East Fork Loop 1 - Whitewater Canal Scenic Byway
A turn-by-turn four-color driving guide to the East Fork Loop, designated as the Whitewater Canal Scenic Byway Loop 1, through the picturesque Whitewater River Valley in southeastern Indiana. The route follows the National Road Byway across US 40 and then down along the Whitewater River's East Fork through Richmond, Liberty, and to Brookville Lake.
Whitewater Canal Scenic Byway The Whitewater Canal Scenic Byway is more than a road, it’s a journey into America’s transportation history with more than mere pictures and stories, but also historical sites galore. The Whitewater River Valley is waiting for you to drive its roads, hike its trails, or paddle its waters while enjoying its beautiful scenery, charming towns, recreational oﬀerings, and so much more. In fact, there’s so much to see and do here that we’re thinking of changing our name to the Whitewater Canal Scenic DOway. The Byway’s Canal Route mirrors the settlement of the Whitewater River Valley beginning on the Ohio River in Lawrenceburg and winding north to Hagerstown. More than a single route, this Byway has a bonus with three additional driving loops to help you discover the richness of the entire valley, not just the historic canal route. This is where Indiana began with Native American settlements and the hunting grounds of the Miami and Shawnee tribes. Their trails up the twin forks of the Whitewater River were followed by pioneers and trailblazers seeking space and prosperity. Many roads and highways still follow these familiar routes. As the Northwest Territory was opened to settlement, farmers were seeking better and faster ways to move their products to markets back east. When the Erie Canal opened in 1825, “canal fever” gripped the Great ! 1 What to Look for Along the Byway Transportation History Outdoor Recreation Food and Wine General History Lodging Tips for Traveling the Byway LOOK FOR RED – The sites directly on the Byway’s or Loop’s designated routes will be titled in orange. LOOK FOR BLUE – As you travel through a town or city, there will be many sites to see so those oﬀ the route will be marked in blue. LOOK FOR Off-the-Trail – These are significant sites farther away from the Byway and Loops, but might be worth a visit, depending upon your interests. LOOK FOR WEBLINKS - Several sites along the Byway have websites with more information–hours, days of operation or their own brochures. So, click and connect, and plan ahead for your visit. ! Lakes region and numerous river communities dreamed of a canal system that would crisscross the heartland. The Whitewater Canal was created to connect the Ohio River to east central Indiana. Initial funding was provided by the Indiana General Assembly as part of the 1836 Mammoth Internal Improvement Act which supported canals, roads and a railroad. The design of the canal called for a 76-mile route starting at Nettle Creek near Hagerstown and following the Whitewater River’s West Fork to Connersville, Brookville, and Harrison, Ohio, and then turning back to Lawrenceburg on the Ohio River. The canal’s design was quite ambitious as it required 56 locks, seven dams, and several aqueducts to accommodate the 491-foot drop or 6.7 feet per mile. In comparison, the Erie Canal’s descent was 1.7 feet per mile while the Wabash and Erie Canal was only 1 foot per mile. The State of Indiana started construction on the canal at Lawrenceburg in 1836. The first boat arrived in Brookville in 1839. Construction was suspended shortly thereafter due to budget problems and wasn’t resumed until 1842 under the leadership of a new private company – White Water Valley Canal Company. The canal was completed to Laurel in 1843 and boats were arriving in Connersville in 1845. The financially strapped company borrowed money from a Cincinnati financier to complete the canal to Cambridge City in 1846. A private group of investors formed the Hagerstown Canal Company to finish the last eight miles from Cambridge City to Hagerstown in 1847. Upon its completion, the Whitewater Canal cost nearly $1.2 million or $15,000 per mile. Meanwhile, another group of investors built the Cincinnati and Whitewater Canal from Cincinnati to Harrison, Ohio and connected to the Whitewater Canal in 1843. A major flood in 1847 severely damaged the canal and permanently closed the portion from Cambridge City to Hagerstown and from Harrison to Lawrenceburg. Additional floods in 1848, 1850, and 1852 caused extensive 2 damage that led to the canal’s abandonment in 1856. Seven years later, the Indianapolis and Cincinnati Railroad purchased the canal and laid the rails on the towpath. A stretch of the canal from Milton through Connersville continued to provide hydropower into the mid-20th century. While the canal era lasted less than 30 years, elements of the canal have been used ever since. And many canal structures still exist throughout the region. Along the Byway, you’ll see lock ruins, get to ride a canal boat through the only covered wooden aqueduct left in the country and visit an operating grist mill in Metamora, a historic canal town which still feels like 1838. Common lore has it that fathers and sons went to the Civil War on boats and came home on trains. Today, the Whitewater Valley Railroad’s excursion train will take you on a scenic ride from Connersville to Metamora. And, since it’s built right on the canal’s towpath you can see canal ruins only visible from the tracks. In the northern reaches of the valley you can get an inside look at the region’s rich automotive heritage in Richmond and Connersville, once called “Little Detroit.” Horses and buggies, gave way to farm equipment, automobiles, and busses. See the old cars in local museums, see their manufacturing sites, and the change in the landscape brought on by the roads, bridges, highways, and interstates of the automobile era. Today, we are a more mobile society with everything and everywhere within reach. It’s interesting that many are seeking ways to get away from it all. If you find enjoyment in the great outdoors, the Byway oﬀers hiking, biking, and paddling trails that help you slow down to relax or play. There’s also great camping, fishing, and horseback riding available. Golfers will find courses for all skill levels. In the winter, there’s skiing and tubing. Oﬀ-roaders and racing enthusiasts can get their thrills in the Valley. The Whitewater Canal Scenic Byway takes some time to explore and you can choose when, where, and how you do it––from a one-day excursion, a long weekend, or an extended adventure––but make sure to do it. ! 3 The valley oﬀers great bed-and-breakfasts or traditional lodging, inviting restaurants, and an opportunity to experience the rhythm of the Whitewater River. Whether you stay on the Canal Route or venture oﬀ onto its three loops, you’ll find that a trip though the valley can truly refresh the soul. DO Experience the Byway X The Whitewater Canal Scenic Byway follows the the route of the historic Whitewater Canal up the western portion of the Whitewater River Valley. And while the drive along the primary route takes you on scenic highways and features the area’s rich transportation history, we would be selling you short if we didn’t share the rest of the Valley with you. With the Byway’s four routes, sister byways, and historic corridors you can explore more than 200 sites across 300+ miles. Along with the historic Canal Route, the additional loops will take you through small towns and cities, along the Whitewater’s East Fork and Brookville Lake, along the Old National Road, into the “Village of the Spires,” and even to the real-life home of the movie Hoosiers. There are also Oﬀ-the-Trail sites to add interest to your travels. It wouldn’t be a real road trip without enticing restaurants, interesting landmarks, small towns and fun things to see and do. So, click on the weblinks to get more details about sites, and connect to local tourism bureaus to round out your trip with food and lodging. Traveling the DOway isn’t about seeing its sites through a windshield. So, stop in our charming cities and towns, take a walking tour and explore the valley on foot and at a slower pace. This digital driving guide can help you plan the trip you want to take. We’ve provided site descriptions, photographs, and travel-friendly directions to take you through the region. Print the pages you want or download them into your smartphone. Just choose your route, grab your camera, hop in your car, and make a little history of your own. Go on, enjoy the Whitewater Canal Scenic DOway! ! 