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Circle 101 on Reader Service Card for more information




Page #


Ford 3.0L Duratec

Identifying 3.0L Duratec Blocks



Ford (General)

Ford Valve Spring Tips

2 4



Ford, GM, Chrysler

Three-Keyway Crank Sprocket Installation


Ford 3.8L, 3.9L or 4.2L

Spark Knock Under Light Load and Acceleration



GM 4.0L, 4.6L

Cylinder Head Tightening Specification Clarified




New Family Of VVT Gen IV Cam Cores



GM 454, 8.1L

Big Block Chevy Camshaft Identification



302, 318/360, 3.1L, 3800

7 Shop Survival Tips: Ford 302, Chyrsler 318/360, GM 3.1L, 3800

6 8

IMPORT 2002-’03

Acura 3.2L

Revised Timing Belt Tensioner


Audi 1.8T

Sealing Valve Cover Gasket At Critical Points



Audi 1.8L 20V

Installing Revised Drive Belt Kit

8 8


Mercedes M112, M113

Cylinder Head Caution For All M112 and M113 Engines


Nissan 2.4L KA24

Finding The Weak Link In Nissan KA24 Engines



Subaru 2.5L

Solving Sealing Issues On 2.5L “Boxer” Engines



Toyota 3.0L 3VZ

Toyota Cylinder Head Installation Procedures



Toyota 4.7L 2UZ-FE

Installers Notice 4.7L 2UZ-FE Oil Pressure Gauge Reads Low




Valve Seat Installation Tips




How to Properly Dress Crankshaft Grinding Wheels




Olds V8 Distributor Gear Lubrication Problems



Gasket Tip

Another Way To Keep Gaskets In Place





Identifying Six Common Fastener Failures




Making Combustion Chamber Molds



Valve Springs

Most Important Factors In Selecting Valve Springs




Moving Up To A Hydraulic Roller Camshaft



Valve Springs

Recommended Valve Spring Pressures


DIESEL 2003-’12


A Brief Overview of Caterpillar C7 Engines



CAT 3114, 3116

Determining The Correct Head Gasket On 3114, 3116 and 3126



CAT 3400

Lower Cylinder Bore Damage Caution for 3400 C15, C18 Engines



Cummins ISX, QSX

Inspecting, Reusing Cummins Connecting Rods




Connecting Rod Reconditioning Procedures



GM 6.2L

Sheared Crankshaft Sprocket Keys Reported



GM 6.6L Duramax

Oil Cooler Leak Found on Some Duramax Engines






104, 110, 114, 121

4,10, 14, 21






Cover 2


105, 111, 118, 128

5, 11, 18, C4





106, 115, 117 123

6, 15, 17, 23


107, 109, 119

7, 9, 19



Cover 3

Note: Tech bulletins have been provided by Automotive Production Remanufacturers Association (APRA). Other sources include ARP, Comp Cams, Summit Racing, IPD, Foley Industrial Engines, Diamond Pistons, United Engine & Machine, Goodson Tools & Supplies and Engine Pro. 1

Tech Solutions Guide 2013


DOMESTIC Tech Solutions Guide 2013

Identifying Ford Duratec 3.0L are often damaged, unreadable or Cylinder Blocks gone, which makes it nearly imposThe 3.0L DOHC V6 engine known as sible to purchase an engine core the Duratec 30 or Mazda AJ was inwhen you cannot properly identify troduced by Ford in 1996 as a rethat engine. Our intent is for you to placement for the 3.8L 232 Essex in be able to avoid that problem with the Taurus/Sable, but the Duratec the information provided in this never matched the performance of Comprehensive Progression (Comthe pushrod engine. Pro) of the 3.0L Duratec engine. The Duratec 30 is an aluminum block with cast iron linFig. 1 Ford Duratec block ers, aluminum DOHC cylinder head with four valves per cylinder, fracture-split (cracked) forged powder metal connecting rods, and a forged steel crankshaft. There are two versions of the Duratec 30: DAMB – found in the Lincoln LS, Jaguar, Mazda 6 and MPV, which use direct-acting mechanical bucket (DAMB) tappets. Here the camshaft sits directly above the valves with different thickness pucks for adjustment. Output is 232 hp. RFF – the Taurus/Sable/Escape/ Tribute engine uses roller finger followers (RFF) with the camshaft Fig. 2 Duratec block boltholes offset acting on the roller, which pivots on a hydraulic lash compensator. Output is 208 hp. Knowing the look of the two different styles of heads helps distinguish between Taurus/Sable Escape/Tribute or Lincoln LS /Jaguar. Production numbers of the 3.0L Duratec started out slowly in 1996 through 1999 but increased significantly once it became the Taurus/Sable base engine and then for the Escape and Tribute in 2001. One half a million of these engines have been produced per year, putting total production at about 3.5 million 3.0L Duratec engines manufactured. With that fleet now approaching 14 years old, they will start showing up for reman/build in respectable numbers soon, if not already. As always, the Ford Broadcast Fig. 3 Duratec block dowel pins Code sticker is the most valuable tool in determining the exact configuration and application identifica- 1996-’98 Taurus/Sable tion. Unfortunately, it is still a paper F5DE is the casting number for the sticker usually located on the first generation of the 3.0L Duratec, cam/rocker cover and, in some which, in reality, is not much more cases, the front cover. These stickers than an overgrown 2.5L. There have 2 February 2013 | EngineBuilder Tech Solutions Guide

been reports of an F7DE block as well, but it would be identical so we won’t fuss over it. This is an all aluminum block with cast iron liners. Boring this engine oversize is not a problem, and oversize pistons are readily available. Let’s start at the top (Figure 1) and work our way around to the front and rear. There is a single water outlet tube at the back with an “Indy Track” shape opening for the early style PCV oil separator about in the center of the block. Note that there is not another coolant flange toward the front. If the PCV oil separator is not installed on the block prior to the installation of the cylinder heads, it cannot be installed without one head being removed. If you find yourself in this situation the right side head easiest to remove. It can also be installed backwards, so always install with the hose outlet to the rear of the engine. There are also two types with different PCV flow and hose sizes. In the trans-mount area at the back of the block the F5 block has only one bolthole (Figure 2, left) just above the dowel on the right side. Moving to the front of the block (Figure 3) the F5DE has two dowel pins mounted in the front, both of which are eliminated in all subsequent blocks. This block has a 12mm thread detonation sensor boss. 1999 Taurus/Sable XW4E - AE, AG is the casting number for 1999 only because it’s the only XW block with a 12mm det sensor boss. It has a provision for the oil feed to the right side cylinder head to use with variable valve timing (VVT) although it’s not being used. There are also coolant port changes that occurred on the right side that required a new design head gasket. A coolant port flange with two boltholes can be found on the top of the block used in the Lincoln LS and Mazda MPV. This flange is plugged for all other applications. This block now has two boltholes in the trans mount flange area on the right side above the dowel (Figure 2, right).

Circle 103 on Reader Service Card for more information

DOMESTIC Tech Solutions Guide 2013

Typically you will find the casting number for this block in the lower area just above the bedplate.

