Page 1


FIRST AID.

The Independent Journal for the Ambulance and Fire Services. Conducted b y A R T H U R N o . 2 1 7 .— V

o l

. X IX

JULY,

[N e w S e r ie s .]

B.

DALE,

19 1 2 .

M.J.I. PRICE

[Entered a t Stanoners' Hall.]

[ 2 /6 P e r

TWOPENCE.

A n nu m , P ost F r e e .

precaution on the part o f miners, and it is in this direction

To Our Readers. As it is the wish and desire of the Proprietors to make this Journal as instructive and entertaining as possible, correspondents in all parts of the country are asked to give it all the help they can. Superintendents of Corps and Officers of Divisions of the St. John Ambulance Brigade, Officers of the Royal Army Medical Corps (Territorials), the Volunteer Ambulance School of Instruction, and Chief Officers of Fire Brigades will, it is hoped, do their best to make it known amongst the members of their respective organisations, and will also send for publication their official news and notices. Sugges­ tions are invited for Prize Competitions and other matters which will advance the interest of the Journal. We particularly desire to ask our correspondents to be brief and to the point in any communications they may send us for publication. Correspondents sending in photos are urgently requested to state on the back of the same the name of the individual or the Corps or Brigade and give also the name and address of the sender. We beg to advise our readers that we do not pay for photographs or copy sent, unless previously agreed upon in writing. “ First Aid ” is published on the 20th of the month.

that we wish to lay stress on the fact that m uch m ight be done to minimise the risks by means o f education. T o point out the ignorance which prevails, a collier of 12 years’ experience m ade the adm ission at the Pretoria inquiry that he had never tested his working place for gas and, furthermore, that he did not know how.

T h e dectec-

tion o f fire-damp should com e within the most elem entary know ledge of every miner, and yet here is a case o f a man with 12 years’ experience who is absolutely ignorant on the subject. E veryone who goes down a m ine should know som e­ thing about the m ethods o f testing for gas and the con ­ clusion to draw from such tests, and it is the duty o f those responsible for the care o f mines to impress this on them, for we believe it would go a long way to m inimise the risks of disaster.

Furtherm ore, everyone connected with m ining

should make it his personal determ ination not to do or allow anything to be done which would entail an unneces­

EDITORIAL.

sary risk.

It is an adm itted fact that colliers often run

counter to their safety by gross carelessness, but with proper education we believe it could be brought hom e to

T

he

frequent

recurrence

of

mining

them that their occupation needs the greatest precaution

Prevention

disasters, culm inating this month with

of

the explosions at the C ad eby Collieries,

R everting to the tragedy which occurred at C ad eby, it

M ining

which resulted in the loss of eighty-four

has a particularly sad significance, for it was succeeded by

Disasters.

lives, serves to rem ind us of the un­

a further calam ity in w hich those heroic men who had

speakable dangers which miners have to

decended to the rescue were involved, and w hereby death

encounter during the course o f their occupations.

M uch

on their part to m inim ise the risks they run.

has claim ed M r

W

H . Pickering, the ch ief inspector of

has been done of recent years by legislation and care on

the Y orkshire coalfields— a gentlem an who has done much

the part o f colliery owners in safeguarding the miners against

to stim ulate and encourage am bulance work am ongst the

accident and the provision of rescue equipm ent.

Y et, in

miners— and Mr. D. Cham bers, one o f the most assiduous

spite o f such forethought, disasters continue to happen, and

workers

generally the information which leads to the disasters is so

In

of

the

addition,

S .J .A .B .

we

note

in

with

the

regret

N o. that

5 two

District. of

the

meagre that the most investigation can do is to form some

men who lost their lives were o f the party which assisted

broad conjecture as to their cause.

in

B ut however slight the

information and experience may be, it is generally o f a

the

rescue

Review .

dem onstration

at

the

recent

W indsor

T h ese heroes have m et their ends by one o f the

most valuable character, and it is the duty o f everyone

m ost gallant acts that it falls to the lot o f hum anity to per­

connected with mining to m ake the o f it.

form, for they have laid down their lives in an effort to

best

possible

use

E xperience in the past has shown that disasters have resulted from multifarious causes.

Perhaps some o f them

could have been prevented by the exercise o f care and

save the lives o f others. K in g and

T h e m essage o f sym pathy o f the

Q ueen, and their visit am ongst the stricken

people of C ad eby, must have cheered those afflicted in their hours o f sorrow.


2

— F I R S T

AID. — 24 23

S tJ o h * A t ' b u u , n c e .

5N 30 37 40

5

46 20

9 55 54 54

No. 1 District

22

(Prince of W a le s ’s Corps.)

38 17

22 62

DUTY

7 7 4 52 17

ROSTER.

A U G U S T , 1912. Sunday Duty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. August 4th.— No. 41 Division, n th .— No. 37 „ „ 18th.— No. 36 „ „ 2 s th.— No. 40 „

60

19

ST. JO H N V O L U N T A R Y A ID D E T A C H M E N T S . B/F 27, half-yearly returns from Jan. 1st to June 30th. These forms, which arein the hands ofCommandants, should becompleted as soon aspossible, and forwarded to head­ quarters. There are several London detachments which have not yet had their Inspection. A t least three dates, for selection, must be submitted to the Deputy-Commissioner at once. B U G L E B A N D P R A C T IC E . July 19th, August 9th and 23rd. Headquarters at 8 p.m. P R E S E N T B T IO N O F T E S T I M O N IA L TO M r . W . H. M O R G A N . Owing to force of circumstances, the presentation of the testimonial to Mr. W . H. Morgan cannot be arranged until after the holiday season. It is contemplated to hold a concert at the end of September when this presentation will be made, and at the same time to hand to the successful competitors the various trophies, the competitions for which will have been held a few days previously. District Order, dated n fe / is . O P E N S P A C E D U T Y , 5/8/12. T he Corps will parade as under at 11 a.m. Inspectors of Stores and Storemen detailed to draw stores will parade at Headquarters, St. John’s Gate, at 9 a.m. Open Space.

51 1 24 3°

Addington Hills Alexandra Park Battersea Park Blackheath

44 7

Barnes Common (2 stations) Bostal Woods ... Brock well Park Bromley ........................ Barnet ... Chingford, Forest Hotel „ Rising Sun „ Napier Arms „ Robin Hood

45

21 42 2 33 29 is

A ittbee. D iv .

N. S.

N. D iv .

...5 1 ,6 1 ,6 2 ....... 13 ...1 ,1 3 ,2 5 ...4... 2 ...24 ...2 ...14 ...12, (6, 30...2...10 37 ...2.. 1

•••44 ... 7, 41,49 — 3 - 1 ...2.. 10 -4 5 ...21 ...42 ...2, 10 ••■33,6 ...29 ...1 5 ,6

Clapham Common ............... Crystal P a la c e ........................... „ D ep ot............... Downhill Park........................... Ealing Common ............... Epping Forest, W ake Arm s... Hackney Marshes Hainault Forest ............... Hampstead Heath, Upper station „ Lower „ Hanwell Bridge Kew Bridge ........................... Old Deer Park, Richmond ... Parliament Hill Peckham R y e ........................... Putney H e a th ........................... Regent’s P a r k ........................... R id d le s d o w n ........................... Southend-on-Sea ............... South Mill Fields Wanstead Flats ............... Welsh Harp, Hendon Wimbledon Common (2 stations) Woodford Wormwood Scrubs ............... (Signed)

R O Y A L R E V I E W — R E F R E S H M E N T T IC K E T S . W e are anxious to know whether any Officer has a dinner or tea ticket, which he or she has omitted to return, as after the 18th inst. no claim can be admitted. It is not necessary to apply for the allowance on the breakfast ticket, as this will be made in every case at the rate of 2s. 6d. per head.

D iv . i/c.

July, 1912.

.4... 8 -3 --1 1 .3 - 1 1 .4... 8

LEES

24, 38 23

3° 37

40

5 46 20 9

55 54,27 54

22

38 17 22 62

7 7 4 52, 6

17

...2...10 ....... 5 ....... 5 ...2 ... 1 ...2... 8 ...2 ... 1 ...2...15 ...3 ... 2 ...3 ... 2 ...2...10 ...2... 14 ...2 ... 6 ...2 ... 9 ....... 7 ...2 ... 6

>11_ _

...I ... I . . . 2 ... I I

_

... 2 ... 6 ...2... 7

60

...3 ... 2 19 H A LL , Deputy-Commisssoner.

N o. 9 C om pany held a march out on Saturday, June 29th, and notwithstanding the unsettled conditions of the weather 75 members paraded on Ealing Com m on and marched to the “ B allot B ox,” H orsenden, accom panied by the Corps B ugle Band, where an excellent tea was pro­ vided, and was followed by an enjoyable evening, which concluded with three rousing cheers for the C om pany C om ­ mander and a vote o f thanks to 1st Officer Journet for successfully prom oting the outing. First Officer Journet, in response, stated this was the first com pany march out and he hoped it would becom e an annual affair. T h e success was not due to him but to every mem ber o f the C om pany who had paraded. H e hoped the members o f the C om pany would give the C om ­ pany Com m ander the same support for a C hurch Parade, also a C om pany dinner which he (1st Officer Journet) suggested should be arranged at some future date. T h e evening being fine, the C om pany made an enjoy­ able march back to Ealing and dismissed.

T h e officers o f the corps gave a farewell dinner to the Overseas contingents o f the brigade on July 9th, at the Charterhouse Restaurant. Col. Lees H all presided, and some 27 officers o f the corps were present, and also the following colonial representatives : Supt. Collins, Sergts. Saunders, Clark and Spademan, Corpls. Lindforth, Gray, Prewett and W atson, Ptes. Bell, Greenwood, Laurance, Lewis, Baker, Reddin, B lack, Fountain, Edm unds, Sagar, M cM agee and K line, of the Canadian contingent; Mrs. C ottle (India), Miss W auhope, and Messrs. W ilkinson and K ea to (Australia). T h ere were also present Mr. W. H. Morgan, Deputy-Com m issioner of the Overseas Brigade, and Dr. Cantlie. Asst. - Com m issioner W. H . W inny proposed the toast o f “ Our Guests,” which was responded to by the senior colonial officer present. Supt. Collins proposed the toast o f “ T h e Prince o f W ales’ Corps, which was responded to by Corps Supt. Lines, and Mr. W . H . M organ proposed the toast o f “ T h e C hairm an.” A n excellent musical program m e followed, to which Sergt. Watts, o f the E aling division, and M iss M aggie H ennessey contributed several ito L r


No. 5 District. B r a d f o r d . — A more beautiful spot to hold a Church Parade than the Park A ven u e C ounty C ricket G round could hardly be found, and the Drum -head Service, con­ ducted by the V icar o f Bradford, the R ev. Cresford Jones, M .A ., on July 14th, was as pretty a picture as one could wish for on a perfect summer’s day with the familiar uni­ forms o f the St. John Am bulance Brigade shown up against the verdant background o f the cricket pitch and variegated by the Nursing Sisters’ white uniforms, U nder Dr. Vaughan Bateson as Parade Com m andant and Supt. Charlesworth as Adjutant, the 300 men m arched to their rendezvous, arriving to the minute arranged. T h e Nursing Sisters, under L ad y Supt. Chapm an, were seated in the spacious pavilion, and being over 100 in number, made a fair show in the brilliant sunshine. T h e Leeds S .J.A .B . bugle band were in attendance, and the congregation, num bering some fifteen hundred, in spite of the other counter attractions, occupied the stands and listened attentively to the address, which was very applicable to the occasion, and given in a most adm irable

TH E

(W E S T

LONDON )

No.

44

“ T h e blind receiv 1 their sight,” and he eulogised the fact th at tiie St. Tohn A m b u lan ce was a m ovem ent to carry on the g o o d w on -ed by the knights o f old and the Order o f St. John o f T alem. T h e coliectu , which was on b eh alf o f the British Opthalm i'- H ' pital at Jerusalem, and also the D istrict N urse’s Fund, am ounted to about j£ i o . After “ service the parade re-formed. No. 6 D isti.ct. H u l l . — T h e C h ief Com m issioner inspected the Corps at the Londesborough Barracks, on June 29th. T h ere was a large muster o f officers, nursing sisters and men con ­ sisting o f n Divisions, 8 am bulance, and 3 nursing Divisions. Assistant-Com m issioner A. H . Johnston was in com m and o f the parade, and the other officers present were :— D istrict Treasurer J. O. V aughan, Corps Secretary W. J. Atkinson, Surgeon-Captain A. W. Scott, Corps Inspector o f Stores F. W ilson, and Corps Treasurer F. H . V aughan. T h e Inspecting Officer was received by a general salute, and after proceeded to inspect the line, this

D IV IS IO N ,

manner. T h e lesson was read by Dr. V aughan Bateson ; the collection am ounted to j £ n . After the service the parade m arched back to the M idland Station, where refreshm ents were provided, a novelty being the utilisation o f the railway dining cars for some o f the party. Mr. Pratt, secretary, and 1st Officer Ward are to be congratulated on the result o f their work. T h e R oyal C oronation M edals are to be presented at the Lister Park G arden Party on July 20th, by Alderm an W. C . Lupton. T h e L ord M ayor to preside. B r i g h o u s e — On June 30th this corps held its annual church service and a large num ber of am bulance men and nursing sisters, about 80 in number, attach ed to the dis­ trict attended, the M ayor and mem bers of the Corporation, the fire brigade and boy scouts also taking part. SurgeonM ajor E. W est Symes, o f Halifax, was in com m and. T h e parade assem bled in the M arket-place and marched by a devious route to the Parish C hurch. T h e Rev. R . P. W hittington, the V icar, preached from the text :

P R IN C E

OF

W A L E S ’S

C O R P S.

was followed by a march past and practical work. A t the conclusion the C h ie f Com m issioner expressed his satisfaction at what he had seen. In the evening a social was held at which a pleasing presentation took place. Supt.-Treasurer J. A . W ingate was the receipent o f a time piece and a pair of bronzes on the com pletion of twenty years’ service. Mr. W ingate is now on the reserve list, and we hope he will be spared many years to take an interest in the work he has been associated with so long. T h e H u ll Corps held its C hurch Parade on June 30th, 219 members were present with Assistant Com m issioner A. H . Johnston in com m and. T h e men of the H u ll and Barnsley D ivision gave an interesting dem onstration o f a m ock railway accident, on June 30th, at W illerby. It was supposed that there had been an accident in the Station, and the “ in ju re d ” were lying about the scene, som e between the metals, under­ neath trucks, and others in different positions beside the rails, while others were in the “ w recked ” carnages and


— F I R S T

4

AID. —

July, 1912.

trucks. It was the duty o f the men to find the wounded, render first aid, and convey them to the hospital for further attention.

S o m eth in g

A fter

All.

R o y a l R e v i e w i n W i n d s o r P a r k o f 15,000 N u r s i n g S iste r s a n d A m b u l a n c e M e n of t h e S t . Joh n A m b u l a n c e B r i g a d e , J u n e 22, 1 9 1 2 .

been thinking just a little, since the Windsor Royal Review— that There’s something in the Brigade after all. They may not seem perfection when looked at square and flat But there’s something in the Brigade after all. They’re not got up like Guardsmen for their work’s not on parade, But they have a sense of duty one and all. And to meet the strange demands they get, no drill book yet is made, So there’s something in the units after all. I ’VE

When the flag of trouble’s flying ; when the train is off the line, They send for the Brigade men first of all. If the choke damp fills the coalpit from explosion in the mine There’ll be some of the Brigade there first of all. For they do not give their leisure hours to “ Am bulance” for naught, But to practice how to answer duties call. And to use for all humanity the principles they’re taught, And to be a ready help in need to all. Now when good Queen Victoria sent down her Royal Command Some twenty years ago and that is all, T o Stuart C. Wardell, D.C., to come to Windsor— and Four hundred members answered to his call. King George would see these volunteers unique throughout his land And fifteen thousand mustered all in all, Ten miles of men in serried ranks, two thousand Nursing band, A tidy little rally after all. Our use is just the rent we pay for living on this earth And we cannot dodge the payment great or small ; But the old St. John Brigade has a lease that’s overpaid For you can’t deny our usefulness at all. Though we have’nt many coronets or a flood of Norman blood W e’ve kind hearts in the Brigade one and all. W e can stand a bit of chaff for we know we have the laugh, W hen we answer to an injured comrades call. So when next you clean your buttons up or starch your aprons white Just to your mind our history recall, That suffering and sorrow is the enemy we fight : An enemy that never sleeps at all. But every act of duty gives an added grace and beauty To make our lives worth living after all. For our battle will be long with an enemy so strong, But the old St. John Brigade will never fall. — V. Bateson.

V isco u n t K nutsford, Sub-Prior o f the Order o f the H ospital of St. John o f Jerusalem in England, in the absence in C an ada o f the D u ke o f Connaught, Grand Prior, presented the life-saving awards o f the Order at a special Chapter-G eneral at St. John ’s G ate on July 19th, and afterwards the Service M edal to mem bers o f the St. John A m b ulan ce Brigade.

T h e monthly C ouncil m eeting was held on June 5th at the head office o f the Association, 124, St. Stephen’sgreen, W. D ublin, Dr. G eorge B. W hite in the chair, and was largely attended. After the reading and confirmation of the previous m onth’s minutes, quite a mass o f correspondence was dealt with, mainly concerning enquiries respecting forma­ tion o f classes in the country districts ; a proof that already, though of only about six m onth’s existence— strenuous existence— the Association is m aking itself known. Com m unications from St. A ndrew ’s and St. John’s A m bulance Associations, dealing with the mutual recog­ nition of certificates and m edallions were also considered. A letter was read from H is E xcellen cy the Lord Lieutenant o f Ireland accepting the Patronship of the Society, thus giving it a status and official recognition not previously enjoyed. T h e adoption o f the text-book by Sir John Collie, M .D ., and C. F. W ightm an, F .R .C .S ., was very fully dis­ cussed, and finally a d o p te d ; minor details regarding the design on cover being suggested. T h e new badge o f the Association (as above), after many suggestions had been received, was a d o p te d ; and the secretary was instructed to procure quotations for button-hole badges bearing the design. Draft rules for the formation and guidance o f classes were subm itted and passed. T h e arrangements o f certificates, & c., will be as follows :— First year, elem entary certificate; second year, interm ediate certificate : third year, advanced certificate with medallion. First two certificates will be based on the official text-book, the third year’s certificate upon W arwick and T u n stall’s “ A dvan ced A m bulance H an d b oo k.” Stretcher work will be taken up in second year’s course, but not in the first. Som e subscriptions were handed in, including a most generous donation from V iscount Iveagh, who takes a keen interest in first aid work, and indeed all works of a hum ani­ tarian character. Lieut.-Col. G eorge E. Tw iss, who was in D ublin during the Bi-Centenary celebration o f Trinity C ollege M edical School, called at the head offices o f the A ssocia­ tion, and left his card. U nfortunately the secretary, being away, had not the pleasure o f meeting him. Since writing the above a com m unication has been received from the C ou n cil of the St. Andrew ’s A m bulance Association intim ating that it had unanim ously resolved to recognise the certificate of St. P atrick’s A m bulance A sso­ ciation ; the latter has agreed to act sim ilarly towards theirs. T h is gracious and courteous act is much appreciated, and will tend to cem ent the friendly feeling shown by the St. Andrew ’s Association towards St. Patrick since its formation.

W hen corresponding w ith A d v ertisers p lease m en ­ tion “ F ir st A id .”


July, 1912.

F I R S T

G .W .R .— Q uite a large num ber o f G reat VV’estern Am bulance men were present at the R oyal R eview at W indsor on the 22nd ult., and the P addington D ivision of the Brigade turned out at full strength. A n interesting little cerem ony took place in the Board-room at P ad ­ dington prior to the departure o f the officers and men of this Division for W indsor, the silver medals being presented by the general manager, Mr. Frank Potter, to the members who were on duty on the occasion o f the Coronation.

TH E

AID.—

was one o f the first railway am bulance men who volunteered for service at the tim e o f the South African war, and prior to his departure he was a prom inent mem ber of the B ir­ mingham A m bulance Class. R eturning to E ngland after the war, he again proceeded after a short interval, to South A frica to take up a railway appointm ent, and it is chiefly in connection with railway am bulance work that he has m ade such excellent progress. H e was selected to attend the R o yal R eview in charge o f the T ransvaal contingent. T h e Newport, D ock-street class recently held their annual concert at the Shaftesbury Cafe, when the awards gained by the members o f the class were distributed by the chairman, Mr. R . Cam pfield (Asst.-Supt.). A m on g the large com pany present were C ouncillor D. Jessem an, Dr. J. H . N eville (lecturer), Messrs. A. G. E. J. Fudge, T . V ile, R . Perry and others. T h e class of which Mr. F. B ishop is secretary has been very successful. T h e men are very keen upon the work and have received valuable assistance from Dr. N eville. In his opening remarks the Chairm an said he was unaware before that evening how strong the am bulance m ovem ent really was in N ewport. Gatherings

A L E X A N D R A D O C K A N D R A IL W A Y A M B U L A N C E This year’s winners of the Inter-Railway Shield.

During the K in g ’s visit to South W ales, M r. A. Lucas, Dowlais, whose election as an H onorary Serving Brother o f the Order o f St. John, was referred to am ong others in last m onth’s issue, was presented with the Insignia o f the Order by H is M ajesty in the C ity H all, Cardiff. Mr. L ucas has been connected with the am bulance m ovem ent for no less than twenty-eight years, having obtained his certificate in 1888. H is m edallion bears the num ber 5351. In the year 1892 he becam e Secretary o f the G reat Western A m bulance Class at Dowlais, a post which he still holds. H e was for nine years Secretary o f the Dowlais D ivision of the St. John A m bulance Brigade, and for the past six years has been Corps Secretary o f the D ow lais Corps. H e cer­ tainly fully merits the honour which has now been conferred on him. An old Great W estern A m bulance worker attended the R o yal R eview at W indsor in the person o f C h ie f Superintendent Barnet, of the Johannesburg Corps. H e

5

TEAM .

o f that character did more to increase the m em bership than anything else. D uring the evening presentations were m ade to Dr. N eville, Mr. F. Bishop, and Messrs. Story and Stratton in appreciation o f their excellent work in connection with the class. A very acceptable musical program m e was presented and much enjoyed by those privileged to be present. Mr. C . Greening, Junr. was the accom panist. L .B . & S .C . R y .— T he Brighton D istrict o f the C en tre regret to report the death o f A lexander Forsyth, who died on the 3rd inst., after a short illness. Mr. Forsyth was a steady, hard working and con­ scientious man, ever ready to help, and a real good first aider. H e was No. 5 in the team that represented the L .B . & S .C . R y. in the final com petition for the R ailw ay Shield at Portm an R oom s on the 17th o f M ay last, and in the report issued by the S .J .A .A . later he is credited with


6

— F I R S T

having scored the highest mark made on his particular test. A s a last tribute o f respect a large num ber o f his am bulance colleagues followed his body to its resting place, the members o f his team, with the addition o f the Brighton D istrict Secretary acting as bearers. T h e wreath sent by his colleagues bore the sim ple inscription of “ W ith kindest thoughts from a Broken F iv e .” M. R y .— M r. M cC on key, the goods manager, on July 2nd, distributed m edallions, labels and certificates to the members o f the St. Pancras classes. Mr. M cC on key, after the presentations, said it was a great credit to the St. Pancras branch that out o f twentythree candidates who presented them selves for examination they had only one failure, and he desired to congratulate them and also their Surgeon-Instructor, Dr. W alker. H e hoped the younger members would still persevere and endeavour to learn all that was necessary to becom e full mem bers of the Association. H e also hoped that other men o f the departm ent would join, as it was most useful to them to know how to act in case o f accident. Mr. G. E. Lewis, the hon. secretary, then handed Mr. M cC on key a handsom e leather bag, which, he said, the class desired him to present to Dr. W alker. Mr. M cC on key regretted that Dr. W alker was not able to be present, but he would convey the expression of the class to him at the earliest opportunity. T h e proceedings term inated with a vote of thanks to Mr. M cC on key, proposed by Mr. Roberts, and seconded by Mr. Knight. L. & N .W . R y .— M r. J. Gay ton, who is one of the pioneers o f railway am bulance work in N orth W ales and for many years has been hon. sec. o f the N orth W ales D istrict o f the Centre, was recently the recipient o f an illum inated address and a purse of gold from his colleagues as a mark o f appreciation of his valuable services to the am bulance cause. An interesting com petition took place at Blakesley H all, near Tow cester, by kind invitation o f G. W. Barthomew, Esq., on Saturday July 13th. .Ten teams com peted, com ing from the following stations :— Castlethorpe, Bletchley, R ugby, Broad-street (London), Nuneaton, Cam den (London), C ol wick, Euston (London), W illesden and W atford. T h e judges were, Dr. A udland and Supt. R eeves for stretcher work, and Supt. G ilbert for the individual work. Dr. S. C . M oberley was an interested spectator during the whole day, and gave some very valuable hints. T h e D istrict Secretaries (Mr. Ernest T . M ilburn, Southern D is­ trict and Mr. E. R. H obbs, R u gby D istrict) were in charge o f the general arrangements ; and assisting them were Messrs. M ackintosh, G oodw in, Bannister, Clark, Page and Reeve, from the R u gby District, and Messrs. C ook, H o m ey, and Burchall, from the South. T h e Stretcher Question was a very carefully thought out one. T h e first card read :— “ T w o men whilst driving a motor car are upset into a ditch. On reaching them you find one (A ) is insensible. T h e other one (B ) is lying in the ditch unable to move, suffering from a severe sprain of the right ankle and a com pound fracture o f the m iddle of the forearm with arterial bleeding.” N .B .— “ Im provise material only to be used in treating the patient B .” T h e second card was hidden away on the patient, and r e a d :— “ T h e left side o f the chest over the 6th and 7th ribs is deform ed and scarlet frothy blood is com ing from

A I D . —

July, 1912.

the mouth. T here is also a sim ple fracture of the right knee-cap.” T h e teams started work about 10.30 a.m., and the whole were finished at 5.30 p.m. T h e sky was slightly overcast during the day, which fortunately tem pered the excessive heat and enabled the work to be carried on with som ething like comfort. A t 1 .3 0 p.m, everybody was entertained to luncheon, and at 5.30 a splendid tea was enjoyed, the whole being given by the kind generosity of Mr. Bartholomew. A s soon as tea was finished, the result was given out, and Cam den Station, London, were declared the winners o f the “ Bartholom ew ” C h allenge Cup, which they will hold for the next twelve months. T h e marks gained by each were as follows :—

1. 2. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Station. Camden, London Broad-st., London / Bletchley (Nuneaton Castlethorpe Euston, London Rugby Watford Colwick Willesden

Individual. -Voce. Pract. Stretc. 124 30 45 110 38 43 104 36 39 26 118 35 96 3' 44 103 24 3(

44

24

37

73

Total 199 191 169

'79

171 .58

'54

26 88 '38 28 48 110 34 20 24 48 92 T h e C u p was presented on behalf o f Mr. Bartholomew, and great regret was expressed that he was not able to be present personally, but unfortunately illness kept him to the house. Mr. H ead, o f the D istrict Managers Office, Rugby, then m oved a vote o f thanks to Mr. and Mrs. Bartholom ew and to the three judges for what they had done. On b ehalf o f all present, he asked that this be conveyed to Mr. Bartholom ew, coupled with an expression o f the very deep regret felt by all that illness should keep him from being present to hear for himself, the vote o f thanks. A s to the judges, he felt that too much could not be said in thanks for their services. Dr. A udland briefly responded for the Judges. T h e members of the winning team were Messrs. Baxter, Judd, Simmonds, T u ll and Beebe. S .E . & C . R y .— N ow that the Season is over so far as class work, & c., on this railway is concerned, a num ber of meetings have taken place on various parts o f the line for the presentation o f awards gained by members o f the classes. O n M onday, June 3rd, a crowded m eeting was held at the North Cam berw ell R adical Club, O ld Kent-road, S.E. for the presentation o f awards to the successful candidates at the recent classes at Addiscom be-road, B ricklayers’ Arms Goods, B ricklayers’ Arm s L oco, H ither Green, London Bridge, N ew Cross and Orpington. Mr. H. E. O. W heeler (London D istrict Traffic Supt.) presided, and Mrs. H . E. O. W heeler graciously presented the certificates, & c. A n excellent musical programme was enjoyed by the large audience, which num bered between 600 and 700 persons. O n Thursday, June 6th, a very enjoyable m eeting took place at the W esley H all, Deal, when the M ayor (Alderm an Edgar) presided, and was supported by Dr. A. H ughes (hon. lecturer) and Mrs. H ughes, Mr. E. A. Richards, chairman o f the C entre Com m ittee, and Mr. R. L ane, the C entre Secretary. T h e Mayoress handed the awards to the large num­ ber o f successful candidates, and His Worship referred


— F I R S T

July, 1912.

earnestly and sym pathetically as to the good work the rail­ way am bulance men are doing in the neighbourhood. A pleasant incident during the evening was the presentation o f a silver teapot to Mr. A. E. Edwards, Secretary to the D eal class. A collection was made on behalf of the V icto ria Hospital, ,£ 1 17s. 6d. being collected. T h e Nutfield class concluded the season’s work on June 1 2th with an excellent sm oking concert, which was held at the Railway H otel, Nutfield, when Mr. E. A. Richards presided. During the evening an excellent pro­ gramme was rendered, and enthusiastic references were made to the splendid success that has always attended the Nutfield classes. T h is is largely due to the keenness dis­ played by the secretary to the class, Mr. W hittaker, stationmaster at Nutfield. A similar meeting was held on the following W ednes­ day, for the benefit o f the railwaymen who were unable to be present on the 12th June. TH E

AID. —

7

man, o f Bexhill, directed the operations, and the m en’s work was inspected by Dr. K en n eth Stokes, of Bexhill, and Dr. S. L . Thurlow , o f T u n brid ge W ells. Am ongst other interested spectators were Messrs. E. A. R ichards (centre chairm an), J. Shaw (district engineer), and C oun cillor G. H . Gray. A sm oking concert was held later at the D evonshire H otel, when a splendid program m e was greatly enjoyed by a large num ber o f the railway am bulance men. Mr. E. A. Richards took the chair, and referred to the very large num ber o f cases where first aid had been rendered by the railwaym en since the formation of the centre. Concerts were also held at D over and P ad d ock W ood during the past month, at which awards were presented, and sym pathetic references m ade as to the efforts m ade by the men on this system, and the excellent results that have been achieved during the past year. It is evident that there will be no going back from this satisfactory position in the com ing season.

L O N D O N a n d N O R T H -W E S T E R N R A IL W A Y A M B U L A N C E which secured 2nd place in the Inter-Railway Competition.

P h o to 6v]

TEAM

[ A . G. L e w is , S to ckp o rt.

A. Allen (sec.). Dr. Cryer. J. Hunter, Esq. B. Turner, A. Batsford, L. Turner (capt.), G. Rhodes, H. Wood, C. Ashby. A class was held this year at D unton Green, and proved a very successful one. A ll the members who attended, except three, passed for their awards, 28 men com ing up for exam ination altogether, and 25 satisfy­ ing the examiners’ requirements. T h e certificates, & c., were presented at a sm oking concert held on June 17th, when Mr. H owland, stationmaster at Chislehurst, occupied the chair. A very jolly evening was spent, an excellent programme being rendered by friends from the neighbour­ hood. T h e services o f Mr. S. Rand, who has devoted a great deal of tim e in coaching the men during the past season were recognised, members o f the class having sub­ scribed towards a suitable present to be given him in appreciation o f his efforts. A demonstration o f am bulance work was given by the members o f No. 5 district, at Bexhill S.E . & C .R . station on W ednesday, June 19th. Mr. G. Manser, committee-

On June 26th a sm oking concert was held at the W hite H art H otel, R eading, in connection with the R eadin g and N orth C am p Classes. Dr. Patterson, o f N orth Cam p, presided, being supported by Mr. F. E. Ellender, D istrict Supt., Mr. E. A . Richards, Chairm an o f the C entre, Mr. R . Lan e, C en tre Secretary, and Dr. Cropp, o f R eading. D uring the evening certificates were presented to those men who had been successful in passing the exam ination on first aid work this year. Dr. Patterson congratulated the men o f both stations on the efficient manner in w hich they did the work, and also on the large percentage o f mem bers who succeeded in satisfying the examiner. O n ly two men failed out o f a total o f 78 who presented them selves for examination. An excellent m usical program m e was sustained during the evening and the proceedings term inated with a hearty vote o f thanks to the Chairm an.


8

— F I R S T

T h e r e has been appearing in the D a ily E xp ress, under the heading o f “ M edal W orship,” som e correspondence

relating to the indiscrim inate wearing of m ed a ls; one correspondent takes as an instance the S .J .A .B ., and w rites:— “ I h e St. John A m bulance Brigade serves a splendid purpose and performs an excellent duty, but why do its members have medals absolutely showered on them ? For instance, if a man joined the brigade in 1897 and is still serving, it is quite possible for him, whenever he puts his uniform on, to wear four m edals— i.e., the Diam ond Jubilee, two Coronation, and the brigade long-service medals. I f he thought fit to volunteer for service with the St. John A m bulan ce Brigade in South A frica during the late war, he received the so-called ‘ H um anity ’ medal, in addition to the Q u een ’s, and probably the K in g ’s, South A frican medals. T hus, in this highly decorated unit, it is quite possible to find a man with seven medals, which only represent one cam paign outside the various ‘ Battles of L o n d o n .’ ” * * *

T h i s correspondent is quite correct in his contention, but it is highly im probable for a member o f the Brigade to have such a record o f service as to obtain the seven medals.

T h ere is nothing we more deprecate than the indis­ crim inate wearing of medals and decorations, but we would point out that those m entioned are all granted in the K in g ’s regulations. It must be borne in mind that the mem bers o f the Brigade perform their services gratuitiously, and it is only reasonable that some recognition should be bestowed upon them for their services. * *

Supt. W. H . Cham bers. A dequate accom m odation was provided by the show authorities in the centre o f the ground, and the corps supplied horse am bulance, hand litter and stretchers and the usual field equipment. T h e staff consisted o f a surgeon, two officers, two nurses, and eight am bulance men on day duty, and two on night duty. A number o f minor casualties were treated. *

*

* I t is with regret that we learn o f the resignation o f the M arquess o f B read alb ane1 as the D irector o f the A m b u ­ lance D epartm ent o f the Order o f St. John, which has been necessitated by stress o f work. It was in the year 1898, on the occasion o f the annual conference o f the S .J .A .B . at B lackpool, where he occupied the position of chairman, that the M arquess first becam e known to the members o f the Brigade. Since that time he has taken a keen and active interest in the work. T h e K in g has sanc­ tioned the recom m endation of the D u ke o f Connaught that the Earl o f Plym outh be appointed in place of the Marquess of Breadalbane. * * *

The Hospital, in an article on the W indsor Review , points out that the review should do much to focus public attention on the im portance o f an adequate provision of trained am bulance men and place the existing organisations on a still firmer and more openly dignified foundation. T h o se who have had experience of practical teaching know how much energy, intelligence and self-sacrifice is displayed by those who take up this work. * * *

status which has been given to the Brigade by the R eview has not been lost sight of, for the Territorial Service Gazette tells us that they hear on good authority T he

*

24th was the Festival of St. John

July, 1912.

T h e am bulance arrangements o f the R o yal A g ri­ cultural Show at D oncaster were undertaken this year by the D en aby M ain Corps under the com m and o f District-

B r e v it ie s .

June

AID. —

Baptist, and

the Archbishop of Y ork, P relate of the O rder o f St. John o f Jerusalem in E ngland, preached the anniversary sermon at the annual com m em oration service, held at the Priory C hurch of St. John, Clerkenw ell. Afterwards L ord Knutsford, Sub-Prior o f the Order, presided at the general assem bly at St. John’s Gate. T h e Senior K n igh t o f Justice and H onorary Bailiff, Sir John Furley, C .B ., spoke on his recent visit to W ashington to represent the Order at the ninth International C on ference of R ed Cross Societies. H e and the other representative, C olon el G uy Carleton

that there is a proposal on foot to wipe out the R .A .M .C . (T). I t is stated that official expert eyes keenly follow the Review , ready to report upon the advisability of the War Office absorbing the S .J .A .B . to displace the R .A .M .C . T h e idea is not yet far advanced, but if the display at W indsor gave satisfaction to the experts, it is considered the W ar Office will not delay bringing about a reconstitu­ tion in the direction indicated. * * *

Jones, ;D irecton-G eneral o f the M edical Services o f the Canadian Forces, also a K n igh t o f G race o f the Order, were the only representatives o f E ngland, except the army m edical officers detailed by the W ar Office. Sir John

is rather a startling statement, but there is no doubt som ething m oving in the direction indicated, for this is not the first quarter from which we have heard o f it. A drastic change of this description needs a lot o f con­

Furley stated that the business o f the m eeting included a

sideration, and we feel sure that the Brigade authorities would not entertain such a schem e unless it was on the basis that the Brigade retained its individuality.

variety of subjects which have been grafted on to the legitim ate objects o f R ed Cross work, and this tendency, which is not confined to our country, he ventured to criticise in a paper he read and which we publish, on “ A N ational R e d Cross Society and Affiliated A ssociation .”

T h is

W h en corresponding w ith A d vertisers please m ention “ F irst A id .”


— F I R S T

July, 1912.

a l l

r ig h t s

r e s e r v e d

.]

H o m e N u r s in g a n d H y g ie n e . By

H . M A IN V V A R IN G H O L T , M .R .C .S ., L .S .A ., D .P .H .

Honorary Associate of the Order oj St. John, L ife Membei o f and Lecturer and E x a m in er o f the S .J .A .A . ; Hon. Surgeon to the M alton and N orton D ivision, No. VL. D istrict, S J. A. B . ( Continued jrom page 194.) B aths. B aths

are u sefu l as a

m ea n s o f a p p ly in g

heat and

AID. —

9

salt, soda or sulphur, in which case they are spoken o f as mustard baths, salt baths, & c. T h e quantities o f such added substances varies with the conditions for w hich they are used, for exam ple :— M u sta rd bath.— A tablespoonful o f m ustard added to a gallon of hot water is considered an average amount. A lka lin e bath.— C arbonate of soda is used in the proportion of a quarter o f an ounce to each gallon o f water. Sulphur bath.— Sulphurated potash is used in the same quantity as in the soda bath. Sponging w ith cold,tepid or hot water.— T h ere are two ways in which this may be d on e— (1) portions o f the body may be sponged, dried and covered, or (2) the body may be sponged as a whole ; the m ethod adopted will depend very much upon the condition o f the patient. W

co ld

extern ally.

B aths in common use.— Baths are used for the purpose o f cleansing the skin or for producing certains reactions which are beneficial to health, the former have already been referred to, but a few words on the general effects of baths at various temperatures are necessary. E very bath acts on the nervous systems, and at the same time sets up certain alterations in the blood supply to the skin. A cold bath causes the capillaries o f the skin to con­ tract, the blood is driven into the internal organs, the circulation is increased, and more work is thrown upon the heart, hence the cold bath is followed by vigorous rubbing o f the skin in order to get the desired reaction as expressed by healthy bodily glow and feeling o f warmth in the skin. Caution.— T h e increased strain o f work upon the heart. Tepid bath.— T h is bath sets up very little action, and is therefore followed by little reaction. It merely refreshes the body. Warm bath.— Stim ulates the nervous system through the skin, the reaction is a slight increase o f the blood supply to the surface o f the body. Both these may be followed by a cold douche. H o t bath.— T h e actions set up chiefly affect the heart and lungs, the other internal organs are affected in lesser degree. T h e pulse and respiration increase in frequency and reaction results in profuse respiration. Caution.— M ay cause fatal syncope. If you have grasped the meaning o f the various actions and reactions set up by varying temperatures o f the baths above referred to, you will understand why a person is able to go out im m ediately after a cold bath, why he must stay indoors a little while after a warm bath, and the reason why he must be placed in a warm bed after a hot bath. Average temperatures o f the various baths in common use.— A range o f 4 degs. Fahr. above or below these figures may be allowed. H o t bath, 102 degs. Fahr.; warm bath, 95 degs. F a h r.; tepid bath, 88 degs. Fahr. ; cold bath, 45 degs. to 65 degs. Fahr. Ice is sometim es added to the cold bath for special cases. N ever give a bath without first testing the tem perature of the water with a bath therm om eter in working order. N ever give baths o f higher or lower tem perature than the body, except by the d octor’s orders. Local baths — C old, warm, hot.— T h ese may be ordered for various parts of the body, and are either of plain water or have certain substances added to them, e.g., mustard

et

P acks.

Cold and hot.— O n the mattress and pillow (covered by w aterproof sheet) are placed one or two blankets, and over these a sheet wrung as dry as possible out o f cold water. T h e naked patient is now placed on the bed, and one half the sheet drawn over him and tucked in, sim ilarly the other half is then drawn over him and tucked in, lastly the feet are raised and the lower end o f the sheet tucked under him. T h e under blankets are treated in the same way, and finally the patient is covered with four or five blankets well pressed to his sides. T h is process is usually carried out from 30 to 50 minutes, after which the patient is wrapped in a warm, dry blanket, all wet things rem oved, and lastly he is quickly dried and made com fortable in bed. T h e hot pack is carried out in m uch the same way, except that a blanket wrung out of water at a tem perature o f 110 degs. Fahr. is used. T h e exact tim e that a patient should remain in the pack must be ascertained from the m edical attendant. Other special baths m ay be m entioned, such as the vapour bath, the hot air bath, the m ercurial bath, but for these an advanced book on nursing must be consulted. H

eat

and

M

o is t u r e .

T h e com bination of heat and m oisture in such appli­ cations as hot linseed poultices and fom entations has con ­ siderable value. T h e y are used to allay inflammation, to relieve pain, to relieve tension— i.e., to soften parts, to cleanse wounds, and to assist the discharge o f abcesses. T h e materials used consist o f various substances, e.g., linseed, bread, yeast, mustard, powdered charcoal, m edi­ cated cotton wool. T h ese are all m ade with boiling water. D

ry

H

eat.

D ry heat may be applied by means o f hot water bottles, hot b ric k s; the hot sh elf from an oven is often used in em ergency. C

old

A

p p l ic a t io n s .

C loths wrung out in ice cold water, crushed ice in indiarubber bag. P o u l t ic e s .

T h e object of a poultice being to convey heat and m oisture to the part to w hich it is applied, a few general directions as to the m aking o f a poultice may be of service. For eAample, in m aking a linseed poultice. First be certain that the water used is boiling, prepare all materials n eeded— linseed meal, linen, bandages or tapes, wool or oil-silk. P lace the am ount of linseed meal required in the bowl, add boiling water, and beat quickly into a soft dough. I f this is properly done there will be no lumps in the mass.


10

— F I R S T

M usta rd poultice.— T h ese have to be com pounded with tepid, lukewarm, or it may be cold water. T h e British Pharm acopoeia directions are : M ustard in powder, 2^ o z . ; linseed meal, 2 J o z .; boiling water and water, a sufficiency ; m ix the linseed meal with 6 to 8 oz. o f boiling water and add the mustard, previously mixed with 2 to 3 ozs. of lukewarm water, and stir them together. F o m e n ta tio n s.

T h ese consist in the application of flannels or soft blanketing wrung out as dry as possible from boiling water. T h e y soon lose their heat, however, and must be therefore applied every ten or fifteen minutes. T h e wringing can be done in a roller towel, the flannel is placed in the m iddle o f a towel in a basin, and boiling water is poured over it, Sticks are passed through each end o f the towel, the centre raised from the basin, the sticks twisted in opposite direc­ tions, and thus the flannel is wrung out. T h e flannel is thereafter shaken up and softly applied. Stupes.

T urpen tine is sprinkled over the fom entation flannel when counter-irritation is needed, the application being

AI D. —

July, 1912.

blisters, iodine liniment, croton oil linim ent are applied to produce counter-irritation, and are called counter irritants. T h ese may be applied as plasters or painted over the part with a soft cam el hair brush. It is important that the in­ structions given with these applications should be carefully observed. W hen a blister has been opened, the after dressing o f the part requires some little skill. Cleanse the part around the broken blister and apply a dressing of sim ple ointm ent on lint with a soft outer layer of wadding and keep in place by a light bandage. O in tm e n ts.

Ointm ents are com posed o f some fatty matter as a basis to which various substances are added according to the action required of them. T h ey are usually spread on lint and retained in place by a bandage. L in im e n ts.

Linim ents are used for external application, and usually have to be applied by rubbing into the skin. M any o f these liniments are poisonous, and here again I must specially em phasize the necessity o f carefully reading and

The two cycle litters shown above are used by the Reading Division, No. 2 District, are a local invention, and from what we learn are very satisfactory. The stretchers are mounted on spiral springs and are readily detachable and the wheels being fitted with pneumatic tyres makes them comfortable travelling. The photograph was taken by Mr. J. Deacon, a member of the Division. known as a turpentine stupe. A ready m ethod of preparing hot flannel fom entations and stupe is by steam ing flannels in an ordinary potato steamer. A pint or so o f water is placed in the pan and allow ed to boil, the dry flannel is then placed in the steam er, the lid replaced, and the steam allow ed to diffuse through the flannel. N o time is lost in wringing, indeed, a flannel may be heated in this way in a few seconds. I n h alatio n s.

T h e word inhale means to draw into the lungs, to in­ spire, the substance inhaled must therefore be in the form o f a vapour. T h e sim plest and most ready m ethod o f im ­ provising an apparatus for im m ediate use is by pouring boiling water into a quart jug, round the edge of which a towel is placed, the patient lays his head on the towel and inhales the steam. A teaspoonful o f vinegar, turpentine, tincture of benzoin or liquid carbolic acid added to the water makes a useful m edicated inhalation. L ocal

A p p l ic a t io n s.

Certain substances as mustard paper, mustard leaves,

obeying the instructions on the label. T h e y should be kept apart from m edicines that have to be swallowed. L eeches.

Leeches are used for the rem oval o f blood. T h e part chosen for application o f the leech must be washed with water and thereafter with m ilk and water. T h e leech may be applied by means o f a wineglass or clip box inverted over the part. D o not handle or disturb the leech too much otherwise it will not “ bite.” (T o be continued I)

In the am bulance com petitions held in connection with the G range M oor Gala, the W ath G .C . R ailw ay team and the W oolley C olliery team tied for the first place. T A T > Officers’ Regulation Great Coats. Dark . tJ Grey beaver cloth, 39s. 6d. to measure. Superior quality Men’s Great Coats, 16s. 6d.— W rite for patterns and particulars, Thornton & Co., tailors, Brighouse.

S


— F I R S T

July, 1912.

Colonial

News.

contingents attending the R eview during their sojourn in this country have been entertained in several quarters, and members have visited various corps and division in the Kingdom to obtain an insight as to how the Brigade is organised over here. O ne team — -that from the Transvaal — has been successful in the com petition field, winning a contest against a railway team, and generally the C olonial have shown that they are as well advanced in first aid as T he

AI D. — E. Teirchelem ann, Miss L . Flem ing, Pte. J. B ecconsall, L ad y Supt. M iss E. M cK en zie, M iss M cK errow , Mrs. G. W. Barltrop and Miss B. J. Cam bon. South Africa .-— Corps Treasurer E. J. Barnett, First Officer E . R. Hallis, Sergts. H . B. Collins, C. Douglas, Corp. J. Robinson, Ptes. J. Platt, J. R iddell, C . W atkinson, and Mrs. Burman. In d ia :— Mrs. A . Cottle. C a n a d a :— Dr. M cPherson (N ew foundland), S u p t C ollins, Sergts. Saunders, C lark and Spadem an, Corps.

M U R T O N C O L L IE R Y A M B U L A N C E T E A M , No. 6 D IS T R IC T . Winners of the “ D ew ar” Challenge Shield, with Cases of Cutlery, Final Brigade Competiton ; Bronze Shield, Final Durham County Competition; Silver Shield and Medals, Final Durham, Northumberland, and North-East Yorkshire Competition; “ Heath ” Cup and Medals for Stretcher Work.

B y courtesy ]

( 7 yIt.

C o llie r y G u a r d ia n .

Sergt. J. R. Sainty (Instructor). T. Holland. J. Stokoe. Corp. W . Salkeld (capt.). J. Every. W . H. Wilson. Geo. Watkin (1st Officer & Hon. Sec.). E. Seymour W ood (Supt.). Dr. W . H. Gaunt (Hon. Surgeon). their English colleagues. T h eir visit is a unique incident in the history of the Brigade for it is the first occasion that the oversea Brigade have been associated with the parent organisation. T h e following are the C olonies, in order of seniority and the members representing them, at the R eview :— Australia Supt. J. Harris (in charge), Supt. Lindsey, Supt. W. K eato, Sergt. E. Rochford, Ptes. S. W ilkinson’ S. Britton and Miss. M. A. W auhope. N ew Zeala nd:— Drs. G. E. Gabaties, O ’Brien and

Lindforth, Gray, Prewett, W atson, Ptes. Bell, G reenw ood Laurance, Lewis, Baker, R eddin, B lack, Fountain, Edm unds, Sagar, M cM agee and K line. T h e Order o f St. John entertained the contingents at the H olborn Restaurant and Sir J. F u rley gave a garden party in their honour.

W h e n co r r e sp o n d in g w i t h A d v e r t is e r s p le a s e m e n tio n “ F ir s t A id .”


12

at

F I R S T

f o K K A nB uu^ce-

AI D. —

July, 1912.

W atch respiration and interfere if necessary. Not to be left, but instructions given that Should consciousness return. Judge— “ The patient is now conscious.” A little water to drink. Encouraging words. Warn against excitement. Encourage to sleep.

C o m in g S o u t h a m p t o n .— T h e

following test was set at the recent com petition for the “ T w is s ” R ose Bowl, “ o f w hich a squad of the Southam pton N ursing Division o f the B rigade were the winners :— The team was supposed to have been employed at a steam laundry, where a boy, the son of the caretaker, met with an accident by falling on a wet and slippery floor. In trying to save himself the lad cut his hand, knocking over a bucketful o f scalding starch, the contents going over his right hand and saturating the clothing of his right leg below the knee. He was also bleeding profusely from a wound near the left ear, caused by striking his head on a piece of projecting machinery. T he “ injured b o y ” had to be treated by the team, and he had to be removed to the caretaker’s house, adjoining the laundry, and place in bed. D igital pressure. Indirectly applied. Drag from scalded starch. Efficiency tested. Cold water promptly over hand and clothing rapidly. Cover promptly hand, with warm moist clothes to exclude air. Remove from wet floor to dry place with appropriate care. Send for ambulance materials. Ascertain from judge whether conscious or unconscious. Judge.—•“ Unconscious.” On back. Head and shoulders slightly raised. Head to right side. Examine air passages for possible dangers. Loosen clothes freely. Fresh air freely.— Fainting, windows open, crowd back. Examine for further injury. Judge.— No further injury.” Cold cloths to hand. Cover well. Give nothing and prevent others giving. W ith care clean wound (no probing). Remove hand from around wound. Pressure pad. Secure appropriately. Test efficiency. Clean dry dressing on wound. Lightly bandage. Instruct re appropriate dressing to scald. In strips. Gradually remove clothing and cover gradually. Blisters left in tact. Cotton wool Lightly bandage. Hand and leg appropriately supported. Early preparation of bed or couch at caretaker’s home. Downstairs if possible. Open doors and windows. Fire in room. Room or bed shaded from bright light if possible. All obstacles to transport removed. Appropriate transport. Lifting. Carrying. Protect by cradle. Lowering. T o be kept very quiet. Renew cold cloths to head. Prepare test and apply hot bottles.

E ven ts.

Particulars of forthcoming events will be inserted in this column fres of charge, i f received not later than the 14th of each month Abergavenny.— The White Horse Shield Ambulance com­ petition will be held on August 6th. Conditions, &c., may be had of Sergt. U. O. Nicholls, 18, Castle-street, Abergavenny. Blucher.— The Colliery Division annual picnic and sports will be held at Walbottle on August 17th. Ambulance competitions, brass band contest, sweet-pea and viola show, tug-o’-war, &c. Entry forms and particulars of Mr. J. R. Nesbitt, 18, Simpson-terrace, Blucher Colliery, Newburn, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Bolsover. — Ambulance will take place at Bolsover cup and other prizes. For Horncroft-terrace, Bolsover,

competition and Band contest Castle on August 3rd. Challenge particulars apply Mr. J. Allcock near Chesterfield.

Cleckheaton.— Ambulance competition for the Cleckheaton Challenge Shield, July 27th, open to all corps and divisions of the Brigade, Collieries and members of S.J.A.A. Full par­ ticulars of Mr. Ben Liley, 6, Exchange-street, Cleckheaton. E lla n d (Yorks.).— Ambulance competition for the “ Demp­ ster” Shield and prize value £8, July 27th. Entry forms and particulars, apply to Mr. A. Tate, 4, Victoria-road, Elland. Goldthorpe.— Ambulance competitions open to Brigade and Association teams on Bank Holiday, August 5th, in connection with Convalescent and Old Folks’ Gala. Particulars of Mr. C. Hanmer, 205, Doncaster-road, Goldthorpe, near Rotherham. London.— The Polytechnic open ambulance competitions for the “ William Heywood ” shield and the “ G ran t” medal, will take place at The Polytechnic, Regent-street, W ., on Saturday, October 26th, at 1.30 p.m. Full particulars may be obtained from the hon. ambulance secretary, The Polytechnic, Regent-street, W ., or from W . Heywood, 81, Davies-street, W. Stamped addressed envelopes should be sent for replies. Ravensthorpe.— The annual competition open to Brigade and Association teams will be held on Saturday, September 7th. Full details may be had on application to the Hon. Sec. W. Ledgard, Alma House, Thornhill, Dewsbury.

T h e Princess Louise, President o f the Southam pton Centre, presents at the H artley H all, at 4 p.m. on July 26th, the awards gained by the pupils o f the Centre since O cto­ ber 1st, 19 11. Post fre e 7d.

P r ic e 6 d . net.

NOTES

ON

FIRST

By

S id n e y

AID H.

SIMPLIFIED.

Lam b.

A H andbook in a tabulated and simplified form giving the main points’ot first aid, so arranged as to impress them on the memory of the student. n *i p PFYNOl.ns & CO.. Ltd.. 46 . Cannon St.. LONDON,


— F I R S T

July, 1912-

AID. —

13

BRITISH RED CROSS SOCIETY.

COUNTY OF LONDON BRANCH. N otes and N ew s. O n July 1 6th Q ueen Alexandra held at M arlborough H ouse her first garden-party since her bereavem ent in honour o f the British R ed Cross Society. H er M ajesty has always taken the greatest interest in the Society, of which she is president, and her patronage has done much to place it on the strong footing it is to-day. T h e invited guests num bured upwards o f a thousand and in­ cluded many o f the im portant officials o f the Society. H er M ajesty shook hands with all present. * * * C ol. Seely, Secretary of State for War, paid an unofficial visit on June 22nd to the annual inspection at the London Scottish D rill H all, Buckingham Gate, o f the W estm inster Division. A b ou t 100 members o f the D etachm ent o f the division was present, and C ol. W. G. A . Bedford, o f the War Office, and Col. V alen tin e M atthews were the inspect­ ing officers. * * * W e publish in this issue an address delivered by Sir J. Furley at the conference o f R ed Cross Societies held in W ashington. On the connection which ought to exist between a N ational R ed Cross Society and its affiliated associations this is very interesting reading, and explains critically the gist o f the position and the lines o f reform. Sir John emphasises his opinion that an arrangement in which esprit de corps discipline and efficiency were m ain­ tained by active usefulness during peace was the best and most practical in relation to the possible dem ands o f war. * * * Each D etachm ent o f the Branch has been asked to elect a member to serve on the County Com m ittee as a permanent representative. T h ese members so elected, together with the vice-presidents, will in future constitute the comm ittee. T h is additional m em bership will, we have no doubt, considerably strengthen the com m ittee, and will make it thoroughly representative. * * * T h e schem e for Progressive T raining o f W om en D etachm ents as am ended by the Joint Com m ittee, was pre­ sented to a meeting o f the Com m andants o f D etachm ents at the Polytechnic, Regent-street, on July 1 8th, and with the exception of a few minor details was approved. It must be borne in mind that it is in no way com pulsory, but has been devised for those officers and members who desire to extend their know ledge of R ed Cross work. *

*

* T h e com plete course will extend at least over 3 years. T hose who com plete and qualify at the exam ination o f the 1 st year’s course will be entitled to one proficiency star. T hose who com plete and qualify at the exam ination o f the

2nd year’s course will be entitled to two proficiency stars. T h ose who com plete and qualify at the exam ination o f the 3rd year’s course will be entitled to three proficiency stars. Certificates in the various subjects are awarded to success­ ful candidates. N o person will be allow ed to sit for any exam ination who has not attended at least 3-5ths o f the total num ber of lectures, drills, dem onstrations, & c., in each subject. *

*

* M em bers who are in possession o f two stars may be appointed assistant instructors. T h e subjects are divided in t o : (a) C o m p u lso ry; (b) Optional. (a) Compulsory subjects. First A id, H om e Nursing, H ygiene, C ooking, Field Training, H ospital Attendance, Squad Drill, and a practical know ledge of Stretcher Drill. (b) Optional subjects. O n e or more may be taken. Laundry, Housewifery, F ield C ooking, C am p Train in g, Signalling, B icycling, R iding, T ypograph y, Swim m ing and Life-saving, & c. *

*

* T h e subjects, with the exception o f C am p Training, will be taught by lectures, drills and dem onstrations throughout the session o f each year, at least 3-5ths of the total num ber o f lectures, drills, & c., in each session must be attended for admission to exam inations. M em bers who, upon joining the course, can satisfy the Branch E xecutive that they have already passed the equivalent of the first year’s course will be entitled to join in the second year’s course.

A

N a tio n al R ed C r o ss S o c i e t y and A ffilia t e d A ss o c ia tio n s.*

I h a v e the honour to appear here to-day, not as a repre­ sentative of a N ational R ed Cross Society, but as a delegate from the Order o f St. John o f Jerusalem in E ngland. T h is position is not so irregular as it may seem, for I have on several occasions acted in the same capacity since 1869 when I attended the C on ference held at Berlin in the early days of the R ed Cross movem ent. Since that tim e I have attended every International Conference, nam ely at G eneva 1884, Carlsruhe 1887, R om e 1892, V ien n a 1897, St. Petersburg 1902, Lond on 1907. In 1906 1 had the honour to be sent by the British G overnm ent to G eneva as one o f the delegates to the International C onference for the R evision o f the Convention o f Geneva. M y principal object in now addressing you is to show the close connection which ought to exist between a

Paper read by Sir John Furley at the 9th International Conterence of Red Cross Societies held at Washington in May.


*4

— F I R S T

N ational R ed Cross Society and such bodies as the A m b ulan ce D epartm ent o f the Order, which it is my privilege to represent. Soon after the establishm ent o f the St. John A m b ulan ce Association in 1878, an organisation to teach men and women to administer first aid in civil life, it was considered necessary to offer inducem ents to those who had gained certificates and badges o f proficiency, especially those whose lives were spent in places where accidents were not o f such daily occurrence as in mines, factories, crow ded cities or on railways, and who therefore required som e stimulus to encourage them to keep up the knowledge they had acquired. W ith the experience I had gained in war, I travelled throughout my own country and ventured to promise our am bulance pupils that should we ourselves again be involved in war, the military authorities would accept with gratitude the assistance of those who were com petent to be enrolled as a supplem ent to the R oyal A rm y M edical Corps. T h e St. John A m bulance Brigade was originated more than 30 years ago and the men and women enrolled soon made them selves quite a necessary com plem ent to the police force on every occasion when large crowds have been brought together for great public pageants, social and political meetings or riotous assemblies. T h e Brigade in the earlier stages o f the Boer W ar in 1899, when such a supplem ent to the R oyal Arm y M edical Corps, as had been foreshadowed, becam e an absolute necessity, offered their services to the W ar Office, and 2,000 men were accepted and sent out to the Arm y in South Africa. From the m oment o f their enrolment, these men passed into the Arm y for a fixed period (which in a large number o f cases was subsequently extended not only for service in Africa, but later in China), and they wore the R ed Cross brassard in addition to the badge o f the St. John A m bu l­ ance Brigade. T h ey returned hom e to civil avocations after the conclusion o f the cam paign, and they are proud to wear the war m edal as well as one specially given to them by K in g Edw ard V I I . to com m em orate the work they had performed. O n Septem ber 30th last, the H om e Brigade was com ­ posed as follows :— Seven hundred and eighty-seven Divisions, representing 16,897 men and 3,431 women. In D om inions over-sea :— O ne hundred and fifty-three D ivisions representing 1,815 men and 792 women. G rand total, 22,935. T h e Brigade R eserves are :— (1.) For the N avy :— T h e R o yal N aval A uxiliary Sick Berth Reserve which would be attached for duty either to the N aval hospitals or in the sick-bay o f ships of war— 670 men. (2.) For the Arm y :— T h e Brigade Bearer Com panies, the headquarters o f which are in certain garrison towns and at headquarters o f a military district— 464 men. (3.) T h e M ilitary H om e H ospital R eserve which would be em ployed in hospitals at the M ilitary Stations at hom e in war tim e— 2,242 men. For the Territorial F orce :— O n e hundred and sixty-five St. John V oluntary A id Detachm ents. F ive thousand nine hundred and fifty-three men and women. R eserve total, 9,329. T h ere are therefore 9,329 men and women who have volunteered for service in time o f war, and since the 30th Septem ber last, that num ber has been largely augm ented. But this does not by any means represent the num ber that

AID. —

July, 1912.

would volunteer in case o f national em ergency, for it may be safely asserted that a large proportion o f the total strength o f the Brigade, who are unable from various con ­ siderations to register their names during peace, would do so im m ediately after the declaration o f a N ational war. Now, it may be asked why I am occupying you time with these details. It is because for forty years I have been and still remain o f opinion that the organisation which has been developed by the St. John Am bulance Association is the most practical way in which the personnel o f the R ed Cross Societies can be maintained, and because by its active usefulness in peace and by continually encouraging the esprit de corps, discipline and efficiency, it is so necessary to cultivate, it is always in a state o f preparation for war. But it must not be thought that I am arrogating to a British Society a position to which no analogy can be found in any other country. On the contrary, I know from long experience gained in war and from those whom we are proud to acknow ledge as the leaders o f the R ed Cross propaganda, how com plete and well trained are many bodies in other countries which though working, to some extent separately from the N ational R ed Cross Com m ittee in peace are united with it in war. In these the connection with their own Ministry o f W ar is maintained, and the superintendence and direction o f the Arm y M edical Authorities on all questions of hospital requirement and discipline are never relaxed. Governm ents, and especially belligerents, can only recognise one R ed Cross Society for each nation, and therefore this latter holds a very strong position when the military authority is represented on the Central E xecutive Com m ittee as well as on the Staff o f each o f the Affiliated Associations. T h u s the official and voluntary services are always kept in touch and the latter has the great advantage of obtaining, at all times, necessary instruction, training and advice. T h e central body and its affiliated branches, whatever may be the precise nature o f the assistance to be rendered by them, are so linked together by official repre­ sentatives, that the m obilisation o f the separate voluntary units can take place sim ultaneously with that o f the N ational Arm y. It is to such Societies that I more especially wish in invite attention, because like the St. John Am hulance Association o f my own country, they hold them selves ready to supplem ent the Arm y M edical Departm ent, and from the mom ent o f m obilisation, to becom e am algam ated with the non-com batant portion o f the Arm y. I hope I am m aking m yself clear whilst endeavouring to show that more than one Society, acting independently in tim e o f peace, can be advantageously associated in what is called R ed Cross work, and they can thus render inestim able service in civil life, whilst at the same time preparing for the calam ity o f war. For this purpose the decentralisation o f Societies having kindred aims appears to me the m ost practical method, provided that the links, already referred to, are centred in one representative body by which the controlling influence o f the W ar D epartm ent shall be fully recognised and accepted. T hus, we should have a framework of cadres so linked together that the ranks can be filled, the officers and supernum eries nom inated and the whole instan­ taneously galvanized into action on the first call from the War Office. W ithout such intelligent preparation in peace, voluntary aid for war is little better than the expression of good intentions, and these are scarcely appreciated at Arm y Headquarters, at the mom ent when every effort is


July, 1912.

— F I R S T

being strained to its utmost in the m obilisation o f a fighting army. W hat an A m bulance Brigade did in 1899, when its services were offered for South Africa, is the best example I can give that, in time o f peace, there is no advantage for this and similar institutions to be centralized in a N ational R ed Cross Society. T w o or three associations, each differing in its aims in peace, but with one object in war, can be organised much more com pletely and econom ically, if maintained separately until called on by the G overnm ent of the country in the hour of National need. A central R ed Cross Com m ittee will have sufficient to occupy its time and energies in the m anagem ent o f its funds and in the creation and general supervision o f the vast machinery which a declaration o f war will set in motion, whilst it may leave to Affiliated Societies the task of finding, training and keeping together a personnel of men and women, doctors, nurses, apothecaries, dressers, orderlies, cooks, grooms, drivers, &c. A t the outbreak of war, the official chiefs responsible

AID. — circum stances are liable to daily change. T h is is a very large subject and one into w hich I need not further enter. M y desire is to advocate a general preparation o f voluntary aid under proper guidance, together with a system com ­ bining the greatest elasticity with the possibility o f rapid concentration under m ilitary authority. I lay great stress on the elasticity o f the rules im posed on V oluntary A id Societies previous to the enrolm ent of their members in the ranks o f the Arm y. A t the present time in my own country, great attention is being devoted to V oluntary A id D etachm ents o f men and women. It is here that the necessity for a great am ount o f m obility becom es apparent. T h e direction that a war will take cannot be predicted and every calculation made beforehand is likely to be upset. So with an elaborately prepared personnel, those who may be willing to undertake respon­ sibilities, when war is a rem ote possibility, may and probably will find at the first alarm that local, family and physical circum stances outweigh the strength o f their lightly accepted obligations. For this reason, if for no

T H E No. 84 B A T T E R S E A V .I.D ., B R IT IS H R E D C R O S S S O C IE T Y , V .A .D This photograph was taken on the occasion of the Annual Inspection on June 19th. for the care o f the sick and wounded should be in a position to call for such supplem ental assistance as they may req u ire; and from that moment the w hole o f the selected personnel should be enrolled and at once should pass under m ilitary control and authority. U niform is quite a secondary consideration, the one indispensable and uniform badge being the R ed Cross armlet stam ped and issued only by the highest military sanction. I have said little about the material resources o f R ed Cross Societies. T h ese we know from experience are in­ exhaustible as we have seen in the past, the most patriotic and generous efforts have been evoked and rich and poor have given to their utmost. Such splendid exam ples may be rep e ated ; but I would urge that they should not be relied on and that such offers, if made, should only be accepted through the one channel o f the N ational R ed Cross Society. N o two wars can ever be carried out under identical conditions, nor will they ever approach similarity. T h e

other, the system of cadres is the most likely to produce good results, as under proper organisation all vacancies can be filled up by those who have no objection to be shifted from one locality to another. A war which may com m ence abroad may end at hom e or vice-versa, and therefore to have a com pletely use­ ful a.nd practical system the utm ost m obility must be obtained. T h e 2,000 men o f the St. John A m b ulan ce Brigade sent out to South A frica in 1899 were drawn from all parts of Great Britain, and the various detachm ents were not really form ed until the date o f their enrolm ent, and as few of them until this tim e had seen the officers appointed to com m and them. T h e same may be said o f the 805 members o f the Princess Christian Arm y N ursing Reserve, who were distributed am ongst the hospitals throughout the whole area o f the war. , . J"!16 Ideal R s d Cross Society is a National Institution which keeps only one object in view and that is the alle­ viation of the sufferings of the sick and wounded sailors


— F I R S T and soldiers in war. But it should be the centre o f various other philanthropic societies, each perform ing an important work in peace and yet so constituted that, whilst training its members for the relief o f the victim s ot the many disasters which are o f daily occurrence on sea and land in civil life, they can be depended on to give substantial aid to the R oyal Arm y M edical Corps in time of war. W hilst recognising the splendid m anner in which this has been accom plished by other nations, I shall, I hope, be par­ doned if, for purposes of illustration, I more particularly refer to what has been attem pted in my own country. In many respects we are, from a R ed Cross point o f view, much behind som e other S ta te s ; this arises from the fact that hitherto our insular position has prevented us from fully realising the necessity o f preparing for a time o f war which we are always hoping may never again occur. T h e Boer W ar gave a rude shock to this belief, for I need not refer to the many small wars from which our Em pire never seems to be free, and for which the unaided official m edical service is fully adequate. W hat was our position in 1899 when it becam e neces­ sary that the official m edical service should be reinforced on a large scale ? T h e Central Com m ittee was, I venture to say, as representative a body as could be brought together for such a purpose. T h e British R ed Cross S ociety was represented by three members, the Princess Christian Arm y Nursing R eserve by two, and the St. John A m b ulan ce Brigade by tw o ; and I would em phasize the fact that the Secretary o f State for W ar nom inated three officers and the First L ord o f the A dm iralty one officer to the Central Com m ittee in order that the C ivil and M ilitary branches should act in concert. T h ey were well provided with funds for the purchase o f such stores, and even luxuries as are so necessary to the welfare o f invalids ; generous subscriptions poured in, and many magnificent offers were accepted from private individuals and corporate bodies who, at their own expense, sent out and maintained com pletely equipped hospitals, sanitary trainsand hospital ships. W ithout entering into further details, it is sufficient for my purpose to indicate thus briefly what was done at that tim e by the British R ed Cross Society. N ow, to continue my argument, as to the advantage o f affiliated societies acting independently and performing their own special work in peace-tim e; this British Society at the outbreak o f the B oer W ar had no personnel outside its own offices; it had no difficulty however in finding and enrolling doctors, and fortunately there were two bodies from which large contingents could be im m ediately drawn. O ne was the Princess Christian Arm y N ursing Reserve, which, as I have already stated, sent out 803 ladies to South Africa. A ll of these were carefully selected by a small com m ittee over which H er R o yal H ighness Princess Christian presided and on which the W ar Office was represen ted ; their prin­ cipal qualification being the fact that they had all under­ gone at least three years’ training in a large public hospital and possessed certificates signed by the principal m edical officers and the matrons under whom they had served. T h ese nurses, it will be adm itted, form ed no mean addition to the perm anent staff o f the army nurses. For hospital orderlies the military authorities, as I have said, had recourse to the St. John A m bulance Brigade, of whom more than 2,000 members went to the seat o f war. I have thus placed before you some salient exam ples o f the m anner in which a N ational R ed Cross Society can be m aintained and kept ready for great em ergencies by uniting with other asociations, each acting independently in peace, but collaborating for war on rules sanctioned by

AI D. —

July, 1912.

the military authorities who should be represented, not only on the Central Com m ittee, but also by an officer on the E xecutive Com m ittee of each affiliated association, to be invited to attend on all occasions when military matters are to be discussed. I f this were my first appearance at an International Conference of R ed Cross Societies, I should hesitate before venturing to express my views on the work o f such Societies and their position both in peace and w a r ; but after an experience o f 43 years, I am sure you will not grudge me a certain am ount o f latitude, especially as at my age, I can scarcely hope to attend another o f these most interesting International meetings. I therefore avail m yself o f this opportunity to strongly urge on Societies the necessity of discrim inating clearly between that work which is intended for war-time, and entitled to the protection o f the brassard and flag established by the C onvention of G eneva o f 1864, and that peace-work which, though equally philanthropic, has no need o f International safe-guards. T h e latter can be carried on in peace-time under its own distinctive badges, but there is a great danger in allowing it to be thought, as is too often the case, that the R ed Cross is a sym bol which can be displayed over all hospitals and am bulances, and worn by the personnel attached to them whether civil or military. A R ed Cross arm-badge or flag is of no value unless it be stamped and issued by military a u th o rity ; and, if allowed in time of peace, how is it possible to withdraw it, on the outbreak o f war, from per­ sons who are not entitled to use it ? In a few countries the use o f this badge without authority is made a penal offence ; and in my own and some others, steps have already been taken to conform to the rule laid down in the R evised Convention o f 1906. I f it be considered a crime for civilians to take up arms against the enemy, without wearing the uniform o f a belligerent, and accepting the responsibility which attaches to it, surely it is equally dangerous to permit the prom iscuous use of the R ed Cross badge o f neutrality to those who are not entitled to it and who may use it for a variety o f purposes which it is needless to specify. W e have a flag, we have a badge, let us do our best to protect them.

Stretch er By M A Y

Drill.

T H O R N E , M .D ., F .R .C .S .I., Com m andant London 2, V .A .D .

I t is desirable for all members of V oluntary A id D etach­ ments to have a thorough working know ledge of the best m ethods of lifting and carrying patients. It is probable that members o f W om en’s D etachm ents will not be called upon to do much, if any, lifting or carry of patients out-ofdoors, but since they may at times o f great em ergency have to do so, they should practice stretcher drill with or without a light-weight person or a dum m y in order that they may be able to do the work efficiently and with as little exertion to them selves as possible. It is recognised that six women bearers should be detailed to each stretcher, and the drill is described in the British R ed C ross M anual No. 3. In the method at present adopted numbers 2, 4, 5 and 6 hold the loaded stretcher with the out-turned right or left hand, as the case may be, while numbers 1 and 3 are between the poles. T h is m ethod is not very practical, for a great weight cannot be supported for any length of time with the hand and arm in this strained position. D ou b t­


July,

— F I R S T

1912.

less the methods of handles from the sides of the stretcher, or slings passed under the stretcher and grasped by one or both hands o f numbers 2, 4, 5 and 6 will presently be adopted. A good deal of discussion has taken place as to whether women members should ever undertake stretcher drill, because it is asserted by some people that women are not strong enough for the work o f carrying a loaded stretcher. M em bers of V oluntary A id D etachm ents should be strong active women if they are to be of use in any capacity in time o f war, because the strain and hard work that will necessarily fall to their share will tax their strength and energy severely, just as it does that of the m en ; but, given an ordinarily healthy women there seems to be no unreasonable objection to her taking her share in lifting and carrying patients from bed to bed in a ward or from a bed to the operating theatre and back, or carrying a body to the mortuary. T h ose who see much o f the work in small hospitals and nursing homes know that nurses are frequently called upon to carry heavy men and women patients up and down stairs, and do so without any apparent strain. In the drill for women members described in Manual No. 3, six bearers are detailed to each stretcher, and in this way the weight, when more suitable methods of holding the stretcher are adopted, will be well distributed, and the six bearers will be able to cope easily with the weight of an average patient. It must not be forgotten that one of the ch ief reasons for making members of wom en’s detachm ent thoroughly conversant with the methods of lifting and carrying patients is, that they may be able to direct unskilled help to do this work in the best possible way. D oubtless if war arises in this country there will be a good deal o f help to be had from untrained men i.e. labourers, artisans, porters and others who have not joined the Territorial Force or been trained in British R ed Cross D etachm ents and these men, under the direction of a bearer trained in stretcher drill, would be most helpful in bringing in wounded from the field or in carrying heavy patients from train to am bulance wagon and am bulance wagon to hospital. K n ow ledge is strength, and it is good for all members o f W om en’s Voluntary A id D etachm ents to thoroughly master stretcher drill in order that they may either use this knowledge to carry patients them selves or to direct others to do so.

Division N e w s . O n Saturday, July 6th the W ar Office Inspection of the L eyd en and W ainstree Division of the Essex Branch of the R ed Cross Society took place, M ajor F. W. Begbie, R .A .M .C ., being the inspecting officer. T h e division comprises seven womens’ and one m ens’ detachm ents, a total strength of 213, cut o f which 120 were present on parade. T h e C olchester V .A .D . of the St. John A m bulance Brigade was represented by 14 members under 1st Officer E. H . Andrews, and took part in the work. T h e detachm ents assem bled in the quadrangle o f Colchester C astle by the kind permission of the Rt. H on. James Round, and headed by the vice-Presidents Mrs. W ren and Miss Round, m arched to the L ow er C astle Park, reserved for them by the C olchester Corporation, where they were paraded in line for inspection, after which they proceeded to carry out the schem e under the direction of

AI D. —

i7

M ajor Freem an, A sst.-D irector R ed Cross, and D eputy Director, M .S. E ast Anglian D ivision T .F . E ach detachm ent worked as a separate unit under its own com m andant. T h e work, which was som ewhat com ­ plicated, was carried out without a hitch and without the least noise or confusion, although there had been no pre­ vious rehearsal, and the schem e was m erely explained to the com m andants o f detachm ents on the ground. E ach quarterm aster registered the wounded attended to by her own detachm ent, and each assistant-quartermaster took the orders in writing for food from the L ad y Supt. in each departm ent to the head cook o f one o f the two cook ­ ing squads. O n e cooking squad was form ed at the collect­ ing station and one at the hospital marquees, at both o f which beef tea, cocoa, hot milk, tea, Bovril, & c., were prepared. Sixty B .P. scouts o f the C olch ester troops acted as wounded, and were discovered laying round the lake some 4,000 yards from the collecting station, from w hence the nurses proceeded with bandages and splints and their haversacks to give first aid. A t the far end of the ground the men m eanwhile pre­ pared two hospital marquees kindly lent by the G .O .C . C olchester, with six beds in each, and then at a given signal ran with their stretchers to collect the wounded. T w o o f the detachm ents provided wom ens’ stretcher squads and assisted. Extra stretchers were im provised from hurdles, &c. T h e patients were then taken to the collecting station, where they were fed, classified and prepared for a railway journey. T h e twelve worst cases were taken to the hospital marquees (which presented a very neat and bright appear­ ance) and were handed over to the detachm ent in charge, who applied fresh dressings with roller bandaging under the direction o f two trained nurses. T h e exercise lasted from four o’clock to six o ’clock, at which time the detachm ents re-formed on the parade ground and were addressed by M ajor Begbie, who con­ gratulated them on the smart and efficient manner in which they had carried out the work. T h e County D irector, C olon el R . B. Colvin, C .B ., and L ad y G w endoline Colvin, C olon el J. C olvin, C oun ty S ec­ retary, and C olonel Elliston, C .B ., and many members of neighbouring detachm ents were am ong the visitors. A n interesting display o f work done by the London 84 V .A .D . was given in St. L u k e ’s Hall, Ram sden-road, on June 19th. T h e women, 20 in number, looking smart and businesslike in their new uniform, rendered first aid on the field, formed their own stretcher bearers and attended to the sick and wounded after they were placed in the im ­ provised hospital. T h e field cooks o f the squad being responsible for the diets. T h e 84th D ivision, which is still in its infancy, appeal for recruits, also men to form a stretcher bearer com pany, applications to be addressed to Miss Paton. hon. sec., 75, W est Side, W andsworth Com m on, S.W . On June 29th the C helsea D etachm ent m obilised for inspection at the grounds o f the D u k e o f Y o rk ’s School. W hen orders were received to m obolise for duty in the field the divisional director requested com m andants to form rest camps, a field hospital, and an isolation cam p as hospital in various parts o f the ground. M em bers were called upon to m ake their own arrangem ents under their respective com m andants and lady superintendents for the reception and treatm ent of patients. T h e drill hall was


i8

— F I R S T

used for the field hospital formed by D etachm ent London 50. In it were eight beds, an operating theatre, laundry, kitchen, and sewing room. Lond on 52 had to form a rest cam p for the patients when fit to move before being entrained for the base hospital. London 72 prepared a cam p hospital for isolation cases. T h e G overnm ent sup­ plied tents, but the com m andants, quartermasters, and nurses had to arrange for all other necessaries. T h e work was com pleted satisfactorily and the hospitals left in readi­ ness by 1.30. Later the nurses to the num ber o f about 40 mustered, in their neat uniforms, and prepared for the actual inspec­ tion. Col. V alentine M atthews was the inspecting officer for the Territorial Forces Association and Col. W. G. A. B edford represented the W ar Office, and the inspection was witnessed by Sir F. Thesiger and Col. F. M. Reid and Mrs. C. E. A llen. T h e work was carried out in a most business like m ethod, and the inspecting officers expressed them selves satisfied with what they had seen. T h e first Jewish wom en’s voluntary aid detachm ent of the C oun ty o f London Branch, gave an interesting display on July 1st, in the rooms below the Brondesbury Synagogue, C olon el V alen tin e M atthews and C olonel B edford were the inspecting officers. A well-thought out war gam e had been arranged, calculated to tax the ingenuity and resourcefulness o f the members. T h ey acquitted them selves well in the preparing o f food for the wounded, in the sterilising o f dressings, and in the making of swabs and pad splints. Som e o f them rendered first aid, attended to the transport of the “ wounded ”— little B oy Scouts entered into the spirit o f the display, and made excellent patients— and constructed shelters for cases unable to be moved. A ll sorts of “ wounds ” were carefully treated, and the utmost interest was displayed.

AID. —

July, 1912.

have given rise to a dislocation being expended upon the breaking of the bone. With a dislocation as a complication to a fracture the requirements of the case, so far as thejlimb is concerned, is to prevent further mischief. This is to be done by keeping the limb in a position as near as possible to that naturally assumed by the patient, retaining the limb in this position by suitably placed supports, as folded coats, cushions, pillows, &c. In such a case the first aider has a free field for exemplifying his powers of resourcefulness. In this, as in every other case, the fact that a patient as well as an injury requires attention, must not for a moment be forgotten.— L. M. F r a n k C h r i s t i a n .] F IR S T

A ID

IN

IT S R E L A T IO N S H IP TO D IA G N O S IS . SiR ,— The following test was set to a number of first aid men, and a difference of opinion having arisen, I should like to submit it to your judgment, if you would be good enough to state the treatment that should be adopted. I quote the case as given to us on a printed card :— “ You are attracted by a scream in a refreshment-bar at a small lonely junction. Upon entering you find these two un­ desirable aliens— they have been quarrelling. A is pale, he has a feeble pulse and respiration, is coughing up blood, he has a bottle in his hand (labelled “ poison”). B is stumbling about, howling with pain, he has a knife in his hand, and it is quite evident that he cannot see. Neither A nor B can speak English. Your only help is C, who is a young lady attendant who is very frightened at what she has seen.” For reference, I might state there is no ambulance box available and no staff— no help whatever on the junction station. A lies in a recumbent position on the floor with the bottle in his hand, and B’s face and eyes are stained brown (by the aid of cocoa and water). Time is limited to 10 minutes, inclusive of reading the case. (Actual treatment to count only : verbal treatment does not score.) Thanking you, Sir, in anticipation.— Yours, &c., “ D o u b t f u l .”

We are in no way responsible for the opinions expressed, or the statements made, by Correspondents.— EDI TO RS . F R A C T U R E W IT H D IS L O C A T IO N . S ir ,— H ow would you apply first aid to a man with his right thigh fractured three inches above the knee, and the knee joint out, the bone of the knee-joint protruding to the outer side of the limb ? Also how would you apply first aid to a man with a fractured thigh and dislocated hip on the same side? I shall be pleased to get an answer to these questions through your valuable Journal.— Yours, &c., Chesterfield, June 24th, 1912.

J. R i d g b w a y .

[The method of applying first aid in cases of emergency must depend materially upon the circumstances surrounding each individual case requiring treatment. This is explained under “ Fractured arm and forearm ” in issue of December, 1911, to which I must refer your correspondent. Owing to the great strength of the ligaments and to the breadth of the joint surfaces, dislocation of the knee-joint seldom occurs. Much less likely is it to occur if a fracture of the femur has been caused, much of the force that might

[This type of test is of very considerable value to all inter­ ested in ambulance work, inasmuch as it calls for that exercise of the mind which is so imperatively necessary in so many cases of real emergency. It is of an excellent standard, and in all its bearings it should be carefully studied by your readers.— Compare correspondence under above heading in March and A p r il issues i()Z2. Unlike so many of the old-fashioned competition tests the diagnosis is not here given. The scene of the emergency, the surroundings, and a few other facts are given, and the first aider is wisely left to make his own deductions. According to the accuracy or otherwise of the diagnosis so will vary the value of the treatment given. In this case definite treatment cannot be advised in conse­ quence of the fact that there is not sufficient information to form a definite diagnosis. Sufficient, however, is given to enable one to gain a general idea of probabilities. The history pre­ sents many points of interest and is of considerable importance as a help to diagnosis. Tactful and observant action on the part of the first aider, beginning perhaps with a few discreet questions addressed to the alarmed attendant, will doubtless clear away all difficulties regarding the nature of the disabilities, after which the needs that exist will become apparent to the mind. In all probability it will be found that A has thrown some corrosive into the face of B, thus injuring his sight and causing him excruciating pain. B (Italian like) has promptly seized a knife, and in his anger has stabbed A in the region of the stomach, collapse and vomiting of blood being the result. This, however, is only a surmise. It is quite possible that an altogether different condition of affairs exists. Treatment of the case must be based entirely on general principles, details o f treatment, of course, being absolutely governed by the needs o f the case, as ascertained by the result of observation and reasoning, as above outlined.— L. M. F r a n k C h r i s t i a n .]


— F I R S T

July, 1 91 2. a r t if ic a l

r e sp ir a t io n

,

b e e

st in g s

.

C A R B O L IC A C ID . D e a r S i r , — W ill you kindly answer the following questions through the medium of F i r s t A i d (1.) When using Schafer’s method for a case of apparently drowning, would Marshall Hall’s method be used first for clearing the air passages of water, as it is in other methods ? (2.) In a case of bee stings of the mouth and throat, with much swelling, would the combined treatment as given for stings of plants and animals (rinsing the mouth with an alkaline solution) and the swelling of the tissues of the throat (cold water to drink and hot fomentation to front of throat, Sic.) be the correct method of treatment ? (3.) Although Epsom Salts is given as the special antidote for carbolic acid poisoning, if this was not handy would it be safe to use the other alkalies as given for other acids ? Thanking you, Sir, in anticipation for reply.— Yours, &c. J. S. [ (1) No. Schafer’s method has more than all the advanvantages of Marshall Hall method, and none of the disadvan­ tages. (2) Yes, though a very dangerous condition is apt to super­ vene, despite all efforts. (3) Yes, but of very little, i f any, practical value, and therefore a waste of energy and of valuable time. Glauber’s salts (sulphate of soda) is as effective asjEpsom salts (sulphate of magnesia) as an antidote to carbolic acid, the result of administration of either being the formation of a “ sulpho-carbolate,” which is harmless.— L. M. F r a n k

AID. —

Small strips of paper might be fastened on the patient where the injury is supposed to be, red to indicate bleeding, and anything special might be written on the paper, such as “ arterial ” on the red, “ com pound” on fracture, &c., by this means the first aider would have to examine the patient, as he would in an actual case, to find out what are the injuries. Thanking you for the help your valuable journal is to our work.— Yours faithfully, P t . A. J. H., N o . 10 District. TH E

C O R O N A T IO N M E D A L . I should be obliged if you would let me know through your valuable Journal ( F i r s t A i d ) if I am entitled to wear the S.J.A.B. -Coronation M edal— when in the uniform of the Territorials?— Yours, &c., S i r ,—

D ear

“ D o u b t f u l .”

[The Coronation Medal is authorized to be worn by the Sovereign, and can certainly be worn on Territorial uniform.— E d i t o r , F i r s t A i d .]

HORLICK’ S " K D

M a lt e d B arle y , W h e a t , a n d Milk, In P o w d e r F orm .

THE

ID E A L

R e fr e s h in g ; . G ives Stren g th PREPARED

C h r i s t i a n .]

S U G G E S T IO N F O R C O M P E T IT IO N S . S i r , — As the tendency is to make the cases more realistic, I think it would add to the interest and prevent mis­ takes of dealing with right instead of left. &c., if the patient were marked, instead of the whole history being read and hav­ ing to be kept in the memory.

19

IN

A

FOOD

D R IN K .

Invig oratin g. and S t a m in a and

MOMENT

WITH

Sustaining. k e e p s y o u fit .

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NO

COOK

T h e w holesom e nutrition o f pure m ilk an d ch oice m alted g ra in . A n ex cellen t tab le b eve rag e, d elicio u s in th e m orning, soothing at n igh t. A v alu ab le ad d ition to th e d ie ta ry o f an yon e follow in g th e teach in gs o f p h ysical cu ltu re exp erts. S u p p lie s e n e rg y w ith ­ o u t u n d u ly ta x in g d igestio n . E s p e c ia lly useful in em ergencies.

A

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20

— F I R S T H ow

TO

A C T IN

CASES

OF

AID. —

July, 1912.

Km BRGENCY.

O n F irst A id , M edicine. S u rg e ry , and a ll other S cien ­ tific and L ite ra ry subjects,

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FIRST AID.

The Independent Journal for the Ambulance and Fire Services. Conducted b y A R T H U R N o . 2 1 8 .— V o l .

X IX .

B.

A U G U S T , 19 12 .

[N e w S e r i e s . ]

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[E n ter ed a t sta n o n e re - H a ii.]

[ 2 /6 P e r

TWOPENCE.

A n n u m , P ost

Free.

Brigade, and the manner in w hich it was carried through,

To Our Readers. As it is the wish and desire of the Proprietors to make this Journal as instructive and entertaining as possible, correspondents in all parts of the country are asked to give it all the help they can. Superintendents of Corps and Officers of Divisions of the St. John Ambulance Brigade, Officers of the Royal Army Medical Corps (Territorials), the Volunteer Ambulance School of Instruction, and Chief Officers of Fire Brigades will, it is hoped, do their best to make it known amongst the members of their respective organisations, and will also send for publication their official news and notices. Sugges­ tions are invited for Prize Competitions and other matters which will advance the interest of the Journal. We particularly desire to ask our correspondents to be brief and to the point in any communications they may send us for publication. Correspondents sending in photos are urgently requested to state on the back of the same the name of the individual or the Corps or Brigade and give also the name and address of the sender. We beg to advise our readers that we do not pay for photographs or copy sent, unless previously agreed upon in writing. “ F ir s t Aid ” is pu blished on t h e 2 0 th of t h e m on th .

and the perfect orderliness that was m aintained by the thousands o f all classes present in cam p and in the town of W indsor up till m idnight o f the 22nd, is a record that the Brigade may well be proud of. “ T here is one matter I should like to draw attention to nam ely the saluting of officers in uniform by those of subordinate rank.

T his is not a mark o f servility but of

respect for the office held by the person saluted.

I should

like to see it more generally a d o p te d ; at present it is the exception rather than the rule.

It will add to the respect

for and the dignity o f the Brigade. “ The

R eview

by

his

M ajesty

of

the

St. John

Am bulance Brigade will count as the annual inspection for all units represented at it.” T h is broad appreciation by his M ajesty and the C h ief Com m issioner, we are sure, will cause a thrill o f satisfaction to all who took part in the m em orable Review .

EDITORIAL.

Such

appreciation and recognition o f the self-sacrificing labours o f the members o f the Brigade should inspire confidence,

In

The K in g’s

Brigade.

Brigade

“ His

M a je s t y the

in

issued

last

Kin g has

and stim ulate the achievem ent o f still greater results than have already been obtained.

a triumph for the C h ief C om m ission er— the crowning day of long and arduous work ; and it must have been a great

his approval of th e

source o f gratification to him that his efforts were backed

which

all

Review, and

satisfaction

the

w ith

arrangem en ts

the were

by such a loyal body o f workers.

particular attention to the remarks of

T h e C h ief Com m issioner, added :— “ T h e

the Brigade

Program m e

A t this period o f the year am bulance work is in a dorm ant state, for many

T h e success of

of Training,

corps and divisions have com pleted the

fidence expressed in Brigade Orders that would maintain its traditions o f the past.

the Review was due to the loyal way in which every member endeavoured to conform to the instructions issued, and to the energy and ability of the Officers o f all ranks. M y thanks are due for the loyal support given me, by all, but especially to the Surgeon-in-Chief, the D eputy C om ­ Districts, and

Mr.

H. C. Chambers, D istrict Secretary o f No. V . District, all were detailed for

special

the C h ief C o m ­

gracious

message of his M ajesty is a full justification of the con ­

missioners o f Nos. I., II. and IV .

W e would like to call

missioner on the saluting of officers.

conceived and carried o u t.”

of whom

T h e success o f the day was

been graciously pleased to sig n ify his entire

manner

Orders

month was contained the fo llo w in g :—

Message to the

the

duties which they

performed in the most satisfactory manner. “ T h e R eview o f the B rigad e by his M ajesty the K in g is a landm ark for all tim e in the history o f the

syllabus o f their year’s work, for with the end of next m onth the brigade year ends. N ow is, there­ fore, the time for officers to map out their programmes for the following year’s work. T h is is an all im portant part to decide and has a direct bearing as to whether or not a corps or division will be a success, it is so easy to let a division becom e “ sloppy” by want o f a definite and interesting pro gram m e o f training, and this should have the careful con­ sideration o f all officers. It practically requires a real “ g e n iu s” to inspire som ething new in am bulance work, but still, with a little forethought and enthusiasm, an officer can m ake even repetition work interesting.


— F I R S T

St. 3ohn Jltnbulance Srigade. % *

No. 1 District (Prince of W a le s ’s Corps.)

DUTY

ROSTER.

S E P T E M B E R , 1912. Sunday Duty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. September 1st. — No. 45 Division. „ 8th. — No. 11 „ „ 15 th .— No. 28 „ „ 22nd.— No. 2 „ „ 29th. — No. 16 „ Parade 2.30 p.m. as per separate orders. Officers will please note the date their Divisions are detailed. B U G L E B A N D P R A C T IC E . Friday, September 6th and 20th, at Headquarters at 8 p.m. There are still several vacancies for buglers in the band. C O M P E T IT IO N S . The written papers for the “ N ursing” Bowl and the “ Sleath G en t” Cup will be taken on Thursday, September 19th. Competitors may attend at Headquarters at any time between 6 and 8 p.m., at their convenience, to commence the paper, which will last one hour. The viva voce and practical for the above, and also for the “ Osborne” Shield, will take place on Saturday, September 21st, about 3 p.m. at the German Gymnasium, 26, Pancras-road, N. A copy of the conditions will be supplied, if applied for. Entries must be sent in to Headquarters by September 14th, or at least a notification that the Division intends to compete. Members and friends are specially invited to attend on Saturday. The “ Massey” and “ Efficiency” Cups Competitions will be held either on Saturday, September 28th or October 5th. This will be notified in due course but, in any case, entries must be sent in to Headquarters by September 21st. F O O T B A L L D U T IE S . Divisions that are accustomed to perform duty at Open Spaces and Club-grounds will please make application for permission to continue with same, stating the locality where they are required. D R IL L M A N U A L . This book is now on sale at the Stores Department of the St. John Ambulance Association ; price, 5d.; by post 6d. All examinations for promotion will in future be drawn up there­ from ; all competitions will be judged thereby, so far as it applies, together with “ Cantlie” and the conditions of the competition. F IR S T A ID C L A S S . A First Aid Class will commence at St. John’s Gate on September 10th, at 8 p.m. Officers and M/i/C who know of candidates, whom they wish to assist to obtain the Certificate should communicate with Headquarters.

AID. —

August

I 91 2.

District Order, dated 18/8/19/2. Officers, Sergeants and other Members in charge of divisions will please remember that all correspondence must be addressed to the Deputy-Commissioner (see Gen. Regs., page 13, para. 26). Commandants of St. John V.A. Detachments will, in like manner, deal direct with the Deputy-Commissioner, irrespec­ tive of the fact that they may receive communications from the Chief Commissioner, or his representative, or from the County Directors. In no case are communications to be sent or forms to be returned except through the Deputy-Commissioner; otherwise complications may arise, of which the Deputy-Commissioner will have no knowledge until they have gone too far to be rectified. All applications for Local Duty must, likewise, be addressed to the Deputy-Commissioner, The only channel for all District Correspondence is through the Deputy-Commissioner, who will distribute it to such Officers as he may appoint to deal with it. The “ R ep ly” form— a supply of which can be obtained on application— must be used in all cases where a reply is required. The above applies to Nursing, as well as Ambulance Divisions. D istrict Memo. Officers and M/i/C are reminded that the Official Year ends on September 30th. All members who have drills to perform, or Examination to pass, in order to earn their efficiency, should be warned. All forms B/F 2, 3, 5a and 5n, should be prepared, in readiness to be forwarded to Headquarters early in October. It should not be necessary for the District Secretary to write for these forms. Arrangements should also be made for all Divisional Annual General meetings to be held early in October, and the Divisional Secretary should attend at Headquarters as soon as possible afterwards with the Divisional Books, viz. :— Minute book, Stores book (if kept), Current Copy of General Regulations, Occurrence book (if kept). (Cash book is not required.) The attention of Auditors should be drawn to the Special Circular which was issued last year re Auditing of Accounts, as no books will be passed by the Deputy-Commissioner unless all his instructions have been fully carried out. Arrangements should be made to hold Divisional Annual Re-examinalions before the end of December, if possible, but in any case not later than March 31st, 1913. P R E S E N T A T IO N O F S E R V I C E M ED ALS, B A R S, D IS T R I C T T R O P H IE S , A N D T H E D IS T R IC T T E S T I M O N IA L T O W. H. M O R G A N , ESQ. Preliminary Notice.— A Concert will be held at the Northampton Polytechnic Institute, St. John’s-street, Clerkenwell, on Wednesday, October 30th, at 8 p.m. As the occasion is quite unique, it is hoped that all Divisions will do their utmost to make the evening a thorough success. Surplus, if any, will be devoted to purchase of equipment for the District. (Signed) L E E S H ALL, Deputy-Commisssoner.

D istrict Order, dated 17/8/19/2.

L ad y Perrott, L ad y Superintendent-in-Chief o f N urs­ ing Corps and D ivisions o f the St. John Am bulance Brigade, gave birth to a daughter at 52, Onslow-gardens, S.W ., on W ednesday, August 4th.

E N R O L M E N T O F N E W M E M B E R S IN A M B U L A N C E D IV IS IO N S . My attention has been called to the fact that the “ H eight” standard of ; ft. 5 in., is not being adhered to. A case in point has been recently discovered with the result I was compelled to cancel the enrolment and registration. Officers and M/i/C must not submit applications from candidates who do not comply with the “ h eig h t” and “ a g e ” standaftls. .-

N o. 6 ( C y c l i s t ) D i v i s i o n . — For the benefit o f several applicants desirous to join this division a first aid class has been arranged for men on T u esday evenings, com m encing Septem ber 10th, at St. John’s Gate, Clerkenwell. T h ere will be an exam ination for the St. John A m b u lan ce A ssociation ’s certificate at the termination of the course. A n y other men, whether desirous to join the


August, 1912.

— F I R S T

division or not, can take the course at the same time. Supt. N. Burton, o f 412, Queen-street, Ham m ersm ith, will be pleased to send them full particulars. No. 2 District. B o u r n e m o u t h .— W e regret to record the death of 1st Officer Adlem o f this Division, which occurred under tragic circumstances on August 5th. A man was pulled out o f the sea half-drowned, Mr. Adlem rushed down the beach and personally brought him round by artificial respiration, helped to carry him over the heavy sand to the baths, where he persevered, with restorative measures, until, exhausted himself, he suddenly fell back and expired. Mr. Adlem was one o f the original members o f the B ourne­ mouth Division, and has been an assiduous worker in its interests. H e leaves a family of nine absolutely unprovided for, and we understand a memorial fund is being organised by the Hon. Surgeon and Supt. R . H ardie for the benefit o f his widow and children.

AID. —

23

Dr. Griffith, acknow ledging a vote o f thanks, said the general average of the stretcher work done that afternoon was rem arably good. H e had been greatly im pressed by the way in which the Cheltenham Corps had suddenly developed into experienced am bulance men. O n e cam e down and saw them in their smart uniform, graced with a nursing line, and one felt he was am ong men who had been doing am bulance work for twenty years. T h e work was so extrem ely good that it had given the judges a great deal o f trouble to decide which was best. H e m entioned a few little points, however, to which more attention should have been given by some o f the teams. Dr. Griffith proposed a vote of thanks to the M ayor and Mrs. Shew ell for their hospitality, which was seconded by Dr. H u gh Powell. M ayor Shew ell replied. No. 3 District. D istr ict

C a m p .—

-The annual cam p o f the district

This .illustration shows an actual case of first aid being rendered by members of the Brighouse Corps at a recent sports meeting. C h e l t e n h a m .-— T h e third annual contest for the “ Shewell ” shield, presented by M ayor Shewell, the Corps Superintendent, was held on July 27th. E igh t teams entered, and for the third year in succession the shield was won by the police division, one of their num ber also securing the prize for the best individual work. T h e com ­ petition was judged by Dr. Griffith (stretcher drill), and Dr. M cLannahan (individual work), and they placed the teams in the following order :— 1, P olice (first team), 217 m arks; 2, Friendly Societies (first team), 2 0 6 ; 3, Police (second team), 188 ; 4, Friendly Societies (second team), 18 4 ; 5, Corporation (first team), 1 7 8 ; 6, St. P eter’s, ■ 7 2 > 7i Cearlton K in g ’s, 1 6 5 ; 8, Corporation (second team), 156. T h e names of the winning team a re :— P.S. Robinson, P .C .’s Williams, Jones, H astings and Hughes. P.S. Robinson and P .C . H astings tied for the individual prize, and after another test H astings won.

