u lan ce th e M aster, M r. C h a rle s J. B en n ett, w ill giv e seven guineas, an d th e C o m p a n y its silver m edal. Particu lars o f th ese and the other co m p etitio n s h ave been issued by the C le rk to the C o m p a n y from th e H a ll, N o b lestreet, L on d o n .

N

AID. —

83

St John Jlmbulance Jlssociation. S t . D a v i d ’s C e n t r e . — M r. H e rb e rt L ew is, th e H o n . S e cre tary o f th e C e n tre has k in d ly sen t us an in terestin g rep ort o f th e S u b -C o m rn ittee on th e w ork w h ich has been d o n e in a id o f th e sick an d w ou n d ed . T h e St. D a v id ’s C e n tre co m p rises th e w hole o f W a les an d M o n m o u th sh ire and has been d iv id e d in to ten ce n tre s for th e c o lle ctio n o f clo th in g an d m on ey, an d th e fo llo w in g lad ies and g e n tle ­ m en h avin g m ade th e m selve s resp o n sib le for th e w o rk in g o f their C e n tre :— M rs. H e rb e rt L ew is, C a r d if f ; M rs. R u th erfo rd , R h y m n e y ; D r. R . J. Isa ac, P e n ta rd u lais ; D r. F lo re n c e W ard , M e r t h y r ; M r. W . A . W h eel, H illfie ld , L la n sa m let ; D r. J. M . W ilso n , T r e c y n o n ; M r. W . Stro u d , C w m ca rn ; M r. J. W . D a viso n , P o n ty p rid d ; M a jo r D . T . Jen kin s, D o w lais. T h e C e n tra l O ffice w h ich is situ ated at C ard iff, has been a scen e o f great a ctiv ity an d has been k e p t o p en up to 8.30 each n ight. A register has been k e p t w ith d eta ils o f th e thin gs sen t in. T o d ate 4 ,9 70 a rticles o f clo th in g have been re ce ive d an d ^ 4 5 7 6s. r i d . in m on ey from th e fo llo w in g C e n tre s :— D o w lais, A b e rc y n o n , R h y m n e y , O gm o re V a le , P o n ty cy m m er, M a rd y B laen garw . T h e m ajority o f the clo th in g has been used to p artially equ ip 378 m en w ho h a ve been sen t from So u th W a le s to th e M ilitary an d N a v a l H o sp ita ls in E n g la n d a n d Irela n d and in the G en eral and S ta tio n ary H o sp ita ls abroad . A large co n sig n m en t was also sent w ith th e D ep u tyC o m m issio n e r to St. N azaire, on S e p te m b er 18 th to be given to th e w o u n d ed in th e G en era l an d S ta tio n ary H o sp ita ls at St. N a za ire and N a n te s, and also to th o se on th e A m b u la n c e trains at th e rail head. M rs. L ew is an d th e m em bers o f th e C a rd iff N u rsin g D ivisio n , w ith the h elp o f m any friends o f St. Joh n , co llecte d , by the sale o f flags, o ver ^ 2 0 0 on S e p te m b er 12 th, an d the sam e la d ies on the fo llo w in g M o n d a y to o k th e b askets they had for th e flags aro u n d to the m any to b a cco n ist shops in C a rd iff and c o lle c te d in d iv id u a lly from g e n tlem en in the streets 23,000 cigarettes w h ich were p ack ed in sm all boxes o f 150 e ach w ith the d e v ic e o f St. Joh n a tta ch ed to each p ack et. T h e s e were also tak en o u t by th e D e p u ty -C o m m issio n e r a n d d istrib u ted at the vario u s hosp itals and the a m b u la n ce trains. O n S e p te m b er 12th in stru ctio n s w ere re ce iv e d b y the D ep u ty-C o m m issio n e r to tak e a S a n ita ry S q u a d o f B rig a d e m en to F ran ce, and after rep o rtin g at A ld e rsh o t th e y w ere e m b ark ed at S o u th am p ton , and arrived at S t. N a za ire on S e p te m b er 22nd. T h e fo llo w in g day th e co n tin g e n t was h an d ed o ver to M a jo r T y n d a le , w ho was in full ch a rg e o f all the san itary w ork co n n e c te d with 23,000 troops at V ille St. M artin. O n S e p te m b er 25th M r. H e rb e rt L e w is re ce ive d in­ structio n s to travel by the N o . 2 A m b u la n c e T ra in to the rail head n earest th e field, w here it a rriv ed on S e p te m b er 27th. T h e train co n sisted o f forty-five co a ch es, co m p risin g on e w agon, o n e d in in g car, tw o 1st a n d 2nd class co a ch es, on e 1st class co a ch and th e oth ers o f w h at are kn o w n in this co u n try as go o d s w ag o n s— th e personnel b ein g three m ed ical officers, four n ursin g sisters an d fifty-four gen era l d u ty an d n ursin g orderlies. T h e c o o k in g arran gem en ts for the officers was all do n e in a first-class co m p artm en t, an d for the m en, in one o f th e railw ay w agons. T h e officers m essed in a n o th e r first-class co m p artm en t, w h ich was also used as an office an d b ed ro o m for the officer


84

— F I R S T

in co m m a n d o f the train, an d w e h ad to travel alon g the fo o tb o a rd to th is co m p artm en t at m eal tim es. T h e m en drew th eir rations in th e m o rn in gs an d then to o k the o p p o r­ tu n ity o f gettin g th eir w ater from the k itch e n w hen the train stop p ed. O n S u n d a y aftern o on a b o u t 2.30 th e w ou n d ed cam e p o u rin g in from th e C le a rin g H o sp ita ls in a m b u la n ce cars o f every d escrip tio n . A p p a re n tly th ey had go t to geth er all the co n v e y a n ce s th ey co u ld p o ssib ly lay th eir han d s on. O n e saw cars, a m b u la n ce cars, w h eel litters, van s with the n am es o f C a rte r P aterson , W . & R . J a c o b & C o ., L td ., K o d a k s , L t d , & c. A t 6.30 th e w o u n d ed w ere bro u gh t d irect from the field to th e train, and at eigh t o ’c lo c k th e officer co m m a n d ­ in g d e c id e d to h ave th e train m o ved out o f th e sid in g and to w ait un til th e fo llo w in g m orn in g to finish loadin g. I w ent rou nd th e train w ith him and ga ve aw ay som e o f the ciga rettes that th e p eo p le o f C a rd iff and others h ad sent o u t w ith me. T h e w ords o f th an k s w ere often too m uch for us, and I o n ly w ish ed th ose at h o m e c o u ld h ave h eard them . It w ou ld h a ve been su ch a rew ard for their w ork. I also ga ve aw ay so m e o f th e a rticles o f clo th in g w h ich has been sen t to th e depfit and p ack ed up by M rs. W o o lf, and also th e p yjam as w hich M rs. H a rry L ew is sen t at th e last m om ent. A t five o ’c lo c k th e fo llo w in g m orn in g we left th e siding and retu rn ed to the station, an d at eleven o ’c lo c k we re­ p o rted th e train full, h a vin g on board 452 m en 11 officers a n d 7 G erm an s. W e left at 11.3 0 , and the rest o f th e day w as sp en t in dressin g the b ad ly w ou n d ed cases. A t 5.30 w e p u lled up at C h a te a u T h ie rry , w here o n e or tw o o f the w orst cases w ere h a n d ed o v e r to our R .A .M .C . m en and sen t to the hospital. W e started again at seven o ’c lo c k on our w ay to E p ern a y , as we we were u n ab le to go d irect to Paris o w in g to the m ajority o f th e brid ges h avin g been d e stro ye d by th e G erm an s and the F re n ch . A t six o ’clo c k th e fo llo w in g m orn in g V ill-en -eu e St. G eo rges, w hich is not far from P aris, an d at V e rsa ille s at 9.30. H e re num bers o f R e d C ro ss nurses, priests, soldiers, p easants and little ch ild ren ca m e ro u n d th e train with pears, ch o co la te, bread, grap es, coffee, and m etal souven irs, w h ich th ey ga ve to the soldiers. T h is h a p p en ed m ore o r less at all the stations we s to p p ed at until w e arrived ju s t o u tsid e th e base at 5 30 on th e fo llo w in g m orning, w hen th e a m b u la n ce cars cam e a lo n g sid e an d im m e d iate ly rem o ved th e w ou n d ed to the gen era l an d statio n ary hospitals. A F irst A id P o st was o p en ed at B a rry in A u g u st last in the W e sley a n Isla n d S ch o o lro o m , w hich has b een k in d ly len t free o f ch arge, the o n ly exp en ses b ein g for gas and fuel. T h irty -fiv e in -patien ts an d 50 out-patients from the fort h a ve a lrea d y been treated. T h e m em bers o f th e B a rry N u rsin g D iv isio n are re sp o n sib le for this station. A train ed n urse is in co n sta n t a tten d a n ce, and it is visited by th e m ed ical officer n igh t and m orning. The m em bers ta k e d u ty in turns and e ach co n trib u te a sm all sum w e e k ly tow ards th e exp en ses. A few friends h ave su b scrib e d tow ards th e exp en ses, and th e residen ts on the Is la n d h ave c o n trib u ted m any gifts in k in d . T h e C o m ­ m a n d a n t is w ishful to u n d e rtak e th e n ursin g o f at least fifteen B e lg ia n w ou n ded. T h e eq u ip m e n t for tw en ty-five bed s has a lread y been p ro vid ed , a n d m ed ical officers, train ed nurses and n ursin g o rd erlies h a ve v o lu n tee re d their services.

W h en corresponding w ith A d ve rtisers please m ention “ F irst Aid ”

A I D. -

W hat

Novem ber,

the

S.J.A .B .

is

1914

D oing.

F e w o f th e p u b lic realise th e very va lu a b le asset th ey h ave in the p ea ce organ isatio n o f th e S .J .A .B . in tim e o f war, an d it w ou ld therefore be w ell to set o u t a few facts and figures o f w hat the B rig ad e has d o n e sin ce th e co m m e n ce ­ m ent o f th e war. T h e fo llo w in g figures show the person n el su p p lied by the B rig a d e to N a va l an d M ilitary A u th o rities, P riva te H o sp ita ls an d H o sp ita l Sh ip s up to N o v e m b e r 12th :—

R .N .A . S ick Berth R eserve ... ... ... ... M ilitary Hom e H ospitals....................................................... E xpeditionary Force, R .A .M .C ........................................... M ilitary H ospital Ship, ss. “ O xfo rd sh ire” (“ H ” Bearer Co.) ... ... ... ... ... ... H ospital on Lines of Com m unication (France) (“ B ” and “ D ” Bearer Cos.) ... ... ... ... A m bulance T rain (France) “ I ” Bearer C o . ) .................. A llied Forces Base Hospital (Boulogne) ... ... Serving in France under St. John A .A . and British Red Cross Society ... ... ... ... ... Private H ospitals (Abroad) ... ... ... ... Private H ospitals (H om e)...................................................... M iscellaneous Establishm ents at H om e (approxim ate)

1614 4076 474 36 78 42 46 153 84 65 150 6S18

T h is m uch has the B rig a d e don e, w hich show s the patrio tic spirit w hich p ervad es th rou gh o u t its ran ks : and furth er th ere are 2,762 vo lu n teers in reserve read y to co m e up w hen ca lled upon, w hich w ou ld brin g up th e n um ber servin g to 9,500 o dd, and we are ju stified in sayin g that the reserves su p p lied from the A m b u la n c e D iv isio n s o f the B rig a d e w ill eve n tu a lly e x ce e d 10,000. T h e in crease in th e strength o f th e B rig ad e by new d iv isio n s sin ce th e 1st A u g u st last is 13 59 , ab ou t 5 per cent, o f th e total strength, or an an n u al p ercen tag e rate, if m ain tain ed o f 30 per cent. 44 7 o f t h e s e a r e women

912

men

T h is do es n ot in clu d e those w ho h ave jo in e d previously e xistin g division s, w hose n um bers are p ro b a b ly n early as great, if n o t greater, b u t w h ich ca n n o t b e a ccu ra tely a scerta in ed un til th e an n u al return s are received . T h e list o f casualties w hich are prin ted elsew h ere we regret are som ew h at n um erous ; the m ajority o f th ese are retu rn ed as m issing, m ostly th e result o f th e sin k in g o f the H o sp ita l S h ip “ R o h illa .”

W e regret we h ead ed a n o tice o f th e N o. 2 St. J o h n ’s G a te N u rsin g D iv isio n “ B e rm o n d se y ” last m onth. It sh o u ld h ave been u n der the h ead in g o f C le rk en w e ll, w here the h ead qu arters are esta b lish ed at St. L u k e ’s C h u rch R o o m .

T h e Q u e e n ’s C a n a d ia n M ilitary H o sp ita l has been offered th rou gh th e O rd e r to th e W ar O ffice an d has been a ccep ted . P a rt o f it is at B e a ch b o ro u g h P ark, S h o rn cliffe (g en ero u sly len t by S ir A rth u r M a rkh am ), w ith 50 beds in L o n d o n , in V in cen t-sq u are. Sir W illiam O sie r an d M r. D o n a ld A rm o u r h ave u n d e rtak en th e organ isation and e qu ip m en t and H e r M a je s ty ’s n am e is used by sp ecial p erm ission . M em b ers o f th e St. J oh n V .A .D . at F o lk e ­ ston e a ct as p ro b atio n ers in th e H o s p ita l an d the O rd erlies h ave been su p p lied by th e St. J oh n A m b u la n ce B rigad e.


— F I R S T

November, 1914.

E xam in atio n B y N. C O R B E T

R equirem ents.

F L E T C H E R , B .A ., M .B ., B .C .(C a n ta b ), M .R .C .S .

(A u th o r o f a C o m p e n d iu m o f A id s to F irst A id .)

A .— I N D I V I D U A L (1Continued (2 ).— T h e

TESTS.

from page 72.) C an d id a te.

T h e seco n d factor, th e C a n d id a te h im self— m ore esp e cially in his m o d e o f A p p ro a ch , A ttire, an d A ttitu d e — has som e b earin g on the result o f th e exam in atio n , th o u g h the effects o f th ese q u a lificatio n s on th e issue w ill vary with different E xam in ers. (a ).— The Approach and

.

_________________________

/ ttire of the Candidate. K e e p in g in m ind the fact th at th e hum an and p erso n al elem en t m ay in flu en ce th e m utual relation sh ip, w hich w ill exist betw een th e E x am in e r and h im ­ self, and that first im ­ pressions o n ly to o often leave their m ark, the C a n d id a te sh o u ld a t all tim es a d v a n c e to his test in a brisk an d co n ­ fiden t m anner. A g a in , since th e p h y sica l A tti­ tude p ro vid es som e in d icatio n o f th e m ental ca p a b ility, som e a tten ­ tion to dress an d p er­ sonal a p p e a ra n ce w ill alw ays b e profitable. U n d e r th ese cir­ cu m stances, therefore, th e C a n d id a te ca n n o t but have m ade a bad start, w hen, lo llin g up against th e wall or som e co n ve n ie n t table, he p roceeds, w ith his han ds in his p o ck e ts, to ad ­ dress th e E x a m in e r and to answ er th e qu estio n s set in an easy and fam iliar fashion. On the o th er han d, w h en a ca n d id a te en ters th e e x ­ am in ation room with firm, brisk, an d co n fi­ d en t step , and w hen his every m o vem en t bespeaks n eatness o f p er­ son, an d carefu ln ess and alertness o f m in d — then su ch a man is certain to crea te a g o o d im p res. sion (p o ssib ly n o t a lw a y s realised, th o u g h n o n e

AID. — the less effective) on th e E x am in e r. W h ilst this is an in co n tro v ertib le statem en t, w h ich a p p lies to all p erson al tests, yet it were w ell for civ ilia n C a n d id a te s to rem em b er th at in F irst A id som e E xam in ers h a ve a p ecu liar resen tm en t to the im itation o f co rrect m ilitary m ann erism s. T h e s e p ecu liarities o f m anner, th ey co n te n d , are a p t to sacrifice th e natural reso u rcefu ln ess o f th e in d ivid u a l, an d co n ve rt him in to a m ech a n ica l m achin e, w ith th e result th at m inor d etails o f b a n d a gin g an d m a rch in g are m ade to assu m e a p o sitio n o f u n d u e im p o rtan ce, w h ile th e four great O b je cts o f F irst A id — P rese rv atio n o f life, P ro tectio n from u n n ecessary suffering, P rev en tio n o f a ggrav atio n o f injury, P ro visio n o f prop er transport tend, in co n se q u e n ce , to be o v e rlo o k e d and even n eg le cted . (b) —

The Attitude of the Candidate

H o w ev er this m ay be, and h o w ever w ell g ro u n d ed their k n o w le d ge o f the su b je c t m ay be, m ost stu d en ts are co n scio u s o f so m e deI gree o f n ervousn ess, w hen th e y en ter upon an exa m in atio n , b ecau se th e feelings, w h ich o p ­ press them at the c o m ­ m en cem en t o f its S tu d y, h a ve n ot yet giv en w ay to th e co n fid e n ce o f success. T h is m ay be b en eficial, if it m akes us m ore ca re fu l an d p ain s­ tak in g in th e w ork b e­ fore u s ; but, w hen d e v e lo p e d to e xcess it ten ds to up set our m ental b a lan ce, an d is p articu larly disastrou s w hen in F irst A id it causes us to treat one lim b w here its fellow is su p p o sed to be in jured. T h is fee lin g n ervousn ess, when

of

it is not due to ignorance, is b est o ve rco m e by E x ­ p erien ce, w h ich fosters fam iliarity w ith p u b lic tests. B u t, if we can brin g o u rselves to forget th e e xa m in atio n room , an d to regard th e q u estio n s as part o f a stre et em erge n cy , w hich calls for treatm en t, th en w e sh a ll find th at we m ust co n ce n tra te our m in d s on th e p ro ­ blem s b efo re us, an d that th e m ore th o ro u g h ­ ly w e d o this th e m ore q u ic k ly w ill o ur self-co n ­ scio u sn ess d isap p ea r.

I By courtesy)

Surgeon-G eneral

[ 'lR ed Cross and Am bulance News.'

S ir

A lfre d

Keogh,

K .C .B .,

M .D ., F .R .C .P .

R e c e n tly re-ap p o in ted D irecto r-G e n e ra l o f th e A rm y M e d ica l S e rv ice O n th e o u tb re ak o f war he was th e C h ie f C o m m issio n e r o f th e B ritish R e d C ro ss S o c ie ty in F ran ce.

The secret of success in examination, therefore, is to p la y th e gam e, an d to an sw er our q u estio n s or to treat th e ca se b e­ fo re us, as w e w ou ld a ctu a lly d o in su d d en


86

— F I R S T

illn ess or a ccid en t. T h e n our n ervousn ess w ill be q u ick ly c o n t r o lle d ; for, after all, th e w orst that m ay h ap pen is failure, an d this is n ot y et a p en al offence. E q u a lly d isastrou s an d in fin itely m ore o b je ctio n a b le is th e A ttitu d e o f the o ver-co n fid en t studen t, w ho sw aggers in to the room an d w ith su b lim e self-satisfaction subm its to his tests ; and w ho, w hen so m e d e b a ta b le p o in t is raised, p ro ce ed s to argu e th e m atter and to d isp u te the d ecisio n o f the E x am in er. T h e o u tco m e o f this co n d u ct is that he exasp erates th e ju d g e, w h o h o ld s th e m arkin g sh eet in his ha n d , and gives rise to the im p ression o f exa m in in g the E x am in er, w ith th e result that self-co n fid en ce receives a severe sh o ck su b seq u en tly w hen he d isco vers the low per­ ce n ta g e o f m arks a p p o rtio n e d to him and to his K n o w ­ led ge. * * * * * * * T r u e to th e P rin c ip le s o f F irst A id , an d at all tim es m in dful o f the facts, that exam in atio n s reveal w eak spots, and that on o ur m istakes we b u ild up a so un d and ser­ v ic e a b le K n o w le d g e o f F irst A id , the C a n d id a te w ill be observant in his atten tio n to the m inor d etails o f his A ttire, discriminating in his m o d e o f app ro a ch , and tactful in m ain tain in g th ro u gh o u t a co u rteo u s and deferen tial (th ough not a servile) A ttitu d e tow ards his E xam in er. (3 ).— T h e

Q u e stio n .

T h e last facto r in E fficie n cy in E x a m in a tio n is the Q u estio n , befo re w hich th e o th er tw o factors sin k into in sig n ifica n ce, b e cau se it co n stitu tes th e sup rem e test o f o ur K n o w le d g e an d E x p e rie n c e, an d carries w ith it a d efin ite p ro p o rtio n o f th e m arks, on w h ich th e issue o f su ccess or failu re d ep en d s. In co n sid e rin g the Q u estio n s befo re us, therefore, we m ust re m e m b er not o n ly the M o d e b u t also th e M a tte r o f th e A n sw ers. (a).—

ju stify th eir im p rovisation as aids to m em ory, w hereas others e x p erien ce a greater difficulty in rem em b erin g th e tips than the sch e d u le o f facts, for w hich th ey stand. H o w e v e r this m ay be, w e can all rem em b er the m ain d iv isio n o f our E fficie n cy in T re a tm e n t, an d are n ot lik e ly to forget that, th e O b je cts esta b lish ed , we m ust carry in our m inds the P ictu re , th e R e q u ire m e n ts, and the M eth o d s. L astly, a w ord o f w arning is n ecessary b ecau se som e C a n d id a te s, in their d esire to d isp lay their K n o w le d g e , are tem p ted to answ er a Q u estio n to o freely. T h is is as serious a fault as an in co m p le te answ er, because, as soon as we h a ve passed b eyo n d th e lim its o f a Q u estio n , w e are tread in g on d an gero u s gro u n d and w e m ay be g u ilty o f errors w h ich w ill lose th e m arks a lrea d y o b tain ed . In our answ ers, therefore, we m ust be prom pt, clear and co n cise. * * * * * * * U n d e r th ese circu m stan ces th e C a n d id a te , p ractisin g o n c e again the P rin cip le s o f F irst A id , w ill be discrimi­ nating in grasp in g the O b je cts o f th e Q u estio n im m ed iately before him , resourceful in ap p reciatin g the R eq u irem en ts w h ich are n ecessary for a co m p lete answ er, and tactful and explicit in his M e th o d o f setting forth th e n ecessary M atter to its best advan tage. T h u s , arm ed w ith a soun d K n o w le d g e o f the su b ject, w ith ou t w h ich su ccess is im p ossible, and fortified with C o m m o n sen se an d E x p e rie n c e — th e sam e th ree prim ary elem ents, on w hich th e P rin cip les o f F irst A id h a ve been show n to d e p e n d — and carefu l on every o cca sio n to avo id the fau lts an d failings, w h ich h ave been discu ssed , w e m ay enter upon our tests with co n fid e n ce an d a reason able exp ecta tio n th at we shall su cce ed in our efforts to d em o n ­ strate o ur E fficien cy on E x am in a tio n .

(To be concluded).

The Mode of Answer.

B e fo re we a ttem p t to an sw er an y Q u estio n , w e m ust ra p id ly review it in o ur m inds, and m ust assure ourselves th at w e fully a p p recia te its O b je c ts and R eq u irem en ts. O n th e o th er han d, if, b ein g co n fro n ted w ith som e difficulty or b ein g to ta lly u n a b le to satisfy the test, we fran k ly and w ith ­ ou t d e la y set forth our p re d icam en t or ad m it our ign orance, th en we are m ore lik e ly to en g ag e th e sy m p a th y o f th e E x ­ am iner, w ho m ay e lu cid a te an abtruse q u estio n or e n d eavo u r by o th er m eans to e licit th e n ecessa ry in form ation . N o­ th in g is m ore tan talisin g to an E x a m in e r an d ten d s to agg ra v a te him than th e actio n s o f th e C a n d id a te , w ho eith er stan ds m ute an d silent, or a ttem pts to bluff, or seeks w ith h e sita tin g w ords and h altin g sen ten ces, to arrogate K n o w le d g e w hich he does n ot p ossess. F u rth er, w hen we h ave to d eal with an y Q u e stio n , we n eed n o t ba o ver-an xious lest som e o b scu re or craftilyc o n c e a le d in fo rm atio n is requ ired , b ecau se th e m ore we realise its O b je c ts th e less easy w ill be th e co n cea lm en t o f a n y su b terfu ge. L a s tly , we m ust at all tim es resist tem p tatio n o f a facetio u s answ er. (b ).—

November, 1914

AID. —

Matter of the Answer.

H a v in g ra p id ly review ed th e Q u estio n in our m in ds and h a vin g grasp ed th e full p u rp o se o f its R e q u ire m e n ts, we m ust n ext w ith e qu al ra p id ity review o ur answ er and sy ste m a tica lly arran ge our facts. I f full m arks are to be o b ta in ed , th en o ur answ er m ust be co m p lete , an d n o th in g m ust be left to th e im a gin atio n or k n o w le d g e o f the E x a m in e r, w hom we re m e m b er to treat as an ign oran t and so m ew h a t im p atien t person see k in g in form ation . In this sy ste m a tic m a rsh allin g o f signs, sym ptom s, facts, & c ., a m eth o d is essen tial, for w h ich p u rp o se som e o f us find th at facile tips in th e crisis o f an exam in atio n

On I n t e r e st in g

A ctive

N ew s

from

Service. Some of

our

R eaders.

S e r g t . - M a j o r “ M .H .H .R .” , ex-sup erin ten den t o f a division

o f th e S .J .A .B ., w ho is now servin g in th e R .A .M .C ., sends us the fo llo w in g a cco u n t o f his exp erien ce in th e m ilitary h o sp ital at C o lch ester. T h e m ilitary hospital is situated by itself on high, healthy ground, but as near as possible to the different garrison barracks and camps. It has a front lobby and entrance hall leadin g through into the lower corridors with several stone steps carried up to the top corridors, and wards running out top and bottom with different adm inistration offices. W h en a patient is brought in, either on a stretcher or w alking, he has a sick report from his regim ent, stating his regim ental number, rank, name, com pany, battalion and regi­ ment, or, in the case o f cavalry, his troop ; and this form is m ade out in duplicate. T h e ward master interviews the patient as he enters the lobby, and sends for the orderly m edical officer for the day, who at once exam ines the patient, and if he requires immediate treatm ent prescribes either in the form o f medicine, which is made up at the hospital dispensary, or if lint or bandages are to be applied the orderly in waiting attends to this. The doctor signs the sick report, stating the nature o f disease, or if patient is to be adm itted, detained or discharged, and if adm itted or detained, what ward he has to go into. I f ad ­ mitted he is taken to the ward nam ed and handed over to the sister (all of whom are arm y trained nurses from Queen A lexan dra’s M ilitary H ospital) on duty, and who is in charge of the ward under a matron.


N ovem ber 1914.

— F I R S T

Som e special w ards are under the charge o f a ward master, who is responsible to the colonel through the sergeant-m ajor. T h e patient is taken by the orderly to the bathroom, unless he is in a collapsed condition or otherwise prevented from walking by a fracture or dislocation o f the lower limbs or trunk, when, o f course, he is washed in bed. A case in point will interest readers, I am sure. A few days ago we had a patient brought from another hospital, who had two days previously landed in E n glan d from the seat o f war. H e was a very fine soldier in stature, standing over six feet in height and well proportioned in size. H e was wounded by a shrapnel shell dropping and burst­ ing, which injured him in the thigh. H e m anaged to crawl some distance in spite o f the deadly firing all around, when he was picked up by the Field A m bulance and treated with a first aid dressing. T h is dressing, I m ight say, was removed by the orderly upon bathing him, when his wound was disclosed, showing a hole through the skin and flesh, one in front where the shell pierced him and another at the back where it came out. A fter two or three days’ careful nursing with clean dressings the man got on so well that he was given a sick furlough. Returning to admission into hospital, after the patient is bathed, or even while this is taking place, another orderly goes to the p ack stores with his clothes (which are afterw ards dis­ infected and under-linen washed) and draws clean clothes, which consist o f vest, pants, shirt, socks, blue trousers and jacket, with red neck handkerchief. I f the patient is to go straight to bed he is not fully dressed. A fter being in bed a short time his tem perature is taken and m arked on a chart, which is hung at the head o f the bed. N ext com es a diet sheet denoting what food the medical officer states should be given. T h is is hung over his bed, together with a square 4 in. tally showing what religious denom ination the man belongs to. E ach tally is painted a distinct colour : red— Church o f E n g ­ land ; blue— W esleyan ; white— Rom an Catholic ; yellow — Presbyterian ; and green denotes other religions. (T hese tallies are for the convenience o f the visiting clergym en and ministers.) T h e patient is attended by an orderly day and night, under the charge o f a sister or ward m aster, till he is allowed to dress, after a certain hour, and w alk in the corridors, get outside on the verandah, and in time out in the grounds. T h e m edical officer visits the patients twice a day, and the colonel goes round the wards accom panied by the sergeantm ajor once a day. T h e sergeant-m ajor is responsible to the colonel for the discipline and order o f both patients and orderlies, and in a big hospital, with over 300 patients, 100 orderlies, 18 m edical officers, and 20 sisters, not allow ing for the cases treated and not adm itted and detained, also the inoculations, averagin g 500 cases daily, his duties are not Kg111. . . T ru stin g this will give the readers a slight idea o f the work the m embers o f the St. John A m bu lan ce B rigade M ilitary H om e H ospital R eserve (who are enlisted into the R oyal A rm y M edical Corps for a term o f six months or to the end o f the war), are doing now the country has called them to do their share in alleviating human suffering. Supt. T . H . W h ite ley , o f th e B irsta ll A m b u la n ce D iv isio n , has re ce iv e d an in terestin g letter from C o rp o ral S ta n le y Sen ior, o f B irstall, w ho is at the M ilitary H o s p ita l D e lh i B a rrack s, T id w o rth , H a n ts., C o rp o ra l Senior, w rites : “ W e are havin g a busy time, and have just received 115 wounded from the British E xpeditionary Forces. M ost o f the wounds are o f a terrible character, chiefly caused by shrapnel. O f course, some of the men are suffering from bullet wounds. A few o f the men, I am sure, will never recover. On F rid ay last, about 100 o f the wounded were able to com e to the dining hall for dinner. E v e ry one o f our men stood back and let the poor chaps have their dinners, and, injured as they were, didn’t they feed ! T h e y told us afterw ards it was the best meal they had had since they went out. It was a m em orable sight to see the poor fellows sitting at the table, and our men running about the room m inistering to their needs. O ne o f the poor fellows was unable to use his hands, so one o f our chaps was

AID.—

87

feedin g him. A t tea-tim e we had a ‘ whip round ’ in the mess room and raised £ \ 4s., with which we purchased cigarettes and tobacco for the men. O ne soldier says that the G erm an rifle fire was not extraordinary, but that the artillery fire was terrible in its precision. I went into the w ards this evening and gave a sister a hand at the dressings. D espite their injuries, the men are a cheery set o f fellows. T h e re are some Yorkshirem en am ongst them — one from L eeds and two from Bradford. W e haven’t got our uniforms yet, and are still going about in the ‘ St. John’s,’ which are now in a very dilapidated condition.” W e feel sure o ur readers w ill be p lea sed to see o th er a cco u n ts from m em bers o f th e B rig a d e servin g in the R e serve s if they w ill sen d them to us for p u b lica tio n . We w ill also arran ge to sen d a co p y o f F i r s t A i d to e ach M ess R o o m o f th e H o sp ita ls w here th e B rig a d e m en are p laced , if th ey w ill c o m m u n ica te w ith us.

R eview s. WHY

AND W H EREFO RE IN F IR S T A ID . B y N. Corbet Fletcher, M .B ., M .R .C .S . London : John B ale Sons & D anielson, Ltd. Price, 6d. net.

A prelim inary notice o f this book appeared in our A u gu st issue, and since the book has now made its appearance we feel constrained to again recom m end it to am bulance students. T h e queries and their answers were first prepared for the author’s am bulance class to explain some o f the difficulties in first aid and in the St. John’s text book. W e have seen many more pretentious volumes containing less information than is com pressed in this pocket manual, and by a glan ce at the work am bulance students should overcom e the more common m istakes they make, and it should be used at am bulance classes with very satisfactory results. T h e companion work, “ A Com pendium of A id s to First A id,” by the sam e author, has been sold out within a very short while, which speaks eloquently for the usefulness o f this book. A second edition has now been published. TH E

W H O L E A R T O F B A N D A G IN C . B y T h e k la Bowser. London : John Bale Sons & D anielson, Ltd.

Price, is. net. B an d agin g is one of those arts which is soon forgotten if not frequently practised, and the idea o f bringing out a separate book on bandagin g, as practised in first aid and hom e nursing, will at once com m end itself to am bulance workers. T h e book contains m any illustrations, which are carefully explained so as to impress the mem ory. T h e author deals extensively with the possibilities o f the triangular bandage, which, of course, is essentially the most im portant b andage to am bulance workers, while other chapters relate to the roller bandage. W e have no hesitation in recom m ending this book, which should be found extrem ely useful to all interested in the subject. T h e seco n d un it o f th e R e d C ro ss D e p a rtm e n t o f th e N .F .B .U . left on F rid a y an d S a tu rd a y , O c to b e r 2rd an d 24th, a cco m p a n ied b y C a p t. H a rv e y , o f Sou th en d -o n -S ea, lea v in g C h a rin g C ro ss for B o u lo g n e . T h e th ird un it left C h a rin g C ro ss on O c to b e r 25th, u n d e r th e ch a rg e o f C a p t. S ta n le y W . T h o rp e , for B o u lo g n e , a n d w ere jo in e d at F o lk s to n e b y C a p t. H e d le y P e ters, h on . sec. o f th e S o u th E a ste rn D istrict.


88

— F I R S T

AI D W ife, 6s.

B revities.

N ovem ber,

per w e e k ; first ch ild , 2s.

1914.

per w e e k ;

secon d

c h ild 2s. per w e e k ; su b seq u en t ch ild ren is . per w eek each . C h ild re n are d e scrib ed as bo ys un der 14 and girls un der

has

T h ere

m ed ical m en

in

been

c o n sid e ra b le

Irela n d as

to

d iscu ssio n

w h eth er fees

am o n g

sh o u ld

be

16.

A p p lica tio n

form s

are

b ein g

issu ed

p o ssib le to all w ives n ow in re ce ip t

as

ra p id ly

as

o f a llo tm e n ts o f not

ch a rg ed for th e co n d u c t o f co u rses o f in stru ctio n in first aid

less than 20s., and e arly p aym en t o f th e a llo w an ce w ill

an d a m b u la n c e w ork.

b e greatly assisted if th ese form s are p ro m p tly an d ca re ­

S o m e m en regard th e d e live ry o f

su ch lectu res as an o fferin g to be given gratu ito u sly for th e

fully co m p lete d an d retu rn ed to th e A d m ira lty, or to

g o o d o f th e co u n try .

M a rin e D ivisio n , in the e n v elo p e p ro vid ed , to geth er with

O th ers regard tea ch in g o f first aid

as a p ro fessio n a l task d e se rv in g o f p ecu n ia ry rew ard.

In a

such certificates as m ay be ca lle d for.

grea t m an y ca ses it is p o in te d out the m em bers o f th e first

V

a id classes are w ell a b le to co n trib u te for th e p aym en t o f th eir in stru ctio n , but in o th er cases, e sp e c ia lly in w orkingclass co m m u n ities, th ey are n ot a b le to afford th e class fee, te x t-b o o k s an d ban d a ges n ecessa ry . sid ered at

T h e m atter was co n ­

the last m eetin g o f th e

co u n cil o f th e Irish

M e d ic a l A sso cia tio n , and a reso lu tion was carried to the e ffect th at fees sh o u ld be ch a rg ed for the d e live ry o f le c ­ tures on first aid an d a llie d su b jects. ru le

o f the

B ritish

It has lo n g been a

M e d ic a l A ss o cia tio n

th at

m em bers

sh o u ld ch a rg e fees fo r such lectu res.

the

W e

w ere rather asto n ish ed to re ce iv e a letter

this

m on th from a m em b er o f the B rig a d e servin g in a m ilitary hosp ital co m p lain in g that the staff is 50 per cent, un der strength, even for p ea ce tim e. this throw s a very

h e av y

A c c o rd in g to th e writer,

bu rd en

upon

th o se

w ho

are

e n d eav o u rin g to d o th eir duty, and if this state o f affairs exist it is h a rd ly rea so n ab le to e x p ec t that th e w ou n d ed w ou ld get that a tten tio n w hich is so n ecessary for them to reco ver q u ick ly. * * *

V

T h e rep ort has ju st been issu ed by th e

A f i n e o p p o r t u n i t y is a f f o r d e d a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t o fo r m cla s s e s fo r in s tr u c tio n

in

first a id

o b je c t to e n c o u r a g e m en to jo in th e

w ith

B rig ad e

the

u ltim a te

after p a ssin g

t h e e x a m i n a t i o n , a n d i t is s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a d v a n t a g e ta k e n to d o s o m e th in g o f th e k in d , th e

p u b lic

advan tage

keener of a

to

for

h elp

in

a

k no w led ge

of

fi r st

never

n ation a l aid

is n o t

b efore

cause

been

w ere

and

m ore

the fu lly

realised .

th e 3rd E a st A n g lia n

to in q u ire w hat, if any, certificates J oh n an d St. A n d rew ’s A sso cia tio n gran t o f m in e

besides th o se o f St. for th e purp ose o f the

m anagers’ certificates an d

un der the C o a l M in es A c t.

o th er purposes

T h e co n clu sio n s o f the C o m ­

m ittee are th at official re co gn itio n

of

su ch

certificates

sh o u ld n o lo n ger be co n fin ed to th o se issu ed by th e St. J oh n an d St. A n d r e w ’s A sso cia tio n s, but th at certificates

* * * M a j o r J. O l d f i e l d ,

D ep artm en tal

C o m m ittee a p p o in te d by the H o m e O ffice in M ay, 19 13 ,

issu ed by

re ce n tly ad d ressin g th e m en o f

F ie ld A m b u la n ce , said : “ M en

of

all resp o n sib le bodies

tea ch in g

first a id

and

am b u la n ce w ork in th e various m in in g districts sh o u ld be reco gn ised , su b jec t to co n d itio n s to b e la id dow n by the

th e R .A .M .C . m ust alw ays re m e m b er that th eir d u ty in

H o m e O ffice.

tim e o f w ar is to ten d the sick, s u cco u r th e w ou n d ed and

C o m m ittee :— (1) T h a t th e stan dard o f in stru ctio n sh o u ld

to co m fo rt an d reliev e th o se in p ain .

F o u r such co n d itio n s are su ggested by the

T o d o this w ell it is

be at least e qu al to that o f th e tw o In stitu tio n s above-

the h ab it o f h elp in g

nam ed ; (2) that th e tea ch in g sh o u ld h a ve sp ecial referen ce

e v e ry b o d y — o f tryin g to d o a k in d ly turn to a n y o n e in

to m ining c o n d itio n s ; (3) that the co u rse o f in struction and

d ifficu lties ; o f p ra ctisin g co u rte sy in sp eech and m anner,

exam in atio n sh o u ld be a p p ro v ed by th e H o m e O ffice, and

and e sp e cia lly to w om en an d ch ild ren ,

(4) that the exam in ers sh o u ld be in d ep en d e n t m ed ical m en

n ece ssa ry to cu ltiv a te at all

tim es

to

infirm , an d to th e d estitu te an d friendless.

th e o ld

and

A n R .A .M .C .

o f g o o d standing. *

m an s h o u ld be kn o w n by his refined bearin g and k in d ly a ctio n s, as well as by the R e d C ro ss upon his arm .” T h e s e h igh id eals e q u a lly a p p ly to all a m b u la n ce w orkers, and th e p ressin g forw ard to th e a tta in m en t o f them th eir a m bitio n .

sh o u ld be

w ith

th e

a llo w an ce s a llo w ed N avy.

The

high stan dard o f e fficien cy w hich th e tw o so cieties have T h e C o m m itte e seem to be o f o p in io n that

sp ecia l classes and exam in atio n s in m in in g d istricts sh o u ld

T h e r e appears to h a ve been som e co n fu sio n as to the sep aratio n

W e ca n n o t say we en tirely agree w ith th e re co m m e n ­

datio n s o f th e C o m m ittee , for we fear it w ill low er the establish ed .

V

* *

to

A d m ira lty

S .J .A .B . state

m en

servin g

that, p ro vid in g

a m b u la n ce m en fulfil th e co n d itio n s as to allo tm en ts, their

be

u tilised

in dustry.

to

m eet

th e

requ irem en ts

of

th e

m ining

I f th e C o m m itte e had o n ly m ade en qu iries on

this su b je c t th ey w ould h ave fo un d that classes are form ed in th e co lliery districts to m eet th eir requirem ents.

fam ilies are e lig ib le for the n ew N a v y Sep a ra tio n A llo w a n ce . T h e co n d itio n referred to is th at th e h u sb a n d d eclares an a llo tm e n t o f at least 20s. per m on th from his pay. o rd in a ry

sca le

o f sep aratio n

a llo w a n ce

The

is as follow s :—

W h e n corresponding w ith A dvertisers p lease m e n tio n “ F irst A id .”


November, 1914.

— F I R S T

AID.

Roll of Honour C A S U A L T I E S , M I S S I N G , W O U N D E D , &c., O F T H E S.J.A.B. NAVAL AN D M I L I T A R Y R E S E R V E S . Rem arks.

Division.

N o. and Name.

S e v e re ly w ounded b y shraenel, ad m itted to B ritish F .H . (Antwerp^. R ep o rted m issing, a tta ch ed to 9 th B a tt. R .N . D ivisio n . R ep o rted m issin g , atta ch ed to 9th B a tt. R . N . D ivisio n .

1332 P te. W . J. W I L L I A M S

1339

Pts.

J.

F.

1397 P te.

JO SEPH

1560 P te .

W m.

H.

M A R T IN D A L E

M O R R IS

A. F O D E N

..

L iverp o o l

..

..

C oln e . .

R e p o r te d m issin g, a tta ch ed to roth B a tt. R . N . D ivisio n .

C o v e n try C

R ep o rted m issin g, attach ed to 10th B a tt. R . N . D ivisio n .

B arrcw ford

R ep o rted m issing, attach ed to 10th B a tt. R .N . D ivisio n .

Kendal

W en t dow n on H .M .S . “ C re s s y .” O n e o f th ese m en, a tta ch ed to N a v a l D ivisio n at A n tw erp , m issin g, believed to have been tak en prisoner by G erm ans.

2130 P te.

J O H N E . W A L L A C E ..

1244 P te .

S Y D N E Y E L L IS

2281

L iverp o ol

..

..

. ..

P te. P E R C Y B L A N D

N . E . W a rw ic k

2167 P te. W I L L I A M H A L L or 2274 C orp l. W .v. H E N R Y H A L L

M id d leton

P te. R O B E R S T H O M A S

O ak en sh aw

P ie. G E O R G E W H I T E

E x e te r

W RECK

OF

H O S P IT A L

IOQ9 C orp l. F. W . H A R R I S O N . . .. 1008 P te. M A U R I C E A . N E V I L L E .. I C orp l. M I L T O N B I R T W I S T L E . . 962 753 1172

W ou n d ed in B a ttle o f M ons (fra ctu red ja w ). D ie d at C o rk M ilita ry H o sp ital, 27/8/14.

C o v en e n try C o-op C o vven e n try try Co-op

R O H IL L A .

B arn o ld sw ick arnolds B arn olds o ldsw ick C orp l. W m . J. D A L Y ..................................llarn B arn olds o ld sw ick P te . A L F R E D C . E L S W O R T H . P te . W m . E . A N D E R S O N . . . . B arn o ld sw s’ ick o ld sw ick S erg t. A . P E T T Y ................................. B B arn arnolds

.

B arnolds' arn o ldsw ick B arn olds o ld sw ick T O M P E T T Y ..................................B arn o ld sw ick H . J . B A R T E R ................................. B Barnolds' arn o ld sw ick T H O M A S H O R S F IE L D . . B arnolds' arno ldsw ick J O H N T . P I C K L E S .. .. B liarn olds' B arn olds' o ld sw ick W A L T E R H O R S F IE L D ..

.

745 2017 P te. F R A N K D U N K L E Y 744 P te. 2019 P te. 747 P te. 970 P te . 748 P t e .

..

..

1007 P te. H A R R Y H O D K I N S O N

..

1608 P te. J A M E S S E L L A R S

..

..

o ld sw ick B arn olds' B rierfield

M issin g. M issing. M issin g. M issin g. M issin g. M issin g. M issin g. M issin g. M issin g.

. .

B o d y identified. M issin g. M issin g . M issin g. M issin g. B o d y identified.


— F I R S T

Our

C om petition s.

first prize for th e N o v e m b e r C o m p e titio n has been a w a rd ed to :— T h e

Miss

F lorence

M.

G ib b o n s,

58, F itzja m es A v e n u e,

AID. —

November, 1914.

T re a tm e n t for ca se o f p o iso n in g by ca rb o lic a cid and reason for the treatm ent. G ive no em etic

Because the poison burns, and is not wanted to return and reburn, also all the passages are burnt and sore, and vom it­ ing would strain and irritate the’ burnt surfaces. T e neutralise poison —not as an aperient,

G ive ^oz. Epsom salts in pint milk. G ive oil T o soothe burn. a n d th e seco n d prize t o :— Place hot flannel T o keep down inflammation by draw ing Miss L. G a r n h a m , round throat and blood to surface, so that the swelling give ice to suck. shall not close the air passages. 2, C a rlto n V illa s, A rtificial respiration T o preserve life, F o x H ill, N o rw o o d , S .E . if necessary. G i v e s o o t h i n g T o weaken poison, T h e W in n in g P a p e r . drinks. (1 ) T h e signs and sym pto m s I sh o u ld e xp ect to find E g g beaten up in E g g s form a varnish, in a ca se o f a b a yo n et w ou n d o f the left lu n g are :— milk. A p u n ctu red w ou nd, pain, extern al an d in tern al M ilk. Clots and takes up the poison. haem orrhage, w ith th ese a cco m p a n y in g signs and Strong tea. A cts as a stimulant and weakens poison. Strong lemon water H as a special effect in cases o f carbolic sym pto m s :— acid poison in counteracting its effect. (a) R a p id loss o f strength , gid d in ess and fain tness, Cream a n d flour Soothing, and helps collect poison, e sp e cia lly in th e u p rig h t position . beaten up. ( b) P a le lips a n d face. T re a t shock. T o avoid collapse. W e st K e n sin g to n , W .,

(cj Hurried and laboured breathing, accompanied by yawning and sighing. (d) T h e p u lse failin g, an d p ro b a b ly d isap p earin g at

th e wrist. ( e) T h e p atien t tu rn in g his arm s abou t, tu gg in g at the clo th in g ro u n d his n e ck an d c a llin g for air. (f) F in a lly the p atien t b e co m in g u n co n scio u s. I f th e p atien t h a d co n tin u e d to lose b lo o d I sh o u ld e x p e c t to find also :— • (a) P a tie n t to b e co m e m ore and m ore faint. (b) C o ld n e ss an d p allo r o f surface. (c) P ro fu se p ersp iration . (d) G re at restlessness an d agitation . (e) T h ro a t, n oises in th e ears, an d failu re or loss o f sight. ( / ) A d istressin g sen sation o f w ant o f breath. (g) C o n v u lsio n s and death. T h e p atien t m ay co u g h an d sp it blo o d , scarlet in co lo u r, a n d fro th y in a p p earan ce. A ls o th ere m ay be one an d m ore b ro k en ribs, in d icate d by extra pain on tak in g a d e ep breath, an d it m ay be felt (the b ro k en en d s w ill be driven in w ards), an d th ere m ay be sw ellin g aro u n d the fracture. Treatment.— L a y p atient dow n, in clin e d tow ards th e in ju red sid e an d su p p o rted in this position , and h ead low ; u n d o all tigh t clo th in g, exp o se w ou n d an d pain t it with io d in e, a n d it m ay be n ecessary to pull ed ges to geth er w ith strapp in g, co v e r w ith ligh t d ressin g if broken rib is su sp ected , o n ly strap p ed on, and ligh tly h eld in p l a c e ; a co ld w ater d ressin g to h elp arrest th e haem orrhage, put on w ith no pressure, an d arm on in ju red sid e in a large arm sling, b u t if no rib is fra ctu red a firm er dressin g m ay be p la ce d on w ou n d to h elp arrest th e hiem orrhage, p ro vid ed it is n ot to o tigh t to in terfere with] respiration . C over patien t up an d k e ep w a r m ; ice to suck, or co ld w ater to sip if co n scio u s. P ro v id e for free circu latio n o f fresh air, raise low er lim bs, and i f co llap se th reaten s raise lim b s (n ot the arm on in ju re d sid e if bro k en rib su sp ecte d ) a n d ba n d a ge firm ly from to es to hip s and fingers to s h o u ld e r ; fan patient, sp rin k le c o ld w ater on fa ce an d h o ld sm ellin g salts to nose, but no o th er form o f stim u lan t w h ile th ere is haem orrhage. O b ta in a d o c to r’s h elp as soon as p o ssible. H a v e all d is­ tressin g sights re m o v e d as so o n as p o ssib le an d reassure patient.

T h e fo llo w in g m eth o d s o f artificial respiration acts as follo w s :— Silvesters.— T h e ton gues draw n out, m outh an d nostrils cle an sed an d sh o u ld ers raised to let h ead fall b a ck insures free p assage for air. A ll tigh t clo th in g re m o ve d — fre e s air p assages 'an d h elp s ch est exp an sion . D raw in g arm s in a sw eep in g m o vem en t upw ards an d outw ards e xp an d s the ch e s t— by th e in terco stal m u scles p u llin g th e ribs in an outw ard and upw ard direction, an d also by raising th e sternum w hich is a tta ch e d to th e up p er ribs, an d so raises w ith them , and in a d d ition by m ech a n ica l actio n the diaph ragm flattens an d falls at th e sam e tim e — so that th o rax is en la rged in w idth an d from to p to b o tto m and allow s m uch m ore air to b e inspired. T h e n the dow nw ard sw eep o f arm s allow s ribs to fall a n d in co n se q u e n ce sternum to be lo w ered an d th e diaph ragm to m e can ica lly raise, h e n ce thorax is m u ch sm aller an d air has to be e x p e lle d — and th e little p ressu re on the ribs at the en d o f the m ovem en t squeezes m ore air out. O f co u rse th e m uscles o f the arm s a ct on th e in ter­ co stal m uscles, an d so pull on th e ribs.

Schafer's.— T h e head on one sid e k e ep s n ose an d m outh aw ay from gro u n d an d the to n g u e falls out n atu rally, and air passages clear. T h e pressure on low er ribs flattens th e m — d im in ish es size o f thorax and air is driven o u t and p ro d u ces exp iration — also diaph ragm again acts in h arm o n y and raising furth er re d u ce s size o f thorax, and h elps exp el the air therefore p ro d u cin g expiration. T h e pressure su d d e n ly re la x e d — ribs sprin g b ack, d iaph ragm m e ch a n ica lly falls an d flatters— so air ca p a city is grea tly in creased and in sp iratio n tak es p la ce in co n seq u en ce. Howard's. — A c ts as S ch a fe r’s, in th e sam e w ay sq u eezin g air o u t by m akin g th o rax sm aller, and by th e diaph ragm w orkin g in harm ony, and by relievin g pressure in creasin g its size, an d th erefo re th e air ca p a city b ein g en ­ larged, in sp iration is p ro d u ced . Laborde's.— T h is sim p ly a cts by th e en tra n ce to th e th roat b ein g o p en ed an d c lo sed b y the ep ig lo ttis w orkin g w ith the tongue, an d th e to n gu e b ein g draw n o u t an d flatten ed giv es a free p assage to th e a i r ; this is n o t a very effective m eth o d but is so m etim es usefu l in cases w here


November, 1914.

— F I R S T

the other methods cannot be used on account o f the state of the ribs (as in cases where they are broken or of a young child), and also it has been found useful after electric shock. It stimulates respiration. December Competition. 1st P rize,

5 s.

2 n d P rize,

AID. —

9i

and generally prepare the patient for reception into the ward or operating-room, as the case dem ands. It is most im portant that all particulars relating to a patient should be recorded by the Secretary, and to facilitate such record the bearers should ascertain particulars with re­ ference to the regiment, battalion, regim ental number,

a y e a r ’s s u b s c r i p t i o n t o F i r s t

A id . Q u estio n s.

(1) W hat precautions must be observed in per­ forming artificial respiration ? G ive the reasons. (2) W hy is it necessary to exercise great care in applying a tourniquet ?

(3) Y o u are called to render first aid to a person found lying unconscious, state :— (a) T h e possible causes o f the insensibility. (b) H ow would you distinguish between them. (c) T h e treatment o f each condition. C o n d it io n s.

T h e following conditions must be noted and adhered t o :—

MS.S. must be written on one side of the paper only. There is no restriction as to length of answers, but same should not be unduly extended. Competitors must cut out the “ Competition Coupon ’ from the current issue, and fill in their names and address. Their names must not appear on their papers. The Editor reserves the right to publish any paper submitted to competition. Any paper selected for pub­ lication will be regarded as the property of the Editor, who does not guarantee to return any of them, neither does he hold himself responsible for any papers lost. Entries in this competition will close on Dec. 10th, 1914, and all matter must by that date be in the hands of the Editor, F i r s t A i d Offices, 46, Cannon-street, London, E.C., and the envelope marked “ Competition.”

Tem porary

R eceptio n

R oom.

rank, name and Christian name, and from w hence the patient came, these particulars are often given in writing on a special form, but in not a few cases they are a b s e n t; in all cases, however, it is the duty of those taking charge o f the patient to know such particulars. W e must not forget that the soldier’s kit has to be handed over in part, or as a whole, for the purposes o f cleansing, repairing, drying, or disinfecting, and that such portions as are not

H o sp ita ls.

H. M A IN W A R IN G H OLT, M .R .C .S ., L S . A , D .P .H ., H on. A ssociate of the Order of St. John, Life M em ber of, and Lecturer and Exam iner to, the S .J .A .A ., D istrict Inspector o f Stores (E R. Yorks.) No. V I. District, S .J.A .B . By

( Continued fro m page 66.) R e ce ptio n

R oom.

us suppose that a patient has arrived at the entrance (E ) to the hospital, that such patient is being conveyed by means o f the ordinary hand stretcher with four bearers into the reception room, R .R ., on the le ft; here the bearers might be dispensed with, or they might be retained to convey the patient to bed in the ward named by the Secretary. T h e responsibility of the am bulance man ceases when he has handed over the patient to the doctors and nurses in the reception (R .R .), or, as it is sometimes called, the casualty room (shown at the end o f the corridor in the photograph given below). Perhaps a short description o f the general work done in such reception room may not be out o f place here. T h e doctor will attend to the patient’s injury, or ascertain, as far as possible, the disease from which he may be suffering. T h e nurse will assist the doctor in the preparation of lotions, dressings, L et

K it S t o r e .

required will be stored in the room m arked (c) in our plan, where it will be duly labelled with the name, number, & c., o f the patient to whom it belongs, hence the requirem ent o f these details at once on reception. S e c r e t a r y ’s O f f i c e .

O n leaving the reception room, R R , the Secretary’s office will be seen (S) opposite to the “ kit ” store (C ). I f the above details with reference to the patient have been given to the Secretary, the patient will now receive his


92

— F I R S T

card recording the same, together with the num ber of his bed and the name of the ward into which he is to be taken. W e must spend a few mom ents in the Secretary’s office for the purpose of glancing over the underm entioned books :— (a) Adm ission and D ischarge B ook; (/>) Stew ard’s B ooks for all stores, edible and non-edible ; (c) C o o k ’s B ook, showing supplies received and issued ; (d) W ard B ooks, kept by nurse in charge ; (e) Pharm acist’s Book, showing list of drugs and other articles under his c h a rg e ; ( / ) M edical R ecords, Certificates, R egister o f a general character, Charts, & c., under the supervision of the M edical Officer in Charge. K it

Store.

AID. —

November, 1914.

T h e wards, like the corridors, are roof ventilated, but, if required, the air of the ward may be rapidly changed by opening the windows. T h e heating is by means of “ radiators,” which you will note are placed near the windows. T h ere is no overcrowding of beds, consequently there is am ple floor space for the movem ents of nurses, doctors and patients. T h e floor is uncovered, the boards are close-jointed and free from dirt. Artificial light is pro­ vided by gas pendants furnished with the ordinary mantle and opal reflector. I have purposely avoided giving the length, breadth and height of the wards, for the simple reason that such figures would soon be forgotten, while at the same tim e you m ight be tem pted to miss the mental picture which I am trying to draw for you. If, however,

T h e cloak-room s o f the school are readily converted into stores. N ote the racks and num bered pegs in the illustration, the hot-pipes below the racks for the purpose of drying or “ a irin g ” dam p clothes. C o r r id o r s.

N ote the width of the corridors and observe that a stretcher can be turned easily into any one of the wards, the smooth, level floors allowing patients to be wheeled along the corridors if necessary ; the lighting of the cor­ ridors from the ends and sides; the heating of the same by radiators, and the roof ventilation with the spacious entrances to such corridors. A ll practical am bulance men know the dangers and difficulties associated with narrow, dark passages, with the unexpected step or steps carefully planned in the darkest part o f the passage, or at some inconvenient corner. I em phasise these points in the

W ard.

C or r id o r s.

you wish to know the size o f the wards you may com e to a fairly correct solution by noting the size o f the beds and conceiving the length o f one side o f a ward, which you will have noted is nearly a square in the plan. Just a word with reference to the position of the beds. It is usual to place the head of the bed to the wall, between two windows, in order to avoid the glare o f the sun, or strong daylight, but if you cannot do this the next best plan is to arrange the beds as shown in the photograph. Finally, rem em ber that a ward must have sufficient lighting by night as well as by day, that it must be kept at an even temperature, that the air must constantly m ove throughout it: in other words, it must breathe by giving out the vitiated air and taking in the fresh, pure air as we do. It must also be kept clean. D o you see how closely the requirement of a ward and a human being resem ble each other? O v e r c r o w d in g .

interest not only of the bearers but particularly in the interests o f the patient. W ard.

