South William Street Area Study
The report highlights ways in which the South William Street Area of Dublin can consolidate its position as a distinctive retail, cultural and architectural district within the city, while offering a unique shopping experience for the consumer. Written by planners Fergus Browne and David Jordan with Dublin Civic Trust, the study recognises that much of the vital urban design ingredients necessary for successful development of the area as a cosmopolitan quarter are presently in place and have been for generations. These include its rich architectural heritage, its variety of cultural attractions and the diversity in retail and service uses, all of which are an inherent part of the character of the South William Street Area. These aspects of the quarter highlight huge potential for investment, growth and economic sustainability, which the study sets out to maximise and build upon.
Recommendations for Enhancing the Historic & Retail Character November 2012 A report by DUBLIN CIVIC TRUST South William Street Area Study Foreword Dublin City Business Association welcomes the timely publication of this study of one of Dublin’s most vibrant districts, issued at a time when the City Centre is at a crossroads about its future. Since the downturn in the economy, it has become more important than ever to create and sustain a high quality city core in order to promote footfall and ensure that an attractive, international standard urban environment acts as a draw for continued investment in the City. The South William Street area may be described as ‘having it all’ – great local businesses, buzzing street life and high quality period buildings – but this successful mix is deceptively fragile and must be carefully managed and planned for the future. DCBA’s aim in commissioning this report is to set out a vision for how the area’s dynamic mix of businesses, the presentation of the public realm, and the careful management of all road users, pedestrians and off-street car parking, can maximise the potential of the commercial streets in the district, making it an appealing place in which to work, live and conduct business. Ultimately, it is these principles that should also guide the planning of the wider City Centre – creating a world-class urban environment that showcases our capital as a great European city. Tom Coffey, CEO, Dublin City Business Association Geraldine Walsh, CEO, Dublin Civic Trust The South William Street area is synonymous with the historic character of Dublin. Rich in architectural heritage and a mercantile tradition, the area has been a hive of urban activity since the 17th Century, where fashionable town houses and merchant premises sprung up on new streets as the City moved eastwards from the old medieval core. In turn, this was built upon through the high quality redevelopment of parts of the district in the late Victorian period for modern commercial use. This pattern of development is still reflected today in the tightly knit plots, lanes and alleys, warm red brick façades and small indigenous businesses that make the area a magnet for the citizen and visitor to the City. It is imperative that these distinctive qualities are protected in a manner that showcases the innate character of Dublin’s historic building stock while also lending a distinctive and unique brand identity to businesses in the area. Building on Dublin Civic Trust’s first study of South William Street in 1999, this stimulating report sets out a practical vision for how this can be achieved in the 21st Century, ensuring the consolidation and sustainable future of this, the most vibrant quarter of Dublin City Centre. South William Street Area Study Acknowledgements The South William Street Area Study was commissioned by Dublin City Business Association in association with Dublin Civic Trust. Principal researchers: Fergus Browne & David Jordan Additional text: Graham Hickey, Dublin Civic Trust Additional contributions: Patrick Nolan Document edited & prepared by: Fergus Browne & David Jordan Visualisations, mapping & graphics: Fergus Browne & David Jordan Photography: Fergus Browne, David Jordan & Graham Hickey ÂŠDublin Civic Trust 2012 South William Street Area Study Contents Foreword Acknowledgements iv v 1. Introduction & Context Introduction History & Evolution of the Area Planning Policy Context 01 02 04 07 2. Land Use & Activities Land Use & Activities Overview Present Land Use & Activities Assessment of Active Frontages Merchandise & Services 11 12 14 18 20 3. Townscape & Urban Structure Urban Structure Understanding the Narrative: Serial Vision Street Character Assessment Architectural Character Landmarks in the District Architectural Detail 23 24 26 29 32 33 36 4. Movement & the Public Realm Movement in the South William Street Area Orientation Within the South William Street Area Street Clutter Study Pavement Quality Bollards & the Case for Cast Iron Shop Front Façades The ‘Spill-Out’ Effect in the South William St. Area The Impact of Recent Interventions in the Public Realm Overview of the Public Realm: The Potential for the Redistribution of Space 39 40 44 46 50 52 54 56 57 58 5. Recommendations & Conclusion Recommendations for the South William Street Area A Vision for the South William Street Area Management Design Solutions & Concepts Recommended Materials Pallet for the South William Street Area Design Concepts for Linear Space: South William Street Design Concepts for Punctual Space Design & Street Furniture Detail Activities Conclusion: Problems & Potential References & Further Reading 61 62 63 64 68 72 73 76 80 86 88 - Introduction - History & Evolution of the Area - Planning Policy Context North Retail Quarter Riv er Liff ey Trinity College Merrion Square St. Stephenâ€™s Green Legend Grafton Quarter as defined by Dublin City Council South William St. Study Area South William Street Area Study Introduction The purpose of this study is twofold. First, it is intended to illustrate the many problems and threats currently evident throughout the South William Street Area. Second, it sets out clear recommendations for the future of the area, highlighting a vision which is unique to the district, one which capitalises on its existing dynamics and one which does not seek to alter them. The South William Street area is bounded by South Great George’s Street to the west, Exchequer and Wicklow Street to the north, Grafton Street to the east and King Street South to the south. The defined study area represents an important historic part of the City, an area vital for the future consolidation of the retail core, but also an area that has been somewhat neglected. The South William Street Area sits within the Grafton Quarter, an area who’s boundaries were defined by Dublin City Council in the approved Part 8 document for improvement works to Grafton Street (September 2012). Study Objectives • Highlight the area’s architectural and historical significance and its role in enhancing the district’s unique character as a commercial hub. • Emphasise how the character of the area can be marketed as a unique selling point over the out-of-town centres. • Provide a detailed analysis of the present situation regarding land use and activities; townscape and urban structure; and movement and public realm. • Outline key recommendations regarding the future management and development of the area. • Illustrate selective design interventions to the public realm. South William Street Area Trinity College t G eo rg e’s St Exc heq uer St. Wi ckl ow Str eet ea Gr Wi llia m St. uth ut So G ra St. Stephen’s Green fton So St. h 03 South William Street Area Study History & Evolution of the Area The Study Area’s Medieval Origins & Context De Gomme’s Map of Dublin (1673) Illustrates Eastward Expansion The study area is located to the east of the medieval city as denoted by the city walls (see below), lying within a district referred to in historical records as the land of ‘Tibb and Tom’. Whilst the precise function of the area is unclear, records suggest it was common ground for grazing and medieval pastimes such as archery. Indeed historical reference to the study area goes back as far as Viking times, where, to the east of the district lay a mound that had been used as a Viking compound referred to as the Thingmount, and which survived until the 17th century. Speed’s Map of Dublin (1610) depicts the extent of Medieval Dublin where the open ground to the east had yet to be developed. To the immediate west of the present South William Street Area, development began to occur on the lands which belonged to the Aungier estate. The emerging street pattern expanded over time from west to east. Speeds Map of Dublin (1610) Emergence of South William St. & Clarendon St. Following the development of Grafton Street in the 17th and 18th Centuries, a distinct urban form emerged, encompassing the development of Drury Street (1673) South William Street (1676), Clarendon Street (1684) and Fade Street (1700). The early development of these streets took the form of simple terraces of single-plot houses, most likely to be gable-fronted in the ‘Dutch Billy’ manner. The next period of rapid development took place in the 18th Century, when the buildings lining these thoroughfares gradually grew grander in scale as leases expired and properties changed hands. Late 17 th Century Expansion Brooking’s Map of 1728 (see right) illustrates that the present urban grain of the study had by then become well established. Much of this development can be seen today along the eastern side of South William Street, where the exhibition rooms (City Assembly House) were built in 1765. The street was also given a fashionable boost by the decision of Richard Wingfield, 3rd Viscount Powerscourt, to build his town mansion there in the 1770’s. Following the Restoration in the 1660’s, a surge of development occurred where clearly defined streets replaced former medieval lanes. The emergence of key developments east of the city wall, namely Dame Street, Trinity College and St Stephen’s Green (laid out as a square in 1664), precipitated development and urban expansion eastwards. This area of development now forms the City’s present commercial core. 04 South William Street Area Study Brooking’s Map (1728) Section of Brooking’s Panorama (1728) Detail of Rocque’s Map (1756) 05 South William Street Area Study The development of the Castle Markets on Drury Street in 1785, was a key catalyst in underscoring the area’s market tradition, which was proceeded by the relocation of these markets to the west side of South William Street. By 1840 the markets occupied both sides of Drury Lane. The 19 th This explains why so few buildings from that initial period survive on Wicklow Street, as dwellings tended to be redeveloped after their leases expired. Development of the South City Markets Century saw the mass commercialisation of South William Street, Drury Street, Fade Street and Exchequer Street witnessed significant development in 1878 with the establishment of the Dublin (South) City Market Company. While the original Castle Market contained a series of alleys, the new development resulted in dwellings on all flanking streets being demolished to make way for the market building. The Commercial Development of the Area the street, with ground floors of former residential houses converted into shops, and façades and windows of upper floors re-dressed or replaced to bring them in line with Victorian fashions. Development of Wicklow St. & Exchequer St. Exchequer Street’s name is derived from the presence of the City’s exchequer building which was sited on a lane here. In the 19th Century, the lower part of Exchequer Street was renamed Wicklow Street. The first significant development in this vicinity was the building of St. Andrew’s Church in the 17th Century, designed on an elliptical plan with a distinctive rounded roof visible on Charles Brooking’s map (refer to previous page, upper left), which was subsequently rebuilt on two occasions. The nearby corner of Exchequer Street and Clarendon Street was also leased at this time to William Digges who laid out five buildings there. The 18th Century saw the development of houses, some of which still survive today, which although date from the 1740’s, are cloaked behind later façades. A key catalyst to development along Exchequer Street was the expiry of leases in the late 18th Century, granted in the late 1600’s. During the 19th Century there was a gradual shift from single residence town houses toward multiple occupancy. The study area became home to wholesalers, jewellers, fish and poultry dealers, along with cabinetmakers and tradesmen, including high-order specialist trades. An analysis of Thom’s Street Directory from 1850 to 1900 illustrates the important role that merchant family businesses played in the commercialisation of the district (e.g. Pim Brothers). The district also became known for educational establishments such as the English Day School at No. 63 South William Street. It was during this period of growth and change that Exchequer Street and the surrounding area was extensively rebuilt to cater for new commercial demands. Purpose built buildings were South City Markets Front Elevation 06 South William Street Area Study erected containing shop units on the ground floor and modern office and service accommodation in the floors above. It is this character that defines the northern portion of the district today and lends it a distinctive Victorian mercantile quality. Whilst north Georgian Dublin and the west of the City witnessed an increase in tenement occupancy and widespread economic decline in the latter part of the 19 Century, by contrast the South Wilth include public houses and tabacconists. Clothiers/ tailors/drapery represented the most dominant land use both in 1850 and 1900 respectively, increasing by 25% between these years. Sustained Maintenance of a Commercial District The growth in commercial intensity both within and around the study area during the latter part of the 19th Century was sustained throughout the 20th Century. Indeed throughout the economic boom of the 1990’s and early 2000’s, the popularity of the area was further enhanced by the emergence of a café/bar culture which complemented the existing retail uses. Today, South William Street lies at the centre of a vibrant and important retail and amenity area in Dublin. liam Street Area experienced a decrease in tenements by 36% and a growth in commercial intensity between 1850 and 1900. The table below provides an overview of land use changes which occurred on Wicklow St., Exchequer St., South William St. and Clarendon St. over the period 1850 to 1900. The data illustrates that residential uses over the said period decreased by 54.5%, while grocers/tea/wine/spirit merchants increased by 89%. It also depicts the closure of specialist stores and services including chandlers and bespoke manufacturer/producers, to more generic stores providing a wider scope of products such as department stores. New uses to the area also Changes in Land Use on Exchequer St., Wicklow St., South William St. & Clarendon St. 1850-1900 Trade Clothiers/Tailors/Drapery Chandlers Dairies Department Stores Bakers, Confectionaries, Fruiter, Florist Hairdresser Hotel Jewellers Jeweller/Watch Manufacturer Professional/Legal/Banking Services Public House Residential Stationary/Bookbinder/Printer Tabocconist Vacant Victuallers Vintners Bookmaker School/Church/Local Institute Tenements Hardware Manufacturing Tradesman Grocers/Tea/Wine/Spirit Merchants Pawnbrokers Bespoke Manufacturers / Merchants 1850 20 3 3 0 2 1 2 5 4 4 0 11 7 0 15 3 4 2 4 33 5 9 9 1 5 1900 25 0 1 3 4 1 5 7 5 6 2 5 6 3 14 7 4 2 4 21 12 5 17 0 0 Source: Thom’s Street Directory, 1850, 1900 07 South William Street Area Study Planning Policy Context The South William Street Area is one of the City’s most vibrant and successful commercial quarters. However there are a number of planning and development challenges that threaten the future sustainability and vitality of the area. Dublin City Council have responded to these challenges by preparing a range of statutory and non-statutory plans designed to protect the character of the area and reverse the flight of the shopper to suburban shopping centres. Current Planning Policy Dublin City Development Plan 2011 – 2017 The City Development Plan is the primary and statutory planning and policy document for Dublin City Council, the purpose of which is to guide the development of the City. Under the Plan, the area of study is zoned Z5 (see turquoise shading below) with a zoning objective that seeks to: To consolidate and facilitate the development of the central area, and to identify, reinforce and strengthen and protect its civic design and character. South City Retail Quarter Architectural There are two key statutory planning documents directly relevant to the study area in question. 