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Biogas Magazine | Edition 13 | 1

magazine | Edition 13 | 2020

Addressing Energy Poverty in Rural India through Integration of Clean Technologies - A perspective: Page 12

Rethinking curitiba’s urban mobility: Page 22

A succinct roster towards furthering prospects of CBG in India: Page 40


Biogas Magazine | Edition 13 | 2


Biogas Magazine | Edition 13 | 3


Biogas Magazine | Edition 13 | 4

Index IBA News IBA’s commitment towards leapfrogging the prospects in the biogas/bio-CNG industry


International Corner Pragmatic policy - supported ecosystem - key to unlock the true potential of biogas/bio-CNG/ CBG/ RNG industry


Rethinking curitiba’s urban mobility


National Corner Addressing Energy Poverty in Rural India through Integration of Clean Technologies - A perspective


Present status and essence of standards in the Indian biogas


ecosystem A succinct roster towards furthering prospects of CBG in India


Research Corner Combined production of high yield


BioCNG and biofertilizer

Published by

Financed by

Coordinated by

In-Cooperation with

www.biogas-india.com www.biogas-india.com

Biogas Magazine | Edition 13 | 5

Foreword We welcome our readers to the 13th edition of Biogas magazine and sincerely hope for the safety in these unprecedented times! We would also like to extend our heartfelt thanks to our wide spectrum of readers from all across the world. The present edition includes findings from one of the exhaustive survey floated by the Indian Biogas Association, which emphasizes on various aspects to make Biogas plants-a viable option. Also, current void and imperative need of standards are some of the key findings from the survey. IBA is presently working on a strategy to ensure the proper acceptance of liquid slurry as well. It is noteworthy that the solid part of the outlet slurry of Biogas plant is now recognized by FCO under “Fermented Organic Manure”. The current volume covers a glimpse of our stepwise efforts with NITI Aayog and other Ministries to particularly invigorate the present policy framework and streamline the credit/financial requirements, in addition to addressing other deterrents associated with the industry. IBA is coming up with the E-Bioenergy Expo in February, 2021, with the support of the German Biogas Association. The objective of the online expo is to enhance the visibility of the Bio-energy sector of India on global front. Further, IBA is all set to welcome the unsung heroes of the sector, and recognize their contribution through the E-Award ceremony. Applications are being solicited in this regard and more information can be explored at our website www.biogas-india. com. This edition discusses various prospects related to

innovation in utilization of relatively complex and uncommon feedstock, essence of mixing in efficient process operation, and covers the international best practices. The approach of technological evolution of the solutions applied to Bio-energy can be direct, which includes the ability to predict the available resource, and the cost battle to ensure a sustainable, predictable and competitive edge. Energy poverty and the circular economy can go hand in hand, if we keep the Biogas in centre from solution perspective. This will also ensure that the Government of India can save forex outflow, comply with Paris agreement, generate local environment and above all the “Aatmanirbhar Bharat” dream can turn into reality. We have also decided to make the magazine more informative and cover the experiences from other segments in bioenergy sector to keep everyone motivated and updated about the latest technical advancement. We request you to take care of yourself in present tough time. Stay Home and Stay Safe. Happy digesting!

Gaurav Kedia

Chairman Indian Biogas Association

Meet the Jury!


Biogas Magazine | Edition 13 | 6

IBA E- Awards

Dr. Claudius da Costa Gomez

Prof. Dr.-lng habil, Jadran Vrabec

Padmashri Janak Palta McGilligan

MD, German Biogas Association

Technical University of Berlin

Social Worker

Dr. S. C. Sharma

Mentor & Independent Advisor, Energy & Climate Change, Fmr

Prof. P. K. Mishra IIT BHU

Shri N. V, Ramnan MD- Ananta Investments & Operating Co Ltd, Ex-President, DSM

Prof. Amit Garg IIM Ahmedabad

Officer on Special Duty (Energy & Climate Change) to Govt of India

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Last date of Registration October 20, 2020

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Waste segregation means biogas to power success. Municipal solid waste with high organic and moisture contents, are suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process to recover biogas for energy and digestate which can be used as fertilizers or for soil amendments. One of the most reasonable ways that biogas energy can save businesses money is by reducing their energy bills. Companies can install biogas based cogeneration plants using Jenbacher gas engine technology, and this source can cover a significant part or even all of their energy needs.

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Biogas Magazine | Edition 13 | 8

IBA’s commitment towards leapfrogging the prospects in the biogas/bioCNG industry IBA’s participation in meeting organised by NITI Aayog n 24 September 2020, a meeting on “Future prospects of Compressed BioGas projects in India” was organised through video conferencing under the chairmanship of Shri. V. K. Saraswat, Member, NITI Aayog. The called upon meeting saw participation of several Ministries, its bodies (like MNRE, MoPNG, PESO, and IREDA), and many industry stakeholders. After a short presentation on overview of the industrial ecosystem by NITI Aayog, the meeting forum was left open to inputs from industry stakeholders.


IBA, in continuation to its series of earlier communication to NITI Aayog, represented the industry and reiterated the various challenges, which presently is jeopardising industry growth. Also, the desired intervention sought from different Ministries featuring in the biogas/ bio-CNG ecosystem was clearly communicated. A follow-up letter upon the meeting has been sent by IBA to NITI Aayog along with other concerned Ministries. Amongst others, the primary focus areas of discussion revolved around developing a robust financial framework for funding of CBG projects, establishing fair price regimen for bio-CNG in tandem with input variables, mainly supply chain related issues and setting up of Bio-mass Resource Bank, overcoming the inverted GST structure issue, introducing the gas blending quota, levering upon the existing gas grid infrastructure, and strengthening the organic manure distribution network. All the participating Ministry bodies also submitted their observations w.r.t its role and outlook towards providing the needful stimulus to address the concerns raised by the industry stakeholders. Overall, the meeting can be considered as a precursor to much-needed paradigm shift towards the inter-Ministerial coordination required to harmonise the biogas/bio-CNG ecosystem.

Survey conducted at behest of MoHUA IBA, in its pursuit to ensure the growth of the biogas industry, has been working closely with different Ministries featuring in the biogas eco-system. Recently, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) has been involved in the process of preparing an Advisory on “On-site and Decentralized Anaerobic treatment of Municipal Organic Waste”. The intent is to highlight the salient features of onsite and decentralized organic treatment methods and units, currently being used. So, at behest of the Ministry, IBA circulated a structured questionnaire amongst its members to solicit relevant information in order to comprehensively consolidate the requisite information sought by the Ministry. IBA initiative for extending MDA to ‘Fermented Organic Manure’ The latest notification dated 13 July, 2020 by the Ministry of Agriculture has included ‘Fermented Organic Manure’ under the ambit of Fertilizer Control Order. With reference to this, IBA wrote to the Ministry requesting extension of Marketing Development Assistance (MDA) to recently included ‘Fermented Organic Manure’, as is already available for the ‘City Compost’. Presently, MDA in the form of fixed amount of Rs. 1500/- per ton of city compost for scaling up production and consumption of the product is being provided by Dept of Fertilizers. It has also been put forth in the letter that marketing assistance needs to be ensured from the Fertilizer companies towards co-marketing of ‘organic fermented manure’ along with synthetic fertilizers through their dealers’ network and other related marketing channels. Through the letter, IBA emphasised upon the fact that with ever depleting soil health, usage of Organic Fermented Manure has become indispensable, and ‘organic fermented manure’ from biogas plants is better poised for sustained soil health as compared to applying city compost to arable/horticulture fields.