O n entering a ward you will note the am ple provision o f light from the large windows im m ediately in front of you. O n the left are ranged four beds, on the right a table with washbasin, towel, nail-brush and soap for the use of the doctor, a desk for writing materials, a table for dressings, and a ward store cupboard. In the centre o f the ward is a table for general use. A ll these are im provised from desks. Y o u will note that chairs are placed conveniently for use. T h e great object in fitting up a ward is to “ make do ” with what you find at hand, the less furniture in a ward the better.

It is a com m on error to place as many beds in a room as it can possibly hold, which is a very great and a very grave mistake. O vercrow ding of the sick is not only dangerous to health, but may threaten life itself. O vercrowding a ward with patients prolongs the period of incapacity and, therefore, adds to the expenses of the institution ; the work of the whole of the hospital staff is increased for no useful purpose, and the time of the patients is wasted in proportion as their recovery is retarded. M ost of those baneful influences and their results can be avoided by the exercise o f a little forethought in the arrangement of beds and ward furnishings. C entral

W ard.

Let me draw your attention to the subjoined photo-


November, 1914.

— F I R S T

graph o f the central ward, marked C .W . in the plan accom panying the previous article Y o u will note that there is ample provision o f space, light, ventilation and other requirements as indicated in the previous remarks. It is not my intention to go into details o f hygiene in connection with the matters herein referred to, since such would be beyond the scope o f these little articles, which are intended to draw attention to the broad principles that should help us in our selection of a suitable building for the purpose of being used as a temporary hospital. It may not be out of

AID

93

will b5 noted that I have previously referred to its position as being next to the operating room and at the end o f the south corridor, marked B in our plan. O b se r v a t io n

W ard.

Passing along the south corridor we reach at the extrem e end the observation ward, in all respects similar to the operating room, and just outside the entrance to this ward will be noted the lavatory basins, and the separate entrance E ”. T h e need for such a ward is obvious, patients may arrive at the hospital whose sym ptom s suggest that they should be kept separate from other patients until such time as the m edical attendant sanctions their rem oval into a general ward. Y o u will observe the value o f the separate entrance E ” , inasm uch as it permits doubtful cases to enter the hospital without com ing into contact with the other inmates. K itch en .

W e will now pass along the east corridor to the kitchen, noting that the arrangements are precisely similar to those of the west corridor. T h e kitchen should be large and “ room y,” it should possess a good cooking range, boiler, sinks, tables, store

Central

W ard.

place here to refer for one moment to the question of expense in preparing a building which is to be fitted up as a temporary hospitil. An adaptable building should possess all the necessary “ fittings ” to begin with. T h e provisions for gas or other lighting, and the various pipes and taps connected with the water supply for baths, w .c ’s, and other domestic uses should claim particular attention, so also should the selection of kitchen and laundry require­ ments, a good cooking range and a boiler for clothes being surely minimum requirements. T h e money subscribed is H o s p it a l _Gr o u n d s .

cupboards and the usual pots and pans. In the photograph here given most of the requirem ents enum erated are seen. Before leaving our hospital I should like to point out that no mention has been made o f baths, these are essentials, but they are not found in the particular elem entary school I have taken for illustrating my remarks, hence baths on wheels and other forms of portable baths would have to be provided, which should not be a difficult matter. H o spita l

K itc h e n .

to be expended for the benefit of the sick and woundedi and not in gas and water pipes, et hoc genere. O pe r a tin g

R oom.

T h e furnishing of this room need not be very elaborate or expensive, and should be left for the surgeon in charge to d e c id e ; a steriliser is necessary for instruments, and it

G round.

T h e description of the space outside the hospital need not detain us many minutes. T h ere is am ple room for exercise, and the outbuildings com prise two sets of latrines, a boiler house, and a mortuary, vide plan. The photograph shows the mortuary and other buildings referred to, as also part of the entrance E ’ to south corridor. If you have followed my description o f the building and carefully considered the illustrations o f its various parts, I think you will agree with me when I say that this particular elem entary school is in every way adaptable for the purpose of being used as a tem porary hospital. ( To be continued.)


— F I R S T

94

A I D , -

Novem ber, 1914.

BRITISH RED CROSS SOCIETY.

N otes

an d

News.

“ W here are the V .A .D .’s ? ” is a question which has been put to us several times since the outbreak of war. T h e article in the last issue of F i r s t A i d will show where som e o f them are and what they are doing ; the others are ready and waiting to take their share in the work. We have read and heard slighting remarks about the work of V .A .D .’s, which in a great measure is due to the ignorance o f the public as to the nature o f the training that has been undergone during the time of peace in order to be in readi­ ness to help the country in a crisis like the present.

Som e members o f the V .A .D .’s are chafing at their inaction. W e would like to point out a fact which should be well known, that they are reserves o f the Territorial Force, to be em ployed when that force takes the field. T h a t som e of them have been called upon to form tem ­ porary hospitals is a recognition that the W ar Office appreciates their efficiency, and before long we anticipate m any more will be requisitioned. * * *

)

O n the recom m endation of H .R .H . T h e D uke of Connaught, Grand Prior of the Order, his M ajesty the K in g, as Sovereign H ead, and her M ajesty the Queen, as President o f the L ad ies’ C om m ittee of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem in England, and Q ueen Alexander, as President of the British R ed Cross Society, have been pleased to express their approval of the formation of a Joint Com m ittee of the two organisations, which shall sit throughout the war, to secure co-ordination and united action in work which is com m on to both bodies. The com m ittee is constituted of eight representatives o f each society, with the H on Arthur Stanley as chairman and Sir H erbert Perrott as vice-chairm an.

T h a t this com m ittee has been formed will give satis­ faction to members o f both bodies, for it is evident that there is a desire for unity to assuage the suffering of those who are fighting for the defence o f our country, and it is gratifying to know that by the formation o f this com m ittee the objects which both Societies have in view will not over­ lap, but co-ordinate for the com m on good. * * *

O nce more the Times has shown how the lending of its nam e to a public fund causes the money to roll in. On A ugust 31st our contem porary published an appeal in aid o f the British R ed Cross Society. T h e m unificent sum of ^ 4 4 ,0 0 0 was received within a few hours, and since then contributions have accum ulated steadily until the grand total is now over half-a-million. It also asked its readers

for 500 motor am bulances, and it has obtained 501. Both the Q ueen and Q ueen A lexandra have expressed their high appreciation of the work done by the Times and the generosity of the public in answering its appeal, and L ord R othschild pays a deserved tribute to the successful efforts of our contem porary in obtaining “ the greatest sum ever raised for charity by a single newspaper.” * * * It was notified in the London Gazette, on O ctober 20th, that the K in g has been graciously pleased to confer the D ecoration of the R oyal R ed Cross upon M dlle. Eugenie Antoine, of Vailly-sur-Aisne, in recognition of her courage­ ous and devoted services to the British w ounded in hospital at Vailly-sur-Aisne whilst the village was under shell fire. T h is is the first decoration given by the K in g during the present w a r; and there is not an English nurse who will grudge M dlle. E ugenie Antoine the honour bestowed upon her for conspicuous services rendered to the British wounded in France. In a recent number of the Church Fam ily Newspaper Mrs. Creighton w ro te:— “ C onfronted by the unexampled calam ity o f an European war, it is natural that we should each one of us be eager to do som ething to help our country. But if we stop to think at all, it is not easy to see how we can help. Everyw here we hear of working parties being formed, and of R ed Cross classes being held. T o learn a little about first aid to the wounded will do no one any harm, even though the authorities are asking for fully trained nurses and will send no ordinary R ed Cross worker to the front. B ut it might be more useful if some o f those eager to help their country were to offer them ­ selves as probationers to our hospitals and go through the regular training of a nurse. Even before the war the supply of nurses was inadequate for the demand, and now that so many o f our best nurses have gone to the front the need will be still greater. Y e t our sick at home, in our hospitals and in their own houses, need nursing as much as ever.” * * * It is reported from Paris that the U nion o f the W om en o f France has inaugurated a service of hospital barges for the wounded. T h u s the splendid system of waterways in Northern France will be utilised. T h e barges carry surgeons and nurses, and form floating hospitals which can easily be m oved about. Severe cases can have im­ mediate attention in favourable circum stances. T h e first barge was presented last month. It is nam ed “ L ’Ue de F rance.” It will accom m odate 40 wounded men and two surgeons. It is believed that it should m ake the journey from the front to Paris in less than three days. This schem e deserves every encouragem ent, and will be widely extended.


N ovem ber, 1914.

— F I R S T

jtailwag Jlmbulance. S .E . & C .R .— W e give below a photograph o f Mr. F. S. Drinkwater who has recently been elected an H on. Serving Brother o f the Order of St. John. Mr. Drinkwater has taken an exceptional interest in the first aid m ovem ent on the S.E . Railw ay being associated with it since 1894.

H e has acted as class secretary and represented the London D istrict o f the centre for many years. Mr. D rinkwater was the recipient o f the M eritorious Service Award o f the S .E . Centre this year, and we congratulate him on the further honour which has been conferred.

L e c tu r e on

the

m aster Bv C

aptain

W ork in

the

of

a

Q uarter-

Field.

and Q uarterm aster H. S P A C E M A N , R oyal Arm y M edical Corps.

(B y kin d permission o f the “ R . A . M C . (Journal.") (Concluded from page p j) . Hations.— Officers draw the same rations as men on active service and also at certain stations abroad. T h ey are dem anded from the Supply D epot on A .B . 55. T h e scale is bread 1^ lb., fresh meat 1J lb., or preserved meat 1 lb. Biscuits are as a rule issued in the field in lieu of bread, but when the troops remain for any length o f time at one camp, the field bakeries are got to work and all things considered turn out very fair bread. Groceries are issued as per scale drawn up by the War Office, or by the General Officer Com m anding. Rum and lime-juice are issued at the discretion o f the General Officer Com m anding on the recom m endation o f the medical authorities. In camps at home, Arm y Form F, 743, certificate of rations issued, is furnished by the Officer in Charge Supplies. Forage.— T h e first and last charge for forage on Arm y Form F, 718, m onthly forage account, is supported by

AID. —

95

Arm y Form O, 1640, which is a certificate o f the date the horse was last foraged by its former unit. It also con ­ tains the date o f shoeing and certificate o f fitness by the veterinary officer. Y o u are not, however, troubled with these forms during active operations, as the forage is indented for the ration book already m entioned, i.e., A .B . 55. F u el.— N om inally no fuel is carried, except the wood o f the ration boxes which will be issued for kindling pur­ poses only and supplem ented by fuel obtained locally. T h e question of finding fuel is an unceasing anxiety to the Quarterm aster, who will, if he is wise, pick up every stray piece o f wood he com es across and load it on his wagons, for on arrival in camp, the officers and men want their dinners and hot drinks. In South A frica ant-heaps were found to make capital stovesCand/es and O il fo r Lam ps.— T h ere is no scale for candles and oil for lamps in a field am bulance. T h e y are drawn as required from the Supply D e p o t; requisition is mode on A .B . 55, or on A .B . 30. It is as well to requisi­ tion for a supply of these articles im m ediately on m obilisa­ tion, and fill up the tins that will be found in the panniers. Som e units started off to the last war without filling their tins, and arriving in a cam p up country before the Supply D epot had settled down to work, were much inconvenienced by the omission. Latrine Paper.— Before em barkation a supply o f latrine paper should be requisitioned from the nearest Officer in Charge o f Barracks. T h is is a point that m ight easily be overlooked. Equipm ent Ledger.-— A n equipm ent ledger must be kept, although it is om itted from A p pend ix 33, “ Field Service M anual.” O n board ship when going out the Q uarterm aster will have plenty o f time to enter up all the vouchers he has received. In connection with the equipm ent ledger a very im ­ portant form is Arm y Form P, 1925. It is called an expense voucher, and at the end o f each month all exp end ­ able articles used are struck off charge on this form. I f red ink is available all receipt vouchers should be num bered with it, as the auditors like it. Advanced Depot o f M edical Stores.— After an engage­ ment has taken place and dressing have been expended to some extent, the panniers should be replenished from the advance depot o f m edical stores, which is usually not very far away, and from which you can obtain on requisition, without having the approval of the Adm inistrative M edical Officer or Principal M edical Officer, any stores you want. Som etim es the depot is in railway carriages, and if the troops leave the line of rail it will be found in the wagon or wagons. A t Colenso the advanced depot was on the rail­ way alongside the battelefield. Feedifig the Sick and wounded. It may be asked how are the sick and wounded fed when they remain with a field am bulance long enough to require som ething more sub­ stantial than bovril and m ilk ? In that case field rations are indented for in the same way that rations are drawn for the personnel • the words “ for sick,” are written on the requisition, and the number o f rations required is stated. A s a matter o f fact after a while it becom es a custom to carry a couple of cases o f biscuit and a case o f preserved meat on wagons, and these, together with the groceries contained in the m edical com fort panniers, will suffice for a sudden influx o f wounded. A wounded man will be found to have just as good an appetite as a sound man when his wound has been properly dressed and he has got over the shock o f the injury. In som e cases, of course,


g6

— F I R S T

the regim ent will hand over the rations to their wounded men, but reliance cannot always be placed on this being done. In the field a few overdrawn rations are of small account. Clothing o f Personnel.— W hen a soldier goes on active service he ceases to draw clothing and kit allowance, and is supplied with all he requires free. H e marches up country with just what he stands upright in, and a few necessities that are carried in the pockets of his great-coat, A fter a soldier has been in the field for two or three months and there is a lull in the fighting, and the exigencies o f the service permit, the pair of boots, second suit of service dress, second shirt, socks, & c., he has left at the base will be sent up to him . A n y further clothing that is required, such as boots, service dress, jack et and trousers, will be obtained for him by the Quarterm aster, who will indent on the O rdnance Officer for them. Losses.— Even in the field losses and damages have to be dealt with in accordance with K in g ’s regulations as far as time and circum stances permit. In the event o f loss or dam age the Officer C om m and­ ing will decide on whom the loss shall fall. If, in his opinion, the loss was unavoidable, he will report the cir­ cum stances and ask for a Court of Inquiry if necessary. In every case where the value of the article lost is £ 1 0 or over, he must report to higher authority. A rticles lost are struck off ledger charge supported by Arm y Form P, 1625, expense voucher. T h e proportionate value of articles is ascertained in this way ; the present value of the article equals its value when new, divided by months of life, multi­ plied by the months o f unexpired use. Losses of m edical and surgical equipm ent are struck off charge on Arm y Form I, 1230 Price Vocabulary o f Stores.— T h e O rdnance system of nom enclature— i e., W oolwich store charge— must invariably be used on all indents, and on all vouchers when returning stores. T h is will not cause much trouble as the receipt vouchers from the O rdnance show the correct sections filled in, and it is only necessary to copy from them when returning stores. N B — T h e W oolw ich store sections were revised a few years ago, and, so far, no new ledgers have been printed, so that the sections shown in the ledger are nearly all wrong, and have to be am ended when using the ledger. Requisitions.— In preparing requisitions on the O rdnance, rem em ber to use A rm y Form G , 997. A separate form is required for each W oolw ich store section, R eturning Stores.— Arm y Form G, 1033, is used for returning s to re s; a separate form is rendered by each section. It should be sent to the Ordnance D epot in triplicate. Patients' Valuables.— T h e regulations say that the valuables of patients should be at once sent to the Corps, if p o ssib le ; otherwise they should be transferred to the Clearing H ospital. In the case o f deceased soldiers they should be sent to the Officer Com m anding the regi­ ment. I f this cannot be done they should be forwarded to the Officer in C harge of Base R ecords. V aluables include the pay book and identity disc. T h e lists should be m ade out in triplicate. O ne is retained as an office copy, two go on to the Clearing H ospital— one o f these will com e back signed by the officer taking over the valuables, and should be most carefully preserved, as questions as to the whereabouts of valuables will often crop up years afterwards. T a k in g a com m on-sense view o f this question it will be seen that it is best to avail ourselves of the alternative m ethod of disposal— i.e., sending them on to the Clearing

AID. —

Novem ber, 191 4.

Hospital, as a com m anding officer in the fighting line does not want to be encum bered with the valuables of men who have becom e non-effective, and are o f no further use to him. A rm s and Accoutrements.— T h e regulations say “ return arms and accoutrem ents at once to the reg im e n t; otherwise transfer them with the patient to the Clearing H ospital, or hand them into the nearest O rdnance D ep ot.” H ence, there are three methods of disposal open to us. T h e first is out o f the question as a rule, for the regim ent having lost the man, does not want to carry his rifle about, etc., on its already overloaded wagons. V ery often the advanced O rdnance D epot is not far behind, and it is an easy matter to send them there— perhaps in the cart returning to draw rations. Arm y Form G, 1033, must be prepared, and in all cases a record must be kept. It may, of course, be better to transfer the arms with the patient to the Clearing Hospital, as it is more likely to be situated nearer the advanced depot of O rdnance stores. It is most important that the Quarterm aster should make arrangements to have the rifles properly cleaned im m ediately they com e into his possession.

A N i g h t on D u t y w i t h S t . Jo h n .— II. In

the

D ocks.

M o s t of the long shed lies in shadow, for the docks are not brilliantly lit up at night, but there is a little cluster of electric lamps at one end shining on the group of am bu­ lance sisters and men who are waiting for the hospital ship to com e in. Som e of us are trying to dose in folding chairs, others are looking after the milk and soup keeping hot on the oil-stoves, a little group is standing on the quay just outside the shed door, shivering a little in the chilly night air, but all anxious to be first to discover the lights of the big liner. It will not be long now, for the R .A .M .C . men are com ing up with their stretchers. T h e hospital trains have backed in already, and the orderlies are putting the last touches to the “ wards.” “ T h ere’s a lig h t !” som eone says, suddenly, and we all strain our eyes eagerly trying to pierce the veil of mist. A golden globe is moving towards us, apparently suspended in the air. N ow an emerald one appears, by degrees a huge dim grey shape materialises out of the fog and, silently, the floating hospital, with its load o f misery, glides along­ side. T here is no shouting, no con fu sion ; gangways are lowered, the little group of R .A .M .C . officers waiting on the quay, go on board, the bearer com panies follow, and in an incredibly short time, to those who do not know the way the British “ T o m m y ” does his work, the wounded are being brought ashore and laid on the floor of the shed. T w elve hundred o f them ! N early all Belgians. Twothirds of them “ cot cases,” the rest lim ping painfully on crutches, or leaning on kindly am bulance men. M any of them were hurriedly taken out o f the Belgian hospital where their wounds had been temporarily dressed, because the Germ ans started shelling it. T h ey are still in their grimy, tattered uniforms, bloodstained, caked with d ir t; their hands and faces still black with powder and the soil of the trenches, but they are in England, and the sound of the Germ an guns is no longer in their e a r s ! T h e dim, echoing shed is a blaze o f light and activity now. T h e am bulance men are carrying the big jugs of steaming coffee, soup and milk round. T h e sisters are


— F i r s t

November, 1914,

filling mugs and handing them o u t ; lifting heavy heads, too tired to raise them selves ; working against time so that everyone o f the 1,200 shall have some refreshm ent before his turn com es to be put in the hospital train. T h ey are so grateful, those poor, shattered p easan ts; so ready with their “ M erci bien, ma soeur;” so glad to hear a few kind words in a language most o f them seem tc understand, though it is not their native F le m is h ; and they have all their pitiful little stories! “ V ous avez une fem m e?” a sister asks, kneeling by one poor fellow and holding a cup o f milk to his lips. H e nods feebly. “ E t des enfants ?” O ne arm is in a sling, and he is shot through the chest, but he holds up three fingers. “ O u est elles ?” “ Toutes brulees, ma soeur 1” H is home was set on fire by a shell, and his wife and children buried in the ruins ! A n d that is only one out o f many. In about four hours’ time they have all been disem ­ barked, fed, and stowed away in spotless white sheets in the bunks o f the hospital trains. O ne after another they pull out o f the sheds, the sisters handing in mugs o f coffee through the windows to kindly orderlies, who dispense them and hand out the empties at the last possible moment. W e clear up as quickly as possible, for another ship is expected soon. She com es in at 8 a.m. O nly 500 wounded on her this time, the rest Belgian soldiers, with a sprinkling of officers’ wives, children, Sisters o f M ercy and Priests. W e have to deal with hungry men this time, and the huge piles of bread and butter sim ply m elt away. Before they are satisfied a third ship com es in. But it is daylight now and other helpers have arrived. Officers are pouring out coffee, soldiers are cutting up bully beef and cheese with their bayonets, because knives have run short. The sisters’ spotless aprons show signs of hard wear, but no one is going home yet. Som e of us are looking after a little group of civilians. T here are women am ong them, and we give them soap and water and help them m ake a pitiful little toilet. W e have brought a box of comforts with us, which furnishes warm mufflers for the women and socks for the men. A U niversity student from L ouvain has com e away with bare feet thrust into his boots, while a m edical student escaped by hiding him self under a pile of dead bodies. T h is poor woman, with her child, sat in a train for 13 hours with the Germ ans firing at it. O ne man, more lucky than most, has actually a little m oney and a sister in London, so goes off in charge of a railway man, but the rest have nothing but what they stand up in. But by degrees they are all provided for. T h e civilians go off to temporary homes, the wounded are taken off to the hospitals, the able bodied soldiers are put on board the transports again, and after 21 solid hours of unceasing work St. John collects its im pedim enta and wends its way homewards to await its next call. T h is night’s work has been the experience o f a life­ time to all o f us, and a most harrowing one, too, but not one of us would have missed it, though it left an indelible mark on minds which, until now, have had no opportunities of realising what war in its grim reality means. A t least, we are hum bly thankful that St John has once more been privileged to carry out the motto of its ancient O rder— “ P ro fides pro utilitate hom inum .” Q uarterm aster

V .A .D .

a i d

.—

97

AN IN V A LU A B LE BOOK FOR ALL RED CROSS WORKERS. By

DR.

ANDREW

W IL S O N .

I n the present grave em ergency every R ed Cross and Am bulan ce worker should send the form below for full and interesting particulars o f an invaluable book that is really an epitom e in clear language o f all that specialised m edical and surgical know ledge necessary for First Aiders. In “ T h e M odern P hysician,” by Dr. Andrew W ilson, fullest space is devoted to “ First A i d ” and Am bulan ce Work. In respect o f com pleteness, accuracy o f description and wealth o f illustration, “ T h e M odern Physician ” stands without a rival am ongst the works published on this im ­ portant subject in the U nited K ingdom . It is scientifically accurate and reliable without being d u ll; the name of its editor, so long known as an authority on the subject, is a guarantee of this.

EVERY

P O IN T

COVERED.

T h is work is probably the only work that covers all the many branches of the subject in com plete detail, and in whatever direction one may be helping this work will be found indispensable. Invalid cooking, hom e nursing of the wounded, bandaging and dressing wounds, instant and em ergency treatment, the setting and alter care of broken bones, the treatm ent o f convalescents, the fitting up and sanitary care o f the temporary “ h o sp ita l”— these are a few of the thousands of subjects upon which R ed Cross workers need special inform ation now, and this information is given in this work in an unique manner. A s a know ledge o f the body in H ealth is necessary to the due understanding o f the body when its functions are deranged by disease, a description o f every part o f the frame will be found here. T h e skeleton, muscles, digestive system, heart and lungs, brain and nervous system, organs o f sense, skin, kidneys and the body’s m icroscopic structure are duly described. In this connection the illustrations are o f particular value, the “ m ann ikin s” or dum m ies more esp ecially ; in these the organs are m ade to overlap each other exactly as they do in the human body.

T h is f o r m m u s t b e s e n t w it h o u t d e la y .

A FREE BOOKLET. TO

THE

CAXTON

P U B L IS H IN G

COM PANY,

156, Surrey Street. London, W .C . Please send me, F r e e o f C h a r g e a n d without an y obligation on m y p a r t :— fi) Illustrated Booklet on “ T h e M o d e r n P h y s i c i a n . ” (2) Particulars of your offer to deliver the complete work for a first payment of is. 6d., the balance to be paid for by a few small monthly payments.

N am e

........................................................................................................................................................................

(Send this form or a postcard.)

A d d r e s s ................................................................................................................................................................ .

W hen corresponding w ith A dvertisers please m en ­ tion “ F ir st A id.”


98

— F I R S T S t.

John

A m b u la n ce

A ss o cia tio n ,

AID. —

Novem ber, 1914.

S o u th a m p to n

C e n tre .—

U n der the m anagem ent of the Em ergency C om m ittee 50,000 hot meals have been given to soldiers arriving at the cam p on the Com m on and close on 20,000 w ounded or refugee B elgians have been fed at the Docks. In addition to this hospital accom m odation for 150 patients is being utilised by the authorities. T h is is apart from what has been done as to collecting clothing com forts, etc.

Benger’s Food is a cereal food, specially free from rough indigesti­ ble particles. It co n tains t h e natural d ig es tive principles, t r y p s in and am ylo psin, and is expressly devised to be used w i t h f r es h n e w m ilk or m ilk and w ater.

W e regret to record the death of Dr. R obert Douglas Muir, o f T h e Lim es, H atcham , which took place at Broadstairs, on the 29th ult. T h e deceased who was 45 years old had been in bad health for some time. Dr. M uir was well know n to many o f our readers particulary those on the S .E . & C .R . to who he lectured for many years, he also contributed several articles to this Journal, notably one on “ M istakes O ften M ade by First Aiders ” which was at once recognised as an execellent contribution to first aid literature. D r. M uir held the qualification of M .D .B ru x., M .R .C .S ., L R .C .P .L o n d . H e leaves a wife, a daughter and three sons, with whom the greatest sym pathy is felt.

B e n g e r ’s is u n i q u e a m o n g f o o d s in b e i n g s e l f ­ d i g e s t i v e t o a n y e x t e n t d e s i r e d , a n d t h is is s i m p l y r e g u l a t e d b y a l l o w i n g t h e F o o d to s t a n d f r o m 5 to 45 m i n u t e s a t o n e s t a g e o f its p r e p a r a t i o n . The d i g e s t i v e p r o c e s s is s t o p p e d b y b o i l i n g up.

A m bulan ce and R ed Cross workers can receive gratis a booklet in English and Flem ish (with the Flem ish pro­ nunciation imitated), containing the phrases required by a nurse, etc. Write, enclosing stamp to H u g o ’s Language Institute, 64 and 66, Oxford-street, W .; 33, G racechurchstreet, E .C .; or 205, E arl’s Court-road, London, S.W .

A sample w ith f u l l particulars w ill be sent post free to Members 0/ the M edical Profession, on application to the Sole M anufacturers—

is unequalled w hen t h e d ig e s t iv e s y s t e m is w eak en ed t h r o u g h accident, pain or illness, and w h e n e v e r a li g h t s u stainin g diet has become a n ecessit y.

BENGER'S FOOD Ltd., Otter Works, Manchester, Eng. B r a n c h O f f ic e s :

N E W Y O R K (U .S .A .), 92, William Street. S Y D N E Y (N .S .W .), 117 Pitt Street. Canadian Agents : National D rug and Chemical Co., L td., 34, St. Gabriel Street, M o n t r e a l , and Branches throughout C a n a d a . B146

— HORLICK’S— MALTED MILK A N IN V A L U A B L E A ID IN R E D C R O S S N U R S I N G .

T he unrivalled nutrition of rich milk and choice malted grains. E asily assimilated and most efficient to giving and maintaining strength. In v a lu a b le to N u rse s personally. Increa ses v i t a l i t y and e n d u ran c e.

Keeps indefinitely— Ready in a moment— No cooking Also available in tablet form, to be dissolved in the mouth when needed. Convenient to carry, available anywhere, prevent fatigue, restore energy and relieve thirst. IVrite f o r inform a'ion.

H o r l i c k ’s M a l t e d M i l k C o ., S l o u g h , B u c k s .

W ALL

&

CO.’S

‘Standard’ Ambulance ( As supplied to th eM ar y lebone Corporation, the Plym ou th Police, &c.),

b y a M ed ical Officer

s. d.

12 8 pages.

Illu strate d . ... ... ... ... D iagram s, printed in C olours. M ounted on L in e n and R o lle rs and Varnished. 60 b y 22 — ............................................... .. . N e t Skeleton A r t e r i a l a n d V e n o u s S v s t e m .................. N e t F r a c t u r e s a n d D islo ca tio n s .................. N e t F o u r in folio (3 D iagram s and large M a n ik in ) N e t A L arge M a n ik in ok the F emale H u m a n B o d y . 60 b y 22 ...................N e t

A L L M A N ’S

ANATOM ICAL

£11

11s.

he he

3, M a r g a r e t S tre e t,

SIM M ONS & CO., fiim inYsey

S ^ W N D O N tl’.E.

Hand-Ambulance Builders to the Metropolitan Asylums Board, the London Countv Council, the Metropolitan Electric Tramwavs, etc.

o

5 o 5 0 30 o 45 o

W.

Aids to M em ory fo r ‘ First A id ’ S tu d e n ts. B y L. M. F r a n k C h r i s t i a n , M .B ., C .M . Edin. Author (jo in tly w ith IV .R .E .) of “ Problems in First A id ,” St. John Amb. Assoc. S ix th Edition n o w rea d y. Revised to date (June 1914.) “ N o ambulance man need ever fear he will go rusty if he will take an occa­ sional dose of the mental mixture contained within the covers of this splendid book . . . cannot conceive a better utilisation o f space, a better treatise on this subject could not be written. . . the book for all, whether old hands or students.” “ A ‘ multum in parvo ’ o f the greatest value.” Price : In Cloth, 6d. net— by post 7d. In Leather, 2s. net— by post 2s. 2d. S t o c k p o r t . C o n n e l l & B a i l e y , L t d . , “ E x p r e s s " O f f i c e , S t . P e t b r ’s S q u a r e , and The St. John Ambulance Association, S t . J o h n ’ s G a t e , L o n d o n .

NOVEMBER.

1914-

COMPETITION

COUPON.

F O L D I N G S T R E T C H E R S , 33/-, or W o o lw ic h Ars en al Pattern “ M a r k I I . ” w ith Sh ou ld er S lin gs , 4 2 / 6 . B o y S couts Stretchers, 2 5 / - .

5

MODELS.

P r ic e C o m p l e t e , A l w a y s ready in Sto ck .

3

o

..................... P rice 2/- N et. H uman Body F em ale H uman B ody .. . ,, 2/,, 3. S o m e O r g a n s o f t h e B o d y ( 1 2 ) ,, 5/,, 4. T h e L a r y n x ............................................ . 1/,, 1. T

2. T

A L L M A N ’S,

S IM M O N S

D IA G R A M S .

F ir s t A id to th e In ju re d ,

N a m e .........................................................................

Address...............................................


FIRST AID.

The Independent Journal for the Ambulance and Nursing Services. Conducted b y A R T H U R No.

246 .— V o l .

X X I.

To

D EC E M B ER , 1914.

[N e w S e rie s .]

Our

B.

DALE,

M .J.I. PRICE TWOPENCE

lEnund a t stanontrs'Haii.\

[2 /6 P e r

A n n u m , P o st

F ree

m isapprehensions were quite unwarranted, for the way the

Readers.

Organisation has, so far, stood the strain of war is little

“ First Aid ” is published on the aoth of every month.

short o f extraordinary.

U p to the present there have

post free ; single copies 2 d .

been about 500 auxiliary hom e hospitals accepted by the

T h e E d it or invites readers to send articles and reports on subjects of

W ar Office, containing about 15,000 beds. O f course, all

nterest to ambulance workers, these should be addressed to him at

these are not V oluntary A id hospitals, but those which are

The

A n n u al Subscription is 2 S .

6d.

46, Cannon Stre et, Lo n d on , E . C .

not, Voluntary A id members are doing strenuous work as

A l l articles and reports must be accompanied b y the name and

probationers under exceptionally hard conditions. As

address o f the writer, not necessarily or publication but or the use ot the Editor.

Captain

C olch ester

W eym ss,

the

R ed

Cross

C ounty D irector for Gloucestershire, says in his re p o rt:

Subscriptions, Ad ve rtisem en ts and other business com munications connected with F i r s t A i d should be addressed to the Publishers, DALE,

REYNOLDS

&

CO .,

“ Just as the Territorial F orce in G loucestershire m obilised and m oved off to their war stations without a hitch o f any kind, and at the appointed dates, so when our V oluntary

L t d .,

A id

46, C a n n o n S t r e e t , L o n d o n , E . C .

hospitals have been

m obilised, the beds and linen

and all other articles, which

hitherto have

only been

entries in a book of promises made, have becom e incarnate >

EDITORIAL.

the com m andants and their staff have stepped into their places, and each and everyone has been standing ready with

“ FI RST

AID”

extends to

its

everything

com plete

when

the

invalids

arrive.”

T h is is not by any means an isolated instance, but has

m a n y readers and patrons a cordial

been general throughout the country, not,

however,

many cases without difficulties to overcom e.

T h ese have

greeting

been surm ounted by hard work with the most pleasing

for

C h ristm as

and best

results.

w is h e s in the N e w Year.

Captain “ P eople used

C olchester to

laugh

W em yss at

T he

of th e V o lu n tary A id

South African W ar revealed many

results, it is this V oluntary

in

we take our share.”

arrangem ent for the care of the sick and wounded arriving in this country

O rganisation ,

from

the

seat

of

operations.

The

history of that cam paign teems with

o b se rv e s:

A id.

No

For

ourselves,

we

A id O rganisation

rejoice

which the members of S .J .A .B .

one

m ovem ent has

justified, first, by the necessity for it, and then

defects in our military organisation, and no departm ent more than in the

further

V olu ntary

laughs at it n o w ; and if ever a

The Test

in

also

to

see

been

by

the

in which the

part

are playing in this war.

Already over 7,000 members have been m obilised, and serv­ ing in one or other o f the R eserves or

with

the

E xp e­

instances of m isguided effort and of enthusiastic, but un­

ditionary Force, and when the tum ult o f the battle dies

trained and incom petent, workers who, far from being of

away may it be rem em bered—

service, only ham pered those who really possessed the necessary skill to enable them to be o f assistance.

To

overcom e the defects the schem e o f V oluntary A id was form ulated,

and

now

the

organisation

which

W hen war broke out we had misapprehensions that com ­ would

arise, but events

have

T h e deeds o f mercy.

was

the outcom e o f the schem e is undergoing its practical test. plications

W e do pray for mercy, A n d that sam e prayer doth teach us all

proved these

T h e citizens of Bristol have presented an am bulance for service at the Front. M essrs. M ulletts, C arriage and M otor-Body W orks, L td., o f Bristol, secured the order.


— F I R S T

102

JThe Grand fPriorg of the Grder of the Hospital 0} St. 3ohtt of Jerusalem in Sngland. AM BU LAN CE

3The St.

DEPARTM ENT.

D UTY ROSTER.

D E P U T Y C O M M IS S IO N E R :

-------

L IE U T .-C O L .

LEES

H ALL.

D e c e m b e r , 19 1 4

Kingdom ; while the members of the Southend and Westcliffe section, not able to volunteer for active service, are doing orderly duty at the Queen Mary’s Naval Hospital so far as their time and circumstances will permit, such members giving general satisfaction by their keenness in their work and the efficient manner in which they carry out their duties.

John .Ambulance Srigade.

1 D istrict.

No.

AID. -

No. 2 D istrict. C h e l t e n h a m . — The consignment of articles forwarded to the St. John Ambulance warehouse, on November 3rd, by the Cheltenham and District Corps of the St. John Ambulance Brigade totalled the goodly number of 308 articles for use in the hospitals. One hundred and sixty-four of these articles were made by the members of the Nursing Division of the above Corps, and the remainder by the wives and friends of members of the other Division'.

J A N U A R Y 1915. Sunday Duty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. Sunday, 3rd.— No. 48 Division. „ 10th.— No. 22 „ No. 4 D istrict. „ 17 th.— No. 1 „ „ 24th— No. 37 „ B o l t o n . — Bolton has the honour of claiming the first 31st.— No. 38 „ ambulance man to be mentioned in despatches, this distinction 2.30 p.m. to 8.30 p.m. As per separate orders. Key from falling to Sergt. E. W alch, in connection with the bombardment St. John’s Gate, 2 p.m. of Antwerp. Sergt. Walch, who was one of the first members of the D IV IS IO N A L B O O K S A N D F O R M S. Bolton Corps to volunteer foi active service, is in the Royal There are still many Divisions which have not yet sent in Naval Sick Berth Reserve, and is attached to the Naval their Books and Forms. These must be sent in at the earliest Brigade of the Royal Marine Light Infantry. During the possible moment. operations at Antwerp he was in charge of a naval field ambu­ D U T Y R E T U R N S— PLACE S OF AM U SEM EN T. lance, having 24 men under his direction, of whom five were members of the Bolton Corps. The ambulance was actually Those Divisions which are continuing these duties are under fire, and it is in recognition of his skilful handling of his requested to forward returns to Headquarters as regularly as men that Sergt. Walch is mentioned in Major-General Paris’s possible. official despatch. Sergt. W alch, who is a member of the L. C H R IS T M A S H O L ID A Y S . and Y. Division of the Corps, was one of the first members The District Office will be closed for business (except in when the Corps was formed in, Bolton 10 years ago, and has connection with mobilisation) from December 18th until been a member of the Naval Sick Berth Reserve since this work January 4th, 1915. was taken up locally. He is well-known in connection with the L. & Y. Railway competitions, and is hon. secretary of the O F F IC E R S S U B S C R IP T IO N S . Dr. Young competitions. Altogether, 282 members of the Officers are reminded that these are now due and should Bolton Corps have responded to Corps Supt. F. Lomax’s appeal be forwarded to the District Secretary as soon as possible. for volunteers for active service, and of these 167 are with the P R O P O S E D B R IG A D E H O S P IT A L F O R THE Navy. E X P E D IT IO N A R Y FORCE. Reports have come to hand that Mr. W. Carlton Rothwell and Mr. Ormerod, the two Bolton ambulance men who were It is proposed to furnish a General Hospital, which, with despatched for hospital duty by Chief Supt. Lomax, on Sep­ the exception of a few special appointments, will be staffed by tember 25th, obtained promotion, first as corporals, and, later, Members of the Brigade. Volunteers are required, and names as sergeants in the R.A.M .C. They are now in charge of one should be submitted to Headquarters as soon as possible, of of the three Military Field Hospitals (the 65) at East Bletchingthose members of the Corps who are desirous of serving with ton. this Unit. Reierring to this, a letter received says : —“ Bolion is doing The appointment of Supt. Chas. Statham of No. 10 D ivi­ well, as we are the only two to be promoted yet, and the only sion to be Acting Corps Secretary for Mohilisation duties two from Bolton. There are six privates and a corporal here during the continuance of the War, is hereby notified. from Accrington, and three privates from Blackpool, and one or two from Southern Divisions, but all are St. John Ambu­ It is hereby notified that during the absence of Lieut.-Col. lance men ; and Major Goddard (the Commanding officer) has Lees Hall from the District on Active Service with the stated that the St. John men are far and away the best.” R.A.M .C., Assistant Commissioner will be in charge of the Sergeant Rothwell, who is a lieutenant in the Bolton Boys’ District. Brigade, has since been promoted to the position of Quarter­ (Signed) W. H. W IN N Y , master of the Hospital. Acting Deputy-Commissioner. Headquarters :--St. John’s Gate, Clerkenwell, E.C. A M em orial Service for the late Field-M arshal Earl Roberts, a K n ight o f Justice of the O rder of the H ospital S o u t h e n d & W e s t c l i f f S e c t i o n o f N o. 7 ( T o y n b e e o f St. John of Jerusalem in England, was held at H o ly H a l l ) D i v i s i o n . — This Division have dealt with three lots of T rinity Church, Boulogne, at the same time as the Funeral w o u n d e d from the front which have been brought to the Queen Service in St. P aul’s Cathedral. T h e M em orial Service Mary’s Naval Hospital, Southend-on-^ea. The first to arrive was attended by Surgeon-General Sir Arthur Sloggett, were 158 of the Belgian troops, straight from the firing line, 23 of K C .B , K n igh t of G race of the Order, Lieut.-Colonel the these being stretcher cases. The second were 101 British R ight Hon. Sir Savile Crossley, Bart., K .C .V .O ., K n ight troops, these coming from Plymouth, where the more serious cases were kept back, whilst those not so badly wounded were of G race of the Order, the Staff of the St. John and British drafted to Southend. The third contingent to arrive were R ed Cross Com m ission and the Nurses and Orderlies of 153 British troops, 27 of which were stretcher cases, the the A m bulance D epartm ent of the Order. majority of these being cases of frost bite in the foot, &c. It is a very pleasing fact to record that 31 members of the W h en corresponding w ith A d ve rtisers please No. 7 Division are serving their King and country as hospital m ention “ F irst Aid ” orderlies at the front and in various hospitals in the United


December, 1914.

E x a m in a t io n By

F I R S T

R e q u ir e m e n ts.

N. C O R B E T F L E T C H E R , B .A ., M .B ., B .C.(Cantab), M .R .C .S . (Author of a Com pendium of Aids to First Aid.) (Continued from page 86.)

B.— T E A M T E S T S . A n a t u r a l , though none the less remarkable, develop­ ment in First A id has been the gradual evolution of A m bulance Com petitions in which teams o f candidates (who com pete against each other or, as the word signifies, “ seek the same object together ” ) are exam ined in T reat­ ment and Transport. T h e severity of the T ests has, as we shall see, increased year by year until we have to-day trained bodies of men, who are fully qualified and ready to

A I D . —

already been written about the Individual applies with equal force to the T eam Tests, since in both the main object is to display and to acquire K n ow led ge and Experience. I I .— M E T H O D S OF TEAM TESTS. A s in the Individual Tests, an attem pt is m ade to com bine exam ination in the T h eo ry and P ractice o f First Aid, o f which the last named, being the all im portant factor, must always take precedence. In discussing the M ethods we must consider not only the progressive developm ent but also certain serious difficulties which exist and tend to handicap the usefulness o f Team Tests. (1.)— H

ist o r ic a l

R

e v ie w

of

T

eam

T

ests.

T h e changes in A m bu lan ce Com petitions which have taken place during recent years is a proof o f increasing Efficiency and a dem onstration o f the difficulties e x ­ perienced by examiners in the selection o f the best and most capable teams. T hese changes fall naturally into three stages.

This photograph is of the wounded at the Church Hall, Battle, with the members of the local Red Cross Detachment. Mrs. Smithe, Commandant, is in the centre; on her right is Mrs. Sheppard, matron; and on her left Mrs. D a v i s , quartermaster. do duty as stretcher bearers in the field o f battle, to carry out efficiently the difficult task o f transporting the wounded, and to act as orderlies in the M ilitary Hospitals. I — D E F IN IT IO N AND O B JE CTS TEAM TESTS.

OF

T h e Exam inations o f T eam s differ from those of Individuals only in that we have the advantages and dis­ advantages o f a fixed num ber of competitors, who present themselves for Com bination (usually called, Stretcher) and also Individual Tests. T h e total num ber o f marks obtained in both sections of the exam ination gives the victory and places the teams in their order of merit. This co-operation of several candidates is the one elem ent of difference in the exam ination, of which the Stretcher Section, as the outward evidence o f co-operation, is the crux and essential part. Apart from this, what has

(a).— F ir s t Stage. Treat?nent without Diagnosis. A few years ago such a T est as “ Treat this patient for a fractured leg,” served adm irably for both selective and educational purposes, since the m ethod of procedure of the team, the care of the patient, and the neatness in bandaging quickly placed one team in advance o f the others. T h e im m ediate outcom e o f this was a rise in the standard of Efficiency, accom panied by a desire for Realism , which made these T ests unsatisfactory, because they proved insufficient for differentiation between the com petitors, and because in practice the patient is not labelled with a card of the actual injuries present. (b).— Second Stage.

Treatment w ith M odified Diagnosis.

T h is difficulty was met by the introduction of Team Tests, in which the signs and sym ptom s o f various injuries and conditions were clearly set forth. Such tests, in which


— F I R S T

104

elem entary problem s of D iagnosis were for the first time introduced, served their object for a period. Q uickly, however, the standard o f Efficiency again rose, since all the competitors, who were properly acquainted with their T e x t B ook, developed marked powers of elementary D iagnosis which they com bined with their previous skill in Treatm ent. T h e result was a recurrence o f the old difficulties of selection on merit and a further cry for Realism , because it was argued that in an em ergency, although the signs and symptoms were present, they were not definitely entered up on an indicating card. (c).-— T h ird Stage. Treatment w ith Complete Diagnosis. In face o f this levelling up process and of the steady increase in E fficiency of the com peting teams, no option was allowable to the Exam iners except to introduce m oderate problem s of D iagnosis with Treatm ent. T o this step no exception can be taken, provided always that Treatm ent, as the more im portant element, carries with it the larger proportion of marks, and provided that the candidates are not encouraged to interfere unnecessarily in any em ergency. In other words, we must with unabated consistency and firmness apply to Diagnosis the same restrictions as to Treatm ent. To-day, therefore, the T ests are essentially practical, as far as a Com petition Room will allow, and an attempt is m ade to figure the scene and surroundings of some real em ergency. A part from this, nothing is told to the candidates, though facilities are given to them to discover for them selves all the facts, signs, symptoms, & c., which may be available and necessary for the elucidation o f the problem before them. T h is they can do, if they know the right way to go to work, because, the Picture and the Requirem ents o f the E m ergency being before them, they have only to supply the correct M ethods. Lastly, there has been quite recently a tendency to adopt, as T eam Tests, every-day em ergencies rather than some rare and out-of-the-way com binations of circum stances. Such Tests, it is found, provide more valuable experience and practical instruction to the candidates, while they necessitate an attention to minor details, without whicb marks are easily lost in Com petition and differentiation between teams is rendered correspondingly easy. (2).— D

if fic u lt ie s

of

T

eam

T

ests.

A ll Team T ests possess in com m on an outstanding difficulty in that they are games of “ let's p r e t e n d which must be carried out under conditions o f unreality. They, therefore, fail to provide a com plete Picture of the Em ergency, and to give to an experienced First A ider that instinctive opinion of the most likely injuries or condition presented, which he m ight expect and would be able to form in a real em ergency. Further, this difficulty of un­ reality applies more particularly to the m odifying factors of all such problem s, viz., the Patient and the Em ergency. (a).— The Patient. T h e share which the Patient has in our gam e of T eam T ests is usually most successful, because he seems to enter upon his duties whole heartedly and manages to look very seedy and ill ! A s his health, however, is excellent, he cannot portray realistically the part o f a man who is suffering agonies from som e injury, which will both produce general effects on the Patient and give local signs at the Part. Am ongst such injuries we include fractures, dis­ locations and sprains. In these cases the difficulty can be overcom e by indicating, through the Patient or through the card, the presence of pain in the P a r t ; while, if a com ­

AID. —

Decem ber, 1914.

pound fracture of the ankle is the supposed injury, a slip o f paper, so labelled, can be placed within the sock. External haemorrhage also produces general and local signs, and when severe would probably not be missed in a real emergency by the least efficient candidate, although it is often overlooked in com petition. It is, therefore, dis­ heartening when, having passed his hand over the supposed bleeding area, a com petitor receives no hint or is not told that the part is damp, much less bloodstained. T o cope with this difficulty, it has been suggested that the face of the Patient can be rendered white with chalk, while the Part from which the blood is supposed to be escaping can be covered with bright red cloth, outside the clothes, if the haemorrhage is severe; and beneath, if only slight. Again, with other local injuries, such as burns, scalds, etc., we can do a great deal towards m aking the injury appear more real by the use o f similar pieces of cloth, selecting for this purpose a pink colour which would represent a reddish raw surface. (b).— The Emergency. W e have seen how the difficulties o f Team Tests can be more or less minimised with reference to the Patient, but we must confess that we are faced with a much more serious problem when we consider the Place and Sur­ roundings o f the Em ergency. N evertheless, if the T e st is to be practical, then som ething must be done to fix the leading characteristics o f the Place. Thus, in a Team T est, where a fractured leg is supposed to have been sustained in a cricket field by one of the players, many marks may be lost by a team, whose members forget to make use of the stumps and shinpads, which are ready to their hands for use as splints. Apart from this the work of the team may have been excellent, and yet in these days o f close results in Com petition Exam inations the marks lost may make all the difference between the first and the sixth position in the final list. If, however, any one of this team found him self at any time called upon to treat a similar fracture in a cricket-field, then it is most im probable that he would neglect to use the cricket stumps and pads, the proximity of which would im m ediately suggest their extreme useful­ ness for the purpose. Although, therefore, it is not possible to introduce all the details of the supposed P lace of the Em ergency, yet much can be done by means o f labels attached to pieces o f furniture, &c. Thus, on one occasion we selected as our Place a R a il­ way G oods Y ard and fixed up two wooden bicycle crates to represent two goods-wagons, between which the Patient had been buffered. A b ou t five yards away we stood on end a drain-pipe, three feet in height, with a card on which in plain letters was written “ H ydraulic Capstan.” T h e T eam Captains (who exercised the Principles of First Aid and made use o f their powers of observation and resource­ fulness) promptly gave orders to man the capstan and release the patient without delay. Som e of the others, however, who were equally anxious to pay imm ediate attention to the injured man, did not notice the convenient capstan ; but single-handed and disdainfully they tossed the wooden structures on one side, forgetting that these represented and were marked as heavy goods-w agon s! T h e latter candidates, therefore, had no cause for com ­ plaint when they subsequently discovered that their apparently more prom pt treatment had been heavily penalised. Again, on another occasion, we im agined a serious em ergency in a com partm ent o f an express train which was travelling at sixty miles an hour. T h e com ­


December, 1914.

— F I R S T

munication cord was broken, and the scene was depicted by means of two garden-seats with two wooden frameworks, which represented the doors. T h e candidates were placed within the compartm ent, and the card of instructions was handed in through the window of the supposed closed door. T h e Captain of one team fell into the trap and without a mom ent’s delay despatched two of his men to the ju d ge’s table for splints and b an d ag es! On the ground that these two men were probably dead on the line, the team was forthwith disqualified, and it is to their credit that all the members afterwards adm itted that the decision was a just one. In such ways, therefore, some o f the difficulties of the P lace and its surroundings may be encountered, and cards plainly labelled in block lettering may be stuck up on posts, & c., in various positions and at various heights to designate such objects as shops, trucks, lamp-posts, &c. *

*

*

*

*

*

*

If it be objected, as it has been objected even by the competitors, that such devices with reference to the Patient and the Em ergency tend to make the Team Tests too easy and straightforward, then the answer is that the Judge is examining the K n ow ledge and Experience of candidates in the treatment of the sick and injured, and not their powers of carrying in their minds a detailed Picture of a difficult and im aginary Em ergency. ( To be concluded.)

A M o to r O p e r a t in g V a n . S ir

W illiam

C o l l in s,

who

recen tly

returned

from

a

o n e o f th e p r a c tic a l s u g g e s tio n s his visit in sp ir e d w as t h e p r o v i s i o n o f m o t o r v e h i c l e s f i t t e d u p a s f i e l d t h e a t r e s or to

wounds

ing theatre, there is a separate com partm ent where the surgeon can make a com plete toilet before perform ing an operation. On each side o f the van is folded a tent, which can be let down or fixed up in about five minutes. E ach tent covers about twenty-six square metres, and has trans­ parent panels in the sides, whilst they can be illum inated at night by powerful lamps placed in the side windows of the van.

R e v ie w s . DR.

co u ld

he

1 his fact lends interest to a type of vehicle produced some years ago by Schneider et Cie. From the draw­ ings reproduced on this page by courtesy of “ M otor T raction ,” it will be seen that the greater part of the body is equipped as an operating theatre. In addition to the operating table in the centre, are carried a sterilising plant, electrically driven instruments for drilling, sawing and tre­ panning, X-ray apparatus for locating bullets, and a radio­ graphy plant for tracing in broad daylight bullet wounds or the outlines of an organ of a patient. T h ere is also plant for sterilising by ultra-violet rays, at the rate of 600 litres an hour, all the water used. T h e operating theatre can be thoroughly sterilised by ozone. In addition to the operat­

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“ FIR ST

A ID .”

B y W . E . St. L a u r e n c e F in n y , M . D . , M .C . H . L o n d o n : M u r b y & C o . , 6, B o u v e r i e - s t r e e f .

Price 6d. net. T h i s l it t le b o o k p r e s e n t s t w o s o m e w h a t o r i g i n a l f e a t u r e s . ( 1 ) T h e in j u r i e s a n d t h e fi r st a i d m o d e s o f t h e i r t r e a t m e n t , a s t a u g h t b y t h e S t . J o h n A m b u l a n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , a r e d e a l t w it h in a c o n c i s e a n d c o m p l e t e e p i t o m e a n d a r e c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to system s. (2) T h e i n t e r l e a v i n g s u p p l i e s s t u d e n t s w h o a r e a t t e n d i n g a m b u l a n c e l e c t u r e s w it h a n o t e - b o o k in w h i c h to r e c o r d t h e m e th o d s s p e c ia lly a d v o c a te d b y th eir lecturers. C l a s s i f y i n g in j u r i e s u n d e r s y s t e m s o f t h e b o d y is a m e t h o d o f t e a c h i n g w h i c h a p p e a l s t o us, a s it is a m o s t h e l p f u l w a y o f i m p r e s s i n g u p o n t h e s t u d e n t a c c i d e n t a l in j u r i e s a s s o c i a t e d w it h the variou s system s. T h e b o o k w il l b e f o u n d e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l to a m b u l a n c e s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g l e c t u r e s a n d to t h o s e w i s h i n g to r e f r e s h t h e i r m e m o r y f r o m t i m e to t im e .

TH E

s p e c ia l m is s io n o f h o s p it a l in s p e c t io n a t t h e front, s a id t h a t

su rgeries, w h e r e th e earliest a tte n tio n given.

AID. —

S O L D IE R S ’ E N G LISH AND C O N V E R SA TIO N BOOK.

FRENCH

C o m p iled b y W . M. G allich an . L o n d o n : T . W e r n e r L a u rie , Ltd.

Price jd . net. T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s h a n d b o o k is to h e l p t h e B r i t i s h s o l d i e r in o r d i n a r y c o n v e r s a t i o n w it h o u r F r e n c h a n d B e l g i a n A l l i e s d u r in g w arfare. T h e c o m p i l e r h a s s o u g h t c a r e f u l l y to i n c l u d e o n l y t h o s e w o r d s a n d p h r a s e s l i k e l y to b e o f u s e to' t h e s o l d i e r . F o r th is r e a s o n t h e b o o k is q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e u s u a l p h r a s e b o o k s c o m p i l e d fo r t h e h o l i d a y - t o u r i s t . I t c o n t a i n s s e n t e n c e s o n m i l i t a r y m a t t e r s w h i c h , e v e n to t h o s e w h o h a v e a k n o w l e d g e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l F r e n c h , w ill b e f o u n d u se ful.

T h e am bulance arrangem ents inside St. Paul's Cathedral on the occasion of Lord R oberts’ funeral were carried out by volunteers of No. 30 D ivision o f St. Tohn Am bulan ce Brigade, under the direction o f A m bulan ce Officer L. L. Franks.


i o6

— F I R S T

Tem porary

H o sp itals.

H. M A IN W A R IN G HOLT, M .R .C .S ., L S .A ., D .P .H ., H on. A ssociate of the Order of St. John, L ife M em ber of, and Lecturer and Exam iner to, the S .J .A .A ., D istrict Inspector o f Stores (E R . Yorks.) No. V I. District, S .J.A .B . By

A I D . —

December, 1914.

purpose, and readily placed the schools, which illustrate these articles, at the disposal of the local V .A .D . for use as a Tem porary Hospital, and I take this opportunity of ex­ pressing not only my personal indebtedness to them, but also the thanks of the Association to which I have the honour to belong. H aving regard to what I have previ­ ously written in respect to the class of building capable of being adapted for use as a Tem porary H ospital, there does not seem to be any necessity for recapitulation here. F unds.

( Concluded from page 93). W ays

and

M eans.

we assume that the setting up of a Tem porary H ospital had never been attem pted by the m ajority of V oluntary A id D etachm ents in this country up to August of the present year, we shall not be far from the truth ; if we go further, and state that local am bulance and nursing organisations were rushed into m aking provision for the sick and wounded as a result of the clam our of public opinion, we shall com e near to f a c t ; but, if we say that we were unprepared, and lacked the necessary know ledge and experience for such work, we shall arrive at som ething like the truth. If

T he

P u blic .

It was rem arkable to note how quickly the public realised the shortcom ings of an organisation dependent upon voluntary effo rt; nevertheless, that same public was not slow in recognising its own responsibility, and by a generous response to the call for aid to such organisation, in som e way m ade am ends for its previous indifference. E qu ipm en t

and

P ersonnel.