1. Dublin City Development Plan 2011 – 2017 2. South City Retail Quarter Architectural Conservation Area (ACA). Also relevant is the Grafton Street and Environs ACA and the Grafton Street and Environs Area of Special Planning Control, which covers a small portion of the study area. Conservation Area Adapted in 2007, the South City Retail Quarter Architectural Conservation Area provides a statutory designation designed to protect the area (see green hatching on map below). The rationale for designating the area was due to its special historic character which contains significant building stock (c.110 protected structures), characterised by a relatively intact 18th Century townscape within a compact and vibrant urban quarter. Dublin City Development Plan 2011-2017 Study Area Zoning 08 South William Street Area Study This plan in effect eliminates certain development rights, which are normally classified as exempted development. For further details regarding the management of the ACA’s please refer of Chapter 5: Recommendations and Conclusion. Planning Related Challenges banners and clutter detract from the architectural qualities of the townscape. • Inactive street frontages, particularly along the southern end of Drury Street and Clarendon Street are uninviting and detract from the area’s inherent character (see Chapter 2: Land Use & Activities) • The construction of the Luas BXD line and the re-paving of Grafton Street is welcomed but it brings its own planning issues in terms of how to maintain access and egress to the South William Street Area during the period of construction. Planning Initiatives There are a number of planning challenges which threaten the integrity of the area. These include: • A lack of planning enforcement and management throughout the area, involving changes of use, unauthorised signage and unauthorised alterations to façades and shop frontages (some of which involve protected structures). • The area contains an optimal range of land uses. In the absence of guiding principles governing desired land use, there is a threat that one particular use could become dominant, to the detriment of other uses throughout the district. This threat particularly relates to the expansion of existing, or the establishment of new licensed premises. • Currently a large number of buildings are owned by NAMA (National Assest Managment Agency). This brings into question issues dealing with maintenance and up-keep of these buildings, some of which are within an Architecture Conservation Area, over the medium and long-term period. • Development pressure from high-street retailers for larger floor plates threatens the existing fine grain in the district particularly the narrow built form that characterise the study area. • Threat of suburban shopping centres to footfall and economic activity. This brings into question how the study area can continue to provide an enjoyable experience for the shopper that is more attractive than out-of-town centres. • Poor public realm coupled with the issue of traffic management needs to be resolved. A positive experience for the pedestrian shopper is paramount to the future vitality of the district. • The area contains a number of buildings which are poorly maintained. Superfluous signage, As a response to some of the challenges outlined, Dublin City Council have development a number of initiatives and actions. Selected schemes which cover the South William Street Area, but which are not necessarily exclusive to the district, include: • South City Retail Quarter Architectural Conservation Area • Grafton Street and Environs Architectural Conservation Area • Grafton Street and Environs Area of Special Planning Control • Dublin City Retail Strategy • Outdoor Advertising Strategy • City Centre Action Plan • Your City, Your Space: Dublin City Public Realm Strategy • Fade Street experimental re-design • South Clarendon Street temporary re-design • Dublin Bikes and Wayfinder Signage Initiatives • Grafton Street re-paving • Forthcoming Grafton Quarter Vision Document 09 - Land Use & Activities Overview Present Land Use & Activities Assessment of Active Frontages Merchandise & Services South William Street Area Study Land Use & Activities Overview The fine grain of the former merchant houses have encouraged independent, small and varied uses to develop, including uses above ground floor. As such, the diverse range of activities within a small geographical area has contributed to the vibrancy and vitality which the South William Street Area has become known for today. Indeed the intimate plot sizes is critical in retaining a vibrant and animated atmosphere on a street. For example, the large footprints on Clarendon and Lower Drury Streets directly contribute to a reduced amount of footfall and consequently have a deadening effect on the street. In contrast, South William Street and Exchequer Street with their smaller plots attract high levels of patronage. The emergence of a vibrant café/bar culture in the area has centred on these streets. is currently a fear that buildings under their authority may fall into neglect and disrepair, whilst the agency waits for a recovery in the commercial property market. This would have negative repercussions for the commercial viability of the area. The South William Street Area at present contains a sizable number of public houses. There is a danger that a trend could develop, similar to Temple Bar where an over-dependence on this particular activity could occur. This would be to the detriment of others businesses along with the existing pleasant and positive ambience in the area. It is suggested that by extending the Area of Special Planning Control, land uses can be managed in a more efficient manner, than at present. It is also recommended that the Dublin City Development Plan be varied to strengthen current policy and include specific guidelines on licensed premises, particularly dealing with City Centre locations, such as South William Street, which have an inherent character. A Temple Bar cluster of pubs or ‘superpubs’ should be prevented at all costs. Due to the rise in vacant premises throughout the area, the ‘pop-up shop’ or temporary shop is becoming more frequent. There is currently no definition as to what constitutes a pop-up shop in the Dublin City Development Plan 2011-2017. This should be amended to reflect this relatively new feature in our streetscapes. While the temporary pop-up phenomenon can be a benign one, some companies are using vacant premises for advertisement purposes i.e. masquerading as a pop-up/ Commercial Activity along Exchequer Street Current Land Use Issues temporary shop. There has been several instances of this occurring in the area most notable, Peroni Water on the junction of South William Street and Exchequer Street. NAMA is currently one of the primary land owners in the South William Street Area. Their portfolio is concentrated around the Chatham Street Area and in the Westbury Mall. This report would encourage NAMA to engage with the stakeholders, including landlords, Dublin City Business Association and Dublin Civic Trust so that their portfolio could be managed to optimise the maximum sustainability and improvement of the district. There 12 South William Street Area Study Interactive Activities on Exchequer Street 13 South William Street Area Study Ex ch eq ue r St ree t South Stree t C it y M arke ts Cas eet tle Geor g e â€™s Ma rke t at Gre Dru ry Str eet rth Fa Str Cop pin No ee t Ch So uth ath Wil liam de ger Str Ro w am Ro w Cla Jo hn so n ren do n M ark e t Ro w Kin g S tr Cla eet ren Sou don Plac e th 14 South William Street Area Study Present Land use & Activities Wi ck Ground Floor Uses low St re The South William Street Area presently contains a et diverse range of ground floor land uses which lend the area its ambience and vibrancy. Retail is strong within this district, with a particular concentration along Exchequer Street and Wicklow Street. The wide range of cafés, restaurants and bars animate the streets throughout the day and into the night, where pavement seating enhances one’s experience of the public realm. Uses along Drury Street, Clarendon Street and South William Street are dominated by services, offices and in some cases vacant units. These inactive uses are concentrated to the southern sections of these streets, south of Castle Market and Coppinger Row. do n S tre ren Joh et Cla nso n The general diversity in land uses is encouraged Cou rt due to the fine urban grain and small plot sizes and it is this character which has led to the success of this part of the City Centre. St Cha tha m L ane Str eet Ba lfe G ra re Ha et rry fto n S tre e t Chat Legend ham Stre et Retail Café/Restaurant Bar Fast Food Services Office Residential Leisure/Recreation Culture/Gallery Religious Hotel Car Park Vacant Education Outside Study Area 15 South William Street Area Study First Floor & Above Land Uses: A Case study of Exchequer & Wicklow Street Exc heq uer Str eet An on-street survey was carried out to investigate above ground floor level uses fronting onto Exchequer Street and Wicklow Street. These the study area. This is primarily due to the fact that they connect directly with Grafton Street. Due to its vibrancy and high footfall Wicklow St. was partially pedestrianised in the 1980s as part of a scheme to improve the public realm of the area. A total number of 88 units/ buildings were examined as part of the survey. The main purpose of the survey is to: • Provide a snapshot of the diversity and density of upper floor uses within the study area. • Identify vacancy levels, deficiency of uses and dominant uses in the above ground floor levels. The results of the survey noted that: • Overall vacancy levels are relatively low (9.3%). This was to be expected as both Wicklow Street and Exchequer Street are regarded by the City Council as primary retail streets in the City (designated Category 1 retail street). • Office use represents a significant portion of the units surveyed (38.4%). This high level of office use above ground floor has associated benefits in enhancing the commercial diversity of the area acting as a demand stimulant for other uses. • The area has a relatively low level of ancillary office / storage use (9.2%) whilst there is a higher level of independent commercial activity above ground floor level (25.6%). This higher presence of small enterprises does much to enhance the study area’s commercial and employment generating capacity. • Of the units/ building plots analysed in the area some 12.8% were used for residential purposes above ground floor level. The quality and nature of these residential units above ground floor level is unclear. Legend Str eet Wic klo w S tre et two streets are perhaps the most vibrant in So uth Wil liam Streets Surveyed Study Area Door Plates detailing Uses on Exchequer St. Percentage Breakdown of Units Accessed Use Ancillary Office Ancillary Storage Hotel Office Public House Residential Restaurants/Cafés Retail Services Vacant % of Units Surveyed 4.6% 4.6% 3.5% 38.4% 1.2% 12.8% 9.3% 9.3% 7.0% 9.3% 16 South William Street Area Study Numerical Breakdown of Surveyed Uses on Upper Floors 35 33 30 25 No. of Units 20 15 10 11 8 8 6 4 4 3 1 8 5 0 A nc i r lla y O ffi ce a ry St a or ge H ot el O ffi ce u ic bl H s ou e es id t en ia l t an s/ C af ĂŠs R et ai l Se r c vi es V a ac nt A nc ill P R R t es au r 17 South William Street Area Study Ex ch eq ue r St ree t South Stree t C it y M arke ts Cas tle Ma Geor g e â€™s rke t Str eet Cop eet Str Str ee t Dru Fa ry pin de ger Ro w Ch So uth ath Wil liam am Ro w Cla Jo hn so n ren do n M ark et Ro Kin g S tr Legend Active Frontage Inactive Frontage 18 Cla eet ren Sou don w Plac e th South William Street Area Study Assessment of Active Frontages Wi ck low Rationale St ree For an area to be a vibrant hub of activity from t morning until after midnight there must not only be a multiplicity of land uses sited in relatively small plot sizes but crucially, these activities need to be on display and easily identifiable to the person in the street (i.e. an active frontage). The assessment of active frontages is useful in helping identify the areas of streets that are likely to have a higher footfall than others, owing to a high degree of active frontages. For the purpose of the study an active frontage can best be described as t n S tre e a shop frontage in which the use of the shop is easily identifiable and its design helps to animate Joh ren do the street. Therefore an active frontage can take nso n Cou rt the form of an outdoor seating area or an attractive window frontage displaying merchandise. A well-marked entrance leading to uses on the upper floors can also be defined as active as the more doors opening on to a street the more active it will be. Alternatively, an inactive frontage is one that detracts from the life of the street. This can take the form of a blank façades (i.e. a wall) or it can be n S tre Cla a shop that is vacant and shuttered. Such façades create a deadening effect on a street’s vitality. Active Frontages in the South William St. Area ee Str m L ane lfe G ra Str eet fto t Ha rry et Ba It can be seen from the study that the various concentrations of active and inactive frontages correlate strongly with the level of vibrancy in each street. For example, Wicklow St. and South William St. have a very high level of active frontages Chat Cha tha ham Stre et and are consequently the most vibrant in the area. However, Drury St. and Clarendon St. have high levels of inactive frontages. This is evident from the back-land or service area character that they exude. It is noted that both the City Council’s Car Park on Drury St. and the Clarendon St. façades of the Westbury Hotel do much to reduce the vitality on each respective street. Critically, it can be seen that the area as whole retains a high level of active frontages a key ingredient for a vibrancy and dynamic district. 19 South William Street Area Study Merchandise & Services The area offers a range of merchandise and services, supporting many independent and specialist businesses, thus maintaining its 19th Century role as a commercial hub for traders and retailers in the City. These characteristics of the South William Street Area are a unique selling point, through which the district can be branded and marketed as a key shopping destination in Dublin. 20 South William Street Area Study 21 - Urban Structure Understanding the Narrative: Serial Vision Street Character Assessment Architectural Character Landmarks in the District Architectural Details South William Street Area Study 24 South William Street Area Study Henry Street Area The urban structure and townscape of the South William Street Area is intrinsically linked to the success of the district as the City’s premier shopping location. By assessing the relationship between street and block, or open space and built form and understanding how the various components in an urban setting each contribute to the experience of a particular space, we can begin to gain an understanding and appreciation of how that space works. This chapter will in turn assess these components and demonstrate how they collectively contribute to the success of the South William Street Area, which offers an experience to the pedestrian shopper which is distinctly Dublin. Plot and Block Relationship Urban Structure Figure Ground The fine grain of the South William Street Area has undoubtedly aided the transformation of the area into the vibrant district we see today. Compared to the Henry Street retail area on the north side of the City (see top left, note this is the same scale as figure ground map on opposite page), the block sizes are smaller, thus increasing permeability though the district. East-west movement through the core of the South William Street Area from the George’s Street Arcade, through Castle Market, Coppinger Row and Johnson Court is dedicated to the pedestrian. The narrow streets and lanes creSouth William Street Area Built Form ate an interesting and animated space for the pedestrian shopper. However, it is not just the block sizes which have aided in the success of the district. As noted the maintenance of original plots, especially along South William Street and Wicklow Street has led to the prevalence of small and varied retail units, bars, restaurants and cafés. This mix provides employment, diversity and interest in the area and creates animated and active streets. It is imperative to maintain this plot/block relationship especially in the face of pressure from international retailers for larger units. 25 South William Street Area Study Understanding the Narrative: Serial Vision A series of walking routes have been chosen which help best illustrate the fine grain, narrative and unique qualities of the South William Street Area. South William Street 1. Starting at the junction of Exchequer Street the first of these routes moves along South William Street, where one immediately feels a sense enclosure created by the built form on either side. The dominance of restaurants and coffee shops creates a lively and cosmopolitan atmosphere which is aided by the presence of outdoor street seating. 