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The stair in the city + the city in the stair

disclosing histories to develop a dialogue between architecture and the making/ destroying of place

Luma Ziad Ifram s0908186 ARCHITECTURE INVESTIGATIVE PROJECT 1 ESALA Year 3/ Semester 1 2011/12

The Stairs in Twenty Minutes in Manhattan/ Michael Sorkin

The Stairs/ Page 9 from Twenty Minutes in Manhattan by Michael Sorkin The Stair in the City and the City in the Stair How can the stair as an architectural element catalyse new spatial potentials and become an important social and civic space? Can the stair disclose hidden histories about a city? [fig. 1a + b]

DISCLOSING HISTORY: CLOSE LOOKING AT EDINBURGH’S CLOSES A place is followed by histories, some easily revealed whilst others are hidden and buried. Exploring a place entails disclosing hidden histories, peeling away layers to uncover complex narratives of the place, the city that holds it, its institutions, objects and personal stories. The closes and wynds (narrow passageways) in the city of Edinburgh are a valuable component of the city’s urban structure. These connections, places of passage, dark, hidden, mysterious alleys were once, and are still, an integral means of navigating the city. These places reveal histories of the city in a particular way. However, through the years, the closing, re-opening, widening and changing of closes in the city has placed some histories behind veiled layers. A closer look at the closing of two closes for different intentions and by different means will unveil hidden histories and reveal a dialogue between architecture and the making/ destroying of place.

@ ‘the gap’ @ Mary King’s Close

Case Study 1/ ‘the gap’ @ 22 Chambers Street, Edinburgh - closing a close/ building inside/ to link Unveiling histories through a closer look at Ordnance Survey maps, the built and unbuilt design proposals by Ian G. Lindsay and Partners for the ‘link building’ connecting Minto House to The Maltings, the adaptations after construction and the remaining architectural clues.

Case Study 2/ Mary King’s Close @ 2 Warriston’s Close, Edinburgh - closing a close/ building above/ to seal Unveiling histories through a closer look at the remains of Mary King’s Close including the building fabric and visible and hidden architectural clues within.

“Who would ever hope to tell all its story, or the story of a single wynd in it?� J.M. Barrie 1

@ ‘the gap’ Closing a close / building inside / to link

[fig.2]

[fig. 3]

22 Chambers Street, 1880’s

22 Chambers Street, 2011

Unveiling histories through a closer look at Ordnance Survey maps, the built and unbuilt design proposals by Ian G. Lindsay and Partners for the ‘link building’ connecting Minto House to The Maltings, the adaptations after construction and the remaining architectural clues. The ‘link building’ completed by Ian G. Lindsay and Partners links the Maltings (1848) and present Minto House made up of Old Free Tron Kirk (1874) and old Minto House of Medicine (1878). What was once gated doorway leading to a route onto Scott’s Close and an access path into Argyle Brewery is now a building linking two others.

Ordnance Survey Map/ Edinburgh, 1893 The 1849-53 OS map (see fig.4) reveals that Chambers Street was non-existent at that time. The Maltings block is present on this map, however new Minto House aswell as Old Free Tron Kirk were still not built. The 1893 OS map (see fig.5) discloses that at this time, the Maltings block was separated from Minto House (school of medicine at the time) and Old Free Tron Kirk (Free Tron Church at the time) by a small close running from Chambers Street. In 1867, The Edinburgh Improvement Act was passed, initiating a number of projects including the creation of Chambers Street. David Cousin prepared a fueing plan and master elevations for the street and in 1871, the street was laid out, destroying in its path the Gaelic Church, the north side of Argyle Square and the centre of Brown Square. Minto House, Old Free Tron Kirk and the Maltings block were acquired by the University of Edinburgh in 1927 and have housed the Department of Architecture since July 1976.2

Ordnance Survey Map/ Edinburgh, 1849-53 [fig. 4]

[fig. 6]

Ordnance Survey Map/ Edinburgh, 1893 [fig. 5]

22 Chambers Street in 1893 as an uninhabited route behind a door on Chambers Street.

[fig. 7]

Ian G. Lindsay Architects and Partners/ ‘Plans of Chambers Street exsting.’ 1872

The Maltings

Minto House

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Heriot Watt

Site as existing before intervention. In the 1880’s, there was a doorway opening to a path leading to Scott’s Close onto the Cowgate and a route into Argyle Brewery. 0

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2m

Ian G. Lindsay Architects and Partners/ ‘Site and Location Sketch’ July 1972

Ian G. Lindsay Architects and Partners/ Sketch on tracing paper Date unknown Link

[fig. 8]

‘Site and Location Sketch’ (see fig.8) disclosing initial intentions of a space that links. The new building is intended to link Minto House and The Maltings, both buildings now acquired by the University of Edinburgh and housing the Department of Architecture and History of Architecture.