Biogas Magazine | Edition 13 | 9

Organising panel discussion at REI-E-Expo On 2nd Sept, 2020, Indian Biogas Association (IBA) organised a panel discussion on “Biofuels: An essential de-carbonisation option based on circular economy”. The Panel was a part of Renewable Energy India (REI) E-Expo organised by Informa Markets and was moderated by Mr. Gaurav Kedia, Chairman-IBA. The Panellists in the forum consisted of Dr. A. R. Shukla, President, IBA, Mr. Bharadwaj Kummamuru, Executive Director, World Bioenergy Association (WBA), Ms. Tamar Roitman, Executive Manager, Brazilian Biogas Association, Dr. Sachin Kumar, Deputy Director, SS-NIBE, Dr. Muhammad Abdul Kholiq, Chairman, Indonesian Biogas Association, and Mr. Eddie Cooke, Vice Chairman, Southern African Biogas Industries Association (SABIA). The discussion primarily focused on how for an overall development and sustainability of the biofuels in India, a developed technology and policy framework for advanced biofuels is a must. Biofuels surely can help in de-carbonisation and provide the foundation of circular and waste-to-energy based economy to ensure a greener future of the country. The conference was attended by over 150 participants spanning wide gamut of stakeholders looking to learn the nuances of bioenergy ecosystem. The attendees through the e-discussion got a glimpse of prospects of bio-CNG in India, current status of the SATAT scheme, international biogas scenario and practices, potential of agro-waste in harnessing biogas, and importance of waste segregation along with its supply chain. IBA geared up for organising ‘Virtual Biogas Training Tour’ Amidst the pandemic situation, which has deeply affected the economy word-wide, it is heartening to learn of India gearing up for the paradigm shift towards being self-dependent through the “Aat-


manirbhar Bharat Abhiyan” i.e., “Self-reliant India Campaign”. At this critical juncture, it’s important that appropriate capacity and awareness building exercises are conducted on regular basis so as to retain the momentum of the industry in these unprecedented times. Further any effort towards dispelling information asymmetry prevailing amongst the industry stakeholders is a huge welcome. The Virtual training tour is a befitting initiative of IBA in the above context. The digital tour is being organized in coordination with the German Biogas Association (GBA) and Brazil Biogas Association (BBA). The Virtual Biogas Training Tour is slated to be conducted on October 07 & 08, 2020. On the first day of the digital event, the virtual tour aims to focus upon elementary concepts of Biogas / Bio-CNG, associated contemporary technologies, existing policy frameworks of India, and the Indian Biogas Ecosystem. The second day shall entail exploring the overall scenario of biogas in India, Germany, and Brazil, along with step-wise process/plan towards foraying into a successful biogas venture. Furthermore, IBA is also ensuring the recognition of ‘Unsung heroes in biogas field’ in the E-Awards ceremony to be organised in Nov’20. The E-Awards, an initiative of IBA, intends to highlight some of the exemplary achievements in the industry and globally share these success stories.

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Biogas Magazine | Edition 13 | 12

Addressing Energy Poverty in Rural India through Integration of Clean Technologies - A perspective


ndia has more than 650,000 villages and rural India is also facing energy poverty. An old fact still stands somewhat true, even though the scenario and numbers have changed. In 2018, World Bank had reported that India has world’s largest un-electrified population, and about 200 million people in India still do not have access to electricity. A village in India is considered electrified, if 10% of its households and all public buildings in the village (schools, panchayat offices) are connected to the grid. The national government, had identified about 18,452 villages without electricity during the energy audit and our honourable Prime Minister promised 100% electrification in 2018. In fact, we did achieve 100% electrification and it is a massive accomplishment by the government. However, a closer look at what it means to be “electrified” reveals how much further India has to trangress in reality. According to official data, only about 1,417 of India’s 18,452 villages, or 7.3% of the total, have 100% household connectivity, and about 31 million households are still reported be in darkness.

Government has huge targets of cent percent electrification of more villages in the next few years. Meeting this target itself may not be adequate to declare a victory over energy poverty in the country. The source of electricity in general also plays an important role in meeting the energy needs of the rising population particularly from sustainability and climate change perspective. India has a 23.5% share of renewable energy capacity of the overall energy produced (from coal, large hydro, gas, nuclear and diesel) and Figure 1 further depicts the share of each type of alternative energy’s share in the total renewable energy mix. Among these renewable energy resources, waste to power is just 0.2%. This waste-to-power includes biological conversion and biogasification routes. Biological converion routes such as biomethane production are clearly underexploited for power generation. The reasons for this are manifold and voluminous; including absence of centralized, well-engineered sewer systems


Biogas Magazine | Edition 13 | 13

for collection of sewage wastewater, and centralised collection, sorting and management of solid organic wastes (agriculture, food wastes and sometimes even food processing wastes (region specific industries close to rural areas e.g.). This contributes to indiscriminate littering and disposal of wastes, pollution of land as well as local water bodies, aesthetic nuisance and as a potential carrier of immuno-respiratory illnesses. For example, it was estimated that rural India generates liquid waste (greywater) of the order 15,000 to 18,000 million liters and solid waste (organic/recyclable) 0.3 to 0.4 million metric tons every day. It is also a well known fact, that these waste including agricultural wastes, animal manure, food waste and liquid wastewater (sewage) are potential resources for energy production in the form of biogas/biomethane. In rural areas, these three resources indepedently may not be

sufficient for continuous full-scale production of biomethane, but as a combination could meet the energy demands or at least partially based on the efficiency of the technology employed. Conversion of solid organic waste to electricity along with well established biogas production technology could be employed, whereas for liquid wastes, constructed wetland technology (Figure 2) (based on phytoremediation) could be utilized for on-site treatment of wastewater in villages. Treated wastewater is sufficiently clean to be reused for agriculture purpose as it contains right proportion of nutrients (N, P, K) that can enhance the crop’s growth. Furthermore, the biomass generated at the constructed wetland as seen in Figure 2, can be used as feed-stock for biomethane production. This circular usage of biomass, solid wastes and wastewater enables efficient nutrient recycling in the environment in addition to providing energy (Figure 3). The energy produced

5.70% 0.20%



Small hydro power Biomass Power Solar Power Wind Power


Waste to Power

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3


Biogas Magazine | Edition 13 | 14

i.e., biogas can be converted to electricity using a generator, which can then be used to pump the wastewater into the agricultural field either for lighting the streetlamps or injected into the local grid for village level electrification. If conversion is not possible it can be simply piped to a set number of households as cooking gas. Such an integrated solution of constructed wetlands and biomethane production (Figure 3) could become a potential option for villages to manage their solid organic wastes on-site, treat their sewage water on-site, generate their own electricity and be self-sufficient in terms of energy needs as well for monitoring their environmental health. This solution would also create a very small employment to the locals for the maintenance of biomethanation plant and for the constructed wetland based on the sizes installed. Therefore, to uplift the quality of life of rural India and to make Indian villages “Self-sufficient and perhaps even “Smart” we need to promote, install and intensify already developed clean sanitation and energy production technologies. In the Indian context, solid and liquid waste management, meeting energy needs of rural village systems is one of the seven key components of sanitation initiatives and has been rightly emphasized and focused in the Govt. of India’s flagship programme of Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) and the country’s most respected, “Swachch Bharath Mission”.

