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RESEARCH IN

ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS at the University of the Basque Country Annual course at the Faculty of Economics and Business


RESEARCH IN

ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS at the University of the Basque Country Annual course at the Faculty of Economics and Business


Título / Izenburua: Research in ecological economics at the University of the Basque Country. Subtítulo / Azpi-Izenburua: Annual course at the Faculty of Economics and Business” Editores Científicos / Editore Zientifikoak: Hoyos, David; Garmendia, Eneko; Akizu, Ortzi ISBN: 978-84-09-01250-3 Materia Destacada IBIC: RNU - Sostenibilidad 1DSER : País Vasco, Comunidad Autónoma del Características: Alto: 210 mm. Ancho: 210 mm. Grueso: 8 mm. Núm. páginas: 38

Publisher: Ekopol Editors: David Hoyos, Eneko Garmendia, Ortzi Akizu Design: Zuhaitza Sustainable Design Funding: Sustainability Office of the University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU and the Faculty of Economics and Business (Sarriko) Collaborators: University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Hegoa Institute, Basque Centre for Climate Change and the Faculty of Economics and Business (Sarriko) Publication date: 30/04/2018

Ekopol www.ekopol.org Lehendakari Agirre etorbidea, 83 48.015 Bilbo

ISBN: 978-84-09-01250-3


RESEARCH IN

ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS at the University of the Basque Country Annual course at the Faculty of Economics and Business

Grupo de Investigación en Economía Ecolológica y Ecología Política Ekonomia Ekologiko eta Ekologia Politikorako Ikerketa Taldea Research Group on Ecological Economics and Political Ecology


SARRERA / PRESENTACIÓN / FOREWORD Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea / Universidad del País Vasco / University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU)

Estíbaliz Sáez de Cámara Oleaga Iraunkortasun Zuzendaria. Berrikuntzaren, Gizarte Konpromisoaren eta Kulturgintzaren arloko Errektoreordetza Directora de Sostenibilidad. Vicerrectorado de Innovación, Compromiso Social y Acción Cultural

2013. urteaz geroztik, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitateak (UPV/EHU) urtero argitaratu izan du iraunkortasunaren berrikuntzarako laguntzen deialdia.

Desde el año 2013 la Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU) ha publicado anualmente una convocatoria de Ayudas a la Innovación para la sostenibilidad.

Deialdi honek bultzatu nahi dituen jardueren xedea da UPV/EHU agertzea giza garapen iraunkorraren aldeko eragile aktibo gisa, hezkuntza ikuspegi bat duena, zeinak, ingurumenari buruzko ezagutzak helarazteaz gainera, unibertsitateko kideei eta gizarteari bizi garen munduaren ikuspegi ulerkor bat eskaintzen dien eta aurrez aurre ditugun erronka kolektibo handiak aztertzen dituen, horiek lortzeko egin daitezkeen ekarpenez jabetuta.

Esta convocatoria trata de promover actuaciones que permitan mostrar a la UPV/EHU como agente activo de cambio en favor de un desarrollo humano sostenible, y con un enfoque educativo que no se limite a la transmisión de conocimientos sobre el medio ambiente, sino que ofrezca a las personas que conforman la comunidad universitaria y la sociedad una visión comprensiva del mundo en el que habitan, analicen los grandes retos colectivos a los que deben enfrentarse y que sean consciente de cómo pueden contribuir a alcanzarlos.

Erronka horien artean, 2030ko Agendaren Garapen Iraunkorrerako 17 helburuak nabarmendu behar dira, 2015ean Nazio Batuetako estatukideek onartu zituztenak. “Ekonomia Ekologikoa” ikastaroaren IV. edizioa UPV/EHUren laguntza horren bidez finantzatutako proiektuetako bat izan da. Ikastaro horretan, Ekonomia Ekologikoaren ikuspegitik lan egiten duten unibertsitateko kideen arteko hurbilketa bat bultzatu nahi izan da, gaur egunekoak bezalako arazo konplexuei aurre egiteko, elkarrizketa eta lankidetza bultzatuz askotariko diziplinen artean, hala nola Ingeniaritza, Biologia, Geologia, Soziologia, Ekonomia, Antropologia edo Zuzenbidea. Argitalpen honetan, iraunkortasunerako bidean aintzat hartu beharreko hainbat ikuspegi edo alderdi jasotzen dira.