Chambers Street

Sketch (see fig.9) revealing an exploration of a structure that will link The Maltings to Minto House. Heriot Watt College

Chambers Street Link Phase 1

upfill this area Minto House

Maltings

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Guthrie Street

Courtyard

Cowgate

Scott’s Close

[fig. 9]

Ian G. Lindsay Architects and Partners/ Proposal 3.8.1972

[fig. 10]

New entrance UP

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The plan (see fig.10) discloses intentions for a new entrance from Chambers Street and a helical stair system to link the levels in Minto House to those in the Maltings block. The proposed stairs appear to be encased in a non-translucent solid material and a translucent one. It can be speculated that a combination of these juxtaposing materials, perhaps concrete and glass, was proposed to allow for light to penetrate through and to enable a more transparent circulation system. This helical stair system is proposed for all levels perhaps to establish a sense of continuity throughout all floors. It can be considered that this initial proposal to include this type of stair system was to add grandeur to the space. “It is an ancient device and was certainly known in biblical times.� A helical stair tends to transform into the focal point in a space and so perhaps the intention was to give great emphasis to the circulation. Also, a heavy pencil mark (indicated via a darker stroke on the plan) is suggesting a change in building shape. It could be speculated that such a change was considered after

Ian G. Lindsay Architects and Partners/ Untitled 3.8.1972 [fig. 11]

UP

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This sketch (see fig.11) is almost identical to the previous proposal with the exception of one modification. This plan reveals a new entry to the staircase. The previous plan only indicates a north access whereas this plan shows two entries. It can be conjectured that an additional entry point will ease circulation between two the buildings. It can be supposed that this new entry is to accommodate those entering the building from Chambers Street whereas the other is for those coming from the studio room to the left in the Maltings block or the corridor to the right in Minto House.

Ian G. Lindsay Architects and Partners/ ‘Maltings First Floor Proposal 1’ 9.8.1972

[fig. 12]

student common room

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This plan (see fig. 12) discloses a possible use for a space in the link building one the first floor/ plan level 3 or what is referred to as ‘the gap’ today. A student common room is proposed here including a kitchenette and seating. An inhabitation of the space in this way can be particularly effective as the link building is intended to link two university buildings and to ease circulation for students. Therefore, a student common room offers a space to meet and gather. The helical stair system is still present here.

Ian G. Lindsay Architects and Partners/ Untitled 23.8.72

[fig. 13]

exhibition space (open to conservatory above)

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This plan (see fig.13) discloses a different possible use for the same space in the link building on the first floor/plan level 3. An exhibition space (open to a conservatory above) is proposed here. An exhibition space, particularly in such an educational building, can be rather valuable. It can be speculated that this space was designed as an informal ‘critique room’, a place for students to present and discuss their work. The helical stair system

Ian G. Lindsay Architects and Partners/ ‘First Floor Plan level 3’ November 1972

[fig. 14] maltings

heriot-watt

Chambers Street

balcony

up

down

minto house

+all walls of link to be facing brick on this level

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aluminium entrance glazed

steps to be formed at entrance with concrete slabs to match existing pavement

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shop

up

entrance hall

up

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It is evident that this plan (see fig.14) is considerably different to the previous proposals. The two clear changes are the introduction of a different stair system and different spaces to occupy the space on the first floor/plan level 3. This plan illustrates a larger entrance hall and introduces a straight flight stair system (several flights linked by landings). The stairs on this plan are also drawn 6 metres further into the gap. It can be speculated that the additional space created by shifting the staircase was intended to create a larger and grander foyer. This plan also discloses intentions to create a shop further along on the same level. A balcony is also proposed here.

In addition, some of the architect’s notes on the plan expose particular intentions. Note 1/ “Steps to be formed at entrance with concrete slabs to match existing pavement.” This note discloses an intention to build with respect to the existing site. Note 2/ “Entrance glazed.” This note discloses aims to use a clear material for the main entrance. It can be speculated that the aim to create such a façade was to permit light to penetrate into the entrance hall considering the entrance is set back 5 metres from the pavement on Chambers Street. It can be further conjectured that such a façade was proposed so that an informal, pleasant and student-friendly space can be created, appropriate for a building with this function.

Ian G. Lindsay Architects and Partners/ Sketch on paper Date Unknown [fig. 15]

Note 3/ “All walls of link to be facing brick on this level.” This note reveals intentions to utilize one material for the walls on this level to possibly establish uniformity and a sense of harmony.

Note on sketch- “Build up existing window openings with common brickwork finish as crit room.” The note discloses a way of interacting with the existing building (the Maltings block) on site. “As crit room” indicates that there is more than once example of this and therefore infilling windows in the same manner will create a consistent and appropriate façade.

Plan of ‘the gap’ level in the Link Building as existing today

[fig. 16]

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This plan (see fig.16) illustrates the building as existing today. This level is now referred to as ‘the gap’ and is used by students and academics as an informal crit room, a gallery space and an informal meeting area. The walls today are occupied with student work, posters advertising events and exhibitions, continually changing and adapting.

The walls also entail architectural clues (see fig. 17 + 18a,b,c) that disclose the possible remains of the shop and balcony that once existed in the space.

Description of 22 Chambers Street today/ “….A narrow frontage by Ian G.Lindsay and Partners, coyly set back with alternating bands of glass and glass-reinforced 3 plastic. Bold canopy over the entrance incase it gets missed”.

Indent in plaster ceiling suggesting location of previous door into shop.

[fig. 19]

[fig. 17]

Exposed stone revealing previous location of balcony (see fig 18a+b). Today, the second floor baclony is encased in glass and steel fitting (see fig.18c)

[fig. 18a]

[fig. 18b]

[fig. 18c]

An exploration of plans of the close over 150 years discloses various histories of the place. Ordnance Survey maps reveal how city development affected the opening and closing of the close as well as access into the close. The last closing of the close can be concurrent with the creation of the ‘link building’ by Ian G. Lindsay and Partners. In addition, plans of the built and unbuilt proposals for the ‘link building’ bring various narratives to light. Overall, a discovery of these plans discloses a narrative, one that reveals the architect’s intentions, thoughts and proposals for the design of a new space. Today, ‘the gap’ is a valuable, informal space used as an exhibition space presenting student work and advertising upcoming events. It is interesting to mention that one of the early design proposals indicates using the same space in a similar manner. It becomes clear, after a study of the various design proposals, the architect’s intentions were not only to create a building that connects the floor levels of the two buildings on either side but also to create a space that develops and becomes valuable and active as it becomes inhabitable.

