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t(r, BROADERPERSPECTIVES IS PUBLISHEDBY SCHOOLOF THOUGHT 112 MiddleRodd#02-01, 188970 MidlandHouse,SingaPore con sg * wwsdroolofthought tel+656334877J fax +5563372434 SUBSCRIPTIONRATESFOR2011 to Odober) $53.90(8 csues,E€bruary (inchdingGSTandhandlinB) andbockhsucs, enquiries for subs.ription of thoughtcom broadcrpespe.tiv€s@school

, TEAM THE BROADERPERSPECTIVES l<on EDITQRIN CHIEF Elizabeth CREAIIVEDIREC'IORShiaoYinKuik )'in@school-of EDI'IORNorzianMohamedYunos ASSISTANT COI,YEDITORRachelChng of thoughtcom Lachel@school EDITORIALASSISTAN'I \vRITERS CONTRIBU'T]NG M€senas, vivienn.Chua,Elizabeth TanmyThjang,Ye€Tong DESIGNER DESIGNASSISTANTS DanielLin, AngelaSoh SALESMANAGIRMichaelChnng tho! michael@school-of PRIN'I'IR






Managing your beliefsfor effectivelearnlng




Creatingimpact uponfirst


BRAIN-STONMING & ESSAYPLANNIT{G OEanlslngand pdoritisingpoints



& cHotcE







your Presenting pointsclearly

Resolving yourargument

67 COMPREHENSION Buy Now, Pay Later.





VALUES, CONIEXIS & 1'|EIACONIEXIS ome of the most frequently asked questions I get ftom students arc: How qD I jmplove my esay? ftere is so much happenins in the world, so how do I know which clcnts are important? How can I connunicate my u.de6tandi.S or of the world clearly and coherently in

rf a studentbasdonea decentjob of analysi.g qustion rcquirenentsmd wo*ing out a hdi. oDtline,l wouldsuggesttlat he ncxt considcrs i}te contertual and metacontextualaspectsof

what are contextsand metacontelts,yo! Day ask?Of whatusewouldtheyhaveiD my

tEt mebeginby inviting you to look at the licture below.Wlat doesit read?

AIIC Now iook at ihis picture. What has happened to


Atl o lzl



when you.ead horizontally,you jnterpret that middlecham.terin the conte{t of ihe A and c andseea B . wl'en you rcadvetically, thesane chaEcter(nowin the@nte\iof tle !2 and q) b*omesa '$'. Dependi.g onwh€theryouread tbis ngureve.tially or lorircntally. tle cenhal characterchangesbecauseof its surrounding

ln CP, contextguidesus to identjry wbat behavioDr,idea or ,rgument is relevant or irrelcvantto a particular placeor time. Context the ciNumstances that fom the scttinS for d evenr, sbtement, o! idea deteminq what @n be tully underctood dd dssscd. Hen@,contertsarerl-po@r{in becausethey allowus to determinewhat is imlortant or tiivial, right orrmng, cool or 'uncool. In fact,conte\i affectsour interpntation of aDyeventor lhenoDenon, and ths shapes nuch ofthe meaninsin our world. Yet contenual understandinSalonedoesnot guarantee goodessays. while goodstudents applycontextualknowledseto fonulate their afguments,exccllentstudentsalso draw dpon so!.@s,ftanewo.k whatw€@ll metacontert that Sivethem insiglt into the conflicti and tensionsinherent in acP questio!.

Vhlt are netacontexts? Brc Ly spc{king,theseirc undcrlyingprlnciples, themesorbelrelirthatlmme Jl hum.ndecisLons. Most peopleinluirivelthold r c.mmonsdnsem.rslityl as"reriothcrsas biscdon normssuch IoUwouldlike lo bc tr.rt d" kctPyourpn,misci,'be6n icspect ruthoriLl'rndv,od AlongwithrhcseLl,frm.nsense guidcsto behavburlhcrc ar. il!, vJueslhit ar. generally heldto b. "good hrppinc$,honcstyrushce, charty,.oumge, integriql commuDit,v, Lore, knowledge rnd lrced.m,choi.eind resp.ns[rhyNlaDyofthese (n rchgbn,lbrm thc values, whicharc indcpcndcnt brsisofmostde.rbnsweDDke.verydql

what would bc th€i| signin.anc€

Llrsdy your uMc$tMding ol l'aper I queshon idd rre rvrl lou dird.tyourarguments r.qurcmenrs relieson conknurl hro\hdsc rnd mctronkxru.l

se{.ndlnriici Lrtrkh! downdrereasonrgpmces rod cxpl{tringdiilcrcdt viewpoints n thebulkoffour c$ay,,vou nccdtoil,xc wirl\R,me.leilc.i!n,nsrDd conclu$ons iboutthc6$rco,connnr FinrlLlrfu dN€NLty ol perspc.tNrs rrLble nr ouf woild landwhichshouldbercllt(td m.ors$yt rcqtrirrsfcs.lutbn Tru. dr rLl,6 h h.Ld mrny difterentpcrspcctiv.s indnrrcsnrhtrtrr ll Ihc tnd of the dnythoughthcrcr! R)m F;irirrNrs thtrt natter morcthln thc $h.n n:rrn! 'nrponrol o rr \ h r : , f : , : h d r b d o t h e d e . i s i . ni sn y o u r l i v o s n

L e t u s L o o kn r r

,, 'r




n GP,ihe conie\r generates onrenL andnsuesor argumenrsrctaredto the topic.Ir is imposible to sswer a queslionwithout firt undestandingits context


Considd the followingqustion:

Ho* inportaat is itJo/ peoplein ,our tocietr to etdin a erse oJttdditiot? (2OtO,QtA)

Youmrght(omeupwrththee pomt'

R.tal"hg d w

Not importdt

oJttudititD it,,.


Impolt.nt be..!r.

. It is irrelevantin a frst chanSingmrld . An obstacleto Prcgre$

It @nhins keyknowled8e Prcvidesscuitl - emething to hll b{k on liovides enie oforder andmeeing

. reoph haw lost inrerest . Peoplewant to b€ginon a clan slar€

Giventhat this is r SingapoEbed question,not allofthcsepojntshaverclevanceyou needto cleadytjnk th6e pointsto lhe Singapore cont€xtsothatyour saywi tuly rddre$ the questionrequirenenrs. How woL d your poinrstum out ifclder arention waspaidto the contexr,thd G,t]le'peoptein your sciery ? Thefollowingdistindionscanbemade:



loung,of rmmrBEnt sto.k.

How wolld this intluen € r€t€ntion of tlldition? Veiy impo.tantsine the country hs not hadr lot of hme to cdtiv e a honogeneousidentity A mearoto stayfaithiul to

Westernned& progGsiw in the needto continuallylook

dillte tmditionsdependingon

Fast-pacd,lr{ti.. Change

Retainingtraditionallom for a balane,a slid .entre fbm which !o ponderpmgres; providessenseoforder and




AllGPquestionsrvolveabundconnlctsandevenkth.timpactpopleandthesocretiedrycomefrom ManI oi $ beexpcicnccd.nda$e$edin a tan8ible manner



aconflictorissuewould bepalpable in,eassuchas:

a) Person.l/Individual Context we b.ginram*iat k nearcstdnd appdtert oa.selves,As observersand etperience$ oJeeestt, e. dderttand ttm a"d dre afe.te.l b, then. Each pe6on has a pqsa"al beli4 ar ftligioa, slsleh, attitudes, opi,io,s dfld eqe.Idtiois thdt deternine boundaries,or what tull bealo,erl ol hot d oNedh rel4tia"shipt dnd sittdtioB, b) The tnmediat€ Context we 4re pdrt ofJdnilies an.l connaait! gtuups, Wedrc ako cnizensof aur counhies 1hereklestiti6 pla! prchineht rcks in the dechio$ anA eventswe etpetiend on d dai\ bdtit. .) The G€n€iic Context It is ma.le up oJrhe so.ial, paliticdl, e.ohonic,, religious,and envno"nehl thdt we have collectivel, .reatetl. It L at @ see*hen we look outside of au$elw. As hund" beings,uch of6 inlueacet this contat dnd plals a small mLei" crcating it, but *e do iot cohttoLir

lller tan8iblecontexhcanbeseenar expandingcirclesoi reach:

My body,mind,emotions,gendei p ei!rencesbelieG

Fanril), Comnrunity, Nahon

Social,lolltlcal, Economic,,\l{mL. Cullur.l.',HisL.ri.ri,ccogmph cnl,


I|soadb,.hl@ddq' E tu@dt.wL4j 3a,bek FN' bt 5!c72e6 drcbt br tudq cwuqi4nu


2lAll0lBtt{lI):BR0A0[RPER$ICTIVES lftY0LOBALll0vEl,ltl{Ts t|resanenmetherel|ei|sobrr1globaltrendsor.ontextsthareredpoweu|eFectsontho:ei l drermoditvthesebrordtrends

l. Sci€nce & Technology Forthe b$200yeare.scienceindte.hnologyhr\t b€en (hc drivc6 oaindusrialkati.n, codtibuting d;ectiy b eonofric Md socirl .hr.ges Much lii-"as*e knolv n - from lhe cutring cdgcte.hnologierwe use to improvep'oductivitl Incferseconvenienceand sNe nnre to pandLgms of thirrkLng (evdencebased, Lndu.tive or - $em lr.m its dv|

Ihere hrs been grerter rell$tion in $.ietJ (ri.lures and .ult!r,l norns thd govern bchaviourMuch oi this an be rributcdto sodnldrdpol,hal revolutonsthntsweptac,os q).renesin the Nakeot industmlistion rnd rfu t*o $rn lese chrngesinevnablv dulhnsethevnlu6oithepst aspeopkcontinue ro redehnerulesto hl .unent vFws of realiql n gener|lopdnnesk shiftingthewaywethink rbourfreedon,.hoiceour nords sta.dards,nd

Ilrere are dueestnndsot advelopment within gbbalnitionthit impactourpcrsonilinrmcdi c

!) Economic Globalisation: !(e live m a sorld ol lFrnieablebordeE erpindlngmarkebrnd Thn ha5greltlt imprcved e(,nomicintegration th0 luallrr ofand vmktv ln oo liv6 but at rhc sinrctimccre cda pLethor.ol issucs

b) Political Globaliration This is retlectedin individuslsand thetr so.rehesbecomirrgmorc powerTherc waryandquestiotungoa,uthontyand c ,ls. an in.feaseddesireaor moreeg3lLtarian s)cietiesrs seenin the ir.reasnrgpopularty of demo.Dti. sFcns ol governmenr$/e also stnqslero lind baLnncc bctsctnempo*iigthc wonhywhilecreatingchecksto nnkcsurcthevdo

c) Cultur.l Glob.lisation: Frcmthe yearsol in.rersingintegntion we are be.omingmofe fdnilidr with drosewhoseethnr and cultural backgrounds a.ediferentfrom!s Simult,neoNly we grapple {ith nesative aspccts ofhodogeneitr

fte medE hasa$umeda pbmment placein our dailyliveswhetherinformng,edLc ing or influencing, both old ind 6peciallt new medid hNe givenloice to consumcrand.hingedthe war Ne communrateIt hs also p.otoundLl aliectcdthe *at *€ L@k,r bi,nd mm6 (u ot realnvand adlqtisinS)andour undsstadding (vLa virtu.lit,v thcIntcrnet)

Llb{4|L,cyql|tqacynr\ FtbDc ERatuinfuk: Pdxtd|qryb,dlyid*4|kbn. ,turck jtlda bt {adafi; jth dikk' tt k.tt4t Ft.kt c.




pi)poseth!t,iespitethe pl.thoo oi co.te$sthatexist,onll ocialscrcntists andmo l phil.sopheis a lew meta.ontexts .d rnxs so.ialcuhuELand D.iJ dividcsN,linvstcor liom biologicddrn€sto ensurcoursurviHl,sucbrstheavoidanc.ofdang$Othc6arcdcrivedirmrnrnn e desire to potect

Thc'unseen aspectsofsuchqualit]esmakeslhenapper'intangiblc lndeeduch m.teonkxtstendtomanilen rcorepmdples!ndvaluesthattranscendthecultuEscountries,andtheethnrciries$€orLginate whichmotivateouf behaviouBnEeraluerallodriverhegruwth(,lfictangiblclspc.Goithcmodernworld



1il0RALR00TS t


t FAIRNESS/ RECIPROCITY Ire hdqias oJdnothetor yot6etJ k wans. Cariigfar eachath* and prctectikg peaple

LOYALTY/GROUP Peoplefd strebgth i" groups. Lolalt, to bibe,lizftil!, ndtiah.

Treatiag equdh equal!, i nJdi oE u equal 4. "

116 vrlue ftdrc$c the issueof alruisn !0hen, and t, r'hd e{ent, wouLdn bc oi uho$ impo.tln.etl, protectnthcr thanham dtherpeople? E$ayque5tions thatrclateto thr beliefusurLlltrckleGrue5olliirtrratnrent

ThBvalrcaddre$es theGsueoircountability ofaction When,andto whrt extent,should rew d be givenor censuEmetedout? E$av questrons thrt rcLrte r. thGbeliefusuaLll tacklc Bsues of.rimd ,nd puni5hment

11,6valueddrc$6 the Gsueof conmnnLtv building!(hen,andto whrt extentisil(ucial ior peopleto bandbgethe.?E$ry qucshons thatrchteto thisb.licfusuaLh ticklei$u6 of grcuPtormrnonsand uniry

Forennple observethe cssatquestion,

Forexanrple,takea lookat theessyquestion

ForcxMrplcconeder|heesr,vquestron How far ca" an iidiridual responsible for c hes htmaaitt? (2014 Q2)

h the elift ihatio k oJglabdl pove t a ftdl6tic aim?(2409,QI)

How inpatraht k it Jar people in ,au so.iett tD retdir a @"se af tratl ition? (2010, Q10)

be held dgdihsl

Asumrg thr $e dadcc talen is thar ir k impoiddt to clre lor othcF thc ceotd a.gufrenrru.voure$rvmryaddrc$dN vrlue

A$umirrgthat the st5n.eLakenis rhat ir k impoftnt to take fesponsibiLiq, fd o.ei actrons, the cental drgumentior )our e$ay mw addre$thisvaluclnthiswry:

Asunidg that ihe nan.e iakenis that it is inportadt to prese.vecultuDl hc.nagcthe centDlrrgumentfor you. e$a.vma.vddrc$

"The issue k nar sa h'ch tuhethel rhe elihii4tion oJ povertr is or is not reatistu. tfnot far stobat hutudt ihrerests, rheh dt le4st the theel noftl abligdtio, will have at see that the elihiharian oJpoverry i a tut-negotiable i$ne:

"Far the puppeteer, the e,te"l a"d scah oI the .Ie%st4tion he hdd etedked dnd devhed jatij^ a larger partian al the bude" oJ acco"ttdbiut! to beJdtt tpoh hin tha" lor the subar.likdtes he

"Yet,L ^ pre.isel! becdtseSihgdpote k d very touhg dtjot that we ned our traditians to *tablkh lol aarselvesa ukique idehtir, etei ds ee thrust ot4efu.s ihla the thrces of

: t : .;





8 ; i







2.IOIIDITION OF SURVIVAL 1. MONI, BETTER,DIFF!RENT lne desneto havemorc,bcttcrconditions Ln$ork playrcl*ionshipsandv irtion tonr the statusquo Motiv cd bydiscontentorteelirrgsofnot bonggood enorg\ Ltisaley dfiverolmateria]nfr

2.INEVITABILITY ThBis the belielth,twe arepowene$asindividulh ro chrnget|e $drusquo,because thepowqs thatbe wdl rlwavstlnp our e{orts,s whl bother?ThE conditionhastodo with.orerns wLthacrivfmand

3,POSITIONALITY Conpds ur b set riiud(,ns ,n tr{nx ol right o. wrongllnis.l6cs od n.! .\r..Lfn(.s ind Lcarning to us.Thismnybcundrr!!d rR !ht r' int.r .ultural rnd L.tergeneraloirl rndcAr:nd,n!




RESPECT/ AUTHORITY For Eadition dr.l legitindte 4{thorit, Nor .oercion but reveru@ u Inve for efleo4e nore hdtLr. 4d sdiof than on ,


value addrs the ise of upholding idealsre8aldle$of anycinmstmc$. when, and to what dt€nt, is it important to upkeep standdds that haveben put in phe a long

ftis valueaddresFsrhe isue ofsubs.viena to figues of pover l(hen, andlo what extent, is it imponant to submit and follos a hi8ler authority?E$ay quetions that Elate !o thG belief usuauy tackle the questionabilit/ or pdametos ofpolitical md cultuml.lout.

All say questionswill addrc$ thh hsue.Any opinjon h bornefon relativepespectjvs of standddsandideal! Theeforc onei rgmenr is esntialy a €soned di(Nion on why the idealsyou uphold arevald Keepin nind thoughthd t]reextent- how6r youm wilin8 to acpt and .onsider criticism on your standdds- is alsoimporbnr in mdeNtdding

Forexanple,notethe esy guestion How Jdr shoutd retision hfluma polhi.dl de.isioB? (2009, Q7) Thk questionconsides rcligion and politics ,nd ask whether one is, and should be subseFientto the othe. A$uming that the stancetrken is thlt excjve religioN sway over pol ics tends to lead to a narcw and un$ablest)le of decisDn'maling,tle centnl argumentfor you e$ry nay adde$ thisvah€ *

"... rclbio" and politi* arc ojlAn d eolatile nit, Sholld rcligio" be alloeed too nuch int rwttion i, politiul d..Bio6, it cdn pote,tialt had to d a.t6io" oJ othet rie'|s ^nd i, 4 wortt cate scetuio, Bult in a clash of Aeobsies that bri"gs about soci4l it t tab iIir!:

If we combine bothcontextand thisis metacontext, howtheywouldrelate:


Can you pick out how this value appliesto pa.ticuld e&y qu6tions?



is T €




How .d w constru€ tht3 di.g.d?

€. In pnctie, @ny humm actioro and motih. tioN m a subdenix of suryiv?l tactics and noBl principles,internaly motimtedontexts


5, SEPARATION 4. SCARCITY 'fte mentality that resourcBaE scarce,and hen e ne notion th3t {€ hav€ nothjng to do with one oie needsto ruh to snatchand hoard.Note tnd it is anotheihenc€w€ do not ta€ if we inlli.t violenceon . mentalassment, not n€cesdily a true reflectron otn€6,damagethearth, or dGcgdd the maryinalikd of nture (in other wods, the wond (tually hs an b<ause tney @ not p6rt of ud ftis nry be applied abundane of rcs!rcs). ftis may be applied to to concernsof envionmenral .onsmtion, rnidal environmentalsutainabiliq. abur, andtearnent oldisabledindividuals. conce.nsoiresourceN, ibreignaid,andprotecrionktecononic policies.

vdus thu ovedap Manyofthee conceptsand Eachoftneecontextsrtr{tsothercontext5 In tacklingGP qlestrons,consids how someof th* onditions and valu6 reali$icaryrened thewy you malc choicesin tou lile



rrtrlgridi,nnr(iibotrltrDgrLLcr mg'\ts$ rlb lrdhrLpyour{Jmpro\r \ru .sB{srs (,Gt qtronrn! In,r.rcn! tL[l Do.s,kade

techbolog alM)s

inptuve tre qanli1

rru '.r 's. !r.5..otr.fptr !) h.rp).u g.r.rrf(rr.

coNTlxT/ METACONTEXT keyquestion,ro trigeer thinking


h'.r? (2a06, Q3)



lo Iiql,lLqht.!olunon .1 rr.hnoLoqr& its 0 r l u . r . cL nt r e N o d dn N o , k l


h,rik i|,tne$ ol ho\v tcchnologL.aL &h$..mfnls pcrnrcitc ilmon aLLispectsol hunir nc rnd h.n.e \!e need t(r r*$ ns

L s 0n { , r i . r l } t r . r I ' Js . . n ( . r x l T.r m)log\ atr n{!srn k(hn..!\

I PersonalContâ&#x201A;Źxtand Goncri. Content


L(hnol( Nrdignx of tnn[ ng hr\c ch g.d rLrs(r\ N( ool nt drc [umai bod] r p$.hc lhnv bi,)ocrcrLrMpsv.lrolognrl pro(t$rs r,e \r!ll trnd?Ftood,md rhs hxs hdpdd irr,\ pcoplc giin s.lf-rwx,enes nflIovc lhcir ph\ecrLh.rLi]l lengthcrlhclr hl,\pir \Liac.uri@nrgn.a\ind thcuscoJ1!

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ll(r\ rstrrrlrlL.rlrui b.d\ n,


Fkn! his r( contrLbutd t, hpn^rnu( nr.itrll!:ri!{rurllY?

Eutn hrsxLs.L,trcnrhcbcL.ithrrrc.hi.Log\ a,Lr$ ovr,) p,obcn d .d !) in.rr.trrd d0pdrd.t on rubnrnn.nnid me(] l h i ! d s ( o n D ( t ! p c o plLi oc N t h c t t r r l \ y o r l r r n b ' e c drs. g l e c l orlh er , ^ v Dp h l r . r l $ r l r t r . t

Ih. s.esive .i t.chiology iko ( ft*\ r lor olfh)r.rL rsu.slLko.bcsr)'bccruie ol qrlcnh I lrin\lc5 TcchnoLogrd di.lotr\ i!, pn)Lnrt nr. dc\Lccs hrve rD 'd1pr.t ,)n l)c $udur0 Nd .orple\ bktrh.nn$v.1.ft brrD\ lhr n tr,n,rrli.cour pdir.rL I ru' l}hli(Mrrlou'.rnrict.ristics Jrr sttf 01 rFng obcsirl rat.s |()plc d v bc plr\nlrll\ l'trr, rlnd rlrr prdc.r$or but d. .ot rt (.ss.! l\ i nil,r r hol'lrc Lrclnc$


l!.hDol(ig! { 'crr,s $phq.itdd <urpnenL r h r tl l L L u t e s( o n n t r nc f t n r s I l r E h s L r q e l \ hLdLLcn rr.scd mt.s.l..ononr. glohLi:rlntrr IndunrDlisdtr whil, Largc r dcpcndson r.rhnon)gtrrlrcrhinnirion h$ Llird whote Drrrl ort .l p.ycrlv iiee hprn sourhKo'ai SDltitr!. d lkD! Konq r drc 195111990s1 b..r6. rl (r e(.fuN( .i({t! So rt ipperis r h i t . L r i l r to\l L l r l \ i m p ' o v c dI n r n n l o J r h r s f

f l ( r y r s t r i l l i ( L r i o o rl n r l i c s ,

|nt nrxldn t1hnol,,q1 r iGo Nrh (onr burlnq r, rln tm[dd,N n r{L hre 1,)li.. conrnuni.rtior N.\r nr.dr if.'e.tres lhr slecd rnd ors. bu do.r nfr mp'oy. rl,. qulitt .! h.n,. qril(\ or


xds n rlJ...nkr, lir. shol( r r n L L . sh . . t f i . d \ \ l r 1 1 . r : b . , $ . p I c n l r re (omprLrl h \,rl lr,{., h, . N.,1 h.i$ r.L1\1 fl,.tl n.,:i .,\ .,LJ .{nftD.s kr . r . r I r.r5.Jlrsr. nrrrhs,{,ni..r. d.\rL,lt ,! a\ nr ,.. .',


CONTEXT/ METACONTEXT keyquertioB to tiigg€r thinling


Moderntechnol(,gy h$ beenNtrumenratrn devcloping advanced economies,nd cnting thc flseor fetun ofthebouEeofhiddlechs

wlrl ire the..nscquences i(n50cLetFs I ['gci Hasitchirrgedthe!e $elook .{ Portrcs or rhecconomy?

But ,t has ,lrercd our physicatlandscape in.rcasedpollutio., deplctedres.urccsand rficctedgl.,b!l wentherqrlcs

The d\€nt ol biotechnologies.ha lcngesdge old values, erhlcsor priDdples on the sroctrt,v oi lL€ I}R in tufn conributesto insc.urLtt rnd uncertiini.whi.h addsto thc strcspsLhat frodernhteileadl brings

] {$'t,,gcogmp['ca] ijPe.tsoJdurenvlonnfnrf

Condniontfor Surivat

N$e medirtechnology u inpacringtlE wry we lookntpolitic5cspe.nllyir5dcnro.rau singcfle.r The rcierscd tensionrbcN€engovcrnmenB a.d then.itizenscomelhn c.nficrsberwecn pnvrc,vMd rcu.i+ d surreillan@ te.hnologl becomesmore sophisticatcd su.h tcnsons generulllincFde dreinse.untlolpeople,rnd qualnlof lilbiscompom6cd.

Technologv hakesrt asG. to iled peoples greed or hNing morc,hrvibgit betteiand havingit drderedT(hnol,'gr dos $ br flDb ng mNr p n d u . t i o ne h . h \ . i r 5 h el 5 ur rnatenrl$inh *ith coneaorionolarionandatcheip.rntes whrle this inpror€sluaLltyof livesld sonre ir i5 increr\ingdisonrentand iadednGstor mrny mo'e as the norcltt oi hrving ne$ prcductswQB oli lhe accuuulxri{,n ol soods is also.reJhng.nNdcd ldnd[llsthir fiensjtr

j\'kderntc.hnoloqvhis altdvrd us to .re tbr .trr pcoplein nxr spe.i6. d .n,tive wry' r trrnrw drc re.lnbl,gy (for thd ddcrtr) .ainnrun(rtionste.hnolo$ands. on. But rl ir ako insLufrent.lin oealingLrcapons of nra$ denruction, threatconnantl,v underpinsour mcre,sed5enseol une!5eand dGtrust rnlnte.o.tional rehrionships.

