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Tavad amirejibebis sagvareulos istoriuli narkvevi saqarTvelos istoriaSi erT-erT warCinebulTa gvars miekuTvnebian Tavadi amirejibebi. vaxuSti batoniSvilis naSromSi `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa” Tavad amirejibebis gvaris Sesaxeb aRniSnulia, rom “mTavarTa Soris awindelTa JamTa warCinebulesni da SemZlebelni” arian “amirejibi, amaT erTobasa Sina aqundaT mamulni imereTs da qarTlsa Sina, da Semdgomad ganyofisa samefosa, erTi Zma iqiT da erTi aqaT 1

daSTnen, viTarca aCens mamulni da sigelni maTni”. qarTl-kaxeTis mefis, giorgi XII-is vaJi - ioane batoniSvili Tavis TxzulebaSi “SemoklebiT aRwera saqarTvelosa Sina mcxovrebTa TavadTa da aznaurTa gvarebisa” Tavad amirejibebis warmoSobis Sesaxeb wers Semdegs: “amirejibni, arian esenic Zveladve falavandianTa gvarisani, romelTaca aqvT mamulnica urTierTisa Soris Serevnilni, garna amirejibobai gaugvardaT saxelisa gamo, vinaidgan amirejibi niSnavs saqmis momxsenebelsa mefisasa, romelica niSnavs (dakladCiks). xolo esenica arian axalcixidganve mosrulni qarTlSi, romelnic saxloben zemo qarTlsa Sina zemo amirejibad da qvemo amirejibad. zemoni arian daviTis Svilebi, xolo qvemoni zazas Svilebi. aspanis Svilebi, romelnime 2

amaT gvarni scxovreben imereTs aznaurad da romelnime axalcixes begebad wodebulni”. pirveli dokumenturi cnobebi Tavad amirejibebis Sesaxeb gvxvdeba qarTul istoriul wyaroebSi XIV-XV saukuneebis mijnidan. maTi Tavdapirveli gvari iyo gabelisZe. am sagvareulos uZvelesi, istoriulad cnobili warmomadgeneli, aris 3

amirejibi qucna gabelisZe. qucna gabelisZe, Tanamdebobis moxseniebis gareSe, dasaxelebulia ierusalimis qarTuli jvris monastris aRapebSi, sadac aRniSnulia 4

~Tvesa noembersa iT (18). aRapi saukunoÁ gabeliZisa qucnaÁsi, Seundven RmerTman, amin”. misi Tanamdebobis saxelwodeba SemdgomSi maT gvarad iqca. amasTan dakavSirebiT, cnobili mecnieri elene metreveli aRniSnavda - “pirveli amirejibi am gvaridan iyo qucna gabeliZe. amirejiboba am gvarSi swored qucnas droidan iwyeba XV saukunis pirveli 5

aTeulidan. arc erT winapars qucna amirejibobiT ar ixseniebs”. qucna gabeliZe amirejibis movaleobis garda, aseve diplomatiur misiebs asrulebda. kerZod, igi samjer iyo saqarTvelos samefos elCi bizantiis saimperatoro karze.

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amirejib qucna gabeliZem, XV saukunis dasawyisSi, Sewirulobis wigni (sigeli) ulumbis RvTismSoblis saxelobis monasters Seswira. am Sewirulobis sigels, XV-XVI saukuneebis mijnaze, amirejib qucna gabeliZis STamomavlebis qucna (II-is) da qucna (IIIis) sigelebi daemata. XVI-XVII saukuneebis mijnaze amirejibTa sami Sewirulobis sigelebi gadauweriaT da gauerTianebiaT. Cvenamde am Sewirulobis wignma aseTi Serwymuli 7

saxiT moaRwia. mkvlevar g.oTxmezuris azriT - “XVII s.-is piris gadamwers, rogorc Cans, SemoklebiT da qronologiuri Tanmimdevrobis daucvelad Seurwyavs erTmaneTSi gabeliZe-amirejibTa sami Sewirulobis wigni ulumbis RvTismSoblisadmi: 1. qucna I-is (str. 1-38; 51-73, 79-97); 2. qucna II-is (str. 74-78); 3. qucna III-is (str. 39-50); am Sewirulobebze dayrdnobiT mocemulia ulumbis RvTismSoblis monastrisadmi Sewiruli 8

mamulebis nusxa (str. 98-118)”. amirejib qucna gabeliZis da misi STamomavlebis Sewirulobis wigni ulumbis RvTismSoblis saxelobis monastrisadmi, romelSic moyvanilia cnobebi misi winaprebis da naTesavebis Sesaxeb, Semdegia: 1