2. Alternative and independent shops enhance the diversity of uses contributing towards the streetâ€™s character. The prospect of Powerscourt House sets the scene, creating a vital focal point and landmark along the street. The vertical emphasis of the built form coupled with the iron railings is a striking feature as one continues along this route. The view down the street is terminated by the former Mercerâ€™s Hospital Building. Its delicate architecture and tower not only acts as a terminal vista to this route but also offers a great point of orientation in the district and draws the pedestrian through the space. However, on-street parking on the southern part of South William Street detracts from the ambience of the journey. 3. 4. 1 2 3 4 5. 5 6 6. 26 South William Street Area Study Castle Market - Johnson Court Starting at the junction of Drury Street and Castle Market, this route moves eastwards towards South William Street, passing bars and restaurants with their canopies extended onto the street. Passing by Powerscourt House and moving into Coppinger 1. Row more bars with outdoor seating are encountered. As one ambles across Clarendon Street and moves towards St. Teresaâ€™s Church into Johnson Court, the very narrow nature of this passage is fully appreciated. The winding lane creates an intimate experience for the pedestrian, providing a sense of excitement. This route terminates at Grafton Street, which forms a strong juxtaposition to the journey taken. Overall, the user of the space is stimulated by a remarkable change in the streetscape, a change that is marked by commencing with a formally planned Victorian market street, crossing a classical Georgian thoroughfare and terminating in the medieval-like winding lane that is Johnson Court. 2. 3. 4. 6 5 4 3 5. 2 1 6. 27 South William Street Area Study Clarendon Street Commencing on Chatham Street one proceeds north onto Clarendon Street and immediately notices a change in atmosphere and activities compared to those of Chatham Street. The street appears to be wide yet devoid of activity, although 1. the pavement is narrow compared to the road space given, it gives an impression of a back-land type character. Onesâ€™ pace is increased due to the prevalence of office and service uses. At the junction with Coppinger Row the street narrows considerably and becomes more active and lively. Passing St. Teresaâ€™s Church, the townscape of Wicklow Street comes into full view - an inviting space for the pedestrian. 2. 3. 4. 6 5 4 3 5. 2 1 6. 28 South William Street Area Study Street Character Assessment 1./2. Exchequer Street & Wicklow Street The unique architectural qualities of Exchequer Street and Wicklow Street exudes a sense of nostalgia for an age gone by, illustrating 19th Century townscape at its finest. The angled nature of Wicklow Street provides the perfect setting for viewing the architectural details of the fine buildings. The roof treatments, bow windows, brick façades and shop fronts act as a uniform unit. It is recommended that statutory protection be added to these streets to protect this attractive townscape. 6 3 1 2 7 4 8 9 5 10 12 14 15 17 16 13 11 have permanently destroyed the architectural 3. Drury Street qualities of the street. The upper part of Drury Street is dominated by the George’s Street Arcade, a fine example of Victorian neo-gothic architecture and contains many small units. The southern part of the street is less attractive, service and office based and as such attracts less footfall. The presence of the City Council Car Park creates a blank imposing façade, although an attempt was made to provide retail units. The public realm along the street is of a poor quality. 4. South William Street Railings are a key feature on this street and should also be protected from future removal. The abundance of on-street car parking to the south of the street discourages pedestrian activity. This coupled with very poor pavement quality in places, detracts from the street. Although recent years have seen street improvements to the front of Powerscourt House, more needs to be done to improve the quality of the street, to protect its integrity and charm. 29 South William Street was originally laid out in 1676. The street has remained virtually unchanged since the 18 th Century and is character- ised by terraces of merchants’ houses and punctuated by two very important buildings, Powerscourt House and the City Assembly House. The main threats to the street today are from unauthorised alterations to building façades, some of which South William Street Area Study 5. Clarendon Street 8. Coppinger Row Clarendon Street today is largely characterised as a service-based street which contains a lighter footfall compared to other streets in the area. Blank façades created by the service entrances to Brown Thomas and the back of the Westbury Hotel contributes to this. This lighter footfall is reflected in the range of land uses on the street. The northern part of the street is most vibrant, at the junction with Coppinger Row and Johnson Court and becomes significantly quieter to the south. St. Teresa’s Church is the most dominant building directly fronting onto this street, adding a continental flavour. 6. Fade Street Located between two of South William Street’s most important buildings, Powerscourt House and the City Assembly House, this pedestrian street is similar to Castle Market in that it contains a range of café and bar uses, animating the street and creates vibrancy well into the night. The threat to this street is also from the prevalence of completely enclosed awnings, which segregates activity away from the street. The street is the venue for a small but attractive market every Thursday (see below). Fade Street is characterised by the red brick and Victorian architecture of the George’s Street Arcade. The café/restaurant on the southern section of the street adds life the to space showing the future potential of the street if similar uses were to be established. Recently the street has been given a makeover by the City Council, which has seen the removal of on-street car parking amongst other interventions. 7. Castle Market 9. Johnson Court This Street old attractive, to worldly nar- row lane links Grafton Clarendon charm, Street and exudes an where a sense of the ‘unexpected’ is experienced. A range of small retail uses along with the entrance to St. Teresa’s Church is also located off Johnson Court. 10./11./12. Harry Street, Chatham Lane & Balfe Street This attractive street is extremely vibrant containing a range of retail, bar and restaurant uses. More recently, premises have erected enclosed awnings, which have the effect of blocking the uses off from the street. This needs to be avoided at all costs. The charm of this street and indeed the area, is due to the prevalence of a ‘café culture’ which attracts outdoor seating. Leading off Grafton Street, Harry Street is a small pedestrian street which leads to the Westbury Hotel and Mall along with pavement stalls for selling flowers. Chatham Lane and Balfe Street although contain some restaurant and retail uses, are generally poorly patronised and largely function as access lanes and service area to the Westbury Hotel and adjacent activities. 30 South William Street Area Study 13./14. Chatham Street & Chatham Row 15./16. Clarendon Market & Clarendon Row Chatham Street is an active, vibrant and attractive route leading off Grafton Street and contains a wide range of cafés, restaurants and bars as well as some retail units. A Dublin Bikes station is also located here. Outdoor seating belonging to various premises is prevalent although the ‘closing-in’ effect caused by awnings is becoming evident. Leading onto Chatham Row, restaurant uses continue on the north side of the street, where pavement screens for outdoor seating are not used. This is a much more effective approach to outdoor seating and creates a more inviting atmosphere along the street. The DIT Conservatory of Music and Drama is located on the south side of the street, which adds character throughout the day as the music filters out onto the street. Traffic is quite a dominant feature along Chatham Row. A traffic calming scheme would be quite successful in this location, allowing car access, but prioritising the pedestrian and creating a more inviting and safe environment which would benefit businesses providing extra room for outdoor seating (i.e. the spill-out effect) as a result of pavement widening. Clarendon Market is a narrow lane located to the rear of the DIT Conservatory of Music and Drama, linking Johnson Place to Clarendon Row. Pavement seating creates an inviting and animated space (see below), demonstrating how high enclosures and barriers are not always required in order to provide seating. Clarendon Row provides local access to North King Street. 17. Johnson Place Johnson Place is an attractive junction containing the former Mercer’s Hospital. This impressive building contains a clock tower which is a significant landmark which terminates the view along South William Street. The open space created at the junction is dominated by vehicular traffic from George’s Street, South William Street and Clarendon Street. The space is quite cluttered, containing a large amount of bollards and signs. There is great potential to re-organise the space and make it more pedestrian friendly. 31 South William Street Area Study Architectural Character The historic evolution of the South William Street Area over the course of three centuries is evoked in the distinctive architectural character of the district. While prominent examples of public buildings and landmark structures command vistas, it is the intimate grain of Victorian merchant premises, 18th Century town houses, and individual shop units that generate a unique sense of place through their architectural expression. The majority of streets in the area were originally built as residential enclaves, hence the high density of single plots on streets such as South William Street and Wicklow Street. A number of early houses from the early 18th Century, some of which were originally gable-fronted, still survive in the area cloaked behind deceptive later façades. However, the majority were swept away by the latter part of the Georgian period, to be replaced by the grand town houses seen on South William Street that form marching cliff faces of red brick and classically ordered fenestration. The stimulating variety of domestic doorcases and railed basement wells here is one of the street’s delights – a highly distinctive feature for a commercial thoroughfare that lends it a memorable quality. Similarly, the exceptional quality of a number of the houses’ decorative interiors, which often feature transitional rococo stuccowork and heavy joinery, provides a unique setting for innovative retail and service accommodation. Classical Style Doorway on South William Street Street and Exchequer Street, where former residential houses gave way to larger-scale, purposebuilt retail and service buildings. The defining characteristic of this redevelopment is the use of factory-produced red brick facing façades, creating the uniformly warm atmosphere along the thoroughfares that is at once distinctively Victorian. Red Brick Façades - Exchequer Street Further advances of the industrial revolution popularised terracotta and polychromatic brick, resulting in many shop fronts, windows, parapets and rooflines being adorned with ebullient decoration. While some of these modernisations simply masked existing buildings, the majority were rebuilt from scratch, the most ambitious being the sprawling South City Markets, now the George’s Street Arcade, built in a Gothic Revival style to the designs of English architects, Lockwood and The 32 commercialisation th of Dublin’s residential Mawson, along with its associated planned retail street of Castle Market. Other buildings, such as streets in the 19 Century is apparent on Wicklow South William Street Area Study George’s St. Arcade (Former South City Markets) Landmarks in the District The urban character of the South William Street Area is greatly influenced by the hierarchy in building types and their individual architectural expression. The built morphology here is somewhat different to the rest of the City Centre due to the tightly knit, organic development of its streets, where public buildings and landmark edifices blend more subtly into the streetscape than the statement set-pieces located on the wider thoroughfares of the city. This lends the area a somewhat continental flavour, where sudden views of high quality signature buildings on narrow streets captivate the passer-by with a burst of grandiose scale and architectural detail. City Assembly House The reticent brick and stone façade of the former Exchequer Chambers on Exchequer Street, are examples of the growing trend at the turn of 1900 for purpose-built office accommodation with retail units at ground floor level flanking a grandiose upper floor entrance. These buildings often feature handsome original shop fronts designed to be read as part of an overall composition with their upper floor façades, being decorated with brick pilasters, stone dressings and robustly carved timber display windows. There are relatively few examples of 20 Century th City Assembly House belies one of the most important public buildings in the area. Originally built in the late 1760s by the Society of Artists as one of the first public galleries in Europe, it later became home to the assembly of Dublin Corporation until it acquired the current City Hall in 1852. The building retains its impressive octagonal exhibition hall and a variety of handsome 18th Century rooms overlooking South William St., all proposed to be restored in coming years by the Irish Georgian Society. City Assembly House Main Entrance buildings in the district, an indication of the largely intact historic character of the area. Some pleasant early examples can be found on South William Street and Lower Stephen Street, however later interventions, such as terraces on Clarendon Street, Clarendon Row and Chatham Row are generally undistinguished and light industrial in character, many catering for the wholesale clothing trade that established here in the 1900s. Nonetheless, a number of high quality shop fronts allow for contemporary styling to make its mark in the area within an historic context. 33 South William Street Area Study Former Mercer’s Hospital Former Mercer’s Hospital Fittingly terminating the vista of South William Street is the sober, classical granite façade and copper-clad clock tower of the former Mercer’s Hospital. Constructed on the site of an older hospital building, the current structure is an interesting amalgam of the 1750s and 1880s, with the distinctive cupola marking the junction between the two phases providing an attractive focal point from as far away as the junction with Andrew Street (see right). Powerscourt House The most dramatic landmark building is Powerscourt Town House, with its impressive 1770s façade of rough Wicklow granite dominating the street scene. The sheer scale of the building, with its somewhat awkward, old-fashioned proportions and gracious sweep of entrance steps, injects an antique charm to this commercial street while hinting at the aristocratic pretensions of its origins. Staircase of Powerscourt House, South William Street 34 South William Street Area Study George’s Street Arcade DIT Conservatory of Music The George’s Street Arcade, originally known as the South City Markets, is one of the landmarks of the south city centre, with elevations facing onto four streets. One of the most ambitious buildings of its time, the complex was completed in 1881, serving as a market and as host to a multitude of retailers in shops both inside and fronting streets around its perimeter. Restored following a disastrous fire in 1892, its fantasy Gothic Revival skyline - crowded with turrets, chimneys and dormers - is one of the great architectural embellishments of the Victorian city, and contributes considerably to the vitality and charm of the surrounding district. The DIT School of Music on Chatham Row is one of the youngest public buildings in the area, originally being constructed as a Fire Brigade Station for Dublin Corporation in 1884. It was later leased for use as the Technical School of Music in 190708, with the Corporation’s Public Health Department and City Laboratory taking over in 1913. The building later reverted back to educational use, with the original glazed canopies in the courtyard being demolished and replaced with a brick-fronted extension of c.1940. The wrought-iron railings fronting the street feature charming Art Nouveauinspired gate piers, adding quirky decorative interest to the streetscape. St. Theresa’s Church School of Music, 1913 St. Theresa’s Church of Clarendon Street is one of the hidden architectural gems of the area. Established in 1793 as a simple church and friary, it took the commonplace form of early Catholic churches by concealing itself from public view within a street block. The complex was progressively expanded and altered, with the addition of the campanile and entrance gates on Johnson Court in the 1860s, and the erection of the impressive Lombardesque granite façade facing Clarendon Street in 1876. The large red brick monastery with its courtyard located alongside injects a distinctly Italianate flavour to proceedings, complementing this enchanting and always busy spiritual and social focal point of the district. School of Music, 2012 St. Theresa’s Church Interior 35 South William Street Area Study Architectural Detail The eclecticism of Victorian design is visible in faĂ§ades of the study area, often expressed through Elizabethan and Tudor revival features, as well as influences from the Arts and Crafts movement. Much design interest furniDistinctive, well-crafted features contribute towards a sense of place, as with the charming projecting arm lanterns of Nearyâ€™s pub on Chatham Street (above). Elements such as these animate the street and generate a sense of civic pride. stems from surviving historic ture, street with examples including a pillar box from the reign of King Edward VII (left), castiron railings of c.1840 (below), and a stoical Egyptian revival door knocker of c.1830 (right). 