AUR 54 01
Australian Universities' Review, vol. 54, no. 1, February 2012.
vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Published by NTEU ISSN 0818–8068 Special Issue Contemporary issues in doctoral education AUR Australian Universities’Review AUR Editor Dr Ian R Dobson, University of Helsinki Special Issue Editors Dr Anita Devos, Monash University Dr Catherine Manathunga, Victoria University, Aotearoa NZ AUR Editorial Board Dr Jeannie Rea, NTEU National President Dr Timo Aarrevaara, University of Helsinki Professor Walter Bloom, Murdoch University Dr Anita Devos, Monash University Dr Jamie Doughney, Victoria University Dr Leo Goedegebuure, University of Melbourne Professor Ralph Hall, University of New South Wales Professor Dr Simon Marginson, University of Melbourne Mr Grahame McCulloch, NTEU General Secretary Dr Alex Millmow, University of Ballarat Dr Neil Mudford, UNSW@ADFA Professor Paul Rodan, Swinburne University of Technology Dr Leesa Wheelahan, University of Melbourne Production Design & layout: Paul Clifton Editorial support: Anastasia Kotaidis Cover photograph: Graduation Ceremony 2011, Charles Sturt University. © Dirk HR Spennemann 2011. 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Figures should be drawn precisely and boldly. vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Published by NTEU ISSN 0818–8068 Special Issue Contemporary issues in doctoral education Australian Universities’ Review 2 Letter from the editors Anita Devos & Catherine Manathunga 5 On doctoral education: How to supervise a PhD, 1985-2011 Raewyn Connell & Catherine Manathunga 10 Addressing the curriculum problem in doctoral education Bill Green In this paper, the author reflects on the 1995 Special Issue of AUR on postgraduate supervision/pedagogy, bringing a contemporary set of perspectives to bear in thinking about the contested idea of ‘curriculum’ in doctoral education. 19 Researching doctoral pedagogy close up: Design and action in two doctoral programmes Susan Danby & Alison Lee In this paper, we present two cases of doctoral pedagogical work being undertaken within different disciplinary and institutional settings to describe how learning opportunities were designed and to theorise what it means to be engaged in doing doctoral pedagogy. 29 Supervisors watching supervisors Catherine Manathunga This paper focuses on one particular aspect of the operations of power within team supervision – the issue of how power circulates between supervisors. 38 Identity-trajectories Lynn McAlpine This paper draws on evidence from a five-year research programme into doctoral experience to argue for a view of identity, identity-trajectory, that attends particularly to individual agency, interweaving the academic within the personal, and incorporating students’ pasts and imagined futures. 47 What constitutes doctoral knowledge? Anita Devos & Margaret Somerville This paper explores a recent contested doctoral thesis examination process, focusing in particular on the implications for innovation and difference in doctoral work. 55 Internationalisation of doctoral education Janette Ryan With a rapid increase in the number of international students undertaking doctorates in Australia and the UK, the postgraduate research student cohort has radically changed as these students have brought with them different academic cultures and intellectual traditions. 64 Up and coming? Doctoral education in China Rui Yang In view of a lack of literature in English on Chinese doctoral education, this article attempts to provide an analytical review of China’s current practices as well as some issues and challenges faced by the system in meeting societal needs and future development. 72 Assessing international (post)graduate education: A research agenda Tami Blumenfield & Maresi Nerad Despite the rapid expansion of international campuses and programmes, and the increasing acceptance and encouragement of international experiences for [post]graduate students, little comprehensive evaluative work has been done to assess their efficacy on a broad scale and to determine what types and models of international work can be most effective. 83 A new era for research education in Australia? Helene Marsh, Bradley Smith, Max King & Terry Evans In this article the authors argue that the use of the Australian research assessment exercise, Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA), to influence the policy and practice of research education is inappropriate and with potentially negative consequences, as ERA is a retrospective measure of research quality while research education is prospective. 94 PhDs in Australia, from the beginning Ian R Dobson The Australian PhD is a relatively recent phenomenon, the first three being awarded in 1948. The aim of this research note is to provide a brief statistical history of the Australian PhD, noting changes over time between study fields, universities, genders and citizenship groups. REVIEWS 102 Thanks to the Yanks! A Cohort of Pioneers: Australian postgraduate students and American postgraduate degrees 1949-1964 by Sally Ninham Review by Paul Rodan 103 Gender, power, management... and higher education Gender, Power and Management – A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Higher Education, by Barbara Bagilhole & Kate White (eds). Review by Michelle Wallace 105 It’s one for the money, two for the show Australian Higher Education Research Policies and Performance 1987-2010 by Frank Larkins Review by Pam Herman 107 Us and them: multiculturalism in the classroom Negotiating Political Identities: Multiethnic Schools and Youth in Europe by Daniel Faas Review by Neil Mudford 109 South-east of the border, down Asia way Education in South-East Asia, by Colin Brock & Lorraine Pe Symaco (eds). Review by Andrys Onsman A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W Letter from the editors Anita Devos Monash University, Victoria Catherine Manathunga Victoria University, Wellington, Aotearoa New Zealand This Special Issue on doctoral education emerged out to energetically take up Connell’s call to reframe postgrad- of an Australian Association for Research in Education uate supervision as teaching, interpreted later by Lee and (AARE) symposium in 2009 that brought together a small Green as a ‘call to pedagogy’. In our view, it is timely now number of Australian researchers, sharing a common to devote another issue of AUR to this topic. The field has interest in the ongoing development of the theoretical grown considerably in the intervening years, and shifts in foundations of research into doctoral education. Entitled the policy and global environments of higher education ‘Doctoral education, new pedagogies and the possibilities foreground the importance of maintaining a critical and of new knowledges’, the symposium aimed to ‘explore engaged commentary. what happens when we start to think and theorise about In this Special Issue, we have sought to reflect on the doctoral education differently’. Our interest was in ‘the 1985 article, and 1995 issue and its goals, and to consider generative possibilities of re-theorising the space of doc- current directions and questions in the field of what we toral education…’. Many of the questions that concerned now refer to as doctoral education. This shift in nomen- the presenters centred on issues of knowledge, power clature from postgraduate supervision and pedagogy to and identity in doctoral education and pedagogy. doctoral education – now widely referred to in policy cir- Following this symposium, we approached the Board cles as research training – reflects a greater harnessing of of the Australian Universities’ Review (AUR), which this form of higher education to the knowledge economy, agreed to a Special Issue of the journal on doctoral educa- and a sharper focus on the doctorate in its various forms tion. We felt that this journal was a particularly appropri- as opposed to Masters by Research degrees. The question ate forum through which to disseminate our calls for a of what’s in a name is taken up in some of the articles in review of doctoral education research. Not only is AUR this present issue, and in other recent publications (Boud a long standing academic journal and source of commen- & Lee 2009 for example). tary on higher education in Australia and internationally, This Special Issue sits within a lively field of scholarship but it also has a long track record of publishing ground- and commentary, in Australasia and globally. Doctoral edu- breaking articles on doctoral education. It was in AUR’s cation has emerged since the seminal 1995 AUR issue as predecessor journal, Vestes, that R W Connell’s piece ‘How a burgeoning international sub-field of higher education to supervise a PhD’ first appeared in 1985. This article research. Just a few of the recent and emerging contribu- generated considerable discussion over the following tions to this field include a Special Issue of Innovations in decade and prompted a Special Issue of AUR in 1995 on Education and Teaching International on ‘Supervision ‘Postgraduate Studies/ Postgraduate Pedagogy’, edited by and Cultural Difference’ guest edited by Barbara Grant Alison Lee & Bill Green. and Catherine Manathunga (2011); an edited book by The 1995 Special Issue has been one of the most popular in AUR’s history, reflecting a pressing need at the time 2 Letter from the editors, Anita Devos & Catherine Manathunga Boud and Lee (2009); and a forthcoming edited book by Lee and Danby (in press, 2012). vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W There have also been a number of dedicated interna- athunga then explores team supervision pedagogy using tional conference series on doctoral education such as the a Foucauldian lens, highlighting how team supervision Quality in Postgraduate Education Conference, held bien- opens up new pedagogical possibilities and challenging nially in Adelaide since 1994; and the Global Forces and tensions. Lynn McAlpine’s paper investigates instances of Forms of Doctoral Education conference series developed student agency and identity trajectories during their doc- by the Center for Innovations and Research in Graduate toral studies. Anita Devos and Margaret Somerville’s article Education, University of Washington, Seattle that has pro- concludes this section, with a contribution that interro- duced a number of edited books since 2005. Another gates the challenges to knowledge domains and academic international grouping of scholars investigating doc- identities confronted at the point of thesis examination toral education is the International Doctoral Education by the incorporation of new, non-Western knowledge and Research Network (IDERN), which held its first confer- methodologies in contemporary scholarship. ence in Canada in 2007. IDERN’s most recent conference The final section of this Special Issue explores some was held in Malaysia in 2010 and produced a Special Issue of the key contextual changes that have increasingly of the Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humani- come to frame doctoral education since 1995. In par- ties (2011) and an edited book (Kumar & Lee 2011). This ticular, this section includes a suite of papers that inves- reflects attempts to shift away from an Anglo-American tigate various aspects of internationalisation that have orientation to the field, to engage with scholars and schol- come to dominate the educational environment within arly traditions from Malaysia and other parts of Asia. Two which doctoral education takes place. Janette Ryan’s of the papers in this present Special Issue also focus on article on Western and Confucian scholarship demon- doctoral education in China and Hong Kong. strates the similarities and differences between these This Special Issue does not aim to be comprehensive two knowledge systems and the ways in which these are but rather to draw out some interesting research from the also changing in the face of attempts to engage during field that might contribute to attempts to rethink doctoral doctoral education in intercultural dialogue and mutual education pedagogies and the impacts of contexts on this learning. Rui Yang then explores the recent exponential field. We have sought an international spread of authors development of doctoral education in China, tracing from Australia, Aotearoa New Zealand, the UK, the US and the issues and challenges emerging from China’s cur- Hong Kong. rent doctoral education practices and the role doctoral We have grouped the papers into three broad sections. education is likely to play in China’s rising global power. In the introductory section, we build a bridge from Con- Tami Blumenfeld and Maresi Nerad investigate US inter- nell’s 1985 article and the 1995 Special Issue, with an national (post)graduate education and collaboration in article based on an edited interview with Raewyn Con- the sciences and engineering, proposing a model for nell, conducted by Catherine Manathunga. In this article, evaluating the effectiveness of these doctoral education Connell reflects on what prompted her to write the 1985 programmes and making a series of recommendations paper, and how doctoral education pedagogies and con- about how they might be improved. texts have changed since that time. This piece is followed The penultimate paper by Helene Marsh, Bradley by an article by one of the editors of the 1995 Special Smith, Max King and Terry Evans shifts the focus to Issue, Bill Green, where he reflects on the arguments he the policy context of Australian doctoral education and and Alison Lee made in 1995 about ‘supervision as peda- research, investigating the potentially negative impli- gogy’ based upon the ‘educational orientation’ of Con- cations of linking the funding of research education nell’s piece. His current contribution focuses attention places to institutions which score at ‘world standard or on the question of curriculum in doctoral education. above’ in particular fields of research in the Excellence The second section represents a group of papers in Research Australia (ERA) research assessment exer- exploring aspects of pedagogy that were less well cov- cise. The Special Issue concludes with a research note ered in the 1995 Special Issue. These shifts reflect by Ian Dobson, which provides an historical, statistical changes in the ways in which supervision and doctoral snapshot of the changes in the study fields, universities, education are conducted in the present era. This section gender and citizenship groups of doctorates in Australia commences with an article by Susan Danby and Alison since the late 1940s. Lee where they extend Lee’s earlier work on supervision In this Special Issue, we have sought to challenge some as pedagogy by writing about pedagogy as social action of the normative assumptions about doctoral supervision within the broader doctoral programme. Catherine Man- and pedagogy that persist in current discourses and schol- vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Letter from the editors, Anita Devos & Catherine Manathunga 3 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V arship, and to foreground theoretically informed work about the pedagogies and contexts of doctoral education. E R S I T I E S â€™ R E V I E References We frame this issue through a reflection on earlier schol- Boud, D. & Lee, A. (eds) (2009). Changing practices of doctoral education. Abingdon UK: Routledge. arship in AUR and its predecessor Vestes, and build from Connell, R. (1985). How to supervise a PhD. Vestes, 28(2), 38-42. that to reflect the changed and changing landscapes of doctoral education scholarship today. It is our hope the articles published here will stimulate further discussion and debate, and promote doctoral education and scholarship as a space of imagination and possibility. Acknowledgments We would especially like to highlight the high levels of commitment by the authors of this Special Issue and the W Lee, A. & Danby, S. (eds) (in press, 2012). Reshaping Doctoral Education: Changing programs and pedagogies. Abingdon UK: Routledge Grant, B. & Manathunga, C. (2011). Supervision and cultural difference: institutional rethinking institutional pedagogies. Innovations in Education & Teaching International, 48:4, 351-354. Lee, A. & Green, B. (1995). Introduction: Postgraduate studies/postgraduate pedagogy? Australian Universitiesâ€™ Review, 38(2) 1-4. Kumar, V. & Lee, A. (eds) (2011). Doctoral education in international context. Serdang: Penerbit Universiti Putra Malaysia. Kumar, V. & Lee, A. (eds) (2011). Special Issue. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities. 19:2. generosity of the reviewers of these papers. Our reviewers were drawn from the UK, Europe, North America, China, Hong Kong, South Africa, Sweden, Australia and Aotearoa New Zealand and we extend our sincere thanks for your excellent feedback and responsiveness to our timetable. Anita Devos is Senior Lecturer and Graduate Coordinator Research Degrees in the Faculty of Education, Monash University, and Editorial Board member of AUR. Dr Catherine Manathunga is an Associate Professor in Education, Victoria University Wellington, Aotearoa New Zealand. 4 Letter from the editors, Anita Devos & Catherine Manathunga vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W On doctoral education How to supervise a PhD, 1985–2011 Raewyn Connell University of Sydney, NSW Catherine Manathunga Victoria University, Wellington, Aotearoa New Zealand It’s more than 25 years ago now since I wrote that piece basically gave them nothing, just expected them to get on postgraduate supervision for Vestes (Connell 1985)1. on with it and a few years later produce this magnificent I wrote it about 15 years after I’d finished my own PhD. thesis. So there was a lot of really bad practice because I believe I was the first person to be awarded a PhD in departments got kudos for having graduate students my department at the end of the 1960s. So I came into and invested very little in return. They didn’t count PhD the system at the time Australian universities were just supervision as any part of an academic’s workload either. building up a research capability, and particularly a higher It was as if you did this by a kind of divine aura around degree capability. you as a scholar, and the student would stand close and Prior to the late 1940s, Australian universities, which get warmed by this. had first been founded in the Gold Rush days of the This approach was all very well if the student already 1850s, had basically been undergraduate institutions and knew how to do it, which a few did. I was lucky in that finishing schools for the children of the local bourgeoisie, respect because I did know how to do it more or less. I training places for lawyers and doctors, and some teach- had a good honours undergraduate programme and I had ers.They’d set up the Australian National University at the role models within my family and so forth. My relation- end of the 1940s in order to have a graduate element in ship with my supervisor was very benign, and he was very the Australian university system. That arrangement didn’t supportive, but it was largely me kicking on and doing last long because other Australian universities introduced it, without any interaction with the other students in the graduate education as well. Because Australian universities department about our theses. Also, when I was a doctoral were basically a colonial outpost for the British univer- student, I was involved in the student protest movement sities, they took the model of higher degree study from of the 1960s, which had a pretty sharp critique of univer- Britain, not from Germany or the United States. sities, and quite rightly so, as degree factories and tired Therefore, the PhD was an independent piece of bureaucratic institutions. research, with a supervisor who was supposed to be a When I wrote the paper in 1985, I’d become a head learned scholar in the field giving you guidance. No one of department. I was the professor of sociology at Mac- really thought very much about what this involved as a quarie at the time. I was supervising a number of graduate form of education. And the result was a lot of very poor students, so I’d had to work this out from the other side. supervision, a lot of really badly planned PhD projects, I also had a commitment to a democratic notion of educa- and a very high dropout rate. You had departments that tion, an interactive notion of how you did education at enrolled quite significant numbers of PhD students and this level, rather than a top-down one. And that certainly vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 On doctoral education, Raewyn Connell and Catherine Manathunga 5 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W was one of the things that stimulated me to think about student point of view. I can’t now remember but I might supervision as important and as a quite difficult piece of have shown them the 1998 paper and asked for their reac- educational work. tion to the paper. So I sat down one day and thought about my discus- Bill Connell, my father, also influenced my thinking sions with my PhD students. They seemed to like my about supervision a great deal. Bill had been a school practice reasonably well; and here’s this whole university teacher and then became an academic and a professor of system that’s now putting through increasing numbers of education. He was a very good teacher, a gentle person, PhD students, but doesn’t actually have a thought-out way who was really interested in students as people, not just of doing it. It wasn’t a piece of research; it was really just a as bums on seats or figures on a printout. I never had a reflection on practice.As an active unionist, I thought that supervision relationship with him of course, but I did give Vestes (now the Australian Universities’ Review) would him drafts to look at, and he did the same for me, so we be a good forum for this piece. exchanged papers and he could always be counted on for In the article, I was trying to think about supervision thoughtful and constructive comments. I guess that was as a human relationship, not as a technical exercise. something I needed to learn about: how as a supervisor, There’s a tendency now to talk about supervision as if it’s you need to read your student’s work closely, and not just a technical process you need to learn the rules of. I was really urging my academic colleagues to think about this as a human educational relationship, which has all the ups and downs that any human relationship does. There are times when you say ‘this bit is wrong’, but There’s a tendency now to talk about supervision as if it’s a technical process you need to learn the rules of. I was really urging my academic colleagues to think about this as a human educational relationship, which has all the ups and downs that any human relationship does. get cross with your student, give them constructive comments showing how they could make it right. Sheila Shaver was a colleague of mine – in fact the first person appointed in sociology at Macquarie. I had also talked with her about supervision, not that I ever there are times when you supervised her work, but she have to be incredibly patient, and there are times when was completing her PhD at the time and talked with me it’s very upsetting. I mean I’ve had some harrowing stories about the experience of being supervised. Later we talked told to me by my students. (One of the nastiest was the about her beginning to be a supervisor, so seeing it from doctoral student who’d been working for several years, both sides. Sheila is still a good friend of mine, and I learnt split up with her husband, and the husband sneaked in a lot from her conversations. So those are the people that one day when she was out of the house and destroyed I acknowledged. And I also acknowledged the typists, her drafts and her notes, the whole works, as an act of Hilary Lewis and Val Bennett – how things have changed! revenge. She very impressively did it again, got the PhD Those jobs have practically all gone. and went on to establish an academic career.) I think that my article generated conversations about In the essay I used slightly jokey, humorous language, supervision, which was very much what I wanted to even quoting from Shakespeare (‘lending an ear’), to try happen. The initial reaction wasn’t critical and it wasn’t to get people to think in a rounded way about supervi- agreeing or disagreeing particularly with my line. It was sion. It’s not just a technical matter. I wanted people to more a reaction of surprise and recognition that super- be reflective about what they were doing in supervision. vision was something people could have a conversation I also wanted graduate students to be thinking about the about. nature of this relationship, to see the supervisor not just Quite soon after that, something else happened that as the authority figure or the bureaucratic figure, but as really did surprise me. People began using my article in someone who is engaged in an educational interchange. graduate induction programmes. And graduate student Some of the people who had influenced my thinking groups began reprinting it in the handbooks that they pro- about supervision are listed in my acknowledgements. duced for new graduate students. So the students picked Meredith Burgmann and Carol O’Donnell were doctoral it up, not just my academic colleagues. I guess I shouldn’t students of mine at the time. I was fairly up front about my have been surprised as there were a lot of disgruntled thoughts about supervision with my students, and talked graduate students around. I think some picked it up as a about these issues, and in effect got their advice from a statement about the attitudes or practices of a supervisor 6 On doctoral education, Raewyn Connell and Catherine Manathunga vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W that they would like to see in their departments. So my You can’t predict the outcomes of research. So there is article became a statement about a standard of supervi- always a certain tension, uncertainty, risk in research. This sion that you might want to see in Australian universities. cult of the great mind is perhaps one of the ways research- Although Bill Green and Alison Lee (1995, p. 40) called ers deal with that uncertainty and likelihood of failure, my piece a ‘call to action’, that’s not quite the way I given that most good research does fail one way or another, thought of it. I wanted it to be a call to conversation. I or gets imperfect results. The students can be innocent certainly wasn’t proposing an organisational agenda about bystanders of the drama that happens among researchers supervision. I was calling for a more thoughtful and more who are meant to be their teachers, but who can become supportive use of the resources we had. I even suggested so caught up in the rest of their academic work. a few ways supervisors could help students after they’d My attitude is that higher degree supervision is teach- finished their PhDs – such as stealing some paper from ing, but it’s a very distinctive kind of teaching, and it’s the departmental stationery cupboard or sneaking a bit of quite a complex and difficult kind of teaching. clerical support so that they could disseminate their work. It necessarily extends over a number of years before By 1995, when the special issue on doctoral education there are any results at all. It’s got a high rate of effective was published, things hadn’t shifted yet very far. Indeed, failure, a lot of students drop out or the projects don’t you might say that the ethos of universities was beginning turn out well. It’s highly individualised, extremely difficult to change away from the direction in which I encouraged to do in a team. It’s high stakes for students because if people to move. It was becoming more difficult to invest the student’s relationship with the supervisor goes sour, a lot of time and human energy in a supervisory relation- for any reason, then several years of the student’s life are ship because everyone was becoming more pressured, down the drain. more scrutinised and surveilled. In 1995, as it happened, I So it’s a tricky, difficult kind of educational enterprise to was teaching in the United States so I wasn’t actually here bring off, and therefore it needs thought and attention. If in Australia. supervisors as a group don’t give supervision thought and I wrote the article in a somewhat informal style, trying attention, then what happens is that many of the students to put my money where my mouth was, because I was will fall by the wayside.The ones who will keep going are suggesting this was a human relationship and you don’t usually those who have some kind of privilege to start want to treat it as a technical thing. So I didn’t want to with. And that’s not a good outcome. In my forty years use education jargon, like ‘pedagogy’. In any case, many as a university teacher I have witnessed plenty of bad people in universities didn’t like thinking about them- practice, ranging from laziness, to sexual exploitation, to selves as educators, because that meant being a school appropriation of students’ work. My original article, how- teacher. I’m very happy to compare myself to a school ever, was not intended to document the trouble; it was to teacher! I work a lot with school teachers and admire show how to do better. Bad practice should be criticised, them and learn from them. But many people in universi- of course, and I have tried to prevent it when I could. ties do draw a fairly sharp distinction. But the main enemy of bad practice is good practice. I There’s also a mystique about research. It was preva- don’t mind codes of ethics but I don’t think they have very lent then and I think it is still prevalent, and may even much impact. What does have an impact, I think, is democ- be encouraged by all the bullshit about ‘excellence’ in ratisation of the institution in which supervision occurs, so research. The researcher is portrayed as a great mind, that people know what is happening around them, people greater than other mortals, and you are privileged to have in less powerful positions have organised encouragement anything to do with him [it is usually a him]. And so what to assert their own interests, and practices of respect and you do as an academic is carry on with your great thoughts support become normative. Student organisations are and do your great laboratory work, or your marvellous important for this; so are staff unions. I worry that the field work, or your deep literary thinking; and any gradu- drift towards managerialism, producing new forms of hier- ate students in the neighbourhood will just be inspired archy in the university and new pressures for ‘success’ and by your example, and go on and do it themselves. So you output, has already reversed the limited democratisation don’t do anything that would distract yourself from your that was achieved a generation ago. own marvellous research. Now I’m caricaturing of course, By the time I returned from the US, the neoliberal shift but I think this easily provides a rationale for not commit- in Australian universities was in full blast. Like everything ting real resources and time and thought to supervising else in the universities, higher degrees began to be treated graduate students. as a market exercise, so fees for higher degrees went up vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 On doctoral education, Raewyn Connell and Catherine Manathunga 7 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W and, in the case of overseas students, to appalling levels. Whereas once Australian universities were very free The only people who could come to Australia from over- floating about supervision and people could wander seas were students who were either rich people, children across disciplinary boundaries and do publishable work, of rich people, or people who won scholarships where an now we have moved significantly towards the North Amer- organisation would pay for it. And that really did change ican model of disciplinary silos. Students are increasingly the culture. It was no longer something that more or less scrutinised at the start as to whether they are properly anyone with a yearning to do research could come and in this discipline, or that discipline. There’s now pressure do. It was now a major investment, and that necessarily on students to design their project practically before they produced a more calculative approach by many students, begin their enrolment.They’re certainly under pressure to including those paying high fees, who wanted a guaranteed get on with it quickly, because the government, having return for their money, and the return in minimum time. agreed that the higher degree work is part of what they’re However, there are many positive effects of increasing the numbers of international PhD students in Australia. funding universities for, have put on the screws to try and make it more efficient. There is great excitement in introducing a student from So now they fund 3.5 years for a higher degree student, another culture to the research culture I know, and I’m and if you’re not done by then, the government doesn’t willing to spend a lot of effort to do so. The result isn’t fund the university for you anymore. So departments are always happy. My pedagogy sometimes fails, and not all under pressure to push everyone through in quick time, students manage to understand what I’m asking them to do. But sometimes it works very well, and that is a great experience. There are a lot of debates about where the boundaries are when providing feedback and supervisors in turn are Whereas once Australian universities were very free floating about supervision and people could wander across disciplinary boundaries and do publishable work, now we have moved significantly towards the North American model of disciplinary silos. on students’ writing for stu- under pressure, and put pressure on the students. Because students are being asked to commit to a research design very early, and are under pressure to finish in minimum time, under financial pressure as well as social dents whose first language is pressure, there has to be an not English. When I am working with a student on a draft impact on the character and quality of PhD projects.What that they have written in my language, I am willing to cor- the new managerialist pressures on supervision amount rect their work in a lot of detail – at first. My limits are: to is an attempt to standardise and downgrade the PhD. (a) I am trying to help them express their ideas in good The immediate effects are to de-skill the supervisors, academic English, not my ideas, so I don’t re-cast their institute fake accountability, and make the students’ work argument, only their prose. I will separately point out more hasty and formulaic, in the name of faster ‘comple- problems in the argument, that’s my job as supervisor, but tions’, more control and greater output. It is much more I won’t rewrite the text to solve the problems; (b) I will difficult for someone to take the time and do the deep do this for some of their text, to show them how it is done; thinking and make mistakes, and work out new directions, but not for all the text. They have to become autonomous and bring off a genuinely innovative project, under the writers at some stage, and this is when it should happen. current PhD regimen. I think this is, to be blunt, stupid Unfortunately, universities and the Federal Govern- policy, whose long-term effect is to undermine the qual- ment now focus on international higher degree students ity of intellectual life in Australia. It is so stupid, its effect as fee-generating. One good part of this was that higher so predictable, that one wonders if this consequence is degree supervision was now treated as part of the teach- intended. Other attacks on universities suggest our gov- ing workload. I think that’s an excellent move, and should ernment and corporate elite want a tamer, more predict- have been the case all along. So there was a recognition able and more controllable intelligentsia that this took time and resources and should count for The main effect on my supervision practice, therefore, part of the teaching load. But because it happened within is to reinforce the idea that a supervisor’s role is to pro- the corporate logic that the universities increasingly fol- tect the student from the institution, as far as one can, lowed, higher degree work was subject to the same kind and encourage originality and radical thinking. I will help of rationalisation and managerial intervention as other students to publish their work during their candidature areas of the university. but I will never pressure them to do so. As far as I can, I 8 On doctoral education, Raewyn Connell and Catherine Manathunga vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W will support their taking the time they need to do a really Making space for creativity is a crucial problem, as we good job of research, rather than cutting the project short develop higher degree systems. The safest and quickest, to meet an organisational deadline. Of course this faces but also the most deadening, form of PhD work is where practical limits, especially those of cost, now that higher students effectively reproduce the methods of their degrees cost so much. supervisor. Indeed students should learn their supervi- So there are contradictory trends here. The fact that sor’s attitudes and methods. But this should be critical higher degree supervision takes time and energy and learning, and the supervisor’s methods should be a base resources is now recognised. That has to be a good thing, for the students to be doing something genuinely their as it creates a little institutional space for supervision. own. The more that students get support to do original However, there is also a counter-tendency pushing aca- and unconventional, unexpected work, the more exciting demics to teach more students, get more grants, publish it will be for the academics involved too. more papers. There is a performance/productivity drive I still have terrific doctoral students and have really in the neoliberal university, which very much worries fascinating and interesting relationships with them. I get me because I think it’s fundamentally an anti-intellectual frustrated with them and cross with them, but I also learn trend, something that must undermine the quality of edu- from them and get excited by conversations with them. I cation in universities. So where you’ve got two contradic- think it’s a great privilege to be involved in supervision. tory trends how do they balance out, or what new things It is a tough form of teaching, but it’s also a wonderfully will come out of them? inspiring teaching experience. One result is an increasing tendency to organise higher degree supervision through formal programmes, to intro- Raewyn Connell is University Professor at the University of duce training programmes for supervisors, and to convey Sydney, Faculty of Education & Social Work. the idea that there are best practices for doing this, which have to be discovered, and then implemented.There is an Dr Catherine Manathunga is an Associate Professor in Educa- attempt to rationalise and routinise higher degree super- tion, Victoria University Wellington, Aotearoa New Zealand. vision. Again, there are pluses and minuses to this. The big plus is that supervision is getting attention now at a policy level and a programme level, where beforehand it could be incredibly slack. The downside is that when you Endnote 1. This piece is the edited product of a conversation between Raewyn Connell and Catherine Manathunga. implement programme rules and formalise things, you may get a routinised result that is not particularly exciting for anyone involved. You can create a lot of unnecessary work, and unnecessary anxiety among the students, by setting up formal ‘accountability’ mechanisms that don’t do much for real accountability. Our contemporary ‘ethics’ procedures are a case in point, a classic example References Connell, R. (1985). How to supervise a PhD. Vestes, 28(2), 38-42. Green, B. & Lee, A. (1995). Theorising postgraduate pedagogy. Australian Universities’ Review, 38(2), 40-45. of badly designed bureaucracy. vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 On doctoral education, Raewyn Connell and Catherine Manathunga 9 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W Addressing the curriculum problem in doctoral education Bill Green Charles Sturt University, NSW How best to understand the curriculum problem in doctoral research education: that is the question that this paper engages. It begins by noting that curriculum as such is little referenced and inadequately theorised in higher education and certainly in doctoral education, and indeed has been described as a ‘missing term’. The paper then reviews a now longstanding research programme in the latter field addressed specifically to research supervision, focusing on notions of pedagogy, textuality, subjectivity and knowledge. Over more than a decade and a half, a body of work has been produced in this regard, informed by literary and cultural studies, feminism and poststructuralist theory and philosophy, thereby opening up the field to new theoretical resources and perspectives. Following this, the paper goes on to draw more directly on contemporary curriculum thought and on what is called post-Reconceptualist curriculum inquiry to outline a curriculum-theoretical perspective on doctoral studies and research education, bringing together notions of representation, emergence, practice and futurity. It does so here with reference to both the PhD and the professional doctorate, but arguably has relevance for doctoral education more generally. When Alison Lee and I put together the Australian Uni- level of teaching in our education system’, and further, as versities’ Review Special Issue on ‘Postgraduate Studies/ ‘a genuinely complex teaching task’. In our 1995 Special Postgraduate Pedagogy’ in 1995, it was the formal inaugu- Issue and subsequently, we have argued that understand- ration of a collaborative research programme that we have ing supervision as pedagogy is far from straightforward, now been working on for over 15 years. Of course that or uncontroversial. Indeed, a deep-seated prejudice exists work has been rather more spasmodic and even oppor- in the modern university, which systematically privileges tunistic than we would have liked, for all sorts of reasons. research over teaching, disciplinarity over pedagogy (Lee Even so, a considerable record of publications in the area & Green 1997). In this regard, Connell’s early intervention exists, and there have been presentations of various kinds was and remains particularly important, because it put on in a range of forums – a substantive contribution, in terms the agenda a distinctively educational orientation, that is, of its principal focus on the assertion of supervision as a language and a perspective drawn specifically from the pedagogy, that is, doctoral research supervision as a dis- disciplinary discourse of educational research, as a signifi- tinctive form of pedagogy.A key stepping-off point for the cant form of inquiry in its own right. I see this paper as an work was Connell’s article a decade earlier in the then opportunity to continue that work. current manifestation of this very journal, entitled ‘How I’ve recently re-read Connell’s article. It remains as to Supervise a PhD?’ Connell (1985, p. 38) aptly described arresting and engaging as ever, and as useful, even though higher degree research supervision as ‘the most advanced times have certainly changed. The Australian university in 10 Addressing the curriculum problem in doctoral education, Bill Green vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W the early 21st century is highly corporatised and strikingly absence has contributed to a history of disjointed and performative in its orientation and conduct, and desper- untheorised activity in higher education. There are signs, ately underfunded. Even though teaching has been re- in fact, of a new interest in notions of ‘curriculum renewal’ valued, research has become more and more central to and the like, although much of this is technically oriented, institutional identity, mission statements and the like, and and quite narrow. Such work is, however, most commonly a fraught matter of high status combined with ever-scarce and characteristically addressed to undergraduate educa- opportunity. Relatedly, there has been a proliferation of tion; it hardly ever touches on postgraduate research stud- doctorates over the period in question, here and else- ies, or more particularly doctoral education. where (Park 2005). In research management terms, we Re-reading Connell (1985), and vaguely recalling in it are more likely to refer to doctoral education these days, some sort of reference to curriculum, I was especially accordingly, than to simply assume that higher degree attuned to how it was being addressed. It was in fact much work equals the PhD. Even so, old habits linger… more limited than I had recalled, although suggestive all A crucial issue in higher education is the distinctive the same. Having described ‘[PhD supervision]’ as ‘a form nature of its characteristic forms of curriculum, peda- of teaching’, it went on to assert that ‘[l]ike other forms, gogy and literacy. These can be considered in an inte- it raises questions about curriculum, method, teacher/stu- grated fashion, as an exemplary expression of what can dent interaction, and educational environment’ (Connell be called the academic-dominant, a term I am adapting 1985, p. 38). Doctoral research is described as character- from Jameson’s (1984) celebrated account of postmod- istically sui generis: ernism as a ‘cultural dominant’.This ‘academic dominant’ refers to the organised, hegemonic form of how the university operates in terms of, respectively, what to teach, how to teach, and which textual practices constitute appropriate and authorised forms of learning, study and [O]ne of the problems of being a supervisor is that each [i.e. PhD project] has to be worked out separately. It seems as if one is always starting from scratch. And the students usually have little idea what is in store for them (Connell 1985, p. 38-39). research. Broadly, and all too briefly, the first engages the That is, there is no set curriculum, no established whole question of disciplinarity; the second involves course of study. Hence, as Connell (1985, p. 39) contin- what can be described as the time-honoured traditional ues, ‘… there can be no formula for PhD supervision, practices of transmission and charisma (the ‘lecture’); no fixed course of events. The ‘curriculum’ cannot be while the third privileges commentary and what has planned in the way it is for undergraduate courses’. This been called the ‘(print-)essayistic’ mode – exposition, is a particular way of talking and thinking about curricu- or the ‘essay’. The focus in this paper is on the first of lum, as a ‘course’, something to be followed or to run, a these – that is, curriculum. Properly speaking, however, ‘track’. It is usually understood as a course of study, that is, they should be considered together, as I believe they are a set sequence of engagements and experiences with … profoundly related. My particular concern here is what knowledge, on the part of students, under the guidance of all this means for doctoral education. their teacher(s). A ‘missing term’? On knowledge, curriculum, and doctoral education lurking behind the notion of ‘course’ is the Latin currere, Two points are worth noting here. First, somewhere which the North American curriculum theorist Bill Pinar (2004) has proposed as a central concept for curriculum A burgeoning field has emerged, addressed specifically scholarship. In Pinar’s work, this is understood in part as to doctoral education, and to a reconceptualised view of pertaining to the experience of the course, that is, the research supervision, among much else. Something that student’s experience, or that of whoever experiences is quite striking however is how little reference there is to the course in question, and this is often associated with curriculum, both as a distinctively educational phenom- autobiography. Second, the question of knowledge is fore- enon and as a field of scholarship in its own right. This grounded, or what is being studied. This is usually linked is the case in higher education more generally, of course. to what has been described as the key curriculum ques- Indeed, curriculum has been described as the ‘missing tion What knowledge is of most worth? In conventional term’ in higher education reform discourse (Barnett & educational contexts, that in turn becomes, What should Coates 2005). It has been asserted that ‘[c]urriculum is, the schools teach? which is clearly inappropriate for doc- or should be, one of the major terms in the language of toral education. Or is it? It is worth asking indeed what is higher education’ (Barnett & Coates 2005, p. 25), and its it that doctoral education does – what is it for? vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Addressing the curriculum problem in doctoral education, Bill Green 11 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W The answer is two-fold. On the one hand, it is about futurity, becoming, and the New. Something similar is hap- knowledge generation: producing (new) knowledge, as a pening with other forms of doctoral education, although result or outcome of systematic inquiry made public. It has there is also an increasing secularisation to be observed, in fact been widely noted, of late, how much of Australia’s across the doctoral field more generally, which perhaps research output is associated with doctoral work. On the goes hand-in-hand with a new democratisation, a growing other hand, the emphasis is on research training, as it is massification. still commonly described: producing researchers – par- But that immediately presents a problem, however. ticular kinds of personnel, or appropriately skilled, capa- Firstly, to point to ‘knowledge’ as a focus for the profes- ble research subjects, docile and disciplined, productive sional doctorate in this fashion is immediately to run up bodies.This knowledge/identity coupling is indeed crucial against what has often been posed to date as its more to an informed view of curriculum, which might be suc- appropriate and proper focus on ‘practice’. A perhaps cinctly defined as the pedagogic structuring of knowledge fatal binary comes into play, then: knowledge/practice. and identity.This means, in short, mapping knowledge and This links up programmatically with other formulations, identity onto teaching and learning, as follows: with ‘knowledge’ seen as congruent with notions such as ‘research’, ‘theory’ and even ‘scholarship’ – all set up, Figure 1 equally problematically, against the only quite recently privileged category of ‘practice’. Secondly, however, the knowledge problem we are confronted with is one of fundamental conceptualisation (or, perhaps more precisely, ‘reconceptualisation’). How then is doctoral curriculum to be (re) teaching learning conceptualised? Is it, as implied in our brief account of the academic-dominant, to be equated with knowledge, or (at its simplest) the ‘what’ of teaching? There is a long tradition in the fields of educational research and curriculum identity studies that does just that, especially that which is shaped and influenced by Anglo-American scholarship (Reid 1999), although it is also a feature of Bernstein’s (1971) That is, curriculum can be understood as the field out- account of educational knowledge. Or is curriculum also lined here. One value of this formulation is that it brings to be understood as the organised expression of teaching- pedagogy, or teaching for learning, within the ambit of learning experience, thus incorporating and generating curriculum, properly conceived.The larger point however particular understandings of knowledge, identity and tex- is that knowledge is to be acknowledged as crucial in ade- tuality? Bringing these views all together is precisely what quately thinking of curriculum. What kind of knowledge I aim to do here. project is the doctorate, whether it be in the form of the The professional doctorate has still only relatively PhD or any other higher research degree at this level? We recently emerged as an alternative form of doctoral study are accustomed to seeing the PhD as constituting a dis- in Australian universities, not uncontroversially (Lee, Bren- tinctive form of knowledge work, indeed the highest and nan & Green 2009). To date, however, this phenomenon most prestigious in the university.This is partly where the has been largely policy and market-driven, and conse- traditional ‘mystique’ associated with the PhD, which Con- quently there is considerable range in terms of the quality nell noted, surely comes from. There is something special both of educational provision and of academic-scholarly about the knowledge produced in and by a PhD, or there understanding as well as rigour. Further to this, its devel- should be. Something happens in the work of a PhD that opment and consolidation has been inseparable from is distinctive and significant, with regard to its knowledge mounting concerns about the PhD and about postgraduate project. Ideally, perhaps impossibly, something is changed research education more generally, and accordingly there in the world, and in the doctoral scholar him- or herself; continues to be widespread confusion and controversy s/he becomes, in effect, the Subject of Knowledge. Con- in this regard. Much of this concern focuses on the role nell rightly seeks to play down the mystique. The point and status of the professional doctorate. What research remains, however: an extraordinary promise is arguably at there is, however, still tends to be more or less instrumen- issue in doctoral work – the promise of natality (Arendt tal and/or bureaucratic in nature, although there are signs 1958), itself related in important ways to the notion of of growing sophistication, and hence the professional 12 Addressing the curriculum problem in doctoral education, Bill Green vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W doctorate remains seriously under-theorised, in terms & Brennan 2000), in continuing to explore such themes. both of curriculum and pedagogy, research and teaching. Regarding the former concern, Barnett (2009, pp. 431- Hence, in the long-term programme I have been engaged 432) rightly observes that knowledge needs to be under- in, with Alison Lee, we have been principally concerned stood far more widely and flexibly than it usually is in to explore various issues of research and theory, with a such circumstances and debates. view to informing both policy and practice. This requires, Originally our reference was to distinctive ‘discipli- among other things, a specific engagement – what I want nary’ and ‘professional’ orientations in the doctorate. At to describe here as the curriculum problem – that is, I the time we were thinking of the PhD as more or less ask about how curriculum is to be conceptualised here a ‘disciplinary’ doctorate, set against the (then) new pro- in relation to doctoral research education. To begin with, fessional doctorate, which seemed to involve a rather dif- however, it is appropriate to consider something of the ferent knowledge project. That original formulation soon history of doctoral study and the modern university. became recognisably inadequate, and misleading. After all, PhD work, at least potentially, can be interdisciplinary in Addressing the curriculum problem nature, or multi-disciplinary, as much as anything else. Disciplinarity itself is a dynamic concept (Messer-Davidow, In our 1995 introductory paper, we posited a distinction Shumway & Sylvan 1993). Somewhat ironically, Hodge’s between ‘professional’ knowledge and ‘disciplinary’ (1995) typically iconoclastic account of doctoral educa- knowledge. This distinction was made in specific relation tion, the new humanities, and what he called ‘monstrous to ‘the appearance on the Australian scene of new kinds knowledge’, had provided the basis for the distinction in of doctoral research and accreditation’, a development we question here. As he wrote, apropos of the ‘PhD’: suggested was ‘fuelled and generated by, on the one hand, the emergence of different kinds of universities [...]’, and on the other, what we described as ‘an increasing secularisation of university work’ (Lee & Green 1995, p. 3). What we were referring to in the latter formulation was what we saw as ‘the increased emphasis on professional studies of one kind or another, and what might be called the vocationalising of higher education’ in Australia. Our reference to ‘secularisation’ was intended (albeit ironically) to set in train a binary play, with the key terms in opposition The single term refers to theses in all disciplines, including sciences as well as social sciences and humanities, proclaiming an abstract unity of all knowledge, ‘sophia’, which seemingly is loved equally in different ways by all people who receive their doctorate. Until recently in the Australian University system, that unity was carefully parcelled out into various ‘disciplines’, so that people graduated with a PhD in Sociology, History, etc., relatively autonomous fields or provinces in a single, hierarchically organised system of knowledges. This is the system of what can be called disciplinary doctorates (Hodge 1995, p. 35). here being ‘sacred’ and ‘secular’ (or ‘profane’...). In regard to this, we pointed to the implications of this ‘seemingly His concern was with research and supervision in inexorable push ... towards vocational education’ for ‘uni- the context of interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinar- versities, traditionally oriented more towards knowledge ity, where ‘disciplinarity’ itself becomes problematised. and inquiry in its own right, as an end in itself’ (Lee & Further, his focus was on work in Cultural Studies and Green 1995, p. 3). In one sense, this was seen as a matter the New Humanities, as a specific manifestation of post- of the ‘high’ knowledge of the Academy set against the modernity in higher education. Such work remains typi- ‘low’ culture of the Popular – or rather, the sacredness cally highly theoretical and often abstract and ‘difficult’, of the ‘inside’ and the profanity of the ‘outside’. Here, and indeed some (e.g. Culler 1983) have seen it as an though, there was another difference-relation in effect, emergent and distinctive ‘(anti-)discipline’ in its own with the world of Study (or ‘Learning’) set against the right (‘Theory’). From the perspective of the traditional, world of Work. What was conceived as secular, then, in modern(ist) university, however, organised as it is in terms this instance, was the worldly realm of production, com- of the meta-principle of disciplinarity, such work’s pro- merce and employment: at once the object and the very ductions are literally ‘monstrous’, outside the norm, and in end of academic-scholarly endeavour and its more or recent decades accordingly there has been much debate less radical antithesis – the ‘worldliness’ of the one, that and indeed conflict in higher education as a result. In this is, and the ‘unworldliness’ of the other. Later, specifically light, the professional doctorate might well similarly be apropos the professional doctorate, we drew in work on seen as ‘monstrous’ or at least aberrant, and as a manifes- the new production of knowledge, ‘Mode 1/Mode 2’, and tation of danger and difference. But it is differently so, the (potential) displacement of the University (Lee, Green which is an important point, because these doctorates vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Addressing the curriculum problem in doctoral education, Bill Green 13 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W involve quite different and distinctive intellectual and it must be said, as indicated in the following:‘Viewing the textual undertakings. Nonetheless, there is something in doctorate as curriculum directs attention to the forms of the new knowledge projects associated with such doc- knowledge in which it is grounded, and how these are toral work, across the range, that makes them seem often articulated in the documentation of the degree’ (Gilbert counter-normative, or perhaps simply unintelligible, or at 2009, p. 54; my added emphasis).That is, this is a view ori- least ‘eccentric’. ented more to the material or ‘written’ curriculum. Moreo- Elsewhere (Lee & Green 1997) we sought to describe ver, the focus of his account, as he made clear, was on the complex, contradictory relationship between peda- the so-called ‘intended curriculum’ (Gilbert 2009, p. 59). gogy and disciplinarity in the (post)modern university. Up The link between knowledge and curriculum has been until quite recently, what seemed the unassailable norm noted elsewhere, with specific reference to higher educa- in university research and advanced graduate education tion (e.g. Barnett, Parry & Coate 2001/2004). How best to was the disciplinary structure of knowledge (re)produc- understand the knowledge project of doctoral education tion. Yet, as we argued, that needed to be re-assessed his- is precisely what I mean by the curriculum problem. torically, and understood therefore as arising out of quite I have discussed elsewhere how curriculum is to be specific and delimited historical conditions and configura- (re)conceptualised with reference to notions of represen- tions. At issue, accordingly, was the need to re-think ‘a set tation, conceived within a poststructuralist frame (Green of taken-for-granted assumptions concerning the relations between disciplinarity and pedagogy’ in the university, and more specifically ‘the primacy of the former over the latter and the relegation of pedagogy – matters 2010). It is at this point, then, Up until quite recently, what seemed the unassailable norm in university research and advanced graduate education was the disciplinary structure of knowledge (re) production. Yet, as we argued, that needed to be re-assessed historically... of teaching and learning, and expressly from the point of view of curriculum theory, that questions can be asked about the forms of selection and abstraction, and also the processes of de- and recontextualisation, that are involved in doctoral work. education more broadly – to An important early account the margins’ (Lee & Green 1997, p. 3). Our particular con- in this regard, Lundgren (1983, 1991) proposed that the cern, following important work by Hoskin (1993), was curriculum problem par excellence was what he called to draw attention to ‘the historical nexus of modernity ‘the representation problem’. As he wrote, curriculum and disciplinarity’ (Lee & Green 1997, p. 9), and to assert becomes problematic ‘when production processes and and affirm the significance of educational practice in reproduction processes are divided from each other’: this regard. More recently we returned to such historical inquiry with specific regard this time to doctoral supervision and the research university (Lee & Green 2009). However, having emphasised pedagogy over disciplinarity in this previous work, it would now seem appropriate and timely to shift the focus back, as it were. This means The moment production processes are separated from reproduction processes, the representation problem arises, that is the problem of how to represent production processes so that they can be reproduced. The representation problem is the object for educational discourse, and is the eternal problem of pedagogy as a field of study (Lundgren 1983, p. 11). addressing more specifically and explicitly what I am calling here the curriculum problem. As Gilbert (2009, p. 56) (I pass over, here, the reference in this instance to ‘peda- has put it,‘there is value in considering doctoral training as gogy’, save simply to note that he is using the term in its a matter of curriculum as well as pedagogy’. This is partic- European sense.) What needs to be identified and isolated ularly important if, as seems to be the case, more explicit in the formulation above is precisely the problematic of account needs to be made of what has been described as representation. As various commentators such as Lund- the knowledge question, in seeking to address doctoral gren (1991, p. 293) and Hindess (1995) observe, represen- curriculum. As Gilbert observed,‘… studies of supervision tation is in fact foundational with regard to disciplinarity, and pedagogy have not directly addressed what might be social theory and the modern university. In Hindess’s called the doctoral curriculum – what it is that students (1995, p. 42) terms: learn in their courses of study, as distinct from how they learn or issues of programme delivery’ (Gilbert 2009, p. 56). He was working with a particular view of curriculum, 14 [O]nce a ‘relationship to truth’ (or whatever) is seen as involving more than an isolated individual (and perhaps even then), it will be caught up in the problem of Addressing the curriculum problem in doctoral education, Bill Green vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V representation: what is known has also to be shown to others, and it must therefore be represented, in speech, writing, or other kinds of sign, or in some appropriate reaction on the part of those who perceive it. E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W Representation, emergence and (the) doctoral curriculum Here, however, I want to present what may be a far That is to say, representation becomes an issue when the full force of the social is recognised. Moreover: too schematic account, a sketch perhaps, of a potential curriculum-theoretical framework for doctoral research [R]epresentation, of whatever kind, can always be seen as, on the one hand, capturing (or at least as representing) the essentials of what is to be represented and, on the other hand, as artifice. Representation, however successful it appears to be in part, is always misrepresentation (Hindess 1995, p. 42). education. I have already suggested that a reconceptualised concept of representation is a key feature of such a formulation. How this view of curriculum and representation is to be understood has been laid out elsewhere, introducing notions of ‘impossibility’ and ‘in(ter)vention’ (Green 2010). Briefly, I have argued that rethinking Hence, for Lundgren and others working in this tradi- representation as itself a form of practice, as at once tion (e.g. Kemmis 1993), curriculum transformations of ‘invention and ‘intervention’, is useful in that it allows knowledge and identity are always problematic, precisely a properly (material-)semiotic view of curriculum. That because they must introduce due and unavoidable con- argument involved an engagement not only with decon- sideration of matters of textuality, rhetoric and representa- struction, and poststructuralism more generally, but also tion – the Symbolic. As such, I have argued that theoretical with complexity theory. work of this kind is transitional with regard to what has On the one hand, this means asking what gets rep- been called the ‘modernism-postmodernism’ debate, and resented in and through (the) curriculum – what that, further, curriculum theory in this regard needs to gets included, and thus made available for pedagogy take more explicit account of poststructuralist theory and and study – bearing in mind always the thesis of the philosophy, particularly concerning what has been identi- impossibility of representation. On the other hand, a fied here as a key organising relationship between cur- crucial consideration becomes the concept of emer- riculum and representation. What this enables, in turn, is gence, a fundamental category in the discourse of com- a better understanding of matters such as hybridity and plexity (Osberg, Biesta & Cilliers 2008). Of particular undecidability. To my way of thinking, such concepts are interest is the notion of an ‘emergentist’ curriculum, or necessary concepts in developing a richer, more adequate an ‘emergentist’ view of curriculum (Osberg & Biesta account of the specific curriculum issues and challenges 2008). Curriculum is posited as ‘a space of emergence’ associated with contemporary doctoral education, both (Osberg & Biesta 2008, p. 324). While this is contrasted generally and with specific regard to the professional doc- with a ‘representationalist’ perspective, I argue that a torate as it has been developed in Australia. At the same reconceptualised, post-critical view of representation time, I argue that this argument serves usefully to prob- remains productive, and powerfully so. (That is, a dis- lematise doctoral research education more generally, and tinction is to be posited between ‘representationalism’ hence also the institution of the PhD, and thereby contrib- and ‘representation’ per se.) Indeed, representation and ute to their ongoing critique and renewal. emergence might consequently be seen as integral, What kind of knowledge work is at issue in doctoral education? How is research to be understood in this con- reciprocating aspects of a reconceptualised view of curriculum (Figure 2). text? How is knowledge work structured pedagogically, or educationally? How does one learn to engage in knowl- Figure 2 edge work, in the very course of doing so? What kinds of (subject-)formation are involved? These are just some of the questions that arise. Among matters still needing to be explored are: the relationships between ‘subjects’ and ‘objects’ of research and knowledge – the latter touched on elsewhere (Green 2009a) – and between ‘knowledge representation emergence objects’ and ‘epistemic practices’ (Knorr-Cetina 2001), which are usefully addressed with reference to recent work in practice theory and philosophy, appropriately supplemented.All this remains still to be fully worked out. vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Addressing the curriculum problem in doctoral education, Bill Green 15 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W This formulation has particular implications, it seems to open, question-generating and complex. They are pro- me, for doctoral research education. It is to be differently cesses and projections rather than definitive things’ understood with regard to different forms of doctoral (Knorr-Cetina 2001, p. 181). They are unfinished, partial, work – the PhD, for instance, and the professional doctor- imaginary (‘an imagined object’), future-oriented, virtual. ate, or any of the other doctoral forms now appearing on ‘From a theoretical point of view, the defining character- the scene (Park 2005). Each, however, involves a particular istic of an epistemic object is this changing, unfolding and distinctive kind of knowledge work, a research pro- character – or its lack of ‘objectivity’ and completeness ject, conceived both in terms of candidature, or appren- of being, and its non-identity with itself’ (Knorr-Cetina ticeship into an epistemic community, and as productive 2001, p. 182). in its own right, as a formalised and authoritative contri- In the case of the professional doctorate, the aim from bution to knowledge. Here I will focus on the PhD and the the outset was precisely to provide more structure, more professional doctorate. guidance. If the PhD tended to be constituted as intense As Connell (1985) noted, the PhD characteristically and work in isolation, over a long stretch of time, an extended certainly traditionally seems to operate without (a) cur- duration, the professional doctorate ideally would be at riculum. Indeed, it may be difficult even to think of it in least initially more communal, undertaken in the company curriculum terms.There is clearly no established pathway, of like others, with more articulated and explicit forms of no course of ‘instruction’ or ‘study’. Rather, each work in induction and preparation, and less abrupt sink-or-swim this regard unfolds within a more or less loosely defined liminality. Moreover, the professional doctorate tended to space. Connell (1985) evoked the notion of a ‘dialectic’ realise this process in the form of a more explicit, tangi- in what was identified as a ‘creative research project’, ble curriculum. It was typically organised in the form of observing that this dialectic (‘an argument between the a staged course structure, including preliminary course- general conception and particular investigations, a back- work, with the ‘project’ delayed, and often prescribed in and-forth between data and theory, and between formula- some fashion (e.g. ‘three small-scale studies plus an exe- tion and critique’) had ‘to follow its own logic. If we knew gesis’). The curriculum seemed clearer, as such. (There its course in advance, the research would not be worth are of course moves currently underway towards a more doing. A good research project opens up new questions structured programme for the PhD.) as much as it answers questions already posed’ (Connell In this way, and expressly from a curriculum-theoret- 1985, p. 39). That is, doctoral work has a crucial aspect of ical point of view, it becomes immediately pertinent to ‘discovery’ about it, an orientation to and indeed an invest- think of it in terms of the representation problem (Green ment in the ‘new’ – it is always-already emergent. 