“Tq/uÀ/n, y/ovla/d w/midas/a ulumbisa R/mrT/is mS/o/b/e/lsa me, Tq/uÀ/nTa cvafarvaTasasoebiT mvedrebelman, R/mrT/isa da m/e/feTag/a/n didad Sewyalebulm/a/n amirejibm/a/n qucnam/a/n Ãel-vyav Senebad udabnosa amis Tq/uÀ/nisa, m/a/s J/ams/a, odes (5) uR/mr/Tosa demurs s/rulia/d aReoÃra da umkÂdro eqmna saqarTvelo, da waretyuennes y/ovel/ni monasterni da umetesad y/ovel/Tasa udabno ese Tq/uÀ/ni, r/ome/l saZirkvelica ara daSTomiliyo. amisTÂsca mindobilman SewevnaTa SenTaman, daRacaTu uRirs viyav, saqmed vigulismodgine SemarTebad axlad saZirkulis (10) safuZulis Stagdebasa, da Sekrebad gabneulisa da uÃmar qmnilisa, vina/i/dgan masmioda Zisa Tq/uÀ/nisa da meufisa da RmrTisa brZanebiTagan, v/iTarme/d glaxakman aman, ufro/Ás amaT y/ovel/Tasa, dadva fasis sacavsa amas z/ed/a, da k/uala/d v/iTarme/d sarwmunoebam/a/n S/enm/an gacxovna Sen. (15) da aw meca mrwams S/e/n m/ie/r, d/e/dofalo y/ovla/d w/mida/o, v/iTarme/d Zalgic y/ovel/ive, raÁca genebos, v/iTarc/a dedisa y/ovel/Ta mefisasa. amisaTÂsca g/evedr/ebi, r/aT/a meoxebiTa SeniTa w/a/remarTos saqme ese C/e/m m/ie/r ÃelyofiT da saukunosa mas meqmnas Semwe dResa Wirsa C/em/sasa, (20) da sofelsa amas warumarTos pirmSosa amas ZeTa Cemsa ramins da ZmaTa misTa. da k/uala/d g/evedr/ebi k/urTx/eu/lo y/ovla/d w/mida/o, r/aT/a k/urT/xeva da wyaloba S/e/ni iyos naTesaviT naTesavamde C/uÀn z/ed/a, a/me/n. da ganvaCinen aRapni: cxra dRe C/e/mT/Â/s, eqvsi (25) dRe Zisa C/e/misa raminisT/Â/s. oTxi dRe meuRlisa C/e/misa rusasT/Â/s. ori dRe rZlisa C/e/misa anasT/Â/s, ori dRe m/a/misa C/e/misa cuarisaT/Â/s, erTi dRe biZisa C/e/misa raminisaT/Â/s, ori dRe papisa C/e/misa qurcikisaT/Â/s, sami dRe mefis aleqsandresaT/Â/s, ori dRe mefis konstantinesT/Â/s, erTi dRe d/e/d/o/flis (30) naTiasaT/Â/s, ori dRe g/iorg/i mefisa, erTi dRe rusudan mefisa, erTi dRe qurcikis meuRlisa. ese mtkice ars C/uÀ/n nebiTa da SewevniTa S/e/niTa. aw, vinca da ramanca adamis naTesavm/a/n es C/uÀ/ni Sewiruli da garigebuli w/a/rsr/u/lTa da gardacvalebulTa mamaTa da papaTa da momavalTa C/uÀ/nTa SvilTa da SvilisSvilTa (35) sadRegrZelod mogÂSalos, maTdamca nuqbad ganikiTxvis codvaTa C/uÀ/nTaT/Â/s. amad ara Ãel eyofis Slad da qcevad sxvasa naTasavsa kacsa: ara SegÂwiravs ara nawyalobeli mefeTag/a/n, ara naZaladevi amxanagTag/a/n da mezobelTag/a/n, ara naparevi q/uÀ/ynisagan. raÁca Sevswire nasisxli (40) da najilodovebi, namziTÂi, nasyidi da saupatiod aRebuli. rodes falavandiSvilis saqmez/ed/a mefeT-mefema aleqsndrema SexuTa ali, orni Zmani papis C/e/misa da daiWires da tyavebi dahÃades da bziT datenes alinjas. aiRes ali misad sanuqfod. kideve SegÂwyalna C/u/n da (45) C/u/ng/a/n aSenebuli ali isreve gÂboZa. SevswireT maT wamebulTaT/Â/s gamoRma ali, baJis mesamedi, wakuaZis sargos gareT. raÁc Sewirul sigelebSi eweros, imguarad davsdeviT ulumbisa R/mrT/ismSoblis begari: oTxmoci litra zeTi, or-ori zurgieli, miwisgan mexuTedi modi. mTelm/a/n m/a/m/u/lm/a/n (50) ocdaoTxi koka saulumbos kokiTa. sxva ara eTxoebodes ra. Cijans misi samourao ar daakldebodes ulayi, aqaT Tbilisamdi da iqiT quTaisadmi. aw, vinca da ramanca adamis monaTesavem/a/n es moSalos, maT wamebulTaT/Â/smca igi ganikiTxÂs. SevswireT waRvli, namziTÂ da nasyidi mxeiZisagan, SevswireT: odes wargv/a/Cina T/a/v/a/d da amirad spasalarad da nasyidi mxeiZisagan, SevswireT: (55) odes wargv/a/Cina T/a/v/a/d da amirad spasalarad rusudan mefeman laSqarsa sparsis/a/sa da gaguemarjva, mindors SevibeniT da amovswyÂdeT. movarTÂT droSa da naRara da Taji TÂTon maRlisa sulTnisa. da gvyo wyaloba da gÂboZa jildod, raÁca veajeT, lominaZisg/a/n g/a/motanebuli mziTevi bebiis C/e/misaT/Â/s: wirqvali (60) da zodi, monastrisa C/u/nisa mosaxseneblad da Sesawiravad msxverplisa C/uÀ/nisa y/ovla/d w/mid/isaTÂn; naoÃari soflebi: Rodora, liCi da golisi, uwlevi, bobokini, brolosani da aZÂsi. da raÁc gamosaRebi da begara gagviCinos moZRuarT-moZRuarT miubarebdes. Tormet sauflos dRes Jams gÂwrevdes saulumbos (65) mRudliTa, da kargaRebuls aRaps gardaiÃdides. da droSaca SevswireT mexvaiSnesa C/uÀ/nsa da Taji mravalZalsa. Ä 2