4 Whitewater River Valley Driving Guide Map ! 5 East Fork Loop p East Fork Loo Whitewater Canal Scenic Byway Loop 1 ! ! ! While the Canal followed the West Fork of the Whitewater River, the East Fork was bustling as well. On this 46-mile trip starting in Cambridge City, you will travel on the National Road, the nation’s first “interstate” road. You’ll visit the charming towns of Centerville and Liberty, the historic city of Richmond, and take in the beauty of Brookville Lake before arriving in Brookville. ! 6 DO Centervi#e Inset 11 10 12 JJ CE 1 Base Map Image %om Google Maps From Cambridge City to Richmond East Germantown/ Pershing A conflict over the town’s name began in World War I as some proposed changing the name from its German reference to honor U.S. General Pershing. The townspeople nixed the name change, but the postmaster convinced the Postal Service to adopt the new name. A historic marker along U.S. 40 honors the town’s Civil War band. 1 Directions From US 40/ National Road and the intersection of SR 1, go east 1.0m on US 40. DO Dougherty Orchard Family owned and operated since 1883. The farm is about 400 acres of pristine country side. It oﬀers a variety of apples, peaches, and other produce. The orchard also has a petting zoo, fresh cider, apple cider doughnuts, pick your own pumpkins/apples, and a variety of family friendly adventures. Recreation 1117 North Dougherty Road Cambridge City, IN 47327 765.478.5198 A bit of history... George W. Julian Born in Centerville in 1817, like many in his era Julian was self taught and became a teacher and attorney. An avid anti-slaver, he was the Free Soil Party’s US vice presidential nominee in 1852. As a congressman, he helped pass the great Homestead Act. He later moved to Irvington, an early Indianapolis “suburb,” founded by his brother Jacob. ! 7 Centerville Once a major city along the historic National Road (today U.S 40), Centerville is now a picturesque small town located in Wayne County. In 1836, Centerville was the first town along the National Road to have its section paved with stone. During the California Gold Rush, more than 150,000 covered wagons passed through the town. Original streets were 100-feet wide, but with the increased activity in town when it became the county seat, the width was decreased to 65-feet. Buildings with common walls were erected in front of original buildings. These original buildings could then be reached through the archways. The five existing Archways, dating from 1823-36, are unusual in the interior of the U.S. There are five remaining arches along Main Street –– Backenstoes Archway (c.1835 at 139 E. Main St.) Dill Archway (c.1830 at 109 S. Morton Ave.) Shortridge Archway (c. 1820 at 205 W. Main St. ) Lantz Archway (c. 1823 at 212 W. Main St.) and Malone Archway (c. 1836 at 119 W. Main St.). Once the county seat, an armed conflict arose with nearby Richmond as to who would have the jail and courthouse. Visit the public library, which is built into the old sheriﬀ ’s house, to learn the interesting story. Centerville’s decline as a commerce hub paralleled Richmond’s rise as a railway center. Come enjoy the architecture, history, beautiful farms, and antiquing in the area. Governor Oliver P. Morton Home Built in 1848 by Jacob Julian, the Federal-style house was a later residence of Morton, Indiana’s Civil War governor. Morton was a strong and cunning supporter of the Union cause using suppression of the General Assembly and private loans to finance the war eﬀort. Private residence. ! 2 Directions Proceed 7.3m east on US 40 to Centerville. Turn right at Willow Grove Road. Marker on left. 8 7 4 10 9 8 6 11 2 5 3 N Centerville Base Map Image %om Google Maps 3 A bit of history... ! ! ! ! Whitewater Seminary and College Begun as a county seminary in 1827, the school provided basic education to such luminaries as Gov. Oliver P. Morton, George Julian, Gen. Lew Wallace, Gen. Ambrose Burnside and Dakota Territorial Governor John Burbank. It evolved into a college and a public school. The building was continuously expanded; in 1840 the East wing was built, then in 1848 a center section was added and it became the Whitewater College. In 1865 it became the Centreville Collegiate Institute. The building was again sold in 1870 and became Centreville High School. It then burned in 1891. The Union School (pictured right) was built on the site, and then was torn down and the current elementary school was erected. Directions â€“ Continue on Willow Grove Road 2 blocks to School Street, turn left and go one block to Ash Street and school is on the southeast corner. ! 9 Lantz House Inn Bed & Breakfast This "archway house," was originally the home and shop of wagonmaker, Daniel Lantz. The building next door, built in 1826, was originally a saddlery and a blacksmith shop. The Inn is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and now operates as a bed and breakfast. 4 Directions 214 West Main Street Go north on Ash Street. to US 40/National Road/Main Street. Turn right, building is on the left. ! ! ! ! Robert Underwood Johnson Home Born in Washington, DC in 1853, but raised in Centerville, Johnson graduated from 5 Earlham College and then began Directions a 40-year career with Scribner’s 111 West Walnut Monthly/Century magazine, Street eventually its editor from 1909-13. He was a leading figure Continue east onehalf block to Spruce in the passage of the American Street, turn right Copyright Law and was a strong and go one block. backer of John Muir and his House located on eﬀorts to protect natural spaces. the southeast Private residence. corner. 6 Directions Early Wayne County Jail • Centerville Public Library The battle for the county seat traces its roots to this building built in 1867. With the advent of railroads Richmond became the leading city in the county and its citizens wanted the courthouse and the jail. Eﬀorts to move the records to Richmond resulted in armed conflict. Two holes above the Main Street door were made by a six-pounder cannon positioned in the archway across the street. The public library took over the building in 1997 and renovated it to its current state. Visit the library to learn the exciting tale of two rival towns. ! Corner of East Main and 1st Street Continue 4 blocks east on Main Street to library building. Jacob Julian House Built in 1856, for Julian an 7 attorney, bank president, and Directions 120 East Plum Street two-term state legislator. Fearing economic hardship for the town Continue to next street past the library, turn left when the county seat was moved on North First Street. Go to Richmond, he moved to one block and house is Indianapolis and co-founded the on the northeast corner. “suburb” of Irvington on the National Road. Private residence 10 Mansion House The 1840 pioneer-era inn served as the oﬃce for the Western Stage Company where stagecoaches changed horses. It was also the site of one of the first women's temperance crusades in 1858. On June 30, 1858, several women stormed the bar armed with axes, and smashed several whiskey barrels after learning the barkeep was selling liquor to school boys. Most of the women ended up in jail overnight. It is now owned by Historic Centerville Inc. 9 Directions 214 E Main Street Immediately behind the Mansion House. Directions 10 Marker 1: 9392 US 40 Located west of Centerville on the north side, just west of Hildebrand Road. 11 Marker 2: 5382 US 40 East of Centerville on the north side, across from the Dollar General Store. ! 