2010). If professional practice is at the very heart of the Nonetheless, Connell suggests, there are ‘moments’ professional doctorate, as an advanced research degree, one can discern, or look for, various characteristic ‘tasks’, how is it to be represented? How to bring it, in all its a certain ‘rhythm’ – a temporality. The project unfolds, complexity and mystery, within a curriculum, a structure the dissertation builds, knowledge emerges. It is only ret- of knowledge, identity and pedagogy? What to include, rospectively, in real terms, that one can trace the journey for instance? What is possible to take account of, to seek that has been made, much like the explorer narratives to draw in, to (re)contextualise? What cannot be repre- that Paul Carter (1992) sees as exemplifying what he sented? What must be left out, omitted, jettisoned? What calls spatial history. This is curriculum, but thought dif- happens when this becomes that, when it is moved from ferently. What is foregrounded, lived through, is the pas- here to there, and inescapably transformed in its passage? sage (Green 2009b). Meaning emerges, in the writing, in Much work is now available theorising and researching the pedagogic exchanges of supervision, and elsewhere (professional) practice as such. The practice turn in con- and when something new is produced, something differ- temporary theory is well documented (Schatzki, Knorr- ent, distinctive. ‘One does not know, cannot know, what Cetina & Savigny 2001; Green 2009). The representation will happen, only that something will happen’ (Osberg problem is the curriculum problem par excellence. The & Biesta 2008, p. 325; my added emphasis). Importantly, task and the challenge of attending to the curriculum this ‘space of emergence’ pertains to both knowledge and problem is, therefore, particularly pertinent to something subjectivity – the object of research and the researcher like the professional doctorate. as subject. Regarding this ‘object’, an exemplary ‘knowl- However, the point is that this kind of argument can edge object’, as Knorr-Cetina’s (2001) describes it, she be seen as applying to the PhD as well, and that, con- writes: ‘Objects of knowledge are characteristically versely, the notion of an emergent curriculum may not 16 Addressing the curriculum problem in doctoral education, Bill Green vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W be at all inappropriate for the professional doctorate. rience profoundly invested in and organised by the nature There is a crucial sense in which a PhD has long been and pursuit of knowledge. In the case of doctoral research understood as a dialogue with disciplinarity, or at least studies, this includes, at a minimum, what is involved in with a particular discipline or disciplinary complex. It ‘becoming-researcher’, or what it means to become, as has been well documented how the PhD emerged out it were, the putative Subject of Knowledge, to say noth- of the history of the modern research university, the his- ing for the moment about knowledge per se. If doctoral tory of disciplinarity, as the degree of preference, and education does indeed have its own distinctive curricu- the one with the highest status, the greatest prestige, lum problem, along the lines outlined here, then much even as it became the key marker of academicity, of remains open to investigation if we are to understand licensed academic identity. The recent work of the Carn- what it really means to engage in doctoral work, in both egie Foundation in the United States has introduced the its practice and its pedagogy. notion of ‘stewardship’ into the debate (Golde & Walker 2006), arguing that the award of a PhD brings with it Bill Green is Professor of Education and Strategic Research a responsibility to operate henceforth as a ‘steward’ for Professor at Charles Sturt University. the discipline, a ‘custodian’ – a designated, delegated representative. The same might be said for the professional doctorate. Indeed, this seems to be built into its very concept, given that it is often marketed as being for established, experienced practitioners, who might see it as providing a scholarly basis for professional leadership. This is surely a matter of stewardship for the profession, and for the field at large. At the same time, the hallmark of genuine research, genuine inquiry, whether it be in the context of the PhD or that of the professional doctorate, is that it results in the production of new knowledge. Something emerges, something different, new, which is more than the sum of the elements making up the total process and the various References Arendt, H. (1958). The Human Condition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Barnett, R. (2009). Knowing and Becoming in the Higher Education Curriculum. Studies in Higher Education, 34(4), 429-440. Barnett, R., & Coate, K. (2005). Engaging the Curriculum in Higher Education. Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press. Barnett, R., Parry, G., & Coate, K. (2001). Conceptualising Curriculum Change. Teaching in Higher Education, 6(4), 435-449. Reprinted in M. Tight (ed.), The RoutledgeFalmer Reader in Higher Education (2004, pp. 141-54). London & New York: RoutledgeFalmer. Bernstein, B. (1971). On the Classification and Framing of Educational Knowledge. (In M. F. D. Young (ed.), Knowledge and Control: New Directions for the Sociology of Education (pp. 47-69). London: Macmillan. aspects of doctoral study. This is in line with Osberg and Carter, P. (1992). Making Contact: History and Performance. Living in a New Country: History, Travelling and Language. London & Boston: Faber & Faber. Biesta’s (2008, p. 315) view of what they describe as ‘a Connell, R. F. (1985). How to Supervise a PhD? Vestes, 2, 38-41. strict interpretation of emergence’ – that is,‘what emerges Culler, J. (1983). On Deconstruction: Theory and Criticism after Structuralism. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. is more than the sum of its parts and therefore not predictable from the ‘ground’ it emerges from’. Here it is appropriate to evoke Grosz’s (1999a, 1999b) sense of futurity, of the production of the New, ‘the endless unfolding of the new’ (p. 5), and ‘the joyous open-endedness of the future’ (pp. 21-22). She is concerned too with notions of emergence, time and becoming, and with Deleuzian concepts of difference and actualisation, all of which seem at least consistent with the discussion earlier, drawing from Knorr-Cetina and others, about research and knowledge as unfolding and emergent. In this way, it is always structured by desire, open-ended, future-oriented, and ontologically, radically virtual. In closing, then, I want to reiterate that these are curriculum issues and insights, and fundamentally so. Curriculum inquiry is, as Pinar (2004, p. 2) writes, ‘the interdisciplinary study of educational experience’ – for him, informed significantly by the arts and humanities, theory and philosophy.This is, above all, educational expevol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Gilbert, R. (2009). The Doctorate as Curriculum: A Perspective on Goals and Outcomes of Doctoral Education. In D. Boud & A. Lee (Eds), Changing Practices of Doctoral Education (pp. 54-68). London & New York: Routledge. Golde, C., & Walker, G. E. (eds). (2006). Envisioning the Future of Doctoral Education: Preparing Stewards of the Discipline. San Francisco: Jossey-Brass. Green, B. (ed.). (2009). Understanding and Researching Professional Practice. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. Green, B. (2009a). Challenging Perspectives, Changing Practices: Doctoral Education in Transition. In D. Boud & A. Lee (eds), Changing Practices of Doctoral Education (pp. 239-48). London & New York: Routledge. Green, B. (2009b). From Communication Theory to Curriculum Inquiry. Curriculum Perspectives, 29(3), 14-23. Green, B. (2010). Rethinking the Representation Problem in Curriculum Inquiry. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 42(4), 451-69. Grosz, E. (1999a). Becoming… An Introduction. In Elisabeth Grosz (ed.), Becoming: Explorations in Time, Memory, and Futures (pp. 1-11). Ithaca & London: Cornell University Press. Grosz, E. (1999b). Thinking the New: Of Futures Yet Unthought. In E. Grosz (ed.), Becoming: Explorations in Time, Memory, and Futures (pp. 15-28). Ithaca & London: Cornell University Press. Addressing the curriculum problem in doctoral education, Bill Green 17 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W Hindess, B. (1995). Great Expectations: Freedom and Authority in the Idea of a Modern University. Oxford Literary Review, 17(1-2), 29-49. Lundgren, U. (1991). Between Education and Schooling: Outlines of a Diachronic Curriculum Theory. Geelong, Victoria: Deakin University. Hodge, B. (1995). Monstrous Knowledge: Doing PhDs in the New Humanities. Australian Universities’ Review, 38(2), 35-9. Lundgren, U. (1983). Between Hope and Happening: Text and Context in Curriculum. Geelong Victoria: Deakin University. Hoskin, K. (1993). Education and the Genesis of Disciplinarity: The Unexpected Reversal. In E. Messer-Davidow, D. R. Shumway & D. S. Sylvan (eds), Knowledges: Historical and Critical Studies in Disciplinarity (pp. 271-304). Charlottesville & London: University Press of Virginia. Messer-Davidow, E., Shumway, D. R., & Sylvan, D. J. (eds). (1993). Knowledges: Historical and Critical Studies in Disciplinarity. Charlottesville & London: University of Virgina Press. Jameson, F. (1984). Postmodernism, or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. New Left Review, 146, 59-92. Kemmis, S. (1993). Curriculum as Text. In B. Green (ed.), Curriculum, Technology and Textual Practice (pp. 35-52). Geelong, Victoria: Deakin University. Knorr-Cetina, K. (2001). Objectual Practice. In T. R. Schatzki, K. Knorr-Cetina & E. von Savigny (eds), The Practice Turn in Contemporary Theory (pp. 175-88). London & New York: Routledge. Osberg, D. & Biesta, G. (2008). The Emergent Curriculum: Navigating a Complex Course between Unguided Learning and Planned Enculturation. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 40(3), 313-28. Osberg, D., Biesta, G. & Cilliers, P. (2008). From Representation to Emergence: Complexity’s Challenge to the Epistemology of Schooling. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 40(1), 213-227. Park, C. (2005). New Variant PhDs: The Changing Nature of the Doctorate in the UK. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 27(2), 189-207. Lee, A. & Green, B. (1995). Introduction: Postgraduate Studies/Postgraduate Pedagogy. Australian Universities’ Review, 38(2), 2-4. Pinar, W. F. (2004). What is Curriculum Theory? Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Lee, A. & Green, B. (1997). Pedagogy and Disciplinarity in the ‘New University’, UTS Review, 3(1), 1-25. Reid, W. (1999). Curriculum as Institution and Practice: Essays in the Deliberative Tradition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Lee, A. & Green, B. (2009). Metaphor as Supervision. Studies in Higher Education, 34(6), 615-30. Schatzki, T. R., Knorr-Cetina, K., & von Savigny, E. (eds). (2001). The Practice Turn in Contemporary Theory. London & New York: Routledge. Lee, A., Brennan, M., & Green, B. (2009). Re-imagining Doctoral Education: professional doctorates and Beyond. Higher Education Research and Development, 28(3), 275-287. Lee, A., Green, B., & Brennan, M. (2000). Organisational Knowledge, Professional Practice and the professional doctorate at Work. In J. Garrick & C. Rhodes (eds), Legitimations of Knowledge and the New Production of Meaning (pp 117-36). London & New York: Routledge. 18 Addressing the curriculum problem in doctoral education, Bill Green vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W Researching doctoral pedagogy close up Design and action in two doctoral programmes Susan Danby Queensland University of Technology, Queensland Alison Lee University of Technology, Sydney, NSW With growing international interest in diversifying sites for pedagogical work within the doctorate, doctoral programmes of different kinds are being developed in different disciplinary, institutional and national settings. However, little is known about how the pedagogical work of these programmes is designed and enacted, and with what effects. In this paper, we present two cases of doctoral pedagogical work being undertaken within different disciplinary and institutional settings to describe how learning opportunities were designed and to theorise what it means to be engaged in doing doctoral pedagogy. Starting from the position that working from a design model supports systematic and rigorous documentation and development of pedagogy, we employ the twin concepts of design and action, drawing broadly on rhetorical and ethnomethodological understandings of pedagogy as social action. Of particular interest within the concept of design itself is the concept of enactment, the translation of designs into the practices of doctoral work. Together, the two cases become a resource for ‘slowing down’ and making visible the practices of doctoral pedagogy that often go unrecognised because they appear so ordinary and everyday. This call for examining close-up existing doctoral education practices and relationships is attending to the ‘next challenge for doctoral education’ (Green 2009). work in this paper. Closely observing and ‘slowing down’ Introduction the process of studying a phenomenon offers opportunities to see what is happening in the ‘doing’ of the prac- I would play 33 rpm records at 45 rpm and hear the bass parts revealed, rescued from the bowels of the arrangement an octave higher, and the fast sections of the upper octaves on forty-fives so that they could be learned at a slower speed. I realised from these experiments that anything, no matter how complex, could be deconstructed and learned if you slowed it down enough to really hear it. (Sting, Broken Music, 2003, p. 17) tice in ways that are not readily available in the flow of In his 2003 autobiography, Broken Music, Sting’s and practice environment, in line with economically description of how he went about learning music offers driven pressures internationally, we are seeing a growing a way to understand a key methodological principle at demand for the development of doctoral programmes that vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 real-time events, particularly if these appear ordinary, unexceptional, already brought together and present in a seemingly self-evident way. Our purpose in taking a close look at the work of doctoral pedagogy is to contribute new knowledge and insight to a field undergoing rapid change and reshaping of policy and practice. In the Australian doctoral policy Researching doctoral pedagogy close up, Susan Danby & Alison Lee 19 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W meet a diverse and increasingly complex array of require- up the challenge of contributing to a documentation of ments.These include preparation of doctoral graduates to some of the practices and dynamics of doctoral pedago- research in environments within and outside the univer- gies, understood and framed as forms of social practice. sity that are increasingly entrepreneurial (Adkins 2012); We have drawn on and extrapolated from our recent work building capacities to research in interdisciplinary teams a set of principles that constitute a conceptual frame for and to form researching partnerships across sectors (Wil- engaging with pedagogical work in doctoral education. letts 2012); and more recently, a rather belated realisation, This frame is constituted through the twin concepts of within the USA at least, that success in a global knowl- design and action, drawing broadly on rhetorical and eth- edge economy for advanced nations involves attending nomethodological understandings of pedagogy as social carefully to the ‘pipeline’ of potential doctoral students; action (Danby & Lee 2012). hence the need to attend afresh to teaching at under- The focus on doctoral pedagogy attends to the work of graduate levels (Austin 2011). This latter move connects bringing together, and enacting, practices of doing doc- doctoral education back to academic preparation in the toral research and doing doctoral education. Some sets of fullest sense, not just to facilitate individual career paths activities within the bundle of activities recognisable as but to replenish a sector where the academic workforce doctoral education are specifically educational, focusing is aging and the field of higher education is undergoing on the learning or training of doctoral students, such as major shifts internationally. seminars and workshops. Other sets of activities are more In Australia, these changes translate into increasing recognisable as related to the core activity of participating interest and focus upon expanding and diversifying sites in research, through labwork, fieldwork, datawork, infor- for pedagogical work within the doctorate (e.g. Boud & mation work, textwork, and so on, and what happens is Lee 2009, Aitchison, Kamler & Lee 2010). By ‘pedagogical that the pedagogic work of those activities often remains work,’ we are referring both to explicit programmes of invisible or is treated as incidental. structured activity such as courses and workshops, and In the following sections we first outline some con- to the more incidental and everyday educational work ceptual resources for considering pedagogy in terms of embedded in research activities.The term pedagogy draws two related concepts: design and action. We then present attention to how learning and teaching are often embed- two cases of pedagogical work being undertaken within ded in activities and relationships not always explicitly different disciplinary and institutional settings. Each case designated as educational. We are interested in turning a is elaborated elsewhere (Abrandt Dahlgren et al. 2012; more explicitly pedagogical gaze upon these activities to Harris et al. 2012); each is deeply embedded in research see how they develop the experiences and capabilities in activity and demonstrates how educational work can be doctoral students to become the kind of future research explicitly designed and foregrounded. Both sites illustrate workforce described above, and supplement the formal the pedagogic work of configuring and enacting doc- supervisor-student relationship. toral practices, knowledge, skills and understandings. The In our recent work we have been investigating doctoral discussion in the final section draws through the impli- programmes across a range of disciplines and sites in a cations for research and scholarly inquiry into doctoral number of countries around the world, seeking to tease pedagogy that enable opening up the growing complex- out principles and frameworks, as well as specifying sets ity of the field and its potential for change. of activity that engage doctoral students and researchers in modelling and developing the target experiences, practices and capabilities (Lee & Danby 2012). We have undertaken this investigation of pedagogical practices in ‘If you slowed it down enough to really hear it’: understanding pedagogy as design and action an environment where the close-up focus on what goes on ‘in the swamp’ of the daily life of doctoral work is still Starting from the position that working from a design remarkably undocumented.While there is a growing body model supports systematic and rigorous documenta- of work attending to students’ and supervisors’ accounts tion and development of pedagogy, we look ‘up close’ to of their experiences of doctoral programmes of one kind explore what happens between a design plan and a prac- or another, little is known of how such programmes are tice, in order to better understand what it means to be played out in situ. Yet, as Green (2009) points out, an engaged in doing doctoral pedagogy. examination of these practices and relationships is the The case studies in the following two sections are, ‘next challenge for doctoral education’. This paper takes first, of Doctoralnet, an international network of doctoral 20 Researching doctoral pedagogy close up, Susan Danby & Alison Lee vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W students and researchers engaging in online and face-to- offices, books, information and social media, and so on. face interactions and, second, a transcript analysis group This feature of design recognises that the particular social where a group of researchers – including supervisors and and institutional orders are made and remade through research students – meet regularly to discuss a selected participation in these relationships. transcript of an audio or video recording. Each case dem- Third, design entails within it the associated concept onstrates, in different ways, key features of how doctoral of enactment – the translation of ideas into the practices pedagogies are designed, brought together and accom- and products of doctoral work. These enactments occur plished. We deploy two inter-related conceptual fram- within particular scholarly contexts, shaped by and shape ings: the first conceptualises pedagogy as design, and the the research and knowledge domains of which they are second as practice-in-action. a part. In doctoral pedagogy, these enactments involve According to Kamler and Thomson (2006, p. 18), doctoral pedagogy is above all a question of design: certain recognisable performances – of being a student, a scholar, a supervisor, a peer reviewer etc, as well as a The pedagogue deliberately designs experiences, tasks, events, conversations which create the opportunity for the student to … move both identity and knowledge simultaneously. re-invention of familiar modes of action such as seminars We take up and develop Kamler and Thomson’s (2006) objects (Green 2009) as the outcomes of doctoral work. point that design is a multi-faceted and orderly action. These enactments draw attention to the key feature of all In order to do this, we focus on three salient elements designs: that they are co-configured through the enact- that, we argue, articulate the concept of design in rela- ments of participants within particular disciplinary and tion to doctoral pedagogy. First, the arrangement of form institutional environments. Here the non-deterministic and appearance make visible the pedagogical work of set- characteristic of design is made visible through a kind of ting up the circumstances and conditions under which moving forward in time, through process, sequencing and students may engage in activities conducive to advanced co-production of the activities and events. as more explicitly pedagogical modes, and the invention of new ones, such as posting live to YouTube, videoconferencing or the production of different kinds of knowledge doctoral research learning. Doctoral educators ‘enable’ Developing the element of enactment to an articula- learning through setting up opportunities for critical tion of our concern with pedagogical work is our use of exchange and action relevant to disciplines and research the concept of ‘pedagogy-in-action’. This term is closely fields. Decisions about pedagogical design in doctoral tied to the conceptualisation of culture in action (Baker education involve reconciling competing demands: this 2000; Danby 2005) in that ‘members use culture to do rather than that, this before that, and so on. Such consider- things, but that culture is constituted in, and only exists in, ations attend to the craft of designing pedagogical spaces action’ (Hester & Eglin 1997, p. 20-21). In the case of doc- that afford such possibilities. toral pedagogy, the idea of pedagogy-in-action suggests Second, the concept of design draws attention to the and allows an investigation of how pedagogical design social and collective nature of the endeavour of doing is enacted and how doctoral work is ‘done’ – how doc- doctoral work, making visible regularities, patterns, toral practices happen moment by moment, and across freedoms and constraints that are produced as the accom- contexts and relationships. Because these practices are plishment of ongoing actions. Design has no meaning so much part of the everyday mundane work of ‘doing’ in a social vacuum; it invokes particular, intelligible pat- doctoral work, they can be overlooked as a set of actions terns of relationships among elements. These patterns and events that constitute what have been termed, more are neither overly determined, in the sense that they do generally, ‘doctoral practices’ (Lee & Boud 2009). A focus not dictate action in a closed or deterministic manner; on the practices of everyday life shows the social, pro- nor are they arbitrary; rather, in the case of doctoral peda- fessional and institutional interactions as they unfold gogy, they are shaped with reference to the actual prac- among participants. By close looking at these practices, tices of the research environments of the disciplines and we can show the embedded local work of social actions fields in which they are embedded. The elements of the to produce identities (Hester & Eglin 1997), such as that design entail relationships among human participants of being a doctoral supervisor and a doctoral candidate, that are institutionally prefigured yet supple enough to or a laboratory research team leader, or a member of an be inventively re-configured and remade. They also entail ethnographic fieldwork team or a data analysis group. In different kinds of relationships of time, duration, proxim- working from a standpoint that recognises pedagogy in ity, distance and the material artefacts of doctoral work: action, we can also conceptualise pedagogy as action in vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Researching doctoral pedagogy close up, Susan Danby & Alison Lee 21 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W that our discussion of pedagogy begins with a description who are engaged in research in one extended, multi-dis- of what is going on in the doctoral activity being exam- ciplinary field: education in post- and non-school settings. ined, whether a data analysis group or a virtual research Doctoralnet (www.doctoralnet.net) includes researchers network meeting, as our two cases show, or other forms of and doctoral students engaged in research in workplace doctoral activity, such as supervisor-student interactions, and organisational learning and higher, professional and research and doctoral seminars, or laboratory talk. The vocational education, including online and e-learning description of these practices captures what happens in research.The common themes connecting these research these interactions as they unfold, involving a close obser- fields are the critical importance of learning within con- vation of those practices to show how the participants temporary social and organisational life and the need to themselves co-configure and enact doctoral pedagogy. theorise learning in socially situated ways. After identifying ‘what’s going on’, the next step is to The network was established in order to address a prob- make sense of those activities and relationships through lem of geographical dispersal and isolation, where sites and examining them within the contexts of local and embed- circumstances of learning are changing rapidly and where ded cultures of doctoral practices. An investigation of renewal through international networking and through these practices can show how those involved in doctoral linking doctoral research to larger programmes of col- education, such as doctoral students and supervisors, laborative research is considered necessary for the field orient to the local practices and, through this orienta- to thrive. Universities in all nine countries were originally tion, constantly make and remake these local practices of involved in the design and development of the network, doctoral pedagogy. We can see this orientation by close the stated goal and purpose of which was to build oppor- looking at what members say and do to show that the tunities for collaboration across the geographical, linguistic, practices constantly make and remake who they are as cultural, institutional and disciplinary borders that shape members within these practices. Interaction does not the field. Doctoralnet operates largely as an online network, construct a static set of roles or relationships, such as linked through a virtual research environment with a range supervisor and student, but these are constantly being of Web 2 affordances: online discussion, chat, videoconfer- remade through the already underway action, and are encing, blogs, linked homepages and collaborative writing always ‘in flux’ (Danby 2000). Looking closely at ‘live per- spaces such as wikis. Audio and video materials are linked formances’ of the work of doctoral pedagogy makes vis- through home university websites and through YouTube. ible the dynamics of this remaking. Supplementing the online work is a commitment to face-to- A close examination of the practices of doctoral engage- face meetings at key international conferences. ment brings to the fore ways to look at the identity work A key design feature of the network was the aim to happening through the everyday, ordinary activities of build links between research and pedagogy that would doing doctoral work, such as Danby’s (2005) analysis of inform all of the network’s activities. That is, in contrast a chain of email exchanges as the shaping and reshaping to undergraduate or Masters-level educational networks, of identity between a student and her supervisors over Doctoralnet activities were designed to involve students the course of the doctoral study. The traditional image of and established researchers working together in activi- ‘an essentially privatised and personalised’ (Lee & Green ties that would build research collaborations among 1997, p. 5) doctoral student can be recast now to present network members. At the same time, explicitly pedagogi- alternative identities of doctoral student, supervisor or cal activities were developed aiming to build capacities researcher. In the two cases presented in this paper, we and knowledge among doctoral students in collaborative call attention to the everyday work of members as they international exchange. It is this dual focus that shaped make connections, build relationships and do activities, as the particular activities and pedagogical principles under- they engage in the work of doctoral pedagogy. pinning the network. This focus also led to the aspiration of Doctoralnet becoming a network of member univer- Case 1: Doctoralnet: an international doctoral education network sities’ graduate schools, populated by doctoral students and researchers, each of whom would also be networked through their respective research communities. The first case study is an account of a network bringing Two examples of how Doctoralnet has worked in together students and experienced researchers from nine action are detailed briefly here. The first is an explicitly countries around the world (Australia, Canada, Denmark, pedagogical event. In 2009, a dedicated Doctoralnet mini- Korea, Norway, Poland, Sweden, South Africa and Scotland) conference was held in conjunction with an international 22 Researching doctoral pedagogy close up, Susan Danby & Alison Lee vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W research conference on ‘Researching Work and Learning’ the development of joint programmes of funded research (RWL6) at Roskilde, Denmark, which attracted many of that exploit the international links, enhance the strategic the original senior members of the network. Eleven stu- positioning of research initiatives, and tap into wider inter- dents from five member institutions in five countries national research networks to secure funding and build presented papers and acted as discussants to student sustainability. One such programme is a developing col- research presentations. Three months before the confer- laboration between Linköping University and University ence, an online workshop was held for all students plan- of Technology, Sydney (UTS), in the area of interprofes- ning to present at the mini-conference. Two late-stage sional education and collaborative practice in health. This doctoral students from UTS posted a clip on YouTube and collaboration has built in opportunities for doctoral stu- moderated the discussion (see http://www.youtube.com/ dents within the larger programme of research, through watch?v=91iMn54S0CY).At the mini-conference, a group co-tutelle enrolment, joint supervision, shared resources, of first-semester doctoral students from Linköping Univer- jointly developed theoretical and methodological framings sity, Sweden, acted as discussants for papers presented by and, in one case at least, joint fieldwork.A network member doctoral students from other universities in the network. from one university has developed a methodological Each presentation received a response from two discus- framework for undertaking collaborative cross-national sants: a senior researcher in the network and a student ethnographic fieldwork in health service settings and is member. The Linköping students had engaged closely working with doctoral student members from the other with the paper they were to respond to prior to travelling university in the joint trialling of the methods. Student to Denmark and had prepared written responses, as part members are thus simultaneously being trained in ethno- of their early research training. A meeting on ‘being a dis- graphic methods and co-researching on the joint project, cussant’ was held in a café in Copenhagen the day before involving both face-to-face work and online support, build- the conference to rehearse strategies the students could ing strong international and methodological networks. utilise in their first experience of responding publicly to a Most recently, students are travelling to partner universi- research paper. During this meeting, these students asked ties for a period of immersion in fieldwork and on-campus if they could present their responses first as they were research activity, as part of their doctoral study.At the same concerned that, if they went as second respondent, they time, further cross-international research training opportu- would run out of questions and comments. A number of nities are being pursued by linking Doctoralnet members explicit pedagogical purposes were served: in addition to to EU and other professional learning research networks providing explicit scaffolding and role modelling through such as ProPEL at the University of Stirling (www.propel. senior researchers and student members undertaking par- stir.ac.uk), an original member of Doctoralnet. allel tasks, there were opportunities to manage the inter- One key aim in the original design of the network actions so that the pedagogical role of senior researchers has been to generate a ‘distributed’ pedagogy – where was foregrounded. This offered particular support for the emphasis is not always, or only, ‘vertical’: students to those students whose first language was other than Eng- supervisors or senior researchers. In practice, the network lish and who were presenting their discussions in English. has offered a set of opportunities for doctoral students to These activities were in one sense prefigured and ena- undertake a range of activities with each other – in the more bled through the explicit design of Doctoralnet. At the ‘horizontal’ relationships associated with peer learning and same time, they exceeded the imaginings of the original research collaboration (e.g. Boud & Lee 2005, Pilbeam & designers. The network’s practices were made in action, Denyer 2009). Some of these were pre-planned – part of with elaboration and redesign becoming hallmarks of the the original design – and some were not and have emerged enactments in particular instances. in the accumulated interactions associated with the history The second example illustrates how international of the management of the network. For example, the online research collaborations began to develop through the interactions through Skype and other social media have affordances of the network, thus demonstrating the unin- made visible many more opportunities for transnational tended effects of the cumulative experiences and enact- knowledge exchange than originally imagined. The pos- ments over time. One of the first outcomes of the work sibilities for innovative contributions to knowledge made within the international network was the recognition possible through national boundary crossing and access to of the opportunity to engage external examiners and wider communities and resources (MacGregor 2011; Singh examination committee members among the member & Cui 2011) were somewhat unpredictable and remain universities. These links have developed further through emergent. There are many challenges to these attempts to vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Researching doctoral pedagogy close up, Susan Danby & Alison Lee 23 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W bring research and pedagogy together, which are explored doctoral students and their supervisors doing doctoral further in Abrandt Dahlgren et al. (2012). These attempts work in these methodologies. warrant close documentation, to build practical under- By looking at the data analysis practices of the group standings of what is required to achieve aspirational goals through the lens of pedagogy, we make several observa- such as networked doctoral education. tions about pedagogic design, and pedagogy-in-action. It is through close looking, by audio-recording the group’s Case 2: Transcript Analysis Group practices and making available for examination and reexamination these recorded practices, that we are able to The second case study presents an account of how one show TAG as a site for pedagogic design and action. transcript analysis group (TAG), consisting of experienced A key feature of the design is that there is a clear sense and novice researchers and doctoral students, is a site of the work of the group – doing collaborative data for doctoral pedagogy. While undertaking data analysis analysis. While the group can be described as having a is often part of learning how to be a scholar, there has relatively open and informal design framework, there is been little showing how data analysis actually occurs in a clear orientation to the purpose of the group; there is practice. Some guides are available that present detailed order in how the meetings operate, beginning with one insights and guidelines into analysing data, such as Silver- invited or self-nominated researcher each time leading man’s (2000, 2007, 2011) texts on analysing qualitative the session. That person brings along an audio or video data. However, little is known about how data analysis ses- recording of data, such as an audio-recorded interview or sions unfold over the course of a data analysis session, and a videorecording of, for example, classroom or meeting hence how less experienced researchers, such as doctoral talk, or client/professional talk, and the transcript of that students, learn the ‘tools of the trade’ through participa- data, and introduces this to the group. The main activ- tion in the group with skilled and experienced members ity of the group, then, is to listen to, and investigate the of the particular research community. data by focusing on how the interactions are produced, The Transcript Analysis Group (TAG) was designed ini- in order to discuss how particular social meanings and tially as a doctoral teaching resource by Carolyn Baker, orders are being constructed and maintained within that from the University of Queensland, who initiated the particular situation. group to bring together her current and graduated stu- Another key feature of the design is that there is a dem- dents to engage in shared collaborative data analysis. Fol- ocratic process involved in that core members have a say lowing her death in 2003, the group continued, although in determining the activities of the group. While, initially, the structure around the group has changed over time, it was possible to make some assumptions about what circumstances, membership and personal and institu- was going on in the meetings in terms of who has the tional agendas. The leadership is now distributed across expert knowledge and who is a novice learner, a reflexive the three Brisbane universities (Queensland University account that closely observes those interactions shows a of Technology, University of Queensland, and Griffith far more complex set of relationships and activities under- University). The group currently has a membership of way. Harris et al. (2012) show that the relationships of approximately 10-20 members, including expert and supervisor-doctoral student, learner-teacher, or novice- novice researchers, postgraduate research students and expert are not clear-cut. Rather, there is a blurring of these postgraduate research supervisors, who meet every two relationships as there is little or no orientation to the titles weeks within semester time to analyse transcripts using or authority of specific relationships, but rather an orien- the methodologies of ethnomethodology, conversation tation to the unfolding interactions of the group members analysis and membership categorisation analysis. Group as they make sense of the data they are examining. For members analyse data that have been audio or video- example, as discussed in Harris et al. (2012), a novice recorded and then transcribed using a method of tran- doctoral student can notice and identify within the data scription that takes into account what was said, how it a phenomenon that brings new knowledge and under- was said, and accompanying features such as the silences, standing of that data, which the experienced researcher gaze and gestures of the participants.This group does not working with that data over several years acknowledges hold any ‘formal’ university position within any of the uni- that he had not considered before. versities, and often may be seen to be ‘under the radar’ of Being part of the transcript analysis group means being what constitutes doctoral training. Nevertheless, it does part of a scholarly community where everyone is exposed hold an important position for many researchers, and for to, and participates in, doing noticing of interactional fea- 24 Researching doctoral pedagogy close up, Susan Danby & Alison Lee vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W tures within the data.This is pedagogy-in-action. Everyone new understandings about what is happening in the vide- at various times is both novice and expert – such as expert orecorded and transcribed data as well as how to go about at undertaking transcript analysis, and expert at ‘noticing.’ undertaking such analysis. All participants within the transcript analysis session are A key feature of this group is that the practices have immersed into a scholarly context that we describe as a emerged from the members themselves seeing a need pedagogic practice. As Herzfeld suggests, the participants not just for doctoral students to learn how to do meth- of the transcript group are doing what the ‘natives’ (ie, odology but also for themselves as participants in a schol- researchers using conversation analysis) expect. Analytic arly community of data analysts. It is now not possible expertise is one pedagogic factor, and so is learning how to behave within this discourse community. It is about ‘culture in action’ (Baker 2000; Hester & Eglin 1997). It is also about making visible what is invisible; in this instance the pedagogic work, as it unfolds moment to consider the practices of These activities were in one sense prefigured and enabled through the explicit design of Doctoralnet. At the same time, they exceeded the imaginings of the original designers. The networks practices were made in action, with elaboration and redesign becoming hallmarks of the enactments in particular instances. by moment, often going the group without considering this activity through a lens that sees these practices as pedagogic activities. Through writing about the group’s practices as pedagogy, it is possible to rethink and reconstitute what counts in terms of pedagogic design and activity. unrecognised as a forum for a ‘distributed’ pedagogy in which the boundaries between novice and expert members are blurred, unless explicit Discussion: pedagogical designs and enactments attention is drawn to it. The design of TAG as a pedagogic site is one where the There are difficulties associated with undertaking close- practices of the group have come about through collegial up work to understand doctoral practices. One difficulty networking, and it has an organic ground-up design in is that close observation of practices means being able to that the core members, representatives from each univer- have access to those practices. Being an insider, looking sity, regularly discuss how the group will be run and the at one’s own practices, can overcome some access issues focus of activity from semester to semester, year to year. but it also can be more difficult when observing upfront At first glance, it appears that the person who most ben- our own practices, or the practices of the institution and efits from these sessions is the person whose data is being organisations of which we are part.As Woolgar (1988) and discussed. However, the design of the data sessions, with a Atkinson (1981) point out, analysing close-up aspects of focus on members’ action, is such that the sessions offer all our practices means a suspension of commonsense and members the opportunity to participate in the discussion taken for granted practices. In many ways, an anthropolo- about the transcript and to be immersed in a pedagogic gist in an alien cultural environment can more easily make context where they are exposed to, and can participate in, observations of that culture because they have the capac- talk about the methodology of doing conversation analy- ity to see it as ‘exotic’ and observe it without the burden sis. This approach shows a pedagogic device in action for of being an everyday member within that environment. developing analytic expertise in data analysis for all mem- (Woolgar 1988). Delaying acceptance of commonsense bers, and not just for doctoral candidates. assumptions allows for a consideration of the context in The pedagogic work can be shown through how mem- new ways (Atkinson 1981).We call for a reflexive position bers interact to each other, introduce new ideas and display that aims to recover and sustain the uncertainty of the new understandings of how to undertake data analysis or enquiry, as we interrogate and find strange the practices, display new understandings about what is observed in the in order to engage in a study of those practices. data. Within this understanding, investigating how mem- In this section, we tease out some of the pedagogical bers participate in the work of doing data analysis is also principles informing the design of the work in the two investigating pedagogy in action, as the practices of doing case studies. While each case study has given varying data analysis can also be understood as doing pedagogic degrees of emphasis to particular design elements, and work (Harris et al. 2012). Researchers, both novice and enactment of those, there are three overarching princi- expert, engage in pedagogic work by informing others of ples underpinning both cases. The first is that doctoral vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Researching doctoral pedagogy close up, Susan Danby & Alison Lee 25 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W pedagogy is a set of everyday practices that enact a dis- writing-based to talk-based interactions across network tributional, or ‘horizontalising,’ intention, positioning the members. A further set of design strategies involves the doctoral student alongside more knowledgeable and creation of opportunities for students early in their doc- experienced colleagues, in research activities that orient toral candidature to articulate their research intentions in to the work rather than to their respective institutional an international setting of peer students and researchers in positionings. A second principle is that there is inten- the field. Relatedly, doctoral students are brought into colle- tion within design and flexibility of pedagogic practices gial working forms such as work-in-progress seminars with that takes into account changing relationships and con- research peers, both senior and more junior, in respective texts, such as the nuanced work of scaffolding pedagogic member universities.These strategies provide opportunity moments through design and action. A third pedagogic for shifting positions, as experienced researchers present principle is the recognition of the ineluctably social and their working manuscripts and invite doctoral students to collective nature of ‘doing’ doctoral work. Such culture- question and critique. When deliberately designed, these in-action requires an orientation to devising activities strategies have offered important role-modelling opportu- to make possible opportunities for dialogue within net- nities within an explicitly scaffolded environment, where works that span countries, senior researchers and doc- students are coached in forms of elaborative and critical toral students, and research fields. exchange with seniors as peers sharing their own develop- The pedagogical intentions for case study 1, Doctoral- ing writing. net, were enacted out of three broad design principles, The pedagogic intentions for case study 2, the Transcript elaborated in more detail in Abrandt Dahlgren et al. Analysis Group, are enacted out of three broad pedagogic (2012). First, activities are devised that facilitate the build- design principles.The first is that pedagogic practices are ing of dialogue among senior researcher/doctoral student made possible when there is immersion within everyday members; institutions, countries and research interests. research contexts that make visible, through enactment, Second, the activities seek to enact a horisontalising ways of doing analysis. A second design principle is that pedagogical design, positioning the doctoral student as pedagogic practices are both systematic and opportun- a knowledgeable colleague-to-be, albeit with a different istic, in that there are both planned and serendipitous knowledge, experience, and intention from those of the events that cannot be foreseen or anticipated, but which more experienced researchers. The third, related princi- generate pedagogic moments. A third design principle, ple involves fostering senior researchers’ sensitivity to the which encompasses the first two, is that doctoral design incompleteness – or ‘becoming-ness’ of the students’ con- and enactment requires as an essential element the social ceptualisations of their research, teasing out what kind of and collective nature of ‘culture-in-action.’ Knowledge scaffolding the students need in order to be able to artic- production requires a set of social conditions, and valuing ulate their intention more clearly and coherently. These and designing a pedagogic order is not possible if done principles inform a range of the key strategies, of which in isolation. the following are some examples. The case of the transcript analysis group contributes Many strategies enact a horisontalising, boundary-cross- one approach to understanding social practices associ- ing principle along a number of different lines: institu- ated with pedagogy-in-action. We show that, rather than tional, national, linguistic, theoretical and methodological. being pre-determined by institutional roles or strict invo- The developing discussions about international research cations of the roles of expert and learner, concepts of collaborations have rendered visible a range of chal- expertise and learning can be built through contributing lenges: communicating in English for students of different to collaborative talk and analysis, and stances of learner member countries; the different doctoral systems with dif- and expert are enacted. ferent practices and cultural politics; the spatio-temporal Being a participant and engaging in analytic practice and practical complexities of geographical and regional where participants’ learning can be supported through distances; the politics and practices of connecting students their membership and participation is a form of doctoral from diverse linguistic communities to the anglophone pedagogic practice. In considering how the transcript world of international scholarship. Increasingly, strategies analysis sessions were designed and enacted, there was have involved design multi-format modes of participating: a clear awareness that this type of activity represents online a-synchronous written discussion, conferencing, a move away from more traditional assumptions of face-to-face meetings, and so on. One of the hallmarks of experts and learners, as the participation space becomes Web-2 technologies is the almost seamless move from blurred between roles of participant and analyst, novice 26 Researching doctoral pedagogy close up, Susan Danby & Alison Lee vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S and expert, T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W doctoral student and senior researcher. The two cases presented here deviate in certain Pedagogical practice has to be sufficiently articulated to respects from many of the doctoral training programmes show how these practices can be named as examples of currently being put into place in university contexts. One doctoral practices and, at the same time, be sufficiently key difference is that the first case study opens up the flexible to manage emerging and sometimes competing affordances of digital media to facilitate an international issues and agendas, changing contexts, both local and doctoral network, still a rare and new environment for globally, and a recognition that outcomes are not pre- doctoral education well beyond the structures of super- determined and set up as goals. Rather, while design is vision (see, for example, the discussion of the Africa-EU deliberate, the practices themselves offer multiple pos- network; MacGregor 2011). Another key difference is that sibilities of enactment. the second case represents an example of activity that might routinely be framed as located with the core busi- Conclusion ness of doing research rather than doing education, training, or pedagogy. However, such practices are not solely This paper contributes to an emerging body of work the domain of a research enterprise, but legitimately can that present accounts of doctoral pedagogies beyond the be reframed as having an educational agenda in terms supervision relationship. We have outlined conceptual of learning through participation. The types of activity resources for making visible aspects of doctoral prac- discussed in the two cases presented in this paper, we tices that typically are invisible or given scant attention believe, will be recognised increasingly as pedagogical in guidelines for doctoral practices, and illustrated these within university postgraduate contexts, and no doubt the through two brief case studies. Together, the two cases list of what counts as doctoral pedagogy will also encom- open up discussion by recognising and valuing that the pass a broader definition and enactment. doctoral practices we describe here are no longer ‘add- It has not been usual practice to give attention to docu- ons’ to the doctoral experience for students but rather menting the pedagogic work that we do in doctoral edu- are being understood increasingly as the ‘new basics’. cation, perhaps because the everyday practices of ‘doing’ This shift brings growing credibility to practices that a doctorate have both become so prevalent and yet still once were considered marginal or ‘extra-curricular’ – sets draw from older, more elite, forms of pedagogy that are of practices increasingly valued as fundamental and core taken for granted. There are difficulties in making current doctoral experiences for all doctoral students. practices sufficiently ‘strange’ to reflexively consider what We began the paper by referring to Sting’s account of is happening within them. We suggest becoming aware of close looking and ‘slowing it down enough ’ to make a what is already happening by close-up observations of the case for studying existing pedagogical practices (our own pedagogical work across universities and doctoral pro- and others), as a strategy to find the pedagogy within grammes that are meeting specific core needs of specific everyday practices and to inform us how those practices groups involved in doctoral education. We propose that work. Within the two case studies we presented, we took the field is ready to attend to the ‘next challenge for doc- up some aspects of observing and understanding ‘live toral education’ (Green 2009), a closer empirical examina- performance’, such as the talk and interaction of research tion of these practices and relationships. groups, which we had to gloss here for reasons of space. These descriptions showed the texture of relationships Susan Danby is Professor of Education at the Queensland and how they were assembled out of, and within, doc- University of Technology. toral practices. Both cases describe programmes that are built on strong conceptual underpinnings and we show Alison Lee is Professor of Education and Director of the that they have emerged through a reflexive examination Centre for Research in Learning and Change at the University of practices strongly grounded in theoretical and meth- of Technology, Sydney. odological research understandings. In this way, these programmes cannot be generic models dropped into place; rather, they have come about as a consequence of local doctoral practices designed to take up identified specific ‘gaps’. What can be taken from them is the articulation of the pedagogical principles and the broad set of relations between design and action in doctoral pedagogy. vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 References Abrandt Dahlgren, M., Grosjean, G., Lee, A. & Nyström, S. (2012). The Graduate School in the Sky: Emerging pedagogies in an international network for doctoral education and research, in A. Lee & S. Danby (eds) Reshaping Doctoral Education: international perspectives and pedagogies, London. Routledge, pp 173-186. Researching doctoral pedagogy close up, Susan Danby & Alison Lee 27 A U S T R A L I A N U N I Adkins, B., Summerville, J., Danby, S., & Matthews, J. (2012/in press). In A. Lee & S. Danby (eds) Reshaping Doctoral Education: international perspectives and pedagogies, London. Routledge. Atkinson, P. 