W e shall assum e that the local V .A .D . have had due notice from the C ou n ty D irector to the effect that a T e m ­ porary H ospital may be required in their district, and that such notice has been accom panied by general suggestions as to the various requirements. T h e first thing to be done is to make arrangem ents for a public meeting, which shall be addressed by speakers interested in the subject and acquainted with the organisation and equipm ent o f sim ilar institutions. T h e next thing is to advertise the time and place of such meeting, and to set forth the object for which it has been c a lle d ; such appeal to the public should be signed by the C ou n ty Director. T o many attending the m eeting the subject of am bu­ lance organisation would be new, hence a brief summary of the work would be necessary to arouse interest. An appeal might be made to young men and women to join classes in “ first aid ” and “ hom e nursing,” with a view of obtaining certificates in these subjects and thereafter be­ com ing eligible to join the local divisions of the St. John A m bulan ce Brigade or V oluntary A id D etachm ent. T h is opportunity of inviting the young people to take part in the work of am bulance should not be missed, since it is important that they should realise that each is capable of doing useful service in the cause o f humanity, and that the tim e to begin is “ N ow .” Follow ing upon this short appeal to the younger mem­ bers of the public, the subject o f m aking suitable provision for the setting up of a T em porary H ospital would next en­ gage attention. T h e first item would be the selection of a building, and in this question the audience might be asked to m ake suggestions or offers. Fortunately, the school managers o f the district to which I belong were present at the first m eeting called for the above-nam ed

T h e im portant question of funds to carry out the work must receive the most careful attention. T h e public must be assured that the money subscribed will be spent upon actual n e e d s ; indeed, the principal object of such funds is to provide food and comforts for the sick. An alert V .A .D . treasurer will add to his reputation at the same time as he increases his balance at the bank if he adheres to the foregoing precept. M oney should not be spent in bedsteads, bedding, or, indeed, in furnishings or “ fittings ” o f any kind. I have stated this before, and I state it again for emphasis. B e d s, B e d d in g , & c .

A t the first m eeting the public must be asked to supply “ single ” beds, with bedding, the next call should be for blankets, sheets, counterpanes, roller towels, wash­ basins, & c., in fact through all items that go to furnish a ward. Y o u may next appeal for baths, kitchen utensils, cleansing materials, down to soda and soft soap, and, what is more, you will get all these things if you clearly state why you want them, and that the money collected is set aside for other and even more necessary needs. O f course, most o f these articles would be on loan and returned to lenders in due course. D rugs

and

E m ergency

R e q u isit e s.

T h ere is no necessity to spend much money on surgery requisites or even upon drugs. Som e well-meaning lady sent me a list of drugs that were necessary for a T em ­ porary H o s p ita l; how she cam e to know my ignorance upon such matters I cannot conceive, but I will confess that one half were only known to me by name, and of the rem ainder less than h alf were likely to be of use. In these days it is much better not to stock drugs for em ergencies ; but I am digressing and spending my time in anecdote. D octors

and

T r a in e d

N urses.

T here will, probably, be ladies present at the m eeting who have passed through a course of training in one or more branches of nursing and, consequently, hold certificates as hospital trained nurses. It is especially desirable that these ladies should volunteer to serve on the staff o f the proposed Tem porary H o s p ita l; the treatment o f the sick and the w ounded involves great responsibilities upon both doctors and nurses, and no hospital can be recognised un­ less these responsibilities are undertaken by duly qualified m edical men and hospital-trained and certificated women. T h e real am bulance man or woman makes no pretence to the qualifications here referred to, but both claim to be able to carry out com m onsense instructions intelligently, and that is all that is required o f them in V .A .D . work. C leaners.

O ne more appeal for help, and this to a class of workers whose aid is o f first-rate im portance in the m ain­ tenance o f the health conditions of the hospital : I refer to the “ cleaners ” and thuse who take up the less showy portions o f hospital work, the well-being of the patient


— F I R S T

December, 1914.

being greatly influenced for good or ill in proportion as the work done by these hum ble members of the staff is done well or badly. In a properly regulated hospital every in­ dividual should be made to understand his work and the reason for its execution. T o know your duty is to do your duty. G eneral

C o m m itte e .

H avin g got promises of money, furniture, and other goods, the next thing is to form a Com m ittee for the working o f such hospital. Possibly six to eight ladies, and the same num ber o f gentlem en, might be asked to form a Com m ittee with an equal num ber of members o f the local V oluntary A id D etachm ents. It must not be forgotten that in order to work a T em ­ porary H ospital, at least four times the ordinary staff must be on the roll of volunteers, since working-men and women are not able to give their whole time to the service of the hospital, though they are quite willing to give a portion of their time to the work ; hence it com es about that one of the first duties o f the G eneral Com m ittee will be to arrange for work being done by relays o f willing workers. Lists should be made of all who volunteer, cooks, tailors, joiners, dressmakers and the like. H ere is a schem e of the staff o f a Tem porary H ospital o f 3 0 beds :— T emporary

H o s p i t a l ( 3 0 B e d s ).

M e d ic a l O fficer i n C h a r g e .

L a d y S u p e r in te n d e n t .

AID. — T emporary

It is absolutely necessary to issue daily Orders for some time in detail, for it is not to be expected that voluntary workers will be able to fall into the discipline of even a Tem porary H ospital all at once. T h e subjoined balance sheet, with a short explanatory note of the expenditure and receipts, may be of interest :— BALANCE

S H E E T FROM A U G U S T O C T O B E R 14T H.

Staff. M e d ic a l.

N u r s in g .

H o s p i t a l .— O r d e r s .

1. A ll school property to be under the care o f the person appointed by the School Managers. 2. N o cupboards to be opened or their contents dis­ turbed, unless by express consent o f the School M anagers. 3. T h e C om m ittee of the Tem porary H ospital will give the necessary instructions for the cleansing and furnish­ ing o f the various rooms selected for use as Wards, and will assist the C aretaker as far as possible in the mainten­ ance o f cleanliness and order. 4. On the com pletion of the furnishing o f a W ard, the door o f such W ard is to be kept locked by the C are­ taker until required by the M atron in charge. 5. N o one will be allowed to enter any W ard without the consent o f the N urse in charge, acting under the general instructions of the M atron. 6. T h e H ospital shall be opened for inspection by the Com m ittee direct. Signed--------------------------------D ated --------------------(R ank or Position).

13TH

TO

R e c e ip t s. K itc h e n .

D o m e s tic .

-£>39 2

T o Subscriptions ...

5

E x p e n d it u r e . A ssista n t P h a r m a c is t.

N u r s in g ( S is t e r s ) .

Staff. K itc h e n ( C ooks).

A u d ito r .

D o m e s t ic (H o u s e m a id s )

T rea su rer.

Meat and groceries ... Fuel ................................................... Dressings, drugs and bandages Material for shirt making ... Caretaker Cleaning Stationery and postage ............... Balance in band

S e c r e ta r y .

8

1

I I io i O O O 6 O

2

18

7

26 2 6^ I I 2 19 1 0 I

S to r e k e e p e r .

R e SE RYE S V .A .D . M en .

8 4

4 2

/139

Four Stretcher Squads. Four Sanitary Orderlies. Six Boy Scouts.

I

1 IO 6 M

V . A . D . W o m en .

Thirty Members of the D e ­ tachment, resident in the locality of the Hospital.

T h e Secretary will keep a list of names o f such voluntary workers and will post such as may be selected for duty on the notice board, together with other orders and notices. If the Tem porary H ospital happens to be an Elem entary School, it is well to obtain the co-operation o f the School M an ag ers; in any case it is desirable to work in harmony with those who have placed a building at our disposal, since we are only “ tenants at will,” and must therefore defer to the wishes of the owner or owners of our Tem porary H ospital. It must happen that a certain amount of time is taken in preparing a building before it can be opened as a hospital, meantime, care must be taken to avoid confusion, and for this reason definite orders must be issued and posted for the information of all concerned in the work o f setting up such hospital. H ere is an example o f such issue :—

2

5

N ote.— T h is represents the expenditure for 21 patients for the period of six weeks, averaging four a week, and repre­ sents an average cost of 15s. lo d . per day, or about 4s. per day per patient, including establishm ent charges, coal, light, etc. T h e generosity of the public in sending gifts o f provisions, articles o f clothing, & c., and the liberality of the staff in providing their own food, together with the assistance of a large body of voluntary workers, accounts in some measure for the low expenditure.

A fund is being raised to provide uniform and equip­ ment for members of the R tven sth o rp e D ivision, who have volunteered for service in the M ilitary and N aval Hospitals. A special concession with respect to Incom e-tax has been made by the G overnm ent to persons who, by patrioti­ cally taking up service in any o f the forces o f the crown, or by serving abroad in the British R ed Cross, or St. J o h n A m bu lan ce Societies, have lost a portion o f their income. D uring the present war all such persons are to be assessed on their actual receipts instead o f the three years’ average.


i o8

— F I R S T

B r e v it ie s .

AID. —

December, 1914.

or other of the Reserves have in many cases again made up to full strength. *

* *

In

the H ouse o f Com m ons, recently, Mr. Thom as asked

whether at the outbreak o f the war members o f the St. John A m b ulan ce B rigade were asked to volunteer for ser­ vice, and were paid 4s. per day and 10s. per week separation allow ance to the w ife ; that similar invitations had been issued to these men from the Adm iralty, the remuneration being 3s. per day and 6s. per week separation a llo w a n ce; and whether, having regard to the fact that these men were drawn from the same class and doing the same work, steps would be taken to m ake the rem uneration equal. Dr. M acnam ara said that members of the St. John A m bulance B rigade em ployed by the A dm iralty were en­ rolled in the R o yal N aval A uxiliary Sick Berth R eserve; such enrolments had been made at various dates since the establishm ent o f this R eserve in 1902. T h ere were different grades in the Reserve, the pay ranging from 3s. to 4s. 6d. per day, according to rating and nature o f em ploy­ ment, with increases of pay after six m onths’ service. T h e separation allow ance was in accordance with th e n iv y scale. It was not considered necessary now to alter these condi­ tions o f service, which had been accepted by the men on enrolm ent in the Reserve. In reply to Mr. Bennett-G oldney, the U n der Secretary for W ar (Mr. T ennant) said that members of the St. John A m b ulan ce Brigade who belonged to the M ilitary H om e H ospitals R eserve were enlisted into the R oyal Arm y M edical Corps for the “ duration of the w a r ” when called up for service. T h e services o f other St. John A m bulance B rigade men belonging to V oluntary A id D etachm ents might have been utilized locally by the military authorities in cases of em ergency, and for unloading hospital ships, trains, &e. In the latter case the period o f em ploym ent was tem porary and depended entirely on local conditions. H e was not aware of any com plaints o f non-paym ent for these services. V T he

G .W .R y. Co., a few months ago, instituted what

was called the “ s a fe ty ” movem ent, with the object to cultivate amongst their em ployees habits o f thought and consideration that will prevent injuries to them selves and their mates. T h e old proverb “ Fam iliarity breeds con ­ tem pt ” applies with full force to fam iliarity with danger. T h is m ovem ent has had most excellent results, and some­ thing might be done in other directions to educate work­ men to exercise care in their occupations. “ I t’s better to be careful on the jo b than sorry in hospital.” * * *

A s a result o f the war m any new D ivisions o f the Brigade are springing up all over the country, and when the returns are issued by headquarters it will be in the nature o f a surprise. In addition, those D ivisions which have been depleted ow'ing to their members belonging to one

T h e im portance o f teaching first aid and am bulance work to policem en, to the intelligent class o f em ployes in mills, mines and factories, and to all railway servants is

now universally acknow ledged ; but, unfortunately, the im ­ portance o f teaching these subjects to school children is not much recognised. T h e school, however, is the fittest and most convenient place for this branch of education, as indeed it is for many others, and the necessity o f an am bu­ lance training to the school boy is as great as, if not greater than, it is to the policem an, mill-hand, miner or railway officer ; for it is the school boy who will ultim ately go out into the world to be em ployed in the police, railway, mill and mine. N or is the training at all wasted upon those o f the students who are to follow other branches of life, for the aim of modern education, whether regarded from a mental or physical standpoint, is to prepare the individual for all the exigencies, since accidents, great or small, and sudden sickness, grave or slight, are such incident as every man will meet at some time or another. Bruises, cuts, wounds, sprain, dislocation, fracture, fainting, epileptic fits, insensibility from various causes, and drowning are such as will be met with in every walk o f life, including school life. If, then, the training is so universally useful, from a quiet hom e up to a bustling world, is not the school the fittest place for its aquisition ?— The Indian Ambulance Gazette. * * *

T h e series of articles on Exam ination Requirem ents, by Dr. N. C orbet Fletcher, will conclude with our January

issue. T h ere articles were written on the suggestion of one o f our readers, and we are assured by the letters o f appre­ ciation which have been received that the articles have met a long felt want am ongst am bulance students. Dr. Fletcher will be pleased to receive suggestions for further papers, as he is keen on facing our readers’ difficulties ; so perhaps they will be good enough to send them along to us.

V W e are glad to learn that S .J .A .A . has agreed to allow the men who are on active service to count this year as an examination. M any men take a great pride in obtaining their annual re-examination label, and we feel sure they will appreciate this concession as it will not prevent them from having their labels continuous.

* * * I t is proposed to form a Brigade H ospital of 5 2 0 beds which will be offered for services abroad, and th&personnel of which will be com posed o f members o f the S .J .A .B . A

grant will be given by the Joint R ed Cross Com m ittee towards the expenses, which are estim ated at ^ 50 ,000, and the public will be asked to subscribe.


D e c e m b e r , 19 1 4 .

The

A s h to n = u n d e r = L y n e

— F I R S T

A u x i lia r y

M i l i t a r y H o sp ita l. building is best known as the M echanics’ Institute, which, within the last few years, was purchased by the Ash ton M unicipal E ducation Authorities for the purpose o f a S chool for Cookery, A m bulance, Nursing, Typew riting, Joinery, M illinery, and Dressm aking. It is the headquarters o f the A m bulance and N ursing Divisions. W hen the [Division was com m anded to prepare the Institute for an Auxiliary M ilitary H ospital, the Education Authorities at once rem oved all the classes and placed the building at their disposal for that in which it is now in use, ■ "i T h e photo is that o f N o. 1 W ard, showing a moveable partition on the left, on the other side of which is an equal area No. 2 W ard, there being a full unit of 20 beds with 20 patients. T h e building is an up-to-date structure, the exterior of good design, the interior ideal in every respect, and is The

used for education offices and staff, besides that of school teaching already cited. T h e large room o f the two wards is very light— a lofty room with a semi-flat ceiling well arranged for ventilation, while the windows slide and are com plete with inverted rails for additional ventilation purposes. T h e heating is by hot-water pipes and radiators, giving a uniform temperature o f 60 degs. to 63 degs. Fahr. T h e lighting is by electricity throughout the building, with a m ultiplicity of switches for either one or more lights. T o each ward are two double-folding doors leading from very wide passages. T h e staircase, some 7 ft. wide, is splendid for stretcher cases, there being no difficulty in transit. On the same floor level of the wards are adjacent rooms : the lavatory, fitted with 9 lavatory basins, and 4 w .c .’s, the walls beautifully tiled, the floor being concreted ; doctors’ and officials’ room ; day room ; cloak room ; two baths also having been fitted up.

AID. — In the upper storey are : one retiring room for nurses and an extra day room, if required. T h ere is a splendidly-fitted up cooking and dining room on the ground floor. In the basem ent pack stores have been installed. Latterly the Post Office Authorities (Signalling D e ­ partm ent) have installed for use, free o f charge, a telephone exchange to be used lo c a lly ; to the 2nd W estern G eneral H ospital in M anchester, or anywhere else if needs be. T h e building is in the centre of the town and in close proxim ity to the railway stations o f the G reat Central, London & N orth Western, and Lancashire & Y orkshire Railw ay Com panies. It is a unique building and lends itself w onderfully well for what it is at present being used, viz., an A uxiliary Tem porary H ospital for wounded soldiers, the first batch of which consisted o f English, Irish, Scotch, W elsh and Belgians. T h e staff is as follows :— T h e m edical staff consists of Dr. Corns (Com m andant), Drs. P rice Talent, S. Spencer, Judd and Lawson, with Supt. D aniel H a ll (treasurer),

Private Jas. H . H all (secretary), and M iss H ulley (assistant secretary). T h e nursing staff is m ade up o f M atron L ad y Supt. Clara H ulley, Sisters Parnell and Cordingley, N urse Elliott, Nursing Sisters Platt, N eale, Chant, W int, Aldridge, W addicor, Gardner, D ean, S. Sm ith, M . Sm ith, Griffiths, Beaum ont, Richardson, V arley, G. W ild, L. .W ild , V alen ­ tine, Swindells, Braye, M acklin and B room head. Masseur and chiropodist, Mr. Joseph Cross.

M. G ustave Ador, President o f the R e d Cross Inter­ national Com m ittee, supported by the high authority of the F ederal C ouncil of Switzerland, has initiated negotia­ tions with the belligerents with a view to securing the release of all wounded prisoners o f war who have under­ gone am putations of limbs, rendering it im possible for them ever to take an active part in the war again.


no

— F I R S T

O ur

C o m p e titio n s.

T h e first prize f o r the D ecem ber Com petition has been awarded t o :— M iss E. T h o m p s o n , H olm w ood, C astle H ill, Parkstone, Dorset. and the second prize t o :— M iss L. G a r n h a m , 2, Carlton V illas, F ox H ill, N orw ood, S.E. T he

W in n in g

Paper.

1.— T h e precautions w hich must be observed in per­ forming artificial respiration are :— (a) Against obstruction to the air passages.— In Sylvester’s and H ow ard ’s methods the supine position of the patient is inclined to tend to the obstruction o f the air passages by the falling back o f the tongue into the pharynx, and also to the retention o f water in the lungs (in cases o f drowning). A ll necessary means must therefore be taken to facilitate the free admission o f air into all the air passages before artificial respiration is performed. For the same reason it is advisable to rem ove false teeth. (b) Against further injury being done through fracture o f the ribs or upper limbs. A quick exam ination should be made to ascertain if there is any fracture of the ribs or upper lim bs and a m ethod used, if any fracture be found, by which no further injury can be done. (c) Against injury being done to the liver or other abdom inal organs by too forcible pressure. In cases of drowning it is specially necessary to re­ m em ber that the liver is swollen and congested and ruptures easily. (d) Against driving foul air and poisonous gases into circulation by inducing inspiration before expiration. (e) Against any hindrance to the expansion o f the lungs by tight clothing. ( / ) A gainst the respiratory movem ents being made too quickly or too slowly. T h e rate should correspond with the norm al rate of breathing— 15 times a m inute for an adult and about 20 tim es for a child. (S ) Against allowing spectators to crowd round the patient and so lessening the supply o f fresh air. (h) Against stim ulants being given whilst the patient is unconscious. T h e epiglottis o f an unconscious person does not act and therefore it is dangerous to give one anything to drink. (i) A gainst taking the patient into a hot room im m ediately after recovery o f consciousness. T h is applies only to cases o f drowning when exposure has caused the circulation to becom e very feeble and it is necessary to prevent the blood from rushing too quickly into the tissues. (2). It is necessary to exercise great care in applying a tourniquet. (a). T o prevent mortification o f the lim b by the tourniquet being applied too tightly, or for too long a time. (b). T o prevent arterial blood from continuing to pass along the lim b owing to the part not having been accurately placed on the artery, as this may cause dangerous swelling and congestion because the venous blood cannot return through the com pressed veins.

AID. —

Decem ber, 1914.

( c) T o prevent unnecessary pain. 3.— T h e writer is called to render first aid to a person lying unconscious. (a) T h e following may be the causes of insensibility— Injuries o f Brain :— Concussion ; compression. D iseases of the Brain :— A poplexy ; epilepsy. Insufficient B lood Supply to Brain :— S y n c o p e ; col­ lapse ; electric shock. Im pure B lood Supply to Brain :— A lcoh olic and other poisoning ; suffocation. Various causes :— Sunstroke and heat-stroke; freezing ; uraemic ; convulsions ; eclampsia. (l>) I should distinguish between them by noting the following signs and symptoms, also history, o f each case— Concussion : — Respiration, shallow ; circulation, feeble ; temperature, skin cool (temperature below normal). Com pression :— Respiration, stertorous and shallow ; circulation, slow and f u ll; face, flushed ; eyes, insensible to light, pupils u n e q u a l; temperature, skin h o t ; general con­ dition, paralysis of one side of body. A poplexy :— Sym ptom s same as those o f compression ; can only be distinguished by the history. Epilepsy :— Convulsions lasting a few minutes ; deep sleep or stupor ; respiration, very laboured ; tongue bitten ; pupils dilated. Syncope :— Respiration, shallow ; circulation, feeble ; face pale, lips w h ite; temperature, skin cold and clammy, Collapse :— Sym ptom s same as those o f syncope, but more marked. Tem perature below normal. A lcoholic Poisoning (c o lla p se ):— Respiration, slow, slightly stertorous ; circulation, very fe e b le ; face pale, lips livid ; breath smells of a lco h o l; pupils dilated (may be con­ tracted) ; temperature, skin cold and clam m y. Opium Poisoning :— M uscles relax ed ; temperature, skin c o l d ; pupils contracted to pin points and fail to respond to lig h t; respiration, slow, stertorous, and later dangerously shallow ; face and lips, cold and b lu e ; circula­ tion, feeble. Insensibility may be caused by the taking o f many poisonous substances. T h e symptoms are usually those of collapse. Suffocation (A sp h y x ia ):— T h e cause o f this is usually obvious. Sunstroke and h ead strok e; respiration, ster­ torous ; circulation, quick and bounding ; face, congested ; temperature, skin dry and b u rn in g ; eyes, bloodshot. Freezing :— C ause obvious. Uraemic convulsions Pulse, hard ; frequent convul­ sive movem ents ; pupils, as a rule, co n tra cted ; breath, fo u l; tongue, furrect. Eclam psia :— Symptom s similar to those o f epilepsy ; loss of consciousness distinguishes an eclam ptic from h ysteria ; Eyes insensible to touch. (c) T h e treatment o f each condition is as follows :— (T h e patient having becom e unconscious before the writer was called to render first aid the treatment during the earlier stage of the illness is not given.) Arrest haemorrhage when necessary. L ay the patient on the back with head turned to one side and chin forward. I f the face is flushed raise the head and shoulders slightly. I f pale keep the head low. U n d o all tight clothing, but cover well. P rovide for a sufficiency of fresh air. Exam ine for fracture, and treat if necessary. G ive nothing by the mouth. I f respiration has ceased, perform artificial respiration. I f transport is essential, move the patient very carefully in a recum bent position; but do not otherwise attem pt it.


December, 19x4.

— F I R S T

If the face is flushed, as in com pression and apoplexy, apply cold to the head and heat to the lower lim bs (hot water bottles, covered, or hot flannels). F or heat-stroke, rem ove the patient to a cool, shady spot, strip to the waist and apply cold water freely to the head, neck and spine. W hen conscious give water to drink.

AID. — January 1st Prize, 5s.

In cases o f freezing, gently rub the frozen parts with snow and ice-cold water, and warm them by holding them between the hands. P lace the patient in a cool room and raise the temperature o f it gradually. K ee p the frozen part elevated, to lessen pain and lim it congestion, and, as re­ action occurs, adm inister warm drinks slowly, and wrap the parts up in cotton-wool. For uraemic convulsions, place the patient in bed be­ tween warm blankets and pack hot-water bottles round him. R em ove the cause of injury when possible, as electric shock (treatment as for collapse), asphyxia, etc. T reat burns without delay.

B y court's?]

in

Competition.

2nd Prize, a year’s subscription t o F

irst

A id . Q u e stio n s.

W hen in convulsions prevent the patient from injuring himself. Support the head and do not forcibly restrain the movements. P lace a piece o f wood or other hard sub­ stance, well padded, between the teeth. (It is not always necessary to send for a doctor for epilepsy, but if it is pos­ sible for the patient to be suffering from ecta n p sia no time must be lost in getting m edical aid). In all cases of collapse keep the patient very warm. A p ply warmth to the feet and to the pit o f the stom ach by hot water bottles (well covered) or hot flannels. In very severe cases, bandage the lim bs from the extrem ity of the limbs upwards and raise the foot o f the bed. When the patient can swallow give hot drinks, as milk, tea and coffee (add sugar).

i n

(1) H ow do the following classes o f poisons act in destroying life : Irritan t; corrosize ; system ic? (2) W hat information may be derived from the odour o f the breath in a person in an unconscious state ? (3)

H ow would recognise a fracture of the lower

jaw ? C o n d it io n s.

T h e following conditions must be noted and adhered to :— MS.S. must be written on one side of the paper only. There is no restriction as to length of answers, but same should not be unduly extended. Competitors must cut out the “ Competition Coupon from the current issue, and fill in their names and address. Their names must not appear on their papers. The Editor reserves the right to publish any paper submitted to competition. Any paper selected for pub­ lication will be regarded as the property of the Editor, who does not guarantee to return any of them, neither does he hold himself responsible for any papers lost. Entries in this competition will close on Jan. loth, 1915, and all matter must by that date be in the hands of the Editor, F i r s t A i d Offices, 46, Cannon-street, London, E.C., and the envelope marked “ Competition.”

^

The 2oh.p. Daimler ambulance that has been presented to the Indian Expeditionaiy Force by Her Majesty The Queen A similar vehicle has also been presented by the King.


I I2

— F I R S T

AID. -

Decem ber,

1914

BRITISH RED CROSS SOCIETY.

N otes

and

New s.

A n article appeared in The N u rsin g Times, on N ovem ber 28the on “ T h e V .A .D . m em ber : W hat she ought to be— and is.” In the article a number o f instances are men­ tioned o f V .A .D .’s establishing hospitals and practically taking the role o f trained nurses, thereby encroaching upon duties in which they are in no way suited, and it states that “ T h e R ed Cross Society initiated a schem e which has, at any rate, laid itself open to a great deal o f m isunderstand­ ing, resulting in bitter feeling between the trained and untrained at a tim e when all our energies are needed in constructive and not destructive work.” * * * I f the above statem ent expresses the feeling of the nursing profession, in our opinion it is an entirely erroneous attitude to adopt. In nearly all cases V .A .D .’s have endeavoured to obtain the assistance and co-operation of the m edical and nursing professions, with the result that they have reached a high degree o f efficiency, which has been com m ented upon by many em inent m edical authori­ ties. A t the outbreak of war D etachm ents ,in the first flush of enthusiasm, form ed tem porary hospitals without authority, but these have since been disbanded, and only those which have official recognition are now running. *■ ■ * * W e have the assurance from both the R ed Cross Society and the St. John that only trained nurses have gone to the front to nurse the wounded under their auspices, and we can only conclude that the untrained women, to which The N u rsin g Times, refers have gone out on their own initiative. N early every county branch of the R ed Cross Society, and also the St. John impress upon its mem bers the qualifications necessary to be a trained nurse, and we feel sure they fully realise these and in no way attem pt to pose as trained nurses. It is regrettable, having in view the am ount of leisure tim e and money mem­ bers o f the V .A .D .’s spend to becom e proficient in the duties they have been called upon to perform, that there should exist a spirit o f hostility on the part o f the trained nurse towards them. •* * * N ew regulations have been issued by the W ar Office with regard to the equipm ent o f Field A m bulances. In future the transport will consist o f seven motor and three horse-drawn am bulances. T h is inform ation will be o f in­ terest to those who are now engaged in organising field am bulances, and we would advise them to apply to the Secretary of the W ar Office for a copy of the new docum ent

in which all details with regard to the personnel and equip­ ment o f field am bulances are fully set forth.

It is a great satisfaction to be able to state that those in authority are attacking the problem o f the outbreak of typhoid in the Belgian Arm y in a most resolute spirit. T h e Joint Com m ittee of the British R ed Cross Society and the O rder of St. John, without definitely deciding on the pre­ cise form in which assistance can be best rendered, have, in view o f the extrem e urgency o f the case, decided to make an im m ediate advance o f ^ 1 0 ,0 0 0 to be expended in Calais under the direction of the C h ie f Com m issioner of the two societies, General Sir Arthur Sloggett. A ll that is done will be done in co-operation with the French military and civil authorities. T his action o f the Joint Com m ittee has enabled instant steps to be taken to meet the emer­ gency, even if it be im possible at the mom ent to determ ine the lines o f future action for preventing the spread o f the disease. T h e Joint Com m ittee has acted prom ptly and wisely in the interest alike o f the Belgian soldiers and o f the troops o f all the Allies fighting on the C on ­ tinent. * * * It has now been decided that women orderlies will be selected by the M atrons’ Selection B oard at St. John ’s Gate, Clerkenwell, from lists furnished by the heads o f the R ed Cross and St. John V .A .D . organisations. T h eir duties will be to assist in every way, directly and indirectly, the work which is being done for the wounded. T h e y will help in hospital kitchens, in house work and ward work, and in secretarial work and also at rest stations. E ach candidate must hold a certificate for first aid and home nursing, must speak French, require no salary, and have had several weeks’ practical work in a hospital. After being called up for duty all expenses will be paid, unless otherwise desired. * * * T h e Governm ent, at the request o f the W ar Office, has placed at the disposal of the W ar Joint Com m ittee of the British R ed Cross Society and the St. John A m bulance Association the N ew Stationery Office in Stamfort-street. T h e building will be adapted to the needs o f a hospital by the Office o f Works, and the Joint Com m ittee has been asked to equip the building and provide the p er­ sonnel. It is estim ated that the hospital will contain 1,650 beds. ^ 2 5 will provide a bed and its necessary hospital equipm ent, and the public were asked to provide the money thus required in units of ^ 2 5 where possible, T o each bed so provided will be affixed a tablet with the donor’s name. T h e whole am ount has been subscribed. By per­ mission o f H is M ajesty the hospital will be called “ T h e K in g G eorge H ospital.”


D e c e m b e r , 19 14 ,

— F I R S T

C o u n t y of L o n d o n B r a n c h . S e c r e t a r y ’s R e p o r t N ovember

for

the

24TH,

M onth

en d in g

1914.

Order 3 0 has not been heretofore com plied with by all D ivisional Secretaries. B ut in com pliance with this Office Circular Letter 46, 14, reports have been re­ ceived from all Divisions, except M arylebone and South H am pstead, some of them em bodying particulars of work previously done. It will be understood that it is im pos­ sible in a brief summary to do more than present an out­ line o f the operations. T h e different D ivisions will be dealt with seriatim, com m encing with— B a t t e r s e a . — E xcellen t work has been done by the V oluntary A id D etachm ents. Large numbers of Belgian Refugees have been received, housed and fed, the arrange­ ments being greatly facilitated by the generosity and help­ fulness o f the local residents. In this connection, the Secretary (M iss Paton) particularly mentions Messrs. A rding & H obbs, the South W est Gas Com pany and the Rev. W. Rushby, Broom wood-road C hurch, who gave the use of his hall for the accom m odation o f the men refugees ; the Fathers o f the Church of the H o ly Ghost, and the R ev. M other and Sisters of the C onvent in Nightingale-square. A hospital for wounded Belgian soldiers has been established in a house lent for the pur­ pose by Mr. T . Chowne. C a m b e r w e l l . — Since the outbreak o f the war a vast amount of really good work has been done, more especially in connection with the preparation o f clothing, bedding, etc., considerable quantities o f which have been supplied to different hospitals and refugee hostels. Large numbers of Belgian refugees have been received, housed and fed until arrangements could be made for disposing of them in suitable ways. W ork was greatly facilitated by the Borough Council, which placed at the disposal of the Division a por­ tion o f the Central Library Building for the accom m oda­ tion o f the headquarter staff and details. A ltogether C am ­ berwell has done excellently, and the R ed Cross staff deserve to be highly com m ended. C h e l s e a . — T h e R eport deals with the work done dur­ ing the period under review. T h e usual training was consistently carried on and full advantage taken of the opportunities for practical training in nursing afforded at the W estm inster and other hospitals. Large quantities of clothing, m edical and surgical appliances and m iscellaneous articles have been made or collected and supplied to meet requirements, including those of the M ilitary H ospital at St. M ark’s College, the V ictoria H ospital for Children, in which wounded are received, & c. Fulham and P u t n e y . — R outine work has been carried on and members have attended the Infirm ary for practical training in nursing. A good many articles of clothing, as well as som e bedding, have been sent to the Stores Departm ent of the Society and also to the H ospital Ship “ Sicilia.” G r e e n w i c h a n d W o o l w i c h . — T h e D ivisional S ec­ retary, Miss Swayne, has forwarded the reports of the Com m andants. L ondon 14. Practices have been well attended. L ondon 18. M em bers attended daily at a hospital for Belgian Refugees, doing the cooking, general house work, & c. London 20. H as been m obilised. In addition, to routine work it has been engaged in preparing a R ed Cross H ospital at Oakhurst, Erith. S t a n d in g

AID. —

113

L on d on 24. A schem e for a R e d Cross H ospital has engaged attention. L ond on 26. H as been partially m obilised. M em bers have been em ployed a good deal on station duty, meeting the wounded for the H erbert H ospital. London 32. A good deal of surgical dressings and other articles have been made and supplied to different hospitals. H a c k n e y . — Instruction in First A id, H o m e Nursing, H ygiene and general C ookery was carried out. T h e G uardians allow mem bers to attend the local Infirm ary for practical training in nursing, and full advantage was taken o f the opportunity. Consignm ents o f clothing were despatched to the Central Office, Stores D epartm ent, the N aval C am p at W alm er and the Territorial C am p at Cromer. H a m m e r s m i t h . — A s in other Divisions, the war is having the effect of stim ulating R ed Cross work ; 67 men and 130 women have been enrolled, o f the latter 80 have passed the exam ination for First A id and are now attending lectures on H om e Nursing. O f the men 24 have been sent to H ospitals in France by the Society, and 30 have joined the R oyal Arm y M edical Corps. H a m p s t e a d W e s t . — R outine work was carried on. T en members have undergone practical training in nursing, and 21 have been em ployed at W ar R efugees’ Hom es. Regarding these, the lady organiser of R efugees’ H om es writes :— “ I am delighted that you have been able to send some of your R ed Cross members here. I have found them most useful and perfectly charm ing.” It is now proposed to establish a hospital, and for this purpose a suitable house has been placed at Mrs. D avidson’s disposal, and a sum of money collected to meet the cost of m aintenance, &c. I s l i n g t o n . — A hospital for 30 beds was prepared but, seem ingly, it has not been occupied. M oney and clothing were collected for Belgian Refugees and large quantities c f clothing, & c., were sent to the Stores D epartm ent o f the Central Office. Concerts have been held in aid of the funds and an am bulance display was arranged, the M anor Farm Dairy lending a field for the purpose. K e n s i n g t o n . — T h e D etachm ents have been em ­ ployed in a variety of ways, all doing excellent work. V aluable service has been rendered in connection with the housing and feeding o f Belgian Refugees. Lond on 28

St . Joh n A u x il ia r y W

ardm asters at

H a sl a r H o spita l.

From left to right, top row, S. H. Lamb, Prestwich ; G. Richardson, Hirst ; R. J. Edwards, Woodhouse ; Wm. Farnworth, Horwich ; Jas>. Dutton, Leigh ; Wm. Foster, Man­ chester ; Edwin Blackledge, Adlington. Bottom row, R. Haslam, Daubhill ; R. W ilson, Felling ; J. G. Wilsinore, Head Wardmaster, Haslar R.N .H . ; M. Bell, Felling ; F. Salter, Alverstoke.


i i

4

— F I R S T

AID. —

worked for a month at the Territorial H ospital in the W hite City, the manner in which the mem bers discharged their duties winning high praise from the C om m anding Officer. T h e Society has every reason to be proud of the way in which this highly efficient D etachm ent discharged its duties under the supervision o f the Com m andant, Mrs. Lewis. Lond on 42 continued to work at a Dressing Station at Olym pia, for which it was m obilised on O ctober 27th. London 50 worked very successfully at a hostel for Belgian Refugees in Onslow Gardens. In addition,

Decem ber

19 1 4

London 104 V .A .D . has been adm inistered indepen­ dently by Miss A. S. G oodall, who reports that there have been meetings once a week for stretcher drill, physical drill, bandaging, & c. Six members have undergone practical training in nursing. Considerable numbers of garments, bandages, & c., have been supplied to hospitals at home and abroad, convalescent homes and camps. A lthough a report has not been received from the Divisional Secretary o f South H am pstead, the opportunity is taken to state that a hospital has been recently opened at Cedar Lawn, in which there is accom m oda­ tion for 30 patients. W ithin the past few days some thirty wounded have been received. This hospital was visited by the Chairman, who thought the arrangements excellent in every particular. Mrs. M ay and London 60 are en­ titled to great credit for the excellent work they have done, and the great devotion exhibited in preparing the hospital for the reception of wounded at short notice.

T h e generosity of the Pearl Assurance C om ­ pany has enabled the C ity Branch of the British R ed Cross Society to secure the use of the C om ­ pany’s recently-vacaied building in Thames-street, E .C ., rent free.

B y courtesy]

[“ The Co-Partnership Journal.

Sick Berth Reserve men on Board the Hospital Ship “ Plassy.”

T h e British Fire Prevention Com m ittee in their report issued this week state that up to N ovem ber 30th they have issued 15,581 copies o f “ Fire W arning ” for em ergency hospital (poster No. 10) to naval and military hospitals, auxiliary and civil hospitals taking war cases, the

two members worked at K ensington P alace private hospital. R eference was made in last m onth’s report to the acquisition by this D ivision o f the W eir H ospital, Balham. Since then wounded have been received and remain under treatment. L a m b e t h . — Classes have been organised and will be started after Christm as. T h ree Sewing G uilds have been formed, and m oney is being collected to m eet the cost o f a bed in the hospital that is to be established in the Stationers’ H all. P a d d i n g t o n . — Provision was m ade for the usual in­ struction o f members and also for practical training in nursing. Large quantities o f clothing was supplied to different hospitals. Four members have been em ployed as cooks in hospitals, and eight have been working in different hospitals in which there are wounded soldiers ; three are said to be working independently in France and one in D erby. Tw en ty are shown by the secretary as m obilised for R est Station duty in France. P o p l a r . — R outine work is being carried on, and two consignm ents o f clothing have been sent to the Stores D epartm ent of the Central Office. W e s t m i n s t e r . — B esides the

ordinary routine work, three detachm ents have in turn staffed a hospital at W im ­ bledon for Belgian Refugees. N ineteen members are work­ ing in hospitals at home, fourteen are em ployed abroad, and several others are engaged in a variety of ways. T h e members working abroad are so em ployed without the cognisance of the E xecu tive Com m ittee o f the branch.

B y courtesy[

[“ The Co-Partnership J):i -n i '

Minor Operating Theatre on the Hospital Ship. requirem ents of each institution being dealt with according to the accom m odation afforded and the nature of the buildings.

W hen corresponding w ith A d vertisers please m en ­ tion “ F irst A id.”


D ecem ber, 1914.

F I R S T

115

A I D . —

Exmouth

„ n th

...

28

Crediton Barnstaple ..

„ i7th „ 17th

... ...

12 46

Honiton

„ 17th

...

IO

Totnes Topsham

„ 17th Nov. 5th

..

22

...

13

Ilfracombe ... Paignton Chudleigh ... Dawlish Budleigh Salterton...

„ 29th 29th 29th Dec. 7th

.. . •• . .. ..

T h r e e Red C ross S c o u t s . T h e three Scouts— E. Isaacs and Stuart and T e d Oppenheim er— whose photographs we produce, together with that of the Secretary of the W est H am pstead D ivision, have rendered great services to this D ivision of the British R ed Cross Society ever since the declaration of war, and their

War Service Badges have been applied for by their Scout­ master. T h eir latest achievem ent has been to organise a most successful concert, at which a very large audience was present. T h e y arranged an excellent programme, and the pro­ ceeds, amounting to ^ 2 6 , were handed over to the D ivisional Secretary to augm ent the funds of the West H am pstead Division.

D e v o n sh ir e

Branch.

From our Special Correspondent. T h e V oluntary

A id Organisation has, up-to-date, justified its existence in D evonshire— thanks mainly to the centralisation of the C ounty Organisation and the con­ sequent simplification of com m unications with the M ilitary Authorities, as also the standardising of all work. Im m ediately after the outbreak o f war, an intimation was received at the County H eadquarters that hospital accom m odation on certain defined lines might be required, and should be provisionally arranged for. T h e following particulars will show what has subsequently been accomplished. Hospital.

Exeter I. Exeter II. Torquay Exeter III.

D ate o j M obilization.

Oct. 4th „ 5th „ 5th >, 3ist

Services Jo r

No. 0/ Beds.

96 IOI

75

60

.

Expeditionary Force.

.

Expeditionary Force, Territorials and H om e Service Troops.

„ „

„ 10th

25

4th Devon Regt., 4th W essex Am bu­ lance Expedition­ ary Force. 3rd Devon Regt. 6th Devon Regt. E x ­ peditionary Force. “ F ” Co., 3rd Devon Regt. Expeditionary Force. 2nd Reserve Batt. 4th W essex Field Art. Belgian Soldiers.

18

14

R.A.M .C.

l6

T otal beds to date, 566. In every case the regulations governing the conduct of the hospitals are those received by the W ar Office through the Southern com m an d ; the necessary Arm y B ooks and forms are kept, and the required returns subm itted according to instructions. A ll this has only been done with considerable effoit on the part o f all concerned, and the sm allest o f the units m obilised has made the effort on just the same scale, in proportion, as the larger. M ost o f the equipm ent has been req u isitio n ed ; a large proportion of the rest has been given, and the remainder has been bought. T h e British R ed Cross Society undertakes to give a grant o f ^ r o to every m obilised D etachm ent. T h is grant has been received, recently, in respect of som e D etach­ ments, and it is understood that the rem ainder will receive it eventually. T h e D evon Patriotic Fund also allows a grant in respect o f every m obilised hospital. T h e initial equipm ent o f the larger hospitals was provided with assistance from the Guaranteed G rant of from 2s. to 3s. per occupied bed per diem is available. Generous help has also been forthcom ing privately, which has eased the strain and enabled the work to be placed on a sound financial footing. A very m arked assistance in the running of the hospitals has been rendered by the tradespeople, who have taken and executed orders at the shortest notice with promptness, accuracy and consideration. In other ways, too numerous to mention, the Organisation has profited by the generous and willing support o f the general public. From the M orning State o f Sick A. F .A . 27, it is possible to give the numbers adm itted to all hospitals up-todate 990; number of beds occupied, e t c , 13,820. T h e following figures will also be o f in te re st:— T h ere is one trained nurse to every 12 patients ; and one V .A . m ember to every 5 patients, on an average. T h e V .A . members are considered as are probationers in C ivil H ospitals, and do similar work. T h e H eadquarters Staff consists of some 20 members ; the Office is open from 9.30 a.m. to 6 p.m. daily, including Sundays, and some o f the Staff are at work there until 9 or 10 p.m. W ith regard to p erso n n e l: mem bers have been called up from all parts of the county to serve as required, and have, for the most part, given satisfaction. D iscipline — which is apparently lax in outlying districts— soon exerts a good influence, and, under existing conditions, if it does not do so, the member is released from duty, and sent home. A large percentage o f sickness was expected, but there has in fact been very little so far.


— F I R S T T h is report deals only with work carried out up to the present time, and does not in any way foretell work re­ quired in the future, which may be much more arduous than heretofore. W hatever comes, it can only be satisfactorily managed if every D ivision and every D etachm ent works, as at present, under the C entral C oun ty Authority, on a uniform basis, and in strict conform ity with the general schem e of organisation. T h e loyalty and enthusiasm which have so far been displayed by officers and members alike, encourages the hope that the Organisation will be able to m eet what­ ever dem ands may be made upon it.

T h etfo rd

“ U n b r e a k a b le ”

P u lp W a r e .

with the excellent series of articles on “ Tem porary H ospitals,” recently appearing in F i r s t A i d , from the able pen of Dr. H . M ainwaring H olt, we think no better opportunity could present itself than the present of calling the attention o f those responsible for the equip­ ment of such institutions to the adm irable productions em anating from the firm o f the Thetford Patent Pulp C o n te m p o ra n e o u s

M anufacturing Co., L td., York-road, K in g ’s Cross, L ondon, N. Such productions include basins, bowls, bath tubs, and a hundred-and-one other necessaries of an up-to-date institution called upon to cope with any em ergency. T his “ u n b rea k a b le” pulp ware is designed, in a measure, to fill the place o f earthenware, & c., for purposes where lightness, durability and elasticity are required, and it would be diffi­ cult to refute the claim o f the manufacturers, that it has a m arked ascendency over most enamel wares. It is not brittle nor liable to chip, and any article made from it can be safely dropped or thrown a b o u t; while it is pleasant to

AID. —

Decem ber, 1914.

touch and convenient to handle. It should also be men­ tioned that this pulp ware is not to be confounded with papier mache, which undergoes a very different mode of treatment in manufacture, and possesses neither the strength nor durability of pulp ware, which is made to resist hot water and adm irably adapted for use in hospitals and for all dom estic purposes. T hetford pulp ware is constantly being applied to new uses, and the already long list of articles made from it is always receiving additions. Briefly, Thetford pulp ware has becom e a recognised com m odity in civilisation, and its users are to found in all grades o f society. Its success and popularity are testified to by the first-class certificates and gold and silver medals which have been awarded it wherever it has been exhibited. W ithout labouring the appeal made to all loyal Britons, it is gratifying to state that all these goods are made in E n g­ land. O ur illustration is that of one of the stock rooms of Thetford pulp ware at York-road, and we are convinced that all who apply at this address for full information will be very well repaid for their efforts. Superintendent G. R . Aldridge, of the Southampton

Corps of the Brigade, has been appointed on the staff of the No. 2 D istrict as D istrict Superintendent. A t t the same time he will continue his position for the present as Officer in Charge o f the Southam pton Corps. T h e first Sunday in the N ew year (January 3rd) is the day appointed for hum ble Prayer and intercession in con­ nection with the war, and it is announced that all the religious bodies concerned have agreed to recom m end that m oney collected at these services shall be given to the Joint Com m ittee o f the St. John A m bu lan ce and British R e d Cross Society.


— F I R S T

D e c e m b e r , 19 1 4 .

Queries attd A nsw ers Correspondents.

to

Q ueries w i ll be dealt w ith under the follow in g r u le s :— 1 . — Letters containing Q ueries m ust be m arked on the top lejt h a n d corner o f the envelope “ Q u ery ,” a n d addressed— F i r s t A i d , 46, Cannon-street, London, E . C .

AN IN V A LU A B LE BOOK FOB ALL RED CROSS WORKERS.

a .— A l l Q ueries m ust be accompanied by a " Q uery Coupon ” cut from the current issue of the Jo u rn al, or in case o f Q ueries fr o m abroad from a recent issue. 3 .— Readers req u ir in g a reply by post m u st enclose a stam ped addressed envelope.

M e r r i n g t o n . — The patient has fractured his left leg.

Which side of the patient should Nos. 1, 2, and 3 be at, and which knee should they kneel on? Presumably the query refers to the position of the bearers preparatory to lifting the patient upon the stretcher. In the absence of any special indications, e.g., cramped surroundings, etc., there is really no need to depart from the ordinary custom, i.e., all on left knee, three bearers on left side of patient. W hat is extremely important is that each bearer should be led to realise exactly the responsibility that lies upon him, and be prepared, at a prearranged signal, to act uniformly with the others, and in such a way as to conduce to the best welfare of the patient. This, of course, must be very specially emphasised by the one in authority when called upon to act with untrained helpers.— L . M. F r a n k C h r i s t i a n . T. H. D r a p e r . — Published in “ Aids to Memory for First Aid Students,” on page 46, are these two things.— 1st, Frac­ tured thigh, eight bandages ; and 2nd, Fractured leg, six bandages. Could you, please, tell me where the extra bandage is to be placed in each case. Can there be any possible doubt as to the position ? It is only necessary to consider the nature of the disability and the needs that have arisen. W hat is the emergency under consideration? (1) Simple fracture of the thigh, first-aider alone with patient. (2) Simple fracture of the leg, first-aider alone with patient. Under such conditions the duty of the first-aider is promptly to prevent injurious movement. How ? By cautioning against

CO U N TY London

OF

LONDON.

A m b u la n c e

S e r v ic e .

r p H E London County Council invites applications for JL temporary employment as motor drivers, ambulance attendants, and telephone operators in connection with the Motor Ambulance Service for London about to be inaugurated by the Council. W ages of motor drivers and ambulance attendants, 35s. a week, with uniform ; telephone operators, 30s. a week, with uniform. Candidates exceptionally experi­ enced may receive 40s. a week. Candidates must be British subjects and must, for employ­ ment as driver, have had practical experience of motor driving in London and the execution of minor adjustments, etc., and for employment as ambulance attendant must possess certifi­ cates of qualification for, and have had practical experience in, the rendering of first-aid. Forms of application and particulars of the conditions of employment of drivers and attendants can be obtained either by sending a stamped addressed foolscap envelope, or on personal application, to the Chief Officer, London Fire Brigade, Southwark .Bridge Road, London, S.E. Applicants for em­ ployment as telephone operators should send, in writing, particulars of their qualifications and past employment. Every communication on the subject must be marked “ Ambulance Service” on the envelope. L A U R E N C E G O M M E, Clerk o f the Council.

117

AID. —

By

DR.

ANDREW

W IL S O N .

I n the present grave em ergency every R ed Cross and A m bulance worker should send the form below for full and interesting particulars o f an invaluable book that is really an epitom e in clear language o f all that specialised m edical and surgical know ledge necessary for First Aiders. In “ T h e M odern P hysician,” by Dr. Andrew W ilson, fullest space is devoted to “ First A id ” and A m bulan ce W ork. In respect o f com pleteness, accuracy o f description and wealth of illustration, “ T h e M odern Physician ” stands without a rival am ongst the works published on this im ­ portant subject in the U n ited K ingdom . It is scientifically accurate and reliable without being d u ll; the nam e of its editor, so long known as an authority on the subject, is a guarantee o f this. EVERY

P O IN T

COVERED.

T h is work is probably the only work that covers all the many branches of the subject in com plete detail, and in whatever direction one may be helping this work will be found indispensable. In valid cooking, hom e nursing o f the wounded, bandaging and dressing wounds, instant and em ergency treatment, the setting and after care o f broken bones, the treatm ent o f convalescents, the fitting up and sanitary care o f the tem porary “ h o sp ita l” — these are a few of the thousands o f subjects upon which R ed Cross workers need special information now, and this information is given in this work in an unique manner. A s a know ledge o f the body in H ealth is necessary to the due understanding o f the body when its functions are deranged by disease, a description o f every part o f the frame will be found here. T h e skeleton, m uscles, digestive system, heart and lungs, brain and nervous system, organs o f sense, skin, kidneys and the b od y’s m icroscopic structure are duly described. In this connection the illustrations are o f particular value, the “ m annikins ” or dum m ies more esp ecially ; in these the organs are m ade to overlap each other exactly as they do in the human body.

T h is f o r m m u s t b e s e n t w it h o u t d e la y .

A FREE BOOKLET. TO

TH E

C A X T O N P U B L IS H IN G COM PANY, 156, Surrey Street. London, W .C .

Please send me, F r e e o f C h a r g e and without an y obligation on m y p a r t:— Illustrated Booklet on “ T h e M o d e r n P h y s i c i a n . ” Particulars of your offer to deliver the complete work for a first payment of is. 6d., the balance to be paid for by a few small monthly payments.

( 1)

(2)

N a m e .............................................................. .................................................................................................... .

(Send this form or a postcard.)

A d d r e s s ..................................................................................................................................................................


F I R S T

A ID .

any ill-advised attempt to move, by careful support of the injured limb, and by utilising one’s handketchief, necktie or scarf, etc., to tie both feet together. Such, then, is the nature of the extra bandage, and its position. It must be obvious that only very exceptionally will the conditions be such that the single-handed first-aider will have eight or six bandages at his disposal. With much less material at hand, however, assistance of an invaluable character can be rendered, and it is assistance o f this comprehensive nature which should receive the very special study of ambulance workers. See general rules and note on page 9, “ Aids to Memory,” sixth edition.— L . M . F r \ n k C h r i s t i a n .

D e cem b er ,

19 1 4 .

Benger’s Food is a cereal food, specially free from rough indigesti­ ble particles. It co n ta in s the n a tu ra l d ig estive p rin cip le s, t ry p s in and am y lo p sin , and is e xp re ssly devised to be used w it h fre sh n ew m ilk or m ilk and w ater. Benger’s is unique among foods in being self­ digestive to any extent desired, and this is simply regulated by allowing the Food to stand from 5 to 45 minutes at one stage of its preparation. The digestive process is stopped by boiling up.

A. C. K. (Beddington).— There is not a possibility of your being sent abroad. The Red Cross Society and St. John are only sending professional nurses to the hospitals abroad. You will find in due course your V .A .D . will have ample oppor­ tunities of being actively engaged at home. V .A .D . (Manchester).— The essential qualities which a fracture bed should possess are, that there should nowhere be any “ sagging ” or possibility of giving way, that the surface should be evenly smooth and comfortably elastic, and that the foot of the mattress should be somewhat higher than the head.

is u nequalled w hen the d ig estive syste m is w eakened th ro u g h accident, pain o r illn e ss , and w h en ever a lig h t su sta in in g diet has become a n ecessity.

T. H. B. (Todmorden).— A paragraph under Brevities, in October issue, will give you particulars of the separation allow­ ance of Brigade men serving with the Sick Berth Reserve. W e know many men have not yet been supplied with uniforms, and have practically worn out their St. John uniform. N o doubt an allowance will be made by the Admiralty for these in due course.

A sample u it/i f u l l particulars w ill be sent post free to Members 0/ the M edical Profession, on application to the So 'e M a n u fa ctu re's—

BENGER’S FOOD Ltd., Otter Woiks, Manchester, Eng. B r a n c h ’ O f f ic e s :

L. A. D. (W illesden).— Permanganate of potash has a very mild destructive effect on germs.

N E W Y O R K (U .S .A .), 92, William Street. S Y D N E Y (N .S .W .), 117 Pitt Street. Canadian A gen ts: National D rug and Chemical Co., L td., 34, St. Gabriel Street, M o n t r e a l , and Branches throughout C a n a d a .

H. D. O (Tottenham).— A chaplain cannot be attached to a division of the Brigade in that capacity.

B146

— HORLICK’S— MALTED MILK

S IM M O N S

&

CO.’S

‘ Standard’ Ambulance ( A s supplied to the Marylebone Corporation, the Plymouth Police, &c.),

A N IN V A L U A B L E A ID IN R E D C R O S S N U R S IN G .

T he unrivalled nutrition of rich milk and choice malted grains. Easily assimilaied and most efficient to giving and maintaining strength. I n v a l u a b l e to N u r s e s p e r s o n a l l y . Increa ses v i t a l i t y and end u ran ce.

P ric e C o m p l e t e ,

£11

Keeps indefinitely— Ready in a moment— No cooking Also available in tablet form, to be dissolved in the m-'uth when needed. Convenient to carry, available anywhere, prevent fatigue, restore energy and relieve thirst. W rite f o r injorm a'ion.

SIM M ONS & TO

J llilllin n j

H o r l i c k ’s M a l t e d M i l k C o ., S l o u g h , B u c k s .

THETFORD

R O U N D B A S IN S . Shallow — lo in .

12 in.

1 1d.

1/-

In s t it u t io n s ,

As sor te d Colours. 13 in. 15 in. I/i 1/8 each.

No. 1.

1- 3- 3 and 7, Tanner Street, Of L I / , , Bermondsey St., LONDON, S.E.

H an d -A m bu lan ce B u ild e r s to the M etropolitan A sy lu m s B oard, the London Countv C o u n cil, the M etropolitan E lectr ic Tram w avs, etc.

“ UNBREAKaBLE”

In v a lu a b le fo r P u b lic

PULP

BASINS ( MA^

H o sp ita ls,

Red C ro ss W o rk ,

L e n g t h 17 i n c h e s

2/6 each.

No- 2-

..

19„

3/6

ND).

and in the N u rse ry .

D E E P B A S IN S . 11 in. deep 13m.

Assorte d Colours, i / i each.

«/6

A s k y o u r sh o p k ee p e r fo r th e se goods, and if an y d iffic u lty in o b ta in in g w rite us.

TH E

P A T E N T

PULP 38,

Y o rk

M A N U F A C TU R IN G Road,

11s.

A lw a y s ready in Sto ck . F O L D IN G S T R E T C H E R S , 33 /“ > or W o o lw ic h Ars en al Pattern “ M ar k I I . ” with Shoulder Slings, 4 2 / 6 B o y Scouts S t re tchers, 2 5 / - .

K i n g ’s

C ro ss ,

C O .,

London,

L td . Nm

(D e p t.

F .A .),


FIRST AID.

The Independent Journal for the Ambulance and Nursing Services. Conducted b y A R T H U R No. 247.— V o l . X X I . To

JA N U A R Y,

[N e w S e r ie s .]

Our

B.

DALE,

I 9 I 5.

M.J.I.

[E n t . r . d a t S t a t,o n e r s 'H a m

[2;6

EF r e e

offers, which was no light one, was undertaken by com ­

Readers.

mittees.

T h en the Society issued appeals for funds, which

met with instant response, and later The Times issued an

“ First Aid ” is published on the 20th of every month. T h e An n u al Subscription is 2 S . 6d. post f r e e ; single copies 2 d .

appeal through its colum ns, and up to the present tim e it

T h e E ditor invites readers to send articles and reports on subjects of

exceeds ^ 75 0 ,0 0 0

interest to ambulance workers, these should be addressed to him at

the

am ount

over

,£200,000

being

pooled equally with the Order of St. John.

46, Cannon Stre et, Lo n d on , E . C .

A lthough this sum may appear to be a large amount,

A l l articles and reports must be accompanied b y the name and

it is in no way adequate to meet the requirem ents o f the

address o f the writer, not necessarily or publication hut or the use ot

task which the Society has undertaken, and this question

the Editor.

must, at an early date, receive consideration. W e have only touched briefly the question o f the co l­

Subscriptions, Ad ve rtisem en ts and other business communications connected with F i rs t A id should be addressed to the Publishers, DALE,

REYNOLDS

&

C O .,

lection of funds. tion of them !

L t d .,

46, C an n o n S t r e e t , L o n d o n , E . C .

N ow as to the problem of the adm inistra­ T h is has presented many more difficulties.

Perhaps the most im portant work which the Society has undertaken is the sending o f persotinel and needed hos­ pital supplies to the Continent.

EDITORIAL.

U p to date nearly r,5oo

persons have been sent abroad, and stores, to the value o f £ l o ,o o o were dispatched by the m iddle o f N ovem ber.