8 Directions 214 E Main Street Turn right onto Plum Street and go one block and take a right onto Second Street. Turn right onto US 40 and house is on the right. Salisbury Courthouse The first courthouse serving Wayne County was built in 1811 in Salisbury, a now extinct town between Centerville and Richmond oﬀ the National Road. In 1818, the county seat was moved to Centerville. After many uses and moves over the years, the log structure was reconstructed at this site in 1998. It is the only original log court house still standing in the old Northwest Territory. Tours by appointment only - National Road Mile Markers Two of the original National Road markers can still be found along U.S. 40 between Richmond and Centerville. These small stone markers informed travelers of their location – “SL (state line) 9M, “R” Richmond 4 1/2M, and “C” Centerville 1M. Both markers are on private property, but can be viewed from the road. 11 Cope Environmental Center In 1948, Jim and Helen Cope chose to pursue a sustainable lifestyle on their 30-acre farm which involved the use of alternative energy, energy conservation, composting, and organic gardening. In 1992, they were joined by their colleague Francis Parks and the center has grown to 102 acres and oﬀers many programs for kids and adults alike. Open to the public, donations accepted. Recreation 4910 Shoemaker Road Centerville, IN 47330 765-855-3188 CE 12 Greenville Treaty Marker In 1795, General Anthony Wayne agreed to a treaty with twelve Indian tribes, led by Chief Little Turtle, to secure lands in the future state of Ohio and southeastern Indiana. The treaty line runs on a angle from the Ohio River to Greenville, Ohio, creating a wedge of Indiana land called “The Gore.” White settlers spilled into the Whitewater Valley to seek land and opportunity. This stone marker sits on the treaty’s line through Wayne County. Directions Continue east past Airport Road 1.3m and turn left into the McDonald’s Restaurant. The marker is between the parking lot and the highway. J&J Winery J&J Winery, located at the cross roads of America on Old National Road between Richmond and Centerville, Indiana, is an aesthetic hidden gem. Enjoy the sprawling, picturesque setting, the award winning wines, and authentic, Italian wood-fired pizzas. Earlham College Founded in 1847, Earlham has its roots in the Great Migration of Quakers from the eastern United States, especially from North Carolina, to the Northwest Territory in the first half of the nineteenth century. It is the thirdoldest institution established by the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) in the nation. The four-year, coeducational liberal arts school is situated on an 800-acre campus with 600 acres in a natural state for environmental studies. ! JJ Culinary 3415 National Road West Richmond, IN 47374 765-965-9463 www.jjwinery.com 13 Directions 801 National Road West Continue east from Centerville 4.4m to the entrance to college’s entrance. 12 Richmond The Queen City of the Whitewater Valley, it sits astride of two historical thoroughfares, the Old National Road (U.S. 40) and the East Fork of the Whitewater River. A natural cleft in the valley’s bedrock created the Whitewater Gorge and water power and other natural resources led to Richmond’s founding by Quakers in 1806. Quakers form North Carolina and Virginia moved into the area and founded the Friends Boarding School which became Earlham College. Richmond was home to farm equipment manufacturers, car companies, buses, and lawn mowers. At one time Wayne County was home to 260 mills at 166 sites processing milling grains, flax, wool and wood because of its accessibility to water power. This was the second largest number of mills in a single county, trailing only Monroe County, New York. Richmond was also a railroad center connecting Cincinnati to Chicago and Columbus to Indianapolis. Famed architect Daniel Burnham designed the historic Pennsylvania Railroad Depot and the surrounding district is being revitalized. The old C&O railroad has been converted into the Cardinal Greenway, Indiana’s longest rail trail. While Interstate 70 winds around Richmond, drive through town on U.S. 40 to get a sense for the splendor and nostalgia of the old National Road. Walk through historic districts and visit the county’s amazing museum. Recreation ! Lodging Transportation Food History &Wine General History 13 N 20 18 DR 21 15 13 19 OR 22 14 16 17 Richmond - West Joseph Moore Museum of Natural History Located on Earlham’s campus, the museum is open to the public and its exhibits include an Egyptian mummy, a pre-historic mastodon, allosaurus skeleton, a planetarium, as well as birds and mammals in their natural habitat. Admission %ee, donations accepted. 14 Directions Base Map Image %om Google Maps Earlham School of Religion/Bethany Theological Seminary The Earlham school, founded in 1960, was joined by the Bethany school in 1994 to share a common campus, library, and several administrative positions. The schools oﬀer a joint curriculum as well. 15 Directions 228 Co#ege Ave. From the college’s main gates, proceed on US 40 0.3m, then turn right onto College Avenue Dennis Science Hall Enter at the Earlham College main entrance and follow the signs to the museum. ! 14 HA 29 23 26 ST 28 30 31 27 RG 32 MP Base Map Image %om Google Maps Richmond Art Museum Housed in historic McGuire Memorial Hall at Richmond High School, the museumâ€™s collections include important works of American Impressionists, particularly from the Hoosier Group, Richmond Group, and the Taos School, as well as a significant ceramics collection of the work of the Overbeck Sisters. It is believed to be the only public art museum connected with a public high school. Admission %ee, donations accepted. 16 Directions 350 Hub Etchison Parkway Return to National Road and go east 0.4m to 1st Street SW. Turn right and then veer left onto Hub Etchison Parkway. Go 0.2m, museum is on the right. ! Richmond - East Civic Hall Performing Arts Center Built in 1939 as Richmond High Schoolâ€™s gymnasium, Civic Hall became an entertainment venue in the late 1980s. A part of Richmond Community Schools, it can seat 924 people on two levels. It annually hosts a wide variety of national touring shows, regional groups, and school performing arts events. Directions 380 Hub Etchison Parkway 17 Next door to the Art Museum. 15 Did you know? Inside McGuire Memorial Hall is a Landmark of American Music plaque recognizing Richmond High School as the “Birthplace of the First High School Orchestra” in a public high school in the nation. Cardinal Greenway Trail Get back to nature on the longest rails-totrails project in Indiana. The 57-mile paved trail on the old C&O tracks from Richmond to Muncie to Gas City continues to add sections. Public access with parking. 18 Directions Hugs the Whitewater River on the old C&O Railroad line. For access points and parking areas see Trail Map. Need a Bike? If you want to ride the Cardinal Greenway or the hills and valleys along the Whitewater River, but forgot to bring your bike, rent one in Richmond. Cycling and Fitness Warehouse! 213 North 3rd Street! ! ! Richmond! ! ! ! 765-935-5047! ! ! ! Ike’s Bike Shop 111 South 6th Street Richmond 765-962-5480 Whitewater Gorge Park A 3.5 mile trail through the magnificent gorge carved by the river takes hikers from Thistlethwaite Falls to the Test Woolen Mill ruins. In between are Directions 19 steep cliﬀs, beautiful scenery, Along the River in the industrial ruins, the National Road Gorge. bridge, and views of the Wayne County Courthouse. Public access. 