T h e M ayoress o f C h elten h a m , at th e co n clu sio n o f the contest, p resen ted th e sh ield an d p rizes to th e su ccessfu l team s.

was held this year during the 4th to n t h o f A ugust at South Denes, Yarm outh. D eputy-Com m issioner T . H . W oolston was in com ­ mand. T h e officers on the staff were :— Principal M edical Officer, D istrict Surgeon T . N elson, M .D . (Birm ingham ); Adjutant, D istrict Supt. W. H . Reeves (N ortham pton); Sergt.-M ajor A. L lo yd (N ortham pton); Sergt. Bugler F. E lliott (Northam pton). T h e transport and supply was carried out by Assistanl-Com m issioner W. E. Audland, M .R .C .S . (W ellingborough), and Assistant-Com m issioner Rev. W. D ore Rudgard, M .A ., C h ie f o f Staff (Coventry), assisted by Corps Secretary Frank Adnitt (Northampton). Although the weather was very rough during the week the cam p was a great success. O ne of the interesting features was the visit o f Supt. Harris, of N ew South W ales. H e cam e to E ngland with several others for the R oyal R eview at W indscr, and spent four days in camp, showing considerable interest in the work. Sir Thom as Chevasse, M .D ., of Birm ingham , was an interested guest during the w hole o f the camp, and expressed his great satisfaction at

I


— F I R S T

24

the work done. T h e No. i C o. were successful in winning the G uard Shield. D uring the week the D eputy-C om ­ missioner and D istrict Supt. W. H arvey R eeves visited the cam p o f the B oys’ B rigade at Gorleston, and were much interested in the work. T h e officers of the B oys’ Brigade returned the visit later.

No. 4 District. D u b l i n .— T h e presentation of medals in connection with the D ublin D ivisions took place on July 18th at Lord Iv ea gh ’s gardens, St. Stephen’s Green, D ublin. The medals were granted by the K in g in recognition o f the services rendered during the royal visit last year. T h e duties of the am bulance corps were very arduous owing to the hot weather, as altogether 357 cases were dealt with. Mr. Justice Ross presented medals to the following units o f the brigade : St. Jam es’s G ate Division, 53 officers and m en ; Messrs. Jacob’s Division, 12 officers and men ; C ity of D ublin Nursing Division, the L ad y Superintendent and 5 nurses. T h e annual com petition for L ord Iveagh’s challenge cup was held on August 17th at Lord Iv ea gh ’s grounds.

R o c h d a l e .— A big event took place at R ochd ale on A ugust 3rd, when Sir James Clark inspected the Corps and D ivision o f South East Lancashire. T here were present 416 men and 215 nursing sisters. T h e men met at the T ow n H a ll Square and, preceded by two bands, marched to the athletic grounds, where the nursing sisters were already formed up. T h e w hole of those on parade then form ed up in line in order of seniority, and after the general salute had been given an inspection was made of the ranks by the C h ief Com m issioner. T hen cam e the march past, and presentation o f service medals by L ad y Royds. T h is was followed by com petitions and a demonstration o f stretcher drill and first aid, at the conclusion o f which the parade was form ed up on three sides o f a square to listen to an address by Sir J. Clark. H e said that it had been a very good inspection, he might say one o f the best he had ever seen since he had been in the brigade. T h ey had attended well, and the way they had turned out and done their work had been excellent. H e was very glad to see so many o f the St. John A m bulance Brigade had joined the V oluntary A id D etachm ents. H ere they were suffering perhaps under a little disadvantage by not being registered at the War Office. T h e y could take it from him it was no disadvan­ tage whatever. T h e y were registered at the headquarters of the St. John Am bulan ce Brigade, and they might be perfectly certain that the first D etachm ents which would be called out in case o f em ergency would be the D etachm ents o f the brigade whether they were registered or not. Later on he had no doubt they would be registered. H e saw there also a good sprinkling o f the R oyal N aval Sick Berth Reserve. H e com m ended that reserve to them as one of the best reserves they could go into. T h e y would be better looked after, the work perhaps was more interesting, and altogether it would be a good holiday for those who took it up. T h ere were some 700 names already enrolled, and at least 700 more were wanted, so that there were plenty o f vacancies. H e had not been able to exam ine into the work o f the nursing divisions as thoroughly as he generally did, because hey had the com petitions on. From what he had seen of /

AI D. —

August, 1912.

the work he had no doubt that he would have been per­ fectly satisfied. T h e results o f the com petitions were, for the am bu­ lance divisions : 1, the South-East Lancashire Coronation Shield, won by Crom pton ; 2, the W ilson and Stockall Shield, H eyw ood ; 3, the South-East Lancashire Corps and D ivision Cup, T y ld e s le y ; 4, tie between L eigh and Ashton. Trophies for nursing d iv isio n s: x, the South-East Lancashire Nursing Shield, C a stle to n ; 2, the Lees Cup, Bury ; 3, Crom pton ; 4, Tottington.

No. 5 District. B r i g h o u s e . — T h e annual inspection of the corps took place on July 20th. D istrict Supt. Cham bers should have been the inspecting officer but the pit disaster at C adeby prevented his attendance and D istrict Inspector of Stores H . L. Thornton, of Huddersfield, took his place. T h ere was a good muster of both nursing and am bu­ lance divisions, and Corps Supt. Dr. Bond and Corps Sur­ geon Edwards were in charge of the parade. In com m and of the nursing division was L ad y Supt. Mrs. Edwards and Nursing Officer Miss Thornton, while 1st Officer G ledhill was in charge of the south division, Supt. H alliday and A m b u ­ lance Officer R astrick com m anding the north division. O ther Officers who paraded included Corps. Secretary Arthur Thornton and Corps Inspector o f Stores A lbert Thornton. Follow ing the inspection a display o f field work was given. A collecting station was formed on the adjoining field, and the nursing sisters arranged a six bed hospital in a school near by. T h e patients were distributed at various parts o f the ground and they were treated and conveyed to the collecting sta tio n ; here they were further attended and transported to the temporary hospital, having to negotiate a brick wall on the way. Subsequently the inspecting officer spoke in high terms o f praise o f the work done. A s far as he was aware, and he had asked several other officers, that the type of work which they were doing did not seem to have been considered by any other neighbouring corps, and it was rather a feather in the cap o f the Brighouse officers that it had been worked up to such a state of perfection. T h ey would understand, of course, that it was the type of work that would be absolutely necessary in case of the brigade be­ ing called upon as reserves of the m edical section o f the Territorial Arm y or the other forces of the Crown. Dr. Bond, in conveying the thanks o f the three divi­ sions to the inspecting officer, took anvantage of the opportunity to remark that when they began the next year in Septem ber there were two or three im portant things to be considered, including the question of the new ground, and possibly the plans o f their proposed new headquarters. H e concluded by expressing the hope that there would be a good number of recruits and that liberal support would be given to the corps.

No. 7 District. S h r e w s b u r y . — Supt. Bowdler, of the No. 1 (Shrews­ bury Tow n) Division, was presented with a handsome mahogany am bulance case by the officers and members of the corps on the occasion of his leaving for Australia. Col. Cureton made the presentation, and, in the course o f a short address, expressed the good wishes of all the members o f the corps.


— F I R S T

August, 1912.

AID. —

25

No. 11 District. R h o n d d a F a w r . — A meeting o f the members o f the Ystrad R hondda A m bulance and Nursing D ivisions o f the corps was held on July 17th for the purpose o f presenting certificates and medals to the members. Supt. T . Davies presided, and a brief address on am bulance work was given by Dr. E. L. Phillips, hon. surgeon to the division.

jS

v

JO

2P

Y o rkshire M in es A m b u la n c e L e a g u e . Southampton “ R hodes ”

C up

C ontest.

T w o competitions were held on July 20th in connection with the Rotherham D ivision o f the League, one was for the first year’s students, and the other for the R hodes cup. T h e work of judging was undertaken by Dr. Sim pson for the Rhodes cup, and Dr. Bowm an adjudicated the first year men. In the cup com petition there were eight teams, and some really smart work was done. Silverw ood No. 1 team (winners of the Yorkshire Shield) cam e in first with 242 points. T h e members of the team were W. H anton, G. H . Briggs, T . Marshall, and G. Crisp (capt.). Warren House, with 223 points, were placed second, and Siverw ood No. 2 were third with 216 points. T h e other teams finished in the following order : 4, Aldw arke (Swallowwood), 170 p o in ts; 5, Roundwood, 1 5 3 ; 6, C ar H ouse, 1 3 8 ; Silverwood No. 3, 127 ; 8, Rotherham M ain, 89. T h e prizes were, first, silver teapots ; second, case o f c arve rs; third, jam dishes. T h e result in the first year com petition were :— Warren H ouse (M. F. Boulton, J. Quinney, A. R o ebu ck and J. R. Stokes) 79 points ; Roundw ood, 74 points ; Siverw ood A, 69 points. T h e League also offered medals for the best first year man in each class, and these were won as fo llo w s:— Bramley, D. T u rn er; Canklow , H . S h e a rd ; Low Stubbin, R. J. Bentley ; Roundw ood, J. J. B rou gh to n ; Silverwood, E. R o b e rts; Treeton, A. L ittle w o o d ; W oodhouse, P. Beckwith. T h e medal for the secretary of the class presenting the largest percentage of fillers and colliers for exam ination during the year was won by Mr. R. Shaw, o f the W ood ­ house class. T h e M ayor of Rotherham , after expressing regret that he had to leave before distributing the prizes, assured them o f his interest in the Yorkshire Mines A m bulance League. H e was pleased to see that they were increasing in numbers. H e was sure if the public generally only knew the usefulness of the lessons the members of the league were taking in am bulance work they would more largely support the m ove­ ment. Mr. C. E. R hodes presented the prizes. T hose engaged in am bulance work, he said, must be greatly en­ couraged to find their efforts appreciated by so many o f their fellow workmen. Com prehensive votes o f thanks were passed on the motion of Mr. C . E. Rhodes.

W h e n c o r re sp o n d in g w i t h A d v e r tis e r s p lease m e n tio n “ F ir s t A id .”

C e n t r e .—

On

July

26th

H .R H.

Princess Louise, D uchess o f A rgyle, accom panied by the D u ke o f Argyle, visited Southam pton for the purpose of presenting certificates and other awards to the members o f the C entre gained since O ctober last. T h e presentation took place at H artley H all, which was crow ded with wellknown people connected with am bulance work. H er R oyal H ighness was received by Col. E. Bance, V .D .,D .L and Lieut.-Col. G. E. Twiss, and a guard of honour of the N ational R eserve was drawn up outside. T h e Princess presented to Mrs. L o ck e and Mr. Fulford the vellum votes of thanks granted by the Chapter General of the Order, together with the “ T w is s ” R ose Bow l and “ T w is s ” Shield, won by their respective divi­ sions. H er R oyal H ighness also handed to the team which represented No. 2 D istrict in the “ D ew ar” C o m ­ petition the awards o f merit m ade by the St. John A m bulance Association, and at the request o f Mrs. C hinery made a pleasing presentation to Lieut.-C ol. Tw iss from the Lym ington Centre. C ol. Tw iss stated that the awards which H er R oyal H ighness had graciously consented to distribute that day represented the work done in the classes o f the Centre since O ctober 1st, 1 9 1 1 , and consisted of 484 certificates and other awards. T h e horsed am bulance had attended and carried free o f charge to hom e and hospital, between that date and June 30th, 244 cases of accident or other emergencies. Since the revival of the Centre seven years ago, 3,850 pupils had obtained certificates, & c. From these pupils four am bulance and six nursing divisions o f the Brigade had been formed, and two m ens’ and seven w om ens’ St. John V oluntary A id D etachm ents. T h e awards were then distributed, a vote o f thanks to the Princess being subsequently m oved by the R ev. G. W. Minns, seconded by C ol. Swalm, and carried by accla­ mation, the D uke o f A rgyle responding. A s H er R oyal H ighness left the hall she inspected a guard o f honour of the Southam pton Corps and Calm ore and Lym ington D ivisions o f the Brigade, which lined the long corridor under Corps. Supt. Aldridge. Lt.-C ol. Tw iss has received the following letter from Col. H eseltine :— “ T atchbury, T otton, H ants, July 27th, 1912. H er R oyal H ighness Princess Louise, D uchess o f A rgyll, has asked me to write to you and express her appreciation o f all the arrangements m ade by you and your com m ittee for the distribution o f prizes in connection with the St. John Am bulan ce Association, held on Saturday at the H artley H all, Southam pton. H er R oyal H ighness also wishes you to convey to Mr. M uddim an the pleasure it gave her to hear the B orough P olice Band again, as she well rem em bers the excellence o f their playing on previous occasions.”


26

— F I R S T

G .E .R .— C olonel G. S. Elliston, C .B ., V .D ., at the Railw ay Mission, Ipswich, recently presented medallions, labels, vouchers, and certificates to the successful students at the first aid class recently held. Mr. A. P. Turner (D istrict L ocom otive Superintendent) presided, and was supported by Drs. S. O. Eades and W. A. G ibb, Messrs. E. A. W ilson (D istrict Engineer), J. W atts (D istrict G oods Superintendent), M. Bedford (D istrict Traffic Superin­ tendent), A. C o le (Station Master), W. Hunt, A. Leathers, C . Clem ents, and the P olice Inspector Rainbird. T h e Chairm an, in introducing C olonel Elliston, said he was one o f the pioneers of am bulance work locally. It was in the year 1880 that Col. Ellistnn first gave a course o f lectures to the G .E .R . men at Ipswich, this being abso­ lutely the first class on the English railways. E ver since he had taken a very great interest in railway am bulance work. Colonel Elliston, who was most heartily received, said he was pleased to be present for many reasons, but especially to welcom e them as a G .E .R . Division o f the Ipswich Corps o f the St. John A m bulance Brigade. In giving the G .E .R . men a warm welcom e to the Brigade, he spoke o f the many advantages they would derive, and thanked all those who had been instrumental in bringing about the change. After the distribution of certificates, Mr. Watts, in the course o f a pleasant speech, said he rem em bered very vividly the lectures delivered in 1880, and prized the certificates he then gained. Mr. Bedford moved a vote of thanks to Col. Elliston, which was seconded by Mr. E. A. W ilson, and carried with applause.

G .W .R .— T h e members o f the G obow en and district am bulance class assem bled at the station recently to receive the awards gained in examination. Mr. Ferrington presided and the presentations were made by Mrs. Ferrington. In his opening remarks the Chairm an re­ ferred to the fact that all the members of the class had been successful in satisfying the Exam iner, a highly creditable performance, and also paid tribute to the uniform courtesy o f railwaymen to the public. Dr. J. D. S. L loyd (lecturer) was presented, on behalf of the class, with an engraved salad bowl. Mr. A. E. Beaucham p, the energetic Class Secretary, was made the recipient of a jam-barrel. Interest in the am bulance m ovem ent is probably as keen am ong Great Western em ployes at G loucester as am ong any section of workers, and it is interesting to know that the various departm ental classes and teams have united with the view o f following up first aid work on a com bined scale. T h is arrangem ent will doubtless be m utually advantageous to all concerned and the result of centralisation should prove generally beneficial to the movem ent at Gloucester. T h e G loucester am bulance men have been prom inent in com petitions for some years past

A I D. —

August, 1912.

and no less than five teams entered the Com pany’s sectional contests this year, the No. r team getting into the final com petition at Paddington. Mr. W. H. Daniell, of the G oods Departm ent, has been elected Hon. Secretary. T h e annual distribution o f awards in connection with the T aunton Class was held last month and it is pleasing to note that this year there were again increases in the num ber of awards secured. T h e membership now numbers fifty. In the absence of the zealous Hon. Secretary and Captain (Mr. J. R oost) his duties were discharged by his brother, Mr. W. G. Roost. Mr. C . Carter presided and was supported by Mr. J. E. Schunck and Dr. W inckworth. In opening the proceedings the Chairm an congra­ tulated the Class upon a very successful season. He thought am bulance men were rather inclined to attach too much value to competitions. H e did not think that the merits or demerits o f an individual or team should be judged by com petition results. In distributing the awards to members o f the Class successful in exam ination, Mr. Schunck said he would far sooner receive reward for some work attem pted or achieved— such as am bulance work— then any title or honour. T h e satisfaction o f being able to alleviate suffering and help others in time o f em ergency was reward in itself. It gave him great pleasure to present the awards and thanked the Class for honouring him with the invitation. Dr. W inckworth (lecturer) referred in glowing terms to the valuable work performed by the Class Secretary and regretted his inability through illness to be among them on that occasion. H e (the doctor) hoped that a larger number of the uniform staff would join the class and that these men would becom e the backbone o f the class as they should be. O ther speakers were Messrs. S. O. C ook, G. T. Sweetland and F. J. Pike.

S.E . & C .R .— T h e Dartford, A b b ey W ood and Slades Green Classes finished their season’s work with a crowded concert, which was held at the Co-O perative H all, D art­ ford, on Thursday, July n t h . Mr. E. A. Richards, the Chairm an o f the Centre, pre­ sided, and during the evening Mrs. E. A. Richards handed the awards to the successful students. D uring the evening the “ V ellum V o t e ” , awarded to Dr. J. H am ilton of, Dartford, was presented, and the chairman referred to the many services which Dr. H am ilton had rendered to the railway men at Dartford. Dr. Mayston, who lectures to the Slades Green Class, was the recipient o f a handsome Rose Bowl from the members of the class. On Tuesday, July 16th, a pleasant evening was spent at the V ictoria H otel, Ashford, when the chair was occu­ pied by the Centre Chairm an, who was supported by Dr. Frank Coke, and the Centre Secretary. During the even­ ing the awards gained by the men at the recent exam i­ nation were distributed, and D. C o k e was presented with the “ vellum vote o f thanks ” awarded him by the St. John A m bulance Association. A good programme o f music was enjoyed by a large com pany. On W ednesday, July 17th, the Folkestone Class brought its work to a termination with an enjoyable concert at the Congregrational H all, when the Chairman o f the Centre, presided, being supported by Dr. Lidderdale, Mr. E. G. Pont, Mr. G. H enniker and Mr. R. Lane. T h e Chairm an stated that the record of the S .E . & C .R . Centre was one to be proud of, and they had hard work in front of


— F I R S T

August, 1912.

27

AI D. —

_

them if that position was to be maintained. H e was sure they could rely on such results in the future, as it was their am bition to be the means o f rendering som e help to ^ their fellow creatures in the time o f need. T h e C en tre’s 1st class certificate was awarded to Mr. Edw ard B rice in recognition o f exceptional promtitude and efficiency in rendering first aid to Mrs. R oach and her two daughters, who fell over a cliff at Folkestone Warren on Septem ber I 2tst, 1 9 1 1. T h e Station Masters Shilling Fund Com m ittee had also awarded to Mr. B rice a sum o f money, as an appreciation o f his efforts on the occasion in question. During the evening a pair o f silver candlesticks were presented to Dr. Lidderdale from the members o f the Folkestone Harbour Class, in recognition o f their esteem for the doctor as their lecturer. D uring the evening a good musical programme was enjoyed. On W ednesday, July 24th, an am bulance com petition took place at T em ple Ewell. Four teams com peted for the “ Levasco ” Challenge Cup, presented by the late Mr. W ELSH PO O L

TEAM ,

W IN N E R S

OF

THE

C o m in g

Events.

Particulars of forthcoming events will be inserted in this column frei of charge, i f received not later than the 14th of each month lirierfield.— The annual Individual Nursing Competition for the “ V eevers” Rose Bowl will take place on September 28th at the Wesleyan School, Brierfield. Entries limited to 22. Entry forms and particulars may be had from Miss Dora Robinson, 1, Robson-street, Brierfield, Lancs. London.— The Polytechnic open ambulance competitions for the “ William H eyw ood” shield and the “ G ran t” medal, will take place at The Polytechnic, Regent-street, W., on Saturday, October 26th, at 1.30 p.m. Full particulars may be obtained from the hon. ambulance secretary, The Polytechnic, Regent-street, W., or from W. Heywood, 81, Davies-street, W. Stamped addressed envelopes should be sent for replies. Ravensthorpe.— The annual competition open to Brigade

C A M B R IA N

R A IL W A Y

CH ALLENGE

S H IE L D ,

1912.

Back row (left to right) : Messrs. Cook, Jones, Pryer, and J. Jones. Front row : Mr. Evans, Dr. Skinner, Mr. T. Jones, Dr. Thomas, and Mr. T. Howell. Savel. T h e maximum num ber of points was 130, and order of the teams when the result was announced was as follow s:— Dover Railway, 140 m arks; Ram sgate Railway, n o ; Dover Hospital, 109 ; Deal Boys L ife Brigade, 97. Lieut.-Col. Lees H all, R .A .M .C .(retired ), judged the competition, and it was agreed by all present that it had proved one o f the most interesting and pretty com petitions that they had seen. T h e arrangements were ably carried out by Mr. A. J. Cackett, who acted as secretary to the competition.

Supt. E. Charlesworth, o f the C leckheaton Division of the Dewesbury Corps was the recipient of a handsom e presentation on August 14th, as a mark of esteem by both the members of the Am bulance and Nursing Divisions. Sergt. H aley made the presentation on b eh alf o f the members.

and Association teams will be held on Saturday, September 7th. Full details may be had on application to the Hon. Sec. W. Ledgard, Alma House, Thornhill, Dewsbury. Scunthorpe.— The annual competition for the “ Sir Berkeley Sheffield ” Challenge Shield, will be held here on September 28th. Entries close September 23rd. Any Ambulance or Brigade team in No. 5 District wishing to compete can obtain full particulars on application to Mr. J. H. Mason, 13, Sheffield-street, Crosby, Scunthorpe. Welshpool.— The competition for the “ Skinner ” Challenge Shield, open to all Nursing Divisions and St. John V .A .D .’s in No. 7 District, will be held at Powis Castle Park, Welshpool, on September 19th. Entries, accompanied with P.O. for 2s. 6d., should be sent to Dr. Skinner, Rockville, Salop-road Welshpool.

W hen corresponding w ith A d vertisers p lease m ention

F ir st A id.”


28

— F I R S T

B r e v it ie s . A p a p e r was read in the N avy, Arm y and Am bulance Section o f the British M edical Association Annual C on ­ ference by Captain N . D unbar W alker, on the “ Factors Affecting the M arching Powers o f T roop s.” H e said that at the present day the increased m obility of armies, due to im provem ent in m echanical transport, had only resulted in greater dem ands on the m arching powers of the soldier. A t the same time in the time of peace, the average man had to rely more and more on m echanical means o f m ove­ ment, bicycles, & c., and, therefore, was becom ing less and less accustom ed to the natural m ethods o f progression. * * ■ * F o r ordinary m arching the older man was, within limits, the better. T h e reservists in South A frica rendered a good account o f them selves, and showed that within the ordinary limits of military age, up to 35 years, their march­ ing was not impaired. Insufficient age had a very serious effect, and this was a disadvantage o f our voluntary system

o f service. Instruction in m arching was a most im portant factor, for a man might be in first-class training and yet not be able to walk in the most econom ical m a n n er; and again, an excellent walker might be unable to march satisfactorily when loaded. * * # I n regard to clothing and accoutrem ents, all inter­ ference with the chest and with the dissipation of heat should be avoided as far as possible. T h e weight carried should be distributed sym m etrically, and placed as near as possible to the centre of gravity of the body, but it had to

be rem em bered that the heaviest piece o f equipm ent, the rifle, must always be carried sym m etrically on one side or other o f the body. From personal experience Captain W alker considered the present British W eb equipm ent the best equipm ent known. T h e official weight the soldier had to carry was 59 lbs. M any men were incapable of carrying the present load, and it was desirable that the weight should be lightened so that the load should be little more than 47 lbs. It was just as necessary to break a long march by days o f rest as it was to have rest periods during the march. T h e tendency to rem ove troops at night meant loss of sleep, and if continued becam e very serious, nothing making men more “ ju m p y ” as want of sleep. * * * Surgeon advocating the more ment. It recorded H ospital, Chatham , F leet

A. G. W ildey, R .N ., also read a paper general use o f iodine in first aid treat­ his experience at the R oyal N aval during the year 1 9 1 1 . H is practice

was in every case o f accidental wound, no matter how severe, to flush out the wound im m ediately with a freshly prepared 2 per cent, alcoholic solution o f iodine, followed in the case of deep wounds, by sterile saline solution. A s a result o f this form o f treatment sepsis had becom e very

AID. —

August, 1912.

rare, even in badly crushed and dirty wounds, and the num ber of serious cases of injury under treatm ent had been reduced by 26 per cent., in spite o f an increase of 10 per cent, in the num ber o f injuries o f all kinds. A bandolier specially designed for carrying iodine and alcohol for the im m ediate preparation o f the 2 per cent, solution was then demonstrated. * * *

W e should like to congratulate C olonel Trim ble, D eputy-Com m issioner o f the No. 4 D istrict and his officers on the success of the inspection o f the South East L an ca­ shire Corps and D ivision by Sir James Clark, a report of which appears on another page. Sir James said it was one o f the best inspections he had seen since he had been in the brigade. * * *

I t will be noted that we published for the first tim e

last month the official orders of the No. 1 District, Prince o f W ales’s Corps. T h is will be a permanent feature in the the future, and we hope to publish, with the courtesy of the Deputy-Com m issioners, the other district orders. * * * W e are surprised to see that the annual cam p is not made an annual event with other districts than No. 3. It does, we know, necessitate a considerable am ount o f work in organising these camps, but this is com pensated for by the excellent training it gives to the men besides giving them an enjoyable holiday.

* * * W e notice that the No. 1 D istrict is holding a C oncert on W ednesday, O ctober 30th, the first, by the way, since 1901. T h e concert is being held for the purpose of pre­ senting the district trophies, service medals and bars, and the testim onial which has been raised for Mr. W. H .

M organ, until recently Assistant-Com m issioner o f the District. It is not intended to com pete with concerts held locally by divisions, but it is hoped that all members will use every endeavour to secure the success o f the evening, for which an excellent program m e is promised. The object is not to make a profit, but any surplus there may be, after paying expenses, will be devoted to the purchase of equipm ent for the use o f the district.

Sir John Furley presented certificates and medallions to the Ashford St. John V oluntary A id D etachm ent on July 31st. T h e annual outing in connection with the Birchwood C olliery A m bulance Classes was held on July 20th. An enjoyable day was spent at H aw kstone Park in spite of unfavourable weather. W hen corresponding w ith A d vertisers please mention “ F irst A id .”


Augats

- F I R S T

1912

T h e G r a n d P rio ry of t h e

Order of t h e

H ospital of S t . John of J e r u s a le m in E n g la n d . Chancery o f the Order, St. J o h n s Gate, Clerkenwell, London, E . C., g th August, 19 12 . H .M . T h e K i n g has been graciously pleased to sanction the following promotions in and appointments to the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England :— A s K night o f fustice (from K n ig h t o f Grace) : Harold Edwin Boulton, Esq., M.V.O. John William Springthorpe, Esq., M.D. (from Honorary Associate). The Right Honourable the Viscount Acheson. Lieut.-Col. Sir Joseph Fayrer, Bart., F.R .C.S.E d., M.D. (late R.A.M.C.). Robert Mitchell, Esq. (from Esquire). Col. Sir Henry Mill Pellatt, C.V.O. Major Charles Alfred Hodgetts, M.D., L.R.C.P., A.M .S. Canada (from Esquire). His Honour Lieut.-Governor Sir Fran$ois-Xavier Langelier. Daniel Robert Wilkie, Esq. A s Ladies o f G ra ce: The Right Honourable the Lady Mount-Stephen. Edith Boulton, Mrs. Samuel Nordheimer. Eleanor Kathleen, Mrs. Lewis White. Eveleen Olive Alice, Mrs. Wollaston. Laura Gwendolen, Mrs. Trench Gascoigne. The Honourable Florence Maria Daly. Lady Drummond. Madame Frederick L. Beique. Lady Tilley. A s E s q u ir e : Lacey

Robert

Johnson

Thom as Hanson Smith, L .R .C .P . (Reddish Branch). John Sinclair, M.D. (London). Joseph Adams, M.D. (Warrington Centre). Captain R. S. Wilson (Canadian Branch). Major Theakston (Canadian Branch). T h e following awards were presented by the SubPrior, the V iscount K nutsford, G .C .M .G , & c. (acting on behalf o f the Grand Prior, H is R oyal H ighness the D uke o f Connaught, K .G ., absent in Canada), in the C hapter H all of the Order, at St. John’s Gate, Clerkenw ell, L ondon, E .C ., on 19th July, for acts o f gallantry in saving or attem pting to save, life on land :— Bronze M e d a l: Thomas Edmondson, James Francis Booth (Sergt., Felling Colliery Corps, S.J.A.B.), Clive Smith, Henry Merritt, Archer Harley, Joseph Thomas. Certificate o f H onour :

A s Knights o f Grace :

Lieut.-Col. Associate).

29

AID. —

(from

Honorary

A t a meeting of the Chapter-G eneral on July 30th there were also Selected as Honorary Serving Brothers : Charles Orchard (Merton and Wimbledon Division S.J.A.B.). Harrie J. Hallett (No. 1 District, S.J.A.B.). Henry Walter Goodman (No. 1 District, S.J.A.B.). L. Frank Hayman (No. 1 District, S.J.A.B.). Josiah Perkin Bent (Reddish Branch). Ernest Rushworth (Alsager Branch). Thomas Wilkinson (Gateshead Division, S.J.A.B.). William Henry Smith (Ilkley Branch). Fred Rawson (Hebden Bridge Centre). Coptain R. J. Birdvvhistle (Candian Branch). Selected as Honorary Serving Sisters : S J Am T)"611 Elizabeth’ Mrs‘ Down (Prince of W ales’s Corps, Martha, Mrs. Reeves (Northampton Corps, S.J.A.B.). Louise, Mrs. Barnes (Prince of W ales’s Corps, S.J.A.B.). E nrolled as Honorary Associates : James Anderson, M.B. (Seaton Delavel Branch). Frederick Ernest Richardson, L.R.C.S., L .R .C .P .E d (Bexhill Branch). Joseph Edward Bowser, M.B. (Penrith Branch).

Charles Costello, J. D. Bush, Richard Owen, Alfred Ernest Bragg, Alfred Ernest Williams, W. J. Graham. T h e Service M edal, awarded for distinguished service to the Order and its Departm ents, was also presented to the following members o f the St. John Am bulance Brigade :— District Inspector of Stores Hugh Reginald Thomas, Dunedin, N.Z., Division. District Treasurer Harrie J. Hallatt, Prince of W ales’s Corps. Corps Surgeon William Scatterty, Keighley Corps. Corps Superintendent William W aring, Warrington Corps. Corps Superintendent Thomas Allen, Shipley and District Corps. Divisional Surgeon John H. Yolland, M.B., Prince of W ales’s Corps. Divisional Surgeon Mark K. Hargreaves, M.D., Prince of W ales’s Corps. Divisional Surgeon John M. Carvell, M .R.C.S., Prince of W ales’s Corps. Divisional Surgeon W alter C. Rigby, M.B., Adlington and Heath Carnock Division. Corps Secretary George Bird, Shrewsbusy Corps. Corps Secretary Charles Thornes, Dewsbury and District Corps. Corps Secretary William T. Atkinson, Hull Corps. Corps Treasurer Lewis Frank Hayman, Prince of W ales’s Corps. Corps Treasurer Frederick H. Vaughan, Hull Corps. Divisional Superintendent Nelson Ashworth, Edenfield Division. Divisional Superintendent Thomas Damant, Ipswich Corps. Divisional Superintendent Stanley N. Bulcraig, Hobart Division. Divisional Superintendent Frederick H. Gooderham, Gippeswyk Division. Divisional Superintendent Harry Allott, Dewsbury and District Corps. Divisional Superintendent Albert Christopher Carter, Hull Corps. Divisional Superintendent Richard John Parsons, Redruth Division. Divisional Superintendent Robert Masser, Tottington Division. Divisional Superintendent Charles W . Smith, Broughtonunder-Blean Division. Divisional Superintendent Charles Orchard, Prince of W ales’s Corps. Divisional Superintendent M. Sanders, Padiham Division. Divisional Superintendent William f. Parsons, Rugby Division. Divisional Superintendent James H. Potter, Shipley and District Corps. Divisional Superintendent James T. Green, Shipley and District Corps.


— F I R S T

Divisional Superintendent John D. Busfield, Shipley and District Corps. Divisional Superintendent Thomas Noble, Keighley Corps. Divisional Superintendent John Harding, Keighley Corps. Divisional Superintendent Joseph Shelmerdine, Buxton Division. Divisional Lady Superintendent Alice (Mrs.) Howard, Preston Corps. Divisional Lady Superintendent (Miss) Jane Dunlop Hooper, Dunedin, N.Z., Division. First Ambulance Officer Harold Fowler, Dewsbury Division. First Ambulance Officer Charles T. Osborn, Prince of W ales’s Corps. First Ambulance Officer Morris Christopher, W olver­ hampton Division. First Ambulance Officer James Daniels, Hazel Grove Division. First Ambulance Officer John W . Woolley, Oldham Corps. First Ambulance Officer Ernest Stevens, Prince of W ales’s Corps. First Ambulance Officer Hugh Thomas Williams, W arring­ ton Corps. First Ambulance Officer Joseph H. Widdop, Whaley Bridge Corps. Second Ambulance Officer James A. Lendrum, Preston Corps. Second Ambulance Officer Robert Green, Rochdale Corps. Second Ambulance Officer Luke Cowey, Tibshelf Corps. Third Ambulance Officer Francis Jackson, Tibshelf Corps. Third Nursing Officer Harriet (Mrs.) Esker, Oldham Corps. First Class Sergeant William T. Galsworthy, Prince of W ales’s Corps. First Class Sergeant John A. Drage, Wellingborough Corps. First Class Sergeant Frederick Field, Prince of W ales’s Corps. First Class Sergeant Samuel G. Halbert, Oldham Corps. First Class Sergeant Cornelius Howarth, Whitworth Division. First Class Sergeant Harry B. Ryall, Prince of W ales’s Corps. First Class Sergeant Charles H. Darker, Prince of W ales’s Corps. First Class Sergeant James Elam, Prince of W ales’s Corps. First Class Sergeant Henry Bowers, Shipley and District Corps. Sergeant Nathan Found, Newton Abbot Corps. Sergeant Alfred Church, Wellingborough Corps. Sergeant Herbert Raynor, Rochdale Corps. Sergeant Henry Hoggarth, Hull Corps. Sergeant William Billington, Hull Corps. Sergeant Arthur Thurloe, Hull Corps. Sergeant Frederic A. Storrar, Prince of W ales’s Corps. Sergeant William H. Scarbrow, Prince of W ales’s Corps. Sergeant Alfred Hebblethwaite, Walton-le-Dale Division. Sergeant Thomas Parker, Walton-le-Dale Division. Sergeant William Alfred Fell, Warrington Corps. Sergeant William A. Banning, Warrington Corps. Sergeant John Robinson, Tibshelf Corps. Sergeant William Robinson, Tibshelf Corps. Sergeant Jacob Robinson, Tibshelf Corps. Sergeant iohn W . Adams, Tibshelf Corps. Sergeant William Greenwood, Tibshelf Corps. Sergeant Granville W . Slack, Tibshelf Corps. Sergeant Frederick Smith, Tibshelf Corps. Sergeant James W. Halls, Prince of W ales’s Corps. Divisional Secretary and Sergeant William Haslam, Edenfield Division. Divisional Secretary and Sergeant William A. Gray, Prince of W ales’s Corps. Corporal James E. Pickup, Edenfield Division. Corporal Joseph Samuel Bullock, Prince of W ales’s Corps. Corporal William Holmes, Wellingborough Corps. Corporal James John Harwood, Newton Abbot Corps. Corporal Charles E. Farrow, Prince of W ales’s Corps. Corporal George Lewis Hunt, Hull Corps.

AID. —

August, 1912.

Corporal W . Marshall, Prince of W ales’s Corps. Corporal William J. Bould, Prince of W ales’s Corps. Corporal Ernest Ward, Tibshelf Corps. Corporal Joseph Haywood, Tibshelf Corps. Corporal Francis Wilbourn, Tibshelf Corps. Private Ambrose Wilkins, Accrington Corps. Private John Harrison Wilson, Keswick Division. Private George William Dean, Accrington Corps. Private William Gayes, Prince of W ales’s Corps. Private George Barnett, Prince of W ales’s Corps. Private Herbert Cavell, Prince of W ales’s Corps. Private W illiam Perrie, Prince of W ales’s Corps. Private John John, Rochdale Corps. Private John Stott, Rochdale Corps. Private William Smith, Prince of W ales’s Corps. Private Phineas Godfrey Hayman, Prince of W ales’s Corps. Private Arthur J. Pratt, Prince of W ales’s Corps. Private George Kirby, Prince of W ales’s Corps. Private George Lovett, Prince of W ales’s Corps. Private W alter Sidney Mason, Prince of W ales’s Corps. Private James Andrews, Prince of W ales’s Corps. Private John Kirby, Warrington Corps. Private Thomas Hardy, Tibshelf Corps. Private John Bamford, Tibshelf Corps. Private George Foster; Tibshelf Corps. Private James Harris, Prince of W ales’s Corps. Private James W . Clark, Prince of W ales’s Corps. • Nursing Sister Laura Smith Parsons, Portsmouth Nursing Division. Nursing Sister Elsie Hulton, Prince of W ales’s Corps. Nursing Sister Margaret (Mrs.) Holmes, Prince of W ales’s Corps. Nursing Sister Fanny Heywood, Oldham Corps. Nursing Sister Margaret (Mrs.) Forrester, Dunedin, N.Z., Division.

H in ts t o F ir s t Aiders. S pr ain s F rom cases.

tim e to tim e w e h e ar o f d ifferen t Every

fir s t

aider

knows

the

tre a tin g a s p r a in e d a n k le , b u t th is d ifferen t fro m th e u su al p ractice.

m eans

o rd in ary m eth od

is

o f treatin g m ethod

of

som ewhat

It is generally som etim e after the accident that you are called to see the patient, and find him suffering severely and wanting very much to know if “ anything is broken.” After examination for fractures the part should be bathed in extrem ely hot water every hour or two at intervals of a period of 15 minutes. H ave the water just as hot as the patient can bear it, and apply with a sponge or cloth rather than allow' the ankle to remain in the water : then dry and let the part rest wrapped in flannel, when an appli­ cation of hamamelis or veratrum and hamamelis may be made. Before retiring apply a flannel bandage tightly around the swollen part, only being careful that the circulation is not in any way impaired. It is surprising how the hot application relieves the pain and produces absorption, and how the bandage by pressure prevents swelling and inflam­ mation. F ractures.

In putting up fractures, the fact that transport is necessary must not be lost sight o f ; therefore the splints must be longer nor shorter than is necessary, and the bandages not too tight ror fear of obstructing the venous circulation. T h e members of Brithdir Division, which was formed in January o f this year, turned out to a Church Parade in uniform for the first time last month. T h ey were supported by several other divisions in the neighbourhood.


August, 1912.

ALL

R IG H T S

F I R S T

R E S E R V E D .J

H om e N u r sin g a n d H y g ie n e. B

y

H. M A IN V V A R IN G H O L T , M .R .C .S ., L .S .A ., D .P .H .

Honorary Associate of the Order o] St. John, L ife Membet of.j and Lecturer and E xa m in er o f the S .f .A .A . ; Hon. Surgeon to the Maltoti and N orton D ivision, No. VL. D istrict, S .f .A .B . (Continued from page 10.) T he W e of

h ave alread y

M a k in g

of

a

G ood

N u rse.

referred to th e q u a lific a tio n s a n d

d u ties

a n u r s e , b u t t h e r e is s t i l l s o m e t h i n g m o r e t o s a y w i t h

re fe re n ce to th e q u alitie s th at g o to m a k e

a

“ g o o d n u rse.”

AID,

31

functions which characterise health is altered in disease, and it is particularly these alterations which the nurse must closely observe. T h e circulatory, respiratory, digestive and nervous system s have been described and their functions simply explained in the prelim inary lecture to the course. W e have now to consider these ch ief functions so far as they have reference to the subject o f nursing. H eart

of

Body

V essels.

Back. sh o w in g

the

Briefly there are tw o :— (1) T h e ability to observe, and (2) the desire to know. W hat to

B lood

T h e heart may be felt to beat under the flat hand placed below the left nipple. T h e pulse is usually felt in the radial artery at the lower end o f the radius just between this bone and the ball o f the thumb. T h e num ber of pulse beats per minute vary with age, in the adult 70 to 75, in childhood about 100, and in infancy from 130 to 140 beats. T h e pulse rate may be increased or lowered in disease, or the character o f the beat may be altered, that

F ront. D iag ram

and

O bserve.

Something has already been said which it is hoped will guide the nurse in forming a conception o f what is meant by an average healthy person whose functions are regularly performed according to the average standard of health. T h e nurse must, therefore, make herself acquainted with the general appearance and the regular functions o f the healthy body. T h e regular perform ance of the various

In t e r n a l

O rgans

back

and

F ront.

is to say it may be irregular instead of regular. important point to notice.

T h is is an

L ungs.

Respiration or the act of breathing is performed about 17 times a minute, in children this num ber may be increased up to 30. T h e two acts inspiration and ex piration should be performed noiselessly with the corres­ ponding m ovem ents o f expansion and contraction o f the chest walls. Such conditions are called normal. As before stated the normal conditions becom e altered in


32

— F I R S T

disease, e.g., breathing may becom e more rapid, or it may be slower, shallow, stertorous (snoring) or sighing, it may be accom panied by pain or interfered with by cough. E x p e c t o r a t io n

It is important to notice the character o f the material coughed up from the lung, such may be ordinary phlegm, yellow, green or rusty coloured m ucous or blood. A l im e n t a r y

Stom ach.

Pain or discom fort may be felt in the region of the stomach. Vom iting, retching or eructation of gases, loss o f appetite, thirst, &c. B ow els

may be loose (diarrhoea) or confined (constipation), or they may be irregular or regular. T h e character of the motion must be noted, discom fort about the lower end of the rectum may indicate piles. K id n e y s.

T h e function o f the kidneys is to secrete urine. U rine is in reality water holding in solution several salts, and in particular a quantity of am m onia generally in a particular condition, being com bined with a little carbonic acid in the form o f what is called urea. I wish you to note this sub­ stance because urea and am m onia both contain nitrogen, and it is here that you see reappearing the nitrogen derived from the proteid or nitrogenous principles o f the food, as previously explained. T h e am ount o f urine passed in 24 hours varies from i£ to 2 i pints ; under certain conditions these amounts may be either increased or dim inished. T h e character of the urine may be altered in various conditions ; thus it may contain blood, bile, “ gravel,” mucous sedim ent and other abnormal constituents, or it may be passed with diffi­ culty or unconsciously, these are all points you must notice and report upon. and

N erves.

From what has already been said of the functions of the nervous systems, it will be obvious that the slightest alteration from normal conditions will find there response through this system. Sleeplessness, loss of memory, delirium, giddiness, weariness, dislike o f light, pain and discom fort are a few conditions that may be noted. T h e above attempt to make your know ledge connective may be o f service. S ig n s

and

S ym ptom s.

Y o u must try to understand the general meaning of these words. Signs are those things which you perceive in connection with the patient. Symptoms are those which the patient feels or com plains of. T here may be signs which you do not perceive, and symptoms which the patient does not feel, but these may both be very obvious to the medical attendant.

August, 1912 E xternal

S ig n s.

H e ad — ringworm, eruptions, vermin. F ace— altered expression indicative of pain or mental suffering. Colour, pale or flushed. Lips, bloodless or congested. Cracks, sores, eyes bloodshot, heavy or dull, white portions stained yellow. Eyelids drooping, swollen or puffy. N ose discharge, its nature.

C anal

is a general name for the whole of the food canal from the mouth to the anus. It is divided into the mouth, the pharynx or throat, the oesophagus or gullet, the stomach, the small intestine, the large intestine or colon, and lastly the term inal portion or rectum. There are obviously many things for the nurse to observe having reference to each o f these divisions. T h e conditions o f the mouth, tongue and teeth may be taken first. M outh may be parched, tongue coated or raw looking, the teeth decayed or absent.

B r a in

AID. —

S kin

and

B ody.

Its condition, whether dry or m o ist; pallor, colour, odour. Eruptions, their positions. M uscles

and

Jo in ts.

W hether movem ents are natural or interferred with ; loss of power. P osture

of

Body.

T h is is an important guide to an observant nurse. N ote the position in which the patient is most comfortable, whether unable to lie d o w n ; difficult breathing in certain positions. K n ees drawn up indicates adnormal dis­ comfort, slipping down in bed extreme weakness. R est in a com fortable position usually indicates a return to health. S pecial

O b se r v a t io n s.

Rigor.— By rigor is meant the peculiar shiver which passes through the body, and often ushers in an illness. Rigors may occur in varying frequency during an illness ; they are o f serious import. P a in .— L ocality— chest, abdom en, head, extremities. Character— continuous, intermittent, spasmodic, cutting, burning. T im e— night Or day, before or after meals ; effect of posture. ( To be continued.)

T h e officers and members of the A ddison Colliery, W hickham , Greenside, and Clara V ale C olliery Am bulance Divisions, and the W inlaton and Addison C olliery Nursing Divisions of the St. John Am bulance Association assembled at H edgefield Park on August 10th, and were inspected by Lieut. C. B. Palmer. T h e inspecting officer remarked that it was the smartest turnout he had seen for som e time.

L ord H ythe, speaking at the annual meeting of the Hastings and St. Leonards branch o f the S .J.A .A ., said that the report m entioned that they had in H astings a Branch o f the British R ed Cross Society at work, and no doubt this fact had affected the numbers o f those going through the St. John A m bulance course. T h e R ed Cross Society was, without doubt, doing an excellent work. H e was glad to know that the relationship between the St. John A m bulance and the R ed Cross Society was most cordial, but he must take that opportunity o f expressing the opinion that the sooner the St. John A m bulance and the R ed Cross becam e branches o f the same organisation the better.

W HEN

C O R R E SP O N D IN G

W IT H

ADVER­

T IS E R S P L E A S E M E N T IO N “ F IR S T A ID .”


August,

1912.

F I R S T

BRITISH

A I D . ____ _____________

33

RED CROSS SOCIETY.

COUNTY OF LONDON N o te s a n d N e w s .

BRANCH.

ments could attend at one time, but by taking in rotation a general idea o f hospital routine cou ld be obtained. * * *

T h e Secretary o f the War Office announces that the number of Voluntary A id D etachm ents registered at the War Office, on July 1st, was 1,642, representing a total strength of approximately 50,000 members, two-thirds of these being women. T h ese figures show that a very satisfactory increase has taken place during the past six months, the number o f detachm ents on January 1st last being 1,238, and the strength approxim ately 37,000. T h e leading counties in E ngland and Wales a r e :— Hants, 107 ; Sussex, 79 ; County of London, 67 ; Glam organ, 64 ; Essex, 5 9 ; Gloucester, 5 7 ; D evon, 5 5 ; Somerset, 54. In Scotland Fife, 4 6 ; Perth, 3 3 ; Renfrew, 28 ; Ross and Cromarty, 1 9 ; are the leading counties. *

*

*

Th e Arm y Council, in a com m unique to the County Association of the Territorial Force, state that in con­ formity with the G eneva Convention A ct that their policy is to limit their sanction to the use of the “ R e d ” or “ G en ev a ” Cross to those organizations through which Voluntary Aid D etachm ents are raised. In time o f peace the Council consider that the use o f the Cross should be restricted to official purposes, such as wearing it with uniform or on duty or official occasions, and that the mode of wearing the emblem in time o f peace should be used in the form o f a badge in order that it is not likely to be confused with the official brassard, which will be issued by the War Office on mobilisation. On this latter point the Council have decided to prohibit altogether the wearing in time of peace o f the emblem in the form o f a brassard. *

*

*

C olonel Bedford at the Cam berw ell Inspection pointed out that it would be an im provem ent in the training if members of detachm ents could attend at H ospitals or Infirmaries to get some practical know ledge of dealing with the sick. H e calls attention to the fact that it is very difficult to make the present system o f training sufficiently realistic. T here is no doubt that all this putting o f splints and dressings over the garments worn by the “ patients ” detracts very much from the value of the training and the reality of the exercises, and if some practical training could be arranged by D etachm ent Com m anders it would be of immense benefit to the units. * * *

A short course o f H ospital training has in the past been arranged by other am bulance institutions and we see no reason why the V .A .D . should not be privileged in a similar respect. In m aking such an arrangem ents with a local hospital only small batches o f members of detach­

T h e inspection o f detachm ents which have been held during the month, reports o f some of which we give, show the progress which has been made in training during the past year. W e see by the Inspecting O ffices’ reports that in all instances, except one, the Inspecting Officer recom ­ mends that the detachm ents be accepted by the War Office. T h is one case was not on the grounds of inefficiency, but the detachm ent was not up to numerical strength. * * *

T h e quarterly returns o f strength for the quarter ending to the end of June show the total num ber of detachm ents com prising the C ounty of London Branch to be 47 with a num erical strength o f 1,324 men and women com prising 39 com m andants, 44 quartermasters, 46 L ad y Supts., 107 cooks, 40 m edical officers and 55 trained nurses. * * * T h ese results are pleasing, but we should like to see a greater preponderance of m en’s detachm ents formed in the County o f L ondon Branch. T h ere are only 4 out o f a total o f 47, these are not satisfactory figures and a big effort should be made to im prove them. * * * O f recent years many new organisations have sprung into being for the objects o f prom oting am bulance training^ No doubt they serve a useful purpose to propagate this use­ ful knowledge, and the certificates which they issue has a recognised va lu e; but, generally, each has its own pet text-book, and consequently there is a varying standard of efficiency which acts detrim entally generally to the am bu­ lance cause and leads to overlapping. M ore particularly so in the case of V oluntary A id Organisations will this overlapping be felt. T h e W ar Office schem e empowered the Territorial County Associations with the raising through various channels V oluntary A id D etach m en ts; the various organisations through which they are raised have a varying standard o f efficiency and training, sooner or later this will be bound to lead to confusion, for it must be rem em bered that in the event o f m oblisation detachm ents will work hand in hand whether raised by the British R e d Cross Society or the St. John A m bulance Association, and the various methods of training will result in lack o f uniform ity in the carrying out of the work entrusted to detachm ents. W e hold that if the V oluntary A id D etachm ents are to be a success in the actual event o f war unity and hom ogeneity are absolutely necessary. T h is can be accom plished by a uniform standard of training and the issue o f certificates o f equal value to candidates who have accom plished a course through whatever institution.


— F I R S T

34

The

T rain in g

of

a

V o lu n ta ry

Aid

D e t a c h m e n t .* B y

MAY

THORNE,

M .D ., F .R .C .S .I., 2, V .A .D .

C ommandant

L ondon

W h e n it was decided to raise Voluntary A id D etachm ents to take part in the care o f the sick and injured of the Territorial F orce should war arise in this country, the first official to be appointed in each county or area simulating a county, were the C oun ty Directors, who were responsible for the organisation of the V oluntary A id D etachm ents in the county. U nder the C ou n ty D irector were the various D ivisional Directors, who in their turn had the immediate supervision of the m en’s and w om en’s detachm ents raised in their district. In many divisions an hon. secretary was appointed, whose duty was to be cognisant of all the detachm ents in the division and to help them in any way that was possible. In all counties a President was appointed. In the County of London H .R .H . the Princess R oyal graciously fills the office of President. C onsiderable trepidation has been felt on the part of many ladies who have been invited to undertake the onerous position of Com m andant to a W om en’s Voluntary A id D etachm ent as to what they are to do with their detachm ent when they have organised it. T h e work of training a wom en’s detachm ent in a large town during the winter months should be carried on system atically and with definite ends in view, and it may, perhaps, be useful to describe the training that has been given to a w om en’s detachm ent that has been in existence for nearly two years. M eeting of the detachm ents are held once a fort­ night, from O ctober to July, there being short breaks at Christm as and Easter, and each meeting lasts about an hour and a half. T h ere are usually present the Com m andant, the Assistant-Com m andant, one or two trained nurses and u varying number o f members. It is always borne in mind that the three ch ief objects for which a wom en’s detach­ ment would be required are (1) T o nurse the sick or to help nurse the sick and injured ; (2) to cook for the sick and injured under its charge as well as for the members of the detachm ent ; (3) to sew, darn, wash and generally look after the health and com fort of the men com m itted to it. In order to gain the necessary experience, the m em ­ bers practise putting on bangages and splints, arresting haemorrhage, and other matters which they have learnt in their first aid classes, and which require much practice in order that they may be done efficiently with com fort to the patient and with neatness. T h e bandaging class lasts about forty minutes, and is followed by drill, which lasts from thirty to forty minutes. T h e drill is of great use in helping members to see the need o f com bined action in work, for discipline and, last but not least, for smartness. Silence is maintained, and m arching in single and double file, forming fours and other sim ple manoeuvres are gone through. Stretcher drill is undertaken, and is given in order that the members may be able to efficiently direct unskilled persons in m oving sick and injured men in and out of wagons, across rough fields and over walls, not necessarily for doing the heavy work o f lifting and carrying the injured men themselves. On another evening bed-m aking and the careful m ov­

'T h is article is published by the courtesy of the Editor of the Ladies Field.

AID. —

August, 1912.

ing of sick and injured persons in bed under the careful supervision o f a trained nurse takes up the first forty minutes, and is again followed by drill. Bed-making, however, this winter session is not undertaken so frequently as it was last session as, owing to the public spirit and kindness of the com m ittee and matron o f a large general hospital four members are admitted each week into the hospital for two hours, when they are trained to work at making beds with real sick or injured persons in them, taking temperatures and charting them, putting on fom en­ tations and sim ple dressings and generally do all that is required for the com fort and well-being o f the patients. T h is work is under the im m ediate superintendence of the sister-in-charge o f the ward and her nurses. T h is training is of the greatest value and interest to the members o f the detachm ent, and there is much keenness to be allowed to go as often as possible. O ccasionally a short lecture on some point connected with the work o f the detachm ent occupies the first part of the evening, such as feeding the sick, food and food values, the G eneva Convention, the necessity for a good watersupply and similar subjects, again followed by drill. A bout three evenings in the winter session are given up to cutting out and m aking articles which will be of use if the detachm ent is called upon to equip a small temporary hospital. T h e articles provided are pillow-cases, bedjackets, covers for hot-water bottles, dusters and cloths for various purposes. T h ese articles are clearly marked with the number of the detachm ent so that they may be easily identified from the articles which will doubtless be lent to the detachm ent by friends and neighbours should war arise and which will be marked by labels so that as far as possible the articles might be identified and returned to the owner when the public need for them is over. These stores are kept in a cupboard belonging to the detachm ent in the gymnasium where the fortnightly meetings are held. It is hoped that before long lantern slides dem onstrat­ ing the work o f a W om en’s V oluntary A id D etachm ent in the field or on an am bulance train or in a temporary hospital may soon be available in order that those detachm ents that have not yet been able to have practical experience o f what a detachm ent may be called upon to do, may be given a com prehensive idea o f what their duties might be should the Territorial Force be called upon to take part in the defence o f this country.

T h e city of Belfast has for some time had a motor am bulance wagon, and now proposes to obtain three more, so successful has the first m achine shown itself to be in dealing with calls rapidly and efficiently. T h e city am bu­ lance work is performed by the Fire Brigade, who have a great reputation as first aiders, holding several cups and trophies for com petition work.

T o swell the fund being raised in aid o f the sufferers from the C ad eby M ain C olliery disaster, a special matinee was given on July 31st, at the G rand E lectric Theatre, W akefield. Included in the programme was a demonstra­ tion of rescue work in coal mines by a rescue brigade, assisted by other branches o f St. John A m bulance Brigade. T h e M ayor and Mayoress, and M ajor Atcherley, M .V .O ., attended, and the entire proceeds are being handed over. W H E N C O R R E SP O N D IN G W IT H A D V E R ­ T I S E R S P L E A S E M E N T IO N “ F I R S T A ID ."


— F I R S T

August, 1912.

V o lu n t a r y P o st O

Aid

f f ic e

A

O r g a n is a tio n .

m bu lance

C

orps.

T h e first W ar Office annual inspection o f the St. John Voluntary Aid Detachm ent (No. 19 London), which was recently formed by the members o f the Post Office A m b u ­ lance Corps, was held on W ednesday, July 24th, at the Inland Section, G P.O ., M ount Pleasant. M ajor J. S. Gallie, R .A .M .C ., conducted the inspection. T h e C oun ty Director (Col. Valentine Matthews, R .A .M .C .) was un­ avoidably absent through sudden illness. Dr. Sinclair, President of the P .O .A .C . was present. T h e Detachm ent was represented by 41 members under the Com m and mt, Dr. H. H. Bashford.

AID. —

35

general outline o f the W ar Office schem e for utilising the services o f the various D etachm ents in time o f war. T h e Com m andant, in the course o f a few remarks, expressed his appreciation o f the valuable suggestions made by the inspecting officer. H e explained the various activities of the D etachm ent since its form ation in February last, and said that no doubt instruction would be given in som e o f the subjects referred to during the com ing winter. T h e H on. Secretary, Mr. G. G erhold, proposed a vote o f thanks to M ajor G allie for his instructive address and the special interest he had taken in the work of the D e ­ tachm ent, which was the first to be organised in the Post Office. Mr. A. G. H ayw ood briefly seconded, and it was carried with acclam ation. T h e D etachm ent was then dism issed.— G. G.

This illustration shows the interesting nature of the work undertaken by the No. 156, St. John Voluntary Aid Detachment (Hants 126) of which Mrs. Horne is the Commandant. After the men were paraded and the usual inspection formalities were gone through, a dem onstration of am bu­ lance work was given, including the removal of patients by stretcher and other means. A t the conclusion, M ajor G allie highly com m ended the men for the very efficient way they had rendered treatment in the supposed cases of accident. W hat he had seen had given him great satisfac­ tion, and he would be pleased to report to that effect. H e urged the men not to rest content with the splendid am bul­ ance qualifications they already held, but to go forward and becom e certificated in hom e hygiene and sanitation : also, if the necessary arrangement could be made, to have a week’s training annually at camp with a m edical unit. T h e further knowledge thus gained would be o f great assistance to them in performing, even more efficiently, the special duties required of a V oluntary A id D etachm ent. H e then gave a

I n sp e c t io n

of

70

(L ym in g to n

H an ts, St . John N u r sin g

C om pany

D i v i s i o n ).

On W ednesday, August 7th orders were received to land ten “ wounded ” from a battleship in the Solent, at Lym ington, and convey them by road to Lyndhurst, as the railway was supposed to be blocked. On landing, the wounded had their injuries skilfully attended to in a storehouse on the quay by the nursing sisters under 1st Officer Mrs. P ack and Mrs. C hinery (L ad y o f Grace) Com m andant. T h e wounded were then conveyed by boat to the Lym ington Jetty by the men of Lym ington S. John A m b u ­ lance Brigade, under Superintendent Stone and Sergeant Foot. Four o f the most serious cases were placed on


36

— F I R S T

stretchers, and with the rest were taken with the utmost care to the rest station (a large garage), which was in charge o f several nursing sisters, under M iss W aldron-Bennett, who gave beef tea, milk, & c., to the patients. T h e wounded were then put in brakes, and the worst cases were slung on stretchers across them and conveyed to Lyndhurst, which was reached at 4.30, where a fully equipped, temporary hospital had been prepared by 112 H ants R ed Cross Nursing V .A .D . M ajor Prescott, R .A .M .C ., from Cosham , was the inspecting officer o f 70 H ants V .A .D ., and Dr. Stalham, H on. Surgeon, was present. T h e y both expressed their approval o f all the arrangements, and also the way in w hich the wounded men were handled by the nursing sisters and the men. C olon el S. W estcott was the inspecting officer o f these V oluntary Aid D etachm ents, and Dr. Brodham Batley, of Christchurch, Com m anding Officer. H e says in his r e p o rt:— “ T h is is the first time that the various scattered detachm ents in this neighbourhood have com bined in a practical scheme, and on the whole the experim ent was highly successful. “ E ach detachm ent worked only in its own neighbour­ hood, and the com m ands deserved praise for the excellent work and superintendence that was shown.”

Division

N ew s.

inspection of London 8 4 V .A .D . will take place on O ctober 25th, at the Territorial Drill H all, Clapham Junction. T he

T h e K ensington D ivision com prising L ondon 4, 16, 28, 38, 40, 42 and 100 V .A .D ’s were inspected by Colonel V alen tin e Matthews, on July 13th, in the grounds of H ollan d House, K ensington. A much more ambitious schem e than had been previously attem pted was carried out. A R est Station was formed by London 4 and 40 with bivouacs to protect the p a tien ts; improvised beds were made out of straw and sacks, and there was a very effective cooking squad headed by a professional teacher of cookery. London 16, 38 and 42 D etachm ents were in charge of a temporary hospital in a marquee, the members o f which im provised stretchers and beds from poles and sacking and also m ade their own splints. A n operating tent in which the members were performing nursing duties, was also attached. London 28 and ic o fitted up three isolation tents for infectious diseases and were nursing the patients. An ingenious form of bivouac was made by some o f the mem bers of L ondon 100 for the open air treatment of a patient suffering from septicasmia. T h e whole o f the operations w ere carried out in a successful manner, the Inspecting Officer was particularly pleased with the cooking squads for they produced very satisfactory dishes with the aid of im provised cooking apparatus.

T h e C am berw ell D ivision was inspected at G rove V ale D epot, E ast D ulw ich, by C olon el Bedford, on July 20th. D etachm ent, Lond on 70, under the com m and of M iss C. E. G reene ; London 68, under Miss G. I. B rew ster; London 68, under Miss M. D u V e rg ie r ; London 64, under

AI D. —

August, 19 I 2.

Miss L . VV. Larque paraded, num bering in all 45 members. T h e plan o f operation was that the D ivision had been directed by telegraph to meet the train containing the wounded at East D ulw ich Station, give necessary attention to and rem ove the patients, and convey them by stretchers to G rove V ale D epot where a rest station and temporary hospital had been improvised. Part o f the grounds was railed off for a resting station with beds and other sick ward necessaries close to the operating tent. In another corner o f the ground was a field kitchen where all sorts o f delicacies and “ sick com forts ” were prepared. On arrival at the station the “ wounded ” were rendered first aid, and then conveyed on stretchers to the depot, where surgical aid was given. T h e Inspecting Officer in his report says “ that the members of the D etachm ents are keen and zealous in their work and showed good know ledge of first aid and home nursing. T h eir Instructor (Dr. Robinson) has taken an im m ense am ount of time and trouble in their instruction, and I think that great credit is due to him for having organized and trained these D etachm ents.”

T h e G reenwich and W oolw ich D etachm ents were inspected by C olon el F. L. Stephenson, on July 6th, at Charlton Park. T here was present on parade 91 members o f all ranks, out of a total o f 196. N o display or special programme was arranged, the D etachm ents proceeding in their ordinary training. On the whole the work was well carried out, and it is evident that members are acquiring a good appreciation of the duties and work o f V .A .D ’s in the field.

C o lo n ia l N e w s . I n d i a .— W e have received a copy o f the annual report for the year ending Septem ber, 19 1 1 , of the Indian Branch of the S .J .A .A . T h e report is o f a lengthy character and is divided into eighteen sections, and including a brief account o f the various centres. T r a n s v a a l . — T h e team which represented the Trans­ vaal at the inspection of the St. John Am bulance Brigade by H is M ajesty the K in g at YVindsor on June 22nd was com posed o f members o f the staff o f the South African Railways, First Officer E. J. Barnett (Corps Treasurer) being in charge. T h e team left Johannesburg on M ay 25th and arrived in London on June 21st. During the voyage members of the team were able to render first aid in a number o f minor casualties. On June 29th they journeyed to Leam ington and there met the Great Western Railw ay (holders o f the T ow n Shield) in com petion, and were successful. On the following day the team were entertained by the G .W .R . team, when a most enjoyable motor drive to Kenilw orth and W arwick Castles was taken. During their brief sojourn in this country the team have also visited Birm ingham , W olverham pton, B irken­ head, Stratford-on-Avon, M anchester, Crewe, Cheltenham and Evesham . T h e y returned to South Africa on the 3rd inst. by the ss. Goorkha, after a most enjoyable visit. A n am ount of over £ 2 0 0 was collected by public subscription by supporters of the St. John A m bulance Brigade in South A frica to enable the D etachm ent to journey to E ngland and attend the R oyal Review .


August, , 9 , , .

The

D e v iz e s

-

V o lu n t a r y Aid

FJR ST

D etach -

m e n ts . are many ways o f spending a Bank holiday. It is to the credit o f the Devizes Territorial M edical Services that they spent it in a way which was both pleasant and patriotic. W hile the local D etachm ent of the Field A m bulance went into a three days’ camp near Swindon, their colleagues of the Voluntary A id Detachm ents put in a useful as well as an enjoyable day in instructional exercise on Salisbury Plain. For this work the “ ge n e ra l” and “ sp e c ia l” ideas were furnished by Col. M ackay, of the W essex D ivisional Staff, and the orders necessary to carry through the opera­ tions were subsequently issued by the Com m andants. T h e scheme included the formation of a clearing I hospital for 50 beds at Gore Cross on the Plain, with an I entraining station at Lavington, G .W .R ., and in addition, to com plete the scheme, an imaginary convalescent depot was postulated at East Lavington M anor H ouse. The commandant o f the clearing hospital was then supposed to be warned on the morning of August 5th to expect at noon a convoy o f 20 surgical cases from a field am bulance attached to a force in the neighbourhood o f the W ylye, some of which were to be entrained for a general hospital at Bristol on the same day, whilst others were to be sent to a temporary hospital at Devizes, and others— likely to be fit for duty in a few days— to the convalescent depot. T h e outcome o f the orders issued was the departure from Devizes M arket Place on M onday morning o f a brake containing most o f the members of the L ad ies’ D etach ­ ment, while many others made their way independently on bicycles or in motor cars to the appointed rendezvous. T h e entraining station party arrived at Lavington Station soon after 11 o’clock, where, under the direction of the Com mandant of W ilts No. 1 V .A .D . (Mr. H. Brown), a railway goods van, set at their disposal by the G .W .R ., was quickly fitted with a W ulff-Hohm ann frame for con­ veying lying-down patients by rail, and the nurses and cooks of the party established at the goods shed a rest station for the casualties which were to arrive later. (This apparatus, an excellent one for the purpose, was probably one of the first of the kind made use of in this country, the frame having been first described in English in Col. M ackay’s book on “ Im provised M ethods,” published last year.) M eantim e the remainder o f the party proceeded some miles further to G ore Cross Farm, where a large barn had been handed over to them by Mr. Maggs, the patriotic proprietor. This barn, capable at a pinch of holding 50 cases, was quickly prepared by the Ladies D etachm ent, under their Comm andant (Mrs. Thornely), and in a brief space o f time it presented the appearance o f a hospital ward, with extem ­ porised beds for a dozen lying-down cases, and room for many more sitting ones. It was furnished with its neces­ sary adjuncts o f an operating table for em ergency cases, antiseptic solutions, and sterilised dressings— prepared in a portable steriliser; while at an additional table the nurses were busy in preparing and padding splints, band­ ages, &c. Outside the barn the D etachm ent cooks had built a field kitchen, and were making them selves responsible for the dinner for the personnel and the sick diets for the patients. It may be stated that the dinner was an Irish stew, prepared in cam p kettles kindly lent by Lord H eytesbury, com manding the depot of the W ilts Regt., and that it T here

A I D . -

37

was pronounced excellent by the 60 odd consum ers who dined on it— probably with appetites sharpened by the breezes o f the plain. T h e D evizes M en’s D etachm ent, represented unfortu­ nately by only a few o f its more capable and energetic members, were meantime engaged in transform ing, by C ol. Jam es’s and other methods, the farm wagons found on the premises into am bulance wagons for the subsequent trans­ port o f the cases to L avington Station. M eanwhile the patients, tw enty cheerful lads from D auntsey school, in the absence o f Territorials whom it was im possible to obtain, had been furnished with tallies describing their various injuries, and had been directed to scatter within a 200 yards radius o f the hospital, and to adopt the role o f wounded m en— a part which they played with evident satisfaction. For these “ casualties ” several stretcher squads subse­ quently went in search, and having applied first aid in the

In the June issue we gave a short account of this simple stretcher bogie designed by Mr. J. Hibberd, of Morton Colliery. He has now obtained a patent for this apparatus and all particulars can be obtained from Mr. D. Rushworth, Clay Cross Coal and Iron Works, near Chesterfield. open, bore them back to the hospital and handed them over to the care o f the nurses. It was explained by Col. M ackay to those present that in this detail o f the work a departure was being made from what would happen on active service, as the cases in the latter event would be delivered at the clearing hospital by a convoy from the field am bulance in their front, and would have already received first aid treat­ ment. After a welcome pause for dinner, the wounded were carried— in the case of those requiring transport— to the extemporised ambulance wagons, and there carefully


38

— F I R S T

loaded up— an operation requiring m uch skill and care. T h e sitting up cases were subsequently accom m odated in the wagons. M ale orderlies were posted to each wagon, and the convoy of wounded was then despatched to the entraining station at Lavington, attracting much interest on its way. Arrived at the station, the wounded were rem oved to beds prepared for them at the goods shed, pending their despatch by rail. T here they were further refreshed, in preparation for their journey, by the local nurses. T h ey were then loaded with ease and despatch into the WulffH ohm ann frame. Nurses were detailed to accom pany them, the doors were fastened, and they were forwarded (in imagination) to their destination at the General H ospital in Bristol. T h e proceedings throughout were watched officially by the D irector of M edical Services of the W essex Division (C ol. M ackay) and by the C ounty D irector of the W iltshire Branch o f the R ed Cross Society (Col. Fletcher). In addition, several com m andants and officers from neighbour­ ing D etachm ents were present, either as workers or as interested observers, including Mrs. Edw ard Colston, Mrs. Caird, Mrs. Newm an Rogers, Miss Lavington and Mr. Sum ner from M arlborough, and many others interested in R ed Cross work. A s to the quality o f the work done it is understood that this was very favourably com m ented on. V ery notice­ able was the quiet and business like way in which the various individuals, whether nurses, cooks, stretcher-bearers, wagon-improvisers, or railway van adapters, tackled their respective tasks and carried them through without bustle, delay, or confusion. It is beyond doubt that the intelligence displayed by the members o f the D etachm ents in grasping both the principles and the details of their work make them a most valuable asset to the Territorial Services ; and it is very evident, too, that in the event o f war in the hom e territory their services would be invaluable and indispensable.

C a d e b y C o llie r y D isaster.

AID. —

August, 1912.

l£ T 1,T £ R.1 ^

;h c

iu t o k s < We are in no way resionsibte for the opinions expressed, or the statements made, by Correspondents.— E d i t o r s . A C O R R E C T IO N . SiR,— I would like to call attention to an error in your valuable paper for the month of July, viz., you show a photo of “ The (West London) No. 44 Division, Prince of W ales’ Corps.” This is incorrect, the group represents the members of No. 9 Company, which is composed of several divisions, and the Company Commander is Supt. W. H. Maunder, No. 37 G.W .R. Division; the other officers a re :— Div. Surg. and Supt. Dr. McCarroll, Supts. Berkovitch and Knight. Trusting you will have room for this correction.— Yours faithfully, A

“ T W I S S ” R O S E B O W L C O M P E T IT IO N . S i r , — On page 12 in your July issue appears a summarised version of what will be construed by your readers as the team test given in the recent “ Twiss” Bowl Competition at Southampton. I don’t know whence you derived your copy, but the numerous inaccuracies introduced and omissions made by the printers with regard to the test itself and the analysis thereof are of such a nature as to make the whole thing inconsistent, even to be ridiculous. As judge in this part of the competition, I must decline all responsibility therewith, and will be obliged if, in your next issue, you will kindly insert this letter of protest.— Yours, &c., D ear

L. M. F r a n k

coroner’s verdict at the inquest on the vistims o f the disastrous explosions in the C ad eby Pit catastrophe was “ A ccidental death arising from gas explosion.” N ot much light was thrown on the cause of the acci­ dent by the result of the inquest, but the probable cause was a gob fire. T h e H om e Secretary will order an inquiry under the C oal M ines A ct. T h e C ad eby C olliery was, until a few years ago, the deepest m ine in S. Yorks. The T he

Barnsley seam is worked in the pit, and was reached in 1892 at a depth of 750 yards, and subsequent developm ents have proved the seam at greater depths. T h e late Inspec­ tor of Mines, Mr. W. H . Pickering, was of opinion that the depth o f workings from the surface is not the determ ining factor as regards accidents, and cited two instances of collieries at identical depths in apparently similar condi­ tions with gob fires frequently occurring in one and un­ known in the other. Clearly, if a coal seam is predisposed to spontaneous com bustion, the deeper the seam the greater the danger. It is possible that gob fires are caused by the fine dust from the grinding of the soft top coal by the settlem ent of the strata lodging in the cracks of the hard coal and rapidly absorbing oxygen.

M ember.

[We request correspondents sending photographs to state on the back of them the subject matter. In this case this was omitted, consequently the error occurred, which we much regret.— E d . “ F.A.”]

C h r is t ia n .

[W e very much regret that by some misunderstanding we printed an incorrect version of this competition test and analysis, and offer our apologies to Dr. Christian. W e should like to point out it was sent to us by a correspondent at South­ ampton.— E d . “ F.A.”] M E D A L W O R S H IP . a St. John Ambulance Brigade man, I am pleased to see in your July issue that you resent the remark made in a London paper that members “ have medals absolutely showered on them.” The Jubilee and Coronation medals were given to the police, and, as some of the members of the brigade assisted the police, they were also awarded the police decorations. Ambulance men who served through the Boer War, as for the time being they were attached to the Army. Further, the Grenadier Guards who carried King Edward’s coffin into St. George’s Chapel at Windsor, and the sailors who pulled the gun carriage on the same occasion from Windsor Station, received a special medal, whilst the brigade men who were on duty rendering assistance to the queue in London during the whole of the Lying-in-State, and also during the procession from Buckingham Palace to Westminster and from Westminster to Paddington, received no reward. At the Investiture of the Prince of W ales at Carnarvon the St. John’s men were again well represented, and did noble work. These men not onlv paid their own expenses, includD ear

S i r ,— A s


— F I R S T

August, 1912.

ing very heavy railway fares from such places as London, Cromer, Ipswich, &c., but some of them had to lose their wages as well. Although they were given to understand they would receive an Investiture Medal from ibe Government for services rendered, no such decoration has yet been received by them. -Y o u rs truly, R. O r w

ell

.

[The Coronation Medal was intended to cover all functions connected with that ceremony, such as the Investiture, the Durbar, &c., and it was never intended that one person should receive more than one medal, notwithstanding the fact that he may have been present on two or more occasions. It is un­ fortunate that those who had a strenuous time in W ales should not receive some additional recognition, but they went on this understanding.— E d . “ F .A .”] C O R O N A T IO N M E D A L S. S ir ,— I see in the Press that 70 members of the Berks Police Force have just received their Coronation Medals for duty at Windsor on the occasion of the return home of their Majesties the King and Queen. This being so, I do not think it would be too much if an application for them was made on behalf of the members of the S.J.A.B. who were on duty on that occasion. Many of us had to loose our time and also pay our own expenses to be on duty, and it is only reasonable that we should receive some recogni­ tion of our services.— Yours faithfully, “ O ne of the

F IR S T

AID.

39

56 by a platelayer. It was used again at Croydon in July last to test six men ; the highest score being 17, the possible n o . A t the close of the contest everything that could be done was done by the presiding judge (Dr. Shardlow, of Brighton,) to explain what was required and each man was given his own marked judging-sheet to study. Those of us who are responsible for the organisation of competitions and other first aid work do not object to, but encourage expert advice being sought, but persoeally I am of the opinion that it borders on cowardice for anyone to withhold their name and address and hide behind a non de plum e when seeking advice of this sort.— Yours truly, W. L. G i r l i n g . Locomotive Department, L.B.& S.C. Railway Works, Brighton,

HORLICK’ S

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C r e w .”

A N D IT S R E L A T IO N S H IP T O D IA G N O S IS . D ea r S ir ,— R efering to the article signed “ D oubtful” on the above subject, in your July issue, the test in question is a Brighton production for educational purposes. It was used to test forty men at Brighton in 1911 ; the highest score being

-

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with S.J.A.B. Crest, &c., 5 s . o d . (including sticks), as supplied to the Prince of Wales’s Corps. C h e a p e r P a t t e r n (plain brass shell) from £ 2 . S h a l l o w P a t t e r n , with rods, from 2 5 /-. Crate, 1/- extra. Side Drum Tutor, 6 d , postage id. -New Model, from £ 2 IS/-.

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40

— F I R S T O n F irst A id , M edicin e. S u rg e ry , and a ll oth er S cien ­ tific and L ite ra ry subjects.

S e c o n d - H a n d a t H alf P r i c e s . N e w at 25 per cent. _ — discoun t. C a ta lo g u e s free. S ta te w a n ts. B ooks sent on ap p ro v a l. B o o ks b ou g h t. W . & Q . F O Y L E , 135, C h a rin g C ross R oa d , L o n d on , W .C .

Best Stretcher on the Market. B E S T Q U A L IT Y C A N V A S. S P R IN G B E A R IN G W H E E L S.

P ric e

AID. —

August, 1912. H ow

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CASES

OF

EM ERGENCY.

Aids to Memory for ‘ First Aid’ Students. B y L . M . F r a n k C h r i s t i a n , M . B . , C .M . E din . “ A fourth edition . . . alrea d y dem anded . . . a better p roof o f the u tility o f the book than a n y com m ents w ritten b y a rev iew e r.” “ C on tain s m any ad ditional hints, w arn in gs, and illustrations, w hich cannot fail to prove o f the greatest assistance to those w ho w ould wish to acq u ire a sound kn ow ledge o f am bulance w o rk .” “ I t is splendid , and c le a rly sh ow s th e p ain stak in g care and s tu d y the author has devoted to his b o o k .” “ T h e ad van ced first-aider w ill find it a treasure.” “ O n e o f the best th in gs o f the kin d I have ever seen .” “ T o m y mind it fills a long felt w a n t.” “ O f trem endous service for P olice, Post O ffice O fficials, and such men as T errito ria l In stru ctors.” “ T h e ‘ ultim a th ale ’ o f suggestiven ess and sense in am bulance work. P rice : In C loth , 6d. net— b y post 7d. In L e ath er, 2s. net— b y post 2s. 2d. O rd ers f o r / doz. a n d up w a rd s P o s t F ree. S t o c k p o r t : C o n n e l l & B a i l e y , L t d . , “ E x p r e s s ” O f f i c e , S t . P e t e r ’s S q u a r e and T h e St . J o h n A m b u l a n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , S t . J o h n ’ s O a t b L o n d o n .

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IMPROVISED METHODS OF AID IN THE FIELD. F o r th e U se o f V o lu n t a r y A id D e ta c h m e n t s a n d M e m b e r s o f th e T e r rit o r ia l R oyal A rm y M o d ic a l C o rp s .”

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By H. MACKAY,

SIMPLIFIED.

M .D ., T .D ., C O L . R .A .M .C .T .,

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A Handbook in a tabulated and simplified form giving the main points 01 first aid, so arranged as to impress them on the memory of the student.

EIG H T Y -O N E

ILLUSTRATIONS.

By Post I s . 8 d .

“ T h e hook is one w e should ad vise all m em bers o f V o lu n ta ry A id D etachm ents to o b tain .” — B r it is h M e d ic a l J o u r n a l. “ C olo n el M a c k a y ’s hook sup plies a ll their n eed s.”— T e r r ito r ia l S e rv ice G azette. “ E v e ry D etach m en t should h ave a s u p p ly .” — M ilita r y M a il.

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N .B .— R e c o m m e n d e d b y la d ie s o f t h e S .J.A .B . a n d N u rs e s w h o h a v e h a d th e a b o v e in s tru c tio n . A p p ly ('stamp) to M r . J . E . W a l d e n , Sec. W estm inster C o lleg e ( L a d y D ispensers S ection o f tne W estm in ster C o lleg e o f C h em istry an d P h a rm a c y , estd. *874),

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3he Indian Ambulance Gazette.

iyulk

.BY R O Y A L W A R R A N T OF APP O IN T M EN T

A ll e n g a g e d in F IR S T A ID w o rk w ill fin d th e a b o v e C o u rs e s o f In stru c tio n o f th e g re a te st b e n e fit. A n e le m e n ta ry k n o w le d g e of th e m a n ip u la tio n of m e d ic in e s is a lw a y s v a lu a b le .

A Journal o f Ambulance Work in India, Burma and the East.

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FIRST AID.

The Independent Journal for the Ambulance and Fire Services. Conducted b y A R T H U R No. 219. — V o l . X I X .

[N e w S e r ie s .]

B.

S E P T E M B E R , 1912.

To Our Readers. As it is the wish and desire of the Proprietors to make this Journal as instructive and entertaining as possible, correspondents in all parts of the country are asked to give it all the help they can. Superintendents of Corps and Officers of Divisions of the St. John Ambulance Brigade, Officers of the Royal Army Medical Corps (Territorials), the Volunteer Ambulance School of Instruction, and Chief Officers of Fire Brigades will, it is hoped, do their best to make {' it known amongst the members of their respective organisations, and will also send for publication their official news and notices. Sugges­ tions are invited for Prize Competitions and other matters which will advance the interest of the Journal. We particularly desire to ask our correspondents to be brief and to the point in any communications they may send us for publication. Correspondents sending in photos are urgently requested to state on the back of the same the name of the individual or the Corps or Brigade and give also the name and address of the sender. We beg to advise our readers that we do not pay for photographs or copy sent, unless previously agreed upon in writing. “ F ir s t Aid ’ ’ is published on t h e 2 0 t h of t h e m o n th .

DALE,

M.J.I.

\.Ent,r,datstanontrs'Haii.\

P R IC E [ 2 /6 P e r

I t will be noted that we Official Repoit.

T

Ambulance Competitions.

here

an

Cam p, sent to us by a Staff Officer of the D istrict.

For the last year or more we have been

anxious to have more news of this character, and we hope other officers will avail them selves o f this Journal to give publicity to what is being done in their respective districts, for it would, no doubt, be the means o f putting districts more in touch with one another and further which we all have at heart.

W hile on

the work

the subject of

camps, we are constantly repeating that other districts do not em ulate the exam ple set by No. 3 District.

U n ques­

tionably camps are of em inent benefit from a training point o f view, besides affording a pleasant holiday, and we can­ not see why they are not more g e n e ra l; perhaps it is the im m ense am ount o f detail work in organising these camps O f course there

organisation has been established and the duties o f organi­

is contained in this issue o f the

sation properly allocated it is only a matter o f routine.

Journal an interesting article on ‘ ‘ T h e Ideal Am bulance Com petition.”

We

our readers know, it is a subject which has been constantly A t this time of the year when prepara­

tion is being made for the winter season’s work it should offer serious food for reflection, and should have the con ­ sideration of all those interested in am bulance work, for, keeping in view that the object o f these com petitions is to test the ability of the men to deal with cases under con­ ditions of emergency, they should be directed as near the real thing as it is possible.

T akin g a survey of the class o f

work that was witnessed a few years back, the progress that has been made since that period is nothing less than remark­ able, and we are glad to see that last year some m ove was made to make competitions more realistic. T h e results were entirely satisfactory, and we feel sure that, seeing the a d ­ vanced state to which they have attained, this is the line upon which they should be developed if first aid work is to be conductive in the most practical way.

W e hope that

this article will stimulate some com m ent on the subject, for then we shall have a consensus o f opinion with probably some fresh ideas on this important question.

J

publish

is much to be done when they are initiated, but once the

particularly welcom e this article, for, as advocated by us.

F ree.

official account of the No. 3 D istrict

that bar officers from undertaking them.

EDITORIAL.

TW OPEN CE.

A n nu m , P ost

C o lo n ia l N e w s . I n d i a . — “ U ndim ished and indeed am azing progress ” is the expression used by the honorary secretary o f the Indian branch o f the S .J .A .A . to describe its work in his annual report. T h e report covers over 130 pages of printed matter and bears am ple testim ony to the vigour and enterprise with which its organisers are carrying on the work in India. A m ong the new centres we are glad to see most of the great railways o f the country, for the cultiva­ tion o f am bulance know ledge by an arm y of railway officials and workpeople is a matter o f the highest public value. G ood and serviceable work is also being done amon» coal mine and gold mine em ployes. M ajor R. I. Blackhanq the honorary secretary, has during the past year taken up the question of introducing the Association’s work am ong mill operatives. T h is seems another excellent direction in which to launch out, and it is satisfactory to read that he has received assurance o f support from many o f the leading millowners. A n endeavour is now being made to bring the trading com m unity into closer relationship with the Indian branch, a suggestion which seems em inently prac­ tical, and the Association recognises that there is an enorm ous field o f work in that direction. T h e balance sheet shows that the finances o f the Indian branch are in a sound position.


— F I R S T

42

St. John .Ambulance Srigade. No. 1 District (Prince of W a le s ’s Corps.)

DUTY

ROSTER.

O C T O B E R , 1912. Tuesday 1st.— All B/F 2, 3, 5A, and 5N are now due, and should be made up and sentin as soon aspossible. Tuesday 8th.— District Staff" meeting, headquarters 8.15 p.m. Monday 14th.— Annual General Meeting, headquarters 8 p.m. Members in Charge of Divisions who are unable to attend will arrange for the Divisional Secretary or senior mem­ ber to be present, as each Division must be represented. Sunday Duty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. Sunday 6th.— No. 24 Division. 13th. — No. 52 „ 20th.— No. 60 „ „ 27th.— No. 25 „ Parade 2.30 p.m. as per separate orders. Please note. B U G L E B A N D P R A C T IC E . Friday, 4th and 18th, Headquarters at 8 p.m. There are still a few vacancies for buglers, and it is hoped that those Divisions which have not yet supplied a man will do so in the coming year. Saturday 5th.— “ E fficiency” and “ M assey” Cups. Ger­ man Gymnasium, Pancras-road, King’s Cross, at 3.15 p.m. Entries by Sept. 21st. C O M P E T IT IO N S . It has been decided, in the case of Divisions having Sections registered as such, to treat them separately, and allow each section to enter. V. A. D. The notice issued by the W ar Office, with reference to the wearing of the “ Red Cross” Brassard, does not affect S.J.A.B. Companies. As these Badges do not contain a “ Red C ro ss” the Order does not apply. When the detachment is parading as a V .A .D ., Officers should wear the Brassard, but not if they are on parade as a S.J.A.B. Division. Military Home Hospital Badges will not bg worn. Officers who belong to R .N .A .S.B.R . will only wear the Badge when on Training or at the Official Inspection ordered by the Admiralty. F O O T B A L L D IT TIES. It is noticed that many Divisions who undertake these duties have not yet sent in their Reports for last season, these must come in at once. Also several Divisions have not applied for permission to continue these in the season now commencing. This should be done without delay. U S E O F C O L L E C T IN G B O X E S . It has been reported to me that Collecting boxes are being used by members, when on duty, for the purpose of begging for money. I sincerely trust that there is no truth in this, as begging, in any shape or form, by members in uniform is strictly forbidden. Officers and other Members in Charge, are invited to acquaint me with any instance which may come under their notice. If any such action is reported to me, after the issue of this Order, the member so reported will be liable to be dismissed from the Corps. P R O M O T IO N . The Promotion of Corps Inspector of Stores H. W. Good­ man to District Rank is hereby notified.

AID. — District Order, 20/1912.

September, 1912. Dated 16I9I12.

S A L U T IN G . Referring to the Chief Commissioner’s comment on the laxity of members of Divisions in paying the proper compli­ ments, I feel sure that Officers and other M/i/C will give this their earnest attention. All young members should be instructed in the art of paying compliments, and older members should assist by seeing that their comrades carry it out. For the guidance of Officers and M/i/C a few examples are given below. Take the case of a Street Ambulance Station (which should be 25 yards in rear of the crowd) where there are the Nurses and two or three ambulance members, the remainder of the men being posted in front of the spectators, i.e., in the police line. An Officer Visits the Station.— The senior member should call the men to “ attention” ; and should advance and salute the Officer when he is three paces away, and wait for instructions, again saluting after the orders have been given. The Officer, in order to visit elsewhere, passes through the crowd.' The men in the police line should not salute, but stand at attention and remain so until the Officer has passed. Should the Officer stop and give instructions to a man in the police line, the man should remain at attention until the Officer has finished, when he should salute and proceed to carry out his orders. Should a man desire to speak to an Officer, as he passes, he should advance, salute (thus drawing the Officer’s attention) say what he wishes, and agaip salute and retire. After the Duty is over, and the Station dismissed, members may pass an Officer on their way home. Whether they are on the same pavement or not, the salute should be given, care being taken that, if the member is smoking— the pipe or cigarette is first removed from the mouth. If a detachment, marching as a detachment, passes an Officer, the senior member should give the command “ Eyes right ” or “ Left ” followed by “ Eyes— front,” himself alone saluting. If two or more members are together, but not as a detachment, pass an Officer when proceeding to or leaving a parade, all members should salute. When a member arrives on parade, he should salute each officer that passes, or comes within a few paces— once, and once only. Should an Officer repass, the salute should not be repeated. In brief, the salute should be used as the greeting “ Good morning ” is between friends. In entering a public conveyance, such as a car on the Tube, should force of circumstance compel a member to go sufficiently near to an Officer, the salute should be given, but a member should avoid going so near, or even into the same compartment, if possible, The Officer will do the same ; not because he objects to travel in the same car, but because he objects to draw public attention, if it can be avoided. It is hoped that the above examples will be, in some degree, a guide. (Signed) L E E S H ALL, Deputy-Commisssoner. N o. 1 D istrict (Prince of W ales’s Corps) Concert, O ctober 30th, Northam pton P olytechnic Institute, St. John-street, Clerkenw ell. E .C . Refering to our announce­ ment in last m onth’s issue, we have before us particulars of the evening’s entertainm ent, and apart from the presenta­ tion to W. H . Morgan, Esq., the vocal and instrumental items alone should insure a full house. W e have no hesi­ tation in saying that division officers should do their utmost to assist the district staff in this direction. W e understand that the officers of the district are very anxious to give all members every facility to be present with a lady, and with that object, they are arranging that m embers can purchase two tickets, prior to the 31st Oct., at half-price, and this offer should be taken advantage o f as quickly as possible.


— F I R S T

September, 1912.

T h e valuable services o f Supts. Statham and Magnus, and 2nd Officer Sebright have been secured for the arrange­ ment o f the programme, which will be briefly as follows. A t 7 o’clock Mr. H arold H eyw ood will give an Organ Recital, followed by the programme proper at 7-30, when the following artists will a p p e a r:— Miss M abel M anson (soprano), Miss Carrie Herwin (contralto), Mr. H arry Greene (tenor), Mr. Randall Jackson (baritone), Miss N ellie G anthony (humorous monologues), Mr. Fred R om e (humorist), Mr. W arwick-Evans (cello), M aster L loyd Shakespeare (the boy cornet soloist), Mr. Russell Bonner (solo pianoforte). N o. 19 (S o u t h M e t r o p o l i t a n G a s C o .) D i v i s i o n .— T h e annual Church Parade o f this division was held on Sunday, September 15th. Invitations were sent to all South London Divisions, who responded in good numbers and 320 of all ranks, under com m and o f Dis. Supt. W. H. Pontin, headed by the bugle band of the Prince of W ales’s

P h o to ]

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43

missioner Rev. W. D. R udgard and C orps Supt. Capt. J. Orton, M .D . T h e general idea was that a party o f five men had arranged for a week-end camp, and that while pitching the tent a motor car rushed by. Shortly after cries for help were heard. L eaving som e to finish securing the tent the others rushed to the scene of the acciden t and found the car overturned and its occupants suffering from various injuries. O ne man had been pitched on to an adder, which had stung his forefinger, another had his knee severely crushed against a rock, a third had been nearly suffocated by the petrol fumes, and a broken wind screen was responsible for a severed radial artery. T h e wounded were treated on the spot and rem oved by stretcher or hand seat to the tent, where the cases cam e under the super­ vision o f the team's m edical officer, who was paying them an afternoon visit. T h e work was very well carried out, and although two teams were short handed, having only three and four men

[G. I V .R . M a g a zin e.

W e have pleasure in giving a photograph of the team which represented the Transvaal at the Royal Review at Windsor on June 22nd, together with the Leamington (G.W .R.) team, who they met in competition cn June 29th, as reported in last month’s issue. First Officer E. J. Barnett, who was in charge of the contingent, is the third figure from the left in the middle row.

Corps and the S.M . G as Co. m ilitary band, left the D ivi­ sion headquarters, Canal-bridge, O ld Kent-road, and marched to St. C lem en t’s C hurch, Friern-road, E ast D u l­ wich. T h e service was conducted by the V enerable S. M. Taylor, M .A ., A rchdeacon o f Southwark Cathedral, and a large number o f officials and em ployes of the S.M . Gas Co. attended together with the Mayor, Alderm en and a number of Councillors of the Borough o f Cam berwell. After the service the parade reform ed and m arched back to the D ivision headquarters where an excellent tea was served, and a record C hurch Parade for the D ivision concluded. No 3 District. T h e com petition for the N orth E ast W arwickshire Corps Cup, presented some years ago by the R ev. W. Dore Rudgard took place at headquarters on Septem ber 7th. Th e Judges, in the unavoidable absence o f the DeputyCommissioner, T . H. W oolston, Esq., were Assistant-Com -

respectively, yet the latter gave a good account o f them ­ selves. T h e result was as follows :— H eadquarters N o. 1, and C oventry Central, 157 po in ts; H eadquarters No. 2 (four), 1 5 0 ; Coventry Co-op. N o. 2, 10 7 ^ ; and C oventry Co-op. No. i, 90 points. T h e com petition is open to divisions sending not less than eight men to camp, of whom seven must be privates. A n y division sending more than tw elve men has a second team. In the evening the annual Cam p Supper for N o. 5 Lines, was held in the D rill H all, Longford. Som e 70 officers and men were present and the Rev. W . D ore Rudgard presided, supported by Captain Orton, M .D ., Corps Supt. A fter the usual loyal toasts, the result o f the com petition was announced and the C up presented. A few remarks by Captain O rton on the work done, and by the Assistant-Com m issioner on various cam p incidents, and the presentation o f certificates of service, & c., to R .N .S .B . Reservists, brought a pleasant evening to a close.


44

— F I R S T

AI D. —

September, 1912.

Railw ay team in the annual com petitions in connection with the Centre held in the Zoological Gardens, Clifton. A n am bulance com petition was organised on the occasion of the annual fete and gala at N eyland, the first prize ( £ 2 ) being won by N eyland G .W .R . Team and the second prize ( £ 1 10s.) by the W hitland G .W .R . Team . T h e N eyland Class recently held a meeting in the firstclass waiting-room for the distribution of awards gained in examination. T h e Rev. D. L. D avies presided, and am ong those present were Dr. T olpu tt (lecturer), Mrs. T olpu tt and Mr. W. Davies (stationmaster). T h e proceed­ G. W . R .— Dr. P. A . Colm er, lecturer for the Y eovil ings opened with the presentation to Dr. T olputt by the A m bulan ce Class, has been made the recipient of a hand­ members of the class, of a silver mounted um brella as a mark of their appreciation o f his work. T h e presentation som e case o f pipes, subscribed for by members of the class in recognition of his unrem itting zeal in connection was made by Mr. W. Davies, who also handed the D octor therewith. T h e presentation was made by the stationthe certificate conferring upon him the rank o f H onorary master, Mr. V aughan, who, in asking Dr. C olm er’s accept­ L ife M em ber of the St. John A m bulance Association. T h e ance of the gift, said the tuition the members of the class distribution of the exam ination awards was preceded by the reading of the class report by the hon. secretary, Mr. had received under the D octor’s skilful guidance had re­ sulted in the whole o f the members passing the examination F. Garrett, after which he was handed a gold mounted satisfactorily. H e was sure that the know ledge they had cigarette case in recognition of his services in connection acquired would serve them in good stead should they at with the Class. any tim e be called upon to use it. It is eloquent testim ony of Dr. E. B. H artnell’s S.E. & C .R .— T h e centre secretary has favoured us instruction and to the aptitude of the students o f the with an advance copy of the annual report for 1912. T h is Bridgwater A m bulance Class that all the members attend­ will be off the press some time next week, for it will contain ing the exam ination were able to satisfy the Exam iner. the ballot paper for the election o f the com m itteem en for T h e members o f the class recently met to receive the the ensuing year. awards gained at the hands o f Mr. W. Phillips, Divisional T h e Centre Com m ittee report that the am bulance L ocom otive Supt., who is him self a qualified am bulance movem ent throughout the line continues to make excellent worker and keenly interested in the movem ent. Before progress, and this is especially gratifying, bearing in mind making the presentations Mr. Phillips gave a most interest­ that during the past season there have, uufortunately, been ing address in which he recounted the history of the Order many unforeseen difficulties operating against voluntary o f St. John from the time o f the crusades. A pleasing undertakings of this nature. T h e centre was formed in incident in the proceedings was the presentation to Mr. P. 1905, and a total of 732 successes was recorded at the end Parker, the energetic Class Secretary, o f a handsom e set of of the first year’s work, but the number o f men now pipes and tobacco-pouch. annually satisfying the requirements o f the exam iners has T h e members o f the W ells Class assem bled at the reached the grand total o f over 1,400. station waiting room of the 4th ult. to receive the certificates, First aid has been rendered in no less than 3,308 etc., gained in examination. T h is was not the only object cases during the past season, bring the total to 15,633 o f the gathering for it was also to mark their appreciation of instances where good useful service has been performed by the kindness o f their lecturer, Dr. Allan, and o f Mr. members o f the centre since its formation. D eacon, who had assisted at the lectures, the members had Since the institution of the Seven Y ear Aw ard in 1911 subscribed for a silver m ounted pipe in case for each. Mr. some 230 o f these medals have been gained by members A. B rine presided, and was supported by Alderm an T ate, of our centre, thus proving the popularity o f the innova­ D r. A llen, Mr. D eacon, Mr. C o le (hon. sec.) and others. tion. In distributing the awards, Alderm an T a te congratulated On several occasions during the past year P ublic D uty the mem bers of the class upon their success and empha­ has been undertaken by a num ber of Railw ay A m bulance sised the value o f the know ledge acquired. Dr. A llan, in men, amongst which may be m entioned the visit of some thanking the class, spoke o f the regularity with which the 600 invalids on a pilgrim age to Lourdes and the return of mem bers had attended the lectures and the interest dis­ the party. Similar service was rendered in connection with played in the work. T w o members of earlier classes had the visit of the L .C .C . School children to Paris. T h e aid recently been com m ended for first aid treatment they had thus given voluntary on these occasions was much adm inistered. Mr. D eacon, in thanking the class for their appreciated. gift, said they were fortunate in having as a lecturer one W ith regard to the annual com petitions, the number who instructed so thoroughly in plain and simple language, of teams com peting was 89. T h is was rather less than in this respect other lecturers would do well to follow Dr. last year, but the falling-off was undoubtedly due to the A lla n ’s example. same causes which operated in the case of class attendances, In recent am bulance com petitions Great Western men and will, it is anticipated prove to be o f a temporary have been well to the front. In the G loucester M idland character. N o less than twelve teams com peted in the R ailw ay A m bulance Corps Com petitions, held at Barnwood Beginners’ G roup— a most encouraging sign. Court, the first three positions in the team contest were A magnificent C hallenge Shield has been presented to secured by teams captained by members o f the G loucester the C entre for annual com petition by Sir Thom as R. N o. 1 (G .W .R .) team., Messrs. D aniell, Jackson and Sims Dewar, J.P., D .L ., and this T rophy will be com peted for respectively ; whilst in the individual com petition no fewer next D ecem ber for the first time. than six o f the twelve prizes fell to Great YVestern men. T h e report contains a full account of the proceedings T h e “ Beavis ” C u p for teams of five men resident of the annual meeting, it also contains a list o f members o f within the Bristol C entre was won by a Great Western the centre wljo rendered meritorious first aid during the


— F I R S T

September, 1912.

year together with the result of the com petition and the papers set. W e congratulate the Centre Secretary on this excellent production which is a splendid record o f the year’s work. F u r n e s s R y . — T h e annual meeting of the C entre was held in the grounds of Furness A b b ey H otel, on August 21 st, the Rt. Hon. Lord M uncaster presided over a large assembly, being supported on the platform by Mr. and Mrs. A,slett, Mr. and Mrs. W. Burnyeat, Mr. P. J. Ramsden, Sir John Randles, M .P., Canon and Mrs. Cam pbell, Archdeacon and Mrs. Lafone, Baroness Vranyczany, and others. T h e Chairman referred at the outset to the unavoid­ able absence o f the President of the Furness Railw ay Am bulance Centre, his G race the D uke o f D evonshire. Letters o f apology for non-attendance were received from Lord Richard and L ad y M oyra Cavendish, L ord Cross and Miss Cross, Sir H erbert Perrott and L ad y Perrott,

FU RN ESS

R A IL W A Y

C E N T R E .— C O M P E T IT IO N

P h o io 4 >'l

Moor Row Team (Winners).

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45

although the former secured the thirteenth position out of twenty-seven teams, they did not com e out as well as in the two preceding years, which was, he understood, due to a great extent to illness and accidents to mem bers o f the team. T h e M oor R ow team im proved their position in the com petition by securing the eighteenth position, as com ­ pared with the twenty-fifth position in 19 11. T h e latter team also took part in an open com petition at Carlisle during the present month, and succeeded in winning the cup and prizes. T h e Barrow Class o f the Furness R ailw ay C entre sent three teams to take part in the com petition for the H eath C hallenge C u p in August last, when No. 1 team were returned the winners, No. 2 team being second, and No. 3 team fourth. T h e railway com ­ panies have numerous accidents in the course o f the year, and the Furness Railway is not exem pt from these mishaps. In nearly all cases first aid was rendered by the members of the Furness Railw ay A m bulance Centre, which must, in many instances, have given im m ediate relief, and in

FO R

D IR E C T O R S

[//.