The

delegate of

Spain

to

the

first

In addition to this 500 motor am bulances have been sent

The

G eneva Conference rem inded the world,

out.

have

been

Red C r o s s .

as well as his fellow delegates, of the

organised, the personnel in the m ajority of cases

being

debt to the soldiers by his country. H is

At

hom e

350

auxiliary

hospitals

provided by Y .A .D .’s, while a large hospital o f 500 beds has

“ L et us not forget,” he said,

been established at N etley, and the new Stationery Office

“ that the aid of the soldier is som ething more obligatory

is now being equipped as a hospital o f 1,650 beds, also

than the act o f private charity ; it is a sacred debt which

homes for 35,000 convalescent patients have

words may well be recalled.

been pro­

he claims, a debt which we all owe, whether rich or

vided.

poor, hum ble or great, because the holy treasure of national

been the com plete co-operation with St. John’s and St.

O ne o f the most striking features of the work has

honour, whose defence is entrusted to the men who com ­

A ndrew ’s Associations,

pose our armies, concerns and belongs to us all— more

issued by St. John’s, will show :—

as

the follow ing memorandum,

than property, more than family, more than life itself.’’

“ It is to be lam ented that in the past there has been

T h e outcom e of this assem bly, as everyone knows, was the

friction in various parts o f the country between the St.

formation o f the R ed Cross societies to co-operate with the

John A m bulance Association and the British R ed Cross

military authorities in assisting the sick and w ounded— a duty

Society in local administration.

which in this present war the British R ed Cross Society has

mittees of both these bodies that in the present circum ­

It is felt by the C o m ­

used its powerful organisation to the best advantage.

The

stances all these past differences should be forgotten, in

problem s which have

this

order that they may work in com plete harm ony for the

present case may be divided into two classes— first, the

fullest possible use to be made of both organisations in the

problem s connected with the collection o f funds, and,

interests o f the sick and w ounded.”

confronted

the

Society

in

second, the administration of these funds. O n the outbreak o f war the wave o f public philan­ thropy was a force to be reckoned with, and the offices o f th e R ed Cross were flooded with well-meaning people offer­ ing all kinds of assistance and the task of arranging these

A sale by auction of “ war dogs,” presented by their owners for the benefit of the Prince o f W ales’s N ational R e lie f Fund, the R ed Cross Society and the Belgium R e lie f Fund, took place recently at H arrod ’s Stores, Brompton-road, and realised a total o f £ 1 5 0 ,


F I R S T

3Jie Grand fPriorvj of the Grder of the Jtospital of St. John of Jerusalem in Sngland. AM BU LAN CE

Jh e S t.

LEES

Jan uary,

1915.

useful articles. Thanks are also due to Miss Law and others who gave their assistance. No. 70 ( R o y a l B o r o u g h o f K e n s i n g t o n ) D i v i s i o n . — A copy of the annual report qf the Division has been sent to us. It is a good record of the year’s work ; drills and duties have been well attended by the members, and several import­ ant public duties have been performed. The finances of the division are in a good state.

DUTY ROSTER.

No. 1 District. D E P U T Y C O M M IS S IO N E R :

L IE U T .-C O L .

DEPARTM ENT.

John .Ambulance Srigade.

A I D. -

-------

No. 5 District.

H A LL .

T i b s h e l f . — The nurses of the Tibshelf and Birchwood Corps recently opened a subscription list for the purpose of providing a Christmas present for every member of the corps F E B R U A R Y 1915. on active service, and have sent, through the Lady Supt., Mrs. Stuart C. Wardell, 44 parcels, each containing one shirt, one Sunday Duty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. muffler, one pair of socks, one pair of mittens, one pair leather Sunday, 7th.— No. 5 Division. boot-laces, one handkerchief, J lb. tobacco, 50 cigarettes, one „ 14th.— No. 11 „ pipe, one cake soap, one box chocolate, one Testament, one „ 21 st.— No. 16 „ Christmas card, and a greeting from Mrs. Warded. 28th.— No. 70 „ D enaby M a i n . — The Tw igg Memorial Ambulance 2.30 p.m. to 8.30 p.m. As per separate orders. Key from Shield, which is competed for annually by the various divisions St. John’s Gate, 2 p.m. of the Denaby Main Corps, has been won this year by the Denaby Nursing Division. The shield was presented to the D IV IS IO N A L B O O K S A N D F O R M S. winners last month, and opportunity was taken to say farewell B/F 1, 3 and 5 A or N. Many Divisions have not yet sent to Mrs. Tw igg, who is leaving the neighbourhood, and to hand in their forms and books. This must be done at once. to her a little token of appreciation. The presentation was made by Chief Supt. W. H. Chambers. B R IG A D E H O S P IT A L . The team who won the shield consisted of Mrs. Eddington, Money is urgently needed for the equipment and main­ Mrs. Farrell, Mrs. Wimpenny, and Mrs. Bayes. tenance for the Special Hospital which is to be provided by the Brigade. No. 7 District. Subscriptions should be sent as soon as possible to the District Treasurer at St. John’s Gate (marked Brigade P o w y s l a n d . — Considerable enthusiasm has been lately Hospital), and collecting boxes will be issued to responsible shown by the Nursing Division of the Powysland Corps in persons on the application of the Divisional Superintendents. raising a contribution for the European W ar Fund. This

O F F IC E R S ’ S U B S C R IP T IO N S . Officers are reminded that subscriptions to the “ Officers’ F un d ” are now due, and should be sent to the District Secretary, who will issue receipts for same. S P E C IA L C O N S T A B L E S . The names of members of the District who enrol them­ selves as Special Constables cannot be retained on the lists of those waiting for service with the Royal Naval Auxiliary Sick Berth Reserve or the Military Home Hospitals Reserve, as the police will have the first call on their services. Superintendents and members in charge of Divisions should inform the District promptly whem mem­ bers of their Divisions become enrolled as Special Constables. (Signed) W. H. W IN N Y , Acting Deputy-Commissioner. Headquarters :— St. John’s Gate, Clerkenwell, E.C. S t . J o h n ’s G ate N u rsin g D i v i s i o n . — Notwith­ standing the war, the annual distribution of cloth­ ing and comforts to the poor of Clerkenwell was held on December 19th, when a larger store than ever was handed to the women and children of the parish. The duty of pro­ viding this store has for 21 years been undertaken by the nursing sisters and officers of the St. John’s Gate Nursing Division, and although the Lady Supt., Mrs. Calvin Lines, has been promoted to the Headquarters District Staff, she was in her old place, ably assisted by her successor, Mrs. Denchfield and the members of the No. 2 N. Division. Owing to the “ G a te” being occupied, the distribution was held in the Mission Hall, and the space being so limited made it impossible for many being present who have hitherto taken personal interest in the function. Many very necessitous cases were helped and warm gar­ ments given to the children and mothers, the Rector, who was present, giving useful advice in many cases. Very special thanks are accorded to the members of the No. 14 Nursing Division, who sent a large collection of

division has in its ranks a number of very energetic ladies, and the Corps Supt., Mrs. Everall, is loyally backed up in the patriotic undertaking which the present national crisis has inspired. A whist drive and dance was one of the means of realising money, and this was extremely successful. All members of the corps willingly put their shoulders to the wheel, and their self-sacrificing efforts were rewarded by a balance sheet showing a net gain of £22 10s. Not content withtheirgreat success the ladies cried “ forward!” and devised a scheme of further raising money by a system of collecting cards, and were rewarded with a further £ 7 103. Again the ladies, true to their sex, were not satisfied, and a youthful member, aged 17 years, wrote a very praiseworthy poetic appeal, which was printed on postcards and sold at the rate of id. The division was rewarded by a further £2 10s. The sum total sent to headquarters reached in round figures ^36. The foregoing by no means exhaust the record of the work done by these ladies. They formed a working party and sent a large consignment of garments for the St. John members at the front. It is but right to mention that the ladies of the division were all engaged in making garments and doing other useful work in connection with the various other patriotic guilds labouring in the loyal and ancient borough of Welshpool, which, by the way, may be men­ tioned as taking a very honourable place in the recruiting returns.

T h e I m p e r i a l S e r v i c e C o r p s . — Lectures on First Aid, & c., are given by Surgeon-Captain M acLean every Tuesday, 9 to 10, at Headquarters. M en desirous of joining should place them selves in com m unication with the Adjutant. T here is also a cavalry troop and infantry com pany, and instruction is given during the week under the officers com m anding these units, who are Service or ex-Service men. For fuller particulars apply to L . Stafford Shallard, H .A .C ., Captain and Adjutant, Headquarters, 31, Fairm ead-road, Hollow ay, N.


— F I R S T

January, 1915.

O ur

P o rtra it M rs

G. E . T

G a lle r y .

AID. —

123

work and loves her garden and conservatory, she deem s no work too hard or length o f hours on duty too long to carry out his wishes.

w iss.

G. E. T w i s s , who, in 1 9 1 4 , was promoted from H onorary Sister to L ad y of G race of the Order of the H ospital of St. John o f Jerusalem in England, has for many years been associated with her husband in St. John work in Southampton. It is due to her that the finances M rs.

of the C entre have been kept in a satisfactory state, and not only has she done this, but, by persuading people to join classes, to most o f which she has acted Class Secretary, to enter for examination, and to join a local division o f the S .J .A .B . has, to a very great degree, conduced to whatever modicum o f success the m ovem ent has attained in the borough and its neighbourhood. As one exam ple o f her zeal and activity it may be m entioned that when the first contingent — some 5,000 o f Belgian wounded and refugees were expected at the D ocks— she, at short notice, arranged for feeding them, and from 8 p.m. one day till 6 p.m. the next supervised the work. W hen her husband, on mobilisation, went to the War Office for duty, the whole of his work at Southam pton devolved on her, and nobly she responded to the call. It is but recently that we m entioned in our colum ns what Southam pton has done, but the genius for collecting has not failed the subject of our sketch. She has collected money, food, garments, & c., for the Soldiers’ Coffee Stall on the Com m on, food and clothing for the wounded Belgians, a new motor am bulance for the borough, and, above all, has given her personal help in assisting in all these good works. In short, like a true wife, she is her husband’s second self, and though she would best like to keep to her home

T h e W o r k of t h e O rd er of S t . John. D u r i n g the week ending the 29th D ecem ber, 1914, nurses were dispatched to the following hospitals : — H ospital Bristol at St. M alo, H ospital M ilitaire No. 23, Yvetot, M onte Carlo, B oulogne, W im ereux and Chaum ont. Tw enty-six nurses have also been specially detailed for hom e service. T h e total num ber o f nurses dispatched by the O rder is 423. T h e St. John A m bu lan ce B rigade dispatched 216 orderlies during the week ending D ecem ber 29th, o f whom 23 went to the M ilitary H om e H ospital Reserve and to a private hospital at H ove, 23 to establishm ents under the joint com m ittees in France, and a large number to the 3rd W elsh Field A m bulance'and the R o yal N aval E xpeditionary Force. T h e O rder is also providing the entire personnel (to the num ber o f over 700) for the m edical units of the R oyal N aval D ivision o f the Expeditionary Force and the W elsh Field A m bulance, consisting o f 230 of all ranks, which has been entirely formed by the men of the W elsh District of the Brigade. T h e St. John A m bulance Brigade has m obilised over 8,000 men, and the first member of the Brigade to be m entioned in despatches during the present war is Sergt. Edm und Walsh, o f the Bolton Corps, for “ bravery in the field ” at Antwerp. H is name appears am ong the recipients of the D istinguished Service M edal in the N ew Y ear H onours List. T h e first V oluntary A id D etachm ent H ospital to be under shell fire was that of the St. John A m b ulan ce B ri­ gade at W est H artlepool. T h e nurses continued at their work with the utmost coolness, and over 100 cases were treated, 40 of them being o f a very serious nature. T h e Auxiliary hospitals organised by the V oluntary A id D etachm ent o f the Order o f St. John now num ber 129, o f which a very large num ber are in use. Lord Farnham has recently placed Farnham , co. Cavan, at the disposal o f the O rder o f St. John for use as an auxi­ liary hospital, and L ord H arew ood’s residence, H arew ood House, has just been accepted by the W ar Office. T h e old “ St. John’s G a t e ” T avern, which adjoins the famous St. John’s Gate, Clerkenw ell, has just closed, as the premises have been taken over perm anently by the A m bulance Departm ent o f the Order o f St. John, which requires further office accom m odation owing to the war. “ T h e Friend ” newspaper, Bloem fontein, has for­ warded to the N ational R e lie f Fund the sum of ,£4,000, which the Secretary of State for the C olonies has decided shall be apportioned as follows :— .£2,000 for the N ational R elief Fund, £ 1 ,0 0 0 to the British R ed Cross Society, and ,£1,000 to the St. John A m bu lan ce Association. T h e New South W ales Centre o f the St. John A m bulan ce Association has forwarded ,£ 50 through L ad y E deline Strickland, and the M arys o f England have sent the Association the sum of £ 1 6 6 for three motor kitchens. T h e Order o f St. John has received 227 m otor am bulances, value £ 89,000. Fifty men o f the St. John A m bu lan ce Brigade O ver­ seas have been furnished in C an ada to the A rm y M edical Corps, 150 are attached to the 2nd C anadian contingent for service at the Front, and 150 to 200 are ready to join the 3rd Canadian contingent.


124

— F I R S T

E xam in atio n By

R e q u ir e m e n ts.

N. C O R B E T F L E T C H E R , B .A ., M .B ., B .C .(C antab), M .R .C .S . (A uthor o f a C om pendium o f A ids to First Aid.) {Concluded from page j o j .) B .— T E A M

I I I .— E S S E N T I A L

TESTS.

FACTORS

OF

TEAM

TESTS.

T h e general principles and essential factors, which we have discussed under Individual Tests, are the same for Team Tests except that the latter, being co operative, require certain m odifications, of which the alternative head' nSsi given below, are the outward evidence. Further, the last of these Factors, the Q uestion or Stretcher Test, which is a practical dem onstration of Efficiency in Treatm ent, can only be satisfactorily considered under the sub-divisions— Picture, Requirem ents, and M eth od s— which are applicable and have been allotted to T reatm ent and Transport, although what has been said with reference to the M ode and M atter of the Answers must not be forgotten. T hrou gh­ out the T est, however, K now ledge, Com m onsense, and E xperience are predom inant, and, without these, we cannot hope or expect to do justice to the Principles o f First Aid, our Teachers, or ourselves. ( 1 ) .— T

h e

E

x a m in e r

or

J

u d g e

.

Custom has ordained that in Team T ests the E x ­ aminer becom es the Judge, probably because he holds the scales of justice and decides what is just and lawful for and between each set o f candidates. A s we have shown, we must not overlook the P ro­ fessional and Personal elem ents, which co-exist in the person o f the Judge and which will have a far-reaching influence in these Tests. (a).— The Professional E lem ent oj fudge T h e professional duties o f a Judge in a T eam T est are difficult, unless the whole situation is explained before­ hand and thoroughly understood. M uch disappointm ent would be avoided if the conditions which control the Special C om petition— the O bjects, the Requirem ents, the accepted T e x t B ook, & c .— were always clearly defined and and thoroughly appreciated while the Tests are being pre­ pared, instead o f being forgotten, as often happens, until the day of the contest, when the Judge must discover them for him self as best he can. Certain com m on essentials, however, must be recognised, since they hold good for all Team Tests. /.-— D eta iled M a rkin g Sheet. N o Judge o f any experience ever faces so com plex a duty as examining in a T eam T est, in which the candidates are to be placed in order of merit unless he has him self solved the problem and detailed the marks proportionately to the various items involved. Further, he should be pre­ pared to leave the marked Sheet behind him, not as evidence o f good faith but for the instruction o f the candidates ; and, as a matter o f experience, he will find it a wise plan to decide during the exam ination the marks alloted and to cross off definitely and at once the items for which he can allow no marks. Finally, a penalty chart is a useful addition at the foot o f the sheet, o f which it im proves the educational ^value

AID. —

January, 1915.

considerably, since any serious mistakes can he imm ediately noted and penalised. T h e secret of successful m arking is to treat severely any action or lack of attention of the can­ didates towards the patient, especially when these might tend to aggravate the injuries or conditions already present. ii.— Card-Indicator System. Signs cannot, as we are agreed, be produced in the Com petition Room . Therefore, a Judge must either make use of a series o f cards as indicators, or be prepared to answer all questions as to history, symptoms, signs, &c.. In the first card all palpable signs should be included, such as colour o f face, wounds on face and hands, stains, swel­ ling, insensibility, & c., because in a real emergency these would be im m ediately apparent. Subsequently cards can be used to call attention to the onset of com plications, alterations in the signs and symtoms, and changes in the conditions, e.g., further assistance, incapacitation of a bearer, &c. T h e card system also solves the difficulty o f the history of the case and can be supplem ented by previous instruc­ tions to the patient or to any bystander, whose presence and assistance may be presum ed available. Hi.— Other Solutions o f the Test. Judges have to anticipate the possibilities o f a solution o f the problem , which they have set, other than the one which figures in the detailed m arking sheet. I f this should occur, then the only fair way of meeting the difficulty is to judge the suggested treatment on its merits, and to mark accordingly. If the treatment is equally effective, then full marks should be allowed ; if m oderately efficacious, half marks ; if positively harmful, no marks and, in addition, a penalty. Lastly, where the right lim b is treated instead of the left, some examiners, recognising the unreality of the Com petition Room , invariably allow half marks for what is a careless, though almost excusable offence. (b).— The P ersonal Elem ent o f the Judge. T h e individuality of the Judge, whose decision is final and irrevocable, will express itself both in the selection and in the solution o f the problem. T h is personal element, therefore, creates in T eam Tests both an advantage and also a difficulty which can only be met by a know ledge of the particular examiner and of his favourite ideas, fancies, and methods. I f opportunity presents, and the examiner be known beforehand, and especially if he has at any time com m itted him self with reference to his ideas either in a speech or in a published article or book, then it is wise to take the necessary steps to discover them before the day of examination and to bear them in mind during the course of examination. For example, some Judges penalise a slovenly approach, or a slouching attitude o f the com ­ petitors ; while others are offended by a careless answer, by the repetition o f a question already answered, by an incom plete examination of a part, or by the naming o f an unprocurable appliance. R em em beringthepossibilitiesof these andsim ilar causes o f offence, we shall be true to the Principles o f First Aid, if we make it our business to anticipate and to avoid them at every opportunity. (2 ).— T h e

C a n d id a tes

or

C o m p e t it o r s.

In Stretcher Tests the C andidates becom e the C om ­ petitors. T h e Approach, A ttire and A ttitud e o f all the com petitors, as we have just noted, must be considered as carefully as in the Individual Tests, whilst, in addition, attention must be given to the special D uties o f each member of the team.


J an uary, 1 9 1 5 .

— F I R S T

(a).— The Approach o f Teavi. T h e Approach of a Team often predisposes a Judge favourably or unfavourably, and should be conducted in a smart and brisk fashion, as if all the members were anxious and determined to do their duty. During the Approach it is as well, as we have shown, to keep the eyes open and the ears alert, and more particularly to observe, before the game begins, the presence of any abnorm ality, either in the Patient, the Part, or the Place o f the emergency. (b).— The Attitude o f Team. T h e Attitude of a T eam confirms or refutes the im­ pression given during their Approach. As we have seen, the secret of success in Team , as in Individual Tests, is to be practical at all costs, and to conduct ourselves just as we should in a street em ergency. If we do this, then we shall not experience any undue nervousness, and shall keep our minds and faculties ready for any com bination of circum ­ stances. Lastly, we must not be guilty o f laughing and chattering amongst ourselves, because a Team T est is set to test our capabilities in treatment and not our powers of talking. Further, the handling o f a sick or injured patient is a serious matter. (1c).— The D uties of Members o f Team. T h e duties of the M em bers of a T eam may be briefly considered. T h e essential qualification of an ideal Captain is the inborn power of exerting his authority in diplom atic fashion, com bined with a sound K now ledge o f the Theory and Practice of First Aid. H is duty is to control and supervise the work o f the other members of his team. T h e most brilliant individual does not usually make the best Captain, since he cannot appreciate the difficulties, and, owing to his lack of sym pathy with his less gifted fellows, is seriously handicapped in his tasks of instruction and supervision. Further, as much talking mars many competitions, it is well to arrange that remarks to the Judge should be made by the Captain, as far as circum stances allow. A t the same time an exam iner cannot object to quiet sub-voce discussion (which should receive encourage­ ment) though he is justified in penalising a gross mistake blurted out thoughtlessly by an individual. H erein lies one of the disadvantages of Com bination Tests. Again, fixed positions in a T eam militate against Efficiency and should be avoided as far as possible, although No. 3 should be sufficiently tall and strong for the proper perform ance of his special duties in Transport. Lastly, the member who usually acts as patient should be encouraged to take an active interest in the contest, pro­ vided that he has not been labelled insensible or otherwise incapable of rendering assistance. In too many instances the patient is a mere dummy and takes no part in the pro­ ceedings, whereby his enthusiasm for First A id is rendered less keen. In a recent com petition we dem onstrated the futility o f fixed positions and a regular patient by selecting No. 1 bearer as the victim of the em ergency instead of the cu s­ tomary No. 5, and by supplying him with a detailed card which gave him all necessary items of history, cause and symptoms. W e specifically warned him that the chances of his T ea m ’s success depended upon him, and refused to answer any questions except with reference to signs. T h e result was a com plete disorganisation of most of the com ­ peting teams, because the man who took the part o f patient was not accustom ed to describe his symptoms and did not realise the im portance of his help in the given problem, although, as a qualified First Aider, he would probably

A I D . —

125

have been very eloquent if he had actually met with such an accident. (3).— T h e Q u e s t i o n

or

Stretcher

T est.

T h e Stretcher T est is an actual dem onstration of what should be done and how we would do it under the circum ­ stances. It is, therefore, a test o f our Efficiency in T re a t­ ment, and, being more com prehensive than the Question of an Individual T est, it must be treated on the lines already laid down in the article which deals therewith. U nder these circum stances, the Picture, the Requirem ents, and the M ethods of the E m ergency must on each occasion be considered collectively and separately. (a).— The Picture o f the Test. In forming our P icture we must rem em ber more par­ ticularly the Patient, the Part, and the P lace and its sur­ roundings. Further, as we have to appreciate all the details partly from what we see and partly from what we read, then the secret o f success is to make use o f our sense o f hearing also by reading and re-reading our card o f in­ structions aloud three times in a slow and deliberate fashion. I f we rem em ber that every word o f the particulars or instructions o f the card has been carefully thought out by the Judge and may have som e special significance, then we can realise the necessity for this carefulness and the wisdom o f com bining the use of our senses of sight and hearing. Lastly, it is always well to repeat and thereby fix in our minds any outstanding facts, after which we can proceed to discuss am ongst ourselves the present necessities o f the supposed case. Inattention to this rule som etim es pro­ duces an absurd result. A captain, while reading aloud from a card, reaches the word “ haemorrhage ” ; he stops his reading at once to attend to the b leed in g; then, h o ld ­ ing his finger and thum b in position to keep the haemorr­ hage under control, he proceeds to com plete his reading of the instructions. In other words, though he does not know what he will have to do, he thinks he ought to do som e­ thing ! No Judge expects us to act until we have had a fair chance of grasping the Picture before us ; but, when we do com m ence our work, then he does expect us to proceed without further interruption and to dem onstrate that we know the Requirem ents o f the Em ergency. (b).— The Requirements o f the Test. T h e Requirem ents o f the T est, which, as we are agreed, are indicated by the Patient, the Part, the P lace and its surroundings, and the Proxim ity o f the doctor and shelter, involve a discussion, in which all the members o f the team should share. T h is discussion, however, must be carried out quietly and deliberately in low tones and not in the noisy and indiscriminate fashion, which som etimes obtains in Com petitions. A t the same time, all com m ents intended for the Judge should be d irectly and distinctly addressed instead of being m um bled under the breath with head depressed. Otherwise, a Judge will soon weary of asking us to raise our voices, more especially as it is incum bent upon us to assist rather than to handicap him in the perform ance of his duties. Lastly, it is a com m on mistake to d escribe what should be done without attem pting to do it. W hile, therefore, we are describing our actions, or exam ining a part, we should dem onstrate with our hands what we are doing and handle the part— e.g., lim b— in a manner which will prove to the Judge that in a real em ergency we should stand a reason­ able chance of doing our work properly or a reasonable chance o f discovering the injury.


126

— F I R S T (c ) — The Methods of the Test.

In putting into practice the M ethods of the Em ergency, which have been described in our General Schem e of T reat­ ment, we must pay attention to the Rem oval of the Cause, the Treatm ent o f the Effects, and the Transport of the patient. N o appliance should be named, unless it can be produced, though we might suggest its utility i f it could be obtained and if consistent with the supposed circumstances, we may im prove on the answer by suggesting the source from which it m ight be obtained. Throughout our T est we should remem ber the im portance o f ensuring the accuracy o f our work and should check the neatness of the bandages, tidy up loose ends, &c. Lastly, during Transport we should carry out our in­ structions to exam ine the patient and should do so in a system atic manner, paying special attention to our Standard G uides— the face, the pulse, and the breathing-— and not contenting ourselves with a perfunctory raising of the blanket, which covers the patient. * * * * * * * * T h e T eam of Com petitors, therefore, who, in face of the unrealities and difficulties of the Exam ination Room , can apply to the T est the Principles of First A id, stands a most excellent chance of securing the first position in the final list. If, however, fortune does not favour them in this respect, although they have done their best to pay attention to the minor details, on which in these days so much depends, then its members may console them selves with the fact that they have acquired K now ledge and Experience, which, com bined with their Com m onsense, will carry them to victory on som e future occasion and will help them to prove their E fficiency in Team Tests.

Our

C o m p etitio n s.

T h e first prize for the January Com petition has been awarded to M i s s L. G a r n h a m , 2, Carlton Villas, Fox H ill, Norwood, S E. and the second prize t o :— M r . A . J. S w a i t , 200, M ilk wood Road, H earne H ill, S . E . T

he

W

in n in g

A I D. -

January, 1915.

that the patient is insensible as the result o f drink— people when feeling ill frequently take, or are given, alcoholic stimulants, after which they may becom e unconscious, not from the drink but from the cause which induced them to take it. (3) A fracture of the lower jaw would be recognised by : (1) Signs or history of an accident having occurred. (2) Patient would be suffering from pain at the seat of fracture. (3) T here would be loss o f power (inability to speak or to move the jaw freely). (4) C repitus might be felt. (5) In exam ining inside the mouth irregularity of the teeth would be observed, and most likely bleed­ ing from the gum s— fracture of the lower jaw being usually com pound.

A u s tin

M i lit a r y

A m b u la n c e .

W i t h characteristic enterprise the Austin M otor Co. (1914),

Ltd., of Longbridge W orks, Northfield, Birmingham, are keeping well abreast of the times, and the latest develop­ ment is certainly deserving of much appreciation. This com prises the very latest type o f am bulance vehicles for use at hom e and at the Front, having accom m odation for four stretchers and an attendant, also room for bearers of stretchers and the driyer. T n e top stretchers can be folded up and the support­ ing iron folded also into the roof, so that there is room left for a number o f sitting patients for whom cushions are pro­ vided, which when not in use are folded and stored in the the cupboards under the bottom stretchers. T h e long semi-elliptic springs that are used for the rear have proved to be very easy riding, and, altogether, the am bulance is exceptionally suitable for its purpose, as it is not an adap­ tation o f a standard chassis, but has been built especially for its work. W e learn the firm have a large Governm ent contract for replicas o f this vehicle and have also succeeded in ob ­ taining a huge order from the Scottish R ed Cross Society.

lodex.

Paper.

(1) Irritant poisons affect the parts touched by the poison, causing gastro-intestinal disturbance, with severe pain, straining, vom iting and purging, which may result in collapse and death. Corrosive poisons produce similar effects, the local effects, however, being im m ediate and more severe, and the general effects more rapid. T h e lips, mouth, and throat would be stained and burned, the swelling o f the tissues of the throat possibly causing suffocation. O f the system ic poisons, (which produce their effects on the central nervous system (after absorption) the narcotics cause tendency to uncontrollable, dangerous sleep, followed by com plete insensibility which defies all efforts to rouse the patient, and ends in com a and death. O ther system ic poisons such as strychnine, prussic acid, & c., give rise to convulsions, delirium, failure of respiration, collapse, com a, death. (2) T h e odour of the breath in a person in an uncon­ scious state may suggest opium, prussic acid, carbolic acid, alcoholic poisoning, & c. It should, however, be borne in mind, that the smell of alcohol is not necessarily a proof

W e have recently been favoured by Messrs. M anley and James, o f M anley H ouse, Farringdon-road, London, E .C ., with a sample o f theii Iodex, a powerful antiseptic deserving of much favourable consideration. Iodex is a non-staining, non-irritating preparation of therapeutically free Iodine of great penetrative power. It increases gland secretions, stimulates mucous su rfaces; is a powerful absorbent and rapidly reduces inflammation (all without pain or irritation), and can be freely applied when old-style preparations o f Iodine are quite inadmissible. A t the present juncture the value of Iodex will be the more pronounced and appreciated from the fact that it is “ war-wound ” dressing o f first merit— painless and bland. Its great penetrative power ensures freedom from sepsis in the deeper tissues ; prom otes rapid healing, and is ideal in septic wounds, tears, abrasions, inflamed surfaces o f the feet, & c. Consequently, Iodex is a preparation that should prove o f inestim able benefit in the trenches. In its manipulation Iodex should be gently rubbed into the skin, until the colour disappears two or three times a day. In some conditions hot fomentations may well be applied


— F I R S T

January, 19 1 5 .

before the use o f Iodex, whilst in other cases it is enough merely to apply Iodex and cover with lint. A number of analgesics may be prescribed with Iodex, whilst its penetrative properties tend to assist the absorp­ tion o f other drugs. Further, it being neutral, it may be com bined with any desired substance which is ordinarily com patible with Iodine. Iodex is supplied in r oz, pots at is., and may be had, together with all other information, on application to Messrs. M anley and James, at the previously-m entioned address.

The

B a la c la v a

H e lm e t.

O u r attention has been called to this helmet, made only

by the N urses’ Outfitting Association, which should un­ doubtedly prove a most serviceable and welcom e present to troops in cam p on the Continent or to those fighting abroad. M ade of lam b’s wool, and being light in weight, it is warm and com fortable ; while the material has been so treated as to be absolutely waterproof. It folds into

small compass and may be used both as a service cap or a sleeping helmet suitable for units o f both services. T h e helm et can be worn in such a way as to take off its military appearance, a subterfuge that scarcely any one of us, perhaps, would be guilty of unless desirous of utilising it as a cosy travelling cap. It is made in khaki and grey and retailed at a cost of 2s. n d . each. T hese helmets can only be obtained at the branches o f the N urses’ Outfitting Association, Ltd.

T h e B o m b a r d m e n t of W h i t b y . R

eport

on

the

W

ork

of

the

W

h itby

D

ivisio n .

was bom barded at 9.5 a.m. on W ednesday, D ecem ber 1 6th, 1914, by the Germ an War Vessels, pro­ bably Battle Cruisers. T h e bom bardm ent lasted from between fifteen to twenty minutes, and at least a hundred shells were fired into the town, chiefly at the Coastguard Station on the East Cliff. N o formal call to the Brigade was sent out, but m em­ bers of the Brigade cam e to headquarters and were at work before the bom bardm ent ceased. B y 9.15 the Brigade were in com m unication by telephone with the A bbey House, a part of which was noted to be seriously damaged, and news was received that a B oy Scout and also a Territorial on duty had been seriously injured. Sergt. W. R. K naggs and H on. Sergeant and Secretary C . H . H ood took charge, and three stretcher squads, each in charge of a senior, were despatched to the scene of the wrecked Coastguard station (time, 9.22). Squad No. 1 met and took charge of B oy Scout Miller, who had received shell wounds in the back and legs. After being treated by Dr. Pern, M iller was conveyed to the Cottage, where he has since had the injured leg am putated. No. 2 Squad attended the wounded Territorial, who was able to walk down to h o sp ita l; he has shell wounds in the back (super­ W h itb y

A I D

1 27

ficial), being saved from death by his rifle, water bottle, & c., which had received the shot first and were dem olished. H e is now alm ost recovered. • Squad 3, in searching the ruins o f the Coastguard Station, discovered the body o f Coastguard Rundall, who had been struck on the head by a shell, part of the face being blown away, and who died before removal. T h e body was at once rem oved to the mortuary by the Brigade, who also assisted at the hospital to rem ove another victim of bom bardm ent (time, 9 45 a.m). A No. 4 Squad was also despatched to Spring H ill and rem oved Mr. M iller, who had been injured by a shell bursting in the room in which she has been an invalid for many years. Mrs. M iller was conveyed to the C onvalescent H om e, a R e d Cross Hospital, where she has since died. T h e following individual cases are also reported :— T w o cases of shell wounds (females) in body and legs, respectively treated by Nurses B irch and Phillips, who are attached to the Brigade as nursing sisters, and several minor wounds of no particular consequence, caused through fright and broken glass. A lso five cases o f fainting and shock, requiring skilled attention. W hilst assisting in the treatm ent o f a lady, Nurse Birch was struck in the leg by a piece of shell and confined to the house for several days. At noon, the W hitby H igh L ights were reported to have been shelled, and friends o f the Brigade conveyed Sergt. K n aggs and Private H unter there in the side cars of their motor cycles, but no assistance was required. A ll telegraph and telephone wires being down the B rigade Secretary was conveyed in the same manner to Scarborough, with the offer o f stores or assistance. T h e Scarborough Y .M .C .A . D ivision were interviewed, also Dr. J .G . Murray, but no assistance needed. T h e Brigade dism issed at at 4 p m, ; the officers and one squad rem aining on duty until 10 p.m. T h e death roll at W hitby is now six. In the event o f a return raid, the B rigade will be on duty, as last, in ten minutes from the first, shot.

The

S .J .A .B .

H o sp ita l.

U n d e r the auspices o f the St. John A m b ulan ce Brigade, a

hospital o f 500 beds is in course of preparation for service in France. T h e hospital will be known as the “ St. John A m bulance Brigade H ospital,” and the entire personnel will be recruited from members o f the St. John A m bulan ce Brigade, with the exception o f a few special appointments. T h e C h ief Com m issioner o f the St. John A m bulance Brigade, C olon el Sir James R . Andrew Clark, Bt. C .B ., F .R .C .S .E ., will go out in charge o f the hospital, and he will be supported by a distinguished list of surgeons and physicians. It is estimated that the probable cost o f raising and maintaining this hospital for six months will be approxi­ mately ,£50,000, so that the m agnitude o f this undertaking can well be understood, and the B rigade deserve the very highest support in this m agnificent undertaking. D onations are of course required for this schem e, and any person giving £ 1 0 0 , the proportionate cost of a bed, will be entitled to name a bed in the hospital. C heques should be made payable to the “ St. John A m bulance Brigade H ospital,” and addressed to W. R Edwards, Esq., S t.J o h n ’s Gate, Clerkenw ell, E .C . A ll members o f the Brigade who desire, and can assist in the providing of necessary clothing and stores for the above hospital, should apply, through their Superintendents to Mrs. J. C alvin Lines, St. John W arehouse, 56, St. Joh n ’s Square, E .C ., for particulars and patterns.


128

— F I R S T

B r e v itie s . T h i s is the first great war in which field motor-ambulances

have been extensively used.

It was inevitable that many

defects should be found in existing types, and in various quarters experts began to ask whether som ething could not be done to standardise the patterns and to improve the type. A t the instance o f Mr. H enry S. W ellcom e, the founder o f the W ellcom e Bureau o f Scientific Research, a Com m ission has been formed, and the names of members show at once that the matter is regarded as of the first im portance by those most intim ately connected with the welfare o f the wounded soldier. Sir Frederick Treves, whose long experience and dis­ tinguished service specially fit him for the task, has con­ sented to be the Chairm an. T h e Adm iralty is represented by the Director-General of the M edical Departm ent, R .N ., while the Quarterm aster-General to the Forces and the A ctin g D irector-G eneral, Arm y M edical Service, represent the War Office. T h e British R ed Cross Society is, of course, represented by Sir Frederick Treves, and the St. John A m bulan ce Association by Sir C laude M acdonald and Sir John Furley. T h e rem aining members are all experts. T h is Com m ission will first, and foremost, act as a judgin g com m ittee for the award of prizes of the value of ,£2,000 provided by the W ellcom e Bureau o f Scientific Research. T h ese prizes are offered for the best designs of an am bulance body which shall fit a standard pattern motor-chassis for field motor-ambulances. T h e last day for the receipt of com peting designs is June 30th, 1915. It is hoped that the com petition will bring in a num ber of ingenious designs, from which the ideal field ambulancebody will be evolved. It may be asked why the com petition is restricted to designs for a body and not for the com plete am bulance, including a chassis. T h e reason is that a chassis takes much longer to build than a body, and that, when war breaks out, it is im possible to get at short notice anything like a sufficient num ber of any one type of chassis. On the other hand, a standardised body to fit any chassis of approved dim ensions can be constructed in numbers at com paratively short n o tice— and a perfected body is badly wanted to ensure com plete com fort for the wounded. It is hoped that the information obtained by the com ­ petition, and in other ways, will be published in some

AID. —

January, 1915.

W e publish in this issue a record o f the work o f the various districts o f the Brigade since the out­ break of war. T h e record will give our readers som e idea o f the immense am ount o f work which has devolved on the districts’ staffs, and the success and sm ooth working which has attended their efforts, speaks volumes for the organisation in the various districts. W e cannot pass with­ out m entioning the way in which the rank and file have so loyally supported the staffs in the united effort to be of service to the country. * * * A t last the L .C .C . has made a start with the provision o f a suitable am bulance service for the streets of London. T h e latest news from the special com m ittee of the Council is that three am bulance stations will be fully equipped and a partial service from these stations in operation before the end o f the financial year, which occurs in March. It is also hoped that the remaining three stations will be com ­ pleted early in the next financial year. T h e estimates already approved am ount to ,£ 5,495, and the com m ittee have been asked to prepare, at an early date a com prehen­ sive estimate o f the annual cost of the service. * * * A n interesting innovation in am bulance equipm ent, recently designed by Sir W illiam Angus, Sanderson, and

Co., Ltd., of New castle-upon-Tyne, has, after successful tests carried out by the military authorities in the Tyneside district, been adopted for military service on the Continent. T h e m achine is a standard 8 h.p. N .U .T . bicycle, and the am bulance portion is of an original design. It is con­ structed of tubular framework, and so arranged that com ­ fortable accom m odation is found for two recum bent figures upon standard regulation Arm y stretchers, these being supported on long, easy springs, which run from end to end. A m ong the salient features of this motor-cycle am bulance its extrem e m obility is prominent, as the m achine can turn in 9 ft., as against 36 ft. required by a motor-car am bulance. It can travel wherever a motor-car can travel, and to a great num ber o f places that a motor­ car am bulance could not go. T h ere is, in addition, an econom y in petrol consum ption.

V W e publish in this

issue an article on the splendid work which the newly-formed W hitby D ivision o f the Brigade did on the occasion of the bom bardm ent o f that town, and the sinking o f the hospital ship, “ R o h illa,” which

perm anent form, available for future reference. Probably in addition to one design of special excellence, there will

went ashore miles from W hitby Pier. Fleet-Surgeon T . C . Littler Jones, writing to the Superintendent of the

be subm itted various designs approved by the Com m ission. For these, a portion o f the prize-money has been set apart. T h e first prize is o f one thousand pounds, the second of

Division, s a y s : “ T h e services rendered were excellent. T h e long hours of duty and the arduous nature of the work

five hundred, and the third of three hundred pounds. A ll details o f conditions may be obtained from the Secretary,

and weather were all endured cheerfully, and the whole turnout, in my opinion, was absolutely splendid.” T h e result of this occurrence has been to bring the Division

the A m bulan ce Construction Com m ission, 10, Henriettastreet, Cavendish-square, London, W. T h e com petition is open to citizens of all nations.

and its objects into prom inence and to com m and the support and recognition o f the public generally to a work w hich is now recognised as of much value to the town.


January, 19 1 5 .

F I R S T

A I D . -

THE WORK OF THE S.J.A.B. SINCE THE OUTBREAK OF WAR. No. 1 District. In those momentous days at the beginning of August, when peace and war hung in the balance, brigade men naturally asked themselves— shall we be wanted ? To the Royal Naval Auxiliary Sick Berth Reserve the response came quickly. The men of the Prince of W ales’ Corps, who a short seven days before had paraded in South London before the Chief Commis­ sioner, Sir James Clark, and the Admiralty Inspecting Officer, Staff Surgeon Stuart, the message came by postcard to parade on Sunday, August 2nd, at the historic headquarters at St. John’s Gate. Some came fully prepared to serve their country at once anywhere, but others not so foreseeing were astonished when told they must take the next train to the destination allotted to them— but all went loyally, as they were bid. A few days later, on August 7th, the Military Home Hospital Reserve was mobilised at the Hugh Myddleton Schools in Clerkenwell, and, after an inspiring address from the Chief Commissioner left to man the various military hospitals soon to be vacated by the regular R.A.M .C. staff. Since the first mobilisation constant drafts have been made on the No. 1 District. The following figures will show how well the call has been met by orderlies assigned to the Expeditionary Force and the various Naval and Military Home Hospitals :— Royal Herbert Hospital, Woolwich, 202 ; Queen Alexan­ dra Hospital, Millbank, 161 ; Rochester Row Hospital, 68 ; Tower of London, 2 ; Barnet, 3 ; Mill Hill, 3 ; Queen Mary Hospital, Southend, 9 ; Jersey, 3 ; Military Hospital, Caterham, 26 ; Military Hospital, Hounslow, 20 ; Military Hospital, Purfleet, 3 ; Military Hospital, Aldershot, 159; Military Hos­ pital, Shorncliffe, 80 ; Military Hospital, Seaford, 7 ; Military Hospital, Folkestone, 4 ; Military Hospital, Codfcrd, Tidworth, 31 ; Expeditionary Force, 87 ; R .N .A .S.B. Reserve, 171. Total, 1,055. The following members of the Prince of W ales’ Corps of the R.N .A.S.B. Reserve have been singled out for special com­ mendation by Sir James Porter ^ P r iv a te s Jas. Follett, T. W. J, Eastwick, T. A. Porter, J. H. Ditton, W. Fryer. It will thus be seen the district situated in the capital city of the Empire has not been remiss when the call has come for men trained to give not only their services but themselves to the healing of wounds. The figures given above are those approximately exact up to the end of the year 1914. Since then men from the Prince o f W ales’ Corps have been despatched to Servia, amongst lands, where the cause of the Allies is being fought. Although these men have gone others, we are confident, will step forward to take their places. Perhaps the loss in this district is most keenly felt in the district administration staff, which includes Col. Lees Hall, Messrs. Pontin, Carter, Lines and Hayman, who are now enrolled in active service in the R.A.M .C. As regards the outcome of this greatest of all great wars and its influence on ambulance and Red Cross organisation and protection for those who are engaged solely on humanitarian work, it is too early to speculate— qui vivra verra. No. 2 District. On August 1st preliminary instructions regarding mobilisa­ tion were issued to all Superintendents of Divisions by the Deputy-Commissioner, and on the following day 64 members of the Royal Naval Auxiliary Sick Berth Reserve proceeded to the various naval hospitals. This number has since been en­ larged to 92. The Military Home Hospitals Reserve were next called up to the number of 84 and proceeded to the numerous military

hospitals. T h i s R e s e r v e has sin ce b e en s u p p le m e n te d as n e c e s s i t y a r o s e u n til, o n D e c e m b e r 3 1 s t , t h e t o t a l s t o o d a t 347. I n a d d i t i o n t h e “ F ” B e a r e r C o m p a n y , c o n s i s t i n g o f 58 m en, w ere a c c e p te d as the p erso n n el o f the D u c h e s s o f W e s t ­ m i n s t e r ’s W a r H o s p i t a l , n o w s i t u a t e d a t L e T o u q u e t , n e a r B o u lo gn e. T h e s e m e n w e r e h a n d e d o v e r t o t h e o f f i c e r in c h a r g e b y the D e p u ty -C o m m is s io n e r on the e v e o f th eir e m ­ b a r k a t i o n , in S i r T h o m a s L i p t o n ’s y a c h t , fo r F r a n c e . N u m e r o u s g r a t i f y i n g r e p o r t s h a v e c o m e to h a n d r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h is h o s p i t a l , a n d S i r F r e d e r i c k T r e v e s , w h o r e c e n t l y v i s i t e d t h e v a r i o u s W a r H o s p i t a l s , p l a c e d it a t t h e h e a d o f t h e list, a s e m p h a t i c a l l y t h e b e s t h o s p i t a l in F r a n c e . T h r e e o f f i c e r s a n d 12 o r d e r l i e s w e r e p r o v i d e d fo r t h e A m e r i c a n W o m e n ’s W a r R e l i e f F u n d H o s p i ta l at P a ig n to n . T w e n t y - n in e m en w ere su p p lie d as o rd e rlie s to th e 2nd S o u th e rn G e n e r a l H o s p ita l, B risto l, a n d the lo cal C o r p s r e n d e r e d v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e in t h e t r a n s p o r t w o r k o f 6,000 c a s e s to a n d f r o m t h is l a r g e h o s p i t a l o f 800 b e d s , a n d a l s o a t t h e A v o n m o u t h D o c k s a nd the n u m e ro u s m ilita r y ca m p s. T h e W o o d s t o c k D i v i s i o n ( O x f o r d C o r p s ) h a s 12 N . C . O . ’s an d m en acting as v o lu n ta ry n ig h t o rd e ilie s at th e B le n h eim P a la c e H o spital. F o r t y m e m b e r s o f the N o . 2 D is tric t, c o m p r is in g d is ­ pensers, clerks, cook s, sto rek eep ers a nd h ospital orderlies, are a t w o r k a t t h e L a d y H a r d i n g e H o s p i t a l fo r I n d i a n T r o o p s , B rock en h u rst. T h i s m a k e s a t o t a l , o n d u t y , u p to D e c e m b e r 3 1 s t la s t , o f 569 o ff ic e r s a n d m e n , o r 40 p e r c e n t , o f t h e w h o l e s t r e n g t h o f the D istrict. N u r s i n g D i v i s i o n s . — G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g a ll t h e s e a r e g iv in g v a lu a b le a s s is ta n c e to the n u m e ro u s lo ca l h o sp ita ls a nd c o n v a l e s c e n t h o m e s , a n d in p r o v i d i n g c l o t h i n g f o r o u r s a i l o r s a n d s o l d i e r s o n d u t y , a n d in c a r i n g fo r t h e i r w i v e s a n d f a m i l i e s a n d also the B e lg ia n R efu g ees. B a th N u r s in g D iv isio n , L a d y Supt. M iss F a r w ell, h as n u r s e s a n d s i s t e r s ,o n d u t y a t t h e K i n g s w o o d H o s p i t a l a n d L a d y T e m p l e ’s H o s p i t a l , u n d e r A s s i s t a n t - C o m m i s s i o n e r M r . F . S p r a w s o n , a s s is te d b y th e B a th M e n ’s D iv is io n . L y m in g to n N u r s in g D ivision , L a d y Supt. M rs. C h in ery, L a d y o f G r a c e , h a s b e en e s p e c ia lly a ctive. A s a V olu n ta ry A i d D e t a c h m e n t it h a s a h o s p i t a l o f 40 b e d s in g o o d w o r k i n g o rd er a n d also taken c h a r g e o f the M o r a n t W a r H o sp ita l, B rock en hu rst. T h e y h a v e c o l l e c t e d o v e r £ 7 0 0 fo r t h e i r m a i n ­ ten a n ce a n d equip m en t. T h e B ris to l D iv is io n , L a d y Su p t. M rs . G riffiths, L a d y o f G r a c e , h as tak en a le a d in g part as a R e d C r o ss V o lu n ta r y A id D e t a c h m e n t in r e c e i v i n g t h e s e v e r a l thousand w ounded sold iers at the B ristol R a ilw a y Station. S o u th a m p to n D ivisio n , L a d y Supt. M rs. L o c k e , an d oth er local D iv is io n s are d o in g d u ty at s e v e r a l a u x ilia ry h o spitals, a n d a r e r e n d e r i n g g r e a t a s s i s t a n c e to t h e s i c k a n d w o u n d e d a r r i v i n g a t t h e d o c k s , a n d in m i n i s t e r i n g t o t h e c o m f o r t o f t h e sold iers e n c a m p e d on the C o m m o n . C h e lte n h a m , L a d y Supt. M rs. M c C r a it h B la k e n e y ; O xfo rd , L a d y S u p t . M r s . I. M . C o v e n t o n ; B o u r n e m o u t h , L a d y S u p t . M iss K a t e L a id la y ; P o r ts m o u th , L a d y Supt. M rs. E . M . Fullj a m e s , a r e a ll d o i n g e x c e l l e n t w o r k in s i m i l a r d i r e c t i o n s .

No. 3 District. The members of the District have well responded to the call of duty. As the district is divided mostly into corps we give details of what each has accomplished. N o r t h W o r c e s t e r s h i r e C o r p s . — This Corps con­ sisting of 120 members, is made up of four Divisions, viz ■ — Stewart & Lloyds, Ltd., T. W . Lench, Ltd., Accles and Pollocks, Ltd., and Langley and District. As a Corps it is com­ paratively young, but the numbers of the men on active service therefore justifiesjthe Corps in regarding itself as being both use­


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ful and effective. The Officers are Corps-Surg. A. D. McQueen, Corps Supt. W . G. Holland, Corps Secretary D. Handel W illiam s (on Active Service at the Connaught Hospital, Assistant Corps Treasurer R. Howard Krause and Divisional Supts. F. Lightfoot and J. Barlow. On the outbreak of war the men of the Stewart and Lloyds Division holding nursing certificates, 25 in number, were immediately mobilised and proceeded to their military home hospital stations. Members of the other divisions volun­ teered for service with the Expeditionary Force and the R.A .M .C., and five members of the Langley Division have just been chosen for service in France, under the joint committee, and have proceeded to the front, and in a few instances mem­ bers have rejoined the combatant forces. In all there are now 55 members of the corps on active service at home and abroad, and the remainder are keenly awaiting a call. A recent examination for nursing certificates took place and 35 members satisfied the examiner. The Corps has been kept up to concert pitch since August by frequent lectures, drills and route marches. Measures have been taken to recruit additional members to the open division (Langley and district) and money has been subscribed by local manufacturers for the purposes of complet­ ing the equipment of the men and the provision of uniforms and outfit for the new members. One of the members recently joined the R.A.M .C., and after undergoing an examination was immediately promoted, and other similar instances could be given showing the keenness and general efficiency of members of the Corps. The Corps officers have taken a daily interest in the men, and by frequent meetings, lectures and discussions, the work has not flagged and the Corps will never feel that they have a place in the “ Great Ambulance Sun” until every member is on active service. N o r t h L e i c e s t e r s h i r e . — Out o. an original strength of about 100 men the corps has supplied 50 men to the various reserves of the brigade and the R.A.M .C. The Ashley Division sent 14, the Moira and Overseal Division 26, and the Coalville Division 14. Classes in first aid are being organised by the division, and it is hoped shortly that the ranks will be again up to normal strength; while nursing divisions are in course of formation. L e i c e s t e r . — Upwards of 120 members of the Corps have been despatched for service as sick berth attendants in the Royal N avy and in the Military Home Hospitals. There are also about 50 more members awaiting the call for duty. In addition, 30 members of the Corps forming a transport section are rendering valuable services in transporting the wounded as they arrive at Leicester station to the military hospital— 2,000 cases already having been dealt with. The transport equip­ ment includes 3 motor ambulance wagons, one motor ’bus and hospital car for exclusive service at the 5th Northern General Hospital. A fleet of 120 motor cars are always ready on call. The St. John V .A .D . hospitals in Leicestershire are as follo w s :— Knighton House, Leicester; W icklow Lodge, Melton Mowbray ; Billesdon at Billesdon and Charnwood, Nanpanton, near Loughboro, Members of the Leicester Nursing Corps, as a section 01 the W omen’s Voluntary Aid Detachments, are also rendering acceptable service in administering to the comforts of the wounded on their arrival at the station. Also that the “ Knighton H ouse” Hospital, already referred to, is staffed by them. W e l l i n g b o r o u g h . — It is gratifying to report that two officers and 96 men have been mobilised from this Corps since war was declared. The majority of the men are at the various base hospitals, such as Woolwich, Chatham, Portsmouth, Dover, Harwich, Norwich, &c., and quite a number are serv­ ing at the hospitals at the various large camps at Aldershot, Salisbury Plain, Colchester, &c. They all write saying they thoroughly enjoy the work and have “ no complaints” to make. B e s i d e s this Naval and Military mobilisation, the V.A.D . section has supplied men and nursing sisters to two county temporary hospitals, where nearly 50 of the wounded soldiers have been cared for. The nursing sisters and men of the V .A .D . have been pleased to receive at the Wellingborough Temporary Hospital 20 wounded soldiers from the Boulogne Base Hospital.

A ID . —

January, 19 1 5 .

Several new classes, both for men and nursing sisters, have been formed and successfully passed the first aid and nursing examinations, so that when the call comes for more men or nursing sisters the corps will be ready to supply what is wanted. O L N E Y . — The division consists of three small sections, viz., Olney, Weston Underwood and Filgrave, in charge of Supt. Knight. Since the commencement of the war two ser­ geants, one corporal and 32 men have been called to the reserves, and there are six men serving in the R.A.M .C. A number of men have joined the division to fill up the ranks. N o r t h a m p t o n . — About 59 members of this corps have taken up duties in the hospitals, and the Northampton V.A.D . entirely manage a hospital at Weston Favell with a staff of 6 nursing sisters and 3 orderlies. Since October 29th 11 nurs­ ing sisters have been doing duty in temporary hospitals and convalescent homes without a break, and 12 have done duty at the military hospital, and 17 have been through a course of hospital training. The whole of the garments made by the ladies of Northamptonshire have been despatched to the sick and wounded through the nursing division. No. 4 District. Great activity has been manifest at District Headquarters since the outbreak of hostilities. On the declaration of war the members of the Home Hospitals Reserve and the Royal Naval Auxiliary Sick Berth Reserve were mobilised and some 650 of the former and 730 of the latter proceeded to their respective destinations. One hundred and fifty men also enlisted for service with the Expeditionary Force. Since the original mobilisation, and in addition to the men then called up, No. 4 District has supplied up to December 31st, 1914, 1,265 men f° r military home hospitals, naval hospitals, hospitals on the lines of communication in France ; the Australian Hospital, Wimereux ; the Indian Hospital, Brighton; the Balmer Lawn Hospital, Brockenhurst; the Naval Division; various prisoners’ camps and for motor ambulance service in France. The provision of this large number of men, who have been supplied in drafts varying in numbers and frequently on a few hours notice, has entailed a vast amount of work particularly for the District Secretary (Mr. W. S. Woodcock) who has had charge of the mobilisation arrangements. He has been ably supported by the officers in charge of units and the manner in which the work has been performed reflects the greatest credit on all concerned. It is very satisfactory to find that the work of the men is appreciated, and a large number of extremely favourable reports in connection with their work have been received, in particular, the following letter from the Officer Commanding the Australian Voluntary Hospital may be quoted :— “ I take this opportunity of thanking you and your Committee for the very fine draft of Lancashire men you were so good as to recruit and forward to this Hospital just a month ago. “ Their work has been excellent throughout, and although one or two have fallen sick before the rigours of this windsu'ept quarter, the general health of the contingent is very good.” A large number of officers in charge of units are now on service, and, without exception, the command has devolved upon equally competent persons with the result that the district is well organised and has been able to recruit vigourously. The Corps and Divisional Surgeons have dis­ played great energy in this direction and have devoted a con­ siderable amount of time to the instructions of recruits. In consequence of this, notwithstanding the large number of men who have been furnished, the district is still in a position to comply with any calls that may be made upon it. Six officers of the district are now serving as quarter­ masters in Home Hospitals, viz., Assistant Commissioner Whittaker, at Tidworth; Assistant Commissioner Garnett at Parkhurst, Isle of W ight; Corps Supt. Ogden (Accrington) at Dublin; Corps Inspector of Stores Bullock (Accrington) at Devonport; Corps Secretary Howorth (Preston) at Woolwich, and Corps Treasurer Millington (Preston) at Belfast.