16 20 Thistlethwaite Falls In the early 1800s, Timothy Thistlethwaite blasted a new channel in the East Fork of the Whitewater River to direct the water over this rock formation to provide more waterpower to his nearby sawmill. It is located in Whitewater Gorge Park. The National Road and Bridge Just south of the towering Main Street bridge on the east side of the river, you can see old stones built into a mound of earth. They are ruins of the National Road Bridge, Richmond's first bridge over the Whitewater River. In use from 1834 to 1895, it was the first covered bridge in Indiana, a magnificent span resting on stone piers thirty feet above the water. The 1834 first National Road bridge boasted seven wooden arches, two teamways, and two walkways. Imagine the relief of settlers traveling west on the Cumberland Road (later called the National Road) when they found they would not have to ford the river and haul their wagons up the western bluﬀ along a gully. 1895 Through the years, three other bridges have spanned the Whitewater River Gorge with the latest completed in 2004. Starr-Gennett Walk of Fame Tracing its roots to 1872, Starr Piano Company’s main oﬃces and manufacturing sites were in the Whitewater Gorge. In 1915, a recording division was launched under the Gennett record label. The company changed through the years, but its studios are nationally recognized as the “Birthplace of Recorded Jazz” with many of the greats, including Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington cutting records here. The ruins of its facilities line the river along with the Walk of Fame, initiated in 2007. A series of 78-rpm record-like medallions are placed in the walk to honor the famous musical artists who recorded here. There is also a city tour of significant Starr-Gennett sites. Public access. ! Directions Reverse direction and veer to the right onto Sim Hodgin Parkway. Take it 1.4m to US 27/Chester Blvd. Turn left(n) and proceed 1.3m to Waterfall Road. Turn left(w) and proceed to the river. 1921 21 Directions Return to Chester Street/US 27. Turn right and go 1.2m to US 40 West/North A Street. Turn right and stay on US 40 as it turns left and then turn right onto Main Street. Go 0.1m to S. 1st Street and turn left and follow it down into the Whitewater Gorge. 22 Directions Along South 1st Street in the Gorge. 17 Did you know? OR Take a walk... Boundaries: South of South A Street (US 40/ National Road eastbound) to South E Street and from the River to 11th Street. Old Richmond Historic District Richmond’s oldest neighborhood, commonly called German Village, covers more than 250 acres and has a charming mixture of private residences, cozy restaurants, shops, and exterior murals. The district contains more than 213 structures of historical importance. Stop by the Old National Road Welcome Center and pick up a brochure for a self-guided walking tour. Take a walk... RR Boundaries: Fort Wayne Avenue to North 11th Street Between North D Street and North E Street. The Starr-Gennett Recording Studios in Richmond, Indiana, are referred to as the “Cradle of Recorded Jazz.” Because of its proximity to the nearby railroad, recording activity frequently had to cease as boxcars would rumble by the recording studio. Historic Downtown Richmond Architecture Walking Tour With its history dating back to the Old National Road, Richmond’s downtown has a rich collection of architectural buildings and styles. Take the historic Architecture Walking Tour to see 27 buildings in a seven-block long stretch along Main Street. DR Take a walk... Boundaries: Between North A Street(US 40/ National Road westbound) and South A Street (US 40 eastbound) and from the River to 10th Street. Stop by the Old National Road Welcome Center and pick up a brochure for a self-guided walking tour. Railroad Depot Historic District Comprising four city blocks, the district has also been called the "Hoosier Bowery." It is an architecturally significant group of 19th and early 20th century commercial and industrial buildings. The Pennsylvania Railroad Station is the focal point of the district and is undergoing extensive restoration. Today, these buildings house antique stores, fun and fabulous restaurants, a chocolatier, unique shops, murals, and more! ! 18 A bit of history... Henry Clay’s Famous Slavery Speech On North 8th Street near St. Paul’s Episcopal Church in 1842, Clay, the Whig Party presidential candidate, was presented with a petition by local Abolitionists to free his own slaves. After saving the petitioners from the wrath of his supporters, he then ridiculed and berated the antislavers in his speech telling them “to mind their own business.” His remarks were used to flame Abolitionists in the east and it contributed to his failed presidential bid. Pennsylvania RR Depot Designed by famed architect Daniel Burnham, the depot was built in 1902 in Neo-Classical style. It is the third depot to stand on the site, the first was a small structure between two tracks. The second Union Passenger Station was large enough that trains passed through the building. The landmark is undergoing private renovation and it anchors the historic district. Gaar Mansion and Farm Museum The Gaar Mansion was built in 1876 for Abram and Agnes Gaar, co-founders of Gaar-Scott and Company, the leading manufacturer of threshing machines and steam engines from 1842 to 1911. 23 Directions Between 9th and 10th on North E Street Turn right(e) onto Main Street, then turn left(n) onto 10th Street. Continue 7 blocks to North E Street and the depot. Oﬀ-the-trail On this 23-mile round trip you’# visit a historic farm, see an old mi#, and learn about the Underground Railroad at a state historic site. 26 25 Their Second Empire style mansion originally cost $20,000 to build. Completely renovated, the home contains many original pieces and unique features you won’t want to miss. Admission charged. 24 HL Oﬀ-the-trail 2593 Pleasant View Road 24 Proceed east on E Street to 12th Street. Turn left (n) and continue 1.4m as it becomes SR 227 and Middleboro Pike. Turn right on Pleasant View Road and go 0.4m to the farm entrance. ! Base Map Image %om Google Maps 19 25 Oﬀ-the-trail SR 227, Middleboro Return to SR 227 and turn right (NE) and proceed 4.0m to Middleboro. Follow SR 227 left and cross the Whitewater River. the mill is just north of the Cox’s Mill at Middleboro This home, just north of the Whitewater River in Middleboro, was once a mill. It was built in 1860 by Joseph Cox, grandson of Jeremiah Cox, a founder of Richmond. It is the second mill on this property. The first, a stone building that still stands closer to the river, was constructed in 1826 by Jeremiah Cox II, son of Richmond's founder. Private. bridge on the right. 26 Did you know? Indiana’s highest elevation, 1,257 feet, is located northeast of Fountain City on the Wayne County/Randolph County line. In this general area are the headwaters of eight major rivers including the Whitewater (East and West Forks), Wabash, Big Miami, White, Salamonie, Mississinewa, and St. Mary’s. Levi Coffin State Historic Site The “Grand Central Station” of the Underground Railroad for fleeing slaves in pre-Civil War days, this registered National Historic Landmark is a Federal style brick home built in 1839. More than 2,000 fugitive slaves were ushered to freedom through the Coﬃn House. See where the runaway slaves hid and how they were transported in false bottom wagons. The History Channel has listed the Levi Coﬃn House as one of the top 25 most historic sites in the United States. Admission charged, check for hours. Oﬀ-the-trail 113 North US 27 Fountain City Proceed north on SR 227 for 2.6m to Wallace Road. Turn left and go 4.4m to US 27. Turn right and go 1.6m into Fountain City. House is on the right. Head back to Richmond on US 27 South. HL Recreation 1972 Highland Rd Richmond, IN 47374-9239 (765) 983-7287 Highland Lake Golf Course The 18-hole course features 6,981 yards of golf from the longest tees for a par of 72. Designed by John Budzale, Highland Lake golf course opened in 1972. ! 20 ST Take a walk... Boundaries: From N 9th Street to N. 16th Street between North A Street and North E Street. 