@ Mary King’s Close Closing a close / building above / to seal

Mary King’s Close [fig. 20]

Mary King’s Close [fig. 21]

The closes of Edinburgh have been concealed in legends and mysteries. Mary King’s Close is no different, being haunted by tales of evil spirits and murders. However, the true hidden histories that can be disclosed in the close are arguably more captivating than any amount of fiction. Unveiling histories through a closer look at the remains of Mary King’s Close including the building fabric and visible and hidden architectural clues within. Some clues are self-explanatory like the remains of a fireplace whilst others are hidden in the walls and doorways of the close. The building fabric itself can give indication of the age of the building and what was there before and the changes over 800 years.

Detail of plan of Edinburgh by James Gordon of Rothiemay in 1647, showing the crowded nature of housing in the High Street, Edinburgh.

Edinburgh High Street in 1990, showing the evolution of the High Street.

In the 1600s (see fig.20), Mary King’s Close was a narrow alley running off from the High Street. It was crowded, bustling, cramped and continuing to grow upwards. Along with other closes, Mary King’s was amongst Edinburgh’s busiest streets, open to the skies and bustling with merchants. However, by 1750, many of the closes in Old Edinburgh, including parts of Mary King’s were in a ruinous state. Tensions resulting from over-crowding together with political and economic upheavals and strikes of the Plague caused this disastrous state. An outbreak of this kind caused panic among city officials and so ‘a covered place of exchange’ was proposed to store national records, provide meeting rooms and a market for the merchants.4 The city yearned for a classical building with large open spaces and classical proportions. This was going to be difficult with a steep slope and an open loch and so John Adam’s design for the Royal Exchange suggested the cropping of building tops in the closes and the creation of a series of vaulted ceilings within them to strengthen the foundations for the new building.5 Today (see fig.21), the close is a subterranean, a warren of underground streets and spaces that combines remains of four centuries, reflecting the evolution of the High Street.

Stairs down to Mary King’s close

2 [fig. 22]

High Street

1 1. Writer’s Court 2. Reception & Shop-

Today, some of the 800 years of history enclosing the site can be unveiled through a wander in the subterranean close. With an upward glance, visualising the once towering tenements, once can imagine the crowded and squalid living conditions of the past. The surviving features of the building fabric give us clues to the close’s former use and dates, structures that existed, patterns of the closes, and the changes over 800 years.

One of the first clues after, descending down steps from the Writer’s Court, is a cast iron pulley set into the ceiling (see fig. 23). There are noticeable spikes (see fig.24) that once held a roof connecting a pulley. The Royal Exchange initially functioned as a trading building and the pulley must have been used as a mechanism for transporting goods.6 Another interesting matter is the material of the pulley. The Carron Iron Works in Falkirk was founded in 1759 and it was only until 1765 that the first Blast Furnace began to produce cast iron.7 Therefore, it can be concluded that the pulley could only have been inserted after this date, which fits in with the Royal Exchange, which was built between 1752 and 1760. [fig. 23]

[fig. 24]

Cast iron pulley fixed into ceiling.

Cast iron pulley system used to transport goods when the Royal Exchange operated as a trading building.

The upward pattern of the tenements in Mary King’s Close is particularly interesting. The vertical pattern was of great social importance, indicating a particular social status amongst the inhabitants. Although the City Chambers now covers the close, the remains are still indicative of two types of dwellings: a ‘laiche’(see ‘E’ on fig.25) and a ‘heigh’( see ‘F’ and ‘B’ on fig.25). The former sat on the low level of the close whereas the later usually sat a number of small steps above close level. A ‘laiche’, or low house was commonly comprised of a room or two accommodating the poorer whilst a ‘heigh’ or high house would enclose a larger space with slightly wealthier inhabitants.8

[fig. 25] Section through Mary King’s Close.

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Soon, it is noticeable that the walls encompass a lot of recycled stone and stone with particular types of carvings/dressings (see fig.26, 27 +28) Stone with carving is easier to date than stone without and therefore particular dressings are distinctive of particular centuries. On the stone walls in the close different types of roll- mouldings are distinctive of particular centuries. These rollmouldings were used on the edges of doors and windows.

[fig. 26]

[fig. 27]

[fig. 28]

Wide roll-moulding- about 4 inches wide (10cm)- traces back to the 15th-16th century.9

Narrow roll-moulding, about 2-3 inches (5-7cm) traces back to the 16th-17th century.10

Quarter-roll, a simple curved edge, of quarter-circular cross section- traces back to the 17th century.11

A couple of steps further down the close is a blocked up window with brickwork (see fig.29). “Between 1748 and 1851 there was a tax on windows.�12 And so it can be speculated that these windows were blocked up for that particular reason. Also, the earliest bricks were made in Portobello by William Jameson after 1763,13 which gives a date to the time it was blocked. Walls can be distinguished by the way they are built, the thickness of the wall and the material of the lintel, if any. Where windows are blocked up, the brickwork can be identified as 18th century. This suggests the bricking up of windows, which were functional prior to the construction of the Royal Exchange.

