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Continuing Architectural Heritage Contemporary Addition and Reuse of Historic Buildings Zak Robinson | Graduate Thesis | Professor Ronaszegi | May 2012


Continuing Architectural Heritage: Contemporary Addition and Reuse of Historic Buildings Zak Robinson Accepted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of Master of Architecture at: The Savannah College of Art and Design Š May 2012 Zak Robinson The author herby grants SCAD permission to reproduce and distribute publicly paper and electronic thesis copies of document in whole or in part in any medium now known or hereafter created.

Signature of Author and Date_________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________/__/__ Arpad Ronaszegi, Professor of Architecture, Committee Chair

Date

_______________________________________________________________________________/__/__ Catalina Strother, Professor of Architecture, Faculty Advisor

Date

_______________________________________________________________________________/__/__ Justin Gunther, Professor of Historic Preservation, Topic Consultant

Date


Continuing Architectural Heritage: Contemporary Addition and Reuse of Historic Buildings

A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Architecture Department in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture Savannah College of Art and Design

By Zak Robinson Graduate Thesis (Arch 799) Savannah, GA May 2012


Table of Contents

List of Figures

2

Thesis Abstract

4

Thesis Proposal

6

Historic Preservation

10

History of Preservation

12

Methods of Intervention

14

Design Aproach

22

Contemporary Architecture

24

Contextualism

26

Debate and Guidelines on Contemporary Design

27

Differing Opinions

30

Continuing Heritage

31

Contemporary Design within Savannah

32

Conceptual Analysis

38

The Problem

40

The Concept

42

Design Strategies

43

Site Analysis

49

Program

71


Schematic Design

80

Sketches and Diagrams

82

Plans

88

Perspectives

93

Design Develpment

97

Building Codes

99

Plans

100

Details

106

Perspectives

107

Conclusion

114

Final Documentation

115

Presentation Board

137

Bibliography

140


Images Cited

Fig. 1.1 - http://www.georgiatrust.org/images/hayhouse/hay_house.gif Fig. 1.2 - http://www.georgia.org/SiteCollectionImages/Industries/Entertainment/Camera%20Ready/ Counties/Bibb/Hay%20House%20Interior.jpg Fig. 1.3 - http://www.history.org/almanack/places/hb/hbpalpc2.cfm Fig. 1.4 - http://www.nps.gov/hps/tps/standguide/reconstruct/reconstruct_approach.htm Fig. 1.5 - http://www.tate.org.uk/modern/images/tatemodern_exterior.jpg Fig. 1.6 - http://www.tate.org.uk/modern/images/tatemodern_turbinehall.jpg Fig. 1.7 - Tyler, Norman. Historic Preservation. 2nd ed. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2009. P 107. Fig. 1.8 - Tyler, Norman. Historic Preservation. 2nd ed. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2009. P 107. Fig. 1.9 - Tyler, Norman. Historic Preservation. 2nd ed. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2009. P 109. Fig. 1.10 - http://www.themorgan.org/about/images/renzo-madison-entrance.jpg Fig. 1.11 - http://www.themorgan.org/about/images/renzo-model_1.jpg Fig. 2.1 - Tyler, Norman. Historic Preservation. 2nd ed. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2009. 104. Fig. 2.2 - http://www.msa.mmu.ac.uk/atelieritalia/venez/atitwork.htm Fig. 2.3 - http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/GQcunVQabDYv6YyZZbUCOw Fig. 2.4 - http://www.flickr.com/photos/derboti/3799981534/ Fig. 2.5 - http://www.wallpaper.com/art/scad-museum-of-art-in-savannah-georgia/5501 Fig. 2.6 - http://www.wallpaper.com/gallery/art/scad-museum-of-art-in-savannah-georgia/ 17052726/53312 Fig. 2.7 - http://savannah.for91days.com/2011/01/13/ellis-square/ Fig. 2.8 - http://dmscs.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/EllisSquareG.jpg Fig. 3.1-3.3 - Photos by Author


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Fig. 3.4 - http://www.themorgan.org/about/images/renzo-madison-entrance.jpg Fig. 3.5 - http://www.themorgan.org/about/historyImage.asp?id=68 Fig. 3.6 - http://www.wallpaper.com/art/scad-museum-of-art-in-savannah-georgia/5501 Fig. 3.7 - http://www.wallpaper.com/gallery/art/scad-museum-of-art-in-savannah-georgia/ 17052726/53312 Fig. 3.8 - 3.23 - Diagrams by Author Fig. 3.24 - http://www.archiexpo.es/prod/cultured-stone/aplacados-de-piedra-reconstituida-interior5646-15692.html Fig. 3.25 - http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/N0j3QcS1K3OGOyCj_kbCyw Fig. 3.26 - http://www.nicsolutions.biz/project_gallery Fig. 3.27 - http://www.interpane.com/m/de/medien/resize/bildmaterial_industrie_indus_300dpi_ 11-02_punkthalter_g_436_330.jpg Fig. 3.28 - 3.31 - Diagrams by Author Fig. 3.32 - 3.38 - Photos by Author Fig. 3.39 - 3.63 - Diagrams by Author Fig. 3.64 - 3.69 - http://www.a-x-d.com/ Fig. 3.70 - 3.75 - http://www.fosterandpartners.com Fig. 3.76 - 3.81 - http://www.lamott.de/display.php?project_id=69 Fig. 3.82 - 3.85 - Diagrams by Author Fig. 4.1 - 4.55 - Images by Author Fig. 5.1 - 5.13 - Images by Author Fig. 5.14 - 5.23 - Images by Author with Photoshop assistance by Emily Hum Fig. 5.24 - Image by Author


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Continuing Architectural Heritage: Contemporary Addition and Reuse of Historic Buildings

Zak Robinson May 2012

This thesis focuses on the continuation of our architectural style within historic districts through the use of contrasting architectural elements. The goal of contrasting design is to respect the existing structures by putting an emphasis on the differences rather than similarities. The concept is that new and old design should be easily distinguishable from one another as it is a product of its own era. Therefore, we are able to continue the architectural heritage from every generation whether it’s past, present or future.


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Thesis Proposal

Thesis Statement

its importance within our heritage. If a

The design intent of this thesis is to restore,

building is deemed historic on a site, an

reuse and add to the existing structure on

architect, by code, has no choice but to

the intersection of Montgomery Street and

build around it or renovate it for reuse. The

Congress Street in the historic district of

significance of this thesis is to show that

Savannah, Georgia to create a Historic

contemporary architecture can be used

Preservation Museum. Today our culture is

as a tool to celebrate our history without

either stuck in the past or striving towards

severing it ties to its heritage.

new innovative designs. Architecture is

Significance of Study

one of the most important parts of being

In a historic city, more often than not there

able to tell the history of the people that

will be a large amount of unused or

lived before us. Destroying that history can

vacant buildings. Why is this? Most archi-

lead to a loss in knowledge of our heritage tects feel restricted in what they are able for future generations. Most contemporary

to build and will shy away from the adap-

architects tend to ignore our history and

tive rehabilitation of a historic building. In

culture and look mainly towards the

today’s society, we have the mentality

future. If an important existing building sits

that what we buy must be new. People

on the site in a prime location for a new

would much prefer a brand new car over

business, an architect will typically demol-

a used car that smells like smoke, has

ish the existing building and neglect to see

stains on the seats or a broken radio.


This gives a negative connotation that

and the heritage of the city. There are

when something is used it is dirty or dull.

multiple ways to approach the addition’s

When someone buys new, they have a

design. It can mimic the surrounding

much deeper connection to it. The intro-

historic elements, contrast with the existing

duction of contemporary into a historic

building or blend the two together. The

city can help to make the city feel new

code requirements as set down by the

and less dull or dirty. This study will help to

Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for

show how contemporary design can

Treatment of Historic Buildings will provide

coalesce with an existing design to create

strict limitations on what can be achieved

a new history and interest in unused

with the project.

spaces.