January, 19 1 5 ,

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Many of the Nursing Divisions have formed themselves into organisations for the production of comforts for the troops, notably the Bolton Corps, and a large quantity of articles have by this time been sent out. Ten motor cars, converted into motor ambulances, have been presented to the Order through the District. Each unit in the district is now busily engaged in collect­ ing funds for the equipment and maintenance of the St. John Ambulance Hospital which is shortly to proceed abroad, and it is hoped to provide a number of beds in this way. The Divisions are also collecting materials for use in the Hospital and will continue to supply comforts for the benefit of the patients. Twenty St. John Auxiliary Hospitals have been established in No. 4 District for convalescent cases which they receive from the Military General Hospitals at home. They are staffed by trained nurses assisted by members of the Nursing Divisions. No 5 District. Up to January 12th last, 25 sergeants and sergt-majors, 26 corporals, 103 nursing privates, 566 general duty privates and some 40 Royal Naval Sick Berth Reservists, a total of 760 men, have been mobilised and despatched to the following depots and military and naval hospitals :— Aldershot, Tidworth, Chatham Naval Hospital, Chatham Tort Pitt, Haslar Naval Hospital, Dover Military Hospital, Colchester Military Hospital, Brighton Indian Hospital, Litchfield Military Hospital, and the Crystal Palace for the Field Ambulance of the Royal Naval D ivi­ sion. This number includes the “ H ” and “ I ” Bearer Com­ panies, the former for duty on a hospital ship, and the latter on a hospital train in France. The men have been drawn from the following corps and divisions :— Bentley Colliery Division, Birchwood Corps, Blackwell Division, Bolsover Division, Brodsworth Division, Castleford Division, Creswell Division, Dewsbury Corps, Denaby Main Corps, Derby Division, Doe Hill Division, Goole D ivi­ sion, Halifax Division, Hebden Bridge Division, Hudders­ field Corps, Ilkeston Division, Leeds Corps, Mansfield Colliery Division, Mansfield Division, the Divisions of the North Staffordshire District, Nottingham Division, Rother­ ham Corps, Sheffield Corps, Sheepbridge Division, Shipley Corps, Shirebrook Division, Sowerby Bridge Division, Spen Valley Corps, Stavely Division, Sutton-in-Ashfield Division, Tibshelf Corps, Warsop Corps, and Worksop Division. No. 6 District. This District shows a remarkable increase of units and membership up to December 31st, 1914. There have been registered 28 new ambulance divisions and 17 new nursing divisions since September 30th, 1913, making a total of 192 divisions in the District. The number of members of ambulance divisions is 4,277, and of nursing divisions 1,496, making a total of 5,773, showing an increase of 1,919 since September 30th, 1913. R.JV.S.B.R.— Ninety-five members were called up and dis­ tributed in the Fleet and Shore Hospitals, many of whom have been in action at various times. M .H .H .R .— T he total number of men who have joined this Reserve, and have been called up for service, is 415. R .A .M .C .— At the commencement of the war 162 men were enlisted for the Expeditionary Forces from the Brigade and are now at the seat of war. In addition about 317 men have enlisted direct in the R.A.M .C. Con-Joint Committee of the British Red Cross Society ana St. John.— One hundred and eighty-five men drawn from this District have been sent for foreign service under this Com­ mittee. Deputy-Commissioner C. B. Palmer took these men out on most occasions. The first contingent, consisting of 99 men, left for Boulogne on the 4th of November. They have been distributed amongst the military hospitals in and around Boulogne. Some have been sent to the Front on convoys and others are engaged in loading and unloading wounded at Boulogne, while four have been specially selected and sent to Cimiez in the South of France for the British Officers’ Hospital.

AID. — Recently the Commissioner at Boulogne, Sir Curtauld Thom p­ son, has issued a most favourable report of the work of these orderlies, especially mentioning the Quartermaster, Supt. J. Page, of the Ashington Coal Company Corps. The next contingent, which consisted of 35 men from No. 6 District, was taken out by the Deputy-Commissioner to Rouen on the 19th of November. These men crossed to Dieppe and were intended to be put on to a hospital train formed by the Con-Joint Committee. As the train was not ready on the arrival of the men they were distributed amongst the various military hospitals, where they have done splendid work. The men are now working on the hospital train, which has been running for over a month. The next contingent of 20 men went over to Boulogne on the 23rd of November, and these men were also sent to the hospitals near there. A further contingent of 10 men were sent over to Bou­ logne on the 7th of December, and they are at Wimereux in civil hospitals. The last contingent, consisting of 23 men, also for hospital work, left for Boulogne on the 22nd of December. Some ot them went to replace those who had been sent up to the front. On the 7th of December the Deputy Commissioner had a unique experience. He was able to go up to the Front, pro­ ceeding with a convoy to Bethume, where he had his first ex­ perience of being under shell fire. He went right down the lines through Merveille, Bailleul and on to Poperinge, before which town he picked up a wounded man and took him into Poperinge to a small English hospital. Here he ascertained that there were some wounded nuns in a hospital near Ypres, which was under shell fire. Thither he then proceeded and assisted in getting the nuns and wounded Germans to Poper­ inge. The next day he returned to Ypres to take the daughter of the Civil Administrator of the town back to her father, who preferred to remain in Ypres, his being, probably, the only family remaining in the town. This journey necessitated cross­ ing Ypres from one end to the other, where nothing but deso­ lation and destruction was to be seen. Mr. Palmer visited the house of the Civil Administrator and gave him some food, which was urgently required. The Germans were at this time dropping their shells quite close to this house, a part of which had been destroyed. Mr. Palmer returned from Ypres by Saint Omer to Boulogne, thus completing a most interesting and useful tour. Hospitals.— Various auxiliary hospitals have been estab­ lished for the sick and wounded from overseas and coast defences at Hull, Malton, Hornsea, W est Hartlepool, Durham, Sunderland, South Shields, Gateshead and Brancepeth Castle and Tynemouth. The hospitals for sick and wounded from overseas are :— No. 1 Durham V.A. Hospital at W hinney House, Gateshead, equipped for 85 beds. This {hospital was established on the 23rd of October, and up to December 31st 181 patients have been admitted. The matron in charge is the Lady District Superintendent, Mrs. C. B. Palmer, who is assisted by a large number of trained and voluntary nurses. No. 2 Durham V.A. Hospital, Mill Dam, South Shields, which is the German Seamen’s Mission Home, is equipped with 50 beds and was established on the 31st of August. The total number of cases has been 210. T he matron in charge is Lady Superintendent Mrs. J. R. Crease. No. 4 Durham V.A. Hospital, Jeffrey Memorial Hall, Sun­ derland, where 32 beds have been equipped and 72 cases have been treated. The matron in charge is Lady Superintendent Mrs. Ballingall. No. 5 Durham V .A. Hospital, 17, North Bailey, Durham, is equipped for 30 beds and 30 patients have been treated. The matron in charge is Mrs. W yke-Smith. No. 7 Durham V.A. Hospital, Brancepeth Castle, given by Viscount Boyne, is equipped for 60 beds. The Gosport D ivi­ sion of the St. John Ambulance Brigade, under Lady Super­ intendent Mrs. Bean, was placed in charge of the hospital, and 97 cases have been treated. In addition to the above, a military hospital was opened at the Masonic Hall, W est Hartlepool. This was a military hospital for the garrison and placed under the charge of Lady Superintendent Mrs. H. M. Strover, and 25 members of the St. John V .A .D . This hospital was opened on August 10th and


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150 in-patients and 200 out-patients have been treated. On the occasion of the bombardment of W est Hartlepool this hospital was under fire, and was struck in several instances. It should be noted that this is the first occasion that any member of a nursing division of the St. John Ambulance -brigade has been under fire, and that the members of the division carried on their work in a most courageous manner. The hospital, on the bombardment, was soon filled with wounded, both civilian and military. At Tynemouth, the Nursing Division, on the outbreak of the war, prepared the Workhouse Infirmary for possible naval casualties, and a most elaborate scheme of transport was car­ ried out by the neighbouring ambulance divisions. Only a few cases, however, were sent into the Tyne, and the hospital was subsequently dismantled. Lady Supt. Mrs. Catcheside was in charge of this hospital. A t Hull three Voluntary Aid Hospitals were initiated. (1) The N aval Hospital at Argyle-street Infirmary, which was partly equipped by the Board of Guardians. The hospital was taken oyer by the Admiralty, and is now known as the Naval Hospital. Fifty-seven beds have been provided. (2) The Metropole Hospital, West-street, which was sent out to France under the joint direction of Lady Sykes and the French Red Cross Society. (3) The Social Hall, Danson-lane, which was prepared through the generosity of Messrs. Reckitt & Sons, Ltd. Rest Stations.— A Railway Rest Station was formed at the Central Station, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and was staffed day and night by two members of the St. John Voluntary Aid D e­ tachments. Up to the 31st December, 1914, 1,994 cases were treated in this station. Newcastle-on-Tyne was a halting place for some convoys of wounded proceeding to Scotland, and refreshments were given to the men on their way north. A t Hull a Rest Station for soldiers was equipped at the Paragon Railway Station, and two members of the St. John Voluntary Aid Detachments were in constant attendance. A Rest station was also provided at the river side, this being supported by the Hull Fruit Importers Club. Wreck of the Hospital Ship “ Rohilla at Whitby.— On the occasion of the wreck of this ship the Whitby Divisions of the St. John Ambulance Brigade were on duty and did splendid work, dealing with 47 cases of injury and 50 survivors. Great credit is due to Supt. C. H. Hood, of this division. The divisional surgeon makes the following comment in the Occurrence Book :— “ The County is proud of the way in which the Whitby Ambulance Division did their work during this terrible disaster. Personally, I found everything in working order, and the men, assisted by the Detachment from Grasmont, stuck to their long and arduous duties as only well trained and plucky men can do. I heartily congratulate them on the splendid work.”— (Signed) C. B. Mitchell, M.B. Bombardment o f the N orth-East Coast.— The members of the Brigade were on duty at the three towns bombarded, West Hartlepool, W hitby and Scarborough. A t W est Hartlepool the ambulance divisions treated over 100 cases and were under the command of Divisional Supt. W . T. Ryan. At W hitby the ambulance division turned out under Supt. C. H. Hood and treated a large number of cases. A t Scarborough, under Dr. Wilkinson, the ambulance and nursing divisions did most excellent work. Depots.— Main depots for the reception of garments for the sick and wounded were established at Cambridge Hall, Newcastle, Durham, South Shields and Hull, and special depots were formed at the headquarters of nearly all the ambulance and nursing divisions. Goods have been sent to all military hospitals, auxiliary hospitals, rest stations, ambulance trains and St. John’s Gate (headquarters) for the Front. The depot at Newcastle was very largely assisted by a large work­ ing committee under the Lady Mayoress, Mrs. Johnstone W allace. The Cambridge Hall was under the charge of a large working committee of members of the Jesmond and Gosforth Nursing Divisions. No. 7 District. The number of men who have joined the M .H .H .R. is

a i d

.—

January, 1915.

approximately 91— as the district secretary has gone on active service the actual figures are not available. Since the outbreak of war one St. John V.A.D . auxiliary hospital and 3 Red Cross auxiliary hospitals have been in constant use by the sick and wounded. Seven other V.A.D . hospitals have been accepted, in accordance with a scheme which the Deputy Commissioner was requested to drawup by the D .D .M .S., Chester, these acting as overflow hospitals from the nearest general hospitals at Liverpool, Birmingham and Stoke-on-Trent. All the Shropshire V .A .D .’s have been trained on R.A.M .C. lines, and have been supplied with the official books and training manuals, and everything has been working smoothly. Four hundred and fifty-six cases of sick and wounded have been treated in the hospitals, including an ambulance train of 135, last m onth; 99 were severe “ cot cases.” All these were taken into the auxiliary hospital at Shrewsbury. No. 9 District. The District has answered well to the call for volunteers to the R.N .A .S.B.R . and M .H .H.R. Since the outbreak of war 120 men have gone on duty in one or other of these organisa­ tions. The district secretary, the Hon. D. K. Watson, has received a commission in the 7th Devon Regiment, and District Supt. Lt.-Col. C. I. Ellis, M.D., is also on active service. Dr. Spaight, together with practically all the division, has joined the 2nd Wessex Field Ambulance. Dr. Barry took up work at the Falmouth Military Hospital early in August. A. most suitably equipped V.A.D . hospital has been organised at Newton Abbot for the reception of 45 wounded, and is doing good work. O f this the Deputy Commissioner, Dr. R. H. Grimbly, is the chief medical officer, and is ably assisted by his colleagues, Dr. Culross, Dr. Higgins and Dr. Patey, all surgeons of the brigade. No.

10 District.

Since the outbreak of war, 104 non-commissioned officers and men belonging to the various Corps and Divisions in this E ast Anglian District, have gone on active service with the Royal N avy and Army as hospital orderlies. Compared with the numbers that have been mobilised from the St. John Ambulance Brigade in the more populous districts in the Midland Counties, this does not sound a large number. But it must be remembered that East Anglia is a scattered district composed of a number of small towns and villages, with a population principally engaged in agriculture. When war was declared, early in August last, this district was naturally one of the first to be called upon, three of the counties being situated on the east coast, one of the most vulnerable points in England. Within a week 15 in the Royal Naval Sick Berth Reserve were mobilised, viz. :— one from Cromer, 7 from Felixstowe, 7 from Ipswich, and 52 in the Military Home HospitalReserve were enlisted into the R.A.M .C., viz. Eleven from Colchester, 26 from Ipswich, 10 from Haverhill, 5 from Felixstowe, 1 from Bawdsey, and 1 from Nacton. In the meantime the services of the members of some of Nursing Divisions were requisitioned by the Military Authorites. For instance, Felixstowe became an important centre, and the S.M.O. at once obtained the help of the Nursing Division, which was also the St. John V .A .D . to organise the Pier Hotel into a hospital for 80 beds. In this they were assisted by the officers and men of the Ambulance Division, and in a few days they put into practice what they had been rehearsing at, their last two annual inspections, and equipped and staffed a hospital for the use of the troops assembled in the camps and billets. After a time, a matron with a few trained nurses took charge, and it was then that the County Director mobilised 16 nursing sisters of the St.John V .A .D . who worked hard at the hospital for four months until it was transferred to a more central part of Felixstowe. The same thing occurred at Ipswich, where Miss Coulcher, the Lady Superintendent of the Nursing Division, helped to organise the Broadwater Hospital, which had been provided and fully equipped at the cost of Mr. W. F. Paul, and sub­


January* 1915.

— FIRST

sequently taken over by the Order of St. John. This hospital of 40 beds, was for the reception of wounded from the front, and when a hospital train arrived, the members of the Ipswich Corps, who are also a St. John V .A.D ., met it at the station with their two-horse ambulance, litters and stretchers at all hours of the day and night, and conveyed the wounded to the “ Broadwater” and East Suffolk Hospitals. Here again the County Director mobilised some of the St. John V .A.D . for the former hospital, and nursing sisters from Ipswich, Nacton, and Haverhill are doing duty as probationers in the hospital. In other parts of the district where large bodies of troops have assembled, great assistance has been given by the St. John V .A .D ’s, notably the Harpenden Nursing Division, which has been actively at work since August 26th, first in the Field Ambulance, and after the troops left they took charge of a privately equipped hospital for convalescent Belgians. When, in August, volunteers from the Brigade were called for to enlist in the R.A.M .C. for service in the Expeditionary Force, or military hospitals at home, rolls containing the names of 74 officers and men were sent up to headquarters from this district. The large numbers that were mobilised during the two following months were, doubtless, taken from the Midland, Northern and Metropolitan districts, as it was found more convenient to obtain them in large batches. A n y­ how, no call was made upon No. 10 District, and the men who were anxious to be doing something for their country gradually drifted away into other units, and some little disappointment occurred. The first call was on October 24th for 1 sergeant and 4 privates, who were promptly sent to the Military Hospital, Shoreham. The next, on December 2nd, for 10 privates to the Harwich Military Hospital, and the last, on December 21st, when 2 sergeants and 6 privates were sent to the Military Hospital at Colchester. These 23 who have enlisted into the R.A.M .C. were drawn from the following localities, viz. :— Six from Colchester, 5 from Cromer, 4 from March, 3 from Manningtree. 2 from Ware, 2 from Ipswich and 1 from Nacton. No. 12 (Irish) District. Owing to the development of Brigade work in Ireland, the Chief Commissioner decided to sanction from the first of Octo­ ber, 1914, the formation of an Irish District, which, in future will be known as No. 12. Previously the Irish Divisions be­ longed to No. 4 District. The Assistant-Commissioner, Dr. J. Lumsden, 4, Fitzwilliam-place, Dublin, is to be appointed the Deputy-Com­ missioner, and the District Staff already approved is as follows :— District Superintendent, Mr. Seton Pringle, F.R.C.S.I. ; District Surgeon, Captain W . C. Stevenson, M.D. ; District Secretary, Mr. A. J. Connor ; District Treasurer, Dr. Geo. P. Cope ; District Inspector of Stores, Dr. Albert Wynne ; D is­ trict Lady Superintendent, Mrs. Ella Webb, M.D. ; District Lady Secretary, Miss Eileen Blandford. The present strength of the district is :— Ten Ambulance Divisions, 15 Nursing Divisions. Total number of members about 800. Several new units are likely to be formed in the neat future. On the outbreak of war the Royal Naval Sick Berth Reservists were mobilised, and on 48 hours’ notice 50 men were dispatched to Chatham During the following week 20 more volunteered for service and 50 members joined the Home Hospital Reserve. The total number now servingwith either of these Reserves is 130, and about 50 others are now awaiting mobilisation orders for the Home Hospital Reserve. Some of the men have been at Antwerp with the Naval Brigade, at Dunkirk with the Flying Corps, on hospital ships, and with the Fleet. Seventeen men are in the London and North Western Ambulance train, and both the Irish hospital trains on the Great Northern and Great Southern and Western Railway lines are entirely staffed by the Home Hospital Reservists. W e now have 60 stretchers and bearers available for transport of wounded soldiers from the docks at Dublin to the various City hospitals. Very numerous first aid and home nursing classes were

PAID.—

137

started all through the country, and especially in County Dublin, with a view to formation of new units or to increase the strength of existing divisions. A St. John depot for collec­ tion of articles of clothing and information bureau was opened at the Deputy Commissioner’s residence, 4, Fitzwilliam-place. The following ladies took charge of ihe clothing department :— Mrs. J. Lumsden, Mrs. Seton Pringle, Mrs. Francis Dixon, Miss Loverock and Miss Hazlett. Number of articles collected to date is about 8,000— stock­ ings, shirts, bed jackets, dressing gowns, blankets, tobacco and all the usual useful garments were packed and despatched in the first instance to Queen Mary’s Needlework Guild, but latterly have been sent direct to the Front to our Irish doctors and nurses now serving with the Colours for the use of the wounded soldiers in base and field hospitals. Now that we have got into direct touch with the Front, regular supplies are being sent almost daily, and a large number of plum puddings were sent for Xmas. W e have received considerable acknowledgments of these gifts, showing how thoroughly appreciated they were. Thousands of cigarettes, tobacco and boxes of matches have also been forwarded. The Deputy-Commissioner started a fund which has now reached .£750, the special object of this being the supply of articles of clothing for the Front, and also for the Reservists from the District now serving with the Expeditionary Force on land and sea, to supplement the income of Reservists’ wives, to assist the initial equipment of our Divisions, and also to enable Brigade uniforms to be obtained. Auxiliary convalescent homes were started, and many kind supporters of St. John placed their houses and demesnes at our disposal. Although the response to this appeal was most favour­ ably met, the Military Authorities, so far, have only been able to avail themselves of three of these, viz.: — Monkstown House, kindly lent by Mr. Harold Pirn. Has 30 beds, and is most luxuriously equipped. T he local St. John Committee has collected over ,£800, and the personnel is supplied by the Kingstown Nursing Division. To Dr. and Mrs. R. de C. Wheeler, Mrs. Stuart Gardiner, the Lady Supt., and Mrs. Harold Pirn, the success of this home is largely due; while the officers, Mrs. Robinson, Mrs. Anderson, and the nursing sisters, have not spared themselves. This unit is now over 50 strong and has done magnificient work. Temple H ill House, kindly lent by Mr. Power, of W ater­ ford, with 20 beds, has also been equipped most lavishly, and with its beautiful grounds and winter garden is another valuable convalescent home which has been doing admirable work. This home is run by a Joint British Red Cross Society and St. John Committee, and a sum of over .£1,000 has been already collected. The moving spirit has been Mrs. Middleton Curtis, the Lady Supt. of the City of Dublin Nursing Division, who, with her excellent assistant, First Nursing Officer Mowbray and zealous nursing sisters, has not spared herself in any way to make the convalescent soldiers happy and comfortable. Men­ tion should be made of the popular Commandant, Dr. Mather Thomson, who has worked indefatigably. Glentnaroon House, the gift of the Hon. Ernest Guinness, with its 10 beds, has been generously equipped by the donor, and is now ready for occupation. In September and October a series of 10 lectures on special subjects were arranged by the Deputy-Commissioner at the Royal Dublin Society’s beautiful lecture theatre. W ell known specialists kindly lectured and most irteresting speeches were made by leading members of the legal profession. The attendance averaged from 500 to 800 at each lecture. The final addresses delivered by District Surgeon Stevenson was attended by all members in uniform, and the fine display of enthusiasm proved the eagerness of the District to play their part in national defence. In October an understanding was come to between St. John and the County of Dublin Branch of the British Red Cross Society to work together, with a con-joint committee, for the collection of funds and articles of clothing, and now’ our two organisations are working together amicably at our joint depot, 51, Dawson-street, Dublin. This con-joint committee has now collected over .£5,000. A motor ambulance has been presented to the South Irish Horse, costing £ 7 50, and a sum of .£1,000 has been donated to our City Hospitals to assist the


— F I R S T

expense of providing additional beds and equipment necessary for wounded soldiers. An auxiliary hospital of 250 beds is being' got ready at Dublin Castle for soldiers, and this, we understand, is shortly to be available. The matron is Miss A. MacDonnell, our Corps Lady Superintendent, and no one could be better fitted for this position, as Miss MacDonnell has vast nursing experi­ ence for over 20 years, and has been matron-in-charge of the Irish hospital in South Africa, which accomplished so much during that campaign. Miss MacDonnell, it may be mentioned, is the holder of the Royal Red Cross. The Belgian refugees have also received material assist­ ance from our nursing divisions. The Dublin University Nursing Division (now working as an Association V .A.D .) has secured and equipped a hospital of 20 beds, which has been used for Belgians, and later we hope may be made an auxiliary hospital. The Alexandra College Nursing Division has also worked hard for the care of Belgian refugees ; the Command­ ant, Miss McConns, has been one of our most zealous workers, and her family have generously contributed to our depot and funds. Our Naas Nursing Division has done splendidly in County Kildare. Owing to the kindness of Col. St. Leger and Sir Kildare and Lady Burrows, convalescent homes have been offered, but as yet the Military Authorities have not had an opportunity of availing themselves of these kind preparations. This unit is in a high state of efficiency and preparedness, owing to the excellent work of the Lady Supt., Miss Evelyn Moore, and the late Lady Supt., Mrs. Mills, who is shortly, to our great regret, going to reside in England. The Lady Supt. of the Maycourt Division, Miss Muriel Poe, has also worked hard for the cause, her family subscribing ^300 to the St. John and British Red Cross fund. A large number of our nurses have taken out courses as probationers at our city hospitals, and thus their usefulness has been greatly increased. All our nursing divisions are now being converted into Voluntary Aid Detachments, and fresh Brigade and Associa­ tion units are about to be formed. The general efficiency and morale of our district is admirable, and reflects the highest credit on the divisional superintendents, who have all worked so wholeheartedly. Many of our leading hospital surgeons and physicians in Dublin and Belfast have joined the Brigade as Divisional Surgeons and have given much assistance gratuitously as lecturers and instructors. The notable additions in this respect have been Dr. McDowel Cosgrave, President of the Royal College of Physicians, and a Knight of Grace of the Order, Mr. W. I. de C. Wheeler, Mr. Seton Pringle, surgeons to Mercer’s Hospital; Mr. McConnell and Mr. de L. Crawford, surgeons to the Fichmond Hospital ; Dr. Moorhead, City of Dublin Hospital ; Dr. Rowlette, Jervis-street H ospital; Pro­ fessor Houston, of Belfast Victoria Hospital, &c. Beds in the city hospitals for soldiers have been endowed by our divisions, and a bed in the Brigade Hospital for France has been subscribed to by the district. Our district has had an encouraging start, and bids fair to take its place in the Brigade as a worthy representative. W e feel we have been taught in a good school under the leadership of Colonel Trimble, our late Chief, who we all must feel an affectionate regard for ; indeed, our only regret is losing the benefit of his wise and sympathetic advice and assistance. W e have our difficulties, and may have more in front of us— diffi­ culties which only an Irishman can appreciate— but we hope by steady and efficient working, steering clear of all controversies and petty jealousies, to establish our district on sound and lasting principles. W e hope when the war is over to gain a number of Brigade adherents in Ulster. W e are glad to feel that Ulster has gone wholeheartedly for St. John, and the majority of the U .V .F . Detachments have now been enrolled as St. John Association Voluntary Aid Detachments.

W h e n c o r re sp o n d in g w i t h A d v e r tis e r s p le a s e m e n tio n “ F ir s t A id .”

AID. —

January, 19 1 5 .

''!

Jtailwag Ambulance. L. & Y . R y .— S ergt. E. W alch, of the R oyal Naval Auxiliary Sick Berth Reserve, who is attached to the N aval Brigade of the R oyal M arine Light Infantry, and who was specially mentioned by M ajor-Gen. Paris in his despatches on the work at Antwerp, has now been awarded the D is­ tinguished Service M edal o f the R o yal N avy. “ W alch ” is a member o f the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railw ay C om ­ pany’s staff, being em ployed as an Inspector in the Goods Departm ent at Bolton. H e is one o f the oldest and most prom inent men in the am bulance m ovem ent on the L. and Y . Railway, is a member of the Bolton Com petition team, and for many years has assisted in the instruction of classes held from time to time, under the auspices o f the L . & Y . Railw ay Centre, at Bolton Station. It is said that the distinction now conferred upon “ W alch ” is the first honour awarded to any am bulance man during the war. “ W a lc h ” has received many congratulations, includ­ ing letters from the Secretary o f the L. & Y . Railw ay Centre o f the St. John Association, and from Col. Trim ble, the Deputy-Com m issioner, No. 4 District, S .J .A .B ., of which “ W alch ” is also a member. T h e annual com petition for the section am bulance shield, presented by Sir G eorge Pilkington, to be com ­ peted for by the stations between Liverpool and Southport on the L. & Y . Railway, has just been held at St. M atthew ’s Hall, Bootle. L ast year, when the com petition took place for the first time, Marsh-lane station was awarded the trophy, and they have succeeded in retaining it with a team of five, under Mr. W. M aclaren. O ut o f a possible 300 points the team gained 250^, Liverpool E xchange section being second with 220^ points. Dr. Coates, of H orwich, was the examiner. N. E. R y .— W e have received a circular upon the results of the 1914 com petitions and other matters of interest to the members o f the Centre. T h e number of men who have succeeded in passing the various examina— tions this year shows the slight increase o f 75 over the previous year, making a total o f 789. T h e com petitions were held in each of the districts and the following were the winning teams from each d is tr ic t;— Darlington, North R oad L o c o ; H ull, D ry p o o l; Leeds, R ipon Station ; M iddlesbrough, H artlepool Station ; Newcastle, G ateshead (Park L a n e ) ; York, Y o rk Carriage and W agon Department. T h e circular contains a full report o f each of the judges in the various com petitions, and the information to be gathered from these reports should be o f much interest to the com petitors. First aid has been rendered during the year to 36,705 cases.

Lectures in First A id and H om e Nursing, under the British R ed Cross Society’s conditions, will be given at the Brondesbury Park Synagogue H all, Chevening-road, N .W ., at weekly intervals com m encing on Thursday, January 21 st. Ladies and gentlem en may attend these lectures, and a fee of 5s. will be charged, which will include the exam ination and all postage expenses. Further particulars may be obtained from the W est H am pstead Divisional Secretary, Mrs. F. Davidson, M arbrukis, 3, Exeter-road, N.W .


January, 1915.

— F I R S T

AID. —

r39

BRITISH RED CROSS SOCIETY. ■

Notes

and

News.

Som e idea o f the volum e of stores and transport work undertaken by the British R ed Cross Society may be gained by the fact that in one week ending the 28th O ctober, the number o f cases sent abroad was 2,166, weighing nearly 500 tons. O f these the greater part were despatched to Boulogne and Calais, smaller contingents going to Paris, D ieppe, Bethune and St. Malo. In addition, 29 hospitals in England were supplied with stores am ounting to 126 cases. In a single week in O ctober garments, to the num ber o f 53,778, were issued, including 1,000 bed socks, 29,586 various garments, 5,370 handkerchiefs, 8,437 pieces of linen, 7,496 socks, 1,012 slippers, and 888 blankets, whilst 724 kit bags and 4,304 hot-water bottle covers were also sent out. Purchases to the am ount o f some ,£ 1,50 0 were made during the same week, including 1,000 blankets; and a sum of £ 2 ,2 3 5 was expended upon pure medical stores during the same period. *

*

* T h e medical correspondent o f The Times, in an inter­ esting article, discusses the barge am bulances which have been fitted up for service between Paris and the front. H e says the barge used is the ordinary blunt-nosed, heavily and roomily, built Seine barge. Y ou enter the hold by a step-ladder, which is part of the hospital equipment. T h is is a large cham ber, not much less high from the floor to ceiling than an ordinary room, well lit and ventilated by means of skylights. T h e walls o f the holds have been painted white, the floor has been thoroughly scrubbed out for the reception o f beds, of which, it is hoped, some 40-50 will be accom m odated. A t the after-end of the cham ber there is a little apartment which will form an excellent retiring room. Am idships, and built in such a manner that entry can be m ade either from outside by a short flight of steps leading downwards, or from the hold itself by a flight leading upwards, is the barge-master’s cabin, now converted into a living room for two surgeons. T h e forward portion o f the barge can accom m odate more beds, and there is no reason why a portion of it should not be walled in and used as an operat­ ing room— more especially since in the bow a useful apparatus is fitted. It is calculated that for £ 1 0 0 a barge can be com ­ pletely transformed into a floating hospital, furnished, and put into comm ission. T h e cost of the hire of each barge is, roughly, about gs. per day. T h e barges are used in groups of four, and a small tug supplies the motive power. * * *

A splendid reception was accorded to the enterprising British C oncert Party, headed by Mr. Seym our H icks, at their first concert given in the hospital at the Casino, Boulogne, an account o f which appears in the D a ily M ail. “ It was a strange scene when the concert party en­

tered the great salon. A ll around the wide space occupied by the beds were deep lines o f soldiers, officers o f every branch o f the service, privates, and doctors, and seated in front of them the red-caped nurses. A huge brazier throwing up flames from the red coals m ade eerie figures of some passers-by, and out on the sea stretched the rays of a searchlight. ‘ In the Casino hospital at W im ereux every available corner of the hall and the corridors leading to it were cram m ed with soldiers o f every rank, and am ong the wounded sat many nurses, happy and cheerful, caring tenderly for the soldiers in their charge.”

T h e British R ed Cross Society has received a report from Sir Courtauld Thom son, the Com m issioner in France representing the Joint W ar C om m ittee o f the R ed Cross S ociety and of the Order of St. John, as to the arrange­ ments for the reception of wounded soldiers at Boulogne. Sir Courtauld Thom son says :— “ I visited the railway station last night in order to see for m yself the train o f wounded soldiers evacuated, and I saw the orderlies at work lifting the wounded from the train, and carrying them on stretchers and placing them in the motor am bulances. I am sure it will be gratifying to the Joint Com m ittee to know that, in my opinion, it would be im possible to exceed the care, skill, and tender­ ness with which the orderlies carried out their work. In the particular train I saw the only way o f rem oving the wounded was through the windows of the railway carriages, and, as you know, the French railway carriages stand a great height from the ground. T h is difficult operation was carried out in a manner which was little short o f marvellous. T h e whole train was em ptied with rem arkable speed, and in almost com plete silence. Mr. Neam e, who is in charge o f the orderlies at the station, under an R .A .M .C . officer, is most efficient and capable, and I should also like especially to refer to the work of Quarterm aster Page, a St. John man, who seems to have a natural aptitude for the work with which he has been entrusted.”

A ccord in g to telegrams from Berne, the obstinate refusal o f the Germ an authorities to release British R ed Cross surgeons and am bulance men in accordan ce with the G eneva Convention, is causing widespread and deep in­ dignation. I ne President of th e G en eva International K ed Cross Association, it is stated, has started for Berlin to confer with the Germ an authorities, and to ascertain why som e surgeons and am bulance men, especially o f British nationality, are still being detained in Germ any. It is added that M. Ador, the President referred to, had already visited Bordeaux, and was com pletely successful in obtaining the release o f a thousand Germ an R ed Cross men who have already passed through Switzerland on their way back to their own country.


140

— F I R S T

“ H o s p ita l S u n d a y ” w i t h S t . Jo h n . T h e telephone bell is ringing furiously and the Quarter­

master, who is just starting for church, puts down gloves and prayer-book and picks up the receiver, A s she listens various shades of em otion becom e visible in her face. “ Yes No, I ’ve not gone to church W h a t? -----one hundred Belgian w ou n d ed ? W here? A t the docks ? A t the hospital !------ W hen ?—-— T hree o’clock this afternoon ! G ood gracious !” A n outraged telephone operator continues to ask for som e time why she has not been rung off, but the Quarter­ master is far too busy scram bling into uniform and solv­ ing ways and means to pay any heed. T h e hospital consists of two large em pty houses, two miles from the town, which have been handed over to St. John for the use o f the wounded. Both have been cleaned, and one is fully equipped down to the last pair of slippers ; but the second one contains little at present besides the beds, for the Belgian invasion was not foreseen, and we had been told we should not be wanted for some time yet. T o im prove matters further the V .A .D . which is to staff N o. 2, is located five miles away ; it being Sunday no trams are running, and it is raining hard ! H ow ever, there are plenty o f stores at the central depot, motor-cars can be (and are) sham elessly com m andeered, and willing and enthusi­ astic helpers are flocking in from every side. T h e Quarterm aster arriving at the scene o f action in som eone else’s car, with furniture on the roof, bedding and shirts overflowing through the window, and m iscellaneous groceries crowding the chauffeur out o f his seat, finds the hospital already a hive of industry. T h ree doctors are superintending the conversion of the W inter Garden, with its tiled floor and glass roof, into an operating-room, nursing sisters are m aking beds, am bulance men are lighting fires and carrying in furniture, em ployes from the gas com pany are putting in extra lights, and cooks are busy in the kit­ chen. T h e unfortunate pharm acist o f one o f the detach­ ments, who is enjoying a Sabbath’s day rest in the bosom o f his family, is ruthlessly extracted from his arm chair and hurried off in a draughty open car to his pharm acy, to pack up dressings and antiseptics, and local tradesman are be­ sieged for milk and eggs, bread and butter. A t 3 p.m. the am bulances begin to arrive with their loads. Stretcher after stretcher is carried in, the walking cases lim ping painfully into the hall. T h ese patients have com e practically straight from the trenches, unshaven, dirty, ragged, with broken boots, hastily-arranged blood­ stained bandages, barely covering septic wounds. W e soon know that the operating-theatre must be used to-night. T w elv e o f the poor fellows have to lose fingers, arms or legs before they can rest. B eing Sunday, the trained nurses we have telegraphed for, to St. John ’s Gate, have not arrived yet, but two or three local nurses are available, and som e o f us who have never seen any actual wound much worse than a cut finger, have to put our theoretical know ledge to practical purpose and do our best to prove ourselves worthy servants o f St John. T h e next few hours are strenuous ones, but it is worth it all to go round the wards when at last the rush is over and see the patients washed and fed, their wounds dressed luxuriating in clean clothes and com fortable beds. M any are still in great pain ; some are hardly recovering from the effects o f the anaesthetics. A few have not yet realised (m ercifully) that they are maim ed for life, but they are at rest at last, after the weary days o f pain and discom forting

Alt). —

January, 1915.

jolting trains and crowded boats, following the hideous nightm are of the trenches at Antwerp. W e owe them more than we can ever repay, but in the days to com e we hope, at least, to m itigate their sufferings and to make them feel that we are not ungrateful. Q u a r t e r m a s t e r V .A .D .

On

A c tive

S e r v ic e .

P t e . J o h n B a t t e r s b y , o f the Crosfield Division, writing from Sydney, Australia, to the Warrington Guardian states :— “ Seventeen members o f the Crosfield Division sailed to Australia on the R .M .S . ‘ M ooltan,’ for the purpose of serving on a hospital ship. H owever, when they reached Sydney they found that the vessel for which they were in­ tended had left with the Australian Fleet. From Sept. 17th to 26th they were stationed on Garden Island— a naval depot in Sydney Harbour. After 12 of the contingent had been drafted to M elbourne, the others, including Pte. Battersby, were sent aboard one of the transports in which Australian troops were to sail. Subsequently, however, they were transferred to a liner entrusted with the convey­ ance of the Im perial R eserve.” Mr. Alan Pauli has received a letter from Pte. Yearsley, of the W em bley Division, who is on the hospital ship “ S u d a n ” :— “ Pte. A. W ildey and m yself are serving in the R .N .A .S .B .R . on this hospital ship. She is a P. and O. Liner which has been used for carrying troops. T here are thirteen wards and just over two hundred beds. T here are two operation rooms and an X-ray room, so you see we are well fitted up. T here are eighteen St. John men here and the same num ber of active service S.B. stewards. “ W e get up at 5.45 a.m., have breakfast at 6 .15 and go to the wards at 6.45 when we wash patients and make their beds and sweep up. A t 7.30 patients have breakfast, after which we wash up and sweep through and get every­ thing ready for the doctor’s visit at 9. “ T here is a church service every m orning at 8.45. T w elve o’clock is dinner time for the first watch and patients, and the other watch go at 1 p.m. In the afternoon we draw any stores we want and do any dressings that are ordered. T h e first watch go to tea at 3.30, and the other watch get the patients’ tea at four and then go to their own tea and stand off till next morning, and the other watch goes on till 9 p.m. W e have supper at 6.30. “ D uring the night there are three men on from 9 till 12, three from 12 till 3, and three from 3 till 7. Y o u get one o f these watches every second or third night. “ I cannot say where we have been or where we are, but we are up with the snow. “ C . W. E lliott is on the ‘ C h in a ’ No. 6 H .S., and Perry and P rice are on the ‘ Plassy ’ No. 4 H .S., and Little, of Harlesden, is at the R .N . hospital at Plym outh.” Corps Supt. F. Lom ax has received many interesting letters from the men attached to the Bolton Division o f the Brigade. O ne member, stationed at the Indian H ospital at Brighton, writes :— “ W e are billeted at the R oyal and Pier H ead Hotels. T h e hospital is at the R oyal Pavilion and is a m agnificent place. Everything is up-to-date and the large palm trees which are placed about the wards will remind the Indians of their native land. A n R .A .M .C . officer has just come in and told us that a large batch will be here to-morrow, as a hospital ship filled with sick and wounded Indians is now


January, 1915.

— F I R S T

at Southampton and there are many bad cases am ong them as the result of shrapnel.” Another member writes from Boulogne as follows :— “ W e are now getting settled down to our duties. A large summer hotel has been converted into a hospital for the Australians and we are stationed there. T h e people here gave us a very hearty welcom e and they cannot do too much for us.”

AN IN V A LU A B LE BOOK FOR ALL RED CROSS WORKERS. By

Queries and A nsw ers Correspondents.

DR.

ANDREW

W IL S O N .

to

Q ueries w ill be dealt w ith under the follow in g rules :— 1 . — Letters containing Queries m ust be m arked on the top left hana com er of the envelope “ Q u ery ,” a n d addressed— F i rs t A i d , 46, Cannon-street, L ondon, E . C .

3. — A l l Q ueries m u st be accompanied by a “ Q uery Coupon ” cut from the current issue op the J o u rn a l, or in case o f Queries fro m abroad from a recent issue. 3 .— Readers req u irin g a reply by post m ust enclose a stamped addressed envelope.

14 1

AID. —

A i d ” asks our opinion on the following :— The patient has injured his left Palmer Arches presumably by broken glass, and there is a doubt as to whether all the glass has been removed. Which is the proper method of treatment, to first stop bleeding at wrist and then apply light dressing and bandage and put to rest in St. John Sling, or first stop bleeding at wrist, apply dressing and then to apply a splint and place in St. John sling ? Whether a splint should be used or not would depend upon circumstances not stated. Unless there was a special reason to the contrary a splint would not in the slightest degree be needed. Furthermore, if the haemorrhage is controlled by . properly placed pads and bandage at the wrist there is no reason whatever why the large or small arm sling should not be used in preference to the St. John Sling if desired. All that is required is efficiency of treatment, and hard and fast rules regarding trivialities should be discountenanced. Under the circumstances stated the light dressing could hardly serve any useful purpose, the case being one that should be promptly placed under the care of a surgeon, proper attention to the contaminated wound being all-important.— L. M. F r a n k F ir s t

I n the present grave em ergency every R ed Cross and A m bulance worker should send the form below for full and interesting particulars o f an invaluable book that is really an epitom e in clear language o f all that specialised m edical and surgical know ledge necessary for First Aiders. In “ T h e M odern P hysician,” by Dr. A ndrew W ilson, fullest space is devoted to “ First A id ” and A m bulance W ork. In respect o f com pleteness, accuracy o f description and wealth o f illustration, “ T h e M odern Physician ” stands without a rival am ongst the works published on this im ­ portant subject in the U nited K ingdom . It is scientifically accurate and reliable without being d u ll; the name of its editor, so long known as an authority on the subject, is a guarantee of this. EVERY

P O IN T

COVERED.

T h is work is probably the only work that covers all the many branches of the subject in com plete detail, and in whatever direction one may be helping this work will be found indispensable. Invalid cooking, home nursing o f the wounded, bandaging and dressing wounds, instant and em ergency treatment, the setting and after care o f broken bones, the treatm ent o f convalescents, the fitting up and sanitary care o f the tem porary “ h o sp ita l”— these are a few of the thousands o f subjects upon which R ed Cross workers need special information now, and this information is given in this work in an unique manner. A s a know ledge of the body in H ealth is necessary to the due understanding of the body when its functions are deranged by disease, a description o f every part of the frame will be found here. T h e skeleton, muscles, digestive C h r is tia n . system, heart and lungs, brain and nervous system, organs o f sense, skin, kidneys and the body’s m icroscopic structure A. H. B., writes :— While attending ambulance classes much are duly described. In this connection the illustrations are discussion has arisen as to proper treatment of broken o f particular value, the “ m annikins ” or dum mies more back and fractured pelvis, so for fuller information I have esp ecially ; in these the organs are m ade to overlap each decided to ask your advice on the matter. (1) Should long splints reaching from the feet to the other exactly as they do in the human body. armpits be used in cases of fractured back and pelvis, or T h is f o r m m u s t b e s e n t w it h o u t d e la y . simply lay the patient on a door or shutter ? Also (2) why does a raised temperature result from compression of the brain as distinguished from concussion of the brain having a lowered temperature. (1) Most Undoubtedly splints should not be used. Apply practically the general principles outlined on page 7 “ Aids to T O T H E C A X T O N P U B L I S H IN G COM PANY, Memory,” and treat the case according to the instruction laid 156, Surrey Street. London, W .C . down on pages 45 and 46 Cantlie, and illustrated on page 48, P l e a s e s e n d m e , F r e e o f C h a r g e a n d w i t h o u t a n y o b l i g a t i o n o n m y p a r t :__ “ Aids to Memory.” ( 1) Illustrated Booklet on “ T h e M o d e r n P h y s i c i a n . ” (2) Particulars o f your offer to deliver the complete work for a first payment of (2) A raised temperature does not invariably accompany is. 6d., the balance to be paid for by a few small monthly payments. compression of the brain. In the early stages of concussion of the brain the condition is very similar to that of severe shock. As “ reaction” comes on the temperature may rise with cor­ N a m e ........................................................................................................................................................................ (Send this form or a postcard.) responding danger which should be guarded against by “ preventive” treatment in the early stage.— L. M. F r a n k

A FREE BOOKLET.

C h r is tia n .

R. M. B., writes (1) Is it possible to tell venous bleeding by the colour of the blood? The point I would like to know

A d d r e s s ..................................................................................................................................


— F I R S T

142

AID

is when the blood comes in contact with the air will it not change colour the same as when it comes in contact with the oxygen in the lungs. (2) Could you give roe a little information regarding the functions of the spleen ? (1) The condition of affairs in the two cases is absolutely different. The lungs really consist of an enormous mass of capillaries so arranged as to permit full exposure of the vitiated blood to the oxygen inspired during respiration. If shed venous blood were similarly exposed, c.g., if one were to collect venous blood in a vessel and by means of a tube pass into it a quantity of oxygen gas there would be rapid absorption of oxygen and the dark venous blood would alter in appearance to that of arterial. (2) No organ receives so great a number of bloodvessels in proportion to its size. The size also varies very consider­ ably. The purposes which the spleen serves in the animal economy are obscure, but it may be regarded as a storehouse of nutrition and corrective material to be drawn upon by the system as required. This subject is quite outside the field of ambulance study.— L . M . F r a n k C h r i s t i a n .

-

January, 1915

Benger's Food is a cereal food, specially free from rough indigesti­ ble particles. It co n ta in s the n a tu ra l d ig estive p rin cip le s, try p s in and a m y lo p sin , and is e xp re ssly devised to be used w ith fre sh n ew m ilk or m ilk and w ater. Benger’s is unique among foods in being self­ digestive to any extent desired, and this is simply regulated by allowing the Food to stand from 5 to 45 minutes at one stage of its preparation. The digestive process is stopped by boiling up.

is unequalled w hen the d ig estive syste m is w eakened th ro u g h accident, pain o r illn e ss , and w h en ever a lig h t s u sta in in g diet has become a n ecessity.

The Times tells a story o f plucky and prompt action on the part o f a R ed Cross S ociety’s nurse. Dr. Sherington, the senior surgeon o f No. 2 B .R .C .S . Hospital, tells the story, and it is vouched for by Lieutenant-Colonel C. W. H . W hitestone, the Com m andant. A patient suffering from a shell wound on the left arm had an attack of severe haemorrhage. Nurse Faulkner was in the ward and at once applied com pression to the subclavian artery. T h is she kept up till a surgeon could be procured, chloroform given, and the main artery tied. Nurse Faulkner’s cool and plucky action undoubtedly saved the man’s life.

A sample w ith f u l l particulars w ill be sent post free to Members o f the M edical Profession, on application to the Sole M anufacturers—

BENGER’S FOOD Ltd.. Otter Works, Manchester, Eng. B r a n c h ’ O f f ic e s :

N E W Y O R K (U .S .A .), 92, William Street. S Y D N E Y (N .S .W .), 117 Pitt Street. Canadian A g en ts: National D rug and Chemical Co., Ltd., 34, St. Gabriel Street, M o n t r e a l , and Branches throughout C a n a d a . B146

— HORLICK’S— MALTED MILK

S IM M O N S

&

‘Standard’ Ambulance (A s supplied to the Marylebone Corporation, the Plymouth Police, &c .),

A N IN V A L U A B L E A ID IN R E D C R O S S N U R S I N G .

The unrivalled nutrition of rich milk and choice malted grains. E asily assimilated and most efficient to giving and maintaining strength. In va lu a b le to N u rse s personally. Increa ses v i t a l i t y and e n d u ran c e.

P ric e C o m p l e t e ,

£11

Keeps in definitely— Ready in a moment— No cooking Also available in tablet form, to be dissolved in the mouth when needed. Convenient to carry, available anywhere, prevent fatigue, restore energy and relieve thirst. W rite / o r information.

H o r l i c k ’s M a l t e d M i l k C o ., S l o u g h , B u c k s .

THETFORP

R O U N D B A S IN S . Shallow — lo in . I id .

12 in. 1/ -

Assorte d Colours. 13 m . 15 in. 1/1 1/8 each.

N o. 1. N o. 2.

11s.

A lw a y s ready in Stock . F O L D IN G S T R E T C H E R S , 33 /-. or W o o lw ic h Arsenal Pattern “ M ark I I . ” with Sh ou ld er Slings, 4 2 / 6 . B o y Scouts Stretchers, 2 5 / - .

H and- Am bulance B u ild e r s to the M etropolitan A sy lu m s B oard, the London Countv C o u n cil, the M etropolitan E lectr ic Tra m w a vs, etc.

“ UNBREAKABLE”

In v a lu a b le fo r P u b lic In s t it u t io n s ,

CO.’S

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BASINS

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and in the N u rse ry .

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Assorted Colours. ... 1/1 each.

I t in. d ee p

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A s k y o u r sh o p k ee p e r fo r th e se goods, and if an y d iffic u lty in o b ta in in g w rite us.

TH E

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PULP 38,

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K i n g ’s

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London,

L td . N.

(D e p t .

F .A .),


FIRST AID.

The Independent Journal for the Ambulance and Nursing Services. Conducted b y A R T H U R N o . 248— V o l . X X I .

To

Our

B.

DALE,

M.J.I.

F E B R U A R Y , 1915.

[ N e w S e r ie s .]

Readers.

this large undertaking.

It is not anticipated that the

members o f the Brigade, who are giving their personal “ First Aid ” Is published on the aoth of every month. 2s. 6d. post free ; single copies 2d.

T h e An n u al Subscription is

T h e E d it or invites readers to send articles and reports on subjects of interest to ambulance workers, these should be addressed to him at

services so willingly, should also bear the burden o f contri­ buting to its maintenance, but they can m aterially assist in prom ulgating its claim s to public support. In large industrial centres where D ivisions o f the

46, Cannon Stre et, Lo nd on , E . C . A l l articles and reports must be accompanied b y the name and

Brigade exist, and where their members are constantly

address o f the writer, not necessarily for publication but for the use ot

rendering first aid in cases of accident in workshops, mines

the Editor.

and mills, & c., such a schem e should receive the warmest

Subscriptions, A d ve rti sem en ts and other business communications connected with F i rs t A id should be addressed to the Publishers, DALE,

REYNOLDS

&

46 , C a n n o n

CO .,

ondon,

tunities of seeing the em inently useful and purely voluntary service which is being rendered by the mem bers o f the

L t d .,

Street, L

support from em ployers o f labour, who have am ple oppor­

E .C .

Brigade in time of peace.

In fact, in any place where a

Corps or D ivision exists an effort should be made to collect

EDITORIAL.

funds for the hospital, which will bear the name of the “ St. John Am bulance Brigade H ospital.”

Individual mem bers

can render much assistance in this direction, for they can “ I n time o f peace we prepare for war,”

advance its claim s for financial support in alm ost every

The Brigade

has always been one of the motives of

Hospital.

the St. John Am bulance Brigade, hence

T h e C h ief Com m issioner of the Brigade, Sir James

we see it not only conspicuously effec­

Clark, will be in charge of the H ospital, and he will be

tive in time of peace, but also rendering efficient aid in time of war.

The Times H istory of the War in South

Africa tells us that “ none o f the auxiliary medical organ­ isations proved sufficient to meet the dem and for the

town and village in the country.

assisted by some of the most active

mem bers of the

Brigade, and we, therefore, hope that all will give their active co-operation to make this proposal

a

com plete

success.

subordinate ranks,” but that the deficiency hence arising was supplied by the men o f the S .J .A .B .

“ T heir organisa­

C o l . F. M. S a n d w i t h , in the series o f

tion was so com plete that little difficulty was found in mobilizing as many as chose to volunteer.

W a r and

T h ey proved

Disease.

an invaluable addition to the M edical Services during the war, and served with every kind of m edical unit.” In the present war over 9,000 men are already serving

Chadw ick lectures at the R o yal Society of

Arts last month, dwelt especially

upon diseases which are due to the un­ hygienic surroundings which even the greatest care and forethought on the part o f the Arm y m edical staff cannot

in the R oyal N avy, R oyal Arm y M edical Corps, on board

entirely obviate on a campaign.

our fighting ships, with our armies in the field and in

by dirt, typhoid fever or enteric, is the most com m on, and

military and private hospitals both at hom e and abroad.

it has ever been the greatest enem y to the soldier in the

O f the diseases conveyed

W hile such is the service which the members o f the

field.

Brigade are giving to the country, there is now in course

carriers, and it played sad havoc am ong our troops in South

o f preparation a hospital of 500 beds for service in France,

Africa, in India and elsewhere.

It is conveyed by water, dust, flies, and by human T h ou gh the causes which

the entire personnel of which will be furnished by members

m ake for typhoid infection are unavoidable in war, we have

of the Brigade with the exception o f a few special appoint­

now a means by anti-typhoid inoculation o f m aking the

ments.

It is estimated that the cost o f raising and main­

soldier to a considerable extent and for a lim ited period

taining this hospital for six months will be approxim ately

proof against that disease, and Dr. Sandwith proved by

,£50,000.

figures the rem arkable success o f this treatment.

Donations are, of coure, required to com plete


146

— F I R S T

AID. —

No. 3 District.

— *

Site Srand Priory of the 6rder of the Jtospital of St. John ol Jerusalem in Sngland. AMBULANCE

H a l e s o w e n . — Upon the outbreak of war 14 members of the corps belonged to the M.H.H.R. Mobilisation orders were received on Thursday night late, and at 9.45 a.m. on Friday all left the town for their various destinations, the majority going to Devonport, where the Corps Secretary has been granted a 1st Lieutenant’s Commission, and is performing the duties of Quartermaster. The Headquarters Division Supt. is Sergt. Mag, with three of his sergeants under him. Two other mem­ bers of the corps are performing cooks’ duties at other hospitals. Further, first aid and nursing classes have been held, at which 48 certificates were obtained. In the Nursing Division also very good work has been done by the members. A V .A .D . was formed and accepted by S.J.A.B. and W ar Office. Mr. and Mrs. S. Somers, The Grange, very kindly placed their dining, billiard and smoking rooms, at the disposal of the

DEPARTMENT.

tfhe S t. John .Ambulance Srigade. No.

1 District.

DUTY ROSTER.

DEPUTY COMMISSIONER :

L 1E U T .-C O L .

February, 1915.

LEES

------

H ALL. M A R C H , 1915.

Sunday Duty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. Sunday, 7th.— No. 47 Division. „ 14th.— No. 53 „ 2 1 St.— No. 55 „ 28th.— No. 54 „ 2.30 p.m. to 8.30 p.m. St. Tohn’s Gate, 2 p.m.

As per separate orders.

Key from

D IV IS IO N A L R E -E X A M IN A T IO N F O R E F F I C I E N C Y . Officers and M.i/C of Divisions will arrange with the D ivi­ sional Surgeon for the re-examination of their members. Care should be taken that the date chosen is not more than 14 days in advance of the date of last year’s examination. Where the examination is desired by any of the members to count as the Association examination for voucher, medallion or label, as well as the Brigade examination, at least one week’s notice must be given to the Deputy-Commissioner, giving date, place and Examiner’s name and address, and asking that form “ re-exam D ” be sent to the Examiner. If this latter procedure is not carried out the examination cannot count as an Asso­ ciation Examination. D IV IS IO N A L B O O K S , &c. Forms B/F 1, 3 and 5 (A or N). Divisions that have not sent in the above must do so without further delay. B R IG A D E H O S P IT A L (F O R F O R E IG N S E R V IC E ). Divisional Superintendents and Officers in charge of Divisions are reminded that Collecting Boxes for use in obtain­ ing funds towards this object will be issued to responsible persons on application. CO RRESPO N D EN CE. All correspondence on District matters should be addressed to the Deputy Commissioner. Personal matters only should be addressed to the individuals for whom they are intended. (Signed) W . H. W IN N Y , Acting Deputy-Commissioner. Headquarters :— St. John’s Gate, Clerkenwell, E.C. No. 44 ( W e s t L o n d o n ) D i v i s i o n .— Under the auspices of this Division Mr. C. Hanmer gave his instructive and inter­ esting first aid lecture at the Central Hall, Acton, last month. It was illustrated by 200 lantern slides showing how to deal with many cases of accident or sudden illness. In introducing his lecture, Mr. Hanmer said it was the result of extensive and careful work. A severe accident in a coal-pit in which he was working, and which nearly cost him his life through there being no ambulance workers present at the time, was the reason for his taking up ambulance work. The object of the lecture, he said, was to simplify the work of the student, and to demonstrate how easy was ambulance work. Mr. Hanmer kept his audience at close attention during the whole two hours occupied by the lecture, in which he ex­ plained in a lucid manner the various accidents and their treat­ ment. There was a very good attendance, and among those pre­ sent were Mr. T. H. Vane, who presided, Sergt.-Major Journet, and Sergt. W ickens, who are now serving with the R.A.M .C.

Mr

Hanmer,

The Lecturer, in his Mine-Rescuing Outfit. Detachment and also undertook to defray the entire cost of 12 patients during the period of the war. The hospital was quickly fitted out with the assistance of friends of the Detachment and an average of 15 patients have been treated since it first opened. The Corps Surgeon gives his services voluntarily and the members of the V.A.D ., under their com­ mandant, Mrs. Homfray, perform the orderly work under direct supervision of a W ar Office ward sister. The funds to provide surgical and medical stores were provided as the result of a town parade and collection. The nursing sisters have also provided many useful gar­ ments for the men on actice service, who have left the town. Some further contingents of men have been sent into the military hospitals, and several more are impatiently waiting orders. No 5 District. H e b d e n B r i d g e . — W e regret to record the death of Private W. Jackson while on service. Private Jackson, who


February, 1915.

— F I R S T

was 21 years of age, left home as a volunteer for ambulance duty. For a time he was stationed at the Crystal Palace Hospital, in attendance upon wounded soldiers and sailors. He caught a chill and pneumonia developed, which caused death. H u d d e r s f i e l d . — The annual meeting of the above corps was held at the corps headquarters on a recent Thursday even­ ing, when a good muster was present. Corps Superintendent G. W. Haigh was in the chair, supported by Corps Secretary J. E. Crosland, Corps Treasurer H. Calem, Lady Superintendent Miss E. Littlewood, Amb. Officer Kershaw, &c. The Corps Secretary read the annual report, and the Corps Treasurer submitted the financial statement. The Chairman stated that the corps was never in a better condition, both numerically and financially. It had been a very busy time since the outbreak of the war, and a good number had responded to the call for military hospital work, and a number of others were ready for the call. Classes were formed for the purpose of intending first aiders to fit themselves for several calls which would be made very shortly, and he trusted there would be a good response from the classes when the time came. Five of the corps surgeons had responded to the call for military service, namely : Drs. C. D. Pye Smith, W. H. Smailes, W. Robertson, Machonochie, A . L. Walker, and their late corps surgeon, Dr. F. W. Robinson. He stated that a new division was about to be formed at Scissett, where about 30 were to be enrolled. An emergency ambulance corps had been formed by the Huddersfield Automobile Club, and three volun­ teers were required to be attached to the three ambulancee cars provided by the district. These were for the purpose of mov­ ing injured persons from the coast line to the central hospitals in case of invasion of our coasts. General discussion to the advantage of the corps followed.