36 South William Street Area Study The array of formerly domestic doorcases on South William Street are an essential part of its character, ranging from the pedimented granite doorcase of c.1770s (above) to a quaint Gibbsian entrance of c.1760 (below). Protecting these as dominant features on the street must be a key planning objective. The quality of 18th Century architecture and design in the area is a unique cultural and marketing asset for businesses in the district. Features such as high status carved staircases (top), iconic fanlight entrances (above), and authentic historic fabric such as cut stone floors (below), all contribute to the distinctive atmosphere and brand of the area that makes it an attractive place to shop and do business in. Preserving and showcasing these elements is essential. 37 - Movement in the South William St. Area Orientation in the District Street Clutter Pavement Quality Bollards & the Case for Cast Iron Shop Front Façades The ‘Spill-Out’ Effect Interventions in the Public Realm Potential for the Redistribution of Space South William Street Area Study Introduction - A Contested Space! The South William Street Area is characterised by its intimacy, a quality that is not only reflected in its built from but also in its movement channels, its streets and lanes. The result is that there is a strong link between the design of the public realm and the impact it has on all forms of movement within the area. The present division of public space in the district has resulted in the street becoming a contested space. That is to say, the pedestrian shopper, delivery vans, cyclists, cars and outdoor café and bar seating are all in competition for the use of this finite space. Whilst this competition creates a vibrant and animated atmosphere, the design quality of a space, if seen to be neglected, will continue to have a detrimental effect on the experience a visitor will have, risking a diminution in the longer term prospects for the area. Movement in the South William Street Area The study area lies within a larger strategic retail district, defined by Dublin City Council as the Grafton Quarter (see map below). The district, with Grafton Street as its pedestrian spine, is bound by South Great George’s Street, Stephen’s Green, Dawson St. and Dame St. These streets form a public and private transport box which, for the most part, vehicles circulate around but not through. The result is that the study area can be best described as a 5 kph. environment, one that is dominated by the pedestrian shopper. Despite this situation, many streets are engineered as if they were still dominated by vehicular traffic i.e. a 60 kph. environment. Features, such as narrow, poorly maintained footpaths, on-street parking and all the associated signage and street clutter should have no place in such a slow movement area, an area which should be a shared space for all users. Transport Infrastructure in South William St. Area Luas Luas 40 South William Street Area Study On-Street Car Parking There is a general trend toward the reduc tion in the amount of on-street car parking being provided in the area. For example the parking on Fade St. and on the southern part of Clarendon Street. An experimen tal temporary widening of the footpaths has taken place on Clarendon Street (Summer 2012). Overall, the re sult is that less that twenty onstreet parking places remain in the study area. However, these are mainly con City Council have recently banned on-street Exc heq uer Str eet Wic klo w S tr eet eet Str ry So uth Wil liam Str eet Dru do n St re et centrated around the parts of South William Street and Drury Street that are the most patronised by shoppers and have inadequate pavement widths to cope with the pedestri an traffic. Another issue of concern is that some cars are parking in spaces clearly des ignated as loading bays (see below). It is rec ommended that study into designated spots loading bay capacity be reduced in the area. Legend On-Street Car Parking Disability Car Parking Taxi Rank (Westbury Hotel) T Multi-storey Car Parking The study area plays host to three multi-storey Cars on Left - Parking in Loading Area car parks including the Brown Thomas, Drury Street and City Council Car Parks. Overall, the Grafton Quarter area has capacity for over 2,500 cars in multi-storey car parks (Dublin City Council, 2012). It is also seen that these car parks have spare capacity, therefore they would be well placed to accommodate the extra demand for spaces should there be an elimination of all on-street parking in the area. As noted in a recent study by the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy, reducing onstreet parking is a widely accepted policy for improving the public realm in European cities. Access and Egress & Proposed Developments Legend Grafton Quarter (as defined by DCC) South William St. Study Area Pedestrianised Area Multi-storey Carpark One-Way Traffic Route Two-Way Route Luas Green Line Planned Luas BXD line Bus Stop Dublin Bikes Station Luas The study area will be directly affected by two major interventions over the next few years; the Grafton St. re-pavement works and the Luas Luas BXD line. It is essential that a traffic management system be implemented to ensure that access and egress be maintained at all times. 41 Cl ar T en Jo hn so n P la c e South William Street Area Study Cycling Infrastructure Bike Stands on South William St. The study area, with its slow moving traffic and lack of major junctions with associated traffic lights, offers a good environment for cycling. Cycling is an important component of movement through the area, indicated by the well-patronised bike stands on South William St., Exchequer St. and Johnson Place and also by the success of the Dublin Bikes Scheme. However, there are some issues that have the effect of reducing the potential that cycling has as a transport option for shoppers frequenting the area. Firstly, the one-way street system presently in place reduces the accessibility of the area to cyclists. Secondly, cyclists are in direct competition with the car for the limited road space available in the area. Lastly, the placement of bike stands on congested pavements, particularly where there is outdoor seating is problematic for pedestrians (see upper right). Some measures to resolve these problems could include: • Making some streets contra-flow for cyclists. • Removing all on-street car parking in the area. • Widening the footpaths or instituting a pedestrian dominated scheme for the area. Dublin Bikes Scheme Bicycle Clutter Number of Bike Stands in Study Area 57 Stands accommodating 114 Bicycles The problem of bicycle clutter is prevalent in some areas, particularly on the narrow and intensively used pavements of South William St. The City Council has responded to this increased demand for bicycle parking by placing extra stands on existing polls (see below). Whilst this is one solution to the problem, the location of some of these supplementary stands has also increased clutter at pinch-points, hindering pedestrian movement. It is seen that a strategic plan for bicycle parking needs on a district wide level would provide the best solution for bike parking needs. This would avoid the present situation were stands are scattered through the area in a random and ad hoc manner. Supplementary Bike Stand - S. William St. Since its launch in 2009 over 3.5 million trips have been made on Dublin Bikes (June 2012). This astonishing figure demonstrates that cycling is becoming an increasingly accepted part of transport throughout the city. There are two stations in the area of study, located at Exchequer St. and Chatham St. with 24 and 29 bike spaces in each respectively. 42 South William Street Area Study Pedestrian Provision shops, pubs and cafés, delivery times should be limited to before 10.00 am in the morn ing for all businesses. An exception could be made for restaurants that rely on fresh pro duce and may need deliveries for a short pe riod in the afternoon. Outside of these hours, the proposed urban cargo scheme using tri cycles that can carry up to 180 kg should be implemented to service business needs. Ac cording to the Dublin City Business Associa tion (DCBA) this would also slash costs for business deliveries by 15% for ‘last mile’ journeys. Exchequer St. at 12.30pm on a weekday There is a strong divide in pedestrian footfall within the study area. Wicklow St. is consid ered by Dublin City Council as a primary shop ping area (Category 1 Retail street) similar to Grafton St. (Dublin City Council, 2011), while other streets such as Clarendon St. and Drury St. exude a distinctly back-land character. However in many cases, the streets that at tract high pedestrian footfall, such as South William St. and Exchequer St., there has been little or no extra provision made to cater for the greater levels of patronage. Referring to the street clutter study (see pages 46-47), it is also noted that the places with the highest footfall on South William St. are the same areas that are most affected by street clutter. The provision of quality space for shoppers who visit the area looking for a quality retail experience must be a priority goal for the fu ture development of the area. S. William St. - A Congested Area for Shoppers Urban Cargo Tricycle Delivery Vehicle Congestion It is noted that some streets in the area such as Exchequer St., Wicklow St., South William St. and Drury St. suffer from prolonged con gestion caused mainly by delivery vans sup plying goods to businesses. These vans have the effect of both detracting from the charac ter of the streetscape and ‘closing-off’ shop façades from shoppers on the opposite side, adversely effecting passing trade. While it is recognised that vans need to have access to 43 Dublin City Council South William Street Area Study Orientation Within the South William Street Area Drury Street South William Street Clarendon Street It can be seen that the South William Street Area is a very legible entity within the City. That is to say that its townscape and character is unique to the area, distinct from that in the North Retail Quarter or even in the formal squares of the South Georgian Core. However on a local level, its intimate atmosphere and the fine grain of its streets can make orientation difficult for the visitor. For example, there are three parallel streets running North-South between Grafton St. and South Great George’s St. The illustration above shows that when each is viewed from the south it can difficult be to distinguish one street 44 from the other. In this way it is the combina tion of high permeability, the lack of a domi nant landmark and the continuity of the fine plot sizes that actually work against the area’s internal legibility. This can have a negative effect on footfall for certain streets in the area as shoppers may perceive the district to be somewhat of a maze and decide to stick to the main thoroughfares of Grafton St. and Wicklow St. There are many simple solutions that can help remedy this problem which would both in crease streets’ legibility and also create a more attractive environment. South William Street Area Study Suggestions to Improve Internal Legibility The internal signage of the area could be improved by the selective placing of extra Wayfinder signs at critical junctions (see left). Alternatively, the classic street signs (see above) could be affixed to those street corners where they are current absent. The bronze statue of Phil Lynott on Harry St. is the only piece of public art in the study area. Such works give a visitor a certain level of remembrance of the area. They may not remember the name of the street but they certainly will remember the street. More iconic and tasteful works of art would add legibility to certain routes. propriate within should the be Also, ap- spaces district desig- nated as places for street entertainers. Attractive and well-maintained public seating can help create a legible street by placing a punctual point or destination along a linear route. The example (see right) shows seating integrated as part of a soft planting scheme at the Kildare Village Outlet, Co. Kildare. Wood as a material for seating is often desired as it is more comfortable for seating particularly during wintertime and colder periods. 45 South William Street Area Study L L L U Ex ch eq ue r St ree t S S L S S S S S S S S L L S L L WF S U S S S South Stree t S C it y M arket S L s S S S Cas tle L g e â€™s Ma rke t S eet S L P.O. L Geor t ea eet Gr U P L L Dru S ry L Str S S S S S S rth Fa Str S Cop No ee t L liam de S pin Str S ger Ro w S S L S L L S S L P S S S So S S S uth Wil U S L L S S U S S S Ch ath am Ro w S S S S WF U S S Cla hn S L ren do n Ma S L P S S S S L L L L L L L L L Cla S ren S don S Kin Ro w rke S Jo t S S so n Plac e g S tre et S out h 46 South William Street Area Study Street Clutter in the Study Area L Wi ck Rationale low L St re et L L An audit of the extent of street clutter in S S L L L L S the study area is a useful tool in determin ing whether areas of the public realm are overly congested, both spatially and visually, with various elements of street furniture (i.e. signs, bins etc...). Although all types of street furnishings have been mapped this does not suggest that necessary utilities such as stop signs and street lighting are street clutter. S S S However, it does show that by their distri bution and intensity at certain places their presence can impact negatively on the spe cial character and integrity of the area. Extent of Street Clutter in the Study Area do n S tre ren Joh et Cla S S nso n Overall, it is seen that there is not a major Cou rt problem of street clutter in the study area. Indeed it can be seen that many areas are almost clutter free, for example along the S southern sections of Drury and Clarendon Streets. Therefore, it can be seen that these streets are able to function well without un n S tre e necessary street furnishings. If this principle was applied to the whole area then the dis trict would be free of street clutter. There are some notable findings from this study which will be discussed over the following pages: • The cluttered nature of the recent inter vention on Fade St. • The excessive amount of bollards on Clar endon St. and South William St. • The fact that street clutter seems particu - et St Lan lfe e S S rry S t rA eet L Ba Chat S Cha ham S tha m G ra re Ha fto S t Stre L L et larly intensive at junctions and areas that L L have a greater amount of public space. Legend Bins Bollards Cycle Ranks Dublin Bikes Stand Information Board JC Decaux Advert Sign Naked Pole Street Light Wayfinder Signage Planters Post Box Seating Signage P.O. i JCD S P Telephone Box Parking Meter Utilities Box U L WF Public Art A 47 South William Street Area Study Public Realm Intervention & Street Clutter on Fade St. The recent intervention carried out on Fade St. has resulted in a tangible improvement in the amount of space dedicated to the pedestrian. This is primarily due to the removal of on-street car parking. Whilst this action by the City Council is to be commended, other elements of the intervention such as the needless increase in street furnishings are less desirable. It is noted that while some new street furniture includes planters which help soften the environment, the work has resulted in the amount of individual pieces of street furniture increasing from 17 to 40. This is contrary to the Public Realm Strategy for the City where there is an objective to de-clutter the public realm. The design of some of these furnishings such as the street lights (4 no.) and bollards (14 no.) are not in keeping with the character of the surrounding built environment. Imaginative ways of reducing clutter, such as using bike stands instead of bollards (only