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Conversation analysis: The study of talk-in-interaction (Vol. 35). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Silverman, D. (ed.). (1997). Qualitative research: Theory, method and practice. London: Sage Silverman, D. (2000). Analyzing talk and text. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (eds), Handbook of Qualitative Research (2nd ed., pp. 821-834). Thousand Oaks: Sage. Silverman, D. (2007). A very short, fairly interesting and reasonably cheap book about qualitative research. London: Sage. Silverman, D. (2011). Interpreting qualitative data (4th ed.). London: Sage. Sting (2003). Broken Music, London: Pocket Books. Willetts, J., Mitchell, C., Abeysuriya, K. & Fam, D. (2012). Creative tensions: negotiating the multiple tensions of a transdisciplinary doctorate, in A. Lee & S. Danby (eds) Reshaping Doctoral Education: international perspectives and pedagogies (pp. 128-143), London. Routledge. Woolgar, S. (1988). Reflexivity is the ethnographer of the text. In S. Woolgar (ed.), Knowledge and reflexivity: new frontiers in the sociology of knowledge (pp. 14-34). London: Sage. Researching doctoral pedagogy close up, Susan Danby & Alison Lee vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W Supervisors watching supervisors The deconstructive possibilities and tensions of team supervision Catherine Manathunga Victoria University, Wellington, Aotearoa New Zealand Many universities have introduced team supervision as a means of intervening in the intensity of the traditional supervisor-student dyad. This policy is intended to provide students with a great support during their candidature and to share the burden of sole supervision. It is also a pedagogy that seeks to support students’ engagement with new knowledges that cross institutional and epistemic boundaries. However, few researchers have studied the effects of team supervision on doctoral pedagogical practices and on the already complicated fields of power circulating in supervision. This paper focuses on one particular aspect of the operations of power within team supervision – the issue of how power circulates between supervisors. Drawing on Foucault’s notions of governmentality, technologies of self and surveillance, I seek to track supervisors’ self-regulation and peer-regulation when they co-supervise doctoral students with one or more colleagues. I conclude by arguing that the need for more post structural research into supervision pedagogy remains just as urgent as it was when Green and Lee first made their call for theorising postgraduate pedagogy in 1995. Introduction in most universities across the Western world. It is this form of team supervision (i.e. one student working with In their seminal special issue on postgraduate pedagogy, two or more supervisors) that is the focus of this article Green and Lee (1995), building upon early assertions by rather than group supervision (where several students Connell (1985) that supervision was a form of teaching, work together with one or several supervisors). North made a passionate plea for supervision to be regarded America has a longer tradition of panel supervision. For as a form of pedagogy involving complex power rela- the countries that adopted the English model of doctoral tions circulating between the supervisor, the student education, team supervision is a more recent develop- and knowledge. The special issue contained a number ment. Patterns of supervision also vary across disciplines, of ground-breaking, critical explorations of supervision with much longer traditions of team supervision common pedagogy. However, team supervision had not yet come in the Sciences and far less common in the Humanities to prominence and, as a result, the special issue focused and some of the Social Sciences. only upon uncovering the complexities and possibilities inherent in sole supervision. It is believed that team supervision will provide students with a broader range of intellectual and social If we fast forward to contemporary times, team supervi- support during their candidature. In particular, team sion, or the supervision of one doctoral student by two supervision seeks to address concerns that the sole super- or more supervisors, has come to be regarded as effective visor model, in which supervision was regarded as a pri- supervision pedagogy and has become standard policy vate space (Manathunga 2005b), could be a problematic vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Supervisors watching supervisors, Catherine Manathunga 29 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W method of inducting research students into academic dis- This paper seeks to rise to this challenge by discuss- ciplines. This apprenticeship/protégé model of supervi- ing a post structuralist study of team supervision in the sion involved the development of an intense relationship Humanities and Social Sciences. In particular, I focus on between one supervisor (master) and a research student exploring the operations of power circulating between (apprentice/protégé). Grant (2008) has also characterised supervisors in team supervision. After exploring the exist- this relationship as master/slave, drawing upon Hegel’s ing studies of team supervision, which can be located construct to highlight the complex and contradictory in a liberal theoretical paradigm, this paper outlines the mutual relations of domination and subordination inher- role of power, desire and governmentality in supervision ent in these types of relationships. pedagogy. I then highlight the additional complexities In this model of supervision, the student learnt to team supervision brings to what Grant (2003, p. 189) has become an independent researcher by observing their already characterised as a ‘chaotic pedagogy’. This sets supervisor. This acculturation into the discipline and the scene for the contextual details of my study. Adopt- into the role of scholar was believed to occur by osmo- ing a poststructuralist discourse analysis methodology, I sis. In some cases, this model of supervision worked for outline how team supervision produces self-regulation research students or they at least survived it. As Lee and and peer-regulation between supervisors and how inter- William’s (1999, p 20) research has suggested, it was more sections of gender and power emerge in my data. Finally, a case of survival; a kind of brutal, ‘bizarre and barbaric I explore how the operations of power between supervi- initiation’; a ‘trial by fire’. This model of supervision was sors can be both generative and problematic and call for often characterised by exploitation or abuse at worst or more post structuralist investigations of team supervision neglect at best. It worked best if the supervisor and stu- that might continue the work that Green and Lee (1995, p. dent were able to develop good rapport. It also worked 44) described as ‘needing urgent and rigorous attention’. if the student came from a similar social class and ethnic background to the supervisor or was able to imitate these Team supervision as a universal good attitudes, modes of dress, forms of speech and behaviour. Very often the supervisor guarded their student as if they Although there is now a substantial literature on supervi- personally owned them, becoming hostile to the notion sion pedagogy, much of it remains silent about how team of their student talking to other colleagues. In this intense supervision alters the character of supervisory practice. private space, students sometimes became cheap quasi Even those that mention team supervision usually do so research assistants. Even in the Sciences where there is to recommend it as a highly effective form of supervision a longer tradition of team-based research, students were pedagogy rather than to investigate it. For example, Con- often consigned to the role of cheap laboratory assistant. rad’s (2003) pilot study of research students at one Austral- Not only did this model expose students to potential ian university only contains a few comments about team exploitation or abuse, but it also ensured that the burden supervision and concentrates instead on group supervi- of the student’s success rested heavily on the shoulders of sion where one supervisor meets with a group of students. the lone supervisor. So it is now assumed that team super- Grigg et al.’s (2003) report on cross-disciplinary research vision shares the significant and often demanding peda- indicates that some students experience difficulties in gogical responsibility of working with doctoral candidates interdisciplinary team supervision but made no further among several supervisors and may enable junior super- recommendations on this issue. Sutcliffe (1999) reports visors to gain supervision mentoring from more experi- that the dynamics of team supervision and the need to enced colleagues. Increasingly, as students engage with establish effective team working practice have been high- new knowledges that cross institutional and epistemic lighted in his supervisor academic development sessions boundaries, team supervision also provides students with and Andresen (1999, p. 34) also recommends team supervi- broader interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary support. sion as an approach that could ‘balance the inherently frag- However, few researchers have actually studied the ile and vulnerable dyadic supervisor-student relationship’. effects of team supervision on doctoral pedagogical The most detailed exploration of team supervision has practices. Even fewer researchers have taken up Lee and been conducted by Pang (1999), writing from the per- Green’s (1995, p. 2) challenge to subject team supervi- spective of a recent PhD graduate. He recommends five sion to alternative lines of inquiry that might critique the key principles for developing effective team supervision: ‘rational Science model of … supervision’ that has indeed 1. A good start: establishing explicit expectations in the come to dominate, as Lee and Green warned it would. group and allowing the student to be honest about 30 Supervisors watching supervisors, Catherine Manathunga vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W their fear of being confused by so many supervisors pedagogy, supervisors guide and facilitate their students’ 2. Trust and respect: especially when diverse views and gradual development into independent researchers. This perspectives come up. It is usually the student who mentoring discourse represents supervisor/s-student must work out a compromise or take a stand support- interactions unproblematically as dialogues between ‘col- ing one perspective or the other. legial equals’ (Wisker 2003 quoted in Grant 2008). Dis- 3. Avoid the politics: supervisors should try to keep students insulated from departmental politics 4. Distinguish between supervisors and friends: try to keep work and social times in the team separate courses about the ‘dirty’ concepts of ‘power, desire and difference’ (Grant 2001, p. 13) within the supervisory relationship remain absent from this acceptable view of supervision pedagogy. So, within this framing of super- 5. Be sensible, reasonable and supportive: supervisors vision, it is assumed that team supervision simply gives need to recognise the extra pressures team supervi- students access to additional mentors and provides super- sion puts on students and be particularly sensible and visors with more collegial support. supportive (Pang 1999). One of the few articles that draws upon some empirical evidence (300 interviews of students and supervisors in the Social and natural Sciences in the UK) to discuss joint supervision argues that There is one recent study ...team supervision represents both an increase in the intensity of surveillance and disciplining of students by several supervisors and a diffusion of this intensity as supervisors are engaged in watching (and at times disciplining) each other. joint supervision can be suc- by Guerin and others (2011), however, that provides an exception to this. Guerin and her colleagues interviewed research students about team supervision and challenged the positioning of students as ‘passive novices’ (Guerin cessful but it can also be et al. 2011, p.10). Instead, plagued with difficulties, ambiguities and tensions (Pole they argued that students engaged proactively in manag- 1998). Pole warns about the dangers of regarding team ing team supervisory relationships, conflict, feedback and supervision as a panacea for all supervision ills. Rather communication. Using the metaphor of polygamous mar- than regarding it as a ‘safety net’, he suggests that team riage, they suggested that students, like the husband of supervision ‘if used cautiously may be an effective way of many wives, actively ‘skilfully and sensitively manage mul- cushioning a fall’ (Pole 1998, p. 270). tiple relationships with very different partners’ (Guerin et However, none of this small body of research on team al. 2011, p. 3). supervision has sought to investigate the highly complicated fields of power circulating in team supervision. Watts (2010) emphasises this continuing dearth of criti- Power, desire and governmentality in supervision cal investigation of team supervision. Summarising Delamont and others’ (2004) list of concerns about team There are, however, an increasing number of studies that supervision, Watts (2010) argues that communication can deploy critical and poststructuralist paradigms to inves- become problematic within team supervision and that tigate supervision pedagogy, particularly following Lee there is a risk that no one supervisor will take responsibil- and Green’s 1995 call for action. These scholars have ity for the oversight of the whole PhD project. However, sought to unearth the complexities, operations of power, she outlines her personal experience that disagreement and hidden constructions inherent in supervision rela- between supervisors can provide students with opportu- tionships (Grant 2001; 2003; Green & Lee 1995; Lee & nities for more critical insights into research issues and Williams 1999). Grant’s (2003; 2008) work in particular that it can provide students with continuity in the face of demonstrates just how complex the operations of power an unexpected departure of one supervisor. within supervision pedagogy are. Indeed, most of the existing studies of team supervision Grant (2003) maps out four complex, interwoven layers come from a liberal paradigm, which suggests that post- of relations that operate within supervision.The first layer graduate supervision is based on rationality, logic, and the constructs supervision between a supervisor and a student intellect. The current dominant liberal discourse circulat- as an ‘institutionally prescribed relationship with stable ing about postgraduate supervision constructs effective [supervisor and student] positions’ (Grant 2003, p. 178). supervision as mentoring research students (Manathunga This is the layer acknowledged in policy documents and 2007). According to this understanding of supervisory in studies of supervision drawing on a liberal paradigm. vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Supervisors watching supervisors, Catherine Manathunga 31 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V Grant (2003) argues that the second layer of supervision is the pedagogical power relations that circulate between the supervisor, the student and the thesis or knowledge E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W digms, drafting ideas and gaining expert feedback, so that they will become credentialed as wise scholars (Manathunga 2007, p. 211). along the lines proposed by Lusted (1986).The third layer Supervisors achieve this through a complex mix of of relations includes the ‘diverse social positions’ adopted support, guidance and facilitation; modelling their own by the supervisor and student, producing complicated research practices; and surveillance and disciplining and changeable interactions (Grant 2003, p. 182). Finally, (Manathunga 2007). the fourth layer is the inexplicable yet powerful opera- However, in team supervision, both (or many) supervi- tion of supervisors’ and students’ ‘conscious and uncon- sors are not only encouraging students to develop cer- scious knowing and desires’ (Grant 2003, p. 185). Grant tain technologies of self and watching and disciplining (2003; 2008) demonstrates how much potential there is students. They are also watching each other and caus- in supervision for supervisors and students to misunder- ing each other to display particular supervisory tech- stand each other or talk past each other. Communication nologies of self. So, team supervision represents both an in supervision where there is only one supervisor and one increase in the intensity of surveillance and disciplining student is a complicated personal and pedagogical space of students by several supervisors and a diffusion of this as Grant’s (2003) work has shown. Adding one or more intensity as supervisors are engaged in watching (and additional supervisors into the mix has the effect of mul- at times disciplining) each other. Supervisors become tiplying these complexities exponentially. As far as I am simultaneously more powerful and less powerful when aware, most of these poststructuralist studies are yet to subjected to the scrutiny of their colleagues as well as explore power and desire in team supervision pedagogy. that of their students. So too, students also become both Supervision pedagogy is also a site of governmentality, less and more powerful in these team interactions. All of as I argued in my article investigating notions of mentor- this ensures that communication and pedagogical pat- ing in supervision (Manathunga 2007). This article drew terns in supervision become even more complex and it upon Devos’ (2004) characterisation of general mentor- can be difficult to determine who is actually addressing ing programmes for women as sites of governmentality, who in team supervision interactions. Each member of which require the production of two contradictory sub- the team is managing their relations with and through ject positions for those being mentored. These subject each other as well as through the thesis (Grant 2003). positions include being simultaneously an active subject As a result, studies that seek to trace the operations of and a subject that desires to be acted upon (Devos 2004). power, desire and governmentality in team supervision Devos (2004, p. 77) thereby demonstrated how mentor- are a vital addition to existing understandings of supervi- ing includes both ‘a form of paternalism and … ‘sup- sion pedagogy. ported self-direction’’. I argued that these contradictions within supervision, where the student desires both ‘auton- Context and methodologies omy and regulation’ (Manathunga 2007, pp. 211-212), were even more pronounced because supervisors (unlike I collected data from four supervision teams at an Australian mentors in most formal programmes) have ‘additional research-intensive university; two in the Humanities and surveillance mechanisms [e.g. annual progress reports or two in the Social Sciences.The team supervision meetings milestone reports], which demonstrate the institutional for each team were recorded for four consecutive team power and responsibility invested in them’ and because meetings, except in the case of one team in the Humani- they are helping students to ‘achieve particular identifi- ties where two meetings were recorded. After each meet- able outcomes (the thesis) within a fairly prescribed form ing, supervisors and students were emailed some short and timeline’. reflection questions, which they responded to separately Supervisors are also seeking to socialise students into a on email.These reflections provide valuable indications of disciplinary way of being, thinking and acting or, to draw each participant’s thoughts, feelings and experiences of on the work of Foucault (1988), to develop particular each meeting. Attempts were made to collect reflections technologies of self. As I argued previously, from all of the participants but, in some cases, not all of the supervisors encourage students to shape their minds (and bodies) through a range of self-disciplining techniques, such as reflective practice, engaging in thinking and writing tasks within disciplinary para- 32 Supervisors watching supervisors, Catherine Manathunga participants responded after each meeting. This approach was similar to that adopted by Grant (2003) in her study of Masters supervision, although she interviewed each participant separately after each meeting. vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T Table 1: Research participants I E S ’ R E V I E W and one male joint Principal Supervisor Teams Student Supervisors General research topic were less experienced but not entirely 1 Natalie – domestic student; confirmed; Anglo-Australian Principal S (PS): Diana Assoc. S (AS) 1: Paul AS 2: Tim All Anglo-Australian Vietnamese film studies new to supervision. I have deliber- Melanie – domestic student; confirmed; Anglo-Australian PS: Bill AS: Eva Both Anglo-Australian Education and technology Maria – international; new candidate; South American (+ 1 Fred – domestic student; new candidate; AngloAustralian participates in 1 meeting) PS: Christina AS: Peter Both Anglo-Australian Philosophy Margaret – domestic student; confirmed; Anglo-Australian PS: Alice AS: Sue Both Anglo-Australian 2 3 4 ately changed the topic areas they are researching a little in order to preserve their harmonious supervisory relationships and to offer them some anonymity. In this paper, I will particularly draw on data from Teams 1 and 2. The interview transcripts and notes produced by supervisors and students were analysed using poststructuralist discourse analysis (Threadgold 2000). This form of discourse analysis was selected because it foregrounds the Social work ‘context of culture’. Broader disci- plinary cultural norms and practices are particularly important in studying supervision pedagogy because they Table 1 provides a summary of the details of each team, shape supervisor-student interactions in many significant using pseudonyms and slightly modified research topics explicit and implicit ways. In particular, these contextual to protect participants’ identities and supervisory rela- factors play out in the unconscious knowings and desires tionships. that complicate and enrich supervision relationships, The four students in this study were all women, with both between supervisors and students and between one of them being international and one of them mature co-supervisors. Poststructuralist discourse analysis also aged. Three of the students were from Anglo-Australian enables the researcher to engage in a form of textual backgrounds and one student was from South America. analysis intimately located within poststructuralist theory Three of the students were in the mid-candidature stage, (Poynton & Lee 2000). Indeed, as Threadgold (2000, p. 40) while one was in the early stages of candidature. As it argues,‘the binary separation of metalanguage (or theory) happened, another male student was included in two and data … is already an impossible separation’. Foucault’s meetings of one team in the Humanities because he was political notion of discourse as a body of knowledge and studying a similar PhD topic. practices was adopted in order to uncover the political A total of nine supervisors participated in this study, aspects of team supervision. including 5 women and 4 men. All of these supervisors In particular, the following linguistic devices were were from Anglo-Australian backgrounds. In one team tracked in transcripts of team supervision meetings in in the Humanities, there was joint Principal Supervision order to identify some of the displays of power and uncon- provided by the female and male supervisors, although scious knowings and desires of supervisors and students: the team acknowledged the greater role and seniority of • dominance in the conversation the female supervisor. In the three other teams, there was • turn taking and length of turns one Principal Supervisor (2 females and 1 male) and up • repairs and hesitations in the dialogue to two Associate Supervisors. As also indicated in Pole’s • strength or tentativeness of the language (1998) study of joint supervision in the Social Sciences, • laughter and other audible non-verbal communication these teams had been formed according to the individual • unexplained ambivalences and contradictions. expertise of each supervisor, with one team adding an addi- I also sought to track moments when both the supervi- tional Associate Supervisor during the study because they sors seem to act as one against the student or when one recognised a gap in the expertise of the existing supervi- supervisor seems to help the student respond to some sion team. Although team supervision is often used in the of the comments of the other supervisor or when the Humanities and Social Sciences to provide mentoring for student seemed to align themselves with either of the new supervisors (Pole 1998), in this study 7 of the supervi- supervisors. I paid particular attention to the strength sors were experienced and one female Principal Supervisor of the student’s voice and how frequently they entered vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Supervisors watching supervisors, Catherine Manathunga 33 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W the conversation and the length and nature of their turns. This also played out in a tendency of the Principal Identifying these discourses and some of their linguis- Supervisor to answer the Associate Supervisor’s questions tic markers enabled me to investigate how supervisory that were clearly directed at the student.This is illustrated teams wrestle with the inherent tension in supervision in the following excerpt: that comes from the desire for intellectual, collegial dia- Paul (AS1): Because I remember you were talking about you know, ideas about ‘Vietnamese’2 women or even if wasn’t in films. And there is a whole, really that underpins your methodology, you know. Actually how you go about it, and how you should be doing it. Those issues will be relevant here as well. logue within a pedagogical practice invested with governmentality and power (Grant 2003; Manathunga 2007). For the purposes of this paper I have selected one example of self-regulation from Team 1, one of peer-regulation as represented in Teams 1 and 2 and I have then included a longer analysis of the gender and power dynamics playing out in Team 1. Interestingly, these gender dynamics do not appear to be present in Teams 2 and 3. Self-regulation Diana (PS): You mean who [unclear word] is it? To analyse Vietnamese women as a non-Vietnamese woman? Paul: Not specifically. In your honours thesis you talked about the appropriateness of various approaches or same works? (Team 1, Meeting, 1, 31/5/06) The ‘you’ Paul is referring to here is clearly the student, but it is the Principal Supervisor who responds seeking There were a number of instances of careful self-regu- clarification. What is interesting is that Principal Supervi- lation by supervisors in these data. I have included the sor becomes aware of this tendency in her post-meeting example that provides the most striking evidence of the reflections – ‘in fact I have a problem of having to make ways in which supervisors censor themselves and chose myself stop answering on the student’s behalf when Paul their words more carefully in team supervision situations. raises an issue’ (PS,Team 1, email 31/5/06). It is also indicative of the pressure some Principal Super- The First Associate Supervisor (Paul) seems to make visors can experience in team supervision. This example a conscious effort to support the feedback given by the comes from Team 1. The female principal supervisor in Principal Supervisor, which she found ‘reassuring … [this] this Humanities team whom we will call Diana1, com- gives me confidence that my judgement/critical skills are mented in her email reflections that, ‘as principal advi- ok’ (PS, Team 1 email 31/5/06). However, he does not sor and person most responsible for the supervision … I comment explicitly on any of this and assumes that his felt a bit ‘under scrutiny’ myself and, hence, slightly nerv- comments were ‘well received by student and co-advisors ous’ (Principal Supervisor (PS), Team 1, email 13/12/06). alike’ (AS1, Team 1, email 13/12/06). The second male Although she seeks to modify the extent of her nervous- Associate Supervisor, whom we will call Tim, seems to ness (a bit … slightly), the team interactions clearly indi- pick up on Diana’s nervousness: cate that she feels under surveillance. She comments after the first meeting that she was also ‘nervous at first about structuring the meeting effectively and presenting comments coherently’ (PS,Team 1, email 31/5/06) This is played out in a number of ways. As she herself being the principal advisor, [Diana] might have been worried that I was too critical, and that my comments were indirect criticisms of her advising, which of course they weren’t. I saw [Paul] later, though, and he seemed to think my comments were fine’ (AS2, Team 1, email 14/12/06). suggests,‘I wasn’t sure how much I was talking to the student about her writing and how much I was talking to the Tim is sufficiently worried about this that he seeks out other advisors about her writing’ (Principal Supervisor feedback from the other Associate Supervisor, who has (PS), Team 1, email 13/12/06). As a result, in both meet- been in the team longer than he has. Therefore, there are ings, she spends a lot of time giving her feedback and it clear instances in these two meetings of careful self-reg- seems to be the Associate Supervisor who is attending to ulation mainly by the Principal Supervisor but also, to a the student’s feelings and seeking to draw her opinions lesser extent, by one of the Associate Supervisors. out by asking facilitative, prompting questions (lines 289306, Team 1, Meeting 1, 31/5/06). In other words, these Peer-regulation feelings of being under surveillance result in the Principal Supervisor focusing a lot more on herself and how she is There were also a number of instances of peer-regulation managing the meeting, rather than on how the student is evident in the data. I will focus on two examples from responding to the feedback or gaining opportunities to Teams 2 and 1 where one of the Associate Supervisors contribute to the conversation. intervenes to try and soften the comments of the Principal 34 Supervisors watching supervisors, Catherine Manathunga vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V Supervisor or to give the student a hint about how they E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W chapters are written: might respond to the other supervisor’s line of questioning. Bill, the Principal Supervisor from the Social Sciences (Team 2) is asking the student to explain how she has approached data collection.The student’s (Eva) responses and nervous laughter suggest a defensiveness that is not characteristic of her usual contributions in the other team meetings recorded in this study. Eventually the Associate Supervisor (Melanie) inserts a hint about how to respond (see italicised line) and Eva regains her momentum and composure: Bill (PS): But yeah, I just wanted you to help me recall where that’s coming from? What’s that all about? Because it’s very very obvious when you’re looking at those diagrams and you need to talk about it and you need to make a case about why it’s set up and done that way. Eva (St): Well, really I think some people find it really annoying but I was doing it to somehow flesh out sometimes by saying what you don’t like about something is giving you more information about what, I mean if you don’t like something or what belief isn’t so useful is giving you more information about what you believe …3 Bill: Have you got anything in the literature that you’ve read? That backs that? Eva: No … Melanie (AS): People could choose what they want to [write?], and they didn’t use it? Eva: Some didn’t use it. The only thing that people were compelled to use was the central, overarching concept. The blue one. Diana PS: goes to that the idea of, you know, in, in Vietnamese, um, film studies, and and feminist, women studies, there is this debate about how can you use the western theories to look at Vietnamese contexts, and, I don’t see whether you have to accept totally Vietnamese definition of female consciousness in order to examine female consciousness as displayed in Vietnamese films, cause what you’re looking at does not necessarily have to be the same as what Vietnamese critics [looking at] … Diana: ...a bit more defensive against um, um, examiner // Paul: //yer Diana: particular (of) cultural contexts or something, and reading most of your chapters and thinking, well, ((not clear)), is there, and then finding out throughout your chapters your are in fact doing that ( ) and probably stated them// Paul: [I’d keep an eye on that … it could be hard to write Tim: [a lot of work] ((very weak sound)) Diana: It will cause, it would require a substantial rewriting of the chapter Tim AS2: …the Vietnamese …keep that down, and then what you are going to say, um, well, (actually, ….) ((weak voice)) Paul: I guess, [I guess, um] Tim: [seems a bit clumsy, that’s all] Paul: it could be, it could be, it// Diana: //what if (through some) sign [posting (more) Melanie: Just teaching and learning. Tim: What’s the sign posting an [(alternative)]? Eva: So here’s John4 saying, checking all the [unclear word] and learning and teaching. That was the only one they were compelled to use. And in some cases for example Elizabeth, her map on [teaching5], that’s the only concept she uses … Diana: something like [that] In the second example, this time from Team 1, the Principal Supervisor (Diana) and Associate Supervisor 2 (Tim) engage in sustained and quite critical feedback about the student’s draft chapter. Associate Supervisor 1 (Paul) asks some clarifying questions of Diana in this excerpt and the student’s (Natalie) responses are limited to soft ‘yeahs’. Tim: yer] Diana: I am aware of these arguments, and this is coming later on, something to show// Tim: //yer Diana: to show, and// Tim: //yer, you can do that with sign posting that paragraph, it just means (you’ll take) more work to start with the Vietnamese perspective … Diana even refers to Natalie in the third person as if she What is intriguing about this is that, after this interven- is not there. Eventually, Paul intervenes suggesting that it tion, Tim’s comments become far more positive and less would be hard to rewrite this section along the lines that critical for the remainder of the meeting.As we saw in the the other two supervisors are suggesting (see first italics). example of self-regulation above, Tim did seem to realise This prompts Diana to suggest some more sign-posting that he had been too critical at first.Although Paul doesn’t instead (second italics) and then she and Tim seem to explicitly comment about this in his post-meeting reflec- back away from their suggestions, agreeing finally that tions or admit to Tim that he did regard his critique as too any of these changes should be made after the next three strong, his actions in the meeting clearly seek to regulate vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Supervisors watching supervisors, Catherine Manathunga 35 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V the behaviour of the other supervisors in the team. E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W alike’ (AS1, Team 1, email 15/12/06). Instead he seems to use his responses within supervision team meetings to reg- Gender and power in team supervision ulate the comments of his peers. There is not the space in this article to tease out any further the complicated strands Although Teams 1, 2 and 3 have a mixture of male and of gender, rank and experience operating within this team, female supervisors and the Principal Supervisors of but that could be a subject for future analysis. Teams 1 and 3 are women, the intersections of gender and power that are already evident in these examples of Implications for supervision pedagogy self- and peer-regulation appear most strongly in Team 1. There are possibly a number of reasons for this. Whereas This study of supervisors watching supervisors in team in Team 3, the First Principal Supervisor (in this case supervision highlights the complexities introduced to the she and her colleague are Joint Principal Supervisors) is already ‘chaotic’ pedagogy (Grant 2003, p. 189) of super- senior to the Second Principal Supervisor and has more vision. In particular, its findings have significant implica- supervisory experience, in Team 1, although the Princi- tions for understandings of supervisor subjectivities and pal Supervisor has a more senior rank than the Associate pedagogies as team supervision increasingly becomes Supervisors, she has less supervisory experience than the norm across most disciplines. As Foucault reminds us, they do. Undoubtedly, personality factors probably come power operates both generatively and oppressively and, into it too, as the Principal Supervisor (Diana) in Team 1 therefore, the acts of surveillance and regulation supervi- is a quiet, gentle and self-deprecating person (some might sors perform on each other in team supervision have both argue an ‘acceptable’ subjectivity for women academics!). positive and problematic consequences. So there is a need I am particularly intrigued by the Second Associate to recognise both the positive and negative operations of Supervisor’s (Tim) comment that he thought that ‘[Diana], self- and peer-regulation that operate in team supervision. being the principal advisor, might have been worried that I Firstly, as this study demonstrates, team supervision causes was too critical and that my comments were indirect criti- an increase in supervisory self-regulation as supervisors cisms of her advising, which of course they weren’t’ (AS2, monitor their own words and actions more carefully in Team 1, email 14/12/06). Tim is trying to account for his team supervision meetings than they might do in private behaviour in the supervision meeting. The way in which meetings with their student. he states this may signal that he may have intended some Team supervision also provides opportunities for direct criticism of Diana’ supervision even unconsciously. What is peer-regulation during meetings. In both of the instances clear, though, in this whole interaction and the post-meet- reported in this paper, one of the supervisors is able to ing reflections of each of the supervisors, is that Diana felt intervene in the conversation in order to offer the stu- particularly defensive about her supervision and critical dent a hint about how they might respond to the critique judgement in front of the other supervisors, although she of their other supervisor or to gently challenge the other constructs herself as more confident after interacting with supervisors’ requests that the student complete a major the First Associate Supervisor (Paul) in the first meeting. rewrite of a chapter. This peer-regulation has the effect It is also intriguing that both Diana and Tim seek to con- of reducing the student’s defensiveness or confusion in struct themselves as reflective supervisors in their post- each of the cases respectively and allows them to regain meeting email comments perhaps to account for their their composure or their understanding of the feedback performances in the supervision meetings. In addition to being given. Therefore, through the self and peer regula- the reflections quoted above, Diana resolves after meeting tion made possible by team supervision, the intensity and 2 that ‘next time we should perhaps circulate each other’s operations of power evident in sole supervision, where comments to the whole group so that more productive students are subjected to all of the surveillance and disci- group interaction and discussion can take place’ (PS, Team plining, is reduced. 1, email 13/12/06). In Tim’s case, his concern centres on However, team supervision also produces some com- being too critical and he checks this out with the First Asso- plex and challenging tensions. In particular, it becomes ciate Supervisor (Paul). He seems quite reassured by Paul’s difficult for supervisors and students to understand who response, though, as if that puts the matter to rest. Intrigu- is addressing who. Not only are the relations of the super- ingly, Paul does not seem interested in constructing himself visor and student being managed through the thesis as as a reflective supervisor indicating that he thought his in sole supervision (Grant 2003), but the relations of comments were ‘well received by student and co-advisors each of the supervisors and the student are being man- 36 Supervisors watching supervisors, Catherine Manathunga vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V aged through each other as well as the thesis. Guerin and others’ (2011) work also emphasises this point. This increases the possibilities for misunderstanding and miscommunication exponentially. So too, gender and power can intersect in difficult ways in team supervision. This is particularly evident in this study in the meetings and reflections of Team 1. A lack of experience and confidence on the part of the female Principal Supervisor causes her to focus more on defending her supervision in team meetings than on attending to the student’s feelings or allowing more space for the student to respond to each of the supervisors’ comments. While this has the effect of making her very self-conscious, in the end she is able to draw comfort from the affirmation of her approach offered by the First Associate Supervisor in the first meeting and she constructs herself as a reflective supervisor seeking to continuously enhance her supervisory practice. Therefore, Foucault’s notions of governmentality and technologies of self allow us to open up new ways of understanding and theorising team supervision subjectivities and pedagogies. In this way, I have sought to apply Lee and Green’s 1995 call for more critical, alternative explorations of supervision pedagogy to team supervision. One of the most important effects of this kind of post structuralist scrutiny of supervision is that it foregrounds both the generative possibilities created through team supervision and the problematic tensions it produces for students and for supervisors. In this way, I hope to challenge dominant E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W References Andresen, L (1999). Supervision revisited: thoughts on scholarship, pedagogy and postgraduate research. In Wisker, G. & Sutcliffe, N. (eds) Good practice in postgraduate supervision. Birmingham: SEDA, pp. 25-38. Connell, R. (1985). How to supervise a PhD. Vestes, 28(2), 38-42. Conrad, L. (2003). Five ways of enhancing the postgraduate community: student perceptions of effective supervision and support. Paper presented at the Learning for an unknown future: 26th Annual HERDSA Conference, Christchurch, New Zealand, 6-9 July 2003. Devos, A. (2004). The project of self, the project of others: mentoring, women and the fashioning of the academic subject. Studies in Continuing Education, 26:1, 67-80. Foucault, M. (1988). Technologies of self. In L. Martin; H. Gutman & P. Hutton. (eds) The Foucault effect: studies in governmentality. Hertfordshire: Harvester Wheatsheaf, pp. 87-104. Grant, B. (2001). Dirty work: ‘a code for supervision’ read against the grain. In A. Bartlett & G. Mercer (eds), Postgraduate Research Supervision: transforming (R)Elations. New York: Peter Lang, pp. 13-24. Grant, B. (2003). Mapping the pleasures and risks of supervision. Discourse: studies in the cultural politics of education 24(2): 175-190. Grant, B. (2008). Agonistic struggles: master-slave dialogues in humanities supervision. Arts & Humanities in Higher Education, 7:1, 9-27. Green, B., & Lee, A. (1995). Theorising postgraduate pedagogy. Australian Universities’ Review, 38:2, 40-45. Grigg, L.; Johnston, R. & Milson, N. (2003). Emerging issues for cross-disiciplinary research: conceptual and empirical dimensions. Canberra: DEST. Guerin, C., Green, I. & Bastalich, W. (2011). Big love: Managing a team of research supervisors. In Mallan, V. & Lee, A. (eds) Doctoral education in international context. Serdang: Penerbit Universiti Putra Malaysia, pp. 138-153. Lee, A. & Green, B. (1995). Introduction: postgraduate studies/postgraduate pedagogy? Australian Universities’ Review, 38:2, 2-4. rational, Science accounts of team supervision as a uni- Lee, A., & Williams, C. (1999). ‘Forged in fire’. Narratives of trauma in PhD supervision pedagogy. Southern Review, 32(1), 6-26. versal good and demonstrate the ongoing need for post Lusted, D. (1986). Why pedagogy? Screen, 27:5, 2-14. structuralist investigations of the productive and oppres- Manathunga, C. (2005). The development of research supervision: ‘turning the light on a private space’. International Journal for Academic Development, 10:1, 17-30. sive operations of power in team supervision. Sixteen years after Green and Lee’s (1995) seminal special issue on postgraduate pedagogy, the need for more critical, alternative research on new forms of supervision remains just as urgent. Dr Catherine Manathunga is an Associate Professor in Education, Victoria University Wellington, Aotearoa New Zealand. Endnotes 1. All names have been changed. 2. Country changed to protect anonymity of participants. 3. … indicates text deleted in the interests of word length – conversations continue in the same vein; // indicates overlapping voices; [ ] indicates softer text or an aside; (( )) indicates transcriber’s explanation about soft or unclear text. 4. All names changed to protect anonymity of participants. 5. Word changed to protect anonymity of participants. vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Manathunga, C. (2007). Supervision as mentoring: the role of power and boundary crossing. Studies in Continuing Education, 29:2, 207-221. Pang, N. Sun-Keung (1999). The plain truth is out there. In A. Holbrook & S. Johnson (eds). Supervision of postgraduate research in education (pp. 157161). Coldstream, Victoria: AARE. Pole, C. (1998). Joint supervision and the PhD: safety net or panacea? Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 23:3, 259-271. Poynton, C. & Lee, A. (2000) (eds) Culture and Text: discourse and methodology in social research and cultural studies. London: Allen & Unwin. Sutcliffe, N. (1999). Preparing supervisors: a model of research awards supervision training. In Wisker, G. & Sutcliffe, N. (eds) Good practice in pg supervision. Birmingham: SEDA, pp. 139-147. Threadgold, T. (2000). Poststructuralism and discourse analysis. In Poynton, C. & Lee, A. (2000) (eds) Culture and Text: discourse and methodology in social research and cultural studies. London: Allen & Unwin, pp. 40-58. Watts, J. (2010). Team supervision of the doctorate: managing roles, responsibilities and contradictions. Teaching in Higher Education, 15:3, 335339. Supervisors watching supervisors, Catherine Manathunga 37 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W Identity-trajectories Doctoral journeys from past to present to future Lynn McAlpine University of Oxford, UK and McGill University, Canada Despite much research into doctoral education over the past two decades, theorising the field remains challenging. Recently, identity has been taken up as a conceptualising frame. Views of identity vary but often privilege the reproductive features of society, downplaying how individuals can be intentional in pursuing their desires – with the doctorate but one feature of a broader life. Further, many focus on the experience of the doctorate only rather than the doctorate as situated within earlier experiences and intentions and future imagined careers. This paper draws on evidence from a five-year research programme into doctoral experience to argue for a view of identity, identity-trajectory, that attends particularly to individual agency, interweaving the academic within the personal, and incorporating students’ pasts and imagined futures. By re-focusing attention on the agency, resourcefulness and independence of doctoral students, identity-trajectory contributes pedagogically and conceptually distinct ways of framing doctoral experience. Context ing students’ pasts as well as imagined futures. Focusing attention on the agency, resourcefulness and independ- Despite much research into doctoral education over the ence of the individual at the heart of the doctoral endeav- past two decades, theorising the field remains challeng- our – the student – contributes alternate ways of framing ing. Recently, identity has emerged as a conceptual frame doctoral experience. (Green 2005) though conceptualisations vary, emphasising, for instance, multiply identities (Barnacle & Mewburn Research programme 2010); embodied, raced and classed identities (Archer 2008); or identities constructed through community mem- Since 2006, two research teams1, one in Canada and the bership (Carlone & Johnson 2007). These studies largely other in the UK, have researched the experiences of emphasise experience of the doctorate only, rather than over 80 doctoral students in four universities, initially in the doctorate as situated within earlier experiences and the social sciences and more recently in the sciences2. intentions, future imagined careers, and just one aspect of Methodologically, the team takes a narrative approach a fuller life. As well, many tend to emphasise socialisation viewing participant information as stories of identity and acculturation (e.g. Gardner 2008) or post-modernist (Sfard & Prusak 2005).The underlying premise is that (neo-liberal) perspectives (e.g. Archer 2008) – highlight- narrative can provide a means to make sense of both the ing the reproductive features of society rather than how constancy of an individual’s perception of identity com- individuals can be intentional in pursuing their desires bined with the perception of identity change through (Archer 2000). In this paper, I draw on evidence from a time (Elliott 2005). five-year research programme to argue the value of a com- For about 60 participants in the social sciences and the plementary view of identity, identity-trajectory (McAlpine sciences, narratives of different kinds have been collected et al. 2010), that attends particularly to individual agency, over at least a year: an initial biographic questionnaire, nesting the academic within the personal and incorporat- weekly activity logs completed every month or two, fol- 38 Identity-trajectories, Lynn McAlpine vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V lowed by a pre-interview questionnaire and interview. We recruited another 20 individuals who characterised their E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W • Horizons for action: the options for action seen as personally viable at any particular time. stories as particularly troublesome when we noticed that Doctoral-academic work experience is conceived as despite difficulties and emotional ups and downs, those three distinct yet interwoven strands that develop some- participating in the first group reported moving forward. what independently: The 20 completed pre-interview questionnaires and inter- • Networking: present and past relationships which serve views only. As regards the 60, the activity log captures the experiences of a particular week (Agosto & Hughes-Hassell as resources as well as carry responsibilities. • Intellectual: written and oral contributions to the field leading to recognition. 2005). The pre-interview questionnaire provides other • Institutional: information related to the total time period, and the infor- resources. mation in the logs and pre-interview questionnaire are These constructs are elaborated below through Sam’s probed in the interview. Of the 60, a) 20 social sciences story to emphasise that while the discrete constructs offer students have continued the same data collection cycle in analytic power, they collectively constitute embodied expe- succeeding years so at this point they have been followed riences.While Sam’s experiences are particular to him, they for three years (with many now graduated) and b) 10 of evoke the kinds of relationships, emotions and intentions the sciences students have just begun their second year of reported by the others. Thus, his story is interspersed with the data collection cycle. descriptions linking his account to the stories across the 60 After the first interview, we construct case summaries organisational responsibilities and cases as well as the study of students with difficult journeys. through successive re-reading of all data for each indi- Sam’s story is told in his own words (with some edits). vidual: short texts with minimal interpretation, capturing It draws on the biographic information, the pre-interview a comprehensive, but reduced, narrative. Each narrative: questionnaire and interview, and in particular two activity a) makes connections between events; b) represents the logs as a way to demonstrate their value in capturing a passage of time; and c) shows the intentions of individuals different perspective on experience than in an interview (Coulter & Smith 2009). As each cycle of data collection alone. Font is used to differentiate reference to Sam’s story is completed, the summary is extended. The summaries from the more general descriptions. ensure familiarity with each case yet allow us to look across the cases for themes and patterns (Stake 2006). Agency, the personal and the past The construct of identity-trajectory emerged about two years after the team had begun the research (having completed more than one cycle of data collection) and had been reviewing the cases. Since the notion of identitytrajectory first emerged, subsequent data collection and analyses have refined its characterisation. This paper conceptually integrates the empirically-based interpretations of identity-trajectory that have informed its construction. Introducing identity-trajectory The following key constructs underpin identity-trajectory: • Agency: efforts to be intentional, to plan, to construct a way forward given constraints (whether expected or unexpected) – though not always successfully. • The personal: the embedding of doctoral and academic experience within broader lives. • The past: the influence of past experience including relationships on present intentions and imagined futures. Sam, late 20s, is in his 5th year in biology in Canada. In choosing his university programme, he was leaving his partner behind in another city, depending on ‘long-distance contact …for the usual moral support.’ When he began the degree with a 3-year external fellowship, he imagined a future in academia. Since the end of his fellowship, he has been funded through research and teaching assistantships –– and part-time work for his supervisor on a government contract. The past eight months, he has been processing data, doing data analysis and writing his thesis. While he is at the point in his doctorate where he feels he should be with his partner while writing, he has deadlines to meet for his supervisor that make him feel he should remain at the university. Sam’s account demonstrates how past experiences are influencing his present experience of the doctorate, and how the academic is situated within his personal life. He has left his partner elsewhere to do the degree, and is managing multiple forms of paid employment while working on his thesis. When asked about his work-life balance, despite occasional visits with ‘friends for a wine tasting’, he responds: Two constructs link the personal and the academic: • Opportunity structures: what is understood or known to be the available career opportunities at any point in time. vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 My work-life balance is relatively low now, as most of my time is spent working. This is largely due to deadlines approachIdentity-trajectories, Lynn McAlpine 39 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V ing, and much work left …to achieve them. I feel this may be partly due to … early on in my PhD … not having a clear direction and spending too much time making decisions, rather than making progress towards deadlines. In retrospect, I might have been able to maintain more balance throughout, but motivation was sometimes difficult to maintain. However, these days, I am strongly motivated to finish, and although there is much to do, it is also easier to find something productive to do that is appealing, whether it be writing, data entry, data analysis, or lab work. Sam is not particularly happy with the present state of affairs, neither personal nor academic. As a result of not making progress earlier on, he is now under pressure. Shifts in his motivation have influenced his work patterns. He is presently more focused and willing at least temporarily to reduce his quality of life in order to finish. Like Sam, students consistently reported the importance of the personal in their doctoral journeys. Individuals made decisions about where to study and how E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W in making sense of doctoral intentions, motivations, and decision-making. Opportunity structures and horizons for action As regards Sam’s imagined future, this has changed since he began the degree, given his greater awareness of opportunity structures, the career possibilities he understands to be available: Currently, I imagine maybe a post-doc, but frankly, I think [I] will be more likely to …get a job with the government or nonprofit, particularly in a location closer to my partner. …postdoc and academic positions are …increasingly competitive, and often require re-locating to different cities or countries, which I am not willing to do for a 1 or 2-year post. I do not believe any university that I would be satisfied with would ever hire me for a tenure-track position immediately after finishing my PhD. to invest in their work based on personal relationships – sometimes sacrificing these relationships (like Sam) and sometimes sacrificing their own desires, e.g., choosing a programme which would ensure they could support sick parents or not disrupt children’s routines.These responsibilities constrained their time and motivation as regards doctoral work. They also experienced life changing Sam’s horizons for action are clear. In negotiating his future he is influenced by personal relationships (his desire to be near his partner) and unwillingness to relocate for the short periods of time required in a post-doc. Still, while Sam is hoping for a job closer to his partner his recognition of the opportunity structures means he will likely end up accepting one in a nearby city rather than the same one. events, e.g., child birth, marriage break-up, illness. Most, on a weekly basis, reported engaging with personal net- All students developed a more robust understanding works: friends for emotional support and family/partner of opportunity structures as they progressed through for both emotional and practical support (Jazvac-Martek their degrees, particularly as they neared the end (McAlp- et al. 2011). All had prior experiences, relationships, and ine & Turner 2011). Applying for jobs, described as time- intentions which influenced the decisions leading to their consuming, was reported only in the last 6-12 months present investment in the doctorate as well as their imag- of the degree. Since most imagined academic careers ined futures.And, like Sam, nearly all consistently reported when they began, what was evident in their dawning difficulties in work-life balance. A number reported shifts awareness of opportunity structures was the limited in their intentions regarding their futures during the doc- number of full-time pre-tenure positions; what was on toral journey (McAlpine & Turner 2011). While those in offer tended to be researcher posts – either funded the longitudinal study appeared on the whole to navigate through fellowships on or someone else’s grant. In the these challenges, it was apparent that those characteris- sciences, often two post-docs were expected – each of ing themselves as having more difficult journeys were one or two years’ duration. In the social sciences, these different, often confronting a multitude of upsets concur- positions were often extremely short – only six months. rently and sometimes in situations where their personal Students’ horizons for action represented a subset of networks were not easily available, e.g., concurrent illness, the opportunity structures – the viable options in light lack of funding, with geographically distant family and of personal intentions. As with Sam, horizons often friends (McAlpine et al, in press). changed from beginning the degree to nearing the end, The essential point is that students’ academic invest- as personal circumstance and perceived opportunity ment and progress need to be situated within personal structures changed. Only one of those who completed intentions and lives that can support but also add diffi- went directly into a tenure-track position; others took on culties to the doctoral journey. The nesting of the aca- post-PhD posts to build their profiles and others chose demic within the personal, a central characteristic of professional posts for security, in one case, negotiating identity-trajectory, ensures a comprehensive perspective an ‘academic’ position within a hospital appointment in 40 Identity-trajectories, Lynn McAlpine vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V order to have the permanence that would enable having a family and still sustain academic potential. Lastly, some E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W met senior administrators from several universities that I wouldn’t have otherwise. students concluded that academic life was not for them, e.g., too intense, too political. Opportunity structures and horizons for action offer a means to conceptualise the interaction of agency and structure – in particular highlighting a) how individual understanding of structures was continually under revision, and b) how the personal influenced the use of this knowledge. Sam recognises that networking, getting to know others in his area of interest, is important – not only for his present work but also in expanding his opportunity structures. In this instance, given the lack of supervisory support, Sam drew on his present peer network to help him. The academic networking strand (not students’ personal relationships though these may occasionally overlap) represents contemporary and historical relationships Networking, intellectual and institutional strands of the academic which individuals build up, draw on and contribute to. The other students, like Sam, engaged with local, national and international contemporary networks on a day-to- I focus now on the representation of doctoral-academic day basis (Jazvac-Martek et al. 2011). They demonstrated work within identity-trajectory: the interweaving of resourcefulness in drawing on individual peers, more three developing strands – networking (relationships), senior academics, student teams/groups in addition to intellectual (contributions to the field) and institutional their supervisors for different kinds of support, e.g. peers (resources and responsibilities). Two weekly activity for advice, other academics for scholarly and career advice. logs provided by Sam embody the experience of these As with personal relationships, academic networking strands – the ways in which investment or disruption in sometimes carried responsibilities, e.g. future reciprocity. the strands influences doctoral work – with the academic A few students expressed discomfort with building aca- remaining nested in the personal. demic networks, describing the activity as too strategic. And a number did not realise until near the end of their One week: I attended a 3-day conference on science policy since I am exploring the possibility of transitioning from a research PhD into a career in policy (given the paucity and highly contested nature of research jobs). So, I viewed this as a worthwhile personal career investment. But, since it wasn’t directly related to my research, my supervisor wouldn’t support me financially (even though he was an invited speaker at the ‘non-relevant’ conference). He suggested I use income from my part-time contract work to pay for the conference … For me, this meant using my credit card (hoping to pay off the charge and interest by the end of the semester with a strict personal financial management plan). My supervisor’s response also meant not receiving any acknowledgement of the value of this event. Now that Sam is imagining a non-academic future, he is intentionally seeking to understand the opportunity structures available, despite his supervisor’s lack of support, and this investment has negative implications on his financial resources. Sam continued: Nor did [my supervisor] introduce me to any colleagues or help me to network. I overcame this …by relying on fellow students and colleagues at the conference who know me and took the time to introduce me to people and expand my network. Connected to the conference was a 1-day workshop on knowledge transfer. Although I doubt I will ever do knowledge transfer as a career, I realised that, whether I am in research or policy, becoming familiar with this field and its language was beneficial, and I also vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 degrees the importance of networking to their identity and career development. Interestingly, attending the conference definitely made me feel more like an academic than a policy-maker …I began to question my plans to move into a career in policy, and wondered if I would be happier doing pure research. While I’m still not sure, I feel it’s important to explore these possible paths before committing to one. Overall, much of what I learned will still be applicable in a pure research career, in terms of ‘soft skills’ and activities that may not be directly related to research performance, but certainly to social engagement and job fulfilment (at least that is my hope). The event, in fact, led Sam to rethink policy as a potential career. At the same time, the experience provided valuable knowledge related to his desire for a personally fulfilling job. Another day, I prepared a job application for a policy job …. Applying for jobs was important given that Sam was nearing the end of the degree. He never reported seeking supervisory help in this task, drawing instead on his extended network for advice. …and Monday was spent in meetings, working as a Teaching Assistant, and a few hours actually reading material related to my research. I was also in touch with a doctoral student in Europe about my research methods. … I spent 5 hours on data collection and analysis that contributed to actually making progress on my PhD. I see my #1 priority Identity-trajectories, Lynn McAlpine 41 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V as getting back to data collection and analysis, so I can then write. While Sam reports many activities here, I focus on his reference to ‘actually reading’ – something he appears to perceive as important but spends little time at. In identity-trajectory, reading is conceived as a feature of the networking strand. Thus, while networking can be intuitively understood as involving inter-personal interaction with contemporary individuals, in identity-trajectory networking is conceived more broadly to include intertextual networking – engaging in the historical, epistemological, and methodological networks that are constructed through reading as well as conversation (McAlpine 2011). The work creates a network of key scholars and ideas pertinent to the thinking underlying the thesis, and academic thinking more broadly. What was striking across the 60 students was that reading was reported as frequently as writing. Generally, there was more day-to-day reference to reading in the sciences than the social sciences; this may have been influenced by the fact that these students were all nearing completion, whereas the social sciences students were at a range of different places in their degrees. Still, reading as an activity was not straightforward: like Sam, often ‘squeezed in’ among other activities or not possible due to time constraints. In the social sciences, individuals’ were reading to find epistemological links that might underpin their work. Such links could be historical or contemporary. In the sciences, rather than epistemological links, reading related to empirical findings in recently published papers representing the most up-to-date experimental results. There was a sense at times particularly in the social sciences that reading was not always done purposively, e.g., being done when experiencing writing block. And students sometimes wanted supervisory help as regards what and E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W strand – writing and other forms of communicating that contribute to one’s specialism. Returning to Sam’s story: As part of my regular routine to stay healthy and sane, I ran 2 days, played Ultimate Frisbee 1 evening, and worked out in a gym 3 days. With neither the time nor the money, I don’t engage in many other social activities. As on most weekends, I cooked, cleaned, did grocery shopping and laundry - all the things I typically don’t have time for after a day in the office or lab. I saw myself as the most significant individual in my progress this week, since I chose to invest time in activities not directly related to my thesis, with the hope they would translate into long-term career benefits. Sam creates a routine to maintain a work-life balance. Again we see clearly his commitment to situating thesis work within what is for him the present issue of finding a job. Another log looks quite different. I spent approximately 40 hours this week on work contributing to my study, most of it processing about 80 samples in a gas chromatograph (GC). Each sample required a minimum of 8 minutes. So …to feel productive, I set up my laptop beside the GC and organised data files and wrote analysis scripts while waiting. …The samples occasionally took a little longer than they needed to because I would get distracted by these other tasks, but it meant the work was less boring and I got a lot more done. I also had a 1-hour weekly meeting with my supervisor to discuss progress and deadlines; we talked in the lab next to the GC, so I could continue to process samples. We see here that Sam is resourceful in organising himself so that he both uses his time well and stays motivated. His location enables him to develop his institutional strand; this strand carries responsibilities yet provides resources to progress intentions. He has access to a lab and research tools, but he also is charged with working with the lab technician to ensure supplies are adequate as well as teaching. Further, he meets with his supervisor, another form of institutional resource. how to read yet rarely received it.This contrasted with the University and departmental location, not surprisingly, sciences where reading was connected to daily research influenced the development of the institutional strand, practices in which experiments are run countless times organisational responsibilities and resources, as well as the attempting to replicate or extend previous findings. Thus, other academic strands of identity-trajectory. I begin by individuals might set themselves goals as to the number of examining the supervisory relationship as a responsibility- papers to read each week. resource and then move on to other examples. In entering While students were intentional in doing reading, rare a PhD programme, individuals assumed a role with respon- was the student able to articulate the nature and role sibilities and began to interact with another individual, the of the process. However, one social sciences student supervisor, also holding an institutional role. In other words, noted that ‘when one is writing, one is never alone’. while supervisors are generally conceived as involved in And in the sciences, one recent graduate described the development of students’ intellectual and networking how reading (and subsequently writing) linked him to strands, in fact, the supervisor can also be conceived as the broader community. The development of academic an institutional and regulated resource. In drawing on this inter-personal and inter-textual networks precedes resource, students at various points in the degree generally and contributes to the development of the intellectual wanted advice or support from their supervisors less than 42 Identity-trajectories, Lynn McAlpine vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W half of the weeks surveyed, tending to seek more support Lastly, students had chosen a doctoral programme based near the beginning and end of their degrees (McAlpine & on their own desires and personal commitments in relation Mckinnon, in press – an analysis focused on 16 students’ to what they understood to be on offer. This had implica- supervisory wants and needs).While they wanted feedback tions not just in their personal lives but also in the insti- on particular tasks they also wanted and did not always tutional resources and responsibilities available to them get feedback on their overall progress. Interestingly, a con- – though they were not always fully aware of this until they siderable number of times, the help sought was related to had begun their doctorate. For some students this meant institutional issues – university requirements, form filling, not finding the intellectual and networking resources they institutional access to resources – as well their networking had hoped for in their departmental locations. In such and intellectual strands.The reasons students gave for seek- cases, students were often agentive and resourceful in seek- ing help from their supervisors rather than others were con- ing support in other departments within their universities sistently one or more of the following: a) the supervisor was and even going to other universities to join networks or more experienced in research, networking and institutional attend seminars (McAlpine & Lucas 2011). regulations; b) the supervisor had the necessary disciplinary Developing the institutional strand of academic identity expertise including methodology; and c) the supervisor is critical to understanding university governance – essen- was the ‘most informed about my work’. In this study and tial if students wish academic careers (McAlpine & Asghar the one about those with difficult doctoral journeys, three 2010). While many students engaged in activities that issues emerged as disruptive of student progress – supervi- helped them learn how academic institutions functioned, sory unavailability, lack of intellectual investment, and inter- others did not report this kind of academic work. Given personal conflict. In the case of the students in the latter increasing pressure for ‘timely’ completion, it may be that study, as noted earlier, their academic difficulties were usu- some students received advice to avoid such involvement ally combined with personal concurrent challenges. – strategic in the short-term but potentially detrimental Overall, while the supervisor could enable institutional in the long-term for students intending academic careers. connectedness, offer networking opportunities, and encourage intellectual development, when this was not Returning now to Sam’s story in his second log: the case most students were agentive in seeking support elsewhere given their extensive networks both academic and personal. Students appeared to understand that the basis for the supervisory relationship was ultimately an institutionally defined role assigned for the duration of the doctorate.They all expected the relationship to be professional, but not all expected or wanted more than that. Moving now to other aspects of the institutional strand, students generally reported drawing on libraries and librar- I spent a lot of time on-line reading about an open-source document-preparation system, learning to use it to write my first thesis chapter / publication, and emailed technical questions about the software to some colleagues in the lab who had already used it. …Exploring this resource was the most important experience this week since it provided the specific information I wanted, helped me solve problems and make progress on my goals …I also wrote the bulk of the methods section for a publication, which is also a chapter in my thesis. ians, office space and office equipment, lab equipment and technicians, computers and software to progress their work. Additionally, they drew on intellectual resources such as seminars, workshops, and more senior academic colleagues for advice. And, they benefited from university funds, not only university fellowships but also teaching contracts and TA-ships which enabled them to contribute to an aspect of the institution’s mission. Such responsibilities were often perceived as opportunities since they afforded students useful experiences of academic work and also led to satisfaction in contributing to institutional decision-making (McAlpine & Amundsen 2009). Unfortunately, students also reported difficulties in finding pertinent policies and services which they reported disrupted progress; even seeking help in their departments was an ad-hoc affair (McAlpine et al, in press). vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Here, reading supports Sam’s use of another institutional resource designed to facilitate his writing, though he also calls on his colleagues for help. As a result, he is able to move forward on his writing goal. And, I spent about an hour looking into a conference I want to attend …I will have to complete a couple of travel grant applications over the next couple of weeks. I also spent 4 hours organising committee work and a meeting for a science policy conference …later in the year, a couple of hours organising an EndNote database for a contract job, and attended a statistics workshop. I checked with computer staff about backup options, and also coordinated with technical support staff for installation of software on lab computers for microscope cameras. I felt like an academic the whole time I was in the lab, and especially while learning to use the arcane (but effective!) document preparation system. Identity-trajectories, Lynn McAlpine 43 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W Evident here are multiple forms of academic work which collectively constitute academic life, and glimpses of additional institutional resources, e.g, lab staff, available to Sam and other students. Here Sam is working outside the university, in fact, representing it and being recognised as someone with expertise rather than a student. Beginning the writing process was also important, because it is usually the most difficult, but seeing the product gave me a sense of accomplishment. I was reminded how much I can enjoy writing, and was motivated to continue writing late into some nights, once beyond the initial overwhelming feeling of starting. in the same range of networking, intellectual and institu- While Sam has mentioned writing four times already, this is his first extended reference to what in identity-trajectory is referred to as the intellectual strand – communicating in ways that make a contribution to one’s specialism or field. that directly related to doctoral work. Further, they viewed Not surprisingly, given the focus on completing a doctoral tity-trajectory contribute a distinct structure by which to thesis, whether in the social sciences or the sciences, indi- analyse the ways in which students developed their identi- viduals reported writing on a regular basis – with the more ties through engaging in doctoral-academic work. The other students consistently reported being engaged tional activities as Sam. While noting that not all were directly related to completing their degrees, they described the motivating power of both contributing to and being recognised for their involvement in academic work beyond these activities as valuable in better preparing them for a possible academic life (McAlpine & Amundsen 2009). The networking, intellectual and institutional strands in iden- common dissertation genre in the social sciences being a monograph and in the sciences a series of papers. Many experienced difficulties in getting started and reported writing blocks as they developed their ideas through writing and then tried to clearly represent their ideas to others (Boggs & McAlpine 2010). Students also reported tensions around how much time to dedicate to writing given competing demands. Still, a number, like Sam, reported enjoyment and a sense of accomplishment when their writing was flowing. Students were drawing on the ‘knowledgemaking’ practices of their specialism (developed through their inter-textual networking, reading) to develop the intellectual strand (contributing to their scholarly community). They wrote both for themselves (e.g., lab and field notes, code, Endnote summaries), for others (e.g., manuscript I like to set daily goals, keeping a To-Do list to help me remember small things, particularly administrative details. In this way, I can get more small tasks accomplished in between the bigger ones that actually occupy most of my attention. But to meet the goals I sometimes have to stay very late in the lab which interferes with my eating and sleeping schedule. And this makes me feel crummy and cranky – until the weekend, when I start to feel more satisfied with my overall progress. This weekend I had a welcome break skiing, and realised how out-of-shape I was after hours in the lab. I also cooked a lot; the leftovers meant I could spend more time in the lab this coming week. Sam’s resilience and resourcefulness are evident – he intentionally uses his organisational skills to maintain momentum and ensures ‘downtime’ to sustain motivation. reviews, journal manuscripts, departmental annual reports), Sam’s story ends where it began with a reference to bal- and occasionally with others (e.g., co-authored papers). ancing the academic within the personal. This was a con- Lastly, students generally reported valuing feedback on their stant in the lives of all students. While usually investing in writing and seeking it out in a range of venues beyond their and finding doctoral work interesting, most struggled to supervisors describing feedback as clarifying thinking and find a way to balance the demands of doctoral-academic enhancing fluency in communicating. work within their broader lives. Rare was the individual who had made the decision to treat academic work as a 9 I also felt like an academic when I was invited to a meeting about statistics workshops with two academics, another graduate student, and a research professional from a government research centre. I am helping to organise such grad workshops in the department. During the meeting I realised I had relevant experience and suggestions to contribute: I didn’t feel like a lowly, passive grad student who needed help, but like someone with applicable experience, an academic peer, with a vision for provincial-scale initiatives. This was particularly true when I realised that the professional had only recently finished his PhD, so the quality of the PhD degree seemed somewhat inflated, relative to the quantity of experience that separated the two of us. to 5 proposition – something to be left at the office. Conceptualising and researching doctoral experience I argued initially that identity-trajectory offered a complementary perspective to those which emphasise the reproductive features of society. While a structural perspective is necessary to understand the influence of factors beyond our individual perspectives, a focus on individual intention, as in identity-trajectory, highlights the individual’s sense of agency in navigating some of these structural fac- 44 Identity-trajectories, Lynn McAlpine vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W tors. It thus offers a means to re-think how we conceive of • Use the admissions process to explore students’ inten- and research doctoral experience: giving greater attention tions, personal relationships and related horizons for to how the academic is embedded in personal intentions3; action, enabling the potential student and the institu- how varied past intentions and responsibilities as well tion to assess whether doctoral work is the best means as resources are brought into the academic context; and how negotiating these with what is on offer contributes to doctoral experiences and imagined futures. to achieve the individual’s goals. • Incorporate strategies early on for students to gain a more textured knowledge of opportunity structures (academic Conceiving doctoral experience in this way links as well as non-academic), critical given the difficulty of personal agency and resourcefulness over time to a finding academic positions (Nerad et al. 2007). Students frequently noted doctoral characteristic – increasing can use this knowledge in deciding the kinds of learning independence (e.g., Gardner 2008). Students’ invest- activities they should engage in during the degree. ment in developing and drawing on their academic As regards the networking strand, while students were networks emphasises the importance of independence intentional, the evidence directs us to consider how stu- from the supervisor as well as interdependence among dents’ inter-personal and inter-textual networks can be colleagues (Jones 2008; Hakala 2009). Further, students’ more fully incorporated into doctoral pedagogies, impor- reported agency focuses attention on the individual’s tant not only to intellectual and career development, but desire to deal with the challenges (personal and struc- also potentially completion of the doctorate (Wright tural) as well as the pleasures experienced in doctoral 2003). Possible strategies: work. Still, while identity-trajectory foregrounds agency, • Make visible within the curriculum the importance of the inter-play of agency with structure is integral. The developing inter-personal academic networks – par- role of structure is particularly strong in the institutional ticularly given the expectation that future scholars will strand: resources are on offer but are accompanied by work collaboratively (Henkel 2000). responsibilities which can constrain as well as support • Explicitly focus on how to read strategically, as well as intentions as well as the development of the network- the purpose of reading (this may require advice from ing and intellectual strands. Further, the interaction of those with expertise in academic literacy). horizons for action with opportunity structures demon- As regards the intellectual strand, again students strates the tensions around negotiating personal desires invested heavily in their intellectual work, but recognised within available structures. their need for support, preferably offered within their spe- Additionally, much previous research has focused only cialism rather than generically. Implications: on doctoral experience alone and has not followed indi- • Embed an explicit curriculum about the disciplinary viduals as they graduate and move on. Collecting data genres in pro-seminars or other contexts in which dis- longitudinally, which Schlosser & Kahn (2007) have ciplinary epistemologies and methodologies are under called for, enables tracking the futures that individu- discussion. als construct – whether staying in academia, stopping • Make writing-as-a-process visible, e.g., offering writing out, or leaving. Thus, this work addresses a gap in the retreats, writing feedback sessions (academic literacy literature, the transition from doctoral education to work expertise may be helpful here). (Leonard et al. 2006). Still, since data collection occurs As for the institutional strand, while all drew on the at discrete points in time it is only possible to approxi- resources and most had some responsibilities many of mate (Hounsell 2011) the progression of identities and which they enjoyed, these engagements were rarely careers in the making. framed pedagogically; reinforcing student agency in this regards should be central to doctoral pedagogies: position Pedagogical and policy implications the student as able and willing to a) act independently of the supervisor, and b) draw on a range of resources often Nevertheless, identity-trajectory provides a basis for beyond the university. Some strategies: reframing practice and policy (McAlpine & Amundsen, • Create a website that links to resources, policies and in press). Students are engaged in their doctoral journeys practices related to financial, health and other non- while purposefully striving to achieve life goals in relation academic concerns. Such a structure creates equity of to past and present experiences, relationships and respon- support for both students and supervisors, particularly sibilities.Thus, their investment in doctoral work will vary. for new supervisors who struggle to find supervisory Implications of this finding include: resources (Amundsen & McAlpine 2009). vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Identity-trajectories, Lynn McAlpine 45 A U S T R A L I A N U N I • Ensure, if not already the case, that students have membership on departmental, faculty and university committees. • Provide financial and physical resources for students to collectively create their own development opportunities, e.g., writing workshops. Lynn McAlpine is Professor of Higher Education Development at the University of Oxford, UK, and Professor Emerita at McGill University, Canada. V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W Education Research and Development, 24(2), 151-164. Hakala, J. (2009). Socialization of junior researchers in new academic research environments: Two case studies from Finland. Studies in Higher Education, 35(5), 501-516. Jazvac-Martek, M., Chen, S. & McAlpine, L. (2011). Tracking doctoral student experience over time: Cultivating agency in diverse spaces. In L. McAlpine & C. Amundsen (eds.). Doctoral education: Research-based strategies for doctoral students, supervisors and administrators. Amsterdam: Springer, 17-36. Jones, L. (2008). Converging paradigms for doctoral training in the sciences and humanities. In D. Boud & A. Lee (eds), Changing Practices in Doctoral Education. London: Routledge, 29-41. Acknowledgement Leonard, D., Metcalfe, J., Becker, R. & Evans, J. (2006). Review of literature on the impact of working context and support on the postgraduate research student learning experience. London: Higher Education Academy. This research has been supported in part by the Social McAlpine, L. (2011). The doctorate: What role reading? Paper presented at the Academic Literacies Conference, London, UK. Science Research Council of Canada and the Centre for Excellence Preparing for Academic Practice. Endnotes 1. While there have been many team members, three in particular have been involved for lengthy periods and made substantial contributions: Cheryl Amundsen, Nick Hopwood, and Gill Turner. 2. These 80 represent a portion of the overall research program which has also followed 50 post-PhD researchers and pre-tenure lecturers. 3. I am not suggesting that others ignore the personal; for instance, Mowbray & Halse (2010) refer to students seeing their personal and professional lives as intertwined. However, in identity-trajectory, the personal (and agency) are starting points and the personal is a constant point of reference in the analyses. References Agosto, D., & Hughes- Hassell, S. (2005). People, places, and questions: An investigation of the everyday life information-seeking behaviours of urban young adults. Library and Information Science Research, 27, 141-163. Amundsen, C. & McAlpine, L. (2009). Learning supervision: Trial by fire? Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 46(3), 331-342. Archer, L. (2008). Younger academics’ constructions of authenticity’, ‘success’, and professional identity. Studies in Higher Education, 33(4), 385-403. Archer, M. (2000). Being Human: The Problem of Agency. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Barnacle, R., & Mewburn, I. (2010). Learning networks and the journey of ‘becoming doctor’. Studies in Higher Education, 35(4), 433-444. Boggs., A., & McAlpine, L. (2010). The myth of ‘writing it up’. Paper presented at the Society for Research in Higher Education, Wales, UK. Carlone, H., & Johnson, A. (2007). Understanding the science experiences of successful women of colour: Science identity as an analytic lens. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 44(8), 1187-1218. Coulter, C., & Smith, M. (2009). The construction zone: Literary elements in narrative research. Educational Researcher, 38(8), 577-590. Elliott, Jane. (2005). Using narrative in social research: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. London, UK: Sage. Hounsell, D. (2011, Aug.). Personal communication. Gardner, S. (2008). Fitting the mold of graduate school: A qualitative study of socialization in doctoral education. Innovative Higher Education, 33, 125-138. Green, B. (2005). Unfinished business: subjectivity and supervision, Higher 46 Identity-trajectories, Lynn McAlpine McAlpine, L. & Amundsen, C. (2009). Identity and agency: Pleasures and collegiality among the challenges of the doctoral journey. Studies in Continuing Education, 31(2), 107-123. McAlpine, L. & Amundsen, C. (2011). Challenging the taken-for-granted: How research analysis might inform pedagogical practices and institutional policies related to doctoral education. Studies in Higher Education, 37, 7, Published iFirst July 6, 2011. McAlpine, L., Amundsen, C. & Jazvac-Martek, M. (2010). Living and imagining academic careers: Perceptions of doctoral students and pre-tenure academics. In L. McAlpine & G. Akerlind (eds). Becoming an academic: International Perspectives. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 125-154. McAlpine, L. & Asghar, A. (2010). Enhancing academic climate: Doctoral students as their own developers. International Journal of Academic Development, 15(2), 167-178. McAlpine, L. & Lucas, L. (2011). Different places, different specialisms: Similar questions of doctoral identities under construction. Teaching in Higher Education, 16(6), 695-706. McAlpine, L. & McKinnon, M. (in press). Supervision – the most variable of variables: Student perspectives. Studies in Continuing Education. McAlpine, L., Paulson, J., Gonsalves, A. & Jazvac-Martek, M. (in press). ‘Untold’ doctoral stories in the social sciences: Can we move beyond cultural narratives of neglect? Higher Education Research and Development. McAlpine, L. & Turner, G. (2011). Imagined and emerging career patterns: Perceptions of doctoral students and research staff. Journal of Further and Continuing Education.Published iFirst, 20 December 2011. Mowbray, S., & Halse, C. (2010). The purpose of the PhD: Theorizing the skills acquired by students. Higher Education Research and Development, 29(6), 653-664. Nerad, M., Rudd, E., Morrison, E., & Picciano, J. (2007). Social science PhDs five+ years out: a national survey of PhDs in six fields (Highlights Report). Seattle: Centre for Innovation and Research in Graduate Education, University of Washington. Schlosser, L. Z. & Kahn, J. H. (2007). Dyadic Perspectives on Advisor–Advisee Relationships in Counseling Psychology Doctoral Programs. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(2), 211-217. Sfard, A., & Prusak, A. (2005). Telling identities: In search of an analytic tool for investigating learning as a culturally shaped activity. Educational Researcher, 34(4), 14-22. Stake, R. (2006). Multiple Case Study Analysis. New York: The Guilford Press. Wright, T. (2003). Postgraduate research students: people in context? British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 31(2), 209-227. vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W What constitutes doctoral knowledge? Exploring issues of power and subjectivity in doctoral examination Anita Devos Monash University, Victoria Margaret Somerville University of Western Sydney, NSW Globalisation has brought increasing diversity in student populations and therefore the potential for different sorts of knowledge to enter the academy. At the same time there is heightened surveillance brought about in response to the pressures of global competition, including increasing standardisation, marketisation and performativity measures. A corollary of these larger processes is the increasing surveillance and control of knowledge and knowledge production in universities, to ensure the position of nation states in global economic competition. This paper considers how these tensions are enacted at the site of doctoral examination with the potential for opening up or closing down the possibilities of new knowledge being generated through doctoral research. This is a significant issue for universities, for future graduates, and for the nation’s economic competitiveness, because new and diverse forms of knowledge are critical for the future. In the article, we explore how doctoral knowledge and subjectivities are constituted in the doctoral examination process, with reference to a recent thesis examination in our Faculty. We draw on the Adjudicator’s report produced in the case, and the experiences of the second author as the candidate’s supervisor, in an effort to make explicit the invisible pedagogies of doctoral examination. In the process we raise issues of the relations of power exercised through the intersection of different epistemologies and ontologies, and the inevitable negotiation and production of knowledge-making subjectivities of those involved. We conclude that doctoral knowledge and knowledge subjectivities are constituted within this power/knowledge assemblage, and challenge the boundaries of institutional knowledge production. We propose generative ways of understanding the possibilities for the production of alternative forms of knowledge in doctoral work that may confront and extend conventional notions of (doctoral) knowledge production, and what it means to make ‘an original contribution to knowledge’. Introduction of the economy (see Australian Government 2011; Marginson & van der Wende 2007). In the context of government Doctoral education is increasingly being driven by percep- and institutional investments in particular kinds of doctoral tions of what counts as worthwhile in knowledge economy education it is timely to consider what counts as worth- discourses.The recurring themes in the doctoral education while knowledge and to whom, and how that knowledge research literature reinforce an assumed shared global nar- might be produced and represented. rative of the need for change in doctoral education towards In order to do this we examine the processes of knowl- the closer alignment of doctoral graduates with the needs edge production by reviewing a recent doctoral exami- vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 What constitutes doctoral knowledge?, Anita Devos & Margaret Somerville 47 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W nation case in which a thesis by a Cambodian candidate theorisation of alternative methodologies and knowledge received two divergent examination results. Under our in doctoral research (Somerville 2007, 2008), which is university’s policy, an adjudicator was appointed to underpinned by feminist psychoanalytic and postcolonial read the examiners’ reports and the candidate’s written theory. The role of the examination process is considered defence of her thesis, to assess the merits of the examin- through the lens of Foucault’s theorisation of the subject ers’ reports, and to recommend a result. The adjudicator and power (Devos 2008; Foucault 1983).We ask how were recommended the candidate be awarded the degree of doctoral knowledge and knowledge subjectivities negoti- Doctor of Philosophy subject to minor amendments being ated in this process? And what are the implications for how made to the satisfaction of the Faculty’s research degrees we supervise, examine and administer research degrees? administrator. The stakeholders directly involved in this process included the candidate, the supervisor, the exam- The case study iners, the adjudicator, and the research degrees administrator. In this paper we examine how doctoral knowledge, In 2009, a doctoral candidate in education submitted and the knowledge subjectivities of these actors were her PhD for examination. It was an unusual thesis in the constituted within the examination process examina- form of a memoir by a member of the Cambodian Royal tion, in particular the role of the adjudicator’s reports in Family, deposed and exiled during the Pol Pot regime in accommodating the respective actors’ subjectivities. the 1970s. The memoir itself is unconventional and does We begin the paper with an outline of the case follow- not fit within the usual methodologies of memoir and life ing which we discuss the examination process as a tech- history writing because it is in fact the memoir of the can- nology for disciplining the parties involved (see Foucault didate’s grandmother, memorised in Cambodian language 1983, 1991). We then analyse the adjudicator’s report before the candidate left Cambodia in exile. During the Pol produced in the case, reflecting on our own stories and Pot regime, the candidate lost everything, including her positioning within this assemblage of actors and adminis- two children, so the act of writing her thesis represented trative procedures.The paper concludes with a discussion a highly emotionally charged commitment to intergenera- of the ways in which the examination process, as a feature tional and transcontinental identity work. Piphal arrived of doctoral pedagogies, shapes practices that direct what in Australia in 1975 in exile. Now an Australian citizen she counts as worthwhile doctoral knowledge. continues the work of her grandmother in practising and We note that issues associated with thesis examination teaching Cambodian cultural traditions, particularly from were not considered explicitly in the 1995 Special Issue the perspective of the Cambodian Royal Family. While of Australian Universities’ Review to which this current the candidate’s story is unique, in the larger context of issue relates, yet thesis examination is a critical juncture global social processes and mobilities, conflicts and refu- in the doctoral education process, with serious implica- gee movements, the knowledge problem presented here tions for candidate, supervisor and institution, and for is not uncommon. how we understand the fields in which we work. Our article takes up key issues raised by this case, to do with the The candidate’s story nature of knowledge in doctoral education; how doctoral The following is quoted from the candidate’s thesis (Engly knowledge and researcher subjectivities are constituted 2010), selected for its relevance to the focus of this paper. in the supervision and examination process; of what con- On the 27th of March, I packed up every beautiful and expensive souvenir that was given to me since I was young by Prince Sihanouk, Princess Monique, the Queen Mother and King Suramarith (the father of Prince Sihanouk). I passed them to be under the care of the Samdech Preah Sangha Niyaka Huot Tat, a top ranking Buddhist monk then who stayed at the Ohnalom Pagoda which was located by the Mekong River near the public market Phsar Kandal. Samdech Preah Sangha Niyaka Huot Tat advised me to bring other rare objects to him if I wanted to when there was still time. stitutes an original contribution to knowledge; and why we should encompass the necessity to produce alternative forms of knowledge and knowledge subjectivities. In this process we resist the temptation to make more of the thesis at the heart of our case. Its subject matter is indeed compelling yet to elaborate further on the thesis and its contribution to new knowledge, distracts us from our core focus here on the pedagogical dimensions of the examination process. As authors we represent the roles of supervisor (Somerville) and research degrees administrator (Devos). The issues presented are framed conceptually by Somerville’s 48 After we came back from the temple, my husband and I started burning every other priceless thing while an army helicopter hovered and patrolled above our What constitutes doctoral knowledge?, Anita Devos & Margaret Somerville vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I house. Among all the rare and expensive gifts, my favourites were huge Chinese silk paintings. These were given to me by my late father who received them as presents from the former Prime Minster Zhou En Lai while he was in China during the 1950s. I understood the serious circumstance well enough that I had to burn those rare collections. I could not take them to the Samdech Huot Tat because he would not have enough room for those special souvenirs and the lives of my family were obviously in grave danger if they were found. Our families were then placed under house arrest for eight months. Two soldiers always guarded our front and back doors and watched every single movement. A soldier drove my children to school every day while another checked the shopping baskets when my cook returned from the market every morning. They took everything out of the basket and spread them out on the floor because they wanted to find if there was any paper or message meant for our family that could have been hidden among the cakes and vegetables. We were not allowed to see our parents, our siblings or anyone else and we lived in hell during those eight months. Whatever we did or spoke, we took extreme care of our actions and choice of words. In the lounge room, I saw everyone still in their hiding places under an armchair or in the corner of a big cupboard display. I took a pair of thongs from my maid and struggled to return to my bedroom because my little niece was still trapped inside and was crying out for help. I held her under my left arm tightly and found my way back outside to be with the others. As soon as I was out of my bedroom, a door and a wall which were burning down suddenly collapsed behind my back. ‘All of you go to the last car’, I shouted, and everyone quickly packed up into a single small car which was one of the four cars parked in the garage. We did not take anything with us except my handbag, which was on a chair in the lounge, because the house had already burnt and fell down in pieces. I drove to my mother’s house and dropped the children off there. After that tragic event, we moved into my mother’s house. On the same day at 5 o’clock, after dinner, I sat quietly near my mother who was lying down on the sofa. I listened to the news on the television that reported the ‘destruction of a house by a large rocket which was launched from the other side of the Mekong River, across Island Chruoy Changva, and the Cambodian Army could not find launch sites’. After the news, the children went to bed. My dear mother went into her room and came back with a large brown thick envelope in her hands. She then handed it to me and said: ‘Arlette (my nickname at home), this is a book that I have kept so many years with extreme care. I have read it thoroughly but some parts have now worn out. You will find it very important. I know you like reading and you like books but for this one, you have to take extra care as it is not just any ordinary book.’ vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W She suggested me to read it several times, even hundreds of times, until I have memorised the memoir by heart since our country could not warn us of any danger or doom. She sighed and said that she could not keep that memoir with her anymore. Some writing was faded away because they were almost a hundred years old and the quality of paper was poor because they were produced by an ancient technical procedure back in the old days. Wherever she has moved with my father, she had always kept it close to her heart. When I came to Australia, I came to a medical conference and it was during my time in Australia that I lost my two children and everything I owned in the Pol Pot regime. I never saw those memoirs again. I recall the memoirs as I memorised them and write them down in Cambodian and then translate them into English. The English translation is sometimes difficult because the ideas are difficult to communicate in English so there is another layer of editing required to help to make sense of the cultural meanings of this record of Cambodian history. I have used my inherited knowledge of royal custom and dress, and of traditional Cambodian cultural practices and meanings, to assist in the communication of the sense of the preservation of Cambodian history and culture that occurred through the Nationalist Movement. Such techniques as dressing contemporary Australians in aspects of royal dress, and then photographing them, assists to communicate the lost meanings of Cambodian cultural practice. The supervisor’s story Towards the end of Piphal’s candidature, the supervisor organised for a colleague in Piphal’s home city to meet with Piphal on a regular basis to discuss her work in progress. The supervisor felt that this face-to-face support would be beneficial for the progress of the PhD. The following is an excerpt from the supervisor’s correspondence with this colleague at the time of making this arrangement. 4/10/2008 It is the voice of Piphal as the narrator that will hold the whole story together and will be a continuing thread throughout. It is the story of her resilience and the qualities that have given her that resilience, how ‘the memoir’ is a symbol of continuity to a past that has now gone irretrievably from her life because of her migration and the events of Pol Pot. There is such a lot of violence and it also seems to be about this tension between the violence of personal and cultural erasure and the persistence of cultural story and embodied cultural practice (like gesture, dress, fabric). There were some beautiful instances of storytelling from Piphal at our residential school. In one related to a free writing exercise she talked about seeing the patterns in the clouds as like lace flowers and the lace flowers became the gestures of the hands in the dances of the royal ballet. Her chapter about the royal ballet starts with some of the memoir and that is where the ritual of the dressing comes in to the What constitutes doctoral knowledge?, Anita Devos & Margaret Somerville 49 A U S T R A L I A N U N I story. Madame Doumer was taught the meaning of the gestures, bodily comportment and so on. So that free writing might be a good way to begin that chapter. Piphal dressed me as Madame Doumer who was in the memoir dressed in Cambodian Royal dress by Bophaphuong, Piphal’s grandmother so she could take photos for her thesis. A kind of doubled identity transformation from French to Cambodian in 19th century Cambodia to Australian to French to Cambodian in 21st century Australia. Piphal brought the royal clothes along to a doctoral school and the other candidates helped to dress me once Piphal and I had privately donned the under and most of the outer garments. Her care and gentility in the dressing was as of a maid to royalty but with Piphal’s position reversed; Piphal as handmaiden. It was the Wednesday morning dress for a Cambodian princess – a cream lace silk blouse, emerald green silk wrap-around skirt held in place by an ornate gold belt, a green silk shoulder sash and then layers of ritual jewellery. There were several heavy gold bangles around my wrists and ankles, a large gold broach on my shoulder to hold the sash in place and rings that did not fit my fingers. Each item of gold jewellery had ornate patterns of ritual significance in Cambodian Buddhist culture and each was placed in the correct order on my body. I felt weighed down by the gold jewellery and how it constrained my body movements. Once dressed I was instructed in how to walk, sit, hold my head, my hands, where my eyes should be directed, that is in how to become the body of a Cambodian royal princess. I was photographed by Piphal. She included the photograph in her thesis as a form of mimesis. At the time I felt extremely uncomfortable in all of the sense of bodily comportment, as if my body was tightly held in place and I failed miserably to reproduce the body of a Cambodian princess. In the photos, however, I can see a remarkable translation and I understood so much more of Piphal’s subjectivity. The memoir is such an elusive object. Is it one object or several? Does it exist as an object or only in Piphal’s mind? Was it taught to her orally, or shown to her in writing, or both? What is the process through which the memoir comes into being as a piece of writing and what are the constraints around that - political, language, personal, etc. For example, I have suggested to Piphal at times that the language is too slanderous (against the French), but for Piphal it is a literal translation of her Grandfather’s (and Grandmother’s) memoir and how can one change a memoir quote? On the other hand it is already translated from written to oral and back to written, from Cambodian script to English language and script, so it is already changed. What is the relation to Piphal’s own stories and storytelling and to the continuity of traditions? There is also the sense that Piphal believes that the writing, and indeed all that happens around it, is directed by the hands of the ancestors, so in that sense too it is a record beyond the person who carries it. 50 V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W Piphal tells me about how she carried the memoir in her head for over 20 years and during all this time she was in ‘the abyss’ because she did not know how to get the story out. When she met me, she says, I ‘hooked her from the depths of the abyss so that she could bring the story to light’. She believes that she was guided to meet me by her grandmother – I cannot for the life of me work out how it happened – why or how did a person from another city who had connections to both universities in that city end up enrolling in a PhD at my University? By what process did she come to choose me who has no experience or knowledge of Cambodian history or cultural practice? Piphal acquired all of the artefacts involved in this ritual of dressing after her arrival in Australia. The dressing in traditional clothing acts as a metaphor for the complex and varied subjectivities Piphal’s supervisor negotiates in this supervision, as she assumes one or other position within the relationship. The heavy jewellery symbolises too the mantle she assumes in taking on responsibility for assisting Piphal to bring her grandmother’s story to light through the doctorate. The research degrees administrator One of my roles in the Faculty is to participate in advisory panels convened when there is a significant discrepancy between thesis examiners’ reports. From time to time, new academic staff are invited to attend these panels as part of their supervisor training. I first became aware of the sensitivity surrounding Piphal’s examination in the lead up to the panel meeting, when I was told that the supervisor was concerned about the advisory panel being opened to new supervisors. Her wishes for a closed panel meeting, in light of the unusual nature of the thesis and the risks inherent in its production, were not respected, and three to four new supervisors attended the confidential proceedings in addition to the official panel members. The incident made explicit the investments of supervisors in the examination of their students’ theses, and the challenge to supervisor subjectivities in this particular case. The issues raised by this thesis were clear on reading the examiners’ reports, each appearing well founded, but clearly written from such different standpoints. How were we to make sense of them? The Supervisor was asked by the panel to recommend an Adjudicator to assess the case. The panel in doing this ‘outsourced’ the intellectual work needed to resolve the case. At this stage I was worried, as the reports seemed irreconcilable, speaking from such different positions about how knowledge is produced, what constitutes acceptable doctoral work, and how it might be represented in a thesis. The adjudicator’s report received, the advisory panel was reconvened to consider and make a recommendation for a result. The adjudicator’s report ‘resolved’ What constitutes doctoral knowledge?, Anita Devos & Margaret Somerville vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V the examination process and the candidate asked to make minor amendments. My role then was to sign off on the amendments once made. In carrying out this role, I am mindful of the power invested in determining what constitutes acceptable amendments as the changes recommended by examiners and panels in contested cases are usually subject to interpretation. Given the diversity of disciplines and thesis work in our Faculty, this kind of flexibility is necessary for the candidate and supervisor to act in any meaningful way to develop the work. When I ‘check’ the amendments made, my practice is guided by the advisory panel’s analysis of the combined reports, together with my own, and the supervisor’s interpretation of those reports and panel’s recommendations. The case highlighted my problematic position as gatekeeper, an agent in a series of pedagogical moves designed, from an institutional perspective, to license new doctorate holders. This case in particular was significant, as it was apparent that the challenges the thesis posed sat outside the bounds of the panel members’ experiences. Who judges what makes new knowledge? What language do we use to speak about things we don’t understand? The case had particular meanings for me given my commitment to developing a dialogue amongst colleagues about alternative forms of thesis work, as a means to extend our thinking about how we support innovation in doctoral work. The production of knowledge and knowledge subjectivities E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W knowledge production. It materialised an aspect of the supervisor’s role as it existed in the candidate’s imagination and made evident the different way the supervisory relationship was constituted in the space between eastern and western epistemologies, language, ethnicities, and class. In articulating a methodology of ‘postmodern emergence’ as the nature of such radical alternative methodologies, Somerville writes about an ontology of becoming-other-to-ourselves through our research (2007, 2008). In this paper we identify the process of becoming-otherto-oneself as a characteristic of the necessarily relational and intersubjective pedagogical processes of producing knowledge through doctoral supervision. The thesis represents ten years of close engagement between candidate and supervisor with several intermissions for major upheavals in the candidate’s life. When the thesis was finally completed the task of finding examiners was difficult, due to increasing pressures of academic work for potential examiners, the unusual nature of the thesis, and the challenge of specifying ‘a field’ for this research. Thesis examination as a technology of disciplining The point at which claims to make ‘a contribution to new knowledge’ are tested is in the thesis examination process. At our university, two examiners are asked to comment on In doctoral supervision, supervisor and candidate are whether a thesis: co-implicated in knowledge production. Both will enter 1. ‘Constitutes a significant contribution to knowledge and be changed through the process. Piphal, steeped in a and understanding of the field concerned; different set of understandings and interpretation of the 2. Contains material worthy of publication; and whether teacher-student relationship, believed that the Supervisor 3. The format and literary presentation of the thesis are was sent by the candidate’s long deceased grandmother satisfactory’. to achieve the release of her knowledge into the world. Examiner A agreed with all three, while examiner B Despite the supervisor’s gentle protests, discussion, expla- ticked no for the first two, and yes for the third (presenta- nation and resistance this did not change at any point tion). Examiner A described the thesis as an ‘impressive during the supervision or afterwards. On one hand, the and unique contribution to knowledge’, and ‘a remarkable Candidate was in a position of upper class superiority as work of personal and academic scholarship’. Examiner B a member of the Royal family in relation to the supervi- pointed out ‘the strength of the work [lies] in its detailed sor’s non-royal class positioning. On the other, the super- and fascinating primary research’ but went on to recom- visor was revered as a knowledgeable teacher with great mend substantial further work mainly to develop the his- power in relation to the publication of the memoirs. This torical and political contexts of the narrative, with a view complex set of embodied beliefs framed the pedagogi- to resubmission and re-examination. A Faculty Advisory cal relationship enacted through the identity translation Panel was convened and an adjudicator appointed . work and symbolised by the inclusion of photographs of the supervisor dressed as Madame Doumer. From time to time, examiners recommend very different grades for a thesis. What distinguishes this case is the chal- This act of dressing in a mimetic performance of her lenge this thesis posed to conceptions of what constitutes grandmother’s relationship with Madame Doumer, and an original contribution to knowledge and how that knowl- then adding the photo to the thesis, illustrates the incor- edge might be produced and represented. As Somerville poration of the supervisor(’s) body in the process of points out (2007), many candidates do not choose alterna- vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 What constitutes doctoral knowledge?, Anita Devos & Margaret Somerville 51 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W tive methodologies but take them up because ‘…there are particular sorts of subjectivities and dispositions towards no other ways for that research to be undertaken or rep- what counts as new and worthwhile knowledge. This is resented’ (240). These may include methodologies not yet indeed paradoxical if we are to view doctoral education developed that will evolve through the work of the candi- as about expanding the fields of knowledge and knowl- date, meaning that there will be no examiner experienced edge making in ways we cannot at this point imagine.The in the particular methodology of the thesis. At best it may disciplinary apparatus creates a web of constraints over be possible to locate examiners who are open to new and which we may feel we have no choice. Academics may emergent forms of knowledge representation. experience what McWilliam refers to as a heightened ‘risk In their study of ‘consistency’ in examiner recommen- consciousness’ (2007) whereby they become focused on dations on the same thesis, Holbrook et al. (2008) found risk management, and averse to risk-taking. Within con- that only 33 of the 804 theses they studied (4 per cent) temporary universities, the pedagogies of the doctorate, in had one or more discrepant reports, and only 37 examin- this case analysed at the point of thesis examination, and ers (less than 2 per cent) showed a marked discrepancy framed through distinct disciplinary traditions and wider from the other examiners and committees (45).They sug- performative pressures, may steer us towards safe options gest that despite the highly subjective nature of thesis and away from the goals of the doctorate to make an origi- examination, their findings point to ‘the ‘innate robust- nal and significant contribution to new knowledge. ness’ of the ‘invisible’ doctoral curriculum and evidence of consistently applied standards’ (45). Alternatively, the The adjudicator’s report evidence of high levels of consistency can indicate the highly effective disciplining and normalising role of doc- The adjudicator’s report was a concise document that toral pedagogies. Citing Kwiram (2006,142) writing in a operates at the level of meta-narrative, viewing the two Carnegie volume on the future of the doctorate in the examiners’ reports from the perspective of what they US, Holbrook et al. (2008) note that ‘while there are dif- each reflect about the nature of scholarship and of disci- ferences in expectations, quality and performance across plines. Of her role as an arbiter, requested to pronounce candidates, disciplines, departments and nations ‘there on the relative soundness, correctness or appropriate- seems to be a tacit understanding of what constitutes ness of the two examiners recommendations, the adju- a well-prepared PhD student’ and that in the complete dicator commented that both examiners were competent absence of any central repository or rules or a cosmic and fair from the perspectives of the disciplinary and accrediting agency there is ‘extraordinary stability’’ (46). research spaces in which they were each located. Because Holbrook et al. take heart from their study results, sug- of its unique qualities, the thesis, she argued, could not be gesting the same applies in Australia. Yet these results judged in the usual ways following normalised academic raise questions about the inherent worthiness of stand- procedures of text productions. She went on to argue ardisation (see Devos 2010), and about the relationship that when examiner B asked for the work to be connected between ‘a well-prepared PhD candidate’ and the produc- to other research projects and studies, s/he was missing tion of new knowledge, pointing to different understand- the point that the thesis is enough on its own. In other ings of the purpose of the doctorate.The issue presented words, the thesis should be judged on its own terms; the in our paper turns on how we articulate those invisible work stands alone, in its own genre. pedagogies