Entre estos retos cabe destacar los 17 Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible de la Agenda 2030 aprobados en 2015 por los estados miembros de las Naciones Unidas. La IV edición del curso de “Economía Ecológica” ha sido uno de los proyectos financiados por esta ayuda de la UPV/EHU. Este curso ha tratado de promover el acercamiento entre las personas de la comunidad universitaria que trabajan bajo el prisma de la Economía Ecológica para abordar problemas complejos como los actuales mediante el diálogo y la colaboración entre disciplinas tan diversas como la Ingeniería, Biología, Geología, Sociología, Economía, Antropología o Derecho. En esta publicación se recogen diferentes miradas o aspectos a considerar para avanzar hacia la sostenibilidad.


Jon Barrutia Guenaga Ekonomia eta Merkataritza fakultateko Zuzendaria Decano de la facultad de Economía y Comercio

Ekonomia Ekologikoko ikastaroaren laugarren edizioak –UPV/EHUren Ekonomia eta Enpresa Fakultatean egin dena– agerian utzi du gaiak ekonomiaren hainbat esparrutan pizten duen interesa, zeharkako eta diziplinarteko ikuspegi batetik. Baliabideen faltak eta ingurumenaren degradazioak behartu egiten gaitu zorrotz ekitera egoera horretatik sortutako arazoei. Alde horretatik, politika publikoen eginkizunak izan beharko luke ingurune egoki batzuk sortzea, iraunkortasunarekin koherenteki jokatzen laguntzeko ekonomia eta enpresa alorreko agenteei. Horretarako, kontuan izan behar da maila anitzeko gobernantza eredua, osagarri egingo dituenak ikuspegi deszentralizatzaileak eta lidergo anitzak, erlazio sistemiko baten barnean. Aldi berean, politika publiko hauek Kudeaketa Publiko Berriaren bidez egituratzen dira, non funtsezkoak diren Internet –alde batetik– eta partaidetza eta konpromisoa –bestetik–.

La cuarta edición del curso de Economía Ecológica realizada en la Facultad de Economía y Empresa de la UPV/EHU demuestra el interés suscitado por el tema y la consolidación del mismo en los ámbitos de la economía, desde una perspectiva transversal e interdisciplinar. La falta de recursos y el deterioro ambiental hacen necesario abordar con rigor las vías de solución a los problemas derivados de dicha situación. En este sentido las políticas públicas deberían de configurar entornos que permitan una actuación de los agentes económicos y empresariales coherentes con la sostenibilidad. Para ello es preciso considerar una visión de gobernanza multinivel donde se complementen visiones descentralizadoras y liderazgos múltiples en relación sistémica. Al mismo tiempo, estas políticas públicas se estructuran desde la Nueva Gestión Pública, donde internet por un lado y la participación y el compromiso por otro son fundamentales.

Planteamendu hauek aukera eman behar dute bateragarri egiteko lehiakortasuna eta ekologia, eta, horretarako, eztabaidatu egin behar da zer den eraginkorragoa: politika erregulatzaileak, zigortzaileak edo pizgarriak eskaintzen dituztenak. Halaber, aurreko posizioen proposamen integratzaileak ere egiten dira, erregulazioa, zigorra eta pizgarriak konbinatuta. Politika publikoek jasangarritasuna ere sustatu egin behar dute, management-aren osagai gisa, halako moldez, non enpresa zuzendaritzak bere logika profesionalaren partetzat hartuko baitu ingurumenaren eta ekologiaren arazoa. Horrela, antolakuntza aldaketa sustatuko da, goitik abiatuta, enpresaren maila guztietarantz.

Estos planteamientos, deben permitir una compatibilidad entre la competitividad y la ecología. Para ello, se abre el debate respecto a si es más eficaz una política regulatoria, sancionadora o incentivadora. También se dan posiciones integradoras de las anteriores, conjugando regulación, sanción e incentivación. La sostenibilidad también debe ser fomentada desde la política pública como un componente del management, de tal que la dirección empresarial asuma como parte de su lógica profesional la cuestión ecológica y medioambiental. De esta forma se fomenta el cambio organizacional desde arriba hacia todos los niveles de la empresa.

Horrek guztiak aukera profesional berriak sortzen dizkie ekonomia ekologikoaren alorrean lan egin nahi dutenei, eta ekoberrikuntzari lotutako sektore berriak sortzen dira, politika publikoek albo batera utzi beharko ez lituzketenak.

Todo ello abre nuevas ventanas profesionales a quienes decidan dedicarse al ámbito de la economía ecológica y medioambiental, al mismo tiempo que surgen nuevos sectores asociados a la ecoinnovación, aspectos estos que no deben ser olvidados por las políticas públicas.