Dr. Padma Shanthi J Consultant, Agri, Food & Bioeconomy Catalyze-group

Aisin Automotive Haryana Pvt. Ltd. Biogas to Electricity Generation System

Benefits of Aisin Biogas power generation system:  Availability of power for 24x7 (1.5Kw per hour per engine)  Reduces reliance on fossil fuels & Pollution Improves living standards in rural areas.  Produces good quality enriched manure to improve soil fertility.  Effective and convenient way for sanitary disposal of organic wastes (food, animals, plant…...)  Improving the hygienic conditions & reduces global warming

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Highlights : Aisin is providing a complete solution for Biogas Power generation system (Digester, Desulphurizer, Generators) for Grid & off-Grid applications for animal waste Generated biogas can be utilized for electrification, cooking, heating, etc. The CO2 from exhaust can be utilized for photosynthesis inside green houses The heat coming out from the engine can be utilized for heating the digester at winter conditions Aisin Automotive Haryana Pvt Ltd, Plot No.7,8 & 9, Sector-30B, IMT Rothak, Rohtak (Haryana), India Contact: Rejeesh, Mob: +91-7082828250 // E-Mail: rejeesh.k@aisin-ahl.co.in // https://aisinindia.com Demo Site, Bangalore : https://goo.gl/maps/3RitBBfu9M12


Mixers-pulse of anaerobic digester ixing of things is an everyday act of human life. Our day begins with either mixing coffee with milk or honey with water and ends with fixing of our favourite drink or cocktail.


In our daily life, we use various tools to infuse, like be it-spoon, a spatula, even our hands depending upon material/substrate. We have acquired enough experience and knowledge to mix the things. We exactly know what to and to what ex-

Biogas Magazine | Edition 13 | 16

tent the materials are to be mixed to set a perfect desired recipe. Industrial Mixing Coming to industry level homogenous mixing we are still learning, exploring and recording the experiences for our future generations. Advanced countries like Germany are ahead of us as they have successfully completed many experiments and gained enough knowledge to share it with rest of the world. Germany has already built over 9000 biogas plants and are operating in com-


Biogas Magazine | Edition 13 | 17

Discerning the apt mixing arrangement

mogeneously. Likewise, we have to consider type of digester, substrate, viscosity, solid percentage and other chemical characteristics to choose the correct mixer. Depending on the material its swimming and sinking layers will form in digesters. In any Anaerobic digester, if we have to break swimming layers we should use top-entry agitator. These long shaft agitators will have multiple propellers on different levels of the shaft which will break and avoid formation of swimming layers. If we have to break sinking layers, we should use side entry or submersible agitators. These side-entry agitators needs lesser maintenance and are low in rpm as compared to submersible type. Also the connected load power is very less, along with being very efficient to break and avoid formation of sinking layers.

mercially viable manner. Their systems are well equipped from feed stock availability to supply of gas and utilization of fertilizer. We may adopt their best practices. Long Shaft Agitators side wall and roof installation As an example, if we try to mix a jar of honey with spoon or stirrer at higher rpm it will be hallow in the centre and honey will stay stick to the surroundings but, if we stir the same honey with same component in lower rpm it will be mixed ho-

Arma Mix COMPACT installed at a concrete wall

www.biogas-india.com Placement of the mixer in digester and rpm of the mixer plays a vital role in achieving targeted production of gas. Types of Agitators 1. Long-shaft agitators with multiple propellers 2. Side entry agitators 3. Paddle mixers 4. Submersible agitators Long-shaft agitators with multiple propellers These agitators are equipped with multiple propellers at different levels of the shaft. With a single mixer, we can mix at two to three levels. They are used to prepare substrates such as degradable raw materials, solid

Biogas Magazine | Edition 13 | 18 and liquid manure, grass clippings or food waste. All the way from the collection tank, pre-treatment pit, through the hydrolysis tank to the fermenter, post fermenter and final storage; the long-shaft agitators can be used everywhere. The agitators are suited for concrete, stainless steel or enamel tanks. Side entry agitators These agitators are installed from top or across side wall of the digester. Both the position and number of agitators will be depending on the size of the digester, material and other characteristics such as percentage of solid and viscosity.

VÄłay Kumar Lanka National Manager ARMATEC - FTS GmbH & Co. KG

Arma Mix TWIN (Long Shaft Agitator)

www.biogas-india.com The latest technology side entry agitators can also be adjusted for the degree of projection after installation. The pivot point of the mixer shaft will be at entry of the wall. This could be an additional advantage. These agitators are slow rpm agitators. Connected load is also very less as compared to other kind of agitators.

Biogas Magazine | Edition 13 | 19

Long Shaft Agitators side wall and roof installation

Paddle Mixers These are slow moving vertical or horizontal agitators with more mixing blades. They are particularly suitable for hydrolysis tanks or fermenters whose substrates have high dry matter content. RPM of these agitators can be as low as 10. Submersible agitators These agitators are designed for stirring liquids and sludges with fibre or solid components. These mixers are immersed in the substrate and runs at high rpm. They are very helpful to break the sinking layers in the digester. Depending on the substrate chemical characteristics or abrasive pH conditions, we may use these submersible type mixers with stainless steel housing.

Arma Mix Paddle agitator

Mixing technology is deceptively complex and can be difficult to understand for someone who is not well-versed. Mixer selection is a complex process as there are certain process goals that has to be achieved or material considerations that need to be taken into account and these requirements, can be much more difficult to ascertain. There are various kinds of agitators available in market depending on the process requirement we have to choose the right one.

ARMATEC - FTS GmbH & Co. KG Plot No. 45, Srinivas nagar, Nizampet, Hyderabad

Vijay Kumar Lanka vijayklanka@armatec-fts.de




Biogas Magazine | Edition 13 | 21

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Biogas Magazine | Edition 13 | 22

Rethinking curitiba’s urban mobility


he city of Curitiba in Brazil has a long history of sustainable development planning, and is responsible for creating concepts that helped shape the urban landscape, such as the creation of the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT). This is considered an urban mobility solution that redefined the adoption of wheel transportation modal, an idea pioneered by Curitiba. It has been spread and implemented in different cities worldwide, guaranteeing the capital of Paraná a seal for its innovativeness. However, in times when the consequences of climate change has proved to be a reality, there is a need for a new qualitative leap. Urban mobility is largely responsible for the emission of greenhouse gases in Curitiba: in the 2013 inventory statistics, it accounts for 72% of emissions. Curitiba’s institutional framework is strongly concerned with public transportation and environmental issues. There is an awareness regarding the need for coming up with disruptive proposals

in relation to the current model of public transport concession, as well as the logic behind the city’s mobility, in order to reduce emissions. The starting discussions point to the construction of a sustainable mobility system – Mobility as a Service (MaaS) – that is accessible on demand, and also combines shared mobility, autonomy and electrification with integrated systems for energy, public transportation and infrastructure. The current concession for public transportation in Curitiba expires in 2025; therefore, there are exactly six years left to develop a new, more sustainable model for mobility, and to create a favorable environment for its implementation. The current fleet consists of 1639 buses: 8.5% of this fleet is composed of Euro II vehicles, acquired between 1996 and 2003; 87.6% consists of Euro III vehicles, acquired from 2004 to 2011; and, from 2012 on, the Euro V vehicles were incorporated to the system, representing 3.9% of the fleet. The fleet also comprises 62 buses with