CH ALLENGE

S H IE L D .

B e n tle y , B arrtn v.

Major G. H. Darwin Mrs. A. Aslett. (Judge). Lord Muncaster. Mr. A. Aslett. Mr. J. Hope (Hon. Sec.).

General J. C . Dalton, R .A ., Sir D yce Duckworth, Bart., M .D ., Colonel C. J. Trim ble, C .M .G ., Sir John Furley, C.B., Mr. and Lady D orothy M eynell, and others. Lord Muncaster said the am bulance classes at Barrow, Haverthwaite, Millom , M oor Row, Ulverston, and W hite­ haven in connection with the Furness R ailw ay Am bulance Centre, had, he was pleased to say, been very successful during the 19 11-12 session. T h e Furness Railw ay C entre was established in the year 1902, and since that time the number of members who had passed the various exam i­ nations in connection with the S .J .A .A . were :— First year examination for certificates, 44 8 ; re-examination for voucher, 2 5 9 ; third exam ination for m edallion, 2 1 1 ; fourth and following exam inations for silver label, 402. During the past twelve months the members o f the Centre attended to no less than 220 cases o f accident to the public and railway staff. T h e Furness R ailw ay team and also the Joint L ine (M oor Row) team took part in the Inter-Railway Am bulance Com petition at London in M ay last, and

others saved the injured from serious results. T h a t in itself justified the time and trouble which the members were devoting to the work in connection with the St. John A m bulance Association. Earlier in the day a com petition between teams from Barrow, Ulverston, M illom , M oor Row, and W hitehaven took place for the challenge shield offered by the Directors. T h e result declared by the Chairm an, who said he had the greatest pleasure in handing the shield to the M oor Row team, who had been awarded 117^ points. T h e other results were : Ulverston, 95 ; M illom , 8 9 J ; W hitehaven, 87 ; Barrow, 74. T h e judging was done by M ajor Darwin, M .D ., V .D . Mrs. A slett afterwards presented the prizes to the men com posing the first three teams. M ajor Darwin was called upon by the Chairm an, and in the course o f a few remarks spoke o f the im portance of first aid work. A m bulance work, he said, was different from ordinary m edical work. A doctor had his professional apparatus to assist him, but an am bulance student


46

— F I R S T

could manage without such help. H e was taught to im­ provise. O n the proposition of Sir John Randles, hearty thanks were accorded to Mrs. A slett for the gracious manner in which she had distributed the prizes. Mr. A. A slett replied on behalf o f his wife, and in the course of a few very apt remarks recalled the inaugura­ tion o f the Furness R ailw ay C entre of the St. John A m b u ­ lance Association ten years ago. H e hoped the com pe­ tition ten years hence would be as successful as it had been that day. M ajor Darwin afterwards com m ented very briefly upon the excellent manner in which the work had been carried out. On the motion of the Chairm an, gentlem en were thanked for their services in connection with the am bulance work of the centre. In thanking the Chairm an for his attendance, Mr. A. Aslett hoped his Lordship would long be spared to attend their meetings. L ord M uncaster briefly replied, and in a graceful manner handed a bouquet of beautiful flowers to Mrs. Aslett. T e a was afterwards served in the Furness A b b ey H otel. N .E .R .— T h e annual m eeting in connection with the Y o rk D istrict C entre was held at W hitby on August 31st. Mr. F. Penty presided. T h e D istrict Secretary, in his report, stated that dur­ ing the year under review progress had been well main­ tained in the Y o rk district. T h e number of accidents reported during the year was 3,456, a slight increase over last year. Included in the above number of accidents which had been treated by members all over the districts meri­ torious first aid had been rendered by Mr. Harm an (South M ilford), P .C . Pickles, Sergeant H odgson, and Mr. V ernon W ard (York), all of whom had been awarded certificates of merit. Four additional boxes had been opened at Hagglane Signal Box, G ascoigne W ood, Y o rk Sack Warehouse, Frickley Colliery Sidings, a n d ' Scarborough W ashbeck Station, making the total for the district 78. T h e Y o rk C. and W. team (captain, Mr. Atkinson) were successful in the North Eastern Railw ay final, but did not succeed in obtaining a place in the final railway com petition in London. T h e com petitions for the “ Pickersgill ” C hallen ge C u p and Y o rk C hallen ge C up had not yet been held, but the for­ mer had been fixed for Septem ber 21st at the Hom estead, York. T h e officers’ class held at Y o rk during the last session had received mention in the annual report o f the St. John A m bulance Association, the following quotation of the exam iner’s report being quoted :— After the exam ination an analysis was handed to me showing the position occupied by the candidates. T h e analysis is as follows :— Secretary and four assistants: ch ief engineer, ch ief clerk, and two assistants ; district engineer, assistant and two pupils ; general superintendent, east coast superintendent, rolling stock controller, ch ief clerk, assist­ ant to passenger manager ; ch ief o f police ; two clerks of departm ents from general m anager’s office, ch ief clerk ex­ cursion o ffic e ; ch ief clerk traffic superintendent’s office ; assistant to district superintendent. T h e register showed an average attendance at the lectures and the practices of 22 to 23, but unfortunately all were not able to be at the examination. Such a practical interest by the officials and their staff in am bulance work reflects credit on themselves, but, what is o f even greater im portance, cannot fail, I think, to give an additional stimulus to the work amongst

AID. —

September, 1912.

the other officials and the em ployes throughout the system. T h e same report contained the name o f Dr. Law ther on the exam iners’ staff. T h e report acknow ledged the generous service of the doctors, especially as voluntary lecturers, and thanked all who had in any way helped forward the work of the district. T h e report was unanimously adopted. T h e report of the delegates to the General Council was subm itted by Messrs. J. Atkinson and T . Hutchinson, and they were thanked for their excellent services. Mr. F. Penty was again unanim ously elected chairman of the district, and Mr. W. H. Turnbull vice-chairman. Messrs. T . H utchinson and J. Fowler were elected dele­ gates to the General Council, and Messrs. W. Reynolds and J. W esthead were appointed auditors. Mr. W. H. Farrar was also unanimously elected district secretary. It was proposed that the next meeting be held at York. L .B . & S.C . R y . — A sm oking concert was held at the W hite L ion H otel, East Grinstead early this month for the distribution of am bulance awards to the men o f the Croydon district and members of the R ed Cross Society, East G rin ­ stead. Col. E. L loyd W illiam s presided, and congratulated the men on their number and their success. Dr. Hilli. r also spoke"warm ly of the interest taken in first aid work. T h e chairman also presented, on behalf o f St. John Am bulance and British R ed Cross Society men, a hand­ some case Of cutlery to Mr. D. Butler (the audience sing ing “ For he’s a jolly good fellow ” ). Mr. Butler, in his reply said it was very pleasing to find that they appreciated his services so much. A man must make himself valuable to be valued, and he could not help but feel that he must have made him self very valuable for them to show their appreciation in the way they had done. T here were over a hundred men in the Croydon district who were keenly interested in am bulance work, and for an individual to please them all in everything he did was rather a tall order ; however, he was pleased to find that the great majority of them were satisfied with his services. T his valuable present was proof of such, and he accepted it with a deep feeling of gratitude, hoping that each one would accept his personal thanks. H e congra­ tulated them on successful exam inations— 83 men had presented them selves for examination, and out o f that num ber 73 passed, and ten failed. Mr. J. K ing, the centre secretary, reported that during the year the excellence o f the work of the Brighton R a il­ way Centre o f the St. John Am bulance Association had been well maintained. Tw en ty classes had been held at various points throughout the system, and 428 men had gained awards, making a total o f 2,766 since the formation o f the centre. T h e total num ber of accident cases of all kinds dealt with by certificated members o f the centre dur­ ing the past year was 3,623. T h is year Brighton Locom otive No. 1 team (winner in the group A) represented the com pany in the inter-railway com petition o f the St. John Am bulance Association, when for the second time in the history o f the com petition a team from the Brighton Railw ay gained a place in the final. M .R .— A com petition took place for the “ K ingham ” Cup, on August 25th, in the G oods’ Departm ent M ess Room , St. Pancras. T h e com petition was open to any D epartm ent in the London D istrict between St. Pancras


- F I R S T

September, 1912.

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and H endon. Three teams com peted, resulting in an easy win for K entish Tow n W ay and W orks Team (Captain J. T . C ooke), 228 points; St. Pancras G oods’ Team , 16 4 ; St. Pancras Passenger Team , 153.

H o sp ita l

E q u ip m e n t.

T h e hospital tent and appliances at the N ational Fire Brigades Cam p were supplied by Messrs. J . & A. Carter, the well-known am bulance specialists. T h e whole equip­ ment was greatly admired by the visitors of the camp, and fortunately it was not often needed, the few cases being cuts and bruises. T h e equipm ent consisted of Patent “ Surcar ” M echanical Bed, with top stretcher adjustable to any height, and fitted in addition with adjustable back and leg rests, and adjustable drop leg-portion to the spring mattress, affording the greatest possible accessibility to the patient, who can be placed in any position for application o f the bed-pan or treatment o f any other kind. New and novel forms o f oak and white wood bed-side lockers. These were greatly admired by many o f the medical gentlemen and other visitors to the Exhibition. Patent “ Salvator ” hand am bulance m ounted on two large cycle wheels with rubber tyres, and fitted in addition with four adjustable legs, all four legs being raised clear o f the ground by one simple operation, converting the am bu­ lance into a two-wheeled litter capable o f the easiest pos­ sible manipulation. Fitted with rem ovable stretcher com ­ plete with hood and body cover o f W illesden canvas. T his is the same type of litter as supplied to India, New Zealand, Egypt, the Crown Agent for the Colonies, and hundreds o f large works throughout the kingdom . A full-sized exhibition model o f our patent elevating gear for am bulance interiors which allows two stretchers to be placed in tier, the top stretcher being easily brought down to loading level and raised again by means o f the elevating gear without the least trouble or exertion. A full-size exhibition model of the Patent “ Rastilon ” Suspension Springs, which are so constructed that the greater the weight the more spring resilience com es into operation. T h e springs, therefore, being equally suitable for a patient of the weight of 26 stone or 6 stone. T h e newest pattern o f A septic Instrum ent Cabinet and Dressing T ab le in white enamel, Surgeon’s Chair, Aseptic Com m ode Chair, Surgeon’s W ashing Stand with two glass jars for solutions, and im proved elbow operating movement obviating the necessity for any portion of the appliance being touched by hand. White enamel two-shelf instrument cabinet. A special form o f H ospital litter m ounted on large cycle wheels and rubber tyres and leaf springs and with adjustable back and adjustable leg rest. T h e whole covered in waterproof canvas forming either a chair or couch or, in case of emergency, can be used as an operating table. Our latest pattern o f general utility bed-table on metal stand with polished oak top and tilting either side, an invaluable adjunct in every hospital and equally suitable for every day bedroom use. Patent H ospital bedstead with self-elevator enabling the patient to assist him self into a sitting position.

W h e n co rre sp o n d in g w i t h A d v e r t is e r s please m e n tio n “ F ir s t A id .”

L i t t l e has been done recently in the way o f class instruc­ tion during the holiday months, with the exception o f a B oys’ Scout class, which, being formed rather late in the year, is only now terminating the session, and preparing for exam ination for the elem entary certificate. W ith the approach o f the winter months an effort will be made to bring the subject o f first aid before the people o f Ireland in a way that has not been attem pted before. T h e button-hole badges in white metal are now ready, and are much admired. O wing to the lateness o f the publication o f the official text-book, the classes started this year were greatly handi­ capped, the work being alm ost com pleted without a book o f reference.

C

o m p e t it io n

for

D

u b l in

A

m bu lance

C

h allenge

On Saturday, August 17th, the annual com petition for the D u blin A m bulance C hallenge Cup, the “ blue rib a n d ” o f the Irish am bu'ance world, was held in the beautiful gardens o f V iscount Iveagh’s residence, St. Stephen’s Green, Dublin. T h e day was fine and a large num ber of spectators were present. E igh t teams com peted and the judges were Dr. F. de B. Pirn, Captain Balock, R .A .M .C ., and Dr. Graham. T h e stretcher test was to treat a patient who was supposed to have fallen a distance of eighteen feet from a ladder on to a concrete path. T h e absence o f the usual label indicating injuries was a feature new to Irish contests, but the com petition was keen and resulted as follows 1st, Messrs. W. and R. Jacob & C o .’s No. 1 team, 214 marks out o f a possible 250. 2nd, St. Jam es’ Gate No. 1 team, 2 1 1 ; 3rd, B el­ fast Fire Brigade, 186 ; 4th, St. Jam es’ G ate No. 2 team, 184^ ; 5th, Messrs. W . and R . Jacob & C o .’s No. 2 team, 1 7 2 ; 6th, C ity o f D ublin, 1 5 0 ; 7th, Messrs. W. and r ! Jabob & C o .’s No. 3 team, 148^; 8th, C ity of D ublin (Fairview Section), 145 marks. Mrs. G. A. Newsom presented the cup and medals to the winners, and a set o f medals presented by Messrs. W. and R. Jacob & Co. to the runners-up. V otes of thanks were passed to Mrs. Newsom and to Dr. J. Lum sden, Supt. St. Jam es’ G ate Division, who was responsible for the organisation o f the com petition, and who is one of the keenest and most enthusiastic workers in the cause o f first aid in Ireland. C

u p.—

Messrs. Cuxson Gerrard & Co. have specially con­ structed a Veterinary First A id C abinet, intended for use in mines for pit ponies. T h is cabinet has been designed by a firm o f veterinary surgeons, and contains everything t h a t is likely to be required ; it is strongly built o f stout wood, with tin-plate back, and the lid can be used as a table. T h e price com plete is £ 2 . 17s. 6d.


48

- f i k s f B r e v itie s .

h e H om e Secretary was asked recently in the H ouse o f C om m ons to state what provision had been made for installing life-saving apparatus in mines, whether facilities

T

are given to the workmen for

training with the rescue

apparatus that is now given to officials, and if it was his intention to appoint inspectors for this class of work. Mr. M cK en n a, in reply, called attention to the order he had m ade in April last which provided the training o f rescue brigades and the supply of breathing apparatus, and he pointed out that he proposed to call for a return from each mine as to the provision made in pursuance of the order. A s regards the second paragraph o f the question, the order does not discrim inate between officials and workmen, but requires that the persons trained for rescue work and in the use of breathing apparatus shall be picked men carefully selected on account of their coolness, powers o f endurance and knowledge. It would be highly dangerous to allow either officials or workmen to be trained indiscrim inately for this work. T h e order will be enforced by the inspectors o f mines who are fully com petent to do so. It would not be desirable to appoint special inspectors for the purpose. * + * V i s c o u n t e s s E s h e r has issued the syllabus of the autumn term o f her H om e Lectures for W om en under the Territorial Branch of the S .J .A .A . T h e lectures em brace First A id H ygiene, and Practical, Plain and Invalid Cookery, and a course in each, term inating with an exam ination, can be taken for m oderate fees. F u ll par­

ticulars can be had from V iscountess Esher, C raig’s-court House, Charing Cross, L ondon, S.W . * * *

In a recent num ber The H ospital points out the desirability on general grounds o f lim iting visitors at surgical operation to qualified m edical men, m edical students, and trained nurses ; they say this lim itation is made necessary by the frequent application which certain hospitals receive from first aid and other societies. T h ey further have a more forcible reason in a case of theft which was perpetrated recently by a G erm an posing as a medical student. H is m ethod apparently was to gain an invitation to watch an operation, during which he would excuse him self on som e pretext, ransack the surgeon’s clothes, and disappear. T h is is a very regrettable incident, and we can well understand the annoyance felt by the m edical gentlem an, but we see no reason why this affair should act upon those genuinely seeking educational facilities, or that they should be so stringently treated. T h e general grounds which The H ospital contends should exclude first aid students from entering operating theatres is that it is quite outside their province. W e will admit that in the ordinary course o f events it is, but it must be borne in mind that in connection with voluntary aid work it com es within their sphere, and if the management of

AID.-

September, 191a.

the hospitals see fit not to grant them this privilege, where will it be possible for members o f V .A .D . to gain the practical know ledge necessary for them to fulfil their duties ? *

* *

A n article in the Lancet on the use of picric acid as a first aid rem edy for burns, the writer points out that since it becam e popular as a dusting powder for burns, many cases of picric acid poisoning have been recorded. A case recorded in the South A frican M edical J o u rn a l o f recent date was o f a girl aged two years who sustained a severe burn on the left foot due to boiling fat. H er mother cleansed the burn and treated it with a dusting powder from a first aid outfit. T h e analysis o f the powder was found to consist o f 17 per cent, o f picric acid and 82 per cent, of boric acid. T h e dusting was repeated at intervals for 14 days. Eighteen days after the accident the child was taken to a m edical man. T h e skin o f the lower half o f the left leg was of a bright yellow colour. T h ere was a large brownish-yellow patch on the right side o f the trunk and similar patches over the elbow and knees. T h e con ­ junctiva and skin generally had a dusky yellowish tinge. T h e urine was of brownish colour and micturition was frequent and apparently painful. T h e pulse varied from 100 to 150. T h e child assumed a frightened look when spoken to even by her mother. T h ere were vom iting and severe diarrhoea with yellowish slimy motions. T hree days later general erythem a developed. T h e child becam e stuporous, collapsed, and died on the twenty-second day after the accident. * * * T h e Lancet points out that the case related seems to them an em phatic condem nation o f the practice o f supply­ ing picric acid in a first aid outfit, it has proved a valuable application in the treatment o f superficial burns, but the cases recorded show that care should be exercised in its application. * * * H .M . Inspectors o f Explosives recom mend a 1 per cent, solution should be kept handy for burns. N o doubt a single application would be quite free from danger, but it is apparent from the result recorded above that first aiders should not apply it more than once.

A t the annual meeting o f the Preston Corps, Corps Supt. Irmin-Sellers said he hoped that in the very near future the corps would make a big effort to raise money for headquarters. It was a necessity that was increasing, for not only would they themselves, but the voluntary aid com ­ pany would have to have somewhere to store their appli­ ances and hold their meetings. A t present they had got to scrape about from place to place on the charity and and hospitality o f people who would lend them rooms. Seeing there was such a com bined necessity for a head­ quarters, he hoped the people of Preston would generously assist in their provision. Between J f 800 and J^goo is required for the purpose, and we hope the corps will be successful in raising this amount.


— F I R S T

September, 1912.

T h e Ideal A m b u l a n c e C o m p e titio n . A P lea

fo r

M

ore

R

e a l ism

.

F r o m time to time suggestions having for their object the infusion o f a spirit o f realism into am bulance com petitions have been made in the pages o f F i r s t A i d , and the sub­ ject is one that has been freely discussed in am bulance circles. It is recognised that in the past the m ajority of the contests have been the reverse of realistic, and whilst something has been done in this direction with regard to particular competitions, progress on the whole has been by no means as rapid as it might have been, and unless con­ siderable changes are shortly effected the day o f the ideal ambulance competition is certainly a long way off. There appears to be a consensus of opinion am ong all interested in the movement that if com petitions are to be as valuable to the cause of first aid as they might be, the tests imposed upon the competitors should be made as realistic as possible. B y the time these lines appear in print am bu­ lance men throughout the country will be busily occupied in reorganising classes and generally making arrangements for the ensuing session. Team s that purpose entering the competition arena will be getting into practice, and specu­ lation will be rife as to the character o f forthcom ing con ­ tests. T h e present, therefore, is not an inopportune time to give further consideration to what is undoubtedly, to the enthusiastic am bulance worker, a matter of some importance. It is taken as an axiom that the raison d'etre of these competitions is to test the ability o f am bulance workers to administer correct first aid treatment in cases o f actual emergency according to the recognised teachings on the subject, and it follows as a matter o f course that the ideal test is that which coincides as nearly as possible with an actual case. H ere the question arises as to what are the limits of realism in am bulance com petitions. It has been said that a thoroughly realistic contest is im possible with­ out a real patient, and whilst this is, of course, true, it is co n ­ tended that there is room for a great deal more realism on the part o f the patient than already exists. T h e real patient is quite out of the question, but not so the realistic patient, for by dint o f careful selection and instruction in the role he has to play, it is held that the “ patient ” may contribute a good deal to the realism of the pro­ ceedings. In this connection there is much to be said in favour of the suggestion that the “ patient ” should, wherever possible, be quite unknown to the com petitors, as in all probability he would be in an actual c a s e ; and while the practice obtains, as it does in certain com petitions, for a member of the team well known to those called upon to attend to his injuries to act as patient, the ideal am bulance contest cannot be realised.* T h e first point then towards m aking these com peti­ tions even approximate to the real thing is to see that the patien t” is such as might be found in an actual case (not, for instance, a highly qualified am bulance worker), and such “ p atien t” should be instructed by the ju d ge before the contest in the part he has to take. A n intellectual “ patien t” who enters into the spirit o f the thing would be o f considerable value in any am bulance com pe­ tition. A valuable suggestion was recently m ade by a reader ot this journal to the effect that “ p a tien ts” should be

An article upon the Four Men Team Suggestion appeared in November, 1911, issue of F i r s t A i d .

AID. —

49

clearly marked so as to show their supposed injuries, and that visible indications o f bleeding, etc., should be pro­ vided. T h e proposal, which appears capable o f som e elaboration, is an excellent one, and should merit con ­ sideration by those responsible for arranging the tests im­ posed in these com petitions. I f som e such course as suggested is adopted, the com m on m istake made by com ­ petitors of treating a wrong lim b or wrong side o f the body, easily excusable in the present day com petition, but most im probable in an actual case, would no longer occur. In certain com petitions last year it was pleasing to observe a tendency to provide more in the nature of “ pro­ perties ” in order to assist com petitors in keeping before them the nature o f the “ c a s e s” they had to deal with, and it is to be hoped that much more will be done in this direc­ tion in the future. In regard to the more important contests, it is felt that som e expenditure in thoroughly staging the “ c a s e s ” would be am ply justified— e.g., if the scene o f accident is laid in a street, a short length o f stage scenery depicting a street (and containing the inevitable fishm onger’s shop, if necessary), might well be provided ; or, again, if in the course o f the stretcher party’s journey to hospital or the patient’s hom e obstacles have to be encountered, such o b ­ structions might be reproduced on the spot. In short, by the provision o f proper staging the tests should be made to approxim ate closely to actual cases, and, as far as it is con ­ veniently possible, they should be reproductions o f cases which have actually occurred. T h is would be realism in­ deed. Incidentally, the provision o f proper staging would add materially to the interest in the contests from a spec­ tacular point o f view as well as to the educational value to the onlooker who, nowadays, is only furnished as a rule with very brief outline o f the test and is consequently unable to follow all the work o f the com petitors intelli­ gently. Another direction in which am bulance com petitions may be rendered much more realistic is in regard to the time occupied in carrying out the treatment. W hilst it is freely recognised that the value o f am bulance know ledge lies very largely in its prom pt application, the im portance o f the time factor in com petition work has been rather ignored in the past and this is true, not only in regard to practical work, but also in the viva voce tests. In the latter com petitors have in many cases been afforded alm ost unlim ited time in which to rack their brains before answer­ ing the questions put to them, and had they to decide as to the treatm ent to be rendered in an actual case, it is possible that, in easily conceived circum stances, the patient might in the meantime have passed beyond all hum an aid “ first ” or otherwise. It may, o f course, be argued that in the excitem ent of a contest, or as a result o f nervousness com petitors are not always able to give the ready answer,' although in actual practice they would not be found want­ ing. D oubtless it is true also that in som e cases the men have not the ability to aptly express them selves in words at a m om ent’s notice. B e this as it may, it says little indeed for the value of the viva voce test, and there are many who hold the view that high marks in the oral section of a com petition are more generally made, not by the best first aiders, but by those com petitors who are able to mem orise the contents o f the official handbook. T h e value o f the oral test is apparently a doubtful quantity. W ith regard to practical work, it is considered that the com petitions would approxim ate more to the ideal if the tests were less involved and marks were aw arded more for adm inistering correct and prompt treatm ent than for the


— F I R S T

ability to keep in m ind all the details of a much elaborated “ case.” O f course, many tests which in the past have been regarded as com plicated and difficult would be very consider­ ab ly sim plified when the “ surroundings ” which heretofore have had to be im agined and kept continually in mind can be actually seen. If, however, the tests im posed are based upon actual cases which have occurred, it will probably be found that these, whilst o f a much higher value from the educational standpoint, are often of a simpler character than the “ manufactured article.” T h e practice of award­ ing marks for what has been term ed “ gallery play,” fortunately less com m on now than it was, should cease altogether. T h e team which leaves a patient practically in the last gasp whilst they “ num ber o ff” or perform other superfluous preliminaries, or who postpone the start for hospital until the end of every bandage has been neatly tucked out o f sight ought to lose marks or severe censure would rightly be their award in an actual case. T here is much to be said in favour of fixing a time limit in am bulance com petitions and some system under which marks are deducted for all time occupied over the limit appears to meet the case ; the limit being, o f course, based upon the shortest time in which the necessary treat­ ment could be properly performed. A somewhat similar m ethod which has been tried with advantage is that of an alarm which sounds when the tim e allowed for carrying out the treatment has been reached, after which all work must cease and the “ cases ” are then judged, finished or un­ finished as the case may be. In what is probably one of the most important of am bulance competitions, however, no time limit o f any kind is fixed and, in fact, the question o f time appears to be quite a matter o f secondary con­ sideration, if worthy o f account at all, for, as far as is known, marks are not deducted no matter how long a team or individual may be occupied at their work, excepting so far as this may be possible from the extra marks alloted for allocation at the ju d ge’s discretion. L astly the judges and com petitors may contribute to the realism o f a com petition. In many cases the latter do enter into the work as if treating a real case and the judges might assist in the direction required if they would also endeavour to keep before the minds o f the com petitors the idea that they have an actual case in hand. Som e o f these suggestions may possibly be regarded as revolutionary, but none the less they are offered for serious consideration. T h ere is little doubt that a great deal more remains to be done if the am bulance com petition is to be made to give full value, and it should be borne in mind that the more the com petition test resembles an actual case the greater will be the educational value o f the practice which is inseparable from the contests. T h e sooner more realism is infused into the contest the sooner will com petition honours go, not to those who are able to visualise a com plication o f supposed surroundings and con­ ditions, or memorise chapter by chapter the first aid hand­ book, but to the best of the real am bulance workers. It is the man who does the thing, and does it promptly, that makes the ideal first aider, and not he who can say what he would do. In am bulance work practice must take preced­ ence of theory, not vice versa. In conclusion, it should be said that these lines have not been penned with the object o f criticising the arrange­ ments made in regard to any particular com petitions or in connection with any particular branch o f the movement, but rather to indicate as clearly as may be the directions in which im provem ents are both possible and desirable in rendering these com petitions as valuable to the am bulance

AID. —

September, 1912.

movem ent as they m ight be, for their value must surely increase as the work to be undertaken by the competitors approxim ates more closely to that which they may be called upon to carry out at any time. “ G

ranny

K

n o t. ”

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.J

H o m e N u r s in g a n d H y g ie n e. By

H. M A IN V V A R IN G H O L T , M .R .C .S ., L .S .A ., D .P .H .

Honorary Associate o f the Order oj St. John, L ife Member of, and Lecturer and E x a m in er o f the S ./ .A . A . ; Hon. Surgeon to the M alton and N orton D ivision, No. VL. D istrict, S . f . A . B , ( Continued from page 32.) I n our last lecture we pointed out that the desire to know and the ability to observe were som e o f the qualities that go to the m aking of a good nurse. W e glanced over the chief systems, and pointed out certain things to be observed in connection therewith. N ow we shall discuss certain subjects with which it is absolutely necessary that the nurse should have a practical acquaintance. T

em perature.

T h e temperature of the body is obtained by the clinical thermometer (Fig. 1). T h is little instrument has 15 divisions, that is to say it will register tem perature ranging from 95 deg. Fahr. to n o degs. Fahr. It will be noted that each division is again divided into five spaces by short lines, each space being therefore equal to o'2 degs. Fahr., half a space being equal to o 'i degs. Fahr., that is to say the space between the larger marks is divided into tenths, and the reading is recorded as so many degrees and so many tenths o f a degree. T hu s the normal temperature of the body is stated to be 98 degs. Fahr. and four-tenths, 98'4 degs. Fahr. T

he

C

hart

and

Its U

se.

T h e chart (Fig. 2) is intended to show at a glance the records o f temperature, pulse, respiration, action of the bowels and kidneys, besides giving other information with regard to time, date o f illness and other matters of import. In order to avoid mistakes, the therm om eter should always be read before as well as after use. Tem perature 98’4 degs. normal. (a) T aken by mouth. (b) ,, „ axilla or groin. (c) ,, ,, rectum. Pulse 70 to 80 adult. „ 80 to 100 childhood and youth. „ 100 to 120 infancy. Respiration about 15 to 18 adult. „ „ 30 children. ,, ,, 40 newborn. Bow els.— A ction to be noted. U rin e.— Am ount and frequency of micturition. R

eport

B ook.

T im e of m ea ls; food taken ; sleep, amount. anything of importance, e.g., rigor, pain. D

o c t o r ’s

O

N ote

rders.

W rite these down im m ediately they are g iv e n ; obey


— F I R S T

September, 1912. them. Send for a doctor early in the day. always possible to get what is wanted at night.

T h e best m ethod o f preventing bed sores is by frequent change o f the patient’s position. M ethod o f Changing Sheets.— T h e upper sheet. First rem ove the coverlet and as many blankets as you may think fit. N ext place over these the clean sheet and on this a blanket if necessary. W hilst holding the clean sheet and blanket on one o f side the bed, let another person

It is not

D o c t o r ’s V i s i t .

H ave your report and chart ready. Prepare all things beforehand :— Fresh dressings, boiling water, soap, towels. C are

of

the

P a tien t.

M aking the B ed .— T h e bed should be made at least

in - ■ ” _ 'iT 1 0i'riT 0 Full Sizf

v # HAva u a rsQ S

AID. —

no

F i g . 1.

'b i n of u i u s j m

ALLEN

&

H AN BURYS

LM .

««. WIOMORE STREET (Corner el Wclbcck Street), LONDON. W

F ig . 2. F

F i g . 4.

twice a day. Crum bs and creases are to be removed, since they lead to restlessness, and tend to produce bedsores, which latter are a grave reflection upon the nurse. Should a bedsore be feared, it is a useful plan to sponge the patient with soap and water, and dry the parts well. T h e skin may be hardened by sponging with m ethylated spirit, and thereafter dusting it over with powdered boric acid.

ig

. 6

F i g . 7.

on the other side o f the bed withdraw the soiled sheet and blanket. T h e under sheet. R em ove the pillow and bolster, turn the patient over to one side o f the bed, roll up the soiled sheet in from head to foot, and press it close to the patient, now fold the clean sheet lengthwise in two, refold one-half so as to form pleats with hem on top, place this


— F I R S T next to the roll o f the soiled sheet, now turn the patient over on to the clean half-sheet, withdraw dirty-sheet, and unfold the rem aining portion o f the clean sheet. M oving Helpless Patients.— -T h e nurse may be able to assist a partially helpless patient, but she will always need help with a helpless patient. A patient may be m oved by two persons, one on each side, grasping hands under the patient s shoulders and buttocks. In case of a fracture, a third helper is needed to stand by the fractured part, placing one hand above and the other below the seat of fracture. If a strong helper be available, then the patient may be carried from one bed to another like a child. T h e lifter placing one arm below the buttocks, the other beneath the shoulders, whilst the patient clasps his arms around the helper’s neck. Another method of moving a helpless patient is to im provise a ham m ock by rolling up the sides of the sheet and blanket upon which he is laid, instructing helpers at each side to lift. In whatever way lifting is done, it is im portant that the effort should be exerted at the word “ lift.” Feeding.— T h e diet ordered by the m edical attendant must be strictly carried out. T h e patient should have a napkin placed beneath his chin at every meal. T h e food should be delicately served and not too much placed upon the plate at one time. T h e meal should be freshly cooked and not allowed to stand in the sick rooms ; above all, it should be prom ptly and punctually served. Medicines.— Extrem e care should be exercised in giving m edicines at the proper time, and in the proper dose. A measure glass can be bought at any chem ist for a few pence, and this should be obtained. Fig. 3 shows a medi­ cine tum bler com plete with minim measures in leather covered case. Alw ays read the instructions sent with medicines and always obey them. Enem ata.— Aperient, M edicated and Nutrient. Requisites.— H igginson’s syringe (Fig. 4), vaseline, draw sheet and mackintosh, towels. H ave the enema prepared. Simple Aperient.— Soap and water at a tem perature of 95 degs. Adults, 1 to 2 p in ts ; children, £ to 1 p in t; infants, 1 to 2 ozs. O il.— O live or linseed, temperature 80 to 95 degs., amounts as above. Medicated.— Astringent, water 2 to 4 ozs. ; the astrin­ gent as ordered. Sedative.— Starch mucilage, 2 to 4 ozs. ; sedative as ordered. S alt.— One tablespoonfnl to a pint o f gruel or barley water. Turpentine.— H a lf to 1 oz. turpentine to a pint o f gruel or barley water. Castor O il.— Q uantity a s ordered. Glycerine.— Q uantity as ordered. A ll the above may be given warm. N utrien t.— T h is m ode o f feeding is o f the greatest value, indeed, life is often dependent upon it. T h e greatest care must be given to every detail. A ll food given in this way is prepared in liquid form, and strained if necessary. Quantity given should not exceed 4 ozs. every 4 hours. T h e food may be predigested before administration. M eats extracts, b eef tea, stimulants, milk, milk and egg are exam ples. D etails must be obtained from the doctor and im m ediately written down. Feeding Cups and D ressing B a sin s.— It is just as well to have these little requisites (Fig. 5), they are specially adapted for their uses and m ake for com fort 'and clean li­ ness. B e d Rests.— Various forms o f bed-rests are used, but

AI D. —

September, 1912.

they are all intended to serve one function to support the patient whilst sitting up in bed (Fig. 6). Cradles.— T h ese are contrivances to support the weight of the bed clothes, and thereby relieve any painful part o f the body from pressure, e.g., ulceration or fracture o f the leg (Fig. 7). W ashing and D ressing P atient.— Patient must be washed twice a day if he can bear it, before breakfast and after tea. T eeth should be cleansed after meals. The body may be sponged in parts as most convenient. Sponge with soap and warm water. D ry thoroughly. D ressin g — H ave everything aired and warm in order to avoid chill. {To be continued).

R e v ie w s . M ANUAL

FOR

W O M EN S’

A ID

D ETACH M ENTS.

By P. C. Gabbett, M.R.C.S., Lieut.-Col. (retired). Bristol : John W right & Sons, Ltd. London : Simpkin, Marshall & Co.. Ltd. Price is. nett. I n the introductory of this book Mr. Gabbett gives as his reason for adding to the literature on Red Cross work, that a book dealing with the duties of Womens’ Voluntary Aid Detachments is somewhat specialised, for womens’ duties will lie in the hospitals in the time of war, and the “ Red Cross Training Manual ” deals more particularly in field and transport work, therefore he devotes this little book to this particular subject. It contains much useful information. The lists of appliance necessary for the equipment of temporary hospitals should be a guidance to V .A .D .’s of the articles required for this purpose in order to avoid accumulation of unnecessary furniture and articles of equipment, and the book also gives a good insight of the duties which a volunteer ambulance nurse is likely to be asked to per­ form in time of need.

AN

H IS T O R IC A L FRO M

O U T L IN E

TH E

E A R L IE S T

OF

AM BULANCE

T IM E S .

By Charles H. Miles, L.R.C.P. (London). Price 3d. nett. It can well be imagined that an historical outline of ambu­ lance embraced in a small pamphlet of 18 pages does not go very deeply into a subject of such absorbing interest to ambu­ lance workers ; in fact, except for the mention of a few details of succouring the wounded in the Greece and Roman Wars and a brief outline of the history of the Order of St. John, the pamphlet is devoid of interest. It lacks any account of the form of ambulance adopted in the middle ages, and it mentions but briefly ambulance work of the early Victorian era, the birth of ambulance training on modern lines. The author, by con­ fining his subject, which has ample scope for apparently a fluent pen, into such a small compass has robbed it of much interest. Messrs W. & G. Foyles have, owing to the great extension of their business, removed to more spacious premises at 121123, Charing Cross-road, London, W .C., where they have in stock over a million books, new and second-hand. W hen corresponding w ith A d vertisers please m ention “ F irst A id .”


— F I R S T

September, 1912.

No.

3 O

D is tr ic t f f ic ia l

A

Cam p.

ccount.

O n the whole the weather during the Annual Cam p, at Great Yarm outh, might have been much w o rse! Certainly it was rather discouraging to the advance party, under Q.-M.-S. A. C. W ilkins, to find twenty-five tents down on W ednesday morning— after a day’s hard work on T u esday ; but these little difficulties were made to be overcom e, and when the troops march in on Sunday afternoon, August 4th, they found everything ready for them, and at once sat down to a cold supper, served in the M en’s Mess. T his was a new departure, but the small initial cost o f necessaries for feeding 400 men in one marquee was recouped by the exceedingly small amount of waste. Besides, it was much more convenient and com fortable for all concerned, and great thanks are due to the carvers and First-Class Sergt W. L loyd and Sergt. H ow e who were responsible for that department.

A

G roup

of

O ff ic e r s

at

T h e staff-lines were pitched in the P ad d ock o f the Racecourse, and we would take this opportunity of express­ ing our thanks to the M ayor and all officials both civic and of the R ace Com m ittee who helped to make this one of the best camps held in No. 3 District. T h e DeputyCommissioner, Mr. T . H . W oolston, was in com m and, with the Rev. W. D ore Rudgard, Assistant-Com m issioner, as Chief-of-Staff and Chaplain ; Dr. Nelson, o f Birmingham, as P.M .O . ; Dr. Audland, of W ellingborough, who also holds the rank o f Assistant Com m issioner, taking charge o f the Transport, and D istrict Supt. W. H arvey Reeves, as Adjutant. T h e D istrict Supt. o f Stores, Mr. A . W. Faire, was unavoidably absent from camp. T h e battalion was made up o f five co m p a n ie s:— No. 1, consisting o f Northampton, O lney, M arket Harborough, and North Leicester, under Corps Supt. of Stores F. A d n itt; No. 2, W ellingborough, W olverham pton, and Leicester, under Div. Supt. J. C . P ark er; No. 3, Kettering and North Worcester, under Corps Supt. F. F.' Sim pson; No. 4, Birmingham, under Corps Secretary J- H. Hawkins ; and No. 5, North East W arwickshire and

AID. —

S3

D udley under the com m and o f Capt. Orton, M .D ., R . A .M .C .(T .). T h e other m edical officers including Corps Surgeon J. H enton W hite, o f Birm ingham , and A. D. M cQ ueen, o f the North W orcester Corps. W e were especially honoured in num bering am ong our guests Sir Thom as Chavasse, M .D ., and a representative from Overseas, Supt. W. J. Harris, o f the G lebe Division, New South W ales. Both visitor’s appeared to enjoy cam p life and spoke highly of the cam p and all belonging to it. T h e following cam p appointm ents were filled by First Class Sergts. A. L lo yd who acted as S ergt.-M ajor; W. Edwards was in charge of the O rderly Room , and H . H . W ilkins, Canteen Steward. M onday was devoted to getting things into going order, as after twelve m onths’ dispersal it was necessary to freshen up memories of drill and routine. O n T u esd ay a route march through Gorleston furnished an opportunity at the H all (kindly placed at the disposal o f the C .O .) for collecting wounded and bringing them in to the dressing station, when the manner in which the cases were treated met with the approval o f the P .M .O . A smart storm and

the

N o.

3

D istr ict

Cam p.

fine intervals helped to give variety to the day’s work, and all were ready for dinner on return to camp. W ednesday was taken as a light day, to enable those who were a little footsore to recover, and advantage was taken to finish the “ M arkham ” C u p com petition. Patients were placed by the ju d ges— Sir T hom as C havesse and Dr. N elson— treated on the spot by first aid and rem oved to a dressing station. On T hursday we had the longest and most interesting day, perhaps o f the training. E arly in the m orning the men were “ ferried ” across the Y a re to the Gorleston-road. T h e discipline was adm irable and the way in which the men marched off after disem barking was most creditable. Seen from the Denes side o f the river, their dressing and m arching was very good indeed. On arrival at their destination— Burgh C astle— they found the village en fete with flags flying, & c., a very pretty com plim ent to the Brigade. T h e ground being o f a rough and uneven character gave splendid opportunities for efficient work. C ollecting Stations and a F ield H ospital were pitched. Som e o f the cases were exceedingly difficult to get down


54

— F I R S T

from the old fortifications and ramparts, but the way the work was carried out quite satisfied the powers which be. D uring an interval the R ev. L . H . D ahl, M .A ., gave a most interesting lecture on the C astle and the surrounding neighbourhood, and this was appreciated by all. Friday was devoted to various drills, and a party of officers and sergeants were instructed in tent and marquee pitching and striking— a valuable lesson which should prove useful in the future. Before dinner Sir T . Chavasse addressed the men in the canteen on the work done in the “ M arkham ” C u p com petition, and also on his impression o f cam p. W hat seem ed to appeal to him and to other speakers was the feeling o f brotherhood which permeated the Brigade, and which was brought hom e to us particularly in the presence of Supt. H arris o f New South W ales, showing how its members were scattered throughout the wide world, and yet in aim and thought but one W ellingborough won the Cup, with D udley second, N orth E ast W arwickshire third and Birm inghham fourth. T h ese all received m oney prizes so kindly given in addition to the Cup, by Lieut.-Col. Markham.

A

M or n in g

Scene

at

A few men had to leave on Saturday, but enough were left to make a good show at C hurch Parade on Sunday morning. T h e service was a shortened form o f M orning Prayer and two hymns, with an address by the Rev. W. Rudgard, C .T .F ., and concluded with the N ational Anthem . A collection was as usual, made on b ehalf of the British O pthalm ic H ospital in Jerusalem, which belongs to the Order o f St. John, and a record amount, £ 6 , was trans­ m itted to Col. H en d ley at St. John’s Gate. A fter breakfast, tents were struck and bedding handed in, and shortly after 11.30 the troops m arched off to the t u n e o f “ A uld L an g Syne,” leaving a small fatigue party under the C h ie f o f the Staff to entrain baggage and stores. T h e band, which hailed from Birm ingham , played daily for Mess, and on route marches m ade the miles pass quickly by, adding much to the pleasure o f cam p life. W e should like before concluding this article, to place on record our thanks to the R ailw ay Com panies and Mr. F. Andrew s, of G reat Yarm outh, who materially added to the ease with which the fatigue parties were able to carry out their duties.

AID. —

September, 1912.

T h e thanks of all ranks are certainly due to the DeputyCom m issioner and his Staff, without whose active aid the cam p would not be the success it is. It not only affords the best opportunity of learning what to do in emergencies, but it bands together the am bulance men in the district into one com pact brotherhood, always ready to bear each other’s burdens and to share each other’s joys, and when it is realised that here and there are banded together several hundred men, controlled only by moral obligations, it speaks w ell indeed for the tone o f the Brigade that there were no charges for Orderly-room ; and further, that the authorities had no cause of complaint. A s a stranger rem arked to a bystander, “ W hat a nice lot o f boys the A m bulance have in camp, and so splendidly behaved.” W e must not forget to give the results o f the com ­ petitions for the best mounted guard and the best kept lines. T h e former was won by Northam pton by four points from North East W arwickshire, who took the Lines C u p by some sixty points.

the

N o.

3

D istr ict

Camp.

T h e W om en’s C onvoy Corps went into camp last month for a week’s training at Rottingdean, near Brighton, where they accom plished much useful work under the com m and o f Mrs. St. C lair Stobart. Several field days were arranged and the whole routine of cam p was carried out in a most efficient manner. Surgeon-General K enny, who inspected the four Leicestershire V oluntary A id D etachm ents on September 7th, has evidently been very gratified by their display and efficiency. H e now com plim ents them on their turn-out and knowledge, as testified by the manner in which the supposed sufferers from serious injuries were treated. H e also pays a tribute to the service o f the B oy Scouts, while the Office in-Charge o f the administration adds a happy eulogium on the adequate arrangements and energetic m anagem ent o f Mr. A. W. Faire, the county director.

W hen corresponding w ith A d vertisers p lease m en ­ tion “ F ir st A id.”


— F I R S T

September, 1912.

AID. —

55

BRITISH RED CROSS SOCIETY.

COUNTY OF LONDON N otes and N ew s. “ W e feel satisfied that the present unpreparedness of the country for all the various branches o f R ed Cross work would be best overcom e by the British R ed Cross Society insisting on C ounty Com m ittees organising thoroughly their individual counties,” says The H ospital, of August 31st, in an article on “ T h e British R ed Cross Society’s Duties in T im e o f P eace.” It further urges the Society not to expend all its energies in the formation and training o f V oluntary A id D etachm ents, but rather to direct attention to organising itself during peace for its duties in time o f war, be that abroad or at h o m e ; and in this way to educate the nation generally to a more correct knowledge and appreciation o f R ed Cross work. Our contemporary, in making these statements would lead one to suppose that the R ed Cross Society did not realise its duties. Q uite to the contrary is the case, for in a pam phlet recently issued by the C ounty of L ondon B ranch, it sets forth the com plete arrangements which are being made to cope with the sick and injured in case o f war, they are to furnish aid to the sick and wounded in war supplem entary to that which is provided by the m edical departments of the Arm y and N a v y ; to organise and co-ordinate all offers of assistance which may be made in the time of war ; and to ascertain as far as possible in peace the nature and extent of such assistance which can be depended on in time of w a r; to organise such additional m edical assistance as would be required in the case o f invasion or great national em e rg e n cy ; to collect funds to carry out the above. *

*

*

Everyone will appreciate the value of the somewhat novel training that has recently been carried out at Aldershot to demonstrate the responsibilities o f our M edical Service in time of war. Our organisation of this particular service seems to be making com m endable advance, and it is essential to keep the m arked improvements going until perfection is reached, for this year’s training is merely a beginning. T h e recent field practices carried out around Fensham and Longm oor by the R .A .M .C . was under the direction of the Aldershot M edical Authorities, and some 800 casualties were treated each day and were rem oved to the clearing hospital situated sixteen miles away at nightfall. *

*

*

T h e paucity o f know ledge as to what was to be done with our wounded men in the early stages of the South African War often led to horrible congestion and suffering, and now that a com m encem ent has been made in the familiarising o f all ranks with the workings o f a properly organised m edical service, we hope it will be pursued year

BRANCH.

by year until the whole personnel o f each D ivision is thoroughly acquainted with the system. I f this is done it will save much loss o f life, and m ake the task o f the R oyal Arm y M edical Corps much lighter. *

*

*

Dr. F. M. Sandwith, Gresham Professor o f Physic, will give four lectures, illustrated by lantern slides, on the treatm ent o f sick and wounded in war during recent campaigns. T h e lectures are free to men and women, and will be delivered at the C ity of London School, near Blackfriars Bridge, at 6 p.m., on four successive days, O ctober 15th, 1 6th, 17th and 18th next. *

*

*

T h e following Classes for ladies for Certificates o f the British R ed Cross Society will be held at the SouthWestern Polytechnic, Manresa-road, K in g ’s-road, Chelsea. F ir s t A id Courses.— On T u esd ay afternoons, com ­ mencing O ctober 15th, from 2.30 to 4.30 ; fee, 7s. 6d. On Friday evening, com m encing O ctober 4th from 8.15 to 1 0 ; fee, 4s. 6d. Home N u rsin g Courses.— On M onday afternoons, com m encing O ctober 14th, from 2.30 to 4.30 ; fee, 7s. 6d. O n Friday evenings, com m encing N ovem ber 8th, from 8.15 to 10 ; fee, 4s. 6d. T h ese Classes will only be held provided sufficient applications are received. A First A id Course for M en will be held on Thursdays, com m encing O ctober 24th, from 8.15 p.m. to 10 p.m.; fee, 4s. 6d. T h is will only be held provided sufficient applications are received. Nam es to be sent in as soon as possible to Mrs. C. E. Allan, 7, V ale Avenue, Chelsea, S.W . Fees payable at first lecture. *

*

In view o f the im portance of the M arie Feodorovna Prize Com petition held in connection with the W ashington Conference, the International Jury decided to confer certain highly com m ended diplomas. A m ongst those who gained these diplom as were M ajor G. S. M cLanghlin, o f the R .A .M .C ., for an article deal­ ing with the organisation o f succour and evacuatiou upon the field o f battle, and also Messrs. Burroughs, W ellcom e & C o., for their first aid preparations. *

*

*

In Paris the R e d Cross workers had a general street collection during the N ational fete days, this collection being energetically m ade by six thousand young ladies, in thirty-two districts o f the city, for the wounded soldiers in M orocco. Instead of a wild rose, however, the badge was a tricolour flag, surcharged with a G eneva Cross and the word “ M aroc,” and fixed on a pin. M ore than two million such little badges were sold and attached to the people’s buttonholes, adding 110,000 francs to the fund, o f which about nine-tenths was paid in pence.


— F I R S T

The

B

y

M AY

W ork of V o lu n ta r y D etach m en ts.* THORNE, L

M .D .,

ondon

F .R .C .S .I.,

C

Aid

om m andant

2, V .A .D .

o m e n ’ s V oluntary A id D etachm ents have made great progress this year. O n every side one hears mem­ bers enquiring as to how they can best prepare themselves for practical work that would fall to their share in the event o f war in this country. In London members o f som e de­ tachm ents attend regularly at dispensaries where causalty and accident cases are seen, where they learn to apply dressings to fingers, fom entations to inflamed parts and other work. B esides these practical duties to patients, members learn to prepare lotions o f the strength desired by the doctor and are initiated into the mysteries o f 1-20 carbolic or 1-3,000 perchloride o f mercury. T h ey accurately measure m edicines and have taken the keenest interest in the recent exhibition in connection with the conference on nursing, asking intelligent questions and grasping the reason for various ingenious inventions for the com fort of patients. M em bers of several detachm ents in London attend regularly the wards o f general hospitals, where they are instructed by the sisters and nurses in the care o f patients who are confined to bed. In some o f the provincial detach­ ments members are allowed, by the courtesy o f the com ­ m ittee of management, the staff and the matron, to enter the county hospitals for three m onths’ definite training in the wards. M em bers live in the hospital, take the position o f junior probationers and do their duties as thoroughly as if training for the career o f a professional nurse. T here still seems a certain am ount o f confusion in the minds o f some com m andants and members who talk about “ R ed Cross N u r s e ” m eaning members o f the V oluntary A id D etachm ents. T h ou gh the duty of the members will probably be to nurse or to help in nursing, and they are right to perfect them selves as far as possible in nursing, yet they are not and never will be “ nurses ” in the sense in which that title is understood in these days, i.e., those who have taken not less than three years’ course o f training in a recognised hospital or infirmary. It is, therefore, very necessary to reiterate that the rank and file o f a detach­ ment are “ m em bers,” not “ nurses.” T h e nurses belong­ ing to each detachm ent are the L ad y Superintendent and her assistant, if she had one, who have undergone a full course o f training. Perhaps the person who wants her wits most keenly about her is the Quarterm aster. U pon her devolves all the secretarial work in connection with the detachm ent. T his in itself is no mean task. In time o f peace the Quarter­ master keeps the lists o f attendances, makes out the quar­ terly reports which are required by headquarters, is in charge o f the equipm ent belonging to the detachm ent, and is responsible for its being kept in order. A t a display she has to see that all the necessary beds and bedding, bandages and splints will be at the right spot at the right time, and that sufficient food is provided for the feeding of patients and staff during the time the display lasts. T h is may necessitate arrangements for three meals. M ore probably one or two meals only will be required. T h e Quarterm aster must see that each patient brought into the tem porary hospital has his name, age and regim ent entered in the books kept for the purpose, together with the injury he is suffering from, and the ward and bed to which he is

W

* This article is published by the courtesy of the Editor of the

Ladies' Field.

AI D. —

September, 1912.

assigned. In war, in course of time, this record would have to be further filled with the result, i.e., (a) Sent on to a base h o sp ita l; (b) discharged cured ; (c) died. T h e Quarter­ master must also see that any valuables the patient has are safely housed and correctly labelled, and that the patient’s clothes are washed, packed and labelled so that they can be available at once if and when the patient requires them again. She is also responsible for the sending to the cor­ rect address any messages dying patients wish their rela­ tives to have. T h e messages them selves would have been taken down by the L ad y Superintendent or her assistant or the mem ber o f the detachm ent who was responsible for the nursing o f the case. M em bers of detachm ents now realise that the prac­ tices and displays are not mere play work as was rather the idea of some members when the detachm ents were first formed, but they see that, if the grim reality o f war is ever upon us, their wom anly work of nursing, cooking and sew­ ing will be o f great value in alleviating suffering and in saving of life if it is well organised it time of peace, and each member has practised several times over the duties that would fall to her share in time o f war. Already the know ledge that more than twenty-four thousand women up and down the country are steadily preparing them selves to be able to be o f use, is helpful, for it brings home to them and their friends a feeling o f personal responsibility with regard to their country that they never had before. T here is often much armchair advice given at the time of emer­ gencies as to what ought to have been done before the em ergency arose. M em bers o f V oluntary A id D etach­ ments are dem onstrating by their conduct to-day that they will help their country to the best o f their ability should war arise, by looking after the sick and injured, so that each man capable o f fighting shall be free to do so. Incidentally the formation o f Voluntary A id D etach­ ments will probably help recruiting in the Territorial Force, for as the women o f the country increasingly realise the horrors of war they will impress more and more upon their m enfolk the desirability o f so strengthening the hom e forces that the Territorials shall indeed be a strong wall between an invading foe and the homes o f England, so strong that the prospects o f a successful invasion shall be reduced to nil. W hen it is rem em bered that members o f the Voluntary A id D etachm ents undertake the entire equipm ent of any temporary hospital or rest station o f which they may be in charge, and they give their time and services in peace and in war without anything in the nature o f pay or allowances, it will be realised that love o f their country and a desire to be of service to their fellow-creatures in keenly developed in the women o f the land.

D ivision

N ew s.

o l . F r a n k L. S t e p h e n s o n ’ s report on the Greenwich and W oolw ich D ivisional Cam p, held on August 6th to 16th, 1912 T h e C am p was held at the H ighland-road School, Southsea, kindly lent for the purpose by the Portsm outh E ducation Com m ittee. T h e Cam p was conducted on similar lines to that of last year, as regards quartering the members, and as to the internal econom y, including cooking and service. A n ad­ vance was made as regards supplies. A n attempt was made to conform to the Arm y plan o f requisitioning and drawing supplies, each 24 hours in advance. T h e tradesmen gave trouble at first, but we had the system in good order by the fifth day, and I think the lesson has been learnt.

C


Septem ber 1912.

— F I R S T

As one o f those who think that war is not far off, and will com e suddenly, I tightened the strings o f discipline to test the fitness of our members for field service. The response was quite good, and I feel we could turn out a good number o f members fit for field duties in war. I further think that when war comes, we shall want every trained woman we can find. T h e weather was very bad, but we got through a good deal of hard work, and by the end of the training we had a very smart set of workers. Thanks are due, specially, to Mrs. H arley M oseley as Lady Superintendent. She maintained discipline with the gentlest hand. A lso to Mrs. Edwards as mess caterer, who go t through the work of this always thankless office to my great satisfaction. I must also thank the Quartermaster, Mr. Corrigan, for all the trouble and care he took in dealing with camp stores, and the arrangements for field exercises. T h e finances of the Cam p necessarily claim attention. T h e messing at is. 6d. a day proved to be a good estimate, it provided an abundance o f food o f good quality. T h e amount paid in was ,£ 20 u s . T h e am ount expended was ^ 2 0 is. o|d ., including tea, 24s.; butter, £ 1 7s. 3 d .; meat, hams, etc., os. 3 d .; bread, cake, etc., £ 2 n s . 9d. ; jams, 12s. 6d. T h e Prelim inary Expenses Fund :— 30 members paid 2S. 6d. each, including Mrs. Fast and Miss Fennell, total ^ 3 13s. T h e amount expended was ^ 3 3s. id . T h e balance was passed to the Cam p Fund. T h e Cam p Fund :— 2 9 members, including Mrs. Fast, paid 1 os. ea ch ; total, ^ 1 4 10s. T h is was found to be in­ sufficient for this Camp, but with increased experience I think it may be made to do. A m ongst the expenses were the following — H ire of tables, chairs, crockery, glass, etc. ^5 1 8 Training expenses :— Divisional equipment to and from Southsea (Pickford) ... ... £ 1 7 5 M odel boys, wagons, men and materials for field exercises ... 3 1 8 -----------------4 9 1 A s ta te m e n t w ill b e is s u e d sh o rtly.

Iodine a s a F ir s t Aid D r e s s i n g W ounds.

for

S o m e while ago the m edical officer in ch ief o f the S .J .A .B .

advocated in the colum ns o f this journal the use of iodine as a first aid dressing for wounds. From our experience it is not so much in use as its merits justify, therefore a few details as to its general application may prove valuable. Fleet Surgeon A. G. W ildey, in his paper on “ A suggestion for the more general use o f iodine in first aid treatment o f accidental wounds,” points out that during the past 18 months at the R oyal N aval Hospital, Chatham , all cases of com pound fracture have been thoroughly flushed out with the tincture, or with a 2 per cent, solution of iodine in rectified spirit, as soon as possible after admission. M any of these cases have been exceptionally severe. T h ey include com pound comm inuted fractures o f the skull and many crushing injuries to bone and joint caused by machinery accidents, both afloat and in the naval dockyard. “ T h e results have been surprisingly satisfactory, sepsis being practically unknown. Particularly noticable is the aseptic course in cases o f badly crushed hands and feet— cases that under other methods of treatm ent are so com ­ monly followed by septic trouble.

AID. —

57

A

GREAT BOOK AM BULANCE W ORKERS.

By

DR.

ANDREW

FOR

W IL S O N .

A w o r k that justifies its claim to be an epitom e o f all that specialised m edical and surgical know ledge necessary for First Aiders, as well as an authoritative m anual o f reference on all information relating to H ealth and Disease, is a work to be welcom ed by all our readers who wish to study their subject more deeply than is possible from superficial text books. In “ T h e M odern P hysician,” by Dr. Andrew W ilson, fullest space is devoted to “ First A i d ” and A m bulan ce W ork. In respect o f com pleteness, accuracy o f description, and wealth o f illustration, “ T h e M odern Physician ” stands without a rival amongst the works published on this im­ portant subject in the U nited K ingdom . It is scientifically accurate and reliable without being d u ll; the nam e o f its editor, so long and popularly known as an expositor o f H ealth laws and a teacher o f H ygiene, is a guarantee of this. T h is work is absolutely com plete as regards H ealth and Disease, and is thoroughly up-to-date. A s a know ledge o f the body in H ealth is necessary to the due understanding o f the body when its functions are deranged by disease, a description o f every part o f the frame will be found here. T h e skeleton, muscles, digestive system, heart and lungs, brain and nervous system, oigans o f sense, skin, kidneys and the body’s m icroscopic structure are duly described. In this connection the illustrations are o f particular value, the “ m ann ikin s” or dum m ies more esp ecially ; in these the organs are made to overlap each other exactly as they do in the human body. T h e section devoted to H ygien e includes the full exposition o f the Laws o f H ealth, and special attention is devoted to Physical Culture. Such topics as foods, beverages, air, exercise, clothing, sleep, baths, holidays’ temperament, & c., are treated in this section. T h e last volum e is especially devoted to the H ealth o f W om en, and Dr. W ilson has here been assisted by a num ber o f em inent women physicians. M idwifery and the treatment and Diseases o f Infants are here fully dealt with.

ONE

OF

MANY

O P IN IO N S.

Mr. J. DANIEL, 23 , Kent Avenue, Ashford, Kent, writes:— Its all-round excellence makes it a valuable acquisition. The section dealing with ambulance work is especially good. The book is written in splendid style and the illustrations are first rate. T he method of payment places it within the reach of all.”

A FREE BOOKLET. TO

TH E

CAXTON

P U B L IS H IN G

COM PAN Y,

156, S u rre y S treet, L o n d on , W .C . P lea se send me, F r e e o f C h a r g e and w ith out a n y o b lig atio n on m y part (1) Illu strated B oo klet on T h e M o d e r n P h y s ic ia n . ” P a r t_icukirs o f you r offer to d eliv er the com p lete w ork for a first p aym en t o f is. 6d., the balance to be p aid for b y a few sm all m on th ly paym en ts.

N a m e .................................................................................................................................

(Sen d this form or a p ostcard .)

A d d r e s s ...................................................................


— F I R S T O ne has only to rem em ber the terrible sequelae which too often follows the most trivial abrasion to realise how urgently we need some sim ple non-poisonous application which can be safely used as a dom estic remedy. H ow frequently do we find tetanus a fatal termination to apparently insignificant injuries, and yet we have in iodine solution, if prom ptly applied, a ready means o f pre­ vention. In advocating iodine solution as a local application for general use by all intelligent enough to render first aid, som e of its many advantages over the more com m only em ployed antiseptic may be emphasised. Its distinctive colour and general properties make it almost im possible to be confounded with other drugs. It is practically nonpoisonous. It is conducive to a more general adoption of a “ dry ” treatment of wounds, and its use as a dom estic rem edy must tend to abolish the wet rag, the bread poultice, and all the other sodden and septic household dressings. For first aid work, military, naval, or am bulance, iodine is the ideal antiseptic. T o get the best results the solution should be freshly made, and this is the ch ief difficulty con­ nected with its more general use, and particularly with its use in the field. In the R oyal N avy iodine is being supplied dry, in tubes, to be dissolved in alcohol as required. This, while suitable to the service afloat, is not thoroughly practicable for field or am bulance work, nor is it handy enough for popular use. Som e method by which a glass capsule or a glass tube containing a strong solution of iodine can be quickly crushed within a vessel containing a sufficiency of alcohol, thus forming im m ediately the required 2 per cent, solution, would satisfy most requ irem ents; and if this vessel be a collapsible tube hold a quantity sufficient for one application, the fact that a collapsible tube permits the contents to be forcibly expelled is an additional advantage. T h ese tubes can be carried like cartridges in a bando­ lier. W hen the 2 per cent, solution is required the glass capsule contained within the collapsible tube is broken by moderate pressure of the finger and thum, the strong solu­ tion is released to mix with the alcohol which is free in the tube. T h e capsule should have a thin gauze wrap to retain fragments o f broken glass and so to prevent them from blocking up the nozzle o f the tube. T h e iodine being freed only when it is required for use, the corrosive action o f iodine on the metal does not occur. A bandolier and belt fitted for these tubes and for the service pattern sheathed hypoderm ic syringe and rubber capped bottles for various hypoderm ic solution has been m ade to my design, and may perhaps prove a useful addition to the equipm ent of a m edical officer in the field or in general am bulance work. A n efficient and very econom ical m ethod of applying iodine solution is by means of a spray producer. For hospital work an ordinary throat spray apparatus will be found to effect a surprising econom y o f solution; since there is no wastage in swabs, &c. For field and am bulance work a special spray producer, with metal bellows, has been designed to be carried hooked to the waist belt. N o doubt more sim ple methods for preparing and for carrying the solution will be suggested when its general utility becom es more w idely recognised— when all who may be called upon to render first aid and all whose occu ­ pation or recreation daily exposes them to the risk o f accidental wounds will dem and to have this antiseptic ready to hand in a convenient form— in a form that is practically harmless, yet a powerful antidote to that most

AID. —

September, 1 9 1 2 .

dangerous source o f sepsis— the dom estic first aid dressing — the wet pocket h a n d k erch ie f!”

We are in

no way resoonsibte tor the opinions expressed, or the

statements made, by Correspondents. — E d i t o r s .

S L IN G

F R A C T U R E D C L A V IC L E . you kindly give me through your valuable and helpful Journal the correct sling for a fractured clavicle, as we are being taught by our superintendent to apply the clavicular sling taken from (Ambulance Illustrated) a Scotch book on ambulance-work by Wm. Cullen, M.D., and oblige,— Yours truly, A B r ig a d e M e m b e r , D a r w e n . [It is quite impossible to give an unqualified answer to such a question. The method of mechanical support to be afforded by the ambulance student in a case of fractured clavicle will depend entirely upon circumstances. The allimportant point to be borne in mind is that the means adopted shall fulfil the object required. A most excellent sling for fractured clavicle is that which is clearly shown in the official text book of the S.J.A.A.— known as the St. John Sling. This, it would be difficult to improve upon ; it forms an admirable support to the injured limb, and affords much comfort to the patient. This undoubtedly is the sling that should be used by the St.John Ambulance student provided there are no defined reasons to the contrary. The means to be adopted, however, must always be dependent upon the materials available, and, more important still, upon the actual needs o f the case to be treated. In order to settle this all-important practical subject, discrimination on the part of the firsc aider is essential. This will be more readily understood if exemplified. If your correspondent will refer to the stretcher test given in the recent preliminary heat of the inter-railway competition (page 1 7 4 , May issue) he will notice that, for the fractured clavicle— in addition to the 4 marks given for using a pad and securing the fracture efficiently— 6 marks were apportioned for “ discrimination” and “ resourcefulness.” (See also fracture of leg, page 1 7 5 ) . I believe I am right in saying that not one of the 27 teams examined, gained those marks . . . W h y?— Because (if I remember correctly) the St. John Sling was used in every case, in many cases, undoubtedly, excellently applied. Under the conditions named, however, this was emphati­ cally wrong treatment. This case was one of extreme urgency. Protection against further mischief by a suitably applied broad bandage enclosing arm, flexed forearm, and chest, could have been much more safely and quickly effected, and (so far as the clavicle was concerned) would have carried out all the require­ ments of this special case. Prompt removal to the hospital, for appropriate attention to matters of much more vital moment, was the unquestionable duty of the first aider in this case.— L . M . F r a n k C h r i s t i a n ]. D

ear

FOR

S i r , — Will

FRACTURE

OF

LOW ER

JAW .

D e a r S i r , — In the case of the fracture of the lower jaw,

on which side is the bandage tied off, on the sound side or injured side? In Dr. Cantlie’s “ First A id ” book it does not state definitely. Thanking you in anticipation for a reply,— Yours, &c., H. S. [Knots should always be tied in such a position whenever possible not to interfere with the comfort of the patient. This being the case— should the method shown on page 44, official


— F I R S T

S e p te m b e r, 1 9 1 2 .

took~be^ adopted— the knots should be tied in such a position as not to press upon t h e injured parts . . . .. Infinitely more appropriate than the method shown on the nave referred to, is that known as the two-bandage method. This is much more readily improvised, very much easier to apply, and can be applied with a minimum degree of dis­ comfort to the patient. After application also, the advantages are still very evident, for it will be found to be more secure, and very much more comfortable. This, then, is the method of support that should be adopted by those ambulance workers, w ho-rather than slavishly follow the letter of the text-book— would prove that they have a full grasp of first aid principles. In other words, this is the method that will be used by those who using their common sense, are determined upon carrying into’effect the golden rule o f ambulance work ; i.e.— to use to the best advantage" what is at hand “ to prevent further damage and to assist Nature’s efforts to repair the mischief already done.” Compare correspondence in December, 1911, issue, under heading “ Official Text-Book Illustrations.”— L? M. F ran k

C h r i s t i a n ].

AM BU LAN CE E F F IC IE N C Y AN D A N D “ A G E ” L IM IT S .

“ H E IG H T ”

D e a r S i r , — I notice that in District Order, August 19th, 1912, re Enrolment of New Members in Ambulance Divisions, stress is being laid on the “ height ” and “ age ” standards. This mania is to be found everywhere in this country : it is by no means clear to me, while freely admitting the unsuit­ ability of dwarfs on parade, or the presence of veterans on crutches, that, in common with all organisation, especially of a voluntary nature, the services of hundreds of earnest workers are lost, especially as regards age. As soon as a man becomes thoroughly matured, seasoned, useful in body and mind, and of

T h e British R ed Cross Society’s M anuals.

Issued with the approval of the W a r Office.

A I D . —

59

ripe experience, the “ too old at forty ” mania is levelled at him. Now that I am old, I can see what a fool I was when I was young, and thought myself so right, so wise ; let us not for­ get there are plenty of men, like Hardy’s father, in “ Tom Brown at Oxford.” It is good and wholesome to call to mind such an old age, the records of its years written so visibly, yet without sign of weakness or decay. W e have seen ourselves that large numbers of Boers proved very formidable as mounted infantary long after they had attained 50 years of age, and yet merely because there are so many to be had, it is all juniors, even when they are not being paid for their services.— Sincerely yours. E

rn est

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trated

“ T h e book can be h igh ly com m ended to all seekin g instruction on the su b je ct.” — T h e Lancet.

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In Preparation,

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— F I R S T

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September, 1914. H o w T O A C T IN C A S E S O F E

m

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W ITH

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M .D ., T .D ., C O L . R .A .M .C .T .,

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EYRE & SPOTTISVNOODE, L td ., E a s t H a r d i n g S t . , L o n d o n , E.C., a n d 2. V ic to r ia S t . , W e s t m i n s t e r , S.W . DALE, REYNOLDS & CO., L td ., 46, C a n n o n S t . , LONDON, E.C.

P O S T A L I N S T R U C T I O N in “ P R E S C R I P T I O N R E A D IN G ” and “ E L E M E N T A R Y D I S P E N S I N G . ”

J Y R O Y A L W A R R A N T OF APP O IN T M EN T

NESTLES SWISS IY1IEK

A ll e n g a g e d in F IR S T A ID w o rk w ill fin d th e a b o v e C o u rs e s o f In stru c tio n of th e g re a te st b e n e fit. A n e le m e n ta ry k n o w le d g e o f th e m a n ip u la tio n o f m e d ic in e s is a lw a y s v a lu a b le . N .B .— R e c o m m e n d e d b y la d ie s o f t h e S .J .A .B . a n d N u rs e s w h o h a v e h a d th e a b o v e in s tr u c t io n . A p p ly (stam p) to M r. J. E . W a l d e n , Sec. W estm inster C o lleg e ( L a d y D ispensers S ection o f the W estm inster C o lleg e o f C h em istry and P h a rm a c y , estd. 1874),

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FIRST AID.

The Independent Journal for the Ambulance and Fire Services. Conducted b y A R T H U R N o . 220.— V

ol.

XIX.

[N

DALE,

O C T O B E R , 1912.

S e r i e s .]

ew

B.

M.J.I.

[ E n t t r e d a t S t a n o m r s ' H a ll.)

PRICE TWOPENCE. [ 2 /6 P e r

A n nu m , P ost F re e .

insert on another page, dealing with a subject which we

To Our Readers. As it is the wish and desire of the Proprietors to make this Journal as instructive and entertaining as possible, correspondents in all parts of the country are asked to give it all the help they can. Superintendents of Corps and Officers of Divisions of the St. John Ambulance Brigade, Officers of the Royal Army Medical Corps (Territorials), the Volunteer Ambulance School of Instruction, and Chief Officers of Fire Brigades will, it is hoped, do their best to make it known amongst the members of their respective organisations, and will also send for publication their official news and notices. Sugges­ tions are invited for Prize Competitions and other matters which will advance the interest of the Journal.

are sure deserves much consideration.

N ot only is the

closer union desired in am bulance circles in our Colonies, but also between the districts which com prise the Brigade in this country.

W e might say that each district is a

separate organisation, kept only in touch with headquarters, and not know ing that its im m ediate neighbour exists except on paper.

O f course, from a practical working point o f

view, this is the right p o lic y ; but what we should like to see would be a sort of freemasonry between the wearers o f

We particularly desire to ask our correspondents to be brief and to the point in any communications they may send us for publication.

the M altese Cross.

Correspondents sending in photos are urgently requested to state on the back of the same the name of the individual or the Corps or Brigade and give also the name and address of the sender.

Supt. Collins, o f the T oron to Corps, is prom pted to make

T h e y must needs be kept in touch

with one another, and it is with this object that Corps the suggestion that closer union is necessary between the H om eland and Colonies in am bulance circles.

We beg to advise our readers that we do not pay for photographs or copy sent, unless previously agreed upon in writing. “ F irst Aid ” Is published on t h e 20th of t h e m on th.

N othing can be more im portant to the welfare o f the movem ent than the expansion of know ledge on the subject, and to prom ote this we feel sure closer touch and the interchange of views should be of much educational value

EDITORIAL.

in promoting this object. readers

O n e cannot fail to be impressed with Closer Union in Ambulance Circles.

the rapid

It was only suggested to us last

month that a colum n should be opened for the purpose of

growth am bulance work is

making in our Colonies.

T h e many

solutions.

to interchange their

problems,

difficulties

and

T his should give greater publicity than Mr.

C ollins’ excellent suggestion

that individuals should cor­

respond with one another, for his idea would only confine

difficulties which have to be encountered,

the information to two individuals, whereas our Journal

such

the

reaches

all the C olonies and would

over

keeping

in touch the

as

the

population

scattered

and

the

state

large

of

area

which the units are spread, and the difficulties of keeping

be

whole Brigade.

the

means of

We

desire

to

inaugurate this colum n in our next issue ; it will be devoted

in touch with them, are gradually being overcome, and the

solely to our correspondents to convey their difficulties,

work is developing on right lines with level-headed men

and

behind it, and its practical value is being demonstrated with much success.

experience on the particular subjects in question.

D uring the

time o f the R oyal

R eview it was our

pleasure to meet several of the Colonial representatives who attended,

and while

to learn all they could

over here they

did

not fail

concerning am bulance matters,

which struck us as showing that the Colonies are

very

much alive and desire to be up-to-date in am bulance work. T h e object o f these notes is not to give a synopsis o f the work carried on in the Colonies, but to deal with a subject which has been prom pted by a letter which we

we

hope

that

other

readers

will

express

their

Messrs. Partridge & Co., Ltd., announce a new manual intended as a hand-book for would-be probationer T h e author, who is the matron of the W estm inster Hospitalj has felt that this hand book will meet a want that has often been expressed. It deals with the preparation o f the candidate, habits to be acquired, and lessons to be learnt, before she enters upon her new duties ; and incidentally it treats o f the necessary clothing to be provided and the various appointm ents which are open to certificated nurses T h e book, entitled “ First Steps to N ursing,” also warns prospective nurses of many pitfalls to be avoided, and is teem ing with necessary information in a popular form. It is published at is. net.


62

— F I R S T

St. 3ohn Jlmbutance Srigade. 0t * At-ejj No. 1 District (Prince of W a le s ’ s Corps.)

DUTY

ROSTER.

N O V E M B E R , 1912. Sunday Duty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. Sunday 3rd.— No. 19 Division. „ 10th.— No. 51 „ 17th.— No. 7 „ 24th.— No. 33 „ Parade 2.30 p.m. as per separate orders. BU GLE

BAND

P R A C T IC E .

Friday, 1st, 15th and 29th, Headquarters at 8 p.m. Men who wish to join the Band should apply to the Band­ master through the member in charge of their Division. L O R D M A Y O R ’S D A Y DUTY. Saturday, November, 9th. Duty returns are enclosed with these Orders. Officers and members in charge of Divisons will please make their returns as soon as possible, but not later than Monday, November 4th, first post. Divisions which can supply their own equipment will be able to go direct to their stations. Divisions which have to draw stores from headquarters will parade at St. John’s Gate at 10 a.m. unless otherwise ordered. D I S T R I C T C O N C E R T T IC K E T S . Divisions which have not yet made their application for “ h a lf” price tickets for members, should do so at once, in order that this item may be cleared up. D IV IS IO N A L

October, 1912.

Winner of the “ N ursin g” Bowl and of the “ G e n t” Cup. First-class Sergeants are invited to act as Stewards. Those who are willing to do so will please communicate with the District Superintendent at once. They must be prepared to parade at the Institute at 6.15 p.m. Uniform, “ Church P arade” Order. The Concert is a big undertaking, and entails very heavy expense. If it is to be a financial success, the active co-opera­ tion of every member is absolutely necessary. Officers and members in charge of Divisions can practically assure this result by urging all ranks to push the sale of tickets as much as possible, so that the whole of the 1,500 seats in the Hall may be disposed of. (Signed)

LEES

H ALL, Deputy-Commisssoner.

F ive com petitions, open to members o f the Prince o f W ales’s Corps, took place recently at the German Gynasium, K in g ’s Cross. T h e “ Osborn ” Shield is com peted for by teams of four men, each division o f the corps being entitled to enter one team. O nly •im provised material is allowed to be used. T h e winning team cam e from the Leyton and L eytonstone division. T h e members of the team were Corpl. H . Bate, Ptes. A. B. Haines, H. N aybury and E. Walker. T h e “ Sleath G ent ” C u p for individual work also fell to the same division, being won by Pte. A. B. Haines. T h e N urses’ C hallenge Bow l was won by a member of the C raig’s Court H ouse Nursing D ivision, the second place being taken by a member of the St. John’s Gate Nursing Division, and the third place by another member o f the C raig’s Court H ouse Nursing Division. T h e “ Efficiency ” C u p com petition was won by the T oyn b ee H all Division, Leyton and Leytonstone Division being second. T h e “ Massey M ainw arin g” C u p was won by the South M etropolitan Gas C o. Division, Leyton and L eyton ­ stone D ivision taking second place.

STO R ES.

Judging from the reports furnished by the County Directors of their Inspections of the V.A. Detachments, I fear that the Commandants are making incorrect statements with regard to the quantity of stores belonging to the St. John County Companies (Brigade). It must be borne in mind that Divisonal stores are not the property of the V.A.D ., and must not be returned to the inspecting officer as such. These stores having been pur­ chased from funds raised by the Division of the S.J.A .B ., remain the property of the Division, but there seems to be a tendency to lose sight of this important fact. There is no objection to the stores being shown to the inspecting officer, but he must clearly understand that they are not the property of the Company, although there is no doubt they would be available in case of emergency. B/F 2, 3 and 5a and 5n are overdue. Officers and M/i/C must see that these forms are sent in without delay. Divisional books may be submitted for inspection, between 8 and 10 p.m. any Tuesday or Thursday. D IS T R I C T

AID. —

CONCERT.

W ednesday, October 30th, Northampton Institute. Doors open 6.45 p.m. ; Organ Recital, 7 p.m. The following members will parade in the Corridor, Central Entrance, at 7.30, in “ Church P arad e” Order, viz., Members who are to receive Long Service Medals or Bars ; Winners of the “ Massey Mainwaring ” Cup, “ O sborn” Shield and “ E fficien cy” C u p;

S t . J o h n ’s G ate N u r s i n g D i v i s i o n . — T h e 6th annual Progressive W hist Party will be held on N ovem ber 30th at the B altic H ouse (Slaters’), 27, Leadenhall-street, E .C ., com m encing at 6.30. T h e proceeds will again be devoted to the Christm as Charity. T ickets, including refreshments, 3s. each, may be obtained from Mrs. G. Calvin Lines (L ady Superintendent), 93, W est Endlane, N .W .

No. 3 District. K e t t e r i n g . — A t the inspection o f the corps held recently, the com petition for C h ief Supt. L an e’s C up was contested for. Seven squads entered, namely, H ead ­ quarters (2) M idland Railw ay, Pytchley, Twywell, W ood­ ford and Rothw ell. C h ief Surgeon D ryland was the judge and he awarded the first prize to the M idland Railway Team , under Sergeant G. Binley. T h e patients were rem oved on stretchers and transported to a temporary hospital, where they were treated by the nursing sisters. Lieutenant-Colonel Poynder, from the M ilitary H ospital, Bedford, and Assistant-Com m issioner T . H . W oolston, Northam pton, arrived during the afternoon and inspected the men on parade. A t the conclusion of the inspection Lieut. C ol. Poynder congratulated the men and nursing sisters on the excellent character of their work.


— F I R S T

October, 1912.

D u d l e y .— T h e non-commissioned officers o f the division held their annual guest-night dinner on Septem ber 25th. 1 st Class Sergeant C.- O llis presided, and the attendance included Sergt. J. H. W ilkinson, Veterinary Capt. R. L. Green, Supt. W. E. Hartland, Sergts. Griffin, C ooksey and Whorton (divisional secretary), Corpls. Walker, W ebb, Partridge and Bradley. Sergt. Ollis referred to the movement that was on foot a year ago for the formation within the division o f a Voluntary A id Detachm ent. D eputy-Com m issioner W oolston said how proud he was o f the D udley Division. A t cam p their mem bers dis­ tinguished themselves. T h ey were second for the guard shield, and their team, com m anded by Corpl. R aybould, were second in the com petition for the “ M a rk h a m ” C hallenge Cup. A ccording to what Dr. N elson told them, there would be a change in the m ethod o f examination, which would be introduced. Sergt. Griffin proposed “ Our G uests.”

T

he

W

AID. —

63

signalise the event. H e hoped that Sergts. Ollis, Griffin and T ibb etts would this year receive their long service medals, which he considered were overdue, and he was looking forward him self to receiving the star. Dr. W ilkinson had done more for them than ever during the past season, the nursing class held during the winter being most successful, and Capt. G reen continued to stim ulate their efforts by prizes.

W e l l i n g b o r o u g h .— T h e trophy presented to the corps by Mr. H. W. M iller was com peted for at W ellingborough on O ctober 5th. T h e com petition this year was deprived o f a good deal o f interest owing to the fact that divisions outside the town did not enter. E ven the holders, the W ollaston D ivision, did not attend to attem p to retain the cup. Four teams, all o f the H eadquarters D ivision, entered, and the com petition followed the usual lines. T h e judges

alth am sto w

D

iv is io n .

This photograph was taken on August Bank Holiday at the Ambulance Station in Epping Forest. Sergt. W horton seconded, expressing their apprecia­ tion of the services as medical instructor of Dr. W ilkinson, and of the kind sym pathy and ever-ready practical assist­ ance of Captain Green. In Mr. H artland they could not have a more energetic and helpful superintendent. Dr. W ilkinson spoke o f the manner in which the division came forward to give their skilled assistance during the South African War, and he had no doubt that were there another such call the brigade out o f its 23,000 trained men would provide a large num ber o f stretcher bearers and hospital orderlies. T h e training which they received taught a man self-respect, cleanliness, sym pathy, tact, and, besides all that, fostered a spirit o f patriotism which was never so desirable and necessary as at the present time. H e also spoke highly of the keenness and ability of Supt. Hartland. Supt. Hartland said the division was never in such good condition as it was at present. It would com e o f age this year, and he expected an effort would be made to

were Dr. W. M. R obson and D istrict Supt. H arvey Reeves, o f Northam pton, and the other officers present were Assistant Com m issioner Dr. W. E. Audland, Corps Supt. Cuthbert N icholson and Supt. J. C. Parker. A t the conclusion o f the com petition Dr. R obson announced the results, No. 2 team being first, with 142 marks out o f a possible 1 7 7 ; No. 3 team second, 1 1 5 I ; Nos. 4 and 1 made io8£ and 107^ respectively. T h e team winning the cup com prised Sergeant Jefferies, Ptes. W. Panter, W. T ite, W. Coles, and C yclist A. E. Arnold.

No. 4 District. B r i e r f i e l d .— T h e Annual Individual N ursing Com petition for the “ T hom as V eever’s ” Silver C h allenge Bowl, was held in the W esleyan School, Brierfield, on Septem ber 28th. T h e com petition was lim ited to twenty-two entries, and


64

— F I R S T

though thirty entered, eight were declined, according to the rules o f the com petition. O f the rest twenty-one com ­ petitors took part, the exam ination tests lasting from two till six o’clock. In aduition to the challenge bowl (value 10 guineas) the winner received a lady’s dressing case value 10s. 6d., the second a pair o f photo frames value 7s. 6d., and the third a pair o f rose bowls value 5s. T h e adjudicators were Div.-Surgeon W. H. Parkinson for the practical work, 1st Officer R. Harrison (Brierfield D ivision) the theory examinations, and Sergt. W. R. Saunders (Brierfield Division) the roller bandage. There were a good many spectators from various parts of L an ca­ shire and Y o rk sh ir e ; for whom tea was provided. A t the close of the com petition the prizes were pre­ sented to the successful com petitors by Mrs. T . V eev er’s the chair being taken by Mrs. Smith, of Carlton House, Brierfield. Mrs. Smith said it gave her much pleasure to attend and announce the result of the com petition which had taken place that afternoon. T h e prize-winners were Miss Jane Entwistle, Blackburn, 89J points ; 2nd, M iss Pendlebury, Bolton, 8 6 J ; and 3rd, Miss H. Sewell, Bolton, 86. Mrs. V eevers, in handing the prizes to the winners, said she was sure they would all be pleased, and some of them, perhaps, a little envious. She urged them all to try again next year. T h e y could not all win prizes, but they could all do their best. First Officer R. Harrison, explained that his position in conducting the theory exam ination had been occasioned in consequence of Dr. Stuart having been called away through the death o f his father. H e had dealt as fairly as he could with everyone in the room. On the whole the questions had been fairly well answered. H e acknow ­ ledged they had been difficult questions. A s regards the bandaging, they had done as fairly as they could, and they would be surprised to know how equal were the markings of Sergt. Saunders and himself. H e m oved a vote o f thanks to Mrs. Smith for presiding, and Mrs. V eevers for distri­ buting the prizes. Sergt. A. G. Smith seconded, and the motion was carried with applause. In the evening a well attended Social and D ance was held in the Central Buildings Assem bly Room s, the affair being both a social and financial success.

N o. 7 D is t r i c t . I r o n B r i d g e .— T h e Iron B ridge Nursing Division sent a squad o f nurses to W elshpool on Septem ber 19th to com pete for the “ Skinner ” C h allenge Shield, which was open to all nursing divisions and V .A .D . o f the St. John A m bulance Brigade in No. 7 D istrict. F ive teams e n te r e d : Shrewsbury, M adeley, Iron Bridge, W elshpool and Shrewsbury No. 2. Iron Bridge eventually won, leading the second team (Shrewsbury) by 5 points. T h e Countess o f Powis entertained the judges, officials and com peting teams to tea at the Castle, afterwards pre­ senting the shield and medals to the winners. She gave an enthusiastic and interesting speech on am bulance work. C ol. E. Cureton, V . D., the Deputy-Com m issioner, thanked her for the great interest she took in the S .J .A .B . and for her splendid hospitality that day. T h e team was com posed o f 1st Nursing Officer Mrs. E. R. Andrews, Nursing Sisters M innie Gates, E thel W hite, M ay A ld red and A n nie Brown. T h is handsom e shield has been presented for annual com petition by Dr. Skinner, the Corps Supt o f the

AI D. —

October, 1912.

Powisland Corps, S .J .A .B ., with medals for the winners, who hold the shield for 12 months. Cols. Beresford and L lo yd were the judges, C om m and­ ant Skinner (V .A .D .) organised the com petition, and Asst-Com m issioner J. W. W hite was director o f ceremonies and in com m and of the parade.

T e r r ito r ia l

A sso c ia tio n s.

annual meeting o f the Central C ouncil o f County Territorial Associations o f Scotland, England, and W ales was held on Septem ber 25th in the C ity Cham bers, Glasgow. T here was a large attendance o f representatives from Associations in different parts o f Great Britain. Sir H ugh Shaw Stewart presided, and among those present were C olonel Rainsford H annay (K irkcudbright), L ieu t.C olonel J. Craig (Clackm annan), C olonel C olvin (Essex), C olonel Sir James Legard (North Riding o f Yorks), C olonel R. C. M ackenzie (Glasgow), and Colonel M ends (W est Yorks). T h e question of the wearing of brassards by Voluntary A id D etachm ents had received the attention of the Standing Com m ittee of County Presidents o f the R ed Cross Society, who requested the C ouncil to press the W ar Office to re­ consider Circular Memorandum No. 412, and allow Voluntary A id D etachm ents to continue the use o f the brassard. T h e Com m ittee considered that there was no alternative but to acquiesce in the decision o f the War Office, which was itself bound by the G eneva Convention. T h e difficulty in the case o f women might be got over by their wearing the R ed Cross Badge on their dresses, and in the case of men by putting a white cross inside the red one on the brassard now in use. But they recom m ended that brassards should be discontinued as soon as possible, and a white disc with red cross tied round the arm with black string. It would be desirable to print on these discs “ to be exchanged for the official badge on m obilisation.” T h e Chairm an explained that the W ar Office sanctioned the wearing of the brassard when the Red Cross Society was raised, but a section o f the Geneva Convention, dated 19 11, was passed to the effect that brassards should be used only on mobilisation. There was a risk o f the brassards (if they were continued to be worn as previously) getting into wrong hands before mobilisation. T h e C om m ittee’s recom m endation was approved. T he

T h e annual tea and distribution o f prizes, certificates, etc., won by the successful students in connection with the H ickleton M ain Colliery M ining and A m bulance Classes took place at the Parish Hall, T hurnscoe East, on S ep ­ tem ber 30th. Annual banquet in connection with the Six Bells D ivision was held on Septem ber 21st. Mr. J. Jefferies presided, and was supported by Dr. T . D. Sullivan, Dr. A . E. Rem m ett Weaver, Messrs. T . G. Older, T . H . H uxham , J. Trilla, J. W illiams, and others.

W h e n c o r re sp o n d in g w i t h A d v e r t is e r s p le a s e m e n tio n “ F ir s t A id .”


October 1912

— F I R S T

F ir st Aid in F a c to r ie s. I n all that has been written and said of late concerning the nation’s resources and the prevention of accidents, one means o f conservation has been largely overlooked. T h is is the rendering of first aid in factories and workshops. From an econom ical point o f view em ployers generally do not seem to appreciate the advantages o f a com plete and efficient first aid system in their workshops and factories. However, there are gratifying exceptions to this general absence of proper means of rendering aid to workpeople when injured, and in order to enlighten first aiders on the equipment necessary, a few details of the model arrange­ ments which have been made by T h e Dental M anufacturing Co., of London, under the supervision of E. T . Bloss, who is a member of the S.J.A .B ., may prove interesting. T h e problem of first aid resolves itself into the supply of (1) trained men ; (2) equipment. It is not necessary in

the case of factories as in coal mines to have a large number of trained men, as the area to be covered is com paratively small, but it is necessary to have them well distributed over the works in order that som eone is im m ediately on the spot in case of accident. With regard to training the men, the facilities given by the S .J.A .A . are such that it is within the range of everyone to attend lectures in the district in which he resides. It only remains for the management to induce the men to attend them, and this can easily be accom plished if a person in authority shows enthusiasm on the subject. Having the trained men, the next im portant consideration is the equipment. T h is must be carefully selected, and divided into (1) first aid m aterial; (2) a receiving room for the injured ; (3) means o f conveyance. T h e first aid equipm ent shown in the illustration gives a good idea of what would be called a com prehensive outfit for ordinary workshops. T h is is placed in the receiving room, which is a small room centralised in the building. This room should be kept as clean as possible, well lighted,

AID. —

65

and should contain a washhand basin with hot and cold water supply. I f the latter is not practicable, a stove cap­ able of boiling a small kettle of water. T h e room should also contain a plain table. T h e top cabinet shown in the illustration is com plete in itself, and portable, being transported to the scene of the accident with the stretcher, which, it will be noted, has the large splints strapped upon it. In the supplying o f material it should be borne in mind that the majority of accidents in workshops are of a minor character, such as small cuts on the hands, arms, face and head, therefore it is necessary to have a good supply o f small bandages to m eet this contingency. A great feature o f the materials used should be sim plicity, com pactness and availability. Great care should be taken to see that all the material is kept scrupulously clean, and the w hole arrangem ent should be designed to keep this end in view. A record book of the cases treated should be kept, notes taken o f the details o f the cases treated and remarks

concerning them, and a note of the telephone numbers and addresses o f the nearest doctors kept in a prominent position. Mr. E. T . Bloss, who courteously showed our repre­ sentative the excellent arrangem ents m ade by T h e D ental M anufacturing Co., will be pleased to assist any am bulance staff of a firm who contem plate fitting up such equipm ent, if they will com m unicate with the Editors of this Journal. L a d y C atherine M iles G askell is adopting a novel way o f raising funds for the purchase of uniforms for the S .J .A .B . She is selling her rare alpine plants for this pur­ pose. A collection can be had for 5s., ros., ^ 1 , and jQ 2 upwards. L ad y C atherine has always taken a great interest in am bulance work, and she is a L ad y o f G race of the Order o f St. John.

W H E N C O R R E S P O N D IN G W IT H A D V E R T I S E R S P L E A S E M E N T IO N “ F I R S T A ID ."


66

- F I R S T

AID. —

October, 1912.

gratifying to em ployers o f labour that such a body o f men were able on the dock to deal with accidents. T h e officers o f the division are most enthusiastic. A vote of thanks was then passed to the officials o f the H ull and Barnsley Com pany for their kindness during the year. A vote of thanks was warmly accorded Miss Annie Croft, who was always ready with her assistance in the time of need.

G .W .R .— N otifications o f the formation o f a number o f new am bulance classes at various points throughout the G reat W estern R ailw ay are to hand, and we understand that at many stations lectures and practices are already in full swing. Several classes form ed during last session had unfortunately to be disbanded in the spring before the members were ready for exam ination owing to the dis­ organisation occasioned by the colliers’ strike, and this will be doubtless reflected in the year’s results. It is hoped that nothing unforeseen will occur to interfere with the work during the 1912-13 session, which now opens so satisfactorily and promises to be such a successful one in every respect. Particulars o f what should prove to be an interesting contest are announced in the current num ber o f the G reat Western M agaiine. T h is is an am bulance essay contest for G .W .R . am bulance men, and affords an oppor­ tunity to those who follow up the work, but are unable to associate them selves with team s or take part in the practi­ cal work com petitions to test their am bulance knowledge. A s it is clearly set out that in judging the papers am bulance know ledge and not literary ability will count, the staff who, from the nature o f their duties, are less accustom ed to express them selves in writing than others should have no hesitation in subm itting their efforts. T h e winning essays are to appear in the January num ber of the G .W .R . M agazine, and should prove interesting reading of all am bulance workers. Substantial money prizes are offered for the best papers and the subject is as under :— “ A com plicated fracture is one in which the treatment o f the fracture as such, is m odified or interfered with by som e injury to an organ or structure other than the bone.” M ention the different com plications that may occur in cases o f fracture. D iscuss the appropriate treatment of each, and give your reasons for it. T h e G loucester L ocom otive Class (which has been absorbed in the newly form ed com bined corps at Gloucester including the staff of all departments) recently met to make a presentation to Mr. A. R . Munday, who had for many years ably filled the post of class secretary. In thanking the members o f the class for their gift, Mr. M unday assured them that he would continue as before to do all he could to further the m ovem ent at Gloucester.

L .B . & S.C . R y .— T h e No. 47, W illow W alk Division, which is com posed of the em ployes of the railway, held a church parade on Sunday, Sem ptem ber 29th, at St. A n n e’s C hurch, Berm ondsey, other divisions taking part w e r e :— Gas Works, No. 19 D ivision, A, B, and C Section s; V ic ­ toria, L .B . & S .C . Ry. No. 38 D ivision ; New Cross, L .B . and S .C . R y., No. 16 D ivision ; Croydon, L B . & S.C . Ry., No. 51 D ivision ; Barclay & Perkins’ Brewery, No. 52 Division ; E ast London, No. 30 Division ; Albany-road, No. 45 D ivision ; Nurses o f the No. 16 Division. T h e D ivision paraded at the Greyhound, Bridge Gates, and m arched to the church, preceded by the St. G eorge’s H all brass band. T h e Rev. J. S. Stan­ field conducted the service, and he urged the D ivisions to pursue their work in the true spirit o f the parable of the G ood Samaritan, that is, out of love to the needy brothers and sisters. T h e D ivisions then formed up in front of the church and were led by the brass band to the D ivisional H ead ­ quarters, T h e Canteen, W illow W alk G oods Station, where they all partook o f a good tea. T h e several officers accom panied their divisions. Mr. W. H. Peters, Laurelcottage, W illow W alk, Berm ondsey, is the superintendent and hon. treasurer o f the No. 47 Division.

M. R y .— T he report for the year ending Septem ber 30th shows that amongst the E m ployees’ Engineers’ Depart­ ment o f the M idland Railw ay C om pany at St. Albans the following have passed the examination for the certificate, 1 3 ; voucher, 2 4 ; m edallion, 2 6 ; label, 1 5 ; giving a total of 78 passes. Dr. John H obbs acted as lecturer for the Certificate Class, and as exam iner for the voucher, medallion and label, while Mr. J. W. Jones, as usual, carried out the secretarial duties, in addition to which, assisted by Mr. Freeston, he instructed the members at the practices.

N .E .R .— T h e annual com petition for the challenge cup given by Dr. Pickersgill, of Sherburn-in-Elmet, to pro­ m ote efficiency in first aid work am ong the members o f the Y o rk branch of the C entre took place at Clifton, Y o rk, on Sept. 2 1 st. T h e event always excites keen rivalry, and there was a considerable attendance of persons interested H. & B R y .— A t the opening m eeting of the A lex ­in am bulance work. T h e teams had to treat a patient who was supposed to andre D ocks D ivision of the C entre held on O ctober 6th, have fallen from a train and broken a thigh, another who there was a record attendance showing plenty o f enthu­ had fallen on spiked railings and received a wound in the siasm, which is a healthy sign that the division will com ­ groin, a third who had broken his arm, and another who m ence its season’s work on a good foundation. was suffering from a revolver shot wound. In the oral T h e divisional report on the work was read by the exam ination the men had to answer the question. W hat secretary, Sergt. F. A. Hawksworth, who stated 590 cases are the dangers to a person suffering from collapse P were dealt with last year, which was a slight increase over T h e challenge cup was won by a team from the Y ork the previous one. T h a t num ber shows the good work be­ Carriage and W agon W orks, consisting o f W. Bainbridge, ing done by the D ock D ivision to relieve the suffering o f those who unfortunately met with accidents. It must be A . Cham bers, G. Carter, T . H utchinson (captain), and J.


— F I R S T

October, 1912.

the latter contest take place at L yd d on O ctober 26th, D over on O ctober 29th, and R e d H ill on N ovem ber 13th. T h e com petition for the Ash D istrict Shield will be held at the R oyal V ictoria H all, Ash Com m on, Surrey, at 5 p m ., on O ctober 23rd, and for the “ C o lm a n ” C u p on N ovem ber 6th. E verything points to a highly successful season for the am bulance men on the S.E . & C .R .

Crowe (patient). T h ey scored 149 points for stretcher work and 187J for individual and questions, total 336^. T h e other teams were p la c e d : 2nd, Carriage and Wagon W orks, 2 7 3 ; 3rd, Carriage and W agon Works, 246^; 4th, Perm anent W ay Dept., 190.

S .E .R .— T h e season’s work on this system is already getting into shape, classes having com m enced at the follow­ ing p la c e s :— Aldershot (North Cam p), Deal, D unton Green, Faversham. Margate, M eopham , N ew Cross, Pluckley, Reading, R ed H ill, Reigate, Rochester, Sevenoaks (Bat and Ball), Sittingbourne, Swanley, V ictoria and Wandsworth-road. T h e districts into which the line is divided for the purposes of control, have recently been revised, and it is

TH E

F R IE N D L Y

S O C IE T IE S

67

AID. —

T h e Great Western Railw ay M agazine in a recent issue points out the desirability that, in the best interests o f the travelling com m unity and the railway staff, every railway servant engaged on trains should be a qualified am bulance worker, or, at least, that men possessing such qualification should, other things being equal, be favourably

D IV IS IO N

OF

TH E

CH ELTENH AM

C O R P S.

Winners in the competition held in July for the Silver Cup presented by the Hon. Surgeon of the Corps. Members who formed the team being Sergt.. R. Dancey, Corpl. C. Chapman, Pts. G. O. Phipps, W . H. Ball and A. Bonas.

anticipated that the effect of this will be greater efficiency and keener com petition amongst the qualified men. T h e preliminary contest for the “ Dewar ” Shield are now taking place, the first being held at Bexhill-on-Sea on October 9th, when Dr. P. A. M ansfield, o f Sevenoaks, decided as follows 1, Hastings ; 2, B e x h ill; 4, T unbridge W ells; 4, R o bertsb rid ge; 5, B a ttle ; 6, Rye. T h e winners thus becom e entitled to retain the hand­ some “ Brassey ” Shield, and Bexhill the “ C ourthorpe ” Cup for the ensuing twelve months, whilst the former team have the honour of fighting for the D istrict (No. 5) in the final for the “ Dewar ” Shield on D ecem ber 4th next. T h e second district contest took place at Tonbridge on October 1 6th, and the winning team becom es entitled to hold the Spender-Clay ” Bow l for the next twelve months, and to represent the D istrict (No. 3) in the “ D ew ar” final. O ther com petitions in connection with

considered for vacancies as they arrive. W e endorse the opinion o f our contemporary, for it must be borne in mind that railway accidents do not always occur near railway stations, and it would prove a most useful asset if members o f the staff o f a train could render aid until other relief measures were available. A fter the serious railway accident on August 29th, at V auxhall Station o f the L ondon & South-W estern Railw ay, Dr. Johnston, one of the doctors called to attend to the injured, paid a high tribute to the staff at the station. T h ey had an abundance o f dressing, he said, and many o f them were adepts at first aid, and were o f great assistance to the m edical men.

W hen corresponding w ith A d v ertisers p lease m en ­ tion “ F ir st A id.”