INTRODUCTION


Annual course in Ecological Economics Faculty of Economics and Business, Sarriko, Bilbao

The Faculty of Economics and Business of the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) has hosted an annual course on Ecological Economics since 2013. This course aims to provide graduate and postgraduate students with an introduction to ecological economics and to show the current research that our University is carrying out in this rapidly evolving field. Ecological economics, also known as the science of sustainability, provides a trans-disciplinary approach to address complex socio-ecological systems - like the ones that humanity faces nowadays - by allowing an open dialogue between different academic disciplines. As this volume illustrates, framing the economic system as a subsystem of the Earth's larger ecosystem, this approach enriches the conventional analytical framework of economics with inputs from different disciplines such as biology, physics, engineering, chemistry, geology, sociology, anthropology, etc. Without being exhaustive, the present volume provides a compressive representation of the diversity of topics covered within the ecological economics’ community at the UPV/EHU. Research in this area covers a wide variety of topics ranging from micro-level studies related with sustainable mobility, natural resource management and sustainable food production, to macro-level studies related with international resource flows and environmental justice issues at the global scale. These studies combine theoretical and empirical approaches: (i) to assess and conceptualize the (un)sustainability of the current economic system; (ii) to explore alternative consumption and production systems modes in respond to the unavoidable challenges faced by humanity (i.e. food-energy-water security, climate change, biodiversity loss, social and environmental inequalities, among others) and; (iii) to better understand the mechanisms governing the functioning of complex socio-ecological systems at multiple scales. More precisely, the reader of this catalogue will find a brief introduction to the work that researchers and research groups from the UPV/EHU are developing on: sustainable transitions, transport studies, environmental and energy justice, ecosystem services assessment, circular economy and waste management, climate change adaptation, material and energy flows, renewable energies and, sustainable natural resource management, among others. The course is organized by EKOPOL, UPV/EHU’s research group on Ecological Economics and Political Ecology (www.ekopol.org).

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Circular Economy & Waste Management

Ecosystem Services Assessment

Environmental Justice

Performance of the Basque Y HSR

The transition to a Sustainable Economy

INDEX


How green is Green Growth?

Energy Sovereignity and Democracy

Sustainability Assessment

Hidden Energy Flows: Justice, Responsibility

Social Metabolism and Ecological Debt

Climate Change Adaptation Lab


The Transition to a Sustainable Economy

Figure: G. H. Brundtland, addressing the UN General Assembly on Environment and Development (UN Photo, 1987)


Roberto Bermejo

roberto.bermejo@ehu.eus University of the Basque Country, Department of Applied Economics I www.ehu.eus/es/web/ea1

Public institutions are increasingly stating that their policies are sustainable. However, this concept has being manipulated in order to remove its transformative potential. For this reason, we need to define as precisely as possible what sustainability means. At its core, sustainability requires understanding that human beings are part of nature and that human economy is a sub-system of the biosphere. If human civilization aims to survive, it needs to imitate nature; otherwise, it will perish. Imitating nature requires understanding that life in our planet is preserved and developed by natural ecosystems, which basically means: use of solar energy; recycling of materials fluxes; evolution after reaching maturity; cooperation is far more important than competition; high level of biodiversity; self-sufficiency and decentralization; and there is a hierarchy based on of the provided services. The capitalist economy does not accomplish any of the functional principles of sustainability, so its transformation is imperative and, slowly but firmly, it is happening. In fact, the last two decades have witnessed some revolutionary changes worth mentioning: development of free and open source software, flourishing open design and manufacturing communities, transition movements, energy cooperatives, etc. They are creating a new model of value creation and distribution, known as commons-based peer to peer production (CBPP). These transformative movements are developing a converging strategy (as the European Commons Assembly) as well as with the classic cooperative movement, small and median companies, and socially oriented businesses. References Bermejo, R. (2014) Handbook for a sustainable economy. Springer: Netherlands. Bermejo, R., Arto, I., Hoyos, D. y Garmendia, E. Menos es mรกs. Del desarrollo sostenible al decrecimiento sostenible Cuadernos de Trabajo Hegoa, 2010; 52, 1 - 30 -1130-9962 Bermejo, R., I. Arto and D. Hoyos Sustainable Development in the Brundtland Report and Its Distortion: Implications for Development Economics and International Cooperation K. Unceta and A, Arrinda (eds.), Development Cooperation: Facing the Challenges of Global Change, Center for Basques Studies. University of Nevada., 2010; Current Research Series, No. 3, 13 - 34 -978-1-935709-02-2