Biogas Magazine | Edition 13 | 23

low-emission technology, of which 26 are bi-articulated and 06 are articulated buses that run on B100 biodiesel, as well as 30 hybrid buses, 2 of which also operate with B100 biodiesel. The city’s goal is to obtain a public transportation concession model which allows the total replacement of the fleet’s energy matrix, from diesel to a low carbon-emission technology, in Curitiba and in the metropolitan region. The city’s objectives also include the structuring of a metropolitan management body responsible for the transportation system within the MaaS perspective. The total amount of emission attributed to public transportation in the last inventory was equivalent to 129,212 ton CO2eq, which represents 4% of all transportation emissions, or 6%, if other means of transportation, other than land transport, are considered – of these, air transport is quite representative. Such a percentage allows the identification of the high contribution of individual transportation to greenhouse gas emissions in Curitiba. Although public transportation’s 6% contribution may seem insignificant percentage-wise, public authorities are not exempt from the responsibility to invest in public transportation and new technologies. Not only it is their role to promote society’s engagement with the environmental cause; but also, only with new concepts for mass transportation it is possible to increase the attractiveness of the public transportation sys-

tem and, consequently, decrease the widespread use of individual transportation. There is much interesting information regarding this theme and it may well be a success case for the city, including as a vector of economic development. If the government does indeed move forward with the creation of a national electromo-

www.biogas-india.com bility platform, Curitiba has the right conditions to be one of the references. From the economic perspective, 56.4% (data from 2016) of the portfolio of Curitiba’s product exports are tied to the automobile and engineering industries, and thus, there are excellent assets installed for the development of an electromobility platform. Recently, the Federation of Industries of the State of Paraná (FIEP) inaugurated a Technology Center for hybrid and electric vehicles. This Center accelerates the modernization of industries in the country, especially in Curitiba and its metropolitan region, and trains professionals through short-, mediumand long-term courses, in addition to undergraduate and graduate technical courses for electromobility and hybrids.

Biogas Magazine | Edition 12 | 24 for three months in Curitiba. In addition to mass transit vehicles, other projects focused on the use of electric cars in the (i) City Hall’s fleet (Itaipu Binacional, Aliança Renault-Nissan and CEIIA, Ecoelectric Project, 2014) and (ii) electric taxi (BYD, City Hall and URBS, 2015). Curitiba is part of the Ministry of Regional Development’s Electromobility and has been indicating the need to compose a multidisciplinary work team, integrated with city technicians, with

The proposal to insert modals with low carbon emissions has been studied in the city since the 1980s, through the proposal for the system’s electrification via the insertion of the Trolleybus, a bus with electrical energy by overhead contact lines. Since then, various alternatives have

been studied, such as the implementation of VLT, Monorail and Metro; however, despite the proven efficiency, these actions were postponed due to their high costs of implementation. The first study, focused on electric buses (without catenaries), started in 1998, through a partnership between the Municipal Government of Curitiba and the Fiat automaker. In 2009, B100 vehicles that ran on 100% soy oil were implemented. In 2010, the city began testing hybrid buses (battery and diesel) in partnership with Volvo, which make up the fleet to this day. Volvo electric plug-in hybrid systems were also tested, and an agreement for the development of an articulated hybrid vehicle was signed between the Swedish and the local companies in 2014. On this same year, the Chinese BYD tested its fully electric articulated bus

the objective of reviewing its transportation system, both in terms of the service supply and of the concession model. There is an imperative need for the support of: consultants specialized in financial economic modeling, with know-how in public transportation and public management; professionals qualified for legal issues, especially Brazilian legislation regarding the issue of public concessions; and professionals involved in environmental and transportation technology, focusing on carbon emissions. Also important is the expertise in governance models for the new intended modeling, as well as the creation of a methodology that values the social gains origi-

Jéssica Serra de Freitas Janaina Camile Pasqual Lofhagen


Biogas Magazine | Edition 12 | 25

nated from the new proposal (improvement in air quality, in the inhabitants’ health, etc.).

junho de 2019. RUNGE, C. F., SENAUER, B.The ethanol bubble. 2007. Foreign

Such actions would provide opportunities for the requalification of the public transportation system, contributing to the reduction of urban mobility conflicts, in addition, providing a case study to guide urban mobility policy guidelines.

Affairs Journal and Folha de São Paulo. Disponível em <http:// www1.folha.uol.com.br/folha/mundo/ult94u106159.shtml> Acesso em 30 de junho de 2019. U.S. ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION (EIA). Different types of energy sources (or fuels) are used for transpor-

Important Links/ References:

tation in the United States. 2016. Disponível em <http://www.



tentável. 2018. Disponível em <https://www.mma.gov.br/

Acesso em 25 de julho de 2019.

cidades-sustentaveis/urbanismo-sustentavel/mobilidade-sustentável.html> Acesso em 13 de junho de 2019.

INSTITUTO AMBIENTAL DO PARANÁ (IAP). Inventário Estadual de Emissões Atmosféricas de Poluentes. 2013. Disponível


em < http://www.iap.pr.gov.br/arquivos/File/Monitoramen-

al de Transporte e de Mobilidade Urbana para Mitigação e


Adaptação à Mudança do Clima (PSTM). 2013. Disponível

ATM_versaofinal.pdf> Acesso em 5 de agosto de 2019.

em <https://www.mma.gov.br/images/arquivo/80076/Transporte.pdf> Acesso em 24 de junho de 2019. MINISTÉRIO DOS TRANSPORTES. Plano Setorial de Mobilidade e Transporte para Mitigação e Adaptação às Mudanças Climáticas. 2013. Disponível em <https://www.mma.gov.br/ images/arquivo/80076/Transporte.pdf>

Acesso em 30 de


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Biogas Magazine | Edition 13 | 27


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Combined production of high Yield BioCNG and biofertilizer Introduction: iogas has emerged as a strong contender of renewable technology to convert agricultural, animal, industrial and municipal wastes into electricity, and transport fuels. Current total biogas production in India stood at 2.07 billion m3/year. This is quite low compared to its biogas potential, which is estimated to be in the range of 29â&#x20AC;&#x201C;48 billion m3/year. Current Indian biogas system utilizes predominantly cow dung, food wastes, and poultry litter wastes.


India Biomass resources: India has 141 Million hectares of arable land producing over 700 Million tons/annum of biomass â&#x20AC;&#x201C; estimated surplus of 150 million tons/annum and another 50 million hectares of arable land is under mono cropping potential for short cycle cellulosic biomass. Cattle dung is estimated to be around 1000 million tons/annum from 300 million cows & buffaloes. Another 8 million tons per annum is from 500 million poultry birds. As well Indian urban population is reaching 550 milliion, which would generate more than 100 Million tons per annum of MSW. Utilizing these resources consciously can meet target of 29 to 48 billion m3/year. One important sector to be developed and improved in Indian transport sector is the diesel consumption segment. Diesel demand has reached a record high in 2019 in the country, resulting in intervention by government wherein it is consciously giving more importance to renewable energy sector to conserve the use of fossil fuels(ref) and increase countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s self-reliability. Even though, Indian economy took beating due to COVID 19 , and hopefully there will be upswing in 2021. The same trend of 2019 could be expected likely in case of diesel consumption, and that adversely impact the Indian economy. In this context, India need to reconsider developing efficiency in terms of bio-economic transport fuels; there are several options in form of bio-CNG, bio-ethanol, bio-hydrogen and bio-diesel / green diesel. These fuels

should be encouraged to build sustainable local economy. This will improve the economic and environment situation in both urban and rural economy as well increase the job opportunities in rural sector by providing stable income to farmers. This will also help achieve the target of cleaner energy mix, clean environment and of reduced CO2 emissions. India as well has policies for biogas (CBG) under Priority Sector Lending to provide

www.biogas-india.com expedited financial assistance to new projects. India has as well encouraged policy incentives to produce Bio-CNG as vehicular fuel; a minimum of 6000 cum biogas plants is required for 2400 kg Bio-CNG having buyback arrangement from oil marketing companies under SATAT program. Although government has good policies, there are barriers in terms of shortfall of robust supply chain for ambitious Indian target. To reach target of renewable bio economy of Bio-CNG, growing high yield biomass crops is necessary in land scarce and densely populated country. In that context, we are exploring Napier grass which looks very promising alternative biomass-crop for Indian situation Napier grass for biogas: Pennisetum purpureum and related hybrids (also known as Napier grass