momavalno da warCinebulno ama moklisa soflisano, nu v/i/n gagÂcudebT Wirnaxulsa amas C/uÀ/nsa, nu vin mogÂSliT aRapsa da Sewirulsa am/a/s C/uÀ/nsa, r/ameTu/ aRvesruleniT mefeTa C/uÀ/nTaTÂs (70) da davsTxieT sisxli C/uÀ/ni gadidebisaTÂs. moekveTnes Tavni ÃelmwifeTa wina samocdaerTisa mexamle agarianTa ÃeliTa, raÁmanca adamis naTesavm/a/n es C/uÀ/ng/a/n Sewiruli da aRapi mogÂSalos, C/uÀ/engamca nuqbad ganikiTxÂs. Serisxdi p/a/t/io/s/a/no ulumbisa R/mrT/is mSobelo, da nuca gannuReb karsa (75) wyalobisasa, rodesca movides Ze Seni Ãsnad C/uÀ/nda. risxvamca mama, Ze da suli w/mida/Á, da raÁc am sÂnaqsarsa S/in/a moiÃsenebian, a/me/n. u/fal/o R/merT/o, me naTesavTa unarCevesm/a/n amirejibm/a/n qucnam vigulisÃme da vigulsmodgine, rodes papas C/e/msa (80) laSqarTa Tavsa didad Sewyalebulsa, batons qucnas demurisg/a/n miwis sworad gasworebuli ulumbis R/mrT/ismSoblis monasteri aRuSena da Tavisi aRapi da wirva ganuCina. moiwia J/ams/a cxorebisa Cemisasa Ãelmwife sparseTisa da iubna da warmgzavna elCad konstantipolis. viyide quemo breZa (85) klimiCaZisg/a/n da Sevswire p/a/t/io/s/a/n saulumbisa R/mrT/ismSobelsa. da g/a/nuCine aRapi C/e/mi da C/e/mis SÂlis raminisaTÂs. saRualaSeni CitalaZisg/a/n kuWaWiZisaTÂs misyiduli axaldabisaTÂs momca, viTaca axaldaba kuWaWiZisg/a/n C/e/mi nasyidi iyo, misad sanacvlod. axaldaba TumaniSvilsave misca, ZuelTag/a/n maTi yofiliyo. (90) mesamed rome movel konstantipoliT, kaxeTiT d/e/d/o/fali naTia viT ubedo qmnil iyo, da Seewyala p/a/t/io/s/a/nsa ulumbisa R/mrT/ismSobelsa da mieca Ze, moutana saqoneli uricxÂ. Cemda mosulamdi biZas Cems aluqbars mieyidna RoReTi da Seewira ulumbisa R/mrT/ismSoblisaT/Â/s. viwyine da ar vikadre gansyidva mamulisa. mivec saqoneli (95) uricx da daviÃsen sofeli RoReTi, da arcaRa gamovswire: g/a/nuaxle gujari, axladve g/a/nuCine aRapi erTi d/edo/flis naTiasT/Â/s. a/i/Rebdnen mexuTedsa modsa da erTsa guTans C/uÀ/nsa Seinaxvdnen, r/omel/ica gamovidodes miutandnen ulumbasa da moZRuarT-moZRuari, r/ome/lsaca dRes am sÂnaqsarsa S/in/a eweros, aRaps (100) gardaiÃdides. RoRuris modisg/a/n zogs monazons miscemdiT da mogzaurs aWmevdiT. aris ulumbisa R/mrT/ismSoblisa mamuli Sewiruli: gamoRma ali s/rulia/d, baJis mesamedi; ori kvamli Sig alSi nasyidi uriebi; alisaTavs srulobiT uwlevi; srulobiT bobokini; (105) brolosani; aZÂsi; sami kvamli nabaxtevs; ori kvamli dumacxos; aZÂsis wisqvilisaT/Â/s flevelT TÂTo kodi puri, TÂTo koka RÂno saaRapod; ori kvamli stkocas mxeiZisagan, mziTevs gardaisad. waRuli s/rulia/d; RoReTi s/rulia/d; saRualaSeni s/rulia/d; quemo breZa s/rulia/d; frculi Rala, aTisTavi gogibaSÂlman da kokoasSÂlm/a/n. (110) begara, rarigaTac nusxaSi eweros. sami kvamli zemo breZas, ori abanos, ori atuacs. erTi dRis saaRapod puri da Rvino qaleTuri; erTi aRapi maRraZem unda gardaiÃados. erTi kvamli kaci TavisT/Â/s Semowiruli. Rodora, liCi, golisi, xefinisxevi. raÁc nusxaSi eweros muSaoba da aRapi; bujasa da WruWulas Sua (115) raÁca saaRapo gagveCinos, asaniZe m/a/mia da janibeg unda movides. k/aTaliko/sis j/ua/ri mcxeTis j/ua/rs da w/a/rvides ulumbisa R/mrT/ismSoblis mamamTavari, aiRos sarjulo da saxuco da drama; ori wili moZRuarT-moZRuarsa, mesamedi k/aTaliko/ssa unda moabaros micualebamdi. sxva sofeli ara aqus da r/omelma/nca (120) mcxeTas dasaflaveba moindomos, niSani k/aTaliko/sisa aris. da Tu ulumbas daesaflaos, erTi cxeni da erTi wasaxuravi k/aTaliko/sisa aris, da sawiravi da niSani moZRuarT9

moZRuarisa aris”. amirejib qucna gabeliZis Sewirulobis wignidan irkveva, rom saqarTvelos mefis rusudanis (1223-1245),** mmarTvelobis periodSi, xorezm-Sahis, jelal-ed-dinis (1220* mefisa da kaTalikosis moxseniebis Semdeg, istoriul narkvevebSi, yvelgan, frCxilebSi miTiTebulia maTi zeobis wlebi. 3


1231), Semosevis dros - “odes wargv/a/Cina T/a/v/a/d da amirad spasalarad rusudan mefeman laSqarsa sparsis/a/sa da gaguemarjva, mindors SevibeniT da amovswyÂdeT. movarTÂT droSa da naRara da Taji TÂTon maRlisa sulTnisa. da gvyo wyaloba da gÂboZa jildod, raÁca 10

veajeT, da droSaca SevswireT mexvaiSnesa C/uÀ/nsa da Taji mravalZalsa”. aseve irkveva, rom XIV saukuneSi, misi 61 winapari “agarianTa ÃeliTa” mokluli iyvnen - “Ä momavalno da warCinebulno ama moklisa soflisano, nu v/i/n gagÂcudebT Wirnaxulsa amas C/uÀ/nsa, nu vin mogÂSliT aRapsa da Sewirulsa am/a/s C/uÀ/nsa, r/ameTu/ aRvesruleniT mefeTa C/uÀ/nTaTÂs (70) da davsTxieT sisxli C/uÀ/ni gadidebisaTÂs. moekveTnes Tavni ÃelmwifeTa wina samocdaerTisa mexamle agarianTa ÃeliTa, raÁmanca adamis naTesavm/a/n es C/uÀ/ng/a/n Sewiruli da aRapi mogÂSalos, C/uÀ/engamca nuqbad 11

