Korean War in Color: A Correspondent's Retrospective on a Forgotten War
In John Rich’s “Korean War in Color: A Correspondent's Retrospective on a Forgotten War,” published by Seoul Selection to mark the 60th anniversary of the Korean War, the renowned war correspondent breaks down this barrier with a jaw-dropping collection of color photographs of the Korean War, perhaps the finest collection of color images of the conflict anywhere. In vivid hues of blue, green and red, Rich’s photographs take the war out of the history books, allowing readers to better connect with a conflict that, while forgotten, continues to impact the lives of Koreans to this day.
KOREAN WAR IN COLOR A Correspondent’s Retrospective on a Forgotten War Photographs by John Rich Copyright © 2010 by John Rich All Rights Reserved No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher. Published by Seoul Selection B1 Korean Publishers Association Bldg., 105-2 Sagan-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-190, Korea Tel: 82-2-734-9567 Fax: 82-2-734-9562 E-mail: email@example.com Website: www.seoulselection.com ISBN: 978-89-91913-64-6 06910 Printed in the Republic of Korea 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 4 2010-04-30 오후 4:07:23 Contents Forewords vi Prologue x MeMories & Faces 1 a country in ruins 32 in the Line oF Fire 60 Weapons oF War 120 a resiLient peopLe an uneasy truce About John Rich 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 5 150 184 221 In His Own Words 228 Acknowledgments 235 2010-04-30 오후 4:07:23 “one lives in the hope of becoming a memory.” - Antonio Porchia xii 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 12 2010-04-30 오후 4:07:24 Memories & Faces 1 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 1 2010-04-30 오후 4:07:24 THE WAR BEGINS In the early morning hours of June 25, 1950, North Korea launched a surprise attack on South Korea, the start of a three-year war that would be the first armed conflict of the Cold War. Armed with Soviet-made tanks and fighter planes, the North Koreans took the South Korean capital of Seoul in just three days. By August, they had pushed the beleaguered South Koreans and Americans all the way to the Nakdonggang River, where the defenders waged a desperate defense to maintain a toehold on the Korean Peninsula. *A Korean boy stands on the remains of a Russianbuilt North Korean Yak fighter plane, which ruled the skies during the first weeks of the war. Although the North Korean People’s Army proved a formidable adversary 2 on the ground, the US Air Force, formerly known as the Army Air Corps in World War II, soon gained total air superiority. 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 2 2010-04-30 오후 4:07:25 3 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 3 2010-04-30 오후 4:07:27 4 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 4 2010-04-30 오후 4:07:36 AMERICA ENTERS THE WAR At the request of the South Korean government, the UN Security Council adopted a resolution to send military aid to South Korea, and US ground troops were sent into the conflict. The first US troops arrived in Busan on July 1. During the course of the war, the US would deploy ground troops, marines, naval forces and air power. In fact, the United States would account for 50.3% of UN ground troops, 85.9% of naval power and 93.4% of air power. When all was said and done, a total of 1,789,000 US servicemen were deployed to the Korean theater; 36,940 were killed, 92,134 wounded, 3,737 went missing and 4,439 were taken prisoner. *US Marines take a brief break outside Busan before going into battle. The marines proved highly effective troops at the Pusan (Busan) Perimeter and in the Inchon (Incheon) Landing and the battle for Seoul, and 5 at the Chosin (Changjin) Reservoir they would write another epic page of history. For these men, the hellish winter fighting was still to come. 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 5 2010-04-30 오후 4:07:40 ARMORED WARFARE Although Korea was a mountainous country with few paved roads at the time, tanks nonetheless played a major role in the war. North Korea’s Soviet-made T-34 medium tanks—used to such great effect against the Germans in World War II—dominated the early battlefield, as South Korea’s tank-less army and US troops initially lacked the firepower to stop the beasts in their drive towards Busan. As the war ground on, however, UN forces equipped themselves with newer, more effective anti-tank weapons and brought to the battlefield heavy-hitting tanks of their own, including American M4 Shermans, M26 Pershings, M46 Pattons and British Cromwell and Centurion tanks. Unlike in World War II, there were few large-scale tank battles—Korea’s terrain simply did not allow for it—but the tank proved enormously effective as an infantry support weapon. *American soldiers crouch atop one of a M46 Patton while Korean children look on. The brightly colored fabric on the turret may be air recognition panels. 