where bollards are absolutely necessary), could be easily employed to reduce visual clutter in the area. Fade St. - Before Intervention Fade St. - After Intervention Google Earth, 2009 Before After S P S S S L S L S L L S S L U S U L L S S U S S Legend Cycle Ranks Street Light Bollards Signage Wayfinder Signage WF Utilities Box Seating L Telephone Box Utilities Box S U Bins 48 South William Street Area Study Bollards / Bike Stands The preferred situation would see: • The removal of bollards and bike stands. • Bike stands re-sited along the pavements to maximise space for the pedestrian. In areas where protection of basements is necessary, a reinforced bike stand could also function as a bollard. • Proper ways enforcement and widening against illegal parking and deterring it by narrowing carriagepavements throughout the area making it less likely to occur. The previous street clutter study has illustrated the excessive amount of bollards located along Clarendon Street and South William Street. It is assumed that their dominance is to prevent illegal vehicular parking on the pavement and/or protection of basements. They are frequently located adjacent to bike stands which when coupled with outdoor café seating and other signage severely limits space on the footpath for the pedestrian shopper. Removal of Bollards Bollards and Bike Stands Side-by-Side Street Clutter at Junctions The street clutter assessment of the South William Street Area has highlighted the fact that clutter is dominant in areas where there is a large amount of public space present. The case of Johnson Place (see right) illustrates this point clearly. Although a key junction within the district, it contains an unnecessary amount of bollards and signage. It can be seen that the bollard is used as a permanent inflexible tool in dealing with illegal parking on pavements by the City Council. As stated previously a more effective tool in changing the long-term behaviour of the driver is to deter them from illegally parking by narrowing carriageways and widening pavements. Other areas where clutter is particularly concentrated are the junctions of Coppinger Row/ South William St., South William St./Castle Market and Castle Market/ Drury St. 49 L L S WF S U S S Cla hn S L ren do n Ma Jo rke t so n Plac e S L South William Street Area Study Pavement Quality Throughout the South William Street study area there is a total lack of consistency when it comes to pavement styles, quality and maintenance. Most worrying is the prevalence of extremely poor pavement quality which can be dangerous for pedestrians, particularly for the elderly or those with impaired mobility. The following selection of pavement represents an example of the uncoordinated styles and quality of pavement employed in the relatively confined space of the study area. Far Left: Basic Pavement composed of concrete slabs is used throughout the study area. Left: Deplorable and dangerous quality of pavement south of Powerscourt House. Far Left: Buckled and poorly maintained pavement on Wicklow St. Left: The 1980’s pink paving on Castle Market needs upgrading but the warm colour creates a lively environment. Far Left: Old granite kerbing on the southern end of Clarendon St. should be maintained in the area. Left: The successful use of new and old granite near Powerscourt House shows that it is the optimal material for the area. Experimental Pavement on Fade Street Similar to road surface at junctions The surface pavement used on Fade St. is problematic. The surface is not durable, is easily soiled and is not in keeping with the historic fabric of the surrounding district. This ‘experimental’ surface should not be replicated anywhere else in the area. 50 South William Street Area Study The Use of Indigenous Granite as a Durable & Attractive Material There is a strong historical connection in the use of granite as a material in Dublinâ€™s public realm. Many of the footpaths that line our major thoroughfares are paved with granite that was laid in the late 19th Century. It is crucial this cultural and historic link be maintained and enhanced in our historic city centre, particularly in our primary public spaces. Also, traditional Leinster granite exudes warm tones that enliven the pavement especially when compared to the duller contemporary granite pavement that is imported (see top right). Therefore there is a strong case to promote the use of traditional Leinster granite within the study area. The benefits include: 1. Supporting the local economy and the creation and maintenance of jobs. 2. Using an indigenous material that respects the character of Dublin City and interacts well with the Georgian built form of the historic core. 3. Using a durable and robust material that has been proven to last several decades. The use of granite has proved a successful, attractive and durable choice at the front of Powerscourt House on South William Street (see right). The use of Irish raw materials, where appropriate, should be encouraged. In contrast, lower quality pavement used on Drury Street at the junction with Castle Market has collapsed due to the weight of traffic over time and needs replacing (see right). The use of granite here would be a more appropriate choice. This however also brings into question the appropriateness of allowing extra heavy goods vehicles deliver in the area. Indigenous(left) & Imported Granite Contemporary Granite, Drury St. Granite Pavement at Powerscourt House Broken Pavement - Drury Street 51 South William Street Area Study Bollards & the Case for Cast Iron The South William Street Area is part of Dublin Cityâ€™s premier retail district. Despite this, there is an apparent lack of a materials pallet used by the City Council when it comes to street furniture in the area, particularly through the use of bollards. It is argued that bollards should be removed in most cases throughout this part of the city centre. Despite the current mish-mash of bollards currently on display throughout the area, they largely have used cast iron, a material historically used in railings and lampposts in this historic area. The recent re-development of Fade Street has replaced existing black furniture with contemporary stainless steel, illustrating the current departure from cast iron and signifying the possible path of materials for other streets in the district, including Grafton Street. This has the effect of exacerbating the current disarray, as illustrated below. In fact, stainless steel bollards stand out much more that the existing black, accentuating street clutter. Black street furniture is used in most historic city centres, such as Edinburgh. That is not to say that stainless steel does not have its place, in certain circumstances, such as in Adamstown (see opposite). Stainless steel as a material is out of place within this historic part of the city and as such future works in the area should not be tempted to replicate current â€˜trendsâ€™ used in contemporary developments. Dublin needs to adapt an approach, currently seen in Edinburgh and London, where a consistent materials pallet - unique to the respective cities, is used and strictly enforced. Various Bollards throughout the study area illustrating lack of consistency 52 South William Street Area Study Stainless Steel - A model for future works in the area? Stainless steel bollards recently placed on Fade Street, represents another addition to the already collective array of bollards scattered throughout the area. Interestingly, the use of stainless steel signifies a departure from the past use of cast iron by the City Council. This new material fails to respect the historic nature of the street and illustrates the need for a coordinated materials pallet. It is essential that this materials pallet is compiled as a response to the character of the area in question and not as a response to what is considered to be in vogue. As a foil, the contemporary development of Adamstown (right) uses stainless steel successfully. Respecting our architectural heritage. Cast Iron Railings on South William St. Edinburgh - Cast Iron used throughout World Heritage Site 53 South William Street Area Study 54 South William Street Area Study Shop Front Façades The ground floor façade is the most important link between the person in the street and the building. In an active area such as this, the ground floor façade is more than often a shop frontage. Therefore it is imperative that such frontages interact well with the pedestrian shopper and also respect the architecture of the building and its surrounding streetscape. An overview of shop frontages in the study area found a high variance of standards between streets. Good examples (see left) illustrate frontages that are engaging, inviting and in keeping with the district’s character. Most importantly their uses are easily identifiable. However, it can be seen that the majority of these samples are found along Wicklow St. / Exchequer St. - the primary retail streets in the study area. While this is to be expected, other streets such as South William St. which are also well patronised has some amazingly poor quality frontages. The images on the right depict three examples of premises on South William St. where ill-conceived modern interventions have led to the erosion of the street’s special character. The premise in example 1 may have a valued use but its poor quality frontage diminishes the natural harmony and rhythm that the building has with its neighbours. Example 2 shows that permanent structural damage has been inflicted on this building to cater for a use that is long gone. Lastly, example 3 shows what looks to be a temporary and very tacky façade that has been incongruously mounted onto the original. It is not know whether this has caused lasting damage to the existing façade. The selected examples show that even in the present post-building boom environment the natural character of the South William St. Area continues to be threatened and eroded for the sake of shortterm gain. Therefore, it is recommended that in order to retain its remaining built heritage the current Area of Special Planning Control on Grafton Street be extended to include the district. 1. Good Use - Poor Standard 2. Vacant Use - Lasting Damage 3. Poor Treatment - No Intergration 55 South William Street Area Study The ‘Spill-out’ Effect in the South William St. Area The spill-out effect is the process whereby commercial uses such as cafés, bars and restaurants colonise or spill-out on to an area of public space in front of their premises. In general this process is to be welcomed, as such activities, once brought into the street, greatly enliven the atmosphere creating a distinctly cosmopolitan ambiance. The spill-out effect also enhances interaction with the passerby and greatly boosts the profile of such commercial uses. This process was spurred on by the adoption of the smoking ban in 2004 which resulted in many pubs and restaurants providing outdoor seating for customers who wanted to smoke. However, it soon became evident that such an amenity was popular with both smokers and non-smokers alike. The emergence of the spill-out effect has both improved the character of the study area and helps to engender the notion of the area being at the centre of the café culture in Dublin. The Spill-Out Effect (Closed in) Some Problems with the Spill-Out Effect There is however some problems associated with the spill-out effect that is evident in the South William St. Area. First, many uses spill-out onto narrow pavements, thus impeding the movement of the pedestrian (e.g. South William St.). However, this can be resolved with the redesign and redistribution of public space away from the car. The second and more pervading problem is the over-use of awnings/canopies and other projections that are designed to provide the user with a more comfortable experience, particularly in poorer weather. Whilst canopies help to make a more attractive and interesting façade, their use in combination with ever-higher balustrades is a growing problem of concern in the study area. Such moves only serve to close off uses to the street, reduce interaction and block important pedestrian routes (see below). There is some evidence to suggest the closing-in of the spill-out effect is designed to combat the activities of street beggers. Also to be noted is that not all façades are suitable for canopies. The Spill-Out Effect (Optimal Scenario) Closed-In Spill-Out - Castle Market Natural Spill-Out - Castle Market 56 South William Street Area Study The Impact of Some Interventions in the Public Realm Pedestrianisation of Castle Market Castle Market at 10am Although the pedestrianisation of Castle Market was completed some years ago its effect is still having repercussions for the area today. The turning over of space for pedestrian use only has resulted in giving the person on the street a greater awareness of the special townscape of the district. The car free views of both Georgeâ€™s Arcade and Powerscourt House have the effect of drawing shoppers towards these spaces. In essence the pedestranisation has improved the natural permeability of the link from South William St. through to Georgeâ€™s Arcade. The result of this is that footfall in the area increased dramatically, hence the spill-out effect in Castle Market, taking advantage of passing custom. Unfortunately, as has been previously noted, Castle Market is a case of the spill-out effect beginning to get out of control with incongruous shelters covering increasing amounts of the pavement. The difference can best be seen between the morning when the shelters are absent and evening time when they are in place. Castle Market at 4pm Dublin Wayfinder Signage The Wayfinder scheme which was designed to accompany the arrival of Dublin Bikes is intended to replace the uncoordinated and haphazard signage in the City by providing a robust and streamlined directional signage network for the main tourist and cultural highlights in Dublin. The design of the new signs has indeed fulfilled this intention. However, it is noted that the old and now defunct signage still remains in place, adding to the street clutter of City Centre. There are two wayfinder signs in the study area, one is located at the junction of Wicklow St. and South William St. and the other which includes a map is on Johnson Place. It is noted that a small number of extra signs could be put in place in selected areas of the study area, to help tackle the problem of orientation in the district. 57 South William Street Area Study Overview of the Public Realm: The Potential for the Redistribution of Space It is clearly evident that the public realm is somewhat of an unloved and overlooked entity within the district. This is seen not only by a lack of attention to detail regarding the standard and coordination of street furniture and pavements but also by the poor distribution of space in the public realm in the area. However, although the amount of public space is somewhat limited there is huge potential for improvements to the area by redistributing the space towards the needs of the pedestrian shopper, the dominant user of the space. A number of specific interventions that should be considered are outlined below: 1. De-clutter area in front of Powerscourt House, maintenance of existing granite pavement. 2. Pedestrian friendly scheme considered for Drury Street, South William Street, Clarendon Street, Exchequer Street and Wicklow Street. 3. Re-design of the public realm on Wicklow Street. 4. Re-distribution of public space on Chatham St. / Chatham Row. 5. Assessment and redistribution of bike stands throughout the area. 6. Traffic calming and public realm improvements at Johnson Place. 7. Removal of all on-street car parking throughout district. 8. Strongly oppose any realisation of this proposed aspirational street linking Drury Street to Clarendon Street. 9. Public seating provided in selected areas. An Unloved Public Realm! 7. 8. 9. 58 South William Street Area Study 1. 2. 3. 4. 6. 5. 