Ford Valve Spring Problems The most common problem encountered when installing a new high performance camshaft is the incompatibility of the existing valve springs to the new cam. Ford valve springs are designed

2000-’05 Taurus/Sable, Escape/ Tribute, Lincoln LS, Jaguar S & X, Mazda MPV and 6 XW4E- BA is the casting number Fig. 4 Ford valve springs for 2000-’02 and you will find the must be addressed if using casting number high on the block a new performance cam. just under the cylinder head deck or along the top of the trans mount flange on the right side. to work with a In 2003-’05 casting number 3W4E certain lift came on the scene. We have seen cam, and since Broadcast Code engines that were most aftermar2003 and 2004 and had XW4E blocks. ket cams have If you’re a purist, leave it to your higher lift, the own heart; otherwise consider the spring must be blocks to be fully interchangeable. addressed. In fact, the blocks are identical to It is highly recommended and a the 1999 block except the det sensor requirement of most warranties that now has 8mm threads. Since this is the suggested springs be installed nearly identical to the det sensor sitalong with a cam manufacturer’s uation with the 4.6L Ford, we would recommended camshaft. assume that the same companies Most Ford cylinder heads utilized that provide those adaptors and a step cast into the head that acted as tooling are able to do the same for the valve spring locator. When inthe 3.0L Duratec. stalling a dual spring, it is highly recommended that this step be removed by machining to minimize

Circle 104 for more information 4 February 2013 | EngineBuilder Tech Solutions Guide

the possibility of coil binding the inner spring (Figure 4). Whenever installing a high-lift racing cam in any engine, the cylinder heads must be equipped with the correct valve springs, screw-in studs, guide plates and hardened pushrods. The increased loads and ultra high speeds of the racing engines make this a necessity for valve train stability. Three-Keyway Crank Sprocket Installation The Cloyes patented 3-keyway crank sprocket allows adjustment of the crankshaft timing by ± 4°. The camshaft angle is half of the crankshaft angle, therefore the camshaft will correspondingly advance or retard by ± 2°. By changing the cam timing, enhancements to the camshaft characteristics can be achieved. For example, retarding the cam timing will increase high rpm horsepower, and advancing the cam timing will increase low-end torque. The following examples illustrate which timing mark is used with its corresponding keyway: To retard the camshaft timing, use the ❏ timing mark on the crank sprocket and the retard keyway shown in Figure 5. For factory specified timing, use the Ο timing mark on the crank sprocket and the factory keyway. To advance the camshaft timing, use the ∆ timing mark on the crank sprocket and the advance keyway. After determining which setting to use, we advise marking (with white marker or similar) the corresponding timing mark and keyway. This will make them easier to identify during installation.

previously published service manuals. Affects: 1993 Cadillac Allante, Sixty Special (FWD) 1993-’96 Cadillac Fleetwood 1993-’99 Cadillac DeVille, Eldorado, Seville 1994-’99 Cadillac Concours 1995-’99 Oldsmobile Aurora with 4.0 L or 4.6 L Engine (VINs C, Y, 9 RPOs L47, LD8, L37) Cylinder Head Installation Torque specification and sequence for the cylinder head bolts (1-10) using a torque angle meter

(J 36660-A, see Figure 6): 1. First Pass - 30 ft.lbs. (40 Nm) 2. Second Pass - 70 degrees 3. Third Pass - 60 degrees 4. Fourth Pass - 60 degrees (190 Degrees total) The torque specification for the three front M6 cylinder head bolts is 106 in.lbs. (12 N-m). (103074) GM’s New Family of VVT Gen IV Cam Cores GM introduced a second style VVT cam actuator (aka phaser) in 2007 and ran two different cam actuators through 2007 and newer. The new style became the exclusive unit in most 2009 and newer engines. • Original (old style) GM p/n 12585994: 2007-2008 (uses cam core 156-family); •Current (new style) GM p/n 12606358: 2007-2009 and newer engines (use cam core 189-family). The difference in the camshaft core is the pin to centerline position. The difference in the pin between 156 and 189 works out to 13 degrees cam retard (if a 156 is used where a 189 is required).

GM Cylinder Head Tightening Specification Clarification This bulletin was issued to clarify GM 4.0L and 4.6L cylinder head tightening specifications found in Fig. 5 Cloyes patented 3-keyway crank sprocket allows adjustment of the crankshaft timing by ± 4°. To retard, use the ❏ timing mark on the crank sproket and retard keyway.

Circle 105 for more information 5

Tech Solutions Guide 2013

Ford Engine Spark Knock Under Light Load And Acceleration Some 1997-2008 Ford vehicles equipped with 3.8L, 3.9L or 4.2L engines with Split Port Intake Manifold Runner Control (IMRC) may exhibit spark knock under light load and acceleration. Inspect for disconnected IMRC actuator rods. Follow the service steps to correct this condition. Service Procedure: 1) Check both right hand and left hand side IMRC rods to be sure they are properly attached to the actuator motor and intake manifold runner. 2) If the IMRC actuator rods are found to be connected properly, do not continue with these steps. 3) If any IMRC actuator rods are disconnected, refer to service manual. 4) If any IMRC actuator rod linkages are found disconnected, replace all four linkage rod retainers.

Fig. 6 GM 4.0L and 4.6L cylinder head tightening sequence.


Some high performance camshafts are ground with advance or retard built in. In this case the cam manufacturer intends the cam to be set at the factory specified timing. Also, during and after installation, look for any interference between the timing set and engine block. If interference is found, remove or grind that area of the block so adequate clearance is obtained. When removing a press fit crank sprocket, a proper pulling tool should be used.

DOMESTIC Tech Solutions Guide 2013

Big Block Chevy Cam Identification Editor’s note: The following tip is from a column by contributor Roy Berndt. Imagine getting a call from a customer who has just received a meticulously remanufactured 454 Chevrolet engine but who claims it only runs on four cylinders. While turning the distributor during diagnosis process your customer noticed the other four cylinders would start running and the original four go dead. Now, since it is a big block maybe you will truly understand the phrase, “There is no substitute for cubic inches,” because it did actually run on either of the four cylinder sets. In your mind you’re thinking, “Great, I'm dealing with another guy who is certainly not the sharpest tool in the work shed,” but in the interest of customer service you entertain the bizarre possibility that there is something wrong with the engine and not the ignition system. Finally after what seemed like enough time to grow a beard on the phone with the customer you agree to take the engine back into your facility and provide the customer with another one, certainly expecting him to have the same problem as the