27 Directions 1150 North A St. Starr Historic District The Starr Historic District contains 120 structures of historic significance. The focal point is the Hicksite Meetinghouse (Wayne County Museum). The district is an early Victorian neighborhood, developed by Charles and Elizabeth Starr who moved to Richmond in 1825. The Starr family influenced Richmond's early development and later owned Starr Piano. Stop by the Old National Road Welcome Center and pick up a brochure for a selfguided walking tour of the Starr Historic District. Come south on US 27 and it becomes one-way on North 8th Street. Turn left on Main Street and go to 12th Street, turn left(n) and go one block to North A Street. Turn left and museum is on right. Take a walk... Tiffany Windows Trail Richmond is home to an impressive collection of Louis Comfort TiďŹ€any Stained Glass windows with four sites within five blocks. Come see Reid Memorial Presbyterian Church, Morrison-Reeves Library, First Presbyterian Church, and St. Paulâ€™s Episcopal Church. Stop by the Old National Road Welcome Center and pick up a trail brochure. ! Wayne County Historical Museum "This gem of a museum is like a miniature Smithsonian, NY Metropolitan, and Wi#iamsburg a# ro#ed into one." (statement %om a we#-traveled visitor) In 1930, the Wayne County Historical Society accepted the gift of extensive personal collections from Julia Meek Gaar, and the gift of the historical Friends Meeting House from the Whitewater Monthly Meeting of Friends (General Conference) commonly known as Hicksites. The beautiful Meetinghouse grounds were purchased and two adjoining lots were added later. Today, the complex includes eight buildings on a compact site, the museum is a unique repository of Wayne County and Richmond history from early pioneer life through the industrial revolution into modern times. Several early automobiles manufactured in Richmond are on display. Admission charged. 21 Reid Presbyterian Church Begun in 1904 and dedicated on May 13, 1906, it was given by Daniel Reid in honor of his parents. The building cost $295,000 at the time of its construction (approximately $7 million today). All 62 windows were created by Louis Comfort Tiﬀany. Tours by appointment. 29 Directions Continue on US 40/East Main Street to 22nd Street. Park entrance is on NE corner. Glen Miller Park The 194-acre park has beautiful woods and public areas adjacent to the National Road. The city purchased the property in 1885 from Pennsylvania Railroad executive Colonel John Miller. Public access. ! 28 Directions 1004 North A Street Go one block west on North A Street, church is on the right. Proceed to 8th Street turn left and go three blocks to US 40 east, turn left. E. Main St-Glen Miller Park Historic District The district comprises an almost ninetenths mile stretch along East Main Street, including the Glen Miller Park. With its wide thoroughfare and ornate residences, the distinctive street is commonly called “Millionaires Row” featuring the Gennett Mansion located at 1829 E. Main Street. MP Take a walk... Boundaries: E. Main Street between 18th and 30th Streets. Stop by the Old National Road Welcome Center and pick up a brochure for a self-guided walking tour of the Glen Mi#er Historic District. 30 Directions 22nd Street & East Main St. At the entrance to Glen Miller Park. Madonna of the Trail Statue In commemoration of pioneer mothers of the covered wagon days, this statue is the ninth link in the Great National Shrine erected by the Daughters of the American Revolution along the National Road Trail. There are only 12 statues along US 40 from Bethesda, Maryland, to Upland, California. Public access. 22 Did you know? The Madonna of the Trail statue in Richmond was dedicated in 1928 by a little-known Missouri judge, Harry S Truman, later to become the 33rd President of the United States serving from 1945-1953. Toll Gate Marker During the later half of the 19th century, the National Road was controlled and operated by the Wayne County Turnpike Company with a toll gate at 23rd Street, this remained the major eastern entrance and exit from the city. Public access. Richmond Rose Garden The Richmond Rose A.A.R.S. Garden is open 365 days a year and admission is free. The garden is wheelchair accessible and restrooms are available in Glen Miller Park at the concession building. The E.G. Hill Memorial Rose Garden and the Richmond-Friendship Garden are also in the park. The gardenâ€™s peak bloom periods are June and September, but gorgeous roses can been seen throughout the summer months. RG Directions At the base and to the right side of the Madonna of the Trail statue. Recreation 2500 National Rd. E. Richmond, IN Dawn to Dusk (765) 962-1511 www.waynet.org/nonprofit/ rosegarden ! 31 HA Recreation 801 Elks Country Club Road Richmond, IN 765-962-3745 www.hayesarboretum.org Hayes Arboretum Hayes Arboretum is an educational center on 466 acres in Richmond. There are unique plant collections, rock and fossil collections, and miles of hiking and running paths. Other features include 3% of Indianaâ€™s old growth forest, many acres of reforested woods, an 1833 dairy barn that acts as a Nature Center, the Hayes Museum, Adena and Hopewell Indian mounds, ponds, fields, and wetlands. Open to the public. 23 32 Old National Road Welcome Center Stop by a pick up travel brochures and walking tour maps of historic districts or find out additional information about the Whitewater Valley. It also serves as a state welcome center so there is visitor information for all things Hoosier. Clean, public restrooms are a bonus. Lots of restaurants nearby. Go south on Elks Road to US 40/East Main Street. Turn left and go east 1.4m then turn right on Industrial Parkway. Richmond Elks Country Club The 18-hole features 6,566 yards of golf from the longest tees for a par of 70. The Elks golf course opened in 1964. Abington Tucked in a river valley, and listed on the Indiana Historic Site and Structures Inventory, circa 1840, the old time country store oﬀers a few antiques, pottery, collectibles, and deli-sandwiches. 33 Directions 5701 National Road East RE Recreation 2100 US Hwy. 27 South Richmond, IN 47374 (765) 966-2015 www.elks649.org Oﬀ-the-trail Take National Road/US 40 back into Richmond. Turn left(s) on US 27/8th Street and go 7.4m to Potter Shop Road. Turn right(w) and go 1.9m to Abington. Liberty Country Club The 18-hole course features 6,375 yards of golf from the longest tees for a par of 70. Designed by Alex Campbell, the Liberty golf course opened in 1927. LC Recreation 1391 N US Highway 27 Liberty, IN 47353-8767 (765) 458-5664 www.libertycountryclub.com ! Did you know? A boulder with a bronze tablet sits on the west side of US 27, a few miles north of Liberty, and marks the birthplace of Joaquin Miller, a 19th century writer called the “Poet of the Sierras.” 24 Liberty The government seat of Union County, the state’s third smallest county, Liberty sits east of the Whitewater River in the county’s center. On the courthouse square you’ll find the Templeton Cabin, the oldest surviving log structure in the county and a marker for Civil War Major General Ambrose Burnside, noted for his military prowess and his whiskers or “sideburns.” It is the northern gateway to Brookville Lake and home to Whitewater Memorial State Park. Outdoor Recreation Food and Wine General History Lodging Union County Courthouse The present building is the county’s third courthouse, and second on this site. Built in 1890, the massive limestone structure of modified French and Spanish Romanesque style has a tower with a four-faced clock. 35 Directions Turn right at SR44/ W. Union Street and go one block to the CSX tracks. Historical Society is on the right side. ! Liberty Depot and Museum The Liberty train depot sits adjacent to a major east-west CSX line connecting Indianapolis and Cincinnati. The depot is now used as a local museum by the Union County Historical Society. Open to public, limited hours. 34 Directions 26 West Union Street Return to US 27 and continue south 6.8m to the center of Liberty. ! 