The ultimate goal is to prove the need for

In designing new architecture within the

more contemporary architecture within

context of old, how do we relate the new

historic cities. The use of a new design, if

addition and rehabilitation contextually to

done correctly, can make the surrounding

the surrounding built environment? This

urban context stand out more; otherwise,

thesis will show the physical and theoreti-

it becomes monotonous and just blends in

cal connection between old and new. It

with the rest of the city. In designing a

will provide the challenge of how the new

museum for historic preservation, there

design will interact with the existing build-

needs to be an element that provides the

ing in order to put emphasis on its history

building with the opportunity to stand out


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and become a node or destination within

Methods of Inquiry

ture is always changing and that we

the city. If the museum is just another

There are many key issues that need to be

should not be limited to living in the past.

restored historic building, people might

explored throughout this design process.

Codes and regulations provided by the

not be interested in visiting it, as they do

Preservation and the different types of

city’s Historic Review Board will be studied

not realize it is a museum because it looks

ways it can be accomplished. The theory

and implement as much as possible into

just like most other buildings in the city. The

and background of architectural addi-

the final design.

significance of this study is to coalesce

tions to historic buildings needs to be

In the end, the final vision of this thesis is to

new and old architecture to form a new

explored, along with the concept of

have an addition and rehabilitation of the

history rather than always live in the past. If

adaptive rehabilitation. How do these

existing building that will allow for the

we always live in the past, we are losing

relate to one another? The research and

celebration of the historical building, of

our current culture. The layer of architec-

study of the theory behind contemporary

the city and of the culture. The design

tural elements in the city provides richer

design within a historic context will be

should fit within the surrounding context

knowledge of our culture than freezing a

analyzed. Case studies on these topics

and not deter from other buildings. The

city in a specific era. A building designed

become a key factor in providing

idea for the museum will be to provide the

today can be seen as a historic landmark

evidence that contemporary design is

people with a deeper understanding of

in a few hundred years from. So why stop

practical in helping celebrate the history

the importance of our history and culture

architectural growth? History needs to

of the city rather than deterring from it. An

and how we pass it on to the next genera-

continue; our contemporary culture

in-depth analysis of the city of Savannah’s

tion.

should not be neglected.

urban growth can illustrate that architec-


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Chapter One Historic Preservation

This chapter will investigate the origins of Historic Preservation. It aims to show where preservation came from and where it will be going in the future. There are multiple different ways in which historic buildings can be preserved, but there is never a correct solution for any one project. Thus, having a thorough understanding of these different methods of preservation helps the architect to choose which approach is the best choice for each situation.


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History of Preservation

Architecture is the framework of our

preservation, activities “tended to [focus on]…

heritage. Each and every building tells a story

important historical figures and associated

about the people that lived before and their

landmark structures” (Tyler 2nd, 27). The

cultural heritage. Throughout the past forty years, government’s involvement was restricted to practically every community in American society

establishing national parks and preserving natural

has acknowledged the importance of historic

features. Throughout the years the public and

heritage within the built environment. During the private paths of preservation blended together to course of these past few decades, many steps

create the preservation movement we have today

have been implemented in hindsight after the

(Tyler 2nd, 27).

deterioration of these historic landmarks, so

The first act of preservation within the

much so that the government has taken a

United States was to save Independence Hall in

significant role in designating and regulating

1816 from demolition. After much opposition, the

these places. Historic preservation ultimately has

city of Philadelphia purchased the building for

become the key to saving the history of our

preservation (Tyler 2nd, 27). Soon after, many

heritage for future generations to come.

historical societies and associations were founded

History of Preservation in the United States hoping to protect sites with relevance to the late Historic preservation has two distinctive

eighteenth and early nineteenth century architec-

paths from which it formed, private and public.

ture. The first association was named the Mount

During most of early preservation, the government

Vernon Ladies’ Association in 1853. The

was not a large influence. In the private sector of

association’s goal was to save the deteriorating


Mount Vernon, George and Martha Washington’s

nation’s first National Monument. Thus began the

Trust for Historic Preservation. The National Trust

home. They requested assistance from the govern-

United State’s first national funding for preserva-

aimed to coordinate the National Park Service and

ment, but the government declined (Tyler 2nd, 29).

tion. With the passing of the Antiquities Act of 1906 the private preservation sectors. This allowed for all

This new, private organization was developed and

the President had the ability to deem landmarks

aspects of historic preservation to be brought to a

directed by Ann Pamela Cunningham. After much

and structures as historic. This act established

new level of awareness (Tyler 2nd, 42). Seventeen

campaigning, their efforts proved successful.

penalties for destroying federally-owned sites and

years later, the National Trust published a book

Mount Vernon was to be restored. The association

became the nation’s first preservation legislation

titled With Heritage So Rich. The book documented

became a role model for preservation organiza-

(Tyler 2nd, 31). Eventually it led to the creation of

our heritage through photos of lost historic

tions that would soon follow. These new organiza-

the National Park Service in 1916, with their

structures and became indispensable to preserva-

tions focused on the preservation of buildings

primary focus of managing areas too large to be

tionists. Recommendations made in the book led

relating to important events and people (Tyler 2nd,

preserved and protected privately (Tyler 2nd, 32).

to the establishment of the National Historic

In 1933, the National Park Service, the

30).

Preservation Act of 1966. This act was the most

American Institute of Architects (AIA) and the

important act passed by Congress for historic

little or no part in the preservation of potentially

Library of Congress established the first federally

preservation. Prior to the act the primary focus was

historic buildings. Their primary focus was the

funded program to survey historic structures

on specific historic landmarks, but after it was

westward expansion of the nation. They finally

named the Historic American Buildings Survey

passed it allowed for locally run historic districts

announced Yellowstone National Park as a

(HABS). Thus began the government’s first signifi-

and funding for many preservation activities. The

protected area in 1872, which made it the world’s

cant presence within historic preservation (Tyler

act was a model for most present-day guidelines

first national park (Tyler 2nd, 30). In 1889, the Casa

2nd, 40). Ultimately in 1949, the public and private

(Tyler 2nd, 46-47).

Grande ruin in Arizona was designated as the

paths of preservation unified through the National

The government, on the other hand, took


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Methods of Intervention for Historic Structures

Preservation Preservation is the ceasing of processes that contribute to the deterioration of a building or site by making essential repairs to maintain its existing state. It is hidden work aimed in keeping a property as it was found (Fram, 42). There are various theories and philosophies that are associated with historic preservation. Most people see preservation as saving old buildings. Arguably some see preservation “as preserving cultural heritage, some as fostering urban revitalization, and some as contributing to sustainability and an alternative approach to current development practices� (Tyler 2nd, 18). With these different philosophies, preservationists often have differing views on how a building should be preserved. Some feel that it is necessary to keep the historic structure as is, yet others wish to restore it to its original designed condition. Preservation should be based upon each specific objective. A method

that works in one instance may not work in another (Tyler 2nd, 18).


Restoration

Figure 1.1

Restoration is the act of bringing a historic building

The challenge was deciding what time period to

back to a specific time period. Most often it is

restore the building to. The Georgia Trust for

brought back to its original condition. At times,

Historic Preservation (founded in 1973) decided

restoration is required when the historic integrity is

that they should represent each era. They restored

lost or when a specific time period is more signifi-

the rooms based on which was the most promi-

cant (Tyler 1st, 24). The Hay House in Macon,

nent. In order to preserve the history of all three,

Georgia is an example of restoration that is being

they would leave patches of the original paint in

done today. Three different families owned the

case they wished to someday restore it back to its

home: The Johnston’s, The Felton’s, and The Hay’s.

original design.