68

— F I R S T

B r e v itie s . W e gladly publish the letter of H on. Surgeon R. H ardie, o f the Bournem outh Division, appealing for assistance for the widow and children o f the late 1st Officer A dlem , who died under such tragic circum stances on last August B ank H oliday. A lthough, perhaps the late Mr. A d lem was not know n to members of the Brigade out­ side his own district, we feel sure they would like to be associated in this appeal to assist those who are depen­ dent on one who had devoted his life to a noble work. * T he recent manoeuvres in France dem onstrated clearly the use of the motor-car in the am bulance service, which will be perfected and extended. It was found possible by a system o f joists to convert an ordinary taxi-cab into an adm irable am bulance. * * *

T h e Brighouse Corps has devised a novel schem e to provide funds to purchase a site for its headquarters. T h e site selected has been divided into plots of about a square yard, and those interested in the m ovem ent are given a good opportunity o f showing practical sym pathy by pur­ chasing one or more o f these plots at 2s. each. It is intended to place a perm anent record o f the names o f these subscribers in the hall, which, no doubt, in the future will becom e an object o f considerable interest. * * * T h e Yorkshire Telegraph says that one pleasing side of the lam entable C ad eby disaster was the readiness o f first aid men and nurses to give valuable assistance in the darkest hour of distress. T h e words of appreciation uttered recently by Mr. W . H . Cham bers, the D istrict C h ief Supt. No. 5 District, will be readily endorsed by all who in any degree witnessed the after effects of a terrible calam ity. Mr. Cham bers, himself, in the long years that he has con­ trolled the great colleries o f D enaby and Cadeby, has in all time and seasons, preached, practised and advanced the know ledge o f first aid, and it must be a source of con­ solation to him that in the loss of so many of his miners he had around him many brave men and women acting up to the principles of his teaching. * * * A s t r o n g case for first aid training for miners is made out by the returns of accidents during the year. T h e Blue B ook issued by the C h ie f Inspector o f Mines last month contains the mortality statistics o f miners during last year. It seems evident that if the deaths from accident could be elim inated, the lives o f miners would be practically as “ g o o d ” as those o f average men in other trades. T h e num ber o f lives lost last year, although m arking a slight reduction over the record of the previous year, is still high. T h e total number of persons em ployed in or about the coal mines was 1,067,213, and there were 1,265 ^atal accidents. T h is marks a decrease o f 510 in the num ber of

AID. —

October, 1912.

deaths com pared with 1 9 1 0 ; but in the higher total there are included 480 deaths attributable to the W hitehaven and H ulton disasters. T h e total num ber o f non-fatal accidents during 1911 which disabled for more than seven days was 166,153, involving injury to

166,616

persons.

T h is is an increase of 7,574 in the number of the injured when com pared with the preceding tw elve months. * * * T h e No. 4 D istrict of the S .J .A .B . held its annual conference at M acclesfield last month. About 250 repre­ sentatives from various parts

of

Lancashire, Cheshire,

Westm oreland, Cum berland and Ireland were officially welcom ed at the Tow n H all by the D eputy-M ayor (A lder­ man W. Frost). Mr. Hall, o f Ashton, proposed a resolu­ tion relating to the conferring of long service medals. T hese medals are awarded to am bulance men after 15 years’ service, but Territorials are given long service medals after 12 years’ service', the length of service having been reduced. Mr. H all considered that the length of qualifying service ought to be no longer a period for am bu­ lance men, especially seeing that while the Territorials had most things provided for them, the am bulance men had to provide a great deal for themselves. H e accordingly m oved a resolution that the number o f years should be reduced to twelve. T h e resolution met with the hearty approval of the meeting, and was carried. * * * T h e balance-sheet was subm itted and adopted. It showed a credit balance o f £ 8 6 17s. 3d., as com pared with £ 9 0 6s. 6d. T h e Chairm an rem arked that there were many units who did not do much to help the Brigade financially, and some which did not subscribe at all. he thought they might do som ething in that direction. On the proposition of Dr. Scarr (Radcliffe), it was decided to adhere to the resolution passed at the last conference, viz. that each unit be asked to subscribe 4d. per head annually towards the cost o f clerical work. Supt. J. Ogden (Accrrington Corps) had given notice o f a number of propositions which were considered in his absence. T h e first, “ T h at khaki uniforms be used for all purposes when full dress is not required to be worn,” was ordered to lie on the table. T h e second proposition, “ T h at black puttees take the place o f Jeggings when black uniform is worn,” was defeated by a large majority. T h e next sug­ gestions, which had reference to the m ethod o f carrying great coats, the substitution of metal badges for those now worn, and the wearing o f officers’ badges on the shoulder strap instead o f on the collar, met with the same fate as the first, being ordered to lie on the table. T h e sixth proposition, “ T h at an age limit be fixed for retirement from the active list o f the Brigade, say 60 years,” gave rise to som e discussion, but eventually the proposal was negatived by an overwhelm ing majority. T h ere was, however, no opposition to Supt. O gden ’s seventh proposal, viz. : “ T h at the ‘ lance ’ rank o f corporal and sergeant be perm anent instead of tentative as at present,”


October, 1912.

ALL

R IG H T S

— F I R S T

R E S E R V E D .]

H o m e N u r s in g a n d H y g ie n e . By

H. M A IN W A R IN G HOLT, M .R .C .S ., L .S .A ., D .P .H .

Honorary Associate of the Order oj St. fo h n , L ife Membet of\ and Lecturer and E xa m in er o f the S .f .A .A . ; Hon. Surgeon to the M alton and N orton D ivision, N o. VL. D istrict, S .f .A .B .

(iContinued from page 5 2 .)

R

e g u l a t io n

of

V

is it o r s .

M uch will depend upon the nature of the illness and the condition of the patient. In all diseases where rest and quiet are enjoined by the doctor, visitors should be told that such are the doctor’s orders. In other cases visitors may be welcomed, much may be left to the know ledge and discretion of the nurse. Should she at any tim e be in doubt, she should not hesitate to ask the doctor’s advice, and then act upon it. N o visitor should be allowed to see a patient suffering from an infectious disease. C

o o k in g .

N othing is more essential to wom en’s happiness and men’s welfare than good cooking. Certainly, a nurse who has a real knowledge of the art is more precious than rubies. C ooking is far more o f an art than a science, and practice only can lead to perfection, but even practice must be accom panied by observation and thought. A very high authority has stated that no one— male or female— working for love or for money, need ever proceed to practice in the kitchen, until he or she has mastered the great and essential difference between boiling and simmer­ ing. In that lies the major part to be played in spoiling or improving the food com m itted to her or his care. Cooking is Lntended.— (1) T o make the food softer, and in part to m echanically disintegrate it, thus rendering it more easily masticated and digested. In fact, cooking, in the best sense, is an artificial help to digestion • and digestion may well be said to com m ence in the kitchen. (2.) T o produce certain chem ical changes. T h u s starch is partially converted into dextrine ; gelatine is formed from the connective tissue o f tendons, & c. (3.) T o destroy any noxious parasites present in the food, or to obviate any ill effects from putrefactive changes. D iseased meat probably only produces bad effects when im perfectly cooked. (4.) T o make the food more pleasant to the eye and agreeable to the palate. T h e im proved savour in cooked meat, for instance, has a very appetising effect, and consequently makes digestion much easier. Boiling.— T here is an art in cooking food in such a manner as to avoid as little loss as possible o f its nutrient principles. If the object to be attained should be the extraction of the goodness o f meat into the surrounding liquid as in making soups, broths, & c., the article should be minced or cut up finely and placed in cold water. After soaking for a short time, heat should be applied, and the temperature gradually raised. For broths no actual boiling is needed. For soups however prolonged boiling is necessary in order to fully extract the gelatine. It is

A I D.

6g

this, in fact, which forms the basis of soap, for the floating album en is hardened or condensed, and got rid o f by straining. T hu s in soaps the best part is wasted, in broths the best is retained. W here, however, it is desired that the flavour and nutritive properties should be retained in the meat, an opposite process must be adopted. T h e piece o f meat should be large, and it should be plunged suddenly into boiling water, and the process o f boiling briskly m aintained for about five minutes. T h is coagulates the album inous matter upon the surface and leads to the formation of a more or less im perm eable external layer, which precludes the escape o f the juices from the substance o f the meat. Roasting should be conducted on the same principle as boiling. In order, as far as possible, to retain the nutritive juices, meat should ju st be subjected to a sharp heat. T h is leads to the form ation of a coagulated layer upon the surface, which subsequently offers an impedim ent to the escape o f the fluid matter within. After a short exposure to a sharp heat, the meat should be rem oved to a greater distance from the fire so as to allow a lower heat gradually to penetrate to the centre. B ro ilin g produces the same effect as roasting, but the proportion o f scorched material is greater on account o f the relative larger am ount of surface exposed. B akin g.— T his process does not produce so good a result as roasting in front o f the fire. M eat cooked in this way is ill-adapted for consum ption where a delicate state o f the system exists. F ryin g is also an objectionable process o f cooking for persons of weak digestive power. T h is is owing to the substance having to be cooked with fat. Stewing places food in a highly favourable state for digestion. T h e articles to be cooked are just covered with water, and should be exposed to a heat sufficient only to allow of gentle simmering. The cooking o f m ixed dishes.— T h e greatest care must be exercised in the cooking o f mixed dishes, the reason for this being that various food stuffs require different tem pera­ tures for their preparation. A n egg, for example, in a custard or lightly poached is an easily digested food ; on the other hand, if it be hard boiled or baked in a pudding for half an hour it is difficult to digest. A soup containing vegetables as well as meat juices should be prepared in two parts. T h e vegetables require prolonged boiling, meat juices are spoilt by too much boiling. Re-made dishes.— T h ese are often indigestible con coc­ tions, provoking dyspepsia and allied disorders. T h e second cooking is usually done at a higher tem perature than neces­ sary, hardening the already coagulated album en, and splitting up the fats into fatty acid products. The Cooking o f V°.getable Foods and details with regard to bread m aking and pastry cooking may be obtained from any ordinary cookery book. T

he

P r in c ip l e s

of

D

ie t .

T h ere are diets suited for every age, for every climate, for every species o f work, physical or m en ta l; there are diets by which diseases may be prevented and cured ; there are diets suited to some constitutions, injurious to others ; diets which make the skin glossy, the frame vigorous and the spirits joyous ; others which mark the face with wrinkles, speckle the body with eruptions, and make the frame hollow and lean and prematurely old. It has already been explained that all foods may be reduced to a few principles, that is, proteids, fats, carbo­ hydrates and mineral and saline matter. It is necessary


- F I R S T

that'these should all be represented in meals taken, hence it com es about that there must be som e arrangement of these principles to suit individual requirem ents under the varying circum stances of health and disease, such an arrangement of food is term ed a diet. D

ie t s .

T jT h e subjoined diets are only intended to convey a very general idea as to the requirem ents of each.

B y courtesy ]

AID. —

October, 1912.

given. Tripe, fish, milk puddings, articles more easily digested. M ilk D ie t.— M ilk enters largely into everything given. R ice, sago, cornflour, oatmeal, tea, sugar, mutton broth, custard as ordered. ( To be contbiued.)

C olonel Mends, in his report of the W est

R iding

[S o u th M e tr o p o lita n G a s C o. C o -P a r tn e r s h ip J o u r n a l.

The illustration above show the ambulance men of the South Metropolitan Gas Co. Division accompanied by other Divisions of the Prince of W ales’s Corp on their way to church on September 18th.

F u l l D ie t.— O rdinary food. B e e f and mutton, roast and b o ile d ; soup, fish, vegetables, rice, sago and other puddings, tea, coffee, milk. L ig ht D ie t.— Sim ilar to above, but less in amounts

Territorial Branch o f the S .J .A .A ., states that the number of V .A . D etachm ents had increased since last D ecem ber 7 men’s and 19 wom en’s to 14 men’s and 30 wom en’s, and 12 other detachm ents were in course of formation.


— F I R S T

October, 1912.

jQ T j

0

H

r iW

t'

AID. —

7i

Officer and 26 N ursing Sisters. E ach D ivision is fully equipped with stretchers, haversacs and water-bottles, besides a com plete tem porary hospital outfit. P ublic duties have been undertaken at am usem ent parks, rinks, toboggan slides, exhibitions, & c., requiring four men per diem for duty. It is expected that one male and one fem ale m em ber will be on duty at each theatre throughout the com ing se a so n ; two theatres having already requested the services o f the Corps. Since the first uniform duty was com m enced in February last, over 450 cases have been treated.

I p s w i c h . — T h e year just closed has been a very busy o n e ; large numbers o f certificates, both first aid and nursing, vouchers, medallions, and labels have been gained, and the Am bulance H all has been in constant use. The transport work will probably be a record, both as to the number of cases and mileage.

S o u t h a m p t o n . — T h e annual report o f the centre for the year ending Septem ber 30th shows the active nature of the work which is being carried on at Southam pton and district. During the past year as many as 35 classes have been held and 513 certificates, & c., issued, and when it is considered that the centre was only revived seven years ago this is excellent progress. Lieut.-General Sir R obert Baden Powell, K .C .B ., K .C .V .O ., has becom e a vice-president o f the Southam pton Centre. During the year the horsed am bulance, which is the property of the centre, has tended and carried free to hospital or home 350 cases o f accident or other emergency. T h e finances o f the centre are in a good condition, showing a small balance on the right side.

C o lo n ial N e w s . T r a n s v a a l . — A joyous welcom e hom e was accorded to the Transvaal contingent which attended the review at Windsor, the members being honoured by a reception. C ol. Parrott, in welcom ing them back, stated that they were to be congratulated on having had the post o f honour in the centre o f line accorded to them at the review, and he alluded to the honour accorded to Mrs. Berman, o f the D .O .T . St. John Nursing Section o f the Brigade, who had been chosen, with a very few others o f the Oversea nurses, for the honour of being presented to the K ing. W e have received a very interesting letter from Mr. G. Howard, who is an ex-am bulance man o f the South Eastern and Chatham Railway. H e is now H on. Secretary Park Station, No. 8 Division, South A frican Railw ay Corps, Braam fontein, and he tells us that am bulance work has great promise in the Colony. W e are very pleased to hear from Mr. Howard, and hope he will from time to time let us know how the work is progressing.

T h e first anniversary o f the Corps was celebrated on Septem ber 30th, and its shows a rem arkable record for the first year’s work. T h e Corps is com posed of four Am bulance Divisions made up as f o l l o w s O n e Corps Supt., 1 Corps Surgeon, 3 Divisional Surgeons 3 Divisional Supts., 4 Sergeants, 7 Corporals, and 95 Ptes ’ and r Nursing Division, with 1 L ad y Supt., 1 Nursing T

o r o n t o .—

T h e St. Patrick’s A m bulance Association only now really enters upon the work it has taken in hand during the winter session. It was launched early in the present year, the classes formed working under the double disadvantage o f lateness o f the season and the lack of a text book until the exam inations were alm ost at hand. T h e patron o f the Association is the representative of the Crown in Ireland— H is E xcellen cy the L ord Lieutenant. T h e rules are mainly on the lines o f St. A n drew ’s, from which organisation much valuable inform ation was ob­ tained, and it is hoped that under the auspices o f St. P atrick’s A m bu lan ce Association first aid will be brought before the people o f the country in such a manner as will m ake it more popular and more widely diffused. Already, though not twelve months in existence, its influence is being felt. Classes during the approaching winter will be held by the Y o u n g M en ’s Christian Association, the C atholic Y o u n g M en ’s Society, and the N ational B oy Scouts, in addition to which the general public will have afternoon and evening classes for ladies, and also male evening classes. T h e principal towns in Ireland are represented on the Council, Belfast being absent solely from the fact that already the Corporation Fire Brigade is under the rules of St. John’s. T h ere are three grades o f first aid certificates, v i z .: elem entary, interm ediate and advanced, with m edallion. T h e first two are based on the official text book (C ollie and W ightm an), and the last upon W arwick and Tunstall. It is satisfactory to relate that an undertaking has been arrived at between St. A n d rew ’s and St. P atrick ’s for mutual recognition of certificates.

G a t e s h e a d F e l l D i v i s i o n .— T h e members o f this D ivision held their C hurch Parade on O ctober 13th The assem bly took place at the T ow n H all. T h e D ivisions represented being Gateshead Fell, G ateshead Borough Dunston, H ebburn, and Springwell Colliery, there being an aggregate attendance of nearly 100. T h e parade was under the com m and o f Asst.-Com m issioner D r R Anderson.


72

— F I R S T

AID. —

October, 1912.

BRITISH RED CROSS SOCIETY.

COUNTY OF LONDON BRANCH. N otes and N ew s. A V o l u n t a r y A i d C o n g r e s s is to be held in Exeter from N ovem ber 1st to 4th, under the auspices of the D evonshire Branch o f the R ed Cross Society, when most o f the C oun ty Branches of the Society in E ngland, Scotland and W ales will send delegates. In connection with the Congress a V oluntary A id D isplay will be given by the D evon D ivision assisted by the E xeter D ivision S .J.A .B ., at which Princess H enry of Battenberg, who is visiting E xeter for the occasion as the guest o f the Lord Lieutenant of the County, will be present. T h e programme also includes an official reception o f the delegates at the G u ild ­ hall by the M ayor o f Exeter, the final com petition for the “ M ason ” C hallenge Cup, and a public m eeting at which the D irector-General of the R oyal Arm y M edical Service and the Chairm an o f the E xecu tive C ouncil, British Red Cross Society, will speak. * * * M dm e. Jacques Feuillet, whose obsequies have just been celebrated in Paris, may be called the French F lorence N ightingale, since her life work was devoted to the care of the sick and wounded soldiers. She held the rank o f M ajor-General o f the R ed Cross, and met her death in M orocco, where she established a hospital and am bu­ lance service. M dm e. Feuillet was the recipient o f many decorations for her services, including that o f the Legion of H onour, the medal for distinguished service during epidem ics, and the M orocco medal. * * * T h e British R ed Cross Society’s N ursing M anual No. 2 is now ready, and can be obtained from Messrs. Cassell & Co., L td., L a B elle Sauvage, London, E ,C ., price is. 2d. post free. W ith the publication o f this manual the series o f training books on R ed Cross work is com plete. T h e author (Dr. C antlie) has com pleted these three works within 12 months, which we believe constitutes a record so far as technical books are concerned, and in our opinion the manual on nursing is the best. * * *

T h e com m ittee which has on hand the schem e of pro­ gressive training for those members o f W om en’s D etach­ ments has now inaugurated the schem e, and headquarters have been established at 39, Gt. Smith-street, Westminster. T h e first course com m enced on O ctober 9th. T h e fee for year’s course is one guinea, payable in advance ; this fee will cover all charges, with the exception o f riding, for which a charge of 2s. 6d. each time a horse is used for instruction wil' be imade. It is hoped that an evening centre may be short ly established at the Polytechnic, Regent-street, W. O tl ler centres will be inaugurated from tim e to time, an! s h o u lti Divisional D irectors or Secretaries

consider that they have sufficient candidates and facilities for carrying out the syllabus, application for the recognition o f a centre may be made. In another column we publish the syllabus of the course. -*

*

*

W e are pleased to see that the L ondon 10, H am pstead Division, has just raised a second womens’ detachm ent, and there is also in course o f formation a m ens’ detachment. T h e D ivision has a splendid record, and we congratulate Mrs. D avidson, who has been instrumental in bringing it to such a high pitch. T h e m edical officers are Dr. Snow­ man and Dr. Dutch. * * * T h e Quarterly-m eeting o f the County Com m ittee will be held at the Polytechnic, Regents-street, on N ovem ber 12th. * * *

Since the British R ed Cross Society offered to the belligerents in the Balkans the benefit o f their organisation a large num ber o f members of the society have volun­ teered service. Letters have been received from members of all classes, including nurses, doctors, and others, who are ready to proceed to the N ear East on the shortest notice. * * *

T h e R ed Cross Societies o f the world have agreed to raise a fund to be known as the Florence N ightingale Foundation. A special com m ittee was appointed to make recom m endations concerning this fund at the R ed Cross Conference with Sir John Furley o f the St. John A m b u ­ lance Association as chairman. It was agreed that a medal, accom panied by a certi­ ficate on vellum, to be called the Florence N ightingale M edal, should be instituted, and that six o f such medals, to be increased to the number o f twelve in the event o f a great war, should be available annually ; that they should be granted only to trained nurses who may have especially distinguished them selves by great and exceptional devotion to the sick and wounded in peace or war. N o country may propose more than one candidate for this m edal annually, the final award being made by the International R ed Cross Com m ittee, at Geneva. T h e awarding of these medals to nurses will be akin to the bestowal of the V ictoria Cross to British soldiers for “ bravery in action,” and will be the highest honour which can be paid to any nurse. A most fitting memorial to one “ who rescued from obscurity and shame a noble profession,” may this N ightingale medal prove ever an incentive to a higher and higher standard of duty am ong nurses.


October, 1912

S y ll a b u s of P r o g r e ss iv e T r a in in g . 1. T h i s course of instruction is a voluntary one, designed for those members who desire to acquire a more extensive knowledge of the subjects comprised in R ed Cross work than can ordinarily be obtained in D etachm ent training.

2. T h e com plete course will extend over at least 3 years. Those who compete and qualify at the exam ina­ tions of the last year’s course will be entitled to one pro­ ficiency star. Those who com pete and qualify at the examinations of the 2nd year’s course will be entitled to two proficiency stars. Those who com pete and qualify at the examination of the 3rd year’s course will be entitled to three proficiency stars. Certificates in the various subjects are awarded to successful candidates. 3. N o person will be allowed to sit for any exam ina­ tion who has not attended at least three-fifths of the total number of lectures, drills, demonstrations, Sic., in each subject.

A I D . —

73

7. M em bers who upon joining can satisfy the Branch E xecutive that they have already passed the equivalent o f the first year’s course will be entitled to join in the second year’s course. T h e year’s work begins in O ctober and is divided into three sessions of ten weeks each, beginning respectively in O ctober, January and May. F ir s t

Y e a r ’s C o u r s e .

1st Session, O ctober to Christm as.— T e n lectures on elem entary anatom y and hom e nursing, bandaging, squad drill, stretcher drill and c o o k in g ; signalling, riding and laundry. 2nd Session, January to Easter.— T en lectures on home nursing, bandaging, squad drill, stretcher drill, field train­ ing ; house-wifery, signalling and riding. 3rd,Session, M ay to Ju ly.— T en lectures on first aid and hom e nursing, bandaging, stretcher drill, squad drill, field training; signalling, topography, cycling, swimming, riding. Cam p in July, August or Septem ber.

Photograph of the contingent which attended the Windsor Review. This Division is registered at the W ar Office as V.A.D . No. 18 W est Lancs. Lady Supt. Mrs. Craig is in the centre alongside her husband who is Superintendent of the Ambulance Division. 4. M em bers who are in possession of two stars may be appointed assistant instructors. 5. T h e subjects are divided into : (a) co m p u ls o ry ; (b) optional. (a) Compulsory Subjects (about 3 hours per week) :— First aid, home nursing, hygiene, cooking, field training, squad drill, and a practical know ledge of stretcher drill. (b) Optional Subjects (one or more may be ta k e n ):— Laundry, house-wifery, field cooking, hospital attend­ ance, cam p training, signalling, bicycling, riding, topo­ graphy, swimming and life-saving. 6. T h e subjects, with the exception of cam p training, will be taught by lectures, drills and dem onstrations throughout the sessions of each year, at least three-fifths of the total number o f lectures, drills, & c., in each session must be attended for admission to examinations.

S econd

Y e a r ’s C o u r s e .

1st Session, O ctober to Christm as.— T en lectures on advanced first aid, bandaging, stretcher drill, c o o k in g ; signalling, riding, cycling, topography, hospital attendance,’ lectures for teachers certificates, first aid, L .C .C . 2nd Session, January to Easter.— T en lectures in anatom y and physiology, bandaging, stretcher drill, field train in g; signalling, riding,, cycling, topography, hospital attendance, lectures for teachers certificates, L .C .C . 3rd Session, M ay to July.— T en lectures on nursing and sanitation, stretcher drill and squad drill, bandaging^ field training; cycling, topography, hospital attendance! swimming, life-saving. Cam p, July, August or September. T h ir d

Y e a r ’s C o u r s e .

1st Session, O ctober to Christm as.— T en lectures on advanced nursing and h y g ie n e ; course for instructors • lectures for health certificates, L .C .C . teachers.


— F I R S T

74

2nd Session, January to E aster.— Course for instructors, field training ; riding, cycling, topography, hospital attend­ ance, field cooking. 3rd Session, M ay to July.— A ttendance as instructors in any subjects as required, field tra in in g ; riding, signal­ ling, topography, swimming, life-saving. C am p in July, August or Septem ber.

D ivision

N ew s.

T h e inspection o f the Battersea D ivision will be held at the D rill H all, Clapham Junction, on O ctober 25th, at 8 p.m.; and London 104 (Artists’) V .A .D ., on O ctober 21 st, at the D riil H all, Dukes-road, Euston-road, at 5 p.m.

AID. —

October, 1912.

Lieut. Grant, o f the Territorials, referred, in reply, to the essentials required in a Territorial. T here were other toasts proposed and duly honoured, & c. During the evening the Dean o f B attle was thanked for his kindly interest in the m ovem ent and for placing the C hurch H all at the disposal of the S o c ie ty ; Colour-Sergt. W aym an, for aid to the D eta ch m en t; Colour-Sergt. C . Thom as, for acting as drill-instructor; and Mr. Young, the local Station Master, for giving opportunities to his men— all keen in the work— to join the Society. A n excellent pro­ gramme o f music was carried out— Mr. Bertram W eller, Mus. Bac., Oxon, kindly supplying the accompanim ent.

C o m in g

E ven ts.

P a rticu la rs o fforthcom in g events w i ll be inserted in th is colum n free of charge, i f received not later than the 14 th of each month

C a m b e r w e l l . — Dr. F. C. Langford, Divisional M edical Officer, presided at a meeting held on O ctober 2nd, at the D ulw ich Baths, to form an E ast Dulwich detachm ent o f the C am berw ell Division of the British R ed Cross Society. T h e D ivisional D irector attended to give information and advice. Officers were elected and meetings arranged. A ll those members not yet qualified, arranged to attend Classes for first aid and hom e nursing. Special classes have now been arranged to enable members of the various D etachm ents o f the Cam berw ell D ivision to prepare for the First A id Exam ination of the British R ed Cross Society and to obtain the Society’s Certificate which has been approved by the W ar Office. T h e Classes, which are free to members of the Cam berwell D ivision, are to consist o f a series o f five lectures given by the D ivisional D irector. T h e first of the course was held at G rove V a le D epot on O ctober 4th, and was attended by upwards o f sixty members.

Su ssex 21 E n t e r t a i n e d . — W edneseay evening, Septem ber 25th, will be long rem em bered by the members o f the m en’s V .A .D . Sussex 21 of the Society. B y the kind invitation o f the Com m andant (Mr. G. A. Thorpe) and the M edical Officer (Dr. K en d all) the men were entertained to an excellent dinner at the G eorge H otel, Battle. T h ere was a large com pany and, under the genial chairm anship of the popular Com m andant, a very happy tim e was spent. O f course, there was som e talking, and the speech by L ieut.-C olonel W yndham , in response to the toast o f the British R ed Cross Society, was one of sound advice to the members. H e urged the necessity of keeping up the strength of the D etachm ent, the maintaining o f efficient first aid work, and of proper drill. T h e Rev. J. B. D rabble, a new com er to the- town, but who has already evinced a keen interest in the work, proposed success to the B attle V .A .D . in happy terms, and Dr. K endall, the M edical Officer, received an enthusiastic reception in rising to respond. H e prom ised to do his best for the D etachm ent, and referred to the excellent work of the Com m andant, whose health— like that o f the M edical Officer— was drunk with musical honours. T h ese toasts were proposed by two of the members, viz., Section L eader W. M eppen and Mr. V ic Carter. Mr. B. Sm yth m ade an interesting speech in giving the “ Im perial F orces,” whilst

Dewsbury.— The competition for the “ Thornes” Challenge Cup and prizes, open to corps and divisions of the Brigade, will he held on Saturday, November 16th. Entries close November 2nd, and must be forwarded to Assistant Corps Secretary W . Ledgard, Alm a House, Thornhill, near Dewsbury. London.— The Polytechnic Ambulance Competitions for the “ William H eyw ood” Shield and “ G ran t” Medal will take place on Saturday, October 26th, at the Polytechnic, Regentstreet, W., at 2 o’clock sharp. The presentation of the Shield and medals will take place immediately after the contests, which will probably be about 7.30 p.m. Friends are invited and will be able to view a large portion of the contests. Refreshments will be served at popular prices.

W e are much surprised to see that no representative o f the British R ed Cross Society attended the 9th Inter­ national R ed Cross C onference at W ashington. The Am erican R ed Cross B ulletin com m enting on this points out this lack of representation might seem that the British R ed Cross does not maintain a very active organisation with a keen interest in R ed Cross matters in time o f peace. H aving in view the important deliberations of the confer­ ence, it is to be regretted that the British R ed Cross did not give its views on the discussion.

F e l l i n g C o l l i e r y C o r p s . — T h e results o f com ­ petitions, which was held on O ctober 12th, were as follows :— Ravensworth for teams of four— 1st, J. Elliott, C . Phillipson, S. Irwin, T . Turnbull, 56 p o in ts; 2nd, J. Lisle, T . W illy, D. M cPherson, J. H and, 49 p o in ts;

3rd, M. Pierrot, J. Coffel. E. Coffel, A. Proctor, 48 points. Individual Com petition for “ L id d e ll” C u p .— 1st, Corp. J. Elliott, 20 points ; Ptes. J. H an d and C. Coffel followed with 19 points, sharing second and third prizes. C om petition for First Year M en O n ly.— 1st, C . Phillipson ; 2nd, J. A r c h e r ; 3rd, J. Hand. N urses’ Com petition for “ A rm stron g” B ow l.— 1st, Mrs. M. G ibson, o f the Felling C ollege Nursing Division, 98 points, out o f 100 points ; 2nd, Mrs. A . Gulliver, o f the Pelaw Nursing Division, 83 po in ts; 3rd, Mrs. J. B. Chapm an, of the Pelaw Nursing Division, 81 points.


— F I R S T

October, 1912.

S t . J o h n V o lu n t a r y Aid O r g a n isa tio n . W e were perforced, owing to the pressure on our space last month, to omit the account o f the field operations which were carried out on a large scale by the St. John Voluntary A id D etachm ents of the Northern D istrict on August 24th. T h e scheme o f operations was that a battle was sup­ posed to have taken place near the coast, between the invaders and defending force. T h e invaders, after a desperate struggle, were forced to re-embark on account of the appearance of the fleet, while the defenders rushed to the coast, leaving the wounded behind to be dealt with. T h e am bulance operations were conducted on a triangular base, between Whitburn and South Shields on the coast with the Boldon Racecourse as the apex. T h e weather

W

o r k in g t o n

and

AID. —

75

the V oluntary A id D etachm ents in the county o f Durham directed the operations at South Shields. Dr. J. B. C rease was in charge, and was assisted by a nursing staff, under Mr. Crease. A t W est H all, Dr. Jam es Anderson, o f Seaton D elaval, was in charge, with a nursing staff under Mrs. D. M. Miller. T h ere was also a clearance hospital at the Am bulance H all, M arsden C olliery, under the superintendence o f Mrs. R obson. A b ou t 400 men and women nurses were engaged, and these included seventeen Durham and three N orthum berland D etachm ents. Scouts were deputed as patients and were stationed over several miles o f country labelled with the nature of their injuries. A s they were found by the bearers they were taken to the nearest temporary hospital and treated, and from there transported to the base. General K en n y (who was the inspecting officer) at the conclusion o f the operations, said that what he had seen pleased him very much.

M a r y p o r t V.A.D .

Inspected by Colonel J. C. Culling on September 21st. conditions were not of the best, and the racecourse was under water in many parts, but all these tended to add to the severity and thoroughness o f the test. T h e No. 1 Durham D etachm ent erected the field kitchens and general equipm ent stores. On the racecourse there was a temporary hospital, under Mrs. Palm er, of W ardley H all, assisted by a large staff of nurses. T here were also a rest-house and an im provised hospital, which were in charge o f the Sdnderland Nursing D etachm ent under Miss Young. Dr. D. M. M iller, of Felling, was the director of operations at Boldon. T h e 3rd, 6th, n t h and 13th Durham D etachm ents were also engaged on the race­ course, while the 21st D etachm ent provided the personnel for the am bulance convoy between W est Hall, W hitburn and Boldon. A t W est H all there was a tem porary hospital with two wards o f ten beds each ; an operating theatre and food centres. A t a school in South Shields there was also a temporary hospital. Mr. C . B. Palm er, the D irector of

In the course o f a long letter from Dr. S V H o Surgeon-Generol to the Northern Forces o f the C hinese Republic, sent to the L ond on M issionary Society from the ar G ffice at Pekin, thanks are tendered to that society for its efficient Red Cross work during th ; recent revolution.

T h e subscriptions to the F lorence N ightingale Fund now am ounts to 7° ° , which sum has been handed over to the Trained N urses’ A nnuity Fund for the benefit o f the trained nurses who either have been unable to make pro­ vision for old age or have becom e incapacitated for work by unforeseen circum stances. W ith the balance o f the money the com m ittee have com m issioned M r A G W alker to produce a statue in bronze o f M iss N ightingale and his prelim inary sketch has been accepted T h e statue is to be placed at the bottom o f W aterloo-place, London facing the Crim ean M em orial.


76

u

-

v

C R .§ 5] . " J H

F I R S T

t

'®<G>

We are in

no way responsible for the opinions expressed, or the

statements made, by Correspondents.— E d i t o r s .

T H E L A T E MR. C H A R L IE A. A D L E M , F IR S T A M B U L A N C E O F F IC E R , B O U R N E M O U T H D IV IS IO N . S i r ,— A short account of the lamented decease of the above Officer appeared in your colum ns—August issue. May I crave the favour of a small space in your October issue in order to bring to the notice of your readers the circumstances in which Mr. Adlem ’s family have been left, and also to recapitulate briefly his work in the cause of first aid and the particulars of his sudden death. For, at least, his last eighteen years, Mr. Adlem was an enthusiastic worker at first aid and allied subjects, and during fifteen of these years was indefatigable in promoting ambulance knowledge and organizing classes, among the employes of the firm for whom he worked, and other bodies of men in Bournemouth. On August 5th, 1902, he became one of the first members of the Bournemouth Division, S.J.A.B., which was registered on that date, was one of the most respected, hardworking, and talented members of that Division, and in 1910 was deservedly promoted to the rank of First Officer, a position which he admirably filled up to the day of his death. As Quartermaster of No. 16 Hants. V .A .D . his resourceful and inventive faculties had full scope, and the realism with which he engineered and stage-managed mimic railway smashes and battlefields for the practice drills of the Bournemouth Voluntary Aid Detachments will be long remembered by the members. For the past three years he was employed in the transport of invalids by a private firm, and to judge from the touching letters received since his death from patients who have passed through his hands, hundreds must be able to testify to his gentle and patient handling, in the course of his everyday work. Never of a very robust constitution, this constant strain of lifting and carrying patients, frequently in very difficult surroundings, would seem to have affected his heart, and latterly he frequently felt far from well. It was not, however, his nature to complain, whenever duty called him to alleviate the sufferings of others. On August 5th, Bank Holiday, by a curious coincidence the anniversary of the date of his joining the Brigade, he had volunteered for public duty at Bournemouth Pier, a regular ambulance station of the local Divisions, where immense crowds congregate on pubic holidays. Although feeling ill, his family could not dissuade him from taking his post with the Division as usual, and as it unfortunately turned out, for the last time. In the evening, a half-drunken man made an attempt at suicide, and was taken from the water nearly drowned ; Mr. Adlem rushed down the beach, and by arduous work at artificial respiration, brought him round. He then assisted to carry him over the heavy sand to the public baths, the man struggling violently all the time. Lastly, while assisting one of the police to rub the patient down, Mr. Adlem suddenly fell back and instantaneously expired from heart-failure, the result, undoubtedly, of the exceptional exertion and excitement which he had undergone in his humane efforts for the benefit of his patient. Mr. Adlem, in addition to a family of eight children— one

AI D. —

October, 1912.

of whom recently died, brought up an orphan niece, and these with the bereaved wife were all more or less dependent on the father’s — by no means large— weekly wage. On his death nothing was left but a small amount of club money, which was more than swallowed up by funeral and mourning expenses. Mrs. Adlem is thus left with eight children— the four elder ones not yet self-supporting— and the four younger absolutely dependent, and an invalid. Bournemouth has been asked to assist the family financially — and has not been asked in vain— but more money is required in order to have sufficient to give the widow a regular small weekly stipend to help her household expenses until all the children are at least able to earn a little. Knowing that your readers are interested in all that pertains to ambulance matters, possibly some may feel disposed to assist the bereaved family of one who has devoted years of his spare time to this self-sacrificing work, and finally lost his life while so employed. Donations of any size will be gratefully received for the above purpose by the undersigned, or may be sent to the National Provincial Bank of England, W est Southbonrne Branch, Bournemouth, addressed “ Adlem Memorial Fund.” R. H a r d i e , M.D., Divisional Supt. S.J.A.B. 11, Grand Avenue, Bournemouth. CLOSER

U N IO N

IN

AM BULANCE

C IR C L E S .

D e a r S i r ,— Whilst in England recently attending the Royal Review, the thought occurred to me that closer union was necessary between the Homeland and the Colonies in ambulance circles, and whilst discussing it with other Colonials, it was suggested that we keep up a correspondence with each other, defining our difficulties and their solutions, and endeavour to give each other the advantage of our experience. Following up this suggestion, I formed a desire to acquire information and photos of other Divisions, and I would appreciate it very much if some of the Officers of our Mother­ land Divisions would forward me any post-card photos of their Divisions or their work, and in return I would forward photos of our Canadian Units. Such a course will make us feel closer to our Old Country Associations, and would be of the greatest interest to the residents of the Colonies. Trusting that my expressed desire will bring response, and hoping thus to form many pleasant acquaintances amongst my brother first aiders at Home. Thanking you, Mr. Editor, in anticipation of the early publication of this letter.— Yours very truly, G. R. N. C o l l in s ,

Corps Supt. Toronto Corps. 554T Yonge-street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. September 26th, 1912.

R E D R E S S IN G

IN J U R IE S . inform me, through the medium of your valuable Journal, if it is correct to remove bandages and splints from a fracture of a lower limb, after the patient has been taken home, and before medical aid has arrived ? A member of our Brigade and I, say keep them on ; but another member is for removing them ! Thanking you in anticipation.— Your truly, D

ear

OF

S i r ,— W ill you kindly

“ E

n t h u s i a s t .”

[The Brigade Regulations state “ Under no circumstance is the redressing of injuries to be performed by any member of of the Brigade.”— E d ., F i r s t A i d .]

AM BULANCE

C E R T IF IC A T E S .

D e a r S i r , — I think the S.J.A.A. would dc well if it copied

the arrangements of the St. Patrick’s Ambulance Associatior


— F I R S T

October, 1912.

in regard to the issuing of certificates. The St. Patrick award for first year, a third class certificate ; second year, second class ; third year, first class or medallion certificate, with the diagram of the medallion and the device of the Association in the two top corners. If this idea was adopted by St. John’s all present medallion holders should be able to obtain it by paying the little extra cost. 1 think the issuing of these certificates would be a further inducement for men to continue the classes or join the S.J.A.B.— Yours, &c, A. R u m b l e .

R A IL W A Y C O M P E T IT IO N S . D ear S ir ,— T he recent deplorable railway accident at Ditton Junction (L. & N.W. Ry.), is a sad illustration of the fact that ambulance work on railways is a vital utility. If I read aright the interesting article in your September number on “ The Ideal Ambulance Competition,” the main purport of it is that these competitions should be a valuable training for men to deal with real cases, and that this end is sought by causing the competition to approximate as far as is humanly possible, to the conditions of an actual accident. The purpose of this letter is not to traverse or approve the arguments therein used, but to again bring forward the sug­ gestion that the railways having accidents necessitating first aid on a fairly large scale should let other railways have the benefit of any experience thereby gained. This experience could be issued privately to the qualified railway first aiders, and thus each accident would contain some first aid lesson. The present writer does not claim any originality for this suggestion, which as far as he knows, was first made by Dr. Heaton C. Howard. It would appear, however, that through want of publicity, the idea has not had the consideration which it deserves.— Yours truly, “ R eef K

F IR S T

A ID

n o t .”

P R O B A T IO N E R S .

D e a r S i r , — At the commencement of a new season I hope it may not seem inopportune to place this suggestion before you. It has been said, not without truth, that “ lookers on see more of the game,” and in that capacity it has appeared to me that many young men likely to make the best type of first aider are afraid to offer their services for fear they should not prove suitable for their work, or that the work itself, after experience, would not sufficiently appeal to them. Now all this might be ascertained if such possible candi­ dates could take up temporary nominal duty for a few weeks, when they would have good opportunity of seeing the methods of Brigade work and then deciding for themselves, after due consideration, whether they would undertake the task per­ manently.— Sincerely yours, Ja m e s R a c k w it z .

N A T IO N A L

H EALTH

IN S U R A N C E .

A GREAT AID T O FIRST AID. By

The doctors were paid through a club, run by the men employed at the works. This club is now about to be abolished and on the occasion of a recent serious accident the doctor who was called ,n to the patient, told me that under the National Hea th scheme we must call upon the doctor that the man is specially paying for through his Friendly Society

DR.

ANDREW

W IL S O N .

A w o r k that justifies its claim to be an epitom e o f all that specialised m edical and surgical know ledge necessary for First Aiders, as well as an authoritative manual of reference on all information relating to H ealth and Disease, is a work to be welcom ed by all our readers who wish to study their subject more deeply than is possible from superficial text books. In “ T h e M odern Physician,” by Dr. Andrew Wilson, fullest space is devoted to “ First A i d ” and A m bulance Work. In respect o f com pleteness, accuracy o f description, and wealth of illustration, “ T h e M odern Physician ” stands without a rival amongst the works published on this im ­ portant subject in the U nited K ingdom . It is scientifically accurate and reliable without being d u ll; the nam e of its editor, so long and popularly known as an expositor of H ealth laws and a teacher o f H ygiene, is a guarantee of this. T h is work is absolutely com plete as regards H ealth and Disease, and is thoroughly up-to-date. A s a know ledge of the body in H ealth is necessary to the due understanding of the body when its functions are deranged by disease, a description o f every part o f the frame will be found here. T h e skeleton, muscles, digestive system, heart and lungs, brain and nervous system, organs of sense, skin, kidneys and the body’s m icroscopic structure are duly described. In this connection the illustrations are o f particular value, the “ m ann ikin s” or dum mies more esp ecially ; in these the organs are m ade to overlap each other exactly as they do in the human body. T h e section devoted to H ygiene includes the full exposition o f the Laws of H ealth, and special attention is devoted to Physical Culture. Such topics as foods, beverages, air, exercise, clothing, sleep, baths, holidays, temperament, & c., are treated in this section. T h e last volum e is especially devoted to the H ealth o f W om en, and Dr. W ilson has here been assisted by a num ber o f em inent women physicians. M idwifery and the treatm ent and Diseases o f Infants are here fully dealt with.

ONE Mr.

OF

J . DANIEL, 23,

Kent

MANY

O P IN IO N S.

Avenue, A s h fo r d , K e n t , w r i t e s :—

“ Its all-round excelle n ce m akes it a valu able acquisition . T h e section d ealin g w ith am bulance w ork is esp ecially good . T h e b ook is w ritten in splendid style and the illustration s are 'first rate. T h e m ethod of paym ent places it w ithin the reach o f a ll.”

D e a r S i r , Will you kindly inform me through F i r s t A i d , what qualification a member of the S.J.A.B. has to

possess, or what conditions he has to fulfil before he is entitled to the honour of (1) Honorary Serving Brother, (2) Service Medal. Also will you please advice me on the following — At the works I am employed at accidents are frequent Up to the present time, on an accident occurring, we have called in the first medical man we could find, and he took charge of the case himselfher dispatcbed t0 the hosPital °r attended to the case

77

AID. —

A FREE BOOKLET. TO

TH E

CAXTON

P U B L IS H IN G

COM PAN Y,

156, S u rrey S treet, L o n don , W .C . P lease send me, F r e e o f C h a r g e a n d w i t h o u t a n y o b l i g a t i o n o n m y p a r t Illustrated B o o k let o n T h e M o d e r n P h y s ic ia n P articu lars o f yo u r offer to deliver the c o m p l e t e w o r k f o r a first p a y m e n t o f is. 6d., the b alan ce to be p a i d f o r b y a f e w s m a l l m o n t h l y p a y m e n t s .

(1)

(2)

N am e

(Send this form or a p ostcard.)

A d d r e s s ..


78

— F I R S T

This may entail sending three miles for his doctor and trusting if he is at home. W ill you please inform me if this is correct. Thanking you in anticipation of a reply in “ F .A .”— Yours, &c., C orporal.

[(1) Is a recognition of services rendered to the S.J.A.A. There is no definite qualification, but application for this award is made on special official forms. (2) W e would refer our correspondent to par 38 of the General Regulations. The period of not less than 15 years entitles a member to become eligible for the service medal. (3) This is quite correct, and many doctors are resigning their Friendly Society appointments owing to disagreement of medical remuneration under the Act, but in cases of emergency the nearest doctor could be called in if his ordinary fees were paid.— E d . “ F.A.”] M EDAL D

ear

W O R S H IP .

S i r , — In August issue of “ F. A.” you added a post­

script to R. Orwell’s letter to the effect that the Coronation of King George in London and the Investiture of the Prince of W ales at Carnarvon were officially one and the same thing, and that no man who attended both were entitled to two decorations. Allow me to point out that two medals were granted for the first Egyptian war, the second Egyptian war, and the second South African war. I think it is rather unfair for no decoration to be given to the men who worked so hard at Carnarvon and, in addition, paid all expenses, more especially seeing that before the event some of them were told they would receive an Investiture decoration. If the Order of St. John were to grant a special medal to the men concerned, I am sure it would create a feeling of satisfaction throughout the Brigade. — Yours truly, “ P r o v i n c i a l .”

A correspondent writes to us concerning the use of collect­ ing boxes. W e should like his name and address before inserting his letter.— E d . “ F .A .”

E x p lo s io n s

in

C o al

M ines.

h e recent lam entable disaster at the C ad eby C oal Mine has lent added im portance to the preparations now being made at Eskm eals, on the coast of Cum berland, for ex­ periments on a large scale as to the causes and propagation of explosions in coal mines. For some months past a small com m ittee appointed by the H om e Secretary has been preparing the way for a more thorough investigation than any yet undertaken. In a recent report the Com m ittee referred to the wellknow n fact that coal dust alone without any inflam m able gas may be fired and propagate a violent explosion along the dusty galleries o f a mine. T h is much has been established by laboratory experiments, but several questions have arisen which can only be settled by experim ents on a scale approaching the scale o f Nature. T h e Governm ent has therefore accepted the offer of the M ining Association of G reat Britain to lend experim ental plant and apparatus, and a consultative com m ittee, consisting o f members of the R oyal Com m ission of Mines and the M ining Association, has acquired a plot of land at Eskm eals, not far from M essrs. V ick ers’s gun range. T h e land is open to the sea, but on the other sides is quite surrounded by sand hills, and is sufficiently distant from any dwellings to allow o f large-scale experim ents without risk o f danger or annoy­ ance from the concussion or noise o f the explosions. E very possible precaution is being taken to prevent danger

T

AI D. —

October, 1912.

to those engaged in the experim ents ; they will be able by means o f electricity to work at a distance from the galleries in splinter-proof shelters and behind sand hills. T h e site has been connected with the Furness Railway, and laboratories, workshops, and plant for m aking gas and electricity have been fitted up. T h e galleries, which will represent a mine, consist of some hundreds of yards of boiler-plate tubes, one length o f about 800 ft. being 7 ft. 6in. in diameter, with a second length o f 450 ft. 3 ft 2 in. in diameter, and a third length o f nearly 200 ft. 1 ft. in diameter. T hese can be connected together as required, and there is space enough to erect other galleries of such diam eter as may be necessary. T h e galleries will be fitted with various recording instruments and apparatus for intro­ ducing inflam m able gases either in bulk or in “ blowers,” while shelves and ledges are provided which can be strewed with coal dust. E lectric wires can be carried from splinterproof shelters to any part o f the galleries to start an explosion. T hu s a gas mixture may be fired in one o f the smaller tubes and the flame propagated into the larger dust-strtwn tube or a blower o f ignited gas may be sent into what will represent a dusty road o f a mine, while currents o f air may be passed along the galleries to represent the draught in a mine. Various kinds o f coal dust will be used and its inflam m ability tested, and apparatus is provided which will allow clouds o f coal dust mixed with air to be driven through flames or over electric arcs, or heated platinum wires whose temperature may be measured. Experim ents will be made with mixtures o f coal dust with inert stone dust to see how far an explosion may be modified by such inert dust. Experim ents on a laboratory scale with inert stone dusts seem to promise very satisfactory results, but doubts have been raised whether, on a large scale and with various amounts of firedamp present, the stone dust may not favour explosions. T h e velocities and pressures set up by explosions o f firedamp or o f dust or mixtures of the two will be measured and tests made as to how far the explosions can jum p over lengths of gallery which have been well watered or strewn with inert dust or otherwise treated. O ne of the most important points to determ ine is how an explosion once started can be checked or its range lim ited before it raises the fine dust and sends the flame through all the galleries of the mine. It is hoped that after the investigations now contem ­ plated have been carried out the G overnm ent may see the advantage o f maintaining the station for further experiments and research.

A n inventor o f Buffalo, U .S .A ., is at present experi­ m enting with an am bulance carriage which has five steel shells o f interchangeable departments. T h e reason that they have adopted the separate linings is to prevent con ­ tagion, as there is scarcely time for an em ergency wagon to be cleaned and fum igated after every trip, for it frequently happens that some 20 calls are made per day. T h e steel linings are made with rounded corners, so that they may be easily cleaned. T h e y are accom m odated in a house at the rear of the station. W hen a call comes the attendant opens the door of the desired com partment, whether it be “ scarlet fev er” or “ m easles” ; he pulls out the shell, which runs on rollers, and slides it from its resting place into the carriage, where it is locked into position.


FIRST AID.

The Independent Journal for the Ambulance and Fire Services. Conducted b y A R T H U R No. 2 2 1 .— V o l . X I X .

[N e w S e r ie s .]

NOVEM BER,

DALE,

19 12 .

of. To Our Readers.

B.

M.J.I.

[Enuredat station*™' H a ll.]

[ 26

P er

A nnum , P o st

F ree.

In view o f this, we consider that the detachm ents will

be found serviceable should they be called upon, but it is the greatest efficiency which we strive for, and it is in the

As it is the wish and desire of the Proprietors to make this Journal as instructive and entertaining as possible, correspondents in all parts of the country are asked to give it all the help they can. Superintendents of Corps and Officers of Divisions of the St. John Ambulance Brigade, Officers of the Royal Arm y Medical Corps (Territorials), the Volunteer Ambulance School of Instruction, and Chief Officers of Fire Brigades w ill, it is hoped, do their best to make it known amongst the members of their respective organisations, and will also send for publication their official news and notices. Sugges­ tions are invited for Prize Competitions and other matters which will advance the interest of the Journal.

matter of training that there is scope for im provem ent ; it is, therefore, in the system o f training of detachm ents that we should like to offer a little com m ent. T h e position as it is to-day gives a varying standard of efficiency, the training is carried out either through the St. John Voluntary A id Organisation or the R ed Cross Society ; each has its authorised text-book, and a certain prescribed qualifying course has to be

passed.

Each

W e particularly desire to ask our correspondents to be brief and to the point in any communications they may send us for publication.

detachm ent trained under either organisations takes the

Correspondents sending in photos are urgently requested to state on the back of the same the name of the individual or the Corps or B rigade and give also the name and address of the sender.

the subject.

W e beg to advise our readers that we do not pay for photographs or copy sent, unless previously agreed upon in writing.

“ First Aid ” is published on the aoth of the month.

same four or five subjects, and gets a general spattering of T h is we must confess does not recom m end

itself to us as being a satisfactory plan of training, for we hold that in time of em ergency detachm ents would more or less have to specialise in one particular branch o f the work and consequently go deeper into a subject than their training had given them opportunities of doing.

T h is should not be

lost sight of, and training should be directed so that after detachm ents have been raised and registered they should,

EDITORIAL.

besides m aintaining their general studies, specialise in one or two particular facilities

T

L ack of

he

and

chaotic state o f the R ed

Organisation,

branches

of

them selves.

the For

work

where

instance,

local

where

a

D ivision or D etachm ent can obtain the use o f a railway

Organisations

in

the

siding their branch of the work should be the Railway

point a good lesson

to

this

Transport o f the wounded.

Crescent

Voluntary Aid Balkans

Cross

present

T h is can be applied in every

country to perfect the V oluntary Aid

branch, and so prom ote greater general efficiency.

Organisation in times of peace

should be no overlapping if the training was mapped out

realisation of its necessity in times o f em ergency.

by a

T here

T h ere

and approved by the C oun ty Com m ittee, and should work

is in this country a strong feeling o f confidence in the

sm oothly and harm oniously if carried out through the

future, but this must not be allowed to overcom e the great

proper channels.

need o f training a properly organised body for relief work in times of war.

cerned are now giving the question o f a standard training

In choosing this subject we are not subm itting that

W e are glad to see that both the Organisations con­ their attention.

T h e St. John syllabus of training and the

the organisation o f Voluntary A id is not receiving proper

proposed R ed Cross three years course o f training are

attention, nor do we express any com m ent on the schem e

adm irable in them selves, and doubtless in course o f time

for raising V oluntary A id D etachm ents.

they will be greatly im proved by experience.

In the matter of

W e cannot

training as laid down by the War Office schem e, every­

help thinking, however, that the War Office should in the

thing is being done by the County D irectors to ensure the

first instance have issued a special M anual and Syllabus

efficiency of the members o f the detachm ents in the first

for all D etachm ents to which

aid, nursing

belong.

and

cooking duties required

from

them,

while opportunities for practical work are taken advantage

ever

O rganisation

they

It would certainly have ensured uniform ity of

training throughout the country.


82

— F I R S T

S t. 3ohn ^Ambulance Srigade. ^ 111 ^

^°‘ 1 D*strict

JPPli

(Prince of W a le s ’s Corps.)

^

DUTY

ROSTER.

Sunday

D E C E M B E R , 1912. Sunday Duty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. 1st.— No. 10 Division.

„ „

8th.— N o . 5 15 th .— N o . 21

„ 22nd.— No. 4 „ „ 29th.— No. 13 „ As per separate orders. Parade 2.30 p.m. at St. John’s Gate after 2 p.m. BU GLE

BAND

Key obtainable

P R A C T IC E .

Friday, 6th, and 20th. Members should make every effort to attend each practice. Four bugles, with chromatic attachments have been pre­ sented to the band by Messrs. W . H. Morgan and L. F. H ay­ man. D IS T R I C T C O N C E R T . It is desired that all Divisions will take the earliest oppor­ tunity of relum ing their unused tickets and settling their accounts. B R IG A D E O R D E R S . Nos. 206 to 215 should now be in the hands of every officer, and special attention is drawn to Order. No. 210. An electro for the use of the Prince of W ales’s Corps is being pre­ pared, and Divisions should not submit proofs of new stationery until this is ready. In all cases proofs of printed matter must be submitted to the Deputy-Commissioner for approval. The Annual Jewish Military Service will be held on Sun­ day, December 8th, and by permission of the Chief Com­ missioner, No. 30 Division will parade at the Jews’ Free School, Middlesex-street, at 3.30. Service at the Great Synagogue, Aldgate, at 4.30 p.m. B R IG A D E F O R M S. B/F 2, 3, 5a and ijn should be at headquarters. It is noticed that some Divisions have not yet complied with pre­ vious Orders. Annual General Meetings should be held as soon as possible and books submitted at once. ANNUAL R E -E X A M IN A T IO N S should be complete by the end of March, 1913. Divisions which hold these before Christmas, should make the necessary arrangements at once. In order to prevent disappointment in holding the Dual Exam, (i.e., Brigade and Association), notification must be sent to the Deputy-Commissioner as soon as the Exam, is fixed. If this is done before the 12th of the month, notification will be given in the Duty Roster. The Chief Surgeon desires me to say that he hopes that Divisional Surgeons will arrange reciprocally, in order that no Surgeon may examine his own Division. V.A.D . The attention of Commandants of V.A.D . is drawn to B/O 214. The Brigade number which now appears on the Badge is to be ignored; the W ar Office number only is to be used in all correspondence. New issues of Badges will not bear a number. The Badges at present in use will not be exchanged, but will only be replaced as worn out. Now that the training months are in full swing, it is hoped that the Medical Officer and Commandants of these companies will arrange for the necessary instruction being given to the

AID. —

November, 1912.

members, reports of the Inspections which have come to hand compel me to urge this. I am fully aware that these Inspec­ tions followed so quick upon the actual registration of the Companies that there was not sufficient time for proper and complete organisation, but we shall not have this excuse in the future. If any further information is desired on this subject I shall be pleased to hear of it, and will render any assistance possible. W H IS T D R IV E S A N D P R O G R E S S IV E W H IS T . The above being illegal, I am unable in future to sanction or countenance such being arranged for by Divisions in this District, while fully appreciating the difficulties of Officers and other members in charge of Divisions in raising the necessary funds to enable them to carry on their work, I feel sure that I shall receive every support in preventing such actions that would only tend to bring discredit upon the Brigade. H E A D Q U A R T E R STAFF. It does not seem to be clearly understood by all the Divisional officers or other members in charge, that these officers are at headquarters every Tuesday and Thursday evenings between 7 p.m. and 10 p.m. for interview. • Divisional Secretaries, too, can obtain .help and assistance in keeping their records or dealing with application for service badges, especially new men taking over secretary’s work. Advice and help in all difficulties will be gladly given to any officer who so desires. S U B M IS S IO N O F D IV IS IO N A L B O O K S. Owing to the fact that auditors are not giving the neces­ sary certificate on the balance-sheets, Divisional secretaries are having a double journey to headquarters to get the books passed. The certificate that is required is to this effect :— “ W e have examined all the vouchers and receipts in con­ nection with the Divisional accounts, any questions arising therefrom have been answered to our satisfaction.” C H R IS T M A S H O L ID A Y S . IM P O R T A N T N O T E . The District Offices will not be open for business during the evenings of the 23rd, 24th, 25th, 26th, 27th and 28th, but will reopen for the Tuesday and Thursday evening work on December 31st. (Signed) L E E S H ALL, Deputy -Commissioner. D i s t r i c t C o n c e r t . — On Wednesday, O ctober 30th, at the Northam pton Institute the D istrict C oncert drew a large audience, where the evening’s programme was a full and atrractive one and was much appreciated. During the interval Sir James P. A. Clark, C h ief Com m issioner of the Brigade, made reference to the work, and Sir H erbert Perrott presented long service medals and additional five year bars to the following members of the corps :—

First Officer C. T . Osborn, H am pstead Division. Cpl. C. E. Farrow, Brom ley Division. Pte. P. G. H aym an, C yclist Division. Pte. G. Barnett, Brom ley Division. Bars to :— Corps Supt. J. C . Lines Corps Inspector of Stores W. H . Goodm an. D ivisional Surgeon A. C . Tunstall, C hildren ’s H om e Nursing Division. D ivisional Supt. H. H . Ilett, Haggerston Division. Divisional Supt. W. D. Liddell, St. John’s Gate, No. 1 Division. Lady-Supt. M iss Bourke, C hildren’s H om e Nursing Division. First Nursing Officer Miss E. Bourke, C hildren ’s H om e Nursing Division. Second Nursing Officer Mrs. Brunning, C hildren ’s H om e Nursing Division. First Class Sergt. J. Y . Churcher, St. John’s Gate, No. 1 Division.


— F I R S T

N ovem ber 1912.

Nursing Sister Mrs. Kennett, C hildren’s H om e Nursing Division. Lady Perrott presented the following trophies o f the District won during the year :— “ M assey Mainwaring ” C hallen ge Cup, won by South M etropolitan Gas C om pany Division under Corporal Foddering. Team :— Private E. E. Clark, H. Eley, E. Dickenson, and L. Malyn. “ Osborne ” C hallenge Shield, won by Leyton and Leytonstone Division under Corporal H. Bates. T eam : Privates A. B. Haines, H . M aybury, and E. Walker. “ Efficiency ” Challenge Cup, won by T oyn b ee H all Division under 1st Class Sergt. J. Lom as. T eam : C or­ porals A. Rose, C- Bowler, Privates J. Brain, G. K em p, H.

AID. —

83

twenty-five years, and who had to leave it on taking up the position o f Com m issioner o f the Brigade Overseas. T h e presentation, which took the form of an illum inated album , a grandfather f-chim e clock, and a diam ond ring to Mrs. Morgan, was m ade to the D istrict Superintendent, Mr. W. H. Pontin. In m aking the presentation Mr. Pontin referred to the many services Mr. M organ had rendered to the Brigade during the long period he had been connected with it. H e had been one of the hardest workers, and it would be a great source o f satisfaction to him to look back and note the great change for the better both in organisation and efficiency effected during his connection with it.

N o. 56 D i v i s i o n .— T h e second annual general m eet­ ing of the above was held at the headquarters o f the divison, the M idland Railw ay Institute, C ricklew ood, on O cto b er 23rd. O w ing to the unavoidable absence for a time of the hon. surgeon, and the large am ount of business to be trans­ acted, Sergt. Parsons was voted into the chair. T h e Secretary read a report of the year’s working and balance-street, which was adopted. T h e report states that the division made 67 attendances at the H endon Aviation Grounds, during the year the average num ber o f men present being five ; attended 31 days at football m atches; and attended 218 cases o f a c c id e n t; 208 cases attended not on public duty O ne interesting matter was the introduction by the H on. Surgeon of Mr. Muller, who, he stated was willing to join the Division as Superintendent. T h e H on. Surgeon gave the meeting a glow ing account of Mr. M uller’s connection with am bulance work. In response, Mr. M uller stated he was greatly pleased with the reception he had received, and would do his utmost to m ake this D ivision a strong one. Mr. M uller was duly elected as Superintendent by the m eeting subject to the approval o f headquarters. T h is Division has only been in existence 9 years, but since its inauguration has done a great deal of useful work.

M r . W . H. R e e v e s ,

th e

new

Mayor

of

N ortham pton.

Mr. Reeves is District Supt. of the No. 3 District S.J.A.B., and is one of the most assidious workers in the ambulance cause. Fry, T . Trussler, J. Trenam an, C. Ellis, L . Smith, and F. Stock. “ N u rsin g” C hallenge Bowl, won by Craigs Court H ouse Nursing Division, represented by Nursing Sister F. Gibbons. “ Sleath-Gent ” C hallenge Cup, won by L eyton and Leytonstone Division, represented by A. B. Haines. Sir H erbert Perrott, in responding to the vote of thanks, paid tribute to the usefulness o f the Brigade’s work and the efficient manner in which it was carried out. H e remarked, in passing, that it was not generally recognised by the public what a m agnificent work the Brigade was doing. In the second-half the artistes re-appeared. An interval was given up to a presentation to Mr. W. H. Morgan, who has been connected with the Corps for

B a r n e t . — A goodly com pany o f members supported the chair at the annual meeting of the D ivision on O cto ­ ber 23rd, at Barnet. T h e accounts for the past year, which showed a small balance in hand, was presented. T o form, with 1st Officer Higg/ngs, Sergt. Newson, Corpl. W right (D ivisional Secretary) and Pte. B oyles (In ­ spector o f Stores) as ex-officio members elected as their members, the General Com m ittee, the members elected as their representatives, Ptes. M artin-Sm ith and Francis Philling. So successful was the supper and concert last winter that it was decided to make it an annual affair, to be held if possible before Christmas. Several members expressed a desire to enter tor the nursing certificate, and it is hoped to arrange shortly for a series o f lectures on sick nursing. T h e total effective is now one hon. secretary, one officer, one sergeant, one corporal and twenty-two privates, and 255 cases have been dealt with during the year. T h e D ivision is entitled on this strength to two more corporals, and much interest is felt am ongst the rank and file as to whom prom otion will fall on. Since the annual m eeting 1st Officer H iggins has been prom oted to the rank of superintendent.


84

No.

— F I R S T 4

AI D. —

November, 1912.

District.

D a r w e n .— T h e annual dance in connection with the local D ivision o f the St. John A m bulance Brigade was held in the Co-O perative H all, on O ctober 29th, about 150 persons being present. T h e Orpheus Band played an up-to-date program m e o f dance music. T h e duties of M .C .’s were discharged by Corpl. H igham and Pte. G. C . N u tta ll; refreshments being served during an interval.

No. 5 District. D ivision held a “ T e a and Social ” in connection with their annual com petition on Saturday, N ovem ber 2nd, at Headquarters. Four teams entered, and in the unavoidable absence o f Dr. M oseley (H on. Surgeon of Shipley Corps), Dr. M ossop (H on. Surgeon) and Supt. H all acted in the capacity of judges. After the com petition, about seventy members and friends sat down to tea. In the evening the results were made known and the prizes presented. Songs and dancing were the order o f the evening, which proved a most enjoyable one. R e s u lts :— No. 2 T eam : Ptes. K ett, Phippen, F. H oldsw orth, N. H oldsworth and Procter with 112 p o in ts; N o. 3, n o ; No. 4, 10 2 ; No. 1, 94. T h e winners of the attendance prizes were Ptes. Phippen and VV. Hollings, each obtaining 100 per cent, of marks allowed. M

a n n in g h a m

.— T h is

C h a rle y

A d le m .

From the Members o f the Boston D ivision, S.J.A .B . W e did not know poor Charley, And yet his form appears With haversac and “ F u rley” Familiar through the years, U nfaltering— undaunted, In spite of idle sneer, He strove where sickness haunted The shadowed vale of tears. Not on the scene of battle, W here men their brothers slay, Urged on like soul-less cattle, In some unequal fray; But marching calm and steady, Determined to obey, W ith splint and bandage ready, The needs of every day. A leader’s part fulfilling By labour all inspired, His spirits ever willing O f good works never tired. From trust like his when started Responsive trust is fired ; And comrades human hearted Charles Adlem most desired. Although we did not know him, The triumph he has won Calls plainly that we owe him Man’s greatest praise— “ W ell done !” Be true to him, my brothers ! Fame has no brighter son; He gave his life for others— A martyr of St. John ! Sergt. T

om

Clarke.

W h en corresponding w ith Advertisers please mention “ First A i d .”

T h e W est London and W est London Extension R a il­ way A m bulance Class held their fourth annual competition for the challenge shield and cup, the former being exhibited in the booking-hall on the up platform at Addison-road station on N ovem ber 2nd. T h e examination was held by Dr. Carvel. T h e challenge shield was won by No. 1 team F. Steward, V . Steward, W. W oodward, H . H ullard (capt.), and A. R e a d e r ; three teams competed. The silver challenge cup was won by G. D oughty from nine other com petitors. Both cup and shield will be presented by Dr. E. W ool Lewis, at the annual concert to be held at the G rove H all, Ham m ersm ith, on D ecem ber 5th. G. E. R .— T here is every prospect o f a successful season on this System, new classes having been started at the following stations :— Broxbourne, Doncaster, Sbenfield and Stratford Coaching, whilst continuation classes for those who passed the first aid exam ination in previous years are also being held at various points. M em bers of the C entre held them selves in readiness to render first aid when the troops entrained in connection with the military manoeuvres in E ast Anglia, and also at the disastrous floods in Norfolk, which occurred last summer. In the locom otive departm ent the promotion of Mr. A. J. H ill to be C h ief L o co Superintendent will ensure a continuance o f the encouragem ent of am bulance work in a large departm ent o f the railway, com prising over 10,000 workers, som e o f which are stationed at most of the towns and large villages in E ast Anglia. Mr. H ill is Hon. Serving Brother of the Order of St. John, and a medallion holder o f the Association. G. W. R .— T h e current issue o f the “ Great Western Railw ay M agazine ” contains much which should be of interest to that large section of the C om pany’ staff who are “ first aiders ” ; in fact, after a perusal of the article on “ T h e A m bulance M ovem ent,” by Messrs. H adley and Chapm an, one really wonders if there are any Great Western em ployes who have not taken up am bulance work in view of all the encouragem eut that is offered for them to do so. T h e Com pany give every assistance to the staff in obtaining am bulance knowledge, and the fact that it has now been decided that members of the staff who successfully pass the third examination and thereby qualify for the m edallion reward, shall have the fact recorded to their credit in their service histories, should give the am bulance men much gratification and increase the interest which the staff already take in this humanitarian work. W e heartily com m end the article to the notice of all our G reat Western readers. W e frequently have to report prowess in the com ­ petition arena by G .W .R . men, but probably no success is more com m endable than that o f W. W ilkins, of the carriage department, Swindon, who secured the “ G rant ” medal in com petition at the P olytechnic Insti­ tute on the 26th ult., particularly when it is remembered that the com petition was this year not confined to com-


— F I R S T

November, 1912.

petitors in the London arena, but thrown open to all holders of a first aid certificate. A most enjoyable entertainment was arranged at the Labour Institute in connection with the W hitland am bulance class on the 2nd inst. Mr. W. Thom as, D .C ., presided over a goodly com pany and opened the proceedings with a felicitous speech in which he paid tribute to all concerned with the am bulance m ove­ ment. T h e awards gained by the class members were distributed by Nurse Edwards, who also handed to Dr. Rowland Thom as (Lecturer) a handsome cigar and cigarette case on behalf of the class. In thanking the members for their gift, Dr. Thom as said it was a great pleasure to him to have had the opportunity of imparting tuition to a class so anxious to obtain proficiency. H e had been congratulated by several examiners on the excellent knowledge of their subject possessed by the class. B R IG H T O N W in n e r s

of

th e

L O C O M O T IV E D ir e c to r s

AID. —

85

being carried on in connection therewith. During the evening Mr. F. W . Parker, who has acted as Instructor since the inauguration of the class, was handed a large photograph of the members as a mark o f recognition of his zeal in connection with the class.

L. B. & S. C . R y .— T he annual concert and prize distribution o f awards and prizes gained in the Brighton district, also the presentation of the D irectors’ C hallen ge C u p and prizes took place at the Q u een ’s M em orial H all. Brighton, on N ovem ber 5th. T h e Rt. H on. the Earl of Bessborough, Chairm an o f the Brighton Railw ay Com pany, President o f the L. B. A m bulance Centre and K n igh t o f G race o f the Order of St. John, presiding, supported by the M ayor o f Lewes, the M ayor and M ayoress of W orthing, Drs. W iggins, W orthing ; W. A. Dow, Lew es ; J. Shardow, B rig h to n ; Mr. L. B. Billenton, L o co S u p t.; Mr. A. H. TEAM ,

C h a lle n g e

L.B. Cup

& and

S.C.

R A IL W A Y .

S ilv e r

M e d a ls ,

1912.

Dr. J. Shadlow. W. L. Girling (Dis. Sec.). W. C. Townshend. P. E. Lewery. T. Tapner (Capt.). D. H. Puttick. T h e presentation o f certificates, & c., to the success­ ful students of the B ala Class took place at the on the 5th inst., when a most enjoyable evening was spent. T h e awards were distributed by D eputy Superintendent Morgan, who has beeu associated with am bulance work for a great number of years. T h e members of the T orre am bulance class recently assembled at the station for the purpose of pre­ senting through the station-master, Mr. Smale, a silvermounted walking stick to Dr. W ightwick (Lecturer) and a tobacco pouch to Mr. M erton in appreciation o f their invaluable services to the class. Th e annual dinner in connection with the Halesowen am bulance class was held on the 12th ult. when Mr. Alfred H om fray presided and presented the awards gained by the members in examination. Dr. Thom son (Lecturer) spoke in warmest praise o f the ambulance m ovement and the excellent work which was

Panter, Carriage Supt. ; R . L. W hitworth, D istrict G oods S u p t.; T . R . Jackson, S to re k e e p e r; Mr. B. K . Field, L o co W orks M anager ; Mr. J. Petri, D istrict E n g in eer; Mr. J. K in g, C entre Secretary, L ond on Bridge, and Mr. W. L. G irling, D istrict Secretary. A first-class musical program m e was provided by some o f B righton’s most popular artists, and was much appre­ ciated by an audience that packed the hall. During an interval the Earl of Bessborough presented Messrs. W. O dd, H a v a n t; S. H . Sellw ood, W. W o rth in g ; D. M eguell, L e w e s; C. H . Green, N ew h a v e n ; D. r ’ G rounds and R. C. W hite, Brighton, the certificates, vouchers, m edallions and labels for their respective classes, totalling 162 ; and to Brighton L oco the D irectors’ C h allenge Cup, a silver m edal and 20s. per man ; N ew Cross L o co Team , 14s. per man : Brighton L o co B Team , 8s. per man. T h e D irectors' C hallen ge C up has been com peted


86

— F I R S T

for 13 times and won by a Brighton L oco T eam 8 times a n d N ew Cross 5 times. In the Junior Section, his Lordship presented Newhaven Team with 12s. per m an ; V ictoria No. 2, 10s. per man ; Brighton Carriage No. 1, 8s. per man ; H orley, 6s. per man ; W est R iding, 4s. per man and Lew es 2s. per man. In the District Individual Com petition prizes to the value o f ; £ i o 10s., given without solicitation by the Officers o f the C om pany in the district for their respective departments, were presented by his Lordship, the Silver C hallenge Cup, with a special prize o f 21s. value, falling to Mr. S. J. W atkins, o f the Brighton Carriage Departm ent, this being Mr. W atkins’ second win in three years. In proposing a vote o f thanks to the Earl of Bess­ borough, Mr. W . L. Girling, the Brighton D istrict Secretary, said that som e years back he heard his lordship say that he w ished to com e in closer contact with the rank and file of the C om pany’s servants. H e had approached his lordship through their General M anager— Mr. Wm. Forbes (whose absence, they regretted, through indisposition)— they had with them the chairm an they wished for. It was one of the speaker’s pet ideas that the more officers and men could meet and rub shoulders the better they would know and appreciate each other and there would be less friction. On b ehalf of the am bulance men, not of Brighton only— but o f the whole system, he thanked their chairman for his presence. Before resuming his seat, Mr. G irling said that with such a body of splendid lecturers (his were all of the first class) and with such unselfish support from all the C om pany Officers, he had a lot to he thankful for and he begged that they would all accept his thanks. T h e Earl o f Bessborough addressed the gathering as his “ fellow workers on the Brighton L in e,” expressed his warm approval o f the work done by the C entre in general and in the com petition in particular. H is lordship noted the excellent work done by Messrs. K in g and Girling, and also expressed the thanks o f the R ailw ay C om pany to the doctors for all they did to teach the men, and he took the opportunity o f saying that the Board o f Directors were thoroughly in sym pathy with them, so that they could feel that they were working together for a com m on ob ject— the good o f the Railway. L. & N. W .R .— In connection with a recent class held at Cam den Station, a concert was held at the A delaide H otel, C halk Farm-road, on N ovem ber 6th, for the pur­ pose o f presenting the certificates, medallions, & c., to the 32 successful members. T h e chair was occupied by Mr. F. Haigh, who was supported by Mr. C . J. Hart, and Dr. C. J. R. M acFadden, the lecturer o f the class. During the evening, Mr. H aigh made mention of the splendid work that was done by the am bulance members, and he hoped they would receive every encouragem ent to continue the work. Dr. M acF adden was asked to respond to the toast of “ T h e V isitors,” which he did in his usual genial manner, and spoke very highly of the interest taken in the work by the members, many of whom are attached to the H am p­ stead D ivision o f the S.J.A .B . T h e Bartholom ew C hallenge C up was on view during the evening, having been won by the Cam den team in July last. An excellent programme was provided, and the thanks o f the class are due to the following gentlemen, who came forward and assisted to m ake the evening e n jo y a b le :— Messrs. E. Goddard, E. Liversedge, H . Green, W. Bunker,

AID. —

November, 1912.

Bert Pettitt, and Percy W right. Mr. R . W. Judd and Mr. F. M orley accom panied the singers. T h e C hairm an’s health was proposed by Mr. C . J. Hart, who also spoke of the hum ane work which is being done by the am bulance movement. W ith the singing of the N ational Anthem a very successful evening was brought to a close, but not before the com pany had expressed their high appreciation of the work done by Mr. Judd, class lecturer to the station, organiser of the concert, and one of the most energetic am bulance men in the Southern D ivision of the L. & N .W .R . S .E . & C. R y .— T he first aid work on the S.E . & C. R y. is now well in hand, and 47 classes are now meeting w eekly on various parts o f the line. T h e preliminary com petitions for the “ Dewar ” shield are now over, and the various districts will ,be represented as follows in the final com petition to be held at Caxton H all, Westminster, on W ednesday, D ecem ber 4th n e x t:— No. „ „ „ „ „

1 District 2 „ 3 „ 4 „ 5 >» 6 „ ,,7 j) „ 8 „ „ 9 „

... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Victoria No. 1. Bricklayer’s Arms Loco. No. 1. Tonbridge Loco. Sittingbourne. Hastings. 8ed Hill Station No. 1. Deal. Ashford Works United. Canterbury.

T h e com petition for the Ash and district Shield took place on the 23rd O ctober, when four teams com peted be­ fore Dr. H alliwell, o f Forest H ill, who placed them in the following o rd e r:— 1, A sh Railw ay T e a m ; 2, F rim le y ; 3, C am b erley; 4, Bagshot. A t the No. 2 D istrict Preliminary “ Dewar ” C o m ­ petition, held at Sevenoaks on Saturday, O ctober 6th, Mr. H . E. O. W heeler, the London D istrict Traffic Super­ intendent, who presided, accepted from the Rt. H on. Earl Stanhope a magnificent Shield, presented to the Centre by the residents of Sevenoaks, and a handsom e C up sub­ scribed for by the residents in the A bbey W ood District. Mr. W heeler stated it was a matter of profound satisfaction to them, not only as am bulance men, but as railway men, to know that they had the sym pathy and practical support o f the general public. It was a great encouragem ent in a work, which he ventured to call a work of noble art and a matter o f the greatest satisfaction, not only to the men concerned, but to the Directors and Officers o f the Railway Com pany. L ord Stanhope said the standard of work accom ­ plished that day was extraordinarily high. H e held very strong views as to the value o f am bulance work. It was one of the things that ought to be taught in the schools. H e had com m enced 15 years ago and passed his third examination five years back. H e considered that men who were members of the St. John A m bulance Association were o f real assistance in case of accident, and thus were of great service to the com m unity. H is Lordship in responding to a vote of thanks, said the public were delighted to know that the D irectors and Officers were working so whole-heartedly in the movem ent, and he wished the S .E . & C .R . the utmost success. H e could assure them that the general public much appreciated the first aid that was being undertaken by the Railway.

W h e n c o rre sp o n d in g w i t h A d v e r tis e r s ple ase m e n tio n “ F ir s t A id .”


— F I R S T

November, 1912.

AID. —

87

friends in D ublin, and in am bulance circles his loss will be greatly felt as he has been identified with the St John A m b u lan ce Association in D ublin for a great num ber o f years. U pw ards o f 20 years ago he was Secretary o f the D ublin C en tre o f the Association and was one of the first am bulance classes in this City. H e was a man much respected and his genial kindly m anner endeared him to his many friends.

C o lo n ia l N e w s . D u b l i n . — T h e season has once more com e round for am bulance work and it is very gratifying to see such large classes all round. T h e new lecturers, Dr. A. E. Wynne^ belonging to the C ity of D ublin Division, is going strong, and D r T Mather Thom son could not possibly keep the interest o f the City of D ublin Nursing Division in keener style. M uch work has been done during the year, early in June some o f the ladies with their superintendent went to Windsor, a

CAM DEN

GOODS

S T A T IO N ,

“A”

A t the last general m eeting o f the E xecutive C om ­ mittee o f the Transvaal C entre o f the Association, Mr. E. C . L ow e was appointed honorary secretary. In conn ec­ tion with the brigade work, the Assistant-Com m issioner of the Transvaal district has appointed Mr. V . E. Davis, C h ief Inspector, South African Railw ays, to act in the capacity o f district secretary. TEAM ,

L. &

N.W .

R A IL W A Y .

This team were the successful winners of the Bartholomew Challenge Cup Competition this year. sight never to be forgotten, and, although a trying ordeal, none would have missed it. U pon the return home, a very good display of the various divisions, with their medical officers, assem bled in Lord Iveagh’s grounds, when the K in g’s medal was presented by Mr. Justice R oss to all those on duty during T heir Majesties visit to Dublin. T h e ladies have been particularly busy on duty at all the functions during the summer and rendering first aid whenever required. Mrs. R obinson is now preparing a theatrical play, to be given, in aid o f the funds, at the Irish theatre during the winter, and it is so hoped the public will rally round with their usual kindness and show their appreciation of the work by being present. St. John classes are held all over the C ity and in Trinity C ollege and in the near future it is to be hoped details of the country work will be given. T h e death of Mr. Arthur Benson, F .R .C .S .I., Fitzwilliam-place, D ublin, has com e as a shock to his many

A t a divisional m eeting o f the South African Railw ay C orps held on Sept. 26th at Johannesberg, Corps Supt. V . E. Davis presented Dr. T . K err-B ell (H on. Surgeon o f the Brigade) with ^ silver entree dish. In m aking the presentation, Corps Supt. D avis spoke highly o f the work and interest the hon. surgeon took in the division and also to the success o f this year’s first aid class o f lectures at which 36 out o f 39 mem bers were successful in passing the exam iner, and asked the hon. surgeon to accept the present from the members o f the class to which he had lectured. Dr. T . Kerr-Bell in accepting of the present, thanked the members for their very great kindness, also the Brigade members who had helped to m ake the recent class a success by their assistance in the practical part o f the work.

W

A N T E D , several secondhand or new boy’s stretchers; state price.— Bartlett, Percy-terrace, Leamington.


88

— F I R S T

B r e v it ie s . remarks at the meeting of the M iddlesex Voluntary A id Organisation point forcibly to those interested in the work, the usefulness of the training which they undergo, and they further point that by a purely voluntary force undertaking these duties the nation

S ir

R

ic h a l d

T

e m p l e ’s

is being relieved of considerable taxation which would otherwise be im posed upon it by the creation o f a per­ manent m edical force of sufficient strength necessary to meet any contingencies which might arrive. Sir R . T em p le’s re­ marks should have wide publicity, for, com ing from a man o f such experience, they should impress upon the general public the necessity to support V oluntary A id Work. * * *

T h e first aid treatm ent of wounds with iodine has for som e time been recognised as the best and most satis­ factory means o f preventing septic infections. A great

difficulty, however, exists in carrying iodine in the first aid o u tfit; if carried in a bottle it will nearly invariably escape and saturate the other contents, leaving only em pty bottle when most needed for use. T o overcom e this difficulty Messrs. P hillip Harris & Co., o f Birmingham, have put up iodine in a form which should prove of use to all first aiders. T w en ty minims o f tincture of iodine is enclosed in a fine glass capsule, which is then covered in a layer of lint ; when needed, the glass is broken by a tap on anything hard, or by bursting between the fingers. T h e iodine saturates the lint and can be applied by brush­ ing the lint over the affected part. T h e capsule can be safely carried in the po cket or first aid outfit. * * * M i n e Inspector H eckm aun, of H alle (Germ any), has devised a contrivance which will m ake it possible to avoid fire-damp catastrophes in collieries. T h e invention, it is claim ed, autom atically analyses mixtures of gas and registers on a clock dial their com position, as well as the speed of their currents. B y means of this device it is said that the changes which take place in the atm osphere of the workings of the mine can at any moment be ascertained. * * *

have received a copy o f the 6th edition o f C ollie and W ightm an’s “ First Aid in A ccid en ts.” T his little book has been adopted as the official text book of the St. P atrick’s Am bulan ce Association. T h e ch ief additions to the new edition are over 20 new illustrations, which now W

e

num ber 74, with 3 coloured plates. M ost o f these illus­ trations are from actual photographs, and show very clearly the disposition o f bandages, & c. In addition, a table of cases of insensibility, a sim plified chapter on the treatment of poisons, a chapter of V .A .D . and the stretcher exercises have been brought into line with the last edition o f the R .A .M .C . manual. It is a com prehensive little book, carefully prepared, and should prove o f use to all first aiders. T h e price is 9d.

AID. —

November, 1912.

T h e London Gazette contains an Order in C oun cil under the Pharm acy A ct, prescribing that from 1st May

next the liquid preparation sold as carbolic, carbolic acid, carbolic substitutes, or carbolic disinfectants, containing not more than 3 per cent, of phenols, must be labelled with the name o f the substance and the word “ poisonous,” and with the name and address o f the retailer. This will apply to a large num ber of disinfectants in every­ day use. * * * A t a meeting o f the London County C ouncil last month, Mr. H . L. Jephson asked whether it was a fact that the question of the provision o f an am bulance service for London had been before the General Purposes C om ­

m ittee for five-and-a-half years without any decision having been arrived a t ; and three-and-a-half years had elapsed since a departm ental com m ittee reported, and that no action had been taken thereon by the C ouncil. W hat explanation could be given for the delay on the part of the com m ittee in deciding whether to take action or not, and could an assurance be given that a full report would be brought to the C ouncil at o n ce ? Mr. H. J. Greenwood, chairman o f the com m ittee, replied that the matter had been before the com m ittee since 1901. In 1906 the C ouncil unsuccessfully prom oted legislation on the subject. T h e departm ental com m ittee issued its report in March, 1909, and in the same year the C ouncil was empowered by Parliam ent to establish an am bulance service for London if it thought fit. T h e General Purposes Com m ittee, were making exhaustive inquiries, and when its negotiations were concluded it would report to the Council. ■ * * * O

w in g

to the illegality o f Progressive W hist Drives,

the Deputy-Com m issioner o f the Prince of W ales’s Corps has withdrawn his consent to the holding of the W hist Drive which was fixed by the St. John’s Gate N ursing Division for N ovem ber 30th, in aid o f the Christm as charity. T h e function is therefore cancelled. *

* *

T h e annual distribution of garments, & c., to the pooi o f Clerkenw ell will take place at 6 p.m. on D ec. 1 8th, at

St. John’s Gate. T h e Land Superintendent and members of the D ivision will be very grateful for gifts of clothing, toys, cakes, & c., which should be sent to the Lady Supt., St. John’s Gate, Clerkenw ell, E .C . *

O

f f ic e r s

*

of the No. 6 D istrict were in conference at

N ewcastle on O ctober 26th, where they were the guests of the L ord Mayor. A bou t one hundred responded to the invitation. T h e D eputy-Com m issioner referred to a m ovem ent which was at present on foot to establish a B enevolent Fund members of the som ething o f this more fully in our

to assist the widows and dependents o f Brigade. W e should much like to see kind established, and will deal with it next issue.


— F I R S T

November, 1912.

L a n c a s h ir e a n d Y o rksh ire R a i l w a y . he second annual com petition of the A ccrington District was held in the A ccrington A m bulance Brigade D rill H all on N ovem ber 2nd, and proved very successful, over 200 people assem bling to witness the com ­ petition. Eight teams com peted, and Dr. J. M andell Coates, of Horwich, who officiated as judge, made his awards as follows :— 1st, Todm orden, 230 points ; 2nd, Accrington Loco, 190 ; 3rd, Accrington Passenger Corps, 1 8 7 ; 4th, D a rw en ; 5 th, B rierfield ; 6th, R osegrove T raffic; 7th, Ram sbottom ; 8th, Blackburn ; possible points 300. Best individual prize winners : 1st, Stuttard, D arw en ; 2nd, J. Jarrett, B n erfield ; 3rd, Anderson, D arw en ; 4th, G. Beevis, B rierfield ; 5th, J. Richards, Ramsbottom. Best reserve men 1st, T . Wilson, Todm orden, 39 ; 2nd, J. Berryman, Darwen, 35 ; possible points 40. Mr. Hargreaves, G oods Superintendent, presided and presented the prizes. H e took the opportunity to thank

T

TODM ORDEN

W

in n e r s

of th e

TEAM ,

Corps Supt. O gden, em phasised Assistant-Com missioner W hittaker’s remarks, and spoke o f the pleasure it gave them to see such interest being taken in first aid by railway men. T h e D istrict Com petition Secretary having arranged a T ea and Social at H olroyd’s, V icto ria Restaurant, Churchstreet, the com petitors and their wives and friends adjourned after the com petition. Am ongst those contri­ buting to an enjoyable entertainm ent were Messrs. R ic h ­ mond, Struttard, Skeel, Swarbrick, Cow ell, Jardine, H ar­ wood, Miss A . Cuncliffe and “ A ccrin gton ’s G reatest H um orist,” Mr. E m il Aspin. Signalm an T . Flint, of Rosegrove, presided over the Social, supported by Messrs. M. M. Harw ood, D istrict Com petition H onorary Treasurer, and J. Swarbrick, D is­ trict Com petition Secretary. T h e test was as follows :— Str etc h er T

est.

Card 1 .— You are working on a Station platform along L.

A c c r in g t o n D

the Accrington Am bulance Corps, for generously placing the drill hall at the disposal o f the railway am bulance men. Dr. Coates afterwards briefly reviewed the work, and the only criticism offered was that a few o f the men were too slow, and asked them to work hard to obtain a position amongst the honoured eight at the M anchester com petition. H e also com plim ented Asst.-Com m issioner L. W hittaker, and Corps Supt. Ogden, o f the Brigade, upon having such a splendid drill hall, saying it was more than ever they could hope to attain at Horwich. Mr. L. Whittaker, Asst.-Com m issioner, responded on behalf of the Brigade, and pointed out they were allowing the railwaymen to use the hall for the purpose for which it was built, being provided by public and private subscrip­ tion for the promotion and encouragm ent o f first aid. Mr. Nutter, L & Y . Centre Secretary, m oved a vote of thanks to Mr. Hargreaves for presiding, and Mr. Tetlow , C h ie f of the Accrington L o co Departm ent, seconded, and was supported by Mr. H igginbottom , Station Master, Darwen.

89

AID. —

&

Y.

is t r ic t

R A IL W A Y .

C o m p e t it io n s .

with your men when you hear a cry, and on looking round you see that this man has been knocked over by a truck. Card 2.— The man is dazed and complains of great pain in his right leg which is fractured. There is free arterial bleeding from a wound half an inch long just in front of the left ear. Method of approach Caution against movement ... Arrest of haemorrhage Steadying leg Head. Digital pressure below wound Examination for foreign body do. fracture Pad and dressing Bandage ... Caution against excitement in view of possible concussion Leg. Steady and support limb Question to judge as to nature of fracture Splints Bandages ...


go

— F I R S T Examine for further injuries ... Clothing loosened ... Patient covered Send for hot-water bottles ... Testing and application of hot-water bottles ... Fresh air (keep crowd back) ... Smelling salts, warm drinks, &c. Telephone for ambulance Preparation of stretcher Loading stretcher ... Patient well covered Enquire as to comfort Removal to waiting room pending arrival of ambulance Ascertain name and address Message home General smartness ...

1 2 2 2

3 3 5

2 1

7

2 2 10

I n d iv id u a l I n ju r ie s .

1- — Patient has fallen downstairs at his house and sustained a simple fracture of the lower end of the left humerus involving elbow joint :— Caution patient against movement ... Remove coat Place limb in comfortable position 53 On folded coats or pillows ... Ice or cold water Treat shock Send for doctor 2-— This man has bruised his left shoulder Remove coat Expose shoulder Ice or cold water ... 102 W itch hazel Shoulder bandage ... Treat shock Take to doctor 3.— This youth’s right hand and arm have been badly burnt by oil of vitriol. Remove clothing carefully or Cut around with scissors Bathe with weak alkaline solution 103 Apply strips of lint or linen ... 104 Smeared with oil, vaseline, &c. W rap band in cotton wool or flannel Apply bandage Treat for shock, if present ... Send for doctor 4 -— Patient has been severely kicked on the right leg. There is a simple fracture of the tibia. Treat the case with the assistance of a youth who is standing near. Caution patient against movement Steady limb Extension ... Instructions to youth 60 Inner and outer splints Bandages ... Treat for shock Send for doctor 5.— This youth’s right foot has been run over by the wheels of a heavily laden vehicle, fracthring the metatarsal bones. Caution patient against movement Remove boot Padded splint to sole of foot 62 Bandage ... Support foot in raised position Treat shock Send for Doctor Q u e s t io n s .

1.— Give the signs, symtoms and treatment of a strain ? Sudden sharp pain Muscles swell, cramp Further exertion difficult Comfortable position Apply Support Hot-water bottles ... Hot fomentations ... 2.— In what cases of first aid would you use olive oil ? Burns and scalds ...

AID. —

November, 1912.

Quick lime in eye ... Steel in eye All poisons except phosphorus Insect in ear Swelling of tissues of throat 3.— Give the treatment for a person who has been drink­ ing boiling water. Sponge, &c., wrung out in hot water, to front of neck Place patient before the fire ... Ice or cold water by mouth ... Oils ................................................... If breathing has ceased, artificial respiration Send for doctor 4.— W hat signs and symptoms would you expect to find in the case of a person suffering from sunstroke ? Sickness ... ... ... ... ... 2 Faintness Giddiness Breathing difficult Patient complains of thirst D ry and burning skin Flushed face Pulse quick and bounding High temperature Stertorous breathing Insensibility 5-— What are the signs and symptoms of strychnine poisoning, and what treatment would you adopt in such a case ? Feeling of suffocation 3 Livid features 3 Convulsions 2 Patient rests on head and feet 3 Body arched 3 Give an emetic 3 Artificial respiration 3 R eserve M an .

Injury.— Patient suffering from simple fracture of the middle of the right humerus. No splints available. Caution against movement 3 Instruct patient to steady right arm with left hand 3 Small arm sling 3 Secure arm to body 3 Two broad bandages ... ... ... 3 Send for doctor 2 Treat for shock 3 Question.— A youth has eaten some bad mushrooms, what signs and symptoms would you expect to find ? Vomiting ... ... ... ... 3 Diarrhoea 3 Colic 3 Headache 3 Weakness 3 Raised temperature 3 Quick pulse 2

A d le m

M e m o r ia l

Fund.

h e Superintendent of the Bournem outh Division, S .J .A .B ., desires gratefully to acknow ledge donation from the follow­ ing who have generously responded to his appeal on behalf of the widow of the late Mr. C. A. A dlem , First Officer o f the above D ivision :— L s. d. Viscount Knutsford, G.C.M.G. 5 0 0 0 2 6 C. E. G. ........................... 0 2 6 H. J. Campion... 0 10 0 H. E. Down, S.J.A.B. 0 10 0 E. E. Street, S.J.A.B— 0 2 6 Anonymous ........................... 0 2 0 Nursing Division 1 1 0 I. Sharpe ........................... 1 0 0 M. J. Roker ........................... 0 2 6 M. L. C la y to n ........................... 0 3 0 J.A.S., W .H .S., F.A.S.,

T


— F I R S T

November, 1912

S t.J o h n

V o lu n t a r y Aid O r g a n is a t io n .

A m e e t i n g o f the County of M iddlesex Voluntary Aid Organisation was held at the W estm inster C ity H all, on O ctober 28th, Lord Cheylesm ore presiding, and amongst those present were Sir R ichard Tem ple, Sir Reginald H ennel, Sir William Crum p, Surgeon-General J. P. Greany, M ajor Greer, Col. Sir J. and Mrs. Andrew Clark, C olonel E. J. King, M ajor A. M oyes, Mrs. G ilfrid Craig, and Mr. Darvil-Smith, Honorary Organising Secretary of the County. T h e Organising Secretary reported that the Voluntary A id work in the County was progressing favourably although slowly. During the past year much spade work had been done and he hoped shortly to reap the benefit in the form o f detachments. In all twenty-five classes had been held since the Organisation started and while only four detachments had been com pleted and registered there were seven in process o f formation and two or three which he hoped Units o f the St. John A m bulance Brigade in the County would see their way to form. T h e only thing he regretted was that the m ovem ent was not meeting with the W EST

H ARTLEPOOL

AID. —

9i

T h e adoption o f the R eport was unanim ously carried on the proposal o f the Chairm an, seconded by Sir W illiam Crum p. Sir R ich ard T em p le spoke on the necessity and im­ portance of V oluntary Aid. H e said the Territorial Force had been form ed to assist the regular arm y in the defence of this country in case o f attack. T h e Arm y C oun cil has made certain official arrangem ents to m eet the situation in the form of the Territorial R .A .M .C ., and it is to meet the very great and urgent necessities o f the sick and wounded in as com plete a form as possible that they have asked the public to assist. I f such aid is not forthcom ing the only alternative is the creation o f a Perm anent M edical Force of such strength as would be an unquestionably heavy additional burden on the taxpayer. T h e Arm y C ouncil has therefore relied on the patriotism of the nation to avoid such a necessity as it has relied on patriotism in creating the Territorial Force itself. O ne cannot help urging the consideration o f the necessity, im portance and public benefit of such a body as yourselves to all who have the cause of hum anity at heart. But this is not the only reason for prom oting the organisation o f voluntary aid. T h e Arm y

N U R S IN G

D IV IS IO N ,

S.J.A.B.

Improvised Hospital constructed at the Inspection by Lieut.-Col. Copeland on October 29th, Mrs. Coverdale in charge. financial support essential to its success. T h e U xbridge Centre, under the presidency of L ad y H illingdon, had so far been the most active and successful one in the County. At this Centre eleven classes in first aid and nursing had been held and over, 260 ladies had attended them. O ne complete D etachm ent had been formed with Miss Eleanor Warrender, who is at present working in the military hospitals in G reece with the French R ed Cross, as com ­ mandant, while two are in process of formation. Centres had already been established at Ealing, Harrow, Golders Green, and were now being started at H ornsey, Enfield, Hampton and Hounslow. In conclusion, the Secretary expressed his appreciation and thanks to all who had so loyally and devotedly assisted the m ovement in the County ; to the medical men for giving the necessary instruction, and to the Press for their valuable help in making known the m ovem ent in the County. T h ere was a great deal to be done and he especially appealed for active and financial support to enable the m ovement to be brought to a satisfactory issue and the County o f M iddlesex to take its place amongst the leading Counties in England.

C ouncil has in mind also the im m ense educational value of the work involved in creating efficient V .A .D ’s. E very man or woman cannot help being interested in the Territorial Force and that is good. E very man or woman cannot help learning through first aid and nursing, involved in the training of V oluntary A id, much that is of the greatest use in daily life both in the hom e and outside it. It will then be seen that V oluntary A id forms a most im ­ portant and far reaching elem ent in the general education o f this country. It is an object thoroughly well worth prom oting and for that reason alone. So much, indeed, is the A m bulance D epartm ent o f the Order o f St. John, which is concerned with the subject, impressed with its general im portance that one cannot help hoping that the Education Com m ittees o f this C ounty will see their way to promoting V oluntary A id in their districts by organising classes, giving grants in aid and by other means at their disposal. N ow let me urge upon you that efficient D etachm ents are not form ed in a day if they are to be of real service in such a time of trouble as an invasion. I f they are to be then anything but a hindrance and a painful exam ple of incapacity and ignorance o f the things that


92

F I R S T

matter they must be organised and sufficiently trained in peace. T h e im portance of m aking every preparation in peace cannot be too strongly brought to your notice, and, through you, to the notice of all whom you think are likely to join in this great work of real m ercy and education in a practical direction. T h e m eeting concluded with a vote o f thanks to L ord Cheylesm ore and Sir R ichard T em p le on the proposal o f C ol. Sir James Andrew Clark.

T h e W ar Office inspection o f St. John V .A .D . (H an ts 152) form ed from the Calm ore Nursing Division, S .J .A .B ., was made by M ajor Dunn, R .A .M .C ., on O ct. 9th. C ol. the H on. and Mrs. E. A. P alk very kindly placed the lawn, & c., o f L ittle Testw ood H ouse at its disposal. T h e B oy Scouts from Capt. Sloane Stanley’s Division gave a display and acted as wounded and other patients. T h ese were collected from the lawn by the Testw ood Division, S .J .A .B ., who hope shortly to be strong enough to be registered as a V .A .D ., and carried, after first aid had been rendered, to a tent prepared for their tem porary recep­ tion on the lower part of the grounds. M eantim e a cottage had been fitted up as a tem porary hospital and thence som e of the cases were transported. T h e V .A .D . having been inspected by the officer as to their turn out, he was conducted to the hospital by the H on. Mrs. P alk, Com m andant. O ne room was fitted up as a four bed ward, one was the kitchen with range com ­ plete, and the other necessary fittings, & c., were also dis­ played in this miniature hospital. T h e members then were tested as to nursing enteric and rheum atic fever and in first aid work, while in the kitchen the cooks prepared custard puddings, beef tea, &c. A t the conclusion of his inspection M ajor Dunn con ­ gratulated the V .A .D . and the Hon. Mrs. Palk and Dr. E. Anderson, H on. Surgeon Calm ore Division, on the way in which the work had been done. T h is division, though less than a year in existence, have an excellent record. It was present at the review by H is M ajesty at Windsor, was on duty at W inchester when T h eir M ajesties visited that ancient city and elsewhere have proved both their efficiency and zeal. W e hope soon to hear o f the W .O . inspection o f the mens’ V .A .D . at Testw ood, but would point out to those in authority that if a mens’ V .A .D . consisted o f one com m an­ dant, one quartermaster, four section leaders, 24 members and, if procurable, a m edical officer and a pharm acist in addition, there would not be the great disparity between the num ber o f m ens’ and the num ber o f wom ens’ V .A .D . which at present exists and hampers the efficiency o f the movement. A first aid class is held at the Parish Room , Brom pton C hurch, S.W ., on T uesdays at 3.30 p.m. A home nursing class will be held at 20, Thurloe-square, S.W ., on Thursdays at 3 p.m. Mrs. Edward Lascelles, 20, Thurloe-square, will be glad to hear from any ladies wishing to join either o f these classes. T h e fee for either class is 5s., which includes six lectures and the exam ination. T h e N ew Cross L adies V oluntary A id D etachm ent gave a small but interesting display in the large hall o f the N ortham pton Institute on O ct. 2nd, to the members o f the newly form ed detachm ent there and others interested,

AI D. —

November, 1912.

including representatives from the Borough Polytechnic, where it is proposed to form a similar detachm ent. Am ongst those present were Dr. and Mrs. R . M ullineux Walmsley, Dr. A. Gertrude Grogan, C ap t. N. Hadow, Miss A lice M. T u ck (the L ad y Supt.), and the hon. County Secretary. A temporary hospital with beds was improvised and seven nurses under the charge of Miss F. M ay carried out the various duties. In the absence o f men, the nurses improvised a stretcher with poles and canvas and conveyed two cases to the temporary hospital, viz., a bullet wound in the knee with arterial bleeding and a fractured clavicle. T h ese cases were treated on the spot and conveyed to the hospital, where they were treated and exam ined by Dr. Grogan. A further case was treated, viz., a motor car acciden t— man suffocated with "petrol fumes, after which their was an exhibition o f roller bandaging. T h e nurses performed their work very satisfactorily and were afterwards entertained by the L ad y Superintendent o f the Institute.