59 - Recommendations for the South William St. Area A Vision for the South William Street Area Management Design Solutions & Concepts Materials Pallet Design Concepts for Linear Spaces Design Concepts for Punctual Spaces The Potential for the Re-distribution of Public Space Design & Street Furniture Detail Activities Conclusions: Problems & Potential South William Street Area Study Recommendations for the South William St. Area While this report has outlined the unique characteristics of the South William Street Area it has also highlighted many threats to the future integrity of the district. Taking account of these, the recommendations for the future development of the area are divided into three key themes: 1. Vision 2. Management 3. Design First, a broad vision for the long term sustainability of the district will be established. In order to realise this vision, recommendations as to how the area should be managed will be proposed. This will include looking at international case studies, illustrating the management structures in place in these respective places. This will be followed with detailed design solutions for the area which will address the space at various scales. This will include proposing a street furniture and materials pallet and various public realm improvements in order to create an attractive environment, encourage the growth of pedestrian activity and foster a sense of civic pride which can more than better any of the out of town shopping centres. It is argued that if the desired three pillars structure for enhancing the area are put in place this will lead to effective and visible change within the district, ensuring it remains the centre of commercial activity within the Capital. The following chapter will outline Dublin Civic Trustâ€™s recommendations for the future direction, development and consolidation of the South William Street area. More Strategic VISION MANAGEMENT DESIGN More Detail 62 A Vision for the South William Street Area By the end of the decade, the south retail area will be able to stand over its claim as the primary district in which to shop and socialise in the City. The area will be a pedestrian friendly space, where its unique streetscapes, architectural merits and fine grain can be appreciated by visitors and retailers alike. The public realm having been rejuvenated and de-cluttered by investment in quality indigenous materials, becomes a destination in itself, with once quiet streets now buzzing with spill-over activities, reinforcing a cafĂŠ culture ambience. Uses shall be diverse, assisting the development of indigenous retail uses and strengthening the local economy. South William Street Area Study Management In order that the South William Street Area remains part of the premier retail destination within the City Centre, a dedicated management structure is required to; enforce policies; brand and promote the district; and educate the public about the special character of the area, to reinforce civic pride. Recommended Architectural Conservation Area and Area of Special Planning Control Amalgamation of ACAs & Extension of Area of Special Planning Control There are currently two Architectural Conservation Areas (ACAs) within the district, the Grafton Street and Environs ACA and the South Retail Quarter ACA, both adopted during the lifetime of the Dublin City Development Plan 2005-2011. The Grafton Street and Environs ACA was also designated an Area of Special Planning Control in 2007 for a period of 6 years, in accordance with the Planning and Development Act, 2000 (as amended). This added layer of legislation provides greater powers to the planning authority as to how the area is managed, removing some exempted development rights and dictating the future direction of the area. Existing Architectural Conservation Areas and Area of Special Planning Control In order to protect the integrity and special character of the South William Street Area, Dublin Civic Trust recommends that the two existing Architectural Conservation Areas be amalgamated into one single ACA. This is in order to reinforce the collective special character of the district as a whole. The Trust also recommends that the Area of Special Planning Control (due to expire in 2013) be extended to include the entire combined ACA area, as illustrated above. This will provided the necessary added protection to streets like South William Street, which have witnessed unauthorised alterations to faรงades, which if were to continue would permanently destroy the special character of the street. The Area of Special Planning Control should set out specific measures dealing with land use, materials, faรงade treatments, colours, as specified in Section 84 of the Planning and Development Act 2000 (as amended). A desired land use zoning plan also needs to be implemented. This should include above ground floor and basement uses. Certain service-based uses are more suited to above or below ground floor Legend and vice versa. Setting out such clear and detailed guidelines will ensure that the economic diversity and special character of the area is strengthened. Land uses such as independent boutiques should be encouraged. The small plots and fine grain can encourage such uses, which will not negatively impact the architectural heritage of the area. South Retail Quarter ACA Grafton Street and Environs ACA Area of Special Planning Control Recommended amalgamated ACA Grafton Quarter (as defined by DCC) South William St. Study Area 64 South William Street Area Study Planning Enforcement Many works and alternations to buildings and additions to the public realm within the said Architectural Conservation Areas have taken place which are in direct conflict with the objectives and policies of the plans in question. For instance, it is specifically stated that, Sandwich boards will not be permitted under any circumstances anywhere within the South Retail Quarter Architectural Conservation Area. (p.29) Nevertheless these are prevalent throughout the district, exacerbating street clutter in places. Sandwich Board on Castle Market, within ACA Before installation of internal illuminated signage on South William Street Google Maps, 2009 After installation of internal illuminated signage on South William Street Dublin Civic Trust recommends that planning enforcement be strengthened throughout the Cityâ€™s historic core, within sensitive areas and in particular within Architectural Conservation Areas and Areas of Special Planning Control. A lack of enforcement renders potentially strong policy meaningless. Education is also required to ensure that Similarly it is stated that planning permission is required (non-protected Structures) for, Illuminated advertisements exhibited as part of any shop or other window display in a business premises and other advertisements affixed to the inside of the glass surface of a window of a business or premises or otherwise exhibited through a window of such premises. (South Retail Quarter ACA, Policy 2.1, (m)) Despite this, such illuminated advertisements can be seen within the area, clearly indicating that there is a problem with enforcing the aforementioned policies. The example right illustrates a before and after of a premises that has installed illuminated advertisements inside the glass, to the detriment of the overall character of the street. Endangered Buildings/ Undesirable Uses tenants and owners of buildings, as well as the general public understand what an Architectural Conservation Area and Area of Special Planning Control is. Such legislation should not be buried within plans but brought into the open. In accordance with the Dereliction Act 1990, Dublin City Council have at their disposal the power to protect buildings in danger. As stated by section 10 of the Act, It shall be the duty of a local authority to take all reasonable steps to ensure that any land situated in their functional area does not become or continue to be a derelict site. This useful legislative tool should be utilised to its full potential in the South William Street Area. 65 South William Street Area Study Establishment of Management Team trict remains the prime retail core of the City. The rationale for this special group is based on an assessment of the performance of the current Architectural Conservation Areas and Area of Special Planning Control in actively dealing with unauthorised works to structures and public realm decay, as highlighted throughout this report. Planning enforcement within the district needs to take a more active stance, otherwise the policies already in place become redundant. Establishing a dedicated management team for the City’s primary retail district will ensure that policies are successfully implemented. It is argued that a special multidisciplinary team is required specifically to manage the Grafton Quarter, to ensure that the long term vision, policies and proposals are enforced and implemented on a daily basis. It is suggested that this team be comprised of key personnel from Dublin City Council, headed by the Planning and Economic Development Department and contain other key officials and officers. This team would regularly meet with a selection of elected representatives, members of the business community and other key bodies operating within the City to ensure that this dis- Structure of Recommended Multidisciplinary Team to Manage the Grafton Quarter Landlords & Tenants Educating • Senior Management • City Councillors • Strategic Policy Committees Re po rti ng to e Manag ment a e T m • Team Leader • Planners • Enforcement Officers • Conservation Officer • Urban Designers En ga g gin wi th Key Stakeholders Eg. Local Businesses, Dublin Civic Trust, Dublin City Business Association & other interested parties • Planning Decisions • Architectural Conservation Area • Area of Special Planning Control 66 Enforcing • Public Realm Officer • Public Domain Officer for South City • Roads & Traffic Dept. • City Architects • Parks Staff Li ais wi ing th De ve lop ing Management Strategy for the Grafton Quarter South William Street Area Study Precedents in Area Management Copenhagen, Denmark attention to detail that the studies contain i.e. there is even guidance on the design of outdoor seating for cafés and bars. Kompagnistræde, Copenhagen - Shared Space The Danish Capital is an interesting case study for city centre management in both implementing a long term vision and dealing with short term challenges. There has been a clear long term goal to make the centre of Copenhagen a pedestrian centred space. To achieve this, the Danes adopted a twin track approach. Firstly, they began reducing the amount of on-street parking within the city centre by 2-3% per annum over a 30 year period. Simultaneously they invested in both public transit and in upgrading the public realm. This gradual but constant process has resulted in a safer environment for pedestrians and cyclists. By 2008 more than 40% of journeys to work were made either on foot or by bicycle. Management in response to short term challenges can be best seen by the example of pizza boxes over-flowing out of the bins near a popular restaurant along the rejuvenated Søndre Boulevard. Rather than erecting ‘do not litter’ signs, the City Council specifically designed bins with an extralarge pizza sized slot to accommodate them (gehlarchitects.com, 2012). Covent Garden, London, England Google Maps, 2009 Pedestrian Dominated Space, Covent Garden Founded in 1988 the Covent Garden Trust comprises representatives of community groups, local authorities and designated bodies. Since then, a series of studies and guidance have been drawn up by the Trust in conjunction with the City of Westminister Council. Crucially, these documents have not been left to wither on the vine, they have been actively implemented. For example, the 2004 Environment Study, which details proposals to maintain and enhance the public realm have been reviewed in 2008. This review critically assessed what had been achieved and detailed new issues to be dealt with. Also of note, is the level of 67 Outdoor Café Furniture Guidance South William Street Area Study Design Solutions & Concepts While it is acknowledged that traffic access and egress is essential to the area, future design works should prioritise the pedestrian. Indeed, many routes are aleet Exch eque r St. Wi ck low St. ready pedestrianised or pedestrian friendly. These incremental improvements Fa d e S t. Ca stle Str Ma rke t ry Dru need reinforcing if the area is to sustained itself as a pedestrian dominated environment. This study examined the possibility of further pedestrianisation, however due to presence of existing multistory car parks and the potential of negative repercussions for traffic congestion in the wider south city area, it was decided not to recommend further pedestrianisation of streets. In the longer term it can be seen that the space to benefit most, even from partial pedestrianisation, is South William St. Jo hn Co ppi nge r R ow re et Joh nso m St. nC our t llia Wi en do n St uth ar Ha Cl n C la ren Ro w w do et Proposed Street Improvement Works Cla Legend It is currently recognised that the area in its entirety needs its street surfaces and pavements upgrading. The two types of spaces dealt with in the proposals are linear and punctual. Linear spaces are spaces which we for the main part, journey through i.e. streets and lanes. Such spaces dominate the study area and indeed they contribute most to the character of the district. Punctual spaces are destinations within the public realm and generally occur at the junction of several routes (e.g. College Green). Whilst there are no major punctual spaces within the South William Street area, there are opportunities for creating punctual spaces in a number of locations (see map, upper right). The following section summarises the main recommended schedule of works to streets in the area. Greater details as to the redesign of the study area’s public realm will be provided later in this chapter. South William Street will be used as an example of how a linear space can be rejuvenated, while Johnson Place and Chatham Row will be used to illustrate how punctual spaces could be 68 enhanced within the area. Linear Routes South William Street This street is considered to be the civic spine of the study area and as such it is recommended that one material be used to pave the street, reflecting its importance in the district. • Entire street to be paved in Leinster Granite, to include pavements and carriageway. The carriageway will be grade-separated and narrowed to 3 metres in width. • All on-street car parking to be removed. • Loading bays to be rationalised with two being provided - one at the northern end and the one serving businesses in the south • The existing feature pavement in front of Powerscourt House to be cleaned, repaired and incorporated into the new design scheme. • Wider pavements will allow removal of most bollards. To protect Powerscourt House granite bollards will be used. ren don Suggested Punctual Areas Ro nM ark Chat Bal so Ch ath am ham Cha tha mL ane fe St. So rry St. Pla ce St. South William Street Area Study Wicklow Street/ Exchequer Street • The existing pedestrian section of Wicklow Street should be re-paved in Leinster Granite. • The remaining section of the respective streets should have widened pavements of Leinster Granite and contemporary granite sets along the carriageway, with grade separation (see materials pallet). • The width of the carriage-way should be reduced to 3 metres. • The Dublin Bikes station on Exchequer Street should be incorporated into the design of the street. Pedestrian Streets (Johnson Court, Coppinger Row, Castle Market, Harry St., Clarendon Market, Chatham Lane) • Pedestrian routes should be re-paved in Leinster Granite. • Harry St. should be fully pedestrianised with access for deliveries and taxis to the Westbury maintained. • Chatham Lane should be pedestrianised. Clarendon St. / Clarendon Row/ Chatham Row / Chatham St. / Drury St. / Fade St./ Balfe St. • The respective streets should have widened pavements of Leinster Granite and contemporary granite sets along the carriageway, with grade separation (see materials pallet p. 72). • Limited set-down areas should be provided and all on-street parking on Drury St. should be removed. • A carriage width of 3 metres should be implemented on these streets. Grafton St. - Leinster Granite Although not subject to the current report, it is recommended that Grafton Street, like South William Street, be re-paved using Leinster Granite, due to the street’s historic significance and importance as the core of the south retail quarter. Leinster Granite is a material indigenous to Dublin and its use along a street such as Grafton Street can be fully justified. Such a material would showcase both the street and show visitors that Dublin has a high regard for its build heritage. Punctual Areas Johnson Place • Area to be de-cluttered and re-paved in Leinster granite and contemporary granite setts. • The carriageway of the pavement at the junction should be raised to calm traffic (similar to in front of Powerscourt House.) • Trees should be planted to define the punctual nature of the space. • A piece of public art to be erected in the centre of the space. Area in front of DIT Conservatory of Music on Chatham Row • Street should be upgraded taking cognisance of the fact that the Conservatory of Music will be relocating to Grangegorman. • Pedestrian routes should be widened and repaved in Leinster Granite. • The width of the carriage-way should be reduced to 3 metres. Area in front of Powerscourt House • Existing Traffic calming measures at Powerscourt House be maintained. • Granite Setts should be repaired and cleaned • A general de-cluttering of signage in the area should be undertaken and the iron bollards replaced with granite ones. Junction of Castle Market & Drury St. opposite George’s Arcade Entrance • Layout should be similarly treated to that in front of Powerscourt House. 