Figure 1.2


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Reconstruction Reconstruction is the replication of a historic structure’s design or materials. This method of construction is used primarily when the original structure no longer exists, and there is a strong need for it to be replaced for continuity. WilliamsFigure 1.3

burg, Virginia was one of the first colonial cities within the United States. In the 1920s, John D Rockefeller realized the importance of the city and began restoration of the entire town. The main problem was nothing remained of the structure of the Governor’s Palace that was the hub of the original town. The decision was to reconstruct the palace from what plans, paintings and documents they had available. It was completed in 1934 (Tyler 1st, 27-28).

Figure 1.4


Adaptive Rehabilitation/Reuse A historic building’s original function and

new construction attempts to be compatible with

use is often not practical within today’s society. The

existing, it must take into consideration and relate

approach of rehabilitation, also referred to as reuse,

to elements such as material, scale, massing, color

is used to adapt a structure to a new function or

and proportions. The new design will not fully

use. Norman Tyler, explains, “Rehabilitation

match the original but it will make a few connec-

describes a suitable approach when existing

tions to it. The majority of designers today tend to

historic features are damaged or deteriorated but

design so that the new construction does not

modifications can be made to update portions of

compete with the existing. Contrasting the original

the structure, even adapting the building for a new

elements is where contemporary design becomes

purpose” (Tyler 1st, 28). The majority of changes

controversial. The goal of contrasting design is to

happen primarily on the interior of the building.

respect the existing structures by putting an

The changes on the exterior are limited in order to

emphasis on the differences rather than similarities.

maintain the historic integrity of the building (Tyler

The contrast of an element such as a glass curtain

1st, 28).

wall system next to an older brick wall can put an Contemporary architecture has infiltrated

into historic preservation with the advent of new technology and design. Often new construction in adaptive rehabilitation aims to be compatible or contrast with the original historic elements. When

emphasis on both of the elements rather than one becoming superior to the other (Tyler 1st, 28).


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Case Study: Tate Modern in London, England The Bankside Power Station in London is an inspirational example of adaptive rehabilitation.

of an old building? Ultimately, they settled on the

The building was built in two different phases

reuse of the Bankside Power Station for its size and

between 1947 and 1963. The rising prices of oil

location. The turbine hall is used as the main

made the power station inefficient, so it was closed

entrance and provides space for large pieces of art.

in 1982. The factory remained empty until 2000

The boiler room is divided into individual galleries.

when the Tate Collection decided to convert the

A glass roof on the top allows light into the main

building to a new use. The Tate Collection was

hall and provides space for a cafĂŠ (Tate Moderns).

originally located in Millbank, London. They realized they had outgrown the original building and need to move to a different location. The question they were faced with was: does modern Figure 1.5

Figure 1.6

art need to be in a modern building or a conversion


Additions More often than not additions and

clearly differentiated from the old, and may fool

adaptive rehabilitation go hand in hand. An

an observer into thinking a recent construction is

addition is the expansion of an existing building.

older, part of the original historic structure.� This

When additions are made the existing building

idea of matching an existing structure limits

will be rehabilitated to function better. The major

design and is often looked down upon (Tyler 2nd,

issue associated with additions is contextualism

106-107).

as it primarily focuses on the exterior of the building. Questions often arise as to how well the old and the new designs will blend together.

Figure 1.7

Similar to adaptive rehabilitation, additions have

Compatible

three different design approaches that can be

Compatible design is the most common

utilized: matching, compatible and contrasting

technique used for additions. The new design

(Tyler 2nd, 106).

makes suggestions to the original size, scale,

Matching

material, color and proportions. This is often

The primary goal of matching is to just imitate

achieved through simplification of these

the existing features. Additions will be designed

elements. For example if the façade of a building

in the same style and use similar materials and

consisted of a series of four evenly spaced ornate

detailing. Norman Tyler states that, “Some critics

Romanesque windows, the addition can take the

question this approach, saying the new is not

size and spacing of those windows and simplify


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them on the addition, which makes it compatible

architecture is a product of its own time (Tyler

with the existing building (Tyler 2nd, 107).

2nd, 108).

Figure 1.8

Contrasting As stated before, “The goal of contrasting design is to respect the existing structures by putting an emphasis on the differences rather than similarities.� The concept is that new and old design should be easily distinguishable from one another as it is a product of its own era. There are different ways to approach contrasting additions. The new structures, with little identity, can recede into the background of the old building, which makes the old building stand out. The new building could aggressively clash with the historic structure and context. This often makes the architects seem as if they put no consideration into the historic context with the thinking that

Figure 1.9


Case Study: Morgan Library by Renzo Piano For the Morgan Library in New York, Renzo ing approach to the addition. The center part that

Figure 1.10

Piano was challenged with designing an addition

extrudes out has a three-part structure, which

with a setting that consists of multiple contextual

relates to the existing building to the left of the

styles. The new addition needed to make a connec-

addition. It also relates to the simplicity and color of

tion between three different buildings on the site:

the existing building to the right of it. The physical

the original Morgan Library designed by McKim,

connections of additions are made of glass, which

Mead and White; the Annex designed by Benjamin

contrasts and gives more emphasis to the older

Wistar Morris; and the Morgan House. Renzo Piano

structures. The new addition is recessed back from

blended the compatible and contrast

the street, so it won’t clash with the existing buildings (The Morgan Library & Musuem).

Figure 1.11


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Design Approach

The role of preservation is important in

The focus of this thesis will be about

the conservation of our culture and heritage. Many adaptive rehabilitaion and additions to existing of today’s architects tend to overlook the impor-

historic structures. The theory of contrasting

tance of historic buildings. Frequently new

designs of old and new proves to be a difficult

constructions are attached to or placed next to

undertaking. It needs to take into consideration

historic structures with little or no consideration to

the theory of contextualism and the significance of

the impact on the surroundings. An architect

comptempory design within preservation. This will

needs to respect our heritage as it will be the key to be discussed in more depth in the next chapter. the knowledge of our past and a foundation our

With historic structures, there are regulations and

future. History cannot be repeated, and if it is lost, it codes that need to considered. Navigating and will be forgotten. If a building is replaced, it is not

weighing them against the need for contemporary

continuing history but rather making a new history. design in a historic district will be the challenge. When designing within a historic environment,

What defines something as historic? How can

there are many different issues that need to be

contemporary design create a new usefulness to

addressed and many solutions. One must study all

our historic structures and preserve the richness of

possible solutions such as whether it should be

our past?

preserved, restored, reconstructed, rehabilitated or enlarged.


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Chapter Two

Contemporary Architecture

This chapter will investigates the idea of incorporating contemporary architecture into a historic built environment. It shows that the topic is nothing new and has been a subject of debate for many years. Knowing differing views on the topic can prove useful in providing evidence towards why it should be considered as a design idea. This chapter will prove the importance of continuing our architectural heritage thourgh the use of contemporary architecture.