25 N LC 35 36 37 34 38 39 Liberty Base Map Image %om Google Maps Ambrose Burnside Historic Markers A commemorative stone that identified the birthplace of Civil War General Ambrose Burnside is located on just south of the train depot. It was originally east of Liberty, but was moved when US 27 was widened. Burnside invented one of the first successful breech-loading rifles and it was used extensively during the Civil War. He had a distinguished military career, commanding the first amphibious assault by U.S. troops and was one of the few generals to utilize African-American troops in combat. Burnside was one of the co-founders of the National Rifle Association and served as its first president. 34 Directions Historic marker is on northwest corner of courthouse lawn. 36 Directions Stone marker is located south of the depot adjacent to the railroad tracks. He is most famous for his unique side whiskers now called â€œside burns.â€? ! 26 Liberty Post Office Mural The mural, Autumn Fields, was painted by Avery Johnson in 1938-39 as part of the Public Works of Art Project during the Great Depression. 37 Directions 29 East Union Street Return to courthouse square and continue east on Union Street one block. Building is on the left. A Little Bit of Hoosier Hysteria... Rivalry in the Same School 38 39 West Co#ege Corner, Indiana/Co#ege Corner, Ohio Sharing the Indiana-Ohio state line, the towns have many interesting stories about time zone changes. The community’s school straddles the state line and the gymnasium is bisected with the eastern half in Ohio and western half in Indiana. Players used to shoot from one side and score an hour earlier or later depending on the direction. Oﬀ-the-trail • US 27 East To the school: Go 7.5m to State Line Road, turn left(n) and take the second street (Huston St.) right and go to the end of the street–230 Ramsey Street. ! Directions SE corner of Courthouse Square Templeton Cabin On the southeast corner of the courthouse lawn is the oldest surviving log structure in the county. Dating to 1804 near Dunlapsville, the cabin was enlarged in 1807 and relocated in 1938 as a memorial to the county’s pioneers. Did you know? Cottage Grove, located on US 27 between Liberty and the Ohio state line, sits at a major railroad interchange with north-south Indiana Eastern Railroad on the old C&O line and the east-west CSX Railroad on the original Cincinnati, Indianapolis, and Western line. 27 From Liberty to Brookville Whitewater Memorial State Park Originally established by Union, Fayette, Franklin, and Wayne counties as a memorial to the men and women who served in World War II, it became an Indiana State Park in 1949. A part of the Brookville Lake-Whitewater Memorial State Park Complex, it is a great family getaway because of its 200-acre Whitewater Lake, access to Brookville Reservoir, and other recreational facilities. 40 41 42 40 KH HLG 43 Directions From the courthouse, take SR 101 south 1.7m to the park entrance. Treaty Line Museum at Dunlapsville Once a thriving settlement, Dunlapsville is now known for its collection of historic buildings, many of which were relocated from land flooded by Brookville Lake. The non-profit Treaty-Line Pioneer Village is now open part-time, for special events or private reservations. Base Map Image %om Google Maps OďŹ€-the-trail From the park, take SR 101 south 1.7m to Dunlapsville Road. Turn right and go 2.7m, cross the bridge and take the first road on the right, Old Dunlapsville Road, turn right and go to the museum. ! 41 28 Brookville Lake A flood control project on the Whitewater River’s East Fork created this 5,260-acre lake in a 16,000-acre site. The lake property has more than 25 miles of hiking trails, boating opportunities, and is a nationally known recreational and sport fishing site. Two beaches and more than 400 campsites make this an ideal family vacation spot. 42 Recreation To Quakertown SRA, go back to Dunlapsville Road and jog left to the park entrance. 43 To Mounds SRA, return to US 27 turn right(s) and go 6.0m to park entrance. The Quakertown State Recreation Area is on the lake’s northern reaches. Mounds State Recreation Area services the southern end of the lake. KH Recreation 15179 Old State Road 101 Liberty, IN 47353 (765) 458-7431 www.kentsharbor.com Harbor Links Golf Course The 18-hole course at the Sagamore Resort facility is tucked along the shores of Brookville Lake. It features 7,004 yards of golf from the longest tees for a par of 72. Designed by P.B. Dye, ASGCA, the course opened in 2002. HLG Recreation 15179 Old State Road 101 Liberty, IN 47353 (765) 458-9999 www.golfharborlinks.com Kent’s Harbor at Brookville Lake Providing the best in boats and waterfront recreation for over 30 years. Featuring a marina, boat rentals, all kinds of skiing equipment, waterfront condos, Ainsley’s Cafe, and Harbor Links Golf Course at Sagamore Resort. The Loop is finished Continue south 7.5m on SR 101 to Brookville to complete the East Fork Loop. ! 29 Food, Wine and Lodging ! ! ! ! ! ! ! along the Whitewater Canal Scenic Byway Here are just some of the many places to eat in the Whitewater Valley. Find out more options at WhitewaterCanalScenicByway.org. Restaurants are listed here by town in the order the town appears on the byway and its loops. Restaurants There are numerous culinary delights throughout the Valley. From brewpubs to casual dining spots, to chocolatiers. So the choice is yours. Check on the location on your route and visit the appropriate tourism site for a complete dining guide. J’s Dairy Inn Liberty Dearborn County (Indiana) Aurora • Lawrenceburg • Greendale Hamilton County (Ohio) North Bend • Cleves • Harrison Franklin County (Indiana) Brookvi#e • Metamora • Laurel GhyslainChocolatier Richmond Fayette County (Indiana) Connersvi#e Kunkel’s Drive-In Connersville Wayne County (Indiana) Cambridge City • Hagerstown • Centervi#e • Richmond Union County (Indiana) Liberty Butler County (Ohio) Oxford Ripley County (Indiana) Great Crescent Brewery Aurora Batesvi#e • Milan • Versai#es • Osgood Wagner’s Village Inn Oldenburg ! The Hearthstone Metamora 30 Lodging Bed and Breakfasts Philip W. Smith B&B Richmond Herman Leive House - Aurora The Brookville Inn - Brookville The Metamora Inn - Metamora Stonebridge Inn and Spa - Batesville The Hermitage B&B - Brookville Huntington B&B - Milan Newman-Vollmar House B&B - Osgood Brookville Inn Brookville Victorian Garden B&B Osgood Schaefer’s B&B - Sunman Thorpe House Country Inn - Metamora Lantz House Inn - Centerville Philip W. Smith B&B - Richmond Stonebridge Inn & Spa Batesville Martha E. Parry B&B - Richmond Girls Night Inn - Richmond Carriage Lamp B&B - Liberty Potters Wheel B&B - Richmond The Doctor’s Inn - West College Corner Maplevale Farm B&B - Oxford (OH) Metamora Inn Metamora White Garden Inn - Oxford (OH) Hotels and Motels There are additional hotels, motels and other lodging options so visit the counties’ tourism websites. ! 31 Timeline The Whitewater Valley’s Layers of Transportation Early Trails Canals, Early Roads, and Early Rail 1800-1830s 1830s-1860s Native American, Trailblazers and Pioneers Native Americans living in the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes region traversed its streams by canoe and connected their villages on well-worn paths over land. One in particular followed the Whitewater River up the valley then from the east fork to the west fork at Connersville and then cross country to major settlements in Munseetown (Muncie) or Andersontown (Anderson) both on the White River. In 1787, the U.S. Congress established the Northwest Territory in the Great Lakes region including Ohio and Indiana. William Henry Harrison, with ties to Indiana and Ohio, was named Territorial Governor, led a successful military campaign which vaulted him to the US presidency. Pioneers made their way down the Ohio River and then headed into the interior along streams such as the Whitewater River. As new settlers flooded into the territory, the Native Americans resisted ! the incursions. Little ! Turtle, the Miami ! Chief and General Anthony Wayne led their sides in battle. After several setbacks, Wayne ! and the US