of the doctorate that lead to such high levels New and inexperienced examiners approach the of consistency in examination. Our intention in doing marking of doctoral theses with some trepidation, often this is to promote debate about the implications of this because they have little to go on other than their own ‘invisible curriculum’ for innovation in doctoral work experience of having been examined. Yet there is an leading to the production of new knowledge. implied discourse that we know and agree on what a Our account of the thesis examination process illus- PhD is, what it might look like, and what constitutes a trates the disciplining role performed in the production significant contribution to knowledge. While Holbrook et of new knowledge in doctoral education. Thesis examina- al.’s research (2008) reports on remarkable consistency tion is the final stage of the roll out of a suite of doctoral amongst examiners, a scan of education theses in our pedagogies, its power effects in shaping new knowledge libraries points to quite different understandings across rendered invisible within a discourse of standards (see sub-fields, or at least that different sorts of evidence may Devos 2010). It shows the ways in which technologies be acceptable for demonstrating the same achievements of examination discipline those involved and construct amongst candidates. How and from where is our episte- 52 What constitutes doctoral knowledge?, Anita Devos & Margaret Somerville vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W mology of the doctorate derived? Is it a private epistemol- of new and generative ways of expressing difference. The ogy or a collectively held one, perhaps acquired through adjudicator’s report is remarkable because it encapsulates induction into a sub disciplinary field? How does it the issues at stake in working across different domains of acquire its normalising powers? knowledge, theory and text. It is the space within which The kind of scholarship examiner B recommended be the subjectivities of the actors came together, not in an conducted in order to be awarded a Pass, the adjudicator effort or act of reconciliation, as the positions are ‘irrecon- suggested, was not mandatory for the form of innova- cilable’, but as a space within which those subjectivities tive scholarship the candidate was undertaking in the could be respected and managed. work. The adjudicator argued the thesis is the constitution of an outstanding documentation of an epistemology and ontology. Concluding comments: What counts as doctoral knowledge? The adjudicator observed the difficulties facing PhD examiners, in so doing refraining from casting judgment A Doctor of Philosophy is underpinned by ontology and on one or other examiner, because universities are epistemology (which are in turn related to methodology) not set up to produce PhD examiners who can move because it primarily addresses the philosophy of knowl- across disciplinary fields, see possibilities of excellence edge production. This means it is necessarily framed in relation to knowledge in a in difference and be open to research innovations they themselves have never seen and never imagined. How then, we ask, does important new knowledge enter the system? Thesis examination is the final stage of the roll out of a suite of doctoral pedagogies, its power effects in shaping new knowledge rendered invisible within a discourse of standards. The adjudicator alludes to particular field. In this case, the object of the candidate’s inquiry was her grandmother’s memoirs, which are located within a Cambodian ontology and epistemology. The work of her doctorate the failure of a whole system, was to preserve her sense of a failure of both innovation and imagination, which limits the integrity of a Cambodian epistemology while simulta- our capacities and inclinations to make assessments of neously translating that into English within an Australian merit for which we have no benchmarks. When asked to location. Her relationship to her supervisor, as supervisor report on possible bias in the reports, she commented and as collaborator in that knowledge production, was that there is no evidence of bias in the reports of the two understood through that lens. examiners, although one must wonder how much we as While most supervisions demand the negotiation of senior academics colonise others and want new schol- boundaries – of class, gender, epistemology, researcher arship to be like ours. In this she draws attention to our subjectivities, priorities – this case raised a particular set inclinations towards reproduction in scholarship rather of issues due to the non-traditional forms of inquiry and than innovation, emphasising her overall commentary representation. These issues must be understood and on the nature of knowledge and of knowledge making in theorised not as an isolated and specific example, but as doctoral research.The adjudicator defined the issue not as an instance on a continuum of all knowledge production. a question of a level appropriate to that of a doctoral The risk here was that the thesis would fail – a poten- candidate; rather it is about a thesis of difference and tially huge risk, of death to the knowledge and to the innovation. In closing she concurred with examiner B’s identity of the producer of that knowledge. For the can- assessment of the thesis as a remarkable piece of per- didate who had lost so much, that was the ultimate risk, sonal and academic scholarship. but it was her choice and not one the supervisor could This report closed the examination effectively and choose not to take.The risk to the supervisor was a risk to opened a discourse of ‘difference and innovation’ in reputation, of subjectivity as co-producer of knowledge, regard to doctoral research and pedagogies, theorised by and of many years of hard work going unrecognised. The Somerville as founded on a methodology of postmodern risk for the administrator concerned the challenge to her emergence (2007, 2008). In this context, the term suggests researcher and administrator subjectivities: what does it a capacity and preparedness to work outside of ‘normal- mean when a highly original thesis fails – for students ised’ frameworks for evaluating merit in doctoral research coming along behind, for supervision quality, for institu- in order to recognise what is ‘the other’ in the creation tional reputation? vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 What constitutes doctoral knowledge?, Anita Devos & Margaret Somerville 53 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V It is in some respects strange to be suggesting we must E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W Anita Devos is Senior Lecturer and Graduate Coordinator encompass the necessity to produce alternative forms of Research Degrees in the Faculty of Education, Monash Univer- knowledge and knowledge subjectivities in our doctoral sity, and Editorial Board member of AUR. pedagogies, as this is really asking why should we produce new knowledge at all. New knowledge constitutes Margaret Somerville is a Professor of Education and Senior difference and without difference new knowledge cannot Researcher in the School of Education, University of Western exist. The question then becomes how much difference Sydney. we can embrace without risking the erasure of the boundaries that define us. The case challenges us to think about Acknowledgements how, while providing form, structure and guidance to all of the parties in this process (or, a frame on the chaos of Thank you to the candidate and adjudicator for giving us the world (Grosz 2008) which makes knowledge produc- permission to use their texts, knowing we would not be tion possible, we also need to be mindful of the dangers able to ensure their anonymity. In this regard the paper of those structures. is a contribution to discussions of intellectual property In making this case the subject of an academic paper, in doctoral work. For ethical reasons, we do not draw on we seek to make explicit the invisible pedagogies of doc- the initial examiners’ reports except to paraphrase their toral examination, offering a different theorisation of that key concerns. As authors, we are sensitive of the ways in process to other researchers in this field. Thesis exami- which scholarly and other identities are at risk in the pro- nation is regarded as a private matter; it has conventions duction and official recognition of new knowledge, and of and practices that exercise normalising effects produc- the imperative to avoid harm in our commentary. ing high levels of consistency in marking as others have noted; and governed by protocols of which we may only be vaguely aware. Making explicit these protocols or conventions allows us to examine their foundation in the context of a wider debate about doctoral work and its place in contemporary universities and in society, and provides a platform to consider the ways in which pedagogical power is exercised at the point of entry into the disciplinary field. It further provides a platform for engaging new academics in these debates. In conclusion, we note how candidate, supervisor and administrator subjectivities are constituted within complex webs of institutional and discipline-based regimes of power. Through our elaboration of these webs we begin to articulate their constraining and productive capacities. Beginning with the ethical issues of who owns the text of the reports, who owns the knowledge produced in supervision, and how we can articulate these issues, we understand this as fraught territory. Relations in this territory tend to remain invisible to the different players and to others who need to learn, and the operations of power and relational production of knowledge not well explored or theorised in the literature. While this case may represent an extremity of difference, doctoral education must make room for the messy, unfolding, emergent nature of doctoral knowledge and subjectivities that are produced within this space. Making these relations of power and production visible will enable those involved to take the risks necessary to name and learn. 54 References Australian Government (2011). Research Skills for an Innovative Future: A Research Workforce Strategy to cover the Decade to 2020 and Beyond. Canberra: Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research. Devos, A. (2010). New teachers, mentoring and the formation of professional identities. Teaching and Teacher Education 261219-1223. Devos, A. (2008). Where enterprise and equity meet: The rise of mentoring for women in Australian universities. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education 29, No. 2: 195-205. Engly, P. (2010). The secret nationalist movement: memoirs of a Cambodian princess. Unpublished PhD thesis. Monash University. Foucault, M. (1983). The subject and power. In H.L.Dreyfus & P. Rabinow (eds) Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuraliusm and Hermeneutics. (second edition) Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 208-226. Foucault, M. (1991). Governmentality. In G. Burchell, C. Gordon & P. Miller (eds) The Foucault effect: Studies in governmentality. Herfordhsire: Harvester Wheatsheaf. 87-104. Grosz, E. (2008). Chaos, territory, art: Deleuze and the framing of the earth. New York: Columbia University Press. Holbrook, A., Bourke, S., Lovat, T. & Fairbairn, H. (2008). Consistency and inconsistency in PhD thesis examination. Australian Journal of Education 52, No. 1: 36-48. Marginson, S. & van der Wende, M. (2007). Globalisation and Higher Education. Paris: OECD. McWilliam, E. (2007). Managing ‘nearly’ reasonable risk in the contemporary university. Studies in Higher Education 32, No. 3: 311-321. Somerville, M. (2007). Postmodern emergence. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 20, No. 2: 225-243. Somerville, M. (2008). Waiting in the chaotic place of unknowing: articulating postmodern emergence, International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 21, No: 3: 209-220. What constitutes doctoral knowledge?, Anita Devos & Margaret Somerville vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W Internationalisation of doctoral education Possibilities for new knowledge and understandings Janette Ryan University of Oxford, UK The past decade has seen a rapid increase in the number of international students undertaking doctorates in Anglophone universities such as Australia and the UK. In 2009, 11,500 international students were undertaking postgraduate research in Australia, with a 20 per cent increase in doctoral enrolments over the previous year (AEI 2011). In the UK, international students comprise 50 per cent of full-time research degree students (UKCISA 2011). The postgraduate research student cohort in these countries has thus radically changed as these students have brought with them different academic cultures and intellectual traditions. Although distinct phases can be identified in the responses of Australian and British universities to increases in international students, with the current phase aligned to internationalisation agendas, there still appears to be a lack of recognition of the potential to take advantage of these global flows of people, ideas and perspectives by engaging with the knowledge and academic values that international doctoral students bring. Are we taking advantage of these opportunities for the generation of new knowledge and skills or do we risk being complacent about the superiority of ‘Western’ academic ways? Using theories of cross-cultural pedagogy, this paper reports on a qualitative study of views of scholarship and learning in Western and Confucian-heritage higher education, using Australia and the UK, and China and Hong Kong as case studies. Interviews with expert scholars in these contexts demonstrate that although there are differences and similarities towards knowledge and scholarship between these higher education systems, these are changing as contemporary teaching and learning conditions and imperatives become more closely tied to discourses of internationalisation and globalisation. This demonstrates recognition of the changes occurring in higher education and an understanding of the need for genuine intercultural dialogue so that international education is not just based on the legitimisation of Western knowledge but becomes an enterprise of mutual learning. Introduction programmes in both countries and can be the majority in many courses with Chinese students being the largest Radical shifts have occurred in doctoral student cohorts single national group in both Australia and the UK. The in Anglophone universities in the past decade due to numbers of Chinese doctoral students in both countries significant increases in the number of international stu- has steadily risen yet the supervision of Chinese doctoral dents, most notably in Australia and the UK. International students has received little attention (Chung & Ingleby students comprise 21 per cent of students in Australia 2011; Singh 2009). (AEI 2010a) and 15 per cent in the UK (UKCISA 2011). Most Anglophone universities espouse ‘internationalisa- They comprise significant proportions of postgraduate tion’ as part of their mission as well as the development vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Internationalisation of doctoral education, Janette Ryan 55 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W of intercultural skills amongst their graduates, yet moves in Anglophone universities seem to be content with the towards the internationalisation of teaching and learn- quality and appeal of their higher education and have ing have been modest, particularly at postgraduate level not made similar attempts to learn from other academic (Singh 2009). It is therefore timely that not only the vision cultures, especially those of the fast-developing economic of internationalisation needs to be articulated, but also powerhouses of India and China. According to the OECD how new knowledge and skills can arise from truly inter- (2011), for example, 11 international students travel nationalised learning. The doctoral relationship provides to study in the UK for each British student who travels an ideal vehicle for the exchange of cultural intellectual abroad to study, and for Australia, the ratio is 24:1, the high- ideas and the development of new epistemologies. These est of any country. spaces enable deep conversation and debate and explora- There is much debate in Australian and British univer- tion of alternative paradigms to generate new knowledge sities about the need to ‘internationalise’ the curriculum, and fashion new attitudes and perspectives that cross yet few shared views of what this entails in concrete cultural boundaries. The new knowledge that arises can terms. Further, these initiatives tend to focus on under- be transformative for all parties in changed and changing graduate programmes and graduate attributes rather higher education contexts. than the postgraduate level. These debates occur along- To date, however, responses to international doctoral side broader discourses about the internationalisation of students are mainly characterised by ‘one-way’ learning university operations, and the proliferation of relation- where the student is expected to conform to Western ships with overseas partners and transnational education notions of scholarship and learning. Turner and Robson programmes. These discourses usually place the onus (2008) describe current pedagogical approaches as ‘eth- on international students to adapt to their new learning nocentric’ rather than ‘ethnorelative’ (p. 40). Going further, environment rather than considering whether and how and using Rancière’s notion of ‘ignorance’, Singh (2009) universities also need to adapt and change (Gu & Schwe- argues that relationships between Western supervisors isfurth 2006; Ryan & Viete 2009; Turner & Robson 2008). and Chinese doctoral students are based on ‘ignorance’ Internationalisation debates focus on developing an of the students’ backgrounds (p. 185). Chung and Ingleby ‘international dimension’ (Knight 2004) into all university (2011) believe that the lack of attention to the supervi- operations, generally without articulating what this entails sion needs of Chinese students is based on ‘simple igno- or what domains are involved. At the level of curriculum, rance of the large cultural differences between Chinese they can involve the superficial inclusion of international and Westerners’ (p. 173). Singh (2009) believes, however, examples rather than genuine attempts to pluralise the that this ‘ignorance’ can be used as a platform for learn- epistemological knowledge base (Webb 2005). ing: ‘This means bringing this intellectual capital to bear Analysis of Australian and British universities’ responses in the production and flow of research-based knowledge to increased numbers of international students over the as much as the dialogic education of transnational educa- past two decades shows that there are three distinct tional researchers’ (Singh 2009, p. 187). (but overlapping) phases. These have moved from ethnocentric responses (Ryan 2011b: Turner & Robson 2008), International education ‘flows’ where international students are expected to conform to the requirements of Western academe, to more recent The flow of international students from China to Anglo- approaches where intercultural learning is seen as a desir- phone universities is part of China’s ‘brain gain’ policy able attribute for all students in globalised contexts (Gu to improve the nation’s human capital through mobility & Schweisfurth 2006; Ryan & Viete 2009). The first two of its students and scholars (Pan 2011). The reform of phases involved a shift from a ‘skills deficit’ (Ballard & higher education in China has been achieved through Clancy 1997) located within the international student to a both internal means such as massive increases in expendi- focus on adapting teaching and learning to ‘accommodate’ ture to create a number of world-class universities, and international students and both these approaches con- external means such as sending students and scholars tinue to co-exist.These approaches are based on essential- abroad (Ryan 2011a). This ‘strategic dependence’ on for- ising ‘whole culture’ explanations (Clarke & Gieve 2006) eign higher education resources to develop human capi- for student differences despite diversity amongst national tal to drive its education reform and economic progress groups and radical changes within the major source coun- has ‘enabled education abroad to become a source of tries of international students such as China.These adjust- brain gain’ for China (Pan 2011, p. 106). In contrast, those ment/accommodation models position Western academe 56 Internationalisation of doctoral education, Janette Ryan vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V and Anglophone countries as dominant and hegemonic. E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W Moving beyond Western paradigms They offer few sustainable or innovative ways to move beyond ‘deficit’ debates to new approaches to teaching in The ‘universalism’ of Western academic paradigms as cross cultural contexts. well as what constitutes ‘Western’ (or ‘Eastern’) are con- Research during the first phase (in the 1990s) focused tested however. Labelling students (or academics) on on differences between ‘international’ and ‘local’ students the basis of whole systems of cultural practice ignores and the skills that international students need remedi- the considerable diversity within cultures as well as ated (Ryan & Viete 2009). This saw the proliferation of between them (Ryan & Louie 2007). Nevertheless, these ‘front loading’ or ‘add on’ programmes such as founda- terms are commonly used, and the term ‘Western’ edu- tion courses, English for Academic Purposes courses and cation is generally used to refer to the ‘Anglo-American academic skills services. These programmes take respon- model’ (Klitgård 2011a). sibility away from supervisors for their international stu- The dominance of ‘Western’ academe and its assumed dents’ academic skills learning, although they do reduce superiority continues to permeate academic research and the sometimes heavy burden for academics that this can literature. According to Connell (2007) not only is West- entail.These programmes have benefits for a whole range ern social science research Eurocentric but it is usually of students (not just international ones) but they can be situated within an Anglophone context, in what Klitgård disconnected from the students’ discipline area and can (2011a) calls the ‘tyranny of the Anglosphere’. Margin- focus on narrow academic skills such as drills in para- son (2010) argues that ‘equal cultural respect is hard to phrasing and referencing techniques. secure in Anglo-American countries in which systems are Over the recent decade, as international student num- monocultural; there is usually an innate belief in Western bers accelerated, the ‘gaze’ has shifted to how lecturers superiority’. ‘Internationalisation’ needs to be more than should ‘accommodate’ international students and make inclusion of international examples in courses or the their teaching practices more explicit so that interna- inclusion of an international ‘dimension’ into university tional students can adjust their learning behaviours to operations (Knight 2004). It needs to extend to engage- Western contexts. The need to make explicit the ‘rules of ment with intellectual traditions around the world so that the game’ for international students (Carroll & Ryan 2005) international knowledge and perspectives are available for - Western modes of expression, norms for interactions debate and learning by both academics and students. This between teachers and students, and the rules for refer- view of internationalisation sees it as a mutual enterprise: ring to the work of others - can be seen in a plethora of The internationalisation of education can be expressed in the exchange of culture and values, mutual understanding and a respect for difference…The internationalisation of education does not simply mean the integration of different national cultures or the suppression of one national culture by another culture. (Gu 2001, p. 105) information provided to international students. Research on problems experienced by international students tends to result in calls for better induction, increased language skills, or more academic support programmes, that is, for the further ‘improvement’ of international students. ‘Internationalisation’ agendas in the current phase include ‘internationalisation of the curriculum’ for both This definition of internationalisation views interna- home and international students. Universities are look- tionalisation not within a single system, but rather as an ing beyond their borders for opportunities for inter- endeavour between civilisations. Implicit in Gu’s defini- national partnerships to expand their operations and tion is a reaction to internationalisation as a Western aca- export their education programmes. Although univer- demic imperialist endeavour and the ‘one way’ nature sities are exploring how to respond to more diverse of the traffic. As Singh (2009) argues, there is still much students, policy responses are still typified by the ‘aug- ignorance between Western and Chinese or ‘Confucian- mentation’ of students’ learning and thus continue the heritage culture’ (CHC) intellectual paradigms and this is onus on international students alone to adapt (Gu & Sch- inhibiting two-way or transcultural learning.‘Western’ and weisfurth 2006). Internationalisation debates generally ‘CHC’ paradigms of scholarship and learning are gener- ignore the ‘cultural dynamics’ of teaching and learning ally described as dichotomies and debates on the ‘Chinese (Huisman 2010) and the potential for taking advantage learner’ are inaccurate and unhelpful (Ryan & Louie 2007). of the flows of international students in ways that move This ‘ignorance’ about supposed differences between aca- beyond integration into, or adaptation to, the dominant demic cultures and individuals within them inhibits the academic culture. mutual and respectful exchange of ideas (as Gu advo- vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Internationalisation of doctoral education, Janette Ryan 57 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W cates) rather than the simple integration of knowledge be recognised. Trahar (2011) relates how her views radi- from one culture into another. cally changed during the intimate and close discussions While supervision practices often ignore the poten- with her international doctoral students where she could tial for mutual learning (Rizvi 2010; Robinson-Pant 2009; explore other cultures and values. Transcultural knowl- Sillitoe, Webb & Zhang 2005), something even less posi- edge can develop from contact between cultures which tive often happens in international student supervision. results in ‘a new, composite culture in which some exist- Instead of learning being two-way, the behaviours of inter- ing cultural features are combined, while some are lost, national doctoral students are often misinterpreted and and new features are generated’ (Murray 2010). pathologised (Chung & Ingleby 2011). Supervisors can Socio-cultural theories of learning explain the impor- misinterpret their lack of English language proficiency as tance of the cultural milieu of learning but also its poten- lack of ability; their initial lack of sophisticated language tial for redefining learning communities as transcultural as lack of intellect; their quest to find the ‘correct’ answer spaces. Transcultural approaches recognise that modern dependent learning rather than an active process to find societies are no longer monolithic and that ‘we are in an out what is expected of them; their reluctance to ques- era where interculturality, transculturalism and the even- tion as lacking criticality rather than modesty or respect tual prospect of identifying a cosmopolitan citizenship for their supervisor; and their relative silence in supervi- can become a reality’ (Cuccioletta 2002, p. 2). According sion meetings as lack of connection with ideas rather than internal engagement. Supervisors may view ‘acts of textual borrowing’ (Schmitt 2005) as plagiarism rather than a necessary step in their learning development (Klitgård 2011b). Without attempts by supervisors to understand what is unfamiliar for them, and the impact to Sillitoe, Webb and Zhang ...working with doctoral students from Confucian cultures can bring new insights: they generate knowledge that is different from Western researchers; ...and they help to clarify the ‘normative’ structures and practices of the Western supervision model for Western supervisors which in turn assists both home and international students of their previous learning (2005) working with doctoral students from Confucian cultures can bring new insights: they generate knowledge that is different from Western researchers; can penetrate and interpret Confucian cultures as ‘insiders’ but are skilled in ‘Western’ research methods; their more ‘holistic’ views of the world are useful when inves- experiences, international students may be viewed as tigating issues such as sustainable development; and they dependent learners lacking in criticality (Ryan & Louie help to clarify the ‘normative’ structures and practices of 2007). They not only have to learn new approaches and the Western supervision model for Western supervisors skills but also ‘unlearn’ their old ones. Recognition of these which in turn assists both home and international stu- issues by the supervisor can be a catalyst for engagement dents. in mutual learning which can be more productive for the supervisor and the student. Supervisors can help interna- Moving towards cross cultural teaching tional doctoral students to not just ‘bridge the gap’ but to meet on the bridge (Ryan & Viete 2009). However, inter- The work of theorists such as Lave and Wenger (1999) national doctoral students sometimes report that they are highlights the social and cultural situatedness of teaching required to conduct research only within their country and learning and the ‘communities of practice’ that exist of study rather than undertake comparative studies. This through the co-construction of knowledge by teachers can occur because the supervisor may feel they lack and learners. The importance of the social context can knowledge of the overseas context or the subject area. be seen through the adoption of teaching strategies such International doctoral students are also generally not per- as group work and collaborative learning. The cultural mitted to use foreign language sources as supervisors and ‘boundedness’ of such approaches, however - the ways examiners are unable to check them. This question needs they operate, whose voice is heard and whose knowledge further debate as these students want to ensure that their is valued - and how these norms came to be is hard for doctoral study has relevance for their future work. those within that culture to recognise. Being an ‘outsider’ Lingard (2006) believes that the agency that interna- to a culture brings a ‘surplus of seeing’ (Bakhtin 1986, p. 7) tional students bring to the research encounter should that makes academic norms visible; it can ‘‘make strange” 58 Internationalisation of doctoral education, Janette Ryan vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W the present, in order to begin to provide a vocabulary for tional, but that there are sufficient commonalities for the questioning the apparent naturalness and givenness of engagement with what are merely different approaches to contemporary practices in postgraduate education’ (Lee be both possible and fruitful. & Green 1995, p. 3). Morris and Hudson (1995) argue that international education ‘helps to problematise inherited notions of ideal pedagogic order’ (p. 72). Western and CHC scholarship and learning Negative views of international students and Chinese students in particular are still prevalent (Singh 2009) as In order to understand the contemporary realities of West- lecturers and supervisors misinterpret the behaviours of ern and Chinese or CHC approaches to scholarship and their newly-arrived students as passive and lacking criti- learning, the research reported here investigated how cal thinking (Grimshaw 2007). Those with more intimate these terms are understood and practised within both knowledge of Chinese learners refute these assumptions contexts. Rather than basing judgements about different (Clark & Gieve 2006; Grimshaw 2007; Gu & Schweisfurth systems on the behaviours of international students strug- 2006; Jin & Cortazzi 2006; Louie 2005; Shi 2006). Accord- gling to adapt and thus making assumptions about their ing to Grimshaw (2007): previous educational contexts, this research examines empirical studies reveal that, contrary to the Western stereotype, Chinese societies do value an exploratory and reflective approach to learning; that Chinese teachers do not rely exclusively upon the transmission mode of delivery; and that Chinese students can be seen to engage in autonomous, problem solving activities. (p. 302). understandings and practices by experienced academics within and across those systems. Interviews were conducted amongst a purposive sample of senior academics in a range of disciplines in universities in two Western and two Confucian-heritage countries: Australia and the UK, and China and Hong Kong. Participants had at least 10 years’ experience and were at Associate Professor or Academics continue, however, to report the same dif- equivalent level or above. ficulties and ‘pedagogical uncertainties’ with teaching To date, 24 interviews have been conducted with schol- international students reported over a decade ago (Singh ars in the disciplines of Education or the Humanities.This 2009;Turner & Robson 2008). If these issues remain unad- comprises six interviews each in Australia and the UK dressed, there is a risk of continued negative attitudes by with equal numbers from both disciplines (only two of lecturers about international students (Deumert, Margin- the 12 participants had significant experience in China son, Nyland, Ramia & Sawir 2005; DeVos 2003; Rizvi 2010). and none were of Chinese descent). Five interviews in Many academics remain unwilling or unconvinced of the each discipline have been conducted in mainland China need to change and adapt and see their role as educating (all with Chinese scholars, five never having been out of students in ‘Western ways’ and ‘Western values’ (Trahar China), and one in each discipline in Hong Kong (one of 2011). Chinese descent and one of European descent, both with Lack of knowledge about the cultural situatedness of experience of Western and Chinese higher education). learning and teaching and different academic paradigms As this is a work in progress, findings are tentative and is inhibiting the development of cross cultural teach- are discussed here for illustrative purposes. The total final ing that draws on an international range of approaches. number of interviews will be 54. This ‘ignorance’ means a lack of understanding of con- The participants were asked (in English or Chinese): temporary realities in countries such as China which is • How do you define characteristics of ‘good’ scholarship undergoing fundamental change as well as the enormous and ‘effective’ learning? diversity amongst individuals within them (Jin & Cortazzi • What differences and commonalities do you believe 2006; Ryan 2011a; Ryan, Kang, Mitchell & Erickson 2009). exist between Western and CHC paradigms of scholar- Rather than focusing on ‘differences’ between cultures, changing contexts and imperatives call for recognition of the potential for common ground and mutual learning. ship and learning? • Do you believe that these paradigms are changing or should change? To date, however, there has been little informed debate No attempt was made to define these terms; partici- about differences between Western and CHC paradigms pants were invited to respond in any way they chose. and even less debate about the diversities within them. Case study methodology (Stake 2006) and a constant Evidence from the study reported below shows that adap- comparative method of analysis (Maykut & Morehouse tation between academic cultures is currently unidirec- 1994) were used to identify commonalities and differ- vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Internationalisation of doctoral education, Janette Ryan 59 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W Table 1: Definitions of ‘good scholarship and ‘effective learning’ ‘Good’ scholarship ‘Effective’ learning Western Chinese Original, original ideas Original, innovative Imaginative Uses imagination Creative Creative, passion for pursuing knowledge Adds value, makes a difference Has some value, beneficial Advances knowledge or thinking, application to existing knowledge Contribution to knowledge, application of knowledge Rigorous, questioning, systematic Systematic inquiry Sound theories and methods, innovative methodologies Includes theory, methodology and subject knowledge, innovative methodologies Understanding and applying knowledge Deep and broad knowledge framework, applying knowledge Think for yourself Critical thinking Work independently Independent learner Challenge and interrogate authorities Challenge authorities’ views Think about what they learn and ask new questions Know why you want to learn and what you should learn Build on what’s known, develop new schema [Combines] old and new academic knowledge ences in participants’ responses. Participants were iden- practices between systems, almost all respondents who tified via email contact with Deans or equivalent at 18 answered this question (from both paradigms) empha- universities which included larger and smaller institu- sised the essential commonalities of ideas and concepts tions, ones with longer and shorter histories, and urban of scholarship and learning. Those with experience in and rural locations. both systems were more likely to report that features From the interviews conducted to date, it is clear that were more common than different as can be seen from there are diverse and competing discourses within uni- the quotes below. A Chinese Professor of Humanities at versities in both systems and amongst individuals, and a university in southern China (with experience in both scholars in different contexts have both shared and differ- systems) commented: ent views on scholarship and learning. The scholars’ defi- participants’ responses to the first question and are repre- There are commonalities that good scholarship and effective learning share in both paradigms. An oftcited belief in China is that the Western paradigm emphasises critical thinking whereas the CHC paradigm emphasises rote learning, memorisation and breadth of knowledge. I believe that differences exist only amongst individual scholars whether they are Eastern or Western. sentative of overall responses. An American-born Professor of Literature working in nitions of scholarship and research are strikingly similar across the two systems. Similar understandings of ‘good’ scholarship and ‘effective’ learning can be seen from the vocabulary used to describe these terms (see Table 1). These words and phrases have been taken verbatim from The high degree of commonality amongst respondents’ Hong Kong who had considerable experience in China responses may be due in part to the influence that West- noted similar concepts and aspirations in both systems ern pedagogy is having in China, although even the Chi- but sometimes different methods of arriving at these: nese respondents who had never left China used these The participants who were able to venture an opinion I don’t see any real difference in scholarship in China and in the West insofar as people want to have an understanding and an idea and represent their own understanding of the idea but I think that the way that you begin to arrive at that knowledge, the ‘patterns of respect’, the ways that you put yourself forward might be different in both places but the final results would likely be the same. had worked in China or had Chinese colleagues. While The final question about changes or the desirability of acknowledging that differences do occur in academic change in these paradigms also elicited similar and differ- same terms. Few Western participants could answer the second question about differences and commonalities between paradigms and freely admitted their ignorance of Chinese or CHC paradigms, often expressing regret about this. 60 Internationalisation of doctoral education, Janette Ryan vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W ent responses between and within the two groups. Aca- Some Western participants noted that while paradigms demics on both sides reported that significant change is are changing in China, this is mainly one-way learning, from occurring within their own paradigm. Respondents from the West. The statement below from the American Profes- China and those with experience of China often com- sor of Literature quoted above shows that while China is mented on the pace and magnitude of change in China, as learning from the West, it is trying to do this in a way that seen in the comment from a European Senior Lecturer in maintains the best of Confucian education traditions, that Linguistics with experience in China: is, that combines the best features of both systems: In CHC things are currently changing so fast that it I don’t think that the West is radically changing their is breathtaking. The CHC views on the educational scholars and learners are process but I do think that ... although there are differences and eager to catch up with the China is Westernising. It is West, which has meant trying to understand difsimilarities towards knowledge and eagerness, openness, ferent kinds of skill sets scholarship both within and across hard work in such measto give their students an ures that today the Westopportunity to feel comfortthese contexts these are changing as ern scholars and learners able with Western styles of contemporary conditions and imperatives seem to be meandering learning, with Western styles become more closely tied to discourses of along leisurely in comof knowledge and they’re parison. incorporating that within internationalisation and globalisation. the classroom in their own way... they don’t lose what The American Professor of is quintessentially Confucian Literature mentioned above further commented: or quintessentially Chinese. Confucian-heritage cultures are giving way to a certain kind of individuality and this is creating a different kind of learning environment… Oftentimes people will say that within Confucian-heritage cultures you are expected to parrot back what the teachers will say to you but that hasn’t been my experience. These interviews demonstrate that although there are differences and similarities towards knowledge and scholarship both within and across these contexts these are changing as contemporary conditions and imperatives become more closely tied to discourses of internation- CHC academics generally expressed positive views alisation and globalisation. The data also demonstrate that about changes within their system and an enthusiasm negative views about ‘Chinese learners’ are not based on for further change, while Western academics tended to contemporary expectations and practices of educators comment on negative changes in their systems especially within Chinese contexts. towards more managerialist approaches: Paradigms of scholarship and learning are becoming more market-driven in both the West and CHC countries. (History academic at a Russell Group university in London) Potential for mutual learning This research shows not only that each system holds much in common but also points to the potential for The statement below by a European lecturer in English mutual learning when assumptions are critically exam- with experience in China shows that there are perhaps ined and the possibilities for reciprocal learning are more commonalities between systems than is generally identified. Reciprocal learning in the doctoral sphere thought while at the same time there is potential for ben- can occur through broadening the scope and topics for eficial learning between the systems: doctoral study, drawing on different cultural epistemolo- The freedom of research is an ideal that I think both paradigms ascribe to, but for both the real world sets limits. CHC scholarship is less/has been less open to Western scrutiny, perhaps less global…When it comes to learning [in China], I find that there perhaps has been a lack in confidence, a lack of belief in the individual, and also a lack of awareness of individual needs in order to learn best. In the West, on the other hand, there has been a lack of understanding that some learning requires hard work, and that not all learning comes automatically. gies and intellectual traditions, and considering how to assess unfamiliar modes of expression, argumentation and organisation of the dissertation. It also requires consideration of the inclusion of foreign language sources and on this point, and in general, international colleagues or examiners may be useful sources of expertise. As China becomes a major player in world affairs, universities and academics need to understand the contexts with which they are engaging and be prepared to adapt and change so that they too can reinvigorate their own vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Internationalisation of doctoral education, Janette Ryan 61 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W cultures of learning. As international student mobility and to issues of gender, sexuality and disability to name worldwide accelerates, many non-Anglophone countries but a few; ‘many different cultures appear within single are offering programmes in English, often at less cost, so geographical cultures’ (Morris & Hudson 1995, p. 73). It universities enjoying traditional comparative advantages is timely to look back on the issues highlighted in this need to ensure that their education continues to be of journal in 1995 and note Morris and Hudson’s aspirations high quality and relevance in the global education envi- for moving beyond ‘monocultural chauvinism’ towards a ronment.The UK International Unit cautions against com- ‘new international academic ethos’.The editors of the spe- placency in this regard: cial issue (Lee & Green 1995) pointed to the connection Patterns and flows of international students may start to change… mobile students are increasingly likely to choose destinations within their own regions, and thus we may begin to see less of an ‘East-West’ movement. (International Unit 2011) between postgraduate education and national concerns. And equally, emerging countries need to avoid the slav- knowledge that international students bring to encounters ish adoption of foreign ideas and practices and instead between supervisors and students can be tapped to create examine them for how they can enrich and rejuvenate this ‘international academic ethos’. Universities are spaces their own. where intercultural connections occur and can be at the Since then, debates have moved to the global level and the relevance of postgraduate education for global knowledge economies. Imperatives for new forms of knowledge and skills have become more urgent. The experience and The large numbers of international students at Aus- forefront of global knowledge generation. Drawing from tralian and British universities provide opportunities both traditions means that new knowledge can be created for the development of more globalised paradigms and through more holistic approaches and a more reflective practices better suited to changing contexts around the than adversarial orientation to knowledge. Supervisors can world. Universities that limit their interactions with inter- recognise the collaborative and respectful learning styles national students to one-way transmission of knowledge of their students rather than problematise them. risk stagnation and lack of appeal to students, both home The evidence of the study reported here although lim- and international, who now have more choices available. ited does indicate that there are sufficient underlying simi- A transcultural focus can better equip all students to live larities and aspirations to enable mutual adaptation and and work in globalised contexts and in ways that make engagement between academic cultures. This stance can labels such as ‘home’ or ‘international’ obsolete. provide access to not only 5,000 years of Chinese intel- Transcultural approaches can provide the vehicle for lectual development but also an opportunity to engage such changes in pedagogy and curriculum; they move with China in its future trajectory as a world superpower. beyond interactions between cultures with one culture positioned as more powerful or ‘legitimate’, to a stance Janette Ryan is a Research Associate at the China Centre at the which arises from mutual dialogue and respect amongst University of Oxford, Director of the University of Oxford’s academic cultures and knowledge traditions. Postgraduate International Students Teaching and Support Project and supervisors and lecturers need to not just engage in rheto- Director of the UK Higher Education Academy’s Teaching ric about internationalisation but also to listen to others’ International Students Project. views of internationalisation; universities need to not just be institutions of learning but learning institutions. Individual supervisors need to develop ‘meta awareness’ of their students’ backgrounds and needs (Louie 2005) and universities and nations need to recognise the ‘necessity for sharing knowledge, building intellectual capacity, and remaining competitive in the global economy’ through global academic mobility (UK International Unit 2011). Sixteen years ago, Morris and Hudson (1995) noted ‘the moment of intense change and complexity’ of the times; few could have predicted the pace and acceleration of change and complexity of those trends. 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Doctoral education in China Rui Yang University of Hong Kong, China In line with China’s massive leap forward in higher education since the late 1990s and its ambitious bid for world-class universities within decades, doctoral education has been strongly, and arguable strategically, promoted by the Chinese government. During the past four decades, China quickly established a national system of academic degrees and postgraduate education since the early 1980s. Its doctoral education has since grown fast to become one of the largest in the world. While the developmental process deserves much commendation, it was never short of twists and turns. The extraordinarily fast growth has particularly led to a variety of problems that have evoked controversy in China, especially over the widely perceived decline of quality in doctoral training. In view of a lack of literature in English on Chinese doctoral education, this article attempts to provide an analytical review of China’s current practices as well as some issues and challenges faced by the system in meeting societal needs and future development. Introduction Dasheng Deng (2011), respectively on the educational aspirations and occupational orientation of Chinese doc- Doctorate holders represent a crucial human resource toral students.Aiming to delineate a detailed picture of the for research and innovation. As a site for the production current practices of China’s doctoral education, this article of new knowledge and new knowledge making prac- covers its stages of developments; disciplinary, institutional tices, doctoral education has recently become ‘a matter and regional distributions; thesis quality; supervisory prac- of increasing interest and concern’ in many parts of the tices; and the employment of doctorate holders. world (Lee & Green 1995, p. 2), as a consequence of educational reforms. In China, postgraduate education is Development a borrowed concept from overseas (Wu 2009). The Chinese system of academic degrees and postgraduate edu- Immediately after the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), 1 cation was only formally established in the early 1980s. China faced devastating shortage of professionals. With Their growth, however, has been by leaps and bounds.The strong support from the central government, postgraduate Chinese doctoral education system has swiftly become education was quickly resumed in 1978. By 1980, enrolled one of the largest in the world. Within this fast growing postgraduate students totalled 22,000. Meanwhile discus- period, there has been no shortage of twists and turns, as sions on establishing China’s academic degree system well as costs and benefits, from institutional arrangement, were underway. A work committee was set up in March administration and procedure, protocol and policy, finance 1979, chaired by the then Minister for Education, Jiang and governance, to supervisory practice, and learning Nanxiang. The Regulations on Academic Degrees of experience. While there has been an increasing body of the People’s Republic of China was issued in February literature within China on doctoral education, few studies 1980. The first batch of 18 doctorates was conferred on have appeared in English. Recent exceptions are by Peter 27 May 1983. Since then, doctoral education has grown S Li, Liming Li and Li Zong (2007) and Yandong Zhao and significantly in China (Wu 2009). While higher educa- 64 Up and coming?, Rui Yang vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W tion institutions are the mainstay, doctoral training is also 1999 to 49,000 in 2003, 53,000 in 2004 and 58,000 in practiced at academies of research at national, provincial 2007 (Department of Development and Planning, Minis- and regional city levels, in some military institutions and try of Education 1999, 2003, 2004, 2007). The supervisor- at Party schools. The past three decades could be divided student ratio reached its peak, of 1:15.32 in the higher into different stages of development. education institutions under direct jurisdiction of the The first was between the end of the 1970s and the Ministry of Education (Xie 2006, p. 28). early 1990s, centred on making full use of the limited There were three additions to the approved doctoral number of the nation’s experts including returned schol- degree granting institutions and programmes respectively: ars from overseas and those who received highly spe- 7 and 442 in 2000, 35 and 728 in 2003 (mainly in provin- cialised training during the 1950s to establish a doctoral cial higher education institutions), and 19 and 605 in 2006 training system. Delegations were sent overseas to gain (Wu 2009). According to Chinese Ministry of Education’s external experience. It was reiterated that Chinese doctor- (2011, July 6) latest statistics, in 2010 China recruited ates should have similar quality with their foreign equiva- 538,200 postgraduate students with 63,800 at doctoral lents. Among the first batch of applications for doctoral level, total enrolment of postgraduate students reached programmes and supervisors, only 3/5 and 1/2 of them 1,538,400 with 258,900 at doctoral level, and granted respectively were approved.There was tight control from 388,600 postgraduate degrees including 49,000 doctor- the central government over quality. For example, the ates. The number of doctorates conferred in 2010 was first batch approved nationwide in 1981 included 151 behind that of the United States of 57,599 in academic institutions, 812 programmes and 1,151 supervisors. The year 2008-2009 (Bell 2010, p. 16). second batch in 1984 only added 45 institutions, 316 pro- In retrospect, the developmental path of China’s doctoral grammes, and 183 supervisors. The third batch in 1986 education shows strong promotion and tight control by and the fourth in 1990 added respectively 41 and 10 insti- the central government, which decides which institutions tutions, 675 and 277 programmes and 1,791 and 1,509 are qualified to offer doctoral training and in what scale. supervisors (Guo 2009, p. 22). Thirty-three universities However, the government after all is a political rather than were allowed to experiment by the Ministry of Education academic organisation. Its actions in doctoral education are to build their graduate schools. based on its ideo-political considerations (Wu 2009). While The second stage ranged almost the entire 1990s. Doc- it has guaranteed a fast growth of doctoral training, its tight toral education continued to grow during this period, control could stifle even denature the nation’s doctoral based on the perceived need for highly trained profes- education. For instance, in order to show its equal treat- sionals, especially by the central government. During ment to various ethnicities, the central government des- 1992-1999, an annual increase rate of doctoral students ignated a few universities of nationalities doctoral degree averaged 20.6 per cent, surpassing that of Master’s stu- granting capacity without seriously considering their aca- dents (12.3 per cent) (Research Team on Analyses of demic achievements (H Q Wang 2008). The high control Educational Statistics of China’s Academic Degrees and has also caused strong, unhealthy competitions among Graduate Education 2009, p. 38). The fifth, sixth and sev- local governments to win central government’s favour to enth batches of approved institutions and programmes set up doctoral programmes within their jurisdictions, lead- were respectively 24 and 274, 5 and 145, and 49 and 341 ing to insufficient attention to local needs. (Guo 2009). Another major change during this period was that those universities allowed earlier to experiment Distribution graduate schools were formally approved. They could select doctoral supervisors based on their assessment In China, academic disciplines are generally divided into conducted within their own institutions. Arts and Sciences. The former includes literature, history, The third stage was in line with China’s most recent philosophy, economics, law, and management, while the massive university enrolment. An average of 26.6 per latter covers natural sciences, engineering, medicine, cent annual increase rate was recorded during 1999-2003 and agriculture. Since China borrowed the former Soviet (Research Team on Analyses of Educational Statistics of experience in the 1950s, there has always been an imbal- China’s Academic Degrees and Graduate Education 2009, ance between Arts and Sciences. This is also the case in p. 38). In 2000, another twenty-two universities were doctoral training, as shown in the distribution of doctor- approved to set up graduate schools. During this period, ates. In 1996, the proportion of doctorates in Arts and Sci- doctoral enrolments increased from around 20,000 in ences were 15 per cent and 84.4 per cent respectively. vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Up and coming?, Rui Yang 65 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W Table 1: Doctorates Conferred Nationwide: 1996-2006 Year Philosophy Economics Law Education Literature History Science Engineering Agriculture Medicine Management 1996 78 196 135 49 143 117 1441 2199 223 846 117 1997 95 260 201 751 197 146 1642 2636 286 1036 169 1998 112 388 241 117 248 190 2095 3276 373 1211 194 1999 148 513 290 145 349 198 2168 3769 383 1251 324 2000 199 514 330 144 387 257 2306 4484 462 1757 410 2001 218 621 444 199 491 269 3452 4746 551 2130 493 2002 263 855 615 213 648 310 2736 5020 651 2450 766 2003 323 1040 683 283 829 428 3496 6306 742 3085 1096 2004 370 1266 917 360 995 467 4293 7886 899 3714 1434 2005 439 1508 1122 437 1162 527 5269 9792 1102 4583 1843 2006 516 2030 1624 596 1590 562 6669 11643 1366 5792 2498 Source: Li & Zhan 2008a, p. 29. Such imbalance continued to be 26.5 per cent and 71.5 in the nation’s major universities, which are designated per cent in 2006. From the mid-1990s, the distribution of by the government as ‘key-point’ higher education insti- doctorates conferred in various disciplines has shown tutions. When the first batch of doctoral programmes some interesting changes during 1996-2006, as shown were approved in 1987, 174 (91.5 per cent) of them below by Table 1: Engineering, Science and Medicine have were located in those key institutions (Wu 2000, p. 45). remained unchanged as the top three; while Management Resulted from some long-term features of China’s higher jumped from the 8th in 1996 to the 4th in 2006; Agricul- education growth, such major institutions have the ture was just the opposite, dropping from the 4th in 1996 nation’s strongest academic staff, the majority of research to the 8th in 2006 (Li & Zhan 2008a, p. 31). funding, and the best equipments and facilities. This also The emphasis on scientific, technological and medical means that these elite institutions have much better and research is also shown by the annual national outstand- larger student pool to select their doctoral candidates. As ing doctoral thesis awards. As shown by Table 2 below, reported by a teacher training institution in the north- while medicine, science and agriculture were all over- west, only 8 per cent of its doctoral students enrolled represented, social sciences, without exception, were all in ‘key-point’ institutions during their undergraduate and underrepresented. Master’s studies (China’s Doctoral Education Quality Another sort of distribution imbalance is institutional Research Team 2010). and regional: doctoral programmes concentrate overwhelmingly in key institutions in major industrialised areas. By 2007, for example, Peking and Tsinghua Universities had 201 and 181 doctoral programmes respectively. In contrast, by 2002, Guizhou had 2, while Qinghai, Table 2: National Outstanding Doctoral Thesis Awards during 1999-2007 and Disciplinary Proportion of Doctorates Conferred in 2006 to the National Total Discipline Ningxia and Tibet had none (Guo 2009). Resulted from Annual Average of Awards (%) China’s shortage of a broad-based distribution of research Proportion of Doctorates to the National (%) capacity, 55 per cent of the nation’s doctoral programmes Management 1.7 7 were in north and east China by June 2001. Major con- Economics 2.1 5.7 centrations included Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Shaanxi Law 2.8 4.6 and Sichuan (Lin 2005), with an evident dominant role Medicine 10.4 16.3 Science played by Beijing: in 2006, Beijing had 11,731 doctorates conferred, while Shanghai came as the second with 3,249, and all other provinces had fewer than 80 (Guo 2009). Institutionally, as elsewhere such as Australia (Pearson et al. 2008), China’s doctoral programmes concentrate 66 Up and coming?, Rui Yang 29.5 18.7 Agriculture 4.9 3.8 History 2.8 1.6 Source: Li & Zhan 2008a, p. 31. vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V Thesis E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W Education Quality Research Team 2010). The width and depth of theoretical foundations and subject knowledge There have been various understandings of the quality of respectively scored poorly in social sciences, only slightly doctoral education and its assessment. Suggested indica- better in management, and apparently better in agriculture tors include the length between graduation and employ- and medicine. When asked whether or not to meet inter- ment, nature and level of employment, starting salary, national standards for argument and presentation, only professional development and workplace performance. sciences scored highly, while others all substantially lower A national investigation on quality of doctoral training than the perceived international practice, with social sci- jointly commissioned by the Academic Degrees Com- ences at the bottom. Overall, the quality of China’s doctoral mittee of the State Council, Ministry of Education, and theses in sciences was well recognised, engineering did Personnel Ministry in September 2007 collected com- reasonably well, while management was just passable and prehensive data from virtually all institutions involved in social sciences quite poorly (Guo 2009, pp. 31-32). doctoral training (including 257 higher education insti- Although such assessments were only based on the tutions, 31 research institutes and one Party school) and (indeed quite subjective) judgments of Chinese doctoral selected organisations that employ doctorate holders. In supervisors and administrators, and their comparability addition to the data collected through questionnaires and between Chinese and Western performances could be interviews, the study also compared domestic and over- open to question, these findings can still shed light on seas doctoral theses, analysed academic contributions by the quality of Chinese doctoral theses. For example, prob- doctoral projects and workplace performance by doctoral lems in doctoral training in China’s social sciences, such degree holders. The study covered nine aspects includ- as political, sociological, law and educational studies, have ing basic and professional knowledge, research capacity, been well documented within the Chinese academic cir- morality, thesis quality, relevant subject knowledge, for- cles and internationally (Chen 2006). Over-general topics, eign languages proficiency, sense of (social) responsibility, shortage of empirical and/or first-hand data, loose argu- creativity, and organisational skills. Respondents included mentation, and highly subjective conclusions remain doctoral students, their supervisors and administrators. It commonplace. Students in these disciplines usually lack found that more than 80 per cent respondents reported a basic understanding of the latest international achieve- positively in all those areas (China’s Doctoral Education ments in their subject areas, let alone engagement with Quality Research Team 2010). them. They also often receive little methodological train- However, the large-scale questionnaire survey and the ing (Yang & Zhang 2008). assessment of doctoral theses relied heavily on respond- In universities of science and technology, a common ents’ personal judgments. It remains difficult to compare arrangement in China is that doctoral students take on the quality of doctoral education in different institutions their supervisors’ research, partially or in total, as their (Zhou 2010). In comparison with some other criteria doctoral projects. A survey at the Beijing Forestry Univer- that often generate debates, the quality of doctoral theses sity reported that 14.6 per cent of students independently has been recognised globally as a relatively much more chaired their supervisors’ research projects, 72.9 per cent reliable indicator (Ji et al. 2009).The aforementioned pro- participated and devoted most of their study time to the ject received highly positive comments about the overall research projects originally granted to their supervisors, development from supervisors and the administrators only 12.5 per cent of students, who were usually part-time who were directly involved in doctoral training, especially students with full-time jobs, reported that their theses in dimensions including foreign languages proficiency, were rarely or never part of their supervisors’ research quality of theses, and research capacity. In comparison work (Liu & Wang 2011, p. 143). Similar to Beijing Forestry with the situation thirty years ago, the study reported sub- University’s situation, such experience, for both supervi- stantial improvement in the quality of doctoral work. The sors and students, has been largely well perceived with international comparison showed an overall shrinking each side gaining what they desired. This is the normal gap between domestic and overseas doctoral theses, with way for China’s doctoral students to receive financial sup- some domestic work already at international cutting edge. ports to conduct their projects. It also helps them to have While recognising remarkable achievements within a actual research experience. However, based on a survey relatively short period of time, the study acknowledged a of three 985 universities,2 10.3 per cent of all the doc- considerable lag behind the practices in the higher educa- toral students never participated in any research projects, tion systems of major Western countries (China’s Doctoral while in social sciences 24.6 per cent students reported vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Up and coming?, Rui Yang 67 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V Table 3: Disciplinary Distribution of National Outstanding Doctoral Theses, 1999-2009 Discipline Number of theses Percentage of the national total Philosophy 17 1.57 Economics 24 2.22 Law 29 2.68 Education 24 2.22 Literature 47 4.34 History 30 2.77 Science 316 29.21 Engineering 395 36.51 Agriculture 55 5.08 113 10.44 Military science 12 1.11 Management 20 1.85 E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W Table 4: Regional Distribution of National Outstanding Doctoral Theses, 1999-2009 Province Number of theses Percentage of the national total Ranking Beijing 370 34.20 1 Shanghai 171 15.80 2 Jiangsu 89 8.23 3 Shaanxi 57 5.27 4 Hubei 49 4.53 5 Zhejiang 38 3.51 6 Hunan 37 3.42 7 Guangdong 35 3.23 8 Tianjin 32 2.96 9 Anhui 31 2.87 10 Sichuan 28 2.59 11 Liaoning 23 2.13 12 Heilongjiang 23 2.13 12 and social sciences denied strong correlation between Jilin 22 2.03 14 their studies and their supervisors’ research projects (Luo Shandong 22 2.03 14 et al. 2009). Chongqing 17 1.57 16 Gansu 11 1.02 17 Fujian 8 0.74 18 tions were awarded. As shown by Table 3, engineering, sci- Yunnan 5 0.46 19 ences and medicine have been the dominant disciplines. Henan 4 0.37 20 Table 4 further confirms the regional disparities in doc- Hebei 3 0.28 21 toral education in China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Shaanxi Shanxi 3 0.28 21 Inner Mongolia 2 0.18 23 Qinghai 1 0.09 24 Medicine Source: Zhou et al. 2011, p. 75. so. Nearly a quarter of doctoral students in the humanities Each year around 100 outstanding doctoral theses are selected to be awarded as the nation’s best theses of that year. During 1999-2009, a total of 1,082 from 145 institu- and Hubei were the top five positions, occupied 68 per cent of national best theses, while no awards went to Jiangxi, Guizhou, Xinjiang, Ningxia, and Tibet during the time period. As for institutional distributions, the top ten Source: Zhou et al. 2011, p. 76. were Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tsinghua University, Peking University, Fudan University, Zhejiang University, the other hand, it is also particularly valued. As reported University of Science and Technology of China, Nanjing by Liu and Wang (2011, p. 143), the doctoral students at University, Renmin University of China, Shanghai Jiaotong Beijing Forestry University ranked supervision the second University, and Xi’an Jiaotong University respectively with most important factor in deciding their completion of 171, 85, 72, 48, 36, 30, 29, 25, 23, and 21 awards (Zhou et studies, only behind their own professional foundations al. 2011). Except for the national academy, all the higher and research capacity.Their majority (84.4 per cent) were education institutions are on the 985 Project list. happy with the supervision they had received, while 13.5 per cent thought it was ‘just ok’, and only 2.0 per cent Supervision considered the supervision was not acceptable. Similarly, 89.7 per cent of them reported that their supervisors In China, doctoral supervision is on one hand highly attached much importance to their doctoral work, only debated, especially over issues such as the most impor- one per cent were negative. As for how often they met tant qualities for good supervision and whether or not their supervisors, 33 per cent answered ‘monthly’, 27.8 there is a Chinese way to supervise doctoral students. On per cent ‘fortnightly’, and 25.8 per cent ‘weekly’, with 7.3 68 Up and coming?, Rui Yang vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S T I E S ’ R E V I E W Table 5: Increase of Doctoral Supervisors per cent reported ‘twice a week’ and 6.3 per cent said they rarely met. A survey of three major research universi- I Year ties by Luo et al. (2009) reported that 51.3 per cent of Number of Supervisors doctoral students met their supervisors at least fortnightly, Doctoral Degrees Conferred StudentSupervisor Ratio while 18.6 had such meetings weekly. In terms of the fre- 1996 3478 5578 1.6 quency of supervision meetings between supervisors 1997 4149 6793 1.6 and students, there lacks clear disciplinary differentiation 1998 5067 8518 1.7 between social, natural and engineering sciences. 