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Contemporary Architecture within a Historic Context

The goal of a historic preservationist is to preserve heritage for future generations. Then why is

Contextualism The term contextualism usually goes

it that we have to deny the architectural heritage of

hand-and-hand with contemporary design.

the present? The implementation of contemporary

Contextualism design approach “yields contem-

architecture as an addition to a historic building is

porary architecture that is sensitive to, and

often looked down upon and never thought of in the

compatible with, its surroundings” (Tyler 2nd,

initial design phases. With this thought, do we feel

103). There are two main elements to this design

that our current heritage will be lost for the future

method: context of time and context of place. The

generations? The United States, more often than

context of time is essential to understanding the

most countries, is content on designing monoto-

history of a building. Peter Eisenman provides an

nous, undistinguished and loosely referenced new

example of an arrow. In the picture, we do not

historical additions. De Teel Patterson Tiller states in

know whether the arrow is moving or is static.

the Forum Journal, a journal of the National Trust for

Without knowing where it came from or where it

Historic Preservation, “Best intentions of the most

is headed, we are unable to understand the

committed architectural review board aside, in doing

arrow. The image shows only a fraction of the

so, we rob future generations of the record of our

story of that arrow. The meaning is lost without

time, of what was important to us, of how we best

knowing the larger context. A building cannot

built here and now, particularly in rich setting of our

stand alone. It essentially is a part of a continuing

nation’s historic districts and neighborhoods” (De Teel

story becoming the link between the past and

Patterson Tiller, 6).

the future. The design should not neglect what


was there before and what is there currently.

one of the busiest intersections of the Grand

Architects tend to ignore this and only think of

Canal. On either side of the site, there is Gothic

the future. Similarly historic districts should not

and Renaissance palazzi. When Wright revealed

neglect the idea of what it is today, what it was

his design to the public, it triggered an immense

and what will become. The context of place puts

debate about its merits from 1953 to 1955. Many

emphasis on the building’s physical surroundings. well-known architects of the time were in It will have neighbors, making it a part of a

agreement with Wright’s design ideas, but others

collection of structures. The building needs to be

thought differently. They felt the design was ‘a

compatible with its neighbors but different at the

piece of inexcusable vandalism.’ Thus the design Figure 2.1

same time (Tyler 2nd, 103-104).

was rejected by Venice’s municipal council. They claimed that it would lose the vernacular of the historic building it sought to replace, and that the

Figure 12

First Debate on the Topic The concept of contemporary architecture within a historic context is not a new argument. In 1951, Frank Lloyd Wright was asked to design a building in Venice, Italy. The project was called Masieri Memorial. It was located in a

modern architecture was unsuitable in the historic city. This argument became one of “the first public debates on the matter of how (or whether) contemporary designed buildings can (or should) be integrated within historic precincts” (De Teel Patterson Tiller, 7).

prominent part of the city. The site could be seen from the Ponte del’ Academia and located on the

Figure 2.2


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Guidelines for New and Old 2) “Such contemporary architecture, making

The National Trust for Historic Preservation

countries throughout Europe and the United States

deliberate use of present day techniques and

concluded with similar guidelines of relating old

began to understand the importance of regulating

materials, will fit itself into an ancient setting

and new buildings. They released a book called

the introduction of contemporary architecture into

without affecting the structural and aesthetic

Old and New Architecture: Design Relationship

historic contexts. A common agreement was made

qualities of the later only in so far as due allow-

written in 1980. The book provides an assortment

by preservationist groups through charters such as

ance is made for the appropriate use of mass,

of desirable design ideas for architectural

Venice Charter of 1964, the third ICOMOS

scale, rhythm and appearance” (ICOMOS, 1).

additions that differ from the original historical

(International Council on Monuments and Sites)

3) “The authenticity of historical monuments or

structure (sometimes called “theory of disjunc-

General Assembly in Budapest in 1972, and the

groups of building must be taken as a basic

tion”). It shows how a new building can work with

National Trust for Historic Preservation’s sympo-

criterion and there must be avoidance of any

the context of size, footprint, massing and detail

sium in 1977. They came up with four conclusions

imitations, which would affect their artistic

of the original building but still be different.

similar to the ones stated in the ICOMOS General

and historical value” (ICOMOS, 2).

These design ideas paved the way for the consen-

Assembly, which states:

4) “The revitalization of monuments and groups

sus that additions mimicking the historical

1) “The introduction of contemporary architecture

of buildings by the finding of new uses for them

context are not aesthetically pleasing and that

into ancient groups of buildings is feasible in so far

is legitimate and recommendable provided

contemporary design “should obey the impera-

as the town-planning scheme of which it is a part

such uses affect, whether externally or internally, tives of its own historical moment” (De Teel

involves acceptance of the existing fabric as the

neither their structure nor their character as

framework for its own future development”

complete entities.” (ICOMOS, 2).

Around ten to twenties years later, many

(ICOMOS, 1).

Patterson Tiller, 9).


Standard 9 In 1995, a revision was made to the Secretary of

contemporary design just so long as it is respect-

New Architecture: Design Relationship were

the Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation, which

ful to its context. These standards are used as

coalesced and incorporated into the Secretary of

changed Standard 9 to read:

guidelines for architectural review boards, zoning

the Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation. It

1995)

boards and planning commissions. As a guide-

consists of ten standards of advice on how to

related new construction will not destroy historic

line, they are open to interpretation by local

balance preservation with rehabilitation.

materials, features, and spatial relationships that

officials so what one review board may pass

Standard 9 speaks directly of new additions and

characterize the property. The new work shall

another may reject. This revision, however, has

how they should behave. Standard 9 originally

be differentiated from the old and will be

created a ripple effect within addition design that

read:

compatible with the historic materials, features,

may allow for contemporary ideas to coalesce

The design ideas in the book Old and

1978)

“Contemporary design for alterations

“New additions, exterior alterations, or

size, scale and proportion, and massing to protect with the original design (De Teel Patterson Tiller,

and additions to existing properties shall not be

the integrity of the property and its environment” 10).

discouraged when such alterations and additions

(De Teel Patterson Tiller, 9).

do not destroy significant historic, architectural,

The new revision to the standards makes

or cultural material, and such design is compat-

the statement that different but compatible is the

ible with the size, scale, color, material, and

preferred method of design, leaving the idea of

character of the property, neighborhood, and

contemporary design open as a possibility. It has

environment” (De Teel Patterson Tiller, 9).

been argued that nothing in the rewrite restricts


29|30

Differing Opinions The concept of contemporary design set within a historic district is an unfamiliar theory to

the concept of a machine and the push towards a

members in federal, state and local government

new age, which generally ignored the surround-

preservation departments “are rarely adequately

most people. Generally speaking, preservationists ing context and demonstrated a lack of respect

schooled or prepared for these complex visual

have the mindset that we need to do anything to

towards its history. “The architecture profession

decisions” (De Teel Patterson Tiller, 11). These

preserve the past with little knowledge of the

bears significant responsibility for so many

review boards will often lack the advice from an

current architectural style. Similarly, an architect’s

inferior designs foisted into historic districts

architect, which leads towards biased decision

focus is so much on the future of architectural

nationwide. Unlike in Europe, historic design

that may ultimately end with a boring design just

design styles that they neglect the important

contextualism remains largely ignored in most

to blend in with the surrounding context. A larger

surrounding historical context. These conflicting

U.S. architectural school curricula today” (De Teel

amount of citizens have been involved at review

ideas surfaced as a result of the Second World

Patterson Tiller, 11). The United States is only a

board meetings and serving on committees but

War. The majority of preservationist realized that

few hundred years old whereas Europe has been

more for social and political reasons. The average

the destruction of war caused heavy losses of our

around for thousands of years. With that much

response to something that is different is more

architectural heritage. It resulted in a hefty

history, there is no way to completely ignore the

often than not negative. Thus, contemporary

increase in the preservation of older buildings

surrounding context. The idea of context is new

designs are often looked down upon, so people

vital to continuing their heritage. Also around the

in the United States as architects are just now

resort to vaguely historicized addition, as they are

Second World War, architectural modernism and

beginning to understand the importance of

safer.

urban planning proved to be destructive towards

architectural heritage. The preservationist field is

thousands of historical buildings and the loss of

a recent process towards saving our history,

heritage. The modernist movement focused on

which might be flawed. Many review board


Continuing Our Heritage Imagine a hundred years from now when we look

integral part of the initial design phases. It should

ings curtails our architectural heritage. “We

at a historic city and wonder what happened in

not be explored as an afterthought. Contempo-

experience a complexity of generations of

the last hundred years of architecture. Whether

rary design in a historic context is the most

occupancy expressed through architecture and

we like or hate a building’s design, it is crucial

difficult challenge to successfully achieve when

material culture, layer on layer, generation by

towards the continuum of our architectural

designing an addition. When done effectively,

generation, tangible and intangible. Historic

heritage. “Good contemporary design is funda-

however, it can become the most rewarding. It is

places have the power to speak to us as vital and

mental to that interaction with the future and the

able to celebrate our past and current heritage

living links between us and those that have gone

past” (De Teel Patterson Tiller, 12).

for the future generations to come.

