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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Design Thinking Made Visible Project

©

Gk VanPatter Elizabeth Pastor

2002-2015

SenseMaking for ChangeMaking Copyright © 2002-2015 Humantific Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1

Copyright © 2002-2015 Humantific Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Published by

Humantific Publications 6 West 18th Street, 9th Floor New York, New York, 10011 Thinking Made Visible Research Visual SenseMaking Strategic Innovation Models Design by Humantific

All Contents Copyright 2002-2015, Humantific. All Rights Reserved. Inquiries: engage@humantific.com

Copyright Š 2002-2015 Humantific Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Contents Introduction What is Integrative Thinking? What is Integrative Thinking Enabling? Design Thinking Made Visible Project Research Results What the Research Shows Integrative Thinking: In History Participating in Research Further Information

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4 12 15 30 36 119 130 137 140

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE Introduction

Copyright © 2000-2010 Humantific Inc. All Rights Reserved.

For the past ten years, Humantific has been conducting Integrative Thinking Research in organizations & in schools. We have already learned a lot! Copyright Š 2002-2011 Humantific Inc. All Rights Reserved.

INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Work is Changing: Challenge Complexity is Rising 2000-2010

What skills & tools are needed to do this work?

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Work is Changing: Time Frames are Compressing 2000-2010

What skills & tools are needed to do this work?

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Work is Changing: Thinking Across Disciplines Required 2000-2010

Today Yesterday

What skills & tools are needed to do this work?

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We share learnings about the realities of Integrative Thinking by inviting others to participate in the research.

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Participant learning typically includes seeing what Integrative Thinking is, what it isn’t and how to build capacity in real teams and real organizations.

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In all of our research we utilize a diverse set of tools within the Humantific Innovation Harmonics Framework created ten + years ago and still a work in progress. ©

(Integrative Thinking is one dimension of Innovation Harmonics©.) 11

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WHAT IS INTEGRATIVE THINKING?

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

What is Integrative Thinking? MICRO VIEW

Integrative Thinking (and its cousin Integrative InnovationŠ)

is the disciplined ability of recognizing, orchestrating and integrating the diverse brainpower of cross-disciplinary teams as they grapple with and navigate complex innovation challenges.

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

What is Integrative Thinking? MICRO VIEW

At its core,

Integrative Thinking is about recognizing and respecting the default thinking preferences of individuals regardless of discipline, and how those preferences map to innovation process. Integrative Thinking is also about unlearning old thinking habits and learning new behaviors. 14

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WHAT IS INTEGRATIVE THINKING ENABLING?

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

What is Integrative Thinking Enabling? MACRO VIEW

Integrative Thinking Enabling is the disciplined ability to deliberately create robust sustainable conditions that support and enable Integrative Thinking across multiple disciplines in organizational and societal contexts.

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Disciplines

MACRO VIEW Integrative Thinking Enabling is here.

Integrative Thinking by Design.

MICRO VIEW Integrative Thinking Behaviors are here.

Humantific Innovation HarmonicsŠ Framework connects MACRO & MICRO VIEWS. Copyright Š 2002-2011 Humantific Inc. All Rights Reserved. Shown Above: One thinking combination popular in organizations today. Many combinations are possible.

INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

What is Integrative Thinking Enabling? MACRO VIEW

Helping organizations tap into the power of Integrative Innovation© is an ongoing quest and has been for numerous years

the focus of several leading transformation by design practices, including Humantific. 18

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Creating Innovation Harmonics typically involves working with organizational leaders to redesign, reskill & reconstruct the “Innovation Brain” within their organizations. ©

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Unbalanced 1: Most organizations look like this. Judgment Dominates

judgment

ideation Divergent Thinking

Convergent Thinking

CULTURE ORIENTATION

Judgment is the highest form of value. BELIEFS

More and better decision making will make us more innovative. 20

NOTE: For challenges related to this type of organization see Humantific’s Team Thinking Transparency: Innovation Secrets Revealed.

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Unbalanced 2: Some organizations look like this. Ideation Dominates

ideation

judgment Convergent Thinking

Divergent Thinking

CULTURE ORIENTATION

NOTE: For challenges related to this type of organization see Humantific’s Team Thinking Transparency: Innovation Secrets Revealed.