[fig. 29] Blocked up window with brickwork.

[fig. 30]

[fig. 31]

[fig. 32]

Relieving arch indicating older doorway.

Jagged edge around doorway indicating it is made via a cut through.

Timber lintel indicating 18th century or later doorway.

Throughout the meander in the close, there are a couple of cases where the remains of what appears to be partially removed and infilled windows are visible. It can be conjectured that these cases can be dated to the time of the construction of the Royal Exchange where they had to infill windows to insure that the vaults would be strong and firm enough for the new building on top. Further along the close there is another case of a blocked up window but in this particular example, the brick used to block it up has a glossy veneer. “Such a veneer would only have been possible with powerful kilns, which only existed in Edinburgh in the late 19th century.” 16 Nearby, there is a case

where the plaster on the wall is making a little ledge, perhaps indicating the previous location of a timber shelf. It can be speculated that such features are suggestive of an earlier functional space such as a house or a workshop, rather than a supporting structure for the Royal Exchange. A wall a few rooms further into the close has traces of block-printed foliage decoration. This type of decoration was popular in the 18th century and so it is possible to date the application of this embellishment on the wall to a particular period. In addition, it could be further speculated that the use of wallpaper, although existing at the time, was avoided considering the tax on wallpaper between 1712 and 1836.17

A door into the next room appears to be out of place (see fig.31). There is no lintel and it entails a jagged edge. Hence, it can be reasoned that this in an example of a new door made via a cut through in the 19th century. Close-by there is another similar example of a cut-through door where the stone above the lintel is irregular and doesn’t quite fit. Another clue to distinguishing the dates of the doorways is to consider their location in the close. “Old buildings followed the closes northwards- downwards to the bottom of the valley but there are examples of vaults that go back on themselves, which indicates they are a latter addition.”14 The main distinction that can be drawn about the construction of doorways in the close is between those that were used for access and those cut through to provide passageways and airway shelters at the time of the construction of the Royal Exchange. Doorways with a relieving arch built into the wall (see fig.30) indicate older doorways whereas 18th century and later ones are recognized through the addition of timber lintels (see fig.32) and holes which are simply cut into the wall.15

[fig. 33]

[fig. 34]

[fig. 35]

Infilled window to strengthen foundations.

Blocked up window with brickwork with a glossy veneer.

Block-printed foliage decoration on wall.

Further down the close, there is something odd cemented to the walla cluster of oyster shells (see fig.38). A peculiar superstition in Edinburgh was the belief that oysters provided protection against evil spirits and so it can be speculated that the pinning on these oyster shells was for that particular purpose.19 Sources also reveal that the Edinburgh Fishmonger Company’s Oyster Bar existed at the head of the close and so perhaps there is a narrative between these two clues.

[fig. 38] Oyster shells cemented to the wall.

Walking into the next room, there is something different about this space. It is only a few seconds later that the cobbled floor (see fig.36) is discerned- the first example of such a case. There are parallel lines running across the stone on the walls, which can be viewed as an example of comb-dressing (a dressing of parallel lines made by a chisel with comblike teeth), distinctive of the 18th century.18 The cobbled floor is an important clue to speculate a function for this type of space. A cowshed or a similar type of space has been thought to exist here. Unusually, the wall to the right indicates remains of a fireplace. It is also observable that the fireplace and flue do not go with the vault, suggesting different dates of construction. The fireplace appears to have been cut through the vault so this indicates a later period. Although the remains cannot answer all uncertainties such as questions concerning the duration of use and ownership of the shed, it is possible to piece together information to deduce likely hypotheses. For example, it is known that above this vault was the Royal Exchange Coffee House (see fig.37) so perhaps the thought was to use the fire from below to emulate hot air into the coffee house above- a kind of smokeless heating. Also, it can be speculated that some of the milk produced here was brought up to the coffee house.

[fig. 36]

[fig. 37]

Cobbled floor in what is speculated to have been a cowshed.

Royal Exchange Coffee House, 1829.

The meander in what is today a subterranean close is near an end as the staircase, used to descend into the close in the beginning, is now visible again. There is 800 years of history here, combining myths and mysteries as well as true discoveries. One can trace a 19th century fire pipe cutting through an 18th century vault cutting through 16th century walls with water flowing into a 14th century drain in a 12th century boundary ditch. Time and the actions of people are spread over these remains and some fragments survive.

1645/ Mary King’s Close was a narrow alley running off from the High Street. It was cramped, crowded and growing upwards.

Today/ The clear walls represent the City Chambers.The top floors of tenement buildings which lined the closes were demolished and the remains used to support the new construction. Mary King;s Close was pushed underground and forgotten until only recently discovered.