The creation of new historicized build-

before and those yet to come. Historic neighbor-

Think of what power contemporary

hoods speak to the continuum of life and

architecture could have within a historic context

endeavor” (De Teel Patterson Tiller, 12). The

and how interesting an intergenerational design

visually interesting part of being in a historic city

conversation could become, rather than being

is being able to look around at all the different

“trapped in history with little sense of future

styles of architecture layered on top of one

befitting its powerful and magnificent past” (De

another and know that it has a rich heritage. A

Teel Patterson Tiller, 13). It allows the viewer to

building with multiple additions from different

understand and interpret the history of that

time periods has more to tell and is thus more

building through the layering of design. Contem-

exciting than a new building that is built in the

porary design is not always the best design

same style as the building right next to it.

decision for an addition, but it should be an


31|32

Savannah and Contemporary Architecture

Savannah is one of the most well-known historic cities within the United States. Its core value is to preserve as much of the city as possible to provide an example of historic cities and to preserve its heritage. The city follows the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation and also has a strict set of guidelines on what is allowed to be built within the city’s historic district. With these strict regulations, it is often difficult to incorporate contemporary style into a design, but there are a few examples in the city of contemporary architecture that works with the surrounding context.


Case Study: Jepson Center The Jepson Center for the Arts, designed

Figure 2.3

The Jepson Center is typically viewed as the

by Moshe Safdie and Hansen Architects, is a

primary example of contemporary architecture in

contemporary architectural design located in the

Savannah. It is a design that pushes the boundar-

heart of Savannah’s Landmark Historic District.

ies of being compatible to almost becoming

The challenge was to be unique but work with

contrasting. The building is successful in drawing

Savannah’s urban fabric. Safdie states the

from the rhythm and pattern of its neighboring

building’s design “respects the traditional grid of

buildings and the rest of the surrounding context.

the historic district. The glazed façade on York

It uses a staggered white stone that is compatible

Street engages tree-lined Telfair Squarer and is

with the staggering of brick and the white stone

formed by two white architectural concrete

and stucco used in many of the other surround-

‘screens’ framing glass walls, which break up

ing buildings. The introduction of a predomi-

the…(120-foot) frontage into bays of less

nately glass façade facing the square pushes the

than…(60 feet), as required by the Historic

boundary of the typical vision of new design

Savannah guidelines” (Safdie Architects).

within the context of old, which has proved

Figure 2.4

successful.


33|34

Case Study: SCAD Museum The SCAD Museum of Art sits on the site of the

Savannah, which requires the new structure to

The eight-six foot tower fits into the skyline as

original headquarters of the Central of Georgia

abide to the design guidelines set by the city of

one of the highest points within Savannah’s

Railway. The majority of the original building had

Savannah. The firm Sottile & Sottile was given the

downtown district. Their contrasting design

fallen to ruins. Only parts of the exterior façade

task of designing a contemporary art museum

approach makes the original structure stand out

on the west side of Turner Boulevard and a few

while preserving the walls that still remained. The

more than that of the new addition. Thus,

rooms on the side closest to Martin Luther King

new design was placed between the original

providing a prime example of how contrasting

Junior Boulevard remained intact. The site is

walls, which helps demonstrate to the viewer the

contemporary architecture can be successful in

located in the Landmark Historic District of

importance of the original building’s heritage.

celebration of a passed heritage (Sottile & Sottile).

Figure 2.5

Figure 2.6


Case Study: Ellis Square The site of Ellis Square originally was a part of Savannah’s City Market. A portion of City

visitors’ center is primarily glass walls with a

Market was torn down in 1954 to make way for a

butterfly roof. The design is minimal and has little

new parking garage. The garage was an attempt

relationship to its surrounding context. It is not

to provide additional parking downtown to

overpowering the other buildings because of its

encourage shopping. The city realized the

diminutive size. Even though it might not be the

importance of the site, and the parking garage

most successful design that it could have been, it

needed to be removed. In 2005, the garage was

is a step towards the notion of incorporating

torn down and placed underground. This

contemporary architecture within the city of

provided the opportunity to create an urban

Savannah (City of Savannah).

plaza at street level. The square also consists of a

Figure 2.7

contemporary visitor center and restrooms. The

Figure 2.8


35|36

Concluding Thoughts The concept of designing contemporary architecture within a historic context is challenging and highly controversial. The debate on whether we should accept this design idea has been continuing for over fifty years. There is no correct solution to the issue, but steps have been made that allow for more variety in architectural design within our ever-growing historic districts. New design relies heavily on its surrounding context. If this context is ignored, the building design will prove unsuccessful. When done correctly, however, it provides us with the opportunity to create a link “between us and those that have gone before and those yet to come,� and allows for the continuum of architectural heritage.


37|38

Chapter Three Conceptual Analysis

This thesis focuses on the continuing of our architectural style within historic districts. It is the reuse and addition to the vacant building located on the corner of Montgomery and Congress Street in Savannah, Georgia. The building will be reused as a museum to celebrate Historic Preservation to give the viewer an understanding of what goes into preserving buildings, furniture and other elements.


Left: Hilton Garden Inn detail; copying architectural style. Bottom: Hilton Garden Inn from Franklin Square. Top Right: The Cay Building, to be completed on Elis Square in 2012. Figure 3.2

Figure 3.1

Figure 3.3


39|40

The Problem

Historic cities are a vital link to the history of previous generations. When we look at older cities, we see a layering of architectural styles and heritage. Whether the design was successful or not, it is a part of our history, even buildings that are being built today. Preservation is the key to saving history for future generations and the continuum of architectural heritage. When we preserve historic districts however, we become “trapped in history with little sense of future befitting its powerful and magnificent past.� Imagine a hundred years from now when we look at a historic city and wonder what happened in the last hundred years of architecture.


Figure 3.4

Figure 3.5

Top Left: Morgan Library in New York City designed by Renzo Piano. Top Right: The Morgan Library addition provides a perfect example of how to incorporate today’s traditions within a historical context. Bottom Left: SCAD Museum designed by Sottile and Sottile. Bottom Right: Certain contrasting architectural elements create an emphasis on the existing brick to celebrate the history of the building. Figure 3.6

Figure 3.7


41|42

Contrasting architectural elements

another as it is a product of its own era.

provide the opportunity to incorporate

Therefore, we are able to continue the

today’s style of architecture into a

architectural heritage from every genera-

historical context. The goal of contrast-

tion whether its past, present or future.

ing design is to respect the existing structures by putting an emphasis on the differences rather than similarities. The concept is that new and old design should be easily distinguishable from one

Contextualism

Celebrate Architecture

Preservation

Historic

Contemporary Heritage Existng

Contrasting New & Old Continuing

Figure 3.8

Materiality

The Concept


Design Strategies

The design strategies are a personal set of guidelines that will be used to help create the new plan for the addition. Without personal or city guidelines any building can be built on the site, possibly lacking the respect towards the already existing buildings.

Lack of Respect for Surrounding Context Figure 3.9

? North Elevation abstracted from site on West Congress and Montgomery Figure 3.10


43|44

Matching copies the surround contextual elements within the new building.