No. 7 District. Colonel E. Cureton, the Deputy Commissioner of the D is­ trict, is at present engaged on military duties, and Dr. S. Hamilton, of Newport, has been appointed Acting Deputy Commissioner in his place for the duration of the war. No. 8 District. In this District one Corps, ten Ambulance Divisions and four Nursing Divisions is the net increase since the war began. Twenty-seven Voluntary Aid Detachments have been pro­ vided by the St. John Ambulance Brigade ; they are all mobi­ lised and at work. The Brigade Detachments have also established eight large Voluntary Aid Hospitals in Kent, and one in Sussex, and all are kept fairly well filled. On the outbreak of war all members of the Royal Naval Sick Berth Reserve were mobilised and proceeded to their stations, and also the members of the Military Home Hospitals Reserve. Inaddition to these 106 men have volunteered since the war began for the Military Home Hospitals Reserve, and 102 have volunteered for the Expeditionary Force, many of whom, not being called up, have enlisted in other branches of His Majesty’s service. Twenty-three men are now awaiting orders to join the Royal Naval Division.

AID

147

Thirty more ambulance men were called away last month, which makes the total number of men from the District now serving with the Colours 160. The Nursing Division are also doing splendid work, the only two Auxiliary Convalescent Homes being entirely staffed by nursing sisters, while several are now acting as orderlies in the Dublin Castle Red Cross Hospital, where the Lady Corps Supt., Miss MacDonnell, is matron. Many of the nursing sisters are also acting as district visitors to soldiers home on sick furlough, while others help the depot both by sending articles of clothing for our wounded soldiers and sailors, and assisting Mrs. Seton Pringle in the distribution and sending away of consignments to the home and base hospitals. Most of the Divisions have now been converted into Voluntary Aid Detachments. Commandant Miss Evelyn Moore, Naas V .A .D ., is at present engaged in a Hampshire hospital, while the late Lady Supt., Mrs. Mills, has gone to Serbia as a nurse on Sir Thomas Lipton’s yacht, the “ Erin,” which is a great test of patriotism, as the conditions there, we understand, make the worst in France luxurious by contrast. Many of the members of the South Dublin V .A .D . hold the diploma of the Incorporated Society of Trained Masseuses, and, by the kindness of Commandant Miss Poole and Lady Supt. Miss Hogg, arrangements have been made for gratuitous massage to be given to wounded soldiers home on sick furlough who are in need of such treatment. Another member, Mrs. Watson, is doing magnificent work in connection with the Reception Committee for wounded soldiers and sailors. In the early hours of each morning she goes down to the North W all to meet and arrange for soldiers on their way home on sick furlough, after discharge from the English hospitals. These soldiers are then visited by the nursing sisters and, if necessary, arrangements are made for their ad­ mission to one of the convalescent homes. Bray V .A.D . is doing splendidly and though only registered a short time, its numerical strength is 43. Several of the mem­ bers have taken courses of training in the city hospitals, and through the kind permission of the Rathdown Board of Guardians the members of this unit attend in rotation the Dispensary with a Queen Victoria nurse, and one of the mem­ bers assist the dentist at the Dental Clinic for Children. The efficiency this unit has so rapidly acquired is due to the efforts of Lady Supt. Mrs. Hampden Acton and Quartermaster Mrs. Ramadge, who are sparing themselves no trouble to make their V.A.D . a centre of usefulness. Naas, Howth and Clontarf V .A .D .’s has each subscribed the sum of ,£10 for the equipment of beds for wounded soldiers in the city hospitals. All the other units are working hard, holding weekly practices, lectures in home hygiene, military sanitation, and thus maintaining a high standard of efficiency, and will, no doubt, prove themselves worthy should a great emergency arise. All members of the District feel very proud to know that Deputy-Commissioner Dr. J. Lumsden has been made a Knight of Grace of the Order of St. John. One other member of the District already holds this decoration, Dr. M cDowel Cosgrave, President of the Royal College of Physicians.

No. 12 (Irish) District. Since last month five additional Nursing Divisions have been registered, and these now have 10 Ambulance Divisions, 20 Nursing Divisions, and 18 Voluntary Aid Detachments— a total strength of about 1,000 men and nursing sisters. On January 24th a Brigade parade service was held at Christ Church, Leeson Park, when the Deputy-Commissioner, District and Corps Officers, and over 100 members of the Brigade turned out in uniform. The preacher was the Rev. Percy Phair, M.A., who gave a short history of the Order of St. John and its work during the present crisis, and made a power­ ful appeal on behalf of the Brigade Hospital going to France, to which there was a magnificent response, the collection amounting to £ 70. Since then this sum has been made up to ,£100 by the parishioners, thus this parish alone has contributed enough to endow a bed in the hospital.

In view o f the fact that their work will be more than doubled so soon as the new Arm ies begin to take the field, the Order o f St. John and the British R ed Cross Society are organising a special appeal. D istrict by district, it is proposed to hold a house-to-house canvass throughout the length and breadth of the land. Pennies will be asked for, since thousands of generous people cannot afford a larger sum, but the collectors will be quite ready to take larger sums. T h e money will be gathered in by local com m ittees established in each district, and the date when each of these com m ittees sets to work will be announced. W h en corresponding w ith A d v e rtisers please m ention “ F irst Aid ”


148

— F I R S T

jtailwaij Jlmbulance. S.E . & C .R .— Mr. G. H enneker, whose photograph appears on this page, has for many years been connected with the am bulance work on the South Eastern and C h a t­ ham Railw ay, and since the form ation of the am bulance centre in 1905 has represented the Ashford W orks, and the stations in the neighbourhood of Ashford, on the C entre Com m ittee. Mr. H enneker, who obtained his first certificate in 1886, has the satisfaction of knowing that over 1,000 members have passed through the classes he has organised. T h a t he is greatly respected by the members o f his classes is evidenced by the fact that he was recently made the recipient o f a handsom e 18 carat gold hunter watch, subscribed by the members of the classes under his con-

M r.

G. H e n n e k e r .

trol. T h e presentation was made by Mr. R. E. L. M aunsell, the ch ief m echanical engineer, the chair being taken by Mr. E. A. Richards, the chairman of the Centre Com m ittee. In presenting the watch to Mr. H enneker, Mr. M aun­ sell said that it gave him particular pleasure in being able to realise that a m em ber o f his own staff had “ made good ” in this way. H e assured all present that the am bulance work had his full and enthusiastic support, and he was most anxious that more men should qualify in first aid. H e sincerely hoped that Mr. H enneker would live many years to carry on the good work he had undertaken. W e are sure our readers will support the wish of Mr. M aunsell, that Mr. H enneker may continue for many years to enjoy the respect and good wishes o f those with whom he has associated in this good work. W e have from time to time had the pleasure o f re­ cording the very great interest taken in the am bulance

A ID . -

F eb r u a ry , 19 1 5 .

m ovem ent on this railway, not only by the directors and offioers of the Com pany, but by the members o f the staff who, for various reasons, find them selves unable to person­ ally qualify in first aid. T h e latest evidence o f this interest has just com e to our knowledge, the inspectors of all departm ents and the locom otive foremen having com bined and successfully raised nearly £,20 for the furthering of am bulance work amongst the staff. O f this sum it is proposed to distribute awards, as follows, and in congratulating the recipients we feel sure that the whole-hearted interest of the inspectors and loco­ m otive foremen in the welfare of the am bulance movement on the South-Eastern and Chatham Railw ay will be greatly appreciated, not only by the members o f the Centre itself but by the directors and officers o f the C om pany also. T h e result of the appeal must be very gratifying to Mr. Culm er, chief guards’ inspector, the organiser and secretary o f the fund, and his energetic committee. 1.— Platelayer Thompsett, who has been a member and regular attendant of the Red Hill Ambulance Class for some years past. His attendance at the class necessitates a walk of eight miles on each occasion. £2 10s. 2.— T o funds of Hither Green Ambulance Corps. £2. 3.— T o funds of Victoria Ambulance Corps. £2. 4.— To Hither Green Corps, in recognition of the valuable work performed by the members on the occasion of the accident at Borough Market Junction, in September last, and in connec­ tion with the arrival of Military Ambulance Trains at W ell Hall. £ 1. 5.— Signalman Stilwell, Penge, for his resourcefulness and efficiency in dealing with a case of a fractured leg, the patient having fallen off the platform on to the four-foot way on the evening of 24th December, 1914 A densefog prevailed at the time. 10s. 6.— Signalman Bridger and Porter-Shunter Robinson, Ore, for efficient treatment in the case of a man who was found lying on the ground bleeding severely from a wound of the popliteal artery, he having been impaled on some railings, 30th October, 1914. 10s. each. 7.— Collector Stevens, Beckenham Junction, for his efficient treatment of a case of severe htemorrhage resulting from a motor car accident outside the station, 17th July, 1914, and in recognition of his long and meritorious first aid service. 10s. 8.— Collector Dixon, Penge, for assistance rendered in con­ nection with case No. 5. 7s. 6d. 9.— Clerk G. Lawrence and Checker H. French, Robertsbridge, for their efficiency in dealing with a case of severe haemorrhage, 29th September, 1914, the patient having caught his hand in a circular saw, severing the thumb and causing other injuries. An almost similar case of the kind was dealt with by the same two men on 5th November, 1914. 7s. 6d. each. 10.— Collectors J. Lee and J. Hawker and Outside Porters E. Bradberry and J. Bromley, Victoria, for services rendered in the case of a man who was very seriously injured in a lift accident at Messrs. Hudson’s Repository, Victoria Station, 10th November, 1914. 7s. 6d. each. 11.— Inspector Brent and Police Sergeant Andrews, Blackfriars, in recognition of their services to the first aid cause covering a period of 18 years. 7s. 6d. each. 12.— Signalman Stanbridge, Canterbury East, for prompt and efficient first aid rendered to a goods guard, who had fallen down and had his arm run over at that station, 22nd November, 1914. 7s. 6d. 13.— Ganger Cunningham, Clerk Crocker and Checker Burbridge, Tunbridge Wells, and Goods Guard Sargent, Ton­ bridge, for their treatment of a checker who was knocked down and seriously injured in Tunbridge W ells Goods Yard, 31st January, 1914. 5s. each. 14.— Foreman Oliver, Shunter Belcher and Porter Fuller, Red Hill, for their efficient treatment of a goods guard, who was found lying in the four-foot wedged between the inside rail and the trunking, his arm having been torn off. 5s. each.


February, 1915.

— F I R S T

C o lo n ia l N e w s . N e w S o u t h W a l e s . — T h e close of the twenty-fourth year of the New South W ales C entre will always be re­ m embered as being a time of rem arkable and unprece­ dented rush by the general public for am bulance instruc­ tion, in consequence of the great European crisis which has arisen. It is a cause o f gratification to know that as the result o f the fully organised condition o f this centre at the date o f the declaration of war, the executive com m ittee, with the co-operation of the various branches, have been able to meet all dem ands made upon the Association. Between August 3rd and Septem ber 30th no fewer than 240 classes were organised. W hen it is considered that the usual average num ber of classes held in one year is about 80, the enormous increase in such a short period will at once be recognised as having put a severe tax upon this centre. A most gratifying feature has been the unanimous offer o f the m edical profession in New South W ales to place their services at the disposal o f the Association in the capacity o f lecturers and examiners, and the assistance given by them has been of incalculable value to the public. In connection with the work o f the year one of the earliest events was the annual public meeting, held at the C oncordia H all on N ovem ber 27th, under the presidency of Sir W illiam Cullen, K .C M .G ., C h ief Justice. The assemblage was large and most enthusiastic, and excellent practical dem onstrations of am bulance and nursing work were given by various divisions of the St. John Am bulance Brigade. Im pressive addresses were delivered by the Chairm an and Mr. T . R. Johnson (late Chief C om m is­ sioner of Railways). On analysing, in the 24th annual report, the results of the classes held, it must be noted that com paratively few of those organised during the present crisis have con ­ cluded in time to be mentioned in this report, which closes on Septem ber 30th. T h e great bulk o f the classes, there­ fore, will be included in next year’s results. For the past twelve months first aid and hom e nurs­ ing classes, to the number o f 114, have been instructed and exam ined. O f the num ber enrolled in these classes 566 men and 1,925 women have attended the full course of lectures, and, at the exam ination which followed, 507 men and 1,471 women have qualified for awards. O ne military sanitation class, with a m em bership of 13, was held, and all the candidates passed the exam ination. A dding the year’s results to the records o f the previous 23 years, we find :— M en and women instructed in F irst A id or H om e Nursing, 22,246. M en and women who have gained Certificates for First A id or H om e Nursing, 16,297. M en and women who have gained M edallions, 901. M en and women who have gained Labels, 63. M en and women who have gained H om e H ygiene Certificates, 33. M en and women who have gained Sanitation Certifi­ cates, 26. T h e com m ittee regret the loss of one o f their former prominent workers, L ie u t-C o l. R. V andeleur K elly, C .B ., whose death occurred on O ctober 8th, 1913. T h e St. John Am bulance B rigade— Overseas, New South W ales D istrict— has been m aking satisfactory pro­ gress during the year. In O ctober, 1913, the mem bers

AID. — held a cam p of instruction under canvas at L a Perouse for three days, the attendance being the largest yet recorded. T h e first annual brigade dinner was held on July n t h last, when the com pany num bered about 150, including some prom inent members o f Parliam ent, and representatives of the N aval and M ilitary Forces of the Com m onw ealth. T h e balance sheet, which appears in the report, shows that the sum o f ^ 9 1 3 8s. was received, and ^ 8 4 7 18s. 6d. expended, leaving a credit balance of £ 6 $ 9s. 6d.

I n d i a . — T h e St. John A m bulance is the only R ed Cross Society in India and has taken up, with the greatest promptitude, its duties in the present European crisis. T h e Society has, during the past five years, built up a position as a national institution in India and has estab­ lished in this brief period no less than three hundred Centres in every corner o f the great Indian Empire. T h e value o f this well-thought out organisation becam e at once apparent on the outbreak of the present war. Forty-eight hours after the news reached India, a circular letter was issued to all Centres o f the Association pointing out that E ngland is now at war, and that there is evidence o f intense enthusiasm on the part o f the public and a great desire to help our troops in the field. One o f the most im portant functions of a R ed Cross or A m bulance Society is to direct such patriotic enthusiasm into correct channels, and the letter suggested that Centres o f the Association should form a ladies’ com m ittee with the following objects, viz. :— (1) T o collect funds. (2) T o collect gifts o f articles to be o f use to troops on Service. (3) T o collect material for A m b ulan ce D eta ch ­ ments should such be organised. A D epot for the reception and distribution o f gifts will be organised at B om bay by the Indian Council. T h is letter was prom ptly followed by a meeting at the H eadquarters o f the Indian G overnm ent. Addresses were made by Surgeon-General B abtie, D irector o f M edical Services in India, and Surgeon G eneral Sir Pardey L ukis, D irector-General o f the Indian M edical Service, outlining a schem e for the collection of gifts likely to be of use to troops on Service. T h is was followed by the publication o f a list of articles com piled by Surgeon-General B abtie in conjunction with the C h itf L ad y Supt. o f the Q ueen A lexandra’s Nursing Service. In a letter distributing these lists it was pointed out that they were mainly meant to supplem ent articles already provided by Governm ent, and not to supply deficiencies. It had been found in practice, very convenient that, in the time o f war, both Nurses and M edical Officers should have extra articles o f this kind which are absolutely at their disposal without having to account for them officially. T h e Indian C ouncil forthwith organised a depot at Bom bay where all goods are received, classified, suitably packed and handed over to the M ilitary Authorities for despatch to our troops on A ctive Service. T h e Railw ay Authorities carry these R ed Cross gifts from every part of India free o f all charges. W ith reference to personal service, the Indian C ouncil has under formation, in every station in India, V oluntary D etachm ents, consisting of persons holding its certificates. T h ese detachm ents consist of (a) a C om m andant who is, if possible, a m edical p ra ctitio n er; (b) at least two men trained in first aid ; and (c) seven women who must hold First A id and N ursing Certificates. T h is personnel is


— F I R S T registered, recognised and inspected by the M ilitary Authorities, and .the D irector, M edical Service in India, is prepared to em ploy them at railway rests, camps, &c. T h e L ad ies’ C om m ittee o f the St. John Am bulance A ssociation in India are only concerned with the sick and wounded, as the provision o f gifts and comforts for actual com batants, however laudable, is no concern o f a R ed Cross Society. U p till O ctober 9th, the St. John R ed Cross depot had shipped or had at the docks British units ... Indian units ... 100 Bed units ... M isc e lla n e o u s... A t W ar G ifts depot

... ... ... ... ...

... ... ... ... ... T otal

3^ ^g 3 87 50 596

O f this total to O ctober 9th, 502 were ten bed units, i.e., sufficient for over 500 beds. T h is does not include K arachi shipments, estim ated at 50 units. O f these units no less than 51 have been sent from Simla, which heads the list o f donors and, indeed, has supplied as many as two other individual stations. T h e response to the appeal from all parts o f India has been so rem arkably prom pt that Surgeon-General Babtie, the D irector o f M edical Services, has decided to revise the list o f articles sent, and has framed a list of what are now called replacem ent units for ten beds. Th ese units contain all articles which it is necessary to repeat or replace. In addition to the hospitals in the theatre o f war there will be hospital ships plying regularly between B om bay and Europe, as well as am bulance trains in India, which will require com forts on a special scale. In addition to the ordinary units, the Indian branch of the A ssociation has designed what is called the R ed Cross Bag. T h ese bags are intended for invalided British and Indian soldiers when they leave hospital. T h e bag for the British soldier contains 1 pyjam a suit, 2 flannel shirts, a pair o f soft slippers, socks, a pipe and tobacco, or cigarettes, a toothbrush, a letterette block and indelible pencil, housewife, work book, soap and towel. T h a t for the Indian soldier contains 1 warm shawl, two flannel vests, 2 pairs o f socks, housewife, tooth-sticks, 1 packet of cigarettes or bidees, a batnu o f betul nuts, a vernacular book, soap and towel. A ll articles are packed and pinned up in the towel and the packet put into a bag made of khaki drill, measur­ ing 18 in. by 15 in. and weighing 4^ lbs., m arked with the Geneva Cross, and inscribed “ For one British so ld ie r” or For one Indian soldier.” t o r Indian officers it is sug­ gested that the “ Batoos ” o f rather superior quality should be supplied separately. It will be gathered from the foregoing that the Red C ross services in India will not end until the war does. T h e G overnm ent o f India have decided that if called upon to perform duty exceeding twenty-four hours in duration away from their homes, the trained personnel of St. John Am bulan ce Association shall be granted allowances at the rates noted below to cover the cost o f rations and housing :— H eadm an, Rs. 5s. per d ie m ; Europeans and Anglo-Indians, 2s. per diem ; Indians, Rs. is. per diem. T h e Indian C ouncil has prepared a register of men and women volunteering for service in time of war, showing name, religion or caste, age, postal address, province, am bulance qualifications, profession, languages spoken and capacity in which to serve.

AID. —

February, 191$.

T h e Association’s system of providing gifts and com ­ forts for the troops, British and Indian, has received the approval o f both the V iceroy and the Com m ander-in-Chief, and the Association has brought hom e to Indian residents that “ Charity begins at hom e,” and that every rupee collected by the Indian C ouncil of the St. John Am bulance Association is devoted to the benefit o f India and Indians. T h e Association has also been asked to assist the M ilitary Authorities in obtaining recruits for the Arm y Bearer Corps during the present war, and has been very successful in this direction. Indeed, the services o f the St. John A m bulance have been so valuable to the Governm ent of India and the M ilitary Authorities, that Major Blackham , C .I.E ., Hon. General Secretary o f the St. John A m bulance Association for some six years, has been placed on special duty by the C om m ander-in-Chief to direct and control all R ed Cross work in India. T his is probably the highest recognition any similar Society has obtained. N .S. W a l e s . — T h e D ew ar’s am bulance com petition was for the second time was taken up by the Sydney eight hour com m ittee, and was com peted for by nine teams at the eight hour night sports last D ecem ber. M uch enthusiasm was shown by the men this year owing to so many am bulance workers leaving for the front, recruits were hastily put into training for the com petition. T h e examiners were Sergeant M ajor Lawrence, o f the Australian A M .C . D ivision, Surgeon Lewis H ughes and Dr. D onovan. N o 1 squad of the R andw ick Division of the St. John A m bulan ce Brigade carried off the shield for the second time. Second place was filled by the Western D ivision, S .J .A .B ; third place by the G lebe Division, S .J .A .B . T h e com petition was w atched by approxim ately 7,000 people, and the eight hour C om m ittee awarded 15 gold medals to the first three teams and a medal each for the patients, T h e members of the St. John A m bulance B rigade in N .S .W . responded well to the call of the am bulance authorities for volunteers for the Arm y M edical Corps, Australian Field A m bulance, and general hospital attached to the Australian Expeditionary Force for service in Europe. A lthough not actually attached to any reserve the Brigade here is looked upon by the authorities so much so that when the military unit was being prepared for the Island exploits the Randw ick Division was asked for 9 men at 10 o ’clock on Saturday morning, and by 2 o’clock the same day the full num ber reported them selves to the authorities in full uniform, and were im m ediately accepted for service. A b ou t 100 members o f the brigade have been accepted from N ew South Wales.

In the annual report of the Birm ingham Centre of the S .J .A .A . it is pointed out that upon the declaration o f war so many candidates were desirous of qualifying them selves in rendering first aid and in nursing that the resources o f the Centre were taxed to the utmost. It was necessary to break up the annual cam p of the Brigade owing to the large num ber o f men called away to join the Brigade Reserves of which they were members. T h e re­ port o f the Corps state that on Septem ber 30th, 1914, the m embership num bered 547. T h e number of cases attended to by members on public duty was 2,394, and by members when not on public duty 3,779. T h e nursing certificate for men was held by 249 members. U p to Septem ber 30th, 47 men had been m obilised for duty in the M ilitary H om e Hospitals. Mr. J. H , R odgers was re-elected hon. secretary o f the Centre.


— F I R S T

February, 1915,

On

A c tive

S e r v ic e .

T . W . M anley, of the South M etropolitan G as Co. D ivision, whose photograph we give, with the hospital ship upon which he is serving, writing to the editor of the Copartnership J o u rn a l says :—

Supt.

AID. — them, but they have bore their sufferings very well and were very grateful for all we did for them. N ow we are back again. (E xcision by Censor.) T h e wind has been blowing great guns as well as being very cold. I am glad to say our party on board is enjoying the best o f health.

W hen we left St. John’s G ate— after the fine speech our Chairman gave us, which we greatly appreciated— we went to D evonport N aval Barracks, where we spent a night

“ V e t t e r in ” O i n t m e n t (Regd.). T h i s o i n t m e n t is a S w e d i s h a n t i s e p t i c p r e p a r a t i o n , in v a lu a b le for all w o u n d s clea n sin g ,

ep isp astic

and

and

co n tu sio n s,

and

h avin g

h e a lin g properties.

It

is

m arked m ay

be

b e n e fic ia lly a p p lie d in c a s e s o f e m e r g e n c y , w h e n n o o p p o r ­ tu nity presen ts

itself to

co n d itio n s c a n a lw ays

disin fect

be

the

p rev en ted

wound, by

its

and

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T h e efficacy of “ V etterin ” is stated to have been directly established in thousands o f cases, including recent or chronic wounds,abscesses, boils or any affection sus­ pected o f containing puss, acute or chronic frostbites and severe abrasions. Consequently, at this period it is worthy of special consideration whem realising the numerous cases of frostbites that have been experienced in the trenches. “ V e tte rin ” is also valuable in cases o f excoriations, abrasions, blistered feet, & c.; also for contusions, bruises, or horny feet, while stings of insects are healed by one or two applications. For the inform ation of readers o f F i r s t A i d , it might be added that owing to the epispastic, or drawing properties of “ V etterin ,” it m ight occasionally happen that slight aggravation may be apparent at first, but this soon passes By courtesy]

[“ C o p a rtn ersh ip J o u r n a l '

S upt.

T.

W.

M anley.

that will never be forgotten. W e arrived there at 10 p.m. ; thousands of men were com ing from all parts o f the country. After going through a lot o f formalities we were told, at 4 a.m., to be ready by 6 a.m. to go to Southam pton and take over the Carisbrooke Castle as H ospital Carrier No. 3. W e arrived there during the afternoon o f Bank H oliday. T h e next morning we com m enced to turn the liner into a hospital; we put in about 100 cots, and at m id­ day W ednesday, the 5th, we set sail, ready to take in patients. W e went to Scapa Flow, in the O rkney Islands, where we took in sick, and went with them to L o ch Ewe, in the North o f Scotland. (E xcision by Censor.) W e went back to Scapa Flow, and waited until we were relieved by the R ohilla (the ship that was lately wrecked on the rocks). W e transferred our sick who were soon likely to recover to that ship, and the remainder we brought to Portsm outh for the N aval H o sp ita l; then we went on to Southam pton and took'over this ship (R ew a), which had been fitted up as a very fine hospital ship. W e left Southam pton again the next morning for the North Sea, and after spending some time there we were lent to the French Governm ent to assist in carrying their wounded soldiers. W e saw the monitors in the distance shelling the enem y’s position. W e made several voyages carrying all Frenchm en, with the exception of a few Belgians and some Germ an prisoners. T h ere were some terrible sights among

By courtesy]

[ ‘ ‘ Copartnership Jo u rn a l

ss.

“ R ew a”

( H ospital

S h ip

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off and is followed by rem arkably rapid healing. In other cases irritation or aching may be felt round the wound, and when this occurs apply a little of the ointm ent to the margin of the affected parts. Further particulars, together with full directions, will be gladly supplied by T h e V etterin Co., 3 9 , Beaucham proad, Clapham Junction, L ondon, S.W .


— F I R S T

15*

B r e v itie s . In the J o u r n a l o f the R oy al N a v a l M edical Service, the first num ber of which appeared last month, a good account of the N aval A m bu lan ce Train No. 1 is given by Surgeon A. V . Elder, R .N .V .R . W hile sm oothness in running and independence of outside assistance are desiderata by all am bulance trains, whether naval or military, certain differences in the fittings are worthy o f mention. In the naval train the cots de signed for the reception of lying-down cases are m ovable and slung in two tiers, upper and lower, on both sides from hooks in the roof of the coach. V ertical and lateral jarring are prevented by the m ethod of suspension, and the cot can be rem oved from the train and used as a stretcher. T h e special train described is a unit o f the M edical Transport system organised in the N ore com m and by Surgeon-General Sir James Porter, K .C .B ., R .N ., and consists o f twelve coaches disposed in the following manner from the engine :— A gu ard’s van, one seven-com partm ent corridor coach, two cot coaches, a day coach, three cot coaches, a store coach, a kitchen car with dining-saloon, a family saloon, and, finally, a guard’s van. T w o m edical officers and two nursing sisters, and a crew o f thirty-eight members o f the St. John A m bulan ce Brigade, a sick berth steward, and a cook are carried on the train, which has accom m oda­ tion for 120 cots and 72 seats without overcrowding *** W e understand that the S .J .A .B ., in conjunction with the R oyal M edical Society, are contem plating the forma­ tion of a joint com m ittee to deal with the necessary con­ tingencies that a raid would bring about in connection with the possibilities o f extensive injuries to the civilian popula­ tion. On the occasion of the bom bardm ent o f W hitby and Scarborough the Brigade has shown o f what invaluable assistance it can render, but in the case o f London, and other large towns, the men and nursiug sisters cannot be m ustered so quickly, and a schem e to call them together rapidly in a case o f em ergency is, am ong other things, what the joint com m ittee proposes to undertake. ** * A n e a t booklet has been issued by the No. 4 D is­ trict o f the Brigade, setting out its objects and what has been accom plished since war was declared, with a view to collecting funds for the Brigade Hospital. T h e book contains several illustrations showing both am bu­ lance men and nursing sisters engaged in their various duties. It should serve to enlighten the general public o f the district o f the useful purpose of the Brigade and encourage their financial support. *** The Lond on C ou n ty C ouncil motor am bulance service was inaugurated on February 1st by the opening o f the Fulham Station, which will serve the western district of the metropolis. In a short tim e it is intended to open stations in every other district. T h e need o f the service has been em phasised in this Journal for many

AID. —

Feb ruary,

1915.

years past, and now that it is an accom plished fact its value will be at once appreciated. A m e m b e r o f the S .J .A .B . who is serving in a M ilitary Hospital, writes : “ W e are indebted to F i r s t A i d very much in keeping us posted up with the universal work of our m en.” W e are always pleased to hear that our efforts in this direction are appreciated, but they are only possible by the kindness o f friends who inform us of what they are doing. T h e members o f the Brigade are now dis­ tributed in all parts of the world, and many o f their com ­ rades at hom e would like to hear o f them, so we ask them to send a short account o f what they are doing. w

*

T h e Joint War Com m ittee of the British R ed

Cross Society and the Order o f St. John recently undertook to provide at Calais an enteric hospital o f 156 beds for the exclusive use of Belgian soldiers. W e are informed that the com plete hospital has been built in this country and transported to Calais in the short period of three weeks, and there it is being set up by 100 workmen sent over from this country. A swifter effort in hospital construction has probably never been achieved. This particular hospital, consisting o f six wards o f twenty-six beds each, is provided with everything that can be wanted, either for the patients or for the staff. T h e hospital and its equipm ent represent 500 tons of material. T h is was sent by rail to D over by five special goods trains and transferred thence to Calais by special Adm iralty transport boat, which necessitates making two journeys. T h e workmen sent over to erect the hospital were all insured and inoculated, and special housing accom m odation and feeding arrangements were made for them before their arrival. * * T h e H o n . A r t h u r S t a n l e y , M .P ., Chairm an o f the E xecutive Com m ittee B R .C S., who recently returned from a tour of inspection of hospitals in France, says really everything is going like clockw ork. W e are working

in perfect harmony with the M ilitary Authorities. The R ed Cross is in fact the handm aiden to the R A .M .C ., and we have not only our own hospitals to look after but we very largely assist the military hospitals with stores and supplies. O f the hospitals them selves I cannot speak too highly. O f course they have been improvised, and you see some queer incongruities. T h e military hospital at W im ereux is in the Casino, and one of the wards is labelled “ Baccarat R o o m .” T h e goods shed at the Gare M aiitim e at Boulogne is another improvised hospital. It makes a capital place, all on the ground floor. W e visited the special hospital for the Indians in the old Jesuit C ollege T h ey all seem to make them selves happy, and every time we asked about their com fort they assured us they had everything they needed. Mr. Stanley spoke o f the extra­ ordinary value o f the motor am bulance service o f the Red Cross. It is alm ost invidious to mention any names (he said) when all are doing so splendidly, but perhaps I may acknow ledge especially the good work o f the Salvation Arm y cars.


F ebruary, 19 15.

— F I R S T

T h e G r a n d P r io r y of t h e

AID. —

T53

O rder of t h e

H o sp ita l of S t . John of J e r u s a le m in E n g la n d . A t a re c e n t m e e t in g o f the C h a p t e r - G e n e r a l th e fo llo w in g a d m i s s i o n s to t h e O r d e r o f S t . J o h n w e r e m a d e , in t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s in r e c o g n i t i o n o f v e r y d i s t i n g u i s h e d s e r v i c e s t o t h e A m b u l a n c e D e p a r t m e n t of the O r d e r both at h o m e a nd a b r o a d :—

A s Knights of G ra ce: Lieu t.-C olo nel W illia m I .M .S . (In d ian Branch).

E rn e s t Jen n in gs, M .D .,

D .P .H .,

A s Ladies o f G ra ce: M rs. P eter D . C rerar (H am ilto n , C a n a d ia n Branch).

Specialists in i S/j . Specialists To-day.

A s Esquires : M ajo r A lg e r n o n T u d o r C raig. A rth u r W illia m F aire. F r e d e r ic k H arrison.

A s Honorary Serving Brothers : H e n r y W illia m L ille y ( W e s t A u stra lia n Centre). John S m ith ( W e s t A u stra lia n Centre). W illia m C lo w (G re a t C e n tra l R a ilw a y Centre). H erb ert C h arles H igso n (G reat Central R a ilw a y T h o m a s Jo h n so n (S o u th a m p to n Centre). Joseph E m m a n u e l H o d kin son (H in d ley B ranch). W a l t e r H e n r y B u llo c k ( A c c rin g to n Centre).

Centre).

Ambulance Kits for Home and Foreign Service by

A s Honorary Serving Sisters : H e le n e M a g d a le n e E lizabeth , M rs. R . Franz (S ou th A frica). F lo re n ce K a th e rin e , M rs. T . H. W o o ls t o n ( N o r th a m p to n ) . Jane, M rs. S im m o n d s (C a tfo rd B ran ch).

A s Honorary Associates : Sep tim us M o n ta g u e H eb bleth w aite, M .D . Centre). R o b e rt B r u c e D u n c a n , M .D . (Lond on).

(Ch eltenh am

T h o m a s B ro w n e H earder, M .B . (Ilkle y Branch). Surgeon-G eneral Jam es Gaussen M acN eece, C.B ., L .R .C .P .I ., A .M .S . (S o u th a m p to n Centre). C o lon el H a ro ld H e n d le y , M .D ., I .M .S . (In d ian B ra n ch ). B re v et-C o lo n el B ru c e G o rd o n Seton, M .R .C .S ., L .R .C .P ., I.M .S . (In d ian B ran ch). T h e R ev. P e te r C u llen, M .D . (In d ian Branch).

F o r D onat's Badge in C o lon el H is H ig h n e s s M ah ara .

Raj

G old: R a je s jw a r S irom jan i

S r i. Sir G u n ja S in g h , B a h a d u r, o f B ik a n e r, G .C .S .I., G .C .I. E.

F o r D onat's Badge in Bronze: C h a rle s A n sell E m a n u e l (S o u th a m p to n Centre).

T h e V ictoria League has entered into an understand­ ing with the R ed Cross Society to take over from them at the conclusion of hostilities, and possibly earlier, the up­ keep of all British graves in France.

W i t h w a r o v e r s h a d o w i n g e v e r y t h i n g in t h e U n ifo rm C lo th in g a nd E q u ip m e n t w orld w e are g i v i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 90% o f o u r h u g e p r o d u c t i o n to the F o r c e s o f the E m p ire . E v e r sin ce th ese uniform s w ere in tro d u ced we h ave m ad e a sp eciality o f A m b u la n c e C lo th in g and A ccou trem en ts, and h ave eq uip p ed la rg e n u m b ers o f O fficers a n d m en n o w at th e F r o n t a n d at the M ilitary H o sp ita ls at hom e. W e i n v i t e a ll r a n k s o f t h e R o y a l A r m y M e d i c a l C o rp s, B ritish R e d C r o s s S o c ie ty ,S t. John A m b u la n c e B r ig a d e , a n d k in d re d O r g a n is a tio n s to c o m m u n ic a te w i t h u s o n a ll m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o U n i f o r m s a n d E quipm ent. O u r c o m p le te m o d e rn o rg a n isa tio n , w ith o v er 1,300 t r a i n e d w o r k p e o p l e in o u r w o r k r o o m s , m e a n s p r o m p t , c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n t o a ll o r d e r s , a n d t h e l o w e s t p rices c o n siste n t w ith S A T I S F A C T I O N . T h e w isd o m o f d e a lin g w ith a h o u s e w h ic h h as f o r o v e r t o o y e a r s s p e c i a l i s e d in U n i f o r m s , m u s t b e a p p a r e n t t o a ll w h o p l a c e c o n t r a c t s f o r C l o t h i n g a n d E q u i p m e n t s , a n d t o O f f i c e r s r e q u i r i n g o u t f it s fo r p e rs o n a l wear.

Price Lists on Application. In our report in the last issue of the No. 4 D istrict “ W ork of the S .J .A .B .,” we stated that Corps Treasurer M illington (Preston) as being the Quarterm aster of the Belfast M ilitary Hospital. W e are informed that the Corps Secretary, W. A. Brunt (M anchester) is the Q uarter­ master at that hospital.

W hen corresponding w ith A d vertisers please m en ­ tion “ F irst A id.”

HAZEL

& CO. ,

65/73, East Rd., City Rd., LONDON, E.C. B R A N C H E S :—

51a, B e rn e rs Stre et, Oxford Stre et. L O N D O N , W . 6 , Y o r k Place, L E E D S . 8 4 , M ille r S t r e e t , G L A S G O W . And 1 3 7 , L o n g m a r k e t S t r e e t , C A P E T O W N .


*54

— F I R S T

Bovinine

Special

Bovinine

Offer.

Medical Press Opinions.

upon the great value and CONSEQUENT need of such a preparation as Bovinine at

this time of war we are violating our long exclusive introduction to the Medical Profession, and make a special offer to those interested in Institutions for Nursing our Sick and Wounded. We will have pleasure in supplying small or large quantities of “ Bovinine ” at specially reduced prices, and further will ourselves add a donation in kind to all purchases made. Full particulars may be obtained from

U sed by the M e d ic a l P ro fessio n for

35

' Bovinine.”

years.

B R IT ISH M E D IC A L J O U R N A L : — “ Has deservedly found gen ­ eral favour in respect to its excellence, effici­ ency and economy.” THE LANCET “ Prepared on sound scientific principles.” TH E PRACTITION ­ E R : — “ Is undoubt­ edly a most valuable and potent agent.” M E D ICA L ANNUAL: — “ It has won the esteem of all who have employed it.”

W. Edwards & Son, 157, Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C.

Bovinine

THE

February, 1915

Restores Strength

AN IDEAL TONIC =FOOD.

BRITISH

AID. -

Bovinine

Promotes Nerve Energy

MADE

AND

OWNED.

Be st Disinfectant. Fragr ant. Non-poisonous. Best Dressing for Wounds. Purifies the A i r (by Spraying). Kil ls all Disease Germ s. Best M ou th Was h.

1/- B o t t l e s ; 5/- Gallon ; Sprays 2/6 each.

ONLY GENUINE.

O f a ll Chem ists a n d Stores.

Packed in orange w rappers as p er illu stratio n .

’sA N IT/f^

The fin e st and safest an tise p tic fo r b ath in g and cle a n sin g w ounds, c u ts and b u rn s, etc.

NO FIRST AID EQUIPMENT IS COMPLETE WITHOUT IT. Supplied

to

large numbers

of

Of all Chemists, 7^d., 1/=, 1/9 & 3/= per bot.

CHAS. ZIM M ER M AN N

FREE.

& CO.

A

(C H E M IC A L S ), L TD .,

9 & 10, St. M a ry -a t-H ili, LONDON, E.C.

BRITISH 1902)

R a ilw ay s,

C o ll ie rie s and Factories, w h o find it un^ eq ua lle d for all general ambulance work.

SAM PLES

trSYPOL’U) A N T I S E P T I C (introduced by us IN L IE U

OF

in

“ L Y S O L .”

G u a r a n t e e d C o - e f f ic ie n t 3 . FORMS A CLEAR SOLUTION WITH WATER.

6d.

and

1/-

Bottles,

and

6/-

per

Gallon.

Leaflet and Sample on application.

The “ S A N I T A S ” C O ., Ltd., L im e h o u s e , L o n d o n , E .


— F I R S T

F eb rua ry , 1 9 1 5 .

A

Three

M o n t h s ’ = Old

Division.

I n view o f the possibility that there may be places where certificated am bulance men have not yet decided to form a Brigade, readers of F i r s t A i d may be interested in the story of the formation o f a D ivision in a place where the conditions suggested existed up to five months ago. It is with the idea o f pointing out how unexpectedly the opportunity for usefulness arose, and not from any feelings of undue pride, that the history o f the W hitby D ivision S .J .A .B .— it covers only three months— is written. For several years we have had first aid lectures in the town promoted by a few enthusiasts, three or four o f whom usually put their heads together at the beginning of the winter and decided, in the face o f disheartening circum ­ stances, to go forward with the good work. Six miles away, in a village one-twentieth our size, there was a Division, but there better counsels had long ago prevailed. H owever, the war broke out. H ow many good things we shall eventually point to as em anating from this terrible conflict is a matter of conjecture, but we are willing to

J55

AID. —

we paraded the streets with dum m y “ B elgians,” so as to im prove our efficiency. T h e n — bitter irony— when the forty-five or so men were on their way, we got the news “ N o stretcher cases ! ” W hat a disappointm ent ! B ut we were not to be baulked in this fashion. A lthough it was the m iddle o f the night when the poor fellows came, som e forty or so of our mem bers and first aid candidates waited for the train. A two-handed seat, and a squad to assist in getting the Belgians to bed, was the sum total o f the dem ands m ade upon us. Still, our appetite was whetted, and the attendances at drills and practtces were keener than ever. E nrolled on O ctober 1st as a D ivision, before that month was over we had a full introduction into serious work, for on the 30th the H ospital Ship “ R o h illa ” was wrecked a mile or so south o f the harbour— the most terrible shipping disaster which ever occurred on this coast. H ow glad we were that we were a D ivision and not isolated units in a crowd. T h e boat struck at 4 .15 on the Friday, and up to 3 p.m. on Sunday, there were some m em bers— the writer was not one

T h e illustration shows some o f the members of the R .N .S .B . R eserve at M alo-les-Bains, France. count our D ivision as one of them. M en engaged in business, over age for army service or with physical dis­ abilities, but possessing am bulance qualifications, learned that there lay in the possibility of forming an am bulance division an avenue to their placing what ability and service they could com m and at their country’s call. A ll told, we mustered twenty-one. But, alas ! we lost three. T w o had to leave the place, and one joined the R .A .M .C . So, with eighteen effective members, our D ivision was started. B ut we were— pardon the seem ing egotism — keen, and we com m unicated some keenness to a fine first aid class. A capital surgeon was at our service as lecturer, and the local D istrict N urse— a m odel o f what such a nurse should b e— and her very capable assistant, joined us as Nursing Sisters. So we practised— lecture and practice, drill and stretcher exercise— night after night, until one day we learned that some Belgian wounded were expected at W hitby. Thanks to the order which forbade the public lighting of coast towns, few o f the inhabitants of W hitby knew how, in the evenings before the anticipated arrival,

— who had only had four hours off duty. In the teeth of a terrific gale, on a shaly rock-strewn beach, the Brigade and First A id men worked m agnificently. Calls never expected were m ade and responded to, and scarcely a phase of first aid work was not in evidence. A ll night vigils for two nights, pitiless rain and angry seas were alike cheerfully endured, and the com radeship o f am bulance men was strikingly evidenced by the voluntary help rendered by workers from Skinningrove and the G rism ont Brigade. T h is short article will have fulfilled the object for which it is written if it influences others to form a Brigade, where, hitherto, this step has not been taken. W e trem bled at the idea at first, for we were but ordinary folk ; but im agine the pride with which we read in our O ccurrence B ook the testim ony of a highly-placed surgeon who was rescued from the “ R o h illa.” Less than two months later, as is a maker of history, W hitby was bom barded by the Germ ans, and while yet the shelling was proceeding mem bers were donning their uniforms and proceeding to render aid. The

moral

is

p l a i n :— A s

ce rtificated,

or

even


- F I R S T m edallion men, we were of little a c c o u n t; as a Division, we can do much to help our fellow-townspeople and our country, if needs be. True, opportunity cam e our way ; but so it can com e to any am bulance workers, and we would urge, from our experience, that where such workers seek to place their know ledge to the fullest advantage, they at once take steps to form a Division. T o them, as to us, its imagination will bring pleasures such as they cannot anticipate, and, when the call for service com es, they will be surprised at what they can accom plish.

T h e O rder of S t . W

ork

at

John

of

S t . J o h n ’s G

J e r u s a le m .

ate.

T h e O rder o f St. John’s H ospital for the Indian troops (T h e L ad y H ardinge H ospital) at B rockenhurst opened for

the reception o f the w ounded the last week in January. T h e m edical officers and matron and nursing staff made all the necessary preparations. A very interesting R eport has been received by the O rder of their two hospitals at St. M alo. T h e ch ief sur­ geon, Dr. H ossack, who has returned on leave, states that an enorm ous am ount of work has been done, both hospitals having been continuously full of very serious cases. T h e entire m edical and nursing staff was sent out by St. John’s Gate. T h e town o f Ipsw ich has rendered great assistance to the hospitals by sending out very large quantities of m edical stores. E xpeditions to Serbia and M ontenegro are being arranged under the Joint Com m ittee. T h e M ontenegrin expedition, under the charge o f Dr. Clem ow , started on January 25th, and consisted of three surgeons, two trained nurses, four orderlies and a large am ount o f stores. T h e party for Serbia, under Captain Bennett, is being conveyed by Sir T hom as L ip ton ’s yacht, which he has very kindly lent for the purpose. It consists o f five surgeons, one

AID. —

February, 1 9 1 5

matron, six trained nurses and nine orderlies. T h e yacht will also convey a very large quantity of stores. Lad y W im borne is also despatching a unit to Serbia, the personnel o f which is being selected by the Joint Com m ittee. A very large consignm ent of garments has been received from Lady T illey, in N ewfoundland, for Queen M ary’s Guild, and H er M ajesty has very graciously inti­ mated her desire that some part of this very large consign­ ment should be allocated to the use of the work o f the Order o f St. John. T h e Q ueen has also sent a large case o f food stuffs, which will be despatched immediately. T h e Foreign Service D epartm ent has sent nurses to the C hurch Arm y H ospital at Caen, and to the hospital being established by L ad y E va W em yss at Chateau Dufayel. T w o lady doctors have also gone to join Mrs. Sinclair Stobart’s hospital at Tourlaville, near Cherbourg.

The

“ W a rrio r”

T in d e r

L ig h te r .

C a t e r i n g for the needs and com fort o f “ T om m y ” in the

trenches is a question that has absessed the minds and in­ genuity of a no small number of enterprising and appreci­ ative patriots of our country during the progress of the devastating war. A m ong other features introduced, a series of tinder lighters is by no means the least, and in this connection we should like to call the attention of the S .J .A .B . and R ed Cross Society to the “ W arrior,” brought forward by Messrs. Falk, Stadelm ann & Co., of Farringdonroad, E .C . T h e “ W arrior” tinder lighter is patented and registered and made in England. T h e m odel is quite new, very simple in form and use and invaluable to all army or navy men and others. It entirely supersedes matches, and the stronger the wind the better the glow. Messrs. Falk, Stadelm ann & Co. only supply these lighters wholesale at 21s. 6d. per dozen, or 240s. per gross, less trade discount. Spare tinder cotton supplied at 6d. per yard.


— F I R S T

February, 1915.

BRITISH

Notes

and

N ew s.

interesting account was published in the D a ily Chronicle last month of the adventures of the five medical men who were released after five m onths’ captivity in Germany. T w o of them, Drs. L . T . Austin and A. R. E lliott, were of the 1st Belgian U nit, B .R .C .S . After three m onths’ confinem ent at T orgau, where they found them ­ selves in the com pany of a thousand other British and French officers, the party were m oved to Burg, and from thence to M agdeburg, where they were paraded and searched. O n a certain day five o f the ten m edical officers were inform ed that they were to be sent back to England. T w o o f the five were to be Drs. Austin and Elliott, and lots were drawn for the other three. T h e former were captured when motoring in Belgium and were tried as spies. T h ey escaped shooting, but were taken to C ologne and subjected to solitary confinem ent. T h en cam e a searching exam i­ nation in medicine and surgery by Germ an medical officers to prove whether they were really doctors or not. H aving “ passed ” the test satisfactorily, they were then sent to Torgau *

*

T h e Arm y C ouncil state that it has been brought to their notice that civil hospitals and private houses in various parts of the country are flying the R ed Cross flag. T h e only buildings which are authorised to fly the R ed Cross flag are those which are used exclusively under the adminis­ tration and control of the Arm y M edical Services. C ivil hospitals and private houses, unless they conform to these requirements, are not protected under the Articles of the G eneva Convention, and are therefore not entitled to fly this flag. T h e improper use of the R ed Cross flag, unless conform ing to the above requirements, is to be at once discontinued. *

*

* O n the question o f rates on buildings used for war purposes, the L ocal Governm ent Board intimates to local authorities that as regards premises used by the R ed Cross Society, the question arises whether such premises are in fact in the occupation of the Governm ent, as, if so, no rates can be levied thereon, but, apart from such occupation, there would appear to be no authority for exem pting the premises from rating. U pon this point a com m unication from the Treasury states that the occupation o f premises by the R ed Cross Society is not that o f the Crown for the P ublic Service, and that no contribution can be granted from the extra vote in lieu of rates thereon. *

*

157

RED CROSS SOCIETY.

A n

*

AID. —

* T h e attem pt o f a Germ an subm arine near H avre to sink the hospital ship “ Austurias ” is one of the most dastardly acts that has yet been done, and a direct violation o f the H ague C onvention, in which the status o f a military hospital ship is clearly defined :—

“ M ilitary hospital ships, that is to say ships con ­ structed or adapted by States specially and solely with the view o f aiding the wounded, sick and shipw recked, the names o f which have been com m unicated to the belliger­ ent Powers at the com m encem ent or during the course of hostilities, and in any case before they are em ployed, shall be respected. * * * W e regret to see that several o f the professional nurs­ ing journals are continually unfairly criticising the work which is being done by members o f V olun tary A id D e­ tachm ents. Generally, we can say that there is not the slightest desire of members of V .A .D . to usurp the func­ tions of the professional nurse. In those places where civil hospitals have received wounded, the R ed Cross members have placed them selves unreservedly at the disposal o f the authorities. T h ey gladly undertake the work o f proba­ tioners, and they do not assume that their amateur know ­ ledge gives them professional experience. T h is help has been welcom ed by the experts. It is idle to suppose that in a time o f stress like this the ranks o f the trained nurses are enough to supply the present dem ands. T h e V .A .D . member, in her proper place, is rendering service that will doubtless, in due course, receive its recognition.

*** It is interesting to qu ote.the rem arks o f Mr. E dm und Owen, F .R .C .S ., as given in the N u rsin g T im e s:— “ E very ­ thing points to the probability o f a considerable shortage of nurses in the sp rin g ; thus not only will the services of well-trained women orderlies (i.e., V .A .D . members) be useful but absolutely necessary for the country. So any woman who has com m onsense, as well as leisure and incli­ nation, should be anxious to join St. John A m bulan ce or R ed Cross classes in order to be ready should her services be called upon. O bviously it is useless for a woman to com e forward in the time o f crisis and im agine herself to be com petent. Training should be begun at on ce.” *** A report o f the Joint Com m ittee, covering the first six months of the war, was [issued this month. During this period 170 hospitals have been supplied with nurses, and 450 requests for nurses have been met, som e of them with­ in an hour. U p to now, about 300 convalescent officers, some o f them with their wives, have been sent to W engen in Switzerland, their travelling expenses and hotel accom ­ m odation being provided. H ospitality has been arranged for in Lond on and different parts o f the country for a num ber of Belgian officers and their families. T h e Society has some 705 auxiliary hom e hospitals, containing 19,576 beds, and the personnel o f the hospitals is provided by V .A .D .’s. In round figures, the Stores Departm ent has m ade purchases to the am ount o f £ 100,000.


— F I R S T

C o u n t y of L o n d o n B r a n c h . T h e following new detachm ents have been registered by the W ar O ffice : — W om en.— H ackn ey D ivision, London, 16 0 ; P ad d ing­ ton D ivision, L ondon, 1 6 2 ; G reenw ich and W oolw ich D ivision, London, 264, 166. M en .— Kensington, London, 3 iT h ere is nothing fresh to be noticed in respect to the preparation of clothing. It may, however, be mentioned that during the last year the G reenw ich and W oolw ich D ivision supplied no less than 2 t ,i2 o garments in addition to over 30,000 packets o f chocolates, tobacco and cigarettes. T h is is a very good record that speaks well for the energy of the adm inistration. T h e D ivision is greatly indebted to Sir G eorge P ragnell for the very valuable assistance he has rendered in a variety of ways. W ork in connection with the accom m odation, care and treatm ent o f Belgian refugees and wounded has been con­ tinued. T h e Chairm an has recently visited the hospital at 9, Cedars-road, Clapham , under the m anagem ent o f Miss Paton, and that at 78, Onslow-gardens, for which Mrs. Scott G atty is responsible. In both cases, Dr. Sandwith

AID. —

F ebruary,

19 1 5 .

tary, C olon el M cLean. W hen 154 was recently inspected the members exhibited a high degree o f efficiency, which speaks well for their keenness and the attention given to their training by their Com m andant, Mrs. M cLean. T h e D ivisional Secretary of H ackn ey (M iss Bugden) reports that “ efforts are being made to supply needy con­ valescent soldiers and sailors of H ackney and Stoke N ew ­ ington with suitable food while on sick furlough.” In this direction there is probably a wide field in other D ivisions for useful work, and it is hoped that the matter will receive the attention of D ivisional Com m ittees. T h e D ivisional Secretary o f W est H am pstead (Mrs. D avidson) is proceeding with the equipm ent of an Auxiliary H ospital at 16, the Avenue.

The By

J O S IA H

P r e v e n t io n O L D F IE L D ,

of M .A .,

Bed

So res.

D .C .L ,

M .R .C .S .,

L .R .C .P .L o n d .

( A Clinical Lecture given to the N ursing S ta ff o f the Lady Margaret Hospital.) A lm ost

t h e f ir s t

th in g

that a nurse answ ers, w h en

s h e is

T h e Staff o f C edar Lawn Auxiliary Hospital, Miss H oare Com m andant, V .A .D . (London 114). was well pleased with all the arrangements ; both ladies are to be warmly congratulated on the excellent results they have achieved. T h e hospitals at Balham and H am pstead continue to do good work. It should be m entioned that provision was m ade som e time ago by the C helsea D ivision for the recep­ tion of sick and w ounded soldiers at the V icto ria H ospital for children. T h ere are eighty beds available, but the full num ber has not been, so far, occupied. R ecen tly the com m andants of two C helsea D etach­ ments (52 and 48) have established a C on valescent H om e for Belgian officers at Bexhill-on-Sea, which is staffed by five o f their members, assisted by a com petent matron. T h e hom e will, no doubt, be greatly appreciated by those for whom it has been provided. G ood progress is being m ade in the Putney and Fulham D ivision, under the able direction of the D ivisional Secre-

asked how to prevent bed sores, is that the patient must be rubbed with m ethylated spirit or powder, or some other skin treatment. Now this is quite wrong. T h e prevention of bed sores is one of the most im portant things in the nursing of old and weakly patients who have to lie in bed, and especially who have to lie in the same position for a long time. B ed sores, however, are prevented by treatments of various sorts, o f which, in my opinion, the least important is the one which the nurse most com m only gives. I always lay it down as a rule that if a patient comes into hospital without a bed sore, it is a sign o f exceedingly bad nursing if a patient develops a bed sore while under treatment. O ne hears always an infinite number o f excuses when a bed sore com es into existence, but I generally start with the com m onest o f all explanations, that a bed sore is


— F I R S T

Febbruary, 1915

a result o f carelessness, and that is another name for bad nursing. T h ere is an old adage which everyone has heard from childhood up, that “ it is easier to prevent than to cure,” and this holds good o f bed sores as it does of most other things in life. W hen the bed sore is once there, a nurse has one of the most difficult and troublesom e things to deal with that she will find in the whole course o f her work. It is there­ fore o f the utmost importance, first o f all, for the patient’s sake, and, secondly, for the nurse’s sake, that bed sores should always be prevented, and that every care should be taken if there is the slightest chance of one forming. A nurse, therefore, should lay before herself a set of thoughtful rules, which she will always have in mind when she comes to nurse a patient who is in any sense o f the word bed-ridden. Som e patients develop sores much more easily and rapidly than others, so that one never knows whether a patient, if neglected, would get bedsore in a few weeks or whether a patient would go months without getting this trouble. It is no excuse, therefore, to say that the bed-

A I D . —

should be no creases in the under clothes or lumps in the mattress. T h e under sheet or under blanket should be always tautly pulled at each side and at the foot at intervals, so as to prevent any rucking up o f the bed clothes under the patient’s body. F eather beds are hot and are apt to cause, therefore, a perspiration and a softening o f the skin in contact with them. T h e coolest bed m aterial is clean chaff, while a hair mattress is always resilient and pleasant and easy to nurse a patient upon. T h e question o f a water bed must always be kept in mind, and when it can be obtained it is very valuable in difficult cases. Apart from the question o f softness, springiness and coolness, and freedom from wrinkles in the bed, it is o f the utmost im portance that the draw sheet should be kept clean so far as discharges from the body are con ­ cerned, but should be kept very dry and clean so far as actual perspiration is concerned also. T h ose who have had anything to do with noticing the nursing of children by the poor cannot fail to have been im pressed by the fact that it is not sufficient merely to air a napkin to prevent chafing, but it is essential that it

Patients and T rained Staff with St. John’s V .A .D . (London 114), and C ooks and Quarterm aster of R ed Cross V .A .D . (H am pstead 60), at C ed ar Lawn Auxiliary H ospital. sore came so quickly that the nurse did not expect it, because a nurse who has seen enough instances, and nursed sufficient number of cases to be entitled to call herself a trained nurse, should know that time is not the most important thing, but that while one patient may lie for an almost indefinite period in a dirty cottage bed, neglected and uncared for, and yet get no bed-sore, another patient may develop a very bad sore within a few weeks of being laid up. T h e causes of this I am not, for the moment, dealing with, but only warning that so soon as the patient is actually confined to bed the idea of preventing a bed sore must always enter the nurse’s mind. For preventing o f sores the following points must be rem em bered: (1) T h e bed and b ed d in g; (2) the patient’s clothes ; (3) the patient’s position ; (4) the patient’s skin. T he

P a t i e n t ’s B e d .

T h e most important thing about bedding is that there

should be thoroughly washed after it has been on the body for a little while. Special care must be taken that no crum bs or morsels o f food get into the bed, as old people are very apt to be careless in their feeding, and bits of crum bs must be very carefully prevented from getting under them. P a t i e n t ’s C l o t h e s .