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Environmental performance of the Basque Y High Speed Rail

Figure: Basque High Speed Rail ( Eusko Jaurlaritza, Gipuzkoa)


David Hoyos

david.hoyos@ehu.eus University of the Basque Country, Applied Economics III Department www.ehu.eus Transport policy faces, at the beginning of the twenty-first century, an unresolved dilemma: how to reconcile an apparently unstoppable growth of passenger and freight traffic with its undesirable social and environmentally harmful effects. In this context, HSR infrastructures have been proposed as a means to reconcile the dilemma between transport growth and sustainability due to its potential contribution to energy savings and GHG emissions reductions. However, while few countries have embarked in HSR technology, the environmental arguments favouring investments in HSR are far from clear, so it must be assessed in a case-by-case basis. The present study evaluates the environmental performance of HSR technology, under two assumptions: (1) a proper evaluation of the environmental performance of HSR requires considering its entire life-cycle; and (2) the environmental performance in terms of GHG emissions and energy savings should be assessed under current national and European strategies and commitments. In the European context, this means: (1) that GHG emissions should be reduced by 80% in 2050 as compared to emissions’ levels in 1990; (2) reducing the use and dependence of energy. In terms of GHG emissions, no scenario produces net savings at the end of the lifetime infrastructure, even if the lifetime was extended to 100 years. In regards to energy balance, although some positive results are found, none of the energy savings occurs before 40 years of service. Robustness of these results leads us to conclude that GHG emissions reduction and energy savings should not be used as a general argument in favour of investing in HSR infrastructures. References Bueno, G., Hoyos, D., Capellán-Pérez, I. 2017. Evaluating the environmental performance of the high speed rail project in the Basque Country, Spain. Research in Transportation economics. 44-56. Hoyos, D., Bueno, G., and Capellán-Pérez, I. (2017). Environmental assessment of high-speed rail. In D. Albalate, and G. Bel (Eds.), Evaluating high-speed rail. Interdisciplinary perspectives. New York: Routledge Studies in Transport Analysis. Antigüedad, I.; R. Bermejo; D. Hoyos; G. Bel; G. Bueno; I. Capellán-Pérez; I. Gorostidi; I. Barcena; J. Larrinaga (2016) Análisis transdisciplinar del modelo ferroviario de alta velocidad:el proyecto de Nueva Red Ferroviaria para el País Vasco, Cuadernos de Trabajo/Lan-koadernoak Hegoa, 71, 2016.

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Environmental Justice

Figure: Participatory process in indigenous community (MarĂ­a Barrachina, Guatemala 2009)


Leire Urkidi

leire.urkidi@ehu.eus University of the Basque Country, Department of Geography, Prehistory and Archaeology, Parte Hartuz http://www.ehu.eus/es/web/partehartuz

Environmental Justice (EJ) refers to the (un)just distribution of environmental goods and burdens among social groups. Most scholars agree that the environmental justice concept came to be in 1982 when rural poor, mostly African-Americans, from Warren County (US) mobilised to oppose a PCB landfill next to their homes. Furthermore, governmental and scholar reports denounced and confirmed the uneven exposure of minorities to toxics and polluting activities in the US. Afterwards, the approach of EJ has been adopted (hybridised with local discourses) in other environment conflicts and academic studies worldwide. In the University of the Basque Country, we are developing related research which is also influenced by social ecology and political ecology traditions. For instance, we have researched, in collaboration with colleagues from the Autonomous University of Barcelona, the environmental injustices of mining projects and conflicts. From several case studies in Latin America, we point to the relevance of studying decision-making procedures and jumping scales to understand how environmental justice claims are framed in resource extraction conflicts (Urkidi & Walter 2011). As in social justice research, to reduce the analysis of environmental justice to a distributional outcome is a limited approach and, following Schlosberg and other authors, dimensions such as participation and recognition must be taken into account. In Latin America, 68 communities carried out local referendums about mining showing the relevance of participatory decision-making in the framing of justice and environmental justice (Walter & Urkidi 2017).

References Walter, Mariana y Leire Urkidi (2017) Community mining consultations in Latin America: The contested emergence of a hybrid institution for participation. GEOFORUM 84: 265-279 Urkidi, Leire y Mariana Walter (2011) Dimensions of environmental justice in anti-gold mining movements in Latin America. GEOFORUM 42 (6): 683-695.