The

P o ly t e c h n i c A m b u l a n c e C o m p e titio n s.

O n Saturday, Oct. 26th, the Polytechnic held its annual am bulance com petitions in the main building at 309, Regent-street, when the “ W illiam H e y w o o d ” Shield and the “ G ra n t” M edal were com peted for. N ine teams pre­ sented them selves for exam ination in connection with the former, and sixteen individual com petitors in connection with the latter. • A ll the teams and individual com petitors did extrem ely good work and the exam ination which they had to undergo was a very arduous one. T h e spacious gym nasium was set aside for stretcher work while the new F yvie H all was used for practical work, and many o f the larger class rooms were set aside for individual work, bandaging, & c. T h e following m edical gentlem en were kind enough to act as honorary exam in ers:— Drs. J. M. Carvell, J. Forbes, M. K . Hargreaves, A. Kingsford, M cClure, Muller. Patterson, B. Potter, H . P. Potter, F. Warwick, J. Williams, J. Woods. T h e com petition throughout was a most interesting one, and below are given the names of the teams which secured the first, second and third places, viz.:— (1) Silver­ wood C olliery Branch, St. John A m bulance A sso cia tio n ; (2) Ham pstead, No. 20 D ivision ; (3) South M etropolitan Gas Co. In addition to the shield, the members o f the team which secured first place were also awarded medals, and the teams which cam e in second and third had medals only. In the case o f the “ G r a n t” M edal the following com petitors were declared winners and were awarded m ed als:— 1st, W. W ilkin s; 2nd, G. T . R o b in so n ; 3rd, W. J. Brown ; 4th, B. Goodyer. A t the conclusion o f the com petition Mr. Studd, President of the P olytechnic, presented the shield and medals to the winning team and successful competitors, congratulating them at the same time on the excellence of their work. Mr. H eyw ood, the generous donor of the shield, was present and assisted very m aterially in carrying out all the arrangements in connection with the competitions.

W hen corresponding w ith A d vertisers p lease m en ­ tion “ F ir st A id .”


Novem ber, 1912

— F I R S T

BRITISH

A ID . —

RED CROSS SOCIETY.

COUNTY OF LONDON Notes and News. A lth ough this country is in no way involved in the Balkans conflict, the nation sense of hum anity could not be indifferent to the fact that a vast am ount of suffering was bound to accom pany the struggle and that public feeling was that something should be done to alleviate the sufferings o f the wounded. N aturally any assistance which was given should com e through the British R ed Cross Society, and we congratulate it on the satisfactory way in which it has effectively carried out its duties. * *

For carrying out this work a M edical R e lie f Com m ittee was formed, it comprises the following members :— Sir Frederick Treves, Bart, (chairman), the D uchess o f M ont­ rose, the Marchioness of Londonderry, Georgiana Countess of Dudley, and the L ad y Wantage. *

*

93

*

T h e com m ittee organised the Balkan R ed C ross D etach­ ments, each o f which com prises a personnel o f 18, made up of three medical officers, three dressers (m edical students), six nursing orderlies (one acting as sergeant-major), five general duty orderlies, and one cook. T h ey are required to sign a contract for six months and undertake to wear service uniform, which is supplied free, as are also ordinary boots, and, if specially ordered, india-rubber boots also. In addition, before embarking, each man is provided with brassard, haversack (fitted), mess tin (cavalry), water bottle, clasp knife, sweater (or knitted waistcoat), three flannel shirts, three pairs socks, two pairs drawers, one blanket, one waterproof sheet (in which to roll the previous articles), and a first field dressing. T h e rates of pay are a day for the m edical officers, jQ 2 per week for the dressers and for the sergeant-major, 30s. per week for nursing orderlies and for the cook, and 25s. a week for the general duty orderlies. I f rations cannot be given, 5s. a day will be allowed in lieu o f them. M edical officers are supplied with a copy o f Spencer’s “ M ilitary Surgery,” of the R .A .M .C . Training Manual, and o f the Schem e for the Organisation o f V oluntary A id in E ngland and W ales. Candidates are selected by their professional knowledge and their physique, and they are allowed to make a choice as to the belligerent they would prefer to serve with, but no man is eligible for service if he is a reservist.

BRANCH.

It is anticipated that the next V oluntary A id C o n fer­ ence will be held in L ondon in 1913, and it is possible that it will be instituted as an annual gathering, for the delegates are agreed that Exeter was a pronounced success and much valuable information was dissim inated which should be of material benefit to advance the work. T h e E xecutive Com m ittee o f the D evonshire Branch is to be congratulated on the satisfactory arrangements it made for the reception and com fort o f the delegates. * * *

W hy is London so backward in the matter o f provid ing an adequate building to be solely devoted to first aid work. T h e lack o f some central building must be severely felt, and it is astonishing that we are so much behind Continental cities in this respect. Berlin has a m agnificent building with lecture halls, museum, library, and other accom m odation solely used for am bulance work, it not only makes a lasting advertisem ent, but also serves a useful purpose. Som e generous donor should com e forward and provide London with such a building for this purpose. * * * T h e schem e of “ Progressive T raining ” o f the London Branch, which was started in O ctober, is making good progress. Already 37 members are taking the course and it is anticipated that others will com e forward and avail them selves of gaining greater proficiency in V oluntary Aid work. * * * T h e County Secretary informs us that there are one or two vacancies for com m andant o f W om en D etachm ents. Persons of organising ability and a little leisure time should find these positions congenial in a useful field o f work. * * * A dance will be held at Battersea, on Tuesday, January 14th, in aid of the funds o f the D ivision. T ickets are 5s. each and can be obtained from the H on. Secretary, Miss Paton, 59, W est Side, W andsworth Com m on, S.W . *

* * T h e latest return o f the C ounty o f London Branch show that the strength of the Branch to be 50 D etachm ents com posed of 46 women, with 1,272 members, and four m en’s with 182 mem bers— making a total o f 1,354.

* * *

* * *

Already the British R ed Cross Society has despatched six such detachments to the seat of war, one to M onte­ negro, two to Greece, and three to Turkey. It is estimated that each unit has been equipped at a cost o f from ,£ 1,2 50 t0 ^ I>5 00) whilst its m aintenance for a month may be calculated at a cost o f ^ 4 0 0 ,

A public meeting will be held at Paddington Tow n H all, on D ecem ber 4th, at 8.30 p.m., for the purpose of inaugurating a Division in the B orough of Paddington. A lecture will be given by Dr. Sandwith, and speakers will be P. Harris, Esq., M .P., R ev. Prebendary F. Gurdon, and M ajor H . J. Stafford, the C ou n ty Secretary.


94

— F I R S T

D iv isio n a l R

eports

by

C olon el

R eports.

V alentine

Matthews,

C o u n ty

D irector :— L o n d o n 10 6 V .A .D .— T h is D etachm ent formed b y ladies connected with the Officers’ T raining Corps is num erically strong containing thirty-six members, of whom twenty-seven were present at the inspection. T h e D etachm ent appears to have suffered somewhat from two changes of com m and. It is fortunate in having one of its former com m andants as m edical officer (supernumerary), and in having three fully trained nurses, all of whom give instruction to the members of the D etachm ent. The members o f the D etachm ent have a fair know ledge of first aid and hom e nursing, and will, with further practice and experience, becom e an efficient unit. T h e officers should acquaint them selves with their respective duties, so as to be able to readily take them up on mobilisation. I would suggest the attendauce o f individual members at som e H ospital, and that as many as possible should obtain certificates in cooking. C om bined practices at places other than the ordinary place o f instruction, should be held as often as opportunity permits.

L o n d o n 5, V .A .D .— T h is D etachm ent was registered on the 30th August, 19 11. T h e num ber of members shown on the inspection return is 35, of whom 8 only were present at inspection. E ighteen members only possess certificates in first aid. T h e proportion of members present at the inspection, and the proportion holding certificates, can hardly be regarded as satisfactory, and the standard in first aid is not, in my opinion, as high as it should be. I am inform ed that the D etachm ent did civil am bu­ lance work on several occasions during the last year. I strongly advise that this D etachm ent be inspected at a much earlier date next year, when it is hoped that the proportion of members present at the inspection, and the standard o f efficiency attained, will be greatly im p ro ved ; otherwise I fear that the Inspecting Officer will hardly feel justified in recom m ending its retention on the list of Voluntary A id D etachm ents registered at the W ar Office.

L o n d o n 8, V .A .D .— T h is detachm ent was registered on the 1 Sth April, 1912. T h e num ber o f members shown on the inspection return is 25, of whom only five were pre­ sent at inspection O nly 15 members hold certificates in first aid and three in hom e nursing, and in my opinion the standard obtained even by those who hold certificates is not sufficiently high. I understand that arrangem ents will shortly be com ­ pleted for the proper organisation and instruction o f this D etachm ent, and I consider that it should be inspected much earlier in the year next year, when I hope that the num ber of its members holding the necessary certificates and the standard o f efficiency may be such as to justify the retention o f this D etachm ent am ongst those registered at the W ar Office through this Association. L o n d o n 98 V .A .D .— T h is D etachm ent was registered cn N ovem ber 17th, 19 11. T h e num ber of members shown on the inspection return is 21, o f whom three only were present at the inspection. I understand that the

AID. —

November, 1912.

com m andant and many of its members have recently resigned. O nly two members appear to have certificates in nursing, although the D etachm ent was registered last year. U nder these circum stances I recom m end that this D etach­ ment be either absorbed in another Detachm ent, or, if it still wishes to remain registered as a D etachm ent by itself, the standard o f efficiency next year must be very consider­ ably higher. T h e Inspection also next year should take place much earlier in the year.

V o lu n t a r y Aid

Congress a t Exeter.

A V o l u n t a r y A id Congress was held at Exeter on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd of Novem ber. Invitations were sent to each o f the County Branches o f the British R ed Cross Society to send six delegates, and all who cam e were most hospitably entertained by Exeter residents. T h e programme of the Congress included the final com petition for the “ Mason ” C hallen ge Cup, receptions at the Rougem ent H otel and the Tow n H all, a public meeting at the Barnfield H all, a County display, an exhi­ bition o f equipm ent, the presentation of prizes by H .R .H . Princess H enry o f Battenburg and, finally, on Sunday a special service at the Cathedral, attended by the M ayor and Corporation. D elegates cam e from 38 Counties and the discussion which took place showed the keen interest taken all over England in V oluntary A id work. On Friday evening the Barnfield H all was full of people anxious to hear speeches made by Surgeon-General Sir L auncelotte Gubbins, D irector-General o f the Arm y M edical S e r v ic e ; E. A. Ridsdale, Esq., Chairm an o f the E xecutive Com m ittee of the British R ed Cross Society ; and Captain F. C olchester W emyss, C ounty D irector for Gloucestershire. T h e M ayor of Exeter took the chair and opened the meeting with some appropriate remarks on the work of the Society, and the duty o f every man and woman to help on this great international movement for the service' o f the sick and wounded in war time. Surgeon-General G ubbins spoke of it from the point o f view of the War Office, stating that it was im possible to make a grant towards the expenses of Voluntary Aid D etachm ents. H e considered that women gained a great deal by their training, and that the War Office gave as much as they could afford in the free service of inspecting officers. Mr. Ridsdale told of some of the work done lately by the British R ed Society on behalf o f T urkey and the Balkan States, and quoted from L a Chronique de Froeschwiller, showing the im m ense need for V oluntary A id work in case of war. H e also laughingly referred to the difficulty o f controlling the Branches of the British R ed Cross Society, as they all seem ed to prefer managing their own affairs. Captain C olchester W em yss spoke on behalf of the V oluntary A id movement, insisting on the need for financial aid either from the British R ed Cross Society,or from the W ar Office. H is reference to Mr. R id sd ale’s statement that Branches preferred to manage their own affairs pro­ duced much merriment and applause. H e urged that they had been reduced to that by the lack of interest shown at headquarters and by any schem e for them to follow. T h e meeting ended with votes o f thanks to the M ayor and the speakers.


November, 1912.

— F I R S T

Punctually at 10.30 on Saturday morning about 130 delegates met for the Conference. Mr. J. S. C. D avis, the County D irector for D evonshire, was in the chair, with Brig.-General Spragge, C .B ., Assistant County Director, as Deputy-Chairman. Before opening the proceedings, Mr. D avis introduced Colonel T albot, who wished to give an invitation for the Congress to be held in London at an Exhibition arranged for the furtherance o f public interest in things N aval and Military, to be held at Earl’s Court next year (1913). T h is was gracefully accepted. E ighteen items on the agenda were discussed, many o f which were o f vital im portance to the success of Red Cross operations. T h e general feeling seemed to be that Voluntary Aid Detachm ents were entitled to a far larger share of sympathy and more recognition by the War Office, and that the administration at headquarters in Victoria-street had failed to show the power o f organisation necessary for coping with so strong a movement as that which is now surging over the British Isles. A lso that the success o f this m ovem ent is due to individual enthusiasm, and that to make the best use of it in the future a definite schem e of work must be provided. A t present each County had to m uddle along, working out its own salvation in its own way, knowing nothing of the work o f other Counties, and with no idea o f their exact duties in the event of mobilisation. “ Let us know what we have to do, where we have to do it, and with whom we have to work.” T h is was the burden of each succeeding speaker. Col. M ackay, M .D ., A .D .S .M ., W essex Division, con­ sidered that there must be some understanding regarding discipline, and that unless V oluntary A id D etachm ents were under military discipline they could not be counted on to fulfil their duties upon mobilisation. Col. Soltau, M .D ., com m anding the 2nd W essex Field Am bulance, wished for more co-ordination between V oluntary A id D etachm ents and the R oyal Arm y M edical Corps, with a view to a better understanding of each others’ duties and greater efficiency o f Voluntary A id D etach­ ments for their very responsible duties in the evacuating zone. Brig.-General Spragge made every one laugh by his allusion to the bundles o f red tape supplied from head­ quarters, though nothing else was given. H e agreed with former speakers in thinking that under the present agree­ ment there would be absolute chaos on mobilisation, and it would take a long time before members settled down to their different duties, and before the inefficient and unfit were weeded out. A resolution was finally passed on the desirability of Voluntary A id D etachm ents being administered by the British Red Cross Society according to Territorial Force Divisions and organised by the War Office with reference to mobilisation and to lines of com m unication ; and on the need o f financial aid being given in peace time to V oluntary Aid D etachm ents by the War Office, and on the necessity of an adequate staff being provided by the W ar Office for the direction and training of V oluntary A id D etachm ents. Captain C olchester Wem yss spoke strongly in favour of financial aid being given by the W ar Office, and stated that it was ridiculous to suggest that members of Voluntary Aid D etachm ents would cease to be voluntary if they received a grant. It would only show that the War Office took them seriously. It was urged that financial aid spelt good-bye to inde­ pendence, and the resolution that help should be asked for

AID.

95

in the shape of instructors and material rather than money was carried. After further debate, a resolution was passed that all officers o f V oluntary A id D etachm ents should be given facilities for periodical instruction in a special school. A lively discussion on the practical training o f V o lu n ­ tary A id D etachm ents ensued, during which many delegates clam oured that hospitals should be induced to give this training, while others quoted instances o f this be­ ing already done. It was unanim ously decid ed that a certain am ount o f hospital experience was absolutely necessary if women were to be efficient to help nurses in time of war. Dr. Sandwith, Chairm an o f the C om m ittee o f the L ondon Branch, said he thought a great deal of the opposi­ tion offered by trained nurses to the adm itting o f members of Voluntary Aid D etachm ents to their wards due to these members calling them selves “ nurses ” instead o f realising that they were training to be the very hum ble helpers of nurses in any capacity that might be required o f them. It was resolved that the British R ed Cross Society should be asked to form ulate a schem e o f practical training for its members to be subm itted to the C om m ittee of Hospitals. T h e C onference seem ed to think it very necessary that the issue o f brassards and identity certificates should be placed in the hands of the C ou n ty A ssociations in order to save delay in their distribution on the outbreak o f war. It also suggested that the results of inspections should be sent to County Associations and Directors. It was stated that a C onference had been arranged between representative o f the St. John A m bulance A ssocia­ tion and the British R ed Cross Society to prom ote more friendly relations and more co-operation between the two bodies. T h e general impression gained at the C onference was that an im m ense am ount o f keenness is being shown all over the country in R ed Cross work, and that if the Voluntary A id D etachm ents receive their fair share of interest and attention from the W ar Office and from their own Central Com m ittee they would very soon be equal to the R ed Cross workers in other countries, and this great m ovem ent would be as strong a power for good in England as it is abroad. Space does not allow us to give a description o f the excellent display held by several detachm ents o f the Exeter Division. T h e y had about 100 patients com fort­ ably lying down in four rows along the V ictoria H all, and on the platform was a perfectly fitted operating theatre with two surgeons and several nurses and V oluntary A id members, dem onstrating preparation for the carrying out o f operations.

A n U n i q u e B o o k . — W e are pleased to announce that within a few days will be published an illustrated quarto booklet entitled “ Reminiscences of a Volunteer Fireman in Aus­ tralia and England,” by Capt. W alter Hitchcock, of which H.M. Queen Alexandra has graciously accepted an advance copy. Originally intended for private circulation only, the author has gladly offered the use of the copyright and the blocks if it be decided to issue it for sale (is.) the profits to be for the Bene­ volent Fund for Widows and Orphans of Firemen. The booklet, some forty pages, including many illustrations, is very well got up, and the contents being of actual experiences of the compiler on both sides of the world, will doubtless interest a wide circle of readers.


— F I R S T

96

TO

IVc are in

the

reason for this ? II so will you please explain, and thus oblige ?— Your’s, &c.,

.

M. F e n n e l l y .

no way resto n sib u fo r the opinions expressed, or the

statements made, by Correspondents.— E D IT O R S.

FRACTU RE

BASE OF T H E SK U LL. kindly inform me, ‘ through the medium of your valuable Journal, which of the two treatments is correct in the case of a fracture of the base of the skull :— According to W arwick & Tunstall we are told to “ Plug the ears and nostrils.” The wording in “ First Aid to the Injured ” of the S.J.A.A. is “ No attempt is to be made to plug the ears.” There is also a difference of opinion amongst medical men.— Yours, &c., D

ear

OF

THE

S i r ,— W ill you

O ne

of

November, 1912.

AID. —

In ter est.

[If bleeding from the ear channel is associated with frac­ ture of the base of the skull, the case is one of compound complicated fracture. Septic contamination is one of the great dangers asso­ ciated with compound fracture, and one’s duty is to prevent, so far as is possible, the entrance of injurious germs to the wound and thence to the seat of fracture. Plugging the ear channel for the purpose of arresting haemorrhage would be undoubtedly wrong, and would probably be productive of harm rather than of good. Light protection by a suitable antiseptic application por the purpose mentioned in Warwick and TunstalPs book is quite another matter, and such means should be adopted by first aiders as would, under the existing circumstances, best fulfil the object to be desired.— L. M . F r a n k C h r i s t i a n .]

West Hartlepool, December, n th , 1912. [I can only answer this question from my own point of view. There may possibly be some fanciful grounds for the instructions laid down with regard to the method of applying the retaining sling for the shoulder bandage, but any reasonable reason for the anomaly I have never been able to conceive, though I have heard the matter discussed over and over again. I have always regarded the instructions given on page 156 as being due to an unfortunate oversight the instructions given on page 53 having been, at the time overlooked. Such a state of affairs could very readily occur. Unfortunately the subject is one that is sometimes intro­ duced as a trap for competitors. This is a very great pity, the matter being one of such trivial moment, even to be, in my opinion, of no practical moment whatever. Such side issues prove vexatious burdens upon ambulance students. Infinitely more important points exist, and they are all-sufficient to demand the full attention and limited time of first aid workers. — L. M. F r a n k C h r i s t i a n .] ROLLER

BANDAGE.

D e a r S i r , — W ill you kindly inform me through the medium of “ F.A.” {a) which is the root of the th u m b ?

Is it at the junction of the second phalange with the metacarpus or is it at the wrist? {b) How to apply a r o lle r bandage to the knee ? Would you do so in the same manner as you treat the elbow? i.e., take the bandage horizontally over the patella, carry the bandage round at a lo w e r level of the horizontal turn (making the lower loop of the figure eight) cross the bandage at the back of the knee and bring it round at a slightly h ig h er level than the horizontal turn (making the upper half of figure eight). In Dr. Cosgrave’s “ Helps and Hints for Home N u rsin g” it simply tells you that when the knee is reached “ the figure eight is again resorted to in order to surmount the joint.” I have been told the bandage should cross ON the patella and not at the back of the knee. I am anxious to know which is the correct method. Thanking you in anticipation.— Yours sincerely, “ N u r s e .”

R E S P IR A T IO N W IT H FRACTURE OF BASE OF SK U LL. D e a r S i r , — W ill you kindly answer through the medium of your valuable and helpful Journal, F i r s t A i d , the following :— Is it right to turn a patient over (who is lying on his back) on his face, and apply Schafer’s mode of respiration, with a fracture of the base of the skull, left side ; also is it proper to place a dressing on the ear when there is an iscue of blood in same case? I should have said that the patient is unconscious. W ill you kindly state the proper treat­ ment for same according to your opinion ? Thanking you, in anticipation, for your opinion.— Your’s truly, E. T. J. [Treatment (artificial respiration or otherwise) is quite out of the question in cases of cessation of respiration arising from fracture of the base of the skull. Such cases only demand the veneration due to the dead. Should the respiration not entirely have ceased, but appear to be failing, artificial respiration even then, would be praccally useless, the cause of the failure of respiration still being in existence and irremovable. The subject of blood from the ear channel is dealt with in the previous reply.— L. M. F r a n k C h r i s t i a n .]. A R T IF IC IA L

[The term “ root of the thumb ” is rather unsatisfactory, for it applies not to the thumb itself but to that part of the palm which lies between the “ phalanx” of the thumb and the first “ carpal bone.” The method of applying the roller bandage to the knee will depend entirely upon the object to be achieved. As a general rule the “ divergent spica,” as described by your correspondent, acts admirably. It permits uniform support (or uniform pressure, if necessary) to the joint, and specially protects the back and sides of the joint— the front being amply protected by the patella. In certain cases pressure may be required over a special part, e.g., in cases of severe bruises with probable rupture of capillaries and effusion of blood unless promptly and effectively treated. In such cases the divergent spica is not so good, it failing to give the special pressure where required. For example, in “ housemaid’s k n e e” the bandage “ should cross on the patella and n o t at the back of the knee.” The effects of compression, upon the circulation of blood in the limb beyond, should always be borne care­ fully in mind by students, lest a latent cause of mischief should become transformed into an active danger.— L. M. F r a n k C h r i s t i a n .]

TH E

SM ALL

ARM S L IN G V. S L IN G “ SH O U L D E R ” BANDAGE.

FOR

D e a r S i r , — The arm-sling for shoulder (bandage (p. 156, Dr. Cantile’s First Aid book) is adjusted quite opposite to the arm sling for fractured humerus (p. 53). Is there a special

W E LF A R E OF TH E AM BU LAN CE PERSON N EL. D e a r S i r , — Seldom have I read with such deep and lasting interest any item among the varied contributions of your numerous correspondents as the facts placed before us relating to the late Mr. E. A. Adlem, of Bournemouth. I look forward to an encouraging report in “ F. A.” as the result


— F I R S T

November, 1912.

of Dr. Hardie’s convincing appeal on behalf of the widow and family. I sincerely hope that the British ambulance service will in the near future be recognised by the British people as ranking with the lifeboat service, upon which footing I have long been convinced they should be appropriately regarded. T o my mind the ambulance service will not be in a really solid con­ dition until it is organised on somewhat similar lines as the Royal National Lifeboat Institution stands in relation to the rescue work carried on around our coast. The Royal National Lifeboat Institution pay the men who form the lifeboat crew on such occasions generously, and to the utmost limit their funds will admit. Each man is paid £ 1 for night service, and 10s. for day service. If he be engaged night and day, 30s. A single launch will cost ^ 18 — that is ^15 to the 15 men who formed the crew and £3 to the 40 helpers engaged in launching and running up the lifeboat on her return. Hoping this may demonstrate my meaning,— I remain, yours sincerely, E

AM BULANCE D

ear

r n est

Jam es R a c k w

it z .

C E R T IF IC A T E .

S i r , — Since the appearance of Mr. Rumble’s letter

on this subject in your October issue, I have received several enquiries respecting our First Aid Certificates, and I shall thank you to grant me a little space for particulars, as at foot. — Yours faithfully, J a m e s M ’ D o n a l d , Secretary, St. Patrick’s Ambulance Association.

T e x t Book.

N um ber of L ectures.

M inim um attendance required

P ercen tage o f m arks necessary.

E lem en tary

O fficial

T w e lv e

E ig h t

F ifty

Interm ediate

do.

do.

do.

S ix ty

W arw ick & T u n sta ll’s

do.

do.

S even ty-five

C ertificate.

Advanced w ith M edallion

First year. For the elementary certificate, the following practical work is necessary :— 1. The ready application of the triangular bandage to any part of the body, neatness being considered. 2. The various methods of arresting haemorrhage. 3. First aid treatment of fractures and dislocations. 4. First aid treatment of the common poisons. 5. The restoration of the apparently drowned or otherwise suffocated, including Schaffer’s method. 6 Methods of carrying by hand-seats. Second year. Same as above, but of more advanced character, stretcher drill, and special attention given to impro­ visation. Third year. Roller bandaging included.

AID. —

A GREAT AID T O FIRST AID. By

“ R e e f K n o t .”

DR.

ANDREW

W IL S O N .

A w o r k that justifies its claim to be an epitom e o f all that specialised m edical and surgical know ledge necessary for First Aiders, as well as an authoritative manual of reference on all information relating to H ealth and Disease, is a work to be w elcom ed by all our readers who wish to study their subject more deeply than is possible from superficial text books. In “ 'Q ie M odern Physician,” by Dr. Andrew W ilson, fullest space is devoted to “ First A i d ” and A m bulance Work. In respect o f com pleteness, accuracy o f description, and wealth of illustration, “ T h e M odern Physician ” stands without a rival am ongst the works published on this im­ portant subject in the U nited K ingdom . It is scientifically accurate and reliable without being d u l l ; the nam e o f its editor, so long and popularly known as an expositor of H ealth laws and a teacher o f H ygiene, is a guarantee of this. T his work is absolutely com plete as regards H ealth and Disease, and is thoroughly up-to-date. A s a know ledge of the body in H ealth is necessary to the due understanding of the body when its functions are deranged by disease, a description o f every part o f the frame will be found here. T h e skeleton, muscles, digestive system, heart and lungs, brain and nervous system, organs o f sense, skin, kidneys and the body’s m icroscopic structure are duly described. In this connection the illustrations are o f particular value, the “ m annikins ” or dum m ies more e sp ecia lly ; in these the organs are made to overlap each other exactly as they do in the human body. T h e section devoted to H ygiene includes the full exposition o f the Law s o f H ealth, and special attention is devoted to Physical Culture. Such topics as foods, beverages, air, exercise, clothing, sleep, baths, holidays, temperament, & c., are treated in this section. T h e last volum e is especially devoted to the H ealth o f W om en, and Dr. W ilson has here been assisted by a num ber o f em inent women physicians. M idwifery and the treatment and Diseases o f Infants are here fully dealt with.

ONE

OF

MANY

O P IN IO N S.

Mr. J , DANIEL, 23, K e n t A v en ue, A s h fo r d , K e n t , w r i t e s :— “ Its all-round excelle n ce m akes it a v alu able acqu isition . T h e section dealin g w ith am bulance w ork is especially good . T h e book is w ritten in splendid style and the illustration s are first rate. T h e m ethod o f paym ent places it w ithin the reach o f a ll.”

A FREE BOOKLET.

D e a r S i r , — A. Rumble’s letter in your last issue on the S .J .A .A . arrangements for issuing certificates is interesting

reading. Might I call attention to another aspect of these arrange­ ments which is open to improvement. At present there is no medallion certificate of any kind. This means that if a poor medallion holder loses his medallion and cannot afford 2s. for a duplicate, he has “ nothing to show ” that he has passed the medallion examination. The pity of it is that this type of medallion holder is often the man who is really practically using his first aid knowledge in the factory and workshop, on the “ four-foot,” and elsewhere— quite a different type of man who “ went fo r” his medallion and then “ chucked i t ” altogether.— Yours truly,

97

TO

TH E

CAXTON

P U B L IS H IN G

COM PAN Y,

156, S u rrey S treet, L o n don , W .C . P l e a s e s e n d m e , F r e e o f C h a r g e a n d w i t h o u t a n y o b l i g a t i o n o n m y p a r t :— Illu strated B oo klet on “ T h e M o d e r n P h y s i c i a n . ”

(1) (2)

P a rticu la rs o f you r offer to deliver the com p lete w ork for a first p aym en t o f is. 6d., th e balance to be p aid for b y a few sm all m on th ly paym ents.

N a m e ........................................................................................................................................................................

(Sen d this form or a p ostcard.)

A d d r e s s ............................................................................................................................................................


— F I R S T

98

S.J.A.B.

AID. -

C O M P E T IT IO N S .

November, 1912. H O S P IT A L

S ir ,— I, and I think many other members of the S.J.A.B., were disappointed on opening the October issue o f F IR ST A i d to find that the details of the recent competitions for the Nursing Bowl, “ O sborne” Shield and “ Sleath-Gent ” Cup were conspicuous by their absence. Details of the various railway competitions given in “ F .A .” are much appreciated by those interested in competi­ tion work, and as headquarters now avail themselves of pub­ licity of the Roster in “ F .A .”, it was confidently expected by many of your readers that publicity would also be given to the details of the before-mentioned competitions for use in training. As the entrants in these competitions were comparatively few in number— for the “ Sleath-G ent” Cup there were only six competitors— it would appear that interest therein is not sufficiently fostered, and I think it would prove a great advan­ tage to the brigade if the full details of the competitions were published, so that same could be used and explained in general practices at drills.— Yours, &c., “ T e l y o n .”

[If we had been supplied with the marking sheets of the two competitions mentioned, we would have willingly published them had our space permitted, for we know they are of much general interest.— E d . “ F. A .”]

D

ear

subject which I think is worthy of consideration. As ambu­ lance men we get plenty of theoretical knowledge, but for really practical work our chances are few. With war at present and rumours of war, we never know when we may be called upon for practical work, and the thought has occured to me, are we fully prepared to take the field for hospital duty? As a working man I cannot afford to lose my work to go in for hospital training by joining the Sick Berth Reserve, &c., and going in camp for a week or fortnight every year; but if some arrangements could be made with the hospitals and infirmaries throughout the country whereby we could go on duty for the week-end (say from Saturday noon till Sunday night), in batches of about 4 to 6 men, providing we could get the sanction of the officials of the institutions, I for one would willingly forego my week end rest for a few times every year to gain a knowledge of this kind in practical work.— Yours sincerely, “ P r i v a t e .”

Darwen Division, S.J.A.B. [W e would point out to our correspondent that in some parts of the country hospital training has been arranged with much success.— E d . “ F.A.”] S E R V IC E

C O M P E T IT IO N S

IN

No.

7

D IS T R IC T .

D e a r S i r , — The competition held at Welshpool on Sept. 19th, for the “ Skinner” shield and medals, open to all nursing and V .A .D .’s of the brigade in No. 7 District, has given cause for some comment. That the arrangements and .competitive work should be profoundly a secret will be at once admitted by all lovers of “ fair play.” Passing over my own personal view as to the justice or otherwise of these complaints, I would like to suggest the following scheme, which, in my humble opinion, has the indisputable advantage to commend it, that “ no parade official, teams, or even individuals, could be cognisant beforehand of the competitive work.” 1. That the judges be requested to arrange three separate schemes of viva voce, and demonstrative practical work with points tabulated and arranged as at present. 2. All printing of the above competitive works shall be solely and entirely arranged for by the judges, and that all printed copies, together with the originals, be placed in separate unmarked packages and sealed by them. 3. They shall then be deposited with some responsible gentleman (preferably a magistrate) in the city or town where the competition is to take place. (Doubtless there are gentle­ men who would accept a responsibility like this). 4. The all momentous day having arrived, the three packages shall be taken to the hall where the competition will take place, and after the competing teams have paraded and the ballot for priority concluded, the judges (and officials present) shall select one package, and this shall be the work on which the teams must be examined, &c. The remaining two packages shall not be opened, but handed over to the organiser of the competition. I fully realise that this scheme will entail much extra work on the judges, and increased expense to the organisers, but feel sure they would be amply compensated by the thought that all had been done which thought could devise to make it “ a real competition.” The divisional competition in 1910, as with this year’s contest, brought about many complaints, and it is with a view to minimise such, together with a sincere desire to place com petitions on sound lines that I make these suggestions. The whole fabric of competitions is “ fair dealings all round, and if competitors are imbued with other thought than this (after they have fully probed the matter), surely it is high time some other arrangements were tried. Perhaps some other member of the brigade can suggest a better foundation and building than I have so feebly brought before your readers,— Yours sincerely, “ JUSTICIUS.”

T R A IN IN G .

S i r , — I should like to offer a suggestion upon a

D ear

M ED ALS.

S i r , — In the October issue of “ F .A .” I read in

answer to “ Corporal ” that the period of recognition of services for the service medal of the S.J.A.B. is not less than 15 years. Thanks to your valuable Journal, I find I am entitled to my service medal. I obtained my first St. John's certificate in May, 1893, and have been an ambulance worker 21 years. In 1891 I received my first army certificate, and resigned nine years ago with the rank of full sergeant. You will oblige by informing me where the forms can be obtained necessary to make my application for my medal. Thanking you in anticipation.— Yours, &c., J. P a y t o n . [W e pointed out that the qualification for the service medal was 15 years’ efficient service in the S.J.A.B., and not the S.J.A.A. W e do not think our correspondent has completed this period of service if he resigned nine years ago. We would suggest that he ascertain this first from the supt. of the corps or division of the district, from whom also the form can be obtained.— E d . “ F.A.”] D e a r S i r ,—-Would you kindly inform me, through the medium of your Journal, whether you know of any periodical similar to F i r s t A id which is published in Portugal.— Yours faithfully, “ O b r i g a d o .”

[W e do not know of such a publication as ours published in Portugal.— E d . “ F.A."]

HORLICK’S MALTED MILK M alted Barley, W h e a t & Milk in P owd er Form. Its value is based not alone on chemical qualifies, but also on the possession of certain physical attributes, e.g., palatability, solubility, ease of digestion and assimilation, etc., qualities moreover which cannot be ignored in the dis­ cussion of dietetic valu-s. It is also true that the record of our product as a nutrient, for almost thirty years, bears irrefutable testimony to the genuineness of its physiological worth, and its general excellence as a food product. T r i a l siz e f r e e by p o s t, on a p p lica tio n to—

H o r l i c k ’s M a lt e d S lo u g h ,

M ilk C o m p a n y ,

B u c k s .,

E n g la n d .


FIRST AID.

The Independent Journal for the Ambulance and Fire Services. Conducted b y A R T H U R No. 222 .

VOL.

XIX

[N ew

DECEM BER,

S e r ie s .]

____________________________________________________________________________

To Our Readers.

B.

IQ I2 .

DALE,

M.J.I.

[E n t e r e d a t S t a t io n e r s ' H a ll.]

ro/C r,PRICAE [ 2 /6 P e r

*

TW OPEN CE.

Annum ,

P ost

F ree.

dants with annuities in time o f distress is a big undertaking, and without a

A s it is the w ish and desire o f the ProDrietors to m ake this Journal as instructive and en tertaining as possible, correspondents in all parts o f the country are asked to g iv e it a ll the h elp they can. Superintendents o f C o rps and O fficers o f D ivision s o f the St. John A m bulance B rigad e, O fficers o f the R o y a l A rm y M ed ical Corps (Territorials), the V olu n teer A m b ulan ce S ch o o l o f Instruction, and C h ief O fficers o f F ire B rigad es w ill, it is hoped, do their best to m ake it know n am ongst the m em bers o f their respective organisations, and will also send for publication their official new s and notices. S u g g e s­ tions are in vited for Prize C om petitions and other m atters w h ich w ill advance the interest o f the Journal. W e particularly desire to ask our correspondents to be b rief and to the point in any com m unications they m ay send us for publication. Correspondents sending in photos are u rgen tly requested to state on the back o f the same the nam e o f the in dividual or the C orps or B rig a d e and g iv e also the nam e and address o f the sender. W e beg to advise our readers that w e do not pay for photographs or copy sent, unless previou sly agreed upon in w riting.

“ First Aid ” Is published on the 20th of the month.

big

m em bership

and generous

contributions it would not be in a

financial position to grant adequate benefits. upon the question

of

outside

sufficiently strong T o us, it is

m em bership where the difficulty

arises, for, it must be rem em bered, that am bulance men are occupied in such a variety o f callings— many o f which have institutions of this character and to which many of them belong— it, therefore,

could not be expected that

they would becom e members o f a second fund. It is im possible to say what the m em bership would likely to be and what measure o f support such a proposal would receive from the members o f the Brigade without taking a concensus o f opinion.

In any case a tremendous

am ount of pioneer work would be necessary to place it on a firm footing, and an organising com m ittee would have to resort to every means to collect funds.

A n undertaking o f

this character is not a unique one, for the N ational Fire

EDITORIAL.

Brigades’ U nion, which has a smaller m em bership than the S J .A .B ., com posed o f men who are engaged in similar

T h e

An Am bula nce Benevolent Fund.

Officers of the St. John Am bulance

occupations to the members o f the B rigade— established a

Brigade o f the No. 6 District, in con-

Benevolent Fund some years ago and, with much labour, it

ference

Newcastle,

is now established on a firm basis with a good reserve fund.

discussed the question of a Benevolent

Another schem e adopted by some o f the districts of that

Fund am ongst

Institution is what is known as a “ D eath L evy F und .”

Brigade.

last

month, the

at

members

of

the

It is to be regretted that the

It

is purely voluntary, its objects being to make a fixed levy

proceedings were held in camera on such an interesting

upon its members in the event of the death o f one o f them,

topic as this, and one which is o f concern to all, but we

the dependents o f the member receiving the am ount so

have ascertained

not receive a

levied.

discussion

depends upon the m ortality rate, and the am ount which

favourable

that

the proposal did

reception, and

after a brief

the

O f course, the am ount to be paid in a year

matter was dropped, owing to the experience gained from

relatives of the deceased will receive upon the number of

the many similar Institutions in the North which

members to the fund.

are

In other words the fund is a

generally handicapped in their sphere o f usefulness owing

fluctuating whole life policy with a fluctuating premium.

to the lack o f sufficient funds.

the Eastern D istrict o f the U nion the levy is fixed at one

From our own point of

In

view we should much like to see such a fund established,

shilling per head, and one shilling entrance fee and the

for there are instances which com e to our notice from

qualification o f m em bership is that the candidate must be

time to time, such as that o f the late C. Adlem , o f the

an active mem ber o f the U nion.

Bournemouth Division, when financial aid

m edical certificate and be under fifty years o f age.

by means of

He

must p ro d u ce a T h is

such a fund would relieve must distress and suffering, and

levy fund is extrem ely popular in the Fire Service, is easily

it is a curious fact that with such a large institution as the

administered, and is controlled by each district, and we

S.J.A .B . nothing o f this character has been attempted.

It

should say if there is a dem and for som e form o f benevo­

is realised that to establish a contributary fund solely for

lent institution, a fund such as the one described above is

members of the S .J .A .B . to assist them and their depen

more likely to be popular than any other.


102

— F I R S T

S t. John Jlmbulance Srigade. o ^ ALfJ No. 1 District (Prince of W a le s ’s Corps.)

DUTY

ROSTER.

J A N U A R Y 1913. Sunday Duty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. Sunday 5th.— No. 60 Division. „ 12th.— No. 15 „ 19th. — No. 23 „ „ 26th.— No. 44 „ Parade 2.30 p.m. As per separate orders. Key obtainable at St. John’s Gate. RETU RN S. B/F 3 Drills and Duties. Only one copy is in future to be sent to the Deputy-Commissioner, but in this District it is desired that these forms should be sent in half-yearly as before. Further copies can be had upon application to the District Office. R E -E X A M IN A T IO N S . Divisional Officers and M/i/C will please fix dates for these, and advise me at once, if they have not already done so. D IV IS IO N A L B O O K S. All annual general meetings should be over, and books submitted without delay. W E D N E S D A Y , JAN . i s t . B/F 26 (Half-yearly returns S.J.A.B., V .A .D .). B/F 24 (Divisional returns M .H .H .R). The latter forms are enclosed with Duty Roster. Both forms should be completed and returned by this date. O F F I C E R S ’ S O C IA L . The next Social will be held on Tuesday, Jan. 21st at 8 o’clock. O F F IC E R S ’ W A R R A N T S . Officers who have not applied for their warrants should do so at once— B/F 10, vide General Regulations, page 6, para. 18. A N N U A L T R A IN IN G FOR M EM BERS OF TH E R .N .S.B .R . Members of the above who have not been for training during 1912, can arrange to go any time before April, 1913, if they will forward their names to the District Superintendent, through their officer. They can further arrange to go again any time between the months of May, 1913, and April, 1914. A .R .N .S .B .R . N U R S IN G C O U R S E . A special nursing course for men of this Reserve is being arranged for at the end of January or early in February. Privates who wish to have the opportunity of annual or bi-annual training in a Ship of W ar and Naval Hospital (alternately) should request the Officer or M/i/C of their division to obtain a pamphlet on the subject from headquarters. T he question of joining this Reserve should be seriously considered by all privates, as it is the only one which offers training to the rank and file, and it is the duty of every ambul­ ance man to obtain as much instruction as possible, and that under the best conditions. F IR S T A ID C L A SS . A first aid class will be held at St. John’s Gate in the new year. Members (men only) will be enrolled on January 7th, and the lectures will commence on January 14th, at 8 p.m. The lecturer will be Lieut.-Col. Lees Hall, Deputy-Commissioner.

AID. -

December, 1912.

An examination will be held at the conclusion of the course, and as soon as possible afterwards a nursing course, also for men, will be commenced. F IR S T A ID A N D N U R S IN G C L A S S E S F O R L A D IE S . It is proposed to form classes in each of these subjects for ladies at St. John’s Gate in February. Members or friends wishing to attend should communicate with Lady Supt. Mrs. Lines, 93, West End-lane, N .W .,from whom all particulars can be obtained. The fee for the courses will be about 3s. B U G L E B A N D P R A C T IC E . Friday, 17th, Headquarters, 8 p.m. This will be the only practice held in January, intending members should endeavour to get enrolled on that night, so that they can commence the usual fortnightly practice which are held the ista n d 3rd Friday each month, commencing February. P R O P O S E D M IL IT A R Y B A N D . In response to many appeals received from members of the several Divisions, efforts will be made to raise a military band for the Prince of W ales’s Corps. Bandsmen are invited to send their names, stating the instrument they play, to the District Superintendent, through their officer. V O L U N T A R Y A ID D E T A C H M E N T T R A IN IN G . The question of a complete syllabus is now under con­ sideration, particulars will be sent as soon as ready, in the meantime Commandants of men’s detachments cannot go wrong by training their men as a Bearer Company and giving instruction from the Manual for the St. John Companies which was supplied to you on the registration of your detachment. A N N U A L R E T U R N S , B/F 2, 3 & 5a OR 5m These forms are much overdue from a few Divisions, as the Chief Commissioner is pressing the District for the particulars for his report, these forms M U S T be sent at o n c e . (Signed) L E E S H ALL, Deputy-Commisssoncr. It is proposed that a course of lectures on first aid for women, followed by a nursing course, shall be given at St. John’s Gate, com m encing early in the com ing year. A p pli­ cations should be made to Mrs. D enchfield, St. L u k e’s Vicarage, Berm ondsey, S .E ., and as it is desirous that the convenience of the majority shall be suited, the applicants are asked to state whether afternoons or evenings are pre­ ferable for the meetings. T h e lady supt. and members of the St. John’s Gate N ursing D ivision desire to thank the following comrades and friends for their kindness in sending donations towards their clothing fund, which must otherwise have suffered owing to prohibition of the annual whist drive which formerly enable them to carry on this c h a rity ;— L ad y Perrott, D eputy-Com m issioner Col. Lees H all, Asst.-Cum m issioner W. H. W inny, No. 54 Am bulance Division, D unedin Nursing D ivision (N ew Zealand), Messrs. Haym an, Pontin, H udson, Piers, Dr. Cassell, Misses Flem ing (New Zealand), and other friends o f the members. N o. 8 ( E a s t H a m ) N u r s i n g D i v i s i o n . — T h e local inspection of this division was made at H artley Avenue School on 13th N ovem ber, by L ad y Perrott, W ith a full attendance, the nursing sisters gave a practical display o f their duties. L ad y Perrott con ­ gratulated them on being so generally efficient, expressing her great satisfaction at the smartness and quickness with which they carried out their duties and d r ill; she also ex­ pressed her pleasure in m eeting so keen and up-to-date a division, which qualities, she said were outstanding both in their appearance and their first aid display. T h e division is attached to the V oluntary A id D etachm ent. A t the close o f the inspection the thanks of the d iv i­


December, 1912.

— F I R S T

sion to L ad y Perrott was proposed by Mrs. Harrop, the lady superintendent, and enthuiastically given. N o. 44 ( W e s t L o n d o n D i v i s i o n ) . — T h is Division held a Church-parade, on Sunday, D ecem ber 1st. An excellent muster assem bled outside “ O lym pia,” at 3 p.m., and m arched to St. M ary A bbotts C hurch, Kensington, for D ivine Service. In the absence o f the Rev. Prebendary Pennefather, Vice-President o f the K ensington Section of the Division, the Rev. — C oleridge conducted the Service. Afterwards the parade m arched to N otting H ill Gate, where an excellent tea was provided by the K en sin g­ ton Section, after which First Officer Journet, on b ehalf of the Division, thanked the District-Supt. (M r. W. J. H. Pontin) together with the members o f other Divisions, and

CH ELTENH AM

N U R S IN G

AID. —

Second Officer Stone, or b ehalf of the K ensington Section, spoke o f the excellent progress they had made, in the short time they had been in existence, they were in possession o f equipm ent that many D ivisions would be proud of, and that the day was not far off when the W est L ondon D ivision would be one o f the best equipped Divisions in the Corps. N o. 56 ( C r i c k l e w o o d D i v i s i o n ) . — T h is Division held a very enjoyable and largely attended concert on Thursday evening, N ovem ber 14th, given in St. G abriel’s H all, C ricklew ood. H on. Surgeon A. B. L eakey presided, supported by Acting-Supt. M uller and L. F. Eaton, the H on. Secretary. T h e program m e which was an excellent and lengthy one, had been arranged by the H on. Secretary,

D IV IS IO N C O M P E T IT O N C H A L L E N G E B O W L.

B y courtesy]

103

FOR

M RS.

P.

S E W E L L ’S

{C h elten h a m N ew sp a p er C o ., L tti.

Back row— Miss K. Coulson, Mrs. Percy Shewell (donor of Challenge Bowl), Dr. J. H. B la k e n e y ( H o n . S u r g e o n Nursing Division), Mrs. Gilkes (Hon. Sec.), Miss Laurence, Mrs. L a k e . Second row— Mrs. M. Tombs, Miss Hawker, Miss R. Hill, Mrs. M. Wheeler (2nd Nursing O ffic e r , winner of th e B o w l) Miss A. Carrick, Mrs. McCraith Blakeney (Lady Superintendent, Nursing Division), M is s M e r r e t t, Miss Dunn (second), Miss F. White (Inspector of Stores). the “ Brigade Bugle B a n d ” for their splendid support, the parade was more creditable in sight o f the fact that every­ thing had been arranged in a week. District-Supt. Pontin com plim ented the D ivision upon its excellent muster, gave a few words of encouragem ent to the K ensington Section, and took the opportunity of urging those members who had not already enrolled them ­ selves in one o f the St. John A m bulance Reserves, to try and form up a “ Voluntary A id D etachm ent ” in the Division. Supt. B erkovitch, stated that he was pleased to be present to represent his (Brentford) Division and would always do his best to support the W est London Division in their parades.

who is to be com plim ented on the talent which he was fortunate enough to secure. T h e greater portion o f the artists kindly giving their service. A n important item on the programme was the smart am bulance display given by the members of the Division. T h is display was well received by the audience. During the evening the Chairm an announced that he had a very pleasing duty to perform. H e had been asked to make a presentation to one o f their members, who by his prom pt action, had saved a young man’s life. A few weeks ago a young man, em ployed at C ricklew ood, had the misfortune to severely cut his wrist on some glass, severing all the arteries. H e most certainly would have died in a very few minutes had not Mr. C . R. Crum p happened to


io4

— F I R S T

be on the spot. H e rendered first aid, and when the doctor arrived on the scene there was pratically nothing left for the m edical gentlem an to do, except have the patient conveyed in a taxi-cab to St. M ary’s Hospital. In recognition o f Mr. C ru m p’s prom ptitude the em ployers of the young man had asked him to present to Mr. Crum p a biscuit barrel and silver sugar tongs. H e had great pleasure in doing so, and took this opportunity o f con­ gratulating the recipient on so successfully putting into practice the training he had received in the Am bulance Division. Mr. Crum p thanked the donors for their kind gifts, and stated both he and his wife would always value them. N o . 2 District. C h e l t e n h a m .— A n interesting and keenly contested com petition took place on N ovem ber 30th at Cotswold, the Cheltenham residence of M ajor and Mrs. Percy Shewell. M ajor Shewell, C h ief Superintendent of the Cheltenham Corps, has recently been appointed an Assistant-Com missioner, and is also a K n igh t o f G race o f the Order of St. John o f Jerusalem. A handsom e Silver C hallenge B ow l— to be won three times before becom ing the winner’s property— was kindly presented by Mrs. P ercy Shew ell to the N ursing D ivision of the Cheltenham Corps for com petition. T w elve nursing sisters com peted, and were subjected to a thorough and searching exam ination by the C h ief Surgeon, Dr. G. A. Cardew, who succeeds M ajor Percy Shew ell as C h ief Superintendent. T h e com petition took the form of viva voce questions, and practical dem onstrations in first aid. T h e com petition was watched by an interested com ­ pany, which included the D eputy Com m issioner for No. 2 District, Dr. J. S. Griffiths and Mrs. Griffiths, Dr. and Mrs. H epplethw aite (C h ief Surgeon, Cheltenham Corps), Dr. and Mrs. H ugh Pow ell (hon. secretary), Dr. J. H. B lakeney (H onorary A ssociate o f the O rder o f St. John), the hon. surgeon to the nursing division, and Mrs. J. H. M cC raith B lackeney, who is the Lady Superintendent of the Nursing Division. T h e Bowl was awarded to the 2nd N ursing Officer Mrs. M abel W heeler, Miss Dun being placed second in order of merit. T h e exam iner having rem arked upon the closeness of the com petition and the general excellence of the work, the Bowl was handed to the winner by Mrs. J. S. Griffiths. T h e thanks and appreciation of the nursing division to Mrs. Shew ell ,and to their C h ief Superintendent were conveyed in a brief speech by the L ad y Super­ intendent Mrs. J. H . B lakeney, and responded to by M ajor Shewell, who proposed a vote of thanks to Mrs. G. A. Cardew, which was carried with acclam ation. A fter the com petition, which lasted two hours, those present were hospitably entertained by M ajor and Mrs. Shewell, who have been untiring in their efforts for the welfare and efficiency of the corps. B u c k i n g h a m .— T h e members o f the recently formed Buckingham D ivision were invited by the Division Superintendent and the D ivision Secretary to a dinner in the O ddfellow s’ H all, on W ednesday, N ovem ber 27th A b ou t 40 were present. T h e D ivision Superintendent and Surgeon (Dr. A. E. Larking) occupied the chair, and Division Secretary T . F. Watts, the vice-chair. After dinner a m usical program m e was given by Miss M argaret Watts, Bronze M edal L .A .M ., Miss Osborne, Mr. C leare and members of the Brigade. Private Lee, on b ehalf o f the first aid class, presented

AID. —

December, 1912.

to Dr. Larking, a copy of the H istory o f the Order o f St. John o f Jerusalem, in recognition o f their appeciation of his lectures. No. 4 District. D u b l i n . — Dr. John Lum sden divisional surgeon and superintendent, St. Jam es’ G ate Division, D ublin, has been appointed an A ctin g Assistant-Com m issioner of the No. 4 D istrict. T h e nurses, the ladies o f the C ity o f D ublin Nursing Division and the members of the class, presented Dr. T . M ather T hom son with a fitted suit case and an address upon the occasion of his marriage. In the absence o f the D ivisional L ad y Supt. the presentation was made by her son, Mr. G erald A. M iddleton Curtis, and Dr. Thom son suitably replied. Dr. Lum sden, Asst.-Com m issioner, gave great pleasure by being present, and spoke very highly of the qualties o f the divisional surgeon. Mr. J. Thom pson, Supt. o f the C ity o f D ublin Division, was also present. A com bined course in nursing and advanced first aid in accordance with the regulations o f the R .N .A .S .B . R eserve is being held at St. Jam es’ G ate and largely attended by members o f that division. Mrs. F. G reene is starting a class in first aid for ladies in the m iddle o f January. Dr. Lum sden has kindly prom ised to give the lectures. T h e nurses have com m enced winter duty and were at the R oyal D ublin Society, where their services were much appreciated.

S t.

John

V o lu n ta ry

Aid

O r g a n isa tio n .

B y permission of Surgeon-General M acN eece, C .B ., D eputy D irector of M edical Services (Southern Com m and) and by the courtesy o f Colonel H am ilton and M ajor Anderson, representatives o f the St. John V .A .D ’s from Southam pton and the neighbourhood were present at the H ospital Sbip “ P lassy,” on N ovem ber 28th, at 8 o’clock. A ll were taken over the ship and hospital train, and the arrangements explained to them by Lieut -Colonel Twiss, their H onorary Instructor. Subsequently all the cot cases were disembarked and entrained by the St. John men. Colonel O ’Keefe, Inspector o f M edical Services, expressed his appreciation not only o f the muster (50 men and 40 ladies), but also with the care and knowledge shown by the men in handling the cot cases. T h e Southam pton, Shirley, W oolston, Netley, B ishop’s Waltham, Eastleigh and Testw ood Am bulance and the Southam pton, Canute, Shirley, W oolston and Rownham s Nursing D ivisions S .J .A .B . were represented.

T h e “ W ellco m e” Photographic Exposure R ecord and Diary, a copy o f which we have received, contains sim ple and concise information of the present practise in photography. T h e excellent series o f tables relating to exposure which have made the D iary such a useful guide in former years are brought up-to-date, and used with the “ W ellcom e ” Calculator serve to keep both the amateur and the experienced worker within the limits of the straight and narrow path where correct gradations are to be obtained. T hree editions o f the “ W ellcom e ” Exposure R ecord and Diary are published, one for the Northern H em isphere and Tropics and a third for the special requirem ents of the U .S .A . T h e book contains numer­ ous diary pages for personal notes on photographic work and is fitted with wallet and pencil, goes easily into the pocket. It is sold by chemists, photographic dealers and at railway bookstalls, at the price o f one shilling.


December, 1912.

— F I R S T

jtailwaij Jlmbulance. S .E . & C .R .— T o stimulate the work in No. 6 District a Concert was held at the W arwick H otel, R ed H ill, on N ovem ber 6th, when the chair was occupied by Mr. A. E. Richards, the chairman o f the Centre. A most enjoyable evening was spent, and enthusiastic speeches on the value of first aid were delivered by various gentlem tn who were present. A n election being necessary in No. 3 D istrict for the Representative for the present season, a crowded meeting attended the Parochial H all, P addock Wood, on W ednes­ day, N ovem ber 20th, for this purpose. D uring the even­ ing a first-rate programme was listened to from Bert F ord ’s Concert Party, and selections from the P ad d ock W ood String Orchestra, were much appreciated. Am ongst others present were Dr. and Mrs. M. Sealy, of Paddock W ood, Dr. H . Southey, of M aidstone, Mr. H . Plant, Station Supt., M aid ston e; Mr. W alkey, goods agent, Maidstone. T h e candidates were Messrs. J. Cloake, W. W estbrook, and Mr. R. Lane, the Centre Secretary. T h e election caused some excitement and resulted in the return o f Mr. J. Cloake, who has represented the District for the past seven years. T h e com petition to decide the team to hold the Challenge Shield presented by the C entre by Sir Thom as R. Dewar, J.P., was held at the C axton H all, Westminster, on W ednesday, D ecem ber 4th, when eight teams did their utmost to gain first position. T h e test was as follows :— Str etch er T

est.

Card No. 1 .— You four men are passing some buildings in course of erection and notice a man standing in a cart un­ loading bricks. The horse moves suddenly, and the man is thrown backward over the tail-board. On going to his assistance, you find him insensible. Treat. The neighbour­ hood is a busy one. General. Prevent any movement by bystanders ... ... 2 Keep crowd back ... ... ... ... ... 1 Undo tight clothing ... ... ... ... 2 Cover well with coats ... ... ... ... 2 Nothing by mouth ... ... ... ... 1 Send bystander to take restive horse out of the way and to hold to prevent it running away ... ... 3 Any haemorrhage apparent to be attended to first ... 3 Send for medical assistance ... ... ... i Examination. Test pulse (-i), breathing (£), odour (|), examine with care scalp (£), temples (j), back of head (£), ears (■£), nose (j), mouth (£), eye (J), trunk (1), extremities (1) 7 Compare two sides ... ... ... ... 3 Artificial respiration if breathing cannot be discerned ... 2 Extra for Laborde’s method inview of other possible injuries ... ... ... ... ... 2 Card No. 2 (to be given only if examination to head and both sides of body properly carried out.— Patient is evidently suffering from compression. No wound. Slightly raise head and shoulders ... ... ... 1 Hot-water bottles (secured from house close by) ... 2 Properly tested and applied to abdomen (1) and lower limbs (1), flannel (1) ... ... ... ... 3 Card No. 3 (given only if proper examination of limbs carried out).— Patient has fracture of the right thigh. Convey to hospital two miles away. Ascertain if fracture simple or compound ... ... 1 (Judge to say “ simple.”) Extension ... ... ... ... ... 3 Splints (improvised) ... ... ... ... 3 Bandages ... ... ... ... ... 5 Extra for resourcefulness ... ... ... ... 3 General ( conti?iued). If recovers consciousness, water to drink (2) and en­ couraging words (1) ... ... ... ... 3

AID. — Ascertain from bystanders where he lives ... ... Further written message to doctor ... ... ... Message to hospital ... ... ... ... Tactful message home ... ... ... ... Transport. Improvising stretcher (hurdle) ... ... ... Padding stretcher (straw, etc.) ... ... ... Testing stretcher ... ... ... ... ... Hold horse’s head to prevent movement whilst loading Loading into cart ... ... ... ... ... Securing stretcher in cart ... ... ... ... Care of patient en route ... ... ... ... Value of instruction to driver of horse ... ... Unloading from cart ... ... ... ... Stretcher not to be unloaded unless by order of hospital authorities ... ... ... ... ... Resourcefulness in arranging transport ... ... General smartness ... ... .. ... Extras ... ... ... ... ... ... In d iv id u a l

a n d

v iv a

v o c e

t e s t

1 2 2 2 4 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 4 1 3

6 4

.

No. 1.— A man has been stung in the throat by a wasp. Great difficulty inbreathing. How would you treat? Medical assistance ... ... ... ... 2 Remove sting if possible ... ... ... ... 2 Dilute ammonia or sal volatile if possible ... ... 2 Solution of bicarbonate of soda or potash as thick as possible ... ... ... ... ... 2 If obstruction to air passage threatened apply hot flannel or poultices to front of neck ... ... ... 2 And give frequent sips of cold water if he can swallow 2 Artificial respiration if breathing cannot be discerned ... 4 Treatment of shock and collapse ... ... ... 2 Extras ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 No. 2.— A man has taken a quantity of muriatic acid. How would you treat him ? Send for medical assistance at once (£), stating case (1) ii No emetic ... ... ... ... ... 2 Wash mouth out with limewater (^), or soda (£), chalk (J), whiting (£), magnesia or wall plaster in water (£) 2} Let the patient if conscious sip a little of the mixture . .. 1 Milk (J), raw eggs beaten up with milk or water (|) ... i Cream and flour beaten up (£) oil, other than mineral (£) 1 Strong tea ... ... ... ... ... 1 If throat swollen, hot flannels or poultices to front of neck and ... ... ... ... ... 2 Frequent sips of cold drinks ... ... ... 1 Artificial respiration if necessary ... ... ... i.V Treatment of shock ... ... ... ... ij Preserve vomited matter ... ... ... ... 1" Care of vessel containing poison ... ... ... 1 Extras ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 No. 3.— Fracture of right humerus, middle of shaft. Position of patient... ... ... ... ... 2 Splints, bandages ... ... ... ... ... 6 Small arm sling ... ... ... ... ... 2 In what cases is a small arm sling used ? Fractured humerus, middle of shaft... ... ... 3 Fractured humerus, close to shoulder ... ... 3 Note to Judge : Half marks only it details not given Other cases where large arm sling too conspicuous ... 2 Extras ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 No. 4.— Fracture of both collar bones. Remove coat with great care ... ... ... 3 Bandages ... ... ... ... ... 3 Forearms raised and supported by bandages ... ... 3 Care in handling fractures ... ... ... ... 5 Treatment of shock ... ... ... ... 4 Extras ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 No. 5.— Fractured forefinger of left hand, and bleeding from palm of same hand. Position ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 Haemorrhage to be attended to first ... ... ... 2 Digital pressure to radial and ulnar ...' ... ... 2 Instrumental pressure at radial and ulnar ... ... 2 If necessary at brachial ... ... ... ... 1 Remove any foreign bodies seen ... ... ... 2


io6

Cover wounds with clean Padded splints ... Figure of 8 bandage St. John sting ... E xtra for care of patient

— F I R S T dressing ... ... ... ...

... ... ... ... ...

... ... ... ... ...

... ... ... ... ...

1 2 2 2 3

A n excellent attempt to follow as near as possible the actual surroundings gave much satisfaction to the com ­ peting teams in the stretcher test. A t the conclusion of the com petition a m eeting was held, and in the absence o f the G eneral Manager, Mr. Francis H . D ent, who had hoped to be present, Mr. Edwin C. C ox, the Superintendent of the Line, presided, being supported by Mr. Arthur B. Dale, Mr. E. A. Richards, the judges (Drs. Ingram and H alliw ell) and the Centre Secretary, Mr. R. Lane. T h e Chairm an, in calling upon Mr. Arthur B. D ale to present the shield to the Centre, stated he was pleased to address such a large gathering o f am bulance men, and he was sure they would listen to what Mr. D ale had to say with much interest. Mr. D ale expressed the pleasure he had experienced in the duty which had fallen to him on behalf o f Sir Tnos. R. Dewar. U nfortunately Sir T hom as was unable to be present, but he wished to say it was his hope that the shield would stimulate com petition work on the S.E. & C .R ., and thereby prom ote the efficiency of the men. T h e most im portant feature o f first aid work was enthusiasm ; and to promote this there was nothing like com petition work. Mr. D ale stated that he cam e into contact very much with am bul­ ance work, and was pleased to say that the percentage of am bulance men on the S.E . & C .R . was as high as on any British railway. T h is was highly satisfactory and proved the value o f their good organisation. H e congratulated the Red H ill team on winning the shield, and undertook to convey the result of the com petition to Sir Thom as Dewar. T h e Chairm an then called upon the Judges for their com m ent on the work o f the teams. Dr. Thos. H alliw ell warned the men that in studying first aid work they must treat it seriously. T h ey may have to treat cases when on the line, or when at home, and if they did not know their book, they might kill the patient. H e congratulated the R ed H ill team in getting their names on the shield for the first time, and invited the men to take a tip from the R ed H ill team — to keep their eyes open, and they might see more than they had done. Dr. R . Ingram followed, and said that although there may have been some mistakes in the work done, he heard or saw them at the other end of the room, and did not remember them now. H e had never exam ined such keen and enthusiastic teams as he had done that day. H e con­ gratulated the winners and hoped that some younger team might win the shield next year. Mr. Edw in C. C o x then presented the shield to the winning team, and stated he would like a m ake an apology from Mr. Francis H . Dent, who had hoped to be present. Unfortunately, that gentlem an had been detained at a meeting, and was unable to get away. H e was sure Mr. D ent would have specially liked to have been there, as he was interested in the R ed H ill District, and had, no doubt, com e into contact with most o f the railway staff there. T h e speaker assured those present that his interest in am bulance work on the railway had not fallen, but owing to the nature of his duties, he was unable to watch the progress o f the m ovem ent as he had formerly done. H e was gratified to find the efficiency still rising, and the keenness o f the men m aintained in the work. In handing the shield to the captain (Mr. T . H . Palm er), Mr. C o x hoped that it would serve as an inspiration to them as a

AID. —

December, 1912.

team, and liven and encourage the am bulance movement in the District to which R ed H ill belonged. V otes of thanks then followed to the Judges, proposed by Mr. E. A. Richards ; to Sir T hom as Dewar and Mr. Dale, proposed by the Chairm an ; and to Mr. E. C . C o x for presiding by Mr. Palmer, and the meeting then dispersed. T h e general expression being that it was a splendid finish to one o f the best com petitions held for a long time. T h e R ed H ill team (winners of the “ D e w a r” Shield were Messrs. Priddle, Stone, Belcher, Palm er and Chapman. L. & S.VV.R.— A t the annual sm oking concert, held on N ovem ber 21st, Col. W illiams, M .P ., presented, on behalf o f the directors of the Com pany, a silver watch to Mr. W. C . Simmonds, a porter at Bournem outh, for saving a life at the risk of his own, on August 20th, having rescued a woman who jum ped in front of a train entering the station at a speed o f about 25 miles an hour. The capability o f seizing the right moment for doing the right thing was not given to every one, said Col. Williams, and all present would join him in gratitude for the example which had been set to them and to the country generally. H e hoped that Mr. Sim m onds would hand down to his family the testimonial presented, and also some of his good qualities. Mr. Simmonds has since the presentation been the recipient o f the K in g ’s medal. M .R .— T h e eighteenth annual report o f the Com m ittee stated that during the year am bulance classes had been held at various stations on the system, and 369 new mem­ bers had qualified to render first aid, 123 had obtained the voucher, 335 the medallion, and 555 the label or bar. T h at was very satisfactory. T h e number of am bulance men in the service of the Com pany was now 10,007. T h e number of applications for award was not so large as in some previous years, which pointed to the fact that there had been fewer cases o f severe accident, a cause for satisfaction ; but that the high quality of the first aid rendered had been maintained was proved by the opinions expressed by the various doctors who received the cases, and also by the number of gold medals awarded. T w o alterations had taken place in the Com m ittee during the year, Mr. J. J. Mathers, ch ief m echanical engi­ neer’s departm ent, and Mr. F. J. Gilbert, carriage and wagon department, have been appointed in succession respectively to Mr. Ordish (transferred to the general superintendent’s department), and Mr. Jordan (resigned), Mr. Ordish now representing the general superintendent’s department in succession to Mr. Bagwell (resigned). T h e Com m ittee had decided that the “ Nursing ” exam ination be accepted as equivalent to the “ First A id Re-exam ination,” and members receiving the nursing certificate would be allowed a grant of is, together with the enam elled arm-badge. Arrangem ents had been made for the periodical inspection o f the am bulance equipments and boxes at the various stations, depots, & c., to ensure their being m aintained in proper order, and replenished as might be necessary from tim e to time. T h e Com m ittee expressed their thanks to the doctors, the secretaries and instructors of classes for the valuable services they have rendered to the am bulance movement. G .W .R .— T h e annual contest for the Swindon C h al­ lenge C u p and prizes was decided at the M echanics’ Insti­ tute on the 6th inst. Dr. O. A. Gee, o f M ontpelier, G loucester, was the judge, and admitted that the tests im posed were stiff. A m ock railway smash was created by a number o f “ properties,” the idea being that a fast


— F I R S T

December, 1912.

passen ger train had run in to a ligh t engin e, was d erailed and several co a ch es telescoped. It was also p resu m ed that there h a p p en ed to be four a m b u la n ce m en (th e team ) in th e train, w ith stretch er and app lian ces, w ho w ere th em ­ selves un inju red. T h e “ cases ” w ere ren d ered realistic by piles o f d eb ris b ein g strewn ab ou t an d on the “ in ju re d .” T h e result was M r. H a rris’s team 1st, M r. W ilk in s ’ team 2nd, and M r. V a is e y ’s team 3rd. A fte r th e result h ad been a n n o u n ced , th e ju d g e said th e w ork o f th e team s was very g o o d in d eed and th e men

S O U T H -E A S T E R N

&

CHATH AM

ought to co n gra tu la te th em selves on h a vin g such a sp len d id in structor as D r. B erry. H e a rty vo tes o f th anks were a cco rd ed to bo th D r. G e e an d D r. B erry, and the p ro ce e d ­ ings term in ated w ith ch eers for bo th th ese gen tlem en . T h e p resen tatio n o f certificates, m ed allio n s, & c ., in co n n ection w ith th e B risto l class was m ad e on th e 23rd ult. by M r. F ra n k P o tter, G en eral M an ager, w ho was a cco rd e d an en th u siastic recep tio n . T h e o cca sio n was th e ann ual gatherin g o f the class an d its supporters, w h ich to o k th e form o f a sm o k in g co n cert. M r. W . P h illip s (lo co sup t.)

A I D

107

p resid ed , an d was su p p o rted by a n u m b er o f th e C o m ­ p a n y ’s officers. In d istrib u tin g the aw ards M r. P o tter referred to th e fact th at th e G re at W estern was the first o f the railw ay co m p an ies to tak e up a m b u la n ce w ork a m o n g their staff, and said th e in terest in this go o d w ork h ad co n ­ tin u ally in creased. H e th o u g h t su ch ga th erin gs as had been arran ged for that e ve n in g w ou ld win m an y recru its to a m b u la n ce w ork. T h e m o vem en t a p p ea led as stro n gly to the d irecto rs as any w hich ca m e before them for e n co u ra g e ­ m ent. H e w ish ed the class e ve ry su ccess in th e future.

R A IL W A Y

“ DEW AR”

S H IE L D .

T h e o cca sio n was tak en to presen t to D r. W a lla c e (le ctu re r) a su rgical case, an d to M r. F . S tad w ard (class secreta ry ) a dressing ca se as a m ark o f a p p re cia tio n for th e zea l an d e n ergy d isp lay ed in co n n e ctio n w ith th e class. In p ro p o sin g a v o te o f th a n k s to M r. P o tte r for p re­ sen tin g th e aw ards, M r. C . K is lin g b u r y (d iv isio n a l sup t.) referred to him as “ th e p o p u lar g en era l m a n a ge r.” In resp o n d in g, M r. P o tte r said his in terest in th e w o rk in g staff was still as great as it had b een d u rin g th e fo rty o d d years h e h a d served th e C o m p a n y .


— F I R S T

B r e v itie s . A C o r r e s p o n d e n t at M ontreal has sent us a copy o f the C onstitution and Bye-laws o f the C anadian Am bulance C lub, which has as its principal object “ T o afford holders o f First A id Certificates opportunities o f m eeting together, and o f dissemination by means of reports, papers, investiga­ tions and discussions o f a higher know ledge o f am bulance and nursing practice and the cultivation of sociability am ong its m em bers.” H e informs us that the club is in a very flourishing state and has 180 members at M ontreal, and it is intended to open up branch clubs in all parts o f the D om inion. W e were always o f the opinion that there was a large future before am bulance work in Canada, and the establishing of this institution is a proof o f the progress which is being made. W e consider it a most excellen t idea. * * * E x p e n s e s of am bulance work is a subject referred to by one o f our correspondents this month. In one sense the question is a unique one, for it is the first time it has been ventilated in this Journal. T h e initial outlay of 4s. to 5s. to com m ence am bulance work is, no doubt, a big expense to a working m a n ; but for our­ selves, we cannot see where the expense is to be reduced, except, perhaps, in the cost of the text b o o k ; but to reduce this in price it would mean that it would have to be printed on inferior paper and without a stiff cover. P er­ haps the S .J .A .A . will consider this subject, for am bulance work is becom ing so popular that its teaching should be within the reach of all, * * S e v e r a l bogus collections on behalf o f the S .J .A .A . and Brigade have been recently brought to our notice, more particularly in L on d on and districts. A case cam e

before the Stratford magistrates this month in which a boy o f fifteen called at houses with a fiddle under his arm and said he was one o f a band o f thirteen playing to wipe off a debt for the W anstead and L eyton ston e Branch of the S .J .A .A ., and that the rest o f the band were at the bottom o f the road. A resident of the district doubted the story and handed the boy over to the police. H e was charged with attem pting to obtain charitable contributions by fraud, and was placed under probation for a year. W e would recom m end that if secretaries of either the S .J .A .A . or B rigade hear, or have suspicion, that anything o f this character is going on in their district they should com ­ municate with the police and the local press, for both can effectively put residents on their guard. * * *

O

ur

readers will much regret to learn that Viscount

K nutsford is lying ill at his London residence. W hilst attending a m eeting o f the C hapter of the Order of St. John last month he becam e suddenly unwell and had to be conveyed home. in his condition.

H e has since made much im provem ent W e wish him a speedy recovery.

A I D . —

December, 1912.

O n a total m ileage last year o f 245,148 the thirteen M otor-om nibuses and nineteen am bulances o f the M etro­ politan Asylum s Board cost, a return now issued states, 1,378 for renewal o f tyres. * * * T h e Port o f London Authority has instituted a com ­ plete motor am bulance service at the docks. T h e V ictoria and Albert, London, Surrey Com m ercial, and W est India

D ocks are served by electric motor am bulances, which are stationed at four points and work on week-days between 6 a.m. and 10 p.m., except that at the W est India D ock, which is available at any hour on account o f the frequency o f night work. E ach am bulance is staffed by a qualified attendant. Already an been established for the the telephone call and hospital. T h e cost of .£4,000 a year.

average of eighteen minutes has time taken between the receipt of the arrival o f a patient at the maintaining the service is about * * *

A n urgency report presented by the G eneral Purposes

Com m ittee of the L .C .C . recom m ends that Parliamentary authority be sought to enable the C ouncil, the M etro­ politan Asylum s Board, the Port of London Authority, and the M etropolitan Borough Councils and Boards of Guardians to enter into agreem ents for the use, for the pur­ pose of any am bulance service under the M etropolitan A m bulance Act, of the premises and am bulance appliances o f these authorities. It appeared to the com m ittee after full inquiry, that there was much in the contention that there existed at the present time in London material which, with efficient corordination and organisation, would furnish an adequate am bulance service, and it was the duty o f the C ou n cil to effect such organisation. T h e L ocal G overn ­ ment B oard had advised that legislation would be neces­ sary to secure the object in view, and that the solicitor had reported that the C ouncil had -authority to promote such legislation. It was also recom m ended that the opinion be expressed that the provision o f am bulance appliances by the M etropolitan P olice should be extended and improved. A n am endm ent put forward from the Progressive benches to the effect that the C ou n cil should take the responsi­ bility o f an am bulance service on its own shoulders was, after discussion, defeated on a division, and the recom ­ mendation approved. *

*

* N ow that full investigation has been obtained, action is n e e d e d ; not further Parliam entary powers and delay incidental thereto, the perils of the L ondon streets are be­ com ing greater every day, and unless the present C ouncil redeems its pledge it will be justly accused o f having abused its trust. * * * I n closing our Journal for another year we would like to express our thanks to all those who have contributed articles to it. W e have at times caused disappointment by holding copy over 011 account of our limited space, but we feel sure that our many correspondents and con­ tributors will forgive us on that score.


- F I R S T

December, 1912.

U n d e r the auspices o f the Association a public lecture was recently given by Dr. Andrew Charles on the aim and scope of first aid and the necessity o f possessing a knowledge o f it. T h e lecture was illustrated by diagrams, and the audience, although not as large as might have been

AID. -

109

bound to be g o o d ; the know ledge being better fixed on th e mind. T h e M idland Great W estern R ailw ay Com pany formed a class about three weeks ago, to which Dr. H enry R edm ond was appointed lecturer, and it is hoped to pus the movem ent on a firm basis throughout the C om p an y’ system ; the C om pany very graciously paying all expense and liberally supplying material. An Afternoon Class for Ladies beginning at 5 o’clock will be form ed after Christm as, the lectures to be delivered at the A pothecaries’ H all of Ireland. T h e H on. Secretary for this Class is one o f the most influential ladies in the city, and it is expected to be a great success. T h e Class attached to the Y .M .C .A . is now nearing the end o f the course, and will be ready for exam ination at the beginning of the year. T h e lectures have been given by Dr. Charles D unlop and Dr. G eorge B urbidge White.

44 FIR ST A ID ” extends to its

readers

and

cordial

greeting

com ing

X m as

year.

M ay

th em

m any

sorrows,

patrons a for and

1913 jo y s,

and

the N ew bring few

continual

prosperity.

desired, was attentive and appreciative to the close, many expressing themselves delighted with the manner in which the subject was handled. T h e classes in D ublin are keeping up a good attendance in every instance, the lectures being made particularly interesting by the introduction o f models, &c., which greatly help to elucidate the charts, and the matter in the T ex t Books. Thanks to the energy and enthusiasm of the Lady Secretary, M iss K athleen Clifford, the L ad ies’ E vening Class is a pronounced success, b o th . as regards numbers and regularity of attendance. A new feature has been introduced in the way o f giving 10 to 15 questions per week, the answers to which are brought back written out for correction at the following meeting. T h e result is

A Class for B oy Scouts is also undergoing instruction under Dr. Dunlop. H ow news sp rea d s! T h e Secretary had a com ­ m unication recently all the way from M ontreal, C a n a d a ; an A m bulance Society there desiring information respecting the S. P. A. A. T h ere’s grit about somewhere. On going to press we learn that the B oard o f T rad e have decided to accept the certificates o f the Association o f proficiency in first aid for the purpose o f their exam i­ nations o f Masters and M ates for the certificates o f com petency in the M ercantile Marine.

page 88 o f our last issue “ Land S upt.” L ad y Supt.”

E r r a t a .— O n

should read


110

— F I R S T

December, 1912.

AID. —

units. In “ Peace E sta b lish m en ts” each Territorial battalion has two m edical officers, whilst in war establish­ ments there is only o n e ; there should therefore be som e slight surplus of m edical officers to fill up casualities that occur, but inasm uch as a large number of battalions are without any m edical officers at all at the present time, these B y C A P T . C . R. S Y L V E S T E R B R A D L E Y , R .A .M .C . supernumerary m edical officers could not be relied upon, and, moreover, it has been laid down that a m edical officer In troductory. T h e paper which I have the honour to read before you this gazetted to a particular regim ent can only be detailed to evening is, I fear, a very dull one, and I have found it another regim ent provided he volunteers to do so. necessary to quote freely from official publications. I W ith regard to field am bulances, their peace and war think, however, you will agree that it is an im portant sub­ establishm ents are practically identical, and from personal ject, and I hope the discussion will prove o f value to all experience I can testify to their efficien cy ; being trained o f us. on a war footing they have greater facilities than the regular R .A .M C. for learning the routine duties they would have T h e disposal o f the sick and wounded after any large engagem ent between to perform on mobilimodern armies pre­ sation. T h e y lack, No. 19 D IV IS IO N , P R IN C E O F W A L E S ’S C O R P S, sents many difficul­ however, any practi­ W IN N E R S F O R 1912-13 O F T H E “ M A S S E Y -M A IN W A R IN G ties, and requires a cal training in nurs­ very high standard ing. CHALLENGE CUP. o f efficiency of m edi­ T h e only other cal services. Even m edical unit existing regular troops will in the Territorial even find themselves Force is the general taxed to their utmost hospital, and as such for the speedy evacu­ it is only the nucleus ation o f their sick of a hospital, its and wounded to the strength as shown in base. A n y schem e, peace establishments therefore, for carry­ b ein g: T w o officers ing out this service and forty-four other in the Territorial ra n k s; and in war F orce must be ap­ establishm en ts: 20 proached with a full officers and 109 other know ledge of the ranks. T h e eighteen difficulties that are officers not shown likely to occur, not in peace establish­ one o f the least ments are those who being the absence of belong, a la suiie, any official publica­ to a general hospital, tion dealing clearly and are available for with this subject as m obilisation ; but it applied to the T erri­ is stated that sixtytorial Force. six privates will be P a r t I. furnished under ar­

* T h e E v a c u a t i o n of t h e S i c k a n d W o u n d e d in t h e T e r r it o r ia l Force.

rangements made by associations.

C o m p a r is o n o f t h e M e d ic a l S e r v ic e s of a D iv is io n o f R egular and T e r r it o r ia l T ro o ps.

Regulations for General H ospitals of the Territorial Force, 1912, Section 4, says :—

The existing Territorial m edical services o f a division have been m odelled on those o f the E x­ peditionary F orce of the R egular Arm y, there being, however, som e slight differ­ ence between the p eace and the war strength of these * Paper read befor the United Service M edical Society, October 9th, and published by courtesy of the Society.

to be county

B y co u rtesy ]

[1C o -P a r tn e rsh ip J o u r n a l.

Pte. E. E. Clarke. Corlp. F. Foddering Pte. I- Malyn. Pte. H. Eley. Pte. E. Dickerson.

“ On mobilisa­ tion the Assistant D irector o f M edical Services will arrange with county associa­ tions for enlisting into the R oyal Arm y M edical Corps, T erri­ torial Force, the rank and file of the re­ m aining personnel to com plete the author­ ised establishm ent of a general hospital.”


December, 1912.

— F I R S T

In A pen dix II. of the same regulations it states that “ C ounty associations might invite county directors to approach voluntary aid detachm ents with a view to register­ ing names of male members wishing to enlist on m obilisa­ tion o f the Territorial Force, in Territorial general hospitals, and county directors should keep a list o f the names and addresses o f persons who have agreed to enlist, reporting to the W ar Office before M arch 31st in each year.” I have quoted these paragraphs sim ply to show that the provision of these sixty-six men really rests with the voluntary aid detachm ents. T h is is a very heavy burden to put on the volutary aid organisation, which at the pre­ sent time has few men’s detachm ents. It would appear to be wiser to have the peace establishm ent o f the general hospitals increased to war strength. T h e following units which exist in the Regular Arm y are not present in the Territorial Force in any form :— (.a) Clearing hospitals. (b) Stationary hospitals. (c) A m bulance trains. (d) Convalescent depots. (ie) M edical store depots. It is therefore left solely to voluntary aid to supply the deficiency. P a r t II. V

oluntary

A

id .

Voluntary aid has been found necessary in all large continental armies to supplement their existing medical services, and, although for the most part their organisations are m ore com plete, our own schem e has a sound working basis. It is not intended in this paper to give any detailed description o f how voluntary aid is organised in this country. T h e official publication entitled “ A Schem e for the Organisation of V oluntary A id in E ngland and W ales,” and the handbooks published by the different County Directors, and by the British R ed Cross Society, put the whole matter very clearly and concisely. It will be suffici­ ent to remark that the organisation o f voluntary aid primarily rests with the W ar Office, and is then delegated through the British R ed Cross Society to county associa­ tions, then through county branches o f the British R ed Cross Society to county directors, who administer the whole of the voluntary aid detachm ents in their county in peace time. On mobolisation it is stated in Regulations for V o lu n ­ tary A id D etachm ents t h a t:— A retired officer (not liable to recall) ot any regular arm o f the Service, but preferably a retired m edical officer, should be nominated by the General Officer Com m anding each Territorial Division, his nam e being notified to the W ar Office. T h e duties o f this officer would be to superintend, under the Arm y M edical authorities on the lines of communication, the arrangement for evacuation of sick as far as voluntary aid detachm ents are con­ cerned.” Circular M em orandum, No. 388, dated W ar Offiee, London, M arch 15, 1912, states :— 1 (1) T h e normal functions o f members o f detach­ ments will be the care o f the sick and wounded within the immediate neighbourhood o f their homes, and, as they will while so em ployed live in their own homes, it is not con­ templated that they should receive anything in the nature of pay and allowances. “ (2) A certain num ber o f organisations (e.g., hospitals and am bulance trains) which have no existence in the time o f peace will, however, be formed in the event of active operations, and the personnel o f these units may be

AID. —

111

drawn from the voluntary aid detachm ents am ong oth er sources. “ T h e members o f detachm ents who volunteer and are accepted for such specific duty will tem porarily becom e part o f the R oyal Arm y M edical Corps organisation, and will be required to assum e the duties and obligations of that service for the tim e being, including liability for service outside their own locality. “ (3) M em bers o f the voluntary aid detachm ents so selected for service outside their own locality will be given a military grading in accordance with their qualifications and the requirem ents of the service, and will then receive the em olum ents attached to the grading in question for the duration o f their em ploym ent.” T h ese instructions are good so far as they go, but to m ake the schem e effectual very wide volunteering will be necessary. R apid m ovem ent to meet a raid will probably be the main function in the early stages o f the em ploym ent o f the Territorial Force, and to perm it o f this a division must be self-contained ; with scanty and haphazard volunteering in voluntary aid detachm ents, it may very likely be im possible to secure a com plete clearing hospital or stationary hospital for a division. A lso the terms “ neighbourhood ” and “ lo c a lity ” re­ quire definition. Practically, it will mean within 2 or 3 miles of home, otherwise rationing and transport o f per­ sonnel will be necessary. I would here state that the county system on which voluntary aid is at present organised does not facilitate the raising o f divisional units, such as clearing hospitals. For instance, in the W essex D ivision there are six counties, and if a clearing hospital had to be form ed for the division it might necessitate correspondence with six different county directors before enough volunteers could be found to com plete the necessary personnel. I think for this reason only it would be better if voluntary aid were organised on a divisional basis. (T o be continued).

St John Jlmbulance Jlssociation. A meeting of the E xecutive Com m ittee o f the D ublin C entre was held at 66, Fitzwilliam-square, on N ovem ber 29th, the R ight H on. Mr. Justice Ross, P .C ., in the chair. A resolution was passed unanim ously expressing the deepest sorrow o f the Com m ittee on account o f the death o f their esteem ed vice-president and colleague, Arthur H. Benson, M .A ., M .B ., F .R .C .S .I. T h e following were co-opted on the Com m ittee, having consented to act :— M iss M ary Stuart, D ublin U niversity V olun tary A id D etachm ent, and Mr. T . Kerford, hon. sec. D ublin Battalion B oys’ Brigade. Mrs. Frank Greene, 52, Fitz­ william-square, undertook to form a first aid class for women after Christm as, at which Dr. Lum sden consented to lecture. A first aid class for men and a hom e nursing class for women will be held in the new year at 26, Great Brunswick-street. Mr. J. Lum sden, M .D , and Mr. W alter C. Stevenson, M .D ., were re-elected as officers o f the Com m ittee for the ensuing year.

W h e n c o r re sp o n d in g w i t h A d v e r t is e r s p le a s e m e n tio n “ F ir s t A id .”


112

- F I R S T

December, 1912.

AID. —

BRITISH RED CROSS SOCIETY.

COUNTY

OF LONDON

N otes and N ew s. D r . S a n d w i t h has been good enough to favour us with copies of his three Gresham lectures on the R e lie f o f the S ick and W ounded in War. W e hope to give extracts from these in our next issue. * * * L ick in g stamps may becom e a fashionable craze. T h e British R ed Cross Society have inaugurated a Christm as Stam p Schem e in order to raise funds. It is proposed to establish on D ecem ber 23rd certain stations were ladies have kindly undertaken the sale o f the stamps which are o f the face value in green, id . each ; blue, is ; brown, 5s. O ther means are being adopted to make the sale as large as possible. Stam ps will be issued in sheets of sixty —on

sale or return— but no detached stamps will be accepted as returns .H a lf the net profit on the stamps sold in the C oun ty will be available for the C ounty and a proportion o f this, not less than 25 per cent., will be allotted to the funds o f Divisions, the other half for the Central Office. * * T h e stamp, of which we give an illustration, is after the design of Bernard Partridge, is certainly artistic, and it has been suggested that every person sending a Christmas C ard should fix one on it. + * *

D ivisions should make every effort to push the sale o f these, for it is an opportunity which should assist them to obtain the much needed funds. W e hear that the Cam berw ell D ivision is doing rem arkable well in this direction. O thers should follow this example. * * * T h e proceedings o f the V oluntary A id Conference, at Exeter, have been issued in pham plet form and published by Messrs. M. A. R u d d & Son, 180, Fore-street, Exeter, at the price o f one shilling. T h e contents o f the little book will give much food for reflection, and we wonder if the recom m endations made by the C onference will be acted upon. Unfortunately, like so many other congresses, many resolutions are passed, but they never seem to issue into the region o f practical application.

BRANCH.

T h e inspection report o f C olonel V alentine M atthew s, o f the C oun ty of L ondon Branch, shows that on O ctob er 31st seventy V oluntary Aid Detachm ents, with a personnel of 1,980, had been registered. Som e are efficient and well organised, while others are merely small classes o f first aid and hom e nursing with no particular organisation. Few are possessed of any equipm ent beyond a small quantity for instructional purposes. A ll com m andants, it is remarked, should possess copies of the W ar Office schem e for the organisation of voluntary aid in E ngland and Wales, though it is true that neither from that publication nor from the W ar Office can they obtain a definite idea as to the probable duties o f the detachm ents raised in London. W om en’s detachm m ents should devote their energies little to first aid work, much towards acquiring a practical know­ ledge o f nursing. A ll members o f all detachm ents should be able to cook to some extent, and one or two members should aim both at special proficiency in cooking and at ability to im provise fireplaces and utensils. D etachm ents m entioned as apparently efficient and working on the right lines are those o f the Chelsea, Cam berwell, Kensington, M arylebone, G reenw ich and W oolw ich Divisions, and the wom en’s Sick and W ounded C on voy Corps, and the Jewish W om en’s D ivisions of the British R ed Cross Society. * * + T h e British R ed Cross Mission at the seat of war is now represented by a personnel o f 213, made up as follows :— T hree directors (1 for Turkey, 1 for Greece, 1 for North Balkan S ta te s ); 34 medical officers, 35 dressers, 1 X-ray operator, 9 sergeants, 2 clerks, 5 cooks, 118 orderlies and 6 trained female nurses. T h is list does not include interpreters, cooks, batmen, transport men, and other helpers engaged locally. * * *

W e are pleased to see that plain speaking was in­ dulged in at the Exeter Conference. T h e chairman pointed out in his opening address that it was necessary to show a united front in order to draw attention to certain things that were needed, and to prove their deter­ mination to ensure, as far as lay in their power, that these requirements should be carried out by the R ed Cross Society and the W ar Office. T h e R ed Cross Society voluntarily undertook the control of the V .A .D .’s, but as a matter of fact had left them to m uddle along, county by county, not knowing whether individual counties were working on the best lines or not. There was hardly anybody in authority at the headquarters of the R ed Cross Society who knew what there wants were or how they were to be met. *

* *

A m eeting has been arranged between the British R ed Cross Society and the S .J .A .A . with a view of settling the differences which unfortunately exist between the two bodies in some parts of the country.


December, 1912.

ALL

R IG H T S

— F I R S T

AID. —

its distribution, preparation or in its storage. T h e last named is a most im portant point and requires a little ex­ planation. M ilk being an excellent medium for the culture, for instance, o f the germs o f scarlet fever, it is obvious that the longer it is stored the more virulent an infected milk becomes. A n outbreak which was investi­ gated by m yself very clearly dem onstrates these facts. A party o f Sunday school children went for a day’s holiday in the country, and by an arrangem ent previously made, the children were to be supplied with four and a half gallons o f milk from a farm house. .This was done, and the result was that twenty-five children developed scarlet fever. Investigation proved that the milk was given in three pails, the first pailful had been stored during the night in the house, the second pailful was m ilked in the morning, and the third pailful was m ilked in the afternoon, thus there was no storage o f the second and third pailful. E ach pail held about a gallon and a half, now a gallon and a half contains just twenty-five average glassfuls. A ll those that partook of the first pailful developed scarlet fe v e r ;

R E S E R V E D .J

H o m e N u r s in g a n d H y g ie n e . By

M A IN W A R IN G H OLT, M .R .C .S ., L .S .A ., D .P .H .

H.

Honorary Associate 0/ the Order o f St. John, L ife Member of, and Lecturer and E xa m in er o f the S .f .A .A . ; Hon. Surgeon to the M alton and N orton D ivision, No. VL. D istrict, S .f .A .B . (<Continued from page 70.) M ilk . T he

im p o rtan ce

estim ated. the

so le

of a

pure

m ilk

su p ply

W h e n it is r e m e m b e r e d food

of

infants,

BABBACOM BE

sh o u ld

AND

ST.

enter

T roph y

w a s

be

over­

la rg e ly

in to

form the

M ARYCH URCH ,

W in n e r s T h e

cannot

that m ilk sh o u ld

o f

t h e

p r e s e n t e d

V .A .D .

“ M a so n ” to

t h e

dietaries of children and invalids, and ought not to be omitted from the foods consum ed by healthy adults, a study o f its various qualities becom es incum bent upon the nurse. Relation between M ilk and D isease.— “ T h e Second Interim Report o f the R oyal Com m ission on T u b ercu lo sis” concludes that a very considerable am ount of disease and loss of life, especially amongst the young, must be attributed to cow ’s milk containing tubercle bacilli.” Unfortunately the danger o f milk as a vehicle of disease is not confined to tuberculosis, for it has long been known in connection with outbreaks o f scarlet fever, diphtheria and certain forms of sore throat, o f enteric fever, diarrhoea, cholera and milder forms o f intestinal disorder. O nly in case of tubercle, scarlet fever and possibly diphtheria is the infection occasionally derived from infected cows. In other cases milk from healthy cows is infected either in m ilking or collecting at the farm, or in transit, or at the milk shop, in

113

C u p T eam

OF

a t b y

TH E

B R IT IS H

E x eter P r in c e s s

o n

N o v.

H en r y

RED

CROSS

S O C IE T Y .

1st. o f

Batten bu r g .

those that drank of the contents of second and third pails escaped. T h is clearly shows two things, the virulence of the poison and the danger o f storage. Finally, scarlet fever had existed at the farm-house som e weeks before, the premises had been disinfected by the Sanitary Authority, and the convalescent patient had left some days before the advent of the children’s party. T h is teaches two things (a) that the poison of scarlet fever remains active for a considerable period, and (b) that more perfect m ethods of disinfection have yet to be invented. In short one can never be sure when either persons or places cease to be infective. I could cite similar instances o f outbreaks o f typhoid fever associated with persons convalescing from typhoid, and with a polluted water supply, but space forbids. Cow ’s M ilk .— W e will take an average sample o f milk and explain what it contains, and at the same time what it does in the way o f food.


ii4

— F I R S T

W e can make up a little table, dividing all into two divisions— liquids and solids. The liquid o f the m ilk i s :— (1.) Water, average per cent. ... 87^20 The solids are as under :— (2.) F a t— giving bodily heat and fat, averages 3'9° (3.) Casein and album en, flesh forming and m uscle building 3 '4 o (4.) M ilk Sugar— a fuel food supplying energy and fat 475 (5.) M in e ra l matters— material for blood, bones, nerves o 75 M aking a total o f C O Y / 3 M H -K

O I^ G p ^ fY L

100 00

I

P R 0 7 EJ10

F/\T6

sd a^

I^ T T ^ S

T h e water of milk of the healthy cow is filtered through the living tissue, and therefore free from contam ina­ tion. T h ere should not be less than 3 7 per cent, o f fat, “ butter fat,” it is often called, to distinguish it from other fats. T h e sugar in cow ’s milk should be a little over 4 per cent., it is called “ lactose.” T h e mineral matters which am ount to 0 7 5 per cent, chiefly consist o f potash, soda and lime phosphates. So much then for the water, sugar and fat o f milk the non-nitrogenous constituents. L et us now consider the nitrogenous constituents so essen­ tial to the growth and repair of the tissues, the proteids caseinogen and lact-album en and lacto-globulin. L et me hasten to explain these form id­ able words, caseinogen sim ply means cheese forming proteid, lact-album en means milk album en and lacto-globulin means milk globulin, and the whole

December, 1912. three mean the proteid or nitrogenous principles of milk. Caseinogen does not curdle in fresh milk merely by heat, and in this way it differs from lact-albumen which forms the greater part o f the scum that forms upon the surface of the milk when boiled in an open pan. I f you add a little rennet to milk, it will curdle, now this curd is formed chiefly o f caseinogen. I f an egg is boiled beyond a certain time it becomes hard, that is to say the album en is more firmly coagulated and its digestion is rendered more difficult. In precisely the same way if milk is boiled for a certain time, a scum rises to the surface, this is the coagulated lact-albumen difficult o f digestion and therefore removed, the loss o f this valuable part of milk means not only waste but robbery, since it robs the child or 'invalid of the very constituent o f which he may stand in most need. Y o u would not boil an egg, and throw the contents away, and then offer the shell for food. You must learn how to cook food, and not how to destroy it. G r a f h it Representation o f the Co?nfo sitio n o f Cow's M ilk .— A careful study of Diagram 1. will show the relative am ount of the principal ingredients of 3 fo milk, and their proportion to the whole of the milk. I f you will add all the black squares and portions of black squares together, you will find that they total just under 13 of the hundred squares, so that the total so called solids consisting o f proteids, fats, sugar and mineral matters amount to just over 13 per cent., the remaining *■7* white squares total just over 87 of the whole hundred squares that is 8-j '2 o per cent. Hum an M ilk .— W e shall construct o - jr a similar diagram to represent human milk, and thereafter com pare and contrast the relative amounts of the several con­ stituent parts. On com paring the two diagrams we f 00*00

D

flu x

IL

V-

37. i s '

I ff

PRofaip

S '76-

F^jTS

6 'oo

rv p lC M tS L

I

O -I*

loo-oo


December, 1912.

— F I R S T

notice at once that the proteids are not so high in Diagram II. as in Diagram I. In the latter we see three squares and fourtenths of a fourth square occupied by these nitrogenous compounds. In Diagram II. the porteids cover two squares and seven-tenths. T h at is to say there is about one-third less o f the proteid group in human than in cow ’s milk. Again, Diagram II. shows that the number of squares occupied by the fats is almost the same as the corresponding column in Diagram I. VVe will now take the squares representing the sugar, in human milk these extend to just six squares. T h e mineral matters occupy one-fourth o f a square in Diagram II., and three-fourths of a square in Diagram I., that is to say, there is three times as much mineral matter in cow’s milk as in human milk. O n looking again at Diagram II., it will be seen that the squares occupied by the fats almost equal those in Diagram I., which deals with cow ’s milk. It has been, and is, a very com m on custom to add one part o f water to two parts milk, so that in 100 parts about 67 parts would be cow ’s milk and 33 parts water. M ilk so treated would have all its constituent parts reduced by one-third. T h e proteids would certainly be reduced just a little below the proportion they exist in human milk, but the fats would also be reduced one-third, and as these are shown to be about the same in both cow’s milk and human milk, the infant would only get about twothirds o f the fats he requires. W e will now take the sugar which in Diagram II. occupies six squares, by the adding of water as before mentioned, we shall be starving the infant of a most important part of his diet. In Diagram II. the sugar occupies six squares, whilst in Diagram I. sugar fills four whole squares and three-fourths o f a square. If, then, we dilute the cow ’s milk as above stated, we reduce these squares to about three squares, but the infant wants six squares, that is to say, nearly twice as m bch as he is going to get. T h e conclusion is, therefore, that the infant would be starved by an all round deprivation o f the solids o f milk upon which he is solely dependent for his growth, developm ent and warmth. (To be continued.')

I n te r = R a ilw a y C h a lle n g e C o m p e titio n .