Mary King’s Close has been cloaked in legends and mysteries. However, a close examination of the site has disclosed true revelations that are arguably more captivating than any amount of fiction. There are different approaches to disclosing histories of this place. Maps and a variety of sources formulate a time line that reveals how time and events affected accessing the close. Also, the remains of building fabric reveal both visible and hidden architectural clues that give indication of the age of the building, what was there before and changes over 800 years. Whether it is the remains of a fireplace that suggests what the room was used for or what feels like a graze on the shoulder of a ghost, it is clear that there is still a lot more to discover and perhaps the previous resident’s of Mary King’s Close haven’t left their home. [fig. 39]

[fig. 40]

“Architects, all idiots; they always forget to put in the stairs.” – Gustave Flaubert 19

The stair in the city + the city in the stair disclosing histories to develop a dialogue between architecture and the making/ destroying of place

The stair can be viewed as an architectural element or as the veins and arteries of a building. Whilst a scientific appreciation of the stair considers the dimensions of risers and treads, the steepness and so on, a cultural view appreciates the stair as an inhabitable space that can bestow great character. “Stairs engage the user’s motions and their senses to a remarkable degree-perhaps more so than any other architectural element.” The histories disclosed at ‘the gap’ on Chambers Street and at Mary King’s Close on Warriston’s Close reveal a narrative of how the stair or ramp as architectural devices can make and destroy place. ‘The gap’ transformed from being a route connecting Chambers Street to Scott’s Close through to the Cowgate and access to Argyle Brewery into an internal place linking two buildings and a valuable inhabitable space accommodated by students and academics. On the other hand, Mary King’s Close transformed from being a vibrant route connecting the High Street to the Nor’ Loch in the heart of Edinburgh, bustling with merchants into an empty, uninhabited subterranean place under the City Chambers. It has since been researched and recently re-opened as a tourist attraction. In both cases, the stair at ‘the gap’ or ramp at Mary King’s Close, which is much like a stair as an architectural device, shape the place around them. The former transforming a gated route into a vibrant student space and the later evolving from a bustling route open to the skies into an underground inactive space. It can therefore be concluded that the evolution of the stair and the ramp catalysed new spatial potentials. The two case studies explored disclose the stair and ramp as architectural devices that evolve into a nerve center or dominant feature in a space and its city. And thus, the stair becomes an important social space, engaging civil encounters. The close, inhabiting the stair and ramp, is an integral component of Edinburgh’s urban structure. A study of the close, as explored here, discloses not only histories of the immediate space but also histories of the city.

The Stairs/ Twenty Minutes in Manhattan by Michael Sorkin An exploration of the stair as a catalysis for new and valuable spatial potentials in a city.

DISCLOSING HISTORY: CLOSE LOOKING AT EDINBURGH’S CLOSES

a

1893 2011 c ng a

ing build lose-

above

seal - to

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lin

[fig. 42]

closi

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@ Mary King’s Close

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s clo

ng ldi bui seo l c

@ ‘the gap’ [fig. 41] [fig. 43] [fig. 44]

1852 2011

@ the gap ‘making place’ from a path and a way in to a vibrant, lively and valuable place.

A

Inhabiting ‘the gap’ and the stair/

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Section A-A

The stair is a container that holds encounters, memories and events. The stair discloses histories and narratives of the place and city. [fig. 45 (all photographs on this page)]

@ Mary King’s Close ‘destroying place’ from crowded, cramped and bustling to vacant, dark and underground.

Mary King’s Close

1647, crowded nature of housing

[fig. 46]

Closes were tight and bustling with merchants. [fig. 47a]

1753, tenements in houses decapitated to make foundation for the Royal Exchange

Lower floors were kept to create a series of vaulted ceilings within them.

Royal Exchange pushes closes underground.

[fig. 47b]

[fig. 47c]

[fig. 47d]

2011, Underground, dark and uninhabited.

[fig. 48]

List of Key Sources.

-Anon., 1987. Report to the General Purposes Committee by the Director of Technical Services. [article] Edinburgh & Scottish Collection. Edinburgh. Edinburgh Central Library. -Anon, 2009. The Real Mary King’s Close Intro [video online] Available at:<http://dl.dropbox.com/u/9238176/The%20Real%20Mary%20King%27s%20Close%20-%20Intro%20AV.mp4> [Accessed 14 December 2011]. -Brewster, D. n.d. The Edinburgh Encyclopaedia [e-book] Available at: < http://books.google.at/books?id=JEIgAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA555&lpg=PA555&dq=carron+iron+edinburgh&source=bl&ots=k_MvWYRp0K&sig=fFp2mHqKZVw-CXLCA15KLbCmawc&hl=en&sa=X&ei=m6sGT8v5NejZ4QS609CNCA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=carron%20iron%20edinburgh&f=false> [Accessed November 2011]. -Continuum Group, n.d. The Real Mary King’s Close- Making Edinburgh’s Hidden History Unmissable, Official Souvenir Guide. s.l: www.continuum-group.com. The Continuum Group Limited trading as The Real Mary King’s Close. -Craig, A. 1880-1829. Edinburgh 245-329 High Street, City Chambers. [prints] Canmore ID 52307. Edinburgh. RCAHMS/ Print Room. -Director of Corporate Services., 1998. Mary King’s Close: a report presented to a meeting of The City of Edinburgh. [report] Edinburgh & Scottish Collection. Edinburgh. Edinburgh Central Library. -Dixon, A.C., 1989. Chambers of Horror: Edinburgh’s Haunted Street [article] Edinburgh & Scottish Collection. Edinburgh. Edinburgh Central Library. -Falkenber, H., 2002. Staircase Design. Spain: Paco Asensio -Gilhooley, J., 1989. Mary King’s Close. New Caledonian Mercury., p. 8-11. -Henderson, J.A., 1999. The Town Below The Ground: Edinburgh’s Legendary Underground City. Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing. -Higgs, M.S., 1976. A Brief History of Minto House and The Maltings. [article] Architecture Library. Edinburgh. University of Edinburgh. -Hyatt, A., 1908. The Charm of Edinburgh. London: Chatto. -Kelly, C.A., 2011. Architectural Tour of Mary King’s Close. [Tour] 21. November 2011 -Lindsay, I.G., 1872. Plans of Chambers street as existing. [drawing] IGL W794/1. Edinburgh. RCAHMS/ Drawings Collection. -Lindsay, I.G., 1972. Departments of architecture and planning. Site and location plans detailing Heriot Watt escape route and positioning for barricades and signs. Plans showing preliminary alterations. [drawing] Canmore ID 74101. IGL W794/10. Edinburgh. -RCAHMS/ Drawings Collection. -Lindsay, I.G., 1972. Departments of architecture and planning. Plans, sections and elevations showing alterations including written notes. [drawing] Canmore ID 74101. IGL W794/13. Edinburgh. RCAHMS/ Drawings Collection. -Lindsay, I.G., 1972. Departments of architecture and planning. Floor plans and sections detailing possible layout including details of room usage and room sizes. Floor plans as existing. [drawing] Canmore ID 74101. IGL W794/2. Edinburgh. RCAHMS/ Drawings Collection. -Lindsay, I.G., 1972. Departments of architecture and planning. Floor plans detailing possible layouts including alternative schemes. [drawing] Canmore ID 74101. IGL W794/3. Edinburgh. RCAHMS/ Drawings Collection.