1999 5895 9593 1.6 2000 6919 11378 1.6 was still a common feeling among doctoral students that 2001 8049 13744 1.7 they did not have sufficient communication with their 2002 8772 14706 1.7 supervisors. The most cited complaints included over- 2003 10507 18625 1.8 generalised advices, group supervision without targeting 2004 12315 22936 1.9 2005 14874 28318 1.9 2006 17800 35628 2.0 However, frequency alone does not tell the entire story. Some studies based on in-depth interviews found that it at their specific problems, and too much formality (W H Wang 2008). This echoes an earlier study at Tsinghua University, which found that 42.9 per cent doctoral students reported that their supervisors were not directing at their Source: Li & Zhan 2008b, p. 14. real issues, and 43.9 per cent complained about their supervisors’ unavailability (Jiang et al. 2005).According to types of employment, career mobility, income, and career another even earlier study conducted at Shanghai which satisfaction (Auriol 2007). further confirmed such findings, 40.9 per cent doctoral In China, national surveys repeatedly confirm a general students said their supervisors just ‘let things drift’ (Song satisfaction of doctorate holders with their employment & Zhang 2001, p. 3). after doctoral studies, although with the seemingly ever- However, unlike Australia where lack of emotional sup- growing number of doctorates, their advantaged posi- port and insufficient social interactions between supervi- tion in the labour market will be challenged more in the sors and students are commonly cited areas of discontent years to come (Li et al. 2007). The majority of Chinese by students (Leder 1995; Shannon 1995), national surveys doctorate holders choose to work in higher education find that while the assessment of doctoral supervisors was and research institutions, in scientific and research-related much poorer, positive response still reached 50 per cent jobs, although as the Chinese society becomes more (China’s Doctoral Education Quality Research Team 2010). diversified, the proportion of those with doctorates work- Yet, the situation could become worse in the years to come ing in research and teaching environment in China has as China has more and younger doctoral supervisors, as declined, for example, from 77.7 per cent in 1996 to 46 indicated by Table 5.Younger supervisors have been widely per cent in 2006 (Li & Zhan 2008b). Generally, there is a reported to be more focused on their own research and clear match between doctorate holders’ occupational ori- publications rather than on their interactions with doctoral entation and their actual choice-making behaviours (Zhao students. Indeed, both their commitment and academic & Deng 2011). 3 quality have been seriously questioned (Xu 2005). In 2007, a survey of 31,251 respondents from 289 doctoral training institutions, 200 government organisations Career and over 100 enterprises showed that on average doctorate holders were promoted to associate and full professor Since the 1970s, there have been some studies on career levels at the age of 34.1 and 39.7. It also found evident development of doctoral degree holders. Earlier research gender impact on promotion: generally female doctorate in the United States focused much on academic publica- holders needed an extra of 7.2 months to become a full tions and income (Clark & Centra 1982).There have since professor. The average ages for Chinese doctorate hold- been further studies in Europe (Mangematin et al. 2000) ers’ first internationally indexed (Science Citation Index, and Australia (Kubler & Western 2007). In 2004, OECD ini- Engineering Index, Social Science Citation Index, and Art tiated the Project on Careers of Doctorate Holders, which & Humanities Citation Index) journal articles, first patents, collected data from Australia, Canada, the United States, and first research grants in a role of principal investigator Switzerland, and Germany and used indicators including were respectively 30.9, 33.2 and 33. Here, once again, it vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Up and coming?, Rui Yang 69 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W took female doctorate holders an average of 2.4 months nations. Indeed, despite of the relatively short history of longer to reach the same level (Zhao et al. 2011). development, China’s doctoral education has had some Overall, the 2007 study showed clear advantages for doc- tough problems to tackle. One serious issue is the afore- torate holders to obtain professional promotions and gain mentioned imbalances and disparities that could have far- academic publications. It was also clear that the younger reaching social and educational consequences, especially when one received her/his doctorate, the more likely s/he in terms of equity and justice. Another major issue is the obtained professional promotions. It is particularly interest- rampant academic corruption that has deeply penetrated ing to note that the study revealed that while supervisors’ into China’s doctoral training, seriously affecting its qual- academic reputation had clear impact on the age of their ity and international reputation (Shen 2009). students’ first academic publications, the impact on the Both the growth and many problems China has echo ages of their students’ to gain their promotions, patents and much the international scenario (Pearson et al. 2008).The research grants was minimal. This is because promotion Chinese experience is particularly eye-catching for its up- is mainly decided by length of service and research out- and-coming positioning in the global doctoral education puts. Only under special circumstances can one’s academic landscape. In a society that becomes rapidly knowledge- achievements lead to her/his accelerated promotion. based and internationalised, China’s doctoral education As reported by Zhao and Deng (2011), another study in needs to respond well to evolving disciplinary practices, 2007 by the Chinese Academy for Science and Technology industry interactions and the career goals of doctoral stu- for Development revealed that the chosen occupational dents. Although a borrowed concept, it has fostered some categories related closely to their doctoral fields of study: features of its own. It is interesting to see how further Chi- those from the humanities and social sciences tended to na’s doctoral education fares in an unprecedentedly keen choose the teaching profession primarily (57 per cent); global competition. While whether or not China’s doc- those from science often selected basic research fields (20 toral education could live up to the nation’s high expecta- per cent); while those from engineering favoured applied tions remains uncertain, doctoral education definitely has research, and technology development (57 per cent). It a critical role to play in the rising Chinese power. also found a high correlation between doctorate holders’ social backgrounds and their occupational choices. Rui Yang is Associate Professor and Assistant Dean (Research Projects and Centres) at the Faculty of Education of the Uni- Conclusions versity of Hong Kong. During the past four decades when doctoral education Endnotes experienced a variety of difficulties in many industrialised societies, China established its national system of academic degrees and postgraduate education, and developed it fast to become one of the largest in the world.This has been in line with China’s massive leap forward in higher education since the late 1990s and its ambitious bid for world-class universities within decades. Doctoral education has been strongly, and arguable strategically, promoted by the Chinese government.Today, China’s domestically trained doctorate holders have become a significant force of the nation’s research and innovation, contributing vigorously to economic construction and social development in the country. As part of China’s higher education, doctoral education shares features and characteristic of the wider national system. The above account has revealed tight control by the central government over doctoral education throughout the entire process of doctoral training. While the Chinese are catching up swiftly in doctoral training, they acknowledge the considerable gap between their achievements and those practiced in major Western 70 Up and coming?, Rui Yang 1. China’s earliest practices in postgraduate education started in 1918 at nine research institutions in arts, science and law programmes at Peking University. Before the official establishment of a national system of academic degrees and postgraduate education, China also provided postgraduate education in the 1950s and 1960s (Xu 2005, pp. 47, 51). 2. Project 985 is under President Jiang Zemin’s call at the 100th anniversary of Peking University on 4 May 1998, and code-named after the date Year 98 Month 5. It aims to promote the development of Chinese universities to raise their influence and reputation in the world. To achieve this goal, the Chinese central and local governments have allocated large amount of funding to universities admitted into this project to develop new research centres, improve facilities, hold international conferences, attract world-renowned academic staff and visiting scholars, and to help Chinese academics attend conferences abroad. When it was first announced in 1998, funding was made available to Peking and Tsinghua Universities only and then to an elite group of 9 universities. By the end of the first phase of the project, 34 universities were sponsored. The second phase of the project added 5 more universities, making the total number of universities sponsored by the project to 39. It was announced in September 2007 that the project would not admit other universities. All the listed institutions are recognised as China’s most research-intensive universities. 3. 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Wu (eds), Higher education reform in China: Beyond the expansion (109-118). New York: Routledge. Zhou, G. L. (2010). An investigation of the quality of doctoral education in China: Based on a case study of UH university. Beijing: Social Sciences Academic Press. Zhou, S. J., Chen, F. R., & An, P. S. (2011). Statistical analyses of national outstanding doctoral dissertations. Higher Education Development and Evaluation, 27(1), 73-82. Up and coming?, Rui Yang 71 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W Assessing international (post)graduate education A research agenda Tami Blumenfield Lewis & Clark College, Portland, Oregon, USA Maresi Nerad University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA ‘Internationalisation’ has become the new buzzword for universities around the world, with jointly offered degrees as well as smaller-scale exchanges for students. Despite this rapid expansion of international campuses and programmes, and the increasing acceptance and encouragement of international experiences for [post]graduate students, little comprehensive evaluative work has been done to assess their efficacy on a broad scale and to determine what types and models of international work can be most effective. The lack of reliable and comprehensive data is especially problematic for science and engineering fields, where academic staff anxieties about forming students into competent scientists often collide with enthusiasm for encouraging international collaborations. Questions of exactly what makes a competent, or excellent, scientist, and what may benefit the scientific domain, do not have easy – or agreed-upon – answers. This article assesses the current state of internationalisation and international experiences, focusing in particular on science and engineering fields. It discusses initial results from a workshop, sponsored by the US National Science Foundation and organised by the Center for Innovation and Research in Graduate Education at the University of Washington, to develop an interdisciplinary research agenda aimed at launching and coordinating empirically driven research on international graduate education. It concludes by identifying areas for future research. radical – like replacing toilets with seatless models – but Introduction the rapid expansion of international education and the construction of entire campuses in other countries must In their article for the 1995 volume of Australia Univer- be beyond what they imagined.Today, internationalisation sities’ Review on Postgraduate Studies and Postgraduate of universities is the new buzzword. As Knight describes pedagogy, Sid Morris and Wayne Hudson laid out a frame- (2008), we now witness the internationalisation of higher work for radically redefining international education in education on a new level: Australia by changing teaching methods, expanding languages of instruction and assignment submission, making university infrastructure more inclusive, and generally placing international students at the centre of educational innovation that should spread to Australian students as ‘The number of multilateral university networks for research, teaching and contract project work has exploded; new regional international education organisations have been established; countries are reviewing their national internationalisation strategies and programmes; and new policy actors such as immigration, well. Sixteen years later, some of their ideas still sound 72 Assessing international (post)graduate education, Tami Blumenfield and Maresi Nerad vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W industry, trade are engaged and collaborating with education, foreign affairs, science and technology. The increase in volume, scope and scale of cross-border movement of education programmes (franchise, twinning, branch campus, etc.), and providers (commercial companies, non-government organisations, traditional universities), is unprecedented’ (Knight 2008, p. 10). ated in 1997, also encourages international experience. This unprecedented expansion of international educa- work on global problems and in the process help their tion has seen administrators in many countries scram- In Europe, the ERASMUS Mundi and the Madame Curie programme support inter-European international education and career development. Individual university departments are also establishing international collaborations with programmes or laboratories from other nations to students and postdocs develop cultural expertise. bling to sign memoranda of understanding and develop Many universities – particularly those in Australia, New joint or dual degree programmes (Berka 2011; Kuder & Zealand, the UK, as well as some colleges in the US – derive Obst 2009). International exchanges are becoming requi- substantial operating income from the tuition and fees site in many universities at the undergraduate level, and paid by international students at the undergraduate level. this trend is quickly extending into the graduate level as For example, international students (at all levels) provided well. Not only the physical location and movement of 14.9 per cent of the total income for Australian higher people but also the nature of many scholars’ academic education in 2009 (Marginson 2011). International experi- work has changed dramatically. Over the last two dec- ences for those beyond the undergraduate level are more ades knowledge production has changed from Mode costly, often require subsidisation, and therefore can be 1 research in which scientists solve disciplinary puz- more difficult to fund. Despite the importance – especially zles individually to Mode 2 production where research in the context of shrinking national and regional budgets occurs in multi-disciplinary, team-based groups who – of showing accountability for these high expenditures, tackle real world problems, working effectively in inter- evidence about the value of international experiences in national contexts, at the interfaces of academy/industry graduate education remains largely anecdotal (Kirk 2008). and academy/society, as well as in academia, industry, After considering whether universities are becoming new government, and non-profit sectors (Adams et al. 2007; incarnations of multinational corporations, Daniel Denecke Gibbons et al. 1994; Hicks et al. 2001; Nerad 2010; Stokes of the Council of Graduate Schools concludes,‘Value prop- 1997). Developing a ‘collaborative advantage’ rather than ositions underlying strategic decisions are not backed by a ‘competitive advantage’ can be an important way to evidence, [pointing to] a vital need for real outcomes data build on the necessity of working together to solve com- on the efficacy and value of international collaboration for plex problems (Lynn & Salzman 2006). students, research staff, and institutions’ (Denecke 2011). The increased pressure to internationalise must be Similarly, the Royal Society report on international scien- seen in the context of globalisation. Governments have tific collaboration emphasised that while collaborations are followed the economic theories of the knowledge society: vital and lead to many positive outcomes, ‘Little is under- believing in the power of advanced education to spur eco- stood about the dynamics of networking and the mobility nomic growth and build national capacity, governments of scientists, how these affect global science and how best are allocating substantial funds to increase the research to harness these networks to catalyse international collabo- and development capacities of their countries (Nerad ration’ (Royal Society 2011, p. 6). While international part- 2011). Indeed, ‘the preparation of the next generation nerships are vital, significant questions remain. of PhDs needs to include multi-cultural competencies in An increasing push to demonstrate value is thus giving order to be able to work collaboratively in international new urgency to outcomes-based research on international teams on solving societal problems in multi-national set- educational experiences. This is particularly true for sci- tings’ (Nerad 2011). Therefore, in recent years, interna- ence and engineering fields, in which competition for tional experiences for doctoral students have become funding, limited time to degree, and concerns about the sought after for both their general educational and career intangible costs of international experiences (e.g., distrac- preparation values. For instance, in the US the National tion from primary research projects and delays to degree Science Foundation (NSF) created a new programme in caused by ‘cultural’ pursuits) force students and interna- 2005, Partnership for International Research and Edu- tionally engaged academic staff alike to clearly demon- cation (PIRE), that emphasises international exchange strate the value of their international engagement. experiences for US PhD students. The NSF-funded inno- It is hoped that international experiences enhance vative, interdisciplinary doctoral programme, Integrated students’ knowledge acquisition and contribution to Graduate Education, Research and Training (IGERT), cre- research, prepare them for an increasingly international vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Assessing international (post)graduate education, Tami Blumenfield and Maresi Nerad 73 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W employment market, and also establish a cosmopolitan Among studies of international exchanges among doc- mind set and revive awareness and obligation of civic toral students and postdocs, some focus simply on mobil- engagement. This includes the notion of a citizen who ity (Ackers et al. 2008; Avveduto 2002;Verbik 2007), while crosses national boundaries without seeking to assimilate others examine postdocs as skilled migrants (Cantwell and to homogenise, but instead to accept differences and 2009). Only a few examine productivity of international embrace diversity (Guerin & Green 2009; Nerad 2009). exchanges and the impact on scientific careers. Jöns’ But do and can these experiences fulfil the great expec- study (2007) of academic mobility to Germany argues tations that we have for them? This question has proven that there are typical cultures of academic mobility and exceedingly complicated to answer. It is to open a dis- collaboration and that these can be partly explained by cussion and to build a research agenda with the goal of spatial relations specific to particular research practices. assessing and evaluating international experiences that This study suggests a way to conceptualise what kind of we write this article. In part, it builds on the authors’ ear- research would benefit most from international exchange. lier work to begin dialogues in person through an inter- It specifically addresses different kinds of international national workshop supported by the US National Science interactions and the impacts of these on publication. Foundation and held in Washington, DC in February 2011. Glänzel (2000) seeks to quantify the types and impacts of international scientific co-authorship relations in a multi- Reviewing the literature: what do we know about international experiences of postgraduate students? national comparison, as the recent Royal Society report (March 2011) has done too. Cantwell (2009) reveals the increasing reliance on international postdocs in academic production and examines the role of international While detailed research into the exact benefits or hin- mobility in careers of postdoctoral scientists. This kind of drances to (post)graduate students undergoing inter- research provides an empirically based starting point for national training during their degree is yet incomplete, thinking about how to maximise the career and scientific studies of graduate students and even undergraduates impact for scientists of international collaborations. Nerad who study abroad may serve usefully as a base for this (2011a) points to a new conceptual learning model that new area of inquiry.They explore the role of international includes international competences. students in the hosting nation, the effect of mobility on Assessments of specific programmes in terms of suc- scientific careers and productivity, and the potential for cess in training, research, and academic staff exchange intercultural competence and existing studies of under- offer useful starting points for research questions lead- graduate exchange to better inform future research. Here ing to generalisable results. The study of aspects of the we review some key studies that can serve as models for scientific process specific to international collaborations further research. and exchanges as well as their scientific impacts is still Hans de Wit has discussed broad aspects of interna- an emerging area of inquiry. Sisco and Reinhard (2007) tionalisation in higher education, taking a historical and focus their study on academic staff exchange, although comparative perspective, in two wide-ranging books (de from a business education context.The Stanford Research Wit 2002; de Wit 2010). Douglass and Edelstein (2009) Institute (2002) conducts research on the outcomes of focus on the role of international students, urging poli- Fulbright Scholar exchanges, and Universities UK (2009) cymakers in the United States to pay more attention to offers a more general overview of researcher mobility, the strategic importance of international students; Nerad although their scope is limited to Europe. (2011a) has likewise pointed to missed opportunities to Research on the impact of study abroad programmes for draw on international students as resources for the entire undergraduate students offers insight into factors impor- university community. Studies that take the perspectives tant in international exchange experiences for doctoral of international students’ experiences in the United States and postdoctoral students (Dwyer & Peters 2004; Martin, are increasing, and these newer studies are differentiating Bradford & Rohrlich 1995; Norris & Gillespie 2009), includ- among international students, rather than treating them ing possible negative impacts of international exchange as one uniform group (e.g., Trice & Yoo 2007; Finley et al. (Ryan & Twibell 2000). Gullahorn and Gullahorn (1996) 2007). Other studies look at more homogenous groups; offers an especially useful starting point for characterising for example, Japanese female students (Mayuzumi et al. the specificity of the international exchange experience 2007; Yamamoto 1994) or Chinese women (Qin & Lykes for graduate students because it compares outcomes in 2006) at US universities. terms of professional and personal development among 74 Assessing international (post)graduate education, Tami Blumenfield and Maresi Nerad vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W a sample including both graduate and undergraduate stu- Nerad et al. 2007). In the US, the existing Survey of Earned dents. Undergraduates tend to experience more personal Doctorates (SED) does not collect data on international development gain, while doctoral students report direct experiences. The Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR), career benefits. A key lesson of this research is that it is a subset of the SED, tracks career mobility, but does not possible and useful to prepare for going abroad and for allow linking careers to international experiences during returning home, itself a difficult transition referred to as doctoral education. The SDR, however, allows for analyses ‘reverse culture shock’ (Storti 1997). of numbers of international collaborations as well as co- Existing literature thus offers several models for authorship with international researchers (Hogan et al. studying the outcomes of international educational and 2010). The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and research collaborations for doctoral and postdoctoral Development (OECD) in collaboration with the Eurostat students. One source of information is rooted in sub- project on Careers of Doctorate Holders and the UNESCO jectivity, including first-person accounts of experiences Institute for Statistics completed in 2007 (and repeated as well as scholarly investigations of identity, attitudes, in 2010) the first survey on international career mobil- and subjective evaluations. Occupying a key role in ity of doctorate holders and reasons for mobility in seven this category is intercultural competence. Defined as a countries in Europe (http://www.oecd.org/sti/working- complex concept that broadly deals with effective and papers). This study is only available for selected European appropriate interactions with those from different backgrounds, cultures, or perspectives (Deardorff 2009), this capacity has long been understood as critical in business. Efforts to design more effective international countries. Postgraduate advisers themselves steered students from diverse cultural backgrounds and female students away from certain opportunities based on perceived fears, even when these perceptions were not matched by actual experiences exchanges at the doctoral Methods for measuring the contribution of international exchanges to the vitality of the US scientific enterprise and the quality of PhD graduates need to be developed and refined. Starting points are offered and postdoctoral level may by evaluation research benefit from findings in this research area. It offers peda- of NSF IGERT programmes with strong international gogical tools and assessment instruments that might components (Heg & Nerad 2004) and by studies in the be adapted to purposes of evaluating the impacts of sociology of science and studies of innovation that use international exchanges for doctoral and postdoctoral indicators such as publications and citations and exam- students. Researchers and practitioners in the area of ine scientific networks, such as the analyses of data from intercultural sensitivity and competence offer examples the SDR mentioned above. Evaluations and assessments of widely used and tested training techniques, including of particular programmes offer potential frameworks, the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) which methods, and instruments: for instance, Sadrozinski has been tested for reliability and validity (Paige, Jacobs- (2005) develops a framework for evaluating the educa- Cassuto, Yershova & DeJaeghere 2003). In general, the tional outcomes of international collaborations among field of intercultural competence offers a diverse set doctoral students. This framework uses participant of research approaches and findings, which should be observation, interviews, focus groups, and materials anal- synthesised where relevant to the particular types of ysis to evaluate international collaborations. The report exchanges undertaken among early career research- (Sadrozinski 2005, pp. 21-29) also includes interview ers (e.g., Altshuler, Sussman, & Kachur 2003; Greenholz protocols for academic staff and students over three 2000; Paige et al. 2003).Thus, one method of studying phases and an online survey in the appendix, making it the impact of international exchanges is to examine out- a useful resource. Finally, Kirk (2008) reports on a NSF comes in terms of intercultural competence; well-devel- workshop intended to develop approaches for evaluat- oped instruments for doing so exist already. ing international science and engineering-related col- A final approach is to document the career outcomes laborations, beginning with an analysis of those funded of students participating in international exchanges and by NSF. The workshop suggested examining effects of collaborations. This can be done by means of retrospec- these collaborations on individuals, on institutions, and tive surveys as the Center for Innovation and Research on what the author termed the ‘knowledge environment in Graduate Education (CIRGE) has done (Nerad 2009; level,’ or quality of innovation and research (Kirk 2008, p. vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Assessing international (post)graduate education, Tami Blumenfield and Maresi Nerad 75 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V 4). More specific measures of scientific and technological skill acquisition, the area 2008 workshop participants struggled to define for assessment purposes, still await creation. Taken together, these various areas represent starting points for developing a more cohesive, long-term assessment on the value of international experiences at the postgraduate level. E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W • What are the best ways to prepare students for international experiences? • What are the most effective international experiences… to students? To institutions? To international partners? What value do international experiences bring? • How can we measure effectiveness of international experiences? • How do international experiences affect ‘science’? Do they improve it, given the existence of different cul- Convening an international, interdisciplinary workshop to develop a research agenda tures of science and approaches to problem solving? • How can we maintain a focus on broader equity issues in all places – gender, ethnicity, class, nationality, and so on? With financial support from a grant by NSF, an interna- These themes guided the workshop design. Ten- tional, interdisciplinary workshop was designed to stim- minute igniting talks examined existing research and ulate the research agenda setting on understanding the shared participant experiences. ‘Perception lenses’ were value added of international collaboration at the postgrad- introduced to challenge participants to take unfamiliar uate level. This workshop was motivated by the CIRGE perspectives. Early career researchers presented skits to emphasis on the research of institutional and educational open conversations about the uneven aspects of inter- challenges faced by interdisciplinary and increasingly national collaborations and interdisciplinary encounters international doctoral programmes and their evaluations, (Breslow & Blumenfield 2011; Graybill & Shandas 2011). as well as the commitment to contribute to the prepara- And working groups developed responses to key ques- tion of the next generation of researchers for leadership tions articulated above, often by posing specific ques- in a global and knowledge-based world. On the practi- tions or sets of questions for further investigation. The cal side, CIRGE researchers were inspired by their expe- framework of identifying elements of research needed to rience of establishing effective research communities of understand aspects of international experiences at sev- international experts in doctoral education and subse- eral stages – before, during, and after these experiences quent publications through the CIRGE series of interna- took place – was explored. tional research synthesis workshops (see CIRGE website, http://depts.washington.edu/cirgeweb/). Workshop results The programme was designed to (a) increase the mutual understanding of essential topics relevant to inves- One important result of the workshop was coming to tigating the impact of international collaborations at the a consensus on key questions as priorities for further (post) graduate level and beyond, (b) gather information empirical research. During breakout group discussions on what we know and should know about assessing inter- and through discussions on the blog prior to the work- national experiences and programmes, and (c) move col- shop in Washington, DC, participants identified the fol- lectively towards charting research directions for the next lowing central research questions: years. A series of short talks (10 minutes) helped ‘ignite’ 1. Does international collaboration lead to better sci- ideas about relevant research topics, ‘fuelled’ awareness ence/scientists? of important assessment aspects in international col- 2. Do current institutional and funding structures lead to laborations, and ‘kept the flames burning’ to enable the missed opportunities for international collaboration? participants to identify potential collaborators for future research on international programmes and experiences. A simple conceptual framework was applied, exploring issues of collaboration and assessment before, during and after the international collaboration activity. Prior to the workshop, participants identified the following key concerns through a pre-workshop survey: If so, how? 3. How can we assess institutional preparedness for international collaborations/experiences? 4. What are the expected outcomes and goals of international experiences/collaborations? How are they established? 5. What are the actual impacts, outcomes, and transforma- • How can we maximise and measure global/intercultural tion of the international experiences/collaborations? competence (as we train students to be researchers)? The following sections address preliminary efforts to 76 Assessing international (post)graduate education, Tami Blumenfield and Maresi Nerad vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W pool knowledge regarding these questions and to further and joint submission of grant proposals, was a constant refine the questions into concrete research topics. desire, but diversity-supporting elements like dependent Planning for international collaboration: the institutional context support and full inclusion of minority individuals were also priorities on the wish list. One frequently voiced frustration by the research com- Internationalisation ‘wish list’ munity is the challenge of obtaining funding for inter- International collaboration opportunities should: national collaborators, and the dangerous imbalance of • Be constraint free: explore joint funding possibilities. research relationships that could result from a US Con- • Include increased programme support, funding travel, gress-funded agency that restricted funding for foreign personnel, associated research and stipends. researchers. Timelines for international collaborative • Fund supplies for offices and laboratory expenses. work and the structure of doctoral student funding also • Initiate reactivation transitions earlier: provide support posed challenges: grants that limited the time to degree resources for post-doc to return for careers, confer- funded through the grant discouraged international ven- ences, and other travel. tures. For example, students funded for three years faced a • Address institutional level-challenges: these challenges ticking clock: adding an international component to their are particularly acute in institutions facing a budget research could lengthen their doctoral study period and crunch, where staffing constraints prevent multiple potentially extend this stage past the allowable funding grant submission. period. Furthermore, the outcomes of international expe- • Consider missed opportunities: issues of reciprocity riences should be studied over a longer term than most relate to problems of under-funding. One person gave grant evaluations allowed. Structurally, then, existing strict an example of being picked up in a limo in China and doctoral programme length in many fields poses barriers generally being treated like a ‘star’ in other countries. to international work and to assessing its outcomes. The reception of international visitors to the US is often In addition, racial and gender disparities are often magnified by international doctoral education opportunities less resplendent. sented a particularly important area of research focus. The Examining length, timing, and characteristics of effective international experiences precarious situation of early career researchers received What length of international experience is most effec- significant attention from workshop participants, and tive, and when should the experience occur? Can mul- models for expanding access to international opportuni- tiple experiences occur, as preferred by the subjects of ties without increasing inequalities demanded further Avedduto (1998) (although they lacked the funding for attention. Postgraduate advisers themselves steered stu- multiple experiences)? One researcher emphasises, ‘The dents from diverse cultural backgrounds and female stu- greater the culture gap, the longer it may take for mean- dents away from certain opportunities based on perceived ingful understanding to develop’ (Bordia 2011). Most fears, even when these perceptions were not matched by likely, the answers to questions about duration will vary actual experiences (Zippel 2011). For example, advisers based on the goals and context of the particular situation. discouraged some female students from going to Middle There may be no single determinant of an ideal, one-size- Eastern countries where women could face discrimina- fits-all, length of an international experience. Maintaining tion in public. These pervasive forms of discrimination flexibility in the types and lengths of international experi- should be carefully studied as the role of the postgradu- ences may help make them more accessible to individuals ate adviser continues to be crucial in the formation of stu- with place-based obligations, including family commit- dents. Compounding the problem, more men than women ments and other career needs. Furthermore, how do vari- receive unsolicited invitations to engage in international ations in the type of international experience affect the work by another institution. Zippel suggests that develop- outcomes? It will be important to distinguish in evalua- ing an application process for women to research abroad tion research between individual student exchanges and rather than requiring them to be selected by a mentor or more complex research collaborations. (Ackers et al. 2008; Hogan et al. 2010). Thus this area pre- an academic staff person would help alleviate this disparity (Hogan et al. 2010). Questions identified by working group members included: A working group at the workshop developed a ‘wish • What are the effects of increased Internet access on list’ for making internationalisation more feasible. Funding, international collaborations – will this prevent students vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Assessing international (post)graduate education, Tami Blumenfield and Maresi Nerad 77 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V from fully immersing themselves? (Or, conversely, will E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W Figure 1: Shifting categorisations this alleviate some problems of loneliness, etc., and family separation?) • What role can student support services play? Who will advise the student in a partner university? • How well are students integrated into the research community? • What is the role of the individual researcher vs. the institution? • What funding is available locally? • Are the communication channels between the institution, departments, and individuals fit for the purpose of the collaboration? • How much flexibility is allowable? During his presentation, Bordia (2011) explained that ‘effective collaborations have a scientific basis, complementary expertise, and appropriate facilities.’ He also emphasised that for students, having an assigned host is essential. Nagoya University social psychology professor Jiro Takai (2011) offered insights from psychology about fostering effective relationships between students from the host country and students from abroad, an important yet under-studied aspect of the international experience (cf. Nerad 2011a).After explaining that merely bringing groups into contact with each other has been largely discredited as an effective tool for cross-cultural understanding – proximity does not guarantee meaningful interaction – , he drew from social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner 1979) to suggest that optimal results would occur from changing the ways in which students identified. Since social identity theorists have established that groups (ingroups) work hard to assert their superiority over others (outgroups), the key to integrating diverse participants may be to redraw the lines of established groups (Figure 1). Takai’s work points to the potential for universities to draw on recategorisation, decategorisation, and subcategorisation to manipulate whether students identified as international students or whether new identities could be Diagrams from ‘Cross-cultural Exchange: Intergroup or Intragroup?,’created by Jiro Takai (2011). forged. These examples show that not merely the length of international experiences, but also the depth of integration into another research community, should be consid- • What is the value of individual interdisciplinary skills compared with interdisciplinary team skills? ered as assessments are developed. • Is the international experience considered and valued Assessing outcomes following international experiences and developing frameworks for outcomes assessments • Is there a bias toward people who have engaged in col- during career planning and job searches? laborative work? • Job opportunities, funding, and reward systems all influ- Questions about assessing outcomes on an individual ence potential outcomes. What forms of recognition level (please consult Nerad & Blumenfield 2011 for addi- result, if any? tional questions about assessing outcomes on an institu- The hope to find a universal framework for assessing tional level): 78 international experiences for postgraduate students and Assessing international (post)graduate education, Tami Blumenfield and Maresi Nerad vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W for early career researchers is understandable, but not relationships. For example, one American university sent realistic. Different lenses can be applied to approach the several cohorts of doctoral students to collaborate with finding of a framework. Different frameworks follow community organisations in another country. However, different questions. For example, one common question the students lacked linguistic competence necessary to would be,‘Does international work lead to better science? pursue research independently, and overlooked the neces- Does it form a better scientist?’ An evaluation looking to sary aspects of nurturing a mutually beneficial long-term answer these questions would need to first clarify the pro- relationship. This led to an earlier-than-anticipated end to gramme objectives and then build an assessment tailored productive collaboration. One university administrator in to those objectives. Tools drawing from the intercultural South Africa described US universities knocking on her communications field are seldom field-specific. A model door and assessed them as interested in ‘exotic plants, from the Engineering Cultures China / Global Hub con- exotic minerals, and exotic people.’ But, she added, ‘we are sortium combines disciplinary-specific knowledge (engi- not exotic, and we are increasingly not interested.’ neering) with intercultural competence training (Jesiek & Beddoes 2010). This programme included several train- Summary and recommendations ing modules and several online assessment modules. The flexibility of this tool meant that students could complete In this article we reviewed recent literature that is useful assessments during their international engineering intern- for approaching research on assessing international (post) ships in China as well as during the training and after the graduate education and collaboration. We found that the programme completion. existing publications focus more on the undergraduate The number of high-quality, programme-specific level of international exchanges than the postgraduate assessments of international experiences for postgradu- one. At the postgraduate level the focus is on the mobility ate students is growing. Now, programme directors and of doctorates, especially within Europe, and on joint publi- responsible academic staff need to carefully consider how cations and creation of international networks. We found to pool this information to contribute to a larger under- that the intercultural competencies concept offers much standing of promising practices in international research for future research at the postgraduate level, and that and education. Longitudinal, multi-country studies should insights from intergroup psychology play an additional be coordinated and supported by national (or interna- role in building understanding. We also found that atten- tional) funding agencies. Assessments should be robust, tion to the effects of international experiences for magni- incorporating quantitative and qualitative approaches; fying or minimising inequalities should be an important they should also be balanced between formative and sum- component of future research. We further reported from mative assessment (Pfotenhauer 2010); and they should findings of an international, interdisciplinary workshop take advantage of creative assessment tools like data- on the topic of developing a research agenda for assessing driven storytelling (Macklin 2011). Assessments should international postgraduate education and collaboration. not rely entirely on student self-report, but should gather information from multiple perspectives. For example, host Results country collaborators, international student colleagues, No single uniform conceptual framework will be able to employers, advisors, and same-university colleagues could move this nascent field forward. Rather multiple lenses, all be well-positioned to provide insight into how well qualitative and quantitative methods, and the multitude individuals achieved certain outcomes. Depending on of stakeholders need to be considered. Only with many- the outcomes to be measured, additional people or units faceted, complex case studies with mixed methods will could be included as well. we arrive at a comprehensive understanding of whether Examining relationships resulting from international value has been added to postgraduate education and research experiences can provide a helpful tool for assess- research through international experiences and collabo- ment. Shawn Wilson, author of Research Is Ceremony: ration or not. Such assessment research will approach Indigenous Research Methods (2009), emphasises that rela- studies with a framework of before, during and after the tionships resulting from the research process, in addition to international activity, and will distinguish between the research results themselves, should be highly valued. Writ- individual or institutional level of analysis and the contri- ing from the perspective of an indigenous researcher, he bution to the advancement of science and knowledge per notes that many attempts at cross-border research fail or se. Future research will pay attention to gender and race falter because insufficient attention is paid to interpersonal issues within international collaboration and to the rel- vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Assessing international (post)graduate education, Tami Blumenfield and Maresi Nerad 79 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V Figure 2: Thinking through Inclusivity E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W English language venues. Finally, paying careful attention Thinking through Inclusivity: Considerations for Before, During and After International Encounters to the changing carrots and sticks used by universities, Before: reform and recalibrate their higher education systems Inclusiveness can be defined through six terms: gender, ethnicity, geography networks, backgrounds, discipline, institution, bilateral and multilateral programmes, and structure (partnerships and exchanges). How accessible are programmes? Who applies? What is the number of students? Are programmes individual-based, or group-based? What are the potential missed opportunities? Are the programmes transparent? How can IGERT programmes become more inclusive? During: How structured is the programme? Are there mentorship programmes? An effective programme will offer support services for all participants; its infrastructure will encourage integration and provide a community base. After: Questions about inclusivity must be posed: Did it break apart biases? For whom? At what level? often at the behest of national governments, as countries (e.g., research assessment exercises of the sort recently revamped in Australia (cf.AUR 53:1)), and noting how they affect international collaborations of both junior scholars and postgraduate students, will be critical. We close with a call for collaborators.We hope that this important research agenda may attract new participants and foster connections among those already engaged in similar work. Tami Blumenfield is a Visiting Assistant Professor of Cultural Anthropology at Lewis & Clark College, Portland, Oregon, and a specialist in Chinese studies. Maresi Nerad is associate professor of higher education and director of the Center for Innovation and Research in Graduate Education at the University of Washington, Seattle. Acknowledgments evance of length of exchanges or visits to other countries We would like to thank the US National Science Founda- and cultures. Future research needs to be particularly alert tion for funding the grant proposal, Investigating the Inter- to national funding structures and whether these facilitate national Experiences in Science, Technology, Engineering or hinder international national collaborations. and Mathematics (STEM) Graduate Education and Beyond: Figure 2 provides an example using the structuring From Anecdotal to Empirical Evidence (#105029).We also framework of before, during, after and applying it to the thank the February 2011 workshop participants for their issue of inclusiveness. ongoing engagement with this work. Recommendations Endnote We recommend that national and international funding agencies support, coordinate and pool emerging cases of Throughout this article, the term ‘academic staff’ is used individual institution’s assessment studies to help build to describe research professors and other teaching staff, a comprehensive understanding of the values of interna- often those who supervise students. Its equivalent term in tional engagement and provide critical evidence for the North American usage is ‘faculty.’ justification of resources allocated to them. We recommend that any new collaborations build elements into international experiences that maximise institutional rewards and support diverse students and researchers, creating a more reciprocal and equitable endeavour. To accomplish these goals will require efforts beyond that which a single research institute in any one nation can muster. 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Presentation to National Science Foundation and Center for Innovation and Research in Graduate Education Workshop, ‘Investigating the International Experiences in STEM Graduate Education and Beyond: A Workshop to Develop a Research Agenda,’ Arlington, VA. Assessing international (post)graduate education, Tami Blumenfield and Maresi Nerad vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S â€™ R E V I E W A new era for research education in Australia? Helene Marsh James Cook University, Queensland Bradley Smith James Cook University, Queensland Max King Monash University, Victoria Terry Evans Deakin University, Victoria Use of the Australian research assessment exercise, Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) to influence the policy and practice of research education in Australia will undoubtedly have many consequences, some of them unintended and potentially deleterious. ERA is a retrospective measure of research quality; research education is prospective. There is a lack of alignment between the 2- and especially the 4- digit Fields of Research used for ERA and university organisational units. While numerous Fields of Research were rated as world class in multiple institutions in the capital cities of New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland, the other states and regional Australia have significant gaps. The Sciences, Technology, Engineering and Medical (STEM) fields were generally rated higher than the Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences (HASS) disciplines. Thus using ERA results to allocate higher degree by research places will have highly variable consequences in different disciplines and locations, given the obstacles to the mobility of the largely mature-aged doctoral cohort and the forecast impending academic skills shortage. ERA provides an incentive for Australian academics to eschew publishing in low impact journals and is likely to disadvantage some research students for whom co-authorship in a lower impact journal is more advantageous than no publication. There are many ways in which ERA results could be used to improve the quality of research education in Australia. Nonetheless, simplistically limiting doctoral education to Fields of Research where an institution scored at or better than national or world averages in ERA is unlikely to be in the national interest because our future research and academic workforce needs to be well prepared to operate across the nation in areas of emerging research, including cross-disciplinary and applied research. Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) is designed to (RQF) (DEST 2005); an initiative prompted by political provide a comprehensive review of the quality of research scepticism about the claims/assertions that universities undertaken in Australian higher education institutions at made about the value of and returns on national invest- regular intervals. The first ERA was conducted in 2010 ment in research. In implementing ERA, Australia follows (Australian Research Council 2011a), the second will be several other countries, including the United Kingdom conducted in 2012 and the third is planned for 2016. (RAE 2008), New Zealand (PBRF 2012), Hong Kong ERA was a successor to the Research Quality Framework (French, Massy & Young 2001), which have conducted vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A new era for research education in Australia?, Helene Marsh et al. 83 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W national assessments of the quality of research based on Australian Academy for the Technological Sciences and various criteria.These overseas assessment exercises have Engineering (ATSE 2009) expressed concern that applied been used to guide research funding in response to con- and cross-disciplinary research would be undervalued, a cerns about the affordability of funding all higher edu- concern supported by analyses of British Research Assess- cation institutions for research as higher education has ment Exercises (e.g. Elton 2000). moved from an elite to a mass system (Elton 2000). How- The ways in which ERA will be incorporated into the ever, the outcomes have not always been as policy makers drivers that determine the Research Training Scheme, the intended. For example, in the United Kingdom, the exer- block grant provided to Australian universities to fund cise, which was aimed at concentrating research in fewer research training, have yet to be determined. In ‘Research institutions and departments, confirmed that many of the skills for an innovative future’ (DIISR 2011a), the Austral- newer universities were producing quality research and ian government stated that the Excellence in Research for many universities used their freedom of virement to fund Australia (ERA) initiative will support the ‘identification lower-rated departments at the expense of higher-rated and recognition of research strengths within universities’ ones (Elton 2000). as a vital component of research education (page 23). In ERA 2010, each of the 41 Australian Higher Education Despite intuitive appeal, this approach may have the unin- Providers was invited to provide evidence of research tended consequence of reducing research education in quality, volume, application and esteem across eight dis- areas of national or regional importance, especially areas ciplinary clusters: (1) Physical, Chemical and Earth Sci- of applied, cross-disciplinary or emerging research. The ences; (2) Humanities and Creative Arts; (3) Engineering purpose of our paper is to explore possible consequences and Environmental Sciences; (4) Social, Behavioural and of ERA for research education in Australia and to suggest Economic Sciences; (5) Mathematical, Information and ways in which ERA results could be used to enhance Computing Sciences; (6) Biological Sciences and Tech- research education in Australia while minimising del- nology; (7) Biomedical and Clinical Health Sciences; (8) eterious, unintended consequences ‘before they become Public and Allied Health Sciences. The disciplines within apparent, let alone researchable’ (Elton 2000). each cluster were defined by the 2 and 4-digit Fields of Research identified by the Australian and New Zealand Methods Standard Research Classification (ANZSRC 2008). ERA 2010 was an academic rather than an end-user Our analysis is largely based on the National Report of evaluation of Australia’s research. The evaluation was ERA 2010 (Australian Research Council 2011a). ERA undertaken by eight Research Evaluation Committees, 2010 scores were based on 25 2-digit and 157 4-digit each of which was broadly representative of its discipline Fields of Research as defined by the ANZSRC classifica- cluster group. Each committee’s assessment was based tion (ANZSRC 2008), a pragmatic taxonomy of research on a ‘dashboard’ of indicators of research quality, research across all research and development sectors in Australia volume and activity, research applications and recogni- and New Zealand including industry, Government agen- tion (Australian Research Council 2011a). Each Field of cies, private not for profit organisations and universities. Research was evaluated on a five-point scale ranging from This classification was not designed as a taxonomy of ‘1’ (well below world standard) to ‘5’ (well above world university research per se and includes Fields of Research standard) with a rating of ‘3’ representing world standard. that are largely undertaken outside the sector e.g., auto- If an institution did not meet the low volume threshold motive engineering and medical biotechnology. Thus it for critical mass for a Field of Research, it was rated as is questionable whether an analysis such as ours should ‘not assessed’ for that field. The indicators were largely include all these fields.Twenty-two of the 4-digit codes are metric-based with an emphasis on citation analysis the ‘XX99’ or ‘other’ codes e.g., 699 Other Biological Sciences vast majority of Sciences, Technology, Engineering and and 1499 Other Economics. There were only 28 Units of Medical (STEM) disciplines and peer review by interna- Evaluation (a 2-digit or 4-digit Field of Research for one tional experts in the remaining discipline clusters. Thus institution) across the 22 ‘other’ Fields of Research com- the range of disciplines was split into peer-review disci- pared with 1708 Units of Evaluation for the substantive plines and citation disciplines. The evaluation processes Fields of Research (Commonwealth of Australia 2011a). were not transparent and attempts to determine the rela- The purpose of the ‘other’ codes is to pick up research tive importance of the input factors through retrospec- not adequately captured by the main 4-digit Fields of tive analysis have largely failed. Some bodies including the Research.Therefore, including these 22 Fields of Research 84 A new era for research education in Australia?, Helene Marsh et al. vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W in an analysis of ERA distorts consideration of breadth, as a nary research. Experience in the United Kingdom sug- ‘not assessed’ within these codes simply indicates there is gests that these areas may not rate well (or at all) in ERA adequate alignment of research codes and actual activity, (Elton 2000). whereas a ‘not assessed’ for a substantive code indicates that either there is no research activity at that Higher Edu- Organisational scale mismatch cation Provider, or if there is, it has not produced the req- There is a lack of alignment between the 2- and especially uisite outputs to meet the threshold for assessment. the 4- digit Fields of Research used for ERA and university There is also an argument that 1802 Maori Law should organisational units. Most Australian universities are now not be included in Australian assessments as the inclusion organised in large multi-disciplinary schools that conduct of this code in ANZSCR is a function of ANZSRC being research in many Fields of Research (e.g., Environmental a joint classification for Australia and New Zealand. No Science staff at Griffith University contributed to 82 Fields Higher Education Provider met the threshold for assess- of Research in ERA 2010 (Tony Shiel, pers comm 2011). ment for Maori Law in ERA 2010. Similarly at James Cook University, all of the assessed In addition, nine 4-digit Fields of Research did not Fields of Research relied on inputs from at least two and record any assessment. Whether that result indicates real typically five to eight of that institution’s 25 academic gaps in the fabric of Australian Higher Education Research organisational units (Chris Cocklin, pers comm 2011). is beyond the scope of this paper.Thus ERA 2010 was not, In ERA 2010, this organisational scale mismatch was in practice, an analysis of 157 4-digit Fields of Research but exacerbated by the inevitable attempt by every university of 125 – 134 Fields of Research depending on whether the to optimise its ERA returns. As a result, many staff, par- fields for which no returns were received are included.We ticularly those undertaking cross-disciplinary research, used 134 Fields of Research in our analysis below by omit- contributed to their university’s return in several differ- ting the 22 ‘other’ Fields of Research and Maori Law. ent Fields of Research, which may have received very different ERA evaluations. Alternatively, some institutions Results and Discussion score well in Fields of Research not represented by their organisational units. For example, the Australian National Challenges of ERA for research education University was rated as world class in Education at the 2-digit level without having a unit in this discipline (Mar- Temporal scale mismatch garet Kiley pers comm. 2011). ERA is a retrospective measure of research quality, volume, Although ERA 2012 will incorporate changes designed application and esteem aggregated into an overall per- to improve the capacity to accommodate cross-discipli- formance rating. Based on data from eligible staff from nary research (Australian Research Council 2011b), the each institution employed at the census date of 31 March changes are unlikely to improve this mismatch of organisa- 2010, ERA 2010 applied to research outputs from 1 Janu- tional scale.The revised methodology will allow each insti- ary 2003 to 31 December 2008; research income, com- tution to code journal articles with significant content (66 mercialisation and esteem measures between 1 January per cent or greater) not represented by a journal’s Fields of 2006 and 31 December 2008; citation measures from 1 Research to another appropriate Field of Research code of January 2003 to 1 March 2010.Thus some of the research its choice (Australian Research Council 2011b). However, assessed must have predated the publications reference institutions will still code publications to maximise their period by several years. The reference periods for ERA ERA scores rather than to align with organisational units. 2012 will be updated, for example publications will be Thus using ERA results as a blunt instrument to define the limited to the period 1 January 2005 – 31 December 2010, fields, in which a university may offer doctorates or award however, the exercise is inevitably retrospective. Australian Postgraduate Awards for example, will almost Most universities are investing in emerging areas of certainly increase the perverse incentive to ‘optimise’ the research to meet perceived future needs in the context coding of the Fields of Research in which research higher of their institutional mission. Current doctoral candidates degree candidates are working, reducing the robustness of are the researchers of the future and their research should the data on this important topic. be aligned with research needs of the future rather than the research strengths of the past. Doctoral candidates Perverse incentives should be well represented in an institution’s areas of ERA 2010 produced at least one perverse incentive emerging research including applied and cross-discipli- that anecdotal evidence indicates has had an impact on vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A new era for research education in Australia?, Helene Marsh et al. 85 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W research training already. Because ERA 2010 was focused rently an assessment of all publications, any publication on all publications (or research outputs), it was perceived in a journal with a relatively low impact factor (includ- as emphasising publishing in highly ranked (A* and A) jour- ing most journals in emerging fields and many journals nals in the case of the peer-review disciplines or journals that publish cross-disciplinary research) will still have the with high impact factors in the case of citation disciplines. potential to dilute the quality of publications in the eyes The Research Evaluation Committees were presented with of a Research Evaluation Committee. Thus many supervi- percentages of A*, A, B and C publications in their dash- sors may be reluctant to publish in such journals with their boards, along with other research indicators. Consequently research students, a practice that is likely to disadvantage until recently, some Australian academics were strongly the student. In addition, established journals can be quite encouraged to publish only in A* and A journals by senior conservative and reluctant to publish new work in emerg- university staff concerned that any publications in lower ing, cross-disciplinary or applied areas. ranked journals inevitably reduced the percentages of of Evaluation. Thus some academics, particularly in the Systemic variables affecting the use of ERA in Research Education peer-review disciplines, perceived a strong disincentive to There are three broad variables associated with ERA out- publish with a research higher degree candidate in a B or comes that will have consequences if ERA is used to allocate C journal. For the citation disciplines, there was a similar higher degree by research places or government funded disincentive to publish in low impact journals. stipend scholarships: institutional grouping, geography and publications in A* and A journals for the relevant ERA Unit ERA 2012 will not use the controversial system of ranking journals used in ERA 2010 (Australian Research discipline.We consider each of these variables below. Council 2011b). Rather the Australian Research Council Institutional Grouping will use a refined journal quality indicator and evaluation The performance of Australia’s 41 Higher Education Pro- committees will use their expert judgement to assess the viders was predictably uneven in ERA 2010 (Table 1), appropriateness of the journals for the disciplinary unit although all but two universities were rated as at world concerned. This new approach is less transparent than class or better in at least one Field of Research indicating its predecessor and is unlikely to change the unwilling- that as in the United Kingdom (Elton 2000; RAE 2008), ness of some supervisors to publish with their research some of the newer universities are producing some ‘out- students if it means publishing in low impact journals or standing’ research (at least one university outside the their equivalent. Group of Eight universities achieved a maximum score in Showing a research higher degree candidate how to eight of the 18 2-digit Fields of Research). publish is very much part of good practice in research As expected, ERA confirmed the research standing of training. Consequently, some doctoral programmes require the Group of Eight universities which were collectively all research students to publish a paper (or in some cases assessed in 692 Units of Evaluation of which 91.3 per cent two papers) in order to satisfy the requirements for the were rated at world standard or better. The seven Innova- degree. Research does not Table 1: ERA 2010 performance by institutional grouping always work out as planned – there is an element of risk. Grouping When research does not work # Institutions # Field of Research assessed /134 out or yields negative results, it is typically not possible to pub- # Units of Evaluation rated ≥ world class # Units of Evaluation assessed % Units of Evaluation rated ≥ world class Australian Technology Network 5 78 134 224 59.8% the interest in the results to Group of Eight 8 121 632 692 91.3% the readers of the journal, 7 95 185 296 62.5% rather than the quality of the Innovative Research Universities research. Journals are ranked Non-aligned 21 98 213 496 42.9% on the basis of impact factor Regional 14 96 189 387 48.8% Total 41 1126 1708 65.9% lish the results in high impact journals. This practice reflects and it is inevitable that this information will be used in ERA 2012. Because ERA is cur- 86 Data Source: Australian Research Council (2011a). Excellence in Research for Australia 2010 National Report. Retrieved from www.arc.gov.au/era/. A new era for research education in Australia?, Helene Marsh et al. vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E Table 2: ERA 2010 performance by institutional state of origin State # Units of Evaluation rated ≥ world class # Units of Evaluation rated % Units of Evaluation rated ≥ world class # Fields of Research not evaluated # Fields of Research with only 1 unit of evaluation S ’ R E V I E W of Evaluation across the seven # Fields of Research offered /134 4-digit codes in the Commerce cluster were considered world class. There are no world class providers in Western Australia in Law. There was only one institu- NSW 359 506 70.9 17 19 117 VIC 273 395 69.1 22 18 112 QLD 205 291 70.4 24 29 110 at the 2-digit level and only three WA 107 201 53.2 37 38 97 of 15 Units of Evaluation were SA 107 153 69.9 48 38 86 rated as world class across the TAS 38 54 70.4 80 54 54 ACT 65 79 82.3 65 59 69 NT 6 16 37.3 118 16 16 of 14 ‘regional’ higher education Multistate 4 13 30.8 n/a n/a n/a providers; Ballarat, Batchelor, Cen- Total 1164 1708 65.9 tion (Murdoch) rated at world class in Studies in Human Society eight 4-digit Fields of Research in the Commerce discipline-cluster. We analysed the performance tral Queensland, Charles Darwin, 134 Note: Data Source: Australian Research Council (2011a). Excellence in Research for Australia 2010 National Report. Retrieved from www.arc.gov.au/era/. Charles Sturt, Deakin, James Cook, Newcastle, New England, Southern Cross, Southern Queens- land, Sunshine Coast, Tasmania tive Research Universities collectively had 62.5 per cent and Wollongong. This grouping is a heterogeneous mix of 296 Units of Evaluation rated at world class or better, as it includes four institutions with no or one world- a result similar to that of the five Australian Technology class ratings, three members of the Innovative Research Network universities (59.8 per cent of 225 Units of Evalu- University grouping (Charles Darwin, James Cook and ation rated at world class or better). The performance of Newcastle) while Tasmania and Wollongong are well- the 21 non-aligned institutions (42.9 per cent of 496 Units established non-aligned research universities. There were of Evaluation rated at world class or better), was more 15 Fields of Research where the ‘regional’ universities diverse, ranging from Macquarie with 75.6 per cent of 45 scored relatively well, including Analytical Chemistry and Units of Evaluation rated as world class, to Batchelor Insti- Environmental Science and Management. Of the 33 world tute of Indigenous Tertiary Education, University of Notre class Units of Evaluation across these 15 Fields, all but five Dame and the University of the Sunshine Coast with none. The lowest performing 15 universities were assessed for 234 Units of Evaluation although only 20.9 per cent of these were at world standard or better with the discipline of Nursing being the strongest performer with four of six Table 3: ERA 2010 results for the five 4-digit Fields of Research with the highest number of Units of Evaluation in 14 ‘regional’ institutions # Units of Evaluation rated ≥ world class # Units of Evaluation % Units of Evaluation rated ≥ world class Curriculum & Pedagogy 4 14 30.8 Specialist Studies In Education 3 13 23.1 world class in their capital cities, the other States (Table 2) and regional Australia have significant gaps. South Aus- Education Systems 1 12 8.3 tralia does not have any institutions rated world class in Sociology 2 11 18.2 Business & Management 0 13 0.0 universities being rated at or above world class in this 4-digit Fields of Research Field of Research. Geography Geography matters. While New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland have numerous Units of Evaluation rated as two 2-digit Fields of Research: (1) Education and (2) Commerce, Management, Tourism and Services. In the three 4-digit Fields of Research in the discipline of Education, only two of the eight South Australian Units of Evaluation were rated as world class and only three of the nine Units vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Note: Data Source: Australian Research Council (2011a). Excellence in Research for Australia 2010 National Report. Retrieved from www.arc. gov.au/era/. A new era for research education in Australia?, Helene Marsh et al. 87 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W Table 4: ERA 2010: world class assessments for various Fields of Research 2-digit Field of Research 2-digit Fields of Research # Units of Evaluation ≥ world class Aggregate of 4-digit Fields of Research per 2-digit code # Units of Evaluation % Units of # Units of Evaluation ≥ Evaluation ≥ world class world class # Units of Evaluation % Units of Evaluation ≥ world class Chemical Sciences 26 26 100.0 73 84 86.9 Earth Sciences 19 21 90.5 57 57 100.0 Agricultural & Vet Sciences 22 25 88.0 32 36 88.9 Physical Sciences 20 24 83.3 51 60 85.0 Environmental Sciences 20 25 80.0 25 30 83.3 Mathematical Sciences 18 24 75.0 50 58 86.2 Engineering 22 31 71.0 96 111 86.5 Built Environment & Design 16 23 69.6 32 50 64.0 Biological Sciences 23 34 67.6 108 132 81.8 Philosophy & Religious Studies 16 25 64.0 36 50 72.0 History & Archaeology 21 33 63.6 33 43 76.7 Medical & Health Sciences 46 73 63.0 184 237 77.6 Information & Computing Sciences 14 24 58.3 21 23 91.3 Language, Communication & Culture 21 36 58.3 66 100 66.0 Technology 4 7 57.1 7 8 87.5 Law and Legal Studies 17 35 48.6 17 35 48.6 Psychology & Cognitive Sciences 14 31 45.2 20 39 51.3 Education 15 39 38.5 42 105 40.0 Studies In Creative Arts & Writing 14 38 36.8 63 95 66.3 Economics 12 35 34.3 21 49 42.9 Commerce, Management, Tourism & Services 13 39 33.3 60 148 40.5 Studies In Human Society Total 10 38 26.3 70 158 44.3 403 686 58.7 1164 1708 68.1 Note: Data Source: Australian Research Council (2011a). Excellence in Research for Australia 2010 National Report. Retrieved from www.arc.gov.au/era were located at the older institutions: Deakin, James Cook, Social Sciences (HASS). The extent to which this result Newcastle,Tasmania or Wollongong.The five 4-digit Fields is an artefact of ERA methodology or reflects levels of of Research with the highest number of Units of Evalua- maturity and/or investment in those fields is beyond our tion in regional institutions are listed in Table 3; only 10 of consideration. Thus using ERA results to allocate higher 61 (16 per cent) Units of Evaluation were rated as world degree by research places will have highly variable conse- class or above. The result for Business and Management quences in different disciplines (Table 4). was particularly concerning; this Field of Research was All Units of Evaluation were rated as world class or not rated as world class at any of the 13 regional institu- better for 40 (32 per cent) of 4-digit Fields of Research; tions that claimed critical mass. 66 Fields of Research (49 per cent) had >80 per cent of Discipline Matters Units of Evaluation rated at world class or higher (Commonwealth of Australia 2011a). For example, both Chemi- One feature of ERA 2010 was the generally higher rating cal Sciences (100 per cent world class or better at the of the Sciences, Technology, Engineering and Medical 2-digit level) and Earth Sciences (100 per cent world class (STEM) fields compared with the Humanities, Arts, and or better at 4-digit level), would be largely unaffected 88 A new era for research education in Australia?, Helene Marsh et al. vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L by limiting higher degree by research students to institutions rated as world I A N Age The alternative approach Under 19 of limiting higher degree by research places to instiabove national average in these disciplines would deprive world class groups of research students, policy that could not be in the national interest. N I V Table 5: Age distribution of Australian Doctorate by Research enrolments 2009 class in these disciplines. tutions performing at or U Enrolments E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W significantly affect Economics, Commerce, Management, Tourism and Services and Studies in Human Society. Limiting access to Australian Postgraduate Awards to institutions scoring a world class ERA rating would clearly 3 be problematic, especially as 61.9 per cent of doctoral 20-24 5213 candidates in 2009 were older than 30 (Table 5) and often 25-29 11649 have family arrangements that limit mobility. Although 30+ 27427 Total 44292 Data Source: http://www. deewr.gov.au/HigherEducation/ Publications/HEStatistics/ Publications/Pages/2009FullYear. aspxAll institutions could award university scholarships to doctoral candidates in the disciplines in which they did not score well in ERA, this practice would reduce the attractiveness of Australia to international research students because of the consequential reduction in the number of scholarships available to them. This approach would be counter-productive public policy because of the well However, less than half the Units of Evaluation were documented impending shortage of academics in Aus- rated as world class for 18 Fields of Research, including tralia (Edwards 2010; Edwards, Bexley & Richardson 2011; some fields that were offered by numerous institutions: Edwards, Radloff & Coates 2009; Edwards & Smith 2010; 13 of these 18 low-rated Fields of Research were offered Hugo 2008; Hugo & Morriss 2010), the planned expan- by between 27 and 39 institutions, one was offered by 22 sion of the sector (DEEWR 2009; DIISR 2009) and the institutions and four were offered by between five and increased international competition for the best and the 13 institutions (Australian Research Council 2011a). The brightest doctoral students. 4-digit Fields of Research with the lowest percentage of This problem is exemplified by the discipline of Edu- world class ratings were Policy and Administration (18.5 cation in which 3415 doctoral candidates were enrolled per cent - 27 Units of Evaluation), Marketing (27.6 per cent in 2009; 7.7 per cent of all Australian doctoral candidates - 29 Units of Evaluation), Education Systems (31.3 per cent (Table 6). Nearly 60 per cent of research students in Edu- - 32 Units of Evaluation),Applied Economics (33.3 per cent cation surveyed in 2010 (Edwards, Bexley & Richardson - 33 Units of Evaluation), and Business and Management 2011) were aged above 40, suggesting limited mobility. (33.3 per cent - 39 Units of Evaluation). Thus any mecha- Only 15 of 39 institutions scored at or above the world nistic application of ERA to research education is likely to average for the 2-digit Education Field of Research; no unit of evaluation received a maximum score. Thirty to Table 6: Broad Field of Education and gender of Australian Doctorate by Research enrolments 2009 Broad Field of Education Male Female 4693 4470 9163 Information Technology 1164 438 1602 Engineering & related Technologies 3825 1222 5047 339 278 617 Agriculture, Environmental & related Studies 1087 1034 2121 Health 2116 3861 5977 Education 1187 2228 3415 Management & Commerce 2049 1557 3606 Society & Culture 4515 6366 10881 800 1064 1864 21775 22517 44292 Creative Arts Total Note: Data Source: http://www.deewr.gov.au/HigherEducation/ Publications/HEStatistics/Publications/Pages/2009FullYear.aspxAll vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 4-digt codes were also assessed at less than world average (Table 7). Our comparison of the ERA 2010 data at Total Natural & Physical Sciences Architecture & Building 50 per cent of the Units of Evaluation for each the four Table 7: ERA 2010: results for Education Fields of Research Field of Research # Units of Evaluation ≥ world class # Units of Evaluation % Units of Evaluation ≥ world class Education (2-digit) 15 39 38.5 Education Systems (4-digit) 10 32 31.3 Curriculum & Pedagogy (4-digit) 15 37 40.5 Specialist Studies In Education (4-digit) 17 36 47.2 Note: Data Source: Australian Research Council (2011a). Excellence in Research for Australia 2010 National Report. Retrieved from www.arc. gov.au/era/. A new era for research education in Australia?, Helene Marsh et al. 89 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V the 2-digit level and official higher education statistics purchased from the Australian government indicate that E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W Possible solutions were enrolled at institutions that were not rated as world Changes to ERA to reduce the perverse student publication incentive class in ERA 2010, including 80 per cent of the domes- A simple solution to overcome the negative impact of tic research students studying at regional institutions. ERA on research student publications would be to require Thus limiting research education in Education to institu- institutions to submit all publications (or research out- tions rated as world class at the 2-digit level will not only puts) as at present, but to present the data on only the top require the world class institutions to service a significant 80 per cent of publications for each Unit of Evaluation additional supervisory load (>1000 extra doctoral stu- to the Research Evaluation Committees. Such a change dents) but would risk seriously downgrading Education would enable supervisors to publish a less interesting research outside the mainland capital cities, particularly in paper with a research student in a low impact journal Tasmania and regional Queensland. Given the importance without a negative consequence when the relevant Unit of Australian educational practice being evidence-based of Evaluation is assessed for ERA. This reform could be and the impending shortage of academics in this field introduced for ERA 2012. about one third of the total research students in Education (64.9 per cent of staff are aged above 50; Edwards, Bexley introduce mechanisms to promote high quality doctoral Using ERA to improve institutional practice in research education. training in Education across the nation rather than to limit The research environment is a necessary but not suf- it based on past performance, a conclusion that we con- ficient component of quality research education as sider applies to many other disciplines as well. acknowledged by the basket of indicators of doctoral & Richardson 2011), we consider that it is important to In ERA 2010, world-class critical mass was limited to training quality being developed by the Australian Council five or fewer institutions in 39 4-digit Fields of Research of Deans and Directors of Graduate Studies (Table 8). We (Australian Research Council 2011a). Nine 4-digit Fields of consider that the planned revision of the Research Train- Research including Classical Physics had only one institu- ing Scheme, the establishment of the Tertiary Education tion with a world class ERA rating. Only seven institutions Quality Standards Agency (TEQSA), and the Compacts were rated as world class in Atomic, Molecular, Nuclear, Process, together offer an opportunity for the Australian Particle and Plasma Physics, a Field that is likely to be very Government to require universities to explicitly take the important to Australia’s clean energy future and in which quality of the research environment into account in devel- doctoral study should presumably be encouraged. oping their policy and practices for research education To ensure that there was a ‘meaningful amount of data’ and to audit their response. However, any policy change to be evaluated, ERA 2010 had a low volume threshold that uses the data from ERA should be designed to explic- for each Unit of Evaluation (Australian Research Council itly address the challenges outlined above. 2009). This threshold meant that an unknown number Mission-based Compacts are three-year agreements that of ‘isolated scholars’ were not assessed, particularly in show how each university’s mission contributes to the the Humanities where single scholars are the norm and Australian Government’s goals for higher education, and in small institutions. There is anecdotal evidence that at include details of major higher education and research least some of these scholars are very successful doctoral funding and performance targets (DEEWR & DIISR 2009). supervisors. Critical mass is very important in doctoral Requiring universities to stipulate how they plan to take education to protect the interests of research higher their ERA results into account when awarding Australian degree candidates, especially if the principal supervisor Postgraduate Awards in their Compact Agreement and to becomes unavailable, institutional supervision using vir- audit this through the Tertiary Education Quality Stand- tual technologies and visits is an increasingly-recognised ards Agency would enable Higher Education Providers practice, recently endorsed by changes to the Research to respond in a more nuanced and positive way than if Training Scheme to allow the recognition of joint comple- they were banned from awarding Australian Postgradu- tions (DIISR 2011b). We question the wisdom of exclud- ate Awards to doctoral candidates in Fields of Research ing high performing scholars who were not rated in ERA that had been retrospectively evaluated by ERA as below from research supervision and suggest that they should world standard. Universities should also be able to iden- be encouraged to engage in cross-institutional supervi- tify emerging Fields of Research that currently are ‘not sion as discussed further below. assessed’ or assessed below world standard, provide stra- 90 A new era for research education in Australia?, Helene Marsh et al. vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A tegic reasons why they wish to accept research higher degree candidates or allocate Australian Postgraduate Awards to those Fields of Research, indicate how the research students will be provided with an appropriate research environment and negotiate how their N U N in fields of research in which there is a national or regional lack of critical mass. ERA offers a mechanism to identify such fields. Groups of universities can now share completions under the Research Training Scheme (DIISR E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W The relative importance of these indicators has not yet been debated and the Council acknowledges that the transaction cost of collecting the data for some indicators may be impracticably high. The indicators that could be informed by ERA are marked* Component Outputs Outcomes Graduates • • • • • Student satisfaction • Completion rates/attrition • Employer satisfaction Several recent initiatives could to improve doctoral education V Table 8: Conceptual framework for the basket of indicators of the quality of research education developed by the Group of Eight chapter of the Australian Council of Deans and Directors of Graduate Studies. performance should be evaluated. be used in conjunction with ERA I Admission criteria Student load Number completed Graduate Destinations Contributions • Thesis to knowledge • Publications • Inventions • Exhibitions/major works • Examination outcome • Quality of Examination • Quality of Outputs Training programmes • Availability of Programmes • Programme Quality • Student satisfaction • Employer satisfaction Research education environment • Critical mass in areas of research strength* • Mentoring and supervising structures • Infrastructure for research and research education • International engagement • Interdisciplinary research experience • Student satisfaction • Research environment * 2011b).Although this initiative has removed a significant barrier to cross-institutional co-operation in research education in Australia, it is likely to provide a niche rather than an institutional solution to the problems identified here. For example, over • External input into courses/skills development for research students. the last seven years, the Australian National University has Nonetheless, such initiatives are likely to be expensive developed several Memoranda of Understanding regard- and need to be factored into the revision of the fund- ing joint PhDs with other Australian universities. To date, ing for research training. In particular, research higher there has only been one cross-institutional PhD enrolment degree candidates may need assistance to travel between (Mandy Thomas, pers comm 2011) although recent Col- geographically separate institutions when distances are laborative Research Network agreements should improve large, an inevitable feature of arrangements involving this situation. Experience with developing joint degrees institutions in different states, especially the isolated between Australian and overseas institutions indicate that regional institutions. the uptake and success of these arrangements is depend- Doctoral Training Centres are an increasingly-recog- ent on established individual collaborations rather than nised approach to improving the quality of doctoral institutional Memoranda of Understanding. education by training cohorts of students while empha- Institutional improvements to the quality of research sising transferable skills. In the United Kingdom, the Engi- education in a discipline could be achieved using struc- neering and Physical Sciences Research Council and the tures that are less formal than joint degrees: Economic and Social Research Council have committed • Joint arrangements for embedded students with other to fund more than 70 such centres, many in cross-disci- providers e.g. CSIRO. plinary and applied areas. The five Australian Technology • Sharing of physical and virtual resources; Network (ATN) universities (only three of which were • Incentives to encourage cross-institutional supervision rated as world class in 2-digit Mathematics) have recently and mentoring. established a national Industry Doctoral Training Centre • International collaboration with established research centres. of 20-25 PhD students will commence in early 2012, in • On-going collaboration (joint grants, papers, students, Collaborative Research Network agreements). vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 nodes across the five ATN universities. Cross-institutional supervision can also be achieved using less formal struc- • External input to milestones e.g. Confirmation of Candidature proposals. in Mathematical Sciences (ATN 2011) and its initial cohort tures but research higher degree candidates will need travel assistance as explained above. A new era for research education in Australia?, Helene Marsh et al. 91 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V ERA as a block fund moderator E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W Conclusions The Australian government has indicated that the results of ERA will inform the allocation of funding to support ERA 2010 was a comprehensive academic evaluation of the costs of research through the Sustainable Research the research conducted by Australia’s higher education Excellence Programme and research education through providers in the first decade of the 21st century and a modified Research Training Scheme.The Research Train- subsequent rounds promise similar insights. Nonethe- ing Scheme is the most valuable of the research block less, use of ERA to influence the policy and practice of funding schemes, representing 41 per cent of the total research education in Australia will undoubtedly have allocation in 2011. For the Research Training Scheme, many unintended consequences, some potentially del- Australian Postgraduate Awards, and International Post- eterious. It is important to anticipate deleterious conse- graduate Research Scheme, the calculation methodology quences before they become apparent. Our analysis of (DIISR 2011c) is relative institutional performance in the results of ERA 2010 demonstrates a lack of alignment research income (40 per cent), publications (10 per cent) between the Fields of Research and university organisa- and research student completions (50 per cent) and it tional units and that using ERA results to allocate higher expected that ERA results will be used to moderate these degree by research places will have variable conse- drivers. However at present, there is no agreed method quences in different locations as a result of Australia’s of assessing overall institutional performance in ERA and geography and in different disciplines. In addition, ERA some of the measures used are simplistic, including the provides an incentive for Australian academics to eschew measures such as percentage of Fields of Research at publishing in low impact journals, a practice which is world standard or better used here. Of particular concern, likely to disadvantage some research students for whom especially for the large research intensive universities, is co-authorship in a lower ranked journal is more advanta- the failure of the present ERA rating scheme to include geous than not publishing. any measure of critical mass provided that the institu- Given these challenges, simplistically limiting doctoral tion meets the low volume threshold. An institution that education to Fields of Research where an institution achieves an ERA rating of ‘5’ based on 50 publications in scored at or better than national or world averages in ERA a Field of Research will provide a very different environ- is unlikely to be in the national interest, especially given ment for research high degree candidates to an institution that ERA is retrospective and will not reflect the current that achieves the same rating based on 1000 publications. situation. Doctoral students should be well represented in Nonetheless, bigger is not necessarily better, which is why areas of emerging research including applied and cross- a basket of indicators of research education quality is disciplinary research. needed (Table 8). There are many ways in which ERA results could be used However, the volume of output that has gone into to improve the quality of research education in Australia. achieving an ERA rating has to be taken into account in We suggest that requiring Higher Education Providers to the funding formula. It will be challenging to develop describe how they plan to deliver quality research edu- an agreed measure of overall institutional performance cation in all disciplines relevant to their mission in their in ERA and use it to have a positive impact on research Compact Agreement with the Commonwealth would be training while taking the following additional factors a positive reform. Institutions could also be required to into account: (1) most universities in Australia produce report on their research education inputs and outcomes some excellent research outputs as ERA 2010 demon- against an agreed basked of quality training indicators for strated, (2) as in the United Kingdom (Elton 2010), uni- each of these disciplines to the Tertiary Education Quality versities are likely to use their freedom of virement to Standards Agency. fund lower-rated department at the expense of higherrated ones, (3) the challenges of Australia’s dispersed Helene Marsh is Distinguished Professor of Environmental geography, (4) the impending shortage of academic staff Science and Dean Graduate Research Studies, James Cook identified by various scholars (Edwards 2010; Edwards, University, Queensland. Bexley & Richardson 2011; Edwards, Radloff & Coates 2009; Edwards & Smith 2010; Hugo 2008; Hugo & Mor- Bradley Smith is the Manager of Research Strategy, Division of riss 2010), and (5) the need for quality academic staff Research and Innovation, James Cook University, Queensland. to service the planned expansion of the sector (DEEWR 2009; DIISR 2009). 92 A new era for research education in Australia?, Helene Marsh et al. vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V Maxwell King is Pro Vice-Chancellor(Research and Research Training) and a Sir John Monash Distinguished Professor at Monash University, Victoria. Terry Evans is a Professor of Education at Deakin University, Victoria. E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W DIISR (2011b). Principles for Joint Higher Degrees by Research between Australian Education Providers May 2011. Retrieved from http://innovation. gov.au/Research/ResearchBlockGrants/Documents/Principles_Joint_HDR.pdf. DIISR (2011c). Research Block Grant – Calculation Methodology. Retrieved from http://www.innovation.gov.au/RESEARCH/RESEARCHBLOCKGRANTS/ Pages/CalculationMethodology.aspx. Edwards, D. (2010). The future of the research workforce - estimating demand for PhDs in Australia. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 32, 199-210. Acknowledgements We thank Tony Shiel and Michael Barber for valuable insights into ERA 2010, Laura Poole-Warren and the Group of Eight Deans and Directors of Graduate Studies for their work on the basket of indicators of research education quality, and two anonymous reviewers for their construc- Edwards, D., Bexley, E. & Richardson, S. (2011). Regenerating the Academic Workforce. The careers, intentions and motivations of higher degree by research students in Australia. Findings of the National Research Students Survey. ACER. ISBN: 978-0-642-33242-4. Edwards, D., Radloff, A. & Coates, H. (2009). Supply, demand and characteristics of the Higher Degree by Research population in Australia. Canberra: Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research. tive comments. Edwards, D. & Smith, T. F. (2010). Supply issues for science academics in Australia: now and in the future. Higher Education 60, 19-32. References Elton, L. (2000). The UK Research Assessment Exercise: unintended consequences. Higher Education Quarterly 54, 274-283. Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification (ANZSRC) (2008). ANZSRC, 1297.0, 2008. Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/ 0/4AE1B46AE2048A28CA25741800044242. Australian Technology Network (ATN) (2011). ATN in Profile. New centre to build next generation of industry-engaged researchers. ATN Newsroom 7(2) March 2011. Retrieved from http://www.atn.edu.au/inprofile/2011/March/ March_2011_New_centre_to_build_next_generation_of_industry-engaged_ researchers.htm. French, N.J., Massy, W.F. & Young, K. (2003). Research assessment in Hong Kong. Higher Education 42, 35–46. Hugo, G. (2008). The demographic outlook for Australian universities’ academic staff. CHASS occasional paper no. 6. Adelaide: Council for Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences. ISBN: 978-0-9757701-6-0. Hugo, G. & Morriss, A. (2010). Investigating the Ageing Academic Workforce: Stocktake. GISCA . The National Centre for Social Applications of Geographic Information Systems: University of Adelaide, Adelaide, S.A. Australia. Australian Research Council (ARC) (2009). ERA Submission Guidelines 2010, December 2009. Australian Research Council. Retrieved from http://www.arc.gov. au/era/era_2010/outcomes_2010.htm. Performance-Based Research Fund (PBRF) (2012). PBRF Quality Evaluation Guidelines 2012 November 2011 Retrieved from http://www.tec.govt.nz/Documents/Publications/PBRF-Quality-Evaluation-Guidelines-2012.pdf ARC (2011a). Excellence in Research for Australia 2010 National Report. Retrieved from www.arc.gov.au/era/. Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) (2008). RAE 2008: the outcome. Retrieved from http://www.rae.ac.uk ARC (2011b). ERA 2012 Submission Guidelines. Retrieved from http://www.arc. gov.au/pdf/era12/ERA2012_SubmissionGuidelines.pdf. ISBN978-0-9807997-3-6. Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering (ATSE) (2009). Response to the ERA Indicators Consultation paper by the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering September 2009. Retrieved from http://www.atse. org.au/resource-centre/func-startdown/166/. Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) (2009). Transforming Australia’s Higher Education System. Canberra: Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations. DEEWR and Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research (DIISR) (2009). Mission-based compacts for universities a framework for discussion July 2009. Retrieved from http://www.deewr.gov.au/HigherEducation/Policy/ Documents/CompactsDiscussionPaper.pdf. Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST) (2005). Research Quality Framework: Assessing the quality and impact of research in Australia. The preferred model. September 2005. ISBN 0 642 77547 8. Retrieved from http://www.dest.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/AF74E4A9-C7DD-48A4-8D94847FF35C6B97/7845/RQFPreferredModelPaper.pdf. Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research (DIISR) (2009). Powering ideas: An innovation agenda for the 21st Century. Canberra: Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research. DIISR (2011a). Research Skills For An Innovative Future: A Research Workforce Strategy To Cover The Decade To 2020 And Beyond, ISBN 978 0 642 72563 9. Retrieved from http://www.innovation.gov.au/Research/ResearchWorkforceIssues/Documents/ResearchSkillsforanInnovativeFuture.pdf. vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A new era for research education in Australia?, Helene Marsh et al. 93 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W PhDs in Australia, from the beginning Ian R Dobson Monash University, Victoria The Australian PhD is a relatively recent phenomenon, the first three being awarded in1948. Before that, most Australian scholars typically went to Britain (predominantly) or the USA to undertake their doctoral studies. The aim of this research note is to provide a brief statistical history of the Australian PhD, noting changes over time between study fields, universities, genders and citizenship groups. Introduction and background have had a statistical slant. A paper by Evans, Macauley, Pearson and Tregenza (2003) reported on Australian PhDs The life of the Australian PhD has been a relatively short by ‘reviewing the evidence from the bibliographic data one, with Australian institutions first granting PhDs in held in library catalogues of PhDs in each Australian uni- 1948 (CBCS 1952). Collation of official statistical sources versity’ (p. 1).The other major source is a PhD thesis from undertaken to prepare this paper reveals that by 2009, the University of Adelaide, the principal aim of which was more than 94,000 PhDs had been awarded. The PhD is to describe the history of postgraduate education in Aus- one of the three research degrees offered by Australian tralia from 1851 to 1993 (Dale 1997). The latter provides universities, the other two being the masters by research a detailed history of the development of the PhD and and the higher doctorate. other postgraduate education right from the founding of The purpose of this paper is to provide an enumeration Australia’s first universities in the 1850s. It is interesting the number of PhDs awarded by Australian universities, that these works confidently cite different PhDs as being augmented by additional information available in official the first awarded in Australia. Evans et al. (2003) state that statistics.These official statistics come from the Common- the first was awarded by the University of Melbourne to wealth Bureau of Census and Statistics (CBCS) (for data a Joyce Stone, for her work entitled ‘Virus haemagglutina- from 1948 to 1972), its successor, the Australian Bureau tion: a review of the literature’. However, Dale says ‘The of Statistics (ABS) (1973 to 1982), the Commonwealth first PhD at Melbourne [University] (and in Australia) was Tertiary Education Commission (CTEC) (1976–1986), and an arts PhD awarded to Erica Wolff (in French)’ (Dale the Commonwealth government’s ‘education’ ministry 1997, p. 114). The second PhD, says Dale, was in science, (in its various guises, 1987 to the present). The overlap- awarded to Rupert Myers. CBCS statistics report that all ping dates are a reflection of the fact that more than one of the PhDs awarded in 1948 were in arts (CBCS 1952). source was available in some years. Finding the sources In looking to describe the brief history of the Austral- of the statistics used in this paper was the principal chal- ian PhD, it is reasonable to suggest that the main push lenge. A list of the sources is attached as Appendix 1. came from ‘science’, and in the early years of the award Few studies have reported on the number of Austral- in Australia, well over half were in science. After the first ian PhDs awarded, but many reports and studies have 20 years, science PhDs comprised 60 per cent of all PhDs reported on PhD graduations for particular periods. How- awarded. Over time, other disciplines/fields also started ever, at least two scholarly studies on the Australian PhD to award PhDs and the proportion that were in science 94 PhDs in Australia, from the beginning, Ian R Dobson vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W gradually declined. By 2009, fewer than 30 per cent were tee Report in 1965.The former noted ‘a disquieting factor’ in science.The importance of science at the advent of the within Australian universities to be ‘the general weakness Australian PhD is further affirmed in an Australian Vice- of honours and postgraduate research schools’ (cited in Chancellors’ Committee publication: ‘The introduction of AUC 1972, p. 57), whereas the latter said ‘In view of future PhD courses in Australia resulted in discussions in the Fac- staffing needs, the universities cannot be complacent ulty of Science of the University of Melbourne.....By 1946 about the size of their postgraduate schools. Expansion Melbourne had published its rules and three of its candi- and development off these schools should be given high dates (including two women) were awarded the degree in priority’ (cited in AUC 1972, p. 57). Dale (1997) has also 1948. By 1949, all Australian universities were offering the noted the importance of the Murray Report in expansion degree’ (AV-CC 1990). of postgraduate education in Australia. The initial push from ‘science’ is also suggested by an The reports outlined above go some of the way to Australian Academy of Science (AAS) report that states explaining growth patterns in the number of PhDs pro- that in the absence of well-established honours degrees, duced by Australian universities (and other institutions in ‘bright young scientists’ worked on for an additional year recent years). However, the real growth spurt started from after their BSc to for an MSc. After this, they competed the early 1990s, following the so-called Dawkins Reforms for travelling scholarships, and then went to Britain for that saw radical changes in Australian higher education research and a PhD. In the absence of a local PhD, the and a rapid expansion in student numbers at all levels. AAS said that ‘The immediate post-war period saw the The ‘modern’ Australian PhD was described by the extension of the masters degree...to a two-year period National Board of Employment, Education and Training of research... Local theses began to appear from these thus:‘...it should be planned as a research degree of about extended masters studies that were clearly of compara- three calendar years’ full-time study following a four year ble standard to those that were awarded a PhD abroad...’ undergraduate programme which itself includes research (AAS 1974, p. 14). The AAS added that ‘In the beginning, preparation’ (NBEET 1989 p. 26).The fact that PhDs often research studies for the PhD... universities clearly had in extend to a fourth year was noted. mind the need to provide within themselves the training that would formally equip persons to become university Lies and damned lies: How many PhDs? staff in Australia’ (AAS 1974, p. 14). The situations described above present the early days Australian universities produced 94,423 PhD graduates of the development of formal doctoral research in Aus- between 1948 and 2009. Arriving at this figure came after tralia.A decade later, research training was boosted by two laborious analysis of statistics from ‘official’ sources. The major examinations of universities and higher education: figure 94,423 is as accurate as any that can be produced the Murray Report in 1957 and then the Martin Commit- from official statistical sources. The reason why it might Figure 1: PhDs Awarded by Australian Universities 1948 – 2009 and Proportion of All PhDs Awarded to Women 7000 70.0% 6000 60.0% 5000 50.0% 4000 40.0% 3000 30.0% 2000 20.0% 1000 10.0% 0.0% 0 Total PhDs Awarded vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Female % of Total PhDs in Australia, from the beginning, Ian R Dobson 95 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W not be perfect is because those responsible for collecting Who? university statistics have changed the twelve-month period Figure 1 summarises the number of PhDs awarded in Aus- the statistics refer to several times. ‘Year’ has meant vari- tralia since 1948, and the steady increase in the number of ously calendar year (1948-1961 and 1986 ff),August to July women among Australia’s PhD graduates. The figure shows 1962-1968), and July to June (1969-1985). The figures for that PhD output started to top the 1,000 per year mark from 1961 and 1962 were published in such a way that it is not the second half of the 1980s, and by the mid-1990s, annual possible to know exactly how many PhDs were awarded awards exceeded 2,000 per year. This period from the late in each of those years, but we do know the total for both 1980s to the mid-1990s was also the time during which years, and a similar situation holds for 1985 and 1986. the number of PhD-granting institutions increased, one of The fascination some of us have for counting and meas- the results of the so-called Dawkins reforms that saw the uring things is not shared by all, but keeping statistics creation of a number of ‘new’ universities from antecedent can prove useful for many purposes, such as for various ‘teaching-only’ colleges of advanced education. In the most aspects of social planning. The scope of this paper, how- recent years, a few PhDs have been awarded by small pri- ever, goes no further than merely establishing how many vate non-university institutions, such as theology colleges. PhD graduates there have been and how the composition Apart from 1948, when two-thirds of PhDs were of the PhD graduate population is changing over time. awarded to women, they were in the minority until 2009. However, compositional changes in the PhD graduate By 2009, ten more women than men were among the population might be of wider interest. This paper exam- 5,796 PhD recipients (a female majority of 0.17 per cent). ines the expansion of the Australian PhD, noting particu- Of course, having climbed over the half-way barrier, it is larly from whence that expansion emanated. likely that in future women will continue to be numerically superior as PhD recipients, just as they are at other Who, what and where? qualification levels. The gender distribution is shown in Figure 1, a graph which allows the proportion of women The number of PhD graduates has increased, and the being awarded a PhD to be compared with the total composition of PhD graduates has changed over time. number of PhDs awarded in each year since the inception The charts and tables that follow summarise the growth, of the degree.The number of PhDs awarded to women in particularly strong since the 1990s, and the changing 1976 and 1977 has been estimated, because statistics did study field mix and universities, and the expansion in the not provide a gender breakdown in those years. number and proportion of women an overseas students. One of the main areas in which the Australian higher The recent history of Australian higher education is also education sector has expanded has been in numbers of the history of increasing participation by women and overseas students. Looking at the sector overall, the pro- overseas students. portion of overseas students enrolled at all course levels Figure 2: PhDs Awarded by Australian Universities 1988 – 2009 by Citizenship Status 30.0% 5000 4500 25.0% 4000 3500 20.0% 3000 2500 15.0% 2000 10.0% 1500 1000 5.0% 500 0 96 0.0% Overseas PhDs in Australia, from the beginning, Ian R Dobson Domestic OS % of Total vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W had increased to 321,000 or 28.3 per cent by 2009, up onstrate the changes over time in the number and pro- from about 63,000, or about 12 per cent a decade earlier. portion of PhDs awarded, Table 1 shows snapshots taken Numbers of PhD candidates from overseas also expanded. every ten years from 1949 of the PhDs awarded. For the first 40 years of the history of the Australian PhD, It is necessary to offer a comment on the classification information on citizenship status was not available. How- used here, because the reported classification of awards ever, this information has been available since university into faculties, disciplines and fields of study and/or edu- statistics became more sophisticated in the late 1980s. cation have also changed over time. Between 1948 and Figure 2 summarises the situation between 1988 and about 1971, it would seem that universities reported 2009, with the columns showing the number of PhDs PhD completions according to the faculty in which stu- awarded to domestic and overseas students (the darker dents had been supervised. Subsequently, this grouping column), respectively, and the line indicating the propor- morphed into an unofficial ‘field of study’ classification. By tion of the total made up by overseas students. In 1988, 1988 and the advent of electronic reporting, universities 31 overseas students were awarded a PhD. By 2009, 1,375 reported according to defined ‘fields of study’, and from or almost one-quarter of all PhDs were awarded to over- 2001, fields of study became ‘fields of education’, another seas students, replicating the pattern in the first half of the defined, but different classification. Unfortunately, discrete 1990s. The statistics shown here provide no explanation fields of study such as ‘law’ and ‘veterinary science’ were for the high proportion of PhDs awarded to overseas stu- wound into fields of education ‘society and culture’ and dent in the 1990s, but analysis of DEEWR aggregated data ‘health’ respectively. Further,‘information technology’ was sets reveals that a relatively high proportion of the PhDs split away from ‘science’, and economics, formerly linked awarded between 1992 and 1995 in health disciplines with business and commerce, became part of ‘society and were awarded to overseas students. culture’.This latter classification persists today. What? ated to allow for the range of groupings that have been The Australian PhD started out as a product of science. used over time (Dobson, unpublished). By adopting this However this has changed over time. In order to dem- approach, it is possible to link tabulated data back to the Therefore, a hybrid ‘study field’ time series has been cre- Table 1: PhDs Awarded by Australian Universities 1949 – 2009 by Study Field Year Agriculture Architecture Arts, Law, Creative Arts Business & Commerce Education Engineering Health Total Science No. PhDs Awarded 1949 2 1 1959 4 16 1 1969 35 2 60 5 1979 71 4 177 39 5 8 9 9 69 108 5 50 35 298 490 32 87 103 358 871 1989 62 6 263 43 90 106 165 474 1209 1999 172 40 782 264 275 430 549 1152 3664 2009 278 61 1546 446 374 704 802 1585 5796 % PhDs Awarded 1949 25.0% 0.0% 12.