NlodefntechnoLo$ rlsdnDk.srtersierforusro seeoneanotherasseparrrc l\,lrnyrechnologi., b mmrrturilrion nakingposiblepcronaliscdhrndheldgadgets. \hpped up m our own vntualworld we pa) liltlc h@d t., o$er Our need5lbr Nitorc,v,n keviNrcdi.ntslbrehorional Nellrres ae notprcpenvn.tns r rcsulr

It n,stcEcer'tlingnup menrbershlps vtueJ.ixL nerLvorks Yetrrhes netimc ir icnates $osc uorblcto tapinrothcrechmli,gy Iheehpowemrenl ol rhcconsufrer hrppens$ r rcuk ot re.hnologir ButrhFhxsmrdertcarer lo challengc ruthorq respondut 6 modeh rechnologies alsoe..ouruge anonlnxty

h.3e c4ar: aff.d u s r.y, h9s-4r,Ftih cc Th{ r ltde doubrft* moddn E.hnoro$ rnpmves$r quJity ofriver in manydiferent conte*rs.But that it alwa}sdoessois nor tru.. |.4r ' " lq d! ,. be,ar wp 'ndflm.n" 1" Nnd !'J L$solk hrolo8ldrp b,n€ unNrlo emp,r.bon rtf.gratih d.on


: ( i l r q _ t h i sl,bl p e n ) u a n e e t nnrmtrdl d m ab(rrt pap€' e Npicr oi.e'bi'r b.w,otris rga nn the brtd op otirrge,; nancdvDifrn brces,i or Lro,td altt


BELIEFS &BEHAVIOUR PAPER INGENERAL lYhy GPmryhtbeoneofthe mostimportant subjects

that lou will erer take...

n a Roddwh$etheInternethas le\elled muchoftheplalnBfr€ld,andNherefacts usewecd gettlem from arech€ap b€ca .lmosteverymedE soure,oropinrcm cnd perspechesaIe Ine onryr{ay ro differentiateourselvesffom one another.The skill that d.ives the presentationof opinio! is *hat is enbodied in alnost all GPessals- an ? I I I

lf CPbe@nesabootnastednsirfomationand contentaccumulation, thenour efJortshavebeen diveltedfton thenasteryof algunenl.Whatwe of an seekto acmnplishis a strongpresentation opinionthrotrsha well-arsueddevelopmentof ideas.Tlere is no sbanein usinginfornation from popularculture,historytextbooksof oftrends,Seemilgly evenou. oM obsenation mundanedamples becomeremarkablewhen placed in perfect srnergy to lll$trate good arSnnents,to fnne a convincingpushtowards

wlat you needto believein js tle uniqueDssof your opinionandthevaluethat it hasto offerto readesbeuuseno on€tut yotrwouldknowho$ yor thin} and whatyou plan to convinceus ot You.youthneedndt wo.k agaist you:in fad, a well'arSuedexpresionofFur idealso. youthtul optimism might be exactiy what 's neededto r{in the approvalofyour reader-consider the po$ibility that whenyouMite, yourpe.spective couldshednew light on an issueand}elp your readersto seelhingsin a waytheybad never

To tul6l that polential and achiwe that drean of being a goodEiter, you needto be aware of howyour emotionsand relatedbeliefsaffect your overall performance.Are you assessing yourselfand your currentperforman.ein a way that is preventingyou fron makjng real progress?Could t}Ie resdts you perceive as 'poof be a consequence ofpoor beliefsmore than anlthinSelse?wlat we believecauses us to act in particular wayswhich reflect that

belief,oltinately generahngresultswhichmight reinforcethe beliefsthat welold ryen ifthey ae not hue,dd evenif theya.eto the d€t.inent of our poteDtialto do @l] hasseenmany while education'n SiDsapore jn theselast few changesand developments decades,the increasein tle variett of options avaitabteto olr young doesnot mal<eup fo. whatrenainslacling despitethe bestefforts on all ftonts. Many of our puths are unawa.e of the extentto which theyare handicappedby their pesotral belief systems.Connectingwith andundestandins how our thoushtprocesses theyimlact our choicescantakeus closerto

Feelinsstuck and lackint in conndenceca' be Theironyofit is that a! isolatirgexperieDce, with triting experiences ereryonewho struBgles lreciselythat.EvenexleriencedMiters can falter in the I'ght ofnegatile self-assessments.




bnich 6 ampli& a sGe of hopetessdesand i*ptitude. l{hen re oDtyfms onwhat{e think E aE doingMong or wlen wetell ouHlv€s that @ mrt< cannotpossiblybe Elued by dyone, .r €n find ooselB paralysedand uable to boYefoodrt in ey direction. Wtn a subjectlile Cene.alPaperin pafiicular a subjectmadehfanos !y the ob8enationof Dary 8e&Etioc of studentswho udemined tbeir om abilitieswth the pereption of bow nebulousthis subjectappealsto be - the mountain call€d doubt' can itrdeed appear iMoutable. AfteraI, if ev€.JtlinEundertle ss @nbe saidto berelMnt, theaihe lemins re of ontent wouldbenevd+ldins, Mrng ktew rhere to sta.t our leamingto tedn withl By.omparisoD,content-basedsubjectsapp€e to be morersardiDs be@Ee additional time and effort yield nore t.rgible lesult6that can

Thus while workins asainst such strong per@ptionsand aBieties that qist in othes around trs, it becom€sevennore mcial that re are awareof how the nanner in which we frameor vis eventso. situatiols - in this lrc, leaning a subj{t - has a tlemendousimpact on the out@ms tlat we de .bl€ to achier€. A positive predisposition will go a long way to h€lping us to act as we ned to in order to rDle ft.] improvenenb.Po6itiveihoughtsand feelitrgsalso sive us an enerry b@st and tum what was onceexhaustins a.d limiting into sonethingthat is excitins,emporerils dd sive us moti%tion to do norc. Thereare thEe corebeliefsthat affectthe way rlu understdd the isus in Gen*al Pape!.If youwantto seea realcldte iDsdts, do tly to identifythesed€bilitatingbeliebsothat youhay nake e effolt to achvelychdge them.





OUR].IEOAIIVEBEUEFS And how webehaveasa resultofthesebeliefs

o o



t Ihe opehing sratehe"t, \|htle ntvalid .qld be ituproeed b! i"dnatihg .o,1e that has gilen tke ta the inoeas,g pa@alliJeas we k"ow it.

EXAMITI lnstead oJspeedihsup the pace of liJe, weshoulrl besLo||insit dow.'(200s, Q9) As the sacier! becones hare fast-paced todarl aur hJestlles hNe aho beeainJlkhced in the sehsethat hosl oJus wdnt our thikgs ra be delivercd to us asJasr as pasibh Mth the adrert of he trte.ret d"d as te.h"atw advaies, our pace hassradualb beconelaster tot As d rcsuLL||e uaald defta the gaarlsand servicesta bepranpt: In the ervice industry beingsla|| is hot valuable ds ^ost oI the canonas Bed ta beihgf^t wauld be Lnhapn about the servicesptuvided. In the be sla|| as it heds dah4acta hg ikdBtry, prulucing gaadscould "ot in the societ!.' to cope eith the i,crcasiflg dendd dhd populatian u/hen a/e ,at prcducedJast etaugh,Jims could prcbabl! eari les uojts that nost jtds |/ouA not fld|t to, ln thk aspe.L ttere k no


' A chdhge ifl cn unstancehasben citeddt the.d^e ofthe thiedv in the pda al t4., bd the tibkJran the ca$e ta the efr.t ^ tuthet ||edk Ihe ftldriohshipbetveefltheadwht oJtheInEnet did ddhr.ehekt aJkchnalost, and the chdhsein ho* w erpres dena,tl lutth{ "eeds eldbatutiofl ta saukd hare conviaei"g 3 Thotghthestrdentdnenpredb build a cdseaad to eldbadteah lhe link bet||ek the arivabenent al tech"alag dhd thepace ol ttJe,ue"s repetitiw phldsi,g do6 flat help to mate the inpte$io" oJd" idea that k i" the cau$e .f bejks deeetaputran ah ifltralabrruation ihto d hare pt .ke.ha\sL' oJ

1 the prcvious twa stdtedekts attenPted ta crcatevape bt rqfereneing difere ihAastries while the obse\dtiats dtr tue, the l4ck aJprapet elabatutiofl and dewlopnentJail t. ndke insteadthef cone dctas ds beiflgruthd abflqt ee,eulisat to,s s Ihe phrdsiflg k ahbiguaus Listing efects in a$efth1 ihtlabt Ep6 aka has the efe.t al kaldting thertikal statehe,t tam sen.talappliLabilit!, thus lldt *auklfhd .rcdtiag the ihptesion that it k the hanukct!turkdunry





sOWTO RESOLVE THTS: LLJnnndgrvInadditionwecln]|i|rciP|estlratdleunivcisr|kwj||Piovidcus*thab$ rrdnind hunranLile d trsusucs SOLLJTION . chriiringt6cdj(inctionbetweencuscsrnd rhelinktotheeflectss.,sto drawourthctension thrr makesthis usuelvodhdn.using (icatlngdFtinctions . pMiesatlccted between bythcissuetoesrbli!h awidcrscopeolperpe.rives . Creatinglhkstdmetacontcxts



Ihe availabilit! anA ob useoJtectnalog to a.elerdte v6ioB ptuc66 has had a .tear inpa.t at our etpectdtionsdnd aw p*.eption oJa lek afspeedbeingdistin tlt dLtddvantogeo$,t Wile ai ephistiuted tools have dejhtelt beehkel to the dewlophent oJtunanar woufide, th. acceptan@oJwedi"$ 6 the hom in all ara - ntuuldctuing i,Jomatiot senice and eeen asi.uhure - h6 .tuted a genetationoJcansw.a eho ate rqhaps ts tobtu"t aI detdrs dnd a stawd pde ol .Ioias thiagt. 'Ihase o do n et thL aeedhr sp@ddte tiJett jad thetuelea ad theif aitdpries at &e loshg ed of "ot the heket and sa willr-nill, e.h secto/,ptodu@r dhd ubep/ae* rdnr to keep Juthet h4ttqihg the alread, Jdst pae oJIiJedt * lnow n.1. "p, Falhemore, the l"ternet, which has cohe to besB.h a vital plitJatu fol conmuniutio" to M"y hase,E"ded the rcdlh ofwork inta our hones anz!ettend.d ow *o.k hous tt a'omhadan the halfa waid dwar3 Fa.usedon entuti"g ow aoaabic autonon! and well-beinr, we haee@pted thae ,htfts B ne@sary aid are thu eillihg aeonplnzs h thefot8 tl@t keepspeeda prinarr l%tute oJnodem da, tjvi,st m& beinSr4i4 the denine"ts oJo8 canqt p@ oJlile rre statti"s ta ehqge i" societ!. Wese thae ii theJom oJnefi4l ot enotioaal btukdow8 anone kdieid@lt who are unable to cape with th. tttes whieh n i6epardble Jrod thisp@ af 6i.8"re; 6 w.A 4 in n.E phrsical sisns4 bre4Mo*n, svch as h the i"i%. oJentu and edia. dt6k aMgtt those||ho nve tu skh cor.litians.sAs nore and hore ofthote drcu"d us com to beajlictetl br s.h ailh.r4, aqt of concen Jor aw ow" oeeftU vell.bein& thore liri"g in prcgestue societir have cahe to appeiate ad eve" .rdre d nov* pace oJdoing things.t

t Cdae efect relatianship nade clear i" the

I kis elabarctio" ol the cauv d"d eled relatiahship eqahds ob the daims tuatle in the initiat stakneir tu reinJorcethe llehaidauppb Jorcesar wo*, ||hich resutt]h theJdstt pke ol lile and percepriokofthe needlor speetl. ' Estdblkhiflg d hae specijc Echnolagnal ftfetenceand how x inpa.ts thepace oJtiJe. 1Establkhihg a hera.antaat aspart oJthe ca|e lot wh1theJastpace oJtiJeq6t' 5 Clnditions a.isi"g that result i" a chahgeoJ t Establkhi"gdn abe drte tuetd.o"tdt u6efu suPParttngthe oPPashgeletu




o o tt


||"t.n-*trrJt|,e't|,J'Llenect|nc](nuLn(d ||d.dr...t".'-r,.d.mln\LfLnc|o!nU.h v ,- J. ' l" 'ad'P'Pd

lennlcturaLlrverydenandilgdolngbrdlysimP|ybcciu5.theyweFndtab|etonreetthedemmd5oitheqUe$ion,A|teIrahvc|y'shou t|rcstudcnrsm|qhri[eo1PLbfsquMepegsmtoroundho|e5byn, inlorm,tionwhLchrrertb.nonltknuousltconne.tedtothequestion rJ.ontar largeoutpouringsotftcnrnd

.1 ihPn{r.s xnd.onrxc iL hrnd

EX,{MPLE E anae the inptications al cloiLhglot th. hunan roce.eau, Q6) In the ./*nent nised bt the uiths al claning theft aft a lew negative inplications Fi6tl, ha,t ehbryas and eggs,iA bekille4 in the prcc* oJEsedr.h on cl.ning In thel4peutic claniag,sten celk are *Ed.t .Uran the essdfur it hasdividedJol s .lLrs. rh. e'" prces .16trcts the enbtlo, whkh rakes a varie, oJethic4l .o"enj In reprudrcti|e clonkg, ger.ti. hdterial fton the nuckus oJ4 dorol ddutt GIL wil be tlMtJcrcd to ar ess ||hose nucha dnd oigiiat geketi. tuteial hts been renoted. It this prcce$, the eg might be ddndged. Aho, a Ldryenunbt oJenbtlot nrght b. ddndsed beJor. a sucEssf'l retalt ts shaw".1Criti* aho ruised ehbryas as a lieing thin& hen.e, whUedoi"8 rcsedrch,nan, liws viU be lost i, the ptucs dhtl thk ix ettrcneL! hethkaL3 A clet e,amPle aJthh Muned in 2OO1whens.ientktsJton Adva,etl Cell T*h"olag! (ACT), dnno4\ced that the, haa a biote.hrologt canpary is Maschuett' ctonedthejBt hahaa enbtroslot thepurposeoJdde|tci"s thddPeutiL rcearch. ]toweve. the rcstltt wer. linibd i" sucAs did it qat .afrted ott, otiginall, with eight egs, ort oJ i.t three begandirtling Ard onl! ahe wat to divde i"to siz.elk beJolestoppi4g.Hu@, tte.loni,g pltu*s rdkt dM! the lie6 of'living thingsl'

:o_r, ) Thei,itidL stdteheht alreadr s that rather thak aa ztgthe"t, the paruEtuphk goiflg ta beJacusinga, des.ribitg thePraases aJ.lbhi"g , Theproeses havebeeapdinstakikgu de{ribed b, the stadeht,aPtt! detuo^ttuti"g the naant tu whnh i"Jarnation E"ds tb besPesedlorth whenthefoc6 has ben an the mehorisinsollacx. r

4 thk painc a note sptirt. origih aJpe\petite couLl havebeenusfuL Iot ueating dkriictio"s betweenditerefi tak6 o" rhe ksue.Asking Wha are rhoseflho are etpresins this .ohen? nLght EiSq thc ih.t skfl a! various pt'tiJc stuups,panhulab thae ehae ense and dejaitio" ol noratit, are baseda, Eligious beliefs. 1 rhe e,anpk itselJaho ttths into a ptatJorn Jot the qfloadibs aJ infoqatioh, d"d in the proc6t, the .latitt aJha|| rhis k .et !n,t t. thP




HO!( TO RESOLVETHIS: \hiLerLmanmg homgcnbeausiulpbcesbylvhichwccanattdnrmorFnnedanddiscemiigpdspectileofdeworlddoundus,nGequaltyirnpor a.lclopasetolsroondinsqucstionswhjchcanhelpEivcusatbotholdintoscnuinelyundersr{ndingvhaiwe;'d-Ihebeaur)ofsu.hquestionsfth;t't1ey.1n sobe dnplotedin fieb. nstomringrndpllnoingprocesstogridedurdcvelopmentofideas,sothatweachievebftdthanddcpu,(,ouwnuns. Jlrel,,ll{)wiog grounding quenions mat bcupful . . .

wh.t istheeventbiLuaLion in conflicr? \ftataredredifereotpc6p{tives? WhaLarethc consequen.esof L\esepcrepcctives?

SOI,UTION hnngdowntledebilcdinformrtion r lrvourofaclc er presenLaLnn pe6pe.tive5 oicontexrs, md rcsponseto theissre,rhand.


t Ihe ihitidl ttdtenent creat* a cle e"pectatio, oJ a tinerelated asestueht oJ the inpthatia's.


iqatiw inpli@tit6 ofcloninglor &e hunan @e are both shoftien and to"g-tiln i" iature.] B6ed M .uwt kro e.lgeofthe procesesoJ.loni"r) pn-nJ. prcpo@^fud it ha to condon. the.c.eptzbilit! oJeve"d,e Bafth i"t thi: area. ne! d/gw th4t the wate oJndbads, palticula ! enbryN whi., couA be .o6bueA s |eihg beingr X not jwtijcn bf dE potz"tial oJ ttch thtdies. Ihe ri*s aad tte lo$4, whethdJor theapeuttc or repndu.tue, dre ko hW cnd inmoAqab t t e succas thtt haw beet achie"edto date,t the iBtzne oJthe cbn tg oJthc jd ntun Mbryo in 2N1 bt scientisEfroh Adrec.n CeUTech"otoet@tt eight tin6 as Mt Lives6 wercsucAslal,.loned, a n"nb$vat too higt, e'paialrrlor thote 10peeieet epover ow llle and .lath to be&e prcvir@ oJGo.l a"rl Man: Futk*norc, shoatd ee @tu to a..ept the apen,litlte oJlivi"s b.iast at d Mttet oJ.ow"ot k ke tune of s.i.n ., it @t tle ne"dJor ttle dt tatgetr bep.rc.iwd 6 apesd.btalot pe$ondl bekejt sltould ctorkg ptu.eed to bme a vidble opti."t &eptlic' vhile tte 4lta.rten dtold srct a"d othet 5pmivepraedw4, thepofin their courtti* z"d, i"de.a, atuMl the wofi, sta"d dt titk oJbehg *plo,tedJor t t hoth* pdrt oJtheb bodi6 dt t will b..onecohhodinx in die.lals to come,s'Ite *tt thdrdrc dtuttt bei,g ih.umd in the r*arch pwss dre th6lilel, to MIat , /ddqingut nore t d, @eti. tp^i.s thdt pla@ a dallat vatw on the s,.ti, ofhunah IiJa6

) me dejniis ol orc pdspdtive ak.t its rcspanseta the situatian. Ihe reBohsgiven are a cohpte$io, .ftheJdck abo\t cloii,s, ala||ihslo/ 4locus an the negativeoBtcan* dnd .ahse4uehcaii a horc ' the e.anpte then be.afles a neans al i Bidtiflg this pelspectiveas we! as dn owortanitt ra distingrxh theptspttieeJw*e. ' A projecrian inb rhe futlle allowslor the linking ofrhe.u/eat negativeinpli.ations ihto d tem a"e whi.h cauld havenegdtivesacidl.osts. ' Oanng a disrinctioi betweeflrhe allaeat and thepoor servesta anplif! thepoteitidl negative anseque"res thdt co,u eheryeJron donihs &Ihe li,ki"g stat nent ties the inplkatia,s .J tciennfcd covd! to the netdcontat of hunan idehtu, ueatihgdepth in theN he"tofthe




f ':'"-

hen]odcrnid.lmtdDlgedoesi]ormethtc6ierl.rus]sthed rslegrLed to benrgrusruolhc' \ub md bclcl s Ll! nrlrnerD whrh j Ny0tlre|asubiccrJbo!twhowel'o,sha1$ea|e,shyschavebe. k,n ro.rentcab.ttcr$o,ld [trou'\elves



) Ihe pe(pective presentedh the oPe"ingstateneit dPPedrstn berather tinpLktit ih iLtoutlaak be.auseit inplies that polricdl debareor atLoppasng poltical eie||s arc .a,ldererl ta be hegdtireor .lestibilising

Oslite hedia t beingab^ed, Howldr k thk rue? Onlirc nedia can dko be abued whe" it is used to rtute ihstabiLi4 i" a country.l TheInte et ptuertes a platJom ht dneiag view and opiaio6. WhenpeapLeseethat there4re e"o"gh peoPlewith the sameopinionsahd ideas, tlle! wouldJeeLa sttuag urye ta gdther to both reinJarceaa.l populdte their eiews.zthe d6c ptiol of t,e 2408 Beiiing OLlhpis Torh ftla! was oeated and ihiti^t d bt libera, prctestus 6ing o"line Iotuns |(ith nore than 10 hiUloh hetitus ifl Chiha, the coitrol oJonLineditcBiar hds becone a nain coreh Jal the chihde duthotit!.3 The recent'funisia, 44d Egtpti^n revolutions and prbLic p/otetb w*e dko Juelled bl online nedit, ds it prcvided a .a"venie,t platJatu Jal the orydh^ation of sB.h hlge etehts.4mLs showska'anlikc d?dtah^ taded be., abLd du?to th?.on\eaim.e

. whih the daboratiok oJthe elert oJtheIktemel a"4 the resparsea! the nasd to it dtolan ercugh, ir doesflot ifltli.ate a cleait negtile situatkn as the ikitial statqett s.efts to thpl!. t The pai"t al thk etdnpk is iat ddeqMtel! Perepective mked is hat .kar

elabarated ad

e the lihk ta the

1 The tecohd etahple vens to cahe d bit closer ta being tcleu"t, but it still sih.e the does nat ptese"t d .ledru flegative slant bh the 6sue, particul|rq Eglptian proEstr \|eft hoh-violefi ahd their su.ces in ovetumilg th.n gowkhent was lauded as d ektar! Jor demonatt Th. tlk .h"cded"*s aJ bath e.anples hAhlqhx haw a ld.k ofglobal Perspective .ah tihit th. interpretatian aJ et


akd consequen.^

'lhe caKludias statehe"t is dsjahEd lr.tu the previoasstatemen^ Tre ta* ol d deper undastdhdins oJthe real Eisions ol the ksre nre n'ade clEatb the ftakw i" finh the .a"ctudik!! statenent i! d rondbnent af the ope"ingtturehe"t rathe. than d /elrtiak aJho|| the iaea hr< hPn develapedin the carrse oJtheparagraph

BRorcs PssEcrNs I n! tua rsG


XOW TO RESOLVETHIS: OrR \€y tharwe cm sian undeFtandingmorealout the wodd eud usis ro apptyuniveE€l.onrexh io altow 6 to realisewhy peopledd life m rhewaythatthey,r. Suchcontexrsinclude Lnderstandingfirt everyonehasa peGpectiveandbeliefgatem. . Beljefsarefundam€ntdto the waywe ee our wodd. Iley governwliole@mnunftiesandnatiom. . ln Gf, belcfs undedinemey of thearyument5md rcsons we genemte LndeEtandjngthateveryonein ti€ wond issbject to a contdt or a serotcncmsranG , In€seenviroment or seuinBsderermine,specit, or ddiry thememhg ofan *nt to the peren who con€s fom lnat backgbund. , Althoughtnerearehmy difieEnt envionnents that dnt Md whhh peopleee subjd to, what n confolting to lnow k that mostGPqusrions @ k*d on rhe contexrsol the modernsocietyed thu, a soundknowledgeof ik chan t€risticswill be elil in helpingus to gensate p€tspecriv4 whi.h ae true for most,if not all,peopleliving in the modsn world. Con eptssu.h asLaw RiShts,Responsibiliqed ChoiceaE alsouivesal . Ihe @nepts refled the belie&andvaluesysleB ofcommmities. , Wecanlorm a fraoework lor quBiions whiclrenablesu ro dealwfth suchtheneswhenwe €n@un. ,


who or whatdetermins lhe law?wh@ idrs de beinSchalenged? What are the chde rhat ae availableto thoF in rhis panicuta environmentor circuostance?Vnat arethe .onditions which governtheir choies? Wtar arerhe impact! on the.hoiG amilableto 6? Wh@ responsibilityjs beingquestion€d? Vlat 4 the implicabo.s on the right! of the otherpffties involwd?

'lndsstanding that . ,

Changeis the onlyororant in life. All GP questjonsdeal in one wal or anotherwith how pmde and dactions to wents change Ihe t6k ofansweringthe ffiys then becomesa matterof€valuatingther.hsges vanoB peEPecuves n }our arymeni

by prcsnring




Lhdqsrandingthat ther ft @mquencesto all our actioN sd beliefs. . IIt happensall the time in a1lde6 of life, rhoughin rhis dtjde re * pnlEly oncrned wirh mnagins ou beliefsabourGP ' ConseqrenG gire ussomethingto respondio, &d let usconsiderbringingaboutfurde..hsge and consequencd,a continualclcle chara.t€risticofthe world w liv€ in.