ganikiTxÂs”. amirejibi qucna gabeliZem, Tavisi mdgomareobis gansamtkiceblad, naTesauri kavSiri daamyara saqarTvelos samefo dinastiasTan - bagrationebTan. misi asuli naTia 12

saqarTvelos mefis konstantine I-is (1407-1412) meuRle gaxda. “axali qarTlis cnovrebis” cnobis Tanaxmad, mefe konstantine I-s - “esua colad 13

amirejibis qucnas asuli naTia. da Sva Ze sami: aleqsandre, bagrat da giorgi”. amirejib qucna gabeliZes meuRlem, rusam, Temur-lengis Semosevebis dros daiwyo dazianebuli sakaTedro taZris, sveticxovlis, aRdgeniTi samuSaoebi, romelic maTma SviliSvilma - saqarTvelos mefe aleqsandre I-ma (1412-1442) daasrula. amis Sesaxeb qarTul istoriul wyaroSi aRniSnulia - “mefis aleqsandres aRmzrdelman mravlis WirnaxulobiTa, bebia misman qucna amirejibis meuRle-yofilman rusa, aman iwyo mravlis RuawliTa da gulsmodginebiT aRSenebad wmidisa suetis-cxovelisa. pirvelad gamokazma da iwyo Senebad suetTa saydrisaTa da verRara srul hyo aRSeneba misi, egreT miicvala amier soflisa. da viTar eguleboda mefesa aleqsandres, egreTve igula da igulsmodgina: ocdaoTxisa wlisaman iwyo aRSenebad suetisa cxovelisa, da aw axlad aRaSena da 14

ganavrco da ganasrula, da yovliTa mokazmulobiTa Seamko da ganaSena”. 1413 wels saqarTvelos mefe aleqsandre I-ma Tavis gardacvlili bebiis, rusas sulis mosaxsenieblad sveticxovelSi daawesa aRapi,

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xolo 1431 wels - Tavis papis,

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amirejib qucna gabeliZisaTvis. amirejib qucna gabeliZis, misi meuRlis rusas da Svilebis freskuli gamosaxuleba 17

Semonaxulia nabaxtevis eklesiaSi. amirejibis saxelo gabeliZeTa sagvareuloSi memkvidreobiTi gaxda. XV saukunis 18

30-ian wlebSi amirejibis Tanamdeboba qucna gabeliZis ufrosma vaJma ramin (II)-m daikava. is ixsenieba ierusalimis qarTuli jvris monastris aRapebSi, sadac mis Sesaxeb aRniSnulia - “Cven, juarisa mamaman da srulad monasterman, gauCineT gabelisZesa amirejibsa ramins yovelTa mociqulTa marxvaTa Sigan panaSÂdi wesiTa, rome rasTenjerca Tavsa eklesiasa Sina iwirvodes, trapezisagan samonastro puri da RÂno SemoiRebodes saydarsa wirvazeda, da amirejibisa raminisTÂs Sendobasa ityoden yovelnive. ese saukunod gauCineT, amisni gamTavebelni RmerTman akurTxnes, as da xuTi Zueli fluri gamoagzavna”.

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amirejibi ramin gabeliZe, aseve, mcxeTis sakaTedro taZris amilaxoris

Tanamdebobac flobda.

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amirejibi ramin gabeliZe istoriul dokumentebSi bolos 1451

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wels ixsenieba. ramin gabeliZis Semdeg amirejibis Tanamdeboba misma vaJma qucna (II)-m daikava. mis saxelTan dakavSirebulia amirejib qucna (I) gabeliZis mier ulumbis RvTismSoblis saxelobis monastrisadmi gacemuli Sewirulobis wignSi Semavali danamati, kerZod, 4


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strofebi 74-78, sadac is ixseniebs Tavis papas qucna (I)-s.

amirejibi qucna (II)

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gabeliZe istoriul dokumentebSi 1451-1488 wlebSi ixsenieba. XV saukunis II naxevarSi, erTiani saqarTvelos monarqiis daSlis Semdeg, warmoiSva qarTlis, kaxeTis, imereTis samefoebi da samcxe-saaTabagos samTavro. politikurad daSlil saqarTveloSi didi da mcire saTavadoebis Camoyalibeba mimdinareobda calkeuli samefos SigniT, magram iyo SemTxvevebi, rodesac erTi saTavados mflobeloba ori samefos teritoriaze vrceldeboda. droTa ganmavlobaSi amgvar saTavadoTa teritoriac gaiyo da maTi mflobeloba calkeul samefoTa SigniT 24

SemoisazRvra. vaxuSti batoniSvilis cnobiT aseTi saTavado iyo saamirejiboc. am drosaa savaraudo amirejibTa saTavados Seqmna. Tavad amirejibebis rezidencia sofel nabaxtevSi iyo. XVI-XVII ss.-Si iq maT sasaxle, cixe-simagre da karis eklesia hqondaT. maTi sagvareulo saZvale ulumbis RvTismSoblis saxelobis monasterSi iyo. mogvianebiT, maTi rezidencia sofel abisSi iyo gadatanili. maT saTavadoSi Semdegi soflebi Sedioda - flevi, avlevi, waRvli da soRolaSeni. amirejibTa saTavados, iseve, rogorc sxva saTavadoebs, samarTavad unda hyoloda Tavisi moxeleebi (mouravi, mdivani, mamasaxlisi, xelosani da sxv.), magram amis Sesaxeb cnobebi istoriul wyaroebSi ar aris daculi. 25