there is absolutely nothing wrong! Fig. 7 Big block Chevy camshaft You see the identification. Be sure to have camshaft lying on the correct one for 8.1L and 454. the bench and know there’s nothing wrong there…or is there? You pull out another new camshaft and lay it next to the one you just removed and scratch your head, because the two are very different. First thought, this is simple. Somehow a reverse rotation marine camshaft was incorrectly packaged, right? Wrong! Finally you just walk away and right it off to a bizarre anomaly. Then weeks later you read a short blurb about how the firing order on 8.1L big block engines is different than a normal big block. The 8.1L FO is 1-8-7-2-6-5-4-3 where a 454/7.4L is 1-8-4-3-6-5-7-2 as seen in Figure 7. original. Despite the differences, however, A few days and hundreds of tasks an 8.1L camshaft will drop right into later your customer calls and says the a 454 like it belongs there – but it new engine runs great. You wonder will only run four cylinders. how that can be possible and realize So guess who had the elevator that it is time to get the returned engine on the bench and pull out the CSI that didn't get to the top floor? It wasn’t the guy who called up saying tools and find out what happened. Heads are perfect, cylinders good, pis- that his engine only ran on four cylinders, that’s for certain. If you’re tons and rings fine, all the bearings in the engine business long enough look great, the timing gear’s in time – you’ll have those days when you feel like one of those suckers that you used to get after a shot at the doctor’s office. 7 Shop Survival Tips To Keep Rebuilders Out of Trouble These tips were compiled from award-winning Engine Builder contributor Doug Anderson on how to avoid pitfalls during the following engine builds: Ford 5.0L/302 “Cobra” Cams Ford made a limited number of the Mustang Cobras with a “super-highoutput” 5.0L in ’93, ’94 and ’95. They all had a unique roller cam (p/n F3ZZ-6250-A) that can be identified by the “GT” stamped on the barrel, right behind the distributor gear. This cam was designed to work with the specific combination of heads, intake, throttle body and injectors found on the Cobra engine, so it had different centerlines (115/121.5 for the Cobra vs. 116/115 for the H.O.), less overlap and slightly more lift. This profile produced a smooth, stable idle, reduced hydrocarbon emissions, and gave the Cobra more low-end torque at the expense of some top end power. This cam was

Circle 106 for more information 6 February 2013 | EngineBuilder Tech Solutions Guide

Watch for bad cams, bent valves, broken guides and cracked heads on these engines and anticipate the additional cost of parts and repairs when pricing them.

Chrysler 318/360 Blocks Cracked Around The Head Bolt Holes Many of these blocks are cracked around the head bolt holes. Most thread repair inserts won’t work because the cracks extend out too far from the threads; some don’t work because they can’t take the torque required for a head bolt, and others leak coolant through the insert itself if you do try to use them. Some rebuilders "vee" out the cracks, weld them up, and deck the block, but that’s a timeconsuming process that doesn’t always work out as planned. Rebuilders can make a permanent repair by using the Spiralhook thread repair insert made by Lock-N-Stitch, Inc. (Figure 8). It’s easy to install with a drill, a tap, a spot face tool and a file or a deck machine. They will take the required torque; they don’t leak coolant through the threads and they eliminate the crack forever. Chevy 3.1L/191 Cam Bearing Bores Some of the later roller cam 3.1L blocks for the ’93-’94 Chevy VIN M are showing up with oversize cam bearing bores that appear to have been caused by spun cam bearings. If a new cam bearing is installed in a Circle 107 for more information 7

Tech Solutions Guide 2013

Buick 3800 VIN K Rear Seal Holder The rear seal holder for the 1995 and up Buick 3800 VIN K also functions as the cover for the coolant passages and oil galleries on the back of the block. This can cause problems, because the coolant passages are pretty close to the oil passages, and the original covers (c/n 24503969) tend to corrode around the coolant holes. Once the gasket gets saturated with coolant and the cover ends up corroded around the coolant passages, you can end up with either water in the oil or oil in the water. Inspect these covers carefully and discard them if they are badly corroded. Replacing the early cover with the later, revised version (c/n 24507385) that has a more distinct ridge around the coolant holes to provide a better sealing surface for the gasket is cheap insurance. This updated cover is available from GM (p/n 24507386). ■


bore that has been damaged, it will spin in the block, cut off the oil to the cam, and cause an immediate failure. Inspect the cam bores in all of the late 3.1L castings (10137093/ 10191737/ 24504089/ 24504150/ Fig. 8 (Left) This Lock-N-Stitch thread insert is 10224227) very carefully, payused to repair the cracked deck surface ing special attention to the #2 around the head bolt holes of the Chrysler 318, 360 blocks. (Right) Once this insert is inbore that seems to be the most stalled and has been filed or decked, it proprone to failure. If the cam bore vides a permament repair that will not crack. is oversize, there are only two choices: You can either knurl also used in some late ’93 5.0L Thun- the O.D. of the cam bearing to get derbirds to “improve idle stability enough press fit, or you can junk the and reduce hydrocarbon emissions.” block. Rebuilders should throw this cam away unless they’re building a genBuick 3800 VIN K Cam Problems uine Cobra engine. It doesn’t do a Some of the 1995-’99 Buick 3800 VIN good job in the Mustang 5.0L beK cores have been seen with the keycause it doesn’t have the right proway in the snout of the cam all walfile for this combination, so it affects lowed out. When this happens, the driveability and gives away some cam gear rotates back and forth on horsepower, too. It can also create the snout which not only ruins the problems if it’s used in any other cam, but also changes the valve tim5.0L application except the 1993 ing and leads to abnormal combusThunderbird that came with the tion. We have seen valves that are unique, restrictive intake that was bent because they collided with the required to make the 302 fit under pistons and heads that are cracked the hood of the Thunderbird. from the excessive heat.

IMPORT Tech Solutions Guide 2013

Revised Timing Belt Tensioner for Acura 3.2L Engine Installers should note that the revised tensioner should be identified by a punched mark above the sixth digit of the engine compartment VIN code.

A revised timing belt auto-tensioner for 2002-2003 Acura 3.2L engines is now available (p/n 14520-P8E-A01). This tensioner is part of a product improvement by Acura. The original design timing belt tensioner is filled with oil to dampen oscillation. Due to a manufacturing situation, the tensioner oil can leak. If enough oil is lost, the timing belt loosens and causes engine noise. The worst-case scenario is the belt may lose tension and allow the loss of cam timing. Refer to the chart above to determine which vehicles are affected. Do not replace the timing belt because it has oil on it from the autotensioner or because you see belt dust after removing the engine upper covers. Residual oil from the auto-tensioner and dust from minor belt contact with the inner edge of the camshaft pulleys does not affect timing belt performance. Secure the timing belt to both cam pulleys using plastic wire ties. This helps to keep the timing belt in place while you replace the auto-tensioner.

Cylinder Head Cover Gasket Installation: Before installing a new cylinder head cover gasket, it is necessary to apply a small amount of sealant on six critical transition points of the sealing surface of the cylinder head. Before new sealant is applied old sealant and oil residues must be removed (sealing surface must be thoroughly cleaned). Seal the transition points between double bearing cap and cylinder head (2 points): • Apply a small quantity of sealant p/n AMV 174 004 01 to sides of joints (arrows) on upper sealing surface of cylinder head. Sealing camshaft adjuster/cylinder head transition (4 points): • Apply a small quantity of sealant p/n AMV 174 004 01 to sides of joints (arrows) on upper sealing surface of cylinder head. • Apply sealant before installing any gaskets.

(83710) Sealing Audi 1.8T Valve Cover Gasket at Critical Points To prevent oil leaks on Audi 1.8T engines after the valve cover gasket has been replaced you must use the following procedure. 8 February 2013 | EngineBuilder Tech Solutions Guide

Installing Drive Belt Kit On 1.8L 20V Audi A4 Engine When refitting engines built before and during 1998, the old version stud bolt must be removed. The new version is then screwed into the same hole with a pre-mounted spacer. (Retrofitting hydraulic damper on vehicles built before 1998) Problem: The belt drive makes noise after operating for a short time. Cause: The newly installed tension roller is not the correct distance from the engine and allows the belt to rub on the side of the inner flanged wheel Solution: When refitting vehicles built before and during 1998, the old version stud bolt (See Figure 1) must be removed. The new version is then screwed into the same hole with a pre-mounted spacer (See Figure 2). The problem here is that the manufacturer has two different thicknesses of the spacer (3.1) + (3.2) which define the distance from the roller to the engine. Despite the vehicle identification number or (production month: 01/96) it is still not absolutely definitive which kit must be used. Assure proper belt alignment after tension roller is replaced. If misalignment occurs, there will be noises and catastrophic damage to the engine.