SOLUTION Ddivrgdccperntoll,!nLcrPr.txii(ofth.A\ddthroughDrorrnnc'sJlconlcxrs

ALIERNAIIVEPAIiAGRAPHT SLTGGESTED Gir.n the hdhrct in vhi.h PeoPleM llwide have tdken ta the 'se ol the lme et .for the e,pt*sion ol thet Pe$ardt opiniohs nod4'' iav roo,nnets ntght ptoi'? Lhq?ta b? a .adw Jo"an? " Io'a (hellt th' avaiLabt, aJi"toraann toq au *".^ .i.7.4 lid o"line denia hakt it difrcutt for gore hents hdt: nf th. world 'h and .Pihions thdt then .it@ns night be inJorhdtion rcg;kte the expiea to.Ln.ua4s thote &at n'eh MuR !h? k ( to d^elap d noe cqt.a,cve o".ta, Lheeo -nqcnts dd ier hotlu:apenndt hd.?d &A ad' appea o bP a vdtid .a,G h t4 th? liEht oJnohblP tatui at uot6^ ih EsP and fu\ad ?arlP' Ih^ wa' bathIo''h" pwrre iJ e'p'r'iue a d*n. Jo' a.aange t4 bdd'rhv iowaa d hore libdal interyretatia, aI th$e etetLs k thdt the! srdnd as probJ af haw tuthd tha, beins dbused, onLihehellia ptavidd d pLa{ard i' *hi.h indi'idudls and .onnunities hirht teek to edu'ate and thus enDower thensebes th d hare rei$ed undetstthding oJrishts d"l freidods.t t" such cncuhstdacesthe lnte et has aka becohe a Pla'e lor rcnhun L^ a rppd' ! aN n?ab$ th' aushp{iads okha rg" fal 'ge opauanand shahnlolr\'or: dnd Soakthat ther dLir' Ia' th?ir courtues: Wile thereir bo detryingthe onlinepresene oJgraupswhich ar sk*ed p*sPectir$ a"d Ioster night ptonuleate hatawniided uLde.tubsfto- ldPaabais anohssttho e to *i.,i" a'ui ,"' -in, t."t,". 'naMdual: dnd .aanuatrc\ ',pt ?d? ,o^.,o,uthedbks. b. hdd{oup " Irus at'hP,hanhgatuI.'natiah tn&a..' &e a " a.*;- ol,ide *4 ' oqntdD \aLuaaad trandd'A arelikett '4e to shiJt aeer time, rehIle ng what i poeive.l as M abae oJptiv tadar to be@, as an d$ertion a.frights t!floftov'

) lhe apenintlnak"xht htChlishtsthe tN"siar betweh tw retl dilJe.entinterestgauPs ) The .hange i,trodu.ed b, o"li"e nedia dhd the goeernnerts resPan!. to this chdnge atc

' Ihe enhple ilLustrutes the,desnable whi.hgawr,mektsse.kta avaid conseqrchces I Tte dke ative LnElPetation of the ednPle .l rights ahd etpldiks the uhietsal a"epk

: Bt distinCuishingthePetpective oJconnunities aad how ther bekeit, it brtlds oh the slant aJthe pasitie pasibilities la. ndh! despit the aPpdrcnt .li Mdv ai tdxeJoI goren n e ts/t heattu kat ive " dreCivena nentofl "E tfuhesaid etcePtiohs beuue thenJuI .tdusio" eo"ld be too dpPdrent' Br hentia"ikg thed, thet dka becaned usJut co,tast ta highlight the etEtt oJthepasittue

' Br addresiq the inPact af oklire hedLa or chai.ednd drtokamr, it crcatet the Pldthth Jor d nh anticiPdtes4 shift h valrd that prajttia\ hullilies the cldin coktaited h the esar qae$ton

[ONCLU$ON calLrtcr-r thuShr prc6s6' lrlou vhcn\ourDdiekIrd.nnnLofspui)ouLninxrorInctr,r 'cdn t!'selrrolaGIstcPba.kudr. do not D*e rnons oryou )ou hippt thcscr.e cLeirlsns that *,ib;d $Nms $! $cLt.rn.rrhntrhc,csurts n"l ,l,"i i.!"i"i,r,", .rd \rLth ii ir mern5,eplacins rsd elen fo, tu rble to ",,r* rhrr n'urt,o, aj ih. ;" r c L,-ti,rs ,r," )ou ,i,. i ." ,,,.i,i* ,r. ", ".i, lt s aboui o. ho$ )tu rd tlrinLi.grboutGll benR ro nNembcrrlut it i5 morethaniustmcm'rsLng'onieni vhei yor nen LPtlcct 'rcu*i"spntto*rn.ltrcn,l.,,lfunrnbehrvrou'rMdrventsltsinol$outthchum$nce01\vhLchloutoo*dnacl'veMdcvtrvnrc n,en,b- llll


L D!*[LAt



Its loveatfirct write,How to approachnew questionswith sensitivityand,finesse,

ememberthat very filst time you felt attact€d to someone? With excitem€Dt oursins tlrcWh yollr veiN you Ece i! rou njld what to say,how to act, md what to think. I nean mbody walts to sound shrpid iu frotrt of someonethey fancy ot woNe, comeacrosEasiDssitive o! dass. I halr coEeto appreciatethe tim€ dd enels/ thatp€oplespendi! @u.tiry dd ro@cins the oppositesexfo! thd is indeedmdtery ir how the nost skiDedof peopleapproacdstiaDEels, perhapsnot evenfor romance,butjust to makefrierrls. The amouDtof skill neded to imediately bringtmt, rel€m@ Dd be@ing to that tust encount€!is commendablejdd lerhaps smethinS that all miters of €sats coDldleah a thins or two non.

r{5 with p@ple,the grelte! ou uderst@dins of wlat we e dealinswith uhen re approach a question, the Dore accurate and apt ou! respons€wil be. Oft of the most importdr thingsir und€rstddirs e$ay approache6 is to fiBt uderstand the nDdrDentals ofhow d aigument is consbucted,rherei! dMlopilg the meansby which an apprcpdate response is craft€d.The aim ofthis.nicle is to therefore she with you the tundanentals6 we br@k doM @d er?lore the @ntnl coreof the mGt co]mon aryum4ts that aplEd in ou GPpa!e!, Th6e @ by no m€s rheonly nems by which an aiguent can be approachedfor we are ind€edcreatir€bebss that haw availahlero us

a whoteraDgeoft@ls, But theyaE non€thel6s suggestedapproachesthat our studerts haw founde6y to @rk with. For this alticle, I have selected a lante of questioDsyou will plobably encourter. For eachof th€sequestionsI will pNide a sholt explanatioDofwhat is cv€cted tuomrou for ibe questioDed tho a denoNtlanon of wlat a losiue paragaph midt look like. tf,aming theseapp.oachewel { coDtlitute greatlyto you abniryto apprcachqu6tion analysiswith



2CHAI'IOES INIHE IIIIIIAL POLARIIY e}tnd lhe basicpol.iry GP quBtionscanilso oftenappearin another more sophndcatedform, althouShI must emph$ip that thn does not n*serilv nakc thr nore di6cult. ln ouestionfomation we m often is€tt wor& into ! 3taten€nt to b€tt€r denne the peridete$ of our question ud intrcduce other fl@tl o{quqtioning th.t w. de intereEt€d in ftis kind of qudrioning drdwsup a narcwer perineter

very argunent needsto beginwith a basicpolaity of at leasttwo sides h the casebelow the quetion would invite two simple responrs, one tltt agreesin tne inportance of history and one that drsagrees with rhe impodanceThGwouldFen obvioB and perhrpseventutile to nention but thn undostrnding ofestablishingthe ight pohiry is pqhapsthe most ovedookd skiu amongsiudentsjn questionan|lyrir and unfortunat€lyif Sott€n Lvronsc6nbel serious mistle\ /

N r ,--,*^,

*Wy+. )tnqapore toct.tli

rhanD" bn poLnry:wheFrhebr c @ r,ry,llos r rryrheb'6aii;;G;;l GsDonr. &B}..nd ofouenion denan(L to,rnoE 'Deci6l on"

.r hi'toa i" ,hapi"8th. tutureaf

Considertle qu$tion below In thir case,the wolds 'alvaF', more than and 'n€r€' wereinseriedto morenarrcwlydefrn€the p€rimdq ofthe dirssion.

The probl€n com4 when stu.lents simply.ssue th.t.[ questione @ respond€d to vi. : for or .g.inst approrch, Justarguingor believingthat thh is the only polaritya$e$ed is falhcious.In thn ce, I havechwn one tnrt rcui'e( 'he eldenr lo dque the In@une ofhbro4 no. whqherhF o v ! eo@or Dadrn.trd csenr r \Pnseorhbionserc rorFa ea pern.i'oL<ere( rt ;nfiI6;podrnr andshoutdnot beoved;oked.Arsuins th.tjg4edilg-isi.d i- nor'he rre a dreuinklha n i. unrnDorr"nr. Polrru".trn In rhn vqn prFnd ro--{rnins toi .h€ 'inDoiience . tafemce' or q hpl\4 ' he {ub,e. r, h, is t$€ntlat, whicharcall difierentquestioN.

Ifthis que5tionweE to besked asa bsic polaritythen it wouldsimplyread A picturc it pow{tl.

Instmd3pe nelem wer€inFrted foryou thatwouldnowreplacetheinitialpolarity A response1othis questionwould now not be concernedsiih whethera picturc is powerfuli but now given tlat a pictur€ is indeedpowerful (the ssunption), vhether it n moreDowertulthan insisnificant@rds. all the ti,' E

Oncethis is cleaait n inportant to then evaloatewhich peGpectiveis likely io be exercGeis not sonu.h to askthat studentseventuallyetde on aquing t\e geneal pd.eption of people for indeedthey haveeveryright to disasEewith the Eensal fntiment Bur moE often the not, studentsappi@.h a questionsimply with evaluationsbsed on thet own *pdience, and wriie responses $at do not showanyrnsitivity to the ntionale, sentimentor Factice of thewondatlargeThisGconsideredmyopicmdd@snotinspnecon6den ein

This is why we havealMys enphAned rhat L\e unddstandingand ewn mastery of cont€xt are so vital for rc.unte evrluation oi pdagmphswhich the therein contribute to lorming a matue and sound lhesisor stand.Context is rcquired to evalule, b{ause wilholt beingableto dae the subjectmatter in a relelant

,o,,{rL,ne-er'rud,on wlr!,s4";" *" i","..,.";i,i;;;J;il:::il:

rtrp- rhe srldmLi urdfl{Mdn8 or ) b.tu, hpi ernur.roned SRdDERPrRsEcrB



Do ,oa dgfte?'


ADktureBalwabnore Dowietulthan nae wtd'


To .hft a Fsponse!o this qresiion,we wooldneedto note that we now havethre specificEquiremenk to addre$ we would needto 66t arguetha! Mrds are not insignificant,rhen weighthe power behveenpicnms md wordsorer a significant partofou bodypabgraphs,andfnally suggest wh€therwhatwe.rgue is,lwaysthe case.ftis my sund.omplic.ted to somebut I haveaoundtnrt ome studenhlove the provisionofapparentsructure $at theseq'pesofquestionsoller asir is alnott a guideinstru.ting lhe nowandpurposeofthe e$ay. Indeed,unlike b6ic polariti6, qu€stionsthat de6netne psmdss for B, and stipulatea structurethat cm b€followedin ach pdagEph m a boon lor students that strugglein filljng tn€ir prragraphswith sonethjng signjfi.rnt to qr !(/e will

-r. " ir:rrgfdh. ;ir,i*.",,"g.,,i,"..", "s -ir.,,,,c.,,,,"i,

,. \); denonnruLe rhk e,pti(id\ in rher.[owh8 tetrquesro; *ler e * ."1 eip]o,e";t rhe ortrercnr tlpesorqu6rionpenmere6 "e $4 youwr enounFr



4RIALLY/ACIUALLY hisisanrgumentblsedon r p€rceiveddoubt.Youarerequired roerther sll.y the doubt by&guingthrLthe per.eptiona not reflectiveoI ealit), or lrguethatihepe@pftr k indeedealitt In LhiscasethereGa doubtth lan8uage kpowe ul rndcxnnorbrinsrnvrealLhxngeasopposedtothcuF offorceINiLlcxplainthcdoubtthpcoplchalc$out thc powo or wo,ds andthen sueth thisdoubtisunlbunded. 'me pen is nidti thaa the stuad: Cdn w ttet ldhgudge realLybesopoNerful?

Disclss the view that too nuch Jaith k placed h stdtish.s. llt k often said that too nuch fdith k tlaced i" statittics becaate it linits \w lrudon ot .hone br dnt;tins th; no! &tiotut d{i;;;ine Mde, sinpq becaue statktics seehi"glt thaw us the nost obtectiveansNe^. We dre alwals in d titaatlon wherewe needta iu.lge or ases peopleand eveiE, a"d the nare con rete obiective w have the better ||e . d" eedlMte. "unbers It wauld seen obviousthat tl iro"cldtl sta sticseere presentedto Bs,then we vaka uhdoubtedt\i|\ on then to nak .ouadaad ob\ tout, hol p:]ya tui. '. not ea'reb n"e !npl! baaue cwt iaustL \ d'? ap?4ro in!6d4d@n *at&i6 na! shawusJa.ts tnd trends,btt how we i"tetpret thesellsuresin relati.n to a conktt and how ||e pretlicrJutwe t/ends are ektuelt s|bjective. Puhaps oie inportoit use oJedristics ik otr .!diL," nakiag is how cutttrut identit, tuck, eve" d*tifl! drcJdctatedia dt tundodJacets aJha|| we .ane to .on.tBion, dnd decisiokt. ke vq! Jact that the Dow Jonesor Hdhs Seagiadses seenlriad diterent decnions hade eteryzld, despitedecision naker havins acres to the sane stdtktics, shawsthdt ee ate fdr roh beins too rcliMt on statlstics,dnd d/e cetainL! stil capableoJnaking ikdepede"t decisians,whedtersupported b, statistics or "at.

me powd af wonls k afen uh.lercstinated as the, can be viewedas neftq .heap talk Jroft d we -iaied speechar it.lulgent rahblihgs ftuh the nin.t af an dnsstj ed duthar cendint!, the n iohs af Mread book 4rd oeeiooked speechesift the wo .l seee ro .llu.Ie to thel4ct thdt the nunbq oJ tuo/ds e'chdnged through the centaies sidplr da not r4lect tl'e anou,t oI acrual work we have done. Instetd we na, believe that the actioks a.f nilildry gereftls d"d dctilisk hare brc\ght nore dfrMativ. dctioa thar the nanifestos that then pasia, n baed on. This would be a srcve nktakeJal wards have the unique abilit! to articulak the notioial erergies that bail inside usand na"ifest the entinents that inspire us ta act. Ihe \|ods ofMei" Kanpl the r,tota Prctocol, the Conhwkt Maaafestaanrl the Decldrdrioh oJtndepddence ate a eranptes oJ\|o ts that haee i,spired powerfut a"d de.kiee d.tioi; the .ohnor thrcad bei"g beliefah.I.ohnjtheat to the tuolds

5JUSI/]{ERELY/SltilPLY 6IiIORE IHA1'|/BETIER THAl'l/IilAIN hisis anargum.nt of signilioncc In thesequeshontypestil" fttene. t will suggst th the subject matt€r is iNigninc.nt lnd h.s no r€61vrlue b€yond what is assum€d.Youap rcquiredb €ither agr€€ witl the (1.'m or reture ii bv showinc how thr valur .rt.n--s inlo !€r{.r . r q r r ' P L . . r 1 r oPr e o p F4 " P n ' " p ' P _ . u merelyao!.<umulation otwcalthbut it r actudlyakorcllective of r suc .6s otsatisrying.n inportantnred. ,



c anathr \,{-^ naw

B tu.t


ta.Dfl\onallaed Ho||

n \ r o r n . , ' . ! , r " ' q ' . d h @ m p a r er h es n e n l u b j e c rm a n € r ' n € r ( h p a r a s ' a pThh r ' o n . ' r n u m D r r o n t sl . b l " . r r r . e v o . r . , t r \ . , ,p . , , o n l c h l r r l b . r D o - . , F, p p , o . , n 5",no"tr'po"r, r;., ,. o ,o,r oir,,pl, sorld bpJ comparisonlollosed by a re'. o l u l i o nr o l h r l e n s i o nl r r l \ " " I r g J - ' r r l ' . n " n F n , , i n s pEsentdonotoutweigh although thelo.gtermpobleo5asamcansorrcstunon. T I I I r

'Hasttnp naio' :Dattiae pwntt .patc. nor? Drcbl?$ than be4q16uoltauagte.:

Couktries wdhr b hosi d hdi.t sparli"g erenth/ the appoxunitt oJincreased reeenuerhtuagh toarisn. 'roatish bri"Ct tu ft@rse thrctgh the sah oJeveit Esenrally,we ludgelntrepreneuAmostha$hlr to bc greedtwhentheystlt mrkng r greatdealof monetTlis nehs arcmourmist cnbclicith monelitscll tkkel., herchd".lise dad boo't' the sak' oI local industries be.aue oJ the tr a.oiruptingrnd taintingtorccandrighteousnesc,nnorbe foundhind in h.nd sudden iiJla' of tourkts. But nore iftportdnd!, the ftdiot spa ing e'ett lvirhdchesvh.n wc wltnes erxrepr eneM mikingmilliod!lor themselves rt is brihgs d hrye boostt. the co@t/t" p4l4 increasirg theglobaLrecognitionaf und$t mdablydidicult to lookbelond thll Iodeed we saythat nronet is the mot the coait/t litqalb ov*nighL yet, the Kononh gaiis al thk increayd prorile na, not alwls be guaranteed. The hede, ihrestnert into infrdsttacturaL ofrllevil bulitisturno.eaccuratetos.yth whilemoneyandpoNertuaycrcatc moreremptrtionlor cntrcprcneuB to be.omegreedyrnd .oftlpt money d ,levelopnent, hd*etihg, ihterhdtiohal nedia cotqage dr.l logisticscan cone pdrer shduldnot be takcn6cvidenceoigreedin thenselves Ratheirhc riches at a h"se rost to cot"tties and, iJ hdh4sed b4db, sinplt 6nnot be ofset br bI an.ntrePtoeurcould rcfy wellbea nedsureof howsuccc$lLrllr he the p-ceiee.I ikfut oJfteek4e. TheLot Angelesand Athent OLJmpicGahes 8enerated h$supplkdg@ds.ndsrvrce thdtaredemanded byabcieq,willin8ropa),lbrrt tuerenotoriauslot the ihne"se bilh thdt wete chdlked up, with innediate e'ert reldted sale' nediocre at b6L and ||ith lons Erh econoftn be"efts Rrvcnucis sinrplya nreNureol howgrc{r the need5Nqc .nd how well t|t entre preneurmetthoseneeds EillGatermadehnbillionsnotbeeushew$gi&drbut aowherc it sight. Countries shauld car{tn, ca"sitfu the sryposed dn\re oJ hasti"g theseeventsJor their shart terh benfts nat fl.t autweighthe loig becausebillionsofpe.plervefepreparcdtopryhLmlbrthelevelof.onvchicnceand eliicienclhk conputersftwire broughtto theirli!es.nretucLrliaLGates wcnton ro uF hiswmlrh to run rhewoddsh€dst rnd fro( powertulchafitabk iound,tion shouldlirnherslen.ecriticswho thinkhennrercLr grcedy.


C0NCLUSI0N: CH00SIN0 IHE RIGHT 0UESII0N F0R Y0URSELF \ l p u / / l $ n \ h \ + ' d L d s ,u i',, 1 (n ri r)\ ub!.r r \ r , 1, l r , r r d m s u p , r . u t . nt r , ( , , r . . u L r r \\ J r u ' L!r " r\f. . u, , n Jd . n

SelectingrCjl que$ionthatlou cin casiL,v d.Ldrc$hrs les to do srth tho sbre.t n e' rnd nnrchmoretodo$' pcxil,vol llr Dfesetrred !r tbu Th.rc is no guarirrtccthit contco h tr n \r,rL'\ posslblrdc\!1,,plhc (.,rcct FrEnl ,:Ln L toyotrsiLLnc.e$rrl,vconrccouplcd lor pritrorLarn)pLcs11rnlthLngthc c.n wth a nrJLghtldwrdquestionNor uthere {rnc{|x*urt lpur my$lJrln.uqhin (on a thc clitr.. in thcir nnnds,oris agu nntccthrt unfinriliir.ontcntbeNtu SuLLc5\ (cnrhs nril,rcd orc g,1irv ud k{,lrcd iiko$ dcrincdb qurlit.vand volume.l rll\ cou.hedn strrghtloNqrdrnd rmfc irr m lic\r ol lhc NrrLdto bc hr m.r. c.ntcnr Not accu[q rnd tdre 01 rgument lhewrongr$trnrptions thrt al qucstLUns i .rcnirg Md .ngagDg.But hr\ing $id r-LirDonrStLdcnts .hrn otrr pIrgr+hs rc the samernd oilt dlt.rlit rlrl ir.$.i.. GP s n s[ ]lsdrLvlnprpdl o l . o i t d n r hr k i i g r h n rt h q r e d o i i g w e l l ncd by conrentlhrt is lir tho trth. lhcrr s n. rvlltbu!irlolved\trd tl\eknie \!N{ n irt h lrNe not eNn bcgunto 6 sc lrnvcs(n rht tlN $, snstds nr s\ rbn)lurchtu gurrrntccthit rhrtoo ir s id,a$ tr0 po$,bl .ompL.xqucstionthe.v questLons. hinrrd hi\c tr |Jgc npiil ,n stM.ntsirv.sttLiNir nrgrog\r ll ictrlnl) havrchos.r r\nd idhl lirr evensone$hr h.rvcbtei LNghltlF 'i!|r r[ ]l\ tlrc sc.u rit,v i .onht ctrnb nd thcn Jronrulig Choosing thr pcrl.:.llucn.n lo rouEell trs Eul nud.fls do ai rr)\$ fiD ir \rth i l r n t \ v J )Iln l r \ v . 6 l . i $ s c e n r i o I h n v e uvoL\rsbotr th! oNd.ratror ot skiLls srtnc$cdstudcD6alre.drhrentr Drntrtes well.s conteDt, rh. ,ri, rhq 5tudr1,' ixd,rnDil (Dtox andrt r th. nra(.rv oi both drn0n srbir.ts undcrstnndabl) into th. prp.r nlising that thel ire not ol rhemthrt wrll onsur thc bcstgr.dcsin n.Doris. whrt tho\ b.lNr is n!..s$ tu .rsrding thc qulnnnrblr go xleld wirh lM,{ li crlh ,luAltrn lL hc\\ rhcdlJceL tl\d ElBusts rdy\vrr LdIving rlmrthcir m o , . \ c ( u ' . o p , 1 p a 1 { n nt h ( c { ) n s n r ulcnl \illNlrup l{r nol ddrc$ingthc d6lub nglorlthc[,n( conrcs$h.oI rcr ..nnnrt t{)rcsp.rdingk) r qu.slur basod , rlrr .oiLenrrhcl kno\! Nd thcn lJro !.rd k) trphi', o, slr'e rhrt.rnieor,r\ il

T I | rI



th[ prpor6 r to$ on kio\Lledge Md tut n r g u r . i r \ h r r s t r d c n llsd l L i sd r es e r y .lruLLl contcntcrn rert scllblDd thetu lnrf .oDsdcrD!Lhr rh,rnrNl!!cchosen nn thil thr\ ik not prrprur to



ThebesL20 mihute invesltuentin your lile.

neofthe eravst nistak€s]ou canmakeis ro aslumethat coDreDt, laDglagedd moE @ntot arewhatwil helpimproveyou. B.ade. wlile contentud goodlarpate tu hel! augmentperforndce, argllmdtation shlls is theparanout doiDgwellfor pald r. Afte. all, whatthe !a!er testsis you mdteiy ofargmen anon shlls, not the nemolisatioDof @ntetrt.Fortunateb,argmertation sbls cd le lemt Dd appliedquite quicHy oncetbe ratjoDatebehind each skil is erdained.




Io that end, Estructuring your appDr.h to brainstormingand planning your dsavsb vitd at this point of the yea. tt is imperativethat we drive a! an undeF nmdingof thn to ahEre a w€ll.srructured andconvincing ftguhenrwirhinttre nmd that t kingthe time to stluctureandgument allowsyou to: . onstruct animpactfulinhoductionprhgnph srl(tie {'!e$tu bodt pdngtuph!roprcpelyd"velop)ourJBLn !rr holdlhp ' orrluqonro lhp argrr"n dleid/ tr r n. .o rou, aF $, rrew rh






'tklni{i.4.} p1A"","" B^orNsroR'1rNG &Essay

Keeping the braiNtormin8 proce$ to a simple set oflrocedures elsures that renemlering shai to do renains clear eren unde. stre$fuI qami.ation coDditio$. Thesestepsenaue s to fods on ihe issk at hand ed, when practised enou8h, it $ill ,lso hdp our bidds to daelop tle dtht ides prcnptly.

POLARITY Thepolx'itIte.n deterdineithdsp,.eof argunrenlatron

$EPOI{E lesr \vodsm \vhatcanbe€ edinordertocrcatethcscopeiortheaqunent.