-Lindsay, I.G., 1972. Departments of architecture and planning. Engineers drawings including details of link block, Maltings stairs and Minto House water tank. [drawing] Canmore ID 74101. IGL W794/30. Edinburgh. RCAHMS/ Drawings Collection. -Lindsay, I.G., 1972. Departments of architecture and planning. Plans and sections of alternative schemes showing outline proposals. [drawing] Canmore ID 74101. IGL W794/35. Edinburgh. RCAHMS/ Drawings Collection. -Lindsay, I.G., 1972. Plans showing additions and alterations for the University of Edinburgh. [drawing] Canmore ID 74101. IGL W835/8. Edinburgh. RCAHMS/ Drawings Collection. -MacWilliam, C., Walker, D. and Gifford, J., e.d. 1984. Buildings of Scotland: Edinburgh. Scotland: Pevsner Architectural Guides. -Morris, M., 1986. Survey of Mary King’s Close and Adjacent Structures. [article] Edinburgh & Scottish Collection. Edinburgh. Edinburgh Central Library. -Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland (RCAHMS), 2010. Edinburgh 249-329, High Street, City Chambers, [online] Available at: http://canmore.rcahms.gov.uk/en/site/52307/details/edinburgh+245+329+high+ street+city+chambers/&biblio=more [Accessed 23 November 2011]. -Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland (RCAHMS), 2010. Edinburgh High Street, Mary King’s Close. [online] Available at: http://canmore.rcahms.gov.uk/en/site/52307/details/edinburgh+245+329+high+street +city+chambers/&biblio=more [Accessed 14 November 2011]. -Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland (RCAHMS), 2010. Edinburgh 18-20 Chambers Street, Minto House. [online] Available at: http://canmore.rcahms.gov.uk/en/site/52307/details/edinburgh+245+329+high+ street+city+chambers/&biblio=more [Accessed 14 November 2011]. -RCAHMS. 1880-2003. Edinburgh, 18-20 Chambers Street. [prints/photographs] Canmore ID 74101. Edinburgh. RCAHMS/ Print Room. -RCAHMS. 1870. Mary King’s Close-Plan showing Proposed New Stairs from Royal Exchange to Mary King’s Close. [drawing] Canmore ID 52306. DC 6859. Edinburgh. RCAHMS/ Drawings Collection. -RCAHMS. 1859. Sheet 20 of set of 20 plans of Old City Chambers-Plan of Floor on level with Mary King’s Close. [drawing] Canmore ID 52307. DC 7650. Edinburgh. RCAHMS/ Print Room. -RCAHMS. 1870. Mary King’s Close-Plan of Proposed Stair at top of Mary King’s Close. [drawing] Canmore ID 52306. DC 6860. Edinburgh. RCAHMS/ Drawings Collection. -Steuart, Mary.D., 1996. The Romance of The Edinburgh Streets. London: Methuen & Co. LTD. -Sorkins, M., 2009. Twenty Minutes in Manhattan. London: Reaktion Books Ltd. -Templer, J., 1992. The staircase: histories and theories. s.l: The MIT Press -The City of Edinburgh Council, 1997. Tender for Mary King’s Close [report] Edinburgh & Scottish Collection. Edinburgh. Edinburgh Central Library. -Thomson, J., 1970. Edinburgh’s Street of Mystery. [article] Edinburgh & Scottish Collection. Edinburgh. Edinburgh Central Library.

Endnotes.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19 .

Hyatt 1908: 54 Higgs 1976: 4-5 Templer 1992: 37 Henderson 1999: 76 Anon (The Real Mary Kingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Close- Making Edinburghâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Hidden Hisory Unmissable) n.d: 9 Kelly 2011 Brewster n.d: 555 Morris 1986: 7 Kelly 2011 Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. Morris 1986: 12 Kelly 2011 Ibid. Ibid. Falkenber 2002: 18

Figures.