Tavad amirejibTa aznaurebi iyvnen: monavaraSvilebi, baqraZeebi, da badriasSvilebi. qucna (II) gabeliZis Semdeg amirejibis Tanamdeboba misma vaJma, ramin (III)-m, daikava. mis saxelTan dakavSirebulia, 1488 wlis Tavad falavandiSvilebTan sasamarTlo dava. 1488 wlis sabuTis mixedviT, amirejib ramin (III) gabeliZis Zmam mokla siaoS falavandiSvilis mama aleqsandre. imereTis mefis, aleqsandre II-is (1484-1510), ganCinebiT ramin (III) gabeliZem siaoS falavandiSvilsa da mis Zmebs - bevrozs, zviads, beJans, CiJans, falavands, rusis, mzeWabuks, daviTsa da ivanes sisxlis sazRaurSi misca “oqona monasteri da sofeli sxviTa eklesiebiTa”. sasisxlo ganCinebis sabuTs axlavs TariRi, rodesac gaica es dokumenti - “daiwera sigeli brZaneba ese CuÀni indiktionsa mefobisa Cuenisasa samsa, qoronikonsa rov (176+1312=1488), Tuesa ivlissa erTsa, quTaTis, dResa 26

orSafaTsa”. 1503 wlis sabuTis mixedviT, amirejib ramin (III) gabeliZem monawileoba miiRo sasamarTlo davaSi Tavad jafariZeebsa da svanebs Soris, romelic imereTis mefe 27

aleqsandre II-m Tavad jafariZeTa sasargeblod gadawyvita. ramin (III) gabeliZis Semdeg amirejibis Tanamdeboba misma vaJma qucna (III)-m daikava. XVI saukunis 30-ian wlebSi mis mier, ulumbis RvTismSoblis saxelobis monastrisadmi, gacemulia Sewirulobis wigni, romelSic amirejib-gabeliZeTa da Tavad falavandiSvilTa 28

Soris sasisxlo davaa gadmocemuli. amirejib qucna (III) gabeliZis mier gacemuli Sewirulobis wigni, danarTis saxiT, kerZod, strofebi 39-50, Sesulia amirejib qucna (I) gabeliZis mier ulumbis 29

RvTismSoblis saxelobis monastrisadmi gacemul Sewirulobis wignSi. Tavad amirejibebis saTavado, iseve rogorc Sida qarTlis sxva saTavadoebi, kerZod, amilaxvrebis, maCablebis, favleniSvilebis, falavandiSvilebis, xidirbegiSvilebis, diasamiZeebis, TaqTaqiSvilebis da sxv., qarTlis samefos memarjvene sadroSos Seadgenda. memarjvene sadroSos spasalarebad, anu sardarebad, tradiciulad, Tavad amilaxvarTa 30

gvaris warmomadgenlebi iyvnen. XVI saukunidan moyolebuli, Tavad amirejibebis (gabeliZeebis) warmomadgenlebi qarTul istoriul sabuTebSi araerTxel ixseniebian. 5

gvaris


1512 wels imereTis mefe, bagrat III-m (1510-1565), Tavad xutua gabeliZes (amirejibs) da mis Svils, maxus, gauCina sisxlis fasi - 400 aTasi Zveli kirmaneuli 31

TeTri.

1537/1538 wlis sabuTis mixedviT amirejib qucna (III) gabeliZem, qarTlis mefis, luarsab I-is (1527-1556), mmarTvelobis dros, monawileoba miiRo Tavad ioTam da orbel 32

baraTaSvilebis gayraSi. 1605 wels qarTlis mefe, giorgi X-m (1600-1606), Tavad ramin amirejibis mamuli 33

miabara Tavad zaqaria avaliSvils. 1613 wels qarTlis mefe, luarsab II-m (1606-1615), Tavad aspan raminis Ze 34

amirejibs aZvisSi mamuli uboZa. 1616-1621 wlebs Soris imereTSi, afxazTa (dasavleT saqarTvelos) kaTalikos malaqia II gurielis dros, istoriul erT-erT sabuTSi ixsenieba sefedavle amirejibi da 35

misi Zma fezbadi. XVI-XVIII saukuneebis manZilze Tavad amirejibTa gvaris warmomadgenlebi aqtiurad moRvaweobdnen qarTlis samefos politikur cxovrebaSi, rogorc mefis karis kacni, mrCevlebi, despanebi, mxedarTmTavrebi da maRali sasuliero Tanamdebobis pirebi. kerZod, 36

revaz (roseb) qaixosros Ze iyo mejinibeTuxucesi, 38

eSikaRasbaSi, yularaRasi,

42

meRvineTuxucesi,

39

40

sufraCi,

qaixosro gabelis Ze - yularaRasi,

atenis mouravi, 43

kacia giorgis Ze - mejinibeTuxucesi,

uzbaSi da meRvineTuxucesi,

44

41

gabel qaixosros Ze -

mzeWabuk (daviT) qaixosros Ze 45

svimon zazas Ze - mdivani da boqaulTuxucesi, 46

37

zaza

47

mzeWabukis (daviTis) Ze - minbaSi da mdivani, svimon qaixosros Ze - iasauli. 1661 wels Tavad daviT gabelis Ze amirejibma, Tavisi beWdiT, daamowma imereTis 48