It is not well to have flannel next the skin, as this tends to produce a form o f skin debility which predisposes to a bed sore. A nainsook night-dress or a very soft old linen or calico one is best, and in all cases old linen or calico is far preferable to new for patients lying in b e d ; where flannel has to be worn it should be worn over the nainsook nightdress. A ll buttons and bands and tapes that m ight chafe should be carefully removed. T h e patient’s clothes should also be pulled down so as to prevent any wrinkles or creases in them. It is o f the


i6o

— F I R S T

utmost im portance that the clothes should be not only kept clean, but should be fairly often changed. For the patient lying in bed, it is always well to have a day gown and a night gown, so that the same garm ent is not worn by day and night. T h e one that is taken off should be carefully aired. For old people there is always the risk of them soiling their clothes, and all soiled linen should be im m ediately replaced by clean. P a t i e n t ’s P o s i t i o n .

B y a little careful m anipulation the position o f the patient can be frequently changed. T h is should always be done in the early part o f the illness, otherwise the patient gets into the “ position habit ” and then becom es uncom ­ fortable in every other position, and unconsciously regains this position again however often it may be altered. O n ce a position has been adopted as a “ position habit,” sooner or later a bed sore will tend to com e upon the place o f pressure, and therefore a wise nurse will be careful to see that a patient is induced to vary positions as much as possible before the habit has been contracted. T h ere are always the three sim ple positions— o f lying on the right side, on the left side, and on the back— and when any of these cannot be fully taken the patient can always be propped up a little towards one or other of these three positions. Apart from this, it is sometimes possible to put the patient to lie for a short time daily across a big bolster face downwards. B y altering the pillows under the head, occasionally putting a large num ber of them and likewise removing nearly all, the weight of the body can be varied so as to rest upon different points. For a short tim e periodically a patient can lie quite flat with no pillows at all, and very often a considerable change can be obtained by drawing up the knees and putting a couple o f pillows under them. W here possible a rope may be attached to the ceiling so that the patient can help by partly or wholly lifting up and putting the weight on the rope for a short time during the day or night. Often, too, the raising o f the feet or the head o f the bedstead itself and putting blocks under, or lifting the two side legs in the same way and putting blocks under, alternately, will alter the point o f pressure to the great welfare and com fort o f the patient. A strong canvas sheet, with rope handles at each side, laid over the mattress under the bed clothes, is often a very useful thing, as by means o f this a helpless patient can be readily tilted towards the left side and kept there for some tim e by fixing the handles to some point o f support. T h e intelligent nurse must always keep before herself the im portance of varying the position, if only by an inch, and the wise use of air cushions or water cushions or soft rings must always be considered. O ne o f the sim plest and most efficacious rest cushions is to have a soft linen or calico ring, like a small life-belt, filled with linseed or canary seed. T h e patient is put to lie upon this so that the tender part rests within the circle of the ring and the pressure com es quite outside it and all round it. S k in

T reatm ent.

Lastly, com es the im portance of treating the patient’s skin, and for this it must be rem em bered that a wet skin is always liable to get sore and that therefore the great secret is to keep the skin dry. A good lathering soap should be used with a minimum quantity o f soft or rain water. T h e skin should be very gently rubbed with the soapy hand and carefully dried with a very soft towel by dabbing rather than rubbing, and then the drying com pleted by using the hand to rub in som e m ethylated spirits or brandy, or spirits of wine, alternating this winh a gentle rubbing in of boracic

AID. —

February, 1915.

powder, or starch powder, or calam ine powder, or the oldfashioned country rem edy o f rotten wood passed through a muslin sieve. I f I were to sum up the whole m ethod o f preventing bed sores so that a nurse can understand what she is doing and why she is doing it, I would say that what is necessary is (1) a frequent change of position of pressure; (2) care to prevent any irritation, such as crumbs or creases; (3) absolute cleanliness ; (4) dryness— with immediate removal of all moisture, whether o f water, perspiration or bodily secretion or execretion.

Setters to the Sditor. W e a rt in

no w ay responsible fo r the opinions expressed, or the

statements made , by Correspondents. — E d i t o r , E t c .

L A D IE S

OF

T H E RED CROSS S O C IE T Y AND B E L G IA N R E F U G E E S . D e a r S i r , — I often read with gratification of the good work which is being done by the British Red Cross Society at the front. But could you find a space in your interesting journal to give a word of praise to the young ladies of the Society who daily work throughout, and sometimes late at night on the station amongst the Belgian refugees? If it was not for the kindness of these ladies thousands would go away hungry. They meet the trains with coffee, and it is an inter­ esting sight to see them pushing large four-wheeled trolleys round the stations loaded with refreshments. Even Xmas was not without its extra work. They made bags of different colours, filled them with chocolates, gave one to each woman, a toy to each child, and a packet of cigarettes to each man, all tied up with ribbons of various nations. Does not this speak for itself? Though they are not attending the wounded, they are doing something equally as good in brightening the faces of these poor homeless people who have been driven from home, so that they may recognise when landing on our shores they are amongst friends.— P u blic S e r v a n t .

T H E B R IG A D E U N IF O R M . Now that the members of the S.J.A.B. are so often called upon to help transport wounded soldiers from train to hospital, and to act as orderlies, I consider it would be an advantage if we were allowed to wear khaki uniform. The black and white uniforms are very well for parade purpose, but unpractical for hard work. They have the dis­ advantage of showing every speck of dust, very hot to work in, almost pocketless, and the dye comes off on the hands. Khaki serge, with a white band round the cap and the silver buttons, would be distinctive, not more expensive, and much pleasanter to work in.— Yours, &c., D ear

S i r ,—

“ O r d e r l y .”

Excellent progress is being made in connection with the British W ater Am bulance. T h e adaptation o f the barges in conform ity with the requirem ents o f the R oyal Arm y M edical Corps is in hand. T h e necessary equip­ ment for a com plete hospital, approved by the W ar Office, is being obtained, and a unit will soon be sufficiently advanced to be used.

W h e n c o r re sp o n d in g w i t h A d v e r tis e r s ple ase m e n tio n “ F ir s t A id .”


February, 1915.

— F I R S T

R e v ie w s . B R IT ISH NOTEBOOK D U R IN G

RED W IT H

OF

M ed ica l

SO C IE T Y :

D IA G R A M S

ATTEN DAN CE

COURSE London : O xford

CROSS

AT

FOR

RED

FIR ST

USE

CROSS

A ID .

Publication s,

O xford

AID. —

AN IN V A L U A B LE BOOK FOR ALL RED CROSS WORKERS.

U n iversity

P res s and H o d d e r a n d S tou gh ton .

By

Price is. net. T h i s N o t e b o o k c o n sists o f a series o f p r o d u c t io n s o f the d i a g r a m s s h o w n d u r i n g l e c t u r e s , e a c h p a g e b e i n g f l a n k e d w it h b l a n k l e a v e s in o r d e r t h a t t h e s t u d e n t c a n a d d n o t e s a n d r e f e r ­ ences. N o d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e d i a g r a m s is g i v e n , s o t h a t the stu d e n t m ust c o m p ile the notes. T h e il l u s t r a t i o n s h a v e b e e n c a r e f u l l y d r a w n a n d t h e b o o k s h o u l d b e o f m a t e r i a l a s s i s t a n c e to a l l s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g lectures.

TH E

S O L D I E R ’S

E N G L ISH -G E R M A N

SA T IO N A L

CONVER­

BOOK.

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Price yd. net.

DR.

AN

IN D E X

OF

F IR ST

AID .

B y J. M . C a r v e l l , M . R . C . S . , L . S . A . , L o n d . L o n d o n : John B a le, S o n s and D a n ie lsso n , Ltd .

Price is. net. D r . C a r v e l l b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d w it h first a i d t e a c h i n g fo r t h e l a s t 20 y e a r s , k n o w s f r o m e x p e r i e n c e t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f stu den ts, a n d h e h a s c o m p ile d this I n d e x to m ee t the n e e d o f ready rem em brances. T h e o b j e c t o f t h e b o o k is n o t to e m b o d y a c o m p le te a n d d e ta ile d tre a tm e n t o f a n y a n d e v e r y form o f d i s a b i l i t y , b u t t o i n d i c a t e b r i e f l y t h e c o r r e c t l i n e o f a c t i o n to b e a d o p t e d b y t h e first a i d e r in a n y p a r t i c u l a r c a s e . It con tain s a n i m m e n s e a m o u n t o f v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n , n o t o n l y on first a i d t r e a t m e n t , b u t o t h e r s u b j e c t s s u c h a s t h e s iz e o f r a i l w a y ca rria g es, the o b je c ts o f the B . R . C . S . a nd the St. J o h n A m b u ­ lance A sso ciatio n . T h e b o o k is i n t e r l e a v e d w it h b l a n k p a g e s a n d c o n t a i n s a f e w il l u s t r a t i o n s .

W IL S O N .

I n the present grave em ergency every R ed Cross and A m bulance worker should send the form below for full and interesting particulars o f an invaluable book that is really an epitom e in clear language o f all that specialised m edical and surgical know ledge necessary for First Aiders. In “ T h e M odern P hysician,” by Dr. Andrew W ilson, fullest space is devoted to “ First A id ” and A m bulance W ork. In respect o f com pleteness, accuracy o f description and wealth of illustration, “ T h e M odern Physician ” stands without a rival am ongst the works published on this im­ portant subject in the U nited K ingdom . It is scientifically accurate and reliable without being d u ll; the name of its editor, so long known as an authority on the subject, is a guarantee of this.

EVERY T h i s b o o k c o n t a i n s h u n d r e d s o f u s e f u l p h r a s e s w h i c h w ill e n a b l e t h e B r i t i s h s o l d i e r t o m a k e h i m s e l f u n d e r s t o o d in G erm an. T h e ch a p te rs d e v o te d to th e a rm y , m ilitary c o m m a n d s a n d te c h n ic a l term s h a v e b e en s p e c ia lly p r e p a re d for the use o f o ff ic e rs, a n d s h o u l d b e f o u n d e x t r e m e l y u se fu l. T h e p h on etic r e n d e r i n g o f t h e G e r m a n is w r i t t e n u n d e r e a c h p h r a s e , a n d it is e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d a f t e r a first c a r e f u l r e a d i n g .

ANDREW

P O IN T

COVERED.

T h is work is probably the only work that covers all the many branches of the subject in com plete detail, and in whatever direction one may be helping this work will be found indispensable. Invalid cooking, hom e nursing of the wounded, bandaging and dressing wounds, instant and em ergency treatment, the setting and after care o f broken bones, the treatment o f convalescents, the fitting up and sanitary care o f the temporary “ h o sp ita l”— these are a few of the thousands of subjects upon which R ed Cross workers need special inform ation now, and this inform ation is given in this work in an unique manner. A s a know ledge of the body in H ealth is necessary to the due understanding o f the body when its functions are deranged by disease, a description o f every part o f the frame will be found here. T h e skeleton, muscles, digestive system, heart and lungs, brain and nervous system, organs o f sense, skin, kidneys and the body’s m icroscopic structure are duly described. In this connection the illustrations are o f particular value, the “ m ann ikin s” or dummies more esp ecially ; in these the organs are m ade to overlap each other exactly as they do in the human body.

T h is f o r m m u s t b e s e n t w it h o u t d e la y .

A FREE BOOKLET. IN D IA N

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TO

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3rd E d itio n . B y M a j o r R . J. B l a c k h a m , C . I . E . , V . H . S . , B . L . , R . A . M . C . I n d i a : St. J oh n A m b u l a n c e A s s o c ia tio n

H e a d q u a rte rs, Sim la.

Price One Rupee.

Please send me,

a b o v e is t h e t e x t - b o o k o f t h e I n d i a n B r a n c h o f t h e a n d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e fir st t w o e d i t i o n s w e r e s o l d o u t c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e b o o k is r e c o g n i s e d a s a r e a l in I n d ia .

I t t o u c h e s all m a t t e r s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e h y g i e n e o f t h e s ick room , the a r r a n g e m e n t o f the b ed a n d b e d d in g , the hand-

F r e e o f C h a r g e and without an y obligation B o o k le t on “ T h e M o d e r n P h y s i c i a n .”

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Particulars of your offer to deliver the complete work for a first payment of is. 6d., the balance to be paid for by a few small monthly payments.

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The S .J .A .A ., in a y e a r n ecessity

C A X T O N P U B L IS H IN G COM PAN Y, 156, Surrey Street. London, W .C .

........................................................................................................................................................................

(Send this form or a postcard.)

A d d r e s s ............................................................................................................


162

— F I R S T

AID. —

ling of the patient, the preparation and administration of food) the observation and recording of symptoms, the disposal of excreta, the administration of medicines, the application of local remedies, bathing, bandaging— in fact, every detail of attention and service tending to promote the comfort and recovery of the patient. Charts and illustrations, thirty-eight in number, assist the comprehension of the text.

February, 1915.

Benger’s Food is a cereal food, specially free from rough indigesti­ ble particles. It co n ta in s the n a tu ra l dig estive p rin cip les, t ry p s in and am ylo p sin , and is e xp re ssly devised to be used w ith fre sh new m ilk or m ilk and w ate r.

S H O R T C U T S T O F IR S T A ID . By a Metropolitan Police Surgeon attached to the R.A.M .C. London : S. Paul & Co. Price yd. net.

Benger’s is unique among foods in being self­ digestive to any extent desired, and this is simply regulated by allowing the Food to stand from 5 to 45 minutes at one stage of its preparation. The digestive process is stopped by boiling up.

This book gives a very sketchy account of its subject. It is intended for those who have neither time, opportunity nor inclination to study first aid thoroughly, a class of individual who sometimes do more harm than good, and it presumes the reader has an elementary knowledge of anatomy. It deals with wounds, fractures, common casualties, gunshot wounds, trans­ port of wounded, some “ don’ts ” in first aid, and a chapter is devoted to useful French phrases for Red Cross work.

is unequalled w hen the d ig estive sy ste m is w eakened th ro u g h accident, pain o r illn e ss , and w h en ever a lig h t s u sta in in g diet has become a n ecessity. A sample w ith f u l l particulars w ill be sent post free to Members o f the M edical Profession , on application to the Sole M anufacturers —

T h e C ouncil of St. A ndrew ’s A m bulance Association has appointed Mr. W. R . Ferguson, W .S., general secretary to the Association, in succession to Lieut.-C olonel H . J. Barnes, who recently resigned. Mr. Ferguson has acted as assistant and secretary to the Association for the past tw elve years.

BENGER’S FOOD Ltd., Otter Works, Manchester, Eng. B ranch

O f f ic e s :

N E W Y O R K (U .S .A .), 92, William Street. S Y D N E Y (N .S .W .), 117 Pitt Street. Canadian A g e n ts : National D rug and Chemical Co., L td., 34, St. Gabriel Street, M o n t r e a l , and Branches throughout C a n a d a . B146

— HORLICK’S— MALTED MILK

S IM M O N S

&

CO.’S

‘Standard’ Ambulance (A s supplied to th eM ar ylebone Corporation, the Plym ou th Police, &c. ),

A N IN V A L U A B L E A ID IN R E D C R O S S N U R S I N G .

Th e unrivalled nutrition o f rich milk and choice malted grains. E asily assimilated and most efficient to giving and maintaining strength. I n v a l u a b l e to N u r s e s p e r s o n a l l y . Increa ses v i t a l i t y and en d u ran c e.

P ric e C o m p l e t e ,

£ 11

Keeps indefinitely— Ready in a moment— No cooking Also available in tablet form, to be dissolved in the m->uth when needed. Convenient to carry, available anywhere, prevent fatigue, restore energy and relieve thirst. IVrite f o r inform a ion.

CH V H U A N C Jfc r n

D llY llT lU iN D

H o r l i c k ’s M a l t e d M i l k C o ., S l o u g h , B u c k s .

THETFORD

RO UN D B A S IN S . S h a ll o w — io in .

I2in.

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13 in.

15 in.

No. 1. N o . 2.

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2 / 6 each. 3/6 „

I id . 1/1/1 1/8 each. A s k y o u r 'sh o p ke ep er fo r these goods, and if an y d iffic u lty

TH E

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PULP 38,

Y o rk

M A N U F A C TU R IN G Road,

3, 5 and 7, Tanner Street, C l L U q Bermondsey St., LONDON, S.E,

Hand-Ambulance Builders to the Metropolitan Asylums Board, the London Countv Council, the Metropolitan Electric Tramwavs, etc.

“ UNBREAKABLE”

In v a lu a b le fo r P u b lic

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A lw a y s ready in Stock . F O L D IN G S T R E T C H E R S , 3 3 /-, or W o o lw ic h Arsenal Pattern “ M ar k I I . ” with Shou ld er Slings, 4 2 / 6 B o y Scouts Stretchers, 2 5 / - .

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(D e p t .

F .A .), _ _ _


FIRST AID.

The Independent Journal for the Ambulance and Nursing S ervices’ Conducted b y A R T H U R No. 249. — V o l . XX I.

[N ew Se rie s.]

MARCH,

B.

DALE,

1915.

M.J.I.

(Entered a t Stanoners' H all.)

(2/6

P e r ' A n n o m ,° P o s t F r e e

note when dealing with this subject that the Financial

To

Our

Readers.

Secretary to the War Office, on the occasion of the same

“ F i r s t Aid ” is published on t h e a o t h of e v e r y m on th. T h e A n n u a l S u b s c r i p t i o n is as. 6d. p o s t f r e e ; s in g le c o p ie s 2d.

Debate, said that all

men of the St. John Ambulance

Brigade who are employed in military hospitals are enlisted

T h e E d i t o r in v ite s r e a d e r s to s e n d a r tic le s a n d r e p o r t s o n s u b je c ts of

for the R.A .M.C., and are treated for pay and allowances,

i n t e r e s t t o a m b u l a n c e w o r k e r s , th e s e s h o u ld b e a d d r e s s e d t o h i m a t

including separation allowance, in all respects as regular

46, C a n n o n S t r e e t , L o n d o n , E . C .

soldiers.

We mention this because at the commencement

A l l a rtic le s a n d r e p o r t s m u s t b e a c c o m p a n i e d b y t h e n a m e a n d

of the war some of the members of the Brigade were under

a d d r e s s o f th e w r i t e r , n o t n e c e s s a ril y fo r p u b l i c a t i o n b u t fo r t h e use ot

the impression that they were to receive a special rate of

th e E d i t o r .

pay, although it is distinctly laid down in the conditions

Subscriptions, A d v e rtisem en ts an d o th e r business com m u n icatio n s connected with F

ir st

DALE,

A i d s h o u ld b e a d d r e s s e d to t h e P u b l i s h e r s ,

REYNOLDS 46, C

&

annon

C O .,

that it is the same as the R .A .M .C . pay. Although the Brigade at home has already responded to the call of the Army and Navy in a manner which has

L t d .,

S t r e e t , L o n d o n , E.C .

excited universal admiration, it is impossible

to record

without pride the response which has been made by the Brigade Overseas.

EDITORIAL.

Every Colony has sent units, and we

have no doubt that

they will willingly respond to any

further demands which may be made upon them. M r . T e n n a n t , the Under Secretary o f

The W o rk Before Us.

State for War, speaking in the course of the Debate on Army Estimates last

While

it is possible that in a short time the ranks of many corps and divisions of the Brigade will_ be depleted, we

would

strongly advise Superintendents and others to encourage

month, made reference to the services

recruiting to keep their divisions up to full strength, in

rendered to the country, and particularly to the War Office

order that their services may continue to be useful at

and the Royal Army Medical Corps, by the British Red

home.

Cross Society and the

further afield in encouraging the formation of divisions in

He

tendered

his

St. John Ambulance Association.

acknowledgment

of

the

admirable

At the same time theiUenergies could be extended

places where they do not exist.

It is in this manner that

manner in which they had helped in every possible way.

the good work will expand and be recognised in a way

As everybody knows, previous to the war the two Societies

which is justly its due.

were acting in rivalry the one with the other, and it is a most pleasing fact that they are now acting under a joint committee, which, of course, tends to more efficient work

L etter from th e Duke of C onnaught.

being achieve I by both. It is co.nmon knowledge that the new armies |which have been formed will shortly take the field, and with them the necessary medical organisation will form a part. This means that the call upon the personnel of the S.J.A.B. must tend to increase, and to do so at an early date rather rapidly.

We have good reason to know that many

members of the Brigade have offered their services and have expressed their disappointment that they have not been immediately accepted.

T o these we would counsel

patience, for before the year is much older it seems certain that calls will be made upon them.

It is important to

T o the Editor of The Times. S i r , — As Grand

Prior of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem in England, I desire to thank you on behalf of the Order for your great kindness in opening the columns of The Times and making an appeal to the public on be­ half of the Joint War Committee of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem in England and the British Red Cross Society, for the sick and wounded in connection with the war. The response to The Times appeal has been most generous, and we greatly appreciate all that you have done to make it such a success. Believe me, yours sincerely, A r t h u r , Grand Prior.

Government House, Ottawa, Feb. 12th.


— F I R S T

A I D. —

March, 1915.

B lak en ey ), a n d th e A ssista n t C o u n ty D ire c to r o f th e R e d C ross S o c ie ty (M is s H . Y o n g e ), w h o , in h e r a p p re c i a tiv e s p e e c h , p a id a t r i b u t e t o t h e s e r v i c e s o f t h e S t . J o h n N u r s i n g S i s t e r s in t h e C h e lte n h a m R e d C ross V o lu n ta ry A id H o sp itals. T h e r e p o r t o f t h e p a s t tw e lv e m o n t h s ’ w o r k w ell e x e m p l i ­ AM BU LANCE DEPARTM EN T. fied t h e tw o fo ld a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e d i v i s io n in t i m e s o f p e a c e a n d J h e S t . Joh n .A m bulance B rig a d e. in t i m e s o f w a r. P r e v io u s to A u g u s t la st th e m e m b e r s o f th e D iv isio n a tte n d e d th e u su al lectu res, a n d a t th e G e n e ra l H o s ­ p ita l fo r f u r t h e r in s tru c tio n . T h e y w e re o n p u b lic d u t y a t all th e No. 1 District. lo c a l r a c e m e e tin g s , s c h o o l tr e a ts , fetes, p r o c e s s io n s , A g r i c u l ­ -------D E P U T Y C O M M IS S IO N E R : t u r a l S h o w , a n d s u c h lik e f u n c t i o n s ; t h e y a d m i n i s t e r e d first L IE U T .-C O L . L E E S HALL. a id to a l a r g e n u m b e r o f c a s e s in t h e s c h o o ls a n d in t h e s t r e e t s ; th e y also h e lp e d m a n y p o o r sick a n d b e d -rid d e n p a tie n ts w h o w e r e u n a b l e to p a y for c o n t i n u o u s p ro f e s s i o n a l n u r s i n g in t h e i r A P R I L , 19 15. ow n hom es. S i n c e A u g u s t l a s t t h e d i v i s i o n h a s d o u b l e d i t s n u m b e r s ; it S u n d a y D u t y , S t . P a u l ’s C a t h e d r a l . h a s n o w 62 m e m b e r s . O f t h e s e 27 a r e a l r e a d y w o r k i n g (c h ie fly S u n d a y , 4 th .— N o . 56 D iv is io n . o n n i g h t d u ty ) a t th e lo c a l R e d C r o s s H o s p i t a l s n o w m o b ilis e d ; „ n t h — No. 9 „ 10 a w a i t t h e m o b i l i s a t i o n o f o t h e r V o l u n t a r y A i d H o s p i t a l s in „ 1 8 t h . — N o . 17 „ t h e t o w n ; o n e is n u r s i n g a t F r e r e s ( F r a n c e ) ; w h i l e t h e r e s t a r e 2 5 th .— N o . 58 „ p r e p a r i n g th e m s e lv e s to offer efficient s e r v ic e w h e n re q u ir e d . T h e M a y o r o f C h e l t e n h a m , in h is s p e e c h , p a i d a t r i b u t e to 2.30 p .m . to 8 .30 p .m . A s p er sep a ra te orders. K e y from t h e D i v i s i o n ’s u s e f u l n e s s i n t h e p r e s e n t c r i s i s , a n d i n d i c a t e d t h e S t . J o h n ’s G a t e , 2 p . m . lik e lih o o d o f m o re serv ices b e in g re q u ire d fro m th e n u rs in g OPEN SPACE DUTY, EASTER MONDAY, s iste rs in th e n e a r fu tu re. A P R IL 5T H . A fte r th e b u sin e ss of th e m eetin g , the M ay o r, on b e h a lf of S ee se p a ra te orders. th e n u rs in g sisters, p re s e n te d th e ir L a d y S u p e rin te n d e n t, M rs. R ETU R N S FOR 1914 . M c C r a i t h - B l a k e n e y w ith a h a n d s o m e silv er e p e r g n e , a n d th e ir H o n . S u r g e o n , D r . B la k e n e y , w ith a s ilv e r T h e r m o s flask. T h e f o l l o w i n g D i v i s i o n s d o n o t a p p e a r t o h a v e s e n t in t h e i r T h e s e w ere g ratefu lly a c k n o w le d g e d by b o th , a n d the B F 1, 3 o r 5, v iz ., N o s . 4 , 13, 19, 2 4 , 3 8 , 4 1 , 44', 50, 51, 54, 55, L a d y S u p e rin te n d e n t p re s e n te d to th e e n erg etic a n d c ap a b le 58 a n d 2 4 N . T h e s e fo rm s m u s t b e s e n t to h e a d q u a r t e r s H o n . S e c re ta ry , M rs. G ilkes (w ho h a s ju s t b e e n a p p o in te d w ith o u t fu r th e r d elay. V e r y s e r i o u s i n c o n v e n i e n c e is b e i n g 3rd N u rsin g O fficer), a f r a m e d p h o t o g r a p h w ith h a p p y c a u s e d b y th e w a n t o f th e se . m e m o r i e s o f s ix y e a r s ’ w o r k t o g e t h e r in t h e i n t e r e s t s o f th e D EW AR S H IE L D C O M P E T IT IO N . D ivision. T h e n u rs in g s iste rs a n d v isito rs w ere a fte rw a rd s e n te r ­ T h i s e v e n t w ill not t a k e p l a c e th is y e a r , o w i n g to t h e w ar. ta in e d a t a fte rn o o n te a b y D r. a n d M rs. B la k en e y . D IV IS IO N A L BOOKS.

3The G rand fPriorg of the Grder of the h o s p ita l 0 } S t . 3 o h n of Jeru sa lem in S n g la n d .

DUTY ROSTER.

M a n y D iv isio n s h a v e n o t yet su b m itte d in sp ectio n . T h is m u s t b e d o n e a t once. B /F

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O w i n g t o t h e p r e s s u r e o n t h e s t a f f , t h i s n e e d not b e s e n t in u n til t h e e n d o f t h e y e a r ( S e p t e m b e r 3 0th). C o p ie s to M a r c h 3 1 s t w ill not b e r e q u i r e d . (S ig n ed )

No. 4 District.

19 1 5 .

W.

H. W IN N Y ,

A ctin g Deputy-Com m issioner. H e a d q u a r t e r s : — S t . J o h n ’s G a t e , C lerkenw ell, E .C .

No. 2 District. S i n c e t h e r e p o r t w h i c h a p p e a r e d in t h e J a n u a r y i s s u e o f A id , c o v e r in g th e p e r io d o f th e w a r u p to D e c e m b e r last, a la r g e n u m b e r o f V o lu n te e rs h a v e b e e n s u p p lie d from this D is tric t, m a in ly for tra n s p o r t d u ty a t S o u th a m p to n D o c k s. F ifty -th ree p riv ates re p o rte d d u rin g th e m o n th of J a n u a ry , a n d 32 m o r e f o ll o w e d in F e b r u a r y . O n e c o r p o r a l w as s e n t to H o r f i e l d M i l i t a r y H o s p i t a l , B r is t o l, five g e n e r a l d u t y p r i v a t e s h a v e b e e n d i s p a t c h e d to t h e M i l i t a r y H o s p i t a l , J e r s e y , a s w ell a s f o u r o r d e r l i e s t o t h e D u c h e s s o f W e s t m i n s t e r ’s W a r H o s p i t a l , L e T o u q u et, F rance. F o u r n e w m e n ’s D i v i s i o n s w e r e r e g i s t e r e d d u r i n g J a n u a r y , a n d in o n e c a s e - W i n g , B e rk s — th e w h o le o f th e m en v o lu n te e re d , a n d w ere a c c e p te d for serv ice a t S o u th a m p to n . T h e first d e a t h , on se rv ic e , w a s r e p o r t e d d u r i n g F e b r u a r y . P riv a te H . P e n d u c k , o f th e n e w T h o r n b u r y D iv isio n , w as sen t t o t h e S e c o n d S o u t h e r n G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l , B r i s t o l , f o r d u t y in N o v e m b e r last, b u t h e c o n tr a c te d p n e u m o n ia , a n d d ie d on F e b r u a r y 1st last. F ir s t

C H E L T E N H A M .— T h e s ix th a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f t h e N u r s i n g D iv isio n w a s h e ld o n M a r c h 6th a t th e h e a d q u a r t e r s o f th e D ivision, A c to n , S uffolk-square, C h e lte n h a m . T h e chair was ta k e n b y th e M a y o r o f C h e lte n h a m , w h o w as a cc o m p a n ie d b y th e M a y o r e s s (M is s S k illico rn e). T h e re w ere also p re s e n t th e c o r p s s e c r e t a r y (D r. H u g h P o w e ll), th e h o n . s u r g e o n (D r. J. H .

I n J a n u a r y 187, a n d i n F e b r u a r y 52 o r d e r l i e s h a v e b e e n s u p p lie d to P r i s o n e r s ’ C a m p s , th e F ie ld A m b u l a n c e for th e N a v a l D ivision, M ilita ry H o m e H o s p ita ls a n d H ospitals a b r o a d , m a k i n g a to ta l o f 2,884 o rd e r li e s s u p p lie d s in c e th e war co m m en ce d . S t r e n u o u s efforts a r e b e i n g m a d e to ra is e f u n d s fo r th e B r i g a d e H o s p i t a l w h i c h is t o b e e s t a b l i s h e d a b r o a d in t h e n e a r fu tu re. A ll t h e C e n t r e s a n d e a c h u n i t in N o . 4 D i s t r i c t h a v e b e en c ircu larised , a n d an illu strated b o o k let issu ed b ro a d c a s t in t h e D is t r i c t , w ith t h e r e s u l t t h a t a s u m o f .£ 4795 4s. h a s b e e n alre a d y su b scrib ed . M o s t o f t h e u n i t s in t h e d i s t r i c t a r e b u s ily e n g a g e d in c o lle c ti n g f u n d s a n d t h e r e s u lts h a v e n o t y e t c o m e t o h a n d , b u t it is a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t s u f f i c i e n t f u n d s w i l l b e f o r t h c o m i n g to p r o v i d e a n d m a i n t a i n a t le a s t fo u r w a r d s in t h e p ro p o s e d ho sp ital. T h e N u r s in g D iv is io n s a re h a r d a t w ork p ro v id in g c o m fo rts for th e H o sp ita l. A uxiliary M ilitary H o sp ita ls c o n tin u e to b e p u t a t th e d is ­ p osal of th e auth o rities, o n e of th e latest b e in g p ro v id e d by th e R o y a l L a n c a s h ir e A g ric u ltu r a l S o c ie ty , in M o o r P a rk , P r e s t o n , a n d b u i l t t o t h e d e s i g n a n d u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n of M r. E . B o h a n e , th e w ell-k n o w n S e c re ta ry o f th e S ociety. T h e H o s p i t a l , in c a s e o f n e c e s s i t y , w ill b e a b l e t o a c c o m ­ m o d a t e 7 0 b e d s , t w o s m a l l w a r d s ( e a c h t o h o l d 10 b e d s ) h a v i n g b e en a d d e d th ro u g h th e g e n ero sity of th e e m p lo y ees o f M essrs. H o r r o c k s e s , C r e w d s o n & C o ., L t d ., o f P r e s t o n . Its situ atio n is a d e l i g h t f u l o n e , a n d i t is h e a t e d b y h o t - w a t e r i n s t a l l a t i o n , t h e g e n e r o u s g ift ( th r o u g h t h e R o y a l L a n c a s h i r e S o c ie ty ) o f a la d y w h o re m a in s an o n y m o u s. T h e lig h tin g a n d c o o k in g in stallatio n h a s b e en c arried out b y th e P r e s to n G a s C o m p a n y , w h o h a v e fitted u p th e s a m e free of c o s t, i n c l u d i n g k i t c h e n r a n g e s , s o u p b o ile rs , & c., a n d a r e o n ly c h a rg in g a n o m in a l p rice p e r th o u s a n d feet for th e g as consum ed. Such c o m b in e d g en ero sity h a s been th e m e a n s o f e sta b ­ lis h in g a n a u x ilia ry h o s p ita l c o stin g u p w a r d s o f ,£1000, a p a r t from th e fu rn ish in g . In a d d itio n to N u r s e s ’ a n d R e c re a tio n r o o m s , it c o n t a i n s b a t h r o o m s , l a v a t o r i e s , & c., f i t t e d c o m p l e t e .


March, 1915.

— F I R ST

T h e H o s p i t a l is s t a f f e d b y t r a i n e d n u r s e s , a s s i s t e d b y t h e P resto n V o lu n ta ry A id D e ta c h m e n t o f th e B rig ad e.

No 5 District. S h e f f i e l d . —T h e f o l l o w i n g m e m b e r s o f S t . J o h n V . A . D . N o . 221, d r a w n fr o m t h e S h e ff ie ld C o r p s , S . J . A .B ., j o i n e d a f ie ld a m b u l a n c e d i v i s i o n l a s t O c t o b e r , w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e C h ie f C o m m is s io n e r :— C o m m a n d a n t , O . F. B u x to n ; S e c tio n h e a d e r s , J. C. W a t k i n s o n a n d T . W . T o r r ; P r iv a te s , J. W . S y k e s , H . B r a d y , H . S t a n i l a n d , G . H . J e s s e n , T . H . B r o w n , B. H a r v e y , W . W a l k e r , L. A. T a y l o r , G . H . L o w e , A. W a r d , G . H . S e n io r, H . M a r is , S. J. H i b b e r d , J. N . W a l k e r , A. M a k i n a n d A. A n d rew .

167

N o rth u m b e rla n d 6 2 .—D r. W . H. H u d so n , O ld B rew ery H o u se , B ed lin g to n . D u r h a m 59.— M r . M . F l e t c h e r , 29, W e s t m o r e l a n d - s t r e e t , D arlin g to n . D urham 6 0 .— D r. W . N . J e n n i n g s , 16, C r o f t - t e r r a c e , Jarrow -on-T yne. D urham 6 2 .— D r. J. C haim ers, 1, C l a r e m o n t - t e r r a c e , S u n d erlan d . E a s t R id in g 3 6 .—D r. S proull, B a n n iste r-stre e t, W ith e rn sea. E a s t R id in g 4 0.— M rs. C h a p m a n , B la ir A th o l, M a lto n , Y orks. D is tric t S taff.— A d d itio n s h a v e b e e n a s follow s :—

m a d e to

D istrict Surgeons. — Professor R u th e rfo rd C la re m o n t-p la c e, N e w c a stle-o n -T y n e .

No. 6 District. T h e follow ing n e w D iv is io n s h a v e D e c e m b e r 31st, 1914, n a m e l y

AID.

b e e n re g is te re d sin ce

th e D istrict M o riso n ,

1,

D is tric t S u p e rin te n d e n ts . — H . G. S to b a rt, W itto n T o w e rs , W itto n -le -W e a r, Co. D u rh a m . F. L. B ooth, T h e H a w th o rn s , A sh in g to n .

B everley, W ith e rn e s s , A rg y le D ivision, H u ll C o rp s , D e la P o le D iv is io n , H u ll C o rp s, D u r h a m C ity , O s b o r n e N e w c a s t le (N u rs in g D ivision), B a te s D ivision, S o u th B ran cep eth , E th e rle y (W e a r d a le C orps), H irst N u rsin g (A sh in g to n C orps), E a s t S ta n le y C o llieries, a n d M id d le s b r o ’ C e n tra l. V o lu n ta ry H o sp itals. T h e se have been staffed by th e B rig ad e a t T y n e m o u th ; Jesm o n d -ro ad , N e w castle; W h in n e y H ouse, G atesh ead ; M ill D am , So u th S h ield s; Jeffrey H all, S u n d e rla n d ; N o rth B ailey, D u rh a m ; B ra n c e p e th C astle ; M a so n ic H all, W e s t H a rtle p o o l ; C h ilto n M oor, J a r ro w ; Social C e n tre , S u n d e r la n d ; R ic h a r d M u n a y H o sp ital, B lackhill ; a n d V ane H ouse, Dawdon. V .A . D e t a c h m e n t s h a v e b e e n f o r m e d as fo llow s :— N o r t h u m b e r l a n d 7 0 .— M r s . G. L. B ell, C lay to n -ro ad , N ew castle. N o r t h u m b e r l a n d 66.— M is s A lle n s o n , 144, M e l d o n - s t r e e t , N e w c a s t l e - o n - T y n e . N o r t h u m b e r l a n d 68. — H . C . W o o d , W alw ick, H u m sh a u g h . N o rthum berland 64. — M r s . C. A. C o c h ra n e , O akfield, G o sfo rth , N e w c a stle.

T h e L o rd a n d L a d y M a y o re s s o f C a rd iff p re s e n tin g c ig a re tte s to th e S .J.A .B . m e n b e fo re e n t r a i n i n g for S o u t h a m p t o n . Lady D istric t S u p e rin te n d e n t.— M rs. C. A. C o c h r a n e , O ak field , G o sfo rth , N e w castle-o n -T yn e. L a d y D istric t In s p e c to r o f S to res.— M rs. H o lm e s, H o lm e L o d g e, C o ltrin g h a m ro a d , H ull. D is tric t O fficers f o r T r a n s p o r t.— R e u b e n H o d g s o n , 24, G r a i n g e r - s t r e e t W e s t , N e w ­ c astle-o n -T y n e. Q . A . N i c o l , 4, A s h l e i g h , Sun d erlan d . D istrict S e rg e a n ts. — C a irn s P a lm e r, 28, C l i f t o n - t e r r a c e , S o u t h S h i e l d s .

No. 7 District.

M e m b e r s o f t h e C a r d i f f N u r s i n g D i v i s i o n s w h o in o n e d a y c o l l e c t e d f o r t h e l o c a l W a r F u n d £ 2 0 0 b y th e sa le o f fla g s b e a r i n g th e St. J o h n d e v ic e a n d 23,0 0 0 c i g a r e t t e s , o t h e r D i v is io n s in t h e N o . X L D i s t r i c t h a v e fo llo w ed th e ir e x a m p le .

A n u m b e r o f m e n h a v e b e e n s e n t to M ilita ry H o m e H o s p i t a l s ’ for serv ice , th e la rg e s t n u m b e r g o in g to W o o lw ic h H o s p ita l. L e tte rs re c eiv ed fro m th e s e a n d from m en s e n t o u t e arlie r s h o w th a t, o n th e w hole, th e y a re satisfied w ith th e c o n d itio n s o f th e ir n e w w ork. A d istric t call w as m a d e a m o n g s t th e N u r s in g D iv is io n s for n u rs e s a n d p r o b a t i o n e r s f o r t h e St. J o h n A m b u l a n c e B rig a d e H o s p i ta l in F r a n c e . S everal a p ­ p licatio n s w ere re c eiv ed a n d M iss W h ite , Iro n b rid g e (d au g h te r of A ssistan t C o m m is­ sio n er W h ite ), w as selected , a n d h as now io in e d t h e H o s p i t a l in F r a n c e .


— F I R S T

i 68

A c o p y o f t h e W a r O f f i c e l e t t e r , o f F e b r u a r y 1 s t, w a s s e n t t o t h e c o m m a n d a n t s o f a l l W o m e n ’s V . A . D . ’s i n t h e d i s t r i c t e a llin g for V o lu n te e r N u r s e s to s e rv e in M ilita ry H o s p ita ls , a n d r e p l i e s a r e d a i l y c o m i n g in . O v e r 50 m e n in t h e d i s t r i c t a r e s till a v a i l a b l e a s o r d e r l i e s in M ilita r y H o m e H o s p i t a l s o r w ith t h e E x p e d i t i o n a r y F o r c e . S o m e d o n a t i o n s to th e St. J o h n A m b u l a n c e H o s p i t a l h a v e b e e n o b tain ed .

No. 11 District. W h e n w a r w a s d e c l a r e d , 8 3 0 o f f i c e r s , N . C . O . ’s , n u r s i n g s i s t e r s a n d m e n o f t h e A m b u l a n c e a n d N u r s i n g D i v is io n s in t h e a b o v e d is tric t, w e re in c a m p a t C a p e l B a n g o r , A b e ry s tw y th , u n d e r th e c o m m a n d of th e D e p u ty C o m m issio n e r (M r. H e rb e rt L ew is), o n g r o u n d k in d ly p la c e d a t th e d is p o s a l b y th e M a y o r a n d C o rp o ratio n of A berystw yth. T h e A s s is ta n t D ir e c to r o f M e d ic a l S ervice, W e l s h D iv isio n T e r r i t o r i a l F o r c e , C o l . J . A r n a l l t J o n e s , K . H . S . , w h o is a l s o t h e A s s i s t a n t C o m m i s s i o n e r o f t h e N o . 11 D i s t r i c t , w a s w i s h f u l th a t th e C a m p s h o u ld b e h e l d a t A b e ry stw y th , so th a t m e m b e rs m ig h t h a v e a n o p p o rtu n ity o f d o in g p ra c tic a l w o rk w ith th e tro o p s , s o m e 9 ,000 o f w h o m w e re e n c a m p e d a t th e s a m e p la c e u n d e r th e c o m m a n d o f th e B rig a d ie r (C olonel L loyd). T h e m e m b e r s o f th e N u rs in g D iv isio n s a rriv e d o n S a tu r ­ d a y , J u l y 2 5 t h , a n d s o h a d a w e e k ’s t r a i n i n g b e f o r e t h e m e m ­ b e rs of th e a m b u la n c e d iv isio n s c a m e to A b e ry stw y th on S a tu r-

S o u th W a le s D a ily N ew s.

D e p u t y -C o m m issio n e r H e r b e r t

L e w is.

d a y , A u g u s t 1 s t, a n d w e r e g i v e n a n o f f i c i a l w e l c o m e b y t h e M a y o r a n d C o rp o ra tio n , w h o m e t th e special tra in co n v ey in g th e m e n a t th e ra ilw a y station. I t is h e r e i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e w h o l e o f t h e e q u i p ­ m e n t i s p r o v i d e d b y t h e A r m y C o u n c i l , a n d w 'a s i n d e n t e d fo r , o n t h e o r d n a n c e officer, P e m b r o k e D o c k , a n d t h a t e a c h m e m ­ b e r p a i d o n e g u i n e a p e r h e a d p e r w e ek , a n d e a c h officer tw o g u in e a s to co v er th e co st o f th e c aterin g , w hich w as d o n e b y t h e A r m y a n d N a v y S t o r e s , L t d ., L o n d o n , in a d d i t i o n to w h ic h all p a i d t h e i r r a i l w a y f a r e s a n d t r a v e l l i n g e x p e n s e s . O n A u g u s t 3rd a te le g ra m w as re c eiv ed in th e early m o r n i n g f r o m P e m b r o k e D o c k o r d e r i n g all g r o u n d s h e e t s to be re tu rn e d im m ed iately . T h e s e w ere im m e d ia te ly collected a n d 830 d e s p a tc h e d th e s a m e d ay , a n d w h e n th e m e n a rriv e d o n th e S u n d a y e x tra b la n k e ts h a d to b e s erv ed o u t to ta k e th e p la c e, a s fa r a s po ssib le, o f th e s e sheets. T h e B r i g a d i e r , C ol. J . A r n a l l t J o n e s , A . D . M . S . , C ol. T u r n e r , C ol. F a i r e ( S a n i t a r y O fficer), C ol. G r e e n ( W e l s h C l e a r ­ i n g H o s p i t a l ) , C ol. L l o y d J o n e s (3 r d W e l s h F i e l d A m b u la n c e ) , C ol. L l o y d - R o b e r t s (1 s t F i e l d A m b u l a n c e ) , t h e M a y o r a n d T o w n C l e r k o f A b e r y s t w y t h , a n d n e a r l y all t h e officers c o m ­ m a n d in g th e v ario u s u n its called u p o n th e D e p u ty -C o m m is ­ s i o n e r a n d h is o fficers d u r i n g t h e e a r ly p a r t o f th e w e ek , i n ­ s p e c te d th e c a m p a n d w itn e sse d th e m e m b e rs tra in in g . S e v e r a l field d a y s w ith t h e t r o o p s w e r e a r r a n g e d fo r, a n d

AID. —

March, 1915.

G e n e ra l th e H o n . J. M . L in d ley , c o m m a n d in g th e W e lsh D iv isio n , T e r r ito r ia l F o r c e , w as to in s p e c t th e p a r a d e , a n d th e D e p u t y D i r e c t o r o f M e d i c a l S e r v ic e s , W e s t e r n C o m m a n d (C ol. J. C. C u llin g ) to e x a m in e th e V o lu n ta r y A id D e t a c h m e n t s on F r i d a y , to w h i c h all t h e office rs c o m m a n d i n g u n its , t h e M a y o r o f A b e ry s tw y th , L o r d a n d L a d y L isb o rn e , Sir E d w a r d a n d L a d y P a r r y - P r y s e , M r. a n d M rs. D a v id D a v ie s (L la n d in a m ) , Sir J o h n a n d L a d y W illia m s, a n d a la rg e n u m b e r o f c o u n ty p eo p le a n d A b e ry stw y th re sid e n ts h a d a c c e p te d in v ita tio n s to be presen t. O n W e d n e s d a y m o rn in g a te le g ra m w as receiv ed from the o r d n a n c e officer, P e m b r o k e D o c k , o r d e r i n g all e q u i p m e n t to b e re tu rn e d at once. O r d e r s w e re g iv e n to im m e d ia te ly strik e th e c a m p , a n d th e m a in b o d y left o n T h u r s d a y m o r n in g for S o u th W a le s , a n d th e fatig u e p a rty o n F rid ay . The D e p u ty C o m m is s io n e r a n d h is staff h a v e b e e n k e p t b u s y e v e r s in c e c a r r y i n g o u t th e W a r O ffice r e q u ir e m e n ts for n u r s i n g a n d g e n e ra l d u ty orderlies. A l t o g e t h e r 8 3 0 N . C . O . ’s a n d m e n h a v e b e e n d e s p a t c h e d t o 36 m i l i t a r y h o s p i t a l s in E n g l a n d , I r e l a n d a n d W a l e s . The D e p u ty C o m m is s io n e r h a s tw ice ta k e n d ra fts o f m e n to F r a n c e . O n t h e first o c c a s io n h e w e n t to N a n t e s a n d s e r v e d o n t h e staff o f C ol. W e s t c o t t , t h e A .D . M . S . , a n d o n t h e s e c o n d o c c a s i o n to S t . N a z a i r e , a n d s e r v e d o n C o l . L y n d e n - B e l l ’s s t a f f . He tra v e lle d up o n N o. 2 A m b u la n c e T ra in , w hich w as c o m m a n d e d b y M a j o r M y le s , to B r a is n e , s o m e fifteen m ile s fr o m S o is s o n s th e rail h e a d for th e A is n e distric t, a n d on c o m p le tio n o f d u ty retu rn ed to E ngland on th e No. 2 H o sp ital Sh ip “ A stu rias.” In N o v e m b e r th e N a tio n a l E x e cu tiv e C o m m itte e o f th e W e l s h A r m y C o r p s , a s k e d t h e S t . D a v i d ’s C e n t r e t o r a i s e a c o m p l e t e field a m b u l a n c e , a n d t h e w o r k w a s d e l e g a t e d to t h e D e p u t y C o m m is s io n e r , w h o u n d e r t o o k th e w o rk , w ith t h e c o n ­ sen t of th e C h ie f C o m m issio n er, a n d th e a p p ro v a l of th e A rm y C o u n c i l a n d t h e G e n e r a l O f f i c e r C o m m a n d i n g in C h i e f o f t h e W este rn C om m and. T h e u n i t c o n s i s t e d o f n i n e m e d ic a l officers, o n e q u a r t e r ­ m a s te r, s e v e n te e n staff s erg e a n ts , a n d tw o h u n d r e d a n d th irtee n r a n k a n d file, a n d w a s h a n d e d o v e r c o m p l e t e t o t h e W e l s h A r m y C o r p s o n D e c e m b e r 12th. T h e D e p u ty C o m m issio n er w as in v ited b y th e N a tio n a l E x e c u tiv e C o m m itte e to ta k e c o m ­ m a n d d u r i n g t h e t i m e t h e u n i t w a s in C a r d i f f . T h e m e n w e r e e n t e r t a i n e d b y t h e o f f i c e r s t o l u n c h e o n in th e P a r k H a ll on th e sa m e day. T h e L o r d M a y o r o f C ardiff, t h e d i s t r i c t s t a f f o fficers, t h e o fficers in c h a r g e o f n u r s i n g d i v i ­ s io n s , C ol. E a s t ( c o m m a n d i n g t h e S e v e r n D e f e n c e s ) , C ol. H e n r y L ew is (the H e a d q u a r te r s R ecru itin g S taff), M a j o r C u m m in s (S .M .O . S e v e rn D e fe n c e s ), C o u n cillo r F o r s d y k e , M r. H a r r y B o x , th e V ic a r o f C ardiff, a n d m a n y o th e rs w e re p resen t. T h e u n it w a s in s p e c te d b y th e E a r l o f P ly m o u th , w ith w h o m w e re th e D e p u t y L o r d M a y o r o f C ardiff, G e n . S ir H e n r y M a c k i n n o n ( G e n e r a l O ffice r in C h ie f, W e s t e r n C o m m a n d ) C o l . G o g g i n , D . D . M . S . , C o l . E a s t a n d o t h e r s , in t h e C a t h a y s P a r k o n D e c e m b e r 1 8th, a n d left fo r P o r t h c a w l b y s p e c ia l t r a i n o n D e c e m b e r 2 9 th , u n d e r t h e c o m m a n d o f C ol. J. £ . H . D avies. A d e ta in in g hosp ital h as b een estab lish ed at B arry Islan d f o r t h e t r o o p s s t a t i o n e d a t t h e f o r t , a n d s o m e f if ty d r e s s i n g c a s e s a r e a t t e n d e d to e a c h d a y , a n d th e t w e n ty b e d s a re k e p t co n tin u ally o ccupied. T h i s h o s p i t a l is s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g : t h e n u rs in g staff p a y for th e ir o w n food, a n d th e re s id e n ts o f B a r ry h a v e f o u n d t h e e q u i p m e n t a n d m o n e y t o m a i n t a i n it. C ardiff, P e n a r t h , P o n t y e y m m e r , S ix B ells a n d M a r d y n u r s e s h a v e le n t assistan ce w hen necessary. A s i m i l a r h o s p i t a l is n o w b e i n g e q u i p p e d f o r P e n a r t h f o r t h e t r o o p s a t t h e f o r t , a n d s e v e r a l o t h e r s w ill s h o r t l y b e r e a d y in o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e d is tr ic t. T h e m e m b e rs o f th e a m b u la n c e a n d n u rs in g d ivisions, th e la d ie s’ sew in g cla sses a n d o th e r k in d frien d s h a v e su p p lie d the u n d e r c l o t h i n g fo r all t h e m e n o n a c t iv e s e r v ic e . B etw een ,£ 1 ,4 0 0 a n d .£ 1 ,5 0 0 h a s b e e n s u b s c r ib e d , a n d t h e m e m b e r s o f th e C ard iff N u rsin g D ivision, a n d th eir friends c o llected £ 2 0 0 b y t h e s a le o f flags, 2 3,000 c ig a r e tte s , a n d £ 3 2 for c ig a r e tte s , w h ic h w e re s e n t to F r a n c e b y t h e D e p u t y C o m m i s s i o n e r for th e soldiers. A b o u t 750 m en are stan d in g by

re a d y to b e called u p at


March, 1915,

— F I R S T

a n y t i m e f o r d u t y , a l l o f w h o m a r e t h o r o u g h l y t r a i n e d in a m b u ­ l a n c e w ork, a n d m a n y h a v e sp ecial s a n ita ry k n o w led g e. C l a s s e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a r e b e i n g h e l d in s o m e e i g h t y c e n t r e s , a n d m a n y n e w d i v i s i o n s a r e f o r m e d o r a r e in t h e co u rse o f fo rm atio n . T h e a r tic le s o f c l o t h i n g a r e b e i n g s e n t in e v e r y w e e k fro m t h e t w e l v e d e p o t s t o t h e c e n t r a l o f f i c e s in P r u d e n t i a l B u i l d i n g s , w h e r e a l a r g e s t a f f is e n g a g e d i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e c o r r e ­ s p o n d e n c e , a n d a r r a n g i n g for th e s o rtin g a n d d i s p a t c h o f th e clothing. A t th e r e q u e s t o f L o r d N o rre y s , a n a p p e a l w as m a d e for m o to r a m b u la n c e cars, a n d so far four c a rs co m p letely e q u ip p e d h a v e b e e n g iv en by friends o f th e A sso ciatio n . E v e r y e f f o r t is n o w b e i n g m a d e t o r a i s e f u n d s t o e q u i p a s m a n y b e d s a s p o s s i b l e i n t h e B r i g a d e H o s p i t a l , a n d W a l e s w ill d o h e r p art. T h e staff, d i v i s io n a l o ffice r a n d g e n e r a l p u b l ic h a v e r e ­ s p o n d e d n o b l y to t h e call m a d e fo r n u r s e s , m e n , e q u i p m e n t an d money.

N o. 12 (Ir is h ) D i s t r i c t . T h e D e p u t y - C o m m i s s i o n e r ’s B r i g a d e F u n d , s t a r t e d in A u g u s t l a s t , h a s n o w r e a c h e d t h e s u m o f , £ 1 , 0 4 1 10s. 6 d . C o n s i d e r a b l e e n t h u s i a s m c o n t i n u e s to b e s b o w n b y all th e officers a n d m e m b e r s o f t h e d is tric t, a n d s e v e ra l n e w u n its a re in t h e p r o c e s s o f f o r m a t i o n . O n F e b r u a r y 18 t h t h e H o s p i t a l S h i p , “ C a r i s b r o o k C a s t l e , ” u n e x p e c t e d l y a r r i v e d a t N o r t h W a l l , a n d a l t h o u g h t h e first i n ­ tim a tio n o f h e r a rriv a l w as o n ly re c eiv ed th re e h o u rs p re viously, by th e tim e sh e b e rth e d a larg e n u m b e r of a m b u la n ce s, s t r e t c h e r b e a r e r s a n d m o t o r c a r s w e r e in r e a d i n e s s t o c o n v e y th e w o u n d e d so ld ie rs to th e v a rio u s c ity h o sp ita ls. L ieu t.-C o l. L a u d e r , R .A .M ., a s s i s t e d b y s e v e r a l officers a n d m e n , to o k c h a r g e of th e m ilitary a rra n g e m e n ts , a n d th e D e p u ty C o m m is ­ sioner, a id e d b y th e L a d y D is tric t S u p e rin te n d e n t, D r. E lla W e b b , a n d e i g h t y a m b u l a n c e m e n , a s s i s t e d in t h e r e m o v a l o f th e s tre tc h e r c a s e s from th e ship, a n d lo o k e d a fte r th e ir u n ­ lo a d in g at th e v a rio u s hospitals. T h e fo llow ing a p p o in tm e n ts h a v e b e e n s a n c tio n e d b y th e C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r :— C a rric k m in e s N u rs in g D iv isio n .— D iv isio n a l S u rg e o n , W . F. P irn , M .D . ; L a d y D iv is io n a l S u p e r in t e n d e n t, M rs. L a n e . B o r r i s o k a n e N u r s i n g D i v i s o n . — D i v i s i o n a l S u r g e o n , L. J. Q uigley, M .D . ; L a d y D iv isio n a l S u p e rin te n d e n t, M rs. B e rtie B ruce. I n c o r p o r a t e d w ith N e n a g h V .A . D . N o . 778. P o r t l a w N u r s i n g D i v i s i o n . —D i v i s i o n a l S u r g e o n , D . F . W alker, M .D . ; Lady D iv isio n al S u p e rin ten d e n t, The M arch io n ess of W aterford. D u n d r u m N u r s i n g D i v i s i o n . — D i v i s i o n a l S u r g e o n , A . S. G off, M . D . ; L a d y D i v is io n a l S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , M is s C h a r l o t t e B ird.

The Issue of N ew

Brassards.

ir L o u is M a l l e t and Lorn Onslow have gone France, on behalf of the Joint Committee of the British Red Cross Society and the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, to issue the new brassard and identity certificate, prepared by the War Office, to those serving under the Commis­ sioner of the Joint Committee with the British Ex­ peditionary Force. They have been instructed to issue the new certificates and brassards only to those serv­ ing directly under the Joint Commission of the two societies. No person who is not a British subject is entitled to receive a brassard, unless with the special permission of the Secretary for War; and no one will be entitled to receive them on account of previous connection with the Society or the Order. Sir Louis Mallet and Lord Onslow have full powers to decide upon all cases in accordance with instruction issued to them.

S

to

AID. —

P ro te ctio n A gainst Typhoid Fever. W e a ll know that there are certain fevers which we are not l i k e l y to have twice.