Shield

A t the meeting o f representatives o f Railway Com panies, Joint Com m ittees and Joint Railways held at St. John’s Gate, on the 8th ultimo., over which the Earl of Plym outh presided. T h e arrangements for the 1913 Com petition were considered and two alterations o f note were made in the conditions. Clause 7A was am ended to read : — “ Four members of a team, if available, shall deal with a supposed disability (accident, injury or sudden illness) to the fifth member of the team who may if the case is of such a nature as to permit, render assistance by describing the history and symptoms o f the supposed disability,” &c. A nd C lause 7D :— “ No marks will be awarded for the use of prepared appliances brought into the com petition rooms by com petitors.” T h e former is doubtless the result o f the objections which have been raised from time to time to the passive patient, but one forsees some difficulty in defining the amount o f instruction which shall be given to each patient as to his supposed disabilities under the new conditions and possible confusion which may arise as to the exact interpretation o f such instructions by a num ber o f different patients. Inasm uch, however, as it is a move in the

A I D . —

115

direction of m aking the com petition more realistic it is to be com m ended, and its operation in the forthcom ing com ­ petition will be watched with interest. A s an alternative to the four-men team suggestion it is certainly ingenious. M ore realism can hardly be expected in regard to the much discussed No. 5 man until the patient becom es, what he undoubtedly is in 99 per cent, o f the actual cases treated, an unskilled am bulance worker. W ith regard to the new condition (7A) it almost appears that some definition o f “ prepared a p p lia n c e s” would be desirable for, after all, many keen am bulance workers will always be found provided with certain first aid appliances upon their person for use in case o f need and which would be available “ under conditions o f actual em ergency.” W e have seen am bulance com petitors with triangular bandages worn as belts which were available if needed and more safety pins about their persons that would be considered necessary by the average man for adjusting his clothing. Som ething a little more definite upon this point appears to be required.

Jlnsw ers to Correspondents. O w in g to the large num ber o f queries received, we have decided to open a colum n f o r d ea lin g w ith these en qu iries. S u ch queries w i ll be dealt w ith under the follo w in g rules :— 1 . — Letters containing Q ueries m ust be m arked on the top left h a n d corner o f the envelope “ Q u ery ," a n d addressed— F i r s t A i d , 46, Cannon-street, London, E . C . 2. — A l l Q ueries m u st be accom panied by a “ Q uery Coupon ” cut f>om the current issue o f the J o u r n a l, or in case o f Q ueries from abroad fr o m a recent issue.

3 -— Headers r eq u ir in g a reply by post m ust enclose a stam ped addressed envelope.

U N O ( H a m p s t e a d ) w is h e s to k n o w n th e o r ig in o f th e w o rd “ fir s t - a id e r .” “ F i r s t - a i d e r ” w a s a w o r d c o in e d b y a c o n t r i­ b u to r to th is J o u r n a l in 1894, h e w r o t e u n d e r th e nom de flu n te o f “ T o u r n iq u e t .”

A. H. D. (Bristol).— Your application with regard to recognition for services to the Brigade should be made to Headquarters through your Corps Supt. H y g i e n e (W o o d fo rd ) w an ts to k n o w ho w to d e te c t im ­ p u rities in w ater. I f the w a ter is h ig h ly c h a rg e d w ith o rg a n ic m atter, it w ill sm ell stro n g a n d o ffen siv e on b o ilin g . A m ore d e lic a te test is to e v a p o ra te a few d ro p s on a slip o f g la s s o v e r a sp irit la m p ; th e ash w ill c o n sis t o f w h a te v e r so lu b le a n d in­ so lu b le m a tter the w a te r co n ta in s, th e n atu re o f w h ich can be e xa m in e d u n d er a m icro sco p e.

R. S. S. (Cresswell).— Collie and W ightm an’s “ First Aid ” is published by G. Gill and Sons, Ltd., 13, Warwick-lane London, E.C. A n o n . — W e believe that the law, as stated in the case you refer to, is correct. Ambulance work in towns is not supported out out of the rates, it is purely voluntary. The Overeers may have power to refund you the amount you paid for the hire of the conveyance, but they have to be careful lest the auditor should surcharge them. The Clerk of the Board of Guardians will inform you concerning the legal points in the matter. A n o t h e r o n D u t y (Twyford).— W e are afraid it would be useless to set the ball rolling concerning the Coronation Medals. The regulations were fixed by the Home Secretary and not by the S.J.A.B.

When corresponding with Advertisers please mention “ First Aid.”


— F I R S T

£etters to the Sditor. IVe are in

no w ay responsible fo r the opinions expressed, or the

statements made , by Correspondents. — E

E X T E N S IO N

IN

COM POUND

d it o r s ,

E tc.

FRACTU RE?

D e a r S i r ,— W ill y o u k in d ly inform m e th ro u gh F i r s t A i d a s to w h e th e r I am u n d er a w ro n g im p ressio n or not re g a rd in g c o m p o u n d fra c tu re with p ro tru sion o f the bo n e, and co m p o u n d fra c tu re w ith no p ro tru sion o f th e bone.

My impression is that there should not be any extension when there is protrusion of the bone. I take it that we must prevent germs getting into the wound; if this is not done, and we extend that limb, we are making it impossible for a doctor or anyone else to get at them. I a lso ta k e it th at w e m u st e x ten d co m p o u n d fractu re s w hen th e re is no p ro tru sio n o f the bo n e.

As an instructor of classes, I would thank you to give the proper treatment for compound fractures with protrusion and without protrusion of the bone.— Yours, &c., O.

M

a p p in

.

[In c a s e s o f c o m p o u n d fra c tu re o f a lim b w ith p ro tru d in g bo n e, e xten sio n sh o u ld not b e e x e rc ise d until su ch tim e w hen e xten sio n can be e ffecte d w ith a m in im u m o f risk. In oth er w o rds, e x ten sio n sh o u ld n ot b e a p p lied till th e w o u n d and p ro tru d in g p a rts a re fre ed as far a s is p o ssib le from tr e a c h e r­ ous g e rm s o f m isch ief. T h is in v o lv e s re sp o n sib ilitie s a lto g e th e r o u tsid e th e sp h e re o f a m b u la n c e work.

Whether extension should be applied in compound frac­ tures when bone does not protrude is a point of some moment. Possibly it might be done with safety in some cases, provided the wound is previously efficiently protected by a suitable anti­ septic application. On the other hand, in cases of extensive disorganisation of a limb, contamination will probably have already taken place, or possibly the injury may be so severe that amputation would obviously be required later. In such cases the objections to extension are not so marked. The greatly increased risks that attend the introduction of germs to deeper parts are, however, undeniable. This being the case, a rule to the effect that “ extension should not be attempted in compound fractures o f limbs unless under very special circumstances ” would be well worthy of general adop­ tion. By such “ preventive treatment,” the risk of harmful inoculation of deeper parts would be considerably lessened. “ T h r o u g h o u t his w o rk th e first a id stu d en t m u st on no a cc o u n t ta k e upon h im se lf th e d u ties a n d resp o n sib ilitie s o f a m e d ic a l m an. A t times an apparently slight injury is accom­

panied by grave danger, and may actually cause loss o f life." T h is fa c t ca n n o t be to o stro n g ly in sisted on. In co m p o u n d fra c tu re s— p re v en tio n o f in juriou s m o vem en t, [protection o f w oun d, o b se rv a tio n with re g a rd to th e p o ssib ility o f o th e r c o m ­ p lic a tio n s n e e d in g a tte n tio n , g e n e r a l c a re for th e p atien t, and p ro visio n for su ita b le tra n sp o rt a n d a fter trea tm en t— such p o in ts w ill (in th e a b se n c e o f p ro fessio n a l a d v ic e ) p ro ve allim p o rta n t c o n sid e ra tio n s d e m a n d in g th e full a tten tio n o f th e re a lly “ d is c r e e t ” first-a id er.— L . M . F r a n k C h r i s t i a n .]

AID. —

December, 1912.

of impact, etc. It is quite possible that the result may be but a slight injury to superficial structures, needing little more than strict cleanliness and rest to the injured parts. On the other hand, the injury may be one of any degree of severity, even to be one involving considerable and extensive destruction to the soft parts, with free haemorrhage, fracture of one or both bones, and severe shock as additional complications. Furthermore, the danger of the case— even if the injury is apparently slight — may be very seriously increased by the introduction to the deeperstructuresofportionsof the overlying clothing worn by the patient, the risks of septic mischief thereby being much intensi­ fied. (From the last statement it will be noted that examina­ tion of injured clothing may convey information of much im­ portance. This fact should not be forgotten.) The treatment to be adopted in gunshot wounds (as other emergencies), must be based upon the “ needs” of each indi­ vidual case, the general principles governing all ambulance work being conscientiously carried into practice meanwhile. One latent danger that specially accompanies a ll gunshot wounds is “ blood poisoning.” More immediate dangers may arise through haemorrhage (primary or reactionary), compli­ cations through fracture, shock, etc. Treatment being based upon existing needs, the above ppints will supply important in­ dications as to the line of treatment required. If this reply is not sufficiently explicit for your correspondent, it will be more convenient for me to refer him to pages 7, 17 and 18 “ Aids to M em ory” (latest edition) for further details. (b) The existence of a fracture is very likely, but it must be evident that it by no means necessarily accompanies every gunshot wound. ( c) Unless there are special reasons to the contrary, a splint should be applied whenever possible— whether a frac­ ture is present or not— i f thereby increased protection to the injured p art can be assured.— L. M. F r a n k C h r i s t i a n .] “ A P P R O A C H ” P O S IT IO N . D R IL L “ IN H A L E R .” D e a r S i r .— The First Aid Class to which I belong has taken in your esteemed monthly for about three years and derived great benefit therefrom. W e should be obliged if you will answer the following queries. (1) What does “ approach” mean. Does it mean the manner in which the team “ m arch” ? (2) W hat does position mean? The position in which you find the patient or the position in which the team place themselves thus— 1, 2, 3 ?

4 (3) In walking sideways with stretcher should you place one foot over the other. If so, why? Should a team always kneel on left knee ? If on left side of patient, thus, I, 2, 3 feet -------- head it seems right. 4 If 1, 2 and 3 are on right side of patient should they not kneel on right to give better support to shoulders ? W hat is an inhaler and why is it used solely for producer ? Thanking you in anticipation.— I am, Sir, Your’s faith­ fully, T. E.

[(1) No. In sound ambulance work fanciful restrictions regarding deportment should have no place. This subject I have entered into in some detail in the March, 1910, number G U N SH O T W OUN D OF FOREARM . of F i r s t A i d . The various remarks there made can be aptly D e a r S i r , — W ill you kindly give me the correct treat­ applied to “ individual” ambulance tests. T o the comments ment for a “ gunshot wound of the forearm ” (first aid requisites made throughout that article I would direct the attention of being at hand)? Is there likely to be a fracture? If not, any reader who might not have seen them, and who still might should splints be applied? have any clinging towards (w hat should be) out-of-date Thanking you in anticipation.— Yours, &c., methods. A n E n q u ir e r . (2) The word “ position ” refers neither to the position “ in [a) As a foundation on which to formulate a brief and which you find the patient,” nor to the position “ in which the clearly defined line of ambulance treatment, the term “ gunshot team place themselves,” but to the position in which the wound of forearm ” can hardly be regarded as otherwise than members of the team place the patient. vague, treatment necessarily depending upon the extent of the (3) (a) Much will depend upon circumstances. For injury and the effect upon the patient, &c. carrying some distance, the method of crossing one foot over The degree of damage and the effect upon the patient may the other is preferable, for, whilst it permits steady carrying, it vary between wide limits. Much will depend upon the prox­ is at the same time much more expeditious. For carrying a imity or otherwise of the weapon, the character of the projectile few yards either method would be suitable. (i.e., whether small shot, bullet, etc.). its direction, the force (b) No, the members of a team should not always kneel


D ecem b er, 1912.

— F I R S T

117

on left knee. If it were more expedient for number 1, 2 and 3 to be on the right side of the patient, then (unless there were any reasons to the contrary) kneeling on the right knee would be the correct procedure. (4) An inhaler is a mechanical apparatus devised for the purpose of modifying, to a more or less marked degree, the character of the air inspired during respiration. Such modification may (for example) be in the direction of B y DR. A N D R E W W I L S O N . warmth and medication, as in cases of bronchitis and kindred affections. In these cases the inhaling apparatus may be of a A w o r k that justifies its claim to be an epitom e o f all very simple character. On the other hand it may be of a com­ plex and formidable looking type such as is often used when it that specialised m edical and surgical know ledge necessary is desired to ensure such modification of the inspired air as is for First Aiders, as well as an authoritative manual o f necessary for the production of anaesthesia for surgical reference on all information relating to H ealth and Disease, purposes. Modifications of inhaler for the purpose o j artificial is a work to be welcom ed by all our readers who wish to respiration may be seen illustrated in some of the advertising study their subject more deeply than is possible from pages of F i r s t A i d . Thus it will be gathered that an inhaler superficial text books. is by no means solely used for conveying oxygen to a patient suffocating through the effects of producer gas. In “ T h e M odern P hysician,” by Dr. Andrew W ilson, Producer gas consists largely of carbon monoxide, and it fullest space is devoted to “ First A i d ” and A m bulance is said that one of the remarkable effects of this gas is that in Work. In respect o f com pleteness, accuracy o f description, suffocation thereby, the blood does not get darkened as it does and wealth of illustration, “ T h e M odern Physician ” stands in other cases of suffocation, but if anything it becomes of a without a rival am ongst the works published on this im ­ redder colour than usual, giving to the suffocating patient some portant subject in the U nited K ingdom . It is scientifically what the appearance of health. Artificial respiration alone accurate and reliable without being d u ll; the name of its in these cases appears to be comparatively useless— presumably editor, so long and popularly known as an expositor o f through some action of the poison upon the blood itself. Artifi­ cial respiration must be supplemented by the use of oxygen. H ealth laws and a teacher o f H ygiene, is a guarantee of Oxygen, which is the active element in ordinary atmosphere, this. Th is work is absolutely com plete as regards H ealth is in this case vitally necessary, but in a much more concen­ and Disease, and is thoroughly up-to-date. trated form than occurs in nature. Compressed in cylinders it A s a knowledge o f the body in H ealth is necessary to should always be kept in readiness (and its method of use the due understanding o f the body when its functions are understood) where workmen are specially exposed to the risks deranged by disease, a description o f every part o f the associated with this treacherous and poisonous gas.— L. M. F r a n k C h r i s t i a n .] frame will be found here. T h e skeleton, muscles, digestive system, heart and lungs, brain and nervous system, organs A D L E M M E M O R IA L F U N D S U B S C R IP T IO N S . o f sense, skin, kidneys and the body’s m icroscopic structure D e a r S i r , — If you can again generously favour me with a are duly described. In this connection the illustrations are small space in your valuable periodical ( F i r s t A i d ), I shall be o f particular value, the “ m ann ikin s” or dummies more very grateful if you will kindly express my acknowledgment of esp ecially ; in these the organs are m ade to overlap each the following sums received for the “ Adlem Memorial F u n d ” other exactly as they do in the human body. since your last issue, viz. Torquay Ambulance Division T h e section devoted to H ygiene includes the full S.J.A.B., £ 1 ; Boston Ambulance Division S.J.A.B., 8s. ; exposition o f the Law s o f H ealth, and special attention M. L. Mudge, is. ; E. S., 5s. ; R. James, 53. ; E. G. S., £ 1. The total amount now collected stands at ,£89 10s. 6d.— I is devoted to Physical Culture. Such topics as foods, remain, Yours, etc., beverages, air, exercise, clothing, sleep, baths, holidays, R. H a r d i e , M.D., temperament, & c., are treated in this section. Divisional Supt., T h e last volum e is especially devoted to the H ealth Bournemouth Division, S.J.A.B. o f W om en, and Dr. W ilson has here been assisted by a 11, Grand Avenue, num ber of em inent women physicians. Midwifery and the Bournemouth, Dec. 15th, 1912. treatm ent and Diseases o f Infants are here fully dealt with. A M B U L A N C E C E R T IF IC A T E .

A GREAT AID T O FIRST AID.

D

ear

ONE

S ir , -

W ill you allow me through F i r s t A id to thank Mr. McDonald for the information he so kindly gave us in your November issue as regard the way in which the St. Patrick Ambulance Association award their certificates. I think it is a capital arrangement and one which ought to commend itself to the S.J.A.A. My object in first writing was because of the large number of men and women holding the S.J.A.A. certificate, and yet confess they have forgotten nearly all they ever learnt about ambulance work. Now, sir, the country is asking for something a little more than this, and I think it can only be brought about by re-arrange­ ment of things.— Yours, &c., A. R u m b l e . Broad Common, Hurst, Twyford, Berks. December 10th, 1912. C O M P E T IT IO N S IN N o. 7 D IS T R IC T . D e a r S i r ,— Evidently “ Justicius” was not satisfied with something or other at Welshpool. Well, I suppose any sup­ porter of a losing team seldom is. He should not, however, preface his suggestions by such “ low down ” innuendo as his letter in your excellent journal

OF

MANY

O P IN IO N S.

Mr. J . DANIEL, 23, K e n t A ven u e, A s h fo r d , K e n t , w r i t e s : — “ Its all-round excelle n ce m akes it a v alu able acquisition. T h e section dealin g w ith am bulance w ork is esp ecia lly good . T h e b ook is w ritten in splendid style and the illustration s are first rate. T h e m ethod o f paym ent places it w ithin the reach o f a ll.”

A FREE BOOKLET. TO

TH E

CAXTON

P U B L IS H IN G

COM PAN Y,

156, S u rrey S treet, L o n don , W .C . P l e a s e s e n d m e , F r e e o f C h a r g e a n d w i t h o u t a n y o b l i g a t i o n o n m y p a r t *_ (1) I llu s tr a te d B o o k le t on “ T h e M o d e r n P h y s ic ia n . ”

(2)

P a rticu la rs o f you r offer to deliver the com plete w ork for a first p aym ent o f is. 6d., the balan ce to he paid for b y a few sm all m onthly paym ents.

N a m e ............................................... ............................................................................................................

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A d d r e s s ...........................................................................................................


— F I R S T contains. Did he but know it, several of his recommendations were put into practice at the competition in question. This should please him. The work entailed upon judges drawing up 3 sets of separate questions and tests would be great, and mean a lot of valuable time wasted. In the ordinary course of minor compe­ titions it would be absolutely “ out of court.” I am told the plan usually adopted is No. 7 District is for one of the judges to prepare the tests, questions, etc.— and if these require printing, get them done— bringing them with him, and arranging for a preliminary consultation with his brother judges immediately before the competition takes place. This was done, I am informed, both at Hereford (1910) and Welshpool (1912), along with other safeguards; so that competitors may safely expect, and will get, “ fair dealings all round.” “ Justicius,” do not, please, give competitors the idea that judges are not fair in their work or their marking of points ; or that “ parade officials ” have any other object than that of doing their duty, without fear or favour, for the good of the cause we have so much at heart—pro utilitate hominum ! — Yours, &c., J u s t u s Ju d e x Ju s t e Ju d ic a t .

E X P E N SE OF A M BU LA N CE W ORK. S i r ,— May I trespass upon your valuable space to refer to a point which affects the unattached working man who wishes to take up ambulance work. I refer to the item of expense. Many railways and other big concerns, I understand, pay for the men’s equipment and class expenses, but in the case of the unattached working man who wishes to take up first aid to become a more useful member of the community, the expense is a consideration. The fee payable is anything from 2s., upwards, and in addition book, bandage, &c., have to be purchased, in all a cost of 4s. to 5s.— an amount that few of the working class can afford. I would suggest that a handbook at, say, 6d. should be obtainable, and bandage at 2d. or 3d.; some reduction should also be made in class fees, so as to bring ambulance knowledge within the reach of the working man who is not fortunate enough to be employed by a firm or corporation who are good enough to pay the cost of his ambulance education.— Yours, &c. M. P e c u n i o u s .

AID. —

December, 1912.

HORLICK’S MALTED MILK Malted Barley, W h e a t & Milk in Powder Form. Its value is based not alone on chemical qualities, but also on the possession of certain physical attributes, e.g., palat ability, solubility, ease of digestion and assimilation, etc., qualities moreover which cannot be ignored in the dis­ cussion of dietetic values. It is also true that the record of our product as a nutrient, for almost thirty years, bears irrefutable testimony to the genuineness of its physiological worth, and its general excellence as a food product. T r i a l size f r e e by p o s t, on a p p lica tio n to—

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NOTES

ON By

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FIRST S id n e y

AID H.

SIMPLIFIED.

Lam b.

A Handbook in a tabulated and simplified form giving the main points 01 first aid, so arranged as to impress them on the memory of the student. DALE, REYNOLDS & CO., Ltd., 46, Cannon St., LONDON, E.C.

3he Indian Jlmbulance Gazette. A Journal o f Ambulance Work in India, Burma and the East. P r ic e 4 s h i l l i n g s p e r a n n u m p o s t f r e e .

P u b l i s h e d Q u a r t e r ly . Can be obtained on application to the Editor, Peshawar, India.

WEDDING PRESENTS

LIFETIME.UST

G .E .R .— A good num ber o f the teams at various stations are already getting to work for the annual com ­ petition, 19 13 . A survey o f the cases treated by members of this Centre shows that at one tim e or another nearly all the differing kinds of first aid cases m entioned in the “ black book ” call for treatm ent, and convert with grim earnestness theory into practice. C a r d i f f N u r s i n g D i v i s i o n — W e have received a copy of the syllabus o f the work of the winter session in connection with the above division, which includes a course o f lectures to be given by some o f the leading m edical gentlem en of C ardiff and district, on such practical subjects as haemorrhage, street accidents and illnesses, ventilation, temperature, & c. T h e publication of the syllabus in pocket card form is a most excellent idea, for when it is distri­ buted to those interested, serves as a useful memorandum. T o those responsible for the arrangem ent of the programme o f work for the division we would like to congratulate, it is com prehensive and educational.

Show room s : W h en corresponding w ith A dvertisers please mention “ First A id .”

125-126, FE N C H U R C H STREET. E.C 188. O X F O R D STREET. L O N D O N , W.


FIRST AID.

The Independent Journal for the Ambulance and Fire Services. Conducted b y A R T H U R No.

223— V o l.

X IX

[ N e w S e r i e s .]

B.

JA N U A R Y , 19 13.

To Our Readers.

DALE,

M.J.I.

[E n » r,d a t s t a i r s - H a m

(2/6 PPE« '«

° ^ CEpREE.

from fire, and if a wise and sensible individual he will also cover him self against the financial result which may follow

A s it is the w ish and desire o f the Proprietors to m ake this Journal as in structive and en tertain in g as possible, correspondents in all parts o f the country are asked to giv e it all the h elp th ey can. Superintendents o f C o rps and O fficers o f D ivision s o f the St. John A m b ulan ce B rigad e, O fficers o f the R o y a l A rm y M ed ical C orps (Territorials), the V olu n teer A m b u lan ce S ch o o l o f Instruction, and C h ie f O fficers o f F ire B rigad es w ill, it is hoped, do their best to m ake

a serious accident, and yet how few will take the little trouble which it would entail to learn the sim ple rudiments o f first aid, whereby he or she may be enabled by the exercise of a little skill, com bined with com m on sense, to minimise the result of an accident, thereby preventing a

it k no w n am ongst the m em bers o f their respective organisations, and w ill also send for publication their official n ew s and notices. S u g g e s­ tions are in vited for Prize Com petition s and other m atters w h ich w ill advance the interest o f the Journal.

application o f an extem porised tourniquet arrest the flow of

W e p articu larly desire to ask our correspondents to be b rie f and to the point in a n y com m unications th ey m ay send us for publication.

It is not pretended that am bulance instruction makes either

sim ple fracture from becom ing a com pound one, or by the blood, and thereby be the means o f saving a valuable life. a doctor or nurse.

N othin g o f the k in d ; the teaching

C o rrespondents sending in photos are u rgen tly requested to state on the b ack o f the sam e the nam e o f the in dividual or the C orps or B r ig a d e and g iv e also the nam e and address o f the sender.

differs very widely.

W e b eg to advise our readers that w e do not pay for photographs or cop y sent, unless previou sly agreed upon in w riting.

while the am bulance man or woman is taught how to put

“ First Aid ” is published on the 20th of the month.

F i r s t A id T r a in in g .

are

tw o

events

T h e y are taught

how to make a bandage out of a necktie or pocket handker­ chief, a tourniquet out o f pair of braces, or a belt, and are com m on

to

human life, which cannot be foreseen, but which, when they occur, need all the im m ediate and intelligent action of

which men or women are capable.

to practical use the material o f whatever character which is first to his hand in case o f em ergency.

E D ITORIAL. T here

T h e surgeon is taught to use the best

and most approved apparatus for every variety of injury,

T h ese are accidents or

sudden illness. O nly those who have experienced it can fully realise the mortification felt, when, in the presence of suffering occasioned in either way, they recognised their utter in­

instructed how to utilise a stick, a pillow, or even a folded newspaper to make a splint, and how they can by the aid of two broom-handles and a couple o f coats extem porise a very serviceable stretcher. Just to consider for one m om ent a few o f the ordinary accidents o f everyday life, we will try to prove where the value of a first aid training com es in, cuts and wounds are frequent enough in every walk of life, and in these days o f motor-cars serious wounds are by no means uncom m on

ability to render assistance or to do anything to relieve the

N ow prompt measures, as taught in an am bulance class, will

suffering o f the stricken one.

often save life in this class o f injury ; while even in case of

W hen we consider how great are the worries and ex­

minor cuts and bruises the intelligent application o f simple

citements o f present day life, how vastly increased are the

first aid dressings will frequently obviate the risk o f lock­

possibilities o f danger to life and limb, even in the per­

jaw or prevent serious attacks o f blood poisoning, as a

formance o f ordinary hom e duties, it is not difficult to

result of the application o f cobwebs and other equally

form some estimate of the need for ready, resourceful action. N o matter how careful we ourselves may be, we ofttimes have to reckon with the carelessness o f others, it is therefore sound policy to make such provision as may tend to minimise the extent o f the m ischief in the pain and suffering which may possibly ensue. In the transaction of everyday life we find that the careful householder ^insures him self against possible loss

popular but dangerous remedies.

Cases o f fainting are

com m on enough, and the individual who knows what to do in such cases is a very w elcom e person when they do occur. E pileptic fits often occur in the streets and the un­ fortunate subject requires prom pt and careful treatm ent to obviate unnecessary suffering. Briefly sum m ed up, am bulance work teaches men and women how to help others, and surely there is no more noble work than imparting know ledge which enables individuals to be of service to their fellow creatures.


1 22

— F I R S T

A ID .—

January, 1913.

Mrs. Lines as soon as possible ; letters should be addressed to St. John’s Gate. R O Y A L N A V A L S IC K B E R T H RESERVE. Corporals and Privates who wish to take the opportunity of the Annual training which this Reserve offers should apply to the Officer or Member in Charge of their respective Divisions for particulars and enrolment form.

DUTY ROSTER. No. 1 District. D E P U T Y COM MIS SIONER :

L IE U T .-C O L .

LEES

-------

H ALL.

F E B R U A R Y , 1913. Sunday Duty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. Sunday, 2nd.— No. 29 (Walthamstow) Division. ,, 9th.— No. 46 (Ilford) Division. „ 16th. — No. 47 (L .B .S.C .R ., Willow W alk) Division. „ 23rd.— No. 53 (Watford) Division. 2.30 p.m. as per separate orders. R E -E X A M IN A T IO N S . 1st.— No. 14 (Craig’s Court House) Division, Dr. Fox Symons. Sunday, 2nd.— No. 16 (L .B .S.C .R ., New Cross)Division, Dr. C. Harvey. Wed., 5th.— No. 8 (East Ham) Nursing Division, Dr. Mackenzie. Sunday, 9th.— No. 47 (L .B.S.C.R . (Willow Walk) Division, Dr. J. Davies. Tuesday, n th .— No. 2 (Haggerston) Division, Dr. Tunstall. Tuesday, 18th.— No. 6 (Cyclist) Division, Major Maitland Coffin. Monday, 3rd.— No. 21 (South Kensington) Nursing Division, Dr. Cantlie. There are a very large number of Divisions, which have not yet advised Headquarters of the date fixed for reExamination, the attention of Officers and other membfers in charge of Divisions is particularly drawn to this. Saturday,

D IV IS IO N A L B O O K S. A large number of Divisions have still to submit their books for Inspection, arrangements must now be made to get this done before the end of February. C O M P A N Y IN S P E C T IO N S . Company Commanders will please note that the date for the inspection of their Company will soon be required. They should take the earliest opportunity of calling together the Divisional Officers of the Divisions forming their Company to arrange details. Divisions which have not yet been allocated to a Company will shortly be notified as to the Company to which tbey will in future be attached for the purpose of District Parades and combined Drills. BUGLE

BAND

P R A C T IC E .

Fridays 7th and 14th, at Headquarters, St. John’s Gate, at 8 p.m. sharp. Members of Divisions who are intending to join this band should make up their mind to do so without delay, as, in order to assist the instructors, recruiting will be stopped at the end of March until October next. M IL IT A R Y

BAND.

W ill Officers please bring this proposal before their mem­ bers at the earliest possible moment, if any wish to join (pro­ vided the band is raised), kindly advise the District Superin­ tendent which instrument they play, and also if they have their own for practice until arrangements can be made to provide others. F IR S T

A ID

AND

N U R S IN G L A D IE S

CLASSES

FOR

Is being formed, to commence at the end of February, at St. John’s Gate. Name of candidates should be forwarded to

M IL IT A R Y H O M E H O S P IT A L R E S E R V E . Officers and Sergeants who wish to take advantage of the training offered by this Reserve should apply for B.O. 132 and an enrolment form. The training offered is Bi-Annual, and only offered to the above mentioned ranks. Training in the above Two Resen'es is not compulsory, but members are expected to go once, and as often as possible after. They can choose to take this training at any time of the year convenient to themselves, provided at least a month’s notice is given. V O L U N T A R Y A ID D E T A C H M E N T S . It is urged that those Divisions who have not yet been able to form a V.A.D . should make every effort to do so as soon as possible. Divisions that are not strong enough (see note below) to form a complete Detachment should endeavour to raise a com­ plete section and be attached to another Divisional V.A.D . until they can secure more members, sufficient to have their own Detachment within their own Division. It would be pre­ ferable to work where possible with a Division which forms part of the same Company of the District. Note.— The minimum strength for a Men’s V.A.D . for W ar Office registration is 33, and for Women’s, 16. It will be seen by the above notice of Reserves that it is necessary for all Divisions to increase their strength as much as possible, and arrangements should be made to hold First Aid Classes in order to obtain recruits. Divisional Officers should do their utmost to spread out, forming sections of their own Divisions in localities adjoining the District or Borough to which the Divisions belong. P R E L IM IN A R Y N O T IC E S . The Officers’ Dinner will be held at the Holborn Restaurant, on Thursday, April 17th. Note.— District Headquarters will be closed on that evening. M A R C H 21 st (G O O D F R ID A Y ). Weather permitting it is proposed to repeat the march and combined drill, held for the first time last year. EASTER

OPEN

SPACE

D UTY.

If Divisional Officers or Members-in-Charge of Divisions have in view open spaces suitable for an Ambulance Station where such have not been provided for, I shall be glad if they will communicate with me with the object of applying for the necessary permission from the local authorities, no time should be lost on this matter. (Signed) L E E S H ALL, Deputy-Commisssoner. Headquarters St. John’s Gate, Clerkenwell, E.C. N o. 13 ( K i n g ’ s C r o s s G .N .R .) D i v i s i o n . — T h e annual report for the year ending Septem ber 30th shows the division as being in a prosperous condition. It had up to the end of that period a total strength o f 712. In the com petition field a team representing the district was successful in winning the “ W illiam H e ) w o o d ” Shield. T h e members have reported 2,762 cases to which they have rendered first aid, and public duty has been taken on many occasions, including the Coronation, and in this connection 65 members were awarded the medal. T h e statement of accounts shows a small balance in hand. S t . J o h n ’s G a t e

N u r sin g

D i v is io n .— A lth o u g h th e


January, 1913.

— F I R S T

members o f the division were handicapped in the distri­ bution o f clothing by the prohibition o f the whist drive, which has in the past been the means o f providing funds for this annual institution, nevertheless they were equal to the occasion, and by their efforts over i,o c o garments were bought or made, and were distributed to the poor of Clerkenw ell on D ecem ber 18th at St. John’s Gate. It was a pathetic sight to see the poor women and children being let into the room in batches, and there be­ ing attended to by L ad y Superintendent, Mrs. J. C . Lines and the nursing sisters ; each child is also given a toy, piece of cake, and an orange. Am ongst those present at the distribution were Sir H erbert Perrott, Secretary-General of the O r d e r ; L ad y Perrott, Lady Superintendent-in-Chief of the Nursing Corps and D iv isio n s; L ad y M aud W ilbraham , D istrict Lady Superintendent o f the Prince of W ales’s Corps ; the Rev. T . C. Elsdon, rector o f St. John’s ; the R ev. P. C . A lcock, Mr. Pontin, D istrict S u perin ten den t; Mr. J. C. Lines, Corps S uperin ten dent; Mr. W. R . Edwards, Secretary to the O rd e r; Mr. W. H . Morgan, Assistant-Com m issioner o f Overseas Brigade, and Mrs. Morgan and Miss Joseph. T h e L ad y Supt. wishes to thank the Craigs Court Nursing D ivision for its very substantial help, also Mr. M orphet, o f the Settle Division o f Yorkshire, and the kind donor of the 200 toys which gave such delight to the children. No. 2 District. F o l k e s t o n e . — A shield subscribed for by the m em­ bers o f the Corporation was presented to the corps last year for com petition am ongst the members o f the am bu­ lance divisions, and the first com petition was held last month. A t the same time the com petition for the silver rose bowl, which was presented by the Hon. F. M. D aly to the nursing division of the corps, was held. A t the close o f the com petition the M ayor presented the trophies and prizes to the winning teams, and congratu­ lated the brigade upon the useful work it was doing, and contrasted the condition o f things to-day as com pared with what he remem bered 45 years ago. T h e judges were Drs. F. A. Osborne and Murphy. Mr. V id g en ’s team was first with 677 marks in the am bulance divisions, and Miss Palm er’s team with 139 marks in the nursing divisions. E x e t e r .— T h e annual report of this division states that the efficiency and discipline o f the division has been well maintained. P ublic duty has been undertaken at sports meetings, fetes, & c. T hanks to the generosity of Lord Poltim ore and other friends, the division was repre­ sented at the R oyal R eview by practically its full strength. T h e K in g ’s Coronation M edal was received during the past year by Supt. Bowden, Sergt. Marsh, Corpl. Young, Bugler Langm aid, and Ptes. C larke and Maunder.

No. 3 District. N o r t h a m p t o n .— T h e motor am bulance recently provided by the Corporation is to be called the “ H arvey R eeves.” Mr. W. H. Reeves is D istrict Supt. of the No. 3 District and M ayor o f Northam pton this year, and it was mainly through his initiative that this useful adjunct to the work was provided. It is hoped to have the motor am bulance working in a few weeks tim d T h e increase in the invalid transport work during the past year emphasises he need for such a vehicle, 184 patients having been

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m oved by means o f the horse am bulance, an increase of twenty-six on the previous year. T h e report shows a net decrease in the strength o f the Corps. T h e classes for seniors, fifteen in number, have been attended by 358 pupils, o f whom 259 passed the exam inations ; the two classes for juniors were attended by 60 pupils, 56 of whom passed examinations.

No. 5 District. It is with the deepest regret that we have to record the death o f Dr. E. West-Symes, D istrict C h ief Surgeon of the district who died, on January 29th, after a short illness at the age of 66. H e was the son of Dr. E dm ond Symes, and was born in London in 1846. Thirty-six years ago he set up practice in Halifax, and becam e one o f the leading physicians in the town. H e was appointed a mem ber of the honorary medical staff o f the Infirm ary, and on his retirement in 1906 he was senior o f the staff. T h e W est R iding M edical and Surgical Society was founded by him, and he was a former president o f that organisation. T h is year he was the President o f the Yorkshire Edinburgh Graduates’ Association. Dr. West-Sym es interested him self actively in the St. John A m bulance Association, and in 1909 was nom inated a mem ber o f the Central E xecutive Com m ittee, and was an Hon. A ssociate o f the Order o f the H ospital o f St. John o f Jerusalem. For some time he was an officer o f the 2nd W est Yorkshire Yeom anry, and retired with the rank of Surgeon-M ajor. From 1895 to 1899 he occupied a seat on the H alifax T ow n C ouncil. In 1899 Dr. Symes was appointed a Borough M agistrate, and he was also a zealous Freemason.

B r i g h o u s e . — A general meeting was held on January 7th, Dr. Bond presiding. T h e m eeting approved o f the trust deed o f the new headquarters, and also gave general approval to the plans. A building com m ittee had been appointed with power to obtain contracts for the erection of the building, and the hope was expressed that the foundation stones would be laid soon after Easter It might be added that there is still ^ 5 0 wanted for the site, but that on the building fund there is a sum in hand o f ^ 9 0 0 .

H a l i f a x .— Supt. A u ty presided over the annual meet­ ing which was held on D ecem ber 6th. T h e hon. secretary states in his report for 1912 that the strength o f the division is : 1 hon. surgeon, 1 superintendent, 1 am bu­ lance officer, 2 sergeants, 4 corps, 36 privates ; a total effective o f 42. Last June, 24 members, under charge of the late D istrict Surg,-M ajor E. West-Symes, attended the R oyal Review at W indsor. On July n t h the division paraded for duty on the occasion of their M ajesties’ visit to Halifax, and very efficient service was rendered. A good average attendance for drills has been m ain­ tained, and the members also turned out for football duties to the aggregate o f 151 parades. T h e num ber o f cases treated being 104 on duty and 38 off duty. O n the financial side, the year was started a debt of 1 8s. 6d., and after expending ^ 1 7 4s. 1 Ad., they have a balance in hand o f ^ 8 7s. 8|-d.

K e i g h l e y . — T h e members o f the A D ivision have presented to Supt. and Mrs. H arding a handsome cabinet in recognition of his fifteen years service.


— F I R S T

12 4

AID. —

January, 1913.

No. 6 District. A recent innovation in this district has been the pub­ lication o f a Y ear B ook and D irectory for 1913, under the editorship o f Dr. Wishart. It contains a short history of the order o f St. John, and a few general notes concerning the brigade. T h e rest o f the book is confined to the No. 6 District. It gives many extracts from the C h ief C o m ­ missioner’s annual report of the S .J .A .B . of the district, also a full report of the proceedings of the district for the past year, together with a financial statement. T h e editor has taken great pains to com pile this little directory, which should be of much service in the district. N e w c a s t l e . — A schem e is on foot under the auspices of the corps to form an am bulance departm ent of the N ew ­ castle Infirmary. It is proposed to convert a large hall, which has been unoccupied for a considerable time, into the headquarters o f the corps, and at the same time equip

B y courtesy]

Jtailwaij Ambulance. L. & N .W . R y .— T he am bulance men of the Tredegar Classes assem bled on January 5th to receive their certifi­ cates, & c., for the 1912 examinations. T h e chair was taken by Inspector T . Harries, and he was supported by Mr. A. Price, stationmaster, Mr. VV. Baxter, loco depart­ ment, and Mr. G eorge Skinner. T h e chairman generally rem arked on the benefits of first aid, and said there was tangible proof laying on the table before him in the form of certificates, medallions, & c., to show that a great amount of effort and hard work had been put in by the Tredegar class. T h e progress of the am bulance cause spoke highly of the efforts of those qualified, and of those who trained them. T h ey especially deserved our thanks. The directors o f the L. & N .W . Ry. had taken a great and deep

[ The Folkestone H erald.

In the illustration above are seen the winners of the Folkestone Corporation Shitld, competed for annually by the Divisions of the Corps. Names (from left to right)— Standing : Pte. P. Ealding, Pte. T. Sayer, Pte. C. W . Standen, Pte. J. Pinder ; sitting : Corps. Supt. F. A. Adams, Divisional Surgeon H. Roker Evans, Fourth Ambulance Officer W . C. Marsh, Corp. A. Vidgen. it as an am bulance station. Dr. W ishart is taking a prominent part in this project, and in order to devote him ­ self more fully to it he has resigned the hon. secretaryship o f the Territorial Section of the S .J .A .A . W e wish him every success in his efforts.

W e should like to sincerely thank many o f our readers who sent us kind wishes for Chrism as and the New Year. V iscountess E sher’s spring term o f am bulance and hom e nursing lectures for women com m ences in February. F or particulars, apply to her by letter only to C raigs’ Court H ouse, W hitehall, S.W . W H E N C O R R E S P O N D IN G W IT H A D V E R ­ T I S E R S P L E A S E M E N T IO N “ F I R S T A ID ."

interest in the work, and he was pleased to announce they were increasing their interest. From the 19 13 report he saw the C om pany intended giving the same privilege to members o f their staff who obtained their first certificate as they had been giving to men who passed for vouchers, &c. T h ese increased concessions would be greatly appreciated. H e noted, too, the C om pany were again giving the usual prizes for com petition, and he hoped the Tredegar team would be successful in getting one of them. Mr. E. W . T . Morris, the class secretary, who takes a keen interest in the work, said that they proposed to enter a team for the annual com petition, and his advice to them was to keep cool and abandon nervousness. After the presentation o f certificates a presentation was made to Mr. A. P rice and Mr. Baxter on behalf o f the class. G .W .R .— W e learn that the General M anager’s a n n r'


January, 1913.

— F I R S T

circular for the year 1913 upon the subject of am bulance classes and competitions is now available, and copies may be obtained by members o f the staff on appli­ cation to the Centre Secretary. T h e circular contains a good deal o f new matter, including the revised regula­ tions applying to the C om pany’s annual com petitions. T h e announcem ent that in response to repeated representa­ tions the individual prizes are to be dispensed with and beginners’ team prizes instituted in this year’s contests will doubtless be welcom ed and the change appreciated, for it should do much to encourage the form ation o f new teams throughout the line. It is felt that in the past many have hesitated to enter the team contests on account of the high state of efficiency acquired by some of the more experienced competitors. A s was anticipated, the disorganisation which resulted from the C olliers’ Strike in the spring of last year, when

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Law, who, in the course o f his address, spoke in high appreciation of the am bulance movem ent, and counselled all the members to continue the good work they had taken in hand and not be content with the certificate alone. Mr. P. Harper, who presided, proposed a vote o f thanks to Mr. Law , which was heartily adopted.

S. E. & C. R y . — Six teams com peted at Folkestone H arbour for the shield presented to the C entre by Dr. Linnington. D over team won the com petition last year but they were unable to defend their position on this occasion. T h e ju d ge was Lieut.-Col. L ees H all, and the teams very evenly matched. Mr. Lane, C entre Secretary, gave out the final results as u n d e r :— Ashford W orks United, 1 4 1 ; Ashford Saw Mills, 14 0 ; Ashford Station, 12 8 ;

[ The Polkestone H erald.

Winners of the Rose Bowl presented by Hon. Florence Daly (Lady of Grace of the Order) for competition amongst the Nursing Division of the Folkestone Corps. The names (left to right) are {— Nursing Officer F. Palmer, Nursing Sister E. Coles, Nursing Sister M. Wraight, and Lady Supt. the Hon. Florence Daly. the majority of the am bulance classes were in full swing, has left its mark upon the exam ination returns for the year, there being a considerable falling off in the number passing for the certificate and voucher awards. H ad it not been for the strike it is considered that an all round increase would again have been reported. T h e members of the Chester Class recently met at the station to receive the awards gained in examination. Mr. J. Pow ell presided, and the certificates were distri­ buted by Dr. Butt (lecturer). A pleasing incident in the proceedings was the presentation of umbrellas to Messrs. Carr and T om kins (class instructor and secretary respec­ tively) by Mr. H itch cock (divisional superintendent) on b ehalf o f the class. On the 1st inst. the mem bers of the Sm ithfield Am bulance Class met to receive their exam ination awards at the hands o f the district goods manager, Mr. H . C.

Folkestone H arbour, 1 2 7 ; Folkestone Junction, 1 1 9 ; and Ashford W agon Shop, i n . Mr. E. Thom as, D istrict Supt., who presided at the meeting after the com petition, congratulated the men on the excellence o f their work, and said the effect o f their training was not only to make them better and more useful men, but better servants, of the com pany and helpful to their com panions who might have the m isfortune to be injured. T h e shield was presented to the winning team by little Miss Linnington, and Mrs. Linnington generously pro­ mised to give each mem ber of the team a souvenir o f their success. A vote o f thanks was accorded to Lieut.-Col. Lees H all for acting as judge, who was also thanked by Mr, A. H ull, leader o f the winning team on behalf o f the several com petitors.


— F I R S T Mr. Lane, the C entre Secretary, and Mr. Osborn, the Secretary o f the Folkestone A m bulance Class were also thanked for their services. A m bulance work has gone on apace during the past month on the S .E . & C .R ., and many o f the classes are now nearing the exam ination period, when hope beats high in the breast o f the am bitious student, who is anxious to preserve his record for the medal awarded by the C om ­ pany to members passing seven years in succession, since May, 1905, when the C entre was formed. A lready two exam inations have been held— one for the members o f the H om e Office class at London Bridge, when 23 students presented them selves before Dr. R. D. Muir, on Thursday, D ecem ber 19th, and 22 had the satisfaction o f finding their names on the right side o f the pass sheet. A t the final meeting of the class, Dr. G. S. V . Harris, the lecturer, was presented with a handsom e Hot-water Jug, as an appreciation of his efforts on b ehalf o f the members, who afterwards recognised the services o f the class secre­ tary, Mr. W. W iessner, by handing him a useful tim e­ piece, as an evidence of their thanks for past services rendered. M onday, D ecem ber 30th, saw the final re-examination at V ictoria Station, when Lieut.-Col. Lees H all (R .A .M .C . R td.) exam ined 14 men who had not passed during the year, and all but one passed successfully. T h e work of arranging the annual com petitions for the S.E . & C .R . railwaymen is well advanced, and the follow ing are the dates and places for the different groups :— Beginners’ Group, Hollingsworth H all, M aidstone, W ednesday, February 26th. Group 4, Cam berw ell Station, T hursday and Friday, February 27th and 28th. Group 3, Warrior-square, Presbyterian H all, St. Leonards-on-Sea, M onday and Tuesday, M arch 3rd and 4th. Group 2, St. Leonards-on-Sea, Thursday, M arch 6th. Group 1, St. Leonards-on-Sea, W ednesday, M arch 5th. Representative and Annual Dinner, Crystal Palace, W ednesday, April 9th. A ll entries for the G roup Com petitions must reach the C entre Secretary, not later than Saturday, February 8th, and evidence is already forthcom ing that a large entry is to be the order of the day. Four lectures will be delivered by F. M. Sandwith, M .D ., Greshan Professor of Physic :— January 28th, on the South African W ar ; January 29th, on the Care of the Sick and W ounded in N aval W arfare; January 30th, on the Russo-Japanese W a r; January 31st, on R ed Cross V oluntary Aid. T h e lectures on January 30th and 31st will be illustrated by lantern slides. T h e lectures will .be deliver at the C ity of Lond on School, V ictoria E m bank­ ment, E .C . (three m inutes’ walk from Blackfriars Bridge). T h e lectures are free to men and women, and will begin each evening at six o’clock.

AID. —

January, 1913.

R e v ie w s . A ID S

TO

M E M O R Y F O R F IR S T A ID STU D EN TS. By L. M. Frank Christian, M.B., C.M.Edin. Stockport : Connell & Bailey, Ltd. London : St. John Ambulance Association. Price 6s., by post ys.

The success of Dr. Christian’s little book has, as we pre­ dicted with the first edition, been justified by the call for yet another the 5th issue within twelve months. W e attribute that this success lies in the fact that Dr. Christian has such an intimate knowledge of the requirements of the ambulance student that he is able to exclude all irrevelent matter from his work, thereby giving plain and explicit directions as to how to act in cases of emergency which few others can do. Although the book is more or less in what we might call a tabulated form it appeals to us,not only from the point of view of its educative value, but also the interest which it sustains by the method which the author adopts to convey to his readers an easy grip of the subject in this tabulated form. In the new edition which has the general characteristics of its predecessors many illustrations taken from actual photographs have been added and it has been brought up-to-date by many modifi­ cations and the inclusion of additional text. W e have no hesitation in recommending this book to all ambulance students who desire readily to grasp a thorough knowledge of first aid. TH E

D U T IE S O F A W O M E N ’S V O L U N T A R Y A ID D E T A C H M E N T . By L. K. Laurie. H. Newbury, Jarvis Brook, Sussex. Price 4ci.

It was pointed out at the Voluntary Aid Congress that the administration of Detachments was woefully behindhand, and the Commandants— through no fault of their own— had gained very little knowledge of the administration which must take place in the field and elsewhere, no definite instructions have been issued as to the system of organisation for temporary hospitals, or as to the respective parts to be played in the management of such institutions. The author of this brochure has endeavoured to fill this gap by drawing up a provisional scheme of hospital economy based on the rules in force in permanent Military Hospitals, this uniform scheme has been adopted by the Rye Division of Sussex. This provisional scheme carries no official sanction, but it should serve as a most useful guide for the practice of Women’s Detachments. The author has taken some care in its compilation and has quoted freely from official books. TH E U SE OF OXYGEN B R E A T H IN G OR R E S C U E A P P A R A T U S F O R W O R K IN N O X IO U S ATM OSPH ERES. By Arthur T. Wenborn, M .I.M .E. Newport : Mullock & Sons, Ltd.

W ORD

CO M PETITIO N . See

Nam e Address 1Vord

page

13 2 .

W e had the pleasure of seeing the MS. of this book some while ago, and we then expressed the opinion that it would serve an useful purpose. In a modest preface, the author says he was tempted to compile the book owing to the absence of any text-book dealing with the subject. He has not failed in his attempt, for he has handled his subject in a lucid manner. The book deals in a greater part with a description and use of the various rescue apparati on the market; these are carefully illustrated in order to readily explain the text. A chapter is


January, 1913.

— F I R S T

devoted to the organisation and training of a rescue brigade and detailed information regarding equipment, and finally a number of pages are devoted to problems and answers on rescue work. These should be found of much service to those who desire to obtain a good insight as to the extent of their knowledge of rescue work. P R O B L E M S IN F IR S T A ID . By L. M. Frank Christian, M.B., C.M.Edin., and William R. Edwards, A.C.A. London : St John Ambulance Association. Price 6d. post free. It is with the object of effecting a better recognition of the many important practical details connected with first aid, and of leading ambulance students to look upon the subject of ambulance work from a more intellectual point of view, that this book has been compiled. The trend of first aid work for the past few years has been developed on what we may term problematical lines. In competitions, instead of the direct diagnosis of a case being given as formally, the nature of an accident is given and the competitor has to base his own con­ clusions and act accordingly. In consequence, a totally different line of thought and observation has to be adopted by the student, for the better no one can deny, and the aim of this book is to develope this and to show the right line upon which to go to work. To explain the meaning perhaps in a more explicit manner :— “ A woman, walking along a public road, was suddenly knocked down by a man accidentally running against her, with the result that her head was brought into violent contact with the ground and she was stunned. “ A h e a d injury here is at once suggested. With such a history, however, the possibilities of mischief are not limited to the head injury. That undoubtedly is of momentous import­ ance, but possibilities and even probabilities lie in other directions, and this fact should be borne in mind by the first aider anxious to give ‘skilled assistance.' “ For example, in such a case the woman in falling would intuitively put out her hand in the attempt to break the violence of her fall. The effect of this would be the introduction of possibilities of other injuries by indirect or direct violence. O f such injuries may be quoted fracture of the clavicle, fracture of the radius, sprain, dislocation wounds, &c., much depending upon the age of the patient, the direction of the fall, the nature of the ground, the resistance or other­ wise of the patient, &c. Further possibilities might be men­ tioned, but sufficient has been advanced to indicate the im­ portance of intelligent observation and, for the purpose of treatment, careful discrimination. The sequel to the incident above referred to is very instructive :— “ The woman remained stunned for a few minutes, she was roused to semi-consciousness, and some brandy was given to her to swallow. Later she walked to her home (about one and a half miles distant) apparently but little the worse for the accident. She ate her supper as usual and went to bed. She had vomited slightly, and a small quantity of blood had flowed from her nose. The cause of this, as ascertained by a post­ mortem examination, was a fracture of the skull, with accumu­ lation of blood under the fracture leading to compression of the brain.” This is one of the numerous examples given throughout the book in order to teach the first aid student to grasp the practical sense of the instructions laid down in the official text-book, and in our opinion it is the only way to teach the methods of first aid. Perhaps some will say it makes the subject too advanced, and will only serve the highly-trained ambulance man, but we contend that the fundamental prin­ ciples of first aid must be taught in a logical manner in order to make it of real practical worth, and it is this that the book has accomplished in an admirable manner. At the conclusion of each chapter is given a number of questions which serve the student to ascertain whether he has

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obtained a good knowledge of its contents. W e are sure that this book will be welcomed by our readers who wish to study their subject more deeply and on the right lines than it is pos­ sible from the text-book. B O O K S R E C E IV E D . “ Before the Doctor Comes,” by Dr. Andrew Wilson ; published by Eveleigh Nash, 36, King-street, Covent Garden, W .C., price 2 S . 6d. “ The Care of Children,” by Arthur Miller, M.D. ; pub­ lished by Eveleigh Nash, 36, King-street, Covent Garden, W .C., price as. 6d. “ Hypnotism and Self-Education, by A. M. Hutchison, M.D. ; published by T. C. & E. C. Jack, 67, Long Acre, W .C., price 6d. “ Marriage and Motherhood,” by H. S. Davidson, M.B.; published by T. C. & E. C. Jack, 67, Long Acre, W .C., price 6d. “ The Baby,” by a University W om an; published by T. C. & E. C. Jack, price 6d. “ Home Nursing,” by C. F. Wightman, F.R .C.S.; published by G. Gill & Sons, Ltd., 13, Warwick-lane, E.C.

A nsw ers to Correspondents. O w in g to the large num ber o f queries received, we have decided to open a colum n f o r d ea lin g w ith these en qu iries. Su ch queries w i ll be dealt w ith u nd er the follow in g rules :— I - — Letters containing Q ueries m ust be m arked on the top left h a n d corner o f the envelope “ Q u ery ," a n d addressed — F i r s t A i d , 46, Cannon-street, London, E . C. -■— A l l Q ueries m u st be accom panied by a “ Q uery Coupon ” cu t f 10m the curren t issue o f the J o u r n a l, or in case o f Q ueries from abroad fr o m a recent issue. p . — Headers r eq u irin g a reply by post m u st enclose a stam ped addressed envelope.

N u r s i n g O f f i c e r (Dorset).— The position for making the signs for both the letters W. and X in Semaphore signalling the LEFT arm should be in position as for the letter INTERESTED (Yorkshire).— The Laborde method of artificial respiration is the tongue method. Any text-book will give you the mode of application.

E.J.R. (Islington).— (1) W e cannot tell you why there is not an ambulance station at the Agricultural Hall, we believe they have first aid appliances there, but we quite agree with you that it would be an excellent idea to have a station as at Earl’s Court. (2) The litters kept by the Metropolitan Police are not of a very modern pattern, they are used frequently and in view that no other service exists they are of utility. (3) By the experience of the City of London Ambulance Service we should say it has much to recommend it as being suitable for Greater London, the only feature which mitigates against it is the question of expense, a modified system of wagons and litters we should say would well meet the case. D. B. A. (Putney).— The vermiform appendix is found on the right side at the lower part of the abdomen. D. H. D. (Kettering).— Antiseptic is applied to substances which arrest putrefaction by preventing the growth of micro­ organisms. Aseptic are substances which are free from putre­ faction and which cannot convey the causes of putrefaction to others. C o r p o r a l (Bristol).— Before promotion y o u will be re­ quired to pass an examination in Parts I., II., and III., of the Official Drill Manual.

W H E N C O R R E S P O N D IN G W IT H A D V E R ­ T IS E R S P L E A S E M E N T IO N “ F IR S T A ID .”


128

— F I R S T

B r e v itie s. W e are glad to learn that the V iceroy of India paid a warm tribute of appreciation of the services rendered by a con­

tingent of the St. John Am bulance Brigade Overseas at the time of the recent bomb-throwing, during the state entry into Delhi on Decem ber 23rd. * * * R e a l i s i n g how often slight accidents such as fainting, &c., occur at places of amusement, the Birmingham Corps of the S .J.A.B . offered to place two men at the Empire Music Hall every night, the offer was accepted by the

management and there is a possibility of extending this useful service to other theatres in the city. T h e idea might be followed in other cities, for members can perform their duty and at the same time spend their evening con­ genial to themselves. * * in his report on the Ditton Junc­ tion railway accident, which occurred on September 17th L i e u t .-C o l . Y o r k e ,

last, points out that is the most serious accident that has occurred since that at Shrewsbury in October, 1907. H e attributes the cause of the accident to the fact that the train became derailed owing to the drivers’ lack of familiarity with the road and exceeding the limit of speed, which, at this particular point, should have been 15 miles an hour, whereas he estimates that that the train must have been travelling at least 60 miles an hour at the time of derailment, for it tore up the track for some 95 yards after leaving the rails, and the impact of the bridge was so great that it broke the back of the engine. *

* *

persons, including the driver and fireman, were killed, and 39 passengers and the guard were injured— F ifte e n

AID. —

January, 1913.

ings into the following branches and notice of intention to read papers under these headings must be given before March 1 s t : — (1) Medical first aid in accidents; (2) In ­ struction of non-professionals in first aid ; (3) Ambulance work in towns and in the open country ; (4) Ambulance work in land traffic (railway, underground railway, electric railway and automobile traffic, & c . ) ; (5) Ambulance work at sea, and on inland and coast waters ; (6) Ambulance work in mines and similar works ; (7) Ambulance work for fire brigades; (8) Am b ulan ce work in the m ou n tain s; (9) Am bulance work and S port; (10) Prevention of accidents. * * * T h r o u g h the First International Congress, which was held at Frankfort five years ago, a strong impulse was given wherever the provision for life saving work left much to be

desired, and it was proposed tbat in order to increase the value of the proceedings a permanent International C o m ­ mittee Office is to be established, to serve as an inquiry office on all matters connected with first aid and life saving work. This should, by means of a careful compilation of all data and records relating to the subjects, be a valuable asset to supply recent and authentic information upon them. T h e scheme of work under the various sections is of a very interesting and useful character, making a foundation for a practical working congress. Full particulars of member­ ship and other details can be obtained on application to Mr. S. Osborn, F .R .C .S ., Constitutional Club, Charing Cross, W.C. * * 41In the South African M edical Record Mr. J. Maberly publishes a case in support of his contention that the best antidote for carbolic acid is tincture of iodine; he has previously published three cases in the La?icet about five

dent, stated in his evidence that when he arrived on the scene he found a number of trained ambulance men assist­ ing the injured. Everything that could be devised was done to assist the injured, and he could not speak too

years ago. In the present case he was called to a child of eighteen months which had swallowed, twenty minutes previously, a tablespoonful (estimated) of pure Jeyes’ fluid, and was in great pain. T h e author mixed half a drachm of tincture of iodine with half a wineglassful of w a te r ; after swallowing this the child got speedy relief. H e gave instructions that a similar quantity was to be given

highly of those who were there to render first aid. Although no medical evidence is given in the report as to the nature of the injuries, &c., it is gratifying to learn that

after an hour, and next day found the child quite recovered. H e holds that iodine and carbolic are mutually deprived of virulence by admixture in equal quantities, and suggests

such valuable aid was rendered by the ambulance men, and it is yet another proof of its usefulness to all railway

that carbolic may prove of equal value as an antidote to

the injuries in eight cases being of a serious nature. StaffSergt. J. Watson, R .A .M .C ., who was persent at the acci­

workers.

* * *

iodine poisoning. * * *

Second International First A id and Life Saving

W e are continually being encouraged by letters, ex­

Congress is to be held at V ienna from the 9th to 13th of September this year. T h e purpose of the Congress is to form a gathering for all those who either professionally

pressing approval of F i r s t A i d , and should like to quote an extract from a letter from a reader o f many years stand­ ing ;— “ I am gratified to note the steady improvement in

or voluntarily are interested in first aid and life saving

the effort to keep our little Journal up to the high standard. I shall not fail to advertise “ F. A . ” on every opportunity.”

T he

work, and by means of personal exchange of experiences and mutual suggestion, to further the developm ent of it upon practical lines.

It is intended to divide the proceed­

This is a practical method of showing appreciation and we hope other readers will follow our kind friend’s example.


January, 1913.

all

r ig h ts

— F I R S T

reserved

.J

H o m e N u r s in g a n d H y g ie n e. By

H. M A I N W A R I N G HOLT, M .R .C .S ., L.S.A., D .P .H .

Honorary Associate of the Order o f St. John, L ife Member of, and Lecturer and E xa m in er o f the S .f .A .A . ; Hon. Surgeon to the M alton and N orton D ivision, No. VL. D istrict, S J .A .B . ( Continued from page u p . ) Differences Between D ilu ted Cow's M ilk and Hum an M ilk .— In order to illustrate this Diagram II I. has been prepared, the whole diagram represents a mixture o f two parts milk and one part water, or say, 67 parts milk and 33 parts w a ter ; that is to say, twice as much milk as water. Y o u will note a thick line running from the top to bottom of the diagram, and if you count the square to the left of line you will find they number 67, these squares repre­ sent the milk, those on the right of the line number 33, these squares represent the added water, and these added together equal 100 squares or parts of the mixture. T h e black portions represent the solid constituent parts of milk, and if you will compare these portions with Diagram I. you will find that each has lost one-third of its length ; that is to say they are only two-thirds of the length of their corresponding column in Diagram I. Y o u will notice that a thick line surrounds the squares and portions of squares in the proteid, fats and sugar columns, the spaces thus left open denote the deficiencies of each constituent respec­ tively ; only in the mineral column does the black extend beyond the white, this shows the excess of mineral matter. Now if you add up the deficiencies (neglecting the excess of minerals) you will find they amount to about five-and-ahalf per cent., and if you will furthermore reflect for a moment how often a child is fed during the day and night, f j c i ^ Hi

Ihq

b e V u u e ii

c l'ilu lc c L

_________

VV3 jTF-^

75

I'lllffcRfli. qsprEi^,

c o u i ? ' m i l k o**<l 6

ft

AID. —

129

you will have some idea of how it comes about that “ the child is never satisfied.” N ow look at Diagram II. (which was given in our last issue), compare it with Diagram III., and you will find has dropped out of the protein, fats and mineral matters, or read the deficiences to the right of Diagram III. I f you count every square as a penny you will understand it better. Suppose you were entitled to be paid eight shillings and fourpence (100 pence), and instead o f this amount you only received seven shillings and tenpence-halfpenny (94^ pence), the loss would be fivepence-halfpenny; well, if you were obliged to suffer this loss ten times over, the amount would be four shillings and sevenpence (55 pence), or 5^ per cent. What would you think of someone saying, “ This person never seems satisfied !” An d so the infant might reply, “ W ho steals my purse steals trash, but he that filches from me my good health, robs me of that which not enriches him, but leaves me poor indeed.” Deficiencies o f Simply Watered M i l k — In the proteid column the deficiency is neary half a sq u a r e ; this is bad enough, but when you are told that the child is getting i f times more caseinogen and about i j times less lactalbumen than he should have, and add to this \ excess of mineral matters, you will understand how its comes about that the clots formed in the stomach are so large and indigestible, for you have already been told that the clots formed on adding a little rennet to milk consist chiefly of caseinogen, that they are in fact “ curds.” Now the clots formed from human milk curdle in very finely divided particles, and are therefore much more easily digested. It is said that the excess in mineral matter tends to make the clots in cow’s milk firmer and still more indigestible. This may be so, but what is certain is that the large clots, chiefly consisting o f the excess of caseinogen, renders the milk of the cow, even when diluted as above, difficult of digestion. Y o u will have ample opportunity of comparing the size of the clots formed by cow ’s milk and human milk when observing “ hand f e d ” and “ breast fed” infants. H u m a n is e d

M il k .

B est M ethod o f M odifying Cow's M ilk .— T h ere is only one thoroughly successful i [u/ m an 111 ilk way of humanising cow ’s milk, and that is filter it through the breasts of the mother, let the mother take the cow’s milk her­ self, and feed the infant at the breasts, this is nature’s method, and it cannot be improved upon. o <*<fM ore F a t Required.— This may be obtained by adding cream, now the ordinary cream of the house­ hold may contain 1 -5th fat con­ sequently the cream from the re­ / »/*$ maining six and a quarter squares in the fat column would contain just sufficient fat to make up the deficiency shown within the thickened lines. 2.'8 3 clef. M ore Sugar Required.— -The deficiency in sugar is shown in the diagram, and its amount stated in the margin, say three per cent., well 0 - l 5* that is the amount of sugar that should be added. Lactose (milk sugar) is said to be best to add but Demerara may be used instead.


1 3°

— F I R S T

Second M ethod o f H um anising Cow ’s M ilk .— W e shall suppose that you have selected your dairy, and that you have arranged for a pint of mixed milk to be delivered to you night and morning, that you use your own cans and can rely upon them being thor­ oughly clean, that you have ready a pint bottle pre­ viously twice scalded in which you will modify the milk. T h a t all are kept in the coolest and cleanest part of the house. As soon as required place the half-pint of milk in the scalded pint bottle, to this add an ounce of separated cream (nearly two ounces of ordinary skimmed cream may be required), now add half an ounce of lactose (milk sugar) or Demerara sugar, and thoroughly mix with contents of bottle, keep in a cool place, cover with clean wet cloth in summer, cover to the top of the bottle with a clean paper cap. This is the stock. W hen the infant is to be fed, take a clean scalded boat bottle, put into it two-thirds of the feed, and add the other third from water in the kettle which has been boiled and allowed to cool down sufficiently to make the temperature of the resulting mixture 99 degs. Fahr. T h e stock must be freshly made twice or thrice a day when necessary. It must be kept cold to prevent its going sour, and it must be shaken up before use. Feed the child regularly, and throw away the milk that remains after each feed. In the above description we have taken into consideration the average amount of milk required by a child of three months old per day that is to say 30 ounces, and if such a child receives eight feeds per day and two feeds at night, that is ten feeds in twenty-four hours, it is obvious that the amount must equal three ounces per feed, and this means six tablespoonfuls of, four of prepared milk (stock) and two of water. I have arranged in diagrammatic form a table for hand-feeding which may serve as a general guide, but it must be understood that no instructions— printed or verbal — can meet every case, babies differ in their food require­ ments, one may require more sugar, another more water, a third more fat. T h e one thing that the baby does require above all others is a common sense mother or nurse. Pasteurizing.— T his is done if there is reason to suspect either (a) that the milk has been exposed, or (b) that the cows are tuberculous, and (c) in any case, if the weather is very hot, the milk may be boiled or Pasteurized. M ethod.— A s soon as the mixture has been made the stock bottle is placed into a saucepan of water, and allowing the water to come to the boil, and remain boiling for about a minute, the pan should then be removed from the fire and the bottle cooled as quickly as possible by first trans­ ferring it to warm and thereafter to tepid and cold water. T h e cooling process must be quickly done, and the bottle and contents kept in a cold place. T h ere are other methods of humanising milk, but I think it right to say at once that they are best done by those who make it their business to provide such specially prepared infant diets. ( To be continued.) A new W om en ’s Detachment of the County of London Branch is in course of formation at Brondesbury, Mr. Mallaby Deeley, M.P., has promised to be the Hon. Commandant, while Dr. A. W. George and Miss Stapley have consented to become Com mandant and L ad y Supt.

W h e n c o r re sp o n d in g w i t h A d v e r t is e r s p le a s e m e n tio n “ F ir s t A id .”

AI D. —

January, 1913.

P o s t O ffice A m b u l a n c e Corps. tenth annual competition for the Lond on Postal Am bulance Challenge Shield and the second for the W om en ’s Trophy, presented by Sir Mathew Nathan, G .C .M .G ., was held on Wednesday, the 27th November last, at the Northampton Institute. Sir D y ce Duckworth, Bart., M .D ., L .L .D ., representing the Order of St. John of Jerusalem kindly presided, sup­ ported by Dr. Sinclair (President of the Corps), Dr. Bashford (Vice-President), A. M. J. Ogilvie, Esq., J. C. Badcock, Esq., C.B., and many other distinguished visitors. A large audience also attended the proceedings testifying to the continued interest and sympathy with the aims of the Am bulance Corps in the London Postal Service. T h e competition this year partook of a military char­ acter and represented, in the first place, the injuries result­ ing from the stampeding of a horse through a body of troops, and (2) a case of drowning occasioned during the progress of a game of football,' by a boy falling into a river which flanked an improvised field of play. T h e problem arising out of these disasters gave the competing teams an opportunity of displaying a considerable amount of skill and presence of mind. T h e first part was taken by the men’s teams and the second by the women’s. T h e respective winning teams are as follows :— I.S. Through Duty, Messrs. J. G. Heather (leader), A. G. H a y ­ wood, A. J. H o ck ley and C. R ic h a r d s o n ; total marks, T he

430Central Telegraph Office, G.P.O. West No. 2, Miss L. B. Flinn (leader), Miss A. Holland, Miss M. P. Reading and Miss M. T o o t h i l l ; total marks, 510. T h e work of the various teams was admirable and the winners must be congratulated on a very creditable per­ formance. During the interval Sir D y ce Duckworth presented the Vellum Vote of Thanks of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem to Mr. J. B. Randall, of the I.S., late Supt. of the Corps, for the praiseworthy efforts on behalf of the ambulance movement in the Post Office. Attention was also drawn to the honour recently con­ ferred upon Dr. Sinclair, who has been created an Honorary Associate of the Order, a signal mark of distinction for the Am bulance cause in the L .P .S . T hese honours are keenly appreciated by the members of the Corps. T h e competition this year has been voted a great success, and this gratifying result was due in a great measure to the unwearied exertions of the executive and their willing helpers. It may be of interest to those who admired the excel­ lent scenery provided to illustrate the contest, that it was prepared by Mr. J. B. Randall, the Corps versatile C o m p e­ tition Secretary.

D u b l i n , S .J .A .A .— T h e new year has come in with extra work, classes are in full going order all over Ireland. Some of the classes were full in numbers long before commencing. T h e Ladies’ Nurs­ ing Division rejoice at the return home of their Divisonal Surgeon, Dr. Mather Thomson. After the first aid course is over, Dr. Ella W eb b will start a nursing course on F eb ­ ruary 5th, and a new departure in the ladies work also, will be that after Easter a sanitation and hygiene course will be given by Dr. Ella Webb. T h e performance of the Messiah at the Theatre Royal was a success ; four nurses attended in case of need.


January,

— F I R S T

1913

C o lo n ia l N e w s . I n d i a .— T h e Indian Branch of the Association h a s issued the conditions for the various competitions to be held under its auspices during the year. King-Emperor’s Railway and Volunteer Ambulance Shield ; the I-ord Hardinge Police Ambulance Challenge Trophy ; and the St. John Am bulance Brigade Challenge Cup, will be held at Lucknow, on the n t h 12th and 13th February. T h e conditions of the competitions are practically identical to those which govern competitions here, but we regret to see that some of the points are that no one except officials conducting the competitions or persons introduced by them may be present at the tests. This stipulation debars much useful knowledge being gained by spectators, and we would recommend that the Indian Branch should eliminate this condition. It should be noted that a Police competition is held, a competition which we advocated to be held in this country a few years ago, but the suggestion has not yet matured.

N e w S o u t h W a l e s . — T h e results of the year’s work of the Centre by means of an energetic committee has been so satisfactory that it is a pleasure to record that the general public of New South Wales are becoming better acquainted with it and consequently making an increase in first aid classes. One feature of the annual report is the very long list of medical men who are giving their assist­ ance to the centre. Classes to the number of 77— total number of individual instructed amounted to 1,147. T h e record for the 22 years of the Centre’s existance amounts to 14,418 members who have qualified. Seven repre­ sentatives of the Brigade attended the review under the command of Supt. W. J. Harris, who we had the pleasure of meeting while in this country. T h e balance-sheet shows a favourable cash balance in hand, and altogether the report indicates that the Centre is in a active condition. C anada. We have received a photograph which we reproduce above, upon which was written “ Xm as greetings from the first uniform corps in Canada.” W e heartily thank the members o f the T oronto Corps for their kind wishes, and hope that they will be the means of making the Brigade uniform as familiar in Canada as it is here.

AID. — S o u t h A f r i c a .— In reviewing the report for last year of the South African Branch of the Association we wish to congratulate its members on the completion of its 21st year of existence. During that period 7,000 persons had received instructions, while no less than 1,000 had qualified last year. T h e great feature o f the year’s work has been the conference of the members of the various Centres at Cape Town, when a scheme was formulated and submitted to the Government, offering the services of the Association in the establishment of a South African military ambulance service. T h e Minister of Mines has issued a notification recog­ nising the certificate of the Association in conformity with the Mines’ Regulations. W e are also pleased to learn that the work has extended to K im b erley ; the D e Beer C o n ­ solidated Mines has given the movement its support. T h e least agreeable feature of an excellent report is the unsympathetic attitude taken up by the Railway D epart­ ment of the Government. In pre-Union days the Railway Department paid for the necessary books, bandages, and rules required their employes to qualify in first aid, and paid the Association the sum of 5s. for each pupil who passed the examination.

Now the Railway Board has refused to sanction the ex­ penditure on books, &c., and declines to give any financial assistance with regard to those who qualify for the voucher, medallion and label respectively, though the Association still gives lectures and puts the men through the exami­ nations for these further qualifications. T h e committee expressed regret at the parsimonious and retrogade policy pursued by the administration of the South African Rail­ ways in regard to ambulance matters, a policy which must materially circumscribe the work of the Association amongst railway employes. T h e committee are to be congratulated upon the com ­ pilation of such an excellent report and the satisfactory progress which has been made. B r a a m f o n t e i n . — T h e Park Division made a pre­ sentation to Supt. D. Williams recently on the occasion of his relinguishing his duties owing to him leaving the dis­ trict. In making the presentation, which consisted of a silver tea service, Dr. Kerr-Bell dwelt upon the good work done by Mr. Williams in the interests of the corps.

W hen corresponding w ith A d v ertisers p lease m eiu tion “ F ir st A id.”


132

— F I R S T

AID. —

January, 1913.

BRITISH RED CROSS SOCIETY.

COUNTY OF LONDON N otes and N ew s. is evident from the deliberations o f the Exeter Congress that some earnest consideration was given to the question o f Voluntary Aid Training. Lieut.-Col. Soltau, M .D ., who dealt with a paper on this subject, pointed out that the Medical Service of the Territorial Force and the Voluntary A id Organisation had not progressed hand in hand, and consequently two medical services which might be so linked together, and which on application would have to work hand in hand, had no kind of cohesion. T o over­ com e this difficulty it was suggested and a resolution passed to the effect that commandants and superintendents should as far as possible receive periodical training at schools of instructions, in addition to this we would suggest that mem­ bers of the V .A .D . should receive practical instruction with the Territorial Force. It

*

* *

T h e question of the use of the word “ nurse ” in con­ nection with the Voluntary Organisations, which have as their object the training of women as auxiliary to the fully trained nurse, has from time to time excited a feeling of indignation in the higher rank o f the profession, and at the moment a serious position has arisen in the Midlands, where members of Voluntary A id Detachments have been posing as nurses. * * * T h e R e d Cross Society does not recognise or designate a member of a W om ens’ V .A .D . as a R ed Cross nurse, ana they are in no way entitled to use it. W e understand it to mean a person who holds a fully qualified certificate from a recognised training school. T h e difficulty is what should a member of a W om ens’ V .A .D . call herself in order to be distinguished from the trained nurse? A coined word such as “ first aider ” is necessary to meet the case. W e will offer a prize of half a guinea to a reader who can give us the most suitable word, which must be submitted on the coupon contained in this issue. T h e word will be adjudged by the Hon. Secretary of the County of London Branch of the British Red Cross in conjunction with the Editor, and must be sent in before February 12th. * * * T h e following first aid and home nursing courses for the British R e d Cross Society’s certificates will be held at the South-Western Polytechnic, Chelsea. A first aid course will start on Monday, January 27th ; a nursing course will start on Tuesday, February 4th ; and evening courses for women and men will be arranged if sufficient applications for either are received. Candidates are only eligible for examination if they attend four out of a course of five lectures, or five out of a course of six lectures. Attendance does not count unless candidates are in their places five minutes after the appointed hour, as the register will then be closed. A ll fees payable in advance. All

BRANCH.

names to be sent to Miss Kempson, South-Western Poly­ technic, Manresa-road, Chelsea, * * T h e Hon. Sydney Holland addressed the following letter to the Secretary of the Branch, which may be of interest to the members of the V . A . D . :— D e a r S i r , — The great interest which has been roused all through the country by the British Red Cross Society has led, and I hope it may do so still more, to a greater interest being taken in nursing among women generally. 1 wonder whether you would let the members of your Society know that, contrary to the very general belief, the nursing profession is not over-crowded ; but, that the very opposite is the case. W e get a large number of candidates, but the majority of them are not at all up to the standard of what may be expected of women entering the nursing profession. For women of the education and position to make good nurses, we have at the “ London ” 30 vacancies at our Preliminary Training School every seven weeks. I cannot help feeling that if this were known many more of the right class of young women would enter this profession, and in this way would, even if they did not make nursing their career, become much more efficient members of the Red Cross Society. I enclose a paper as to terms and general conditions of service, and would send as many more as your Branch could use.— Yours sincerely, * * *

Sydney

H olland.

T h e childrens’ exhibition, which was held early this month at Olympia, served to emphasise the modern view of the importance of all that concerns the coming race. Especially noteworthy were the many useful safeguards suggested for the preservation o f child life. Amongst the many interesting demonstratious which were given during the period of the exhibition was that given by the County of London Branch of the British R e d Cross Society. Several Ladies’ Detachments gave excellent exhibitions of the nature of the work, and we also hear that good results were achieved by the sale of the R e d Cross stamps. ■ * * * W e regret to record the death of Miss Gladys Barnes who left England early last November with the first unit of the British Red Cross Society, she died at Salonica of typhoid on January n t h . Miss Barnes, who was 29 years o f age, became one of the Duchess of Sparta’s special nurses, under the direction of Sister Edith Tucker. She belonged to a Dorsetshire family, and was five years on the staff of the London Hospital. So far she is the only English R ed Cross Volunteer to fall a victim to disease, although the total number doing service in the Balkan war — including surgeons, nurses, and dressers— is 220. * * * All the English R e d Cross units in the near East have been exceptionally free from dangerous illness. “ This is remarkable, because all along the fighting line, with the Turkes and allies, pernicious diseases have been more rampant than was generally imagined. T h e Salonica unit has borne the brunt of work with the Greek Army.


Januaryt 1913.

— F I R S T

T he E vacu a tio n

of t h e

S ick

and

W o u n d e d in t h e T e r r ito r ia l Force.* B y C A P T . C. R. S Y L V E S T E R B R A D L E Y , R .A .M .C . ( Continued from page 1 1 1 .) T he

C l e ar in g

H o spita l

of

the

T e r r it o r ia l

Force.

No. 3 of the “ British R ed Cross Society’s Training Manuals,” Chapter X I X ., is devoted to “ Am bulance Organisation in the Field,” and inasmuch as this pub­ lication is stated to be issued with the approval of the War Office one might reasonably expect to find at least the out­ lines of some workable scheme for the evacuation of the wounded. This, however, is not the case. Clearing hospitals are mentioned, but no information is given as to how they are formed. T h e impression with which one is left is that a Voluntary Aid Detachment walks up to a dressing station, takes over the sick, and the dressing station goes on, this being the “ alpha ” and “ omega ” of the evacuation of the sick and wounded. Having thus to some extent prepared the way, it is possible to consider the formation and role of the units which carry out the evacuation of the sick and wounded in a Territorial Division. T h e first and most important of these is the clearing hospital, and a very able paper by Lieut.-Colonel James and Major Pollock, read before this Society last year on the organisation of this unit in the regular forces, also pointed out the great difficulties the officer commanding a clearing hospital is likely to meet with. A clearing hospital is mobilised at the rate of one per division and should be able to accommodate 200 sick. It has a personnel of 8 officers and 77 other ranks, and I would add that if ordered to move by road, the equipment of the unit (including stores and supplies) totals about fifty thousand pounds and requires seventeen general service wagons to carry it. It would not appear to be necessary to have quite such a large personnel in the clearing hospital for the Territorial Forces, as it would not be necessary for it to supply rest station parties, which could be formed by Voluntary A id Detachments working in the vicinity of their own homes. It should, however, supply a hospital section and a convoy section, and by deducting 2 officers and 14 men not required for rest station parties, a total personnel of 6 officers and 63 other ranks remains as the minimum of personnel necessary. T h e first thing to be done on mobilising a clearing hospital for the Territorial Force will be to get a command­ ing officer; and I would here point out that in no foreign power at the present day is the command of a clearing hospital vested in other than a commissioned officer of field rank. I have previously remarked in dealing with regulations for Voluntary Aid Detachments, that it is intended that this officer should be found on mobilisation, but I think it is hard to realise the difficulties which he would have to contend with (especially if he is a combatant officer), in mobilising a large hospital without previous experience and a personnel unacquainted with service methods. I would like to see this officer appointed in peace

AI D. —

1 33

time, preferably a retired Royal A rm y Medical Corps officer, and he would have ample facilities for seeing and training his unit before mobilisation. Arrangements for providing the remaining medical officers to complete the strength have not to my knowledge been made, nor can I find it stated anywhere how it is to be done, but it should be possible for names of medical men to be registered in the same way as they are registered for the general hospitals, to fill these vacancies, and I would suggest retired medical officers of the Royal A rm y Medical Corps and Royal Arm y Medical Corps Territorial Forces, as being the most suitable. T h e remaining personnel of a clearing hospital con­ sists of 1 warrant officer, 8 non-commissioned officers, and 68 other ranks, all of which must be provided by voluntary aid. In the Circular Memorandum which has been quoted before it was stated that this personnel would be provided by volunteers from Voluntary A id Detachments amongst other sources. N o regulations have, however, been laid down for registering these volunteers in peace time, and I think it would be well if each County Director received definite instructions to register suitable volunteers for the personnel of a clearing hospital, and if facilities were pro­ vided for training the unit formed with the Territorial field ambulances at their annual training. I f this scheme were followed it would necessitate their receiving rank, and I would suggest their being embodied as reservists of “ T h e Royal Arm y Medical Corps Territorial Force.” Rank is necessary in a clearing hospital as it helps to maintain discipline, which is a very serious matter when dealing with a large body o f hungry “ sick and slightly wounded ” soldiers. T h e Russians, in the Manchurian Campaign, with considerable foresight, established re­ freshment stations at their clearing hospitals with tables set out, and a plentiful supply of hot food ; yet instances were reported where clearing hospitals were rushed and looted by disorderly mobs of slightly wounded men. T h e provision of transport for clearing hospitals is another serious problem requiring attention. T h e existence of a widespread and closely woven network o f railway points to rail transport playing a predominant part in the evacuation of the wounded, but it will seldom, if ever, happen that the field ambulances are able to transfer their sick direct to an ambulance train, or even to take them back to the clearing hosp ita l; and although the clearing hospital of the Regular Army has no transport, there seems everything to be gained by registering transport for this unit in peace time. I would suggest motor cars and motor buses for this purpose, suitable materials being stored for altering these vehicles for the carrying of wounded. Canals and rivers should not be lost sight of as a means of transport, and in the Midlands and H o m e Counties would form valuable adjuncts to road or rail transport. Another very important question on the mobilising of clearing hospitals in the Territorial Force will be the pro­ vision of medical stores. A t present the onus rests with the county associations, who are expected to open a central depot for the storing of gifts by private donors ; but even when this has been done, the equipment stored or promised has in my experience been insufficient to fully equip each detachment in that county, and in many cases equipment is lent or given to a specific detachment. This leads to the question whether there are not too many detachments in some counties, and also to the point


— F I R S T

r 34

whether it would not be better if all gifts and donations were given to some central authority for distribution according to requirement. Som e counties, like Hampshire, reckon amongst their population many people of means, and the number of detachments formed is far in excess of the needs of the c o u n t y ; whilst other counties, not so fortunate, find the greatest difficulty in raising detachments owing to the scattered distribution of the inhabitants; while the detachments, when formed, find it hard to make both ends meet. S ta tio n a r y

H ospita ls.

T h e next point for consideration is that of stationary hospitals. In the Expeditionary Force they are mobilised at the rate of two per division, and should each be equipped for 200 beds. In the Territorial Forces I do not think such large hospitals are in any way necessary. T h e general hospital will never be so very far from the fighting line, and if occasion should arise, I see no reason against their receiving many of the less severe cases of wounded that would in the Expeditionary Force be retained in the stationary hospitals on the lines of communication. T h e remainder of the “ slightly w o u n d e d ” could quite well be looked after in small temporary hospitals formed by Voluntary A id Detachments, and many of the detach­ ments I have personally seen at work would be quite capable of forming and administering a temporary hospital o f some twenty or thirty beds, but there again occurs the question of maintaining discipline in these temporary hospitals. T h e fractiousness of convalescents and the difficult temper of “ slightly wounded ” arriving in crowds, famished and depressed, can only be met by stern dis­ cipline; and it would be very desirable to have a commissioned officer attached (not necessarily belonging to the Royal Army Medical Corps), who would be reponsible for discipline. If larger stationary hospitals were required, I do not think Voluntary A id Detachments, unassisted, would be able to carry out the necessary administration to maintain them efficiently. Another point to be considered is that of seniority. When one or more Voluntary A id Detachments combine to form a temporary hospital, and if the commandant of the most senior detachment is a lady, will she command any men’s detachment that may be attached to her unit? T his may seem a point of minor importance, but some grading of officers commanding Voluntary Aid Detachments appears to be necessary, and personally I do not think it would be wise for a woman to act in any capacity other than a nursing sister or matron. R est

S ta tio n s.

Rest Station parties have been alluded to before. T heir duties will mainly be the feeding and dressing of sick and wounded at “ stations” and “ sidings,” and these duties could well be carried out by Voluntary Aid Detachments working in the vicinity of iheir own homes. E ach detachment ought to be able to carry out its duties within a radius of three or four miles of its head­ quarters, and if maps were prepared by county directors, showing the area in which detachments would work on moblilisation, they would prove most useful when hostilities occur. On the Continent it has been found practicable, in some cases, to fix the localities of rest stations in peace time. Something of this nature I feel sure could be worked in this country, by notifying county directors of the

January, 1913. more important railway junctions, &c., where rest stations would be likely to be required during hostilities. A mbulance

T r a in s.

rl he next unit to discuss is the Am bulance TrainT hree varieties are described :— (1) T h e permanent ambulance train. (2) T h e temporary ambulance train. (3) Improvised ambulance trains. T h e permanent ambulance trains I think we need not bother about, as it is not likely that they will be provided for the T .F . in peace time. T h e provision, however, of sufficient material in each division to provide one temporary ambulance train is very desirable. Various ways and means of converting railway wagons into vehicles for carrying sick and wounded have been adopted by Continental armies, but the methods which appear to me most suitable for employment with voluntary aid are :— The Linxweiler and Wolff Hoffman. T h e advantage of these methods being, that no screws or bolts are driven into the wagon and they can be easily packed up into a small space and the wagon used for conveying supplies on the return journey. Whatever apparatus is chosen should be the “ sealed pattern ” for each county or division, and Voluntary Aid Detachments should have frequent opportunities for receiving instruction in fitting up the frames and loading them. C onvalescent

D epots.

T h e only other units we have to deal with are the Convalescent Depots and Depot of Medical Stores. I do not think there would be any difficulty in providing for the convalescents if we had a war in this country. Names, however, of those willing to look after convalescents in their own houses should be registered in peace time. T h e only difficulty will be in maintaining discipline, and where any large number of wounded are together a commissioned officer would be necessary for this purpose. M ed ic a l

Store

D epots.

T h e replenishing of the units we have just mentioned with medicines, &c., on active service is, I believe, totally unprovided for. With regard to those units which are to be formed from Voluntary Aid Detachments we have seen that their equipment is to be supplied by voluntary con­ tributions, but it can be hardly expected when these units have exhausted their supplies, that they will be able to obtain more from the same source. T h e medical stores at Woolwich will be kept fully employed supplying the necessary requirements of the Expeditionary Force, and the only plan that suggests itself to me is, that each division should contract for its medical supplies in peace time. Each division should only contract with firms in that division, and the divisional directors might be asked to form a voluntary aid detachment of chemists, which could be split up into an advance and base depot of medical stores on mobilisation, but even if this were done, it ap­ pears to be most important that each division should have an adequate supply of medical stores in peace time, which can only be accomplished by establishing a divisional medical store depot. D ispo sa l

of

I n fectio u s

C ases

and

Insanes.

N o mention has been made of the disposal of infectious cases and insanes, and there appear to be no regulations on the subject. Sanitary officers of divisions, however, might


January, 1913

— F I R S T

be asked to prepare maps showing available isolation hospitals and their average accommodation, but it must not be supposed that civilian requirements will be any less during war than they are during peace, but rather the reverse. Accordingly arrangements should also be made for providing isolation camps at approved places in each division, and rolls of volunteers for duty in these camps should be prepared before mobilsation. Insanes should be accommodated in like manner at the nearest asylums. Sum m ary.

In conclusion I would summarise the more important points that appear to be necessary to any efficient scheme for the evacuation of sick and wounded in the Territorial Force, as follows :— (1) Voluntary A id should be raised and administered on a divisional basis. (2) Clearing hospitals require to be formed and trained in peace time. (3) A Royal Army Medical Corps Officer is needed in each division to supervise the training of the lines of communication medical units. (4) T h e provision and renewal of medical stores for Territorial Force units should not be left until mobilisation has occurred, but should be collected in peace time, on some such system as that of the divisional medical store depot. (5) Some official publication is needed dealing clearly with the whole subject of the employment of voluntary aid and the units they will have to form on mobilisation. An d lastly, the appointment in peace time of a D .D .M .S . of lines of communication who would be respon­ sible for the organisation and administration of the lines of communication medical units both in peace time and after mobilisation. Some of the members of the W om e n ’s Sick and C o n ­ voy Corps have now returned from the Balkan War, and from all accounts they have had an unique practical experience. During the seven weeks they were at K irk Kilisse 729 soldiers were treated. Mrs. St. Clair Stobart says it was heart breaking— men marred almost out of all semblance to humanity. It has been decided to form a Division of the S.J.A.B . at Birkenhead. T h e St. John Ambulance Association in Birkenhead lapsed eight years ago, but was revived last April, and since then Classes have been formed for instruction in first aid and home nursing, and so far about fifty certificates have been obtained, and it is hoped to form the members o f these classes into a strong Division. Mr. Au ld has accepted the position of Hon. Secretary. W e are glad to know the effort to benefit the Fire­ mens’ Benevolent Fund of the London Private Fire Brigades Association by the sale of Captain H itch cock ’s illustrated booklet on his “ Reminiscences as a Volunteer Fireman in America and England,” is meeting with universal commendation from those who have read it, and in addition to its sale in ordinary channels, it is being purchased in from 10 to 100 copies by firms having their own fire brigades. It is hoped that every brigade affiliated with the L .P .F .B .A ., as well as others interested in the fireman’s useful career will also send in their orders promptly— a 2nd edition has just been issued. Mr. Henry Thacher, Publish­ ing Office, Memorial Hall, Farringdon-street, will promptly execute orders direct. Price is, nett— postage extra, or in quantities, carriage free.

AI D. —

r 35

D ia g n o s is. I n all recent competitions, a prominent feature has been the necessity for such knowledge as will enable a first aid student

to

diagnose

the

injury

or injuries which

the

“ p atien t” is supposed to be suffering from, and in an equal degree, it is seen how frequently he has failed to arrive at the correct conclusions. Allowing for the nervous tension under which the work is done in the competition room and also for the absence of real signs in the patient, and history in the surroundings, there still seems room to question whether the same mistakes would not be made in a real case of accident or sudden illness. It is quite recognised that an ambulance man has not a doctor’s knowledge nor a surgeon’s training, but if the information contained in the text-book is intelligently applied there is no reason why the diagnosis of the case should be faulty. From the commencement, it must be borne in mind that in accident or illness, the smallest sign or symptom is important. Every change in the temper­ ature, pulse rate and tension, colour of the skin, fashion of the breathing and general bearing of the patient, teaches something important if the knowledge is correctly used. T h e greatest difficulty is undoubtedly experienced in instances o f insensibility, as in these cases there is apparently so little to work upon. Consider, however, the following scheme, not forgetting that definite rules cannot be set down to meet all cases. 1st. N ote surroundings and general appearance of the patient; an important point is often missed in this connection. In competition work, this must, obviously, be seen in imagination, with the assistance of the descrip­ tion given on the examiner’s card. 2nd. Note degree of insensibility by touching the “ whites ” of the eyes and comparing the two pupils. 3rd. Note the circulatory system to see if the heart is acting. This can be done either by noting the pulse, feel­ ing the beating of the heart in the chest area, or by listen­ ing for the beat by placing the ear on the chest wall. A t the same time, the colour and appearance of the face, also the body temperature would come under observa­ tion. 4th. Examine the respiratory system to see if patient is breathing, and if so, whether the action is normal, slow, fast, slight, stertorous, &c., and whether any odour a cc om ­ panies the breath. During this examination, it would be seen if the lips and tongue were stained or showed signs of htemorrhage. 5th. Examine the nervous system to asertain if any sign can be detected of injury to or disease of the brain. T h e possible alteration of the size of the pupils has already been mentioned, but there may be, in addition, greater helplessness in the limbs on one side of the body than on the other, and (what is often overlooked) an alteration in the folds or creases of the face on one side. 6th. Further injuries must be looked for, such as fractures, dislocations, &c. Now’, assuming that when walking along a country lane on a hot day, “ A man is found lying by the roadside, and no other person and no house near.” All information must be obtained from what signs are p r e s e n t; in the case of a competition, the signs present w'ould be indicated by the examiner in response to direct questions on the par­ ticular subject.


136

— F I R S T

Hastily glancing round, nothing is seen in the sur­ roundings to help, and there are no marks on the clothing. H e appears to be completely insensible, and on the test being applied, it is seen that this is so, as there is no flicker of the eyelids when the conjunctiva is touched. T h e pupils appear to be slightly unequal in size and do not respond to light, i.e., they do not contract in the light and enlarge in the shade. (T h e reader should notice here, that the question to be put to an examiner is not “ Is the patient insensible ?” but rather “ D o the eyelids flicker when the eyeball is touched ?” or “ D o the pupils respond to light ?” ) Next, the pulse at the wrist is felt and it is found that the rate is slow but the tension is high. W hen the skin is touched, it feels much warmer than would be expected normally. Then the breathing is examined. Patient is making a snorting sound and puffing his cheeks at each expiration. Finally, it is possible that on testing, some difference may be noticed in the way the limbs fall to the ground after being raised, one side being more limp than the other, but too much reliance must not be placed on this as it may take a clever man to detect any difference. U p to the present we have found that :— Patient is insensible ; pupils are unequal and fixed ; pulse is full and bounding ; skin h o t ; breathing stertorous. T h e majority of first aid students, on seeing this summary will say at once that it is a case of apoplexy or compression, but, unfortunately, few think of asking the right questions in order to get that summary. It is not necessary to go on from this to show how to determine whether it is a case of the one or the other, as that should be well known. Much more might be said on this question of diagnosis but enough is given to enable the average student to follow the reasoning and by using the same methods to any given case of illness or accident, to see how to arrive at correct conclusions.— E. T . M.

C a s e s of

P o iso n in g.

Dr. F i r t h , s o The H osp ita l says, has analysed the admis­ sions for poisoning, accidental and intentional, into West London and St. T h o m a s’s Hospitals during recent years ; and has constructed an interesting table showing the incid­ ence of 346 cases. Oxalic acid (salt of lemon) heads the list, having been the cause of 47 c a s e s ; ten o f these were accidental and 37 suicidal. This indication to corrosive acids on the part of would-be poisoners is a curious fact ; for the result of drinking oxalic acid are so extemely un­ pleasant that it might have been thought they would have militated against its popularity. Opium stands next, with 41 cases ; of these 32 were deliberate. Hydrochloric acid, another horribly painful corrosive, accounts for 38 cases, 13 of which proved f a t a l ; indeed this acid proved far more deadly than any of the other drugs used. Liniments of various sorts caused poisoning forty times, nearly always accidentally. Carbolic acid was to blame 33 times ; only 12 of these were cases of suicide. Ptomaines resulted in 29 admissions, but in not a single fatality. There were many other poisons, but none of them were all frequently used. Oxalic, hydrochloric, and carbolic acids together form more than one-third of the total, and account for twothirds of the fatalities. From the foregoing statistics it will be shown to first aiders the poison they should be well up in and the treat­ ment thereon.

AI D. —

January, 1913.

A r m y a n d N a v y M a le Nurses. opinion that sick nursing is a duty that women, and woman only, should perform is held by many. Others con­ sider that there are many forms of illnesses among men which are more appropriately attended to by male nurses ; there are also men who very much prefer being nursed by their own sex, though these are probably very much in the minority. T h e Arm y and N avy Male Nurses Co-operation was founded five years ago to provide employment for men who had been trained in nursing in the Arm y and N avy by assisting them to obtain work for which they had specially fitted themselves. T h a t the enterprise supplied a want is evident from the fact that the association is now self-sup­ porting. There are many situations besides private nursing these men are useful f o r ; every enterprise in which the R ed Cross societies engage provides openings for them ; some of them actually went to Tripoli. T o any party sent by the R ed Cross to a theatre of war to assist in looking after the wounded these men 'would be invaluable ; accus­ tomed to roughing it, in many cases having had experience on active service, they would be more likely to fall into their places at once than would men who have spent all their lives and had their training under peace conditions. A t the same time the experience and training they would have received in civilian nursing would be all to the good. T h e more men for whom the association can find work the better ; they are an asset to the country and to the organisations for assisting the sick and wounded in war. W e wish the society a continuance of and increase to their present prosperity. T he

T h e Austrian surgeons who were sent by the Austrian R e d Cross Society to Bulgarian hospitals, as well as those from Servia and Montenegro, have recently finished their work and have returned. T h e y have given very valuable assistance, full details of which will be published shortly. Dr. Tinter, one of the members of this commission, has published some notes of his experiences. H e suggested to the K in g of Bulgaria the necessity of an international committee for dealing with the diseases which break out during the progress o f a war, and proposed that the opera­ tions of the Red Cross Society should be extended so as to include epidemics of this kind as well as the surgical treatment of the wounded. This proposal was most favour­ ably received, and the K in g promised to give special encouragement to all endeavours to promote this idea. T h e necessity for dealing successfully with epidemic diseases like cholera, dysentery, or small-pox has been only too well illustrated by the present war. Another point of interest has been brought into public prominence by the experiences of the surgeons— namely, that in the time of war numerous persons desirous of rendering help flock to the surgical hospitals, especially women, who want to be employed as nurses. T hese efforts cannot be other than a hinderance to a quick fulfilment of the duties which are so pressing, and these ladies were generally offended when their services were utilised in matters of minor importance instead of in actual nursing. In a paper published recently Dr. von Frisch, the head of the Austrian-German expedition, ad­ vised the distribution of voluntary helpers in such a way that each 100 beds should be attended by from 6 to 10 trained nurses, with about 13 helpers. This would do away with a misunderstanding so common at the outset of the war— namely, that a completely untrained woman, if she only be a willing worker, can undertake the duties of a nurse.


January, 1913.

— F I R S T

A I D

A

GREAT BOOK AMBULANCE WORKERS.

By

DR.

Setters to the Sditor. We are in

[ 37

no w ay responsible fo r the opinions expressed, or the

FOR

statements made , by Correspondents. — E d i t o r s , E t c .

D R ILL

DEPORTMENT

IN

D e a r S i r , — Will you please explain to me how the follow­ ing order should be obeyed in the case of a team of 4 bearers and an officer in charge. For “ Load Stretcher,” the 1911 Royal Army Medical Corps manual says, “ No. 4 gives the com­ mand and the bearers place themselves Nos. 1, 2,3 on the left of the patient, No. 4 on the right.” How can this be done when they are already there helping to treat a supposed injury? Does it mean that they should go back to their places on the stretcher before the command is given. I have seen one squad do this at a competition, but I think it a waste of time; or does it mean when two bearers can treat the case while they are preparing stretcher, such as a fractured patella; or in case of five or six bearers to a stretcher when the case can be treated by the remaining bearers? Some of our team think that after treating the case they should stand to attention for the com­ mand to be given.— Yours, &c., C

o r po ral

G. L.

P

h il l ip s

.

[Your correspondent does well in drawing attention to a state of affairs anything but logical. Drill is no doubt abso­ lutely essential when it is desired to. ensure uniformity of action amongst a number of people acting simultaneously. Drill deportment so far as it relates to practical ambulance work is, however, quite another matter, and it is one for which I must confess I have not the slightest sympathy. My reason is a valid one. It has in the past given rise to so much concentration of thought that the mind has, as a con­ sequence, been distracted from other points, and infinitely more vital subjects have been utterly neglected. Consistant care for the immediate and more remote welfare of those in difficulty and danger is the only subject of concern to practical “ first aiders.” How best to carry this into effect, will in all cases prove amply abundant food for reflection. Common-sense will clearly point to the utter folly of attempting to introduce soldier-like deportment when dealing with emergencies of civil life. See also “ Problems in First Aid,” page 122.— L. M. F

r a n k

C

h r is t ia n

FIR ST

.]

AID

D E T A I L S IN FRACTURE.

ANDREW

W IL S O N .

AM BULANCE.