CONSTANT/S 'Il6e a$umPhons thatncedto be of thequenionh creating re term5that.hangelhe me5tung addresed n theproce$olthed8umcnt using ?VC ro .nalyse th€ qu€*ion can help $ to d€t€rmin€ how straightfo.w{rd or .omplq d argum€nt ne€ds to be in ordc to m€et tn. requirem€nts of the qu€stion,



leseaiell|sicPo[rnyquestions dnrethenroststni8htfo.ward

in the!ryuhent.rn complcxity rcquired Thcscarcmorecompls\Ilredegreeol bedetemnned b\ t$o rhiocs

in theldl.ring question: Forexample, Are dreans ihparta"t? bt thedaidvd.iable i/porr",t InuquestLon ,4reisthc poLarig, accomplnied imporl,ntof thercIorc rcquircs thc candidrtct,esiblkh *hethcrdieamsare of not,andth6 canbedoncby r srmighdoNard is$dent of the funcrions

I) THE TYPE OF CONSTANT6) PRESENTIN THE QUESTION. Constdts like stiu or'ey€r'suggenana$umpnon$out thevalueol tlesrb dctmrttero\€rhe,thus Lndidingtlutastmrghtforwddcompdr sonrro$ .onrerlrsouldsrdi.e

pdrgnph structures for the.ontentcouldbeeLther To ths end,thepossible perspectiYepa.agraph3


Cak the nedia everb? .elied upon ta E the t.uth? QAB, Qe) -F ----v,MArN) r

whrchestablnh inrportance Cd, s the polariry \hr.h tr. i..omp:nicd bv the v.ri.ble, ,e the qucsttun th needrld be answered /eliel qo, helpsk, deternnne or thc qluc thd needst, be spe.npd bv thc cnd ol thc argument

c o€

or efrph$isea singleperspecnr€ with xv. difierentcontext/ex,mples

reliabil Be rcliedupons t vtrt.ble be.rusethcrearedillercnLdcgr@sol it,vthatrcpo$,noi$enedi| whoscrcllabilit,v\vill.onk'bltc to theoredl plnbrLitv ol lhemedd Media rnd Euth a^ri,^bl€s lhe lormcr brcl|s do\vnthe vanous fte htter 6ks youto typ6,lirnctions or dlltcrcntpndu.c.sol tlrenredLa it considef whst trrth uand\qhodctcrmLncs Theconrtant in thr cascis dvef \LhLch crtrtcsthe rsumprionihli the nedincouldnotbc rcli.dupodrotellthetruthin thepast$idclrcn the .unentvalue*hichistobeddrrm,nedinthe.ou'seoltheesry


I N! AftI$4


II) THENUMBER OF CONSTANTS PRESENTINTHE QUESTION. Constantslike but,, if,, and'wh€n indicatethe pEsen.eofelPticit Nunphonsor conditions thatneedrobeddrpsed ^r posibleta pakct thp.nulodhpnt nh?4nanv rcLnnes hqinc 'nie6trg anaurtr oJe"eryl to progl*s? @07, Q10) For this question,Iou mu$ addre$ whether countfier actuily requre Increasng.nrounB ol energ),fo. rheii gmwdr or wh€therthissraremenrisa hlsehoodor anexaRsentioo

constants su.h s nrher thd', 'more rhan, ,b€d., and bnly, andtu Ii,.th indicatethata clariryaboutrhedegreeis requred in oder b do wel tor thequestionandcanthercforebenore ch.ttengtngundertine Lunffarns

(--- ----r

\ro whatakd Pa rheEw pape, ahd hasazi4p\that!o" Ead a?drwth tuhata tnviat,rath?ttran wha!i: Mpa, tant?t2OOd et2) Forthe $ove question,youhaveto a$e$ to whatdesi€erhetormsofhedia ' , e n 'o r " d , n r e q r e { o n c p d r s . , h r ,d, ,t , -j s ; ; ; ; ; t ; r @

T h pn o r e . o l r M t . p F + r ' r n er o ' " d s u m p t i o n sr e p dr i b . . d o r r r d .nd lliu5themorecompler rhe.rSument 6 requrcdto be Usuilli questionswth a$unprions requirerwo part par|Brapnsructurcs:

ln the 66t pan ofthe paragmph, we needto deal wrth theasumptionandihe conditions which led to the existene of|he a$unprion. h the s.ond part of the paragraph,we need to addres the changein conditionsor ontexB which atled the pohity vltue of the subjed

Questions which Equire rhe noie specin. deterninahonof dec@ demandeven moe complex arguhent strucruEs ro ensure thot och pragnph eas rhe purposeof dri6,ing our Posron on the degree




poinclbransel ; 6ely everdonebyre.alling whatwehalemcmo'i*d onm8upwrthIntepsting question k vltlltor en$rngthatoufar8umcnt will ormnredLatelyknow txplonngthescopcofthe withinthequeltion.Ket to thiss theunder' bringourrhepoLentidl lordisussondrats containcd pespechve throughr v etl.f..nterts6cili stindingofhowContcxtcrcrlerContdnt Creanng tatesou crentionand derelopmcnt ot cxtendeda€! menrs that run cohesivelythroushour whole e thc llrus,brarslormingrlsoinvolvesrnerplorationoipo$ibleconter|sandwhrchoneswouldcE prsntingothcrwileseen efcctivc.r8umcnt. HavinSa fiameworlthnwilhelpwth organisin8nnd fglv mndomanddsJointed thoughts.


TheEre r.dhberoltookbl whi.hwemayexplore thescopcofthequestiod:

T00t 0ilt. PRtstl


01 your pcr !R[SM isa tool.onrmonlytaught in mostrhools Stu.ioringaframework Theoaresomebrondcontcxts thit |oucan hdvein mindldr adrustLng que$ionngusngthistri8gertoolcanbcvc.yueiul aorexpanding thds.opeol spe.tivesI]Ee arep.rtrcularlrusclulif sat withintn are,ol concerndenved youre$ay16start,itwillbehelplirltolGtdl thcpo$lbleandeslorPRESM,rnd though usingPRISM,yotrwishto crate nore depthby dxplonngmort poirft .hoosetlmsetMt will bestnnswer thcc$ry question fhilo$ P: PoliticilPs,vchological, E:Econoni..Educionnl,Ethicrl,Envnonmcntil S:Sdal,Scientilic &,Spinturl M: Medn M rtaryMedical,Moral

, . ' ,

Wh rthehlno c b{lground ot dreissue? ge? rlowhivethugschangedorethc|e!6?Whathdslscilitrtedtlrisch \(h isthccudentsrleofthingstodry? !ftat doesthc luturclookLile?whrt rre thetoresee$lcimpactsolour standontheis$retodry?

for A sample olposiblequeshonsto brodenthescopcolthea€omenr Can the n.did eret be relied upan to tell the truth? e0a3, Qa)




. .

hale to sI rbout the do diE!rentgovernments issue?!ftat hNe the,vdone lo legislateor fegulatert?!(hat do these spprcrhesshowabouttherli:biLiq of thenedia? Rdlgious!(hrt do religrous ioniutloosor leideGhaveto sayrbout Llis issue?Hos hale thse bcen cxpre$edadd how are people vh3t do6 tlnshighl€htaboutthemcdiasrulernspread rcsponding? irrgrcligioubcllcfs? Economr:Vhich prt ol the ndkt| dos the issuebelongto? Vho producesor consumesit? How does medit owneship influcncccFdibilitl? to theissue? wlrai arethel, SocialHow rc comnunities respondlng nostcon.emedvith?Why? Howdo tneybalan.ethk Moral lvhlt etheeth$ iorlournilism? with compehngagainstother newsnetworkslor the l6t scoop?

7t. .otte.t oJthe Modern W'o,A . what rfe ,el{edtrendsthat fcctthe5ubtd mdrkr . ls th. subiednlrkr !trderthrentfron my qu en whrt E the main reabnwhr thisthElreri$, . tothc $uc? what h here rconmon{ar olerperiendngofrespondrng n thebaskol thrt comnronaliq? D ite rct ti a ti,g eon I ent i ond I dryt ne rt sJrcm i nreresti" g a es "gl . Candepartrnglrcntraditionilc.dsidennonsallowyoutogenentedtcF nrtiveangLes ontheissuc?






And, of.oue, the nosl important @N€ needsto be tappedinto: YOU Us whit )ou knowl Mmy of you ft edting abud *ith morc lmwledge t'un )ou gire )ouer.rdit fo. Haw )ou sen or herd dlrlins renrt that @idd shed $ne lidt on o..trod 'ou m inteEstingdgle for int€rpEtirs rhesituitionf

ee al5o@ndniondslipioB andplayerp€$?(tiv6 rhat)ou canoroider within e&h contdt to @te yet noe angls.

6CC fte 6 County Cheacteisti.s ae a dichotoml ofdescdptoGwhich cm 6i5t€go.ising varios @urry or bqckbund t/p6 I1l* wil helpyou €rplainthe d<Gios dEt wiou nationsnale on isu€s: Bts xr.t

€ €

Rich Old FrG€



€ €


SnDlt vect P@r youg Conrotled


In €xploriogthesop€ to .ll5wr the question Can &e n diz ev.t b. rcAe.lupo, to EII t e th€ planfor a simplearEumentpengnph nidt l@k smething lile this:

MediaFodued bI CoiDontioro de likely!o b€ sNtio..lised to muimte profit

Diferins conditionscausepeopleto havedifie@t belie&md hmc€ peEpectivs on their @li+ nEs dscnpbn canbe v€0, usetulin helpinglou to tsee daumentsabouthow couti6 with particule p6fi16 to 6pond in specificwals. For .

\vlEn )ou compde counlri6 or conmuiti€s qperiencing difi€rentonditio6 ofweallh,@untrysiE ed age,degEesofpoliticel f€edom mdrcligios infuene, dd location,hM @ tieir @ne.ns.bout m i$ue simih or difle.


Ho{ haE uique cdtual distirctioN resdred in difefnt .pptuch6 ro addes an jssue?Vhat div€rs opinios dd .rgmenrs hrve di*n .s a

Tler aE sir ditreEnt peFpectivs th.t repEsentdtfecnt inteKts .bout a comnon Unde6tandingtne rcks and res?otuibilitis ofa.h plarr cn help)ou to fomulate dsum€ntsbded on thev.ryins$rkeholdeB invohed

. . .

BUT Developed ud Affrdt Coutri.! hde higherdegreGofmedia p€n€kltion which m€s @nsme6 cm become hoEdjscming THUS incmingly it will b€in the inteEst! ofthe @rpoEtiotu to strblbh rcputatiotufor beingFli.bk. (Eli.ble)

Non GoEmmental orSmietions (NGos) lnter Gdernnental Orgmistiotu (lGOs) Cdnin.l Syndimt6

\Vho d€ the keypla)€s who ortol thesubjd matted H.E theyalwaF beo m contbl? Vho e the oth€r play€u who hare o. who m vying for pow€r? How do ths inte€sls omplement or oppe onesorher? Gryenhowtechnolofl and ns mediahs emporercd the individurl, what@ d€ newidts, nles sd eporoibilitis that couldbe@nsidecd? Del NoArrloADREEEcrrvr



BRAIIISTORIi SAIIPLE Hererre smplcs ofstudentsworl thatdisphy posble bninstomrn8optDns.


.PEO!LE' age young vr orc (dode.ntraditionren tr obsolek, needto bediscardedastheyimpede progre$andinnovauonvs more inportanceon t.adnion, or9ntsatiotu/gort w€alth/statu! race/religious circle!

ttNevsPsrve monuments/heritage sitcs terchinghrtory m schools rel€iouspl&esofwoship iahily membersresponsible

'TRADITION" rcligious:visilingchurches,temples, festivsh .ultonl dialec6,la.guages, h€ritage/history:hstoryolSingapore

How important is itfor people in four societ! to retaih a senseoftadition? (2010,Qlj)








Buildnational identitlthruwi colkctive memotusof the p6t undeNtandinsmd beingableto relatero a sharedhktory. Culturalhistorl whichconsirutespeEonal identity, FnF otbelongiig(inlightorour mmignntrcots)- tnditionwillmchor

. .


Richnesofcuhueascounterpointbalance toourpngmaticandwnedsocietlrban cultu.e.Gtes our Fciety a'softied hufran . frc€/qualityto conkastasainstthe steeland hrrd imageou societypojeds Continuitl is fundamentallo hunan psrhe givesyouasenseoircurilyina wondlhat n fastpa@drnd .hrngesnpidly Vibrantociety: enablesusto rerain our multidjrural dilereitl helpsyouto adaptto a world that Gd$ incieasingll pr€venteculturesho.k multicultural

BRrrcERPEBPdv$ | h.tu6@

€r:tmEgant Obsolete, i.r€le6t, . Tnditionsarenotorously tine consumirrg, pastbuinot contert-driven,mportantr noq e8.mourninSancenoEused tobeT ye x nowonly49drys thtwiLlslowrou down hinderyouliie . money, Conmercial useconpanies selling Als requires crn,vousford it?ll ros sticks, etc - geneiate id..meLr industries, not you nay not bcableto rctaintradnion gnqNing,Chinesc eg F&Blor Moo.cake lesrival e g.Christnras Ncw Year

MeantlortEdenarking/bEndingSG traditionhasa pncticdpu.poP Tndition/culture isuniquetoSG- dnw tourhm, to loreigners,new'exoLice.g

Responsibility or obliSation to pi$ do$n the tndjtion to tuturegeneraiions? Sense ol.ontinuity,reminds us.boutourpast. Memories oladisbntpastthatgot)ou to vherc youde now Hunbling reninder shouldnot betakenfor gnnred - especirlly in societythal valuesnovelty,we gerdred of thingserily,and.onpla.en.ysets in Antidote!o*li indulgencandp.ide


STT'DENT2. MAIN VAR6BT,E/K T ISSUET Btablishing theImportd.€ ConsidEr.lifi.rot d.gres ofldporhle: Importanv?ekvanVNe€sery*iptos forg.@drg@t Uninportatlft

SINGAPOEE CONTEXT Met Cortqe ConditioB of Swiwl, MoElRets

Clrrt rl.dc.ofth€ Modem ltryrrodd: &ioe&Technology, M€dia,clobalietion, Ube&lietion

r-.lglltrtrt! ed pslPecti@ l€vdwnnec6dy

Ho* importa t k itJor peoplc irl lour societ, to retaih a sefiseofralitkn? VVV\/

Chsictedsde SD.dtr tosiog.p@! Stthtiou Countrl sir dd l@rion, )qeath/ fluence, Poltiel lnvimnment U$r, Mutti-plciil/Cdh&t, &cularcovt, irmigEnt popdrtion, Valus & BelieG, E onomially Dewloped





Pactie/, !d@tio!\ DocEbe, Costum, Cuisins, Arts/Perfoft mc6, Festivrli,Valus, Rel.tionshipyHi@rchi*

FUNCTIONS OF TRADTTTON/ CUUI(J'RAL SPECIFICITY/CIIARACTERISTICS PR,ESM tigger qu6tioni . How do6 a se ofE dition contlibuteto poltid/politi@t deldopment in singapoE? . HM Elewt dd nq€sry isa smseottradition signifi.Mt to the difercnt Ecid gouF? . Whatis the lole of tndition whenit <orc to Sing.poreir mnomy/plais for 4onobic soltha , Howdo6a$eofE dirion impet rhewry we Eeateach othe/e.i.l int€n tioro? . riow is a @e of tndjtion oMld/porrra}td by lo@l nedia?Hq dos th.t inpact u?

otrr NbAm@€rlErs,€cr'vt



Orgeise )our argMent porrgoptE to facilihte a linling of ides betw€d p€ng€phs ed to surc that6 lour ssy progtts, you .rlm€nt ddelops ir . c14 ed @heEnt nm4 OG you niE trken th* $ep6,you wil be.le.6 .bout the is€! @nplsit6 6 wI d }!u Fsition on it. Youd ns E.dyto begin


beely ofit is thatorc youhde Fr.tised enoughbai.stoming ud plottingout of .rgm€nB, )ou wiUundeGtandhow)ou lwning od qploEtion ot@ntextsdewlop6for ech pdragHphin Ees the po$ibility of M &riel at a strong@ncluion that bringsMlation tluougha coherentbrcrd arymdt

oocooco@ SIAfiT


c0]'truSI0tl 'Ih€que$iomsetfortheA

jstUlethemodemsddth,twe*e ljung in nght n; Ihhgs l*ls haveb.@neirc@inglylryEdandbed e not d sinple or s1€i8hdo&.d s they u5.d to b€,ed how w uite abouttrh iss, if w€ wbh to write efl(dw' md erceptionaly, nftrls to rene.t tltu. By takng thi! !rc to p&dis &absing tlE $tutron, €wry A levelque5rion.f b€potentialy€n8agilgod nale for inteEstingdds vhat is inport nt G th.t . ftmqork lor halitually &al)sing questioroir e*$lished $ that you my ** out the true depthed nmifold sid6 oia queslior alt







ntrodDcriobsareoneof rhehost di ff.Dlt partsoftleesay to qire,

I r y#iltT*i:l1tf'tr# tT: "11

ihtrodudioB harero hulri_ra5k. As th; , hut paratraphtlar peoplercad,jr DUsrcaDruretheiranenrionandoeatea dsirc to rdd the resrof tbe essay, It nee.tsro set thesrale and€ivethe .eaderD ideaof wlat to enit lor tn€ensujngbodyparagraphs.

fai.asesshentofyoE reasonir8to bet! tiem DeoL'Ee suchopenDess ctarifesyou thirhnt

S@ult6_nmu6ly, you stso ned to ger ro rhe neanor tne ssueor coDlictintroduced bv rhe e-ssay quetion. Matry studerts tend to answer tne ssay qustion a a oDe-diDeDsiobal cata_ rogueoI pointsrnd generrjisations, Oftenrh€ eDgaSement of viffi or a\{"ross of ceniral @nc€m6E cuKority dealt witt, or Dorat all! But more drd rhat, the reatiry of rhe world rDeInrbductionDUstirductyour r@derirto &d ue rearrryin your }ead is not alwavs tbe key tne see a tlat of,our reader.Ditrsenc;s done Esuein an obviousmdner. wlen wetl, tni6 6!et of ttre inFoducrion Ia6 ,n cuture! tantuse. and Doms leadro rtJf_ out the franMo.k for the turrber dereloonent rerencsrn perspedives to@d6 any dven oryouressayin ihe bodypahgrapbs. rsue,andmaycrearemisunde6randing. your 'nEoouooD Deedsto ptuvide cled So giveb thar tbere are so man! asDectsof sujdane on tne ontext and oftle boundaries of votr. tbe inboductionto jutgle.tow ao yori beginr r€umebt so rhat rhe readerjs abteb e;s v wnat c6n you do to nake you itrroductrotr rolloe roa line of eglmenr. This inctude; debnInghgue or aDbigloDsterqs,or dealin! \ltn assDDptioNib thequgtion A stEiAht_ roMardapprcachrs needed,jD lart bec&s the readerDeedsrtl rtreinformationto nale a






Mainly, the essay and the introducdoncanbe thoughtof in thefollowingway: Iooking1r d (jP quenbn rs rn elent incrcas.\.dr oi rt asa bona6deproblemwh.rethecrn awarene$ did c cngagcs in the varbusc.n.ehs surcunding rn r$ue,not rusttopicsThcword issuefdehnedns thepmbLcor orthccon(crninr dkputethatnrustbc settledTh5 problcnr or rrne\ be.ruP,Paf lt ftus in the ticullr evc.t or itulnon hN h Lggered

AD eventis quitcmerningleswthout rtsactoEand lgents thoscwho inlli.t and thoseadlictcd.Qu'te simpq il therenrcno pcoplewith difllrentperPcc tivtsinlolvedn su.h.[n6, $erew'llbeno.oDllLct iga,n Lct!takerhcpreviousqucston Doesspartne41.theMnsuns aJhonet thdt arespenronit? eA10,Q7)

Daessp6tt herit th. eastsuns oJnoner that arerpentah it? (2010,Q7)

. \vhdarethepeopl.iovolved'Whrare ileirviewsi!ftat d ivcstltirLe[e6]nd rhetopics lpofti butthc i55u.nwheLltf itdeseNos $ mu.h ronev rnd attentionfocued .n n lhs . Hos doestheissuerfllct implierthd the .ental.oncernLsthc a$c$nx'niol , !flrogins lhc frost'!r'ho$ouLdlosc thc spoft! valucind sheiherns .urrent lorm acturLll in rt Asde lrcm deserlesso muchmoneyinvested porntingouL|hc vrfiousfunctionsand bcneiLsol whrt lould the dilierenrphyes Md stakchold{s sport,thcscnrunbesub.din,td to thisevduatloo sry in response to thc !ue{bn? would theythLnkit Understanding thisd6nncnonis ifrp.ttnt be.nusc rer$ndblethatso muchmoneyis prmpe.linto the theeventorthesitu ionhcrcbmughtuPrntheques iodun'l? World thet li:clthd the 'nonetdrouldbe All thc drlicrcnc$ln oPiNons tbo,.equftst|t c$didatero showwhyit isPfoblem- divertcdclscwhere? k, rlree$nv ntrcandshl lt mcits the rerder!attentionSimply .ount incrrating.onLent mrkesthce$q trottirrgout lacts,6gurcsorassedions ddrtsdunrpratherth arcd wo ddisprLerequ'ug

IIITROOUCTIOII Let! seehoweachofthesecan help us wrjte more focused introductions.

E|.d: voc q Ftre,lrq. a* cc Pqh'|ocondRqdb6|yo.b1v,|ahct



thctull.wiig' Crn youhgureout


I . r..!. nv.lytd r r\.nls. rhcf lrLl {i'ru \ Rrt r. \rlurr\d A lrip r$ng Uor. trnNrji r or, ri\r :ir)nr(ull!tu,.rhri.n\rrel'sn)nrrdlL[..{] n..rli\.natr.rhr(LL L r.Irdrir:.nr1 . r r . , r L r { r . r \ d e L \ I v d g r n i\ i 1 1 so l \ r . n r gr Dt \ s D ri l r r r r 1 N r .p\ r . L . i s i ' i L L lrir d ' . r t h n h fs I rL . ' ! d r h .b p r s . l 0 l , q u . n r , * , , s l c d r\!rsucrrDxrrrol|t,sla(lNa'\!hi.horr\do\v..hrtrn.l.ilrl..r r!r r!.drtr.r/ rur 'li&n,t,D(lolurcrlronsihlrfntrLr.|r.s.rtrlr\..1\\ r q(n ,n.n sp.rr rLr.r,dvfoirrsib.r. nri\ b. irughll L..h dlrldf 1\\o..rnps

Doesst)art tl1. nn wnt.I,n,ej "rcrit

trar at. V."!."




Sportsmenandwomen, adletes, umpirs, Socialmd trononic obsewe$ Sportsclubsandtheir ovner, sport ,s mon.) haxm8en@rPnP spon$ 6 andadvertseBotupoits appael Govenrnrentswho invesrin sporting talent lntern,tion,lsporting.rgannatrons suchas thelOC,YouthOlymprcs, etc.


\\buld arguethat dre it merjts vlri sunNof trronq spent becausesport gencmtesnnd

aBue that n des not d*Ne sunEor noney spenrbeca@ .

. ,

Importantsourceroienrertainment DLver n6catjonoftalcntpool

' .


n\e vNr

No ational qy ofgluging dre cal eflectr otupendhgsonuch on sported atiletes Owra$imation ofaononic bmefts Exe$ive payandiftspoNible conduct ofsporr.elebritiesae poor qamples lor youg pepe !o enut*e Moneycouldbebetterspenton housing, education,povng redu.tion prcgEhmâ&#x201A;Źs


. ! i n . i o n s . . t r n l v d o c r N h r l n . u . L 6 . u s b i l r . , rr l , f ! r r . c i n p r r n d r l ) o g ( n . ' kr . r r u r c t r c ( h r l ! \ n t r c n r d n L l l n ( n r r o l l ' 6 rr I r h c p . r r i n s 0 ( ) n r l { u n ! ] s p . c ( r ' l r h e t l u . ! iTr )hri r \ ! l l s . t t t r r n r q . ! r'tr d!olrlr '.nu.rion




idtoa morecon.rcte rll thoseconcePt5 howdo,voutranslate SohrvingmadeallthopprclinrinarydisLlnctions,


nrr,ffiltr* 'liHltfi-

].TIlTGTOBALOVERVIET belowto theque{ionon sport,a ftis indi.ates how |ou need to providethe relcvant In the introducnon of the isuc is providedin the h[t brckgbundinibrm ion for your readel he word brielbackground 'gLob' is infofmanon ! eminderth thebackground ratherthln hse nccdsto bke on a nore univeFal, me reGnt transJetaf British footba! cLub slant OvervLewdeooteslhe r topic or anccdotal Lirerpool\ star siikil Fq"anda 7aon6 ta nece$iryto pb! ide a brict ret conPrehensvesurvcy rival: 4 hi"d-boggling uW0,2 of the issue, suchthrt yourrcaderhd a scne oathe nillion. And whileNebdulk4t thksun, the contextfron vhich yoor argumentpb.eeds budgd lor the 20t2 Lowlon Olthpks has goha up ftoh t2.4 billion to 89.3s billio". n, write your globaloverviewfou .an util$c a orcultural OJcos4e,the nast e,truvagdntoJaU Ms codbimtionof hstorical,social,econonic, the Beiiing Oltnpics, the nast etpe"tire mateial. Curent trendsor an obsc.vationoi human sporting dent evq ttaged at the .ost aJ behaviourwill al5owork. No natter what naturc ot infornationyou usc,yd! MUST showhos the questionor the issue6ts into r bodderftamework, 'lhes threesentenccs doth. f.llowing andwhatapproach louaie bking Bydoirrgthis,y,)u .,n pointyourrede6 in tle dire.nonyouwantthcn . Brieflyputsthe focusofthe questronwitnirr to go,andalsoshowthemwhythe questonor rsue fte .ontext of the modemociety. Here,tlre is rignin.ant.Howevq be brielandrelevant writc mostcurcnt evenism the sportingworld just ciolgh to phce the kq Csue.l the questionin dc listedto providea patiernfor thc Eader .