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 62.5% 100.0% 1959 3.7% 0.0% 14.8% 0.9% 0.0% 8.3% 8.3% 63.9% 100.0% 1969 7.1% 0.4% 12.2% 1.0% 1.0% 10.2% 7.1% 60.8% 100.0% 1979 8.2% 0.5% 20.3% 4.5% 3.7% 10.0% 11.8% 41.1% 100.0% 1989 5.1% 0.5% 21.8% 3.6% 7.4% 8.8% 13.6% 39.2% 100.0% 1999 4.7% 1.1% 21.3% 7.2% 7.5% 11.7% 15.0% 31.4% 100.0% 2009 4.8% 1.1% 26.7% 7.7% 6.5% 12.1% 13.8% 27.3% 100.0% Source: Dobson (unpublished) vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 PhDs in Australia, from the beginning, Ian R Dobson 97 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W Table 2: PhDs Awarded by Australian Universities 2001 – 2009 by Study Field and Proportion of Women Study Field 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Agriculture 33.9% 44.6% 38.9% 41.3% 41.1% 45.9% 43.6% 42.4% 51.1% Architecture 34.4% 42.2% 37.8% 47.2% 41.3% 48.8% 42.9% 45.0% 42.6% Arts, Law & Creative Arts 52.7% 51.1% 54.5% 56.8% 55.0% 56.6% 59.8% 57.2% 61.3% Business & Commerce 38.8% 39.4% 38.1% 37.2% 40.0% 42.3% 41.8% 43.2% 40.8% Education 56.1% 53.1% 61.1% 61.4% 59.2% 59.5% 65.3% 62.8% 64.7% Engineering 19.1% 16.7% 21.1% 19.6% 20.0% 19.1% 20.3% 22.4% 20.7% Health 57.2% 58.8% 57.5% 57.8% 63.7% 63.8% 61.4% 63.1% 64.0% Science 40.4% 40.4% 43.5% 43.4% 41.6% 45.9% 45.1% 43.6% 44.4% Total - Per Cent 44.2% 44.5% 46.5% 46.9% 46.8% 48.5% 48.5% 48.6% 50.1% Total - No. 3884 4291 4728 4900 5244 5519 5721 5,786 5,796 Source: DEEWR: Aggregated Data Set UPAG, various years original published statistics. It should also be noted that Similarly, the participation by overseas students in PhD- published statistics did not identify the study field of level programmes is not consistent across all study fields. degrees awarded was in years 1983 – 1986. Table 3 shows that there has been strong growth in the In 1949, five of the eight PhDs awarded were in science, proportion of overseas students being awarded an Austral- representing 62.5 per cent of all PhDs awarded. A similar ian PhD in all study fields. Overall, 16.4 per cent of all proportion of PhDs were awarded to science candidates PhDs were awarded to overseas students in 2001, rising in 1959 and 1969, but in the 1970s, and 1980s, science to 23.7 per cent by 2009. Growth between 2001 and 2009 PhDs declined in proportion to about 40 per cent. The was particularly strong in awards in education, growing most spectacular growth has been in arts, law and crea- by about 17 percentage points. By 2009, the proportion of tive arts PhDs, which by 2009 the 1,546 PhD graduates PhDs awarded to overseas students in business and com- represented 26.7 per cent of all PhDs awarded by Austral- merce, engineering and education was particularly high, ian universities, just slightly fewer than were awarded to approaching one-third. science candidates (1585, or 27.3 per cent of the total). PhDs awarded in health disciplines and engineering are Where? the next two largest. Health numbers increased from nine There has also been considerable change in the number in 1959 (8.3 per cent) to 802 (13.8 per cent) in 2009, of PhDs awarded by different universities. Of course, there whereas engineering PhDs increased from nine (8.3 per were only seven universities when the first PhDs were cent) to 704 (12.1 per cent) over the same period. awarded, but in 2009, 41 institutions granted PhDs, rang- This information on study fields can also be broken ing from 577 by the University of Melbourne, to eight by down by gender and citizenship status. Change takes time Bond University. Large universities award more PhDs than to effect, and the PhD has been perhaps the last bastion of small ones, but access to individual universities’ records male majority in university education. The female major- would be necessary to work out exactly how many each ity in PhD completions in 2009 has been built on sixty had awarded. Despite the best of efforts, it has not been years of increasing university enrolments by women, and possible to establish from centrally available sources the a gradual expansion in the disciplines that tend to have a number of PhDs awarded by individual universities for higher female enrolment. Of course, women’s presence years 1949, 1950 and 1987. among PhD awardees is not uniform across study fields. One way to examine these changes is by comparing Examining gender distributions for the past decade, Table the self-designated major research universities with the 2 shows that the relative female presence at award cer- others. The Group of Eight (Go8) major research universi- emonies increased in all but business and commerce, and ties received over 70 per cent of ARC and NHMRC funding engineering, in which the proportion of women remain at in 2006, and their academics produced about 52 per cent approximately the same levels. of all publications (calculated from tables produced by 98 PhDs in Australia, from the beginning, Ian R Dobson vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W Table 3: PhDs Awarded by Australian Universities 2001 – 2009 by Study Field and Proportion of Overseas Students that the Go8’s proportion Study Field 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 have stabilised at about Agriculture 22.3% 21.2% 19.1% 27.4% 27.3% 23.1% 29.5% 31.4% 27.7% this level. Architecture 21.9% 22.2% 31.1% 35.8% 32.0% 41.9% 30.2% 31.3% 27.9% The major producers of PhDs awarded could Arts, Law & Creative Arts 11.5% 10.9% 12.4% 15.0% 13.8% 17.2% 15.9% 17.9% 18.4% of PhD graduates are all Business & Commerce 23.6% 25.7% 30.9% 32.5% 30.3% 29.9% 35.9% 33.5% 33.2% with the Universities of Education 13.2% 13.9% 21.3% 21.2% 24.1% 29.0% 22.3% 28.6% 30.5% having awarded over 500 Engineering 23.4% 20.7% 20.5% 26.4% 29.1% 29.9% 32.8% 26.4% 32.1% Health 11.7% 11.3% 12.1% 11.8% 11.1% 16.1% 16.9% 15.3% 15.2% Science 18.1% 16.5% 16.1% 18.5% 17.1% 19.6% 22.6% 21.4% 24.4% The growth in the Total Per Cent 16.4% 15.4% 16.7% 19.5% 19.0% 21.6% 23.0% 22.3% 23.7% number of PhDs awarded Total Number 3884 4291 4728 4900 5244 5519 5721 5786 5796 members of the Go8, Melbourne and Sydney PhDs in 2009, and the University of Queensland just under 500. by Go8 universities between 1989 and 2009 Source: DEEWR: Aggregated Data Set UPAG, various years was strong, at 285.1 per Universities Australia 2008). Up until the end of the 1960s, cent, but it is overshadowed by the growth of 593.2 per most of Australia’s universities were eventual Go8 univer- cent at other institutions. sities (the exceptions being the universities of Tasmania, New England, Newcastle and Flinders University). In 1989, Conclusion 69.4 per cent of PhDs were awarded by the universities that subsequently made up the Go8, but with the expan- The salient points that come out of this analysis are the sion of the sector in the post-Dawkins years, the proportion growth in the number of women being awarded the PhD, had dropped to 55.7 per cent by 2009. However, it appears the increase in the proportion of PhDs awarded to overseas students, the relative expansion of the non-science Table 4: PhDs Awarded by Australian Universities 1989 – 2009 by Go8, Other and All Universities Go8 Universities † Adelaide 1989 1994 1999 2004 2009 disciplines, and the strong Growth 1989 - 2009 growth in the number of PhDs awarded by universities 81 142 170 191 213 132 163.0% other than those in the Group ANU 130 139 219 231 291 161 123.8% of Eight. Melbourne 168 206 339 496 577 409 243.5% Going back to 1988, women received about 27 Monash 121 182 278 330 411 290 239.7% Queensland 168 235 340 419 493 325 193.5% 5 244 342 444 535 530 UNSW 88 213 284 368 451 363 412.5% proportions of female PhD UWA 78 114 167 231 260 182 233.3% recipients were in education 839 1475 2139 2710 3231 2392 285.1% (43.2 per cent) and health 69.4% 67.0% 58.4% 55.3% 55.7% 370 726 1525 2190 2565 Other % of Total 30.6% 33.0% 41.6% 44.7% 44.3% Total Number 1209 2201 3664 4900 5796 Sydney # Sub-total Go8 % of Total Other Institutions Total Per Cent and they were in the minority in all study fields. The highest (39.5 per cent). By 2009, 2195 593.2% 4587 379.4% there were more women than men among PhD recipients in agriculture, arts, law and creative arts, education and health. Women represented 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Source: DEEWR: Aggregated Data Set UPAG, various years. †The Go8, operating as an informal network of vicechancellors since 1994, formally incorporated in September 1999. # The figure for the University of Sydney in 1989 hardly seems feasible, but that is what is in DEEWR’s aggregated data file for that year vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 per cent of all PhDs awarded, more than 40 per cent of PhD recipients in architecture (42.6 per cent – up from 33.3 PhDs in Australia, from the beginning, Ian R Dobson 99 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V per cent), business and commerce (40.8 per cent – up from 17.1 per cent) and science (44.6 per cent – up from 22.0 per cent). Only in engineering are women still grossly under-represented (at 20.7 per cent), but it is interesting to note that women received only 15.5 per cent of the undergraduate degrees awarded in engineering in 2009 (DEEWR 2011). One might therefore argue that women are over-represented as recipients of PhDs relative to the rate at which they are awarded undergraduate qualifications in engineering! Looking at overseas students as PhD recipients, the figures indicate that an average of about one-quarter of the ‘effort’ by Australian universities is devoted to education of overseas students. It is not possible to establish from the data used to write this paper whether these PhD graduates add to the supply of Australia’s so-called knowledge workers by applying for and being granted permanent residency in Australia, or whether they go elsewhere to apply their skills. Although at least some of the overseas PhD graduates in Australia will have been fee-paying students, perhaps losing up to a third of highly-trained engineers (for example), could be seen as a major drain. However, the Australian situation with overseas doctorate recipients is behind the situation in the US. In 2007, 57.3 per cent of all US doctorate recipients were US citizens (down from 82.6 per cent in 1977), with only 28.9 per cent of PhD recipients in engineering and 43.4 per cent of those in the E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W References AAS (Australian Academy of Science). (1974). PhD education in Australia. The making of professional scientists. Report Number 7. AUC (Australian Universities Commission). (1972). Fifth Report of the Australian Universities Commission. AV-CC (Australian Vice-Chancellors’ Committee). (1990). The progress of higher degree students. 1983 cohort. Canberra. CBCS (Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics). (1952). University Statistics. Part 2. Degrees Conferred, Universities 1947 to 1952 (Table 3). Dale, A. (1997). Wrestling with a fine woman: the history of postgraduate education in Australia 1851 – 1993. PhD thesis submitted to the University of Adelaide. (The introduction to this thesis can be retrieved from http://digital.library. adelaide.edu.au/dspace/bitstream/2440/19120/1/09phd139.pdf ). DEEWR (Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations). (2011). Award course completion 2009: selected higher education statistics tables. Retrieved from http://www.deewr.gov.au/HigherEducation/Publications/ HEStatistics/Publications/Pages/Students.aspx Dobson, I. R. (unpublished; work in progress). Doctor, doctor! An enumerated history of the PhD in Australia. Evans, T., Macauly, P., Pearson, M. & Tregenza, K. (2003). A decadic review of PhDs in Australia. Retrieved from: http.//www.aare.edu.edu.au/03pap/ eva030090.pdf NBEET (National Board of Employment, Education and Training). (1989). Australian Graduate Studies and Higher Degrees. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. Universities Australia. (2008). Higher Education Research Data Collection Time Series Data 1992 – 2006. Retrieved on from http://www.universitiesaustralia.edu. au/page/australia-s-universities/key-facts---data/research-activities/ Welch Jr, V. (2008). Doctorate recipients from United States universities: Selected Tables 2007. Chicago: National Opinion Research Centre. physical sciences being US citizens (Welch 2088:Table 5). Having identified the official data sources of statistics Abbreviations on PhD degrees awarded, it will be possible for more detailed analyses to be undertaken. Data such as these and ABS Australian Bureau of Statistics are the starting point for dealing with issues relating to CBCS Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics the supply and demand for PhDs in one or several study DEET Department of Employment, Education and fields, the need to replenish the ageing academic work- Training force, and whether or not there is a PhD brain drain from DEETYA Department Australia. Future researchers should also refer to the work by Evans et al. (2003) if they wish to examine the nature DEEWR Department of Education, Employment and and development of PhDs in Australia and to Dale (1997) Workplace Relations and the Australian Academy of Science (1974) for a deeper DEST Department of Education, Science and Training understanding of the history. DETYA Department of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs of Education, Training and Youth Affairs Ian R Dobson is a research director at the Network for Higher Education and Innovation Research, University of Helsinki, an adjunct researcher at Monash University’s Centre for Population and Urban Research and editor of the Australian Universities’ Review. 100 PhDs in Australia, from the beginning, Ian R Dobson vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W Appendix 1: Data Sources Publication / Reference Year Document Name 1952 - 1956 CBCS University Statistics. Part 2. Degrees Conferred, Libraries and Finance. Various tables 1957 - 1960 CBCS University Statistics. Part 1. Staff, Students and Degrees Conferred Various tables 1958 - 1960 CBCS University Statistics. Part 1. Staff, Students and Degrees Conferred Various tables 1961 - 1964 CBCS University Statistics. Part 1. Students and Degrees Conferred Various tables 1965 - 1967 CBCS University Statistics. Part 1. Students (Part A) Degrees Conferred (Part B) Various tables 1968 - 1972 CBCS University Statistics. Part 1. Students and Degrees Conferred Various tables 1973 - 1975 ABS University Statistics. Part 1. Students and Degrees Conferred Various tables 1976 - 1979 ABS University Statistics. Part 1. Students Various tables. Tertiary Education Commission Selected University Statistics. Table 8 (or 9) Courses Completed by Level and University 1976 - 1979 1979 - 1982 ABS University Statistics Cat. No. 4208 During this period, ABS statistics included PhDs and Higher Doctorates as ‘Doctorates’. 1980 - 1986 Commonwealth Tertiary Education Commission Selected University Statistics. Table 9 Courses Completed by Level and University 1987 - 1993 DEET Selected Higher Education Statistics 1988 Various tables 1988 – 2009 DEET / DEETYA / DETYA / DEST / DEEWR Aggregated Data Set ‘UPAGyyyy’ (where yyyy is the year of reporting). File for 1988 was a customised data set in UPAG format supplied by DEEWR. Files for some years between 1989 and 2007 were downloaded from the DEST website. Files with additional data elements relating to country of birth were purchased from DEST/DEEWR vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 PhDs in Australia, from the beginning, Ian R Dobson 101 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W REVIEWS Thanks to the Yanks! A Cohort of Pioneers: Australian postgraduate students and American postgraduate degrees 19491964 by Sally Ninham ISBN 9781921421853 (paper) Connorcourt, Ballan, Victoria, 2011, pp 313. Review by Paul Rodan This book deals with the story of Australian postgraduates twined: Smith-Mundt opened opportunities to a wider who pursued higher degrees in the United States from range of nationalities than had Fulbright. 1949 to 1964. In so doing, these ‘pioneers’ broke new While for some of the Australians in this study, the US ground, both educational and cultural, given the Australian postgraduate application followed rejection for a pre- academy’s historical attachment to the United Kingdom ferred UK scholarship, this was not universally so. Some as the gold standard in matters of academic excellence. students made shrewd and informed choices about loca- The author’s interest, she tells us, was stimulated by tions of disciplinary strength and potential for research her father’s experiences as one such student and by the collaborations while others proudly identified an element detailed letters kept by her mother (during a year of sepa- of rebellion in choosing the new world over the old. For ration, before joining him) in that most traditional of Aus- the small number of female applicants, it was also relevant tralian archives, the shoebox. that American institutions were less discriminatory. In addition to the letters, Ninham was able to secure the Several of the (overwhelmingly male) students were cooperation of a hundred plus ex-students in completing accompanied by wives, with some marriages brought a questionnaire. Thirty-three respondents were also inter- forward to facilitate travel and cohabitation (this was the viewed, along with scholarship administrators and wives 1940s and 1950s). The challenges for such young women of scholars. Initially, the author sketches a largely famil- were understandably substantial and some coped better iar narrative: the ultra-elite nature of Australian university than others. For the email generation, the sheer time lag education till at least the post-WWII period, minimal mas- with communication in the period under review (interna- ters enrolments, the lack of doctoral study options until tional phone calls were expensive and hence rare) must the 1940s or 1950s (depending on discipline) and the suf- be virtually incomprehensible. focating deference to Britain in matters of academic struc- If the main aim of the US scholarship schemes was tures, practices and appointments.A doctoral qualification (at least for some American policy-makers) to indoctri- from other than the mother country was simply doomed nate foreigners and enlist them as cold warriors back not to be taken seriously. home, then it was less than successful with Ninham’s Between the wars, there had been some research con- cohort. The features of America that appealed to them tacts between Australia and the US, most in science and most were the country’s pluralism, its diversity of voices, some in education. But, the end of WWII and the onset public debate, the emergence of the civil rights move- of the Cold War saw an explosion in the opportunities for ment and for several in the later years, the anti-war move- foreign students to undertake postgraduate study in the ment. McCarthyism (when mentioned by respondents) US, as epitomised by the Fulbright and Smith-Mundt ini- was seen as repugnant. Those who identified their own tiatives. While the former scheme had more educational political awakening as occurring at this time were invari- motives, the latter was blatantly political, with one pro- ably on the progressive side of the spectrum, regardless ponent observing that if it was America’s destiny to help of academic discipline. Some were motivated to pursue serve the world with its educational system, ‘then destiny political activism back in Australia. needs a little shove’. Ninham sees this difference as non- As the staid Eisenhower years gave way to Kennedy’s problematical, since the long-term outcomes were inter- New Frontier, the sense of excitement and engagement 102 Thanks to the Yanks!, Review by Paul Rodan vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W was, for many of these visiting students, palpable. It is surname is mis-spelt (as Cowan) in some sections of the doubtful whether the traditionalists, on the other side of book, but not in others; Perth is identified as lacking a the Atlantic, felt similarly engaged by Harold Macmillan! bridge over the Swan River (till the Narrows was built by Upon return to Australia, many in this study found one of Ninham’s ‘cohort’ in 1959), but this is (accurately) academic work in the newly emerging universities: the contradicted in the following paragraph; the plural of laws of doctoral supply and demand were on their side, ‘moratorium’ is given as both ‘moratoria’ and ‘moratori- although that did not ensure a smooth transition. Several ums’. Ninham has JFK assassinated in December (instead experienced hostility to their US credentials and opposi- of November) 1963 – an error which should not have sur- tion to their efforts to effect change in curriculum and vived the most cursory editing. teaching methods. (The empire was not going without a A strength of this book is Ninham’s location of the fight). Later, many would revisit the US under the gener- study in the broader context of Australia’s loosening ous sabbatical leave provisions of the time. cultural, social, economic and political ties with Britain Outside the academy, others used their qualifications in the post-war period, in which cause she assembles an and experience to pursue very successful careers in a extensive and impressive bibliography. In summary, this range of fields, with this cohort including two High Court account is a readable and engaging one, dealing with an judges. While most reported some challenges in readjust- important post-war higher education phenomenon, the ment to Australia and in employer acceptance of an exotic effect of which is evident in our institutions today. US qualification, the postgraduates identified their time overseas as a positive life and career-changing experience, Paul Rodan is Adjunct Professor at Swinburne University of which saw them retain an enduring fondness for the US. Technology’s Institute for Social Research and a member of Perhaps by today’s standards, this volume has fewer the AUR editorial board. editing/proofing problems than most. Zelman Cowen’s Gender, power, management... and higher education Gender, Power and Management – A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Higher Education, by Barbara Bagilhole & Kate White (eds). Palgrave Macmillan, NY. ISBN: 978-0-230-23225-9, ISBN10: 0-230-23225-6 Review by Michelle Wallace This eight-chapter book presents collaborative research lower number of women in higher education manage- on gender, power and higher education management in ment and senior managers’ perspectives on their roles and eight countries. The book makes a major contribution to the management cultures of their institutions. the women in higher education management literature as In their Introduction, Barbara Bagilhole and Kate White it offers a nuanced, comparative analysis across a range of explain the genesis of the Women in Higher Education Man- countries in relation to the factors that have shaped their agement (WHEM) Network and provide practical exam- gender dynamics and higher education systems and gives ples of how the research collaboration operated.This is an voice to perspectives from contemporary higher educa- inspiring example of feminist informed research practice. tion managers. The aims of the research were to collate statistical and The book is invaluable for those teaching and research- other secondary data to map the representation of women ing gender, leadership and management. It well deserves in higher education management, undertake empirical close and multiple readings to appreciate the range of research with senior higher education managers across theoretical perspectives used to analyse reasons for the the eight countries and identify interventions to support vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Gender, power, management... and higher education, Review by Michelle Wallace 103 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W women’s advancement in higher education management. of career development theory. Similarities are identified The eight countries in which the research took place were between all countries with a traditional academic career the United Kingdom, Ireland, Portugal, Sweden, Turkey, pathway of promotions through the academic hierarchy to South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. While the choice senior management. Both individual and structural factors of countries clearly stems from current WHEM member- that facilitate or hinder success are examined and differ- ship it would be wonderful to see other countries, for ent management competencies are linked to the collegial/ example from Asia, included in future research. managerial and internal/external orientation required of Early chapters by Kate White and Anita Goransson offer senior managers in the different countries. a country-by-country analysis of the relevant statistics Jenny Neale examines the dynamics of women and men regarding women’s labour market participation and equal working together in senior management and highlights opportunity legislation and their impact on careers. Each the gendered discourses around skills and expectations of country’s higher education system and the percentage behaviour. While many interviewees of both sexes offered of women in senior management roles are examined. In stereotypes views of others’ managerial skill sets, a number addition, the ongoing theme of collegial versus manage- also saw women and men choosing from a range of styles. rial higher education cultures is introduced. Male domi- Most saw male and female ways of managing as comple- nance in collegial models is noted because of informal, mentary and as producing better management decisions. male networks, however in managerial systems gender Pat O’Connor examines gendered organisational cul- equality is seen to be very much dependent on the views ture and her chapter pulls a number of threads in the of central management. preceding chapters together. She uses Sinclair’s (1998) Jenny Neale and Oslem Ozkanli explain that the qualita- typology regarding gendered cultures (denial, problem is tive research, informed by a feminist standpoint perspec- women, incremental adjustment, commitment to a new tive, involved extensive interviews with 86 female and 75 culture) to analyse interview responses. In several of the male senior managers (deans to vice-chancellors). Inter- more collegial higher education cultures, she identifies view questions focussed on getting into higher education denial as the predominant approach. Commitment to a management and progressing through management hier- new culture is most strikingly seen in South Africa and to archies, the dynamics of senior women and men working a lesser extent Sweden and Australia. Universities in South together, the roles of vice-chancellors/rectors /presidents Africa are seen as highly political spaces where race sub- in higher education, leadership styles and the aspects sumes gender with a government supported commitment of organisational culture that foster or do not support to change. However, in Australia, New Zealand and Ireland gender diversity in senior higher education management women are often identified as ‘the problem’ through reti- in each country. cence or not being able to put work as centrepiece. Teresa Carvalho and Maria de Lourdes Machado iden- In their conclusion Bagilhole and White cite a number tify differences and similarities in the development of of issues including rethinking of leadership styles, achiev- the higher education systems in the eight countries. They ing a broader understanding of the advantages of gender maintain that university systems most closely built on the diverse management teams and challenging the ‘undoable’ UK model have followed its managerialist direction with nature of some senior management jobs. They highlight senior managers recruited through external, competitive the seeming disconnect between what universities say are processes. However, universities in Turkey, Ireland, Sweden the required competencies and behaviours for successful and Portugal have more collegial methods of appointing senior management and what is actually rewarded. This is their senior managers. In these systems their most senior an area ripe for further research. The section on interven- managers tend to have a more internal focus. However, in tions is somewhat underdeveloped; however, the WHEM systems such as the UK or Australia there is a more outward Network is now committed to developing and evaluat- orientation and managerialist aspect to senior roles. Utilis- ing interventions for women seeking to move into senior ing Le Fevre’s (1999) interpretive framework to examine higher education management. There is a clear research interview data from each country, the authors conclude pathway ahead and further publication promises to be as that, while there are examples of new visions of gender thought provoking as this excellent volume. relations in universities, gender-stereotyped views on leadership styles and a patriarchal approach dominates. Sarah Riordan examines the career trajectories of women Michelle Wallace is an associate professor at the Southern Cross Business School, Southern Cross University, Australia and men into higher education management in the light 104 Gender, power, management... and higher education, Review by Michelle Wallace vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W It’s one for the money, two for the show Australian Higher Education Research Policies and Performance 1987-2010 by Frank Larkins Melbourne University Press, Carlton, 2011; ISBN 9780522858273 Review by Pam Herman In this book, Professor Frank Larkins argues that in the last the Australian Institute of Physics and the Australian Insti- 20 years, successive Australian governments have sought tute of Energy. He was closely involved in the building of to mould a research policy framework very different from the Australian Synchrotron, the nation’s most significant the somewhat laissez faire model prior to the creation of investment thus far in scientific infrastructure. the unified system of higher education in 1988. Whatever Each chapter is arranged in numbered sub sections, government has tackled this issue at various times during making for ease of reference. Tables and graphs are judi- that period, the underpinning assumption seems to have ciously selected to support key findings. All chapters have been that a clearly articulated research policy should an introductory section and most conclude with a discus- bring with it social, economic and cultural benefits. sion of possible future outcomes.A detailed list of references Between 1987 and 2010, dramatic changes in govern- also invites the reader to explore issues in greater depth. ment policy have certainly affected each university’s Throughout the book complex research policy mat- approach to resourcing its research. While it is true that ters, and the universities’ response to them are dealt with there have been many twists and turns in government crisply and cogently. An introduction identifies the key policy during this time, as Larkins observes, there have issues to be discussed while the first chapter outlines the nevertheless been recurring themes. Universities have broader context of the very different pre-1987 era. The been encouraged to be more entrepreneurial and to seek following three chapters outline the key research-related a broader range of research funding sources. higher education policies of successive governments: As Larkins notes: Labor (1987-96), the Coalition (1996-2007) and then Much has been written about such topics as national research priority settings, research collaboration, performance accountability, concentration and selectivity of resources… and international competitiveness. Despite the many reports over two decades, such core issues as lack of funding for research infrastructure, low research student stipends, inadequate career paths for researchers and lack of effective avenues for knowledge transfer to business to promote economic competitiveness are as topical today as in earlier times. Labor again (2007-10). There is no one better placed than Professor Larkins to ades of profound change in the approach to research explain government policy and its impact upon research output. In particular, performance indicators and their performance in Australian universities during the last 20 application to rankings, at national and international levels years. As Deputy Vice-Chancellor at the University of Mel- are examined. It would have been helpful if the timeline bourne for 15 of those years, he was responsible for that of events could have been extended to include the out- university’s research profile and its administration. A dis- comes of responses to the first Excellence in Research tinguished scholar and researcher, Larkins is the author of for Australia (ERA) assessments. It is hoped that any sub- over 200 learned papers. During his long research career sequent edition will include a discussion on adjustments he has variously been elected to the Australian Academy that may be made to the assessment process and whether, of Science, the Australian Academy of Technical Sciences as the author himself asks, to what extent assessment and Engineering, the Royal Australian Chemistry Institute, results will influence the distribution of research funds. vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 The application of these policies and institutional responses are then reviewed in subsequent chapters on research training and performance; competitive research funding frameworks; research collaboration, innovation and commercialisation policies; policy costings and the benefits arising from new approaches to higher education research; and ethics policies and compliance. Chapter 10 reviews the broader outcomes of two dec- It’s one for the money, two for the show, Review by Pam Herman 105 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W Again in any further edition, the author might con- Australian Higher Education Research Policies and sider broadening the scope of the book by giving more Performance 1987–2010 provides an extraordinarily com- examples of institutional responses to the ever changing prehensive and perceptive overview of Government policy government regulations and initiatives. For example, the during the last 20 years. In many ways, it is the last chapter chapter on ethics, research conduct and compliance is in which is the most thought provoking as the author reflects some ways the least satisfying, comprised as it is of little upon past policies, current developments and the future. more than a summary of government-initiated codes of In an impressive final section Larkins refers to the practice. That said, there is brief reference to the Univer- present Australian university sector as a ‘diverse, deregu- sity of Melbourne’s reaction to this via its own codes, poli- lated and accountable HE system’. The key to the future cies and procedures and it is understandable that Larkins success of university research activity lies in achieving would select examples from the institution he served for an appropriate balance between a deregulated environ- so many years. ment in which universities are free to pursue innovative, It is acknowledged that it may be beyond the remit of the book to examine how universities developed approaches entrepreneurial and independent paths while remaining accountable for their performance. to deal with the new challenges before them. Nevertheless For the first time in Australia, the ERA assessment exer- there are some interesting schemes and programmes that cise provides ‘institutions, researchers, industry and stu- may have been profiled to extend this examination of gov- dents with a sound evidence-based means of identifying ernment policy and research performance. areas of strength and potential as well as areas where we Why, for example, have universities in Great Britain need to do better’ (Senator Carr, 30 May 2011) been able to improve research training completion rates While the second ERA round is already underway for and reduce completion times when similar outcomes 2012 and fine tuning of the assessment model has been appear to have eluded Australian universities. And yet announced, there has been as yet no unequivocal state- this is of critical importance as funding in part is deter- ment as to the weight which its results will be given in the mined by completions. The confirmation assessment at disbursement of research funding to the sector. Larkins the conclusion of the first year of candidature is thus notes however, that ‘universities have high expectations now generally an altogether more rigorous examination that ERA results will provide the basis for a strong case for of the student’s capacity to pursue research in a timely increasing government investment in HE research’. and effective manner. Improvement in completion times The assessments have been made against international and rates is disappointingly slow despite innovative benchmarks using indicators developed by the disciplines approaches which have included, for example, the crea- themselves. The author has no doubt that ‘research con- tion of research centre accommodation to reduce the centration has already occurred, and it will need to con- sense of isolation felt particularly by humanities and tinue for Australia to remain competitive in international social science students and provision of appropriate rankings’. He continues: work spaces especially during the final stages of thesis A number of benefits accrue from having some universities of high international standing. International collaborations are enhanced, companies have more confidence in investing in institutions, staff recruitment and retention is facilitated, and international students…are assured of the quality of education they are likely to receive. writing. Short term writing-up awards to allow writing full time is another device introduced in some universities. Comprehensive generic training programmes to assist students with various aspects of their candidature, including, for example, strategies for dealing with writers’ block, how to present at conferences and how to work effectively with one’s supervisor, are again standard practice Larkins sees current pressures on student: teaching staff in most universities. Theses by publication, especially in ratios as a serious threat to the teaching- research nexus, the sciences, encourages students to write up progres- and maintaining the quality of higher education. sively from the start of their research. Many universities A recent interview given by Valérie Pécresse, Minister have also instigated quite rigorous mandatory training for Higher Education and Research in France underlined and accreditation of research supervisors in the hope that these principles. In commenting upon changes to the more students will submit in a timely manner. Universi- French higher education system she said: ties have approached these challenges in innovative and imaginative ways, and inclusion of examples in the book may perhaps have been instructive. 106 It’s one for the money, two for the show, Review by Pam Herman Nearly everything in France has been built outside the universities…the grandes écoles…[a system of elite engineering and professional schools]…[and] at vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V the same time we have research institutions …that do research outside the universities. And the problem is that the world model is a university. (Global Edition of the New York Times, Monday May 23, 2011, p. 15) E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W research completion rates.And within the student population a greater proportion of scholarship funding may also be earmarked for the international student cohorts who traditionally have performed better than domestic stu- So it may be said that a diverse system in which univer- dents in terms of completion rates. sities provide a wide range of courses where teaching and What is clear is that in a globally competitive environ- research come together is accepted by most as the ideal. ment academic units with a poor performance record in Nevertheless, as Larkins has noted, it may be expected research whether it be undertaken by academic staff or that concentration of high level research will continue, postgraduate research students, can no longer be indulged especially within the Group of Eight, in order that Aus- as they may have been done in the past. tralia remains globally competitive.That leaves the govern- Senior management staff responsible for setting insti- ment and the universities with little option but to direct tutional research agendas, and public service personnel funding to the higher performing academic units.Thus for undertaking the development and implementation of example, government and university funded postgraduate government research policy in particular, will find this a research scholarships may increasingly be directed to aca- timely and valuable reference. demic departments, schools and faculties on the basis of their research performance, especially their postgraduate Pam Herman is an independent reviewer. Us and them: multiculturalism in the classroom Negotiating Political Identities: Multiethnic Schools and Youth in Europe by Daniel Faas ISBN 9780754678441 (hbk), 9780754696643 (ebk) Ashgate, Surrey, England 2010 Review by Neil Mudford This book by Daniel Faas of Trinity College Dublin con- The fieldwork for this book consisted of interviews cerns the development of political identities by teen- and observations of staff and students in four secondary age school students in Germany and England and the schools, two in Germany and two in England in 2004.The social interactions, the class and ethnic origins and edu- results should be highly relevant to the present times with cational experiences that affect this development. The Faas’ subjects now in their early 20s. work focuses largely on the students’ views of them- In each country, one school draws its students from selves as Europeans and whether or not they subscribe middle class families and the other from working class to multiculturalism. families. All the schools involved have significant popula- This well researched and carefully analysed work would tions of the children of Turkish immigrants who arrived as be of considerable interest under any circumstances. The guest workers from the 1960s onwards. A prominent aim fact that its publication and dissemination has coincided of the study was to compare and contrast the develop- with a crescendo in the European ramifications of the ment of the identities of these students with those of the Global Financial Crisis multiplies its interest and impor- ethnic majority who came from families resident in the tance. The question of whether the European Union sur- area for generations. vives the GFC or flies apart under its tensions will depend Turkey is an Associate Member of the EU. The proc- in part on the strength of its citizens’ commitment to ess of working towards full EU membership for Turkey being European. In turn, this is intimately tied up with has been ongoing for decades. The choice of the Turk- multiculturalism through the universal and age-old ques- ish minority for the study is thus an interesting one. tion of where the boundary lies between ‘us’ and ‘them’. One wonders where this move towards membership vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Us and them: multiculturalism in the classroom, Review by Neil Mudford 107 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W will go now that there is such an air of instability tudes have been strongly influenced by their studies.That about the EU. is, there seems to be a good chance that education makes In setting the scene for his discussion of his data and a difference. Certainly, the deliberate post-war policies of findings, Faas presents an extensive and informative over- the German government to build a European identity in view of the forces and developments that have created their citizens seems to have succeeded. the prevailing general attitudes to Europe in the two I thought that an example of where this might be occur- countries concerned. In broad terms, Faas contends that ring is the contrast between student attitudes in the schools Germans are inclined to think of themselves as Euro- to a sense of European identity and to multiculturalism. At pean, coupled with a parallel identification with the cul- both German schools, a European perspective features ture of their local area within Germany. Sometimes their strongly in the curriculum. At the middle class school, mul- identification as European is stronger than their view of ticulturalism is another strong theme but, at the working themselves as German. The English, by contrast, think of class school, resources are insufficient to include a strong themselves as English and as International citizens but multicultural component to the studies. The student inter- have only a vague sense of themselves as European. This views reveal that students at both schools empathise with a English perspective seems almost deliberately to overlook European perspective but the working class school suffers or avoid the middle distance of Europe perhaps coupled from ethnic tensions and some racial intolerance. with wishing it would go away. This last tendency may have increased lately! Running counter to the notion that formal education has a strong influence on identity and attitude is the fact Faas explains that the stimulus for attracting guest work- that the major effort in promoting multiculturalism in ers to Germany was the need for labour for national recon- the English working class school has not prevented high struction. It was assumed at the time that these immigrants levels of ethnic tension. would return shortly to their countries of origin. The per- My position at the time of writing this review is that sistence of the need for the extra labour extended their Faas’ work provides us with a window into the many influ- stay and produced the need to educate their children plus ences and attitudes of contemporary youth in Europe.The growing pressure to deal with the question of granting citi- more you look into it, the greater the complexity of the zenship to the immigrants and their children. mix appears to be and the greater the fascination with Immigration to England was driven by similar forces but the maelstrom of influence and reaction he describes. It much of the non-UK immigration was from former British has certainly stirred my imagination about what sort of colonies. Political and social questions of education and Europe these young people will create as they grow older citizenship status for the immigrant families arose, just as and influence European political development. they did for Germany. An interesting feature of the style and structure of the In these environments, Faas’ student interviewees have book is the liberal use of direct quotes from the inter- developed their sense of identity. The central comparisons views. This certainly gives the work immediacy and a Faas makes are of the attitudes held by the various student particular flavour. I am puzzled, however, about the con- groups concerning their identities in relation to their local siderable range of abilities the students appear to have in region, to their country of residence, to Europe, and to the expressing their views. The German students seem to be orld as a whole. In the case of the immigrant groups there noticeably more articulate than the English, with the latter is the extra factor of their attitudes to identifying with their seeming to use more colloquial expression such as ‘innit’. parents’ country of origin. Faas shows that this last com- I wonder whether this derives from the German students ponent of identity is moulded by a complex interaction of having generally superior language ability or from the parental and peer group influences and the general politi- German responses having been translated into English. It cal environment in which the students find themselves. was sometimes a trial having to translate the responses I must admit, when I first read the book, I was not overly of the English students into the English that I understand. impressed with the research results. It seemed to me that I would also be interested to know why Faas includes so the students adopted the attitudes and allegiances of their many student responses that indicate ignorance on their cultural surroundings, including the emphasis and mes- part. I imagine this is to show that, often, the students are sages promoted by their schools. As this is what I would ignorant. If it is true, then it is indeed an important point expect, I did not think of it as a significant outcome. to make and for the reader to understand and remember Later, when I reflected further, I began to think that one important outcome is the possibility that the student atti- 108 that these are people emerging into adult life and grappling with national and international politics. Us and them: multiculturalism in the classroom, Review by Neil Mudford vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W All social studies stimulate question of what this means retreated into an identity that revolves around mateship for us, the readers. It is interesting to speculate on the form and a ‘she’ll be right’ approach that extends, geographi- a similar study might take if conducted here in Australia cally, no further than the low water mark? where the Anglo ethnic majority are themselves quite In summary, Faas’ book provides us with a fascinating recent immigrants whose struggles to find a collective array of thoughts and insights into the lives of young identity are legendary. The Australian Indigenous people people growing into their environment and developing are very much in the minority. They have a rock solid a sense of themselves. In my opinion, Daniel Faas should certainty of belonging to the country but are suffering consider following up on the students to find out how cultural stress from the dominant group, including heavy they have developed since 2004, in the style of Granada pressure over their efforts in defining a positive self-image. Television’s highly acclaimed Up series. The Australian counterpart of Faas’ question of a European aspect to the identity of his subjects might be the Neil Mudford is a Visiting Fellow at the University of New question of how we reconcile a predominantly ‘Euro-like’ South Wales and a Research Associate at University of culture in an Asian and Melanesian neighbourhood. To Queensland, both honorary positions. He is also an editorial what extent do we consider ourselves Asian or have we board member of the Australian Universities’ Review. South-east of the border, down Asia way Education in South-East Asia, by Colin Brock and Lorraine Pe Symaco (eds). Oxford Studies in Comparative Education, Oxford: Symposium, 2011, 348 pages, (paperback). ISBN 978-1-873927-56-4 Review by Andrys Onsman Although it is variable in the quality of writing, Brock and collecting and collating chapters about countries where Symaco’s edited collection of papers outlining the current there is often little in the way of precedent. In a way, the state of education in South-East Asia is rich in information unevenness of the writing reflects the variation in both and analysis.As an introduction to the current state of play, the education structures and systems in the region and the issues, the problems and the ambitions that are shap- the scholarly analysis thereof. ing education in area, it is invaluable to anyone who is The first chapter briefly outlines what the book is looking for a concise overview of the history, present and about, identifying the key themes of social upheaval and likely future of the major issues facing, education in the cultural disparities affecting the past, the present and the region, as well as some detailed but very readable analyses. future of school based education as it is shaped to meet The collection is divided into two sections. The first the needs of an increasingly de-colonial and international section offers a summary of each of the ASEAN countries region. It’s a very brief chapter – simply an introduction to and Timor Leste. The second section consists of five dis- the book rather than to the issues contained in it. cursive essays. It is profitable to read the first section first The second chapter summarises what has been hap- as the data and insights therein provide solid grounding pening in Brunei Darussalam: an intriguing snapshot of a for the essays that follow. The chapters on the individual country about which very little has been written in terms countries make for fascinating and at times startling read- of scholarly analysis. The chapter introduces many of the ing. Technically however some are not quite up to the themes that recur in succeeding chapters: post-colonial standard one would expect but I suspect that that is not reconstruction of the education systems, engaging more the fault of the editors who have done a superb job in the population in education, especially higher educa- vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 South-east of the border, down Asia way, Review by Andrys Onsman 109 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W tion, and searching for a place within the ASEAN region region has had little over 25 years to make inroads into its and indeed the world. In Chapter 3 Martin Hayden and woeful education system. Richard Martin consider Cambodia and do not shy away Loke and Hoon’s analysis of Malaysia’s emergence as an from the controversial issues such as corruption and an educational power-house in the region is clearly written autocratic government. Moreover, Cambodia is the poor- and well supported by impressive statistics. Malaysia is est country in the region and it suffers from a ‘lost genera- well on the way to being declared an advanced economy tion’, which means that the next generation had nothing by the International Monetary Fund and its educational in the way of reference. Their analysis shows that the infrastructure from early childhood education to higher children of uneducated parents generally have little in education is sound and productive. On the other hand it is the way of schooling themselves. In some cases, children unsurprising that Malaysia is concerned with its national are needed to gain income; in others they simply lack identity. Principally the country has three main groups the perceived pathways – education is seen as important. of citizens – each with a distinct place in its society. Two The education system in Cambodia is critically under- thirds are Bumiputra (which includes mostly Malays but – resourced, corruption is rife because of the poverty, and at least in theory – also includes the aboriginal people like the future seems bleak. the Dyaks and Orang Asli); one quarter is Chinese and less Indonesia on the other hand has achieved near univer- than ten percent is Indian. The authors’ claim of universal sal primary education, which Baunto in Chapter 4 argues approval of the education system is contestable: there is is due to the post-revolution restructuring of the educa- no doubt that in practice it favours the Malays. Nonethe- tion system from ad-hoc and autonomous to centralised less, their assertion that the Ministry of Education is focus- and prescriptive. Certainly the colonial rulers had little ing on using the system to create national unity as well as interest in establishing any meaningful schooling struc- a skilled workforce is indisputably true. It is simply that ture for the local people for as long as the country was the the latter doesn’t lead to the former. Dutch East Indies. The idea of universal education arose Further, their reference to The National Philosophy during the Soekarno years (1942-1965); was made mani- of Education being based on ‘a firm belief in and devo- fest during the autocratic rule of Soeharto (1966-1998) tion to God’ (p. 115) ignores that ‘the belief in God’ is to and was re-enforced during the next decade of ostensi- be taught with the sixteen universal core values (cleanli- bly democratic rule. Probably the most influential factor ness of body and mind, compassion/empathy, cooperation, during this time was the development of Bahasa Indone- courage, moderation, diligence, freedom, gratitude, hon- sia – a national (and nationalising) language. On the one esty/integrity, justice, rationality, self-reliance, love, respect, hand, autocratic centralist government allowed national public-spiritedness, and humility and modesty). While they implementation of education policies. On the other, Indo- are generically worthwhile characteristics, in effect they nesia is now faced with the problem of decentralising its are Islamic – hardly surprising in a predominantly Islamic education system to address regional needs. That, Baunto country.These values are to be taught across every second- argues, will take a generational shift. ary school subject as well as in every primary school, in the Richard Noonan’s chapter on the Lao People’s Demo- belief that character formation based on moral and religious cratic Republic makes for sobering reading. Colonised by values is as important as academic excellence. As Ishmael the French (who regarded it as part of Vietnam), it began et al noted, ‘Islamic belief and values constitute the core its struggle for independence in 1945, allied with the Viet of syllabus and aimed at producing Muslim students who Minh who were battling the French in Vietnam. In 1954, are knowledgeable, competent and pious with moral and Laos gained its freedom. It marked the start of having to ethical values based on the teachings of the al-Quran and develop an education system that had relied on a French al-Sunnah. This is in accordance to Islam being the official super-structure imposed on local Buddhist schools at a religion in the country’ (Ishmael et al. 2009: p. 163). Loke time when the country was undergoing a civil war that and Hoon’s chapter understandably but ultimately unhelp- didn’t end until the early seventies. During the decade fol- fully avoids the impact on Malaysia’s education system of lowing the communists gaining power, many of the coun- the antipathies between the three major ethnic groups. try’s educated people fled in fear of being ‘re-educated’ to The chapter on the most prosperous of the region’s conform to party lines. Consequently it wasn’t until 1986 countries, Singapore is perhaps the strongest of the sum- when Laos initiated market economy reforms that any real maries. Tan’s overview is clear, balanced and verifiable. progress towards an unfettered education system could The Singapore experience is a blueprint for educational be made. In real terms, one of the poorest countries of the development that is now being adopted by various other 110 South-east of the border, down Asia way, Review by Andrys Onsman vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S ’ R E V I E W countries in the region, including most importantly the than any other emerging area. As is the case in all the five People’s Republic of China. In overly simplistic terms, essays, this one is brief and highly selective. Rather than Tan’s main line of argument concerns the use of the edu- draw on specific feminist theory (Stromquist for exam- cation structures to inculcate nationalist fervor amongst ple) the authors examine the link between gender, social its citizenry and how that will help and hinder in terms of positioning and official policy: for example, women from where the island nation heads to now. Specifically, the fact indigenous peoples are more likely to be disadvantaged that more than three quarters of the population is Chi- than women from the nation’s dominant people. Nowhere nese will have a significant impact on future direction and is that more evident than in the case of the Karen people development, particularly in terms of its minority Malay from the Golden Triangle. Brock and Hsieh’s analysis of that and sub-continental populations. context is pithily accurate and will hopefully encourage Equal in quality to the Singapore chapter is the one on Vietnam by Pham and Fry.There is a substantial amount of the reader to dig deeper. Other interesting angles included migrant workers, social capital and official policies. literature about education in Vietnam, which the authors Anthony Welch’s analysis of direction and ambition in use carefully to develop a very clear line of argument. In terms of higher education in the region is perspicacious essence, Vietnam is depicted as using its troubled history as well as clearly and engagingly written. Welch’s chapter to build an appropriate education structure but running is highly recommended reading for anyone wanting an into a multitude of problems in doing so. Because of its accurate précis, and it also serves as a portal to his other high standard it was noticeable that there was no refer- published works; such as Higher Education in Southeast ence made to Jess Ford’s (2010) report on Vietnam to the Asia (Welch 2011). Keith Watson’s analysis of the use of United States Government Accountability Office because English in the education systems of the region is a tight the USA was part of that troubled history and is very and focused introduction to the vexing issue, rich in detail much involved in current attempts to reconstruct the but also very strong in presenting a coherent overall snap- education systems in Vietnam. Nonetheless it is an excel- shot of how things actually are. These two are the high- lent introduction and those wanting to know more could lights of the volume. look at the Jonathan London (2011) edited volume Educa- Pitiyanuwat’s chapter on quality assurance in the region is the least discursive and analytical. It consists of tion in Vietnam. Each of the chapters providing an overview of a coun- a quick snapshot of which country is using what system. try’s current educational environment is short, readable It provides no data or discussion on the effectiveness and illuminating. Of course, for some there is little extant of efficiency of the systems. The chapter is best read in data for the authors to work with – Timor Leste and Myan- conjunction with the next. Cantell and Elias’ look at edu- mar are two obvious examples. Nonetheless all offer sig- cational sustainability begins with a joke that is followed nificant insights and not a few tantalising glimpses. On the by the enigmatic claim that ‘In the deserts of Australia the other hand, some of the chapters are pessimistic, almost acquisition of knowledge is not only the longest but the foreboding in tone. Richard Martin begins the section only road a person will travel’. Whether it is banal drivel on Myanmar’s background by pointing that ‘Myanmar or enigmatic perspicacity is up to the reader. The authors is a pariah state, shunned internationally because of its subscribe to Rosalyn McKeown’s definition of sustain- rejection of democratic institutions and its poor human ability as the intertwined and continued well-being of rights record’ (p. 123) and ends the chapter with the argu- the environment, people and the economy, and warn that ment that the USA and its allies would do better to lift its simply pumping resources into education is no guarantee embargo because China, Russia and India are using its aid of achieving that. to gain access to Myanmar’s vast natural resources ‘and the Overall, the collection manages to achieve what it sets population will never regain its prominence as an edu- out to do, which is no mean feat. Each of the region’s cated, culture and progressive nation’ (p. 136). In between countries gets a solid summary chapter and together he offers some hope for the future, as well as some carefully those chapters provide reference for the five thematically collected and analysed data in this most secretive country. analytical chapters. The editors have chosen the analysts The second section of the book consists of five the- reasonably well: some are respected experts in their field, matic, discursive essays, covering gender, language, sus- others are less academically versed but none is afraid to tainability, quality assurance and higher education. contest official rhetoric or offer at times controversial Brock and Hsieh consider the gender issue, an issue where the ASEAN countries are arguably doing better vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 opinion. As a needed introductory text, it deserves a wide and international readership. South-east of the border, down Asia way, Review by Andrys Onsman 111 A U S T R A L I A N U N I V E R S I T I E S â€™ R E V I E W Andrys Onsman works in International Higher Education at the University of Nottinghamâ€™s campus in Ningbo, China References Ford, J. (2010) Vietnam Education Foundation: Recent Improvements Made in Internal Controls, But Weaknesses Persist, Washington DC: DIANE Publishing. Ismail, H., Yunus, A., Ali, W., Hamzah, R., Abu, R. & Nawawi, H. (2009) Belief in god based on the national philosophy of education amongst Malaysian secondary school teachers, European Journal of Social Sciences, 8 (1):160-170. London, J. (2011) (ed) Education in Vietnam, Singapore: Institute of South East Asian Studies. Stromquist, N. (2002) Education in a globalized world: the connectivity of economic power, knowledge and power, Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield. Welch, A. (2011) Higher Education in Southeast Asia: blurring borders, changing balance, London: Routledge. 112 South-east of the border, down Asia way, Review by Andrys Onsman vol. 54, no. 1, 2012 Quote the discount code CC*NTEU when registering to SAVE 10% OFF the standard registration fee 2nd Annual Interconnected Tertiary Education Improving cross-sectoral pathways & increasing participation in an era of reform 28th & 29th March 2012, Central Pier, Docklands, Melbourne Join the conversation with: Benefits of attending: Unravel the complexities of legislation, regulation and workforce issues to build capacity for a strengthened tertiary sector into the future Professor David Battersby, Vice Chancellor University of Ballarat & Chair Regional Universities Network Learn how to strengthen cross-sectoral pathways to ensure student success Michelle Canny, Manager Tertiary Education Policy, Skills Victoria Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, VIC Uncover models for sustainable collaboration and partnerships between Vocational Education and Training and Higher Education Develop strategies to improve access for students from low socioeconomic backgrounds Proudly Endorsed by: Media Partner: Ann Doolette, Executive Director Australian Qualifications Framework Council Adrian Marron, Chief Executive Officer Canberra Institute of Technology To Register ☎ 1300 316 882 1300 918 334 firstname.lastname@example.org s to es’ d a e om nl c o t i u t o ca er ‘Edu r healtahlth Research e e bett Public H , nda Rho www.investinuniversities.org.au Authorised by Grahame McCulloch, General Secretary, National Tertiary Education Union, 120 Clarendon St, South Melbourne. 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