government prevailed resulting in the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 that opened up Ohio and a wedge of southeastern Indiana called The Gore. From there a few adventuresome souls began blazing trails over land connecting river settlements across Indiana, often following historic Indian routes. Many early Indiana trails began in the Whitewater Valley, including Whetzel’s Trace, Berry Trace, Kibbey’s Road, Quaker Trace and the Brookville-Brownstown Road. In 1811, construction on the National Road began in Cumberland, Maryland and it was completed to Vandalia, Illinois in 1838. The road reached Indiana in 1827 at Richmond and construction continued westward reaching Terre Haute in 1834. The road spurred rapid emigration to the Midwest and laid the foundation for other road-building eﬀorts. Farm to Market and Western Migration Following the opening of the Erie Canal, canal fever swept across the nation. In 1836, Indiana’s legislature passed the ambitious Internal Improvement Act calling for the construction of two railroads, three main roads and three canals, including the Whitewater. The Whitewater Canal’s surveys showed that to accommodate the 491 feet fall over 76-miles would require fifty-six locks, seven dams and 32 Rise of Railroads 1830s –present twelve aqueducts. Canal construction with public financing began in 1836, connecting Lawrenceburg to Brookville. Private funding constructed the canal to Connersville by 1845 and Cambridge City later that same year. Private business interests funded the canal’s extension to Hagerstown by 1847. Extensive flooding in 1847 and again in 1848 led to runaway repair expenses and ultimately the canal’s demise. Early plans called for it to connect to the White River at Muncie or Anderson, but time and money ran out on Indiana’s canals. In 1865, the president of the Indianapolis and Cincinnati Railroad purchased the White Water Valley Canal Company and soon laid the White Water Railroad on the canal’s towpath. The Canal continued providing hydraulic power to several towns and Connersville continued using it into the early 1950s. In the 1940s, the Whitewater Canal Association was formed to save the canal around Metamora. In 1945, the state of Indiana created a state memorial which included the restoration of the Laurel ! ! Feeder Dam, and the Grist Mill, Duck Creek Aqueduct and Gordon’s Lock (#24). Many other sites and canal remnants can be found along the Byway. ! Also included in the infrastructure plan was the Michigan Road. Created to connect the Ohio River and Lake Michigan, it was the state’s north-south response to the east-west National Road. The road began at Madison and headed northeast to Napoleon and the northwest to Greensburg and Indianapolis. The northern segment required negotiations with the Potawatomi Indians to get access through their lands. The road connected the future state capital city with Logansport, Rochester, Plymouth and South Bend before heading due west to Michigan City. A more direct route was not possible because it impossible to cross the Grand Kankakee Marsh in northwest Indiana. The Act also called for construction of two railroads one of which–Lawrenceburg and Indianapolis Railroad–became the state’s first chartered railroad. Completed in 1853, the line changed its name to the Indianapolis and Cincinnati Railroad and later became part of the Big Four system. Creating and Connecting National Markets In 1832 the state of Indiana chartered the Lawrenceburg and Indiana Railroad, the state’s first railroad. By the 1850s, rail lines were springing up everywhere. President Lincoln’s inauguration and funeral trains both made stops in the Whitewater Valley and are designated by historical markers along ! the Byway. From 1860-1900, railroads expanded and consolidated into huge rail networks. Located between Cincinnati, St. Louis, Indianapolis, and Chicago, the valley was crisscrossed by the Big Four RR, Ohio and Mississippi RR, Nickel Plate, and the Panhandle. Railroads 33 Bicycles and the Good Roads Movement 1880s-1920s continued to dominate transportation until automobiles, trucks and highways pushed them aside. Railroad depots were symbols of a community’s importance. By 1920, over 1,500 depots were spread across Indiana’s landscape. Early depots were functional buildings, while laterbuilt, larger depots were more deliberately architecturally marvels, such as Richmond’s depot and Union Station terminals in Indianapolis and Cincinnati. As rail companies abandoned underperforming lines and consolidated routes, things were bound to change. In 1980, the federal Staggers Act deregulated the railroads and created opportunities for short-line railroads to step in and continue service for key industrial customers oﬀ the main lines. Short lines still operate key railroads in the region. In the mid-1970s, the non-profit Whitewater Valley Railroad was formed and began a excursion train from Connersville to Brookville on the Penn Central line. In 1983, the group purchased 18-miles of track from Connersville to Metamora and now provides regularly scheduled rides from May through October and special events including the oﬃcial “Polar Express.” In addition to its collection of engines and cars in its museum, the group has also restored the Dearborn Crossing tower and the Rushville Depot in its new park south of Connersville. Step back in time and ride the train along the old Whitewater Canal. All Aboard! ! As railroads abandoned tracks, bicycle groups jumped on an opportunity to turn rails-to-trails. One of the earliest eﬀort in Indiana was the Cardinal Greenway, reusing parts of the C&O railway from Richmond to Sweetser. Pedaling to Prosperity In the 1880s, well before the advent of automobiles, bicycling turned people’s focus toward independent, long distance travel resulting in a desire for “good roads.” This well-organized movement pushed for public paving of roads connecting cities and towns. The goal was to aﬀord bicyclists the same privileges as those of horse-drawn vehicles. As automobiles moved to the forefront of transportation, business and user groups began promoting the building of the famous Lincoln-Highway (east-west) and Dixie Highway (north-south) In the Whitewater Valley, there were at least three bicycle companies and one bicycling club. The most famous bicycle was constructed by Charles Teetor of Hagerstown. In 1894, Teetor worked in a bicycle shop in nearby New Castle. At the request of his cousin, Charles Hartley, superintendent of the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad, he built a four-wheeled bicycle that could be used to inspect railroad tracks. Thus, the Railway Cycle Manufacturing Company was born and soon its was shipping inspection cycles all over the world. This was one of many first for the Teetor family. Come to Hagerstown and learn more about the Teetors, Teetor-Hartley Corporation and Perfect Circle Corporation. 