Ni1cb,tai4 4 ark k".: sPatuehwsrc, skkrraeE: L|.,p@tk,s bt B4 s4ttqbnd, .tnb cc


p{tidn or trend showsthe readerwhl theremighl! probhmsportGconn(led nrarmyromoneyandeavagance Nomally, thR exanple tre neededto esiablisha pattern.Two h too few. Lhekeywods It dsoexpmdsand illustrates ol the quesiionvastsumsol hdnel that arclPentonil lndoing$,rtquicklyand thcquestrn6on the dmctlyaddresses getgo,vithoutwasting rime

2.SPECINCMFIilMOilOFTl| isue As theheadingsuggests,speciicallydenningthe helpslou to zoom in o, f.cus on tne key p.oblem Your job hde r to help your rcader see why tle question whr heneeds to readon ismportanL,rnd aboutsportand spending ln short,whrtisthcbigdeal vatLsuhsofnoneyonit?Asyou.ansee, No .loubt, the e,trcvagarce thdt .ahes with sport toddt kes cortrave\t N are ihetitabl, questiais what th6e dolla^ e|Enrd4llt trd" slat e into. Here,thc problemsidentiliedarc: . .

fr6dy,thc excesivenesot the moncyspent rnd se.ondlywhetheritpbducestangible efects andposnive

Speolyingthe coniict r not mcrclycosmericlL pinpointsexactlythccrux oiihei$ue shtrh willthcn beaddre$edin the bodyparag.aphs


4,II{TSIAIIO/POSITIOI{ *'1"'urv$v',hc sscD,ierncesD ;li:.l.t.'];:lli,Lil::i::1:'il.':,:li:lliil';ii;iJttH:1,':*"th

;".;.;;.;r:i::,:;i,;,,t'Jlilt;lil;::J::illii:ii'i::::ii:i::::i);i$ifi n:lJ',.1il:[:ll]11.... ',j.'ir'!;"r:::"*'t'"t


' ,,,u.ouidu\c(rren,,nghrri,ny.url rrcrce,dis{,oe r(tr0m, oroptli,somdrri,rq


oJ,nhe! speat anspa,t.n k .bubtut thatthecains arhenetts Thi\6 morh., $,ryoJq,vnr8 /dslg,cc bccrusc I doubrthr

:, A{1. t.rre\desO{dtd.R{ringrhs N ' m n U , h r+ ' . r J r u \ r Lrl t , p r n ts r , n r r ! c r, ( u s \ r u rp " , ' , " , $ , k d $ r s c r s t . l r e l ] n nor r u n r n d r . r . , . . ,,.. . , , r ' . , o , , , . , ! \ p o n ; , i . , . . . . ; 1 . : : ,l ' , i ; ; . , ,:;. : ' , r L L \ . r n r m p . r h n l t iDi r, k r g r t r . b o t r n d r k s o l . ., suDtrnlPorrrrng.n $ue rnterm ol ptr\r,r -rl{,1'dddsdu mnl6cidrrhc.leLrlc,aliow ng ..tri.r tr, \'c \rl'o invotv.drs iir rhej;[.xy

_,"d"';; ' 'i l)1, ;'".'.,',.,',1 i, ,", ,:'",1'; .:'i,- .'",,,,,;, .l,l',:.,. ',,

rn Pr,r\c'or nnkhotdej . ,trf ryro ivsr rcsr.d nlcrle

,litt sport i"d4strt :rltxlihne \nute

k.niidl t.gc! Iot

5.YOURIHTSIS. IIiIflTASOII(S)MRYOUR$AIID trorld atue thot,t.h to ledw a, trpartnrl so.i/t, {onohr a"t1

.otntnentators dnd ordinLr! .itize"s : 1rs d|lt a,ct i\ pttcd thro a shkhote

S c c o n . rl o l p n \ c , s

r,r c\ef whic Nc \!rnr ltr! rern.r r) !.. ltr '. ,1{L!r'u d notp'lrrfu r! Dru(hd.rit \!ln.h . l1[o rln,bodipJ,r!r]phstl!t(r,,r,d] strn ! r.tres.nuhcor !cnrjr.aj!umoflsqrc.i,rrl\

lrs lhcfun.r dilidfre b.r$eentM {nrd ri ttre An clistti!. rMis like$nhs tr{, [c\ latrrures] rfuss Lldr s nr agrk oi dsrqro.sjth rn isructh. i.r!ruk, \o porrronor(xnd ntr{ hcctcr,LrcoDr . Har . denned, Th{rh. I u n ] . r t e d $ r l n , r c r d e\ !i i l t n o w r t r r l h e s e , . i $ t r Q{ JDruror nnD.\ spcntc,trlcsresutrr w li b! discussed Jin|er n tou, bod\ prjrgrlPhs hr n .onrprdcN.urrr\ lo rhco[8i]ril pJh.rtcd ml'{e.l rport thcrtrdc, lherl lo trunr d.Jlnrrron\ ind ot whnt(ffn r v o u l d r e r d r o d n \ n r r o . ebnvl r i o t n r e , lid.r,r rheis.\rhnh i\{ttnot{r) inroh.ra Burntr ttr Pohrps\ylur rtr Ntho, iys 6 ruc. bui r | trp ! 'r . 'n n r'ur r$J\ p. Li. I will ,mDlv nDrnol.onvh(d I \vrnrto,trd lu|hcr nl de6no as u," **..t.t - a"i., ti,i secho$ rlr drthojr.questrr.tri,n, . ls.leardd specincb\ rud rgv:gud g r n . r x r r $ r . r l i c ' . .r h cw r ( c rm L . s i r Ltt! l{ol.r rh. nnnN,,{hj.h pn)...dr clcr thl n( rrllrddros dnactev,aason\ J! rr. pfuvutrsc(l onstri!htilhlcdedu 4 v i r r t r e s o r r p obrtis p o . t ! n x N h r p , a i d c ) cx.ellen(cold,rhuDuns n v{,stx,uld ,Ma! aJ the tint, thc vast eths spe,t .rpr.r toseelhcbod\pnf.r$rfhsotrtr. nul eaMt.t ta the vrta\ af spdl, that al e$rYddl'ngwrthrhc\cth,ecctrDs spansna,ntp and e,etkhu of,he hund,





FI}IAL I11OUGHIS Havingfollowedthe i.ticle to thk poinl, you will likely real$ethat witing ant intbduchon requiresa .ertain anrountof deliberationand plmning This is inevitablsespe.lallywhen qualltywrning is the keyconcm in an qami nanon.But)our ellort will payoft aslongasyou

it will looklikethis: tosether, THUSwhenwe Duttheintroduction

tI _f

tu e rccent transler oJBn t ishloo tbaIL.tubL ieetpoot\ stdr sttiker Eernando Tortus to tiedh Cheked cast a nird-bryIitg Us$8a.2 hilLian, And tuhile ee btulk at this sun, the bdgetJor the 2012 Lando" allnpks has gone 4p hoh f2.4 billian to A9.3s biliah. of caMe, the nost erttuldg1it .f dt wds the Beijins OLttupic' the flost e'pe"sive spotnng eee,t evet stagedat the cost of US$m bilian.' Na with spart doubt the ettravagance th4t coh Lda! ftkd co"trcve4y as oneinevitdbt! quesrkfls vhdt thse daUaR evehtualt tldrslate i"ro'?. me spolt indunry would aryue thar s\.h ev4dir4re t cruciaLto leavedn itupa aht sportiig legac!Jar sacial,econonicandpalirical rcdson' vet,dehcned and olditdry citi4ns prutest nedid.anndtato4 that nane! is pawed ihto a siikhale with no e"d in sigh4. Given the kihd aI dhzlkg ahounts of hone, spent on sport ir it doubtl"l ttat the gai"t or be"ejts iusth the catr.t Most al the tihe, the ldst suhs spent rrn counter to the vntues oJspart, thdtoJspa sha"ship atul ercellen e af the hunak



| ftr$/s4

Remember tle rc.der's r€eds: beawareof whathe needsto know


good Plm the irtrodu.tior introductionsdo nothappenbJluckl


Tnink befor€ uiting the inboduction, theintroduction isonly6 Booddthequrlityof thinkingnvolved.Thinkthrough andthecontentot the thequesrion hrsr ltat wayyou bodyparagmphs havca betterideaofwhat you wmt to sq, rrthef tnanwhatYouthmk


(eep th€ irhoducdon fo.Ned bearthesehle spectsinmind



are trcasions when you crn phi dound with thc equeice ol lhe se.rions But fundamenlrlly the inroduction shouldcoverall 6veaspe.tsanddbuld nove fDm a general to sp.cinc ldshion.

BBdD+ ERs4o6


L TheGkrbalOveryiew DeiniiionofrheEvent 2. Speci6c 3. Playere & Sbkeholdere 4 Stand/Posniod

Theintrcductiodk therelder! frrstandprcbably onlyencountcrwnh de writer - you As cnchad 6 it sounds66t mpr6sioo5 @lly do ldl so letlinot kde |nk neenngto chancl aatt





t.rb be a struSglero devetopyour ideasibto relevabrand convincing tuslmetris. Youloow tl.r goodwiting seek to ddvan@apointotviMon an sue, buildirg. s6e backed ty logic2l -aonins and relevant €Mmples. you also ;ooe that fo! €ssaysto be @Dvincins,miters rust alsotale into ac@untotherpeFpectives, i bile arguin8for why thei! point of viewis ihe rne that shouldmatter. T f | I

But putting these arSum€ntationskills itrro practicemaybe easie.saidtlan doft. This*ctior ains to addre$the foltowitrgslills: . Ireepins a bal$c€, ' dqcloping you poinr, . and plesetins qmpl€s.



hlt do6 rhiding r strcngb.lme in s ey mean?It meds youEognise thatt\e wodd hd mulople viw?oints mdlou ituoduc thd into)ou€$iy wilh the intentionof shNing lou reade6whythey shodd trut pu vietr?oint. Ratherthan being@ntradictory,this appMch rhos yod mturi9 of thought.r )ou .rBre fton tust )ru ()m pdp€ctiw without coroidaing otherte$?oint5, you argMent wiUEnaln linitad andnyoPic 'ftecrqthenbhow)ou@nshowbalanewithoutonthdiclinglou*lf.

IlEre aretwo kys lou cm do this:

OTllIR \llEffi l}fiS I.ilRIIT PIIRAGRAPI$ IIIAI I}IIUM A stnidtroru.rdwayto emwyou 6qy h$ balane is to includedothd opinionon thei$ue You@nPEsent thFe to fou argumentsthat supportlou point ofview foloRd by! few conce$ioroor deptio.s in *pd.te p€FgdplN. Ihis o.bls youto onede.ltermtiw opiniorod ac.At.ble oroudineercePtionalsiuatioG whd }!u vispoint maynot iold. the strucoe of th6e paFgrapls i5 flsible. You my cloe to start stong with you oPinio., or with s alt€mativevi€wpointbeforedebulbg it with lou argu€nt. Lets try with the folowing question: ew th4t h6t wotk &se datt @/ld, dd 'horu, bedoietom hone. (2UA Q1)


Youmy str@ture)ou e$q/ hu: Tst: wolk igJtuh hohe k 6 oAprdai@funthe Retutudon erugben d nodfl tuar. WJrdat/idl

This ett 4p the histricdl contett beJore

Tsz Hence,tu'*inglmn hfue ketu ldedl be@$. to it elimirat6 th. iwnwiiq@s oJ andttblg

Shoss6 arEm^tiw opi"iM. NotE that the authol ha ehbeddedhq ndn

aISs: ret ewn tr vo* cdn be don Jlon hon thls doa hot MeMtll! h@ dtdt it should, a n4^, prcft4risaa @ need.d hr ita ec@stil

nri d'ans6 &e directionoJ*e es! ard tig p6tt dtdt it wi| elabotutzontte nutliph ch,ltz's* ofwukbEloh hone to ebst.r{bE

the Mi"


PARAMAP|]S ZAM$OPPffi IIIUtTPfi IITS IITI{III YOUR Yd cd ale hldce )ou argumentwftnin the sme pong6ph. Thf mms that you weid both the oPPosing peFpectiw 6 wll d yow h the@e pm8Bph, md r.gue tu why)ous is tne no€ conYincingone B€caw )ou de iuggling.ont€sling pdpectils dwicd emplol h.tridorsl

in tn€ sme pergr,ph, it is evenmoE imPotant that you

tte stes znd .on?etitio, that louag peopLJ.ce t .la, .,,' ,

Eg, "lzsplte

E.& twsp@pt

fi.l difeftrdr"

to indicatewhy the djtreEnt pdsp*ti6 imporrad in the big pichE.

nay be !ald, ht appt only to a nichegouP who e Elitikly 16

In additioo )ou .lso h.e to chall.ngE the @mptiom E.g ^Ihis it a tui1epe$p*tire or poirt out c€ptioro

thrt *.len

becdrc..,' the stdrd of the opporirg vicwpotnt

E& Aldtoagh ve cannot de", th. *alhas @pdoB tt dtlt tLepohl'



mrde in the oPPGingviewpoint

that tadg p@de tod4! !4c"" v. ffi


potut out


ow that we hNe dirNed rhe big pictue of pbviding a batancedrcsponseto yor esay,tet us look rt now wecandevebpour po'nrsin eacnot the bodl pamgnph, into a anvincing argumeht.

. * n". rodAp,ipdd cabomkd oo.n,q1"n 1,1,f1-T,Ll:1 q h h - r , P ! s r r r 4 $ i". ' r r o s:"epd y l t r r J h h e i d e j { L h n r c u w h r t o " o r rir: in robuoL\ , , L " mhon a y nrne,optr o,a,",r.ri,o



{ n d e , " n f , n p \ d . dn A n d r . d r w d \ " s E e * f \ o L ftr,.sr_y,ounced,oc\eyor deF,andu ) ,, d r o , g n h w n ")ro u* , r e , * . ,r,aU^,*evJ,.J-, row he mp4' tlnry to mpd \r' F$, r, !"e lo tr r..uJkrg.ther oor..L " .on. p - _y.: n,- Lo<oo.i " c r s u r e m rt o , p r o \ d e . d e q ! r e r , p t r n r r ,donnd , , u { . d r o , , h dl irl d r e s r c L r "fl.o,..tu Do,nr.t ew ::_"-T1-:l.J:1



Sohowdo we developpoinB for ou. e$a),?And howdo we &nowtn,t the pointj irc rctevantones?

rronunnrvNnltlsucfllcTrlEsrs lom de\clopndt be81. lbF 6.rr un<t.r,rM<tiry rne requir.m€nLsof the e,s.y qu€srion,Jnd rt_.n

ft,.,..r.,1pth€r,o,,o.r^v,,6_,i, ,,11o.n*,o,n,::l::li"l.l:,1::ll,ll"-:"r\ou.,e\porse in ) oureseywill buildtowrrds.

considet the view thdt nost tuofk th^e .lars coutd,dhd shaua, bedone frcn hone. (2oto, Ql) a thesistlrataSreeswnh $e standmayb€witten thus: Desptt"rhe wdhzadabk.oncry. abod,he efl*ih6, oJ tht. po-ibitt! and,an. n,nor t4ndbz \|o4ugl,an hah? i\a dpv.tara.nt lhat w. .a tahl, \houd ?n.odagcJa. LheCooda/aur socktEs and the ovetull wett-beingof the av*age worker

p0ilrpERPARACRAP|{ luctfl 0ltElr$ilI[T 3:'"ffH1";r-

rmetoexphin ** t",,.",renoush anddcrend you!reMninsandto,upportthepwith

3,EIABORAITOI{IliEIIYPHRASISfl YOUfl IOPIC$llTIIIffS (ey-,phn$ rc th€ idms o onceprs th,t date to de keyrequnemenrrin the question. For cxampte,in the can a belieJin the supeftatural besustainedin oar nod{a tuora? eoaz e2) the ley phraes m you topr entenceswoutd be reirted to key conceptsin the quesrionconcepBsu.h as lusr,inin8belief in thesupernatuml andburmoddnwortd To .labomt€ and .laiify rhe key phras€s in lour ropic s€nten.€s, looft for opportuniti$ r, Provide a brief backgrolnd Taddlt {aa.nicalb-&ivea no.tdn w.nd thriv* ok eficieac, and prada.tirit , aad enphdesese@"atuk s.owth at a .ons, A beli4 ih the supqnatutat in tudesbath tp intua I a4.1reIigioa Jat6.


3, Exphin reasonsbehind b€liefs dd As a /esub ofqa* lile rcquiri"s peopleta tr|est trehendo6 ahounE ofenets, ah.t ttne o" ptoducingresuld peopleha ttl havetttue to comhit to a.rthies that support then spiritual belieJs, 4. D&w out consequen.€s me outnsht disresad lor rctEiousptd.tices thowi"g r*pttJar the supe aturat mt bete ins oJthe l3 risible rctuLtsaf

t \ { a - r c ue l r m d e .D e n . n a i uo t , t p i r r , n , h e q r r r c n X h r d v$ b t e . o , h p . t rhd rntrnerp5 vour<sr n:! retevrntrnda..u\ed


$y 3tudhts &etwhenit cons to pFviding emples in then €sys. Somelment thar they .annot think of any ddpl6 to citeiothets hav€$ much@ntent that thE haw dnigentlymenonsd that they sp€k out all they know only to nnd out later on that they havenot realy

Fnst and foremost,l€r 6 de|ry ou undedandhg of the pr. Poseq.mPl6 rc suppos€dto sere. Exmpl6 are m6t to illust€te,@mplment md sppolt While it is ihpon nt to paide (r4ples in )ou e.say,rem€mbq that thsy n Jw.)s subodinateto d,e main argurent )oo kant to put ,lr@ andEhouldnew beTH! argmdr Youd.y beNd ro dM,bhg the det! 5 of lou qrmd6 in tlr hopeLh.t Lnepoht of)ou dgment wouldbsne cle& 3 )ou developro( efude. surh tffde-dnven paragnptEde !n 'fti! incoftcrdd AangmB Myof bufinglour argmenr i! dF to Lheljlelih@d that )ou wil ndBts )ou e'mpl6 Eths tnn explainthei! EI€Me to lod ergmdd theEfo€, it is inportant rhrt whd buildiig Wu a$ument in 4ch pegEph, tou to pKft i topi. *ntqe 6Rt dd ths qplrh you poDt befor bdngingin the iuumtiotr who )ou cite an e&mple )bu cmot allow it to standon its om 1,

dplain ffille

to lou reades hoe or ehy your supports the polnt you @ developing


.om€.t lod dhple b!cl( to the kel ptruer or te.N in )@u .hbontiotr and in th€



1o ilusE{e Llu tu^lFi you (mot s,mpll cite SmglpoRs a outry in whici nigation t juitined beaE of the €@nomic benefiLs. but }ou mN goon ro specit wh@ or how*(dy sin sapo'e6 deMg th6e suppo*d ben€fts Only ths @ )ou 6ay dM th nigntion isjuided tu acooEy []c Sing.poE Atl in all, ledni.g how to develop{ gemof d idea into a we[€soned dd ku'ilutnted irguent, *n whiie @ideiing oLheipohr of ws, B a *ill htll @nh mast ring lt wil gir )ou d ad@@gelongafter the cP eminson is oq h daluatingoth€d argmenb ed dso in advecing you (M.altt SROADERP€RSPGCT\€S I fu E!Ih!







Leru5mi|)re r questionwith a .onstant u5ingthe rbovepnnc'plesNotc hoLrthe qrire, rdd,t$cs the qu.nron.rnduscsdifii'antconrexts in hn e$al: Daestheplesence aJaJorcAkpoweteverhetpa.o|htry withprcbknsTeoa\, er)

\fith the..nnant trcrl thisquelrionmrkcstheasoDlpLi,,n rharpralousattempts Lr tocign po\(esto hetp otlref.ountr.s$ith drt problcnshaveodll resultcd in li lfte Tre 1;$i,vtakcsrhesbnd$r llnaign power cirmot helpin rnother.ountrlr'r leepsIn nliodihc connrnrb,vprovidjnS rerv,N and cvidenccof hnlori..lcxaNplesotsuch pastlaLlures ineverlprrignph


THESIS:X s,ch i"tet'eati.6 haee al*als be,4tuad the .64ndies hetpedand ||6. oJte"tuotiv.Ed br t:he tesrhak-ahtuistic rt*ifts"atofJateun po||eE to sdin po*et dndfllil mnohi. iht tetts. FOREIGNAID IS HELPFUL Y

Tsrt ui.tehiabt, thepresen e afaloreiga pow* ca" steh the tide oJhunan ishts abus6, st4bitije p.litica! t\cettai,ties, and.facllitdte marepe.eluL .o"ditiars ia a nunrry Thewriter beginsbyaddre$inglhe ways$ar a fdeign porer couldideallyhelpa trcubLedcomtfy

x.f b,rnnofmng rnd pLroningtbr )our (*.rl thc next pbblcm nudcnh en.ormdr s n,tri,rg the topic senten.eA connnon Dr(tr[f trnrong begoningiudenGis wriring r)pk s.ntcn.eswthour I nsoo of claLm _ thatgo.d n)picscntcnces do DOi rrn i P agrrphInstead,, topic sentenceis ^e a contract with the read€. Sincerhc writc. , a,n"1rMlthn 6 th. mrin de, k) bcdcliv(ed, ,.iL'fu 'en oJdrcpihgrrph &y.,l jrod topic senten.€slhould includeI cont.xt irn o' $orc contcxturl.lrrfu.Lenr'.sr kel :. ro lhe qudron $ith sutrrblevuirtons in r I . rfu re$.n/'cliLnr(]1,n mustaho .- rln,quc(ron ll )'ourropicscnlcnccs well '. r r nitur l,vguides fourelibo.ihonandNd.l

FOR.EIGNAID I5 NOT HETPTUL X 'tS2: However,the hitt r, ofJoreignpowet iit.lventian t liuetetl with fictorid that mst natire pqples hrch ha/dship ahd the etpqiene oJbei"g tte4ted ds etund-class cirbens i4 their ovn la"d, as.olanialisn has denortt dted. Hers the wrner signalsthat heis embarkingon hGlin. ofagunrent wirh tne connedor'hos€verl He laysout thercry consequences ahdimpa.tolcolonialisnonrhetargeted rccipie8 - tne mosl obvios hethod usd by foreignpow€Nwh&by CFedk disguipd s helpl 'ts',

TooaJte",the obiecti'esoJhreisn pawr dte hat dtiS4edwith thosethat it au4np^ to retue dnd itt 4.tio,s cd, ee4 e,acerbatedkes d4d bri"g about evenhoft ctdat dnd anguishinttead, 'Ine

writer arguesthat evenjfloreign powes arcguidedbygoodintenhons,rheyhaveshownthat tney do not tak€the kouble ro undestand or se ignoci I of the needsol t|ose rheyae hetpirrg, thuscrating or worsning theconditionsfor failure 'lsatMorcave,foreig,paw

oJte"hdeetteh oeh @"cernsto dut with dt hone and nd! haeeto b6e their invobeuert abrca.l anp\bLi. @ntinent and availabilitr aJ/6owes. 'I}e

las!a.gumentdealswith anotherdrortcomingoi torei8nhelp,and shifk rhe focusfom tie tfget mtion to Lhehelpe.instead.



ll.r.isiqu€stionwith.diller€nttypeof Shdtld efn!.arht!

pol ity. thc nght ta.xrryatt

bl|ibtt..! \tit"t4i.

rcearch1QAA9, Q8)

rHEsrs: r

It ^ kaive ahd rc.ktes to thihk lhat he*t a"tl ahrp.e.lekted advarcesoJkna||ledse,wnh thepa||er ta transJorn ahd d.\h a) dspensol h4tu4n w, .a" beequatu and.wietr sarened 1ryau cou"tties. Rish.j trith ha d.corddnt LihituLio"s dre d re.q? fot disasret and w anlrieatedest ctiyecutturesoJentitle,"ehtand abM.

YEsTO RIGHTTOUNLIMITIDIIESIARCHV TSI OJco"6e, in a" i.leal warld, a aukt!\ right ta prRrc in|iflite .hdhhels oJnientile knawLdge:lhuLt bepnkded nnd .htkhed as righ^ unrldpih lreedan ahd .hoic. tal to th. groeth d,11hdppin$s of)"a*i"t1. Thc{rnc' 5ecuphsrrgurncntbIliFtlI rdcntilyrngtho id{ldstrrblentuntionrndwhvdlis.ightnu dbcrphcld

NO TO RIGHT TO I'NLIMITED REsIARCH X TS2: \Vhile arc .lisp"tes the potential a:fscieh.eta da good, th. sdd trulh k thdt thete k i. poiht ektutkg the tigh^ of cauntriesta "o sciebrlfc Esearch||heh the, hdw na capacitt ta hdittdik rhetu. He go.5on 10dcbunkthc m,v$oithc rdcalb,y h€hlightingthe ornentstrteofceruh Datio.s ratre,lftadlllaili.grrth thcbascinstrtutionduticsthq hNe townrd ther citizcnsCbnlemngthu lddirionrl.lgll ro rem s,.turllt r duservft br inrposing,responsbnrty tlrdvr1t r.t ferd)t) ft.erve 'fsa

T"e na", n that the prcpe$tt! Jor thefnswt n6rce oJrienttfr. knoetedsed.Iua|\ be.ahes sredtet, ,Bteart of the e,pIErlinveRe, whd' suchrights are accatulerltoaU batians HebuildsonrhepEviousrrgumc.tbI rpcndiDgxni$umpri(,nthe'qder oriqhthare thatr.rr$ to thGright\LillEsultin l!{d misusd or rbrseol s.'enrilicknowlcdgc andiB ippliQtions 'lsqIhe

te e"c, aJrkntijc dtvovt! to outpacekgklatian and dkcussiank aka d kel redsonta rerohsidetsupponihg the righr ofall natia"s ta ehgageih wherevu thei ehihs blotf; lle idcaoientoring rcsponsiblc bchaviouf r brcughtup hcrc,togethdwth drellrr 01thenprd spcedrt whL.hmrn w ll diso( (icD.cs *o!ls to uninnginrbhcnds TS5, At the enl af rhe da!, it 6 beings,itgnt in conlernhgcaunbies the dutahdtic tighr b cdttt out dht dred oJs.iehttJt. researchrhar bestprctecx ewryokts tight to $ie".c dhd its bekef^. l1E!erite'rcinidceshnlincofnrgumcotb,vlimilingthGrghltoonlysomccount es,preunrabl)onllthos€withtheabLlt)to colorccrh6 nghtsothrt rtw Llbcdo.ncdwith utorostfcsponsbLlql

'ii,i::;:i,',:::,!;:ii:", i[,,'i:i/

- ''



I ').rtrn\ecnotrccduthe0.rexsing!nolrheclaus€"intod.ytso.iery"ori,yourso.iery/.ornrry: : lrs doLrnlhc rt0rtronrl..nteiN 1oucro usctorvcr],spe.ili.onc ,!* rt rsaDrple!uennrd dealirrgwLth theSing+.rec.nicxl : ' rrrta.tant k it lar peapleit tour wiery b rehin a e seal ttudition? (2010,QtA) :r (.sr !urii{)nrvhc'ayouneedto lrgr'c.ui}hxt tncr'onsrmdrrroD ('is"vs'isnot ),ele.y!,p,.sen servesAric. noringrhe poLnur} .lds n)addressth€ qu€stionbf provid'nSrea.ons whytrrditionsireimportanrmch thrr we necdkJ.dhidihtm rnd 6ddress€r .::.,6..onten in Sin$pde ("your\,.'ery I'ncich prragnphlhew e'hisusrdPRESN|togenerrdtJil,tnibrnd.onlcxtslorth6

.: s precisel, beeuse Singdporeis a w.! ,o"ng natio, thdt ||e nee4ou t adnioks to stabtith fol outtetu* a Laiqre identiE .., as wethtust ourselr* inro the thrc6 ofstabatisd oh.

