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1500

1600

1700

1760

1780

1800

1860

1880

1900

1960

+ 0.6

GEORG AGRICOLA

MATTHEW HALE WILLIAM PETTY

+ 0.4

1972

RICHARD BUCKMINSTER FULLER KONRAD WACHSMANN JOHN MCHALE IVAN LEONIDOV LE CORBUSIER FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT

STATIONARY STATE ECONOIMCS

WELFARE ECONOMIST

JOHN STUART MILL

6

+ 0.2

MAX PLANCK ALBERT EINSTEIN

JAMES CLERK MAXWELL

ISAAC NEWTON

ERNST HAECKEL ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT

NEO EUGENIC

RENZO PIANO ARUP

RIO EARTH SUMMIT

KYOTO CONFERENCE

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTALIST

HANNOVER PRINCIPLES

JEFFREY KENWORTHY PETER NEWMAN

MICHAEL HOUGH

KEN YEANG

PIET VOLLAARD

JOHN THACKARA

LIVE 8 LIVE EARTH JOHANNESBURG EARTH SUMMIT 2005 WORLD SUMMIT MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS AL GORE EXPO2000 WILLIAM MCDONOUGH MICHAEL BRAUNGART

JEREMY RIFKIN

JOHN FERNANDEZ

NICHOLAS GEORGESCU-ROEGEN

METABOLISTS

D’ARCY WENTWORTH THOMPSON

ECOLOGIST

EUGENIUS WARMING

GEORGE PERKINS MARSH

ILYA PRIGOGINE HUMBERTO MATURANA FRANCISCO VARELA NIKLAS LUHMANN

CONSTANTINOS A. DOXIADIS CHRISTOPHER ALEXANDER LOUIS LE ROY BARRY COMMONER

HOWARD T. ODUM

WILLIAM VOGT

LIEBERECHT MIGGE PATRICK GEDDES

BIOMIMICIST THEO JANSEN

CENTER FOR BITS AND ATOMS

PETER TRUMMER

PERMACULTURIST BILL MOLLISON DAVID HOLMGREN MASANOBU FUKUOKA

KENNETH E. BOULDING

LEWIS MUMFORD

BARUCH SPINOZA

ANTI/NATURE ECOLOGIST

MICHEL FOUCAULT GILLES DELEUZE

DEEP ECOLOGIST

LYNN TOWNSEND WHITE

JOHN BELLAMY FOSTER PAUL BURKETT

ARNE NAESS

JACQUES ELLUL

ECOPHENOMENOLOGIST TRANSPERSONAL ECOLOGIST JAMES LOVELOCK

BIOGENETIC LUDDITE

DERRICK JENSEN

NON ANTHROPOCENTRIC

STEFANO BOERI

JOANNA MACY

JAMES CUTLER LEON KRIER GLENN MURCUTT PETER CALTHORPE CHARLES PRINCE OF WALES SYM VAN DER RYN

VERNACULAR

ALBERTO MAGNAGHI

TERRITORIALIST

THEODOR KACZYNSKI

WARWICH FOX

HANS JONAS

SERGE LATOUCHE

ANARCOPRIMITIVIST

NEO LUDDITE

ERAZIM KOHAK NEIL EVERNDEN

ANTI DEVELOPMENTALIST

SCIENTOLOGY

NEO MILLENARIANIST

SAVITRI DEVI

JULIUS EVOLA

NEW AGEIST NEO-NAZI

NEO NEO-NAZI

FICTION MOVIES BOOKS GAMES THE PERFECT STORM (2000) DER SCHWARM (2004) STATE OF FEAR (2004) THE DAY AFTER TOMORROW (2004) LA POSSIBILITE D’UNE ILE (2005) FREE KARMA FOOD (2006) I AM LEGEND (2007) THE ELEVENTH HOUR (2007) WALL-E (2008) BIOSHOCK (2008) BURN UP (2008)

GODZILLA (1998) ARMAGEDDON (1998)

2000

GATTACA (1997)