Biogas Magazine | Edition 13 | 29 / Elephant grass / Uganda grass) are the species of perennial tropical grass native to the African grasslands. Advantages are low water and nutrient requirements, and therefore can make use of otherwise uncultivated lands. After planting, Napier grass grows vigorously and can reach 4 meters in 3 months. The stems of Napier grass are less juicy and highly fibrous. Napier grass is fast growing and has high annual productivity that depends on the climatic conditions, especially temperature and rainfall. Yields range from 120 to 180 Dry Matter/ha/year depending on the fertilizer inputs. In 1953, a cross was made in India between Napier and Bajra which is more succulent, leafy, fine-textured, palatable and drought resistant to combine these qualities with high yielding potential of Napier grass. The primary product of Hybrid Napier Co4 grass


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(for simplicity elsewhere in this document referred to as Napier grass) which can be used for animal fodder and production of biogas. It is a perennial grass that can be retained on field for 3 - 5 years. Napier is harvested for the first time after planting of 75 days. Subsequent harvest is done after 45 days of regrowth period or when the plants attain a height of 1½ meters. Annually, at least 6 to 8 cuts are possible. The fodder must be cut closer to the ground level for more profuse tilling. Napier grass has the best palatability and the highest nutritive value 45 days after harvesting and this is the envisaged plantation cycle. Hybrid Napier grass has a harvest of 450 tons/ha/ year of fresh matter (FM) on average if it is cultivated as a single crop. This is 56 tons of green fodder per hectare per harvest (cut) having nearly 20 to 23 % Dry Matter (DM) content. Napier can be cultivated as a single crop or intercrop with other fodder with a higher protein content or food crops. Harvesting is done continuously every 45 days for up to 5 years without replanting the grass. Nitrogen fertilizer is applied after every harvest and the grass is irrigated every 10 days. Cultivation is carried out continuous to keep the soil healthy and to control the weeds. Napier grass propagates vegetative by cutting stems consisting of at least 2 nodes and planting them with one node in the ground while the other

Dry matter

protrudes out of the soil. One hectare of Napier grass produces about 1.4 million stem cuttings during the first harvest which can be propagated on another 125 hectares of land. Our strategy is to proceed with stem cuttings in order to expand our plantation on other land plots. Another expansion strategy which will be explored is to supply stem cuttings to contract farmers, support them with inputs, management and technical back-up and buy Napier silage from them at predetermined price less provided inputs. When the clumps of Napier grass become too big, they are thinned (quartering) producing “seedlings” called slips for grass propagation. Like stem cuttings, the slips will be used to expand our own plantations. Napier grass slips can also be made by growing stem cuttings in pods and transplanting them to the fields when they have developed roots and stems. This reduces plant mortality associated with propagation through stem cuttings. Napier grass is cut for silage after harvesting. This is meant to reduce nutrient loses during feeding and to facilitate transportation and storage if there is such a need. Silage can be packed in propylene jumbo bags and sold fresh to the farmers. The proposed method is “cut & carry” which means the grass is harvested, cut for silage and sold for fodder; no stocks of Napier fodder are kept at the farm. 23 %

Crude Protein



0.88 %


Oxalates (Max)


0.24 %

2.97 % 58.00 % (without pretreatment)

Table 1 Source: Pasture Division, VRI, 2004 Napier Grass

Napier grass silage has all nutrients needed by livestock. Research has shown that Napier silage increases milk production in dairy cattle and weight gain in feedlot cattle. Table 1 shows an approximate nutritional value of hybrid Napier Co4 grasses. Hybrid Napier grass has the highest yield among all perennial forages and therefore gives the farmers the best value for money. Napier grass has a competitive edge over other fodder


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Hybrid Napier Grass

Napier Grass Stem Cutting

Napier Grass Silage

Napier Grass Fodder

products in price, quality and availability, farmers can avail more than 100000 rupees per acre per year which is much better prospect compared to conventional biocrops such as paddy, sugarcane, tobacco, ragi, ground nut etc. High yield biogas and bioCNG from Napier grass:Napier grass consists of moisture content of 77.74 % and ash approximately 3.18%. Based on the ultimate analysis from Thailand lab, the carbon, Hydrogen, nitrogen and Oxygen are 44.19 %, 6%, 2 % and 43.8 % respectively. Approximately carbon to Nitrogen ratio fits to 22, this is reasonable to develop mono-substrate bio-digestion after introducing pre-treatment strategies. Napier grass has protein, cellulose, lignin and hemi cellulose. As per chemical composition is concerned, there are certain challenges to convert all without good pre-treatment technology. There is very common as matured dilute acid, alkaline or hot-water pre-treatment technologies prevail in pulp and paper industries. The proposed methodology combine strategy to improve the digestibility of cellulosic biomass by converting to more

soluble sugars from the hemicellulose and cellulose part. As well our digester technology can be modularized with combining sequential stages after pre-treatment strategies with or without phase separation. The reactor design for anaerobic digestion is combined configuration of CSTR and UASB with novelty in internal baffle design for increasing microbial population. With this design modifications including three stage configurations, it can achieve high degree of conversion of cellulosic biomass. The target is to increase the biogas yield from a conventional CSTR digester which can yield 108 to 163 m3/ton of biogas. Thus, technology has high degree confidence of achieving with well controlled and designedbaffle biofilm reactor. A high degree conversion can also be provided with higher organic load by moving from mesophilic digester to thermophilic digestion; however, there is energy penalty of up to 15 % thermal energy consumption, which need to be supplied by burning portion of biogas. Biofertilizer: It is also proposed innovation to recover digestate slurry effluents after third stage


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Advantages of innovative biodigester configuration

m3 biogas/ton of Napier grass



With pre-treatment


With high surface reactor


Three stage biodigester coupled with high surface reactor


D. Hari Babu Author

of biodigester reactor using chemical process technology to crystallize ammonia rich effluent (NH4+) with phosphorous effluents using convention crystallization process technology. Fertilizer recovered can be combined with dried sludge to increase the NPK values in the digestate compost and sold to agriculture customer. Conclusion: • Innovative process technology is proposed for demonstration to encourage the farmers for growing napier grass with buy back Arrangement with the Bio-CNG Industry. • This innovation is proposed to hydrolyse with thermal coupled acid hydrolysis for solubilizing sugar.

• Innovation also proposes solar coupled hydrolysis process reduce the hot water energy consumption. • Three stage conversion innovation also proposes more than 50% higher yield from the base conventional biodigester , i.e. from 108 to 163 m3 of biogas per ton of raw napier grass.