Ideas are the highest form of value. BELIEFS

More and better ideas will make us more innovative. 21

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Balanced Innovation Harmonics©

Balanced Innovation Harmonics© All Preferences Equally Valued Dynamics Linked to Innovation

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Humantific’s MACRO Innovation Model 2000-2010

Organizations often define innovation

here

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Humantific’s MACRO Innovation Model 2000-2010

Organizations’ behavior and values are often

here

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Humantific’s MACRO Innovation Model 2000-2010 Humantific defines Integrative Thinking & Continuous Innovation

here!

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Humantific Innovation Harmonics© Framework Integrative Innovation Model

Integrative Innovation Teams

Integrative Innovation Processes

Integrative Innovation Information Integrative Innovation Technologies

Integrative Innovation Environments

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Innovation Harmonics©: 3 Views

CPS Profile Instrument by Dr. M. Basadur

Innovation Harmonics Framework by Humantific

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Innovation Harmonics©: 12 Strategic Comparison Views

STRENGTH

Pattern Optimization

STRENGTH

(Digging the same hole deeper) ISSUES

•  Inability to invent •  Stuck in the present

Pattern Creation

STRENGTH

Pro-active & adaptable

ISSUES

•  Takes lots of smarts & work to achieve

(Digging new holes) ISSUES

•  Inability to execute •  Constantly digging new holes

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Creating Innovation Harmonics in organizations begins with raising awareness that differences in thinking exist by making thinking diversity transparent. Š

Making Thinking Visible represents one stream of Humantific work.

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Design Thinking Made Visible Project

©

IN PROGRESS

2002-2011

This chapter focuses on schools. Other chapters focusCopyright on organizations. © 2002-2010 2002-2011 Humantific Inc. All Rights Reserved.

INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Design Thinking Made Visible Project

This research project was designed as a

collective sensemaking exercise that could be undertaken in undergraduate or graduate schools by professors and students without any special design thinking or innovation process mastery training provided.

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Design Thinking Made Visible Project

Participating Schools: Domus Academy, Italy Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark National Institute for Design, India University of Kassel, Germany Regents Business School, UK Additional schools are in progress.

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Design Thinking Made Visible Project

Step

1 Without any explanation being provided by the professor, the students were asked to spontaneously draw their own design innovation process.

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Design Thinking Made Visible Project

Step

2 Students and Professors did their innovation profile using an interactive visual mapping tool provided by Humantific. Doing this profile made their thinking preferences transparent. 34

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Design Thinking Made Visible Project

Step

3 Students then discussed results: Professors asked students to imagine leading this team. What kinds of issues would likely arise? How could the issues be addressed? 35

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DESIGN THINKING MADE VISIBLE PROJECT

RESEARCH RESULTS

•  Student Process Drawings •  Group Innovation Profiles •  What the Research Shows Copyright © 2000-2010 Humantific Inc. All Rights Reserved.

School 1

Domus Academy Italy Student design thinking processes visualized in one class

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DESIGN THINKING MADE VISIBLE PROJECT

Student Process Drawing: Domus Academy, Italy Student 1

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Student Process Drawing: Domus Academy, Italy Student 2

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Student Process Drawing: Domus Academy, Italy Student 3

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Student Process Drawing: Domus Academy, Italy Student 4

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Student Process Drawing: Domus Academy, Italy Student 5

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Student Process Drawing: Domus Academy, Italy Student 6

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Student Process Drawing: Domus Academy, Italy Student 7

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Student Process Drawing: Domus Academy, Italy Student 8

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Student Process Drawing: Domus Academy, Italy Student 9

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Student Process Drawing: Domus Academy, Italy Student 10

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Student Process Drawing: Domus Academy, Italy Student 11

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Student Process Drawing: Domus Academy, Italy Student 12

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School 1

Domus Academy

Group innovation profile

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DESIGN THINKING MADE VISIBLE PROJECT

Design Students Class Profile: Domus Academy, Italy

Innovation Harmonics© Framework by Humantific CPS Profile Instrument by Dr. M. Basadur

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Design Thinking Made Visible

School 2

Aarhus School of Architecture Denmark Student design thinking processes visualized in one class 52

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DESIGN THINKING MADE VISIBLE PROJECT

Student Process Drawing: Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Student 1