Figure 3.11

Compatible takes some architectural elements from the surrounding context without directly copying them, which is the most common method of designing in historic districts.

Figure 3.12

Contrasting, contemporary design, if done effectively, allows for the continuum of our architectural heritage with the respect of the existing context.

Figure 3.13


Height Short Pros -Does not overpower surrounding context Cons -Can become lost -Does not provide enough space as an addition

Figure 3.14

Tall Pros -Can stand as a landmark -Provides extra space for a small addition -Contrasts context Cons -Can be over baring -Amount of material on facade could clash to much with the neighboring buildings

Figure 3.15

Average Pros -Works proportionally with surrounding buildings -Does not exceed height restriction for the area Cons -May blend to much with other building heights -Does not make a statement if needed

Figure 3.16


45|46

Scale Small Pros -Can allow for path between buildings -Gives visual dominance to existing building Cons -Does not cover enough street frontage -May not provide enough space for the program -May not be enough to prove concept

Figure 3.17

Large Pros -Provides extra space -Can expand over existing Cons -Cannot go over neighboring building -Could become visually overbearing Figure 3.18

Average Pros -Hints to the idea of expanding over the existing building -Does not overpower its context Cons -Blends too much with context -Not enough of a statement Figure 3.19


Fenestration The building form of the city block is tall and narrow on the center lots and short and long on the end buildings. The center lots have a three or four part type within the windows. Figure 3.20

Visual Grid With this grid created by the fenestration, how should the grid be incorporated into the design of the new addition?

Figure 3.21

Abstract Grid The grid does not have to be literally represented in the design. It can be abstracted but still refer back to the context, which may better distinguish old from new. Figure 3.22


47|48

Existing Materiality Figure 3.23

Stone material is similar to the surrounding context, which may not work for contrasting design.

Wood is visually contrasting the existing materials, but it does not have the sense of permanence that the existing has. Figure 3.24

Figure 3.25

Steel or metal can contrast the existing materials and it also provides a sense of permanence that wood is lacking.

Figure 3.26

Glass is visually transparent, and brick is solid, which creates visual contrast. It also has a sense of permanence like metal or stone.

Figure 3.27


Site Location

Sav

an

Figure 3.28

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49|50

in Lu

ther

King

Jr Blv d

Bay S t

Mart

W Br

yan S t

W Ju lian S t

Figure 3.29

W Co ngre ss St

Existing historic building

Figure 3.30

Figure 3.31

Jeffe rson St

Brou ghto n St

Barn ard S t

Mon tgom ery S t

Empty lot for addition


Site Context

Figure 3.32 - West

Facade

Figure 3.33 - Garibaldi’s

Figure 3.34 - West

with Original Signage

Congress Street

Figure 3.35 - Brick

Figure 3.36 - East

and Stucco

Facade

Figure 3.37 - Franklin

Square and City Market


51|52

Rough Building Height of 30’

Building to be Rehabilitated

Site of Addition

Likely orginal brick covered with stucco

Rough Building Height of 36’

Garibaldi’s Restuarant

West Congress Street

Figure 3.38 - North

Facade


Site History

Steam Fire Eng. No 2

Shed

Storage

Forest City Mills Haynes & Elton

Montgomery St.

W. Congress St.

1884 Sanborn Map John Shick originally owned the land and sold it to George W. Hardcastle in 1854. In that year, Hardcastle had the building on 30-38 Montgomery St built. It was originally called Forest City Mills. Notes on the Sanborn map of 1884 state “Forest City Mills-Haynes & Elton- run of stone, smut mach. 3rd, brand 3R, very little wheat grinding done principally corn, lights, gas, fuel, and wood.”

Figure 3.39

Wholesale Mdse.

Iron Pipe

Figure 3.40

Plumber’s ’ Supplies

Montgomery St.

W. Congress St.

1898 Sanborn Map The property changed hands a few times between 1854 and 1898. In 1857, tax records show that Francis J. Champion owned the property, yet it kept the name Forest City Mills. In 1866, George Washington Garmany purchased the property. On the tax records, it states that in 1873 Garmany, Trustee, owned the property.


53|54

Stge.

Stge.

Wholesale Radio

Wholesale Mdse.

Wholesale s Dry Goods o

Montgomery St.

W. Congress St.

1916 Sanborn Map The tax records show that the lot immediately to the East was combined with the building in 1866. For the most part, the building was utilized as a retail store as it was situated right next to City Market. The lot to the East of the building was primarily used as storage spaces.

Garage

Figure 3.41

Wholesale Mdse.

Wholesale Radio

Figure 3.42

Wholesale s Dry Goods o

Montgomery St.

W. Congress St.

1954 Sanborn Map Sometime between 1916 and 1954, the storage structures were removed, and the lot remains empty to this day. The main building however, continued to be used as a wholesale store. In 1993, it housed the 606 East Cafe for nine years until they closed in 2002. The building has been vacant ever since.


Site Analysis


55|56

Historic District

Sav

an

Figure 3.43

na

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Historic Buildings There are appoximately 1700 historic buildings in downtown Savannah, Georgia. Making it the largest National Historic Landmark District in the United States.

Sav

an

Figure 3.44

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57|58

Museums

Sav

Ships of the Sea Maritime Museum

an

Telfair Museum Jepson Center SCAD Museum Roundhouse Railroad Museum

Owens Thomas House Museum Davenport House Museum There are few museums Located in of the largest historic districts in the United States. Of which, there are no Historic Preservation Museums for being one of the leading cities in preservation. Figure 3.45

na

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Building Heights 8-14 Storys 6 Storys 5 Storys 4 Storys 3 Storys 1-2 Storys

Sav

an

na

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ive

r

The building height restriction for the site is four stories.

" 107'-4 14

Figure 3.46


59|60

Building Landmarks 8-14 Storys 6 Storys 5 Storys 4 Storys 3 Storys 1-2 Storys

Sav

an

Location of site, which could provide opportunity for a new landmark. Emporis- First Union Bank SCAD Museum Tower Cathedral of St. John the Baptisit

Figure 3.47

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Last Square

Sav

an

Franklin Square is the last remaining intact square on Montgomery Street. Liberty Square was cut down in size by Montgomery Street, a parking garage and the city courthouse. Albert Square was cut by Montgomery Street and the Civic Center.

Figure 3.48

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61|62

City Entry The primary entry to the city of Savannah terminates at Franklin Square. If or when the I-16 fly-over is removed, Montgomery Street still is interupted by the square, which makes it a point of interest within the city.

Sav

an

Figure 3.49

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City Market

Figure 3.50


67|68

No Place of Destination After its completion, Ellis Square has become a popular tourist destination to accompany City Market, but there is no counter balance on the other side of the market.

? Ellis Square

Figure 3.51


Place of Destination The proposed site the opportunity to serve as a counter balance to the contemporary design of Elis Square.

Elis Square

Figure 3.52


65|66

Public Parking There are two parking garages near the site. These are popular for tourist to park in because they are located close to city market and Broughton Street. When tourist park there, they will often walk past the site, which makes it a good location to attract tourists.

Ellis Square

Figure 3.53


Vehicular Traffic A lot of traffic More than average traffic Average traffic Little traffic Very little traffic

Figure 3.54


67|68

Pedestrian Traffic A lot of traffic More than average traffic Average traffic Little traffic

Figure 3.55


Solar Analysis

Summer sun angle is 81degrees.

Proposed Building

Winter sun angle is 38 degrees.

Marc by Marc Jacobs to the South

Figure 3.56

Close building proximity limits the use of natural light during the winter. The addition could provide the ability to bring more light into the building.