Cylinder Head Caution for Mercedes M112 and M113 Engines Affects all models with M112 and M113 engines. Sealing surfaces of the crankcase and cylinder heads are provided with an 0.8 mm Fig. 1 & 2 Install new stud bolt thick silicone layer (Loctite with new Audi 1.8L tensioner kit. 5900) during standard factory assembly. Silicone sealant should be applied during repair assembly only if sink holes exist in the sealing area. When cleaning sealing surfaces of the factory applied silicone sealant, during cylinder head reassembly, extreme care must be taken in order not to scratch or damage the sealing surfaces. DO NOT use any gasket removal materials that are abrasive. Failure to follow this procedure could result in

Circle 109 on Reader Service Card for more information

IMPORT Tech Solutions Guide 2013

severe and permanent engine damage.

Fig. 3 Timing chain wear on Nissan KA24 shown here.

Finding the Weak Link in Nissan KA24 SOHC Engines The KA24 engine is actually a pretty darn good engine (which compounds the problem) yet if it has a weak link it is the big long timing chain and tensioner system in the front of the block. Many of you may have not seen this issue, but once it bites you, you will always remember the Nissan KA24 engine series in the SOHC configuration. When the timing chain, guides and tensioner get high miles and wear, the chain can actually start rubbing against the front of the block (Figure 3). The wear actually looks as though it is a machined area and you may overlook the big grooved area. But when the chain cut/rubs into the block long enough it may actually break into the water passage. More often than not when this situation occurs the chain has trashed the front cover as well and

if there was coolant in the oil the cover gets the blame. So take heed when you encounter the KA24, 2.4L SOHC Nissan engine for remanufacturing: there may be a hidden problem that can easily get overlooked. Make certain that you inspect the front of the block and if there is any chain rub groove you better make certain that enough casting thickness remains not to end up with a coolant breach. Solving Sealing Issues on 2.5L Subaru ‘Boxer’ Engines Thousands of these engines might be susceptible to sealing problems related to the use of original equipment-style composite or early-gen-

Circle 110 for more information 10 February 2013 | EngineBuilder Tech Solutions Guide

eration multi-layer-steel head gaskets. Federal-Mogul has introduced two next-generation Fel-Pro PermaTorque MLS head gaskets that help eliminate sealing concerns on the full range of Subaru 2.5L SOHC and DOHC “boxer” engines dating back to the 1996 model year (Figure 4). The new MLS head gaskets combine Federal-Mogul’s aftermarket multi-layer-steel gasket technologies with a “LaserWeld” stopper layer design, developed in partnership with NASCAR Sprint Cup engine builders. Each gasket also includes a proprietary coating technology that

Fig. 4 New Subaru head gasket solves sealing issues.

accommodates a wide range of surface finishes encountered in the aftermarket repair environment. Many of today’s more powerful yet lighter-weight engines present difficult sealing challenges for conventional head gaskets. In particular, increased casting motion between the head and block surfaces can quickly cause scrubbing and/or crushing damage to composite-style gaskets. “Using a replacement composite style head gasket on these engines will very likely lead to repeat sealing failure,” said Jim Daigle, Fel-Pro product manager. “The only solution is to use a modern, high-quality MLS gasket engineered specifically for the repair environment. While the MLS gasket might cost more than a composite gasket, the overall cost will be much lower when compared to an expensive sealing failure.” The new Fel-Pro PermaTorque MLS gaskets are available in complete head gasket sets for the following applications: • 1999-2009 Subaru 2.5L SOHC (EJ251, EJ252 and EJ253) - Fel-Pro head set: #HS26170PT1


• 1996-1999 Subaru 2.5L DOHC (EJ25D) - Fel-Pro head set: #HS26167PT; HS26167PT-1; HS26167PT-2 • 2004-2009 Subaru 2.5L DOHC Turbo (EJ25T, EJ255 and EJ257) - FelPro head set: #HS26259PT; HS26259PT-1 The LaserWeld stopper layer now featured in many Fel-Pro PermaTorque MLS head gaskets helps maximize combustion sealing by precisely controlling the compression of each gasket’s layers. This helps reduce head lift, prevent gasket damage and ensure a superior combustion seal over a broader range of operating conditions. Fig. 5 Toyota 3VZ head

Tech Solutions Guide 2013

Important: If any one of the bolts do not meet the torque specification, replace only that bolt. It is not necessary to replace bolts in sets. Only the bolt(s)that do not meet the torque specification should be replaced. 3. Apply a light coat of engine oil on the threads and washer face of the hex type cylinder head bolts. Install and torque the hex type head bolts to each cylinder head. Torque: 30 ft.lbs. (41 N-m).

installation procedures.

Toyota 3VZ Cylinder Head Installation Procedures Toyota 3VZ cylinder head bolts are reusable in most cases. To prevent unnecessary replacement of cylinder head bolts, the following procedures must be used during cylinder head installation. Affected Models/Engines: 1988-1995 Toyota Trucks, 4Runners and T100s equipped with the 3VZ V6 engine. The cylinder head bolts are tightened in three progressive steps: 1. Install cylinder head a. Place a new cylinder head gasket on the engine block and install cylinder head. b. Apply a light coat of engine oil on the threads and washer face of the cylinder head bolts. c. Install the plate washer to the cylinder head bolt. d. Using a 12-point socket, install and uniformly tighten the (8) 12point bolts in several passes, in the sequence shown in the illustration (Figure 5). Torque: 33 ft.lbs. (44 Nm). e. Repeat for the other head. 2. Proceed with final tightening sequences: a. Mark the front side of the top of the bolt wlth'a drop of paint.. b. Uniformly torque the bolts an additional 90 degrees following the same sequence as before. c. Check that the painted mark is now facing sideways. d. Uniformly torque the bolts an additional 90 degrees again using the same tightening sequence. e. Check that the painted mark is now facing rearward.

2000-2003 Toyota 4.7L Tundra and Sequoia Oil Pressure Gauge Reads Low Installer customers with Sequoia or Tundra vehicles with 4.7L engines may be concerned to encounter an oil pressure gauge that reads abnormally low at idle. An updated oil pressure sender has been created to address this condition. Affects 2000-’03 model year Sequoia and Tundra vehicles produced BEFORE the VINs shown below:

Model/Starting VIN: Tundra 5TBBT44112S314095 Sequoia 5TDZT38AOZS117526 1. Verify that the NEW parts are built after the manufacturer’s sender case production date, as identified above. 2. Replace the oil pressure sender. 3. Verify proper operation of the oil pressure gauge. ■

Circle 111 for more information 11

Circle 113 on Reader Service Card for more information


Tech Solutions Guide 2013

Valve Seat Installation Tips Interference fit is one of the main concerns when installing valve seats. You want the seat to fit tightly so it doesn’t fall out, even if the engine overheats. But you don’t want it so tight that there’s a danger of cracking either. On passenger car and light truck engines with aluminum heads, valve seats are usually factory installed with about .002˝ to .003˝ of interference fit. Some say powder metal seats require a little more interference fit than cast iron alloys, while cobalt alloy seats require a little less because of their higher coefficient of thermal expansion. Keep in mind these numbers are for brand new heads with brand new seats. After tens of thousands of miles, seat counterbores can become distorted and eroded, requiring an increase in interference to keep the seat tight.