mefis, arCil II-is (1661-1698), mier qaixosro wereTlisaTvis boZebuli wyalobis wigni. 1724 wels mefe vaxtang VI, 2000 amaliT, gadasaxlda ruseTSi, sadac, sxva TavadebTan erTad, Tavadi amirejibebic imyofebodnen. erT-erTi maTgani Tavadi beJan amirejibi iyo.49 1744 wels mefe Teimuraz II-m (1744-1762) da misma vaJma, mefe erekle II-m (17441798), faqtiurad, qarTli da kaxeTi erT samefod gaaerTianes, (1744 w. de-faqto, xolo mamis - Teimuraz II-is gardacvalebis Semdeg, 1762 w. de-iure).50 1752 wels qaixosro amirejibma Tavi gamoiCina qarTlSi, TiRvas cixis lekebisgan dacvaSi. istorikos papuna orbelianTan, amasTan dakavSirebiT, aRniSnulia, rom “zebeidala beladi aTas xuTasis cxenosanis lekiT gamovida, Camodga zemo qarTlSi, mravali alagi aaoxres, cixeebi aiRis, bevri iSoves, TiRvas cixes Semoadgen, aTi dRe gaumagrden, Sahyuli-xan mieSvela da erisTavi jimSer. TeTri uboZa Sah-yuli-xan, kai vaJkaci aarCia, qaixosro amirejibi uTava, RamiT cixeSi Seapara, dauSines Tofi, mravali leki mokles, ra jaris Semateba Seatyves lekTa, aiyarnen da morCa TiRvis cixe aRebasa”.51 1755 wels qarTlis mefe, Teimuraz II-m da misma vaJma, kaxeTis mefe erekle II-m, xunZaxis mflobelis, nursal-begis meore Semosevis win, Sekribes axali jari lekebis winaaRmdeg. mematiane papuna orbelianTan, amasTan dakavSirebiT, aRniSnulia - “radgan lekTa qarTlisa da kaxeTze mtroba aRar daiSales, zamTar da zafxul Camodgis da aoxrebdis umetes qarTlsa, maradis qarTlis jari ver Seinaxes erTad Seyrili, amiT rom jari Semoeyares mefeTa CvenTa, lekis jari Caudgis saxlebSi da aRaravina hyvanda mepasuxe, amis mizezisaTvis gamoarTves qarTlsa da kaxeTs aTasi kai vaJkaci, jamagiri gauweses, uzbaSebi ganaweses da daayenes qalaqsa Tbilissa. saca visme gaswirebodaT, amaT miaSvelebden da Tu didi mteri movidis, TviT mefeni mieSveleboden qveynis jarebiT. gaistumres es axali ganwesebuli jari da daayenes baidarSi monapired am jarebiTa. asis6


Tavni da ufrosni iyvnes amilaxoriSvili nikoloz, amirejibi zaza, ciciSvili Teimuraz da TarxniSvili mamuka, agreve sabaraTaSvilos uzbaSi, romel ars asis-Tavi, ioTamisSvili revaz, agreve kaxTa TavadTa Svilni”.52 1769 wels Tavadma, daviT mzeWabukis (daviTis) Ze amirejibma, daamowma imereTis Tavadis, svimon wereTlis, mier Tavad qaixosro wereTlisaTvis boZebuli valis wigni.53 1783 wlis 24 ivliss qarTl-kaxeTis samefosa da ruseTis imperias Soris, georgievskSi, xeli moewera mfarvelobiT traqtats. qarTlsa da kaxeTSi TavadTa da aznaurTa oficialuri nusxa Sedgenil iqna mefe erekle II-s brZanebis Tanaxmad da warmoadgenda 1783 wlis georgievskis traqtatis oficialur danarTs. am nusxaSi moxseniebulia 62 Tavaduri (maT Soris Tavadi amirejibebic) da 317 aznauruli gvari, romelTac, aRniSnili traqtatis safuZvelze, miniWebuli hqondaT ruseTis Tavadaznaurul gvarebTan gaTanabrebuli uflebebi.54 1795 wlis 10-11 seqtembers iranis Sahis, aRa-mahmad-xanis (1794-1797), Semosevis dros Tavadma zaza mzeWabukis (daviTis) Ze amirejibma da, aseve, misi gvaris sxva warmomadgenlebma, aqtiuri monawileoba miiRes krwanisis brZolaSi. 1798 wels qalaq TelavSi gardaicvala qarTl-kaxeTis mefe erekle II. samgloviaro procesiaSi, Telavidan mcxeTis sveticxovlis kaTedralur taZramde, monawileoba Tavadma daviT mzeWabukis (daviTis) Ze amirejibma miiRo. cnoba amis Sesaxeb, Teimuraz batoniSvilis TxzulebaSia aRniSnuli - “welsa ganÃorcielebiTgan sityÂsa RmrTisa CRJÀ [1798], TTuÀsa ianuarsa, ricxusa ia [11], dResa orSabaTsa, Jamsa ganTiadisasa micualeba sanatrelisa, didebulisa da memkÂdrisa sruliad saqarTueloÁsa da sxuaTa da sxuaTa mpyrobelisa mefisa irakli meorisa, Zisa cxebulis mefis Teimurazisa, romlisa saukuno iyavn sufeviT netareba, qarTulsa qoronikonsa zeda upv [1312+486=1798]. amasTan sanatrelis mefis iraklis guami unda epyrasT brwyinvaleTa TavadTa qarTlisa da kaxeTisaTa. cxedrisaAmtÂTvelni eseni arian: endronikasSÂli ioseb, cicisSÂli sÂmon, beJan mdivanbegisSvili rafail, baraTasSÂli ioseb minbaSi, beJan yorCibaSisSÂli, dimitri diasamiZe, cicisSvili giorgi, WavWavaZe naziri ioseb, cicisSÂli ioane, amirejibi daviT. jandierisSvili oman, kalauris mouravi. dimitri yorCibaSisSvili, solomon CerqezisSvili, SaSianis mouravi jandierisSÂli fridon, jimiTis mouravis rosebis Zma jandierisSvili ioane, WavWavaZe paata da aTni sxuani gaRmamÃris Tavadni: nodarisSvilni jorjaZeni da rusisSvilni da sxuani”.55 1801 wels, qarTl-kaxeTis samefos gauqmebisa da rusuli mmarTvelobis sistemis damyarebis gamo, amirejibTa saTavado administraciulad gauqmda, magram amirejibTa gvars arc maSin daukargavs Tavisi brwyinvaleba: Tavadi amirejibebi, rogorc uwarCinebulesi gvaris warmomadgenelni, aRiarebuli da Setanil iqnen ruseTis imperiis Tavadebis siaSi.56

gamoyenebuli wyaroebi da literatura 1. vaxuSti batoniSvili. aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa. “qarTlis cxovreba”, t.IV. teqsti dadgenilia yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s.yauxCiSvilis mier. Tb, 1973, gv.35-36; vaxuSti bagrationi. saqarTvelos geografia. mT. red. z.tataSiZe. Tb, 1997, gv.25. 2. ioane bagrationi. SemoklebiT aRwera saqarTvelosa Sina mcxovrebTa TavadTa da aznaurTa gvarebisa. redaqtori da gamomcemeli z.kacelaSvili. Tb., 1997, gv.27. 7


