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Summer Internship Project Descriptions

Project List Advanced Automatic Crash Notification Biomechanical Comparison of Malleolar Fracture Fixation Techniques Chest Injury Prediction: Development of an Injury Prediction Model for Motor Vehicle Crashes Using Medical Imaging Comparing Fixation Constructs in an Elderly Acetabular Fracture Model

Compressive Sensing Based Interior Tomography Computational Human Body Modeling Related to Heat Transfer Research Computer Simulations of Real World Motor Vehicle Crashes Effect of Exercise Modality During Weight Loss on Bone Structure and Strength Head Injury Prediction: Development of an Injury Prediction Model for Motor Vehicle Crashes Using Medical Imaging Human Body Model Development for Trauma Research Multi-Modality Anthropometry Study for Computational Model Generation Novel Research and Medical Device Development Single-molecule Mapping of DNA-protein Interactions with Solid-state Nanopores Theranostic Polysaccharide Nanoparticles

Project Description - Summer 2014 Advanced Automatic Crash Notification (AACN) Advanced Automatic Crash Notification (AACN) utilizes vehicle telemetry data to aid in the identification of severely injured occupants in a motor vehicle crash (MVC). This project involves developing an AACN algorithm to predict occupant injury risk and inform Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel of a recommended triage decision for a MVC occupant (trauma center versus non-trauma center). Pre-hospital data will also be analyzed to study how crash data is transmitted from the vehicle to end-users (911/Public-Safety Answering Points, EMS, and hospitals). The results of this research aim to reduce response times, increase triage efficiency, and improve overall patient outcome.

Other Notes: This research effort will be in the Center for Injury Biomechanics (CIB) and you will have the opportunity to work on a range of projects in the field of automobile safety, military restraints, and sports biomechanics. The CIB has two primary research facilities. The first is in the WFU School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, NC and the second is at Virginia Tech. The research at the CIB combines experimental testing, computational modeling, and case analysis to investigate human injury biomechanics.

Location:

Joel Stitzel, PhD Professor, Biomedical Engineering Program Leader & Director, WFU Campus VT-WFU Center for Injury Biomechanics School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences 575 N. Patterson Ave, Suite 120 Winston-Salem, NC 27101 www.CIB.vt.edu

Project Description - Summer 2014 Biomechanical Comparison of Malleolar Fracture Fixation Techniques Considerable controversy exists regarding the optimal management of small posterior malleolar fractures associated with syndesmotic injuries. Some surgeons opt to stabilize the disrupted syndesmosis with trans-syndesmotic screws however this may restrict normal physiologic motion and possibly need later screw removal. Fixation of the small posterior malleolar fracture with the associated ligament may obviate the need for syndesmotic screw insertion and result in more normal ankle mechanics. The present study will use cadaveric model and a 6DOF robot with force torque control to evaluate the effectiveness of several malleolar fracture fixation techniques to evaluate their effectiveness.

Other Notes: The CIB has two primary research facilities. The first is in the WFU School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, NC and the second is at Virginia Tech. The research at the CIB combines experimental testing, computational modeling, and case analysis to investigate human injury biomechanics.

Location:

Aaron T. Scott, MD Assistant Professor, Orthopaedics Foot and Ankle Surgery Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Wake Forest University School of Medicine Medical Center Boulevard Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1070

Project Description - Summer 2014 Chest Injury Prediction: Development of an Injury Prediction Model for Motor Vehicle Crashes Using Medical Imaging The incidence of chest injury is second only to head injury in terms of fatalities and serious injuries in motor vehicle crashes. This project focuses on development of a thoracic skeleton model for use in predicting chest injuries in motor vehicle crashes. Shape, size, bone density, and cortex thickness changes in the rib cage will be determined with age and gender from medical imaging. Scalable finite element models of the thoracic skeleton for an individual of any gender and age will be developed and validated. The models will be tested using computerized simulations of traumatic impacts to develop age and gender-based chest injury metrics.

Other Notes: This research effort will be in the Center for Injury Biomechanics (CIB) and you will have the opportunity to work on a range of projects in the field of automobile safety, military restraints, and sports biomechanics. The CIB has two primary research facilities. The first is in the WFU School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, NC and the second is at Virginia Tech. The research at the CIB combines experimental testing, computational modeling, and case analysis to investigate human injury biomechanics.