Rajesh S Kempegowda Author


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Present status and essence of standards in the Indian biogas ecosystem


iogas plants have been existent in India since several decades. As an interesting fact, Biogas - a globally accepted clean fuel, actually finds its origin in India and was discovered in the mid-eighteenth century and gradually emerged as the technology of choice for bridging the energy deficit situation in rural hinterlands. However, over the last decade, it has evolved to encompass a wider role from Waste to Energy perspective too. In other words, the biogas technology that was earlier put to use for essentially treating cow dung anaerobically as a substrate; the scope has now widened to treat other organics like municipal solid waste [organic fraction], food & vegetable waste, agro-harvest residues and industrial wastes from slaughter house, diary residue, food processing units, and so on. Indeed, the change towards treating a wider array of feedstocks in contemporary scenario has occurred with a lot of

modification in the production methods. It now incorporates various technologies for pre-treatment of feedstock, a wide array of technology for digestion, purification and upgradation, and efficient utilisation of biogas or its upgraded forms. Not to be forgotten, various technologies pertaining to recovery of by-products such as organic manure and Carbon Dioxide are becoming more common in upcoming biogas/biomethane projects. Furthermore, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s worthwhile to note that the contemporary technologies are ephemeral in nature and are continuously evolving in pursuit to improve the efficacy and yields from plants. Nevertheless, in global comparison, the present biogas advancement of India is moving at a relatively slow pace in terms of rate of technology adaptation and its widespread acceptability as a business case. Among many reasons, one crucial aspect for slow adaptation rate is the absence of a level play-


ing field, in form of standards, for participants in the biogas ecosystem. A survey by Indian Biogas Association amongst its members, representing the entire spectrum of biogas value chain, clearly reinstates this fact. Over ninety percent of the surveyed participants strongly considered that unavailability of standards in the biogas/bio-CNG industry is the major deterrent for non-realization of industry’s true potential. Furthermore, in the survey, few predefined sub-areas/domains with need for standardization were identified. Participants were asked to earmark the sub-areas/domains, lack of whose standardization, jeopardizes their business opportunity in the industry. The obtained survey results are graphically portrayed on Page No. 37. Clearly, considering the survey participants’ response to be the representative sample of stakeholders in the biogas industry, the above plot shows the wider consent for a need towards standardization across all these identified domains. As depicted, majority agreed that defined and documented set of rules, in form of standards, should be available in areas such as- terminologies & definitions, specification of product, operation process, Occupation, Safety and Health (OSH), Emission norms, laws on end- usage of products, approvals and clearance processes, and handling of waste (feedstock to biogas plants). Availability of standards in these identified domains

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shall provide uniformity, which amongst many others shall accrue the following crucial benefits: - Allow worldwide acceptance of Indian Market for application of the product, process, or equipment, - Removal of technical barriers with swift technology transfer, - Promote quality use of biogas, its upgraded form and related equipment, and also augment the R&D space, - Providing uniform guidelines for approving regulatory authorities and sanctioning of the permissions, and - Facilitating unequivocal regimes thus ensuring hassle free compliance to the legal requirement. The benefits shall ultimately lead to an improved transparency in the ecosystem, gain in promoter’s confidence, and steeper economic growth for the industry. Exploring further into the existing set of standards encompassing the Indian biogas/ biomethane ecosystem, which can be segmented as per different recognised scales of biogas plants by MNRE, (the central coordinating ministry for biogas), the following could be observed. Small-scale biogas plants Courtesy, the Government’s initiative, India is currently running one of the most diverse and biggest renewable energy programmes pertaining to small scale (household-based

biogas plants) known as the NNBOMP (New National Biogas and Organic Manure Program). Since the early twentieth century, MNRE has fine-tuned the program and rationalised the related subsidy scheme; by strengthening the institutional framework at state and district level and devising the standard tender documents for calling bids for implementation of the set target. Certain biogas plants models (fixed dome type, and floating dome type), which are IS marked (meeting Standard code of practices from Indian Standards Institution commonly known as ISI as approved by BIS) are recognised by the MNRE, and eligible for its subsidy scheme under the NNBOMP. Additionally, there are various other MNRE approved models under fixed, floating, pre-fabricated and bag type, which are also accepted for availing the subsidy under NNBOMP. Also, for safe, efficient and economic utilization of the biogas obtained from biogas plants, IS specifications for biogas stoves and their spare parts need to be adhered upon. Such stoves are marked with an ISI mark. This applies across any scale of biogas plant using cooking stove for end usage of the cleaner fuel. Medium-sized and Large-scale biogas plants Under the biogas power generation (Off-Grid) and thermal application program of MNRE, decentralized power generation plants (3-250 KW) along with equivalent thermal/cooling capacity applications are promoted. In order to be applicable for subsidy, the implementation guideline from MNRE cites that equipment needed in biogas plants such as engines, generator sets, gas scrubbers, energy meter, flow meters, etc. wherever applicable should conform to standards brought by BIS and ISO. However, as on date, there aren’t any concrete standards published by BIS pertaining to the same. Furthermore, the guideline also cites that the included equipment in the project should meet all the requirements of Pollution Control Boards including Water and Air Pollution (prevention and Control) Acts and Noise Pollution Act. Then, for the larger scale projects under MNRE’s programme on Waste to Energy from urban, industrial, agricultural Residues and MSW, there isn’t any eligibility criterion on technology selection. Within this programme, biomethanation is an


accepted technology type but, there isn’t any particular mentioned specification or standards, which the biomethanation technology needs to comply upon. However, the produced bio-CNG (enriched biogas) should meet the specification for biomethane as per the available BIS standard. Also, storage of the produced biomethane at higher pressure in cascades is typically done to increase the stored energy density and related economical transportation; the vessels used to store and transport should meet the standards prescribed by Petroleum Explosive and Safety Organization (PESO) under Ministry of Commerce and Industry (MoCI)” Now looking into involvement of other Ministries, the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MoPNG), in particular, is now deeply entrenched in the biogas ecosystem, through its Biofuel Policy 2018. The policy talks about increasing usage of biofuels in the energy and transportation sectors of the country in the coming decade. It aims to utilize, develop and promote domestic feedstock and its utilization for production of biofuels thereby increasingly substitute fossil fuels in a sustainable way. However, the policy doesn’t mention compliance to any particular standards. May be in due course, easy access to existing Natural Gas Grid infrastructure and insertion of biomethane into the grid will call for few relevant standards to be set by the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board (PNGRB), a body under the MoPNG. Likewise, several other ministries have their set of frameworks which has a role to play in the biogas/ bio-CNG ecosystem. For instance, the Department of Fertilizer under Ministry of Agriculture and Farmer Welfare (MoAFW) have incorporated necessary standards in the Fertilizer Control Order (FCO) to recognise bio-slurry, a by-product from biogas/ bio-CNG plant, as an organic fertilizer. Presently in FCO, forms of organic fertilizer that get recognition are Vermicompost, City compost, Organic Manure, bio-enriched organic manure and the phosphate rich organic manure (PROM). Also, Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH) have amended the Central Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989 and included the provisions for usage of upgraded biogas, in the form of bio-CNG, in

Biogas Magazine | Edition 12 | 36

Response across standard areas 60

percent of responses







Terminology Product and byand Defini�ons product Standards

Process Standards

Occupa�onal, Emission Laws on endSafety, and Standards (air, usage (grid Health water, soil, inser�on, noise, GHG) agriculture)