The first attack protects us against a second attack. For instance, if we have once had scarlet fever, it w i l l be many years before we can have it again; w e may be exposed to it, but it will not be able to do us any harm. Some change was worked in us by the fever w h i c h keeps us proof against the fever. T o this protection we give the name of immunity. It is not every kind of fever which does this. Influenza does not do i t : a man can have influenza again and again. But a man is not likely to have scarlet fever twice, nor typhoid fever (also called enteric fever) twice. The object of the preventive treatment against typhoid fever is, that you shall not have typhoid fever once. Why is it, that one attack of typhoid fever protects us against a second attack ? It is because the germs of typhoid fever produce a chemical substance, which we call toxin ; and this toxin causes the blood to produce certain substances which fight the toxin. We give the name of antitoxin to these natural remedies which the blood makes in itself. The antitoxin produced by the blood opposes itself to the toxin produced by the germs. And, long after we have got well, this antitoxin still remains in our blood, guarding us against the risk of re-infection. Even if the germs of typhoid get into us, they will not injure us, for our blood is immune against them. For the protective treatment, no living germs are used. Only the toxin is used. The germs are destroyed by heat­ ing, till nothing is left but the toxin which they produced. Thus, the treatment cannot give you typhoid fever: only germs could do that. But the toxin can, and does, enable your blood to form antitoxin : and this antitoxin can, and does, protect you against typhoid fever. It is very important, that the treatment should be given, not in one dose, but in two, or even three, smaller doses, with an interval of some days between each dose, so that your general health may be disturbed as little as possible. This protective treatment was discovered by Sir Almroth Wright, and was first used in 1896. At the time of the South African War, 1899-1902, it caused serious disturbance of the general health in some cases for several days. Still, the results proved that typhoid fever, in the South African War, was twice as common in the non­ protected as in the protected. If desired, you can be treated with approved vaccine, free of charge, at the office of the Research Defence Society. Address : Hon. Secretary, 21, Ladbroke-square, London, W.

London

P r iv a t e

F ir e

B r ig a d e s

A s s o c i a t i o n .—

This body of London Volunteer Firemen held their annual concert

on the 19th February in the large hall kindly

granted by the Wholesale Co-operative Society Directors, of

Leman-street.

On

this occasion the profits of the

entertainment were given to the Belgium Relief Fund. With an excellent programme and a large audience all went well. Col. Fox, of the Salvage Corps, presided, and Lieut. Sladen, London Fire Brigade, gave the shields, medals, etc., won during the past year. Capt. Walter Hitchcock, of the Geelong Fire Brigade, volunteered and sang “ A Fireman in the Volunteer Brigade,” which, with its chorus and recites, was very well received.


• 7°

Proposed

— F I R S T

Form ation of a S .J .A B , Corps a t B righton.

W i t h the object o f reviving interest in St. John Ambulance work in the district, a well-attended meeting was held in Mayor’s Parlour at the Brighton Town Hall, on the 15th ult. The Mayor of Hove (Councillor Sargeant, J.P.) presided in the absence, through indisposition, of the Mayor of Brighton. 1 here were also present Lady Cavendish Boyle, the Mayoress of Brighton, the Mayoress of Hove, Dr. Baxter, Mr. H. A. Baily, J.P., Colonel Burne, Dr. Duke, Lieut.Colonel Gentle (Chief Constable of Brighton), Mr. W. Girling, Dr. A. Hollis, Dr. Maguire, Mr. Kildare Robinson, Mr. J. Upton, and Major Witten. The Chairman, at the outset, mentioned that a pre­ liminary meeting was held at Hove the previous week, when a Joint Committee of the St. John Ambulance Brigade was formed. Those present, and those who had accepted by letter, were now added to that Committee. Dr. Duke and Dr. Baxter had consented to become Joint Secretaries. Lieut.-Colonel Gentle said in recent years interest in St. John Ambulance work had not been so keen, and they had no great ambulance centre, with the exception of one at the Railway Works. They wished to make a move in an upward direction, and it was proposed to form a new Division, a sufficient number to be organised to form a St. John Ambulance Corps. Each Division was not to have less than 16 members, exclusive of officers. They wanted the help of ladies and gentlemen. These Divisions could not be dealt with until they had got the necessary uniforms, stretchers, and appliances, and this, of course, would entail considerable expense. He appealed to those present to do their best to obtain for them the necessary subscriptions. It was desirable that they should get as many subscriptions as possible, also promises of annual subscriptions. After a course of lectures an ex­ amination would be held, and those who passed it satis­ factorily would be given a certificate of efficiency. This work would be invaluable, more especially at this time. The Chief Commissioner, Sir James Clark, explained the composition of the Brigade, and in reply to a question, he said there was no objection to a Red Cross member coming into the St. John Ambulance, but they must have a St. John Ambulance Certificate The actual expenditure of a Division was not great. Everything was voluntary. The Chief Constable pointed out that there was con­ siderable interest locally in the St. John Ambulance. All the members of the Brighton Borough Police Force had a St. John Ambulance Certificate; there was the Railway Ambulance, under Mr. Girling; and there were various Cadet Movements in the town, who had taken up the work. Proceeding, Lieut.-Colonel Gentle said he thought they would want ^ 1 ,0 0 0 to start the scheme on the assump­ tion that they would have about 250 men. He pointed out that the local value of the work was enormous. It was decided to form a sub committee to go into the scheme and the costs and report to a further meeting of the committee.

The G. E. Ry. Co. has decided that, in the case of ambulance men serving with the Colours, the condition as to attending twelve practices per annum in order to qualify for the free medallion or label and the extra annual free pass, may be dispensed with.

A I D . —

March, 1915.

E thics of liom e=N ursine.* B

y

COLONEL

W .

E.

JEN N IN GS,

I.M.S.

P o r t H ealth Officer, Bombay. T h e Nursing Branch of the St. John Ambulance Organi­ sation was mainly instituted with a view to including an important and practical indispensable element in the various ambulance units which, throughout the Empire, hold themselves constantly available for humanitarian service both in peace and war and for such national calamities as severe epidemics, &c. The hundreds of classes being held, however, not only satisfactorily fulfil the above object, but are constantly turning out numbers of women eminently equipped to be of assistance to the sick not only in their own homes, but also amongst friends and, even, amongst others in places at which there may be a dearth of fully trained nurses and where such are not readily procurable. Experience has shown that the excellent training afforded to these has enabled them to be of very material help to medical men and to contribute largely to tiding sufferers through serious illnesses. Technical training though, however excellent, is not all that such workers require. Ethical considerations are equally important in their case as in that of their more advanced professional sisters. It cannot, therefore, be too strongly impressed upon the teachers that they should not neglect to include hints on ethics in their courses of instruc­ tion, and among others, such hints might usefully include the following points, emphasised in a paper on the “ Ethics of Private Nursing,” read before the recent Bombay Nurs­ ing Conference and reproduced in the Nursing Journal of India.

A nurse may find herself one day in a palace and the next day in a cottage, or in one of the many different types of menage between these two extremes. It is essential, therefore, that she should strive to acquire the habit of adaptability, which will ensure her being able to give the impression that she is at home wherever she may suddenly find herself. Many nurses count upon gaining their patient’s confidence by displaying professional skill and ability irrespectively of their initiative demeanour. In ninety-nine cases, however, out of a hundred this confidence can be gained before any skill is displayed, and the gaining of that confidence generally means more than half of the battle won. A nurse bent upon ingratiating herself will soon develop the necessary tact required in the many varying situations possible. She should show her patients ungrudging sympathy and a pleasurable desire to help them. She should refrain from making sudden or sweeping changes in a household, however necessary ; but should endeavour to get such ordered by the doctor in attendance, and then gradually effect them. She should never exhibit annoyance before or towards a patient. When intercourse with friends or relatives is permitted she should, generally, leave the room, remaining within easy call. She should scrupulously avoid the least reference regarding the ailments or peculiarities of previous patients, or the details of their establishments, pointing out politely to inquisitive questioners that professional etiquette demands secrecy on all such points. She should be always ready to read or talk to patients in a way to amuse or divert them without tiring them. She should not hesitate to be useful in small matters outside of her purely * P u b lis h e d b y

A m bulan ce Gazette.

k in d

p e rm iss io n o f th e

E d it o r

o f th e

In d ia n


March, 1915.

— F I R S T

technical duties. She should have a stock of interesting stories for sick children or a capacity for amusing them otherwise. She should guard against unnecessary noises, such as the rustling of highly starched clothing, the creak­ ing of doors or window-shutters, the dragging about of furniture, the putting down of basins or other articles with a bang, the shovelling of coals, the dropping of cinders, etc. When a patient is settling down to sleep she should pin a notice to the sick-room door with the word “ asleep” thereon. She should arrange some easy method for her patient to summon her if she herself has to be absent for a time. She should endeavour to win the confidence of relatives by listening attentively to whatever they may have to say so far as it relates to the patient, and should make

A u x il ia r y

M il it a r y

H o s p it a l

a t

R o c h d a l e , e n t ir e l v

A I D . —

171

an entire misconception of the duties of a nurse does not spring from an excess of knowledge but from the reverse. It is the well-trained, carefully-taught, woman who recog­ nises the limitations of her profession and is careful never to overstep them.” She should thus not only guard a strict reserve regarding professional secrets connected with her patients and their homes, but her lips should be also strictly sealed with regard to what she might, rightly or wrongly (and it is generally the latter), consider short­ comings on the part of the doctors. She should remember that in circumstances in which she, herself, is often regarded as a necessary evil in connection with sickness, the doctor is, generally, her best friend and the one with whom she should cheerfully work and side readily. She should always try and be ready for his visit, remembering how im-

st a f f e d

by

t h e

R o ch d ale

N u r s in g

D iv is io n s

a n d

V .A .D .

T h i s b u i l d i n g is t h e R o c h d a l e D r i l l H a l l , p r e s e n t e d t o t h e R o c h d a l e C o r p s , S . J . A . B . , b y C o l . S i r C l e m e n t R o y d s , C . B . , K n i g h t o f J u s t i c e O r d e r o f St. J o h n o f J e r u s a l e m , a n d L a d y R o y d s , L a d y o f G r a c e O r d e r o f St. J o h n o f J e ru sa le m '.

them feel that they are worthy of consideration, remember­ ing that their anxiety and apparently needless interference are the result of untried circumstances. In sending for medical aid, in great emergency, she should endeavour to explain the nature of the emergency so that the doctor may arrive in a manner prepared to deal with it. She should carefully note down his orders and get him to initial them. Obedience to these must be whole-hearted, intelligent and loyal. The late Miss Isla Stewart wrote that “ it is only those who have been insufficiently trained and disciplined who fail to recognise the grave responsbility of disobedience, and who take it upon themselves to criticise the doctor’s treatment or even to suggest the form it should take. Such

portant time is to him, and, even if not ready, she should endeavour to admit him to the sick room as soon as possible after his arrival at the house. Experience has proved that there is not one of these points that some nurse or other would not have been the better for having carefully impressed upon her. Other points may doubtless occur to individual teachers as the result of their personal observation, but the parting injunction of all should be that one can only get into the way of doing one’s best for one’s patients by trying to imagine oneself in their places, and by conscien­ tiously striving to do for them exactly what one would in one’s heart of hearts wish done for oneself in similar cir­ cumstances.


1 72

— F I R S T

AID. -

March, 1915.

The most important part they serve is the meeting of Red

Brevities.

Cross trains which periodically arrive, and the conveyance of wounded soldiers from these trains to hospital.

B y

the report of the No. 4 District, which appears on

another page in this issue, it will be seen that a sum of ^

4)795

has been already collected towards the funds of

the Brigade Hospital, and it is anticipated that a sufficient

In

some cases the County Automobile Club have been render­ ing excellent assistance in this direction, their members volunteering the loan of their cars for this service, where there is a need for the use of

and

cars for conveying

sum will be forthcoming to provide and maintain at least

wounded we would recommend Commandants to approach

four wards in the proposed hospital.

the Secretary of the County Automobile Club.

The Rochdale Corps

heads the list, having collected a sum of ^500.

* * *

This is a

most creditable performance, and the district is to be con­ gratulated upon the earnestness in which it has taken this matter in hand.

the Deputy-Commissioner of

L e w is ,

District of the Brigade, has been appointed as The

appointment has been made, in response to a request

*

T w o Blue Books, issued in January contains Parts II. and III. respectively of the annual general report for 1913 on the mines and quarries of the United Kingdom, as pre­ pared by Sir R. A. S. Redmayne, H.M. Chief Inspector of The total number of persons employed at mines

and at the quarries under the Quarries Act, in the United Kingdom and the Isle of Man, during 1913 was 1,236,211 (r>1 S5>3° 2 at mines and 80,909 at quarries), or a net in­ crease of 39,1:76 persons as compared with the preceding year.

H er ber t

Commissioner of the Order of St. John in France.

* *

Mines.

Mr. the No. n

There were 1,332 separate fatal accidents in and

about mines and quarries, causing the loss of 1,870 lives, or an increase of 476 fatalities as compared

with

the

previous year.

of the War Office to the Order of St. John of Jerusalem and to the Red Cross Society, to nominate some prominent official to proceed to France to overlook the work of the members of those two bodies now on active service. Herbert Lewis has been nominated by the Order

Mr.

and Sir

Arthur Lawley has been asked to act in a similar capacity for the .Red Cross Society.

Mr. Herbert has been con­

nected with the St. John Ambulance Brigade for the last 15 years, and held the position of Assistant-Commissioner of the No.

7 District when it embraced the

whole

of

Wales and the border counties.

In 1911 the district was

divided, and

appointed

Mr.

Lewis

missioner to the No.

n

was

District.

During

Deputy-Com­ the

past

10

years ambulance work has made rapid strides in South

* * *

Wales, and Mr. Lewis has at his back a body of between

I n the section of the report dealing with rescue and

3,000 and 4,000 men and women, whom he has spared no

ambulance work, the Chief Inspector says he regrets that

effort to thoroughly train in times of peace, and who have

during the year under review very little progress was made

now nobly responded to the call made upon them by their

in the Scotland division in the provision

country for service in the naval and military hospitals.

of

breathing

apparatus and the training of persons in their use.

Scot­

V

land, he adds, has been more dilatory than any other min­ ing district in the United

Kingdom.

Speaking

of

the

northern division, Sir Richard says the scheme of rescue work in operation in this division is that of permanent rescue corps resident at central stations.

There are very

few large collieries in Northumberland and Durham which are not within a ten mile radius of a central station.

T h e

important part which power traction is playing in

the war was described by Sir J. H. A. Macdonald, the Lord Justice-Clerk, at the Royal Philosophical Society of Glas­ gow, on February 24th.

The lecturer directed attention to

the various services in which the motor car had been of immense use to the army in the field, and instanced among others the transport of the wounded with a minimum of

*

discomfort.

O w i n g to so many members of the St. John Ambulance

The

introduction

of

power

Association and Brigade being engaged in service for their

and the rate of death or permanent

King and country many of the

wounds.

petitions will not take place.

usual The

ambulance

com­

Inter-Railway

and

traction

had

effected much in reducing the suffering of the wounded disablement

That was a greater thing than

people at first.

struck

from most

In former days the horrors of war were

Brigade competitions have been cancelled, and also many

much aggravated by the want of facilities for dealing with

important provincial competitions.

the wounded.

We can well under­

stand these principal competitions being stopped on account

Septic poisoning carried off many a man

who with prompt care might have been back on duty in a

of the work they entail, but in the case of the smaller ones

few weeks.

we should recommend them being held, as they do much

such a state as made amputation necessary, or even proved

to encourage efficiency.

fatal.

A m ongst

m any

of

the for

Thanks to the motor ambulance much of that waste

of human life or limb is now a thing of the past.

V

t h e r e is a p r e s s i n g n e e d

Wounds that might have been cured reached

a u x ilia ry m oto r

cars

m ilitary and

h osp itals

a m b u lan ces.

W h en corresponding w ith Advertisers please mention “ First Aid ’ ’


March. 1915.

— F I R S T

A I D . —

173

S t John Jlmbulance dissociation. I p s w i c h . — The annual report of the Ipswich Centre and Corps of the St. John Ambulance Association is just to hand, and makes interesting reading. It states that the year had been the most remarkable in the long existence of 35 years. For the first time for some years the centre had a balance in hand. Through the kindness of many friends the adverse balance of £ 3 9 9s. 8d. was gone and the centre had jQ 21 10s. in hand. Again there had been more classes and more certificates, medallions and labels gained than for some years, and the crowning point of all was the coming of a motor ambulance, which had already done much useful work. There had been more transport work done this year than last— 325 cases as against 321. Seven classes had been held ; 238 persons took a full course, and there were gained 167 certificates, two vouchers, 21 medallions, and five labels. Besides these classes, mem­ bers of the Ipswich Corps had been re-examined and had gained four vouchers, seven medallions, and 106 labels, and some were examined for brigade purposes only. Cordial thanks for assistance are given to many in the report, and Miss Coulcher. the hon. secretary, added that she would like to give her special thanks to those members of the Ipswich Corps who are so constantly helping the centre by doing “ station duty,” so as to be ready to help in any case that may come during the caretaker’s absence. Since the war began this kind help has been even greater, as two men are now sleeping, in turn, at the Ambulance Hall, ready for any sudden emergency. Since the coming of the motor ambulance calls during the night have been more frequent, and as so many ambulance men living near had joined the colours this plan was adopted, and it has been of very great use.

A

W e ek ’s

W ork

O n the week ending March 6th a total of 452 patients were under treatment at the Netley Red Cross Hospital. The number of hospitals accepted by the War Office to that date was 807. The Good Hope Red Cross Society had up to the 6th inst., met all reasonable demands made upon it by the Director of Medical Services, the principal medical officers of base and stationary hospitals, and the officers command­ ing field hospitals, &c. A total of 864 cases of stores were despatched abroad. O f these 303 cases were sent to Boulogne and 520 cases to Calais. The balance represents small amounts sent to other places in France. Hospitals to the number of 117 in this country were supplied in all with 222 cases of requisites and comforts. The following garments were despatched:— T o hospitals at home, 3,505, and to hos­ pitals abroad, 12,314; total, 15,819. The total expendi­ ture upon stores during the week ending 6th inst. was

1 S 1 5 -------------- 1 9 / 5 .

O ne h u n d r ed y e a r s’ p r o g r e ssiv e exp erien ce is b eh in d the ex ten siv e m odern o r g a n isa tio n o f the H o u se o f H a z e l.

UNIFORMS AND EQUIPMENTS.

h a v e h ad th e c o n fid e n c e o f th e S.J.A .B . e v e r s in c e it w a s la u n c h e d . T h e H o u s e o f H azel h a s b e en p ro d u c in g U n ifo i m clo th in g a n d E q u ip m e n t for a c en tu ry . E v e r sin ce th e St. J o h n A m b u l a n c e m o v e m e n t w a s i n a u g u r a t e d t h e firm h a s s u p p l i e d w ith c o n s i s t e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n C lo th in g a n d A c c o u tre m e n ts u sed b y th e B rig ad e. T o - d a y th e H o u se o f H azel receives o rd e rs reg u la rly fr o m h u n d r e d s o f C o r p s n o t o n ly in G r e a t B r ita in b u t also th ro u g h o u t th e E m p ire . A b u s in e s s o f this c h a r a c te r b u ilt u p a n d re ta in e d in f a c e o f i n c e s s a n t c o m p e t i t i o n m u s t h a v e s t e r l i n g m e r i t b e h i n d it. T h e H o u s e o f H a z e l is a n e x p e r t o r g a n i s a t i o n c o m p r i s i n g o v e r 1,300 s k i lle d w o r k e r s , a n d t u n e d s o t h a t t h e s m a l l e s t o r d e r a s w ell a s l a r g e s t re c e iv e s th a t a tte n ti o n n e c e s s a r y to g iv e e n tire satisfactio n . A ll ra n k s o f th e R o y a l A r m y M e d ic a l C o rp s , B ritis h R e d C ro s s S o c ie ty , St. J o h n A m b u l a n c e B r i g a d e a n d k in d r e d O r g a n i s a ti o n s a r e in v ite d to c o m m u n i c a t e w ith t h e H o u s e o f H a z e l o n all m a t t e r s re la tin g to th e su p p ly o f U n ifo r m s a n d E q u ip m e n t.

P r ic e L is t s on A p p lic a tio n .

j£ h 8 9 7 Commandants of V .A . D .’s are reminded that if a V.A.D. is mobilised, the Commandmant should apply through their County Secretary, to the Central Office of the Red Cross for a grant of £ 1 0 .

When corresponding w ith A dvertisers please m en ­ tion “ First Aid.”

65/73, East Rd., City Rd., LONDON, E.C. BRANCHES 51a, B e rn e rs S treet, O xford S treet, L O N D O N . W . 6 , Y o r k P lace, L E E D S . 8 4 , M iller S tre e t. G L A S G O W . And 1 3 7 , L o n g m a rk e t S tre e t. C A P E T O W N .


— F I R S T

F E R R IS

AID. —

March, 1915.

«& CO.’S

“U N IV E R S A L ” First-Aid Cupboard.

IODEX

I (Uns/.Iodi.M.&j) j

FIRST-AID A BLAND & P A IN L ESS — IODINE D R E S S I N G . —

Antiseptic.

Aseptic.

io d e x

has been supplied to : H .M . F le e t S u r g e o n s , R .A .M .C . Surgeons, Red C ross S u r g e o n s , Croix R o uge F rancaise B e l g i a n F i e ld h o s p i t a l s , F r e n c h F i e ld H o s p i t a l s , N um erous M ilitary Hospitals, M e m b e r s of S t. John A m bulan ce.

I O D E X is a First-Aid Dressing of great merit— painless and bland It promotes rapid healing and is ideal in septic wounds, tears, abrasions, bruises, burns, scalds, inflamed feet, etc. I O D E X is non-staining, non­ irritating Free Iodine of great penetrative power. It is a power­ ful absorbent and antiseptic, and rapidly reduces inflammation.

I0DEX is sold in 1oz. Pots, Price

1/1 i .

IO D E X has benefitted thefollowing and numerous other conditions: A

c o m p le te O utfit, s u ita b le fo r F a c to rie s , W o r k s , P u b lic O ffices, &c. S i z e , 19 in . h i g h , i 8 i i n . , w i d e , 8 in . d e e p .

Price,

fitted

co m p lete

3 5 s. 6d.

E n l a r g e d G la n d s , G o itre . T u b e r c u lo u s J o in ts , B u rs itis , S y n o v itis , S c ia tic a . N e u ritis , G o u t, R h eu m ato id A rth ritis, H y d ro c e le, P a ra sitic S k in D isea ses. R in g w o rm , C h ilb la in s, A cne. B o ils. M u m p s , S p r a i n s , AND ALL IN F L A M M A T O R Y C O N D IT IO N S . L ite ra tu re

FERRIS & CO., Ltd., BRISTOL, C o m p l e t e A m b u l a n c e O u t f it t e r s .

on

a p p lic a tio n

to—

Menley & James, Ltd., 39LoaN rrDON!°E.c?ad’

cANITAs

£jFLUIDj2 BRITISH THE

MADE ONLY

AND

Best Disinfectant for Sick Rooms.

OWNED.

Fragrant and Non=poisonous.

GENUINE.

Best Dressing for Wounds.

Packed in orange wrapbers as per ilhislratio T h e fi n est and s afes t an tis eptic for b a th in g and cle a n sin g wou nds, cu ts and burns, etc.

Purifies the Air (by Spraying). Kills all Disease Germs.

NO FIRST AID EQUIPMENT IS COMPLETE WITHOUT IT. Supplied

to

large numbers

of

R a ilw ays,

C o llie rie s and Factories, w h o find it un^ eq u a lled for all general am bulance w ork.

Of all Chemists, 7 id ., I/=, 1/9 & 3/= per hot. SAM PLES

Antiseptic Mouth Wash and Gargle.

6 d.

and

1/-

Bottles,

and

6 /-

per

Gallon.

L e a fle t a n d S a m p le on ap p lication .

FREE.

CHAS. ZIMMERMANN & CO. (CHEMICALS), LTD., 9 & 10, St. M ary-at-Hill, LONDON, E.C.

The “ S A N I T A S ” C O ., Ltd ., L im e h o u s e , L o n d o n , E .


March, 1915.

— F I R S T

AID. — (food), th e d ra u g h t

Tricks in T eaching. G.

E.

T W IS S ,

R .A .M .C .

t. ~

S o u th a m p to n C e n tre , S .J.A .A . teach er

sh o u ld

b rin g

oxygen

in

a n d th e c h im n e y

T o illu stra te

w ater

not

C ir c u la t io n . — T o

fix

it

d iag ram atically

on

th e ir

m in d I u se w h a t I call th e C lo c k D ia g ra m , a p p e n d e d .

K n i g h t o f G r a c e o f t h e O r d e r o f S t. J o h n ; H o n . S e c .

I t is i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e

can

c a n le t t h e c a r b o n ic a c id o u t.

3. L i e u t .-C o l .

175

in

its

uses

I

g iv e

N a t u r e :— R e s e r v o i r ,

o n ly riv et th e

th em

larg e

th e

c irc u la tio n

m ain s,

sm all

of

m ain s,

C ap illaries of lungs.

a t t e n t i o n o f h is p u p i l s w h i l e h e is t a l k i n g a n d t e a c h i n g t h e m t h e w hy

o f e v ery th in g , b u t

so m etim es

w hat

h e lp to im p re s s facts o n th e ir m e m o ry . th e years I h a v e b e e n le c tu rin g

at

upon

th in k ,

c erta in

p o ssib ly

be

th in g s of use

w h ich , to

I

som e

I

call

trick s

T o th is e n d d u rin g

S o u th a m p to n I h a v e h it help , a n d

of your

th e y

good

fo lk

p iece

o f stick

m ay

who

are

m a k in g re c o rd s in th is d ire c tio n .

1. F ra ctu res.— I f y o u

ro ll

b a n d a g e a n d b r e a k it a c r o s s

up

a

in

a

y o u s h o w t h e m (a)

your knee

t h e b o n e i s n o t t h e s a m e s h a p e a s i t w a s b e f o r e , ( b ) t h e r e is m o tio n w h ere N a tu re d id n o t p u t a jo in t a n d th e y can h e ar th e b o n e sn ap (th e p a tie n t c a n also h e a r th e g ratin g .

if c o n s c io u s

2. A r t i f ic i a l R e s p ir a tio n . — T o ly in g o n h is b a c k , o v e r o n

feels

tu rn

it) a n d th e y

a

p a t i e n t , w h o is

h is f a c e , lift t h e

rig h t foot over

t h e left, o n e f i n g e r u n d e r t h e r i g h t h i p a n d a n o t h e r t h e r i g h t

F i g . 2. C lo c k D ia g r a m o f C irc u la tio n ; B lo o d g o e s a s h a n d s o f C lock. p ip es

to

taps,

D ra in s

h o u ses, p ip es from

in

sin k s,

houses, & c .,

W ater

D ra in s

tak en

from

from

houses,

th e larg e

d ra in s e m p ty in g in to sea, e v a p o ra tio n , c lo u d s, ra in , re se rv o ir again.

W e a re p ro b a b ly u sin g th e s a m e w a ter w h ic h A d a m

c a l l e d h is p a r t i c u l a r b r a n d o f ale. I n th is d e sc rip tio n o f th e

circ u la tio n

e v e ry c ell in th e

h u m a n b o d y is r e p r e s e n t e d b y a m a n o r w o m a n .

C l in i c a l T h e r m o jn e te r . — I h a v e

a

m odel

o f a clin ical

F i g . 1. B lack, E x p ira tio n ; D o tte d , In s p ira tio n ; In c re a se , S h a d e d . s h o u l d e r w ill, if q u i c k l y

ra ise d , ro ll

h im

over

o n h is face.

T o t u r n h i m b a c k r e v e r s e t h e p r o c e d u r e , v iz., le f t f o o t o v e r rig h t, fin g e rs u n d e r le ft sid e. I a p p e n d d ia g ra m o f resp iratio n . T o d em o n strate how

lungs

e m p ty

th e m s e lv e s , I b lo w

u p a s m a l l r u b b e r b a g a n d l e t it e m p t y itself. T o s h o w h o w H o w a r d ’s m e t h o d a c t s , I h a v e a t o y b i r d . I

com press

sm aller, air

th e

and

little

w hen

I

box release

un d ern eath , it

he

m ake

th e

c h irru p s, d ra w in g

chest th e

in . F o r S ch afer, I h a v e a h o llo w r u b b e r d o ll w h ic h I p la c e

o n its fa c e.

I

first c o m p r e s s t h e d o ll, s t r a ig h t d o w n ,

m y flat h a n d a n d

afterw ard s

by

tip s

w ith

o f tw o fin g ers in th e

s m a ll o f its b a c k .

t h e r m o m e t e r m a d e o f w o o d , p r o p e r ly p a in te d , & c ., a n d th e i n d e x is a l o o s e p i e c e o f w o o d w o r k i n g o n a b r a s s w i r e .

F o r S y l v e s t e r I c h a l k t h e r i b s o n a b o y ’s c o a t , b u t t o n e d u p , a n d w h e n th e a rm s a re ra is e d th e y se e th e rib s g o up. T o show n eed

F i g . 3. S u p p le m e n t to C lo c k D i a g r a m . H e a r t as o n V a len tin es. B o t h v e n t r i c l e s in o n e m u s c l e t o s a v e f o r c e , a s t w o r u b b e r b a g s c o u l d b e s q u e e z e d a s w e l l both in one h a n d a s one in each hand.

for

b o d y to a lo co m o tiv e.

resp iratio n , I I t w ill n o t

com pare

w ork

th e h u m an

u n le s s it h a s c o a l

I f th e s e tric k s in te re s t y o u r re a d e r s p e rh a p s I m a y find leisu re to w rite o u t s o m e m o re , w h o le o f m y tim e o c c u p ie d th e S o u th a m p to n C en tre.

but

w ith o n e

I have

p ractically

th e

th in g a n d a n o t h e r in


176

— F I R S T

AI D. —

March, 1915.

BRITISH RED CROSS SOCIETY.

N otes

and

N ew s.

The Canadian Red Cross, which was first organised by Colonel G. Sterling Ryerson in 1896, and of which there are no fewer than one hundred and sixty-five branches dis­ tributed throughout the Dominion, has come forward nobly to the support of the Motherland in the present crisis. In addition to what they themselves are actually doing at the Front, they have sent upwards of ,£15,000 in cash to the British Red Cross Society, twelve motor ambulances to the British Society and seven motor ambulances and a complete motor kitchen to the Canadian Contingent. The average cost of the ambulances supplied to the British Society has been £400, and of those supplied to the Canadian con­ tingent, £5 0 0 , while the motor kitchen cost £ 7 0 0 . The executive committee have also paid the cost of one coach in the Red Cross train, £1,90 0, and have provided all the equipment in the Duchess of Connaught’s Canadian Red Cross Hospital at Cleveden, Berks., at a cost of £2,000. * * *

We understand an important new departure for all members of Voluntary Aid detachments is announced by the War Office, and in it is stated that as there may be a shortage of trained nurses later on, it has been decided to ask members of Voluntary Aid Detachments to go into military hospitals as nurses under the Army sisters. They will be required to give a month on probation, and then, on the recommedation of the matron, will be asked to sign on for service in the hospital for one year or the duration of the war. There can be no doubt that the use made of members of Voluntary Aid Detachments will be extremely valuable to the country, as these members, whilst not in any way considering themselves trained nurses, have had a certain amount of hospital experience, and are perfectly willing to do the humbler work of the wards. They will gain splendid experience in these military hospitals, and the arrangement will be of mutual benefit They will be given travelling expenses, board, lodging and washing, together with £ 2 0 a year salary and a £ 1 a quarter for the upkeep of their uniform. Final selection will lie in the hands of the authorities of the Red Cross Society and St. John Ambulance Association, but application must be first made, in every case, through the commandant of a detachment or County Director or secretary. Therefore, it will only be waste of time for those who desire to obtain a hospital position as a Voluntary Aid member to apply in any other way. At the King George Hospital Voluntary Aid members will also be employed in the wards, which will accommodate 1,650 patients. But they will not be paid, and will sign on only for three months at a time. *** Of the many voluntary agencies which the war has brought into being none is doing more useful work, or

carrying it out more thoroughly, than the Information Bureau which Messrs. Cox & Co., the well-known bankers and army agents, have been able with the ready assistance of the Earl of Harrington to establish at Harrington House, Craig’s Court, Charing Cross. The main object is to obtain detailed information concerning the condition of our wounded officers and men and communicate it to relatives and friends at home. * * * A grievance affecting a number of British chauffeurs working with the Red Cross in France was described by Mr. Arthur Sexton, the secretary of the National Society of Chauffeurs. Many of the members gave up situations in order to serve the country, but found that there were no vacancies at the moment in the Motor Transport. They then took service with the British Red Cross Society, assuming that the conditions would be similar. As a matter of fact, the Contract with the Red Cross Society provides for no allowances to wives and families in case of death and no allowance in case of injury. The Workmen’s Compensation Aot does not apply to accidents on the Continent. The matter has been taken up by the Hon. Arthur Stanley, the chairman of the Red Cross Society. Early in December the Red Cross Society announced that they were endeavouring to make arrangements to cover cases of injury. *

*

Lord Robert Cecil issued to the County Branches his proposals for making systematic inquiries among the wounded in hospital in this country about missing officers and soldiers. The scheme includes the appointment of visitors to attend each hospital in the various districts. The visitors, provided with a weekly list of those who are missing, will inquire among members of the regiments to which the missing belonged whether anything is known of those on the lists. The scheme has been approved by the Director-General of the Army Medical Service, subject to permission being obtained from the general officers com­ manding concerned. * * *

Reuter's Agency says that according to a statement made at the Academy of Sciences by M. Dastre, the Ger­ mans are using shells in which a certain amount of red phosphorus is included. The smoke of this enables the gunners to see where their projectile falls. The use of these shells, M. Dastre declared, constituted a violation of the law of nations. The phosphorous is only partially consumed by the bursting of the shell. Portions adhere to the shrapnel bullets and fragments of the shells, and wounds caused by such shells have been found to be so badly poisoned that treatment by terebenthene, the usual remedy against phosphorous, is of no avail.


March, 1915.

— F I R S T

AID. —

J 77

All the members then marched to the “ Florence Nightin ga le ” status, where photographts were taken before the parade was dismissed.

County of London Branch. The Paddington Men’s V .A .D (London 27) mustered on February 27th, at the Paddington Recreation Ground, under Hon. Commandant R. W. Phillips, and were in­ spected by Colonel Matthews (from headquarters) in the presence of a number of spectators. The pavilion was used as a temporary “ hospital,” and after drilling the men they displayed their skill in bandaging and in all the work which would be required of them on the battlefield. A t the close of the inspection Colonel Matthews expressed his great satisfaction with the way they had acquitted them­ selves. This detachment is without doubt, one of the best in London. Mrs. Matthews, Acting-Commimdant of the V.A.D., n o , Marylebone D Section, and her band of willing helpers, who for so long have been engaged in assisting refugees and ministering to the needs of our soldiers and sailors arriving at, or departing from, Victoria Station have now entered upon a new phase of their work. Hitherto they have worked under great difficulties, but thanks tothe

Essex

B ranch.

T h e annual meeting of the Central Council o f the British

Red Cross Society (Essex Branch) took place at the Abercorn Rooms, Liverpool-street Hotel, London, E.C., on February 15th. T h e President (the Countess of Warwick) presided, and was supported by the Lady Gwendoline Colvin (chairman of the Executive Committee), and Lieut.-Colonel J. Colvin (County Director), and Colonel G. H. Coleman (Honorary Secretary). The Chairman and Vice-Chairman (Lady Gwendoline Colvin and Mrs. Gerald Buxton) were thanked for their past services and re-elected, as were the members of the old Executive Committee, with the addition of Mrs. Deacon and Miss Theresa Buxton. Mr. C. W. Parker was elected Honorary Treasurer, and Colonel G. H. Coleman, Honorary Secretary. The Branch and Divisional accounts were received and adopted. The County Director’s report, read by Lieut.-Colonel J. Colvin, gave evidence of considerable progress during the past year. The following is a summary :— “ Four Men’s and five Women’s Detachments have been newly raised, and two others have been re-started. Alto­ gether there are in Essex 21 Men’s De­ tachments with a personnel of 1,676, making a total of 2,414, against a total of 1,802 last year, and showing an in­ crease of 612. The response made to the special appeal for funds for carrying on the work has been very satisfactory. The amount received up to the 31st December having reached upwards of ,£4,000. O f this sum £ 1 , 6 3 6 has already been expended, and the Branch has pledged itself to a further expenditure of £ 1,2 6 0 . T he Branch has provided

S.S. “ A s t u r i a s , ” N o . 2 H o s p i t a l S h i p An

attem p t

was

m ade

by

th e

South-Eastern and Chatham Railway Co., they are now established in the entrance hall of Wilton-road, where a spacious buffet has been erected, and here the members of the Forces will be able to obtain refreshments free of cost, thanks to the generosity of the public. On February 28th, No. r, V.A.D. (London), held a Church Parade at St. Martin’s-in-the-Fields. County Director, Colonel James Cantlie, M.B., F . R C . S , was in command, also Hon. Commandant R. Mitchell, District Adjutant Alfred E. Evans, Quartermaster J. Taylor, and Section Leaders Waterhouse and Eaves, Assistant County Directors Mrs. McDonald, Lady Commandant Mrs. Cantlie, Miss Marsters and Miss Burgess, together with about 100 rank and file, were present. A very impressive sermon was preached by the Bishop of Stepney, who inspected the parade after service.

G erm ans

to

O

t o r p e d o th is

ne

of

th e

W

ship.

ards

of

t h e

H

ospital

S

hip

“ A

stu rias

.”


i

78

— F I R S T

a hut for 20 wounded soldiers in connection with Netley Hospital, and has guaranteed its upkeep for twelve months, in addition to which 22 hospitals, staffed by Voluntary Aid Detachments, and providing upwards of 700 beds, have been accepted by the War Office, and with the exception of two or three have been occupied at one time or another by sick Territorials or wounded soldiers from the front. A scheme for the addition of an annexe to the Chelmsford Hospital, in the shape of a “ Furley” fieldhouse, but on the Netley pattern, is approaching completion at a cost of about ^ 3 ° ° i and will give at least three hospitals on the Colchester main line, namely, Hylands, Chelmsford, and Coombe Lodge, Brentwood, capable of taking between them a direct convoy of serious cases. This proposal has the approval of the D.D.M.S. (Eastern Command) SurgeonGeneral Whitehead, and will greatly assist in keeping those where badly wounded cannot be received supplied with cases of a less serious nature. “ In addition to those members of Detachments who are on duty at Hospitals a large number of men previously belonging to Voluntary Aid Detachments have joined the R .A .M .C. for work in clearing hospitals and field ambul­ ances, while others have been appointed Orderlies for service at Netley Hospital or in France. “ Trains passing through Kelvedon, and latterly Witham, have been stopped at one of these places for re­ freshments, and part of our duty has been to feed the wounded conveyed in trains. “ T h e Essex Branch has provided two motor ambul­ ances for work on the Continent, the whole cost of the second being the generous gift of one lady. Each ambul­ ance cost ^400, and the sum of £ 1 0 0 has also been contributed to their upkeep; ^ 5 0 of this amount was sub­ scribed by the donor of the second ambulance, and ,£50 by another anonymous lady. “ In the early days of the war it was arranged to open a Central Store in Chelmsford for receiving and sending out garments of various kinds to our Hospitals, and to our troops at home and abroad. The management of this Store was entrusted to the Hon. Mrs. Alwyn Greville, and it has been most successfully worked. Thousands of garments have been received and issued to those requiring them.”

S u ssex Branch. T h e Mid-Sussex Division held its annual meeting at South-

over Grange, Lewes, on March

10th.

The Countess of

Chichester (Vice-President) occupied the chair, and was supported by the President, the Duchess of Norfolk.

AID. —

March, 1915

response had been very gratifying. She had nearly 6,000 articles sent her and they had all been used. Several V .A . D .’s were mobolised. Worthing was fully mobolised and the detachments were doing extremely good work, which meant very heavy duties. The men’s detach­ ment working at the Indian General Hospital at Brighton was very specially commended by the officer commanding there. Captain W. V. Anson, R.N., submitted the annual Report. This showed that Lewes had three detachments, Sussex 37 (58 men), Sussex 48 (22 women), and Sussex *58 (15 women). They had hospital accommodation in the shape of a private house, with 12 beds. Sussex 48 has changed it commandant, Mrs. Barchard now occupying that position. O f this detachment, 21 members past the first aid examination, nine gaining the advanced certificate. The Barcombe detachment, Sussex 98, has 15 women members, and a convalescent home with all equipment. There was one first aid course. The detachment has been very busy making garments for wounded Belgians and Territorials. At Chaily (Sussex 54), also, a convalescent home can be provided with all equipment. At Ditchling (66 a ) and Westmeston, Street and Plumpton (66 b ) , there is a well equipped hospital for convalescents, trained nurses and medical attendance being provided. Worthing, which has three detachments (Sussex 78, 35 and 156) and is mobilised, provided seven motor-car loads of comforts for the sick and wounded. As a result of examinations since the commencement of the war, 53 women and 24 men had passed in first aid and 75 women and one man in home nursing. As the result a third women’s detachment is awaiting a number. At Southwick (Sussex 90), Mr. F. H. Allfrey, the commandant, is at work with the Territorials, of which there is a large camp close by. Newtimber (Sussex 42), Patcham (Sussex 162), and Steyning (Sussex 160), all report that they are ready when required, while Rottingdean (Sussex 172), a newly-formed detachment, is all ready to take in convalescents at short notice.

Major Maclure, formerly of the London Scottish, and late President of the Volunteer Ambulance School of Instruction, has issued a four-page leaflet entitled “ Instruc­ tions for Rendering Immediate Aid.” It contains many simple and useful hints to soldiers as to first aid in cases of emergency. It tells, for example, in simple language how to stop arterial or venous bleeding and what to do in case of flesh wounds, broken limbs, dislocations, and so forth. An instructive diagram is included.

The

company numbered about 69, including Commandants and members of the various detachments in the Division. The Countess of Chichester gave a most interesting resume of the situation to date, the past year, she said, had been one of very great activity, perhaps more than any had expected to be possible. Since the war, the activity among the V . A . D .’s had been very great. Alluding to the resignation of Miss Campion, the Hon. Secretary, during the year, she referred to all they owed her for her work, and said it was with very great regret that her resignation was accepted, as she had other work to do. Captain T. Stewart Jones, their former Hon.Treasurer, had resigned, too, as he had rejoined his regiment and was now at the front A t the outbreak of war, she had sent out an appeal for garments and hospital requisites, and the

According to a report in the Scotsman of February 16th, John Piercy Trevor Key, carrying on business under the name of “ Dr. Temple Co.”, at consulting rooms at 7, West Register-street, Edinburgh, and residing at 57, West Campbell.street, Glasgow, was charged in Edinburgh Police Court, on February 15th, with having on December 7 th, in Gayfield-square, Edinburgh, used for the purposes of his business, without the authority of the Army Council, the heraldic emblem of the Red Cross on a white ground by causing an employe to put up bills appertaining to his business, in contravention of the Geneva Convention Act, t9 ii. The accused pleaded guilty through an agent. The magistrate said the maximum penalty was ^ 1 0 , but he was prepared to modify the penalty to £ 2 .


March

1915.

Durham M ines Am bulance

F I R S T

L eague.

Mr. R. D o n a l d B a i n presided over the recent annual meet­ ing of the executive committee of the Durham Mines’ Inspection District Ambulance League. The annual report stated that the interest in the yearly competition was fully maintained, there being forty entries for the divi­ sional tests, as compared with 38 in the previous year. Seven teams entered for the final competition in the Town Hall, Durham. The examining surgeons again reported very favourably on the teams. It has been decided to hold the competition this year as usual. The President sub­ mitted figures as to the number of ambulance men from the mines and quarries in the inspection district who had joined H.M. Forces. The figures (which did not cover a number of the larger colleries) were as follows :— Number of men who are engaged in ambulance work, 137 serving abroad, 532 serving in England; number of men with ambulance experience who have joined the forces as fight­ ing units, 480. H e added that there was, no doubt, others of whom a record could not be obtained.

inside and out with crude castor oil, afterwards keeping the uppers supple by the constant use of oil or dubbin. Socks worn on the march should be washed and dried ready for the next day’s work, and another pair put on. They should never be put on dirty. An excellent preventive of blisters and sores was to wear a pair of thin socks under thick woollen stockings, as the friction then came not between the foot and the stocking, but between the sock and the stocking, and the foot never became sore. The great thing in the prevention of frostbite was to keep the feet warm and dry and to wear roomy waterproof coverings reaching high up the legs and leaving room enough inside for the wearing of two or three pairs of socks. A very use­ ful preparation of camphor, white wax, and vaseline was used in the Japanese Army for rubbing the limbs. If soldiers in the trenches could have the opportunity of re­ moving their footgear and puttees for a quarter of an hour twice daily, there was no doubt that the so-called frostbite cases would diminish greatly in number.

Inspection The

“ S h an son ”

Cooker.

W e had the opportunity of inspecting on March 15th the Field Kitchen which has been subscribed for by the “ Marys ” of the United Kingdom, and pre­ sented to the Order of St. John. One of the novel features of this kitchen is the cooking range, of which we give an illus­ tration. It is known as the “ Shanson ” cooker, and has been designed by Messrs. Shannon & Simpson, of Percival-street, London, E.C. The heat for this cooker is generated by ordin­ ary paraffin, which is converted into gas of intense heat; it has independent burners which can be regulated as in the case of the ordinary gas cooker, thus overcoming the difficulties previously experienced with oil burners. Another excellent feature is that the burners do not carbonise, and the consumption of oil is very small— one gallon of oil making 330 ft. of gas, thus saving considerable expense. It is estimated that the field kitchen can provide hot refreshments for about 500 wounded soldiers, and it will accompany an ambulance convoy, where it will be found of the utmost service.

Care

of

Sold iers’ F eet.

A l e c t u r e on “ The Soldiers’ F e e t : How to Protect Them,” was delivered at the Institute of Hygiene, on March n t h , by Major A. H. Tubby, R.A .M .C.(T.) 1 here were, said the lecturer, certain abnormal conditions which should cause recruits to be rejected, such as a marked degree of flat foot, bunions, metatarsalgia, and falling of the anterior arch, claw-like toes, and bad corns. The old drill position of “ feet turned out ” was very productive of deformed feet. Boots should be fitted after a march, when the feet were fatigued and swollen, and should be fitted over the thickest socks. Recruits should soften boots before wearing, and soak them well

179

A I D .—

of

M otor

A m bulances.

h e King inspected at Buckingham Palace, on February 17th, a number of motor ambulances which are being sent to the front by the Scottish branch of the British Red Cross Society. At the close of the inspection the King, addressing

T

Sir George Beatson, chairman ot the Scottish branch, and other members who were present, said :— “ I cannot refrain from expressing my appreciation of this splendid gift which has come from Scotland. I assure you, gentlemen, I appreciate it very highly, and am quite sure it will be of the greatest service to our troops in France. I am glad to have this opportunity of expressing my warm thanks to you, and I can assure you that this inspection has afforded me the greatest interest and pleasure.”

W hen corresponding; w ith A dvertisers please m ention “ F irst Aid.”


— FIRST

Queries and Jlnsw ers Correspondents.

C. A . S. ( L o n d o n ) . — A r tic le 9 o f th e G e n e v a C o n v e n t io n s t a t e s t h a t t h e p e r so n n e l o f V o l u n t a r y A i d S o c i e t i e s d u l y r e ­ c o g n i s e d b y t h e i r G o v e r n m e n t , w h o m a y b e e m p l o y e d in th e m e d ic al u n its a n d e sta b lis h m e n ts of arm ies, shall b e re sp ec te d a n d p r o t e c t e d u n d e r all c i r c u m s t a n c e s . I f t h e y fall in to t h e h a n d s o f th e e n e m y th e y shall not b e tre a te d a s p riso n ers of w ar.

Q ueries w i ll be dealt w ith under the follow in g rules .*— Letters containing Q ueries m ust be m arked on the top left hana corner of the envelope “ Q u er y ," a n d addressed— F i r s t A i d , 46, Cannon-street, London, E . C .

3'

A M Q ueries m ust be accom panied by a “ Q u ery C o u p o n " cu t from the curren t issue of the J o u r n a l, or in case o f Q ueries fr o m abroad from a recent issue.

3-

Headers r eq u ir in g a reply by post m ust enclose a stamped addressed envelope.

March, 1915.

in f r o n t o f t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e e a r a n d t h e s u b c la v ia n a r t e r y a g a i n s t t h e first rib b e h i n d th e m i d d l e o f th e c o lla r b o n e .

to

1'

AID.—

D . L. (B irm in g h a m ) .— Y o u a re n o t e lig ib le to jo in o n e of R e s e rv e s o f th e S .J.A .B . u n le ss y o u a re a m e m b e r. S in ce you h o ld a first a id c e r tific a te w e w o u ld r e c o m m e n d y o u to j o in a D ivision.

R eview s. f r a c t u r e o f fe m u r o r th ig h b on e w h i c h b a n d a g e is t o b e p u t o n f i r s t a n d s e c o n d , & c . , t o fix splints. T h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s q u e s t i o n is , I h a v e a l w a y s b e e n t a u g h t to p u t t h e first b a n d a g e u n d e r b o t h a r m s to fix t h e l o n g s p l i n t A , a n d t h e s e c o n d ( B ) j u s t a b o v e t h e h i p s , t h e t h i r d (C ) j u s t a b o v e s e a t o f f r a c t u r e , D b e lo w , & c., a n d I a l s o t h i n k t h a t is a c c o r d i n g t o o u r b o o k . B ut, o f c o u rse, t h e s e la s t few d a y s , w e h a v e g o t a n e w d o c t o r to t e a c h us, so h e h a d a sq u a d p u ttin g a frac tu re of th ig h u p a n d said t h e y w e r e d o i n g it e n t i r e l y w r o n g . H e sa y s , first b a n d a g e m u s t b e p u t a b o v e s e a t o f frac tu re , s e c o n d belo w , th ir d b e lo w a r m p its , &c. P l e a s e e x p la in to m e th e b a n d a g e s to p u t o n first, & c., a n d y o u w ill g r e a t l y o b lig e .

N e w b i g g i n , a s k s : —A s i m p l e

TH E

OF

T H E

RED

CROSS.

L o n d o n : H o d d e r & S to u g h to n .

P r ic e 2s. 6 d

net.

A ll p ro f its f r o m s a l e o f t h i s b o o k w ill b e g i v e n t o The F u n d f o r t h e s i c k a n d w o u n d e d , a n d is d i v i d e d f o r th a t p u rp o se b e tw e e n th e R e d C ro ss S o ciety a n d th e O r d e r o f St. J o h n . Q u e e n A l e x a n d r a h a s m o s t g r a c i o u s l y w r i t t e n a p r e f a c e to t h i s b o o k , a n d i t is r e p r o d u c e d in f a c s i m i l e f r o m h e r o w n h an d w ritin g . I t s o b j e c t is t o p r e s e n t a c o m p l e t e r e c o r d o f R e d C ro ss w ork. T h e a u th o rs h av e b e e n g iv en sp ecial facilities for th e s tu d y o f th e w o rk o f th e B ritis h R e d C ro ss S o c i e t y a n d t h e S t . J o h n A m b u l a n c e A s s o c i a t i o n in a l l i t s bearin g s. T h e y h a v e c a r r i e d o u t t h e i r t a s k in c lo s e c o ­ o p e r a tio n w ith th e a u th o ritie s a t th e H e a d q u a r t e r s in P a ll M a l l ; t h e y h a v e v i s i t e d t h e b a s e h o s p i t a l s a n d t r a v e l l e d in France. B u t th e y a re n o t o n ly c o n c e r n e d w ith th e w o rk a t th e fr o n t o r o n th e w a y to th e front. S e lf-sa c rificin g efforts a t h o m e w h ic h d o n o t c o m e m u c h befo re th e p u b lic ey e a re d e alt w ith s y m p a th e tic a lly , a n d th e c h a p t e r s d e v o te d to th e V .A .D . w o r k , t h e “ w a s h i n g - u p ” w h i c h h u n d r e d s o f w o m e n in E n g l a n d a re c o n te n t to do, ju s t th a t th e y m a y le n d a h e lp in g h a n d s o m e w h e r e , a r e a m o n g t h e m o s t i n t e r e s t i n g in t h e w h o le b o o k . T h e h isto ry o f th e R e d C ro ss S o ciety a n d th e O rd e r of S t . J o h n is g i v e n , a n d t h e u s e f u l s p h e r e o f a c t i o n t h e s e t w o S o c i e t i e s h a v e p e r f o r m e d is t r a c e d . M an y personal rem in i­ scen ces of th o se p e rfo rm in g h o sp ital w ork a t h o m e or a b ro a d a re n a r r a t e d in a m o s t d e lig h tfu l sty le, a n d th e b o o k fro m b e g i n n i n g t o e n d is o f a b s o r b i n g i n t e r e s t .

T im es

T h e p o i n t i n q u e s t i o n is o n e o f e x t r e m e l y l i t t l e m o m e n t , h e n c e t h e f a c t t h a t o n e a u t h o r i t y w ill a d v i s e o n e m e t h o d , w h i l s t a n o t h e r w ill g i v e i n s t r u c t i o n q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . In such an e m e rg e n c y th e re are e le m e n ta ry p o in ts o f v astly m o re c o n cern , a n d i f a m b u l a n c e l e c t u r e r s a n d o t h e r s c o n c e r n e d in t e a c h i n g p ra c tic a l a m b u la n c e w o rk w ould o n ly d ire c t th e sp ecial a tte n tio n o f s tu d e n ts to e x tre m e ly im p o r ta n t p ra c tic a l p o in ts ( s t i l l s o d e p l o r a b l y n e g l e c t e d — i f o n e is e n t i t l e d t o f o r m a n o p i n i o n b a s e d u p o n r e s u l t s a s s e e n in t h e e x a m i n a t i o n r o o m ) a n d n o t p e r m i t th e m in d s o f s t u d e n t s to b e d iv e r te d to triv ial a n d d e b a ta b le p o in ts, e x a m in a tio n e x p erie n ce w o u ld b e v ery m u c h m o r e e n c o u r a g i n g to th e e a r n e s t e x a m in e r , a n d t h e s tu d y o f a m b u la n c e w o rk w o u ld b e v e ry m u c h m o re beneficial to th e s tu d e n t s th e m s e lv e s .— L. M . F r a n k C h r i s t i a n . H. C. ( W i n c h e s t e r ) . — T h e p o in t o f c o m p r e s s io n o f t e m p o r a l a r t e r y is a g a i n s t t h e t e m p o r a l b o n e , ' _ a ; f i n g e r ’s b r e a d t h

WAY

B y E . C h arle s V iv ian a n d J. E . H o d d e r W illiam s.

the

H elp

for

F rench

H o s p i t a l s . — Mrs.

Rowton,

of

the Humanitarian Corps, makes a very earnest appeal for peroxide of hydrogen and mackintosh sheeting, or money to buy the same for two French hospitals which are actually in the firing line.

The Humanitarian Corps, whose head­

quarters are at the College of Ambulance, 3 and 4, Verestreet, W., have been rendering constant first aid to needy

B y courtscy\ L e ic e s t e r

R o y a l N a v a l S ick

[ T h e “ G .C .R y . J o u r n a l."

(G .C .R .) A

m b u l a n c e

M en .

hospitals at the front, supplying them with medical stores, with clothing, Bovril, milk fact, filling numberless gaps in equipment, add so much to the suffering and misery and those of our Allies.

necessaries, with essence, and, in which if lacking of our wounded

B erth R e s e rv e “ W e l c o m e ” H o sp ital, C hatham .

S t a n d i n g - A . H o r n b u c k l e , J . C. H u m p h r e y , J . C. B a i l e y , T . C. Jones. S e a t e d — S . P if f, H . C . R . H a y w o o d .

W H E N C O R R E SP O N D IN G W IT H A D V E R ­ T I S E R S P L E A S E M E N T I O N “F I R S T A I D ."


March, 1915.

— F I R S T

The

S.J.A.B.

T h o ’ I ’m l i v i n g t o - d a y In a la n d far aw ay, T h e r e ’s a v i s i o n t h a t o f t c o m e s O f so m e la d s th a t I k n o w H e lp in g b o th frien d a n d foe— T h e la d s o f th e S .J.A .B .

to

m e,

T h e y h a v e a n s w e r e d th e call T o h e l p t h o s e w h o fa ll In battle, o n la n d a n d s e a ; T h r o u g h d a n g e r t h e y ’ll w a d e T o r e n d e r first a id T h e s e lads of th e S .J.A .B . T h o ’ no valo u r o r fam e Is a tta c h e d to th e ir n a m e , N o R e g ’m e n t a l C o l o u r s t o s e e ; T h e y ta k e up th e ir stan d , F a c in g d e ath h a n d -in -h a n d , T h e s e la d s o f th e S .J.A .B . T o th e H o sp ital T e n t Y o u ’ll f i n d h e is s e n t , A s o n e of th e R .A .M .C . B u t t o d u t y h e ’ll g o , T h o ’ t h e w o r l d d o e s n ’t k n o w , H e ’s t h e l a d o f t h e S . J . A . B .

AID

AN IN V A L U A B LE BOOK FOR ALL RED CROSS WORKERS. By

DR.

ANDREW

I n the present grave emergency every Red Cross and Ambulance worker should send the form below for full and interesting particulars of an invaluable book that is really an epitome in clear language of all that specialised medical and surgical knowledge necessary for First Aiders. In “ The Modern Physician,” by Dr. Andrew Wilson, fullest space is devoted to “ First Aid ” and Ambulance Work. In respect of completeness, accuracy of description and wealth of illustration, “ T he Modern Physician ” stands without a rival amongst the works published on this im­ portant subject in the United Kingdom. It is scientifically accurate and reliable without being du ll; the name of its editor, so long known as an authority on the subject, is a guarantee of this.

EVERY B u t w h e n t h e w a r ’s o ’e r , A n d P e a c e a s o f yore, 'T is th e n , I h o p e , w e s h a ll see T h e s e la d s g e t th e p ra ise, F o r th e n a m e th ey h av e ra ised — T h e n a m e o f th e S .J.A .B . 1 P .G .H .F . (B unbury), W e s te r n A u stralia. L a te C o rp