69 South William Street Area Study Design Solution: Inspired By Shared Space The concept of shared space aims to remove traditional boundaries which have segregated various road users, through the use of kerbs, railings, bollards, road markings and signs. The removal of such infrastructure along appropriate streets, particularly where traffic is already slowly moving, can improve the visual appearance and perception of the space. It is also proven to slow traffic down, A Typical Street Setting in Central Dublin as railings and bollards encourage speeding by providing a false sense of security for drivers and indeed for pedestrians alike. Shared space works well only in cases where traffic is essential for local access rather than as a through route. For a shared space scheme to be viable there must be a slow movement environment with light traffic levels and a high pedestrian footfall. P The Same Street Redesigned Using the Pure Shared Space Model No barriers used to segregate outdoor seating from the pavement creates a truly shared space environment. Removing signage & bollards results in an uncluttered environment. Road space shared with cyclists and pedestrians Raising the road to the level of the footpath gives more space for pedestrian Trees can be planted to subtly delineate uses & improving visual amenity. Elimination of on-street car parking provides extra space to cope with high footfall. From a Contested Space to a Shared Space! 70 South William Street Area Study Shared Space for Ireland: A Case for Legislative Change Currently there is no legal basis for shared space in Irish Law. Understandably this makes Local Authorities wary of implementing such schemes in our towns and cities due to the legal risks involved. We would strongly urge that the Department of Transport, Tourism & Sport amend the relevant legislation governing roads to take account of the change in policy discourse that is occurring in European Cities. A good example of the purist form of shared-space is New Road in Brighton, New Road Before England. Until recently this street was congested with traffic, blighted by onstreet parking and cluttered with signage. In devising an regeneration scheme for the area, Brighton Council was persuaded by the design consultants (chiefly the Danish Architecture Firm, Gehl Architects) to keep the street open to traffic but one that is dominated by the pedestrian. The resultant scheme has seen the street transform from being a busy route to a space for recreation and amenity. Statistics of its Success To-Date 62% increase in pedestrian footfall 600% increase in staying activities 22% increase in cycling activities www.civictrust.co.uk New Road is now the 4th most popular destination in Brighton! Shared Space in Action: New Road Brighton Gehl Architects et al. Source: gehlarchitects.com 71 South William Street Area Study Recommended Materials Pallet for the South William Street Area The recommended materials pallet for the area (see below) has been devised to select materials on the basis that they are attractive, natural, durable and most importantly, that they will integrate well into the existing historic environment in the area. Details regarding their exact application in each respective street is outlined in the following pages. Materials 1. Contemporary Granite setts - As used on Oâ€™Connell St. 2. Traditional Leinster Granite 3. Wood as a material for seating (as per Docklands) 4. Granite bollards (where necessary) 5. Cast iron litter bins 6. Cast iron street lights 2. 3. 1. 4. 5. 6. 72 South William Street Area Study Design Concepts for Linear Space: South William Street The recommended design scheme for South William St. reflects its position as the civic spine of the study area. The street at present is a oneway street where the majority of journeys into the area are in the form of delivery vehicles and traffic accessing car parks. The pedestrian-dominated design is inspired by shared space. Hence the pavements and carriageway have the same material (Leinster Granite) but are separated by a conventional kerb similar to O’Connell Plaza. Narrowing the carriageway to 3 metres and removing all on-street parking will provide additional space to the pedestrian, improving the visual amenity of the street, reflecting its historic status, whilst still allowing vehicles to access the space. The narrow carriageway will discourage illegal parking, due to a lack of space. As previously noted, Existing Street Layout O’Connell Plaza, O’Connell St. Low Kerb - Same Material! delivery bays will be provided at two specific points to the north and south ends of the street. Please see following plans and cross sections to detail proposed changes. Recommended Layout 22 22 51 2728 2728 51 48 48 10m 73 South William Street Area Study Cross Sections of Mid-South William Street Along with the upgrade in pavement there should be a comprehensive de-cluttering and rationalisation of street furniture in the area. The use of bollard as a standard feature will be strongly discouraged. Below and right are cross sections of the middle portion of South William Street, illustrating the present layout and proposed layout. Location Map B A Existing Cross Section Segregated environment encourages speeding along the street. Unattractive environment for cyclists due to onstreet parking. Illegal parking and delivery vehicles. Narrow pavement. Signage along existing narrow pavements exacerbates lack of space for pedestrian. P A 74 B South William Street Area Study Shadow Analysis South William Street, 12 noon, 21 September The results of a shadow analysis shows that the western side of the street receives a greatest amount of direct sunlight. Therefore the western side of the street should have a wider footpath than the east to encourage spill-over activities on the sunnier side of the street. Cross Section of Proposed Pedestrian-Friendly Space Scheme Potential for outdoor seating due to additional space. Narrowed 3 metre carriageway with low kerbs restricts the speed of vehicles in the area Removing on-street parking provides more space for pedestrians Grade separation delineates road space. Leinster granite used on pavement & road space A B 75 South William Street Area Study Design Concepts for Punctual Spaces Johnson Place Presently Johnson Place is a traffic-dominated junction with a confused and cluttered layout. However it can be seen the space has real potential. The space forms the southern link between many of the key streets in the area and it also is the largest punctual space, although some of this is in private ownership. The central idea to the redesign of the this space is the idea to reinforce the natural rectangular shape of its open space, this can be best achieved by delineating and defining the space with trees. Pleached trees such as those at the G.P.O. on Oâ€™Connell Street create a structured but soft environment and give the person in the street the impression that they are entering a room. This room should be focused on the pedestrian. While traffic access would remain, the width of the carriageway would be reduced to 3 metres and raised to the height of the pavement at the traffic junction. Loading bays should be eliminated Present Public Realm Layout at Johnson Place from the immediate Johnson Place area. The pavements should be composed of Leinster Granite and the carriageway be of contemporary granite setts. A general de-cluttering of signage and bollards should occur and the renewed space be focused on a work of public art. This would be best sited at the junction of the two traffic routes (Johnson Place and South William St.). The provision of seating in the space is also desirable as the wider and uncluttered pavements would be easily able to accommodate such furniture. Visualisation of Improvements to Johnson Place 76 South William Street Area Study Existing Street Layout Johnson Place 31- 32 38 39 Cla ren don 1 NO EN TRY Ma r ke t Mercer Hospital Hospital Mercer Proposed Street Layout Johnson Place 31- 32 38 NO EN TR Y 39 Cla 1 ren don Ma r ke t Mercer Hospital 10 m 77 South William Street Area Study Shadow Analysis Johnson Place, 12 noon, 21 September The results of a shadow analysis shows that the northern side of the place receives a greatest amount of direct sunlight. Therefore the northern side of the space should have a wider footpath than the southern and eastern sides to encourage vibrancy on the sunnier side of the street. Chatham Row the northern side of the street and a general decluttering of the space is recommended, with bike stands re-located to the adjacent Clarendon Row. Footpaths will be re-paved in Leinster Granite and the carriageway in a contemporary granite sett. Chatham Row is a small street dominated on the south by the DIT Conservatory of Music and the north by bars and restaurants. The spill-out effect is currently very evident on is the a northern to pavement. â€˜close-inâ€™ However, pavement there seat- DIT will be moving to their new campus in Grangegorman in the foreseeable future and as such, the current Conservatory of Music building will become vacant. It is essential to maintain this building as a cultural use, with active ground floor uses. This will ensure that the character currently displayed along this street is maintained and enhanced. tendency ing areas through the use of high barriers. The Metro CafĂŠ currently does not use any pavement divides and this works very successfully. The design for this street will encourage such pavement seating. Tree planting will take place on Visualisation of Improvements on Chatham Row 78 South William Street Area Study Shadow Analysis Chatham Row, 12 noon, 21 September The analysis side shows of that northern Chatham Row receives the most sunshine. Our design is responsive to this environment, thus maximising the potential for â€˜spill-outâ€™ activities in the street. Existing Street Layout Chatham Row m St. NO E NTR Y llia uth Wi 2 In Pu Sp 3 ati ve nR ow dic So nc tua Co Cla ren don Ma nse r va sic r ke Mu t tor y o f Existing Street Layout Chatham Row 2 3 ath am Ro w Ch m St. So uth Wi llia Cla t Cla ren r ke e do ren don Ma ra l Ve n u nR o Ne w C ult u w Cla ren do ac l e 10 m 79 South William Street Area Study Design & Street Furniture Detail In an area of historical architectural character such as the South William Street district, attention to detail is vital to maintaining and enhancing the fabric of the townscape. Such attention to detail should not only cover shop faรงades and pavement quality but also extent to traffic signage and street furniture. While these utilities are a necessary part of the urban environment, careful consideration of their location and distribution should be a central component of any public realm improvement works in the area. Thoughtful design and the use of high quality durable materials are essential if such fixtures are to be integrated in a manner as not to detract from the environment. Street Signage, Exchequer St. Street Signage As has been previously mentioned, street signage in the district is notably cluttered and haphazard. The example right is quite common within the area. It is recognised that some of these signs are mandatory by law but this should not stop them from being rationalised in a meaningful way so as to respect the character of the area in which they are placed. The Dublin Wayfinder Scheme which has accomplished the rationalisation of cultural and tourist signage within the City provides a Suggested Traffic Signage Scheme useful precedent in this respect. Therefore, a system that integrates different traffic directions onto the one sign should be considered for the district. This would not only protect the visual amenity of the area but also be cost effective by reducing long term expenditure on the erection and maintenance of various signs and poles. It is noted that stop signs cannot be integrated with other signage. Not withstanding this issue, the proposed signage scheme would result in a dras- Such a signage scheme where there is multiple pieces of information on the sign is appropriate for the area as it is a slow movement environment. Signage will be as small as traffic regulations allow P Brown Thomas Car Park The example here combines a one-way direction, a no-left turn and car parking information on to one sign. There should be no more than three instructions on any one sign tic reduction on individual signs. It is also recommended that the signage system for the car parks serving the larger Grafton Quarter be incorporated into any new system. This would streamline the varied car parking signage currently in place while at the same time making the area more legible for visitors and shoppers alike. Signage should be mounted onto a cast iron black pole throughout the area 80 South William Street Area Study Signage to alert traffic on Drury St. Optimal Situation - If Signage is Necessary Such signage as above is unfortunately all too prevalent in the study area and illustrates the fact that the area is still engineered towards the needs of the car to the detriment of its historic character. The example above shows that if such signs are required, it is clever design that is crucial in subtly integrating it with its environment. Street Bollards Bollards in front of St. Teresaâ€™s Church Discreet Stone Bollards, Edinburgh Another issue of clutter that needs to be resolved is bollards. Clarendon St. (see above) is a veritable avenue of bollards such is the intensity of their distribution. Bollards are put in place for the most part to stop vehicles parking on the pavement. However, this should be the last option for consideration. Where there is a need for their placement, such as to protect a historic building like St. Teresaâ€™s Church, it is recommended that granite bollards should be employed. These bollards should be high enough so as to prevent pedestrians tripping over but too low for them to be used as bike stands as is often the case (see right). Eliminates bikes being locked to bollards 81 South William Street Area Study Street Lighting Good Quality Lighting Fixture, Coppinger Row Street lights mounted on to faรงade walls is very much a part of the character of the South William Street Area. While this helps the street become a more uncluttered environment there is some concern over the quality of some of the bracket fixtures and the way the necessary wiring is dealt with, particularly on the faรงades of historic structures (see below). The new free standing lighting recently erected on Fade St. is at odds with the character of the area and not desirable. The lighting fixture on Coppinger Row (see upper right) provides a good example of how the design and materials used in the street light integrates seamlessly with the streetscape. Lighting Bracket on Chatham Row Contemporary Street Light, Fade Street Litter Bins Litter Bin, South William St. The placing of litter bins at set intervals along a street should be discouraged, they should be placed in areas according to the level of footfall and the amount of space available. The design of the bins themselves, while user-friendly are not in keeping with the historic environment in which they are placed. See next page for recommendations on bin design. 82 South William Street Area Study Branding Street Light on Dawson Street Street furniture such as litter bins represent a unique opportunity to employ the use of branding to heighten the legibility of an area1. Indeed it can be seen that Dublin has used this to good effect in the past (see image right). With the current plans to redesign the public realm on Grafton Street there now is an opening to employ a system of subtle branding for the whole of what is now being termed by the City Council as the Grafton Quarter Other contemporary public realm interventions in a historic area, such as the Quartermile development in Edinburgh has proven that this can be successfully undertake. Branded Bin, Quartermile Edinburgh A modern design, subtly branded but in keeping with the historic architectural townscape in the area. Road Markings Subtle Road Markers, O’Connell Plaza It is recommended that the majority of road markings such as double yellow lines are removed as they detract from the intimate ‘5 kph environment’ sense of scale in the area. Unsightly Road Markings, Clarendon Row 1 See Defining Dublin’s Historic Core (Dublin Civic Trust, 2010) 83 South William Street Area Study Cycling Provision Bicycle Bay, St. Stephen’s Green West With an increasing demand for bike parking spaces and capacity of bike parking limited in the area, a district-wide solution is needed. It is proposed that the following steps should be taken in order to accommodate this growing trend. • A network of Bicycle Parks or Bays should be introduced in the area (see below). • The location of such bays should be decided on the basis that they are proximate to but not in areas of high pedestrian footfall and where there is an adequate amount of space available in the area to cater for them. • With the new bicycle bays in place, bike stands should be removed from some of the most congested parts of the area. • The recent addition of supplementary bike stands on poles should also be removed. • The existing multi-storey car parks in the area particularly the City Council Car Park in Drury St., should be made available as overnight and all-weather parking areas for cyclists. • To raise awareness of this facility it should be the subject of a promotional campaign in the area. For instance, it should be added to the Wayfinder signage. 