Standard Procedure for Approval and Clearances

Waste/ Feedstock Handling

Standard Areas

A Great Deal

A Lot


A Li�le

Not At All

Survey participants’ response to the question: “Please select the appropriate option for the beneath listed areas of standardization, lack of which, jeopardizes your presence in the biogas/bio-CNG industry?” motor vehicles, provided its meeting the fuel specification as per prescribed specification of biomethane from BIS. Under the Environment protection initiatives, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) has notified the revised Solid Waste Management SWM Rules, 2016, which are to be considered as guidelines but, not exactly standards. It’s quite evident that there are several Ministries involved in this industry. But, the non-harmonised nature of the frameworks from individual Ministries has always led to inadequacy of required support to the industry. So, this leads us to one of the major challenges in attempting to formulate standards on aforementioned sub-areas/domains. That, it’s not at all easy to comprehensively look into all the different existing regulatory frameworks from numerous Ministries and other authorities, which more often do not tend to crisscross into each other. In the journey towards formulating standards, the best way to go about is to begin with taking cues from worldwide available standards on biogas. The ISO committee is already working in tandem with many other countries on developing and further fine tuning of these worldwide minimum required standards. Now, with this as the starting dot and keeping cognizance of the specifics of inter-ministerial regulatory frameworks, the onward course of standard formulation across identified sub-areas/domains can be carried out. The process may include: formation of working groups (WG) across each identified sub-area/domain, conducting organising focused group discussions- ensuring adequate representation of inter-ministry officials in each WG, followed by drafting of standards. As a more holistic approach, detailed value chain analysis of the biogas industry should be carried out and regulatory/ legal frameworks relevant to each block of the value chain should be assessed. This will lead to identification of the existing Inter-Ministerial frameworks influencing the biogas ecosystem. In other words, harmonization of formulated standards with existing inter-ministerial frameworks is extremely essential for its wider acceptance.

While, it remains imperative that standards across domains should be formed at the earliest in best interest of the development of the biogas industry in India. However, forming standards in itself shall not be enough. We have already seen the instance of inappropriate implementation of the highly promising RPO/REC regime leading to numerous circumspect investors now averse to foray into prospective renewable projects. Several earlier installed renewable projects, both in solar and non-solar category, which were built on the premise of this regime have suffered abysmally due to its inadequate implementation. Thus, along with formulation of appropriate standards; structuring an adept monitoring body for testing its “on ground” acceptability and implementation, and periodic revisions to ascertain that it meets the contemporary requirement, are also quintessential for success of the industry in long-term.

Mr. Abhijeet Mukherjee Project Head Indian Biogas Association


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Biogas Magazine | Edition 13 | 38


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A succinct roster towards furthering prospects of CBG in India


iogas as a fuel had a topsy-turvy journey. It has struggled long to get its due recognition in the renewable energy mix. A plethora of initiatives have already been laid out from different Ministries but, the sector is far-off from exploiting the immense potential, the country has on offer. At least, the on-field results portray that way. Recently in a meeting called upon by NITI Aayog through Video Conferencing on 24th Sept 2020, IBA represented the industry and addressed the stimulus requirement through rationalization of several existant policies from different Ministries. The called upon meeting saw participation of several Ministries and its bodies (like MNRE, MoPNG, PESO, and IREDA) and several industry stakeholders. Hereby is a gist of the suggestions and recommendations provided to NITI Aayog on interventions sought from the Govt. to further the prospects of Compressed Biogas (CBG) projects in India. 1. Launching ‘Biogas-Fertilizer Mission’. 2. Launching ‘Biogas-Urja-Khad Abhiyan’. 3. Launching ‘Bio-urja-khad Parks’ Scheme on the pattern of ‘Solar Parks Scheme’, taken up on 12.12.2014 for the years 2014-15 to 2018-19’ and CFA be provided for the development of ‘Bio-urja-khad Parks’. 4. Reverse bidding process be adopted for getting competitive and sustainable price for Bio-CNG/ CBG, as adopted in Solar Mission, with the condition that Bio-CNG/ CBG projects would be ‘zero discharge’ projects, following BIS standards for Bio-methane, FCO for ‘Fermented Organic Manure’, pollution prevention rules, and other relevant regulatory requirements. 5. Provisions of the ‘Bio-urja-khad Parks’ Scheme to be such that all the bulk waste generators/ captive waste producers, like, sugar mills, agro-food processing industries, poultry farms, gaushalas, fruit & vegetable mandies, local/ municipal bodies, STPs and energy parks/ complexes/ centres/ community biogas complexes/ urjagrams ,set up over a period of time in different MNRE schemes are recognized, supported and transformed to become ‘Bio-urja-khad Parks’. Thus shall to avoid unnecessarily occupying additional land and setting up Bio-CNG/ CBG plants nearer to the biomass waste generation areas in a highly decentralized manner, thereby reducing carbon-foot-print in transporting biomass waste to long distances for centralized large plants and transporting fermented organic manure and Bio-CNG/ CBG back to the villages/ utilization locations and making the whole project cost ineffective and unsustainable in the long run.

6. ‘Bio-urja-khad Parks’ to be nucleated with Bio-CNG/ CBG plants and supplemented with production of liquid fuels, namely bio-diesel using oil seeds & burnt oil, bio-ethanol using 2G technologies, processing woody materials and biomass solid fuels in the form of pellets/ briquettes. 7. This will establish the most sustainable concept of ‘Hybridization’ of a set of suitable bio-energy and other renewable energy technologies, generally nucleated around bio-energy (including bio-methanation) technologies, for a location is to be the ‘mantra’ for sustainable energy supply for sustainable and environment friendly development. This way the Solar Parks and Wind Farms will also become hybrid energy/ urja and khad producing centres. 8. Instead of competing for each other, strengths of one technology is to be used for overcoming weaknesses of the other renewable energy technology. Like Bio-CNG/ CBG, bio-ethanol, bio-diesel and biomass pellets/ briquettes to work as storage foe supplying energy when Sun does not shine and wind does not blow, instead of going for costly and environmentally dangerous battery and other storage systems of energy. 9. Introducing policy for formulation and implementation to actuate: ‘Biomass Waste Mining Area Allotment/ Auction Concept’ to ensure availability of Biomass feed-stock for BioCNG/ Bio-fuel plants and establishing highly decentralized ‘Biomass Waste Resource Banks (BWRBs)’. 10. Providing Generation Based Incentive GBI @ Rs. 20/- per Kg instead of capital subsidy over and above Rs. 46/- declared by OMCs and increased with inflation. It is arrived at largely for cattle dung based Bio-CNG/ CBG plants and the cost estimated by IBA is Rs. 73.76 per kg. 11. Fixing different prices for Bio-CNG/ CBG price, produced from different biomass wastes, namely, bulk waste generators like sugar mills, agro-food processing industries, municipalities, poultry etc. and that for agro-residue (collected from fields in different seasons and stored). It is required to internalize the cost of biomass wastes, as raw materials for energy fertilizer production, similar to coal plants. It has already been done in the case of bio-ethanol, wherein different rates have been fixed for C-heavy molasses, B-heavy molasses and sugar juice. 12. On the basis of calorific value of the ethanol fuel and its current price, Bio-CNG will have to be genuinely priced at Rs 119.3/kg (post-tax) i.e. 2.47 times higher than its present price of Rs 46/- per Kg under SATAT to be at par with fixed ex-mill


Biogas Magazine | Edition 12 | 41

Table I

Applicable Market Eq. Price per Price unit of Energy (incl. taxes) value (in Rs./MJ)

Fuel Name

Calorific value (MJ/Kg)

















I. Bio-fuels

II. Petroleum Fuels 1






LPG (commercial)














* Revised ethanol price (from C-heavy molasses) as per the Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) Programme for supply to Public Sector OMCs. ** Price considered to be at par with Diesel prices. ***As per sepecification of biomethane mentioned in BIS standard IS 16087 (2016). ****As per prices declared by Public Sector OMCs in Dec, 2019. ***** Average of last one year (Oct, 2019- Sept 2020) prices in Delhi.