IRADITION I5 iMIORTANT V ISr: Fnsd, a senseoI traditiok it ihportant anangst Singdporean ia prcnoti"g gedtd irtelge,etutionaL banding,Jostering !..ate. ipprecidrior Jor the olde. generutionthdt shdp.d Sitgapo.e'shhtort akd co"k*tiag Jaungu Skgaporans ta thejr Tha topicsentence addreses theSOCIALconte{ ofqhl triditiomarejmponantacro$thc otde.andyounger generations Isz siagdpo.eans|9oud ako agee thar /etuiri4g a ene oJtraditian k ihpo/tatr ta provide the norat batasr thdt is hitlikg

Here,lne kJpicrntcnce addFs*s tne impoitin.d of lraditionsro youngerSingaporcans fiom a MORAL peqective 'tS3:

Au. govdnndt aka pldes 4 lot o.finportance on retainihga sekseoJtraditioL becd\sethet recognkei:t rdtse in hetping :..gaparcaks build d socialan.! palnical identit!, ah.l through thn, develapd grcate/ sekteof roatedre$ k the cou"try BykeepinSour I riditions, |he fO LITICAL conseque ncesof buildinga narionaI identlryMd sens of bebngingr, Singaporc$ rddre$cdwiththx topicsenten.e ft Mareaverlrch aaecorohicperrpective, Eaai onsth4t 4rc rootedin lans"ase,faad, cutttre drd. ttfestlteen help ueov : x,iquel, Sitgdpoft brdhd that n tul, hdrketable h thit globalage. This topicsentencedealswith the ECONOMICpotenrialofretainingour localtradrtions

IRADITTON ISNOT IMPORTANT X Iss:Cert4inL,the/edrctraditionsthdtSihgaporedtdcohyrvative,pdtriarchdLAtia"tuciet,endo\|itho,espe.idtq,nose det actlfam onet individtal rights, o/ thae dtat inpede oh aur coufturit!1; pragres. nris topicsenten.eolle6 a SOCIO-POLjTICALexGptionrvhenfiditions shouldbedGcirdedto p.ovidern obiechvebalanc to rl'e'igumentthusfi.








\\'h.r rbod r,tftn(,r lllr r qrtr.s \or l,, rd.[.s the modâ&#x201A;Źrnvorld contextl L.ot xt h.$ rhr n)Lo\vdg .srf u.orl)o,ni \ rh{!|f.l\ rt,n.r\ r. r\in !, rln,!ufni{r r.tlorlD.rr 'Tt baakha

o pln.. nt ,ta.leti13a.i.t Di\tL! (2A1n,Q5)

A n \ r n n l , ,t h \ { , t $ r f r n r , ud h l t d o . k ( . u t r ] . t u n . l ( i r s . 1 rh o r l ,r r L i { l ' r \ \ L r h . r r crrl n h r t r..knr n r !,.cr \hf,. ( ( l,n.L,{(,n ,rL\',, r.t rN r.rdd n rbn,l1. Ih. r'rcr rtrn slur rlr drtr r co crs t )! r|ru d .ll., r 1\d.rlLn.oi fu ihu.d .lr\.tr(L

THESIS| V, Wllileit k tenptihgta.lerldtethedertt oJthebaak the.ahtcttdltndarivond,nrenai"sa prebtalL,. dseiiah at bestas n1eeniolk'e,t aI haaksa.tud t lehidins verr u!.h a patt al


To begjn while the doninakre aJtedlnalogl ih n.dt, sacCt, has andeflidblr d,/ ftdtling habits atd pteJercnes,it has at the sdhe tihe fdtilitaEr! dn.l iftreayd the aaaftiliq oJ b.aksta thehases at a, uhprc.edental rateInd wlu'ne ThGopcnogsho$sho\rtechnolog\l rlk malnsravofmodmLrt!b{.mes Lhetuedlumb Nhrchrcce$ to book ise$ilr il.1,ndishcd.



Aka, ||hile man, dtgue tlat tlE high le@ls bfiastan , dvailabk tugge^ aJ@'tent an the Ittema ksensthe i"lpattdhceal boaks, arccan court..thar kla"r'igrijcIntsdtr6 alwritjnsare nill publkhed tu,. "..e*dtilt 'lhc rvntcraddro$es the as$Lnlptn)d Lhalllr adlcn ol drc Internerig Lsrhedccllncin rhc book! inrprtrn.c,ard 6erts rhoc..rinucdse lu thcxnditrofrlbool bm 153. Motzove. whik tuant Jeel tiat the tifte and efott t,ttnetl to rcad baak nake thetu ,tt dskst unJeasibkia aw tihe-paot lites, whattherectiticsJa h redlisek thdt b.ak! act@lll se/veds cr"cial a,tidates to the hccticsrhcdrlero_ftuoit contetnpararysacieties. flcre atuihe ..ntc\luiishrft h+pcns whent|t $ e' .onside'sb.ols as neccss$v'creac nom ,l,.rv -l I o.." p,:,,,l,ln d. r'Jn'11 \'- rp. n.' onprr /.,,... TS4t Futhernore, tvhile rrere hai bek phhtt oJtdlk abafi the denke oJthe p/ihtetl tone drc to the t iseoldigtral boo}J,itret'1dihs relerant tadat dae to itspati.ulat qldlities a,d attib es. ,\nd lrerethewrnerirl$ a lastlookrr rh. book! gucwhvr 6stilt$inning despit dre.nryoidigti bools!'ngnrrkcr


BRoAbER PERerclvs I rheae&!

\\I'rLnggo!d l{)p.scnt.n16 s not k,.ketscrefte All rl tr(os n prrctic. r! Ntrh rl rlnnls in GcndrL |.r|o tri orle, lin \ou !) nrltf' 'hL.scnlLi shll r h r t ! t r n L $ r r u ' e r d e o l s r d l n l L r i l n o u q thh . N i r d

t$uir \.ur c$i\ F iaLc\xit h! kepng n,.h od lhc rprolque{rn\orr.dirlm{r(h Flhclufstion \nr r r[r{ lnr t]rc i r,p. or re rhere iirirp(r.ns \ou nun s\steDrtL..nL\drrL \ytr]i? 5.N t()pi. scnterks ir.[ L'e nrtrr oi],eir l,)nq.r lst.rd ol \or\ug !Dre..:sr,lr , riul rtu lcnglh L r l r r h er i c ! , d r u ' . r l , r { \ . , \ onovN\rtchisa (lrn,.,'.iR'r rhr idd'.*.\ dr..trrsrol ah..l tur th. .ont\ls . o L o in i e r r R p r n r r r

trhsrhH pc'in1r stul nLcnltiibclion\ouf



J asr

he mon Lorportintidvrc. $c cin give ]ou n wrLttrigyour esal r n, .cprcscntvnrous peBpe.trves oblecrileh StLdenh are s. olien n) [ecn on prcscnrirrgthcir views on atry gNcn kipic rlrn rh.t unne.dss,iilldenn)nhilternahvclLcss or woEe pretendthetdondd{ inr nsguLdcdatt.orpt to mrkethei'trBumcnlsnongciThiswrlLonl,vpbdrcerskewed'esponsetishrtNassupposedtollicirn p.tentirllv nmturaMd nunnc.d response,mong.anddxFs

Theideal,'{ha!we thought ihould happcn


Sometudent5 do recognFcdrc necdto puoLrbxlan.e in dreire$rr butwoirraboutmnkrgcontror?'rirL TS2 TS5 or!cfyspccLhcclaimsFotrtrmteLmtrrkdnd.ooi6ullt,ulomcntoningaconhor€$iilpespc.L!eodbehrlf situanonalcontexts: o l a s p e c L h c g b u p . l p e o p l c T . u s t l l u t t h c m r k c r w i l l r c r d , v o u f 6 s a l I l r - M d e l a L u i r c t h c a i g u n ] c norgrniselndpriorilietourpoinlJto rsyouarc bringout toaking rvnhoutjudginqyoup.i sonilL), descopeofaqucstion;sttuctuEyourpangrlphs chonologicauyorbvmportane/idev'nce Ovdftle pdi fewra6 th.c$rlpipcrh6nrcreasinglybeenresnrg.ind'arkiibiLitvrods.crnthei?lili n,n0i.i5lnd tensions irrour woid, apFrentin howcrh qreai.n i. phrrn'd Evcr,y an i$umpnonthatieedslour.onside'ldresp.nsc\Xr6llcrt s vliid to lookrL pdrcnxl contextl,it s no longerposiblero evde rddressing how dilla'tnt pLay.6liorn dLnerent prodne conLerts TS6 d,iIcrcnt rcspon{s to th6e ssues


lssues suchasthe tunlgemcnl.I powcrirrd prviLege, the relevrnce ol.errin in{irurior or cnntLcs Lnrhc m o d e r n w o ahdo s w c n { n a g c c hg c i n t r d F i r n r . c e n t u r l . n d s h i i r i r ! v r L u e s t h i t a s k s u s t o p r o r t i s e s o m e ovo othss alldemi,rdakeenereDgagemenrwirh rhewo,rdtrn,und us butwhrh mnynorIFldesyan*vc( 'neF arr thesotrolque{idn!,vou wlllbcgcttirrg. EventLrlllhowlou respond b l.o nlccrcdqucnionnNr ndkh nskveloidifiicut\ oi coorplcxity Nteadolr $mplepont -.ounre'poiot r.buttaltbnat Forcxrmple, wth thisquestion Do6 hodi,


te.hrologt alwals inprcre the qualiE alpeopk\ liv6? (20a6,Q3)

ol rechnoLog,v to discus ,yousinplynart with thc polanty(do6 or ilos not )drd drlvse the auncrrons whethefrt mrproves the!ualrtyoipe.pLc!lives



ihventia"s ad dkcaveriesdrc &tl k


the .onret" oJthe sciebtist:Da lot dgtc.?

sLilldealssifirhcl.prc ofscicncc irrdtechnology butIor nowhr\" lo.i,nidrr thcxddcdispcctsofintention add't5ponsibility Thcrrhasto bern r.kno\rledgemenr ol thei.le ind l!ncn.n olscLenhsts. xndthetersnrr'i.tualrc5ponebiliticsto thciroBMisatbDs, Md drn seoreolnroml resPombilitj/.r.dnxieo.o

Shouldeveryca"ntryhavetheright ta uhlihiled $iehtijc rcsearch? 2N9, Q3)

POINT (1 sent€nce) WHAT thepointis ETABORATION (2 + 2 sent€rces) \vHY rt cameto be (whrt tlrecontextis whl thisconte( h$ changed) IXAMPLE (l sentenc€) HOW it energesin the world LIN( TO QUESTION(1*ntence)

yourdes, youmusthrvelt leastnv€ In prcsentirrg cont€nt paragraphs*idd lour lnr.odurtion bnngsintheblgger.on.epkofrigblsudr.sponrbiliqvYou.ledl,v.Mnordeilwnh16;qu.srionrhcsanrcwxl 3ndCondusbo,wlth ea.h paragraphamoutrting rhatvousouLd rlreprevn,us rrvoQuenronrgrvhedrer te.hnologlis x righr,r.d whocouldther?loFentbf.e to at least t00vords llis .ninrtion wLllfit nLcely thGiightdcmands a drficrtotwayol thinlorgMd ! dilierenruiy 01(ru.tunngyourpaDgraphs sothrt the $irh theCrnbrdge requrcmentor a 6m 300wofd conplextres ol d$ saE 6lyorghr durappr)pnlc[


oo oe

OIFFIRIIIT TYPIS OF PARAIRAPH STruCTUfl ES l AFULI,BAI-Lxr.lrtr.l\.rnl,r+'trDhhrardrrdtrrl.nn((rld\rdrlr!!r!oIidr.r(h.r.qr irdllrhrlltLLfnotb.s..n15rrrpblr.hor(\.srrn.$rtprr1,'.Nn|.brr{l,o|It\$.rr .r*n!,d rl !nfus| rnlr.f \ I .r.( .r ind rll ..i r , u \ f 1 , n r l , . 0 r r g r r ] ) h6 l t g k r r x i r 0 r ( \ n r \rn n f ( L t n L \ 1 , \i i i ( h n r l bilrn! o rhrtr.*r\t r tr,1,g.r b.J.rrrr! px igr.r|h Ih. brugfn nL\ rt. r$ r lI .!ug lhir r ir! nntr.p.dr l1r rllL rg!n.rl i]d,r |ixtrr{ tnf., 11. Po ns rlrmt 1h.t]!tl].lP.du..src.i\i|r(mg,lgtn(n1l|.|o|l3|lrst].\((l|nlLnn[\l)iLin(.!!|l|jr]ijtu1l][|r (iL,, N sk ]h!an'ls h i L l o r r l r .. s r x ) 5,!tigtr.h.l\.\,rh.Litr r[.r,rr s|r|\p.l.l|lhf|P||sir..Pnllll\\\|!{tPL1)]| \.i|..j{h1t]lgtn|ilt\rh|FrlglJPhs.fl}lllnLgg.{rIlln(lt 2. A HAI-F BALL s urll| usfd t,) po n o'r r[\\o, r\.{ m tr. ti 1, trlr nr rL 1i , h.n fngt ]snDp rn edi.fn a$Phunaredr'.eunenL rrn\\ihtrron rrridr \\ll'r r\r\r.tiprLrgrJhtrrndl,L,)arl\ rrln. 1,, Fl,n'.\L'tr|.nfi{lf,i\r\rhNrnhnu.Ll,rgrd.5lrll\rnN(,'n,rllNr,,n,r.1(,\ lij.dLt)tL:Pr.l\r!\rlh n nS $,id5\r.,\nlrrLrll, rfn.nrb. tr.\,r.,.


'Ihe kef to gaadh.alth t lilellle tunht tloi t,edi(nte: Ho|| Jar datou agree?(2014,Qt 1)

InsteadoJde|endk!oh"t.1kihetaa6tauoula,gtemwellbeing'iti'|a|maa,'l|ann"l| tllestth aJnaderaria" {we v6h tu sigrificdht4 r.'|uu the r^k afddEtapiks hleahreak ttsillne$6

MEDICIN! IS KEY X PARAGRADHl, O to Ia situatiots wherc i,,. har flot naturc.l eoi.kntlr ensuft that iflrliritluak .an e"jor basic teabr.dft fron 4 louig ftte asel, both prcwntiee dnd eUative, plLlt a./iri.dt i" rcducing nortdlit! fttes b, Iiniti,C ie spread ot dis@se a"d itoeasi"g our .aptuitt to nithstdrd lE otsl,ught oI various

lhis parrgmph will.l.arlys.l lhc.onrc{ sheir'nredi.ne6 Lh.lrl6Ncr in s n u r i o n s s h e i t b i s iL, ica s t r u c t u r el ;o.,i ] r e s J t l a . h i g ' l h t s r o r l t . t r ihpr.r .l niedr.iner th. rcd)nrblc (ho (e ftierd oiLdne-lefmlifestvle modllicrr n^ rh.{ .Mnot besu$aD.d

- -._-.-.,-a But thoseof uslo''4rdte e"otgh to live i rctarir. tto,oflit Ptosptiq tll tu'sudedl\ t"vet oitldtL tn qcd^u'e rt\tcad rtparihC not. atte"tio" to on lilesttle habits. kaud, t 6lar n'oE nrptant Lo co,si.brdhn re.!a.ethesbantaur d.n4,.tit1g.ntectsar .n cutttarces ate drtl L,adt6,rdth{ tliin 1.r* lor q tkk ned@l Jires n pasng a, att eh we eaptine"1ihds s!,tpk'4s dl d^.a,|lat t. for this hillrbill pn!,+lr tll \tt(ci po,nr!.ur ', rt'rrrr rsrumptionlhit in th.trb.hi\kntr p.ihrt)sdk rothelr!ictLc mod.n $.' Lliinhrbiudtsdsplrv pr..ollilclhrrnLpp.n'dL\kdu.dsopp.rurilLr5tri.k'(irf .rtrlhdlrhnrhc k . o n d h i l l o f t h o pi g r i p h b , . i [ r d o $ n N r s u D r P f . t n r l o \ h o , t o i n q u i . k nr$t).ompie rhcNNithtrc L.rg i(rm benrJniol r LLlrnvle.hrrgc


IARAGRAPH2:+ Aryuablt, tt. tinelr use oJ me.licitE is dko nore efeetive i" the stoi tern that ary aie'npts to inflen e peoplea l{estlles when ftspordihg to health .rises that poteflridll! erdd"get the weubei"g oJnillions ||oid|9ide. HaweleL the tu..e$ tuL ai ah! "lenn.t neahent is i"tti"sical\ lihked ta efdtie mpknenldtioh .l Puhlk educanonal prcCtln'net thal ihbadte dhd rer{orce liJatrk habik su.h as p*sakal hgie"e a,d nurnion t'kPa.tihg the UdEks aJ the hdter dhti equippulg then wth the k\awledge t prcle.t thd"e^Es i then daill dctiritiesa.t,d t pl.r thelu anettrlrck in redtcing the t,zne,issia, of cot1gious .lkcd\essu.h ds HIV/AIDS and vir.l iflIectianslike H1N1 and SARSncns fldssi'e poputdtians n \vhichmedi.Dc nis hillbdlprqrph liEt irnridu{:rsx.dtri. Lonrcxr ni dcartuLllon$henthercisrhâ&#x201A;Źc rhrrt,rnd h.\vlll' ssdr!.n . h a n g c s v h c n . t h( .cnr d i d s , , r b r o r g h t i n w h r . h c h i n g c s l h c . o n l e r l


cu'"rldtive .llt.ts olunhealth! liJitttk th.i..s aEr lahEPeria.lshare dkajrelk.l ,rtdal hedlthproL)le,ns,a" at.a tJtal," dre stttttatseu unabk tn /atrts. lhir lull brll prngftph \vLlto or.r1 r nnt.onLng.l nrcdirl s.ierLc xid brcalsrlriLlLtriontlulniedrrlsccn(chxrt|tL r soruv\ddr\D r o d c r n ' r L

Ewn ia rlp toalh oJpslclnlaqral ar e'".tiandt aithahx, Dtedic,rc6 alen pretnib.d too hani\ a3a eute ||ithout dnsiderdtioh aJposibk side

, gLu m e n t . , n d l h B h s l I r d l b r l l p a i l g r r f h L { i L l . d r n h u . I o n r l h . p rD o .v,r' lnrF i L r L f ue, p l r $ u e s t l r . d r r g o . l o \ . '* L L r n . . o r d r u g s l h r . u g h , l s l , ' B i e . n 1


3, A THREE-PARTPARAGRAPHu u$ull\ used n inrh\n o' c\ilurtion d u le$ oltn lsrd r[]n

EXAMPLEFOR A TI'IREE,PARAPARAGRAPH :d us sechow this looks like with the lollowing question whcrc the consrdr "sho'nd" impliesa :.5mbL. statcor stuation that mustb€(islderd bvthe witel An navel ,hoald bedicouraged, rct prcnated: Ta \|hat e,Ent doJ.t agree?(2A08,Q7)

Despik di/ t drel3 @ntal role in contemporaryltle, its shottcohingscan .reaE adveae dnd fdt azthi"g antequen@sthat outwe@ its adedhldgs, and prcent a strangcaseJarwh! it shoukl be iisoutuged lather rhan ptunated.


PARAGRAPH r: !t tne mosranpefingargtnent againsrairttulel is thehalnhl ihpact that it hasok theehenonhekt t,a clihate. Ihe air rra$port ind"sr! is o,e af the nott rupidt grcwikg sourcesof pall*drtt ord gases,especia!! carbondiaride whichstars in the athosphu.fot dp ta ttuacenttries areenhouse rnd has damo6 ihpli.dtoht ht glabal wrnins, Nanercts inte ariondl dnlin.s srch as Bntuh Airwdrt nd Cartat Pa.if. dt dttempting to 6sune norc e.oloqi.4l ecotnt4bilitr bf oten"s p6t.rcqs the option o! ofsetting theft catuo" JootptinB: .hdrgi,g hisher _fzr6 that go to*dt b tunous emisio*redu.tion aftl rct.wable e"ergt i"itiatives, Howe|2r, this k netelJ a convenientneans ta asuage a"e\ .ont ieh.e &en the nast elective nethod ta hihini* .i ru"nental dahage k siuplt to llt ks akd e.pLre ahmative nodq af bdrsport, spe.iaLlt k nttiiatiors that dre .elativelt "eatuy ,1r paagraph give tie envibnhentll impact to substantiatethe stand why ar tavel shouLdbe ileouraged, but acknowledges th,| the airline industry hasstartedto be mor a(ountable ior thcir _fhe . oitr butionsto globalwarming w ritcr then cv.l uats theeftectrvdne$ol $en sohtio n, in orderto .!o\r Lheeade! th.t ther nrovesarenradequate, anddDt ds.oubging an ravcl is the betrersluhon.

PARAGRAPTT 2: eE .\loreover the ailine i"dBE, con,ibutes signij..nU, to the dzpletiob al losil luek, It it thus nath at ecolagicaL a"d ecanahi. nece$itt ta .lis.alrage an ,avel me ihcte4sihgs.atiLj oJoil in the wortd ma*et and the cufte"t dabdl downurr suss*t that ta"-esenria! dit ttaret shautd be ilarglt dk.ouruged. Yet,4nLiflesdft continting to hawkJaresahd tou aEeicieshdve evei bestn :o eh.autuge rbdeel-tow-pdtt ldtzr' schenesand overseasholiddts frntled thtusgh instalnent pzthents, gettingpeopk to sp d on air navat thc! cannat .omlotablr 4fard. o" top oJthat, iet ,uel costshave incrased gatlt d\e to risirg oil ptue! and .nli"6 are havisg dtfrcuLtt ari4E p.afrable. Evq t,tough aiflia$ t4.h 4s WrCi, AtlAntie dnd Ai NewZealaad are aplolirg the Be oJbiodi.tet. 6u.h 6 .o.onat an l iatmpha oitr to pow.t 4itc4frfeets, the! have,et b ptate ledtibh, duch les atonlabte, reptd.ene"tsJat fo$ilJtel. civen that thetc k tu inhirehl 'alution totl'eptublenofdwinr iis oit rcsa4ftes,dil tldveLit setto beconed" uorohk tiabitiE lot the avqase coisunq as wel as ditihes vho tu, hall emptt fl'shts an apehsiveJueL m,ehre, in a rde$ianar! clinate that ulk lor s@likg bd.k on l*uri6, thereappedR litle rc6oh ta en.{o4e lne wrner.ontinucsto pointoutanother ecol%i.Jihpr.t of tneai incindusttaardelaboratesonhow ,n5tcadof discoura8insan tnvel in tne lae oi epidly depledngiossiliueh. rheyarerurdE encounging rr trNel by ofienngannctile paydent *henres.Thenhegoeson to showtheir etrortsin txploring thc uieofbiodjesk !snothingnorerhann po$ible!R stuntrined.r appeasing dctnctor.

