Aquafeed Vol 14 Issue 2 2022

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Development of aquafeeds: Reflections and future perspectives I. The foundational years: 1940-1979 Louis R. D’Abramo, Professor Emeritus, Department of Wildlife, Fisheries and Aquaculture, Mississippi State University Thomas R. Zeigler, Senior Technical Advisor, Past President and Chairman, Zeigler Bros., Inc. This is the first of a series of articles titled "Development of aquafeeds: Reflections and future perspectives".

As global aquaculture production continues to grow, the life history stages of many farmed species are fed manufactured feeds. Basic knowledge of aquatic animal nutrition has been acquired, enhanced, and correspondingly applied in the production of aquafeeds. However, a basic historical summary of the development and manufacture of aquafeeds in union with the ongoing progress in the understanding of nutrition is lacking. Therefore, the goal of this effort is to achieve something that has been overtly lacking in the education and training of emerging researchers in aquatic animal nutrition and aquafeed management, a historical perspective that highlights this coevolving history. This knowledge is essential as it instills an appreciation and respect for the 60-year path of how we got here today. It also nourishes a vital insight toward meeting the challenges of future improvement of physical characteristics and nutrient composition of feeds and their provision. This article consists of three parts offered sequentially within three separate issues of Aquafeed Magazine. The content is descriptive of what we consider to be impactful highlights or paradigm changes in the history of the nutrition of aquaculture species and the production of aquafeed for commercial enterprise. The content is by no means comprehensive and therefore is

not written as a review. The combined articles represent reflections and perspectives from our extensive careers in aquatic animal nutrition research and commercial production of aquafeeds as influenced by technology and the state of aquatic animal nutrition at that time in history. The individual parts are divided into narratives of the early decades of development (the foundational years, 1940-1979), the years responding to the rapid expansion of global aquaculture (the transformational years, 1980-2019), and the years forthcoming, whereby we speculate and offer recommended directives about where the path of the future should lead (the sustainability years, 2020- ).

The origins of aquafeeds In 1954, the efforts to gain and apply knowledge about fish nutrition were inaugurated in a trout hatchery in Cortland, NY. Three entities, the NY State Conservation Department, the US Bureau of Fisheries, and Cornell University joined forces to initiate a program designed to meet the needs of developing a practical diet that would be an integral part of trout hatchery management. This recognition of the critical importance of a feed based on knowledge of nutrition to grow juvenile trout was complemented on the west coast of the U.S. by similar acknowledged needs to develop

Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation Vol 14 Issue 2 2022