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Ecosystem Services Assessment of the Basque Country

Figure: Plenary Session of “ipbes” in the European Parliament ( IPBES-5, Bonn, Germany)


Miren Onaindia - Nekane Castillo-Eguskitza

miren.onaindia@ehu.eus - nekane.castillo@ehu.eus UNESCO Chair on Sustainable Development and Environmental Education. www.ehu.eus/cdsea

The purpose of this project is to develop in the Basque Country the conceptual and methodological framework of the International Scientific Programme Millenium Ecosystem Assessment. This program aims to generate scientific knowledge applicable in the public and private sectors, on the consequences of the changes that are being generated in ecosystems and their services (mostly due to the impact of territorial policies) as well as current possible response options. The project aims to be a tool for the identification of priority actions designed to avoid or minimize human impacts on ecosystems and their services and, on the other hand, highlight the policies and actions that impact positively on the conservation and sustainable use of natural capital of the Basque Country. In addition, pursuing supply planning and management tools, as well as offering prospects (scenarios) on the consequences of the decisions that affect the flow of ecosystem services. Besides the political and institutional training, it is intended to value citizenship between the intrinsic values of our natural capital through the dissemination of the results of the project. This diffusion is carried out both locally, nationally and internationally. For this, members of the research group participate in different international networks related to the evaluation of services, such as Sub-Global Assessment Network (SGA), Ecosystem Services Partnership (ESP) and Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). References Onaindia, M., Fernández De Manuel, B., Madariaga I., Rodríguez-Loinaz G. 2013. Co-benefits and trade-offs between biodiversity, carbon storage and water flow regulation. Forest Ecology and Management 289:1- 9. Onaindia, M., Ballesteros, F., Alonso, G., Monge-Ganuzas, M., Peña, L. 2013. Participatory process to prioritize actions for a sustainable management in a biosphere reserve. Environmnetal Science and Policy 33: 283-294.

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Circular Economy and Waste Management

Figure: Zabalgarbi urban waste incineration plant (Zabalgarbi, Bilbao)


Gorka Bueno

gorka.bueno@ehu.eus University of the Basque Country, Department of Electronics Engineering www.ehu.eus/es/web/dee

The aim of integrated Municipal Solid Waste Management Systems is to give an adequate treatment to collected waste with a minimum environmental impact under affordable costs. These systems comprise all the treatment and processing steps underwent by collected fractions of municipal solid waste generated in a specific area. In order to improve sustainability and minimize impacts, some waste treatments—such as incineration or anaerobic digestion—aim at recovering energy from waste, while others are focused on preparing the waste for material recovery. In fact, management systems normally combine different kinds of material and energy recovery. Which system would present a lower environmental impact and be more desirable from a sustainability perspective? Answering this question is hindered by the fact that recovered energy and materials are not directly comparable or directly substitutable with each other. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology provides a powerful framework in order to be able to compare overall environmental impacts of alternative approaches. Applying the LCA framework, it can be shown that when a high share of waste is collected separately, and processes assumed in the background system are adequately characterized, especially the production of the electricity mix, then prioritizing material recovery provides better results even in environmental categories tightly related to fossil energy consumption, such as the global warming potential impact category.

References G. Bueno, I. Latasa, P.J. Lozano, Comparative LCA of two approaches with different emphasis on energy or material recovery for a municipal solid waste management system in Gipuzkoa, 2015, DOI:10.1016/j.rser.2015.06.021 ZERO ZABOR. Nola berpiztu ekonomia Lur planeta txikitu gabe. Joan Marc Simon, Daniel Zuazagoitia Rey-Baltar, UEU, 2016. ISBN: 978-84-8438-597-4 - http://www.ueu.eus/denda/ikusi/zero_zabor__nola_berpiztu_ekonomia_lur_planeta_txikitu_gabe

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Climate Change Adaptation Lab at Basque Centre of Climate Change (BC3)

Figure: Drought in Lake Hume, New South Wales ( Tim Keegan, Australia)


Elisa Sainz de Murieta

elisa.sainzdemurieta@bc3research.org Basque Centre of Climate Change (BC3) - Low Carbon Programme of the UPV/EHU www.bc3research.org - www.lowcarbonprogramme.org