Location:

Joel Stitzel, PhD Professor, Biomedical Engineering Program Leader & Director, WFU Campus VT-WFU Center for Injury Biomechanics School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences 575 N. Patterson Ave, Suite 120 Winston-Salem, NC 27101 www.CIB.vt.edu

Project Description - Summer 2014 Comparing Fixation Constructs in an Elderly Acetabular Fracture Model Currently, there is a lack of evidence-based studies to guide the operative management of acetabular fractures in the elderly population. Secondary to the low-energy mechanism of these injuries, e.g., fall from standing height with lateral to medial loading of the proximal femur, elderly patients tend to have more uniform fracture patterns most commonly anterior column fractures with medial displacement patterns. These fractures frequently involve the quadrilateral plate with medial protrusion of the femoral head. Two main fixation methods, extrapelvic vs. intrapelvic, are employed most commonly to repair the fracture involving the quadrilateral plate. However, there are currently no comparison studies, biomechanical or clinical series, evaluating the stability or ability to prevent reprotrusion with these different plating methods.

Other Notes: The CIB has two primary research facilities. The first is in the WFU School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, NC and the second is at Virginia Tech. The research at the CIB combines experimental testing, computational modeling, and case analysis to investigate human injury biomechanics.

Location:

Eben Carroll, MD Assistant Professor, Orthopaedics Trauma and Rehabilitation, Pelvic and Hip Joint Surgery Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Wake Forest University School of Medicine Medical Center Boulevard Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1070

Project Description - Summer 2014 Compressive Sensing Based Interior Tomography While classic computed tomography (CT) theory targets exact reconstruction of a whole crosssection or entire volume from complete projections, biomedical applications often focus on relatively small internal region-of-interests (ROIs). However, traditional CT theory cannot exactly reconstruct an internal ROI only from truncated projections associated with x-rays through the ROI because this interior problem does not have a unique solution in an unconstrained setting. The goal of this CAREER proposal is to advance the CS-based interior tomography theory and algorithms, and make a paradigm shift from traditional global filtered backprojection (FBP) to contemporary interior reconstruction.

Other Notes: CT is a translational and highly interdisciplinary field among electronics, computer, physics, mathematics, biology and medicine. You will have opportunity to work with key team members in the Biomedical Imaging Division and this research effort will be partly supported by Dr. Yu’s NSF CAREER award.

Location:

Hengyong Yu, PhD Assistant Professor, Biomedical Engineering Director of the CT Lab, Biomedical Imaging Division School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences 2nd Floor MRI, Medical Center Blvd. Winston-Salem, NC 27157 http://www.imaging.sbes.vt.edu/people/hengyongyu/

Project Description - Summer 2014 Computational Human Body Modeling Related to Heat Transfer Research Computational modeling is a growing component of biomechanics and trauma research. While this is often applied to the study of blunt or blast rate loading, another emerging area of interest is study of bio-heat transfer. This project will focus the study of heat transfer as it pertains to human body modeling. This has important implications in a range of applications relevant to the study of injury, from calculating the severity of thermal burns to modeling the temperature rise of implants during medical imaging procedures.

Other Notes: This research effort will be in the Center for Injury Biomechanics (CIB) and you will have the opportunity to work on a range of projects in the field of automobile safety, military restraints, sports and orthopedic biomechanics. The CIB has two primary research facilities. The first is in the WFU School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, NC and the second is at Virginia Tech. The research at the CIB combines experimental testing, computational modeling, and case analysis to investigate human injury biomechanics.

Location:

Scott Gayzik, PhD Assistant Professor, Biomedical Engineering VT-WFU Center for Injury Biomechanics School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences 575 N. Patterson Ave, Suite 120 Winston-Salem, NC 27101 www.CIB.vt.edu

Project Description - Summer 2014 Computer Simulations of Real World Motor Vehicle Crashes Motor vehicle crashes are a primary source of traumatic injury. Human body modeling has the potential to elucidate injury mechanism for common injuries following crashes. The focus of this research effort is to simulate well documented motor vehicle crashes from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering (CIREN) database using advanced computer finite element models of the vehicles and the human body. Occupant injuries are also recorded in this database with available medical images of the patients. The injuries resulting from the crash can then be correlated to finite element model injury metrics. The focus of this project will be crash reconstruction.