34 Interurbans (electric rail) The Automobile’s New Freedom Automobile:Roads and Highways Part 2 1898-1941 1900s-present 1910s-present Creating the First Wave of Commuters At the turn of the 20th century, electric trains , called interurbans, swept across the midwest connecting small towns and big cities alike. By 1914, Indiana’s mass transit system spanned 1,425 miles, second only to Ohio. from horses to automobiles signaled a big change with twelve diﬀerent cars manufactured in Connersville, fourteen in Richmond, and two in Lawrenceburg. While some cars were well-known, Auburn, Cord, Lexington, McFarlan and Davis, the region was prominent in auto parts making bodies, lamps, radiators, jeeps for the military and even inventing cruise control. The region still plays a major role in the automotive industry and the legacy lives on. The automobile changed more than the mode of transportation, it changed the American landscape. People began traveling for leisure, giving rise to auto camps, parks, drive-in restaurants, auto dealers, service stations and more. Interurbans connected Richmond east and west, and Connersville to Indianapolis. Even small-town Milton was connected to Cambridge City with a smaller passenger car called “The Dinky.” In the lower part of the Valley, trains connected Lawrenceburg and Harrison to Cincinnati through Valley Junction, a major railroad interchange. With the advent of the automobile and the freedom to go wherever and whenever, the last interurban in Indiana ceased in 1941. Today’s discussions of light rail have brought the spotlight back to a transportation legacy left behind. Freedom to Move As the industrial revolution hit full stride, companies in Whitewater valley were making horse-drawn buggies and mechanized farm equipment. With the advent of the combustion engine, the move ! Connecting, then Bypassing Following in the footsteps of bicyclists, National Auto Trails began in 1910 as an outgrowth of the Good Roads Movement. Trails were the forerunners of today’s interstate highways connecting cities all across the country. As the Crossroads of America, eleven diﬀerent trails traveled through Indiana, including the Lincoln Highway, and the Dixie Highway, two of the earliest auto trails. Inconsistencies in building, maintenance, and support led to the creation of the U.S. Highway System in 1926. Indiana developed its own auto trails with seven trails through the Whitewater Valley with interesting names––Minute Man Highway, National Old Trails Road, French Lick Route, and the AtlanticPacific Highway. Prior to 1920, Indiana began numbering its main highways, starting with five Main Market Highways in 1917. Many of these roads became 35 New Trails 1950s-present U.S. Highways with the arrival of the national system in 1926. The next big change came after World War II with the introduction of Interstate Highways, championed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, who crossed the country with the 1919 US Army Convoy on the Lincoln Highway. Interstate highways paralleled U.S. highways and skirted cities and towns––Interstate 70 traced U.S. 40 and I-74 shadowed U.S. 52––shifting commerce and development all across the nation. Seeking Spaces and Places With the creation of state and national parks to protect natural areas, people began to travel from place to place seeking new experiences. These parks created trail systems to let visitors explore the wonders of these natural spaces. The first park in the region, Versailles State Park, began as a federal project during the Great Depression and was built by the Civilian Conservation Corps. The Whitewater Memorial State Park, near Liberty, was established as a living memorial to to the men and ! women who served in World War II. In the 1970s, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers dammed up the East Fork of the Whitewater River as a flood control project resulting in Brookville Lake and its undeveloped shorelines. Beyond the parks, trails advocates have created other systems in the region––Whitewater Gorge Trail, Richmond; Smalley Lake, Connersville; Whitewater Canal Trail, Metamora/Brookville; and the AuroraLawrenceburg Trail. Other nature sites have shorter trails as well. Cycling groups have been developing trails on abandoned railroads-Cardinal Greenway–– and creating designated bike routes on highways and back roads in the valley, such as the Vatican Ride through Franklin County. Canoeing, and subsequently kayaking, has been a part of the valley since the Native Americans lived here. Running the river is still a very popular activity on the Whitewater River. Unoﬃcial driving trails, such as the Vatican Ride (bike trail) and the Chicken Trail, respectively, are the latest addition to the Whitewater Valley’s extensive trail system. Reconnecting Communities––Creating Experiences Established by Congress in 1991 to preserve and protect the nation's scenic roads and promote tourism and economic development, the National Scenic 36 Scenic Byways 1991-present Byway Program recognizes roads for their archeological, cultural, historic, natural, recreational, and/or scenic qualities. The program is administered by the Federal Highway Administration along with state transportation departments. There are five state or national byways in parts of the Whitewater Valley. At a glance... The Whitewater Canal Scenic Byway with its 78-mile Canal Route and three Byway Loops. The National Road Scenic Byway which roughly follows U.S. 40 from Maryland to Illinois, entering Indiana at Richmond. It is an AllAmerican Road, the nation’s highest designation. The Ohio River Scenic Byway is a national scenic byway following the river through Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. Indiana’s Historic Pathways Scenic Byway is a national scenic byway that traverses southern Indiana following US 50 and US 150 from the Ohio River to historic Vincennes on the Wabash River. The Presidential Pathways Scenic Byway is a state byway that parallels the Whitewater Canal Scenic Byway in southwestern Ohio and celebrates the the legacy of two U.S. presidents. The historic Michigan Road, Indiana’s first north-south “highway” from Madison to Michigan City, is initiating byway designation. It travels through Ripley County––part of the Whitewater Canal Scenic Byway Association–– and is spotlighted in this guide. ! Photograph and History Acknowledgements Phillip Anderson Paul Baudendistel Big Oaks Wildlife Refuge Brookville Inn Cardinal Greenway Coachbuilt.com Connersville Parks and Recreation Cope Environmental Center Dearborn County Convention and Visitors Bureau Lawrenceburg Public Library District Dougherty Orchards Eklund’s Crazy Acres Ertel Cellars Winery Fayette County Government Franklin County Convention, Recreation & Visitors Commission Franklin County Government Gennett Mansion Ghyslain Chocolate Cafe Great Crescent Brewery Jim Grey Town of Hagerstown Bob Hansen Haspin Acres Hayes Arboretum Hermitage B&B Hillforest Mansion Historical Marker Database (www.hmdb.org) Indiana Audubon Society Indiana Department of Natural Resources Indiana Historical Bureau Indiana Landmarks J’s Dairy Inn Kent’s Harbor Lee Lewellen Sharon Lutz MacDuﬀe Family Phyllis and Jerry Mattheis Metamora Inn Milan ’54 Museum Oxbow, Inc. Philip W. Smith B&B Presidential Pathways Scenic Byway James Resh Richmond/Wayne County Convention and Tourism Bureau Ripley County Government Ripley County Tourism Bureau Inezeta Stiver Stonebridge Inn and Spa Dan Tate (http://dantate.featuredblog.com/) Wayne County Historical Society Emmett Vaughan Wagner’s Village Inn Whitewater Canal Byway Association Whitewater Valley Railroad Ron Yurcak 37 Thanks This guide book was prepared by Phillip Anderson, ReThink! as a consultant to the Whitewater Canal Byway Association. The project was funded by a Historic Preservation Education Grant from Indiana Humanities and Indiana Landmarks. We would like to thank all those who provided photographs, site entries, and historical information. Also thanks to the community leaders who reviewed the document: Charles Whiting, Dearborn County; Bob Hansen, Fayette County; Candy Yurcak, Paul Baudendistel, Terry DuďŹ€y, and Gail Ginther, Franklin County; Duane Nickels, Union County; Mary Walker, Phyllis and Jerry Mattheis, and Bob Hansen, Wayne County; Sharon Lutz, Hamilton County; and Bonita Porter, Butler County. We hope this guide provided the road map to an exciting adventure for all those who visited the Whitewater Valley. We invite you to come again to experience the changing seasons and the vibrant culture in this beautiful are of southeastern Indiana and southwestern Ohio. The Whitewater Canal Byway Association is a nonprofit organization working in collaboration with all stakeholders to promote the Whitewater region and its history as a unique and valuable asset, the development of which will serve to enhance the economic vitality of the region and the quality of life for current and future generations. Whitewater Canal Byway Association P.O. Box 75 Metamora, IN 47030 www.whitewatercanalscenicbyway.org ! 38