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Student Process Drawing: Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Student 2

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Student Process Drawing: Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Student 3

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Student Process Drawing: Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Student 4

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Student Process Drawing: Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Student 5

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Student Process Drawing: Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Student 6

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Student Process Drawing: Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Student 7

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Student Process Drawing: Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Student 8

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Student Process Drawing: Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Student 9

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Student Process Drawing: Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Student 10

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Student Process Drawing: Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Student 11

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Student Process Drawing: Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Student 12

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Student Process Drawing: Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Student 13

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Student Process Drawing: Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Student 14

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Student Process Drawing: Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Student 15

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Student Process Drawing: Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Student 16

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Student Process Drawing: Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Student 17

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Student Process Drawing: Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Student 18

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Student Process Drawing: Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Student 19

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Student Process Drawing: Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Student 20

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Student Process Drawing: Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Student 20

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Student Process Drawing: Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Student 21

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Student Process Drawing: Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Student 22

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School 2

Aarhus School of Architecture

Group innovation profile

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DESIGN THINKING MADE VISIBLE PROJECT

Design Students Class Profile: Aarhus, Denmark

Innovation Harmonics© Framework by Humantific CPS Profile Instrument by Dr M Basadur

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Design Thinking Made Visible

School 3

National Institute for Design India Student design thinking processes visualized in one class

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DESIGN THINKING MADE VISIBLE PROJECT

Student Process Drawing: National Institute for Design, India Student 1

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Student Process Drawing: National Institute for Design, India Student 2

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Student Process Drawing: National Institute for Design, India Student 3

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Student Process Drawing: National Institute for Design, India Student 4

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Student Process Drawing: National Institute for Design, India Student 5

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Student Process Drawing: National Institute for Design, India Student 6

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Student Process Drawing: National Institute for Design, India Student 7

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Student Process Drawing: National Institute for Design, India Student 8

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Student Process Drawing: National Institute for Design, India Student 9

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Student Process Drawing: National Institute for Design, India Student 10

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Student Process Drawing: National Institute for Design, India Student 11

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Student Process Drawing: National Institute for Design, India Student 12

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Student Process Drawing: National Institute for Design, India Student 13

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Student Process Drawing: National Institute for Design, India Student 14

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Design Thinking Made Visible

School 3

National Institute for Design

Group innovation profile

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DESIGN THINKING MADE VISIBLE PROJECT

Design Students Class Profile: National Institute for Design, India

Innovation Harmonics© Framework by Humantific CPS Profile Instrument by Dr. M. Basadur

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Design Thinking Made Visible

School 4

University of Kassel Germany Student design thinking processes visualized in one class

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DESIGN THINKING MADE VISIBLE PROJECT

Student Process Drawing: University of Kassel, Germany Student 1

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Student Process Drawing: University of Kassel, Germany Student 2

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Student Process Drawing: University of Kassel, Germany Student 3

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Student Process Drawing: University of Kassel, Germany Student 4

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Student Process Drawing: University of Kassel, Germany Student 5

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Student Process Drawing: University of Kassel, Germany Student 6

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Student Process Drawing: University of Kassel, Germany Student 7

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Student Process Drawing: University of Kassel, Germany Student 8

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Student Process Drawing: University of Kassel, Germany Student 9

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Student Process Drawing: University of Kassel, Germany Student 10

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Student Process Drawing: University of Kassel, Germany Student 11

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Design Thinking Made Visible

School 4

University of Kassel

Group innovation profile

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DESIGN THINKING MADE VISIBLE PROJECT

Design Students Class Profile: University of Kassel, Germany

Innovation Harmonics© Framework by Humantific CPS Profile Instrument by Dr. M. Basadur

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Design Thinking Made Visible

School 5

Regents Business School United Kingdom Student design thinking processes visualized in one class

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Student Process Drawing: Regents Business School, UK Student 1

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Student Process Drawing: Regents Business School, UK Student 2

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Student Process Drawing: Regents Business School, UK Student 3

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Student Process Drawing: Regents Business School, UK Student 4

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Student Process Drawing: Regents Business School, UK Student 5

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Student Process Drawing: Regents Business School, UK Student 6

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Student Process Drawing: Regents Business School, UK Student 7

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Design Thinking Made Visible

School 5

Regents Business School

Group innovation profile

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DESIGN THINKING MADE VISIBLE PROJECT

Business Students Class Profile: Regents Business School, UK

Innovation Harmonics© Framework by Humantific CPS Profile Instrument by Dr. M. Basadur

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WHAT THE RESEARCH SHOWS 10 Key Findings Copyright Š 2000-2010 Humantific Inc. All Rights Reserved.