Other Notes: This research effort will be in the Center for Injury Biomechanics (CIB) and you will have the opportunity to work on a range of projects in the field of automobile safety, military restraints, and sports biomechanics. The CIB has two primary research facilities. The first is in the WFU School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, NC and the second is at Virginia Tech. The research at the CIB combines experimental testing, computational modeling, and case analysis to investigate human injury biomechanics.

Location:

Joel Stitzel, PhD Professor, Biomedical Engineering Program Leader & Director, WFU Campus VT-WFU Center for Injury Biomechanics School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences 575 N. Patterson Ave, Suite 120 Winston-Salem, NC 27101 www.CIB.vt.edu

Project Description - Summer 2014 Effect of Exercise Modality During Weight Loss on Bone Structure and Strength Weight loss improves many clinical consequences of obesity; yet despite its benefits, weight loss is not routinely recommended for older adults, partially because of bone mass loss and the potential to worsen age-related risk of osteoporosis and fracture. This project will begin to explore whether the addition of exercise to weight loss preserves bone structure and strength compared to weight loss alone in obese, older adults participating in an 18-month lifestyle based intervention.

Other Notes: This project represents a joint research effort between the Wake Forest Claude D. Pepper Center, Translational Science Institute, Translational Science Center and School of Biomedical Engineering. The project will involve cortical thickness mapping and finite element analysis of clinically important sites of osteoporotic fracture.

Location:

Kristen M. Beavers, PhD, MPH, RD Instructor of Internal Medicine, Section on Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine Wake Forest School of Medicine Medical Center Blvd Winston-Salem, NC 27157 http://www.wakehealth.edu/Faculty/Beavers-KristenMarie.htm

Project Description - Summer 2014 Head Injury Prediction: Development of an Injury Prediction Model for Motor Vehicle Crashes Using Medical Imaging Head injuries are the leading cause of death in motor vehicle crashes. This project focuses on development of models of the brain and skull for use in predicting head injuries in car crashes. Geometric and material property changes in the brain and skull will be determined with age and gender. A radiological analysis of head CT and MRI scans will be used to quantify anatomical changes and develop a scalable finite element model of the skull and brain for an individual of any gender and age. The model will be tested using computerized simulations of traumatic impacts to develop age and gender-based head injury metrics.

Other Notes: This research effort will be in the Center for Injury Biomechanics (CIB) and you will have the opportunity to work on a range of projects in the field of automobile safety, military restraints, and sports biomechanics. The CIB has two primary research facilities. The first is in the WFU School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, NC and the second is at Virginia Tech. The research at the CIB combines experimental testing, computational modeling, and case analysis to investigate human injury biomechanics.

Location:

Joel Stitzel, PhD Professor, Biomedical Engineering Program Leader & Director, WFU Campus VT-WFU Center for Injury Biomechanics School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences 575 N. Patterson Ave, Suite 120 Winston-Salem, NC 27101 www.CIB.vt.edu

Project Description - Summer 2014 Human Body Model Development for Trauma Research Computational modeling is a growing component of injury biomechanics and trauma research. This project is a multi-center effort developing a next generation set of human body finite element models for enhanced injury prediction and prevention systems. The student will be responsible for assisting in model development tasks including meshing, contact algorithm development and scaling. Responsibilities will also include reporting FEA model analysis and results, running analyses on distributed computing environments, simulating validation procedures, performing literature reviews, and reporting related research efforts through written and oral status updates. The student(s) will gain valuable experience in fields of trauma research, computer modeling, and injury biomechanics.

Other Notes: This research effort will be in the Center for Injury Biomechanics (CIB) and you will have the opportunity to work on a range of projects in the field of automobile safety, military restraints, and sports biomechanics. The CIB has two primary research facilities. The first is in the WFU School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, NC and the second is at Virginia Tech. The research at the CIB combines experimental testing, computational modeling, and case analysis to investigate human injury biomechanics.