Figure 3.57 Proposed Addition

Proposed Building

Figure 3.58

Marc by Marc Jacobs to the South


69|70

Wind Analysis

Summer

Fall Congress St.

Montgomery St.

Montgomery St.

Congress St.

Figure 3.59

Figure 3.60

Spring

Winter Congress St.

Figure 3.61

Montgomery St.

Montgomery St.

Congress St.

Figure 3.62


Program

60’

Existing Building

32’

Empty Lot

Approximate Square Footages

90’

Gallery

90’ x 60’ = 5400 SqFt per Floor

90’ x 32’ = 2800 SqFt per Floor

5400 x 3 (Floors) = 16,200 Total SqFt

2800 x 4-8 (Floors) = 11,200 - 22400 Total SqFt

27,400 - 38,600 Total SqFt Figure 3.63

9,200 - 12,900

Working Gallery

6,100 - 8,600

Studios

5,000 - 7,500

Classrooms

1,500 - 2,300

Shop

2,500 - 3,300

Cafe and Kitchen

3,000 - 4,000


71|72

Figure 3.64

Figure 3.65

Figure 3.66

AxD is an architectural firm that specializes in creating spaces for living, working and learning. This building was originally a warehouse that is now converted into a working studio and open gallery. They paid specific attention to emphasize the existing brick and historical features to create a dynamic interior space.

Figure 3.69

Always by Design AxD Figure 3.67

Studio/Gallery


Foster + Partners Reichstag Norman Foster states that rehabilitation and addition of Reichstag is “rooted in four issues: the significance of the Bundestag as a democratic forum; a commitment to public accessibility; a sensitivity to history; and a rigorous environmental agenda.� The building took a beating during the world war. After removing some of the layers added in the 90s they revealed “the striking imprints of the past, including graffiti left by Soviet soldiers.

Figure 3.70 Figure 3.73

Figure 3.74

Figure 3.71

Figure 3.72

Figure 3.75


73|74

Lamott Architekten Public Library

Figure 3.76

Figure 3.79

The existing building was built in 1895 to house the Landau slaughterhouse. It is now reused as a public library to accommodate 75,000 books, CDs and periodicals. The new addition provided the room to hold the large amount of books. The concept was to make a clear transition between old and new architecture. The addition contains the entry, foyer, exhibition area, cafe, children’s library, and main reading room with open stacks. The bridges on the interior make the transition between the old and new architecture, which emphasize the differences in materiality.

Figure 3.78

Figure 3.80

Figure 3.81


Working Gallery

Classrooms

Cafe

Studios

Kitchen

Figure 3.82

Shop

Gallery Gallery

Main Gallery

Circulation

Montgomery St.

Congress St.


Gallery

Circulation

75|76

Outdoor Gallery

Studios Classrooms

Working Gallery

Figure 3.83

Kitchen

Shop

Main Gallery Cafe


Glass and Metal Construction or material that is contrasting and gives a sense of permanence.

Brick and Stucco facade

Large amount of pedestrian traffic provides attention towards the building

Congress St.

Utilize Maximum Amount of Space

Show what Preservation is about

Cafe

Transparent

Montgomery St.

Transparent

Encourages people to come in.

Vehicular traffic is forced to turn next to site which forces driver to look towards the new addition. Figure 3.84

Glass facade on upper levels will help bring natural light into the building.


77|78

View s to

Re m em be r

ral ectu t i h c Ar Heritage

Landmark

Cro

Figure 3.85

ss V ent ilat ion

from

We

ste

rly

Win

d

Public Interaction and Outdoor Space

St

ac

k

Ve

nt

ila

tio

n


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Chapter Four Design

This thesis focuses on the continuing of our architectural style within historic districts. It is the reuse and addition to the vaccant building located on the corner of Montgomery and Congress Street in Savannah, Georgia. The building will be reused as a museum to celebrate Historic Preservation to give the viewer an understanding of what goes into preserving buildings, furniture and other elements.


Schematic Design

Designing a building in a historic city is a challenging task to accomplish. The building has to be designed to fit within the surrounding context while also attempting to fit within personal and city guidelines. The goal was to create a design that will become unified with the original structure but also can be visually read as a separate building through contrasting elements.


81|82

Preliminary Sketches

Figure 4.1

Figure 4.2

Figure 4.3 Figure 4.4

Figure 4.5


Figure 4.7

Figure 4.8

Figure 4.9 Figure 4.6


83|84

Figure 4.10

Figure 4.11

Figure 4.13

Figure 4.12

Figure 4.14

Figure 4.15

Figure 4.16


Concept Diagrams Intersection

New Figure 4.17

Old


85|86

Top of Building to Left

Reversal of Solid and Void Existing Openings on East Facade

Top of Building to Right

Grid from Interior Continued to Exterior

Open to Welcome Public

Figure 4.18

Figure 4.19

Heavy Timber Beam

Figure 4.20

I-Beam

I-Beam Glass Glass

Drop Ceiling Able to See Existing Structure and Allow for Natural Light Figure 4.21

Figure 4.22

Existing Floor

Heavy Timber Beam Show Connection Between Old and New

Glass Figure 4.23

Brick with Original Signage


87|88

The new entry of building will be located in the addition portion of the design. The main lobby contains the core circulation and the beginning of procession through the main gallery.

West Congress Street

Gallery - Current Local Projects

Lobby/Entry

UP

Gallery - Local Completed Projects Women

Importance of Historic Preservation

Montgomery Street

First Floor Plan

Men Service Elevator

N Figure 4.24

2’ 0

32’

8’ 4’

16’


Second Floor Plan

The second floor consists mainly of more gallery space for the museum. The opening to below part provides the view towards the signage wall and opens up the main lobby space to allow for more natural light.

Open to Below

Gallery Old/New

Service Elevator

Figure 4.25


89|90

Third Floor Plan

The third floor is similar to the second except that it has office spaces on the south side of the original building. The new addition is set back from the original to allow guests to see the physical connection between old and new.

Open to Below

Gallery Finished Works

Rest.

Conference Office

Office

Office Service Elevator

Figure 4.26


Fourth Floor Plan

The fourth floor gives the guests the opportunity to learn how architectural elements are preserved or restored. In the working gallery, a preservationist would be working and explaining to people the process to which they have to go through to bring these elements back to life.

Open to Below

Outdoor Space/Larger Works

Working Gallery

Process of Preservation

Service Elevator

Figure 4.27


91|92

Fifth Floor Plan

The top floor is the indoor and outdoor cafe space. The surrounding buildings are no higher than four stories. This provides guests the ability to relax and reflect on the unique heritage that the city of Savannah has to offer.

Outdoor Seating Cafe

Kitchen

Figure 4.28

Rest.


Outdoor Cafe

Working Gallery

Cafe

Cantilevered Structure Over Existing

Outdoor Space Wall with Existing Signage

Elevator Galleries

Figure 4.29

Entry/Lobby


93|94

North Perspective

The design keeps the street frontage that is required in the city’s guidelines. The new addition above is recessed to make sure it does not visually over power the existing building.

Figure 4.30


Interior Lobby

The East wall of the original building is partially removed to expose the connection between the new and old. This was done by inverting the solids and voids that use to service the older additions.

Figure 4.31


95|96

Third Floor/Signage Wall

The wall on Garibaldis on the East side of the new addition contains original signage. This signage will be preserved behind a glass wall to help enhance the visual of the old ways of advertising.

Figure 4.32


Design Development

This portion of the design was focused mainly on the details of how the design can be feasible. A new addition to an existing historic structure provides many unique challenges. The main one being the physical connection that is made between old and new. The other issue that was addressed was fixing the interior design to: create more visual interest in the main lobby, rework the layouts of the gallery spaces and add more service spaces with the addition of a basement.