The most common recommendation from valve seat suppliers for cast seats being installed in aluminum heads is .003˝ to .005˝ of interference fit. If you are installing powder metal seats, use .005˝ to .007˝ of interference. If you are using beryllium-copper seats, go with .004˝ to .0045˝ of interference fit. Many valve seats have a radius

or chamfer on the outside bottom edge to make installation easier. Seats with square cut corners are more difficult to install and may damage the counterbore if they snag any metal or become cocked while they are being driven in. Chilling the valve seats in a freezer and preheating the head are often recommended to make instal-

Manually dressing your grinding wheel is important for producing quality work.

lation easier, especially if you are using a lot of interference fit. Using a lubricant also helps. When heating the head, don’t get carried away. You only need about 160° to 180° F. If you get the head too hot, say 200° to 250° F, things can start to move around and change the alignment between the valve guide and seat. How to Properly Dress Crankshaft Grinding Wheels Manual dressing of the grinding wheel is an important factor in producing satisfactory work on your crankshaft grinder. The grinding wheel must be dressed each time it is placed on the machine, even though it may not have been removed from the wheel center. Mount the wheel dresser on the grinder table. Bring the rotating grinding wheel up close to the diamond and start the coolant flow. Never dress without coolant. Frictional heat buildup can cause the diamond to come loose or separate from its mount. Lack of lubricating Circle 114 for more information 14 February 2013 | EngineBuilder Tech Solutions Guide

Olds V8 Distributor Gear Lubrication Problems When building an Oldsmobile V8, especially a performance engine with a high volume oil pump, it is a must to drill a small squirter hole in the rear galley plug by the distributor gear. A hole .025˝ to .050˝ in diameter will do wonders for gear lubrication and save a lot of headaches in the future.

Keeping Files Clean To keep your files clean, rub them with white chalk (or any color for that matter) to fill up the grooves. This will keep out the dirt that causes files to be less effective. They will work just fine even with the chalk on them. ■

Side Dressing Whenever the sides of a grinding wheel are found to run out, they should be dressed. With the dresser mounted to a table, bring the diamond into contact with the grinding wheel near its front corner, feed in a maximum of .002˝. The wheel is then fed in and out until the necessary amount has been dressed from each side of the wheel. Radius Dressing When regrinding a crankshaft, every effort should be made to duplicate the original corner radii to prevent the crankshaft from being weakened. Position the diamond in the holder facing out the front. Slide the holder back, position and lock the radius adjuster at the desired dimension. Then slide the diamond holder forward until the diamond contacts the radius adjustment stop. Tighten the diamond holder, unlock and retract the adjustment stop. Feed the wheel into position fully forward. Using fine feed, bring the diamond into contact with the front face of the wheel and dress the full width. Then Circle 115 for more information 15

Tech Solutions Guide 2013

Face Dressing Best results will be obtained if the diamond is brought into contact with the center of the wheel, fed in a maximum of .002˝, then traversed each direction (left and right) off the edge of the wheel. Learning the best traverse rate for dressing the wheel is a matter of trial and error for each operator. You have to be fast enough to prevent glazing, but slow enough to minimize spiral lead marks. Dressing from the center of the wheel out to each edge helps minimize the effect of the spiral lead marks on the finish of the workpiece. Do not remove over .002˝ per pass. Excessive in-feed will cause the wheel to act like it’s loaded. This results from wheel material being “pasted” into new exposed wheel porosity. The type of dress applied to the grinding wheel may be changed to suit different grinding needs. A rapid traverse will remove large amounts of material quickly. A slower traverse will produce a more desirable finish, but won't remove material as rapidly.

Another Way To Keep back the wheel away from the diaGaskets In Place mond .004˝, loosen the swivel lock For gaskets that won’t stay in place, and remove one of the stop pins so especially oil pan and intake manithe upper swivel can be rotated 90° fold gaskets, some engine builders of travel. While pivoting the diarecommend using a glue stick. An mond through its 90° arc, bring the advantage of using a glue stick is wheel into contact and dress of the that it is neat, so you won’t end up required amount from one corner. with a mess. Repeat this process for Use a glue stick or adhesive the opposite corner by to help keep gaskets in place. replacing the first stop pin and removing the second pin to provide 90° rotation in the opposite direction. Be sure to keep your diamond dresser tools sharp. Rotate the diamond 30 to 45° after each dressing operation.


properties, along with cooling, needlessly abrades the diamond.

Tech Solutions Guide 2013 PERFORMANCE

Identifying Six Common preloaded on installation. Fastener Failures Fasteners are designed to clamp There are six types of metallurgical parts together, not to locate them. failures that affect fasteners. Each Location is the function of dowels. type has unique identifying physical Another area where impact failures characteristics. The following examare common is in connecting rod ples are designed to be used like a bolts, when a catastrophic failure, spark plug reading chart to help anelsewhere in the engine (debris from alyze fastener failures failing (Figure 1). Fig. 1 The six most common fastener failures are illustrated here. While few engine builders have access to sophisticated analysis equipment, a standard Bausch and Lomb three lens magnifying glass will generally show 98% of what you want to see. Several of the photos have been taken utilizing a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and are presented to simply illustrate typical grain configurations after failure, according to fastener manufacturer ARP. 1. Typical Tensile Overload In a tensile overload failure the bolt will stretch and “neck down” prior to rupture (Photo 1). One of the fracture faces will form a cup and the other a cone. This type of failure indicates that either the bolt was inadequate for the installation or it was preloaded beyond the material’s yield point. 2. Torsional Shear (Twisting) Fasteners are not normally subjected to torsional stress. This sort of failure is usually seen in drive shafts, input shafts and output shafts (Photo 2). However, ARP has seen torsional shear failure when galling takes place between the male and female threads (always due to using the wrong lubricant or no lubricant) or when the male fastener is misaligned with the female thread. The direction of failure is obvious and, in most cases, failure occurs on disassembly. 3. Impact Shear Fracture from impact shear is similar in appearance to torsional shear failure with flat failure faces and obvious directional traces camshaft or crankshaft) impacts the (Photo 3). Failures due to impact connecting rod. shear occur in bolts loaded in single 4. Cyclic Fatigue Failure shear, like flywheel and ring gear Some of the high strength bolts. Usually the failed bolts were “quench and temper” steel alloys called upon to locate the device as used in fastener manufacture are well as to clamp it and, almost alsubject to “hydrogen embrittleways, the bolts were insufficiently ment.” L-19, H-11, 300M, Aeromet 16 February 2013 | EngineBuilder Tech Solutions Guide