ZODIAC (1996) RESIDENT EVIL (1996)

WATERWORLD (1995) 12 MONKEYS (1995)

1996

MARY SHELLEY’S FRANKENSTEIN (1994)

MARS TRILOGY (1992-1996)

1992

JURASSIC PARK (1990) SIM EARTH (1990)

DUNE (1984)

1988

EDGE OF DARKNESS (1985)

PALOMAR (1982) BLADE RUNNER (1982)

STALKER (1979)

1980

THE HITCHHIKER’S GUIDE TO THE GALAXY (1978) CONAN, THE BOY IN FUTURE (1978)

CASSANDRA CROSSING (1976)

ECOTOPIA (1975)

1976

SOYLENT GREEN (1973)

SOLARIS (1972)

DESCHOOLING SOCIETY (1971)

1972

PLANET OF THE APES (1968)

THE BIRDS (1963)

1960

THE WAMTOMG SEED (1962)

1940

GODZILLA (1954) I AM LEGEND (1954)

1900 DE KLEINE JOHANNES (1885)

1880 TWENTY THOUSAND LEAGUES UNDER THE SEA (1870)

1860 JOURNEY TO THE CENTER OF THE EARTH (1864)

1840

CHELLIS GLENDINNING JOHN ZERZAN

MIKE REYNOLDS

RACHEL CARSON

JANE JACOBS

ECO NAZI

WOLFGANG SACHS

EDWARD GOLDSMITH

HASSAN FATHI

WALDEN (1854)

1800

LA GINESTRA (1836)

1780

FAUST (1828)

1760

MARTIN HEIDEGGER

GIACOMO LEOPARDI

FRANKENSTEIN (1818)

1700 ROBINSON CRUSOE (1719)

1600 LA CITTA’ DEL SOLE (1602) THE TRAGICAL HISTORY OF DOCTOR FAUSTUS (1604) THE NEW ATLANTIS (1627) DIALOGO SOPRA I DUE MASSIMI SISTEMI (1632)

1500 UTOPIA (1507)

°C

1000

WOLFGANG GOETHE

WILHELM MEISTER’S APPRENTICESHIP (1795)

MILLENARIANIST

CANDIDE OU L’OPTIMISME (1759) EMILE, OU DE L’EDUCATION (1762)

- 0.8

BILLION

MORAL

JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU

STEWART BRAND WENDELL BARRY IAN MCHARG

EBENEZER HOWARD

RALPH WALDO EMERSON HENRY DAVID THOREAU

ROMANTIC

$

JOHN RUSKIN

ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI

RUDOLF BAHRO

IVAN ILLICH

MURRAY BOOKCHIN JACQUES ELLUL

ECO MARXIST

VANDANA SHIVA

ECO-ANARCHIST

LUDDITE

POOR KONRAD

LUCIEN KROLL

PAOLO SOLERI

ALEKSANDR BOGDANOV

GENERAL LUDD CAPTAIN SWING

ANTIESSENTIALIST

RAYMOND DASMANN

BIOREGIONALIST

WILLIAM MORRIS

DOCTOR FAUSTUS (1947)

ROBIN HOOD

PETER BERG

REKOMBINANT NEUROGREEN

ARTURO ESCOBAR

CAROLYN MERCHANT

FRANCOISE D’EAUBONNE

HANNAH ARENDT

PETITE COSMOGONIE PORTATIVE (1950) PAINC IN THE STREETS (1950)

20

POLITICAL

THEODOR ADORNO MAX HORKHEIMER

ECO-SOCIALIST

FRANKENSTEIN (1931) BRAVE NEW WORLD (1932) KING KONG (1933) SAN FRANCISCO (1936)

- 0.6

FELIX GUATTARI

THE FRENCH GROUP

DECONSTRUCTIONIST JACQUES DERRIDA ECO-FEMINIST

DER GOLEM, WIE ER IN DIE WELT KAM (1920)

2

SLAVOJ ZIZEK TIMOTY MORTON

POST STRUCTURALIST

- 0.2

- 0.4

BIONIC TOWER SHANGHAI (2015)