SUilI1IIIG ITUP lhr€e ways to balance you argunent I n a liter prDgraph


CountcrirrgJn opposing\n'$point wLthnthc


Ulingrnc\.cplbn a5i countcrwthinr

To end, adoptth€ foUowingguidelines so that yotrpresentyour ide.s .learly: |

(no\v lur stindonthc tr$r b.tbn lou w rte mtthDg'lhnrlL.nysvdu bpl{r thegcncral dir.ri,r oltou' c$iyand..ndcrthe goodscope dlfirEnt.ontcrtsthat\il provLdcr


v/hcrrou hivcd.cid.d,clpres\ourstard cLcarllin }'ourintroducrion wnha Lhcris


Ihe llowollrlorur!.n in lo!' nextae$ vourthcsG trnd f r're iPh! slx)uld5upport lolLow,vour lire 01rgrDrent


Sctupthccortcxtol tour esrr"cxrelully prcsentrngtLre Ldelletuanonorrsumptio.sin


l l i s n o l h o a n l u . h \ . u r d e , i r n h o l e . l cl I voup.tseothu, ftod Nlikct.ur donnanon naE mcinrnglul bt alwr]sconne.ting it to




PARATRAPHS EXAIIPLES IllTO FOR I}ICORPORATIIIff GUIOELIIIES .fthe qucstbn Exmplesmustaddrcsea.hrequNmenL 2 Examplesrhould daflfy andconnectto the mar der s )ou knowby noq GenedlPlPerdoesnot withoutunnccc$irydet lusualllnomore Examples shouldbesuccinct test )ou on ,vour m$tery of .ontent, but 3 ntation rnd rh3ntwosentcnesin hngth instead testsyouiskillsirrargume communicatonof ides Howeversimply ilbstranon asa trend,andnota specinc Ennrplesmlt beexpre$ed pdxglaPhalterparagraph, st ingyourPoint, -nre LnihalPoint k iiit buildsonyour nnd erpe.liDg your readerto believc in lour stand 5 onll pointin rasingar.ondexamplc nonr the wodd around baltncemthePointnised vithout rny exenplificaton andethertudherenPh6isesitorshows only ewes to weaken,vourdgument Your credibiliiy asa wdter h further ercdedwhenyou m*e coilEry If thePmghPh k .laims to thc norm, or olier contiovereralnohons ]lceis noneedtosta ofianexmplewithTl6;lftl poperll thereaddw ln urallyknowthatyodareintrcducing fi om reallilc. withoulanyevrdence elaborated $ exanrpleHowererif youneedhelpto nrakeI .lear connecrion between an Th6 theuseofexlmplesis keyto mrkinglou.point c\r mpleand ,u diboBtgr:itsl.tbslol coNincLngDo renemberthoughrhatdt exanPle se.Lions alwryssubordinateto thc nraintrgumentyou Ihe poi"t o.fth^ .tanple k to show. to makeyour wrnr to putacro$ h k usedasasuPPod never be soexamples should a.gunentnorc cogenr, As thb enhple illusiLtes... we rvereto thc pinary concenin yourParagraPh.ll Theee of XX onl, g06 to highli.qht. thetoPicsenteoce usethehumanbodyasananalogy, in everypaEgraphis the brckboneol your agumcnt, me etanple oJx-Xdmonstrdt s that theclothes andtheexanPles theneshtheel$oration, xx clea ! i"dicdtes thdt/givd tot 4" idea 4b.uu.onfms the Examplesare not truly e$ential, but wnhout them


I N!5dII$N



FUIITIOI{S OF EXAIIPI.ES The biggestnntak thit studentsconmit n b pbnk in anJ bir of informationinro their padgrrphs wirhout under$indinghow jt he1p.{ith rhen point.ExamplesshouldeNe rhefollowjngtundions in your pdag6ph: r, DEVELOP YOUR POINT

HovJdr should rclisio" i"Iuere politi..! de.isio^? (n09, Q?) Paiagoph {tthout empled I" wl4r ,t4td, sensitivenotul iisu6 left in the hands oJreligio6 gtotps un breedrct4gi4a elitkh, vhere it tu! uni"tentiod|t inplf thdt peaplewhodo sot bdong to th.tJ4ith 14.ka noldl co$ciene, Thzt t the ddngetoJdUosing religian to ihpet lolithal isu6, spe.iatt! seisitiE, holdl 0"6: it prcnotet religioB d.lwivitt, alietutiag the igltLs ol oth^ wha do not belangt the sane @terie,Yet,what" nore tignijent betorddalingottEt indttirlual fighB it whenthe reWo^ eliticn retults in liB beitg pat in ddryd b,lg" religion k in orporuta,l into public poli.ies. 'ftn

paagraphdoesno! convinceth€ mder oftne daim that hixing elBion with politicatisuescouldultinately ieadto reljgiousexclusiviy'r)(edo not tnow whichp.rticdar *nsftjve moEl ises heis Ef€iring to,or what he neansby "exclusivity,asit is quiteobviou that id€ntitinSwith anygoup beit El8io6 or otnswie do6 rcod a sn* ofbelon8ingandlo,€lty to diat goup, and hencerlE f@lingof ercl$ivity aehby nembe$ nen :oned here How that couldleadto the denialof othes ighs needs!o beiusri6ed,s w€ll s the funls :iar rhc couldendeger orhds.

P:ngoph Mth emples h ecularttat6, sensitiw notul issteslqX ii the ht s oJrcligio$ grolps @" breedrcl6itu elitith, ehele it M, anirt ihp\ that peoph ||ho do tut Mong to thatfditt ldck "tiona|t a haral cont.idce. Herci" lia rhe ddngel oJ.lla||ing rcligiol to ihp.ct poliri't i$44, .spdiall! tusitive, mor4l 016: it ptuh.tE rcligioB eaclutieit!, dlietuti"g th. rbhtt oJathert whodo bela4gta the tdhe 6terie.Ihe Asociatioa oJvonerJot Action ard R^urch "otsga i, Sing.pore, whosercwlr (AV/ARE) lotned etecutive.ohhittee werepredoniuttl! wouet roh the tune ch*rid, evdngeli.dlchutch,wa"ted to teednp tu edtetkn prcsann* in ehook to k.lude ar .nti-hon6slat aeenda.mis iacwred the ne oJhot theg4r @hnMitl but ako ndnt Sinworeznt whap.rceieed the nove a an an hpt bt iBt 'right-ving Chlitia"s" to ihpote Chlittidn tulues o" a ndtiowL bse, yet what it ewn Me sr,lhlfrcartbelond denlkgot as i4.liridual rights i ehen the reMous elitkn B4lts ii lie6 beiagp* i" dd"gd wh." religioa it in@ryoruted i"to publk poli.iet,me obeiaa use in poiit hereis dbortion - d pet n"ial Wtning nd in ha"! courtrias, spuiall! eheaert thqe it d run-tu with the Catholic Chtrch- A health bill ftcentl/ peed in the lJnitej Stdtetprcven^ the ^. oJJed.tulslbtrliesfor i$uru"ce th^t @|eB electiveabo ion. ailerl6d.oupbantiabolrioaists, the hote w4 laryel, .ru{ited to pe\ixte"t lobbtiig bl Ratua" Cathati. bithopt B! a awing the iee aJa tingle tuligio^ estit! ta detqbine d.ces to pubtic hedtk i&*dn e, i h6 d.ptieed hiuians ofwone" Jrch ttet ilht to chooe. B,videntting the pdticular rnsitiv€ mocl issue here,the rcaderfinds it easierto contextualis rhe writer's rgunent Gjv€nthe honotheisticreligionsaE6ion to homosualiry ir becofrescltrr how thh can Dolarise h^ewhosrppo,r the,elis,oi pr,ys nghrto {ero ho$ rqr.nrbcn!reedutded r pubk*hoots.dd $e qcuhr panyir wdines of the neddling in a hitherto public space.Ihe choic of the AWAREfracs wasilso i&nt enowh suchthat rade$ canstill Enember theii own ieactionsro the mrionaldi*usion on a parricular out-ofboundsisue. Thes(ond €rmple ofm righr to aborrionhighlidts the implicationsshould rheel'gjous beallowedto swaynationalpoliql .nd enhmc€sdrc writer'spoint dut not only is this a theoretic.l o. thrcloBicd ise but onewith harmtul€allife impacton miuionsofwomen.







Haw ihportaat dre dreans? (2008,Q2) Pdagmph without â&#x201A;Źx.mples bearu- ittheJoth oJddtdftaning have valuebu.use the, allaw our.reative juks taJtaw uhJotturdtel, nan, scepti* (nosd! bos6, ted.he^ dhtt dfl,ia's patehtt) dknbs d4tdtqhing as a wasteoftine, an accup4tiohofthe ldzl and ke boled. Thd"kfulltl Jo th6e ofus, whethd studentt o/ emploves, who trcasureand enjor the tine spe ddtdteduiig thereit strohgtupportJor the inparra"ce oJddrdrcahihg. u4etteft.I b, tine, spa.e dnd Losh, ee hdeethe donous Jreedon to ihdgi"e ahd lihk ide.s i, uateldted wdttthdt o4r .onsio^ 4ih& Nill not .lo. Ihe fts"lt? tve hdke canae.tioB thdt we havene@ teen befoe and inaBu. thn|. that do hora^r prpandin|ou\aad allowks Lw elle.ItM thd B auatu u.taitert b, the pte$rt6 oJtihe. ]nis pamgraph andindecdthewholeesa, Rouldbenehtfmm concrekillustraLions dueb rhenatureof rhe topic.Howeverthe witer is smplymakmS anorphousclaimsth,r onlyieinforcer theEader's impre$ionthrt examplesfo. thi queslionaredilicult to pin down sincedrems in themplvesareintangible.Thes.opefor inte! pretationfoi $e clausesin the lastsentencen alsosobbad thrt almon rnything.rn qlalifyl

Paragraph with ex.mples Dreans - ia theJom oJdatd4amiry - have vatuebecausethet dto|| our credtieetuks tofov. unJo.tu"ateL, nan, ftepti* (nosdr boses,t a.he6 akd drriout pdrents) di'niss d4tdldmins 6 4 wate al tine, dr occupatio, aj the Ie! dad the boled. T"ankfull!,Ju th6e of as, fiethq studentsol eftplo!4t tuhaneosurea"d eniot the tine spe"t datdvhirs thereis stang supportfor the ihporrd"E ofdardrcanag. UaJettetedbt tine, spd.e ord bgn, Ne haw thegloriots freedoh to ihdgiae afrd lihk idedt ia ,ireldte.l *4ts that our @eio ninds wi do. me rcsult? Wehdte cohhectiohsthdt M have neversen beJore "ot do not e*kt, dpdkding o4. hai2oil and alowing trve and inagine thihgs th4t 4lection *at is Baalr curtailed bl thepresw5 oJtime, ln t .lar\ inrcvatioi-drieen age,it pals Jar .ohP.nies eho eant t! sucreedtt alaw nare tineJar their enplolea to da$tau. Aheddt codpdhia lke Gbgle an.l 3M haeetdke, stepsta hdrh$s this credtieeieedJat indiridual .jprcsion i" a,nte wat' Googlelets its enployet tpend 20% oJtheir tihe on te.hnolog proid4 thdt @tch thenJdnc!. CooCleNews,Gnail antl Orkut wercdevelapedJrcn thit 'idea labs i"deed dttest ta the sweetirc,, that dledht, teevheeliag tima Such Ja4ra4 beinq a |96te oJtina can actual, help cahpa"i6 to cone up eith hor cuttifrg'edgeprcdtcts and sereices,and beconetio"ee6 i, their ikdabie'


f-rt r.t

Thew.ite.b pevioudy lague claimsarenow anchoEdby the sample of innovativeconpanFs andtheir work ethics,which redte.ts the readerto considerdmms that aE nore aDtfor r technoloa.alhadvaned wond."how(Ea.!e,ur..ajpro,np,Asd-lyFpvrnrb'herddraDla...itbu:rlsto,{ienufi. andtechnologicalresearch. Thewriter alsopbves the scepticswiong by eidiig the pahgraphwith the tangible bâ&#x201A;Źnefrtsthat daydreamngcanbiiiB



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1 GIVE YOTJRCLATIIS CRIDIAIUTY s.ople €s.y question Ditcw t e vbe &at too nucrJaith b ptaced in statistis. (2OOS, e9) eithout ampl.s Ihe public hzs d trat that ."@be6 ttoa,t tie. a, ke! hdvebecnL,g Bed to go!.mn.rLs Md @tpouxMs ptuvididg aLnb.ts N a sig, ofttu^p*o"| oiZ t oo"n n t6 D har a.dom. Howwr in r.atit, thk is sta.Bti6 @r betubtj Jt roh nu6 bna,", to Be tusittatoB oJmbB and Lbae, ofpower oJl.n. ,td|irtica! evktent. k eath.ftd wi; preconatwd nonoA, dnd d4ta ts ofaa naniputthd to suit a a,n pu,p*u o, intt . r,", mFukrpreutn"ol tt.dau@t! un beJ.ult, d?rJdt*.oftt,btkta t adv tud to.t.t tnnds dp hda itus, w. rced to b. wat, ofptacins too hkh faLthn the ue oIs^&;n6 patkutadr st tktiu! ddb e" bcfa,i; in..i;;to;:;;i;;;;;" "ac? t* thdr iAErpr.tatio4, .nd u,.d to support nobt kk;rbb


.lny cads woulddendd that th€ wrjter provideelid evidenero bact up his bold dain ofabe .nd conup_ q mong gownments md orporations _ wen itwe how that trust in suchpubticinstiturionshde b€;n +Et n dueto oriuption tudals in the rent decade.Anecdotesa"d h".*y;.;;;;;-k*;;";";;;;;;

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'Ihe publi. h.s a, impticit trurt thar .rMbds ttonX lie. s ,he! lbw beer lorq ued to s,-qnh.n6 4nd turyoruu.^ ptoiai,g u ,is" aIi*sp*q .ia ii",it, to ",nt*, Ea|rr. thL, isJdJfon " n"e as suttsti5 @ betuisAL ted.L,, htdt* tutqutiob oJKtio^ ad abae, oJpov.r olEa, statati.d evAen@is ea&eftd wtf, pErc@aa nouoB-,ahd ddv is ofeh nuipubt.d ta s"n edai, putp64 ot ;ulk. Ew rre hkrprct t@r ot the d4tz e ecEd can be Jault, whc" f4he .onla;io6 b.t* re, ,tatirt,r l aau .na seat ttn4t aa n.d.. 1420oZ the Trkgaph n%paper M Br,tdL rcporpj thzt @rc ntu z5% ot .u crina comhtkd ih Londoh wea ?6p4iathlhe poks ad' b knisdts, Ron.nee Howew,, urd2, .tosd tuutida w4s dis.ov;ed id, k; nr"*;;;;*;; nBnh6 ot not a$ti,gtBhins bMD kov dtut tt add those etu4tb.r.t e; ta;.Ms. ot JN srcd@ toden a theJa.t thar such.lahLst ppoaks w, inbhd.d ta ,t; a; renoDh,hi' Jeetu$ anons th. atif,Bh tow.rds the in.rca*d ihhisqt on oJE6En Ewop;a dn7 dM ' up s,ppodJu &e cou.tua.ive pa r. nus, w n.ed i b. watr .krk; r.i ii;;; m? B. ot tutat6 parlkuta ! si"r. ,tzn .idt dat4 @n br "Jpt iu cotlrtion, an Jduttt s ana nr.rpreudon, .nd 6.d to srppoa le &an nobt. inte"ho8.


rhr mrrri.for a t r mde <dibh para8Ephjnr the ctaimi: now brlred up Mrh d turt tudat inv.tvin, 'nematpuhrm ofdrLabye muq rhr needs publilLrusr.n orde,, *,,b; wil.J;;;oJ";,;;;:

, rfieh.sli8hrinsof rhe.mprrtharsuchbeh;iormsht h*eo"",...;,t\;il;;;;#ffi;'fi: danssofputtinsexce$ive rrustin statistics ifve mnit etuure d"" dilts""""i"; L;;d.;i;



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'Fdshi., k as nuch a gaad thing as d bad thi,g: To what etrat do lou agree?e'AZ Ql , vithout €xamples Ou obsesion withlollowinslashian nends n iot iust ratsikg us to thtow dvdt horc stuf, but aka .d^sikg us t. throe dsd! aur cultural identities ^ we|. mo4gh we a/e teeingheadear has narle b, Asid, rhe erpolt oJcuLtttdlsaads -fLh, nusk,liter^t"re, attanA!6,Jashio, beehtaryett dahi'ated b, the w6L t thelashion tuewedl 4 d rclectioi oJwhat weJat oJ at.selvesand rhdt tuedsphe to be, thek itdging br ||hat nast educatedpeoplea/e wdri"g all over the watld, whdt thet wdnt to be k western. WeoringWestdi dres n so nuch a pd.t a.fthe statas qua that weating othetwisebec.n.s dh unus"al dnd statehent usudll, againstthe Vesti na,apolt oJSlbbdl .tltfie, Politics d,.l nrchks l ovc.thedodemwodd Whatthew.iterhaspointedoutisanobvioustrend-the\(esternFahonoIcultures examPles or Sincedrisn norhin8ncE thc rcaderG not goingto be partrulrrlymrpE$edwnhoutinteresting ihrtpnd. iurthd inslghcto drowiheextentof

Paragraph eith €xampl€8 as obesion ejth.t'alowinsJashion tre"^ is not iut .duting us t. thrDwdvdr tuoE stuf, but aka .ausing 6 ta thow dedt ost c4ltu l identities as well. Ihtugl w Ne eeing hedde.t harle 4 Asia,the eqatt aJcubutdlgao.ts-ftn, h"sic, tiErature, drt atulres,lashion hds buh tdrye4 dahinabd b! the west.Lfthefdshioh weve B a 4tettio" olwhatweJeel oJ ouxetuesdntl what we dspirc to be, thenjudgj"g b tuhat hast educdtedpeopleate we1rLagdll 0!6 the Na d, what the! want to be is went". lokla\ Hdmitk" bols dte their han Aryan blo"de d"d doh white trailerarush clothes,Sarth Koftar gitk ddd ihplan^ ta their breasts dhd ihchesto their nosebtidgesto look nare like 4 Opical EutupeM beaut, And whetherlau dle ih Chind, Colonbia or Chad,palithian a"d btsi\esneh *ill do" the ubiquitots threepiece westeth suit at ke! evekts.Wetring Wester"drcs is so h4.h 4 pdx af the status quo that wearing otheltuite be.ames4h ui usual ahd strongpolitical statenent uskll! agdi,sl the W6t\ no"opal! aJglabal cubate,palitics d"d ecokohics.Baliviak PresidentEvoMorales ndde headr"6 Jot donning hissignatwe hple.l nttped sveater - trpkal dresJor the averugepoot Ardedn whehet he sds meeti,g kids ar kingr,pedsdntsol prcsidenk. He dnd everal aJhk cabinetniiisteB delibefttelt 6thew Ama"i Iar Alharan war b%us the, Mnted ta retB a senseaJndtiandl dhd eth"i. dighLt! ta Bolivia. their needro nake suth d political statenent is iro"ic eridehe af the aldrhihg stahdardkatian aJltfestle and dfts thatlashioi has brcughtto cultwe.


Ex.mplerpeent r sonddlul opportunityto tu'ther themoddnNoddthroush showotryourawrenssof your crlul sledion ot trcndsor drta ro substantare )our argument A goodstudentwill eventuallyrellke will givehih thatsinplt ieadingthelocrlnewspape. peninentto thelocalconlextbut r dnge illustmtions of exanplesfom lhe globalcontextgiveshim the 0exibilityto choor the most appmpriateone tor his and The rc er can scc the ertenr oi fashion! negrtivempact upon r rangeof non Wcstemculturcs,whereboth point Readwidelyfrom internationalnewspapeN quo.The(dter gNesr clcarexanPleoi how curedt afaiN websiteto cnrichyourbankoie$myouthsmd adultsco.lormto Lhiss.rtoriaistatus impresionable and remenber that reprePntinglhc perpective bmd countresrc rccl minSthcn nationalpide fd ethtu.drgnfy to counterthf with a rcturnto then p1es, of theshelte.ed Siigapoelndo6 not bringme tto nationaldresVhaLsinterestingrthatthsrc$qenceiskdbfaheadofslale,signallingtrealfeartowadrhe sql altt encrcmhmcnt of vestern l, shi. n,5nd inevit,b[ culturc,uponothcE tour


I n!ie/s4



onSratulatiohsl By the time you have reachedtlis palt of the i6sue,yotrwodd havemeagedto complereseveralaspecrs oflDur esay. Yotrwould havemalrGed your questions,brainstormedideas, plannedlblr essar and corside.ed ditrerent ways to executethe introduction and hody paragrapbs.You are now ready to tackle the

There is a tendencyto undâ&#x201A;Źr-emphasisethe miting of coDclaioDs,botl in the teachingaDd ihe lea.Dingof it. Thist uualy connectâ&#x201A;Źd to rhe belieftbat thereis 'no tine'. But@miderhowrhe conclEion is rhelast tlins rhemdker or reader wilt se. a linSerinsimpession is created.Comider}ow wondertulit wouldbe if a solid arsument movestoward. resoundins finislt. Considerhow' in @1life, a goodfinsle oeatesa s8e of tulflment both for the Miter

Thus inasmuchd we invest time to craft the intmductionald bodyparagrapls,wealsoneed to maketime to constnct a conclsion that will enhaDce raihe. thaDdetractfton the substane

Befo.ewe go into sbateaieoand tips of how to mite happyendiDssrnder elamination stress, se neeilto Ditebtand whata concluion acilally doesand why it Deeilsto becreatedir a cerrain




I. REI{EiIBIR T|lE REAIIR i ! ( n l 5 l u d c n E g ckl[ c i u g h t u p ] nt h c p r c s c nnt n o l t h c i r n r i ' r i d c r s t h n t t h c , y l o r g e t r b o u t a n t i . r p a n n g t h e Fldcrineedsindresponsesthbughoutthep+crMdespecLallyrttheend lhc..nsequen.e?Thetlendt. Mk odLona$i(n* \virhlntle n ghtolho(ninpictsrhe'erde]: Rcn.mbc'lhr, L!hll('ntodu(ri,,nsb.i{lgolh. c(c'nnL$o'ldrnd ihc ntoni worldoirour gment, conclu 'on!hcLpridc'r r, orx[. rhenrnsnon br([ n)diilyl,tc Trketh6 srmpLe tor tr]stMceCbmpare therntr.ductroirnd the.on.lsLonNoticehowthelliesisold]eintro du.lidi lrduca rhefdaderirtorhciguNcnt rndho$rhdcoi.lusMhelpstlrre!{le.to5hlltba.kintothc;eil

QUESTION should a laveofones co"ntr! stiLlbe eicaurused?ea09 Qa) THESIS lnan incrasiogllmulticultuDland multiethnicwon'i,encouqmgkrveot oncscounhycrc.irorerodiaI dhd cotupli.dtiotu1andlhv Ltisnolongerrelev,ntorevendesrable . . . .

TSI: Lovefor onc! countrycanbca po{slirL motivationallbre but it canalsoleadlopolitrcaland imnonlexcesps TS2:(ey globrltrends, lile multictrhuul/mulfuethnicpopulations .hallengethenononothomogeneily& lo,vrlty TS3&4:Glob.lGed economics & glob{ldG6 reguir $nle$ coopcr ion notprolccnonsttcodcncies. TS5: Ofcou& loveibr one! countryan ndese rootednss but ilso promoteeKlusionof othergroups

CONCLUSION l n t n e h D a l r n r l y sl oi sv e . a n b e b l m d . G i v e n t h e g l o b a l n am t uarneyoof l our sociil cultual ande.onomicexch,nges, en.ounginglovefor .nes ..unty .an leadb r provin.iJism thaLdoesnoLkrve the ,z/ger go,l q/ .reatinghdrno q dnong nanl.irLr ln thismillcnnium, thcchallengcot appreciiting d r.omnrodatrng cultumldlfllrencsh6ahody beconea uflive$al etpeiene'R^rner thana..entuatetheconNonalrtl ol hunan cxpcricnce, encouDging bve ir onei (ountrywouldonll ardbate d,te dXpanties i" a mo.Lrn *ord abeddr divi.letl b, @nfi.t ad


iuu.h srti,rg U GP.N be qrLterbsrd .r ihey ,i? aho nther individlr|nri.pieces$rt shrv.sexprti.uLx.pers)n!rhinkinla\\!.!nLosesightolhowou.4umentishouliniattertothepe,n,n ndngthcmThilbcingth.crsc'nasmucha5)!uxrcth!cxrmintrtbo.andiditc]ouircnkothcguldclotou' redddAsaguLde,)oushouldhelpiourrciddnavrgrtethroughtheorazeol,vourthinlmgproce$es rndnotiust


sroADs 4R$Ecr6



yilflltsN 2 001{'r Jlj$SljtlitARrs[

ii!ffiillllliiltr.,,,:fi:::lt;ii:il::r$::;:*::ii::i:iitl:;i[:,j]:jti::jtt,,,,"j,i QUESTION How jnPotta"t are dr%ns? Qao\, Q2) THESIS r h \ p r 4 n i D 4 p l e ' h r 0r.h . ,d , u n . r p * " i ( o f, , n e "' .,,,r< r - : l o , 5 r d * o o , h . p 4 n . o . ", . .e s / ^ r " . " . " , d , dn ,n. ",c l; lDo \ h e , | l |r n a I h , , , o r n " . , . _ . , h d " u . . q , r . s p r r r . ad' ! n t n ! u < r h ed p e t r sr o d l r r k r o ur ;J;


. n(b,.,opr\!.".c0dn.1,,hpr,,, ll,?"-,"" ! Irrz: urernL nlowourLrctrttrcutrestono( . T S 3 :D ' o r n s s r et r s \ R r , n . T S 4: D ' . . , n n . t oJ { r . n " ,o l r < . l d r , r d r nr r l er o o L .d " n lespft dsrppo ,Lmerra sd,Iornu


_n.;te & mareidbene6*na.r

:::ili:,::11 !.f*.: peoprc conhnue rodrem bis.