and other similar alloys popular in drag racing, are particularly susceptible and extreme care must be exercised during manufacturing. The spot on the first photo (Photo 4) is typical of the origin of this type of failure. The second is a SEM photo at 30X magnification. 5. Cyclic Fatigue Cracks Again, many of the high strength steel alloys are susceptible to stress corrosion. The photos (Photo 5) illustrate such a failure. The first picture is a digital photo with an arrow pointing to the double origin of the fatigue cracks. The second photograph at 30X magnification shows a third arrow pointing to the juncture of the cracks propagating from the rust pits. L-19, H-11, 300M and Aeromet, are particularly susceptible to stress corrosion and must be kept well oiled and never exposed to moisture including sweat. Inconel 718, ARP 3.5 and Custom age 625+ are immune to both hydrogen embrittlement and stress corrosion. 6. Insufficient Preload Many connecting rod bolt failures are caused by insufficient preload. When a fastener is insufficiently preloaded during installation the dynamic load may exceed the clamping load resulting in cyclic tensile stress and eventual failure. The first picture (Photo 6) is a digital photo of such a failure with the bolt still in the rod. The arrows indicate the location of a cut made to free the bolt. The third arrow shows the origin of the fatigue crack in the second picture – an SEM photo at 30X magnification that clearly shows the origin of the failure (1), and the telltale “thumbprint” or “beach mark” (2). Finally (3) tracks of the outwardly propagating fatigue cracks, and the point where the bolt (unable to carry any further load) breaks-away. How To Make Combustion Chamber Molds There are several different methods used for producing combustion chamber molds of cylinder heads. Engine builders who need to digitize a chamber or determine piston to valve clearance often use one of

Circle 117 on Reader Service Card for more information

Tech Solutions Guide 2013 PERFORMANCE

these methods. Ross Pistons recommends the following process to make a combustion chamber mold (Figure 2): • Clean both the chamber and head surface; chamber must be free of all dirt, oil and grease, and valves must be installed. • Place cylinder head properly on the block using no head gaskets. Snug cylinder head bolts or studs with dowel pins installed. Turn block over until cylinder head is facing downward toward the floor. Cylinder head deck must be level before pouring mold.

Fig. 2 Use one of these mold methods if you need to digitize a combustion chamber.

• Insert plastic plug, or other stopper, into spark plug hole on the chamber side. Tap in if needed.

• Spray both the chamber and cylinder bore with WD40 or wipe down with a light coat of oil or silicone spray. • Mix epoxy or “Bondo” as per manufacturer’s instructions. • Pour mixture into combustion chamber from the bottom of block until epoxy covers at least .250” (6.5 mm) up of the cylinder bore from the head surface. • Let epoxy or Bondo cure as per instructions that came with product. Once epoxy or Bondo has hardened, flip engine right side up and remove cylinder head. • Before removing chamber mold from cylinder head, install dowel pins into cylinder head. Place a straight edge parallel with the dowel pins; using a razor blade, scribe a line on the back side of the mold. Scribe line must be on the chamber mold to be scanned. Scribe line is required to be parallel to the piston pin only. It is not required to be on the pin center line (see photograph). Note: Care must be taken to ensure that the scribed line is absolutely parallel with the dowel

Circle 118 for more information 18 February 2013 | EngineBuilder Tech Solutions Guide

Fig. 3 Factors in choosing valve springs include cam type, cylinder head valve pocket dimensions and more.

pins. Remove mold from chamber. If mold sticks, lightly tap with a plastic hammer or lightly pry with a screwdriver. Use alcohol to remove any WD40 or silicone spray left on chamber mold and cylinder head. Most Important Factors for Choosing Valve Springs The three most common factors that should be considered are installed height, camshaft type, and cylinder head valve spring pocket dimensions. Each consideration is equally critical to choosing the correct valve spring for your application. To begin, your installed height should always be measured (Figure 3). This is important because the height at which a valve spring is installed can dramatically increase or decrease its rated coil bind clearance and opened/closed pressures. As this can lead to valve spring or camshaft failure, it is vital that you choose the correct spring for the installed height that your cylinder heads can accommodate. The next consideration is camshaft type. In short, your valve spring pressure rating must be appropriate to the type of camshaft that you are using. Failure to run the correct pressure for the cam type will almost certainly result in engine damage. See the table below for general spring pressure guidelines based on cam type. Finally note the physical diameter of the spring. Cylinder heads have pockets that can only accept certain diameter valve springs without machine work. To help circumvent the need for machine work, some manufacturers offer a wide selection of valve springs, as well as valve spring locators and shim kits to simplify the installation process.

with a few extra bucks, it will really be worth the investment.

To keep the roller cam from moving too much, you need to use a cam button between the cam cover and the cam gear to hold it in place, and a Torrington bearing behind the cam gear to keep the cam gear from damaging the block. You will need to set a camshaft end play by using shim washers (similar to setting crankshaft end play). Lastly, you need to make sure that your distributor drive gear on the cam, and the drive gear on your distributor are compatible. Roller cams are hardened steel, and if mated to a soft iron distributor gear, it would wear out the distributor gear quickly. Most cam makers press on a soft iron gear on the camshaft at the factory, so in many cases you need to do nothing. However, if your roller cam has a hardened gear, the cam manufacturer usually sells a matching hardened steel distributor gear for you to use. If you are retrofitting an older engine that did not use a roller cam from the factory, you will need to use a retro fit roller cam and retro fit roller cam lifters. These parts have the correct geometry to go into an older engine and have their own Circle 119 for more information 19

Tech Solutions Guide 2013

Recommended Valve Spring Pressures Please note, the valve spring pressure figures given here are guidelines only. Some special applications may require different pressures. When in doubt, please contact your camshaft supplier. The following recommendations are from Erson Cams. Reach their tech department at 800-641-7920. • Hydraulic Flat Tappet Camshaft: 110 lbs. seat pressure/250-280 lbs open pressure; • Solid Flat Tappet Camshaft: 130 lbs. seat pressure/300-325 lbs. open pressure; • Hydraulic Roller Camshaft: 130 lbs. seat pressure/300- 325 lbs. open pressure; • Solid Roller Camshaft (minimum safe pressures) as follows: • Up to .600˝ valve lift: 200-235 lbs. seat pressure/600 lbs. open pressure; and • Over .600˝ valve lift: 250-280 lbs. seat pressure /100 lbs. pressure for every .100˝ of valve lift. ■


Fig. 4 Hydraulic roller cams can Swapping To Hydraulic boost performance for you customer Roller Camshafts One of the quickest ways to gain a significant performance boost is to move up to a hydraulic roller camshaft. This conversion gives you a lot of advantages over a standard hydraulic cam (Figure 4). The advantages of a roller cam include: no need to break-in the cam on initial startup, the lifters can be reused if you change cams, the open and close ramps of the lobes are faster, giving you more torque and unique part numbers. Also, you will horsepower for any given grind, need to use shorter pushrods for a roller cams wear at a fraction of the roller cam, and the manufacturer rate of standard cams, and roller will have the correct length ready cams can use the latest blends of for you. If your engine is newer and motor oil with out the zinc, so no has a roller cam from the factory, additives are needed. A few things are different about a you will use a roller cam and lifters that are designed as direct replaceroller cam installation. A standard ments. Roller cams will work with cam is ground in a way that causes any rocker arm design. the lifters to rotate during operation Going to a roller cam upgrade is to minimize wear. This design one of those few times where you causes the cam stay in place by itself can really tell the difference it makes as the engine turns. The roller cam when you drive. Roller cams are design does not need to rotate the lifters, so it will “float” in place dur- more expensive, but if you can convince your customer to come up ing operation.