Climate change represents one of the greatest challenges for humankind. The IPCC acknowledges that the combination of mitigation and adaptation solutions are required to cope with this problem. While mitigation policies are devoted to emission reductions or the increase in carbon sinks, adaptation aims at reducing climate change impacts and helping build resilience. Even if ambitious mitigation efforts were set up in the short term, the inertia of the climate system makes adaptation inevitable. Adaptation needs to deal with problems linked to the nature of climate change, such as long-term horizons, the uncertainty surrounding climate projections as well as the timing, frequency and intensity of the impacts, changing baselines in time and the cross-sectorial nature of adaptation. Additionally, measuring the progress on adaptation has received little attention so far, compared to mitigation, so globally it is difficult to say if the adaptive capacity of our societies has improved. At BC3, we work on climate change adaptation with a special focus on (i) understanding risk and vulnerability, (ii) designing and assessing adaptation policies, instruments and solutions; (iii) measuring adaptation progress and (iv) understanding the implications of uncertainty. References Abadie, L.M., Galarraga, I., Sainz de Murieta, E. 2017. Understanding risks in the light of uncertainty: low-probability, high-impact coastal events in cities. Environmental Research Letters. 12. (1) 014017. DOI (10.1088/1748-9326/aa5254). Ding, H., Chiabai, A., Silvestri, S., and Nunes, Paulo A. L. D. 2016. Valuing climate change impacts on European forest ecosystems. Ecosystem Services. 18. 141-153. DOI (10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.02.039). Olazabal,M., Pascual,U. 2015. Use of fuzzy cognitive maps to study urban resilience and transformation. Environmental Innovations and Societal Transitions. 18. 18-40. DOI (10.1016/j.eist.2015.06.006).

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Social Metabolism and Ecological Debt

Figure: International trade container ship 'Maribo Maersk' (Frans Berkelaar, Port of Rotterdam)


Eneko Garmendia

eneko.garmendia@ehu.eus University of the Basque Country, Department of Applied Economics I www.ehu.eus/es/web/ea1/home The globalization of the world economy has increased resource flows around the planet, raising pressures on the environment. In this context, it becomes essential to pursue a multi-scalar understanding of current economic dynamics for bridging the gap between local consumption and production patterns and global environmental pressures. The study of social metabolism (i.e. material and energy flows) serves to better understand how human systems structure their growing material and energy exchange, with the environment both as a source of inputs, and as a sink for waste. In the case of the Basque Country, the study of resource flows developed by a multidisciplinary research team of UPV/EHU, shows that (i) the Basque economy is highly resource-intensive and, (ii) only a small portion of such materials comes from within the region while over 80% comes from outside its boundaries. Associated with these resource flows, the research team identified connections between the production of tin capsules in the Basque Country and environment and health impacts in Bolivia; the increasing demand for agro-fuels in Europe and forest destruction, biodiversity loss and forced evictions in Indonesia. The research also shows that the increased investment of Basque companies in Latin America, and the fishing pressure of the Basque fleet in East Africa, derived in severe social and environmental liabilities in these regions. In addition, the study indicates how to bridge the gap between local and global scales, creating a useful approach to raising social awareness and informing public policies in resource intensive societies References Garmendia, E., Urkidi, L., Arto, I. Barcena, I., Bermejo, R., Hoyos, D., Lago, R. 2016. Tracing the impacts of a northern open economy on the global environment. Ecological economics. 169-181. Urkidi, L., Garmendia,E., Mantxo,M., Musoles,L.,Arto,I.,Barcena,I., Hoyos,D., Bermerjo,R. y Lago,R. 2014. Justicia Ambiental Global: Impactos Socio-Ambientales de la economĂ­a vasca en el Sur. Bilbao. Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea UPV/EHU. ISBN 978-84-9860-924-0 Urkidi, L., Garmendia, E., Arto, I. 2015. Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoko ekonomiaren lurraldez kanpoko erantzukizun sozio-ekologikoa. Lurralde: investigaciĂłn y espacio. 38. 187-212.

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Hidden Energy Flows: Energy Justice and Responsibility

Figure: Workers in Foxconn, assembling Apple brands computers (Kin Cheung, Taiwan)


Ortzi Akizu

ortzi.akizu@ehu.eus University of the Basque Country, Department of Graphic Expression and Engineering Projects www.ehu.eus/es/web/agip The aim of this research has been to discuss how to be aware of impacts and their respective citizens’ responsibilities in the current energy model, due to the outsourcing of production chains of Global North countries to Global South ones. Recognition of the total energy consumption of the so-called developed countries plays an important role in this conflict. Currently, the total energy consumption of the Global North life styles is not internationally recognized, and this makes it harder to understand what the current “exemplary sustainable energy countries” to be followed are. Based on Input-Output analysis, this work aims to discuss solutions to avoid the Hidden Energy Flows effect in international energy justice. The outsourcing of the industries of the so-called developed countries, in order to survive in the globalized economic market system, is apparently making the Global North countries lower energy consumers. Due to the massive outsourcing of industrial manufacturing, food production and services, less energy is consumed in the Global North countries. In consequence, Global North countries “appear” to be more and more sustainable. International Energy Agency (IEA) does not take into account the import export rates of the embodied energy in goods and services, generating an incomplete national energy consumption panorama. Multi Regional Input-Output (MRIO) has been used as main methodology to obtain the Total Primary Energy Footprint (TPEF) from the initial Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES) obtained from the IEA. This has been done using the 26 sector based EORA database economic information for 189 countries. Leontief extrapolation has been used in order to cross economic data with energy data.