3. Н.Я.Марр. Синодик Крестного монастыря в Иерусалиме. Грузинский текст с 16 палеографическими рисунками. Bibliotheca Armeno-Georgica, Кн.3, Спб., 1914, стр.17; e.metreveli. masalebi ierusalimis qarTuli koloniis istoriisaTvis (XI-XVII ss.). Tb., 1962, gv.85,140. 4. e.metreveli. masalebi ierusalimis.., das. naSr. gv.85. 5. e.metreveli. masalebi ierusalimis.., das. naSr. gv.140. 6. T.Jordania. qronikebi da sxva masala saqarTvelos istoriis da mwerlobisa. t.II. Tb., 1897, gv.208-212; pirTa anotirebuli leqsikoni XI-XVII ss. qarTuli istoriuli sabuTebis mixedviT. t.I. gamosacemad moamzades d.kldiaSvilma, m.surgulaZem, e.cagareiSvilma, g.jandierma. Tb., 1991, gv.577. 7. g.oTxmezuri. Sewirulobis wigni qucna amirejibisa ulumbis RvTismSoblisadmi. iv.javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis “Sromebi”, t.321, Tb., 1996, gv.197-198. 8. g.oTxmezuri. Sewirulobis wigni qucna amirejibisa.., das. naSr. gv.198. 9. g.oTxmezuri. Sewirulobis wigni qucna amirejibisa.., das. naSr. gv.198-206. 10. g.oTxmezuri. Sewirulobis wigni qucna amirejibisa.., das. naSr. gv.200. 11. g.oTxmezuri. Sewirulobis wigni qucna amirejibisa.., das. naSr. gv.200. 12. pirTa anotirebuli leqsikoni XI-XVII ss. qarTuli istoriuli sabuTebis mixedviT. t.I. das. naSr. gv.316-317,762; i.biWikaSvili, d.niniZe, i.Ciqovani. saqarTvelos samefo dinastiis - bagrationebis genealogia, tabulebi #1 da #3. wignSi: bagrationebi. samecniero da kulturuli memkvidreoba. Tb., 2003; iv.javaxiSvili. qarTveli eris istoria. t.4. Tb., 1967, gv.23-25; C.Toumanoff. Manuel de genealogie et de chronologie pour l'histoire de la Caucasie Chretienne (Armenie-Georgie-Albanie). Roma, 1976, p.126. 13. axali qarTlis cxovreba (meore teqsti). wignSi: qarTlis cxovreba. t.II. teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s.yauxCiSvilis mier. Tb., 1959, gv.472. 14. axali qarTlis cxovreba (meore teqsti). das. naSr. gv.474. 15. saqarTvelos centraluri istoriuli arqivi (scia), f.1449, aRwera 1, saqme #1512. 16. T.Jordania. qronikebi da sxva masala saqarTvelos istoriis da mwerlobisa. t.II. Tb., 1897, gv.238; xelnawerTa instituti, fondi Hd-2513 (xelnaweri). 17. i.lorTqifaniZe. istoriul pirTa portretebi nabaxtevidan. “Zeglis megobari”, #17, Tb., 1969, gv.18-26; i.lorTqifaniZe. nabaxtevis moxatuloba. Tb., 1973. 18. scia, fondi 1451, davTari 1, saqme #54 (1451 w.). 19. e.metreveli. masalebi ierusalimis.., das. naSr. gv.77; scia, f.1449, aRwera 1, saqme #1481. 20. T.Jordania. qronikebi.., t.II. das. naSr. gv.252-253. 21. pirTa anotirebuli leqsikoni XI-XVII ss. qarTuli istoriuli sabuTebis mixedviT. t.I. das. naSr. gv.578. 22. g.oTxmezuri. Sewirulobis wigni qucna amirejibisa.., das. naSr. gv.200. 23. g.oTxmezuri. Sewirulobis wigni qucna amirejibisa.., das. naSr. gv.200. 24. vaxuSti batoniSvili. aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa. das. naSr. gv.34. 25. georgievskis traqtati. 1783 wlis xelSekruleba ruseTis mfarvelobaSi aRmosavleT saqarTvelos Sesvlis Sesaxeb. teqsti gamosacemad moamzada, Sesavali da SeniSvnebi daurTo g.paiWaZem. Tb., 1983, gv.61. 26. xelnawerTa instituti, fondi Hd-8731 (xelnaweri); pirTa anotirebuli leqsikoni XI-XVII ss. qarTuli istoriuli sabuTebis mixedviT. t.I. das. naSr. gv.220,578; pirTa anotirebuli leqsikoni XI-XVII ss. qarTuli istoriuli sabuTebis mixedviT. t.IV. das. naSr. gv.283-284.