DIESEL Tech Solutions Guide 2013

A Brief Overview of Pistons: Although several differCaterpillar C7 Engines ent piston part numbers are used in This popular engine was released in these engines, two distinct design 2003, and now has a total producdifferences are important to note. tion of over 300,000 units. With a Depending on the application, the range from 190hp to 360hp, this engine may have aluminum or steel mid-range six cylinder engine is (one-piece) pistons. The one-piece very versatile (Figure 1). This popular engine can often be found in on-highway trucks, and also in off-highway applications such as loaders, skidders, excavators, motor graders, and industrial and marine units. It is actually a 7.2 liter (439 cid) engine with a 4.33˝ bore (110mm) and 5.0˝ stroke (127mm). Cylinder Head: The single cylinder head is similar to the late 3126B heads, with 3 valves per cylinder (1 exhaust valve & 2 intake Fig. 1 The Cat C7 has a range valves). The electronically from 190hp to 360hp and is a actuated injectors are losteel piston very versatile engine. cated between the three design is valves. A common push produced by rod and rocker arm design operates inertia/friction welding a steel the valves, driven from a camshaft crown to a steel piston skirt. This located in the cylinder block. The design creates a piston with an inhead is a cross flow design, with the ternal oil cooling gallery in the intake ports located on the left side, crown, and increased structural and the exhaust ports on the right. strength and resistance to fatigue. Cylinder Block: The cylinder Gear Train: The front gear train block has “parent” bore cylinders, drives the camshaft, oil pump, acmeaning it does not have replacecessory drives, and the high presable liners, but the cylinders can be sure fuel pump for the common rail sleeved if necessary. Before boring fuel system. the cylinder block to accept repair Fuel System: The common rail sleeves, follow the OE guidelines to fuel system operates under extreme ensure that the block is salvageable. pressure. The transfer pump that One guideline in particular explains that the cylinder block should be measured with a digital disc brake caliper to determine if the cylinder wall thickness is thick enough to accept a cylinder repair sleeve. Insert the thinner leg of the caliper approximately 1.25˝ into the water passage at the front between of each cylinder. The block must be a minimum of 0.170˝ (4.3mm) for Fig. 2-3 CAT 3114, 3116 and 3126 the block to be salvageable. The use engines may require oversize head of a stress plate is also recomgaskets. Use the chart on the right mended for measuring & honing to determine the correct gasket. the cylinder diameters. 20 February 2013 | EngineBuilder Tech Solutions Guide

draws fuel from the fuel tank and supplies the fuel pump, produces 280 psi (+/- 15psi). The high pressure fuel pump delivers fuel to the fuel rail at approximately 27,500 psi, and supplies the hydraulic electronic injectors. Overall, C7 engines are growing in popularity within the rebuilding or repair markets. Determining the Correct Head Gasket on Cat 3114, 3116 & 3126 Engines While other engine manufacturers have utilized thicker head gaskets to help salvage cylinder blocks they are not so common to Caterpillar engines. Oversized head gaskets may not be something you would normally think about when repairing or rebuilding a Caterpillar engine. As the 3114, 3116 and 3126 (2valve) engines age you may encounter engines that have or will require thicker (oversized) head gaskets. IPD says it does not yet offer these oversized head gaskets at the time of publication, but their intent for this bulletin is to help inform you of issues within the engine ranges of their products. Items that could cause issues include the block deck surface to crankshaft center line measurements decreasing due to machining of the deck or the line bore of bearing journals. Be aware that the last

Circle 121 on Reader Service Card for more information

DIESEL Tech Solutions Guide 2013

machine shop may not have Fig. 4 Remaining “step” to be stamped the block, so you may left in cylinder block casting of need to do your own inspection to CAT 3400 C15 and C18 engines. tell which head gasket is correct. There are a number of ways to determine whether a standard or oversized (thick) head gasket is correct. • Measure the block height; cylinder block deck to crankshaft centerline. • Measure the thickness of the existing head gasket. • Standard gaskets have an assembled thickness of approx 1.5mm (.060”) • Thicker oversized gaskets have an assembled thickness of approx. 1.75mm (.070”) the upper rear corner of the block or • You may be able to identify the on the center tab on the top surface old gasket by a remaining part numof the block (Figure 3). ber or by the gaskets profile. Stan3126B – 3 valve engines are not dard gasket have a straight edge, addressed in this bulletin and to whereas the thicker oversized gasdate the OE has not released overket should have a series of notches sized gaskets for those applications. cut in the area shown in Figure 2. • Look for previous machine shop Lower Cylinder Bore Damage stamping to indicate block height. Caution for CAT 3400, C15 According to OE publications, if the And C18 engines block has been remanufactured by An area on the cylinder block that them there will be a “TG” stamped too often gets overlooked during on the remanufacture tag located on

22 February 2013 | EngineBuilder Tech Solutions Guide

overhauls is the lower receiver bore area that supports the bottom of the cylinder liner. The wear is an example of the damage that can result on a worn cylinder block. The cylinder block should be repaired prior to installing a new cylinder liner. With newer engines developing higher cylinder pressures and horsepower, and older engines possibly having been overhauled a few times already, making sure the liner is properly supported is even more important. Some engines are being upgraded from an older aluminum piston to the newer steel piston designs and this can increase the demand for performance of cylinder components as well. Clearances in the newer technology steel pistons are much tighter than those of their older aluminum predecessors, so controlling the liner movement could head off an expensive failure. The process to repair the lower receiver bore is done with a “step” bore machining technique and a 4W6061 lower repair sleeve. To do this the cylinder block is machined to a specific oversized diameter and to a specific depth to create the proper press fit and a step in the block bore. The “Step,” as shown in Figure 4 helps retain the sleeve and creates a good seal when the sleeve bottoms out against it. The oversized dimensions to be machined into the cylinder block (shown in Figure 4) to accept the 4W6061 repair sleeve and create the proper press fit are: • Depth of machining is 8.826˝ +/-.010˝ (224.19 +/- 0.25mm); • Diameter is 6.2205˝ +/- .001˝ (158.00 +/- 0.025mm). To install the repair sleeve the block and sleeve must be clean and dry. Apply high strength threadlock to the block and freeze the repair sleeve. Install the sleeve with the I.D. taper upward and hold in place until seated. Allow adequate time for the threadlock to dry before finish machining. Finish machining the I.D. of the installed repair sleeve to 6.059˝ +/.002˝ (153.90 +/- 0.05mm). As engines evolve and components improve it is always best to use the latest specifications and technical information before beginning the machining processes. These instructions and dimensions are the

bolts; • There should not be any damage to the shank or I-beam of the rod or to the cap; • There should not be any damage to the thrust face or chamfered areas of the rod or cap; • The mating surfaces at the parting line of the cap and rod must not be fretted or damaged; • The bearing surfaces must free of nicks and burrs (small imperfections can be removed with emery cloth); • The rod pin bushing must not be damaged or have indications that it has turned in the rod; • Some amount of discoloration is acceptable, but if the rod & cap have a bluish color, the rod assem-

bly should be replaced; • Assure that the alpha codes match between the rod & cap; • The bolts cannot have damaged treads, or be pitted from rust or corrosion; • The bolts cannot be bent or galled; and • The bolt seat and mating seating area of the cap must not be fretted or damaged. Dimensional Specifications • Connecting rod bearing bore (big end) specification is 3.890˝ to 3.891˝ (98.801mm to 98.839mm) Note that the torque procedures are different between new rod bolts and used rod bolts; • The procedure for used rod bolts is to tighten the bolts in numeric sequence to 52 ± 4 ft.lbs., and then in sequence, add an additional 60 ± 5 degrees turn; • The procedure for new rod