References O. Akizu, E. Kurt, G. Bueno, J. Lopez-Guede, and I. Arto, “The role of international energy dependency on national welfare,” 2017. Fifth European Conference on Renewable Energy Systems (ECRES2017 ) O. Akizu, E. Kurt, G. Bueno, and J. Lopez-Guede, “Hidden Energy Flows: justice and responsibility in outsourcing goods and services” 6th International Conference on Energy and Environment Technologies and Equipment (EEETE '17) Akizu, O., Urkidi, L., Bueno, G., Lago, R., Barcena, I., Mantxo, M., Basurko, I., Lopez-Guede, J.M., 2017. Tracing the emerging energy transitions in the Global North and the Global South. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy. doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.04.297.

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Sustainability Assessment of Traditional Grazing Systems

Figure: Extensive sheep grazing in Aralar (Xabier Zaldua, Lazkaomendi)


Arantza Aldezabal - Oihana Garcia Alonso

arantza.aldezabal@ehu.eus - oihana.garcia@ehu.eus University of the Basque Country, Plant Biology and Ecology - Applied Economics I www.ehu.eus/es/web/bve-lbe - www.ehu.eus/es/web/ea1/home Rural landscapes in Europe are changing due to the globalization of the food system, new policies (e.g. Common Agriculture Policy) and evolving rural lifestyles, among others. These changes are remarkable in mountain areas where traditional activities that contribute to sustainable food systems are threatened by industrial production systems. In this context, it becomes critical to assess the socio-ecological and nutritional benefits of traditional food systems like extensive sheep grazing in order to ensure their contribution to a sustainable food system. Based in the experience of Aralar, a multidisciplinary research team of UPV/EHU is analyzing the contribution of traditional mountain sheep grazing to rural development, the provision of high quality food and biodiversity conservation. With this aim a multi-criteria evaluation system that integrates socio-economic (e.g. employment, benefit, profitability) and ecological (e.g. biodiversity conservation, soil quality) indicators is being developed. This evaluation will allow the assessment of future scenarios from multiple perspectives and contributes to better understand the performance of this complex socio-ecological system under global and local changing conditions. Cheese-makers obtain the best scores in all the indicators selected for the evaluation at farm level and show the best socio-economic performance. At the landscape level, results show the socio-economic and ecological benefit associated with traditional mountain extensive sheep grazing systems. The abandonment of traditional mountain grazing activities would derive in reductions in plant species diversity, decreasing pasture forage quality and rise of soil greenhouse emission. References Aldezabal, A., Moragues , L., Odriozola, I. and Mijangos , I. 2015. Impact of grazing abandonment on plant and soil microbial communities in an Atlantic mountain grassland. Applied Soil Ecology. 96:251-260. GarcĂ­a-Alonso, O., Etxano, I., Garmendia, E. 2018. El Resurgir de los comunes y la gobernanza de sistemas comunales en riesgo: el caso de Enirio-Aralar. Lurralde 41, 225-245. Valdivielso, I., et al., 2016. Case study of a commercial sheep flock under extensive mountain grazing: Pasture derived lipid compounds in milk and cheese. Food Chemistry 197, 622-633 .

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Energy Sovereignity and Democracy

Figure: Solar photovoltaic installation, based in cooperative investment (Som energia, Alcolea del RĂ­o)