12 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 12 2010-04-30 오후 4:08:04 13 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 13 2010-04-30 오후 4:08:09 SEOUL RECAPTURED On Sept 28, 1950, UN troops—led by US Marines and the US 7th Infantry Division—liberated the South Korean capital of Seoul, just 15 days after the successful Inchon (Incheon) Landing. Over the course of the Korean War, Seoul changed hands no fewer than four times, leaving the city badly battered and much of its population homeless. *South Korean children in early 1951, shortly after the UN Command recaptured Seoul. The cityscape here is relatively undamaged, but some districts, such as the Ewha and Yonsei university areas (part of the North Korean main line of resistance) were virtually razed as US marines employed massed firepower to blast the entrenched enemy from their positions. The military-style school uniforms worn by these children were a remnant of the Japanese colonial period. City Hall, in the background, still stands today. 16 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 16 2010-04-30 오후 4:08:18 17 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 17 2010-04-30 오후 4:08:24 32 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 32 2010-04-30 오후 4:09:31 A Country in Ruins 33 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 33 2010-04-30 오후 4:09:32 36 After a spate of US bombings, railway tracks leading to Seoul Station lie in a state of ruin. 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 36 2010-04-30 오후 4:09:36 37 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 37 2010-04-30 오후 4:09:36 How I First Heard About the War in Korea “It was a Sunday morning and we had just walked back from a swim on the lovely beach at Kugenuma Kaigan in Japan. During the early years of the occupation in Japan, a group of correspondents shared a house near the beach that had been spared from the fire bomb raids. Keyes Beech of the Chicago Daily News and I were the only ones there that day. Keyes beat me to the inviting Japanese wooden hot bath and was in it when our phone rang. The phone was hung on a wall in a closet at standing level, and the mouthpiece was head high. I pulled the receiver off the side of the machine and said ‘moshi moshi.’ On the phone was my boss in Tokyo, Howard Handelman of the International News Service. He recognized my voice and said, ‘Rich, get your fanny back to Tokyo. The North Koreans have just attacked the South!’ When I passed the word to Keyes, that ended his hot bath, and I never got mine. We piled into our jeeps and headed for Tokyo. In Tokyo, the US wire services had been given space by the occupation force in the old Radio Tokyo building, just down the street from the Imperial Hotel. Normally the offices were closed during the night, but on this night, INS moved in a cot, and that cot remained there for the duration of the Korean War. From that Sunday on, all the news offices were manned by reporters around the clock. From Washington, President Harry Truman ordered General MacArthur into action, and MacArthur flew to Korea to observe the evacuation of American military dependents from Korea either by ship from Incheon Harbor or by plane from Gimpo Airport, closer to Seoul. MacArthur took with him the three heads of the American Wire Services: Russell Brines of the Associated Press, Earnest Hoberecht of the United Press and Howard Handelman of the International News Service. Upon their return, Handelman ordered me to Korea, and I took a train to the southern port of Fukuoka. There, artillery units from the US occupation force were already boarding ships to cross the straits to the southern Korean port of Busan. I talked my way aboard one—an LST (Landing Ship, Tank)—and headed across the straits to Busan in South Korea. It was carrying the first American artillery to reach the country and hold back the Communist forces.” 38 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 38 2010-04-30 오후 4:09:38 Destroyed sections of the Hangang Bridge, a year after retreating South Korean forces had detonated explosives on the bridge as a deterrent against the advancing North. It was one of the war’s earliest tragedies: between 500 and 800 people were killed when the bridge was blown. 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 39 39 2010-04-30 오후 4:09:39 In the Line of Fire 60 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 60 2010-04-30 오후 4:10:57 61 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 61 2010-04-30 오후 4:10:57 A platoon emerges from a forest. Trees were a rarity. Much of the peninsula had been deforested, giving the battlegrounds an austere, barren look. 72 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 72 2010-04-30 오후 4:11:43 Dead Chinese Men “After the communists retook Seoul in January 1951, the retreating UN forces made a stand south of the Han River. One frigid night I joined the US 25th Division somewhere south of Suwon, 25 miles below the Han River. Some action was obviously expected, because when we prepared to bed down in an empty house close to division headquarters, we were told to sleep with our boots on (as if any sleep was possible). All night, there was gunfire nearby, and American tanks rolled up and down the road outside the building where we stayed. It was a sleepless night with shots crackling all around us. In the morning, at a schoolhouse only a few buildings away, we found dead Chinese soldiers lying inside and on the ground outside. It had been a wild battle, the Chinese had obviously lost, and that incident, I think, was their most southerly penetration in Korea.” Two dead Chinese “volunteers” after a skirmish in a schoolhouse south of the city of Suwon. This was in 25th American Division territory and probably the farthest point of Chinese advancement after entering the Korean War and driving back the UN forces. 