DESIGN THINKING MADE VISIBLE PROJECT

What the Research Shows: 10 Key Findings

Finding 1 This research predates and debunks the 2009 academic theory that thinking attributes (“reliability” & “validity”, etc) can be rigidly pre-assigned to individuals or teams based on discipline labels such as design, designer or business, business manager. 120

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DESIGN THINKING MADE VISIBLE PROJECT

What the Research Shows: 10 Key Findings

Finding 2 Some students in design schools have the same thinking preferences as some students in business schools, and vice-versa.

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DESIGN THINKING MADE VISIBLE PROJECT

What the Research Shows: 10 Key Findings

Finding 3 Professors and students are generally unaware of how radically different design process approaches are from one person to another.

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DESIGN THINKING MADE VISIBLE PROJECT

What the Research Shows: 10 Key Findings

Finding 4 Many students of design/innovation are not accustomed to externalizing their thinking process.

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DESIGN THINKING MADE VISIBLE PROJECT

What the Research Shows: 10 Key Findings

Finding 5 For numerous students in this study, design thinking jumps off from a framed problem defined by a brief. Often there was no process activity upstream from the brief.

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DESIGN THINKING MADE VISIBLE PROJECT

What the Research Shows: 10 Key Findings

Finding 6 Design thinking processes often appear very different visually, while similar fundamental steps can often be found within. Some steps appear universal, others situational.

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What the Research Shows: 10 Key Findings

Finding 7 Most design thinking processes seen here have assumptions embedded that outcomes will be product or service creation.

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DESIGN THINKING MADE VISIBLE PROJECT

What the Research Shows: 10 Key Findings

Finding 8 Most design thinking process models seen in this study contain no reference to behaviors.

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What the Research Shows: 10 Key Findings

Finding 9 This research makes visible why the orchestration of design innovation work remains complex and a key challenge for teams and organizations.

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DESIGN THINKING MADE VISIBLE PROJECT

What the Research Shows: 10 Key Findings

Finding 10 This research suggests that real tools and visually shareable results are extremely useful in moving understanding of Integrative Thinking beyond stereotypical notions of design thinking and business thinking.

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING IN HISTORY

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Integrative Thinking: In History

Those who have studied the historical literature on the subject of innovation will know that

the concept of Integrative Thinking is not new.

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Integrative Thinking: In History

At Humantific, we believe proper historical crediting is part of professional and ethical community behavior. It is also an important aspect of Humantific’s culture. While conveniently ignoring history and not crediting is increasingly seen in the competitive consulting marketplace, it is not an approach that we subscribe to.

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Integrative Thinking: In History

Working in the context of business organizations, numerous early Applied Creativity pioneers, including Alex Osborn, Sidney Parnes, WJJ Gordon, JP Guilford, and others became interested in Integrative Thinking

in the 1950s. Many others have built on these foundations.

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Integrative Thinking: In History

The truth is the quest for and the orchestration of Integrative Thinking, represented by diverse thinking styles, underlies decades of applied creativity history and considerable research.

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Integrative Thinking: In History

What keeps changing AND improving are

the tools being applied to the realization of Integrative Thinking in the real world. At Humantific, ongoing research informs tools and methods on a continuous basis.

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

What is Integrative Thinking

NOTE: Not all Humantific research is public. We often work with business leaders seeking to create private internal research projects focused on various aspects of their organizations’ “Innovation Brain”.

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If your business organization or school would like to participate in one of our public or private streams of

Thinking Made Visible Research

Š

send an email to thinkingresearch@humantific.com 137

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Before Change Happens:

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New Seeing Happens New Understanding Happens New Thinking Happens

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REAL THINK TOOLS for the REAL WORK WORLD ©

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INTEGRATIVE THINKING RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Explanations

NOTE: Not all Humantific frameworks, tools, methods, and research are fully explained in this brief publication. For more information send an email with “Becoming a Client” as the subject to: engage@humantific.com

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