Álvaro Campos-Celador

alvaro.campos@ehu.eus University of the Basque Country, Department of Thermal Engineering www.ehu.eus/es/web/mmt The transition to Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is an essential element towards sustainability. RES also offer a key transformative potential from a social point of view due to their modularity and capacity to generate energy at local level, allowing for the development of bottom-up, local, democratic and participative initiatives. In this context, thousands of RES cooperatives currently exist, mainly in western and northern European countries. Despite the share of renewables in energy consumption having experienced a large increase over the past decade in Spain, Spanish RES cooperatives, unlike other European countries, are few in number. RES cooperatives in Spain have shown a remarkable capacity to adapt to different scales and eventualities, which has allowed them to endure in a hostile economic and regulatory context and has induced specific organizational and operating structures. Innovative participation methods and investment tools are being applied. Moreover, RES cooperatives regularly collaborate in sharing learning processes and experiences, having also demonstrated their capacity to spread new ideas at both social and political levels. However, despite their growth and territorial spread in the last few years, RES cooperatives still have a minor presence in the Spanish energy system. Although some internal factors may limit the potential of the Spanish RES cooperatives niche as an active instrument towards the transition to RES in Spain, the regime resistance is found to be the main barrier. The window of opportunity is, however, large, if current collaborative trends between organizations and their integration within other transformative groups and society are maintained and deepened. References Capellán-Pérez, I., Campos-Celador, A., Terés-Zubiaga, J. “Assessment of the potential of Renewable Energy Sources Cooperatives (RESCoops) in Spain towards Sustainable Degrowth.” 5th International Degrowth Conference (2016 - Budapest) Energia Gara. 2015. Recuperando la soberanía energética: Cooperativas eléctricas. El Ecologista 86, 39-41. Kunze, C., Becker, S., 2014. Energy democracy in Europe: A survey and outlook. Rosa Luxembg. Stift. (https://www.rosalux.de/fileadmin/rls_uploads/pdfs/sonst_publikationen/Energy-democracy-in-Europe.pdf)

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How Green is Green Growth?

Figure: Oil spill caused by the sinking of the oil tanker MV Prestige in 2002 (Miguel Riopa, Galicia)


Alberto Ansuategi

alberto.ansuategi@ehu.eus University of the Basque Country, Foundations of Economic Analysis I Department www.ehu.eus/en/web/fae1-eao1/home

In our research we use two very simple endogenous growth models with environmental degradation to illustrate that in the long run a lower level of environmental protection expenditure may be beneficial both for economic growth and, more surprisingly, for the environment. This is due to the fact that environmental protection activities captured by the model are not “proactive� measures that look for technological and structural changes, thus facilitating the de- linking of economic growth from environmental degradation in the long run, but they only contemplate the use of energy, material, maintenance and personnel to compensate nature’s reduced capacity to provide essential ecosystem services, such as air quality and climate regulation, water purification and waste treatment. The main conclusion that can be drawn from our analysis is that a high level of environmental protection expenditure is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for a greener future. If we focus on replacing ecosystem services provided by nature with current environmental expenditure and do not provide incentives for the development of new technologies, which can contribute to improve environmental performance and achieve green growth targets (by replacing resource-intensive and polluting activities or improving the environmental and economic efficiency of existing ones), we will be condemned to live in a world with poor environmental quality and a very expensive environmental maintenance bill. References A. Ansuategi and S. Marsiglio (2016), "Is Environmental Protection Beneficial for the Environment?", Review of Development Economics doi:10.1111/rode.12267. A. Ansuategi y M. Escapa (2004), "Is International Cooperation on Climate Change Good for the Environment?", Economics Bulletin 17, 1-11. A. Ansuategi and M. Escapa (2002), "Economic Growth and Greenhouse Gas Emissions", Ecological Economics 40, pp. 23-37.

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EPILOGUE


Future working lines The world is rapidly changing and past prescriptions seem unable to tackle today’s problems. In the words of Albert Einstein: “the significant problems we have cannot be solved at the same level of thinking with which we created them.” Understanding today’s economy needs a systemic approach, able to overcome the dominant economic paradigm solely focused on prices and markets. Only by widening the analysis of the economy, we are able to understand the root of the systemic problems facing the world economy is physical: the scarcity of natural resources and the growing environmental degradation. The transition towards an economy in harmony with nature is urgent given the severity of current environmental crisis: end of fossil fuels, scarcity of materials, land and water, climate change, biodiversity loss, etc. We hope that the research carried out at UPV/EHU, like the one included in this catalogue, can contribute to this challenging but unavoidable task. Utopia is not thinking that we can make this transition possible; utopia is to think that the current economic system can last forever functioning as today, i.e. outside the natural system.

David Hoyos, Eneko Garmendia and Ortzi Akizu

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ISBN: 978-84-09-01250-3

Grupo de Investigación en Economía Ecolológica y Ecología Política Ekonomia Ekologiko eta Ekologia Politikorako Ikerketa Taldea Research Group on Ecological Economics and Political Ecology

Environmental ecology seminar 2017  
Environmental ecology seminar 2017  
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