73 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 73 2010-04-30 오후 4:12:02 General MacArthur, Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, climbs aboard a jeep. Behind him is General Walton Walker, who was killed a short while later in his own jeep when it was hit by a cargo truck. Walker, the first US ground commander to defend South Korea, is commemorated in modern Seoul in an unusual manner for a general. The US Army Rest and Recreation Center was named after him in the 1960s, and the center was later handed over to South Korea and transformed into a hotel, today’s Sheraton Walker Hill Hotel and Casino. 106 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 106 2010-04-30 오후 4:14:20 Three key leaders in the Korean War—from left to right, General Matthew Ridgway, General James Van Fleet and General Mark Clark. Note the hand grenade attached to Ridgway’s equipment—his trademark, and a highly unusual accoutrement for a general. General Van Fleet (right) stands beside a press train where correspondents lived during peace talks. On the left is correspondent Linda Mangelsdorf Beech. 107 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 107 2010-04-30 오후 4:14:27 120 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 120 2010-04-30 오후 4:16:07 Weapons of War 121 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 121 2010-04-30 오후 4:16:17 124 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 124 2010-04-30 오후 4:16:37 The American battleship Iowa maneuvers off the Korean coast. During World War II, the battleship served as 125 a presidential shuttle in the Atlantic Fleet, moving President Roosevelt to and from the Tehran Conference. 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 125 2010-04-30 오후 4:16:38 During the Korean War, the Corsair was used mostly in the close support role, and its gull wing proved to be a useful feature. 136 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 136 2010-04-30 오후 4:17:51 A-1 Skyraiders prepare for launch. They became the backbone of US Navy aircraft carrier and US Marine Corps (USMC) strike aircraft sorties in the Korean War. 137 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 137 2010-04-30 오후 4:17:51 150 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 150 2010-04-30 오후 4:19:42 A Resilient People 151 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 151 2010-04-30 오후 4:19:42 152 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 152 2010-04-30 오후 4:19:44 “A load on the head and a baby on the back” is how the author summarized this picture of a wartime marketplace in Seoul. 153 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 153 2010-04-30 오후 4:19:44 154 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 154 2010-04-30 오후 4:19:45 Women in Namdaemun Market carrying basketloads of produce. These two women are wearing the traditional white clothes Koreans had worn for centuries; Koreans used to call themselves the Baegui Minjok, the “white-clad people.” 155 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 155 2010-04-30 오후 4:19:45 Students of Changduk Girls’ High School and others celebrate President Syngman Rhee’s second-term inauguration on August 15, 1952. 166 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 166 2010-04-30 오후 4:20:46 Despite the war, commemoration of Korea’s Independence Day, a date that coincided with President Rhee’s 1952 inauguration, takes place in the area surrounding the Capitol Building, or Jungang-cheong. 167 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 167 2010-04-30 오후 4:20:49 184 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 184 2010-04-30 오후 4:23:18 An Uneasy Truce 185 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 185 2010-04-30 오후 4:23:19 186 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 186 2010-04-30 오후 4:23:21 Insamgwan in Gaeseong, near the venue where armistice talks were held, was provided as a rest area for the UN Command side. Generals of the UN Command on the first day of peace talks in Gaeseong, July 1951. The meeting and others to follow would end in stalemate, until the signing of the Armistice in 1953. From right to left, Major General Paik Sun-yup of the Republic of Korea Army, Colonel Lee Soo-young, Rear Admiral Arleigh Burke and Major General Henry Hodes of the 8th Army. 187 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 187 2010-04-30 오후 4:23:22 North Korean Gen. Nam Il arrives for an early session of peace talks held at Gaeseong. 