Circle 123 for more information 23

Tech Solutions Guide 2013

How Do You Reuse Cummins ISX and QSX Connecting Rods? Because of the differences in the connecting rods, they require different connecting rod bearings, which cannot be interchanged between the two rod types There are two types of ISX & QSX connecting rods; “Drilled” and “Non-Drilled”. A drilled connecting rod has an oil passage drilled up through the shank of the rod to supply lubrication to the connection at the piston pin. A drilled rod can be used with either two piece articulated or one piece steel pistons. There is no oil passage in a nondrilled rod, and this type of rod can only be used with two piece articulated pistons. Because of the differences in the connecting rods, they require different connecting rod bearings, which cannot be interchanged between the two rod types. Reusability Guidelines: Thoroughly checking a connecting rod and connecting rod bolts requires sophisticated equipment and fixtures found in engine machine shops. Machine shops have the capabilities to “Mag” test the rod and/or bolts to indentify cracks, check the rod to see if it is bent or twisted, and check the length from center-to-center. • Maximum allowance for bend is 0.0008˝ (0.021mm); • Maximum allowance for twist with the bushing installed is 0.002˝ (0.05mm); and • The length specification of the connecting rod from center to center is 10.293˝ to 10.297˝ (261.45mm to 261.55mm). Often, connecting rods removed from non-failed running engines are visually inspected and checked dimensionally to assure the bores are within specifications, and then reused. Once the rod & bolts are cleaned and dried, including the oil passage of drilled rods, the remainder of this tech bulletin outlines the steps commonly performed by the technicians at the repair or rebuild facilities (Figure 5). • Visually inspect the rods and

Fig. 5 With careful inspecition of Cummins connecting rods, they can often be reused.


most current available as of this printing. On CAT 3400 and C15 series engines you might also consider installing a unique “Crevice Seal” liner to help reduce liner movement.

DIESEL Tech Solutions Guide 2013

bolts is to tighten the bolts in numeric sequence to 29 ± 4 foot pounds, loosen the bolts in numeric sequence, retighten the bolts in numeric sequence a second time at 52 ± 4 foot pounds, and then, in sequence, add an additional 60 ± 5 degrees turn; •Connecting rod bushing (small end) bore specification for the inside diameter of the bushing to accept the piston pin is 2.502” to 2.503” (63.55mm to 63.57mm); and • Note, at the time of this bulletin, replacement bushings and the procedure for replacing them was not available. The drilled connecting rod was introduced in late 2002, and has since replaced the earlier nondrilled rod. As stated above, the drilled rod can be used with both two piece articulated and one piece steel pistons. It can also be mixed with non-drilled rods in engines with two piece articulated pistons only. Again, a drilled rod must be used in all one piece steel piston applications. More detailed information can be found in the O.E. service bulletins. Always consult the latest O.E. service bulletins and publications for the updates and current information. General Diesel Connecting Rod Reconditioning Procedures One key operation in rebuilding an engine is to recondition the connecting rods. Because diesel engines ignite by compression, the connecting rod dimensions are very important. As a result, connecting rod reconditioning is a critical part of all diesel overhauls. Upon teardown, the old connecting rods are inspected, magnafluxed, checked for alignment, parting surfaces re-machined, and new rod bushings installed and pin-fit. At the same time, the rod bolts are measured for stretch. This is all normal, day in, day out activity at any heavy duty engine facility. Pin Bushing Failure: Piston pin bushings can turn and spin in their housing bores. Engine failure quickly results. To prevent this we suggest that when new rod bushings are installed in the reconditioned rod that they be expanded to contact and conform to the small end bore. To expand this bushing simply press a hardened steel ball

GM and other suppliers should damper loosening occur, resulting in the crankshaft sprocket shearing the lead alignment key. Repairs should be made using the new washer and torque value. Examine the crankshaft sprocket and be sure before reassembly that there is no damage to the keyway. During the assembly of the crankshaft sprocket to the crankshaft, GM Goodwrench Thread Locker 272, p/n Fig. 6 Examine the crankshaft 12345492 or equivasproket for damage to the keylent should be apway befor reassembly on GM 6.2L diesel engines. plied to the through the ID of crankshaft post for the pin bushing. 360 degrees at the We advise rear' crankshaft key area only. using a ball .005˝ larger than the ID Thread Locker 272 material should and an old piston pin smaller than not be applied to the sprocket inside the inside diameter of the bushing diameter (see Figure 6). to push the oversize ball through. This broaching operation will enOil Cooler Leak Reported On large the bushing OD to follow the Some GM 6.6L Diesel Engines contour of the housing bore. This Some engine builders have reported will lock it in and prevent spinning. If you heat the rod to install the new an oil cooler leak on 2001-’04 GM 6.6L VIN 1 & 2 Duramax diesel bushing, we recommend that you allow the rod to cool before pressing engines. The oil leak is caused by minor in the steel ball. For Perkins 4236, 4248 and 6354 engines you can use a imperfections in the engine block machine surfaces at the oil cooler inhardened ball 1.366" in diameter to terface that may allow engine oil broach these piston pin bushings. seepage past the oil cooler O-rings. Serrated Mating Surfaces: To cure this problem, GM offers the Often in connecting rod recondifollowing information: tioning the rods are disassembled 1. Inspect for other oil leaks that and the rod caps are cut on a cap may be perceived as an oil cooler grinder. Perkins rods present problems though because their rods have leak. An oil leak from one of the main bearing cap side bolts may serrated surfaces where the cap appear to be coming from the oil mates to the rod. They can not be cooler. ground on a cap grinder. Some peo2. If the oil cooler is leaking oil, ple have suggested hand filing these surfaces to recondition them. We feel remove the oil cooler from the enthat this is slow and inexact in a crit- gine. Use care to remove only the five bolts that hold the oil cooler to ical area. (Remember: diesels fire by the engine block. compression and rod heights or cen3. Remove the O-rings from the ter-to-center distance is critical.) oil cooler and discard them. 4. Clean the mating surfaces of Sheared Crankshaft Sprocket the engine block and the oil cooler. Keys Found on Some GM 6.2L 5. Install new O-rings (2) to the Diesel Engines oil cooler. This bulletin affects 1982-1989 6. Apply sealant (p/n 97720043) Light-Duty Trucks and vans with to the oil cooler. Do not apply 6.2L diesel engines sealant to the O-ring grooves on the A new hardened washer, p/n oil cooler. 23504011, is available for improved 7. Install the oil cooler to the enclamp load of the crankshaft gine block. Torque five oil cooler assprocket to the crankshaft by the sembly bolts to 18 ft.-lbs. crankshaft bolt. Installation torques 8. Allow the vehicle to sit for for the hardened washer have been eight hours at room temperature to increased to 177 to 185 ft.lbs. (240 allow the sealant to fully cure before N.m /250 N.m). Parts are currently available from initial startup. ■

24 February 2013 | EngineBuilder Tech Solutions Guide

Circle 125 on Reader Service Card for more information

Circle 128 on Reader Service Card for more information

Engine Builder-Tech Solutions Guide 2013