price of bio-ethanol derived from C-heavy molasses. Energy value base pricing of various petroleum fuels and biofuels can be deciphered from the Table-I wherein Bio-CNG is priced as one of the lowest, although it gives highest delivered calorific value/ Energy Value. 13. Setting-up a ‘Biogas-Fertilizer Fund’. For harnessing the total generation potential of 62.2 million tonnes per annum of Biogas/ Bio-CNG/ CBG/ RNG in India, the proposed “Biogas-Fertilizer Fund” will have an estimated financial corpus requirement of Rs. 9,44,664 crores, of which Rs. 97,392 crores will be pegged towards the ‘Credit Guarantee scheme’ and remaining Rs. 8,47,272 crores towards ‘Generation based Incentive (GBI)’ @ Rs.20/- per kg of Bio-CNG (produced as per BIS Standards) for 15 years of a tentative plant life. To begin with meeting, creating ‘Biogas-Fertilizer Fund’ of Rs.1,39,173 crore for five years for GBI, Credit Guarantee and Bio-CNG & organic fertilizer Infrastructure is required. 14. For the above, outlay of Rs. 9,44,664 crores for Bio-CNG/ CBG sector is , it will bring an enormous overall return to the govt. in the form of savings from reduction in crude oil import, subsidy savings on chemical fertilizers, and meeting the GHG emission reduction target as per the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). 15. The consolidated savings on above accounts are estimated at Rs.11,02,200 crores in 15 years span (useful life of a typical biogas/ Bio-CNG plant). Thus, the net value creation, estimated to be Rs.1,57,536 crore, is a net surplus for the Govt. Exchequer, through harnessing of total Bio-CNG/ CBG/ RNG potential in India and is certainly not a loss making investment. 16. The inclusion of CBG under ‘Domestic Pool Price Mechanism’ for natural gas procurement and price fixation is required to be induced.

17. Introducing policy for defining a ‘blending quota’ (5%/10 %) for statutory mixing of Bio-CNG/ CBG/ bio-methane in the natural gas mix is required. 18. Introducing policy for facilitating injection and selling of Bio-CNG to ‘City Gas Distribution (CGD)’ agencies and envisaged ‘Village Gas Distribution (VGD)’. 19. Launching scheme for ‘Village Biogas Grid (VGD)’ for replacing LPG cylinders. 20. Integrating VGDs and CGDs with the Natural Gas Grid infrastructure over a period of time is required. 21. Including Bio-CNG in the list of petroleum fuels/ auto-fuels for deciding domestic production and purchase strategy and policy by PNGRB and DGH of MoPNG is required. 22. Introducing per unit of delivered calorific value/ Energy Value of different types of ‘Bio’ and ‘Petroleum’ auto-fuels, has to be the basis of deciding procurement/ selling prices. 23. Creating Bio-CNG plant based ‘Organic Fertilizer distribution and utilization infrastructure’, through replacing/ reducing existing chemical fertilizer usage is required for doubling income of the farmers. The agricultural universities/ institutions to come out with the prescription for dosages of ‘Fermented organic Manure’ for different crops, similar to chemical fertilizers. 24. GST, generally, it ranges from 5%-18% for Bio-CNG/ CBGequipment supply. Thus creating an ‘Under Inverted Structure’ - Unambiguous definition is required for CBG/ Bio-CNG/ Biogas plants and its Plant & Machinery (presently defined in 84, 85 and other sections), by putting an ‘exhaustive list’ as Annexure. Service Contracts rate of 18% should be reduced

www.biogas-india.com to 5% for composite and individual projects. 5% GST on CBG and differential of CNG is to be streamlined through a Policy for CBG-CNG dispensing stations. 25. Tax Holidays: corporate tax exemption for 10 continuous years is required.

Biogas Magazine | Edition 13 | 42 and Central, State and Local govts. is required. 37. Formulating exhaustive Standards for Bio-CNG/ CBG/ RNG/ Biogas Industry: Customized standards for- Terms and Definitions, Safety, Operations, Technical Specs, Emission, etc. in line with global standards to create a better level playing field amongst different auto-fuels.

26. Streamlining accelerated depreciation is required. 27. Establishing Fair Remunerative price (FRP) for CBG/ BioCNG is required. 28. For CLU, issuing guidelines to State govts is needed to waive of this requirement for CBG/ Bio-CNG projects, being green projects. 29. Addressing the issue with regard to PESO approval. For this, PESO to issue detailed guidelines for execution of the CBG/ Bio-CNG projects and have post installation inspection and monitoring mechanism as per rules and guidelines, as against the present system of prior approval. 30. CBG/ Bio-CNG/ RNG/ Biogas/ Biomethane projects to be brought in the ‘White Project’ category of CPCB, with the mandatory requirement that these projects will be having zero discharge projects. 31. Facilitating Ease in CBG/ Bio-CNG Project Financing: Mandatory guidelines for facilitating loans from unwilling Banks/ Financial Institutions (FIs), ensuring implementation of ‘Priority Lending’ directives of RBI and disseminating awareness amongst Banks/ FIs is required by all the coordinating Agencies. 32. Market Development Assistance (MDA), available for ‘City Compost’ ia also needed to be extended for ‘Fermented organic Manure’ produced from CBG plants, with immediate effect. 33. Preparation and issuing FCO specifications for the digestate itself , liquid digestate fraction after solid extraction and upgraded ‘Fermented organic Manure’, as organic fertilizers. 34. Leveraging of gas pipeline Infrastructure for introducing CBG/ CNG/ RNG/ Biomethane injection quota in the CGD/ VGD/ Natural Gas Grids is required.

38. Creation of ‘Cross-functional Biogas/ Bio-CNG/ CBG/ RNG Task Force’ and scheduling/ holding periodical meetings, between the stakeholders with the Task force is required. 39. A ‘High Powered Committee’ is required to be set up for preparation of ‘Biogas-Fertilizer Mission’, ‘Bio-urja-khad Parks’ and guideline on Pricing, GST and ‘Biomass Waste Mininig Area Allotment’ concept, development and implementation of strategic policies etc., under NITI Aayog. 40. The said ‘High Powered Committee’ is required to be set up under NITI Aayog, because 4-5 Ministries currently involved as of now do not have the holistic vision, as it their mandatory limits to address the concerns of other ministries/ departments. 41. The Bio-CNG/ CBG sector is to be treated as ‘Social infrastructure sector’ with its four distinct outputs of waste treatment, energy generation, organic fertilizer production and highly decentralized and huge employment generation and reducing dependence on imported fossil fuels, solar systems and wind generators component. 42. The Bio-CNG/ CBG sector will also meet strategic energy needs, in a war-like-situation. The development of Bio-CNG/ CBG sector will make India ‘Atma Nirbhar’ in true sense. 43. It will be reducing huge drainage of foreign exchange, being done by the entire energy sector, like petroleum and solar. The MoPNG has knowingly/ unknowingly been draining foreign exchange every moment by not giving fair price for Bio-CNG/ CBG sector under the SATAT scheme. 44. There is a need to do immediate course correction by considering and implementing the suggestions and recommendations given above.

35. Creation of Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) ecosystem for CBG/ Bio-CNG is required similar to solar electricity. 36. Single window clearance for projects including identification of respective departments/ bodies, integration of other departments’, streamlining approval process, through MNRE/ SNA and other departments’ portals, integrated file tracking mechanism for corresponding clearance departments and systematic-two-way-communication between stakeholders

Dr. A. R. Shukla President Indian Biogas Association


Biogas Magazine | Edition 13 | 43


Biogas Magazine | Edition 13 | 44

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Biogas Magazine Edition 13  


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