3 Suggested Areas for Bicycle Bays 1. Corner of South Great George’s St. & Dame Lane - This currently unused space is an optimal area for a bicycle bay. 2. Clarendon Row - This street could accommodate up to 50 spaces. If interspersed with the planting of trees, this under-used space would become a legible and attractive part of the district. 3. Middle Drury St. - Proximate to the main eastwest (Castle Market - George’s Arcade) route. 2. 3. Legend Grafton Quarter (as defined by DCC) South William St. Study Area Multi-storey Carpark 84 South William Street Area Study Delivery Vehicle Access 5 Ton Vehicle Restriction in Area As previously noted much of the congestion in the study area is caused by delivery vans entering the district throughout the day. Therefore the times of such deliveries should be restricted to make it more consistent with delivery times restrictions on nearby Grafton Street. Also the weight of these vehicles are also physically damaging the public realm (see right) this requires expensive repairs to be made. To combat this problem a general weight restriction of 5 tons should be enforced in the area. Recommended delivery times for vehicles using designated loading bay areas: 1. Area open to delivery vehicles before 10am (similar to Grafton St.) 2. Delivery to specific uses (i.e. Fresh produce for restaurants) also allowed between 2-3pm) 3. Outside of these times the Cargo Bikes system as discussed in Chapter 4 should be utilised. Seating Provision Damaged Granite Setts - S. William St. 5t Outdoor seating is an important amenity for the public in any district and its presence can help strengthen the idea of a punctual space by creating a destination for the public. It is therefore recommended that the provision of outdoor seating be concentrated in the 4 punctual spaces that have been identified as for the most part linear routes in the area are too restricted to afford the Visualisation of Seating Planters at Drury St. positioning of desirable seating areas. The two types of seating suggested are benches and circular seating surrounding a planter and benches. The circular seating would create an attractive public scene and soften the environment in certain appropriate locations. The material used for the seating should be wood, it is perhaps the warmest and best suited for the Irish climate. 85 South William Street Area Study Activities The fine grain and small plots of the South William Street area support the growth of indigenous and independent retail uses. However, a level of policy direction is required, in order to achieve this. Boutique and specialist retail uses should be encourages and supported. Extending the Area of Special Planning Control will enable measures to be introduced preventing the spread of unsuitable land uses. The following uses should not be allowed in the area: Adult Shops The following uses should be actively promoted in the area: • Independent Boutique Shops • High End Retail / Specialist Retailers • Specialised Food Shops & Delis • Cafés and Restaurants • Galleries / Art dealers • Antique Shops • Specialised Services / Creative Businesses • Adult shops • Fast food restaurants / Take-aways • Convenience stores • Discount shops / Pound Shops • Tattoo Parlours • Tanning Salons • Casinos • Lap-Dancing Clubs • Phone Shops • Bookmakers Indicative Vertical Land Use Mix Adult shops are an undesirable use in such a high end retail area. A new policy should be introduced by Dublin City Council and applied to the entire City Centre precluding adult shops opening in any area within a 500m radius of any educational institution or place of worship. This measure is based on one introduced in New York City by Mayor Rudi Giuliani and successfully dealt with this particular land use issue. Vertical land use must be given special consideration in this area, as to how this can increase the vitality of the district. The majority of the built form is particularly robust, that is to say that its use can be easily changed. For example much of the build in the area was one residential on the upper storeys, these Photographer’s Studio Architect’s Practice Residential verted to that use or alternatively become a home for a new architects practice or dental surgery. 86 Independent Boutique Wine Bar Vertical Land Use could easily be recon- South William Street Area Study George’s Arcade (Former South City Markets) It has been highlighted throughout this report that internal legibility within the study area is a problem. With the highly legible form of the former South City Markets building there is the potential to resolve this issue. As a purpose built Victorian Market building, it has the potential to become one of Dublin’s most visited attractions, emulating the success of the English Market in Cork. If this were achieved the Markets would be like the Guinness Storehouse, a must-see fixture on the itinerary of every tourist. This would in turn make the district more legible and rejuvenate the entire western part of the area. Additionally, restoring its use as a market would support and enhance start-up and indigenous businesses. The building itself takes up a considerable amount of space, as illustrated above and is extremely permeable, with entrances on to each of the surrounding streets. South City Market Façade Detail, Dublin Capitalising on our unique Architectural & Cultural Heritage English Market, Cork Tony O’Connell (www.englishmarket.ie) Brick Work in Need of Restoration Recommendations It is recommended that a Conservation Management Plan be devised for the Markets which should consider the following: • George’s Street Arcade to be returned to its former glory as the South City Markets, creating a key attraction to rejuvenating of the area between South William Street and George’s Street. • Removal of paint from the brick façade. • Improved permeability onto Fade Street. 87 South William Street Area Study Conclusion: Problems & Potential To summarise, the study has highlighted the key problems currently evident in the area, set out a vision for how the district can fulfil its true potential and made recommendations as to how this rejuvenation can be achieved. This report has identified many problems which threaten and prevent the long term success of the district. Such problems include: • A lack and in some cases, a total absence of planning enforcement, particularly unauthorised works to ground floor façades and to protected structures. • A lack in implementation of the stated objectives of the current ACA written statement for the South Retail Quarter Architectural Conservation Area. • Poor quality public realm along well-patronised routes, illustrating the general lack of attention to detail, a problem which is prevalent throughout the area. • Townscape negatively effected by uncoordinated and in many cases unnecessary street signage clutter. • Continuing presence of on-street car parking. • Delivery vehicles causing congestion throughout the week days. • Spill-out effect getting out of control at some premises. • Threat that the area may become dominated by public houses. • Maintenance of building stock owned by NAMA. It has also been noted that much of the vital urban design ingredients necessary for successful placemaking are presently in place and have been for generations. These include the rich architectural detail, fine grain, small plot sizes and diversity in activities, all of which are an inherent part of the character of the South William Street Area. In order to achieve the vision set out for the district, the following points outline the principle 88 recommendations to be undertaken: • Amalgamate the Grafton Street and Environs and South Retail Quarter Architectural Conservation Areas (ACA) and extend the current Grafton Street and Environs Area of Special Planning Control to include the amalgamated ACA, covering the wider district. • The Local Authority should readily invoke the powers of the Dereliction Act 1990 when necessary. • The establishment of a special management team within the Local Authority to implement, review and manage the ACA and Area of Special Planning Control Policies and also draw up a management and maintenance strategy for the area. • Rejuvenate the public realm, using indigenous materials such as Leinster Granite accompanied with the removal of on-street parking. • Provide quality and durable seating at suitable locations. • De-clutter streets of excess and unnecessary signage and establish a coordinated and integrated traffic management signage scheme. • Enforce delivery time and weight restrictions on delivery vehicles entering the area. • The various stakeholders in the area should lobby the Department of Transport, Sport and Tourism to legalise the use of shared space using best practice European examples. • Devise a bicycle parking strategy based on the creation of designated parking bays as part of management strategy for the area. • As part of the expanded Area of Special Planning Control scheme, specific land uses should be itemised that will be either be prohibited or encouraged, to promote the long term sustainability of the district. • Encourage the re-establishment of George’s Arcade as a key attraction and destination in the area between South William Street and George’s Street. The first step in achieving this goal would be to devised a Conservation South William Street Area Study Management Plan for the former markets building. • Dublin City Council should vary the Development Plan to include specific guidelines dealing with licensed premises, particularly dealing with city centre locations, such as South William Street, which have an inherent character. • Dublin City Council need to provided guidelines dealing with ‘pop-up shops’ or temporary shops. • Encourage NAMA to engage with the key stakeholders in the area so that their property portfolio can be managed to optimise the sustainability of the district. • A new policy should be introduced across the entire City Centre precluding adult shops opening in any area within a 500m radius of any educational institution or place of worship. Whilst the stated recommendations are indeed comprehensive, it is felt there must be a holistic solution to the many challenges the study area presently faces. It is seen that good management is key to achieving a sustainable vision for the area, such as the one outlined. Therefore a large degree of ‘hands-on’ management is crucial in addressing the area’s short term problems and long term challenges. It is felt that while there is certainly not a shortage of policy or plans, these policies need to be implemented in a comprehensive and sustained manner over the long term in order to see a positive impact. The Trust are conscious of the financial constraints in which the local authority operates and does not recommend the establishment of any new team lightly. However, this team should be drawn from existing resources within the Council and the City, with the sole purpose to manage the said study area. The establishment of this team can be justified by looking at the potential of the district and its special and unique character. In short the area: • Abuts one of only two Area of Special Planning Control Schemes in the City. • Is part of an Architectural Conservation Area. • Contains some of the finest buildings within the City. • Boasts a delicate fine network of streets and lanes. • Is part of the South Retail Core of the City. • Hosts a large number of tourists and shoppers. The lack of implementation of existing policies designed to protect and enhance the area threatens the integrity of its unique character and identity. The key to the future of the district is to promote this unique character, one which is inherent to Dublin and not to promote a copy-cat ‘catalogue’ style approach to urban design and placemaking. This is vital when choosing pavement materials and street furniture but equally as important when assessing appropriate land uses and activities for particular buildings. Sameness does not make a ‘quarter’, rather uniqueness does. To conclude, with the proper management struc- As such, the key recommendation of Dublin Civic Trust is the establishment of a dedicated team to implement both existing and new policy governing the South William Street Area. Such a team needs to be multi-disciplinary in nature, where management, planning, enforcement and roads maintenance are all co-ordinated in order to solve the current problems, eradicate the identified threats and implement the future vision of the City’s premier retail district. ture and attention to detail deemed suitable for one of the most historic, economically important and dynamic parts of Dublin City, the South William Street Area has the potential to thrive as one of Europe’s most successful historic commercial cores, whilst also promoting the local economy and selling a unique image of Dublin to the world. Sameness does not make a ‘quarter’, rather uniqueness does! 89 South William Street Area Study References & Further Reading Bentley, I. et al (1985) Responsive Environments, A Manual for Designers, London, The Architectural Press. Bosselmann, P. (1998) Representation of Places: Reality and Realism in City Design, Berkeley & Los Angeles, California, University of California Press Ltd. Carmona M. et al (2003) Public Places – Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design, London, The Architectural Press. City of Copenhagen (2009) Impact of Copenhagen’s Parking Strategy, Copenhagen, City of Copenhagen. Cullen, G. (1961) The Concise Townscape, London, The Architectural Press. Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government (2009) Government Policy on Architecture 2009-2015, Towards a Sustainable Future: Delivering Quality within the Built Environment, Dublin, Government Stationary Office. Derelict Sites Act, 1990, Dublin, Government Stationary Office [online] available from http://www.irishstatutebook. ie/1990/en/act/pub/0014/index.html [Accessed 12 July 2012] Dublin City Council (2012) Grafton Street Part 8 Explanatory Booklet, April 2012 [Online] Available from: http://www.dcba.ie/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Part-8-Explanatory-Booklet-Reduced.pdf [Accessed 12 July 2012] Dublin City Council (2012) Your City, Your Space, Dublin City Public Realm Strategy, Dublin, Dublin City Council Dublin City Council (2010) Dublin City Development Plan, 2011-2017, Dublin, Dublin City Council. Dublin City Council (2008) City Centre Transport Plan, Dublin, Dublin City Council. Dublin City Council (2007) The South City Retail Quarter Architectural Conservation Area Written Statement [Online] available from: http://www.dublincity.ie/Planning/HeritageConservation/Conservation/Documents/South%20City%20Retail%20Quarter%20ACA.pdf [Accessed 2 July 2012] Dublin City Council (2006) Grafton Street and Environs Architectural Conservation Area Written Statement [Online] available from: http://www.dublincity.ie/Planning/ HeritageConservation/Conservation/Documents/Grafton%20 Street%20and%20Environs%20ACA.pdf [Accessed 2 July 2012] Dublin Civic Trust (2010) Defining Dublin’s Historic Core: Realising the Potential of the City Centre and its Georgian Squares for Citizens, Business and Visitors, Dublin, Dublin Civic Trust. Dublin Civic Trust (1999) South William Street: A Study of the Past, A Vision of the Future, Dublin, Argus Press. Dublin Corporation (2001) Shopfront Design Guide, Dublin, Dublin Corporation. DoEHLG (2009) Urban Design Manuel, A Best Practice Guide, Government Stationary Office, Dublin. Gehl, J. et al (2010) Cities for People, Washington D.C., Island Press. Gehl, J. et al (2006) Close Encounters with Buildings, Urban Design International, 11(1), pp. 29-47). Kodransky, M. & Hermann, G. (2011) Europe’s Parking UTurn: From Accommodation to Regulation, Institute for Transportation and Development Policy, New York. O’ Brien J. & Guinness D. (1994) Dublin, A Grand Tour, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London. Planning and Development Act, 2000, Dublin, Government Stationary Office [online] available from http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/2000/en/act/pub/0030/index. html [2 July 2012] Roads Act, 1993, Dublin, Government Stationary Office [online] available from http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/1993/en/act/pub/0014/index. html [30 October 2009] Thom’s Irish Almanac and Official Directory, 1900, Dublin, Alexander Thom and Co. Ltd Thom’s Irish Almanac and Official Directory, 1850, Dublin, Alexander Thom and Co. Ltd Websites www.englishmarket.ie www.gehlarchitects.com South William Street Area Study ÂŠDublin Civic Trust 2012