CONCI,USTON ueans de ohe. dishissedbâ&#x201A;Ź.auseoi then intangibtc and mysternus

1,c --, p. i , , , p o , , " "r r , o . l , l : , Tr ; m : :p"::n;n,8: \: tr d: om 4 drqn. roj . ,dh. e od

1',.,y!,r r,nrp.acd , ,,Fa hotd, ' :n: o p o i . r b e , o r d " u ri r p e tr d r or". hr ,I I n .| o , l , pro\<,ro D .- e , p .d v - , o u d i 1 .l \ c . D , , , n . nor,sro.on,.rrl " , n D o . J n n . n n u q c b . m g r. i F L- " r * o n r r t r i r t p . r g : . - t , ep n o r " n " J i " , n . w d e d . , D t u r . p r o ,d " r t , h D . 'r+r dp,r n ' r B r , u r l o o u\,r i ^ n r n d ! - L f i " n n g J r J t _ur . dr\on.ri ,p, . . " , n r n . " . D . c r n\ . 1 ( . o u , { r ? 1 i c , m dr r , r t r h . h J n L , h n o - 1 ' .r F r r. . i . d . d , t r " , t o u , r r t r r . . . . ; , n c " ,d r ! , . e ( n r o r . e o , . 1 " r" * . 0 r d , . , n .t , i " r , " n p . - , u, .ur pri8nEncntiety roday !


rt mrn!thtrrssgornSon in rtris.on.tusjonthcLvrire,u(loingnrokrhan rheusualrcirerlior orrhekel

ii. sdcnronstDrhgthe inrptrtar.cothcrrde$by pulkn!ina{enmt trnddn dincoihow.l,ranls rep.reNed rnrprigmrricqicry . L r d ' n r n g i r $ r tr h c t s h h g i o t rer.!a rte d r r r k r r t ' t u m r p trr r d c t r .r D i p n 5 p e d ^ e n j d rpre rorflr unknownNolehowrheenrire 6ev p nDrcrLrlh,poinrs ro rhr rcvetjrion '

she ls dtecrrngtire,lades ltter&,n ro her jjnrt , .

S l r t e n ( st s t b u r i nt r p r t e r e r n e L 5 r e \ o o , r s e ftEJl!trrhL u t",.,r"r,n, ,au pordoirrdN$vrE h rhei.dstoxs,toidrcanN "i,t,"; iulh reategr dubt6tjqto sdo a eorrg

rhfconcrusion isi s),nthe,! rnrpurhroeelhcraisuD,enc. insghtsin,r gen. :11i",,"J,:iil'i:.,1"p-'.sr,",,ns.



3.RE$IVE THE NSUE BY SIEIIII THIIIGS OIIIIREIITLY whe.eis thc thcsisoir queshoD providcs thc Dtronale lbr thestrndwe takc,rhe ln reallife andi. cP .r8umentation u a th,t alkr*sus to s.e md work .onclusion 6the logLcd mdehotionalcsoluhonoldre.onfli.tinquesionOften, throughconflictingndesofm issue, or thechoices thd we arceDoingsoallowsus whcndcqurtely.nd thoughtlullte{ecuted, the conclusion l.hrllygocs be,vond td .lariry our prco ncephonanda$unplon s Thk teststhe stEngthoi our position thcconhnesolthethesisbfallowingthercaderlindcenrinly$esrilcrhmsell)to dr ftnd Bcsides,$ed undeErndingandawrenc$,oftcntheh lmarks rcnlrsc soneperspecrives norevidentbclbrcthestfi.f Lhee$!{ Butyounrav,sk otwell rcsolvcd conclusions, rko c[iny mrk Jououris a orature andmsightful Isthatnece$rr)?willl hclpmetos.ore?Andhowdo I ichicvethat?

QUESTION An tdd thouV bediscouraged,tai prchoEd: Ta what e.tett dotau asree?enq, Qz) THESIS Despiteair traveli role in modernlife, its shortcomingscancreateadve.p andfaFe(hing conequen.esrhatoutweighits advantrges Thn presntJ a strongc* why it shouldbedGcouagedErher thanponored. . . . . '

TSI: Themostcompellingarguhenta8ainstatr traveltr the harnlil impactthat it h$ on rheenvnonnentandclimate. T52: Eecause of its hâ&#x201A;Źaq w offo$il fuel,it ir anecoloSicalandeconooic nece$ityb dncoungeair tnvel. TSS| FunhemoF, therâ&#x201A;Źhale beenrisin8healrhconcrns aboutair tdvel, especiallythefearoipandeoics TS4: Its safeq/recordrequners to bemorecautiousratherrhanaggessivein irspbmotion. TS5: MeetinCba5icneedsfor the populationmaybemoreimportflt than focusingon the economicbencfitsreapedlom ar rravet.

CONCLUSION while it is unrealistic to compleieteliminate rir travelgrwntne world's gFat dependenceon itr, we need to rai5emore aMrene$ of its potential risksandharmfL efiectshtler thanactivelypDmotinged enbarkingon it unrhinkinglyrAs consumeNwe haveto acknowledge thatour unquetrioning relian.eon at havelinadvertendyenabls h.imtul pGcticerrhat cm have andve& eliectson usin the longrunr.while the choiceto travelby air is up to the individual{its drawba.ksceitainlytunctionasanincentiveaorosto recoruiderour travelhabitsand *plore alternatives5 More impo*andy,by ssuning geater responsibilif, therejs anincrea*d likelihmd tharwe may influen e industryattitudesovertjme md propelthe ector towtrds grearei accountabilityfld betts w ofour precios resurcesr

'Conce$ion acknowlcdgestheinpmcticalityoidsnsrngairtrdel 5how5 undqstandmsofhowE modernw.,ld works,andhowitspcoplebehive. rReiteEtinganalternahve vieNbbughtupin T54 I Involving - thereaderisnotallowed fte @derto examioe hismlein ths issue toddachhimscltfrontheissueAlso,compellLngrerdert...nsidsloogrerm conscqucnces.,A rerter.tion 16m thethesh,iavounoticr 'Choices thestntc8ltbr r quickrcsolutrn-givesrelddrthespaetodecde whetherto tnv.lby d or nor I Creatngawarene$ ld thereader to thinkabouttheissue againiromanslterna

a:Responsbilityas |hcnratcgllitrbothrcsolutioo andlookLn8 iorwddto llture trends.CompekLherrde.toconsiderthebo cf iorplicahonsofhBa.tions



| ft rur rn4


Afte, hrving saidso muchabouthow .onclusioN tundion. how do ve arullt eid our e$ays?How can I go be/ondthe lummarjseandpredicf formai?Ifl needto inlest time ro endwell,whrt aE somequickwaysto Nmp up my e$aywihoui Msting too much me?


AS'SOfll|AT?'UIfi AllIIIAOIIIARYCRITIC. 2.IilCLU0tA PR0V0CATMIII$6||T 0R 0|Jtil0il. - , j specially inportmt ilyou rre su.k Overall, youto getto the h6rt ofyou ,:J.5tion conrpels :--ent \vhd is it that I m rying to getat?li/har k . -.rning I amgettingliom rhis?

'Towhat ertent i designihpoltaat tn yw ecierr? QA$, QI2) - irrqhtyieldaconclusion$atsoundslikethis: i, doesdesigarcdUthavea signfrcant rcle ta ltat ia Sihgdpore?M! answd to that wdd ,2 a i6: It helpsutbaa pldnnqs narihise -taftesJor ldh.l t rce Singaparc;it helps :!t gotelnhent deate palicies that e"harce ..anonic conpetitive"es dhd social ah6iaa: it serves^ an engi"e aJgowdt d helps us to identaf, with ost unique i&aricdl aid ctk"ral ba.^jro/nd.1 Ear +.n uiti6 Jed^ that taa nuch enphasit cn ntu twed dengn ihpedet tedtieitf dnd :a,ovatia", the prcc$s oJ .{esisn actudlt! a4uites nuch inagination ahd deatieit!,z \vhea ee tuuple t wth ditipline did caft, r? about the b6t rcsut4Jot ecie1.3

Ai travel shoukl be ditcoaftged, iot prctuoted: 'lo Nhtt e,te"t doro" 4see Qa08, Q7) At and the tir tra"sport ind"slt b a" iknoedtive id^try thdl drives e.aaani. and socidlplogex. the increasinsal'onlabilitt a_fdn tfteel h6 side"ed the rolealaviatian in a$ stobat ea .t. Technalosical ihptuvenen^, dte incrctsed cdtryi"g .dpdcitt a.f detuplanT a"d pa neEhips betwee" dirlin* d"d goteftheats tuill onb incrcasethe papularit, oJair travel. me air de.l ih.lutry itteLf h6 respondedto .onsumerdenads b, investi"gheaeilt ik ectlit, e"hanceneit' better aircraf ad inprcred .rstoher tunices Mth a th.s. i" dird, how u" it .rd b. potsible thAt |9ediwarage rte anrihr.A expansion ofthk ectdng dn.l benef.iat ii.t8ttt?

3.III|CLUOTA OUOTATIOII. Quotesnay seen clichid but that k usuallybecausestudentsusevery trite and conmon ones.Also sludentstend to dump thâ&#x201A;Ź quote on the readerwithout exphining how thâ&#x201A;Ź quote appliesto the nnd poinr vhen cho*n carefullyand exphinedwell,quotesaddbxture specinciryandconnm your hn point Coisid* the view that natt eolk thete dars cauld, aid sho"A, bedonefuh hohe. (2010,Qt) h all, ehe*q wo* shoutd be dokerou hone rcallt dependsoe the individuah and the cahpanis iheolted. Vhdt it hore crucidt is to guard agdiflst the notioi that jat bkause we ta" 406 nat L! "aesa ftuh thdt ||e 'shouw wotk ftoh hone. At in tatt4 co8llta"t 'Vbtudl Daei.l J, Baerger put it bh"tlt i1 his articL lVork CouU Boonqangfu Teleann .ai "teL@bnun S h one $znpL of d vor-like Echnologt &ar nat be w4nng sheep\ clothirg". Morc a"d more, wofk hat.".tua.hed iato ecre.l sptuet hitherto rcsere.d lor ourkleet ard slgatj.tut othe6: our dnl nental 6p@s hr Ltswe, eatataintue"t, tmv.t, reIation ard Jor |inplr doing aothtnE shauld the hone, ofe" tt'e tdst bdstio' oJdeleice agqinst the ./azin6 oI work life, rctih|u^h it, place lkelal, ds a haven aJpedce and Eanqailitt tihplt baate @tain trends Ai.tute sa?y so, ee ddr hdleto se aaq pander ou. priorities.


4.BRIfLY PROPME ACOUR$OF ACTIOI|I OR AOUI[|( OIREC]IVI TO AI{ ISSIJE. Thisconpelsthewdter rnd theleaderto thinl aboutth€ rpplcabjlrtl ofa pdticular

DncN rhe view that too nachlaith it pldced in *a strcs. Qa$, Q6) Sacier, canwt do awd! with the depeadeacea, ttatisti*. lve "ed thd to help B nake betts de.kiors bdt Man needs to recagnke that nunbers da tell A the L$ale !to.t, Often nunbqs can be nanipulnted dt a!"ot stdga, froh coLlectio"to i"terpretatio", to tell the sary ofle desies.More ihpotantl, too nuch laith in statktkt ftduces all p/oblehs into disits thatlait ta capturethe conpl4ities oJtocial and hvnan problehs. lve ntst temenb.r t iblect ethi6 d"d . sen9 of haaahitt in th. @ ol rlmberc, ocktowledging thar p.ople 4re ,ot J4tt.ligiLt or z"ce sheet So no mater lhe .om binarionof 5l6tegiesused,all goodcondusons

5,RESOLVE NSUff USIIIIPRIIiCIPTTSAIIOVALUESwilldolhelollowing6vethingt: IIIATUilMRLIEOURACTIOI{SAIIOilYSOFBEIIIG. L REMIND 'hp rcraerof wl"' $gumentsor points. As langat peoplein the public ele do thei job well, .toet it nattq what dte! do in private? QA09,Q12) I" rcncluion, th. fighr b pie4ct ls ttr4ludble, It gives inp.te.t people the ighr to h4te thet pdtt hntukes publicu anl "ot Abort cdsti"g atpercio8 on their preseat co"ttdtl, baadied perfondac.. In tut bid to kep pubticjsuB accoart1ble, ve tho4ld .lo e eitn humilit!, rmenb*ing thdt beitg trbject to the snutin, af tle media, nob.dl! privdte life viU up sneling like ruse' Wethet ol nat public jgares do tte, job ee! or hake a h6 oJ it, d1eNa"tan a"d humiliati"g tlkse.tioi of hen piedte liv* in every ettruciatingdetdilsltu d ne@rbe@he e nAtionalpastine.

REVEALtheobseNation/insidt byasking i) \(hat canyou inilr or ledn from all the argumencabove2 ii)k thercanewwayto viewttu issue/conflict/dechion? RELATE your argunenh andnferenceby i) conne.tingto r larger.ontext - lmm individorl,I commun'rynanon,Norrd ii) linkin8rospe.tsofhunannature/behavioutpsy.holog. 4

RESOLVE the connd by lookmg at key prin ipld/themes - 6eedom,choi.e, rights, responsibilirytne individual,fanily, conmunjty and so on Going backto dEse themesand varues hebs tne writer lnd readerto ee how lour argumentand the solutions p.opo*d (ii applic$le) conned to unive$€l yel fundmentdspectsolhunan lfe


RISPOND b tne quetion - this is the latt placewhereyouget toputinlhelastvordorhaveyournnsalDoin8soallowsyour e$ayto cndwitha pbper 6nishandyoucrn sy,'lt h donel'

6.POIilTMBROAOERII'IPIICATIOI{$ Howla. shavld religian inrqremepolitiul (2009,Q7) Allowing relgkn to inJlue"cepalitks uerel, to pla.dte leligtousgroups everel, und$ni"a the bue objectieeoJpoliti6, Given rtdt our wo d toda, ha b..onelar nore irtercorne.te.l thti ever before, it is orlr it.itabL thdt people oftlifer."t religiouJaiths, athei'ts ditt b. 6k d to thare th. sane tpee) lfee thinkerc wouLl iiue$iadt 4n l be rubie.ted tu rte sane tutior4l polLlet, Opinions baed or rcligioai !.1u4, vherc lalid, dderve to be heanl and tueJ sefle as 4 snokg horul rmi"dq hr puple. yet to nake politicdl decbians baed on reLigionis il-advi;eA lar it wotld be aldast inposible ta acenmadaE aI vie||poihts. RengiousbeLi4 is a, irtindte, intesral pa ofan individ"al, finh k fit it ofet elki4 srch d strcng vis@rul rcsponsewhe" cha etged. As such it is best t .Iruw a disti"ctian beteeenpalitiA ard religian; otherwise,at iE warst, it led^ to social taEh e, tdtiaa dnd t E ife.

BR4DR 46EdL6

| n. sft rsr

hd. bpenq d of )oL mJ,or

Do you now se why condusionsofier such nch pdings and why th€y needto be paid a greatdeal nore attentiontnan they curently get?More than Justa conventionalrlnnary or havin8a frnd s.y, the conclution ceater a senseof dosure,$mething we instinctively enbrace $ esential to our hunran allows rhe wnter to push$e boundarjdolhis thinkingiusta littlemor to onsiderthe broader implications ofa decision orrn outcome.Itis M opportunity lor the eaderto gainnewinsightor newunde6tindin8.Infact,rt rs tn esentialcomponent ofcitical thinkin8ind whendone{ellforns the clihax of your entne ar8ument.Rathefthan i fadeout (or a cop ourr),think of theconclusonastle linal .hod ot a song.fti5 way,you will allocareenoughtine to dink Lhroughandinvesrin a rousingfinale dut might jd earn you a standingovadonand kare your (readin8) audienehungedn8 for moE.latt



Acingthe GPessayca sometimes seeminsurmountable.ThisFAQwill ad.dress some worriesthat lou t ay havei theeiahlirwtion hall, and arm you with strategiesto coanter those/ orkentsofstress.


TAKE APICK It istrudthdtoneoithetop bandderriptor for contenr islor thee$ayto be odglnil,but th€n areothefdscr iptos drat.anhelpfte e$ayachieve top marksc\rnifit isnotorigmal.

, . .

maintaminglbcuson theexa.tquestion asked showinga goodcomnand of the issues,and usingmtereshng factual detdlto suppodyouiargument;

Soevenif youhavesinilarargunents.ndexmpleswthothef studenryour e$.l.anstill5trndout,aslongasyouhavea€uedyouf .rseefectivelyCon verrll, ityou chooscto attenpt a les popularquesion,but one whosekey issues .bour,youre$ar Gtiket to endupsoundmg rou hrvelitdeknowledSe vrsueddddndrmm rourobjectiveof a hrsh(ore.







RIDTHAT MENTAL BLOCK llyoudokiowenoughaboutthetopic butnothingiscomirrgtomind,tBpiobably because aorfrulate ! coherentargument tourc tryingtosortout rnd inmediaLery frcmtheJunrbleof ideasin yourbruinYoua.cin! goodplacc. tostal lustcontinue calnrandwo* systematically Ask youself th€se qu6tions: i

at isthei$ue inthisquestion?


Hasthetopicare{ch.ngedoverthe|ear? Whatisthecurcntstatet.d!y?


what aie thc relat€d trends thrt dtct the topic arca?is it LhreaLened by whit isthcm n E6on whythisthrc{ exists? anything?


Doesthegovenmcntcontrclthetoprareatoday? Hrvetheyalwrysbeenin control?Who de the people nvolved r nd whrt ! re Lldi r€a.tionr?


Whatis mystanceon theissue? \6al!e thearguments ln my favourfHo* will I dealrviththeopposing aqunrents? Do I haveevid€ncetosupportnl pointotview?Are ther€anglesthatwouldnor betradi onalltconsidcrcd thit I canaddto nryagunrents?

TheB questionswill helpyou to w|ite down all th,t you know ibout the topic and gumentthatwillsnswertue$rvquestion.Bttheend ilsostructureaconvrncmg planningstage ofthebrainstohingand yousill haveicle ideaofyourstandoD theissue,lndhowtobuildon reader lourargumcn6toconvin.eyour

8@DERERsEcrvE | tusr64


ORQUALITY? QUANTITY The rccommeided6sr lcngth is benveen600 and 800wods,socxcludinSthe irxfoduction Md thecon .luson,youshouldpresenl at lersllive,rguments in

YouartnotpenaLiscdforwritirrgbc,vondthc800 wod limit, but exanrinerhNe notedthrt longerscfipts tendedto repeataqunents, rd lbr thos wok in the useoa English, L|t rhk BramnldLi.rl ermft in.E3sesh isi mduerol brh..in8 ! <oPethatiddEssthe Gsueandbeingsuc.lnct.



PROVE YOUR POINT Esnliall),,Iou hale to bringin exnnrples becaupthey hetpr, convinceyour readerof yoli HdinA saidthat do oot frct,beclur *amphs ire not mcrenemorywork.Examptes incLude spccificeventsorstatistic databutrhqcanakoLeobserv.honsthatyoumlkeofpeopteorclents .roundyo! whilc yonshould.otrustreilr ro yourown peMnrl expericnce youcanuseyouf peNonal experience to Sencnlise to 5 wid( comnuN+

FFAQ#5 L'Je n ihded bettet laryanhs sinsaporedns toda! a: anparcd ta the past. t:aMg people todn! dle a lot nare ed"cdted than their p.eR a generatiat dgo a"d so the, .4h chooseron a tuidearq ofhigherpalingwhit*.oLldl lobs in areas like enErtainhe|t, aca.letui.s desig,. Fol entupla the starting sdlary Jor a reachi,g gvduate k at bai k' une\htghctthar it t4t4n,a, "a i!)/d,'4ga the ecoionic apporta"ities available, lile k eiain\ be zt Jar tauag Singapoteakttodar.

LtJe is indetl better Jar raung Sihgdporean toddt ds nnparcd ta the pasr. yor"g peopk kda! are d lat hue ed"cated thah their pee6 d gehentiot ago,ahd to the, en chaase lroh a wide afta! of highe|paliag iobs in arus like entutnihhent, acadehi.s ar design.U"like then peeB i" the pdst, nos4 i.f not all toan, Singapa\das kda! woutd hdre at kast tenydt alconpukory educatian,graduatikg with at least dh N ot O level .dtiljcah. mk woaA a\ow then to *ot* dt iabs that pd, d nonlnlr ntdrr ol at least

EXPLAIN YOUR ARGUMENT You a'r not gided for uing dffculr words or vrinng rahblingsentences nr ideai5to bepre.isâ&#x201A;Ź and a.clfateL r tlrat your fre$qe gets acm$

! and usethling devicetosteerthedireclion ottheesat Keeplour senteices shortmd simple, anduF fidy up bsk ganmtr erros, hd also commonlv nisspelled words(eg government). Avoid ha.lne,vcd ind overworn phmFs like globllGedwo d dDt we livc id double.edged swod and compa.auveldvantagel



IMPRESSYOUR READERS Ch@e vocabularyor expGsionsrhatnt inb tne olerall toneofyour essy s well s thos termsthrt .rc nolnally u*d whendiru$mg a particul issue.

E$ayQustion:CanweeEr re]Ion thenediato tellthetruth?

Ihe popula. point aJ riew to tdke is dldt the nedia unnd be ntsted beeBe it is hotivdtert br profl Becawe like ary atlw to hdke hone, it is busiaes thdt ||idelf beliere.I"eeds thdt the nedid dktorE the nu t b! etaggeldting hevs or hiditg the ttrth th4t wouA nat be to their be,ejt. mis ishxndtelt d tiew thdt uh be e4siE reJuted.rt n actudl\ in the ihterestoJftajor rcws .orporLtkns to conve, the n4th 4t theit sur*sJut busin* dependsor dlen gieikg responslbk Jd.ts and cohincins apinions, Estqblkhed ,e*t .onpaii5 like Ihe Guardian needs to .airel &e ttuth becdae it k rightfor joumanst b da e and *erekte helpt the baiie$ ttdt successflt. Cenainl, thte arc tdbloid neespLpert like Ihe Sut or NatianaL Enquirer btu at co"suners we da not dependon itJar nuth

me popular at.l aJ couae tuoft .thi.dt point a.f view ta tdke n th.t nedia newsagekts cai"ot be trusted siflpl, bdade thel dle prcft nanvaEd. L*e 4", othel buines that needsta meet the batton line, it is belieeedth^t the nedia it inclired to *ew the tuth, either in 4 bid ta setuatiohdlise re$ or to aver up news that woskl act dgdirst their pertunal .onnercial interest. T1is is hxunatelr a eiew that can be easil! rylated should ||e thirk 4 bit deeper It k acruallt very nach in the interestoJndjot te$ coryaratia"s to co"ve, the tru* at then sacc$Jul bBihes and continrcd pt,onage b, cutahe6 dependon then al@ls ftldliigrcspoaitle Ja.ts and convincingopiniaat. Shotld tte .rcdibilit, of an! neNsagentbe put i"to qMtion thraugh an etpose.l scd4d^l oJ ft.nia lakehood, then no .ne would be tutp sed to eitkes the quick denis of thdt nedia earce at a nevsproei.IexEstablhhed new brands like &e Int4 dtiordl Herald Tribune, Ihe New York Tina ot Ihe Gua.didn dU ree.l ta bestatean dqendqs al the truth sinpl, btdte t eit iaundtkti. ethi. and btsins deperd oh it. Certdinl! thte are tabLoidnewspdpe/tlike 7h. Sunor Ndtiokal E"quiw bvr as cohtunels ee do ,ot depeid oi tuen Jot Eutl' so na.h dtlol theil ente dikfle4t edlle.



EUREKA! Sometimes, you mayget I bninwNe of an ido aid feelunsuF abouthow ro tit it into the restof the e$,r Oa you mayrealGethat you hadmisinrerpreredrhensuein the question,and needto rednecttne esy t; ma'ntainrelevance. Vlat $en? I r b o l n6 e r I n s " r . 5 , , r r v , J n l r r o e . r s $ r r e \ o u d r n t r r h r q p n r r n a . y F d d p q u e J o n , " v r e w r\eq'e{,olrgrnrlvorhNe{E,"df.onrh(ls,-r"..sdth,ouchy"urer|Frpr".rap!.,rc.*.rvou (eNp*'he.oprrnlenierndrdu{th".rCUnr.LrorddR.,trequn.or h e r cr i m e t y, n . " d . o completelyrewritethe entireesay

Esy Question,Shouldc mer thatwoe commiftedmany)taE Uo simptybefoqotten? Origlndl tapic entekce Man!.p?ople cannot 6n.l it ||rhti lhenetv\ to lorsup ?,.ole4dc1 d, ther fut thdt th? p"htshaenth?t"d a"t woutdbc taka herrtr br the.nnhaLlthe! wp.clo do so... N.tice how this topic senten@hasno referen.eto manyyea6 ago or forgotten It soundslike this ropi. sentenceis answeringthe question,Shouldve torgivecrimimk tor the ojh;s theyconmitt lfyou reali* thishalfwalthrcughyoure$ry,theretsno nftd to panic.Instead, thinl othow youcan iust neerkrhGtopic sentencesotharir address thosekeyetenentsin rhequestionl Edited topic sente".e: 'D*pit4

the p^sks aJ na,! ledB, nanr peopte e",ot lhd fihih themetv* to Jotsive *.tendqs o4ary* their dihs ds rhe, let thdt doits so dihinshes the se,e t! o.fth; c;ine h the eresaf the c/ini,al: At the endofthe dayyouwill haveto weighwhetherto includethisnewideaigainstotherfmtotr, such6 the r p m d i r r g i n e k h ' o . r F i r . bl y , o h p e . , r l - e . , a \ " n d v h e L t p . r r n , . r o n \ i [ . â&#x201A;Ź n r h " j n t ) . n p r o v " $eqra \ uI thee$N lnotherqord(bcs,ategrc


facr thar Iou tool the tbubk to rcad thbugh the entiE FAQ showsthat you do careaboutdoinSwell for Gl Thatisyouf 66t step ro suaes, becaus iou haveshowi a willingne$to leam. Arm youNelfwiththe looh or aqunenarionand hnguagethat wâ&#x201A;Ź hNe shacd with you, andleep applying theF skillsasyoupnctise. E$aywnting like any other skill, geBbetrer with pncti.e. we would like you to belrcve that your opinionmaftec and wirh the i8ht slill, you cansharcthatopinionwfth othe6 to help them seethingsin a waytiey havenot sen beforc h $ domg,you bin8 greatervalueandinsrghtto their lives. wewih youthevqyb4t alt

Broader Perspective 2011 Issue 7&8  

good luck~

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