[Fig.1a-b] [Fig.2] [Fig.3] [Fig.4] [Fig.5] [Fig.6] [Fig.7] [Fig.8] [Fig.9] [Fig.10] [Fig.11] [Fig.12] [Fig.13] [Fig.14] [Fig.15] [Fig.16] [Fig.17] [Fig.18a-c] [Fig.19] [Fig.20] [Fig.21] [Fig.22] [Fig.23] [Fig.24] [Fig.25] [Fig.26] [Fig.27]

Sorkins 2009: 9 RCAHMS 1880: print 33357 Chambers Street 2011, Edinburgh. Personal photograph by Luma Ifram. 14. October 2011. Ordnance Survey, 1849-53. Edinburgh OS Town Plan [digital screenshot] Available at: <http://maps.nls.uk/townplans/edinburgh500_nw.html> [Accessed 24 November 2011]. Ordnance Survey, 1893. Edinburgh OS Town Plan [digital screenshot] Available at: <http://maps.nls.uk/townplans/edinburgh500_nw.html> [Accessed 24 November 2011]. Ibid. Ian G. Lindsay. W.794/2/7 [drawing (redrawn on AutoCAD] Edinburgh. RCAHMS, Drawing Collection Ian G. Lindsay. W.794/2/9 [drawing (redrawn on AutoCAD] Edinburgh. RCAHMS, Drawing Collection Ian G. Lindsay. W.794/2/11 [drawing (redrawn on AutoCAD] Edinburgh. RCAHMS, Drawing Collection Ian G. Lindsay. W.794/4/3 [drawing (redrawn on AutoCAD] Edinburgh. RCAHMS, Drawing Collection Ian G. Lindsay. W.794/2/7 [drawing (redrawn on AutoCAD] Edinburgh. RCAHMS, Drawing Collection Ian G. Lindsay. W.794/4/4 [drawing (redrawn on AutoCAD] Edinburgh. RCAHMS, Drawing Collection Ian G. Lindsay. W.794/19/1 [drawing (redrawn on AutoCAD] Edinburgh. RCAHMS, Drawing Collection Ian G. Lindsay. W.794/19/5 [drawing (redrawn on AutoCAD] Edinburgh. RCAHMS, Drawing Collection Ian G. Lindsay. W.835/2/6 [drawing (redrawn on AutoCAD] Edinburgh. RCAHMS, Drawing Collection Anon, n.d. Seconf Floor plan [drawing pdf] Edinburgh. Claire Davies, Edinburgh School of Architecture. Inside ‘Link Building’/ 22 Chambers Street 2011, Edinburgh. Personal photograph by Luma Ifram. 14. November 2011. Inside ‘Link Building’/ 22 Chambers Street 2011, Edinburgh. Personal photograph by Luma Ifram. 14. November 2011. Inside ‘Link Building’/ 22Chambers Street 2011, Edinburgh. Personal photograph by Luma Ifram. 14. November 2011. Henderson 1999, 25 RCHAMS 1999: print 49053 Continuum Group n.d: 8 Inside Mary King’s Close, Edinburgh. Personal photograph by Luma Ifram. 3. November 2011. Inside Mary King’s Close, Edinburgh. Personal photograph by Luma Ifram. 21. November 2011. Morris 1986, 16 Inside Mary King’s Close, Edinburgh. Personal photograph by Luma Ifram. 3. November 2011. Inside Mary King’s Close, Edinburgh. Personal photograph by Luma Ifram. 3. November 2011.

[Fig.28] [Fig.29] [Fig.30] [Fig.31] [Fig.32] [Fig.33] [Fig.34] [Fig.35] [Fig.36] [Fig.37] [Fig.38] [Fig.39] [Fig.40] [Fig.41] [Fig.42] [Fig.43] [Fig.44] [Fig.45] [Fig.46] [Fig.47a-d] [Fig.48]

Inside Mary King’s Close, Edinburgh. Personal photograph by Luma Ifram. 3. November 2011. Inside Mary King’s Close, Edinburgh. Personal photograph by Luma Ifram. 3. November 2011. Inside Mary King’s Close, Edinburgh. Personal photograph by Luma Ifram. 21. November 2011. Inside Mary King’s Close, Edinburgh. Personal photograph by Luma Ifram. 21. November 2011. Inside Mary King’s Close, Edinburgh. Personal photograph by Luma Ifram. 21. November 2011. Inside Mary King’s Close, Edinburgh. Personal photograph by Luma Ifram. 21. November 2011. Inside Mary King’s Close, Edinburgh. Personal photograph by Luma Ifram. 21. November 2011. Inside Mary King’s Close, Edinburgh. Personal photograph by Luma Ifram. 3. November 2011. Inside Mary King’s Close, Edinburgh. Personal photograph by Luma Ifram. 3. November 2011. Continuum Group n.d: 30 Inside Mary King’s Close, Edinburgh. Personal photograph by Luma Ifram. 3. November 2011. Models at Mary King’s Close, Edinburgh. Personal photograph by Luma Ifram. 3. November 2011. Models at Mary King’s Close, Edinburgh. Personal photograph by Luma Ifram. 3. November 2011. Ordnance Survey, 1893. Edinburgh OS Town Plan [digital screenshot] Available at: <http://maps.nls.uk/townplans/edinburgh500_nw.html> [Accessed 24 November 2011]. Google Maps, 2011. Edinburgh Chambers Street [digital screenshot] Available at: < http://maps.google.com/maps> [Accessed 16 December 2011]. Ordnance Survey, 1852. Edinburgh OS Town Plan [digital screenshot] Available at: <http://maps.nls.uk/townplans/edinburgh500_nw.html> [Accessed 24 November 2011]. Google Maps, 2011. Edinburgh City Chambers [digital screenshot] Available at: < http://maps.google.com/maps> [Accessed 16 December 2011]. Inside Mary King’s Close, Edinburgh. Personal photograph by Luma Ifram. 3. November 2011. Henderson 1999, 25 Anon, 2009. The Real Mary King’s Close Intro [video online (screenshots taken)] Available at:<http://dl.dropbox.com/u/9238176/The%20Real%20Mary%20King%27s%20Close%20-%20Intro%20AV.mp4> [Accessed 14 December 2011]. Inside Mary King’s Close, Edinburgh. Personal photograph by Luma Ifram. 3. November 2011.