188 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 188 2010-04-30 오후 4:23:24 189 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 189 2010-04-30 오후 4:23:25 220 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 220 2010-04-30 오후 4:24:46 About John Rich 221 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 221 2010-04-30 오후 4:24:54 P eabody Award-winning reporter John Rich has participated in or reported on all of America’s 20th century wars since World War I. In 1939 he began his news career as a reporter for the daily Kennebec Journal in Augusta, Maine and then moved to the Portland Press Herald in his hometown of Portland, Maine. He covered his first war story five weeks before Pearl Harbor, when he interviewed survivors of the US destroyer Reuben James, which had sailed north from Portland escorting LendLease cargo for Britain. It was torpedoed and sunk in the icy waters off Iceland by a German submarine. The survivors were brought back to Portland. In 1942, Rich enlisted in the Navy and studied for a full year at the Naval Japanese Language School at the University of Colorado in Boulder. Upon graduation he joined the US Marine Corps and made four combat D-Day landings during the war, on Kwajalein, Saipan, Tinian, and Iwo Jima. After the war, he went to work for William Randolph Hearst’s International News Service and was immediately sent to Tokyo. There he met and interviewed General MacArthur and traveled with Emperor Hirohito, after the latter had renounced his divinity and, on the advice of MacArthur’s occupation officials, began to leave the palace to visit his subjects in many parts of Japan. The INS sent Rich to Shanghai, where he was reporting when the city fell to the communists. He escaped on an American gunboat down the Huangpu River and spent some days on an American destroyer anchored in the Yangtze River, until he caught a ride on a sea plane flying to Qingdao, which had been completely surrounded by Chinese communist troops. The communists did not try to enter the city while the American fleet was anchored there. Rich eventually returned to Japan on an American cruiser. John Rich was in Tokyo when the Korean War began and went to Korea the first week of the fighting. For the next three years he covered the war, a longer period than any other American news correspondent. In December 1950 he left INS to join NBC News. After the signing of the armistice in Korea, Rich spent a year on a fellowship at the Council on Foreign Relations in New York. In 1954 NBC sent him to Europe to head its bureau in the divided city of Berlin. After four years there and some time in Moscow, he was moved to Paris and then, with his wife and four small children, returned to Tokyo. While he was in Tokyo, American efforts to aid the French in Vietnam finally led to full American involvement and the Vietnam War. From his base in Tokyo, Rich was in and out of the Vietnam fighting for a full ten years. In his final years with NBC he became their Senior Asian Correspondent based in Tokyo. After that, he was appointed a Vice President for the RCA Corporation, which owned NBC News. He now lives in the house, on the coast of Maine, where he was born on August 5, 1917. 222 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 222 2010-04-30 오후 4:24:54 Rich in Seoul shortly after the UN Command’s recapture of the capital in 1951. “That’s the top of the press building,” he pointed out. 223 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 223 2010-04-30 오후 4:25:05 In His Own Words An Interview with John Rich * This interview took place at John Rich’s summer house in Vero Beach, Florida, on February 21, 2010. Your career took you to key locations of 20th century history. How would you summarize the last century in terms of your eyewitness experience? Very rough, very tough. I was born during World War I. I think I have been in every war—either been in it or covered it as a correspondent—since World War I. I was in World War II and I went to Japan, and the Korean War started shortly thereafter. And then Vietnam followed that. Then, of course, there was trouble in northern India, and I was in Africa, the Congo. So in my own life, I ask, “Now when did that happen? Was that the war in Africa? No, no, that was the Korean War.” (laughs) So I kind of cover my own history to find what I was doing at a certain time by asking, “What war was I covering?” But yes, it was just war, war, war. You were a correspondent covering the Korean War during those years of conflict. Where were you located during the war, in chronological order? Well, I was in the Pacific War as a Marine, and when I got out, I found a job at the International News Service and went right to Tokyo. And then, not so long after I got there, a couple of years, the Korean War broke out. And since I was in Japan, I was the first one from my company to go in. And I went in the very first week of the Korean War and stayed the whole three years! I was there longer than any other American reporter, going back to Japan every couple months for a week or so. 228 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 228 2010-04-30 오후 4:25:28 When did the first peace talks begin? When they started talking peace, during the Korean War, it was very rough. Before the talks, they (the communists) drove the Korean and Allied forces right back to around Busan, and we were almost driven off the peninsula. But then we drove back up. And then, around January of ’51, there would be these stories about, well, maybe somebody said we’ll have to talk peace, in an armistice, something like that. The war was just going on and on. The Chinese came in quite early in the war, in September 1950, and drove the forces that were there, and captured Seoul. I think Seoul fell twice during the war. I remember they came a little south to Suwon, and I was there one night. I have a picture of dead Chinese—there had been a skirmish in the schoolhouse. So the Chinese came in and pushed back again. Then General Ridgway—he was a quite a general. He pulled together that American, UN army, and started pushing north. And then they pushed north, and the others, they pushed south. So (laughs) that’s why the GIs called it the ‘yo-yo war.’ This year marks the 60th anniversary of the Korean War, and many observations of the occasion will take place in the Republic of Korea. Could you tell us, for our Korean readers, your general impressions of the Koreans, the South Koreans, during your time in Korea? I wish we had as much support from other allies as we did from the Koreans. They were wonderful, absolutely behind us. And you know, what’s happened in some other countries— they didn’t support, and fought against, Americans. But the Koreans were solidly behind us. And I just, well, learned a lot about Korea, and what I learned made me more impressed by the Koreans, the Korean people. They are a good ally to have. Then, of course, when we got into Vietnam, the Koreans sent a division or more to help us in Vietnam. It was quite interesting— in such a short time Korea lifted itself up and made a wonderful army. Very impressive. These photographs are a relatively recent discovery, because you had kept them in a tea chest for all these years. Could you just tell us the experience of rediscovering the film you took? I brought color film, and the professionals were not shooting in color film. Their companies at home could not handle it, so they shot it in black and white. So I got in early with my color film, and I just shot it. I’d send it to Kodak, and they’d send back the little yellow envelope with the transparencies in them. I’d look at them, and eventually I put them in a Japanese tea chest, which is tin-lined, and left it there. We took it wherever we went, I can remember how many years! One day I opened it up and the pictures were perfect, not deteriorated at all, fifty years later. That’s how they were preserved, and when I got them out, I said, “My God.” And it was for all three years of the war, because I was there for the whole three years: the beginning, the middle, fighting, and the long, dragged-out peace talks. 229 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 229 2010-04-30 오후 4:25:31 Credits Publisher Kim Hyung-geun Photographs by Written by Interview by John Rich John Rich with Elizabeth Shim, Andrew Salmon, Robert Koehler Elizabeth Shim Edited by Copy-Edited by Lee Jin-hyuk Colin A. Mouat, Elizabeth Shim Designed by Jung Hyun-young Additional photographs by Marc Matsumoto 한국전 사진집 영문 0430.indd 236 2010-04-30 오후 4:25:40 KOREAN WAR IN COLOR A Correspondent’s Retrospective on a Forgotten War “...I did a lot of driving, and I really saw the beauty of the countryside. It was hard to believe that not too far away, there was a terrible war going on. I remember the lovely trees among the hills and rivers...” - From the Interview COVER DESIGN Jung Hyun-young 한국전사진집커버FIN0407.indd 1 Photographs by John Rich John Rich 60,000 won / US$ 85.00 About the Author Peabody Award-winning reporter John Rich has participated in or reported on all of America’s 20th century wars since he began his news career as a reporter in 1939. In 1942, Rich enlisted in the Navy and joined the US Marine Corps and made four combat D-Day landings during World War II, on Kwajalein, Saipan, Tinian, and Iwo Jima. After the war, he went to work for the International News Service and was sent immediately to Tokyo, where he met and interviewed General MacArthur and traveled with Emperor Hirohito, as he visited his subjects in many parts of Japan. When the Korean War began, he went to Korea during the first week of the fighting. For the next three years he covered the war, a longer period than any other American correspondent. In December 1950 he left INS to join NBC News. In 1954, after the armistice was signed in Korea, NBC sent him to Europe to head its bureau in Berlin. After four years there and some time in Moscow, he was moved to Paris and then returned to Tokyo. While he was based in Tokyo, the Vietnam War began, and Rich was in and out of the fighting in Vietnam for a full ten years. In his final years with NBC he became their Senior Asian Correspondent based in Tokyo. After that, he was appointed a Vice President for the RCA Corporation, which then owned NBC News. He now lives in the house on the coast of Maine, where he was born on August 5, 1917. A Correspondent’s Retrospective on a Forgotten War 2010-04-12 오후 8:49:13