Location:

Scott Gayzik, PhD Assistant Professor, Biomedical Engineering VT-WFU Center for Injury Biomechanics School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences 575 N. Patterson Ave, Suite 120 Winston-Salem, NC 27101 www.CIB.vt.edu

Project Description - Summer 2014 Multi-Modality Anthropometry Study for Computational Model Generation Computational models of the human body can be used to predict the relationship between a specific insult and the resulting tissue damage. These simulations require models with a high level of anatomic biofidelity that represent a population of interest. However, models in use today were developed with limited imaging data. The WFU CIB is collecting multi-modality medical image and anthropometry data from a targeted population to be used in the development of the next generation of wound prediction models. The student will have the opportunity to: Participate in subject screening procedures, collect anthropometry data (segment length, landmark, and surface), assist in the image acquisition process, perform data processing, and help prepare technical reports.

Other Notes: This research effort will be in the Center for Injury Biomechanics (CIB) and you will have the opportunity to work on a range of projects in the field of automobile safety, military restraints, and sports biomechanics. The CIB has two primary research facilities. The first is in the WFU School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, NC and the second is at Virginia Tech. The research at the CIB combines experimental testing, computational modeling, and case analysis to investigate human injury biomechanics.

Location:

Scott Gayzik, PhD Assistant Professor, Biomedical Engineering VT-WFU Center for Injury Biomechanics School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences 575 N. Patterson Ave, Suite 120 Winston-Salem, NC 27101 www.CIB.vt.edu

Project Description - Summer 2014 Novel Research and Medical Device Development There are several opportunities within Biomedical Engineering and through collaborations with orthopedics, neurosurgery, the center for biomedical imaging, plastic surgery, and others for the development of novel medical and research devices. These include experimental fixtures, exercise/rehabilitation machines and instruments, as well as surgical tools and hardware. Students selected for this project will be heavily engaged in the design process, conceptualization, prototyping, and evaluation of multiple concurrent device development timelines.

Other Notes: The CIB has two primary research facilities. The first is in the WFU School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, NC and the second is at Virginia Tech. The research at the CIB combines experimental testing, computational modeling, and case analysis to investigate human injury biomechanics.

Location:

Joel Stitzel, PhD Professor, Biomedical Engineering Program Leader & Director, WFU Campus VT-WFU Center for Injury Biomechanics School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences 575 N. Patterson Ave, Suite 120 Winston-Salem, NC 27101 www.CIB.vt.edu

Project Description - Summer 2014 Single-molecule Mapping of DNA-protein Interactions with Solid-state Nanopores We are investigating a technique for mapping the locations of proteins bound to DNA (footprinting) electrically using a nanoscale device called a sold-state nanopore. This allows molecules to be threaded individually through a narrow opening in a membrane while being interrogated. The student will work within the framework of the lab to achieve goals related to applying this technology to the mapping of epigenetic modifications and disease biomarkers along genomic DNA.

Other Notes: This project is part of a multidisciplinary effort that will involve aspects of physics, molecular biology, microscopy, engineering and others. The work will be carried out at the WFU School of Medicine and is part of an ongoing collaboration with labs at the University of Chicago and the University of North Carolina Greensboro.

Location:

Adam Hall, PhD Assistant Professor, Biomedical Engineering VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences Wake Forest University School of Medicine 575 N Patterson Ave., Suite 120 Winston-Salem, NC 27101

Project Description - Summer 2014 Theranostic Polysaccharide Nanoparticles Surgery is the most common treatment for cancer patients. Despite numerous advancements in surgery, including better preoperative imaging, minimally-invasive techniques, and postsurgical monitoring, the ability to remove all tumor during surgery has improved little. This project focuses on the development of nanoparticle-based fluorescent contrast agents that accumulate in tumor and can be detected by image-guided surgical instrumentation. Image all tumor during surgery increases the ability for the surgeon to remove all cancer - this could lead to a decrease in positive tumor margins and recurrence. Furthermore, these nanoparticles are engineered to have a combined therapeutic effect to eradicate any residual tumor not detected during surgery. To that end, this position will focus on testing the efficacy of novel nanoparticle therapeutic formulations in several cancer types.

Other Notes: This research effort is joint based in the Wake Forest - Virginia Tech School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences and the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine (WFIRM). The successful candidate will gain experience in cell culture, cytotoxicity testing, and chemical characterization. Effort in synthesis or imaging can be tailored to applicants’ experience and future career goals.

Location:

Aaron M. Mohs, PhD Assistant Professor, Biomedical Engineering Institute for Regenerative Medicine Cancer Biology Medical Center Boulevard Winston-Salem, NC 27157 http://www.sbes.vt.edu/mohs/


Project descriptions 2014