The Stair in the City and the City in the Stair

Today/ 22 Chambers Street/ This level has developed into ‘the gap’- an informal crit room, exhibition space where the walls inhabit information, memories and narratives of people and the place.

August and November 1972/ 22 Chambers Street/ Dislosing intentions to develop the stair with spaces that evolve and become valuable as they are inhabited.

August 1972/ 22 Chambers Street/ Proposing a new entrance from Chambers Street and a helical stair system.

July 1972/ 22 Chambers Street/ Initial intentions for a space that links The Maltings to Minto House.

1960/ 22 Chambers Street/ A doorway opening to a path leading to Scott’s Close onto the Cowgate and a route into Argyle Brewery.

OS Map 1893/ By this time The Edinburgh Improvement Act was passed, initiating a number of projects including the creation of Chambers Street. David Cousin prepared a fueing plan and master elevations for the street and in 1871, the street was laid out, destroying in its path the Gaelic Church, the north side of Argyle Square and the centre of Brown Square. Minto House, Old Free Tron Kirk and the Maltings block were acquired by the University of Edinburgh in 1927 and have housed the Department of Architecture since July 1976

OS Map 1849-53/ Chambers Street is still not laid out.

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“Do you know where her office is? Maybe it’s written on that sign?” November 2011

“These are probably remains of the door into the shop.” October 2011

“Go up these stairs and turn right. It should be infront of you.” December 2011

THE STAIR MAKING PLACE IN THE CITY

“Is this your work here?” November 2011

“Let’s meet back at the stairs in 5.” December 2011

“Let’s sit here until she comes back.” December 2011

“I’m going to sit here and read in the meantime.” December 2011

CLOSING A CLOSE/ BUILDING INSIDE/ TO LINK @ 22 Chambers Street

1752-60/ Mary King;s Close/ Partial destruction to allow for the construction of the Royal Exchange above after tensions from over-crowding and the plague left the close in a ruinous state. The rest continued to leave after the construction and further development of the new building.

Mary King’s Close

Plan at lower level Present thoroughfare to be closed to the Public Key to features in Mary King’s Close tour (The Continuum Group Limited)

1.Writer’s Court 2.Reception & Shop 3.Searching for Mary 4.Laiche House 5.Murderous Women 6.People of the Closes 7.Cowshed 8.Foul Pestilence 9.Ghosts & Ghoulies 10.Changing Rooms 11.Annie’s Room 12.Hidden from Time 13.Chesney’s House 14.Chesney’s Workshop

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Today/ Mary King’s Close/ Mary King’s Close has been cloaked in histories, legends and mysterious. Although it is now hidden beneath the City Chambers, the disclosing of these narratives is possible and there is still a lot yet to discover and unlock.

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1987/ Mary King’s Close/ The Technical Services Department have carried out an initial architectural assessment of how the close might be ‘opened up’ via High Street and Warriston’s Close.

1902/ Mary King’s Close/ Andrew Chesney, the last resident of Mary King’s Close, is forced out to enable the construction of the west wing of the City Chambers. The Close is enclosed completely- a series of large vaults and passageways.

OS Map 1893/ Mary King’s Close/ The Close was still accessible, by a flight of stairs, from Cockburn Street until 1936.

1870/ Mary King’s Close/ Proposing a new stair from Royal Exchange to Mary King’s Close

0S Map 1852/ Mary King’s Close/ The Close is shown as being open from Nor’ Loch to the front of the original City Chambers. This was prior to the construction of the West Wing of the Chambers and of Cockburn Street. The properties at the foot of the close were still in use at 1852. Of the properties on the part of the close adjacent to the Chambers, one is marked as ‘ruin while two others are marked as being empty.

Plan at upper level Al la s n’

2002/ Mary King’s Close/ From this date the Close has been researched and developed as a tourist attraction by the Continuum Group.

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1660s/ Mary King’s Close/ It was a narrow alley running off from the High Street. It was crowded, bustling, cramped and continuing to grow upwards.

Mary’s ay od . (t ct d to . ta r. ge an d ed in ve an s e o t ie ch en ck ed t ta sk nts Ex idd nlo pi in il e u h u a l a b th cha m ec . ya e be d s re s to mer n Ro li t re io ) can e en ith es ul we dat th rs op us va , ng w be at h es un ho ad sy at am th us fo h w Bu stli Ho ke ne Ch s fe s Be ty rie bu ma A her Ci sto Ot hi Landing in Exchange Square Stairs down to Mary King’s Close High Street

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CLOSING A CLOSE/ BUILDING ABOVE/ TO SEAL @ Mary King’s Close

THE CITY DESTROYING PLACE IN THE STAIR


The Stair in the City + the City in the Stair