8


27. pirTa anotirebuli leqsikoni XI-XVII ss. qarTuli istoriuli sabuTebis mixedviT. t.IV. das. naSr. gv.283; С.С.Какабадзе. Грузинские документы института народов Азии. М., 1967, стр.52. 28. g.oTxmezuri. Sewirulobis wigni qucna amirejibisa.., das. naSr. gv.198-200,204-205. 29. g.oTxmezuri. Sewirulobis wigni qucna amirejibisa.., das. naSr. gv.204. 30. Г.Анчабадзе. Источниковедческие проблемы военной истории Грузии. Тб., 1990, стр.164; И.Джорджадзе. История военного искусства Грузии. Тб., 1989, стр.159-160. 31. pirTa anotirebuli leqsikoni XI-XVII ss. qarTuli istoriuli sabuTebis mixedviT. t.I. das. naSr. gv.580. 32. scia, f.1450, davTari #1, saqme #112 (1537/1538 w.); T.Jordania. qronikebi.., t.II. das. naSr. gv.210-211; qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi, t.IV. gamosca, SeniSvnebi da saZieblebi daurTo i.doliZem. Tb., 1972, gv.15; qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi, t.VIII. gamosca, SeniSvnebi da saZieblebi daurTo i.doliZem. Tb., 1985, gv.16; pirTa anotirebuli leqsikoni XI-XVII ss. qarTuli istoriuli sabuTebis mixedviT. t.I. das. naSr. gv.579; g.oTxmezuri. XV-XVII saukuneebis qarTuli wyaroebis cnobebi falavandiSvilTa saTavadoze. iv.javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis “Sromebi”, t.328, Tb., 1999, gv.22. 33. xelnawerTa instituti, fondi Hd-755b (1600-1625 ww.) (xelnaweri); xelnawerTa instituti, fondi Hd-1327 (1605 w.). 34. scia, f.1449, aRwera 1, saqme #833 (1612 w.); pirTa anotirebuli leqsikoni XI-XVII ss. qarTuli istoriuli sabuTebis mixedviT. t.I. das. naSr. gv.135. 35. scia, fondi 1448, aRwera 1, saqme #1527 (1616-1621 ww.); pirTa anotirebuli leqsikoni XI-XVII ss. qarTuli istoriuli sabuTebis mixedviT. t.I. das. naSr. gv.135. 36. xelnawerTa instituti, fondi Ad-1122 (1688-1703 ww.) (xelnaweri); xelnawerTa instituti, fondi Hd-747 (1688-1703 ww.) (xelnaweri). 37. scia, fondi 1449, aRwera 1, saqme #1863 (1684-1700 ww.). 38. xelnawerTa instituti, fondi Hd-13839 (1684-1700 ww.) (xelnaweri); xelnawerTa instituti, fondi Sd-56 (1684-1700 ww.) (xelnaweri); xelnawerTa instituti, fondi Sd541 (1684-1700 ww.); scia, f.1449, aRwera 1, saqme #1863 (1684-1700 ww.); scia, f.1450, davTari #12, saqme #2 (1684-1700 ww.); scia, f.1450, davTari #37, saqme #235 (16841700 ww.). 39. xelnawerTa instituti, fondi Hd-14397 (1693-1697 ww.) (xelnaweri); xelnawerTa instituti, fondi Hd-56 (1693-1697 ww.) (xelnaweri); qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi, t.IV. das. naSr. gv.174. 40. xelnawerTa instituti, fondi Hd-748 (1697-1699 ww.). 41. scia, f.1450, davTari #3, saqme #33 (1699 w.). 42. xelnawerTa instituti, fondi Hd-2644 (1697 w.) (xelnaweri); scia, fondi 1449, aRwera 1, saqme #1192 (1717 w.); scia, fondi 1449, aRwera 1, saqme #2376 (1717 w.). 43. xelnawerTa instituti, fondi Hd-2644 (1697 w.) (xelnaweri); xelnawerTa instituti, fondi Sd-2301 (1700 w. (xelnaweri). 44. xelnawerTa instituti, fondi Hd-2489 (XVII s. bolo) (xelnaweri). 45. scia, fondi 1448, aRwera 1, saqme #157 (1771 w.). 46. scia, fondi 1451, davTari 1, saqme #291 (1753 w.); scia, fondi 1450, davTari 49, saqme #60 (1775 w.); scia, fondi 1449, aRwera 1, saqme #834 (1787 w.). 47. scia, fondi 1448, aRwera 1, saqme #157 (1771 w.); qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi, t.IV. das. naSr. gv.601. 48. istoriuli dokumentebi imereTis samefosa da guria-odiSis samTavroebisa (1466-1770 ww.). wigni I. teqsti gamosca, winasityvaoba da saZieblebi daurTo S.burjanaZem. Tb., 1958, gv.34, #23. 9


49. Российский государственный архив древних актов (РГАДА), фонд 248 (Правительствующий Сенат), дело №769; Дворянские Роды Российской империи. т.IV, Князья Царства Грузинского. Авторы-составители: Станислав Думин, Князь Юрий Чиковани. Москва, 1998, стр.114. 50. papuna orbeliani. ambavni qarTlisani. teqsti daadgina, Sesavali da saZieblebi daurTo e.cagareiSvilma. Tb., 1981, gv.102-106; saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, t.IV. tomis redaqtori m.dumbaZe. Tb., 1973, gv.454. 51. papuna orbeliani. ambavni qarTlisani. das. naSr. gv.199. 52. papuna orbeliani. ambavni qarTlisani. das. naSr. gv.226. 53. istoriuli dokumentebi imereTis samefosa da guria-odiSis samTavroebisa.., das. naSr. gv.118, #130. 54. georgievskis traqtati. 1783 wlis xelSekruleba.., das. naSr. gv.61. 55. Teimuraz bagrationi. daviT bagrationis istoria. teqsti gamosacemad moamzada, gamokvleva da saZieblebi daurTo T.enuqiZem. Tb., 1972, gv.80,85-86. 56. Список князей и дворян Грузии. Спб., 1850, №188-195; Списки титулованным родам и лицам Российской империи. Издание Департамента Герольдии Правительствующего Сената. Спб., 1892, стр.7; Дворянские Роды Российской империи. т.IV., ук. соч. стр.115; qarTl-kaxeTis TavadTa da aznaurTa ojaxebi. fototipiuri gamocema z.WumburiZis redaqciiT. Tb., 2005, gv.78-79,239,254. i.biWikaSvili

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Amirejibebi istoria bibliografia  
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