CASES

OF

D e a r S i r , — I shall be greatly pleased if you will kindly give me information on the following :— Ascertaining the variety of fracture. A first aider is called to a case of injury, symptoms point conclusively to it being a case of fracture. W e will suppose it a case of the upper or lower limb. Viewing the case as it is, the patient with all the clothes on, the first aider is unable to state what kind of fracture is present and whether protective measures for a wound are wanted or not. Is it the duty of the one rendering first aid, as a general rule, to find out what variety of fracture exists, which means the cutting of clothing, and the attending risks of further injury. It seems to me to be wiser to leave the finding out of the variety of fracture to professional hands and simply to apply splints, without interfering with the clothing. In case of where haemorrhage was noticed it would leave no doubt that a wound would need protection, but some cases of compound fracture very little bleeding is present. (2) In accidents where the limbs are in some cases actually bent up under the body or laying in a most unnatural position, I should be pleased to have some hints as to the best way of straightening the limbs where skilled attendance is very remote. I have noticed that a number of “ first aiders ” have the im­ pression that the limbs will be found in almost a natural position. Always practicing on straight limbs seems to make

A w o r k that justifies its claim to be an epitome o f all that specialised medical and surgical knowledge necessary for First Aiders, as well as an authoritative manual of reference on all information relating to Health and Disease, is a work to be welcomed by all our readers who wish to study their subject more deeply than is possible from superficial text books. In “ T h e Modern Physician,” by Dr. Andrew Wilson, fullest space is devoted to “ First A i d ” and Am bulance Work. In respect o f completeness, accuracy o f description, and wealth of illustration, “ T h e Modern Physician ” stands without a rival amongst the works published on this im­ portant subject in the United Kingdom . It is scientifically accurate and reliable without being d u l l ; the name of its editor, so long and popularly known as an expositor of Health laws and a teacher of Hygiene, is a guarantee of this. This work is absolutely complete as regards Health and Disease, and is thoroughly up-to-date. As a knowledge of the body in Health is necessary to the due understanding of the body when its functions are deranged by disease, a description o f every part of the frame will be found here. T h e skeleton, muscles, digestive system, heart and lungs, brain and nervous system, organs of sense, skin, kidneys and the body’s microscopic structure are duly described. In this connection the illustrations are of particular value, the “ m annikins” or dummies more esp ecially; in these the organs are made to overlap each other exactly as they do in the human body. T h e section devoted to Hygiene includes the full exposition o f the Laws of Health, and special attention is devoted to Physical Culture. Such topics as foods, beverages, air, exercise, clothing, sleep, baths, holidays^ temperament, &c., are treated in this section. T h e last volume is especially devoted to the Health of Women, and Dr. Wilson has here been assisted by a number of eminent women physicians. Midwifery and the treatment and Diseases of Infants are here fully dealt with.

ONE

OF

MANY

O P IN IO N S.

Mr. J . DANIEL, 23, K e n t A v en ue, A s h fo r d , K e n t , w r i t e s : — “ Its all-round excellence makes it a valuable acquisition. The section dealing with ambulance work is especially good. The book is written in splendid style and the illustrations are first rate. The method of payment places it within the reach of all.”

A FREE BOOKLET. TO

TH E

CAXTON

P U B L IS H IN G

COM PAN Y,

156, S u rrey S treet, L o n don , W .C . P le a s e s e n d m e , F r f e o f C h a r g e a n d w ith o u t a n y o b lig a tio n o n m y p a r t ■Illu strated B o o k let on “ T h e M o d e r n P h y s i c i a n ”

(1) (2)

P a rticu la rs o f you r offer to d eliv er the com plete w ork for a first p aym ent o f is. 6d., the balan ce to b e paid for b y a few sm all m on th ly paym en ts

N am e ■

(Send this form or a p ostcard.)

A d d r e s s ..


•38

— F I R S T

them forget that in real cases the limbs it would be most likely be found otherwise. Kindly accept my best thanks for your answer.— Yours, &c., St u d e n t .

[(') This question has been freely entered into in the July, i r s t All), and, in connection with other points regarding “ discrimination” is reproduced in “ Problems in First Aid,” pages 58 and 59. (2) The most serviceable hint that can possibly be given upon the point at issue, and one that, fortunately, is at the same time a ll comprehensive in its character is the general rule :— Prevent, so far as is possible, any movement of the injured part, until such movement, as is absolutely necessary, can be effected with a minimum o f risk. See illustration, &c., page 8, fifth edition, “ Aids to Memory.” The thoughtful letter of enquiry by “ Student” should be warmly welcomed by all interested in ambulance work, for it once again calls attention to fundamental points of much importance, points that— so far as my experience goes— have far too frequently been entirely overlooked by first aid students. Compare letter by “ Novice,” “ General Rules in Fractures,” February, 1912, issue of F i r s t A i d .— L. M. F r a n k 1 9 1 1, issue of I

C h r i s t i a n .]

COLD

OR

H E A T IN I N J U R Y T O AND BLADDER.

K ID N E YS

D e a r S i r , — I s h a l l b e g l a d i f y o u w il l k i n d l y g i v e a r e p l y t o t h e f o l l o w i n g in F i r s t A i d :—

On page 94 of Cantlie’s “ First Aid,” in the treatment for internal haemorrhage, Clause 5 reads : “ If the seat of the hmmorrhage is known, apply an ice bag over the region.” Page 114, treatment of injury to kidneys and bladder, Clause 2 reads “ Apply hot fomentations over the painful or injured parts.” I shall be glad if you will explain why hot fomentations are to be used in cases of injury to kidneys and bladder instead of the usual ice bag. Stretcher Exercise No. 1 for 4 bearers.— Will you please say which would be the correct side of the patient for No. 4 bearer in case of fracture of the left leg. J. P. [ (a) As a matter of fact, if haemorrhage is suspected then careful application of cold locally would be perfectly logical. It is interesting here to note that in the First Aid Manual written for the Red Cross Society nothing is said with regard to hot fomentations for injury to the kidney, the use of a ice bag being recommended. In the event of local application of cold resulting in an increase of pain, then the use of hot fomentations in place thereof, would be of material value, always provided that effi­ ciency of their application could be assured. If otherwise, harm rather than good would be the result. It will be gathered that cold is used with the object of lessening the flow of blood at the part injured, whereas hot fomentations are used for the alleviation of pain. (,b) Probably in the great majority of cases No. 4 would find it more convenient to be on the same side as the injury. It is, however, purely a question of individual convenience, and each case should be dealt with on its own merits. Cast-iron rules regarding the position of one or other workers can hardly be said to be advisable.— L. M. F r a n k C h r i s t i a n .]

AM B U L A N C E B E N E V O L E N T FUND. D e a r S i r , — It was with some surprise, and not a little regret, I read under the heading “ Editorial,” in F i r s t A i d , for December, that the idea of bringing into existence an Ambulance Benevolent Fund had not received a favourable reception, upon discussion by the Officer of No. 6 District. This, however, should not prevent No. 1 District taking the matter up, and showing a practical sympathy with the idea suggested. I can conceive that, if only the first steps could be accomplished, much could be done to raise money for the formation of a fund.

AID. —

January, 1913.

I look to the Livery Companies of the City of London as the means by which this dream may become a reality. These corporations are inseparably associated with commercial life of the Metropolis, the like of which may be accurately said of ambulance work ; after all, the S.J.A.B. has, in the modern sense, had its origin and maintains its being in that relation­ ship, viz., the commercial life. Three-quarters of a million a year requires a good deal of spending, and that proportion of it which is now confessedly applied to improductive objects could not be turned to better purpose than assisting to establish the foundation of a fund to help the rank and file especially, of ambulance workers, at times when they most need it, off parade. Not without diffidence, I unavoidably find myself encroach­ ing on your valuable space, but I feel strongly that, now this matter has once been recognised it should not be allowed to pass into oblivion.— Sincerely Yours, E rn est James R a ck w itz.

C O M P E T I T I O N S IN NO. 7 D I S T R I C T . S i r , — Let me thank “ Justus Judex Justi Judicate” for his letter in your last issue, apd to assure him that he has misread my letter. I do not think it possible (if my letter is read without that feeling of pique which it seems to have engendered) for the preface of my suggestions to be so distorted that they can by any possible reasoning, contain the low down innuendos he complains of. Do I not say “ passing over my own personal views as to the justice or otherwise* of these complaints. I would like to suggest the following scheme, which in my humble opinion has this indisputable advantage to commend it that no parade officials, teams, or even individuals could be cognisant before­ hand of the competitive work.” I am delighted by his assurance that several of my sug­ gestions were put into practice at Welshpool, and wish also that he could give me the same satisfaction when speaking of the plan usually adopted in No. 7 District, instead of “ I am told.” Providing the plan as detailed is carried out everyone would be satisfied I feel sure. I am appealed to in such a manner “ not to give com­ petitors the idea judges are not fair in their work, or marking of points, &c., or that parade officials have any other object than that of doing their duty without fear or favour,” that is unreasonable. Now I defy your correspondent to find any passage in my letter which brings, or attempts to bring discredit on the judges referred to (No. 7 District, Welshpool competition). My per­ sonal opinion is that our judges are fair, on the competitive work they have to judge. Will your correspondent, however, deny the fact that some of the work had not leaked out at Welsh­ pool. I do not think he can, and it was my only and sole desire in writing that letter to devise an instrument which rid our “ ju d ges” of any unjust and adverse criticism caused through someone “ perhaps ungardingly letting the scheme out of the bag.” I have “ the cause at heart ” as much as your corre­ spondent “ J. J. J. J.,” but do not believe that with us in No. 7 District that “ All is well.” It is with a desire for a contented people that my letter was written in November, and if our judges can eliminate the possibility of any leakage the expense would be well covered by the feeling of contentedness, and we really should be a happy people.— Yours, &c., D ear

“ J u s t i c i u s .”

AN

RE

MEDAL

W O R S H IP . heading I notice a letter in the consider that the matter is made ridiculous by comparing the Coronation and Investiture with the Egyptian and South African wars. I am a 12 years’ service man and deem it an honour to attend on occasions such as the above, without thought of any decoration. The men on duty acted as on any other occasion when first aid is likely to be required, and most of them had the D e a r S i r , — Under the above October issue of F i r s t A i d . I


fiC U jtS

I

^

rnCcSCr^Ci

FIRST AID.

The Independent Journal for the Ambulance and Fire Services. Conducted b y A R T H U R N o. 224.— V o l .

_____________

X IX

[N ew S e rie s.]

B.

F E B R U A R Y , 1913.

DALE,

M.J.I.

[E * t,r e d a ts

u

r

t * n o n „ s ‘ h * u .\

price twopence.

[2 /6 P e r

Annum , P o st

F ree.

To Our Readers.

there are others, younger men may be, who have been

A s it is the w ish and desire o f the Proprietors to m ake this Journal as instructive and entertaining as possible, correspondents in all parts o f the country are asked to giv e it a ll the h elp th ey can. Superintendents o f C orps and O fficers o f D ivision s o f the S t. John A m b ulan ce B rigad e, O fficers o f the R o y a l A rm y M ed ical Corps (Territo rials), the V o lu n teer A m b u lan ce S ch o o l o f Instruction, and C h ie f O fficers o f F ire B rigad es w ill, it is hoped, do their best to m ake

ceremonies, perhaps, who have at any rate a larger share of

more in

the limelight,

taken a greater part in public

decorations. A short time prior to the discussion which arose as a result of the press correspondence referred to, we were hearing a good deal of a problem which was perplexing many ambulance secretaries, and one which appears to

it k now n am ongst the m em bers o f their respective organisations, and w ill also send for publication their official new s and notices. S u g g e s­ tions are in vited for Prize C om petition s and other m atters w hich w ill advance the interest o f the Journal.

difficulty experienced in maintaining interest in ambulance

W e particularly desire to ask our correspondents to be b rief and to the point in a n y com m unications th ey m ay send us for publication.

that a large number of students who take up this work with

C orrespondents sending in photos are urgen tly requested to state on the b ack o f the same the nam e o f the in dividual or the C orps or B r ig a d e and g iv e also the nam e and address o f the sender. W e b eg to advise our readers that w e do not pay for photographs o r co p y sent, unless previou sly agreed upon in w riting.

become more pregnant as work.

time goes on, namely,

the

It is a regrettable feature, but none the less a fact,

real enthusiasm,

soon tend to

become

lukewarm and

apathetic and are only with difficulty induced to continue their studies and maintain efficiency.

T o what is this

“ dry rot,” as it was termed, due and what is the rem edy?

“ First Aid ” is published on the 20th of the month.

T h e question seems a somewhat

difficulty one to

answer off-hand, and to find the cure one must endeavour

EDITORIAL.

to get at the root of the disease.

It is necessary in the

first place to enquire why such large numbers, whose Some

Am bula nce

few months ago there was quite a

fluttering in the ambulance

interest is but fleeting, enter on ambulance work so keenly.

dovecotes

T h e reasons are many and it would be difficult in some

W ork

when a correspondent of one of our daily

instances to say just what does attract recruits to the

for its

papers asserted that medal giving was

ambulance

Own Sake.

being rather overdone in the ambulance

facilities, rewards and so forth which go hand in hand with

ranks.

W e were up in arms at once,

several letters upon the subject appearing in F

irst

A id ,

ranks,

but

it

may

be

that

the

many

the work are partly responsible and these, it is suggested are too often enlarged upon to such an extent that the

and reading between the lines one gathered that something

beginner is apt to lose sight of the real object of the work.

akin to “ medal worship ” was

Where this is the

Probably,

not altogether unknown-

in fact we feel sure, there was little or no

case

it

is not

surprising

that

the

enthusiasm of the student, who starts so full of promise,

foundation for any general charge of the kind, which is, of

rapidly wains, for he is badly handicapped for making

course, diametrically opposed to the whole spirit of the

of a satisfactory “ first a i d e r ” ;

ambulance movement.

him the material for making

We

not

is

being

aware

that

any

respect,

ambulance

man

and accept the self-sacrifice it involves purely and simply

know of no case in which such honours have been awarded

in order that he may be of service to his fellow men in

in

“ medal

ideal

for we

overdone

the

an

giving

business ”

are

in fact no recruit has in of

where they have not been well and nobly earned.

who

is

not

prepared to

take

up

the

work

A t the

time of need, to emulate the Samaritan-like spirit of the

same time there are in the ambulance ranks old and tried

old Knights of St. John and thus become a more useful

workers, who have done yeoman service for the cause

member of the community— more o f art altruist.

extending over a period of many years who have little—

ever differences of opinion may exist as to the cause of the

and who, perhaps, desire but little— in the way of medals

difficulty referred to, few will disagree upon this point.

and decorations to show for it.

For such the satisfaction

of work well done is sufficient reward.

On the other hand

W hat­

It is of paramount importance that the ambulance worker should be prompted by humanitarian motives, and


142

— F I R S T

any attempt to maintain interest in the work when these considerations do not take first place is foredoomed to failure.

W e live in days of medals, prizes, decorations,

competition trophies and the like and it is a question whether such things, excellent as they one and all un­ doubtedly are in their proper places, are not in some cases likely to be regarded as the end rather than as the means thereto as they should b e ; whether there is not a tendency for the sense of proportion to become somewhat warped in this connection. In the past the attention of the ambulance student may have been directed too much upon the award rather than upon the object for which it has been instituted.

The

better side of the student’s nature must be appealed to and emphasis laid upon the real object of the movement.

The

satisfaction of being able to relieve human suffering is in itself a great reward.

It was in the past and still is the

only reward sought by thousands of ambulance workers and among unknown.

such

the

disease known

as “ dry rot ” is

Speaking at an inquest, recently held in South Wales, the

Coroner

remarked

that

humanitarian obligation to

there make

accident to one’s fellow creatures.

was

a

moral

and

provision in case of T h e realisation of that

obligation as the first consideration in ambulance work will ensure a constant supply of sympathetic workers of the right kind, and we shall then have ambulance work f o r its own sake— surely a consummation devoutly to be wished.

P r o f ic ie n c y

in

F ir s t

Aid.

CORBET F L E T C H E R , B .A ., M B B.C., C a n t a b ., M R.C.S., {Surgeon Lecturer to the Broad-street Division o f the L .N . IV.R. Centre. By

N.

in first aid depends on a thorough appre­ ciation, and a wise application of the principles, on which this special branch of medicine is founded. As I have shown elsewhere,* these principles are based on three essential or primary factors— Knowledge, Com m on Sense, and Experience, which are dependent on each other and without which proficiency cannot be attained. Com m on sense is a gift which some of us inherit and others may acquire subsequently with increasing knowledge and experience. It teaches us to be observant in gathering up facts, signs and symptoms ; to be heedful of the patient’s comfort and tactful in our questions. Kn ow led ge makes us resourceful in our methods, explicit in our instructions and discriminating in our selection— and is acquired by book-study and by actual p r a c tic e ; and the best results are shown in the wise com­ bination of these two methods. Lectures are the outward and visible evidence o f book study and were instituted in the days when books were scarce; and, indeed, the modern P r o f ic ie n c y

* A C om pen d ium o f A id s to F irst A id (B ale S o n s & D an iellson , L t d .) , price 6d. net.

AID. —

February, 1913.

lecture is only of service when it is combined with an actual demonstration of the art and practice of the science of First Aid. Some of us find that text-books are apt to be tedious and uninteresting, and the more this difficulty exists the less effectual will be the knowledge gathered and stored in our brains. First, then, it is well to remember that one reading of a text-book is not likely to yield a satisfactory harvest o f knowledge, and it may console some of us to know that first aid must be learned and forgotten at least three times before there are any fertile seedlings from which a sound knowledge o f the subject may germinate. Select your text-book, therefore, with care, and avoid the butterfly habit of flitting from book to book ; study it carefully from end to end at least three times ; then pre­ pare your own notebook by drawing up a skeleton of the text­ book and leaving sufficient blank space pages for additional facts, figures, and aids, which you may subsequently a c q u ire ; and, in so doing, you will little by little gather up your store of knowledge. Carry your notebook with you, study it at odd moments, and after a time you will find that your knowledge is sufficiently complete for you to venture to read another text-book, from which you may cull new facts and ideas or you may increase your knowledge by viewing the same topics from another standpoint; but through it all keep your notebook beside you and add to its contents. By such methods you will acquire a knowledge of the theory of first aid ; but, without practice, such knowledge cannot be perfect nor proficiency attained. Therefore, be regular and assiduous in your attendance at demonstrations and classes ; seek every opportunity to practise your a r t ; be prompt in answering questions and do not be over anxious lest your answers be incorrect, because we learn more from our failures than our successes and to be successful you are sure to make mistakes. So venture boldy and let your errors be little ones. Lastly, increase your knowledge and experience by submitting to the test of examination at every opportunity. T h e result may not be gratifying, but by subsequent dis­ cussion of the questions with your instructors and by reference to your text-book on doubtful matters you will correct many mistakes, demonstrate your weak points and place your knowledge on a sound basis. So experience will be acquired and you will by patience and perseverance gradually attain to proficiency, until you find that your knowledge and common sense enables you to act in any emergency with confidence and success— to remove the cause, to treat the haemorrhage, to realize the value of fresh air, rest, and emetics, and to arrange for the best method of removal of your patient. T h e competitions for the “ P i l e ” Shield, “ C e c i l ’’ Cup and “ Florence ” C up will take place on April 26th. All enquiries should be made to the organiser, F. J. Pile, 36, Dartford-road, Dartford. T h e annual social and distribution of certificates o f the City of Bristol Corps was held on January 17th at M ax­ well’s Restaurant, Supt. Maynard being in the chair. T h e Division was honoured by the company of the DeputyCommission^r Mr. J. S. Griffiths, M .R .C .S ., who was sup­ ported by Divisional Surgeon B. S. Green, Miss F. Cook, District Supt. W. Tratt and Am bulance Officer Trott. Mrs. Green made the awards.

W hen corresponding w ith A d v ertisers p lease m entio n “ F ir st A id.”


February, 1913.

— F I R S T

DUTY ROSTER. No. 1 District. DEPUTY

C O M M IS S IO N E R :

L IE U T .-C O L .

LEES

HALL.

M A R C H , 1913. Duty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. 55 Division. 54 „ 56 „ 9 „ 17 „ as per separate orders. Keys from St

Sunday Sunday, 2nd.— No. „ 9th.— No. „ 16th.— No. » 23rd.— No. „ 30th.— No. Parade 2.30 p.m. John’s Gate. R E -EX A M IN A TIO N S. Saturday, 1st.— Whitehall Nursing Division, Dr. I. M. Carvell. Tuesday, 18th.— Cricklewood Division, Dr. R. J. Macfadden. „ 18th.— Hampstead Division, Dr. Leakey. Saturday, 28th. - E a s t Ham Division, Dr. Challis. „ 29th.— Balham and Streatham Nursing Division Dr. J. M. Carvell. All Divisional re-examinations must be over by the end of March, officers and other members in charge of Divisions should give this matter their urgent attention (if they have not already attended to it), fixing the date and asking their Divi­ sional Surgeon to arrange with one of the Divisional Surgeons to examine, themselves being ready to reciprocate. Divisional Secretaries are reminded that B.F. 11 (reExam. form) were sent in the roll of forms, they are to be filled up, being an exact copy of the B.F. 2, giving numbers, names, initials. If the Examination is desired to count as an Association Examination for voucher, medallion or label, they must advise me, giving Examiners name, address, date of examination and where held. B U G L E BAN D PR A CTICE. Friday 7th.— Practice headquarters, 8 p.m. There will be no practice on the 21st (see march out). Friday 21st. — Rail and route march (see separate orders). Monday. -Open space duty (see separate orders below). D E W A R SH IE L D C O M PETITIO N . F IN A L M AY ( P O R T M A N ROOMS).

i

6t h

P r e l i m i n a r y C o m p e t i t i o n .— Saturday, April 26th — At headquarters, 3 p.m. Application should be made at once for the entry form and copy of conditions.

D IV ISIO N AL

B O O K S.

There are several Divisions who have not yet submitted their books since the close of 1912, these should be sent in at once. P R E L I M I N A R Y N O T IC E S . Officers General Meeting, Monday, April 7th. Dinner, Thursday, April 17th. S ta tio n .

Addington Hills Alexandra Park ........................ Battersea Blackheath

.........................

Barnes Common (2 stations) Bostal Woods ...

A ntb ula n cc D iv isio n .

Officers

N u r s in g D iv isio n .

si ■ > 13.25

13

J 43

Brockwell Park Bromley Barnet or Hadley Woods Chingford, Forest Hotel „ Rising Sun „ Napier Arms „ Robin Hood Clapham Common Crystal P a la c e ............... „ Depot... Downhill Park... Ealing Common Epping Forest, Wake Arms Hackney Marshes Hainault Forest Hampstead Heath, Upper station „ Lower „ Hanwell Bridge Kew Bridge Old Deer Park, Richmond Parliament Hill Peckham Rye ... Putney H e a t h ............... Regent’s P a r k ............... Riddlesdown ... Southend-on-Sea South Mill Fields Wanstead Flats Welsh Harp, Hendon Walthamstow Ambulance Station Wimbledon Common (2 stations) Woodford ........................... Wormwood Scrubs ............... (Signed) Headquarters

LEES

St. John’s Gate,

45

21 42 2, 10

33.6 29 15,6 24. 38 23

10 —

— 1 8 11 8 10

5 5

3° 37

40

5

46 20

9 55 54 54

22

33 17

2 8 1

15

2, 16 2 — IO

14 6

19 9

22 62

6 —

7 7 4

52,6 29

17

60 19

HALL, Deputy-Com

11 17 6 11

7

11 2 ssioner

E.C. No. 1 3 ( K i n g ’ s C r o s s G .N .R .).— W e thank Div.Supt. Cooper for his kindness in sending us an invitation to the excellent concert given by the division on January 25th at the Northern Polytechnic Institute. Mr. Seabright, who had charge of the musical arrangement provided a most excellent array o f talent, which was much appreciated by the audience. T h e stewards were Messrs. W. Wingfield, A. Badcock, J. Halls, J. G. Palmer, H. Dye, J. Price, f ! White, W. H. White, VV. Cumber, W. Gobey, J. Kirby, J. Lancaster, H. Medlock, G. T o o b y and T. White. T h e members of the division were honoured by the presence of the Deputy-Commissioner and also their hon. surgeons. No. 29 ( W a l t h a m s t o w ) . — During the month o January no less than i o r cases have been attended by the members of this division. Many of these have been o f a slight nature, wounds chiefly, but one was rather serious On the 15th of January at 5.25 p.m., the members were called to a local potato wharf, where they found a mar injured. After inspection, found that several cwt. sacks ol potatoes had fallen on his back and consequently fractured his spine. After careful handling he was moved on the litter to the local infirmary, where the resident doctor com ­ plimented the men who dealt with the case. Besides this, two other fractures have been treated— a thigh and a rib— twelve cases of sprained limbs and six cases of burns or scalds.

2

24

14

,6>30,47

Mrs. Brunning 1

44 7 , 4 1,49

A I D —

21

19

No. 3 District. D

ist r ic t

O rders.

By T. H. Woolston, Esq., Deputy-Commissioner, commanding No. 3 District. A Camp of Instruction for No.

3 District

has been


144

— F I R S T

sanctioned by the Chief Commissioner, Colonel Sir James R. Andrew Clark, Bt., C.B., and will be pitched at Ya r­ mouth. The Camp will commence on Saturday, August 2nd, and will end on Saturday, August 9th. The railway fare will be 8s. In order to obtain these terms the District Staff have had to guarantee 300 men. Officers and men attending Camp must wear the prescribed Uniform of the Brigade. Members are advised to bring khaki uniform for drill and fatigues, keeping the “ black” for walk­ ing out. Sealed pattern may be obtained from St.John’s Gate on application to the Chief Commissioner. The terms for those attending Camp will be :— Officers, 7s. 6d. per diem, and the usual mess subscription, according to rank. The Sergeants will run their own mess, a tent being provided. All Ranks, 2s. per diem. All Ranks must be aware of the greater facilities and comforts provided for them in recent Camps. The last three No. 33 B E R M O N D S E Y A N D W A L W O R T H D IV IS IO N , W I N N E R S O F T H E B A R O N D E F O R E S T CU P.

AID. —

February, 1913.

It is hoped that Officers and Men will do all in their power to attend this Camp. By Order, W. D o r e R u d g a r d , Asst. Com. Chief of Staff (Camp). O l n e y . — T h e annual dinner of this division was held at the Bull Hotel, on January 15th. T h e chair was oc c u ­ pied by the genial divisional surgeon, Dr. Grindon, and a large and influential company were present. After the usual loyal toasts had been duly honoured, the toast o f the “ Olney Division ” was proposed by the Rev. S. H. Smith. H e referred in a most kind manner to the work of the divi­ sion and to the help he had personally received from Supt. Knight in his illness and the skilful way in which he was moved. Supt Knight, in replying to the toast, thanked Mr. Smith for his kind words, and said that while he had the honour of commanding the Olney Division his motto would always be “ Efficiency.” Supt. Knight gave a review of the work for the past year in a very interesting speech. Toasts and songs were then the order of the evening, and by way of a change two instrumental quartette were rendered by Supt. Knight (’cello), Bugler W. C. Knight (1st violin), Pte. Knight (2nd violin), and Miss Rosie Knight (piano). T hese were much enjoyed. After sing­ ing A uld Lang Syne the party broke up, agreeing that a pleasant evening had been spent.

N o. 5 D i s t r i c t .

Privates C. Peddie, S. H. Payne, A. E. Leatt and C. P. Windmill. Camps having been run at a great loss, which can no longer be continued, the Deputy-Commissioner feels sure that mem­ bers coming to Camp will see the fairness of this increased charge. Tent furniture will be provided at a cost of 20s. for the entire kit, and items can be supplied according to the list which will be forwarded to Officers attending Camp. It is absolutely necessary that all orders for Tent Kit should reach the Rev. W. JJore Rudgard, Longford Grange, Coventry, not later than May 31st. All Officers intending to come to Camp, unless prevented by illness or other urgent reasons, should send in their names by May 25th, as above. Approximate numbers to be furnished on D.F. 3 by March 9th.

L i n c o l n . — At the annual dinner of the Lincoln Corps of the St. John Am bulance Brigade, Mr. P. W. Robson, the managing director of Messrs. Clayton and Shuttleworth. Ltd., made a series of presentations to members of the Brigade, also two certificates of the Royal Hum ane Society, the recipients being Sergeant Charles Jeffries and Corporal Herbert Lord, for heroic action at the works of Messrs. Clayton and Shuttleworth, Ltd. A silver rose bowl, given by Mr. F. S. Lambert, for competition throughout the year, was handed over to Corporal L ord ’s team, consisting of himself, Corporal Grainger, Private Granger, and Private Pedley, whilst a silver challenge cup competed for annually, given by Mrs. A. C. Newsum, was won by Corporal Lor.d. Mr. Robson, in explaining the incident which resulted in Lord and Jeffries being granted certificates, said one of their workmen was overcome with carbolic acid gas. T h e unfortunate man, although a strong and healthy person, had got such an amount that he seemed to be past recovery. Artificial respiration was administered, and through the efforts of Jeffries and Lord the man was practically dragged back from the jaws of death. T h e y stuck to their very difficult task for over two hours, during which time they laboured continuously, and eventually the man came round to consciousness. T h e action was brought to the notice of the Royal Hum ane Society, and without hesitation they decided that it was proper for them to grant a certificate of merit for each officer, together with a special gift of £ 1 as some slight acknowledgement. T i b s h e l f . — Deputy-Commissioner S. C. Wardell gave his annual dinner to the Officers, men and nursing sisters of the Corps on January n t h , and a delightful evening was spent by the large number of guests present. 'T h e DeputyCommissioner in proposing success to the T ibshelf Corps said that ambulance work of to-day was quite different from what it was years ago, for while with competitive organisations, linked with the desire to attain fame, it was


February, 1913.

— F I R S T

only by hard work that they could maintain their position. H e announced that the corps intended to present to the nursing divisions of the district a trophy for annual com ­ petition. Supt. Lawton suitably responded. No. 10 District. I p s w i c h . — T h e Orwell Works Division held a smoking concert on February 1st, over which Dr. Frances Ward (hon. surgeon) presided. During the evening the retiring secretary, Mr. A. W. Whitman, was presented with a hand­ some clock in recognition of his services to the Division.

C la s p for M e d a ls a n d Ribbons. T h e r e has come to our notice a very handy medal and ribbon clasp, the invention of Mr. F. Dolton. It consists of a thin nickel plated brass bar to which flat nuts with fine screws are attached. T h e ribbon of a medal is inserted through slots in the bar and then attached with the screws

.■5Jots

A.

D C

Q--'b'-~o F ull

S ize

of

Q M edal

x

.:o

C lasp.

C

Nut

D

..-B _=c! '

E nd

V iew

of

P late.

it is then turned over to hide the bar, and the whole is attached to the tunic by other flat nuts. Compared with the safety pin fixtures, which the least pressure will unfix this seems to be eminently superior, and the cost, as shown in our advertisement columns, is reasonable. Several Divisions in the Brigade are already using these medal clasps and find them satisfactory.

Smethwick has raised four V . A . D . ’s in a remarkable short time. Major Thompson, the vice-president and the Detachment leaders are to be congratulated. S o u t h a m p t o n — A t a recent meeting of the South­ ampton Centre of the St. John Am bulance Association, the hon. secretary (Lieut. Col. Twiss) reported that the number of pupils who had obtained certificates and other awards in the quarter ending December 31st, 1912, had been 182 The number o f calls attended by its horsed ambulance in the same period was 98. T h e balance, though a small one, was on the right side. I p s w i c h . — A good summary of the work accomplished by the centre is given in the annual report for 1912. The various headings under which the branches of work are divided show that activity has been the keynote of the centre, but the finance is not as satisfactory as it ought to be T h e Ipswich Centre unfortunately has a heavy burden for the maintenance of its headquarters and many other inci­ dentals allied to the work. Starting the year with a deficiency o f ^ 2 0 , it has still a small amount on the wrong side, and the able hon. sec., Miss Coulcher, endeavours by every means to clear the Centre o f debt.

AID. —

145

jJailway Jlmbulance. G.YV.R.— Preparations are now being made for holding the annual competitions throughout the Line, and it is understood the number of entries this year is far in excess of that o f previous years, which will constitute a record. T h e number of entries for the “ Beginners’ ” Class is particularly satisfactory. Examination reports o f classes formed towards the close of last year are now coming to hand and it is pleasing to hear that the percentage of successful candidates is high. In several of the examinations the whole of the candidates have been successful and in two such cases the number presented for examination was 25 and 30 re­ spectively— eloquent testimony to the ability o f the respective instructors. At a concert recently arranged in connection with the Tyseley Class, the awards gained by members in examination were distributed by Mr. J. T. Denstone who congratulated each of the recipients upon his success and emphasised the importance of following up the study of ambulance work. During the evening a rose-bowl was presented to Dr. Cyril Lunn (lecturer) bearing the following inscription St. John Am bulance Association, G .W .R . Tyseley Class. Presented to Dr. Cyril Lunn as a slight recognition of his valuable services as Surgeon-Instructor to the above Class.” Dr. Lunn warmly thanked the members and spoke of the pleasure it afforded him to instruct them. A most enthusiastic gathering, which took the form of a smoking concert, was held at Swindon on the 7th inst., under the presidency of Mr. G. J. Churchward (Locom otive Supt.) supported by the local officers of the various departments. Mr. Frank Potter, the popular General Manager, was the chief speaker and presented the local challenge cup and prizes recently gained in competition and also the examination awards in respect of the last session. Mr. Churchward, who is president of the Class, assured Mr. Potter of the honour they all felt had been conferred upon them by his coming among them, that being his first visit to Swindon since his appointment as General Manager. Mr. Potter, who was greeted with prolonged applause, expressed his great pleasure in meeting so many employes of the Great Western Railway, a Com pany which they were all proud to be associated with, under such agreeable cir­ cumstances. Speaking in the highest terms of the ambulance movement and the good moral effect which ambulance training had upon individuals as m em­ bers of the community, he expressed the hope that the opportunity would not arise for exercising the skill which attendance at the classes was calculated to develop. H e assured the ambulance workers that they had the encourage­ ment not only o f the Directors and Officers of the C o m ­ pany, but of the numerous medical men who had given their services so freely. H e was glad to say that the Directors were proposing to give a trophy for competition among the staff to be held by the successful team for one year. In addition to that he had before him a proposal which had not been made public, but which he believed would be made public before very long for granting addi­ tional free travelling facilities to those who qualified^ as an acknowledgement of their abilities. Mr. Potter congra­ tulated the members of the class upon their achivements and wished them success in future classes and competitions.


146

— F I R S T

On ihe motion of the chairman, seconded by Dr. Berry, a hearty vote of thanks was passed to Mr. Potter for his attendance, and a similar resolution was passed to the Chairman on the motion of Mr. F. G. Wright, seconded by Mr. W. H. Williams. Mr. R. V . Vasaar-Smith, of Charlton Park, Chelten­ ham, has recently presented a handsome Challenge Shield for annual competition among teams of the G. W. R. C o m ­ bined Am bulance Corps at Gloucester, and a first contest for the trophy will shortly be arranged. S.E. & C . R . — G oo d progress is being made with the examinations on this railway, and the attendance promises well. Duiing the month of January examinations have been held at Canterbury (2), R ed Hill (2), and Dunton Green, and no less than 21 examinations have been arranged to take place during the month of February. On Thursday, January 30th, the annual competition to decide the holders of the “ Henchley ” cup for combined work, and for the “ A r c h ib a ld ” cup for individual work, was decided at the Royal Victoria Tem perance Hotel, Ramsgate. Eight teams competed in the team contest, and after interesting exhibition of work, the judge, Dr. Jeffries, of Chatham, placed them in the following order :— Deal No. 2, 46^ marks ; Faversham, 41 ; Ramsgate Town, 3 7 ; Deal No. 1, 34 ^ ; Margate West Loco, 28; Dover Priory No. 1, 2 6 ; Broadstairs, 2 5 I ; Dover Harbour No. 2, 23J. in the individual contest, the cup was awarded to Mr. S. Marsh, of Deal Station, who secured 189 marks, out of a possible 253 ; Mr. PI. O ’Connell, of Dover, being second with 177, and Mr. Collier, of Margate, third with 176. Fifteen competitors entered for the competition, and a very instructive exhibition was given by the candidates. Dr. Bradbury, of Sandgate, judged the individual contest, and the work was admirably performed, and revealed how complete are the issues when such care and attention is given to the patients. A most successful concert followed the competitions. Mr. E. A. Richards, the centre chairman, presided, being supported by Dr. Archibald, of R am sgate; Mr. Lane, the centre secretary ; Mr. Busbridge, station master, R a m sg a te ; Mr. Bines, station master, M a r g a te ; Mr. Capon, station master, F a v e r sh a m ; Mr. Goldsmith, goods agent, R a m sg a te ; Mr. Jarvis, goods agent, M arga te; and others. T here was a crowded audience, and at a convenient point in the programme the chairman distributed the cups and prizes to the successful members. In addition to the cups, each member of the winning team received a cruet; biscuit barrels being presented to the second team, and a fruit dish to each member of the third team. A handsome clock was presented to Mr. M a r s h ; and Mr. O ’Connell also received a clock ; Mr. Collier being awarded a cruet. T h e chairman pointed out that since the centre was formed in 1905 some 18,000 cases of first aid, many of them serious, had been treated by the railway men, and the centre secretary has received many letters from medical men expressing their satisfaction at the high standard of work rendered by the ambulance men. T h e centre was in a thriving condition, and everything promised well for a most successful season. T h e various teams on the railway are now keenly waiting the group competitions, which commence on the 26th inst., and some eighty entries have been received, and this is looked upon as a most encouraging sign of the enthusiasm which exists amongst the ambulance men on the system.

AI D. —

February, 1913.

N .E . R .— A t the latter part of last year a new departure in the form of ladies classes were established. T h e lady clerks of the Traffic Station, York, first suggested the idea, and Mr. George Jackson, the centre secretary, established a class of fourteen, and shortly afterwards the new idea had spread to Newcastle. Mr. and Mrs. Oliver (the manager of the Central Station Hotel and his wife) appealed to their female staff with the result that a class of forty-six was commenced. Mrs. Oliver undertook the secretarial duties and Dr. Harkness acted as lecturer. At the termination of the course thirty-seven members presented themselves for exam ination; thirty-one passed and six fa ile d ; the remainder through various causes were unable to attend the examination. T o celebrate the event Mr. A. K a y e Butterworth pre­ sented the certificates and badges. Dr. Harkness, and Mr. J. Willis, who acted as drill instructor, were each the recipients of beautiful presents from the class, at a previous meeting of the staff. O f the Y o rk class, twelve presented themselves for examination before Dr. E. P. Pickersgill, all of whom passed. Dr. E. Fell was lecturer, and Mr. A. Atkinson, drill instructor. W e believe that these two ladies classes are the first of their kind held in this country, and it may give a lead to other centre secretaries to follow. T h e half-yearly meeting o f the Centre was held in Leeds on the 25th ult., when delegates were present from all parts of the System. Mr. F. Pentry presided, and Mr. George Jackson, general secretary, presented his report, which showed that forty-three classes had been formed dur­ ing the session, to which over 600 books and bandages had been issued, and the numbers who had passed examinations during the existence of the Centre w as:— First, 7,0 14 ; Second, 3,850 ; Third, 2,872 ; Label, 1,308. T h e Accident returns snowed that during the half-year 18,800 cases had received attention from the members, and the grand total since the formation of the Centre in 1895 was 2 34 ' 549 Other business dealing with the competitions, &c., was transacted. Mr. W. Noble (Leeds District Traffic Supt.) attended and bade the delegates a hearty welcome to Leeds, and hoped that their stay would be an agreeable one, and he wished the Centre every success, and was pleased to know that he had been awarded his medallion for passing the third examination. M .R .— Mr. T . R. Scott, the hon. secretary, presented a favourable report to the members of the Nottingham Am bulance Corps at their annual meeting held on F e b ­ ruary 2nd. It is gratifying to note that the corps has been relieved of its liability in connection with the motor ambu­ lance by the fact that the city has taken it over. Mr. French was reappointed president, and Mr. A. R. Atkey acting vice-president, and the latter, in accepting the office, congratulated the members on their enthusiasm. T h e following vice-presidents were re-elected :— Lord Henry Bentinck, M.P., Sir Jno. Turney, Mr. J. T . Spald­ ing, Mr. E. Richards, Mr. L. O. Trivett, Mr. H. D. Snook, Mr. Arthur Richardson, Mr. Jno. Boot, and Mr. B er­ nard S. Wright. Dr. Blurton .again consented to act as hon. instructor to the corps, and Mr. G. Shrive was reappointed captain. L. & N.W . R y .— T he C om pany is fitting up in each corridor brake van and coach a box containing first aid requisites. T h e box is to be placed in an accessible place in the van, and a red cross is painted on the lid of the box


February, 1913.

— F I R S '1

in order that it can readily be distinguished. T h e main line trains are already fitted with a case o f tools and a chemical fire extinguisher, which should prove useful in emergency, and the N.W . Company are to be congratulated on being the first English railway to so equip their trains. T h e Buxton team with 232 j marks were the winners of the Oldham District Competition, held on February n t h

B y courtesy)

[ T h e R a ilw a y N ew s.

Photo of first aid cases fitted in brake van of Express Passenger Trains of the L. & N. W. Ry. T h e box is indicated by an arrow. at Leeds, while the No. 4 member of the same team won the individual contest. Nine teams in all competed, Leeds being second with 226 J ; Huddersfield third, 1 8 3 ; Oldham fourth, 17 i f ; Greenfield fifth, 1 5 3 ; C opley Hill sixth, 1 5 3 ; Lees seventh, 120J ; Heckm ondwike eighth n 6 £ ; a n d Denton ninth with 114^. T h e judges were Drs. G. P. Pickersgill and L. M. Frank Christian.

S o u t h A f r i c a .— A demonstration was given by the members of the South African District o f the Brigade be­ fore the Governor-General Lord Gladstone and a large audience on January 15th. T h e y dealt with a number of cases, showing the practical nature of the work. A t the conclusion His Excellency congratulated the members on their efficiency, and spoke at some length of the noble character of their voluntary work. Lieut.-Col. Parrott, V .D ., thanked H is Excellency for being present, and said there was no doubt that first aid training lowered the death rate and minimised suffering.

C o lo n ia l N e w s . I n d i a . — The Englishm an in giving an account of the Delhi Bom b outrage records an interview with Mr. F. W. Finn, one of the S.J.A.B . who was on duty only a short dis­ tance from where the bomb exploded, he recounts that on manning the station one Am bulance man was sent out in each direction, but on the Inspecting Officer, Major Blackham, visiting my station, he suggested that I should double the patrols. Accordingly the patrols were doubled. This was about an hour before the arrival of the procession. N o casualties occurred at my station before the procession made its appearance and everything went swimmingly until the first pair of elephants were im­ mediately opposite us, and then a loud explosion occurred. Almost immediately afterwards one of my men signalled for assistance. Without a moment’s delay I ordered the hand stretcher away and instructed the pairhorsed tonga with the nurses and the pair-horsed ambulance and the horse with the hot and cold water tanks to follow me at once, and I doubled away to the spot. On arriving at their Excellencies’ elephant, L ad y Hardinge was being assisted down from the howdah by the staff and the ambulance men on the spot. A chair was provided for her in the road and the jemadar who had been carrying the umbrella was removed in a mangled condition from the rear of the howdah im­ mediately behind His Excellency. With the assistance of the men I turned him on his back in the road and cut with a pair of scissors his uniform right up to his throat. H is body when exposed presented a sight I shall never forget. His ribs were smashed and he had a ghastly wound on his right side immediately above the pelvis which was also fractured. W e found his condition beyond human assistance and therefore arranged for his removal to the hospital. H e expired before being placed on the stretcher. T h e other attendant on the elephant who was badly cut about the hands, arms and legs, was dressed on the spot and sent to hospital. Several of those who were slightly injured were attended by other detachments of the brigade. Meantime H er Excellency was being attended to by the Viceregal Staff, she called for brandy and x gave her a small ambulance medicine measure full of brandy and and water. Shortly afterwards Her Excellency with great pluck and determination was moving about giving orders for the removal of His Excellency who was being attended to in the howdah by Colonel Roberts, I.M.S., Surgeon to H .E ., who never left the Viceroy. T h e Surgeon called for some antiseptic, and we supplied him with antiseptic dress­ ing from our surgical haversack. A slight laceration on His Excellency’s left check was then attended to. A t this stage the V iceroy was feeling weak and faint and the Surgeon called for brandy, which we immediately supplied. After he had recovered sufficiently to allow of his being removed arrangements were made to lower him to the ground. This was accomplished by means of a number of boxes, procured by my men and the soldiers, being placed to form steps from the ground to the howdah.’ H is Excellency was then carried to the ground by the Staff Officers in attendance and removed in a motor car.

E r r a t a . — W e regret that a slight printers error occurred in the review in the last issue of “ Aids to Mem ory for First Aid Students.” T h e price should have been 6d., and by post 7d., and not 6s. and /s.


I4S

— F I R S T

B r e v itie s . A c o r r e s p o n d e n t , whose letter appears in another column, calls attention to a drowning fatality which occurred in the Mersey last month. T h e report in the Liverpool E xpress states that, on the woman being taken from the water it was found that one o f her arms was broken, thus preventing artificial respiration being carried out. She was removed to the hospital and died shortly after admission. This case points to the glaring ignorance some people have of first aid practice. Whoever the individual was who took the trouble to discover the broken arm, and yet did not think o f H o w ard ’s or L ab orde’s method of artificial respiration. T h e superficial knowledge acquired by some first aiders as indicated above, and due to the cause which our corres­ pondent mentions, is really worse than no knowledge at all, for if a layman had to deal with the case he would no doubt have heard of artificial respiration and jumbled through it, ignoring the arm, perhaps thereby substituting a compound fracture for a life. * * * A m o n g the incidents recorded in connection with two recent fires at Sheffield and Salford respectively, were the

electric shocks experienced by the firemen when playing water on the flames. Pure water, Electricity tells us, is a non-conductor of electricity, but the water available for fire-fighting is always sufficiently impure to act as a con­ ductor of the current, and once a jet has been established between the metal nozzle of a fire hose and any live wire or fitting, the fireman at once furnishes a leakage path to earth for the current, the conditions being particularly favourable on account of the quantity of water present, and the generally moisten laden condition of the ground upon which he is standing. Firemen should be particularly careful of this condition of affairs, having in view the very general use of electricity, and should be provided with some insulating material for their hands, and also learn how to act in case of electric shock. * * * a paper read before the Medico-Legal Society, Dr. F. G. Crookshank, of London, directed attention to some special points in connection with shock which are of In

peculiar interest. With regard to the amount of shock necessary to produce a fatal effect, he says that we cannot estimate the intensity of the impulse requisite to destroy life by shock, because we have to reckon with the shock value of the individual. T here are also racial values as well as individual values. T h e Bengalee has, for example, a higher shock value than the negro, and the lively Gaul is more easily perturbed than the phlegmatic Teuton. Still, the shock value of an individual varies from time to time, and different parts of the body have different shock values. A tap below the belt may wind a man on whose thorax one could hammer without causing distress; and there are

AID. —

February, 1913.

other elements, such as unpreparedness. A false step in the dark may momentarily shake the nerves of a man who will take the spills of a day’s hunting without turning a hair; and a policeman, suddenly injured when on duty in a street brawl, will suffer more severely from shock than a soldier wounded in action. *

*

*

T h e Indian Ambulance Gazette tells us that there are now six corps of the Brigade in India, consisting of thirtythree divisions, and, in addition, two independent divisions : the total strength is about 1,000. During the last eight years

it has increased from thirty-nine to that figure. It is antici­ pated that at least twenty-one new divisions will be formed in the near future. T h e organisation languished and was confined entirely for four years to the Island of Bombay till 1909. Since that year it has spread to every part of the Empire. It is confidently hoped that by the end of 1913 the personnel of the Brigade in India will excel that of any other overseas contingent. * * * W e are informed that the Allan Aynesworth Dramatic Club is giving a performance in aid of the funds of the No. 16 Division, Prince of Wales’s Corps. T h e Hon. Sec. of the Club, whose address is 143, Kyverdale-road, Stamford-hill, N., informs us that its members will be

delighted to give performances to other divisions of the S.J.A.B ., providing that they would undertake to sell the tickets. * * * S i n c e the paragraph on duties at places of amusement appeared under this heading in our last issue, we have received a letter from a member of the London Post Office Division stating that the members of this division do duty three nights a week at the Oxford Music Hall. T h e case book shows that there is a real need for their

services, and at the same time the members have an opportunity of spending an enjoyable evening. W e suggest that other divisions should offer their services in a like manner in other districts. *

*

A p h y s i c i a n of note asserts that smoking has a worse effect on most people in winter than in summer, and he advises all smokers who find their health and mental faculties impaired in winter for no apparent reason to accept tobacco as the explanation, and to cut down their smoking during the colder months. Tobacco, he says, is a very powerful drug, and can­ not be consumed in large quantities without produc­ ing a certain effect on the heart. It must be re­ membered that during the winter the heart has a great deal more work to do than in summer, for the cold causes the blood-vessels to become small and pinched. It is thus less able to bear the extra strain put upon it by smoking.


February, 1913

— F I R S T

A LL R I G H T S R E S E R V E D .

J

Home Nursing and Hygiene. H. M A IN W A R IN G H O LT, M .R .C .S., L.S.A., D .P .H .

By

Honorary Associate of the Order o f St. John, L ife Member of, and Lecturer and E xa m in er o f the S .f .A .A . ; Hon. Surgeon to the M a lt on and N orton D ivision , No. VL. D istrict, S .f .A .B . (iContinued fro m page 130.) O n

I n f a n t il e

M o r t a l it y

and

I ts

C auses.

it stated that over 1 2 0 , 0 0 0 infants d i e every year in this country. O f all the children born in England and Wales during the last ten years, one in every 6 6 on the average has died during the first year of life. In a short lecture it is not possible to enter into the details of the causes of infantile mortality. W e must, therefore confine ourselves to those general causes which are common to every locality, namely :— (a) T h e conditions of the maternal physique. {/>) Ignorance of the principles of infant rearing. (c) Illegitimacy and kindred vices. (d) Insanitary surroundings. The M others H ealth.— T h e health of the mother has comparatively far greater influence than that of the father It

£

A I D . —

149

medical man that ignorance o f the principles o f infant rearing is almost universal amongst young mothers, and that such knowledge as they do acquire upon the subject is more or less dependent upon the oral traditions of “ old wives.” This point cannot be left without our stating that for every naturally fed baby who dies, no less than fifteen die otherwise fed I have prepared a special diagram or table for handfeeding, and adapted a second for breast-feeding with a view of helping those who wish to learn, to the better understanding of a subject which is by no means simple. Illegitimacy and K ind red Vices.— T h e causes of infantile mortality, under the third heading, are in many ways the most serious o f all, being responsible for the highest mortality amongst children, and indeed assume the proportion of a national calamity, it has been said that the evil referred to and its associate vices form the greatest blot upon the efforts of both social and sanitary reformers. Lnsanitary Surroundings.— T hese include not only the home conditions but also the surroundings of the home. T h e y are represented by the overcrowded, badly lighted, ill ventilated and often damp cottage houses, the foul gully and faulty drain, the choked court, alley or restricted yard area where the light of the sun seldom penetrates and fresh air is unknown. T hese subjects belong to hygiene and must be studied in further detail in connection with that subject, I merely mention them in order to draw your attention to them as contributory causes to disease and unfitness. W e are at present only concerned with the second of the above named causes of infantile mortality— ignorance

REM ARKS.

H arley w a ter m ay b e used in ­ stead o f boiled w ater. L im e w a ter som etim es useful. C u rd y stools often d ue to e x ­ cess o f m ilk — add w ater.

T h e am ount m ay have to be increased. L e ss w a ter m ay now be added if the c h ild is strong.

-a g

N e w M ilk .

W a ter.

*3 g

upon the offspring, whilst hereditary and acquired diseases have an all-important dominating effect upon the mother and her progeny. T h e mortality in the earliest months of infant life is actually increasing, and the percentage of children dying from prematurity of birth is now nearly double what it was fifty years ago. G oo d food (avoiding alcohol) and relief from hard work are essential to an expectant mother. Lgnorance o f the Principles o f In fa n t Rearing.— With regard to the second cause, it is the experience of every

of infant rearing. L et us try to get to know something of the subject. M ilk is the natural food of the young of all the higher animals including man. T h e higher the animal, the longer is it dependent upon milk from its mother’s breast. The composition of the milk o f different animals varies very much, and consequently the substition of the milk of one species for that of another species is attended with a greatly increased risk o f death to the young animal cheated of its proper food. In the breast fed animal food is a liquid,


— F I R S T and passes with little risk of contamination from the nipple of the mother into the stomach of the offspring, clean, fresh and warm. It is a living food, and enters into the stomach a living food, it possesses “ vital principles ” which are still unknown to the chemist. It is not received into milk cans, basins, bottles, or conducted along indiarubber tubes, it is not exposed to infection in transit or under ordinary circumstances in storage. It is, in short, the food for the offspring, and cannot be successfully imitated. Unfortunately many infants are deprived of their natural food by various circumstances upon their birth, the mother may die, or she may be in such a state of health as to preclude suckling, or she may have no home, and be obliged to earn her living as a single woman ; under such conditions the choice is between bringing the child up under a foster mother or by what is called hand-feeding. Only a rich person can afford to provide a foster mother for the child, and even then the difficulty arises o f obtain­ ing a suitable person, and such a person is so rare that I have never met o n e ; therefore, for all practical purposes we have to rely upon hand-feeding. The R earing o f I? fa n ts.— W e shall consider this sub­ ject under two heads— (1) Natural feeding. (2) Artificial or hand-feeding. N a tu r a l or B rea st Feeding.— T h e first condition to be satisfied in connection with breast feeding is the good health of the mother, and in order to insure this, strict attention must be paid to personal hygiene ; the body must be kept clean by the use of baths ; the bowels kept regular by proper d i e t ; fresh air, gentle exercise and good plain food are the chief essentials. T h e clothing should be light and warm and not tight fitting. O f course women have cer­ tain work to do, and so far as this is of a nature that does not involve over-exertion or extra twisting or bending of the body, such work, especially if outdoors, is an excellent thing— it is exercise. T h e desire for food is often counter­ balanced by the fear of vomiting or of nausea following meals ; of course, such discomfort is to a certain extent only n atural; should it, however, interfere with the health o f the patient, a doctor must be consulted. T h e breasts should not be neglected, the nipples especially need care ; they should be kept clean, and if small, drawn gently out day by day. Should there be soreness they may be bathed with a little borax solution, and thereafter hardened by wiping them over with a little cotton-wool dipped in spirit o f wine. ( To be continued.)

A lk a li a n d C ocoa. M r . S a n d o w is making a special point that his Health and Strength C ocoa is entirely free from added alkali, he has also laid emphasis upon the importance of a standardisation of the purity of cocoa. C ocoa is essentually a food specially stimulating the muscles, it is, therefore, necessary that to derive the full benefit from its nutriment values it should be absolutely pure, and this Mr. Sandow claims is the case with Health and Strength Cocoa, it being made solely from the cocoa bean without addition of any kind. Many members of the medical profession are recommend­ ing it on this ground, its purity being substantiated by analysis.

AID. —

February, 1913.

T h e classes which began courses of instruction for the Elementary Certificates of the Association at the fall of last year have now drawn to a close, and the results of the examinations have been satisfactory in the highest degree, the examiners being particularly complimentary regarding the practical work. T h e aim has been during the lectures to give as little as possible of theoretical work, but to place as firm a know­ ledge as possible of actual practical treatment in the minds o f the students, and the result has been highly gratifying. Having this object still further in view, no time whatever is taken up with stretcher drill, that is reserved for those going in for the intermediate certificate.

Queries and Jlnsw ers Correspondents.

to

Q ueries m ill be dealt w ith under the follow in g r u le s :— 1 . — Letters containing Q ueries m ust be m arked on the top left h a n d corner o f the envelope “ Q u ery ,” an d addressed— F i r s t A i d , 4b , Cannon-street, London, E . C. 2 .— A l l Q ueries m u st be accom panied by a “ Q uery Coupon ” cut fr o m the current issue o f the Jo u rn a l, or in case o f Q ueries from abroad fr o m a recent issue. j . — Readers req u ir in g a reply by post m ust enclose a stamped addressed envelope.

J. T. T. (Hetton-le-Hole).— “ The use of Oxygen Breathing or Rescue Apparatus for work in obnoxious atmospheres” can be obtained from the author, The Rescue Training Station, Crumlin, Mons. The price is not given. P. E. W. (Preston).— W e thank you for calling attention to the error which occurred in our last issue. You are quite right in your contention. C. E. S. (Gloucester).— Providing there are no other injuries Shaefer’s method would be the best method to adopt in strychnine poisoning. T. H. B. (Sheffield).— Nothing definite has been laid down by the War Office on the question as to the pay rate of V.A.D .’s on mobilisation, although many attemps have been made to obtain such information. The nearest we have is the following, which is an extract from a War Office reply on the subject :— “ With reference to your enquiry regarding accommoda­ tion, I am to inform you that it is not anticipated that V.A. Detachments will be called upon to work outside their own districts, or away from their own homes. Should it be found necessary, however, to utilise their services at a distance from their homes, due provision for their accommodation and main­ tenance will be made by the military authorities.”

T h e Clarnico Fire Brigade held its annual dinner on O R S A L E .— Honorary Surgeon’s Uniform; complete February 1st in the large dining hall adjacent to the firm’s outfit, with silver-plated cross belt and pouch ; height, 5 ft. 3in. —Apply, R. B. S., The Laurels, 8, Carlton-road, W e y ­ extensive works. A distinguished company was present, over which Captain G. Horn presided. mouth.

F


February, 1913.

- F I R S T

BRITISH

I5f

RED CROSS SOCIETY.

COUNTY

OF LONDON

N otes and N ew s. A t the recent banquet offered by the Bulgarian R ed Cross Society to Surgeon-General Bourke, o f the British R ed Cross Mission, a well-informed foreign correspondent states that the R ed Cross and the R e d Cresent symbols were objected to. T h e objection was made on the ground that in a war to which Mahomedans were a party both were assumed to possess a religious significance by the more ignorant peasants, with the result of severely hampering the relief work. Only a person who has worked on the spot can tell the extent to which this objection is a real one. In the meantime, it would not be so easy to suggest a substi­ tute that will have equal prestige without similar associa­ tions, * * We referred in our last issue to the use of the word “ nurse,” and offered a prize of 10s. 6d. to our reader, who could give as the best substitute a coined word to distinguish members of Voluntary A id Detachments and others who take up first aid work. T h e competition met with con­ siderable success and the County Secretary and the Editor have decided in favour of the word “ V adet,” submitted by A. G. Davies, 160, Wistaston-road, Crewe, and Mrs. J. Cox, 1, Gardener Cottages, Arthur-road, Windsor, who will divide the prize we offered. * * In arriving at this decision the coined words were con­ sidered both from the euphonic and practical point of v i e w ; for with the latter it is necessary that the word should have some characteristics in order that it would be readily interpreted as applied to V .A .D . members, we hope “ V a d e t ” will become as popular as “ first a id e r ” ; it certainly will not lead to confusion or misinterpretation, and should in no way give offence to the nursing pro­ fession. *

AID. —

*

* T h e Secretary of the War Office announces that the number of Voluntary A id Detachments in Great Britain registered at the War Office on January was 1,894, repre­ senting a personnel of 57,635, two-thirds of whom are women. Compared with January, 1912, this shows an increase of 656 detachments and 20,000 approximately in personnel. T h e leading counties in England and Wales having fifty detachments or upwards a r e : — Hants, i n units ; Sussex, 90 ; London, 7 4 ; Glamorgan, 70 ; Essex, 6 0 ; Gloucester, 58 ; Devon, 5 6 ; Nottingham, 50 ; Suffolk, 50 ; York, West Riding, 50. * * *

These figures given above are more than likely the returns made up to the middle of last year, for we know that some of the County Branches have not theirs yet com ­ pleted. T h e y should show a considerable increase on these figures.

BRANCH.

A good deal of criticism as to whether the progressive training scheme was a workable proposition or not was advanced on its introduction, and since it has now been in operation about five months, a fair time has elapsed to express upon it an unbiased opinion. With this in view, we were enabled, by invitation, to witness the progressive training which is being undertaken by the Kensington Detachments on Wednesday, February 12th, at the H e a d ­ quarters of the 13th London Regiment. * * *

It is no exaggeration to say we were remarkably sur­ prised at the keeness that is being displayed here in the work. W e saw some 87 members of detachments busily occupied in various ways. In the drill-hall were about eight squads being instructed in stretcher drill by Sergt.-Major French, R .A .M .C ., while in adjoining rooms a lecture was being given to one class by Dr. Sanguinetti, and bandaging instruction to another. T hese classes are varied according to the schedule each week, and a member can take as many as four subjects in the morning occupied for the training. * * * T h e aggerate weekly attendance is about 80 members and we had an opportunity of seeing some of the impro­ vised material which has been constructed, its practical character proving that the members are studing this subject thoroughly. W e have come to the conclusion that this scheme is eminently practical, for it cultivates an interest in the work from a social point of view. T h e cost of training is reduced and emulation goes a long way to promote that desideratum— efficiency. * * * T h e annual general meeting o f the County of London Branch will be held at Grosvenor H ouse on February 28th at 4 p.m., Viscount Esher presiding. A m o n g the speakers will be Major General Launcelot Gubbins, Director General of the Arm y Medical S e r v ic e ; also Dr. Sandwith chairman of the Branch. * * * T h e annual report of the Camberwell Division com ­ piled by William L. Dowtor (Vice-President of the Division and Mayor of Camberwell), Dr. H. Shaper Robinson (Division Director) and C. William T a g g (Division Secre­ tary), is an excellent record of the work accomplished by the Division during the period which it covers. A n increase of 73 members is shown on the roll, making a total mem­ bership of 170, composed of 6 women and 1 men’s D e ­ tachments. A number of practical lectures has been ffiven during the year by various individuals, and instruction classes have held each week at the Grove V ale Depot kindly lent by the Borough Council. T h e Camberwell Division has a remarkable energetic committee, and it is a model of progressiveness.


— F I R S T

*5 *

7------------R elief

By

of

F.

M.

th e S ick and in W a r .* / SA N D W IT H ,

M .D .,

W ounded

F .R .C .P .

( Gresham Professor o f P h y sic; Chairman o f the County o f London Branch o f the British Red Cross Society.) T o trace the history of organised military art and to study the origin and growth of the Arm y Medical Service. Am ong barbarous people th e wounded are mostly left to perish on the battlefield as useless encumbrances, and the conquerors rob and Murder them. But as civilisation advances humane methods of warfare take the place of such brutalities, and it becomes incumbent upon the com ­ mander of an army, not only to give the utmost care to his own wounded, but, in common humanity, to take pity upon the helpless victims of warfare on the enemy’s side. Thus the need of the army surgeon and proper methods for the transport of the sick and wounded arise. T h e earliest military surgeons of whom we have any authentic reports are those who were attached to the Greek armies. T h u s in the Persian wars, about 450 B . C . , a physician of the name of Onasilos, with two of his pupils, volunteered to follow the army to attend the wounded, and, according to the inscription which records this service, they were rewarded by money or lands. T here are other records of surgeons and physicians of G reece who acted as medical attendants on the army, but there appears to have been no provision made to convey the wounded from off the battlefield. T h es e had to depend upon their comrades, who carried them on their backs, and the story is recorded of one such bearer who was caught trying to bury his burden while yet alive. For this Xenophon ordered him to be publicly whipped, and when the soldier eventually accused his general of undue severity, public opinion in the army merely decided that the punishment had not been heavy enough. It was the ideal of X enophon to employ the best surgeons for the care not only of his own wounded, but those of the enemy. H e n c e Greek surgeons served with the Rom an armies in the beginning of our present era, probably because the Roman citizens con­ sidered medicine and art beneath their dignity, and, there­ fore, employed foreigners to minister to them in sickness. But each citizen soldier had to carry with him into battle, as in modern times, bandages with which he knew how to dress a wound. After a battle the wounded were received into the houses of the rich, and it is reported that they were conveyed in vehicles, which may possibly have been early ambulance waggons. Arm y surgeons of various ranks were attached to each cohort of Roman soldiers; they wore the dress and arms of the legionary, and ranked with the standard bearers and trumpeters. Besides the surgeons there were eight to ten strong men attached to each troop of about 200 to 400 men, who had to ride behind the fighting line to pick up the wounded. T o enable them to do this they were fitted out with two stirrups on the left side, water flasks, and, possibly, bandages. T h e y received a piece of gold for each man they rescued. Homer, Livy, and Tacitus all tell us stories of rough surgery and bandaging, and of men and women skilled in remedies to check bleeding and alleviate pain. T h ere is no record of any nation inaugurating any properly constituted medical service for soldiers or any field hospitals or ambulance corps till the reign of Queen * E x t r a c ts fro m th r e e G re s h a m L e c tu r e s d e liv e re d in O c to b e r , 1912, a n d p u b lis h e d b y k in d p e rm is s io n o f th e C lin ica l fournal.

A I D . —

February, 1913.

Isabella I. o f Castille, known as Isabella the Catholic, who equipped the Spanish army in 1487 with 400 waggons, which were named “ ambulancias,” and four huge hospital tents. T h is was the condition of things in the middle ages, with no organised army medical service ; volunteers from the medical world, generally men o f no recognised position or standing, followed the troops and assisted them with more or less skill. N ow that better ways have prevailed it is unnecessary to touch upon the fate of those who pro­ cured no assistance or were abandoned for want of any transport service. It is astonishing how light-heartedly brave men went to the wars with the likelihood of such a fate awaiting them. As methods of warfare improved the means of mutual destruction, succour for the wounded happily also came to be regarded as of urgent importance. It is no use lingering unduly on the waste of good material and the magnitude of human suffering for which an inadequate medical and nursing staff were responsible. But we come now to a chapter in history which brought matters to a climax, and although every unsatisfactory condi­ tion of affairs existed before the Crimean war, people took a livelier interest in this war, partly because it was nearer home, and greatly because in it we had our first great war correspondent, William Howard Russell, who opened our eyes to a state of things which the military authorities, curiously enough, regarded as inevitable. Although England should have learnt, from experience in her wars in India and the Peninsula, the art of military administration in its many branches, it was found, on the outbreak of hostilities in the Crimea in 1853, that this department of State was in a deplorably inefficient condition. T h e headquarters staff of the Arm y medical depart­ ment consisted, in 1853, of a director-general, one assistant, and about six clerks. Dr. Andrew Smith, Director-General at the outbreak of the war, was an able man, but he acted in subjection to at least five other departments, and his power to command hardly extended beyond the six clerks at their desks. State parsimony had brought conditions of our Arm y medical service down so low that independ­ ence, courageous statement or enterprise were almost non-existent. T h e highest ideal o f the Arm y surgeon seems to have been a stoical resignation to a condition of things which no man with any sense of responsibility or pride in his profession should have tolerated for five minutes. T h e Director-General submitted plans for the careful removal of the sick and wounded by sea transport, for ships to be in readiness for the reception of patients; he wished to establish hospitals in certain spots ; he asked for competent men from the army to act as hospital orderlies ; he begged that pensioners should not be the only attendants upon the sick. It is almost incredible to read that every one of these very moderate demands was either entirely ignored or absolutely refused. T h e responsibility for such blunders was divided among so many chiefs’ and so many departments that it was impossible to fix the blame on any one offender. In the terrible winter which followed the outbreak of hostilities, the apathy of the British public was aroused by letters appearing in The Times, written by Russell, which spoke in no measured language of the chaos existing in the British camp, and of the incompetence of those who were responsible for the welfare of the troops. As early as April, 1854, he noted the beginning of chaos in the commissariat and medical arrangements. T h e “ manage­


February, 1913.

— F I R S T

ment is infamous,” he wrote, “ and the contrast offered by our proceedings to the conduct of the French most painful. Could you believe it, the sick have not a bed to lie upon ? T h e y are landed and thrown into a rickety house, without a chair or table in it. T h e French, with their ambulances, excellent commissariat staff and boulangerie, etc., in every respect are immeasurably our superiors.” Surgeon-Major Quesnoy, of the French army, reports that after the battle of the Alm a the means of transport in the English Arm y was disastrously insufficient. The “ wounded,” he wrote, “ passed two nights on the field of battle, and the greater part only received medical atten­ tion when they reached the ships which were to convey them to Constantinople.” When the Army settled down for a winter campaign on the exposed plateau of the Crimea many necessaries for the care of the wounded ought to have been thought out ; when it meant dealing with a constantly increasing stream of sick and wounded the task became overwhelming, and the arrangements proved to be wholly inadequate. There is no doubt that Russell’s letters in The Times profoundly affected the people who read them. H e was the soldier’s best friend, and the letters brought, presently, not only instant relief in the shape of comforts and neces­ saries for the army, but searching inquiries and reforms. “ In my view,” wrote Sir Evelyn Wood, writing to Russell years after, “ you did much more— you saved armies of the future by showing up our incompetence for war.” Lord Aberdeen’s Government was turned out on R o e b u c k ’s motion for an inquiry into the state of the British army before Sevastopol. When the worn-out sufferers, numbed by cold and half starved, succumed to disease or were wounded, there awaited them the unspeakable sufferings of the rough field hospital, to be followed by transports for embarkation at the little port of Balaclava. Before this could be carried out there was always endless delay to be encountered, owing to lack of men for the duty. Even when this hardship had been overcome there followed a voyage of some 300 miles in ships absolutely unprovided with proper hospital arrange­ ments, resulting in such horrible suffering for the patients that, in the months of December, 1854, and January, 1855, eighty-five, and, later, ninety out of every thousand among the sick and wounded died and were thrown overboard. When the survivors landed there followed further pain­ ful delay on the beach before they were received into those hospitals which, instead of being harbours of peace, with a promise of renewed health, soon became notorious for the horrible conditions in which the care o f the hapless soldier was carried on. There can be no doubt that so much misery among the sick and wounded in war was no fresh evil. T h e Crimean war came after a prolonged period of peace, and whilst the work of civilisation had grown apace and men and women had come to have a greater regard for human suffering and a more intense desire to help all forms o f it the peace had led to a lamentable condition of drifting among the military authorities, a condition which is very apt to arise among us islanders, and to which we are in constant danger of succumbing. T h e calamity of a great British war seems a very unlikely thing to most of us, and it is a little difficult to realise the necessity of being ready in every particular for the remote possibility of a big campaign. A n d yet the folly of a nation which refuses to be prepared for war can only be compared to the folly of an individual who refuses to make his will because death seems to him such an unlikely prospect. T o make his will will not bring death

AID. —

*53

one hour n earer; of the preparedness for war we can say even more, it will make its likelihood a great deal less. It may be argued that preparation for war lies outside the sphere of most of us, but I want to prove to you that this is not so. T h e lesson we have learnt from former wars of which we have any details regarding the medical history, is this : that no government in the world can afford to maintain a medical or nursing staff or provide medical comforts sufficient to relieve the necessity o f the sick and wounded in any war comprising even a few big battles. When they are fought the medical service must appeal to the charitable and the competent to lessen the horrors which are inevitable if speedy and sufficient help cannot instantly be supplied. In my next lecture I am afraid I must again harrow your feelings by completing the medical history o f the Crimean war, but it will show you from what direction help came, and how it indicated to succeeding generations where

P h o to bv\

t l V . H-. IV i,'te r , D erby.

“ T he

L ady

of

the

L a m p .”

T h e model executed by Countess Feodora Gleichen of the Florence Nightingale statue, which it is proposed to erect at Derby. Reproduced by kind permission of The N urses' Own Magazine and The Lady's Pictorial.


154

— F I R S T

they must look for help, and, above all, in what manner they must be prepared. It is no new invention to try and mitigate the suffering of war by charitable assistance, but such assistance has failed, time after time, because it was unorganised, untrained, and, consequently, unskilled. T o depend upon such help is f o l l y ; voluntary aid, organised in times of peace, is worth ten times the efforts put forth under the stress of emotion and in the rush and confusion of war. ( T o be c o n t in u e d ) .

p , l^ fC ,

T h e County of Lond on Branch wish to give notice of the initiation of a new Course of Practical Training for female members of R e d Cross Detachments. T h e medical superintendent of St. Marylebone Infirmary has arranged for a series of Courses of Instruction to be given at the In ­ firmary without charge. T h e Courses will last for three weeks each, on Mondays, Tuesdays, Fridays and Saturdays, from 9.30 a.m. till 12.30 p.m. on the following dates :— February S.E.

&

C.

RY.

B R IC K L A Y E R S ’

P h o to , by G. B o.vall]

AID. —

February, 1913.

M e t r o p o lita n

R a ilw a y .

T he annual competition f o r Directors’ and Officers’ Challenge Shield and f o r the medals and prizes given by the Company was held on February 1st, at the Neasden Works. T h e shield was won by a Traffic team with 232^ marks out of a possible 315, and below we give a copy of the marking sheet as judged by Dr. Carvell. T h e names of the winning team are F. J. Biddle (captain), B. F. Foxton, H. G. Coulter, H. E. Cornish and A. Smith. Four teams in all competed and the positions of the other three teams in the competition were as follows : — A. G. Ford’s team, 2 0 7 ; E. Baker’s team, 1 9 6 ; R. Parson’s team, 176. T h e Individual competition was won by A. G. Ford with 37 marks, B. F. Foxton being second with 34 marks out of a possible 40. A t the conclusion of the competitions Mr. J. Bowden, the works manager, formally presented the shield to the ARM S

L O C O .— N o .

1

TEAM .

[346, O ld K e n t R o a d , S .E .

L e f t to r ig h t — A . G r e e n , W . S p r i n g a ll, J. B a r k e r , J. H e a d , G . S t e d m a n , C . H a r r is o n . T h i s te a m h a s j u s t c o m p le t e d a v e r y s u c c e s s fu l s e a s o n . T h e m e m b e r s h a v e t a k e n p a r t in s ix c o m p e t it io n s , s e c u r in g first p la c e in fo u r c o n t e s t s , s e c o n d in o n e a n d th ird in a n o t h e r — a n e x c e lle n t r e c o r d .

10th to March 1 s t ; March 3rd to March 22 n d ; March 31st to April 1 9 t h ; April 21st to May 10th ; M ay 19th to June 7th. Only 15 members may attend a course, and all applications must be forwarded through the Divisional Secretary, accompanied by a recommendation from the respective commandants, and a certificate that the applicant possesses at least one certificate in first aid and one in home nursing. Every branch of hospital work will be demonstrated, including one attendance at an operation. Uniform is to be worn, and each member must give an undertaking to complete the whole course. Notes of all work done are to be taken and submitted to the Medical Superintendent, and, subject to his approval, members will be allowed to sit for an examination. This is the most important advance which has yet been made in the direc­ tion of providing practical instruction to members of the Society, and it is hoped that Detachments will take the fullest possible advantage of it.

winning team, and handed each member a commemorative medal and cash prizes given by the Company. T h e mem­ bers o f the next two teams in order of merit, also received at his hands cash prizes given by the Company. There was a good attendance of visitors, including a number of ladies, who evinced a very keen interest in the work. Stretcher

W ork.

C a r d 1 .— T w o p la t e la y e r s a r e w o r k in g o n t h e lin e , th e a p p r o a c h o f a t r a in is s ig n a lle d . O n e m a n g e t s c le a r , th e o th e r is k n o c k e d d o w n a n d p a r t o f th e t r a in p a s s e s o v e r h im . H e is u n c o n s c io u s . T r e a t a n d r e m o v e in a w a g o n to th e h o s p it a l tw o m ile s a w a y . T h e p a t ie n t ’s m a te w h o is n o t a n a m b u la n c e m a n m a y b e m a d e u s e of. T h e p a t ie n t is fo u n d ly i n g o n h is fa c e u n d e r a c o a c h . T w o m in u te s a llo w e d fo r e x a m in a t io n o f t h e p a tie n t. A p p r o a c h ... ... S e e th a t a ir p a s s a g e s a r e T u r n i n g p a t ie n t o n b a c k

... fr e e ...

... ... ...

... ... ...

... ... ...

4 2

4


February, 1913.

— F I R S T

Examination for possible injuries to Head ... ... ... ... 4 Trunk ... . . ... ... ... 2 Limbs ... ... ... ... ... 2 Note condition of pulse ... ... ... ... 2 Card 2.— The right leg shows shortening and deformity. The lower end of the left forearm is deformed (looks something like a table fork in shape), his face is pale, the skin is clammy and cold. Keep head low Steady and support injured limbs Nothing by the mouth Ask if fractures are simple or compound, &c. Endeavour to obtain medical assistance Splints to leg 4 Bandages for leg 5 Splints for forearm ... 4 Bandages for forearm 3 Sling 4 Treatment for shock 3 Instruction to “ mate” 4 Removing patient from under coach 10 Bringing up and preparing stretcher SPA LD IN G

R A ILW AY

AID. —

L55

Tighten sling ... ... ... ... Treatment of shock ... ... . What would lead you to realise that a person was from opium poisoning and how would you act ? No staining of mouth ... ... ... Tendency to go to sleep ... ... ... Stertorous breathing ... ... ... Pin point pupils ... ... ... ... Treatment. Send for doctor at once, stating poison ... Emetic, if not insensible ... ... Keep awake ... ... ... ... Strong black coffee... ... ... ... Watchful care lest breathing fail ... ... Treat shock and collapse ... ... . Artificial respiration, if necessary ... ... Preserve any vomited mater... ... ... 2.— Fracture of humerus, involving left elbow doors). Steady and support limb ... ... ... Carefully remove the coat ... ... ... Angular splint (inner side of limb) ... ... Bandages ... ... ... ... ...

D I V I S I O N .— No.

5

...

2 2 suffering ... ... . . ...

1 2 2 1

... . . ...

1 2 3

1 r 2 . 2 ... 2 (out of ...

... ... ... ...

4 2 3 3

D IST R ICT .

' J- Mouncy is shown in the centre. Included amongst the trophies shown are the Great Northern Railway Officers Challenge Cup and the Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway Company’s Junior Shield. The holders of the former are Corporal G. Ingham, Privates Dawson, Forman, Peet and Collin, and the latter, Privates Ayre, senr., Crowson, Nicholls, Ayre, junr., and Sergeant Westmorland. Loading stretcher ... Lifting stretcher Adjusting sling Marching ... Lowering stretcher ... Loading wagon General smartness ... I n d iv id u a l W o r k a n d

V iv a

Voce.

6 2 2 10 2 10 10

No. 1.— Compound fracture of the right collar bone by direct violence. Position of patient ... 1 Remove coat and vest (sound side last) 1 Undo brace 1 Expose wound 2 Cover wound with clean absorbent dressing 2 Chest bandage 2 Pin dressing to chest bandage 1 Pad in armpit 2 Bend forearm 1 St. John siing 2 Broad bandage 1

Large arm sling ... ... ... ... 3 Encouraging words... ... ... ... ... 2 Treatment of shock ... ... ... ... 3 What would you do when you got to the patient’s home ? Remove the sling ... ... ... ... ... 3 Remove the splint ... Lay limb on pillow in most comfortable position ... 4 Ice or cold water dressing ... ... ... ... 4 Nothing further pending arrival of medical man ... 2 Treatment for shock ... ... ... ... 4 3.— This man has fallen on some railings, one of the spikes having entered his left armpit. You find him fixed to the railings. There is arterial bleeding. One bystander allowed. Compression of subclavian artery ... ... ... 4 Carefully lift from railings ... ... ... 2 Remove coat with assistance of bystander ... ... 2 Treatment of wound ... ... ... ... 2 Pad in armpit ... ... ... 2 Bandage to secure pad ... ... . . 3 Bandage to secure arm ... ... ... ... 3 Instructions to bystander ... ... ... ... 2


— F I R S T Give the signs, symptoms and treatment of strains. Sudden sharp pain ... ... ... ... ... 1 May be swelling and cramp ... ... ... ... 2 Exertion difficult or impossible ... ... ... 2 Hernia suspected by sudden swelling in the groin accom­ panied by sickness ... ... ... ... 4 Treatment. Place in a comfortable position ... ... ... 2 Support the injured part ... ... ... ... 1 Hot water bottles or hot fomentations if pain severe ... 1 If hernia, lay patient down with buttocks raised ... 4 Send for doctor at once ... ... ... ... 1 Ice or cold water dressings ... ... ... ... 2 4 and 5.— This patient has had his right foot run over and crushed, there is a wound on the back of the foot, from which arterial blood is spurting. Treat and remove by hand seat. Indirect pressure ... ... ... ... ... 3 Indirect pressure— instrumental ... ... ... 4 Dressing on wound... ... ... ... ... 3 Splint ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 Padding ... ... ... ... ... ... 4 Bandage to secure splint ... ... ... ... 4 Foot bandage ... ... ... ... ... 4 Formation of hand seat ... ... ... ... 4 Lifting patient ... ... ... ... ... 2 Carrying ... ... ... ... ... ... 8 Lowering ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 4.— How would you treat a man who had vitrol thiown in his face ? Bathe face with weak alkaline solution ... ... 2 Washing soda, baking soda, magnesia or slaked lime in warm water ... ... ... ... ... 4 Whilst bathing face instruct a bystander in preparation of mask cut out of lintor linen ... ... ... 4 Dip mask in oil or smear with vaseline and apply to face 2 Cover with cotton wool ... ... ... ... 4 Treat shock ... ... ... ... ... 4 5.— Give the measurements of an ordinary stretcher. Length of poles— 7ft. 9m. ... ... ... ... 4 Width — 1 ft. ioin. ... ... ... ... ... 4 Bed— 6ft. ... ... ... ... ... ... 4 Length of handles— roA in. ... ... ... ... 4 Height— 5|in. ... ... ... ... ... 4

L o n d o n ’s A m b u l a n c e S e r v i c e . A t the annual meeting of the Metropolitan Boroughs Standing Joint Committee, held on January 27th, at Guild­ hall, Alderman Sir T. Vezey Strong was reappointed chair­ man, Mr. E. S. Debenham (ex-mayor of Marylebone) vicechairman, Mr. H. L yo n Thom pson (mayor of Westminster), treasurer, and Mr. Leslie Gordon, hon. secretary. T h e committee were o f opinion that an effective am bu­ lance service for London could be established and main­ tained at comparatively small expense by co-ordinating and developing the existing services. T h e y recommended that the City and borough councils be urged to express approval o f the proposed action of the London County Council in reference to the expansion and improvement of the present ambulance appliances of the metropolitan police. T h e recommendation was adopted.

D i n n i n g t o n M a i n .— W e have received the report of lantern lecture of a novel character which was given to the classes on January 25th. Mr. C. Harmer, the lecturer, has a novel collection of slides showing actual cases of first aid being rendered, and also others showing it wrongly rendered. Our correspondent points out that this is of exceptional value and absorbingly interesting, and he recommends any class in need of a stimulant should arrange a night with the lecturer, but unfortunately he does not say where he can be communicated with.

AID. —

February, 1913.

£etters to the Sditor. We are in

no way resoonsib.e fo r the opinions expressed, or the

statements made, by Correspondents . — E d i t o r s , E t c .

FR A C T U R E OF BASE OF SK U LL AND SE V E R E SCALP BLE ED IN G , &C. D e a r S i r ,— Would you, through your valuable Journal F i r s t A i d , kindly give the treatment of a “ Fracture of the base of the skull, and severe bleeding from a scalp wound?” Also would you kindly explain where “ a large arm sling would be too conspicuous,” as mentioned on page 40 of Dr. Cantlie’s book ? Thanking you in anticipation.— Yours faithfully, Com p.

Warrington, January 25th, 1913. [(a) As a rule severe haemorrhage from a scalp wound can be very readily controlled by indirect or direct pressure. Should the latter method be adopted, precautions must be taken to prevent the introduction of septic mischief to the wound. The importance of avoiding any manipulation such as would interfere with the proper position and perfect rest of the patient will, of course, be obvious. With this exception, the co-existance of a fractured base calls for no modificat ion of the method adopted. (b) The point is purely one of sentiment and can hardly be said to be of any real concern to ambulance workers. Very many people are peculiarly sensitive to the use of anything that would tend to attract attention to themselves, and if necessity compelled the use of an arm sling, and the choice were left to the patient, that method would undoubtedly be preferred which in form (small) and in colour (dark) would be least noticeable.— L. M. F r a n k C h r i s t i a n .] A PPLIC ATIO N

OF B A N D A G E S ; FR A C T U R E D T H I G H A N D LEG. D e a r S i r ,— I should feel greatly obliged if you would kindly answer the following question through the corres­ pondence column of your valuable Magazine :— (1) In the text-book an illustration is given showing seven bandages for a fractured femur and lettered a, b, c, &c., as the order of application. Is it correct to apply a bandage across chest first or to apply one above and below the seat of fracture before applying the chest bandage? (2) Why do we apply bandages above and below seat of fracture first in case of a broken leg as shewn in text-book and leave other bandages at knees and feet until afterwards ? These questions have been discussed at some length in the ambulance class of which I have the happy privilege of being a member, and to settle the matter satisfactorily I take this opportunity of asking for your views which I believe will be taken as a fair standard. Thanking you in advance.— Yours, &c. J a s . H. N e w t o n . Sheffield, January 31st, 1913. [(1) The actual order in which the bandages are applied and fixed is of very little, if of any importance. Hence the lack of uniformity in the instructions laid down by different authorities— and even by the same authority on different occasions. The all-important points are that the mechanical support applied shall be consistent with the needs of the case under treatment, and that the method o f application shall be such as to reduce to a minimum whatever risks may be associated therewith. (2) See previous reply.— L. M. F r a n k C h r i s t i a n .] W I T C H H A Z E L , C A R B O L I C L O T IO N , IC E , &c. D e a r S i r , — As a constant reader of your valuable paper I shall be grateful if you will kindly reply to the following queries in any future edition.


February, 1913.

— F I R S T

(1) What does witchbazel actually do when applied to a bruise ? (2) What does arnica exactly do when applied to a sprain? (3) Carbolic lotion i ’2o. Is this a corrosive or irritant if swallowed ? (4) Should ice be applied to the head in case of apoplexy, or not? (5) If an ice-bag were applied to the head of an uninjured person for say half-an-hour what would likely be the result ? (6) If pure carbolic be spilt upon the hand what would be the treatment? (7) Whilst frying fish some boiling oil spurts into the eye. What is the treatment ? (8) If the leg be extended can you compress the popliteal artery by tourniquet ? Thanking you in anticipation.— I am, Sir, Yours faithfully. T. E. Hackney, January 31st, 1913. [(1) Witchhazel is a soothing and astringent application and hence tends to relieve pain and reduce the circulation in the injured parts. (2) It has very much the same action as witchhazel. (3) Carbolic acid does not act purely as a corrosive or as an irritant. It is one of those poisons that has a double effect, i.e., it acts locally upon the parts touched by the poison, and it also, by rapid absorption, effects the system as a neurotic poison. When carbolic acid has been swallowed in solution “ in a somewhat concentrated state” the patient has experienced immediately a hot burning sensation extending from the mouth to the stomach. Mouth whitened and hardened. Severe pain in stomach with vomiting of frothy material. Breathing difficult, with frothing at mouth. Insensibility comes on early with stertorous breathing. The dangers of absorption are by no means limited to those cases in which carbolic acid has been actually swallowed. Absorption can very readily occur, and has frequently occurred in the past, through its use externally, and dangerous and even fatal results therefrom have been recorded. (4 ) Yes. (5) Injurious effects from the local application of an icebag need not be in any way feared, the fact being that the appli­ cation would be at a temperature higher than freezing point, and the ice would gradually but surely melt away. The local application of a freezing tnixture would be a very different affair. Its use would result first in loss of sensation. If the application were unduly prolonged actual death of the tissues would supervene. (6) Promptly wash off and apply oil or soothing ointment. (7) Promptly lessen the degree of heat by bathing with, or opening the eyes in water. Afterwards apply a drop of castor oil and keep at rest till a doctor’s assistance is procured. (8) For practical purposes, emphatically, no !— L. M.

AID. —

157

A GREAT AID T O FIRST AID. By

DR.

ANDREW

W IL S O N .

A w o r k that justifies its claim to be an epitome o f all that specialised medical and surgical knowledge necessary for First Aiders, as well as an authoritative manual of reference on all information relating to Health and Disease, is a work to be welcomed by all our readers who wish to study their subject more deeply than is possible from superficial text books. In “ T h e Modern Physician,” by Dr. Andrew Wilson, fullest space is devoted to “ First A i d ” and Am bulance Work. In respect of completeness, accuracy of description, and wealth of illustration, “ T h e Modern Physician ” stands without a rival amongst the works published on this im­ portant subject in the United Kingdom. It is scientifically accurate and reliable without being d u l l ; the name of its editor, so long and popularly known as an expositor of Health laws and a teacher of Hygiene, is a guarantee of this. This work is absolutely complete as regards Health and Disease, and is thoroughly up-to-date. A s a knowledge of the body in Health is necessary to the due understanding of the body when its functions are deranged by disease, a description o f every part of the frame will be found here. T h e skeleton, muscles, digestive system, heart and lungs, brain and nervous system, organs of sense, skin, kidneys and the bod y’s microscopic structure are duly described. In this connection the illustrations are of particular value, the “ mannikins ” or dummies more especially; in these the organs are made to overlap each other exactly as they do in the human body. T h e section devoted to Hygiene includes the full exposition o f the Laws of Health, and special attention is devoted to Physical Culture. Such topics as foods, beverages, air, exercise, clothing, sleep, baths, holidays, temperament, &c., are treated in this section. T h e last volume is especially devoted to the Health of Women, and Dr. Wilson has here been assisted by a number of eminent women physicians. Midwifery and the treatment and Diseases of Infants are here fully dealt with.

ONE

F r a n k C h r i s t i a n .]

OF

MANY

O P IN IO N S.

Mr. J . DANIEL, 23, K e n t A v en u e, A s h fo r d , K e n t , w r i t e s

COMPOUND

FRACTURE O F T H E K N E E CAP. D e a r S i r ,— Will you kindly inform us as an Ambulance Team, through your most valuable periodical, the proper treat­ ment with regard to the above, as to whether the figure 8 bandage or the two separate bandages should be used ?— Yours, &c.

“ Its all-round excelle n ce m akes it a valu able acquisition . T h e section d ealin g w ith am bu lan ce w ork is especially good . T h e h ook is w ritten in splendid style and the illustration s are first rate. T h e m ethod o f paym ent places it w ithin the reach o f a ll.”

A FREE BOOKLET.

J. H . B o l w e l l .

[Seeing that compound fracture of the knee cap calls for a modification of the ordinary treatment, whether the figure 8 bandage, or two separate bandages are used is quite immaterial. (In no case, however, whether simple or compound, should the knot of a bandage be placed so as to give rise to risks through painful pressure. See page 79 “ Problems in F irst A id." Attention to the immediate and remote needs are the all-im­ portant points.— L. M. F r a n k C h r i s t i a n .]

TO

THE

CAXTON

P U B L IS H IN G

COM PAN Y,

156, S u rre y S treet, L o n d on , W .C . P lease send m e, F r e e o f C h a r g e and w ith o u t a n y ob lig atio n on m y p a r t :— Illu strated B o o k let on “ T h e M o d e r n P h y s i c i a n . " P a rticu la rs o f you r offer to d eliv er th e com p lete w ork for a first p aym ent o f is. 6d., the b alance to be paid for b y a few sm all m on th ly paym ents.

( 1)

(2)

N a m e ........................................................................................................................................................................

(S en d this form or a p ostcard.)

RE

M E D A L W O RSH IP. should like to claim a little of the valuable space in your excellent Journal to say that I quite endorse the views expressed by “ Lancastrian ” in your January issue. To D ear

S i r ,— I

A d d r e s s ................................................................................................................................................................


'58

— F I R S T

compare ambulance street duty on the occasion of the Corona­ tion to military service in the Egyptian and South African wars is, as your correspondent truly says, “ too funny.” It is about “ on all fours ” with the comparison made recently by one of your correspondents between the Lifeboat Service and Ambu­ lance Service, when it was pointed out that certain payments were made to men who manned the lifeboats and suggesting that ambulance men should be dealt with on the same lines. To compare the risk involved by the crew of a lifeboat when called to a wreck to that of ambulance men when on street duty is not reasonable and not calculated to improve the status of the “ first aider.” As “ Lancastrian ” says, it is an houonr for the ambu­ lance man to attend on occasions when required without thought of a decoration or payment, for ambulance work is opposed to that spirit altogether.— Yours faithfully, M. P e c u n i o u s . D e a r S i r ,— Re “ Lancastrian’s ” remarks on the above subject, I fully endorse his statement when he says there is no comparison in the amount of honour the decorations mentioned above carry with them. And I admire “ Lancastrian” for the spirit he displays in the service of our Brigade. But I crave a small space in your valuable Journal to mention a subject, which I think, a large number of the St. John ambulance men are hit very hard. It is on the subject of Medals v. Regulations. The Regulations of the S.J A.B., if I remember rightly, stipu­ late that “ only Imperial Medals ” must be worn on the uniform of the Brigade, meaning, I take it, as War Medals, or such as Coronation Medals, &c., of Life Saving Medals, such as are sanctioned by the Regulations. Now 1 think that this “ cast-iron” Regulation of Medals should be made to bend a little bit for this reason : A good number of members of the S.J.A.B. that I know, have, for con­ spicuous treatment of first aid cases, had gold and silver medals presented to them “ in regognition of their skill and ability in rendering first aid to the injured” by public bodies such as Railway Companies. Personally, I cannot see the cause of any reasonable objec­ tion on the part of our officials regarding the wearing of medals such as these providing, of course, the medal granted is of an approved shape and size. In my opinion a medal granted for conspicuous service in rendering first aid to the injured, carries as much honour to the ambulance man as a war medal does to a soldier, seeing that both ambulance man and soldier have won the medals by “ service.” I should like to hear the opinion of some of your corre­ spondents on this subject with a view to getting our officials to discuss the subject. As in my opinion it would encourage ambulance work, and would convey to the general public the knowledge that our esteemed officials are encouraging our good work in every way possible, and recognising the individual efforts of its members.— Yours, &c., “ Interested

F i r s t A i d e r .”

[We would like to point out to our correspondent that it is absolutely necessary to make a hard and fast rule with regard to the wearing of medals, otherwise we should see men on parade with their breasts covered with competition medals, &c., bringing the Brigade into public ridicule.— E d . “ F.A.”] D R ILL

D E P O R T M E N T IN A M B U L A N C E . correspondent, Corpl. G. L. Phillips, has overlooked the instructions in “ stretcher drill.” He asks, “ How can Nos. 1, 2 and 3 place themselves on the left of the patient and No. 4 on his right when they are already there?” Nos. 1 and 3 ought to be “ preparing stretcher” or standing at attention, No. 2 alone assisting No. 4, if so ordered, unless No. 4. issues other orders, up to the time No. 4 gives the com­ mand “ Load stretcher.” Corporal Phillips should refer to the instructions given under plate 74, and to the detail which im­ mediately precedes the “ Load stretcher,” and deal with the “ Lower stretcher— Prepare stretcher.” I n these Official Manuals there are very few superfluous words, and no unnecessary com­ mands. I gather that it would be advisable if an R.A.M.C. sergeant were employed more often by ambulance detachments. With regard to Dr. Christian’s remarks on “ soldier-like” de­ D ear

S i r , — Your

AID. -

February, 1913.

portment in such matters, the R.A.M.C. “ regular,” who has been thoroughly trained, is not put through any drill forms on the field of battle. Long drill has made his movements more or less automatically correct, and as that drill is universal he is able to work in any stretcher squad he may momentarily (perhaps) be incorporated. To stick rigidly to drill forms under circum­ stances for which it was never intended, is opposed to the training of the soldier who is taught to use his mind as well as his body.— Yours faithfully, R.A.M.C. O f f i c e r . C O M P E T I T I O N IN No. 7 D IS T R I C T . S i r , — If the matter were not so serious I would congratulate “ Justicius” on the sarcastic change made in my nom deplum e in the first line of his last letter. In the next place I can congratulate my letter in making him disclose his “ doubtful inuuendo,” which he does pretty plainly, by bringing a most serious charge against those responsible for the Welshpool competition. At this point I wish to say that the Deputy-Commissioner had nothing whatever to do with this competition other than acting as final referee upon the ground ; and he did not know what questions or work had been set by the District Surgeon until the covers were opened by the judges. There were only 5 points between the 1st and 2nd teams, so, I suppose, he means that both of these teams had some knowledge about the work to be done ? I deny the fact in toto that some of the work leaked out at Welshpool: such was absolutely impossible ; and I believe “ Justicius” knows this to be so, too ! As I defend the “ officials,” I defy him to prove that a single member of any team had the slightest idea of the ques­ tions or work to be done. I leave the defence of the judges to “ Justicius,” as I have not heard of any “ comments” or “ complaints” myself, and therefore know not whether judges or officials are the parties concerned. His peroration is useless; we were “ a happy and con­ tented people,” but his ill-judged letters have done great harm : in future competitions judges may hesitate to act ; officials will ask to be excused ; competitors must be suspicious, and years will elapse before the consequences of his baseless charge be overcome or forgotten. “ Honi soit qui mal-y-pense.” Yours truly, D ear

“ J u s t u s J u d e x J u s t e J u d i c a t .” D e a r S i r ,— After reading the letters of “ Justicius” I feel that it is impossible to longer remain silent. “ Justicius” asks “ Justus Judex Juste Judicat” if he can deny the fact that some of the work had not leaked out at Welshpool. I (as officer in charge of the winning team both at Hereford and Welshpool) can conscientiously declare that the first and only information I or any member of my team had as to the nature of the tests was when they were given to us by the judges on the competition ground at Welshpool. W hy should “ Justicius” seek to take away our pride and pleasure in winning the “ Skinner” Shield, by insinuating that we won it by unfair means ? Surely our sense of honour is as great as that of “ Justicius !” And why should Parade Officers be considered less fair and honourable than judges ? W e entered the competition with the full determination to win, if possible (as I suppose the other teams did) ; had we lost, we should have accepted our defeat, congratulated the winners, and tried to be successful another time. -Yours faith­ fully, E l l e n . R. A n d r e w s,

First Officer Iron Bridge Nursing Division. A R T IF IC IA L RESPIR ATIO N . The report of a Mersey drowning tragedy appeared in a local evening paper last month, in which it was stated that the performance of artificial respiration was pre­ vented owing to the patient having sustained a broken arm. I cannot say who arrived at such a conclusion, but it was extremely unfortunate that the first aid knowledge of some would-be helpers was so limited. In this instance the patient D ear

S i r ,—


February, 1913.

— F I R S T

did not expire until shortly after her admission to the Liscard Central Hospital. This would mean that very valuable time, anything up to half an hour, had been absolutely wasted. It appears to me that this occurrence shows the need for the continuous study and practice of first aid on the part of ambulance workers, and would probably appeal to a good many readers of your excellent journal.— Yours faithfully, B e r tr a m

A

BEN EVO LEN T

B en so n .

FUND.

Regarding your editorial in the December issue of the question of a Benevolent Fund for the members of the S.J.A.B., I would like to suggest a scheme by which one could be organised and managed on satisfactory lines. It is that every district should have at its headquarters a collection box, in which members could put what they felt dis­ posed to from time to time. In this way a certain sum would be at their disposal for deserving cases. A secretary of a divi­ sion having such a case could communicate with you, and no doubt you would give the matter publicity in your columns. In this way secretaries would bring the matter before their committees, which could make a certain grant. I think this may be a simple way of starting such a fund, of course, with a set of rules which a committee could frame.— Yours, &c. D ear

S i r ,—

Corporal

F. S i m m o n d s .

HORLICK’S MALTED MILK M alted Barley, W h e a t & Milk in Powder Form. Its value is based not alon e on chem ical qualities, but also on the possession o f certain ph ysical attributes, e.g ., p a laiab ility , solu b ility, ease o f digestion and assim ilation, e tc ., q u alities m oreover w hich cannot be ignored in the d is­ cussion o f d ietetic valu es. It is also true that the record o f our product as a nutrient, for alm ost th irty years, bears irrefutable testim ony to the genuineness o f its p h ysiological w orth, and its gen eral excelle n ce as a food product. T r i a l siz e J t e e by p o s t, on a p p lica tio n to—

H o r l i c k ’s M a lt e d S lo u g h ,

M ilk C o m p a n y ,

B u c k s .,

.B Y R O Y A L W A R R A N T OF A PPO IN TM EN T

E n g la n d .

AID. —

15 9

T h e a tte n tio n of A m b u la n c e W o r k e r s and m e m b e r s of th e M edical P ro fe ssio n is invited to th e fact th a t

Sandow’s Health and Strength Cocoa is m a n u fa c tu re d from th e P u r e Cocoa B e an w ith o u t th e addition of alkali or a n y o th er chem ical or flavouring m a tte r in th e cou rse of its m a n u fa c tu re , an d is c o n seq u e n tly cocoa in its p u re s t form w ith th e excess of fatty m a tte r e n tirely elim inated.

A N A L Y S T ’S

REPORT.

“ # h a v e a n a ly s e d S a n d o w ’ s C o c o a a n d fin d th a t t h e r e i s n o a d d e d a lk a li, ” (Signed) E. G O D W I N C L A Y T O N , F . I . C . , (Analytical Chemist).

k .C .s

.

C o m p a n y JT d.

WEDDING PRESENTS

THAT WILL LAST A L IF E T IM E .

NESTLE’S SWISS MILK

T O H IS M A J E S T Y K IN G G EO RG E V

P ric e 6 d . n e t.

NOTES

ON By

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AID H.

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A H an d b o o k in a tabulated and sim plified form giv in g the main points 01 first aid, so arranged as to im press them on the m em ory o f the student.

DALE, REYNOLDS & CO., Ltd., 46, Cannon St., LONDON, E.C.