MASDAR (2007-2023)

SKY CITY 1000 (1989)

R128 (2000) DUTCH PAVILION AT HANNOVER EXPO (2000) SHIMZU MEGACITY PYRAMID (2004) LONDON GATEWAY CPUL (2005) THE EDEN PROJECT (2005)DONGTAN (2005-2040)

LINZ DESIGN CENTER (1994)

LA BOLLA (1992) MENARA MESNIAGA BUILDING (1992)

BIOSPHERE 2 (1991) JEAN MARIE TJIBAOU CULTURAL CENTER (1991-1998)

LIGHT URBANISM (1996)

BJORN LOMBORG

GLENN REYNOLDS

SYSTEMS THEORIST

0

40

2040

GLOBAL WARMING CONSPIRACY THEORIST MICHAEL CHRICHTON GLOBAL WARMING DENIALIST PATRICK MICHAELS

ALTERNATIVE TECHNO ECOLOGIST

HERMAN DALY

BIO ECONOMIC

NORBERT WIENER JOHN VON NEUMANN LUDWIG VON BERTALANFFY GREGORY BATESON MARGARET MEAD

CHARLES DARWIN

4

2020

IGNACY SACHS

CYBERNETIC

ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE

EVOLUTIONIST

60

2000

FREE MARKET ECOLOGIST

LIVE AID BRUNTLAND COMMISSION

FRITZ SCHUMACHER

CECIL PIGOU

RUDOLPH CLAUSIUS

GOTTFRIED LEIBNIZ

1996

NEO MALTHUSIAN

GARRETT HARDIN CLUB OF ROME KENNETH BOULDING STOCKHOLM CONFERENCE JOHN MCCONNELL EARTH DAY BARBARA WARD MAURICE STRONG

GIFFORD PINCHOT

WILLIAM STANLEY JEVONS

PIERRE-SIMON LAPLACE

1992

RONALD BAILEY

PAUL EHRLICH

HANS CARL VON CARLOWITZ WILHELM GOTTFRIED MOSER

MECHANICIST

1988

LIBERTARIAN TRANSHUMANIST

THERMODYNAMIC

RENE DESCARTES GALILEO GALILEI FRANCIS BACON

1980

OTTO FREI

KARL W. KAPP

80

1976

TECHNO-UTOPIST

AUGUSTE COMTE

THOMAS MALTHUS

8

ARK BIOSHELTER (1976)

SPACIAL CITY (1958)

1940

MALTHUSIAN

100

GREEN BUILDING (1990)

GEODESIC DOME OVER MANHATTAN (1962) INVENTORY OF WORLD RESOURCES (1963) BIOS 1-3 (1965-1972) DROP CITY (1965) GEODESIC DOME AT EXPO67 (1967) WHOLE EARTH CATALOGUE (1968) ARCOLOGY (1969) ARCOSANTI (1970) LIZ CHRISTY COMMUNITY GARDEN (1970) OLDMAN RIVER CITY PROJECT (1971)

SUN SPAN HOUSE (1949)

VICTORY GARDENS (1940-1945)

BROADACRE CITY (1932) SABAUDIA (1934) TALIESIN WEST (1937)

DYMAXION HOUSE (1928) POTATO PATCHES (1929)

WELVYN GARDEN CITY (1920)

LETCHWORTH GARDEN CITY (1903)

PULMANN CITY (1880)

1840

POSITIVIST

VOLTAIRE

ENLIGHTED

+ 0.8

FOREST HILLS GARDENS (1908) HELLERAU (1914) LIBERTY GARDENS (1915-1918)

GREAT CONSERVATORY CHATSWORTH (1837)

GLOBAL TEMPERATURE RECORD

WORLD POPULATION

OIL PRICES

1000

ARCHITECTURE PROJECTS TECHNOCRATICAL BEAUROCRATICAL ECONOMICAL BIOPHYSICAL

2020

2040

The Complex History of Sustainability