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AI D. —

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Aids to Memory for ‘ First Aid’ Students. B y L . M . F r a n k C h r i s t ia n , M .B ., C .M . E din. F if t h E d itio n . R e v i s e d ( D e c ., 1 9 1 2 ). A d d it io n a lly I ll u s t r a t e d . “ N o am bulan ce man need ever fear he w ill g o ru s ty if he w ill tak e an o c c a ­ sion al dose o f the m en tal m ix tu re con tain ed w ithin the covers o f this splendid book . . . cannot con ceive a better utilisation o f sp ace, a better treatise on^this subject could not be w ritten . . . the book for all, w h eth er old hands or s tu d en ts.” “ A ‘ m ultum in p arvo ’ o f the g rea test v a lu e .” P ric e : In C loth , 6d. net— b y post 7d. In L e ath er, 2s. net— b y post 2s. 2d. O rders fo r 1 doz. a n d up w a rds P o s t F r e e. S t o c k p o r t : C o n n e l l & B a i l e y , L t d ., “ E x p r e s s ” O f f i c e , S t . P e t e r ’s S q u a r e , and T h e S t. J oh n A m b u lan ce A ss o c ia tio n , S t . J o h n ' s G a t e , L o n d o n .

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H a v in g found, as a result o f practical exp erien ce, h ow u n satisfactory is the present system o f M ed al F ix tu res, I h ave paten ted an absolu tely “ R e lia b le ” M ed al and R ib b o n C lasp , w hich en tirely does a w a y w ith safety pins or sew in g. It is lig h t, n eat, stro n g; is easily fixed b y m eans o f finger screw s, and h olds the m edals and ribbon q u ite tight to the cloth.

O n F irst A id , M edicine. S u rg e ry , and a ll other S cien ­ tific and L ite ra ry subjects, S e co n d -H a n d at H a lf P r i c e s . N e w a t 25 p er cent, discount. C a ta lo g u es free. S ta te w a n ts. B ooks sent on ap p ro v a l. B oo ks bought. W . & G . F O Y L E , 1 2t and 123, C h a r in g C ross R o a d , L o n don , W .C .

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FIRST AID.

The Independent Journal for the Ambulance and Fire Services. Conducted by A R T H U R No.

225.— V

ol.

X IX

M A R C H ,> 1913. 7 o

[ N e w S e r i e s .]

L

J

B.

DALE,

M.J.I.

[Enurtdatstw itrs'H aii.)

*>RIC.E t w o p e n c e .

[2 /6 P e r

A nnum , P o st

F ree.

learn for himself instead of instructing him by driving

To Our Readers.

knowledge into him on a stereotyped system. A s it is the w ish and desire o f the Proprietors to m ake this Journal as instructive and en tertain in g as possible, correspondents in all parts o f the country are asked to giv e it a ll the h elp they can. Superintendents o f C o rp s and O fficers o f D ivision s o f the St. John A m b u lan ce B rig ad e, O fficers o f the R o y a l A rm y M ed ica l C orps (T errito rials), the V olu n teer A m b u lan ce S ch o o l o f Instruction, and C h ie f O fficers o f F ire B rigad es w ill, it is hoped, do their best to m ake it k now n am ongst the m em bers o f their respective organisations, and w ill also send for publication their official new s and notices. S u g g e s­ tions are in vited for Prize Com petition s and other m atters w h ich w ill advance the interest o f the Journal. W e particularly desire to ask our correspondents to be b rief and to the point in any com m unications th ey m ay send us for publication. Co rrespondents sending in photos are u rgen tly requested to state on the back o f the sam e the nam e o f the in dividual or the C orps or B rig a d e and g iv e also the nam e and address o f the sender. W e beg to advise our readers that w e do not pay for photographs o r copy sent, unless previou sly agreed upon in w riting.

“ First Aid ” is published on the 20th of the month.

H e must be

shown to grasp the subject from an intelligent point of view, making the logical deduction to arrive at the right conclusion, i.e., the correct and efficient system of learning, instead of the mechanical fashion of acquiring a know­ ledge of the subject. A s Dr. Christian remarks in his “ Problems o f First A id ,” for each detail of treatment authoritatively laid down there is some definite purpose to be achieved.

T h e answer

should not therefore prove a tax upon memory, as is the case with those students who content themselves by learn­ ing their book in a parrot-like fashion,

but

should

be

evolved spontaneously and naturally, being only the prac­ tical outcome of commonsense applied with due considera­ tion of cause and effect.”

This method practically applied,

at once encourages an interest in a subject which would otherwise

EDITORIAL.

be

“ dry.”

Th is

interest

to an

intelligent

individual is not of a superficial nature, but such as will grow as years pass on.

E very

movement which has risen to

Another point which deserves consideration is now

W a y s and

power in the world will be found to

that the majority of classes or divisions have a room where

Means.

have done so by some pregnant idea,

the members meet from time to time, they can be made

an idea

attractive, and should be filled with interesting matter, and

born

in

the

minds

of

its

founders, and born anew in the minds of their followers.

the usefulness and

And, further, it is probably true that the continued success

increased ; there are great possibilities in these rooms.

esprit de corps of the men will be

and power of any movement depends upon the fidelity

When it is possible decorate the rooms

with which the “ idea ” is preserved by its later followers.

pictures, or models of all that appertains to ambulance

with diagrams,

Humanitarian motives were the objectives which prompted

work, and an effort should be made to have a small library

the Knights of St. John, the pioneers of this great move­

of works dealing particularly on ambulance subjects.

ment, and the same fundamental motives should prompt

this meeting place is made attractive it will no doubt

If

the ambulance student of to-day if it is to progress and

encourage men to attend who have spare time.

prosper on a national scale.

H ence we appealed to the

opportunity for more improvement both in training and

“ Am bulance work for its

education they would only be too happy to avail them­

ambulance

student to

study

Given the

own sake ” in our last editorial, its own sake being the

selves of it

motives indicated above.

and practical training by attending local hospitals, if it can

In making reference to

the

Again, competitions should be encouraged,

highest objects of the training it will also be desirable to

possibly be arranged, gives a good insight into the practical

endeavour to deal with the way in which it can be best

application of what has been learnt theoretically.

accomplished, and to sustain an interest in it.

other ways could

be mentioned in

which

to

Many

maintain

Now, to begin with, the method of work is a most

interest in the work, but the above will serve to show

important factor, and upon this much will depend whether

upon what lines it should be directed, and above all it is

or not the success or failure to maintain the interest of the

with the officers that lies the power interest in it.

student lies.

T h e primary object is to get the pupil to

of

cultivating an


162

- F I R S T

A 1 U

-

March, 1913

B U G LE BAN D PRACTICE. h riday 4th and t8th, Headquarters 8 p.m. sharp.

DUTY ROSTER. No. 1 District. D E P U T Y CO M M ISSIO N ER :

L I E U T .-C O L .

LEES

HALL.

O F F IC E R S Q U A R T E R L Y M EETING . Monday 7th.— A special general meeting will be held at head­ quarters at 8.15p.m., to receive offers from Company Com­ manders to arrange for a display by their Company and to form a committee of Company Commanders to receive and report on the plans suggested. Any other business which it is desired to bring forward will be dealt with provided notice is given in writing at least five clear days before the meeting. O FFICER S

MARCH R A IL

AND

SU PP LE M E N E A R Y ORDER. District Order 13/3/13. R O U T E M ARCH, R ICH M O N D PARK. G O O D F R I D A Y , 21/3/13.

The Corps will parade at St. John’s Gate at 10.45 a-mDress Officers, Undress. Sergts., Rank and File, Review Order, without medals and (weather permitting) greatcoats and leggings. Cyclists will parade with machines. Bugle and Brass Bands to attend. Officers will assemble in the Brigade Room and obtain tickets for their Divisions. Members in charge— other than Officers— will obtain tickets for their Divisions in the Brigade Room directly they arrive. By special permission of the Chief Secretary, S.J.A.A., men joining the parade will be allowed to go over the Gate, pro­ vided the Officer or member in charge notifies the Chief Super­ intendent before the 21st the number of men who wish to avail themselves of this opportunity, but these men will have to be at the Gate between 9.30 and 10 a.m. Recruits who have no uniform will be allowed to attend this parade. TIM E TABLE. 10.45— Bugles “ Assembly.” 10.50.— Bugles “ Fall in.” Fall in by Companies. Senior Sergeants will make up and prove the Companies. 11.0.— Bugles “ Officers.’’ Officers will join their Com­ panies and ascertain that all men are supplied with railway tickets. Bugle Band will pile drums in front of St. John’s Church and fall in on either side (as last year). A short Service will be conducted by the Rev. T. C. Elsdon concluding at 11.20. 11.35.— Parade leaves the Square, marching under the Gate to Blackfriars, where the Corps will entrain for Putney Bridge, arriving at the Park about 1.30. The men will be allowed a short break off for refreshments, which they will have to take in havresac and waterbottle. 2.0.— Bugles “ Fall in.” Company Commanders will be allowed to make up and drill their Companies independently for about 30 minutes. 2.30.— Bugles “ Markers.” Left markers will report to Sergt. Elam, and when posted, the Officers will each march his Company on to its own Marker. Battalion Drill— experimental for Annual Review and Inspection. If time permits, a short stand easy will be given and the Corps will leave the Park at 4 o’clock for Putney Bridge, return­ ing to Headquarters to dismiss. Fares : Officers, 7d. each ; Rank and File, 3^d. each. Buglers’ fares will be paid by Headquarters. A P R I L , 1913. Sunday Duty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. Sunday, 6th.— No. 58 Division. „ 13th.— No. 59 „ „ 20th.— No. 63 „ „ 27th.— No. 42 „ Parade 2.30 p.m. as per separate orders. Keys from St. fohn’s Gate.

ANNUAL

D IN N ER.

Thursday 17th.— Will be held at the Holborn Restaurant, Crown Room, 7 o’clock. It is hoped that the Divisional Officers will do their utmost to support this fixture. After the dinner, tables will be arranged for those who care to play cards, there will be dancing and the String Band of No. 48 Division will provide the music. The Chief Surgeon specially asks me to call the Divisional Surgeon’s attention to the above and to say that he hopes to have the opportunity of meeting many of them on this occasion. All Officers attention is drawn to the dinner circular (enclosed with orders), and the dinner secretary would be glad to know as soon as possible what accommodation he has to provide for,please fill up the fly sheet and return as early as you can to enable the tables to be arranged. “ D E W A R ” SH IELD PR E L IM IN A R Y C O M PETITIO N . Saturday 26th.— Commencing at Headquarters 3 p.m. All entry forms should be sent in without delay. Copies of the conditions and entry forms can be obtained on application to the District Superintendent. D IV ISIO N A L B O O KS. Efforts must now be made by the Officer or member in charge to see that these are now submitted at once, all books not yet sent in must be here before the end of April. W A R O F F IC E IN SPE C TIO N . V O L U N T A R Y AID D E T A CH M E N T S. I M P O R T A N T N O T IC E . Commandants will please submit following particulars as soon as possible :— (a) Date and hour convenient for the Detachment to meet the Inspecting Officers. Place where the Inspection is to be held, and nearest railway station or best method of finding. The Deputy Commissioner desires to assist Officers in Charge of Divisions to hold the District Inspection of Com­ panies on the same day, either before the War Office Inspec­ tion or after, according to circumstances. It is therefore neces­ sary to bear this in mind, so that one hour is allowed for either before or after for the Deputy Commissioner to take his In­ spection when notifying the particulars asked for. O B IT U A R Y N O TICE. Death of the son of Inspector General Belgrave Ninnis (late Chief Commissioner of the Brigade). It will be learned with great regret that Lieut. Ninnis, Supt. of No: 24 (Doulton’s) Division, who was on leave as a member of the “ Mawson” Antartic Expedition, has been acci­ dentally killed while taking an active part in the expedition. The Deputy Commissioner feels quite sure that the sincere sympathy of all members of the Prince of Wales’s Corps will be extended to Dr. Ninnis in his great loss— a loss the more sad on account of the youth and splendid prospects of Lieut. Ninnis. (Signed) L E E S HALL, Deputy-Commissioner. Headquarters :— St. John’s Gate, Clerkenwell, E.C. No. 4 4 ( W e s t L o n d o n D i v i s i o n ). — A most enjoyable evening was spent, on March 7th, by the members and friends on the occasion of the fifth annual dinner, over


which Sir W. Bull, M.P., presided, who was supported by the Deputy Commissioner Colonel Lees Hall, District Supt. W. H. Pontin, Divisional Hon. Surgeon McCarroll, First Officer Stone, Supt. Journet, Sergt. A. T . Wickens, Mr. Hammond and Mr. Isles. Supt. Journet, in proposing the toast of the Prince of Wales’ Corps which was coupled with the name of the Deputy Commissioner, remarked on the excellent record o f the Corps which was in a great part due to the efforts of the Deputy Commissioner who they all greatly esteemed. Colonel Lees Hall, in responding, said that it was the duty of the Corps to look after the people on all public occasions in the Metropolis, and the many duties which they accomplished were unknown to the public. T h e y all gave a good account of themselves, and, should the Government again call upon them as it did during the South African War, he was sure its appeal would meet with ready response. District Supt. W. H. Pontin, who proposed the success of the No. 44 Division, remarked that it was one of the best equipped Divisions of the Corps, and since it had to depend upon its own resources the members were to be highly congratulated. Th ey had quite recently incorporated a new baby in the Kensington Section which would con­ siderably increase their numbers. T h e success of the Division was in a great measure due to its two excellent officers— they were quick and energetic working to the furtherance of the cause. Before concluding, Mr. Pontin presented to Divisional Surgeon McCarroll a surgeon’s belt on behalt of the Division, in recognition o f his past services. Dr. McCarroll suitably responded. First Officer Stone proposed “ T h e Visitors,” which was responded to by Mr. Isles. A n excellent musical programme was arranged under the direction of Sergt. T . J. Haughey.

ALL

R IG H T S

A I D. —

163

mother’s milk contains everything that is necessary for the infant, if there is no flow o f milk a few teaspoonfuls of milk and water, one part milk to three parts tepid water will be enough to satisfy the child’s immediate wants. Every mother should suckle her child if she wishes it to live and grow healthy. Should the breast milk be in­ sufficient or poor in quality it may be increased in both by careful attention to the mother’s diet and functions. Give plenty of milk, oatmeal and treacle, stewed fruit, figs, prunes, rice and sago, puddings with custard. Do not give beer or alcohol in any form. If the mother con­ tinues to have “ too little for the baby,” she must not dis­ continue “ breast feeding,” but trust combine this with “ hand feeding,” this combined method is known as “ mixed feeding.” I f the handfed meals are carried out in accordance with the age requirements of the child there need be no fear of ill results either to child or mother. T h e following table has been drawn up as a guide, and may be found useful to young mothers.

TABLE

FOR

BREAST

F E E D IN G .

D u rin g the N igh t.

Feeds.

- F I R S T

Feeds.

March, 1913.

8

E very 4 h o u rs.

2

10

7

E very 4 h o u rs .

2

8 or 9

A g e in M onths

D u rin g the D ay.

I

E \ery 2 h o u rs.

2

E very 2$ h o u rs.

3

In cr ease

4

E very 3 h o u rs.

6

5

C ease

N ig h t

6

E very 3 h o u rs.

G r a d u a lly

T im e

T o ia l F eeds in 24 hours.

B etw een

O n ce or t w ic e .

M eals.

I

7

R E S E R V E D .J F e e d in g

A lto g eth e r .

H o m e N u r s in g a n d H y g ie n e. By

H. M A IN W A R IN G HOLT, M .R .C .S., L.S.A., D .P .H .

7

W h en

6

E ig h t

N o t h in g .

M o n th s

O ld

6

0

B e g in

t o

W ea n .

Honorary Associate of the Order o f St. fo h n , L ife Member o f and Lecturer and E x a m in er o f the S .f .A .A . ; Hon. Surgeon to the M alton and Norton

8

3 m e a ls o f b r e a s t r r ilk . 2 m e a ls o f c o w ’s m ilk .

5

9

2 m e a ls o f b r e a s t m ilk . 3 m e a ls o f c o w ’s m ilk .

5

D ivision, No. VL. D istrict, S .f .A .B . ( Continued from pa%e 150.) JO

W ean

E n t ir e l y

a t

T w elve

M o n th s.

B ir t h . T h e wants of the newly born child are few and simple, it requires to be carefully washed and to be kept warm. T h e eyes require special attention. When the face has been washed and the eyelids thoroughly cleaned it may be necessary to separate the eyelids and allow a little pure tepid water to flow across the eyeballs. Should the slightest redness of the eyelids or eyes be observed the doctor must be told of it at once. With regard to warmth this is provided by the heat of the mother’s body and the child should be placed next her in bed as soon as it has been washed and dressed. If it be placed next to the breast it will soon begin to suckle. D o not give a newlyborn child sugar and butter or cream or anything, the

A r t if ic ia l

o r

H an d

F e e d in g .

From what has already been said upon the subject of milk you will understand the importance o f using every care in the selection of the dairy from which the milk supply is obtained. It may be that some dairy in your district is worked upon the same lines as the Copenhagen Milk Company adopt, and if so, you need have little fear as to purity o f the milk. Up to the present the Govern­ ment of this country has contented itself with making regulations, but it has left out the all-important consideration of providing the means whereby these regulations may be carried out, hence it comes about that the consumer must


164

— F I R S T

still exercise whatever knowledge he may possess of the subject, and use it to the best of his ability. A n a ly s is

of

M ilk .

T h e ordinary chemical analysis of milk is chiefly undertaken in order to detect adulteration, such for instance as the presence of added water, the amount of added pre­ servative or the abstraction of cream. T hese matters are trivial when compared with the dangers arising from contamination such as blood, pus, fleces and the germs of disease. Y e t most Sanitary Authorities consider their duty to the public faithfully discharged when they have pro­ secuted some unfortunate milk-seller, and obtained a conviction for adding a little pure water to the milk sold. It is the duty of all Sanitary Authorities to prevent con­ tamination, rather than adulteration, by providing for the supervision and inspection of all dairies and cowsheds, and of the cattle from which the milk is drawn, of course this would mean the employment of trained men who would expect to be paid for their work. Now with most Sanitary Authorities money is a much more important consideration than life— especially infant life. T h e milk intended for infants should be obtained from a milk depot under direct medical supervision. T h e strength and quality of the milk certified, and the amount to be taken stated in accordance with the age requirements of the child. A n attempt is made to do this by certain well-known firms of chemists, but at present the cost of such provision is outside the reach of the poor working man, so that we have to consider other means and methods. It must first be insisted upon that the younger the child the more difficult it is to rear. We will take the most difficult case first, namely when a child has to be hand-fed from its birth. T h e food to use is cow’s milk properly modified. T h e object aimed at is to so modify cow ’s milk. T h e mixed milk, that is to say the milk from several cows as usually supplied is to be diluted with water, or, better still, by barley-water, until the proteid (curd forming material) is reduced to the same proportion as it exists in human milk. Now the addition of water lowers the proportions of cream (fat) and sugar below the amount that they exist in human milk, and consequently cream and sugar must be added to make up the deficiences. W e now give a table to guide the mother in artificial or hand feeding, and we supplement that table by a diagram specially prepared for this work with the warning that no infant can be fed by chart, every child has a little course of its own, therefore the diagram and tables must be taken as general guides for average parents and average children. ( To be continued). In connection with the First A id Congress to be held in Vienna in September, the first meeting of the British Sectional Committee was held on March n t h . The Rt..-Hon. the Earl o f Londesborough presided. An elaborate programme of subjects has been arranged and all those interested in first aid and life saving work are invited to read papers upon the subjects enumerated. I f the authors are unable to attend the Congress their papers will be printed and published in the volume of transactions. W e hope Great Britain will be thoroughly represented at the Congress for we understand other continental countries are organising demonstrations to be given in special branches of first aid. T h e mining industry, the railways, and St. John’s should undertake something on similar lines, and manufacturers of material in any way connected with first aid are also to be invited to send exhibits.

AI D. —

March, 1913.

jlailwau jlmbutance. G .W .R .— W e have pleasure in giving a photograph of the ‘Vasaar-Smith ” Ambulance Challenge Shield to which reference was made in our last issue. T h e trophy is the gift of Mr. R. V. Vasaar-Smith, of Charlton Park, Cheltenham, to the G .W .R . Ambulance Corps for annual competition. T h e arms of the donor appear on the lefthand side of the top of the shield and those of the St. John Am bulance Association on the right. T h e principal decoration consists of two figures of “ Fam e ” exquisitely modelled in very high relief. T h e centre is occu­ pied by a group representing the “ Good Samaritan,” also in relief. Movable plates for inscribing the names of the winning teams are contained in the scroll-work surrounding the trophy which bears the following inscription :— “ Great Western Railway Com-

T he

“ V a s s a r -Sm it h ”

S h ie l d .

bined Am bulance Corps, Gloucester. Presented by Richard Vasaar Vasaar-Smith, Esq., D .L ., J.P., for annual competition amongst teams forming the Corps. Estab­ lished 1912.” T h e shield has been reproduced from a sculptor’s model by Messrs. Fattoroni & Sons, Ltd., of Bradford. T h e company have recently organised a most success­ ful Am bulance Essay Competition in which the prize winners have been declared as followers :— First prize, ^ 2 2s., J. T . March (clerk), Weymouth Q u a y ; second prize, jQ i is., J. Roost (carpenter), Taunton ; third prize, 10s. 6d., W. J. Palmer (signalman), Weymouth. A number of other competitors were highly commended by the judge for their efforts, and it is understood that only a very narrow margin divided the prize-winners, the general standard of the essays submitted being exceptionally high. T h e announcement made by the General Manager on the occasion of his recent visit to Swindon to distribute


— F I R S T

March, 1913.

AID. — H. Terry, Mirfield ; G. W. Pinfield, Thornhill ; W. H. Wood, Featherstone ; G. Rusling, Featherstone.

awards in connection with the Ambulance Class (reported in our last issue), to the effect that the Directors are pre­ senting a trophy for competition among the staff will infuse a spirit of keen rivalry into the annual competitions which are now in progress. It is understood the trophy will take the form of a shield to be held for one year by the team winning the Com pany’s Final Competition. A case of exceptional interest to first aiders is reported in the current issue of the Great Western Railw ay Magazine and serves to illustrate the resourcefulness of the ambul­ ance worker. Stower J. Higgs of the Goods Department, Oxford, was recently, in the course of duties, called upon to deal with a truck of sheep. It was during the night that several of the animals were found to be exhausted through being overlaid ; one being apparently lifeless. Higgs, who is a prominent ambulance worker, decided to apply artificial respiration, and placing the animal on its back he proceeded by pressing on the ribs and suddenly releasing his hold, the movements employed in Schafer’s method. T h e breathing was soon restored and the animal quickly recovered.

T h e prizes were presented to the successful competi­ tors at the close of the competition by Mr. F. H. Cowell, the District Superintendent, and the usual vote of thanks were passed to the judge and the centre secretary, Mr. G. H. Nutter. T h e Manchester District competition was held at Victoria Station, Manchester, on Wednesday, February 12th. Eight teams entered the competition, and were judged by Dr. J. B. Wilkinson, of Oldham, the result being as follows :— 1. Bolton Station (No. 2 team) ... 246 2. Newton Heath (C. & W. Dept.) 232A 3. Osborne Street Stores ... ... 226 21 81 4. Manchester ( V i c t o r i a ) .............. 5. W a l k d e n ...................................... 215^ 6. Horwich Works (No. 3 team) ... 206 7. Salford Goods ... ... ... 187 8. Hollinwood .......................... 132 Maximum marks, 310. Consolation prizes :— J. Rogers, Horwich No. 3 team ; W. Shaw, Manchester (Victoria) ; D. Smith, Horwich No. 3 team; H. Welldrake, Walkden.

L. & Y . R . — T h e Eastern Division Competition in connection with the centre was held at Bradford on H O LM FIRTH

T E A M .— W I N N E R S

OF

THE

Back row:— Messrs. Bradshaw, Stapp and Simpson.

L.

&

Y.

Rv.

EASTERN

D ISTR ICT

C O M PET IT IO N S.

Front row :— W. Redfearn, Dr. Williams (lecturer), and W. Senior.

February 6th, when thirteen teams were judged by Dr Sutherland, of Cleckheaton, with the followi ng result 1. Holmfirth... 222 2. Bradford ... 194 3- Halifax ............... 193 191 4- Wakefield Loco.... I Brighouse (No. 1) 187 6. Goole ............... 184 f Featherstone •83 ( Thornhill ... 183 9. Sowerby Bridge ... 180 10. Mirfield ... 175 11. Low Moor Loco.... 165 12. Brighouse (No. 2) 149 13- Wakefield 133 Maximum marks, 250. Consolation prizes H. Beaumont, Sowerby Bridge W.

S.E. & C . R . — T h e Group Competititions in connection with the S.E. & C .R . Centre are now completed, and the results of the five divisions are appended. T h e Group 1 competition was held at Hastings on Wednesday, March 6th, when the teams competing were placed in the following order by the judges, Drs. Linington, Thurlow and Yollands :— t. Hither Green Corps, No. 1 ... 326 2. Redhill, No. 1 .................. 314 3. Hastings, No. 1 ................. 2654 4. Sittingbourne, No. 1 257! 5. Ashford W o r k s .................. 250 6. Cannon Street, No. 1 ..... 234! 7. Ramsgate Town .............. 216J, 8. Ashford Wagon Shops ... 205I 9. Victoria, No. 1 .................. 201 10. Bricklayer’s Arms Loco., No. 1 2ooi


1 66

— F I R S T

T h e Group 2 competition was held at Hastings, on Thursday, March 6th, when the teams were placed in the following order by the judges, Dr. Halliwell, of London, and Dr. Murphy, of Dover. Dover No. 1 Hither Green Corps No. 2 ... Audit Office Faversham No. 1 ........................... D eal No. 1 6. Nutfield ... 7- T unbridge W e lls No. 1 8. Ashford Joiner Shop ... 9- Hawkhurst 10. Folkestone Harbour No. 1 11. Ashford Station ................ 12. Sittingboume No. 2 ... I.

2. 345-

1 59 15 7i

>55 i5°l

147

135 131 125 123 m l 97*

84!

T h e Group 3 competition was held at Hastings, on Monday and Tuesday, March 3rd and 4th, when the teams competing were placed in the following order by the judges, Dr. Comber, of Catford, and Dr. Hughes, of D e a l :— 1. Ashford Saw Mills ... ... 281 2. Orpington ... ... ... 278$ ... ... ... 272 j* Meopham ... ... 249 4 - Longhedge Works ... ... 245A 5- Blackfriars 6 . Hither Green Corps 3 ... 240I 238 7 - Bricklayers Arms Clerks No. 1 8 . Tonbridge Loco. ... ... 232 230 9 - Margate West Loco.................. l o . j Abbey Wood ........................... 228A 10./ Westcombe Park ... ... 228! 1 1. London Bridge No. 1 ... ... 227! 12. Redhill No. 2 ... ... ... 225 ... 219! 13- Ramsgate Town No. 2 14. Reading No. I... ... ... 214 ... .. 203 IS- Reading No. 3... i 6 . j S t r o o d ....................................... 20oi . 6 , ; Bexhill ... ... ... ... 200I 17. Slades Green Loco. No. 1 ... 193J 18. Slades Green United ... ... 189 19. Gillingham Loco. ... ... 177 T h e Group 4 competition was held at Camberwell Station, on Thursday and Friday, February 27th and 28th, when the teams competing were placed in the following order by the judges, Dr. Lees Hall, of London, and Dr. Mayston, of Erith :— 1. Dover Harbour No. 2 ... 166 2. Victoria No. 2 ... 165 161 3- Hastings No. 2... 4 - Hither Green No. 4 ... 1 S3 149 5- Folkestone Junction Platelayers t>. Redhill Platelayers ! 45l 7- Battersea Loco.... >43 8. Lordship Lane ... 142 138 9 - Slades Green ... 10. Deal No. 2 137 i 11. Robertsbridge ... 133 12. Ashford Works No. 2 ... 130 130 • 3- Reigate ... 126! 14- Sevenoaks T.H. 125 15- Shalford ... 16. Reading No. 2 ... 124 124 17- Tonbridge Platelayers 18. Ashford Coppersmiths Shop ... 123^ 119 19- Margate W e s t ........................... 20. Bricklayer’s Arms No. 1 117 2 j . Tonbridge No. 1 u s 22. Maidstone West 113 IIO 23- Westgate 24. Dunton Green ... 108 25. Ashford Station No. 3 ... 103 26. Tunbridge Wells No. 2 101A 27. Southboro’ ........................... 94l

A I D . — 28. 29.

March, 1913. Rye ............... Margate Sands ...

89I

T h e Beginners’ Group competition was held at Maid­ stone, on Wednesday, February 26th, when the teams com ­ peting were placed in the following order by the judges, Dr. Southey, of Maidstone, and Dr. Harris, of Waltham­ stow :— 1. 2. 3456. 78.

Ashford Boiler Shops ... Folkestone Junction Parcels ... Bricklayer’s Arms Loco. Shops Blackfriars Beginners ... Bricklayer’s Arms Goods No. 2 Paddock Wood Guards Sittingbourne Platelayers Bricklayer’s Arms Goods Clerks No, 2 ........................... 9 - Folkestone Harbour No. 2

95| 9<4 89! 88 8i| 61 53l

52| 49l

It will be seen that no less than 8t teams took part in the competitions, and this speaks well for the enthusiasm in ambulance work which prevails on the S.E. & C .R . Our hearty congratulations are offered to the winning teams, and it is hoped that they will go forward with the intention of improving their knowledge and increasing their ableness for tackling the various problems which are met in competition work, with a repetition of their success. T h e first six teams in Group 1 will compete in the Representative Competition at the Crystal Palace, on Wednesday, April 9th, for the honour of representing the Company in the Inter-Railway contest.

L. & N .W .R .— T h e Manchester District competition was held on March 5th in Belle V u e Gardens, Manchester. Tw elve teams took part in the contest, the judges being H. G. Cooper, Esq., of Altrincham, and J. Knowles Lund, Esq., of Stretford. After a thorough examination, the London Road team were declared the winners, having obtained 421 marks out of a possible 526. T h e result being as follows :— I. 2. 3456. 78. 910. 11. 12.

London Road ... Plodder Lane ... Ordsall Lane ... Liverpool Road Stockport Edgeley Junction Exchange Tyldesley Levenshulme Longsight Bolton Heaton Norris ...

421 390 386

359 331 33°

314 309 285! 279 264 243

Mr. Carter, District Superintendent, Manchester, attended to present the prizes, being supported by Mr. Booth, of the Goods Department, and others. T h e London Road team will, as winners of the District competition, receive their prizes at the L. & N .W .R . Final Am bulance competition, to be held in Belle V u e Gardens, Manchester, on April 9th. T h e second team, Flodder Lane, were each presented with an electro plate tea-pot. T h e third team, Ordsall Lane, with an electro-plated cake basket each. T h e fourth team, Liverpool Road, with a set of cutlery (viz., 6 tea-spoons, 1 sugar tong, 1 jam-spoon and 1 butterknife) each. T h e prize for the best individual competitor was a 30hour lever alarm clock, which was won by Guard George Rhodes, of the London Road team.


March, 1913.

— F I R S T

N . E . R . — On the 5th inst. the members of N .E .R . Durham class attended in strong force at the Town Hall, Durham, where a meeting, presided over by the M a y or’ was held to do honour to the class lecturer, Dr. H. Smith, who has recently been enrolled an Honorary Associate of the Order of St. John. Mr. G. Jackson made the presentation to Dr. Smith, and pinned the Insignia of the Order on his breast, and congratulated him on the distinction and referred to the great work he had done for the N .E .R . men, and wished him long life and hoped that he might be able to carry on the good work for a number of years. Mr. J. M. Reid and Mr. Bouch also spoke of the good qualities of the doctor, and the Mayor wished him on be­ half of the city health to wear the honour he had so richly merited. T h e Mayor then presented the certificates, medallions, &c., to the members of the class which Dr. Smith recently lectured to. T h e circumstances attending the accident at the Manors Station on the 1st inst. brought out the necessity of railway employes being able to render first aid, for by the coolness and promtitude of Ticket Collector George Forster, T icket Collector VV. W. White, Porters R. Savage and D. Jack, Clerk W. H a y and Electrician A. O ’Neil, the chance of complications in many cases were prevented, the work of the first-named was specially commened by the In ­ firmary authorities as well as by Police Inspector Dale, whose leg Forster attended to. It is highly gratifying to know that when such cases as these occur the N .E .R . men are at once able to do what is necessary in assisting the injured promptly, as was done on this occasion. T h e N .E .R . district competitions are being held and the result to date is as follows :— Hull District.— 1st, D r y p o o l; 2nd, D oc k Engineers ; 3rd, Dairy Coates ; 4th, Hull Operating. Drs. Leigh, Hartlepool ; and Harkness, Newcastle, were judges ; and Mr. J. W. B. Wilcox handed the shield to the winners. Leeds District.— 1st, Leeds L o co ; 2nd, Ripon ; 3rd, Cross Gates ; 4th, Leeds ; 5th Starbeck. Drs. Burman, Wath and Fell, York, acted as judges, and Mr. W. Noble presented the shield to the winning team. * Newcastle District.— 1st, Walkergate ; 2nd, Park Lane; 3rd, T y n e D ock ; 4th, New Bridge Street. Drs. Burnett, Saltburn and Caldwell, Brotton, judged, and M. J. T. Naisby presented the shield to the successful team. Darlington District.— 1st, North Road L o c o ; 2nd and 3rd, Bishop A u c k l a n d ; 4th, North R o a d ; 5th, Bishop Auckland. Dr. L. L. Westrope judged the teams, and the Rev. W. D. Rudgard handed the shield to the winners. T h e final competition is to be held at Hull on April 5th, when Dr. F. H. Westmacott, of Manchester, will be the judge.

E r r a t a . — W e regret that an error occurred in the last paragraph of p. 142 in our last issue. In the first line it should be “ Clifton Division o f the City of Bristol

Corps,” and in the seventh line it should be “ Divisional ” Supt. W. Tratt and not “ District,” the District Supt. of No. 2 District being Dr. J. G. McLannahan.

W

A N T E D — S.J.A.B. Officer’s Great Coat. Height, 5 ft. Sh in.— Reply in first instance to Box 40, “ First A i d ” office, 46, Cannon-street, E.C.

AID. —

1 67

L an tern

L e c tu r e s .

W e reported in the last issue a lecture which was given to the Dinnington Main Am bulance Class by Mr. Hanmer, from whom we have received a communication. H e inforns us that he has about two hundred slides to illustrate his lecture and they represent about every case o f accident which a first aider may come in contact with. Mr. Hanmer has displayed much ingenuity in the construction of his slides, and they have taken him some seven years to get together. Since the first mention o f his lecture in

C. Captain

H an m er,

Hickleton

Main Rescue Team.

F i r s t A i d , many secretaries have written to him asking him to favour their classes with the lecture, and at each class he has visited the doctors have spoken highly of it. Mr. Hanmer is the captain of the Hickleton Main Rescue Team , which attended the C ad e by disaster last July. H e tells us that next season he will be pleased to give the lecture to any class, and he only makes a nominal charge for out-of-pocket and travelling expenses. Secretaries who would care to avail themselves of this lecture should write to Mr. Hanmer at 205, Doncaster: road, Goldthorpe, near Rotherham.

E d i t o r i a l . — W e are compelled, owing to the pressure on our space this month, to hold over several reports, and also the marking-sheets of several Railway Competitions. W e hope to deal with some of these competition papers in our next issue.

In the returns o f the Secretary of the War Office as to the number Voluntary A id Detachments in Great Britian. W e are informed that those organised by the S J .A .A . and S.J.A .B . in the respective counties number as follows :_ Hampshire, 2 1 ; London, 2 5 ; Glamorgan, 10, West Rid ing of Yorkshire, 50.

W hen corresponding w ith A d v ertisers p lease m en ­ tion “ F ir st A id .”


168

— F I R S T

AID. —

M arch, 1913.

ber o f the B rig ad e n eed feel that he is a stranger in a

B r e v itie s .

strange land where the B rig ad e exists w hen such a w elco m e as this is proffered.

I f any m e m b er o f the B r ig a d e c o n ­

H i s H i g h n e s s t h e T h a k u r S a h i b o f G o n d a l has promised the Indian branch of the St. John Am bulance Association 5,000 rupees as a thankoffering for the preser­ vation of the Viceroy from the dastardly attempt on his life on the occasion of the State entry at Delhi on December 23rd last. * *

tem plates em igrating to

Secretary of State for War, was the guest at a dinner of the Ilkeston and District Corps of the S.J.A .B . on February 25th. T h e membership of the St.

to uch with their old m em bers w ho have go n e to various parts o f the world.

John Am bulance Brigade now in the United Kingdom must, he said, be something approaching forty thousand men. It was a splendid thing that so great a movement as

over with small flags, each o f w hich d e no tes where o n e o f

C ol. Seely,

a

British

C o lo n y ,

we shall be

pleased to put him in to uch with C o rp s or Divisions, if they exist, in the town he proposes go in g to. *

the

*

*

T h i s su b jec t o f em igratio n has bro u ght

to our min ds

w on der w heth e r

here k e ep in

Sup e rin te n den ts o ver

Boys' Brigade Gazette

R e a d i n g the

this m on th we find that a certain c o m p a n y o f that In stitu­ tion has a map h u ng on the wall o f its headquarters dotted its old m e m bers is located.

T h e c h i e f officer corresponds

this had grown up in this country. H e did not want to say anything controversial that evening as between voluntary

with his old members, and sends them a c o p y o f his report,

and compulsory services, but this they certainly could say, that in no country in the world could they find so great an amount not only o f voluntary service, but of voluntary

greatest e nco urag em en t.

efficient service. T hose who said that unpaid work was bad work knew nothing of the work of the St. John A m b u ­ lance Brigade. It was the glory of their work that not a single penny was paid for it. H e did not know if there was any other country which could parallel ours in point of n u m b e r s ; certainly there was none that equalled ours in the amount of zeal and the number of hours put in at am­ bulance work. * * * ideal for young men, added Col. Seely, would be first to join the Territorial Force, then the ambulance brigade, and ultimately the National Reserve, all voluntary T he

thus k e ep in g them in touch, and he finds it a source o f the

* * *

P rin ce ss

H enry

of

B a tte n b e rg

will present the

“ St. J o h n ” and “ D e w a r ” challen ge shields and prizes to the winners which

o f the will

Inter-railway

take

p la ce

at

and the

B rig ad e competitions, P o rtm an

Rooms

on

M a y 16th.

* * * N o w that the com p etitions season is o n c e more with us, teams o f the various R a ilw a y C o m p a n ie s are putting forth every effort and sparing no pains to put the finishing touches to their training.

In a like measure B r ig a d e teams

are study ing hard in order to ha ve the h o n o ur o f represent­ ing their districts in the final.

W e would like to offer a little

agencies actuated with the spirit of self-sacrifice and devo­ tion to duty which had made our country great. In view

ad v ice to those teams w hich have the g o o d fortuue to be

of recent events, no man could say that the grit and fibre of Englishmen were passing away, no man could say that our

bear in min d that a lth ou gh no time

country was withering and decaying for lack of men willing and capable of serving her. * * * T h is

utterance o f appreciation

by a man of such

importance as Col. Seely, deserves wide publicity. T h e S .J.A.B . has in the past rather shuned the limelight, and in consequence not received the measure of support from the public that is its due, and it is by remarks of this kind being circulated that will give it that prominence and sup­ port it deserves. * * * A c o r r e s p o n d e n t , who is a Supt. of one of the Corps in Canada, writes to us this month “ T h a t he will be pleased at any time to hear of any members of the Brigade who in­

place d in the semi-finals a n d these com petitions, and

c o m p re h e n s ive

answers to the ju d g es, for it

favour.

+ * * W

e

publish this m on th a lectu re on “ A n

Efficient

A m b u l a n c e S e rv ice for A c c i d e n t s and other C a su a ltie s in Streets

and

P u b l i c P la ce s

in

L o n d o n , ” by Sir

W illia m

C ollins, who has kin d ly p lace d his M S . at our disposal.

Sir

William, has, like ourselves, been “ ha m m e rin g away ” for years past for the provision o f an a m b u l a n c e service for L o n d o n , and it was mainly through his efforts that an act was passed throu gh Pa rlia m e n t authorising the C o u n c il to p ro vid e the service. w hich

A sylum s

N o mem­

is im p o se d in

always m a ke s a g o o d impression a n d gains points in their

here.”

shows the spirit of the members of the Brigade.

limit

it is a d vis a b le that teams c o m p e t in g

sh o u ld e x p e d ite their work as m uch as possible, and give ready

tends emigrating to the ‘ Great West,’ and they can rest assured of a very hearty welcome from their comrades out Such a kindly feeling which prompts this letter

final competitions, that is to

Sir W illiam C o llin s favours, on the

gro un ds o f e co n o m y , co-o rd ination o f the existing service, w o u ld in vo lve co-o peration with the M etropolitan Bo ard, the

Metropolitan

Po lice,,

and

perhaps

th e service w h ich already exists in the C i t y o f L o n d o n .


March, 1913.

An

F I R S T

E f f i c e n t A m b u l a n c e S e r v i c e for A ccid e n ts and O th e r C a s u a l t ie s in S t r e e t s a n d P u b lic P laces in London.* By

SIR W IL L IA M J. C O L L I N S , M . D , M.S., B.Sc. ( L o n d .), F .R.C .S. ( E n g .).

R e f o r m s in m e t h o d s f o r b r i n g i n g s u c c o u r t o in ju re d h a v e su b ject

to

gen erally

m om en ta

been

attribu ted

associated

w ith

by

one

the

sick a nd

w riters o n

the

or oth er o f

the

Religion, W ar a n d Science. It was primarily to subserve the purposes of a military campaign that an ambulance system was devised. Its utilisation in civil life came about as a secondary development therefrom. It was the genius and humanity of Larrey, who earned the highest encomium ever passed on a fellow man by the ill-asso rted

IR O N

trin ity—

B R ID G E

N U R S IN G

A I D. —

169

T h e adoption in civil life of a service for dealing with accidents in streets and public places has been proceeding slowly in Europe and Am erica during the last fifty years. A t first inspired by private philanthropy, voluntary organisations came into existence among urbanpopulations. WTtFT the increased u s e 'o f " machinery, the growth o f the factory system, the introduction of railways, all contributing their quota of accidents with peril to life and limb, the demand for organisation of such charitable services grew. T h e recognition of the part played by infection in the spread of disease, the call for isolation of the sick from the whole inaugurated services for transport of sick persons under municipal or other public auspices. T h e story of the efforts to secure an adequate ambulance service for London is a long and tangled one, not altogether creditable, and even at the present time incomplete. Indeed, as I unfold “ this strange eventful history,” the cynical might be disposed to exclaim that this is indeed a magnificent example of “ how not to do it.”

D I V I S I O N .- W I N N E R S

OF

TH E

“ S K IN N E R ”

CH ALLEN GE

S H IE L D

L e i f to r i g h t - N u r s i n g S is t e r s A . B r o w n , M . G a le s , L a d y S u p t M H . W h i t e , ,s t N u r s in g O ffic e r E . R . A n d r e w s , a n d N u r s in g S is t e r M . A ld r e c l. b

great Napoleon, that first contrived and elaborated the ambulances volantes in the service of the G ran d Armee. Other countries followed the French example, yet in the Crimea War— despite the reforms introduced by Guthrie and Andrew S m ith — the relative superiority of the F’rench methods for handling the wounded over the English was very striking. T h e term ambulance recalls the fact which should not be lost sight of in studying the development and systematisation of such a service that the fuller and earlier description employed by the French was hdjpital ambulant — a moving hospital. T h e ambulance in fact is to be re­ garded as an extension from, and a part of, a hospital as a base, a projection, as it were, of the hospital resources for the relief of the sick and injured to the very site of the casualty. * L ectu re d elivered

at the Lo n d on P olytech n ic

'913-

F eb ru ary

17th

\ j I

I i '

Prior to 1866 the duty of saving life from fire was confided to a voluntary society, while property was protected by the efforts of the Insurance Companies. After the Tooleystreet Fire, in i86r, at which Braidwood lost his life, a Parliamentary Committee recommended that the Metro­ politan Police should undertake these duties, as indeed had been urged by Chadwick long b e fo r e ; this advice was however set aside in favour of the creation of a Brigade under the late Metropolitan Board of Works, which had been set up in 1855, and gave place to the London County Council in 1888. T h e St. John’s Am bulance Association, revived as a modern foundation in 1830, for hospitaller work, and chartered in 1888, has given valuable service in the matter of first aid instruction, in provision of litters and stretchers at some twenty-five stations dotted over London, three of which are staffed. It has co-operated with the police on the occasion of public processions in dealing with casualties.


— F I R S T In this latter work the Volunteer Medical Staff Corps also rendered valuable assistance. Beneficent as the work of the St. John’s Am bulance Association has been, the Association has recognised in their reports “ the absolute necessity for the extension of the Street Ambulance Service,” especially in view of “ the great increase in motor traffic and the correspondingly increased dangers to pedestrians,” and, in 1907, welcomed the appointment of a H o m e Office Committee on the subject, which they asserted had been nominated “ none too soon.” In 1882 a London Horse Am bulance Service was instituted under the Presidency of H . R .H . the Duke of Cambridge, which was intended “ to be at the disposal of persons of every class of society for extreme and difficult cases of illness or accident requiring removal to a hospital or elsewhere on the order of a medical man.” This service was to have been administered by the hospitals, but the hospitals in London, unlike those in certain pro­ vincial towns and in America, have generally been indis­ posed to adminster an ambulance service. It was intended that fifteen stations should be established, but only three one-horse wagons appear to have been presented to the Association which soon “ died away,” the ambulances being handed over to the police. T h es e were never used for street accidents, although in 1906 it was officially stated that “ the police possess three horse-ambulances which when not otherwise required, are available for this purpose, and are in constant use.” Nevertheless, in April of the same year, they were condemned as “ obsolete.” In 1890, through the generosity of the late Mr. H. L. Bischoffsheim, another wheeled-litter service was started by the Hospitals’ Association. T hese litters are located chiefly at cab-ranks or Fire Brigade S ta tion s; there is no staff, but the police or other persons can obtain access to them and they have been largely made use of for street accidents. Apart from the police arrangements these were the chief agencies employed in ministering to persons injured or taken ill in public places in London when the matter first engaged the attention of the London County Council in 1901. As Chairman of the Am bulance Sub-Committee I prepared and laid before the Council in 1902 a report on the existing ambulance provision for London in that year. T h e report showed that the police who in most cases have the first handling of street accidents were provided only with hand-stretchers or wheel-litters and that opportunity was afforded to constables for instruction in first aid. T h a t although much was done by the organisations already referred to there was no uniform adequate and co-ordinated system for dealing with street accidents in London and no central supervising authority in quick touch on the one hand with casualties as they occur and on the other with hospitals in which they can receive prompt attention. T h e telephone was not utilised. T h e need for horsed or motor ambulances was recommended. T h e habitual use of cabs for cases o f fractured limbs, head or abdominal injuries was condemned. T h e use of the telephone for prompt summons of rapid means of transport of the injured to hospital, rather than the elaboration of first aid treatment on the spot, was emphasised. From the Medical Officer’s report it appeared that in the provinces and abroad more modern and efficient systems obtained than in London. Rapid ambulances summoned by telephone were in use at Liverpool, Manchester, Birkenhead, Huddersfield, Bolton, Burnley, Hull, Sheffield, Leeds, and Wolverhampton, often in con­ nection with the Fire Brigade, or the police. T h e systems

AID. —

March, 1913.

at work in Paris, New York, Vienna, and New Orleans were described. I added that “ the comparison of London with provincial towns is, of course, complicated by the fact that in their case there is not the same divided jurisdiction over the police and the Fire Brigade as there is h e r e ; but that this dual control was not the plan originally entertained by the House of Com m ons C o m ­ mittee,” and concluded, “ Contrast is frequently drawn bet.veen the respect which the law pays to property in comparison with that which it accords to the person ; and, while we have in London an elaborate organisation for protecting life and property when threatened with destruction by fire, there is no such adequate and properly organised provision at present available for securing prompt assistance when life and limb are endanged by accident or when sudden sickness calls for aid in public places.” W e had early in our investigations endeavoured to ascertain the views of the then C hief Commissioner of Police on the subject of a more rapid and efficient service and interviewed him personally. We were, however, given to understand that the existing arrangements were regarded as satisfactory and that the police experience did not point to any necessity for a horsed or motor service. Attention was next turned to the Fire Brigade as a kindred organisation upon which an ambulance system might be grafted seeing that it had numerous sites in all parts of London which were then being linked up by telephone and connected with street call posts. After much negotiation with the Fire Brigade Committee the proposal was however abandoned as impracticable. A t length, in July 1905, a complete scheme for a rapid ambulance service for street accidents in London was laid before the Council which provided for (1) the erection and maintenance of a principal station and seven district sta tion s; (2) motor ambulances worked by electricity; (3) a method of giving calls by means of street standards fitted with telephones. T h e capital cost was estimated at ^ 1 3 ,0 0 0 and the maintenance including staff at ,£9,600. Various financial questions were raised and considered, and in December 1905 a more limited scheme with two stations— one north and one south of the River— was adopted with the concurrence of the Finance Committee, and clauses were inserted in the General Powers Bill for 1906 to enable the Council “ to establish and maintain or to contribute to the cost of, or othsrwise aid in establishing and maintaining, an ambulance service for dealing with cases of accident or illness in streets or other public places in the County of London.” Before the Police and Sanitary Committee in the House of Commons, to which the Bill was referred, I gave evidence on April 2nd, 1906, in support of the Ambulance Clauses. T h e only formal opposition was on the part of the Corporation whose main objection was to the charge being a general one over the whole of London inasmuch as they expressed their intention to inaugurate a service of their own in connection with the City Police. A report, however, was made to the Committee by the H o m e Office which expressed a doubt as to whether any additional facilities were required, and, if required, whether they should not be by way of extension of the provision already made by the police, who had 240 litters, 40 hand ambulances, and the three-horse ambulances “ in constant u s e ” to which I have already alluded. I pointed out to the C o m ­ mittee that the authority we sought included poweis to contribute to the upkeep of other ambulance services such as that in contemplation by the City, that we had in the first instance put ourselves in commnnication with the police, whose co-operation was essential, and that the


March, 1913.

- F I R S T

charge for such a communal service as this should, like that of the Fire Brigade, be spread over the whole of London. T h e Committee found in favour o f the clauses and the Bill passed through all its stages in the Commons. In July 1906 the Bill came before the Lords' Committee, presided over by Lord Camperdown. I again gave evidence at length on the need o f an improved ambulance service for London, with telephone calls and mechanically propelled cars, and enjoyed a cross-examination at the hands of my friend the late Sir Ralph Littler, on behalf of the City, whom I assured that we were glad to see the movement taken up by the City since we had started ours. Without hearing all the medical evidence we had ready to testify to the serious inefficiency of the existing services the noble Chairman said :— “ I am sure we are all of opinion that it is very desirable that there should be a good ambulance service. O f course we know you cannot have everything you desire, but it is certainly quite desirable. I do not think there can be any question as to W IN N IPE G

L

ad y

S

u pt

. M

is s

H

u d so n

.

A I D . -

171

E fficien cy

in

F ir s t

A id

D ia g n o s is.

B v N. C O R B E T F L E T C H E R , B .A ., M.B ., B.C., Cantab, M .R .C .S . (Surgeon Lecturer of the Broad

Street

Division of the

L. & N .W . Ry. Am bulance Centre). In a previous paper and elsewhere* proficiency in first aid, viz., the state of being skilled in first aid, was shown to depend on common sense, k?ioivledge and experience, the essential factors on which the principles of first aid are based ; and further it was laid down that knowledge and experience are best acquired by the consistent and repeated study of a well-chosen text book, the regular and assiduous attendance at all demonstrations, the gradual building up o f a pocket notebook, and the fearless and frequent submisDI V IS IO N S .

D

iv

. S

u pt

. C.

E. A

r l id g e

.

Who are both doing much good work in promoting the S.J.A.B. in Winnipeg (Canada). the desirability.” It was, therefore, surprising and dis­ appointing to learn a little later that the L ord s’ Committee had struck out the Am bulance Clauses without reason assigned. On July 1 6th a debate took place on the third reading o f the Bill in the Lords when an amendment was moved to reinstate the Am bulance Clauses, when Lord Camperdown explained that his Committee had struck them out because the H om e Office were opposed to the scheme and because the County Council could give no exact estimate of the ultimate cost thereof. Lord Beauchamp, on behalf of the H o m e Office, intimated that a conference would be called in which the police and council should consider what could be done to improve the existing services so that next year a thoroughly sound system approved by all parties could be introduced ; on this assurance the amendment was withdrawn. {To be continued.)

sion to the test examination, by these methods, one may acquire proficiency in the theory of the s u b j e c t : but to be proficient is not necessarily to be efficient, and efficiency, which is the power to produce the result intended and is judged by the results obtained, depends in actual practice o f first aid on the combination of correct diagnosis and treatment. Diagnosis, which signifies a knowing between ana is the distinguishing of a condition or disease by symptoms, requires the same three primary factors, commonsense, knowledge and experience, and rests partly on the ques­ tionings of the patient and friends (history, symptoms) and partly on the results of examination (sig n s); but since these are always more or less superficial, it follows that correct diagnosis, however useful it may be for correct treatment, is not essential to first a id, and that an approxiF i r t A i d , V o l. X I X . , N o . 2 2 4 , a n d A C o m p e n d iu m o f A id s to F ir s t A i d ( B a le a n d S o n a n d D a n ie lls o n , L t d .) .


— F I R S T

172

mate diagnosis is equally serviceable, if it ensures treat­ ment, which will accomplish the objects of first aid and give the required results, viz., preservation o f life, preven­ tion of aggravation of injuries, &c. ; further, though this combination may not always be attained and correct treat­ ment may follow incorrect conclusions, yet the converse is opposed to fir s t principles, and is not permissible under any circumstances. C om monsense teaches a man to be observant and to make full use of his faculties of sight, hearing, touch, sm ell and taste, on which depends the power o f appreciating signs and symptoms. In sudden emergencies, the method o f approach of those who would help is instructive, the more ignorant the would-be assistant the more precipitous his advance and his desire to do something at all costs for good or i l l ; whereas the expert, as he approaches, keeps his eyes open and his ears alert so that, when he is beside his patient, he knows the colour of his face, the character o f the breathing, has heard the snap of a fracture, and has noted signs of bleeding or of p o isonin g; next, since he realises the value of history as an aid to diagnosis, he is saved by his commonsense from volleying questions at a semi-conscious patient and turns rather to the friends and

SENGHENYDD M INE

RESCUE

B R IG A D E No.

1

TEAM.

bystanders, from whom he learns by tactful and pertinent questions the story of what actually happened previous to his arrival, the sequence of events, and the possible con­ tributory causes, which will serve as the foundation of his diagnosis. Further, knowledge makes him resourceful and enables him to carry in his mind pictures of the various conditions and diseases, which in an emergency may require active or preventive treatm en t; and his experience has long since taught him that successful diagnosis depends on the wise appreciation of the relative value of signs and of the history of symptoms, which vary in importance with varying cir­ cumstances and persons. Symptons (e.g., pain, cough, headache, &c.) are effects and indicate the existence of something else, viz., a cause, which may be one of many, and being dependent on the senses they vary greatly in significance with the individuality of the patient, e.g., a hysterical person will describe loquaciously a pain, which a stolid callous person will either ignore or depreciate. Signs (e.g., swelling, deformity, &c.) are the positive evidence of a cause, present themselves for objective examination, and are of real value as aids to diagnosis. A s the outcome, therefore, of his preliminary obser-

AID. -

March, 1913.

vations and of his skillul enquiries of patients and friends, he expert is now armed with certain facts, either signs or symptoms, which will serve as indications of the possi­ bilities in diagnosis; but he is not justified in arriving at any decision which, having followed up these facts, he has confirmed them by examination. So in dealing with his patient he will carefully survey the surroundings, looking for anything which will give him his first real hint and answer his first thought— is this disease, accident, or both ? Then, having excluded any disease or injury, which evolves an immediate danger to life and which would call for prompt and decisive action, e.g., severe bleeding, obstruction to bleeding, severe shock, acute poisoning, &c., he may proceed in his examination ; and having at this stage converted some of the possibilities in diagnosis into probabilities, he will now begin to differentiate between these, and so he will by a process of elimination gradually decide upon the most probable cause or causes. I f there has been an accident he will remember the possibilities of wounds, fractures, dislocations, and starting with the part indicated by pain or some other symptom, he will carefully examine the head, trunk and limbs. I f the condition is apparently the result o f disease, he will rapidly examine

Mr. Tho me, who has charge of the team, is in possession of the King Edward Medal for services rendered at the Wentworth Colliery Explosion.

the various systems, circulatory, respiratory and nervous, commencing with the one, to which his attention is directed by some outstanding symptom ( e g , pallor, cough, vomit­ ing, & c .) and keeping before his mind the leading signs of the various diseases, with which knowledge and experi­ ence have made him thoroughly conversant, he will refrain from a positive diagnosis until he has collected as the result of his systematic examination all the available signs, and until he has convinced himself that these can be brought into agreement with those signs which he gathered during his preliminary observations; in other words, he will, as he proceeds in his reasoning, test his conclusions as carefully as he will test and verify the results of the various stages of the treatment which will follow. Finally, the expert, remembering that successful and correct conclusions depend upon (1) the avoidance of undue precipitance and (2) the careful balancing of the signs, with the history and symptoms, will survey all the facts which have presented themselves or been discovered by himself, and, after turning these over in his mind, he may reasonably expect that his common sense, knowledge and experience will enable him to arrive at a correct diagnosis.


March, 1913

— F I R S T

A I D —

173

BRITISH RED CROSS SOCIETY.

COUNTY OF LONDON Notes and N ew s. I n this issue of F i r s t A i d will b e found a report of the annual meeting of the County of London branch, and no doubt members have received a copy of the annual printed report ere this, and will be pleased to note the growth in numbers which the report reveals. A t the same time the serious state of the finances call for some immediate action. on>y £ 3 6 was subscribed by the public of the County of London during the past year. * * * This deplorable lack of funds make it almost impossible to carry on the work, let alone see it expand in a manner in which it has ample scope for. T h e satisfactory state of affairs as they exist is only due to the hard work, time and money which each individual member puts into it. Some organised effort must be made to rouse the apathy of the public to contribute to the movement. W e notice the City of London Branch has secured the support of the livery companies, and the County of London Branch must have some like support. *

*

* T h e competition which we organised for the best sub­ stitute word in place of “ nurse ” for members of the V. A .D .’s has met with approval by all the nursing journals which are organising a campaigne against the abuse of the nursing uniform. “ V adet ” is a word which should be readily taken up, for it will save any misunderstanding in the future. We print below a letter from the War Office upon this subject :— “ S i r , — In connection with the definition of the term ‘ trained nurse’ which is contained in the footnote on page 6 of the Schemes for the organisation of Voluntary Aid, I am commanded to inform you that it has been brought to the notice of the Army Council that the word ‘ nurse ’ is not infrequently employed in the case of members of Voluntary Aid Detachments who only possess ‘ first a i d ’ and ‘ home nursing’ certificates. In view of the confusion to which this practice may lead, I am to request that steps may be taken to draw the attention of all concerned to the desirability of avoiding this form of nomenclature. “ (S ign ed)

* *

E . W . D . W a r d .”

*

In view of the rapid development of the British R ed Cross Society’s Voluntary Aid Detachments the necessity for courses of instruction for officers of these detachments has become very urgent. In order to meet this demand the British R e d Cross Society has organised a School of Instruction course, and the first course of lectures and practical instruction under this scheme has just com menced at the Polytechnic, Regent-street. T h e course of instruc­ tion will be under the direction of Col. James Cantlie, V .D ., M.A ., M.B., F .R .C .S ., and will consist of practical as well as oral instruction. In addition to general instruction part of the time will be devoted to stretcher drill, wagon load­ ing, improvisation and practical work. C ook ery and

BRANCH.

signalling classes will also be arranged, and in addition to the lectures at the Polytechnic out of door demonstrations of tent pitching, wagon loading, fitting up railway wagons, for stretchers, making field kitchens, &c., will be held. T h e fee for the course to members of the V .A .D , is 10s., and to others 15s. A pamphlet giving a syllabus of the course can be obtained from Mr. R. Mitchell T h e P oly­ technic, or Mr. Frank Hastings, Sec., B .R .C .S ., 9, Victoriastreet, S.W. * * * T h e American R e d Cross has recently organised a district nursing service. T hese nurses will be required to hold the necessary certificates for enrolment in the Red Cross, and in addition to have had visiting nursing, or social service experience. In order to afford facilities for this training the authorities have arranged with certain visiting nursing associations to provide the necessary instruction, the fees, where required, being dispensed by loan fund allotted for this purpose. In order to keep up a uniform standard, the Red Cross will maintain and super­ vise the rural nurses, and “ those who are particularly pre­ pared . . . will receive special financial recognition. I he payment of an annual increase in salary will be re­ commended to communities to insure an efficient and permanent staff.” * * * Four dramatic performances under the patronage of Princess Christian and Princess Henry of Battenber^ were given at the Court Theatre this month in aid of the funds of the County of London Branch of the Society and three other societies. T h e play chosen was “ T h e Ambassador,” by John Oliver H o b b e s ; the cast was a stong one and, we understand, the financial results are satisfactory. * * *

In connection with the International Cinematograph and Allied Trades’ Exhibition the County o f London Branch is occupying a large space in order to give a series of demonstrations and lantern lectures. Already about seventy “ vadets ” have volunteered their services and the Exhibition bids well to be a success. * * *■ Dr. Sandwith, lecturing to the members of Kensington College last month, said that the advantages of being a member of a Voluntary A id Detachment was that thev would gain a knowledge of those things which everv woman should know. Major Stafford, who also aave a short address, said the work of a Detachment he c on ­ sidered was constructing something out of nothin^ The creation of articles from what was found around one in a country village for various uses required brains. Beds for the wounded must be constructed out of anythin^ that could be found. 0


— F I R S T

174

C ounty

of

London

A nnual

Branch.

M eetin g .

presided at the annual meeeing of the Branch, held at Grosvenor House on February 28th. T h e attend­ ance was large, and included Viscount Knutsford, SurgeonGeneral Sir Launcelotte Gubbins, Viscountess Esher, Countess Beauchamp, Colonel J. Oughterson, Colonel E. Lou d on Bell, Colonel J. Magill, Mr. E. S. Ridsdale. Mr. Frank Hastings, Major Stafford and many “ vadets ” in uniform. Dr. Sandwith, chairman of the committee, submitted the report for 1912, which showed that one men’s and nine women’s Detachments had been raised during the past year, while one women’s Detachment had been disbanded, the total number in the county on Decem ber 31 being four m e n ’s and forty-eight women’s Detachments. T h e mem­ bers, said Dr. Sandwith, like Oliver, were always asking for more work, and in order to satisfy their demands they had during the past year established centres ; these’.have proved very successful, and they hoped shortly to establish others. L ord E sh er

O FF IC E R S

OF

THE

S M ITH W IC K DETACHMENTS STA FFO R D SH IR E BRANCH,

B.R.C.S.

Some difficulty had been experienced in raising men’s D e ­ tachments, owing to their higher establishment, and it was hoped to overcome this difficulty shortly. Mr. R. Martin Holland, treasurer submitted the balance sheet, stating that the figures were woefully small for the C o u n ty of London. T h e receipts included 100 from a fund for Territorial purposes of which Lord Esher and himself were trustees ; and only ,£ 36 17s. 6d. from subsciptions. I f the move­ ment was to provide the service which would be necessary in the event of invasion it must have better financial sup­ port from those who have money. T h e y have a really an efficient body of workers who entered into it with a great spirit, and some of the Divisions were crippled in their usefulness for want of funds, T his Branch would like ample funds to provide the poorer boroughs with funds. H e appealed to the wealthy boroughs to assist them in this respect, and also the ladies could materially assist them to obtain subscriptions. Sir L. Gubbins moved the adoption of the report.

A I D

March, 1913.

H e said that in 1909, when the War Office issued a scheme for the organisation of Voluntary A id Detachments, it was agreed that a roll of 40,000 would be as many as could be expected. To-day there were 1,959 detachments, with a strength of nearly 60,000, and five-sixths of these detach­ ments were raised by the R e d Cross Society. There were sometimes complaints about the number of men, but of the 60,000, 20,000 were men, and so long as the Territorial Force was 50,000 under strength the proper place for every young fellow under 30 of sound physique was in the fighting ranks. H e pointed out in reply to Lord Esher that the War Office could not at present lay down anything definite with regard to the role of V .A .D . s on mobilisation, and he could only recommend all the detachments to keep themselves ready for any of the duties which might be expected of them when the time came. H e was able to announce, how­ ever, that sanction had just been given for the formation of a cadre to be added to the establishment of each Territorial Division, to consist of three officers and .five of other ranks, which was to help in co-ordinating and training in peace time voluntary aid detachments, and also on mobilisation

Standing Dr. H. D. Pitt (Commandant),'[Dr. H. P. Motteram Com­ mandant), Mr. A. H. Sears (Hon. Sec.). Sitting :— Miss M. Good­ y e a r ( C o m m a n d a n t) , Major S. N. Thompson, J. P. (Vice-President), Mrs. S. H. Thompson (Commandant).

to take some of the burdens off the shoulders of that already overworked individual, the County Director. It had been suggested that the War Office showed undue par­ tiality to the R ed Cross Society and adopted an attitude of hostility towards the St. John Am bulance Association. If that fable still existed he desired to give it an emphatic contradiction. Their attitude towards both was that of very cordial neutrality. During the past year 1107 detachments had been inspected and 970 had been carried out by officers of the R .A .M .C . Colonel V . Matthews seconded the adoption of the report. Lord Esher in putting it to the meeting offered the thanks of the Territorial Association to the ladies and others for the hard work they had put into the movement. T h e public should be grateful to those who had come forward and given their services. H is lordship said he could hardly imagine anything more thoroughly unsatis­ factory than their financial position, and he could only attribute this unsatisfactory position to the fact that the


March, 1913.

— F I R S T

people were not impressed with the reality of the movement, and furthermore the R ed Cross movement was weakened because it had no definite functions in times of peace. T h e St. John Ambulance received greater support because it had functions in peace as well as in war. A great many people did not at all sympathise with the idea o f assisting either one side or the other in a war in which this country was not engaged. In other countries the R e d Cross Societies had great peace functions— for instance, in colliery explosions and railway disasters— and they had charge of relief funds. If the scope of the British Red Cross Society could be similarly widened, he believed it would be in a very different position. H e thought, too, that it was a mistake to institute the men’s detachments, or, at all events, to admit to them men under 30. Mr. Ridsdale, in moving a vote of thanks to the Chair­ man, which was seconded by Countess Beauchamp, said that Lord Esher pointed out that having no definite work in peace time was the main blot in the scheme. T h e y had been trying to arrive at some means of working with the St. John Am bulance Association. I f they launched out into work which had hitherto been done by that society they would only increase the friction between the two bodies. Negotiations were now in progress which he hoped would result in giving the R e d Cross detachments some legitimate interest in emergency work, while preserv­ ing for the St. John Am bulance Association the activities they at present exercised.

D ivisio n a l

Reports.

T h e Smethwick Division of the Staffordshire Branch of the British R ed Cross Society have some unique distinctions. T h e y not only have the credit of having raised the first Detachment of the County, but also of having four com ­ plete Detachments, all uniformed and pretty nearly fully equipped. T h e first Detachment was registered by the War Office on September 15th, 1910. A t the inception of the movement, Major Thompson was asked by the Countess of Dartmouth the County President, to interest himself in the matter, and he at first felt he must decline to do so, inasmuch as he had so much to occupy his attention, but later he consented to do his best, and did so, with the above satisfactory results. H e attributes his success in raising the Detachments to the energy he put into the matter, as at first he felt doubtful of being able to do anything, so strove the harder, and he was fortunate in having in the original stages great and valuable assistance from Dr. Pitt, who had already got a strong team of St. John Am bulance men in h a n d ; and he also found another valuable co-adjutor in the late Mr. Fox Allin (then Borough Surveyor to the town), who in­ terested himself and obtained a number of firemen and others to form the first and Central Mens Detachment. T h e other Detachment leaders are Dr. Motteram, Mrs. S. Harold Thom pson (who is also a member of the Local Education Authority), and Miss Mabel Goodyear (a daughter of the ex-Mayor of Smethwick), both ladies having taken a most active interest, and with great success. T h e Secretary is a well-known borough official, Mr. A. H. Sears (Secretary to the Educational Authority), who has done much to bring about the successful state of things in Smethwick, which might be said to be at present unique, and it is certainly an example to the rest of the country at large of what can be done where well sustained efforts are made. W e have pleasure in giving, on page 174, a photo­ graph of the various officers of the division.

AID. —

175

£etters to the Sditor. We are in

no w ay responsible fo r the opinions expressed, or the

statements made, by Correspondents. — E d i t o r s , E t c .

We have been compelled owing to the number of queries this month to hold some over, these will appear in the next issue.

MAD

DOG

B ITE

OF

CHEEK.

D e a r S irs—

I was asked the other day how I would treat a girl who had been bitten on the cheek by a mad dog. How would you treat, please ? I apologise for writing, but I am so interested in the whole question of ambulance that any assist­ ance will be most welcome to— Yours truly, W .

H.

M

a r q u is

.

[The dangers connected with such a case are considerably intensified in consequence of the absence of any intervening protecting agent such as clothing, and of the difficulty, if not the impossibility of effectively preventing the specific germs of rabies (so freely introduced) from being conveyed into the circulation. Constriction of the part, as is possible in poisoned wounds of the limbs, is here out of the question. Prompt adoption of suitable position and of appropriate compression between the wound and the heart, in the hope of impeding the course of blood, &c., to the general circulation, and of encouraging a cer­ tain amount of haemorrhage— would possibly be of some service. In other respects, also, the case should be dealt with on the basis of the general rules laid down. (Compare page 47, Sept. 191 1 issue of F i r s t A i d ). The risks connected with such cases are so great that the unfortunate patient should, without a moment’s loss of time, be brought to the notice of a medical man, in order that immedi­ ate steps might be taken towards the obtaining that inoculative treatment which is so imperatively called for. — L.■ M. F rank C h ris tia n .]

CO N CU SSIO N

OF

BRAIN .

D e a r S i r , Would you kindly settle the following one or two points which are causing a good deal of discussion in our first aid class : — (1). Must a patient suffering from concussion be in­ sensible ? (2). Would the patient’s insensibility come on gradually or suddenly ? (3). Would a patient be insensible immediately after the blow for a few seconds, and then regain consciousness ? Thanking you in anticipation.— Yours faithfully, H. E. W.

[(1). Not necessarily by any means. (2). If insensibility be due to concussion it will come on as an immediate result of the injury. Should unconsciousness supervene some little time later it will in all probability be due to other and more serious complications. (3). It will depend entirely upon circumstances. In slight cases there may be no loss of consciousness. In other cases unconsciousness may be for a short time only (after-conse­ quences being variable in their character). In other cases the unconscious condition may continue till death ends all.— L M F r a n k C h r i s t i a n .]

THE

USE

OF

E M E T I C S IN T H E C A S E O F PO ISO N IN G . S i r , —A s I am in a position where I may be called upon at any time to deal with the results of poisoning, will you kindly


17 6

— t I R S T

give n'.e a little enlightenment on the theoretical instructions in Dr. Cantlie’s book. 1. I hptve always understood that one should never give an emetic in the case of acid poisoning. 2. That one of the principle reasons for not doing so is that the emetic causes vomiting, and would only add to pain and injury to the person treated. In the above book prussic acid is classed among the poisons where an emetic may be given (page 146). But in the treatment for certain poisons (page 152) no emetic is advised. Tartar emetic and “ corrosive ” sublimate, cause a burning pain in the mouth, throat and stomach. Would the result of #an emetic being given as advised (page 148) be beneficial. In page 149 we are told that those poisons which burn or stain the mouth, no emetic is to be given.— Yours, &c., A.

E. L e a t t .

[It is not correct to say that an emetic should never be given in a case of an acid poison. The question to be con­ sidered is— what is the effect of the poison? Distinction must be drawn between a burning pain , and an actual burning, i.e., a destruction o f the parts touched by the poison. Prussic acid is not a corrosive but a neurotic poison, i.e., it acts upon the nervous system after absorption. Its absorp­ tion is remarkably rapid, and the early administration of an effective emetic is of vital importance. With regard to other poisons. In a more or less concentrated form a poison may be a corrosive ; sufficiently diluted, however, such a poison would no longer act as a corrosive but as an irritant, giving rise to burning pains, & c. Whether the poison be an acid or an alkali, so long as it does not cause destruction o f the parts with which it is in contact an emetic certainly should be administered, if possible.— L. M . F r a n k C h r i s t i a n ], COMPOUND D

of F

FRACTURE

e a r S i r , — W ill y o u k in d ly i r s t A i d the f ollo w in g :—

OF

CLAVICLE.

g i v e th ro u g h y o u r n ext issue

AID, — “ FIR ST

March, 1913. A ID ”

IN IT S R E L A T I O N S H I P TO D IA G N O S IS . S i r , — Will you kindly inform me if I should be correct in turning a patient on his face and using Schafer’s method of respiration in the following case. The patient is unconscious; a dislocated left shoulder; position, arm by his side: unconsciousness caused by a live electric wire coming in contact with him.— Yours, &c., W . B rooks.

[Yes, but how dislocation of the left shoulder comes to be diagnosed under the exceedingly distracting circumstances is somewhat a mystery. With the possibility of further complica­ tions arising through the close vicinity to a live electric wire, and with the condition of electric shock requiring immediate attention, it is much more reasonable to conclude that the pre­ sence of dislocation would not be diagnosed till much later. {See March, A p r il and Ju ly , 1912, numbers “ F .A .” under above heading.).— L. M . F r a n k C h r i s t i a n .]

“ P A R R O T F A S H I O N .”— S C H A F E R ’S M E T H O D O F A R T IF IC IA L R E S P IR A T IO N .— A M B U L A N C E TR A IN IN G . D e a r S i r ,— Being a constant reader of F i r s t A i d , I shall be greatly obliged if you will kindly reply to the following in your next issue :— 1.— A clear definition of “ Parrot Fashion” would be greatly appreciated. 2.— “ Waste no time in loosening clothing or in removing.” This can be read two ways. Are we to understand that the clothing of the neck, &c., is to be removed in the least possible time, or in case of collar or muffler around the neck is it to be left on and not to be inter­ fered with in any form ? 3.-— The following test was given to a member of a com­ peting team :— Man falls oft" railway platform on to the line and received the following injuries : Compound fracture of radius with arterial bleeding midway between wrist and elbow. It is a wet and stormy day ; no other injuries. Ambulance material ten yards away in station office. Which would be the correct treatment:— Arrest bleeding, brachial artery by torniquet ; cleanse and dress the wound ; support limb ; apply splints and bandages to fracture ; sling the arm; then remove patient indoors after this has been done on the spot. Patient in rain and storm 10 or 12 minutes. Or Arrest bleeding on brachial by torniquet ; get assistance ; steady and support limb by bandage or assistant holding it ; assist patient to office, 10 yards away, out of storm ; then cleanse and dress wound ; treat fracture by splints and band­ ages ; sling arm.— Yours, &c.,

A. The correct treatment for a compound fracture of the left clavicle with arterial haemorrhage ; the patient is found on a lonely road, a mile from a doctor or any assistance. B. Also the same without arterial bleeding, in same con­ ditions of situation. C. And in the Metropolitan Railway Competition it states in No. i ’ s Individual Work and Viva Voce “ Compound frac­ ture of right collar bone by direct violence. Remove coat and vest, sound side last.” W hy is this?— Yours, &c., J. E. P. Llanidloes. [( a ) Assuming the hmmorrhage to be proceeding from the subclavian artery, then the chances of effective treatment would be excessively remote even to be practically hopeless. (B) Without arterial haemorrhage the case would be en­ tirely different, for the left upper extremity would not then be de­ prived of its main arterial supply. The wound should b e dealt with according to general principles, and the fracture dealt with “ C y m r o .” as detailed in “ Problems in First Aid,” page 46. [(1) By “ parrot-fashion” m a yb e understood— a learning (c) In such a case the coat and vest should be cut away to off by heart certain phrases, sentences, or paragraphs, and in expose the injured part freely, hence the sound side would be response to a test, such phrases, sentences or paragraphs rolled removed last.— L. M. F r a n k C h r i s t i a n .] off automatically, as from a machine, quite regardless of the real applicability of some of the points mentioned to the case C O - E M I T 1NG S I M P L E F R A C T U R E O F H U M E R U S utider consideration.— This does not profess to be “ a clear A N D O F C L A V I C L E ON S A M E S ID E . definition” by any means, but it probably will serve the pur­ pose. S i r , — At our class practice the question arose as to the How to lessen the liability to this extremely common proper and best method for a first aider to adopt in the treat­ failing is to be gathered from a perusal of “ Problems in First ment of “ Simple fracture of clavicle and of humerus, both on Aid,” printed and published by the St. John Ambulance the same side.” Association as the Official Companion to the F irst-A id Text Will you please give me the answer to this question.— Book (price 6d.). To this book the serious attention o f a ll c o j i Yours, &c., certied in ambulance training is specially directed. A r t h u r S. B r o c k l e b a n k . (2) This has already been freely discussed in the pages of [Being a regular reader of F i r s t A i d , reference to the F i r s t A i d . Collar, &c., must not be removed “ in the least June, 1912, number will present no difficulty. On page 208 will possible time.” They are not to be interfered with in any be found a somewhat parallel query, together with my reply form (unless under special circumstances) but artificial respira­ thereto. I would only suggest as an advisable amendment an tion is to be commenced as promptly as is possible, due regard alteration of the word “ 4 th ” to “ 5th.” being given to the presence of respirable air, and absence of Hard and fast details of treatment cannot, of course, be any mechanical obstruction to its entrance. consistently laid down. Each case must be dealt with by the (3) The first method mentioned by “ Cymro ” is obviously “ first aider” on its own merits. L. M. F r a n k C h r i s t i a n .


March, 1913.

— F I R S T

ridiculous ; it is, in fact, a clear example of parrot-like methods practically applied. (See above reply). Human being, like parrots, are imitative. If then parrot­ like methods are to become a thing of the past it is very neces­ sary that care should be exercised lest the object lessons pro­ vided should actually perpetuate the mischief that is condemned in others. In short, parrot-like methods o f work (as well as parrot-like methods of answering) should be strongly dis­ countenanced by all concerned in the training of others. The second solution is very much more commendable, and shows intelligent consideration which is distinctly encouraging. To be strictly correct, however, due consideration should be given to the condition of the patient and to the question of availability or otherwise of a doctor. A point most discouraging to earnest workers is the fact that, in some competitions, intelligent work has been found to result in the forfeiture of many marks, whilst those who adopted parrot-like methods have come well to the front. To anyone who will give the subject serious thought it must be obvious that, both from a practical and theoretical point of view, such competitions, as object lessons, are really worse than useless That brighter days are in store are undoubted. Seepages 12, 13. 93. 94, 105, Io8, 113, 1.3°, 167, &c., and 175 Problems in F irst A id . — L. M. F r a n k C h r i s t i a n ]. C O M P O U N D F R A C T U R E O F T H E RIBS. S i r , — I should esteem it a great favour if you will kindly give the correct method to be adopted by a first aider in the treatment of a “ compound fracture of the ribs.” Thanking you in anticipation.— Yours, &c., A Reader.

[It will depend upon circumstances. In general terms a compound fracture of the ribs should be dealt with in the manner similar to other compound fractures, i.e., by prompt protection of the wound from contamination. See also page 169, April, 1912, issue of F i r s t A i d .— L. M. F r a n k C h r i s t i a n .]

COM POUN D FR A C T U R E OF CLAVICLE. e a r S i r , — Will you kindly tell me in your next issue of F i r s t A i d what you consider the best treatment of a fractured clavicle with bullet wound (no artery injured). We have been told to use first field dressing ; and first aid treatment of the fractures. Do you consider that the St. John is still the right sling to use with the bullet wound? Thanking you in anti­ cipation)— Yours, &c-, D

“ R o l l e r B a n d a g e .”

[When properly applied for fracture of the clavicle the St. John sling gives rise to effects similar to “ Extension.” Exten­ sion is not advisable in the first aid treatment of compound fracture— at any rate, in those cases where danger would be intensified through the introduction of germs of mischief to deeper parts. (See December 1912 issue of F i r s t A i d ). In compound fracture of clavicle, therefore, extension should be avoided until such time when it can be done with safety, i.e. after appropriate surgical treatment of the wound. Much the safer policy would be— prompt protection of the fracture from injurious movement, and of the wound from injurious germs, (the first field dressing being utilised, if available) danger of shock lessened, followed by retention of the injured parts in the most suitable position by means of a well placed pad and a carefully applied broad bandage to embraced arm extending from armpit to elbow, and chest.— L. M. F r a n k

AID. —

177

A GREAT AID T O FIRST AID. By

DR.

ANDREW

W IL S O N .

A w o r k that justifies its claim to be an epitome of all that specialised medical and surgical knowledge necessary for First Aiders, as well as an authoritative manual of reference on all information relating to Health and Disease, is a work to be welcomed by all our readers who wish to study their subject more deeply than is possible from superficial text books. In “ T h e Modern Physician,” by Dr. Andrew Wilson, fullest space is devoted to “ First A i d ” and Am bulance Work. In respect of completeness, accuracy of description, and wealth of illustration, “ T h e Modern Physician ” stands without a rival amongst the works published on this im­ portant subject in the United Kingdom. It is scientifically accurate and reliable without being d u l l ; the name of its editor, so long and popularly known as an expositor of Health laws and a teacher of Hygiene, is a guarantee of this. This work is absolutely complete as regards Health and Disease, and is thoroughly up-to-date. As a knowledge of the body in Health is necessary to the due understanding of the body when its functions are deranged by disease, a description of every part of the frame will be found here. T h e skeleton, muscles, digestive system, heart and lungs, brain and nervous system, organs o f sense, skin, kidneys and the body’s microscopic structure are duly described. In this connection the illustrations are of particular value, the “ m annikins” or dummies more especially; in these the organs are made to overlap each other exactly as they do in the human body. T h e section devoted to Hygiene includes the full exposition of the Laws of Health, and special attention is devoted to Physical Culture. Such topics as foods, beverages, air, exercise, clothing, sleep, baths, holidays, temperament, &c., are treated in this section. T h e last volume is especially devoted to the Health of Women, and Dr. Wilson has here been assisted by a number of eminent women physicians. Midwifery and the treatment and Diseases of Infants are here fully dealt with.

ONE

OF

MANY

O P IN IO N S.

Mr. J . DANIEL, 23, K e n t A ven u e, A s h fo r d , K e n t , w r i t e s : — “ Its all-round excelle n ce m akes it a valu able acquisition. T h e section d ealin g w ith am bulance w o rk is especially good . T h e b ook is w ritten in splendid style and the illustration s are first rate. T h e m ethod o f paym ent places it w ithin the reach o f a ll.”

A FREE BOOKLET.

C h r i s t i a n ].

TO

TH E

CAXTON

P U B L IS H IN G

COM PAN Y,

156, S u rrey S treet, L o n don , W .C .

D e a r S i r ,— Having read with interest and appreciation your article on “ Ambulance for its own sake,” I am prompted to offer you a suggestion for the falling away from the first stage of real enthusiasm. It is that many members discover too late, that conscientiously to go through with ambulance work takes more time than can well be spared from the paramount claims at home— and some of us don’t care to undertake a thing unless we can do so thoroughly. Then there are others, who find that nothing worth learn­ ing is to be had without proportionate effort, fall away rather than make a continuous study of ambulance work. Perhaps a gentle reminder on the formation of a brigade

Please send me, F r e e o f C h a r g e a n d w ithout a n y ob ligatio n on m y part : Illu strated B oo klet o n “ T h e M o d e r n P h y s i c i a n . ” P a rticu la rs o f you r offer to d eliv er the com plete w ork for a first p aym ent o f is. 6d., the balance to be paid for b y a few sm all m on th ly paym ents.

( 1)

(2)

N a m e ........................................................................................................................................................................

(Send this form or a p ostcard.)

A d d r e s s ..................................................................................................................................


! 78

— F I R S T

that only serious students, those who having put their hand to the plough meaning to go through with the work, are invited; then the half-hearted members might not join, and by an early retirement, or by a casual attendance, lay the cause open to so injurious a charge as that of “ Dry Rot.” Thanking you for your encouraging article,— Yours, &c., (Miss) O l i v e B u n t i n g . W H A T IS F I R S T A I D ? D e a r S i r , — In the February issue of your Journal I note a very interesting report of the Metropolitan Railway Compe­ tition for the Directors’ and Officers’ Shield. I hope you will allow me space to comment on “ Viva voce 5,” Give the measurements of an ordinary stretcher. Now I must ask honestly is this “ first aid ?” Is it in the slightest degree material in a case of accident to know to the exact half inch the size of the stretcher on which a sufferer is removed. But this is not my reason for raising the point so much as my contention that it is such items as these that deters would-be ambulance men from taking up the work at all, and to a much greater extent does it deter many would-be competition men from entering a team. If the competitions cannot be confined to practical and useful first aid, then it is time they were discontinued. This type of question is far too frequent, and simply means “ learn your book from end to end like a parrot, or you may be caught napping.” It does not tend to make competitions popular, but much the reverse.— Yours, &c., O l d No. 10, S.J.A.B. [W e will admit that asking the size of a stretcher in compe­ titions is not exactly first aid, but it is necessary for “ first aiders ” to know the size of the apparatus, for in cases of trans­ port through narrow passages, &c., it may save a considerable amount of time.— E d . “ F.A.” R E M E D A L W O R SH IP. As the controversy upon this subject was first raised by my sending you a cutting from the Daily Express with com­ ments, as I have remained silent since, I should like to say something upon the comparison of war medals with ambulance medals. In a great many cases the latter medal has been earned far more than the war medal, as those that were in the South African war will tell you, many wearing that decoration have never seen South Africa. To sum up, the war medal is a reward for knowledge and courage when taking life, and to defend our country ; the ambulance medal is a reward for knowledge and courage and presence of mind when trying to save life, and help suffering humanity. I am an ex-service man of the Royal Marines, still liable to serve in the Reserve, and I cannot see that it is “ too funny” t o compare one medal with the other in a good many cases, for services rendered for the benefit of all.— Yours, &c.,

A I D

-

March, 1913.

WEDDING PRESENTS TAALlFETmE.UST

Showroom s :

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P

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THERE

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.

LIM IT TO A M B U L A N C E T R A IN IN G ? D E A R S i r , — As I peruse the pages of “ F. A.” month by month I perceive, among the many deeply interesting and wellwritten articles, essays, &c., the constant prevalence of that drifting towards complication in ambulance training and instruction which causes me to think that perhaps some of your readers may have arrived at the same opinion as myself, and asked themselves the question “ Is there a limit to ambulance training In the original manual arranged by the late Peter Shepherd, M.B., in October, 1878, for the use of the ambulance classes then being organised in all parts of England, we are told that ambulance instruction means becoming familiar and practising some plain rules by non-professional persons to enable them to render immediate aid in cases of accident or sudden illness which occur in our daily life; the whole is grouped under eight headings, with a total of forty-one subjects, including carrying patients, &c. T o me it seems that anyone who can prove they have completely mastered all that original manual contains had quite enough to remember as a volunteer, and all that might reasonably be required of a thorough going “ first aider.”— Yours faithfully, E r n e s t Ja m e s R a c k w it z )

125-126, FENCHURCH STREET. E.C 188. OXFORD STREET. LONDON. W

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Already in its 4th Edition, including a cabled message from Australia for 500 copies. It records in a fascinating yet practical manner the experiences, in both hemispheres, of the compiler, C

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Splendidly illustrated from photos ; 40 quarto pages, exceptionally well printed, and being sold at 1/- net. for the benefit of the Firemen’s Benevolent Fund of the London Private Fire Brigades’ Association (45 brigades, with 1,000 members). To be had at the Publication Dept., Memorial Hall, Farringdon Street, London. Postage 2^d. extra, carriage free for 10 or more copies. Orders, with remittance, promptly attended to.


FIRST AID.

The Independent Journal for the Ambulance and Fire Services. Conducted b y A R T H U R No. 226. — V o l . X I X ,

[N ew

S e rie s .]

APR IL,

B.

DALE,

1913.

M.J.I. P« ICE t w o p e n c e .

{E n u re d a t s t a n o n ,™ ' H aii.\

[2 /6 P e r

A nn u m , P o st

F ree.

whom he probably places himself in loco parentis, and by

To Our Readers. A s it is the w ish and desire o f the ProDrietors to m ake this Journal as instructive and en tertain in g as possible, correspondents in all parts o f the country are asked to g iv e it a ll the h elp th ey can. Superintendents o f C o rp s and O fficers o f D ivision s o f the S t. John A m b ulan ce B rig ad e, O fficers o f the R o y a l A rm y M ed ical C orps (T errito rials), the V o lu n teer A m b u lan ce S ch o o l o f Instruction, and C h ie f O fficers o f F ire B rigades w ill, it is hoped, do their best to m ake it k n o w n am ongst the m em bers o f their respective organisations, and w ill also send for publication their official new s and notices. S u g g e s­ tions are in vited for Prize Co m petition s and other m atters w hich w ill advan ce the interest o f the Journal. W e p articu larly desire to ask our correspondents to be b rie f and to the point in any com m unications th ey m ay send us for publication. C orrespondents sending in photos are u rgen tly requested to state on the b ack o f the same the nam e o f the in dividual or the C o rps or B r ig a d e and g iv e also the nam e and address o f the sender. W e beg to advise our readers that w e do not pay for photographs o r cop y sent, unless previously agreed upon in w riting.

“ F ir s t A id ” Is p u b lish ed on th e 2 0 th of th e m on th.

so doing takes upon himself all those attach to such a position.

liabilities

which

Apart from the legal relationship of the officers and men, it is important to look at their position with regard to third parties.

Supposing that an officer gives an order

to his men, and in the course of its execution a third party suffers injury, is the officer under any liability for such injury?

It would seem not, because they are not in the

position of master and servant, and their relationship at law would be simply that o f one man asking another to do an act gratuitously.

Again in the case presupposed, what

is the position of the man who actually causes the injury ? His liability is neither greater nor less than that of any ordinary individual, and the law of tort would apply to him, and the fact that he was carrying out an order of an officer of the his position.

Brigade would make no difference to

It would seem that a member is responsible to a third person if, by his negligent or wrongful treatment of a

EDITORIAL.

case,

B y this title we do not mean to deal Insurance. with the

recently passed Insurance Act,

but a reader has asked us to give our opinion as to the legal liability which the rank and file and the officers of the S.J.A.B . may have as members of that body when on duty, and he calls our attention to the

such person should suffer further injuries arising

. out of such treatment, notwithstanding that the services are gratuitous, the

law considering that a person who

volunteers his assistance will render a effect an injury.

service and not

This liability, of course, apply to all

“ first a id e r ” which includes members o f the R A .M .C R .A .M .C J T .) , Red Cross V . A . D ’s, etc.

fact that the B oy Scouts Association is at present making provisions to insure its Scoutmasters against their liabilities. W e have consulted a London lawyer on this matter, and he advises us that so far as his investigations carried him, he could not find any statutory or other authority which affects the question of such liability. Notwithstanding the trend of modern legislation to make all those who have any control of others responsible to them for any accident which may happen to them in the course of their employment, it has not so far been extended

as to make the liability apply to officers of a

voluntary

organisation such as the S .J.A .B .

T here is no

doubt a considerable difference in the respective positions o f a Superintendent and a Scoutmaster, for the latter has under his control persons who are in law infants, and to

Between 1,000 and 1,200 male members of the St John Am bulance Brigade, drawn from various parts of South Wales and Monmouthshire, are arranging to attend a fourteen day’ camp at Porthcawl between July 27th and August the 9th next. Th is is the first occasion upon which such a large collective training of ambulance men has been held in any part of the country. A site near the Rest has been selected for the encampment. During the training the men will be instructed in the selection of sites fo°r encampment, the preparation of wagons for conveyance of stck and wounded, sanitation, training in first aid and nursing and cooking, &c. During the last few day’s it is expected that Colonel J. C. Culling, the deputy-director of the Medical Service for the Western District, will attend the camp. It is probable that about 200 nursing sisters con­ nected with the voluntary aid detachments of St John Am bulance Brigade will also go into camp at Porthcawl prior to the men’s encampment.


182

— F I R S T

AID.

-

April, 1 9, 3

done the forms will be returned and correspondence will be delayed.

DUTY ROSTER. D E P U T Y CO M M ISSIO N ER :

L IE U T .-C O L .

LEES

HALL. MAY,

1913.

Sunday Duty, St. Paul’s Cathedral. Sunday, 4th.— No. 48 Division. „ n t h .— No. 22 „ „ 18th.— No. 1 „ 25th.— No. 41 „ Parade 10 a.m. as per small orders. Key from St. John’s Gate. The attention of Officers and members-in-charge is drawn to the alteration in time of parade ; this is being tried experi­ mentally during the summer months. Reliefs can be arranged if so desired, provided that there is always a senior member in charge. B U G L E B A N D P R A C T IC E . Friday 3th, 17th and 31st, Headquarters 8 p.m. All members are urged to keep up their attendance for practice for the Annual Review, which will probably take place on July 12th. RE -EX A M IN A TIO N S. It appears that many members of the Corps who were unable to attend their Divisional Re-examination have since had no opportunity of re-qualifying ; until they have done so they must not be allowed to turn out for public duty. Officers and other members in charge should at once arrange with the Divisional Surgeon for him to re-examine these members as soon as possible. IN S P E C T IO N OF D IV IS IO N A L BOOKS. Divisional books which have not been submitted must be brought to Headquarters by secretaries at once on Tuesday or Thursday evenings between 8 and 10 p.m. ANNUAL RETURN OF D R ILLS AN D D U T IE S B.F. 3. In order to keep the records complete in this District, it is necessary that one copy of B.F. 3 should be sent in to the Deputy-Commissioner each half-year, viz., 31st March and 30th September. At the end of the year B.F. 3 for the 12 months must accompany the B.F. 2 for the Chief Commissioner in accordance with B.O. 219. GOOD F R ID A Y FARES. Officers and members in charge of Divisions will please ascertain and collect the fares due and forward postal order to the District Treasurer as soon as possible in order that this account may be settled up. Fares Officers, 7d.; sergeants and rank and file, 3^d. CLA IM S FOR S E R V IC E BADGES, M E D A LS AN D BARS. Claims should now be made on B.F. 9 for all service badges due up to 30th September, 1912. Applications for medals or bars due up to the end of June, 1913, must be made before 5th May, otherwise they cannot be got through this year. Applications must be accompanied by a record of service (see G.R., page 21, par. 38). A special form has now been drawn up for this purpose ; apply for B.F. 4 with the B. s/m A form. FORMS AN D CORRESPO N D EN CE. The attention of Officers and other members in charge of Divisions has repeatedly been drawn to the rule that the men’s and nurses’ numbers must be given on all forms and in corres­ pondence which refers to individuals. In future if this is not

HONORARY SERGEAN T AND SECRETARY. The H.S badge should be worn on the chevrons of the great coat as well as on the chevrons of the patrol jacket. O P E N S P A C E D U T Y , M A Y 12th, 1913. 51 Addington Hills ... 51 3/3 ^ 13 Alexandra Palace ... • 13 & 25 4/s 2 44 Barnes Common (2 stations) 44 (Ken. section) 4/s 21 24 2/s 14 24 Battersea P a r k .............. 30 Blackheath ............... 16,30, & 47 4/s 1 7 Bostal Woods .............. 7 & 49 3/s 19 45 Brockwell P a r k .............. 45 2/s 10 21 Bromley ... ... ... 21 __ _ 2 Chingford, Forest Hotel 2 & 10 4/s 1 33 „ Rising Sun ... 33 & 6 4/s 8 29 n Napier Arms 29 3/s n 15 „ Robin Hood 15 & 6 3/s 8 24 Clapham Common ... 24 & 38 2/s 10 23 Crystal Palace .............. 23 ->/s c 5N „ 5N — 5 30 Downhill P a r k ............... 30 _ _ 37 Ealing Common ... ;.. 37 2/s 2 40 Epping Forest, Wake Arms 40 2/s 8 60 „ Theydon Bois 60 2/s 24 5 Hackney Marshes ... 5 2/s 1 46 Hainault Forest ... ... 46 2/s 15 20 Hampstead Heath, Upper station 20 3/s 2 9 „ Lower „ 9 3/3 2 20 „ Golder’s Hill 20 2/S l6 20 „ Garden Suburb 20 2/S 16 54 Hampton Court Palace... 54 2/S 55 Hanwell Bridge ... ... 55 56 Hendon Flying Ground... 56 7 2 3 1 Hyde Park ... ... 1 2/S 18 54 Kew Bridge ... ... 54 2/S IO 65 Mitcham Common ... 65 2/S — 65 ,1 Figg’s Marsh... 65 2/S — 54 Old Deer Park, Richmond 54 2/S 14 22 Parliament Hill ... ... 22 2/S 6 38 Peckham Rye ... ... 38 2/S 9 17 Putney Heath ............. 17 2/S 7 22 22 Regent’s Park ............. 2/S 6 62 Riddles Down ... ... 62 7 Southend... ... ... 7(S’end section) — — 7 South Mill Fields ... 7 2/s 11 29 Walthamstow Am. Station 29 2/s 11 19 Wandsworth Common ... 19 2/s 20 4 Wanstead F l a t s ............. 4 4/s 17 52 Welsh Harp, Hendon ... 52& 6 2/s 6 17 Wimbledon Common ... 17 2/s 7 60 Woodford ... ... 60 2/s 11 19 Wormwood Scrubs ... 19 3/5 2 (Signed) Headquarters

LEES

HALL, Deputy-Commissioner.

St. John’s Gate, Clerkenwell, E.C.

T h e Cleckheaton Division have held a very successful whist drive and dance, and added ^ 7 to their funds. On the Thursday following this event Supt. Charlesworth gave a lantern lecture on the Order of St. John.

T h e members of No. 63 Division (Messrs. W. H. Smith and Son) held their first annual dinner at the Bed. ford Head Hotel, Maiden-lane, W.C ., on March 29thAbout 56 uniformed members sat down to dinner under the chairmanship of the founder of the division, Lieut.-Col. A. D. Acland. Supt. Wallis gave an interesting account of the doings of the division since its establishment.


April, 1913.

An

— F I R S T

E f f i c e n t A m b u l a n c e S e r v i c e for A c c id e n t s a n d O th e r C a s u a ltie s in S t r e e t s and P u b lic P l a c e s in London.* By

S IR W IL L IA M J. C O L L I N S , M .D ., M.S., B.Sc. ( L o n d .), F .R .C .S . ^ E n g .). ( Continued Jrom page 1 7 1 ).

O n August 2nd, I questioned the H o m e Secretary as to the proposed conference when he adumbrated the possible appointment of a small Committee to take evidence and report. On December 3rd, 1906, as nothing had been done, I again inquired what action the H o m e Office was taking in the matter and was informed that the appointment of a small Committee was imminent. Accordingly, on Decem ber 7th, 1906, Mr. Gladstone (then H om e Secretary) appointed a Departmental C o m ­ mittee consisting of Sir Kenelm Digby, the late Lord Stamford and myself “ to inquire as to the provision for dealing with cases of accident and sudden illness occurring in streets and public places within the Metropolis, and to report whether any, and, if so, what improvements in ambulance provision are necessary or desirable, and how they could be best effected with due regard to efficiency and economy.” A second stage of enquiry was thus embarked upon and any executive action accordingly postponed. W e held twenty-four meetings, heard thirty-two witnesses, collected a vast amount of information from medical men, police, hospital, and municipal authorities, from at home and abroad, visited Manchester and Liverpool to inspect their services and reported very fully on March 1st, 1909. T h e unanimous finding of the Committee was that “ the present system is gravely defective and results in much preventible detriment and suffering by reason of unsuitable means of transport.” T h e ' . evidence showed that 60 per cent, o f all cases of street casualties- conveyed to hospital were transported/ V)fEerwi 5g~lhan by litter or ambulance. Moreover street' accidents hatT increased 62“ per cent, while the Committee had been sitting. Outside the City area the telephone was not used to summon aid. In more than 25 per cent, of cases conveyed to hospital otherwise than by litter fault was found with the mode of conveyance and it was shown that in serious cases more than one-third of the sufferers were transported by means likely to be prejudicial, that the unsuitable cab was still largely utilised through actual harm was attributed to its use in one out of every three of the more serious cases. Evidence was given of remarks by Coroners and of riders to verdicts at, inquests, reflecting upon the injuries and fatal results of the mode of convey­ ance of persons knocked down in the streets of London. W e were told of a case of fractured spine conveyed on a spring cart, a fractured skull taken to hospital by the police in a ca-t, of cases of fractured pelvis conveyed in cabs, of cases of fractured legs transported by the police in vans and cabs. W e were informed that in a tram smash, at Highgate, in which twenty-three persons were injured, all were conveyed to hospitals in carts or by improvised arrangements as the wheeled litter arrived too late. W e were told of cases of poisoning and of parturition found in public places which had been prejudiced by lack of proper means of conveyance; of a serious case of cerebral hsecnorrhage injuriously affected by removal in a cab ; of a * L ectu re d elivered

at the L o n d on P o ly te ch n ic

1913-

F eb ru ary

17th ,

AID. — ruptured'varicose’ vein with profuse htemorrhage increased by a tight proximal bandage applied by the police carried to hospital by two men with his legs dangling down. Our investigations in fact amply confirmed the report of the London County Council made 7 years previously as to the out o f date, haphazard, unsystematic and seriously defective methods obtaining outside