97|98

Figure 4.39

Figure 4.33

Figure 4.34 Figure 4.38

Figure 4.35

Figure 4.36

Figure 4.37

Figure 4.40


Building Code

Occupancy Type: A-3 - “This group includes recreational amusement, and worship uses not specifically falling under other Assembly groups, including, for example galleries, auditoriums, churches, community halls, courtrooms, dance halls, gymnasiums, lecture halls, libraries, museums, passenger station waiting areas, and the like.”

Contruction Type: I-B - Requires 2 hour fire rating Occupancy Load: 5 sq.ft. net per occupant

Max Travel Distance: Unsprinkled - 200’ Sprinkled - 250’ Max Common Path - 75’ Dead End Corridor - 20’ Door Width - Min. - 32” net clear Max - 48” nominal


99|100

Basement Floor Plan

After more investigation of the original

were added to utilize the existing base-

building, it was determined that it con-

ment for storage. The East side of the

tained a basement that could be

addition is open to allow natural light to

utilized for addition space. In the new

filter into the basement and give space

addition, restrooms and service spaces

to display works.

UP UP

UP

Figure 4.41


First Floor Plan

After research of building codes, it was

be used as gallery space. The vertical

necessary to incorporate a secondary

circulation was moved to run along the

form of emergency egress. The place-

signage wall rather than having a

ment of restrooms in the basement

central core.

provided extra room on the main floor to

DN

UP

UP

DN

Figure 4.42

UP


101|102

Second Floor Plan

The second floor addition was reduced

better see it and provide space for the

in size to provide more visual space for

vertical circulation. Light wells were put

the main lobby below. The east side of

in the existing part of the building that

the floor was relocated farther away

runs from the roof down to the base-

from the signage wall to be able to

ment. This allows for more natural light.

UP

DN

UP

UP

Figure 4.43


Third Floor Plan

The third floor is similar to the second

along the main gallery to help open up

other than the landing for the main

the buildings and allow the viewer to see

staircase is in a different location. The

the physical connection between the

floor on the existing building is cut away

new and old.

UP

DN

UP

UP

Figure 4.44


103|104

Fourth Floor Plan

The fourth floor is the working gallery,

extended to allow for the light wells in

which is cantilevered over the original. It

the existing building. This floor also

contains a partial glass floor allowing

provides the access to the roof of the

guests to see the structure below. The

existing structure serving the outdoor

I-beams holding the new structure were

gallery and roof garden space.

UP

UP

DN

UP

Figure 4.45


Fifth Floor Plan

The fifth floor contains the indoor and outdoor cafe and kitchen space along with restrooms. The outdoor space now has a glass roof that cantilevers from the indoor portion of the structure.

DN DN

DN

Figure 4.46


105|106

Structural Details

The details help to show the interaction

Glass Roof

Concrete on Metal Deck Roof Roof

of old and new design. A connection

Railing for Outdoor Cafe

between a heavy timber beam and

Steel I-beam Column

steel I-beam is not common. Thus a unique bracket had to be designed to

Steel I-beam Joist Fifth Floor Glass Curtain Wall

join the two elements. The bracket design, however, needed to be larger to be able to support the timber, as the

Concrete Decking

W16x45 Steel I-beam column

end of the beam is the most common

Fourth Floor 3/4” Hardwood Flooring

place for shear failure. 1”x 3” Original Decking

Steel I-Beam Column

Hardwood Floor

Railing

Original Wood Decking

Metal T-Shaped Bracket to Support Timber Beam

Original Wood Joists

Gypsum Board Wrapped Around I-Beam

Original Heavy Timber Beam

Gypsum Board Third Floor

W16x45 Steel I-beam Joist

Original 2”x 8” Joists

Second Floor

Original Heavy Timber Beams 7”x 7”

Figure 4.47 Metal Stud

Hardwood Flooring

Wood Furring

Concrete on Metal Decking

Concrete

First Floor

Metal Decking

Gypsum

Original Brick Wall

New Concrete Wall

Open Web Joist

Steel I-Beam Existing Basement

Drop Ceiling

Basement

Wall Section

Figure 4.48

Figure 4.49


North Perspective

The perspective helps to give an idea as to how the new design will look within the existing context of the city.

Figure 4.50


107|108

Overview from North

The overview shows how the new addition rests above the existing and allows for vertical light wells in the center of the original building.

Figure 4.51


Congress Street View

Context is vital to the success of a design within a historic city. The view provides the rough idea of how the design has been successful in contextually contrasting with the surrounding buildings.

Figure 4.52


109|110

Main Lobby

The floors are set back to allow for a

display for the guests when they first

larger main lobby, and the large white

enter the museum.

wall provides the space for a main

Figure 4.53


View of Main Lobby

Opening up a part of the original wall near the main lobby allows for the interaction between old and new. Guests will be able to see details of the connections while being able to see the signage wall.

Figure 4.54


111|112

Working Gallery

The working gallery helps to demonstrate to the viewer the importance of historic preservation.

Figure 4.55


113|114

Chapter Five Final Design

Architecture is a way to write history.

architecture from a hundred years ago.

Every part of every building has a unique

Thus, the architectural heritage of today

story to tell us. Preserving historic

is being lost within our historic cities.

buildings provides the opportunity to

When we experience a historic city, the

share history with the future generations.

most unique aspect is the layering of

City officials have attempted this by

generations, which gives us the ability to

setting guidelines for new construction in

see history through architecture. Through

historic districts. However, these rules

the use of contrasting architectural

constrain today’s architectural style. The

elements with respect of the surrounding

strict rules have resulted in new

context, this inevitable gap in our

construction that mirrors the style of

architectural heritage can be fixed.


Figure 5.1


115|116

Basement Floor Plan

Resource Library

Prep/Office Space

UP

UP

Storage Mech.

UP

2’

Figure 5.2 0

32’

8’ 4’

16’


Figure 5.3 6' - 4"

20' - 0"

10' - 6"

8' - 0"

9' - 6"

10' - 4"

Main Gallery 12' - 8"

9' - 2"

19' - 7"

6' - 10"

20' - 0"

4' - 0"

6' - 5"

61' - 0"

DN

UP

DN

0 2’ 4’ 8’ 16’

11' - 3"

8' - 11"

10' - 3"

1' - 7 7""

19' - 11"

90' - 3"

First Floor Plan

30' - 0"

UP

UP

DN

32’


117|118

Second Floor Plan

UP DN DN

Gallery

UP

UP

DN

Figure 5.4

2’ 0

32’

8’ 4’

16’


Third Floor Plan

UP DN

Gallery

DN UP

UP

DN

2’

Figure 5.5 0

32’

8’ 4’

16’


119|120

Fourth Floor Plan

UP DN

UP

Rooftop Gallery

Working Gallery

DN

UP

2’

Figure 5.6 0

32’

8’ 4’

16’


Fifth Floor Plan

DN DN

Outdoor Seating

Cafe

Office

DN

Figure 5.7

2’ 0

32’

8’ 4’

16’


Main Gallery 11' - 3"

Storage 10' - 0"

Gallery 10' - 0"

Gallery 12' - 0"

13' - 11"

Working Gallery

Cafe 13' - 11"

121|122

Figure 5.8


Figure 5.9


123|124 Steel I-beam Column

Glass Roof

Hardwood Flooring

Concrete on Metal Deck Roof Roof

Railing for Outdoor Cafe

1’x 3” Original Decking

Steel I-beam Column

Original 2”x 8” Joists

Steel I-beam Joist

Original Heavy Timber Beam 7”x7”

Glass Curtain Wall

Steel I-beam Joist

Bolted Metal Bracket to Connect Timber to Steel

Figure 5.10

New and Old Connection

Concrete Decking

W16x45 Steel I-beam column

Hardwood Flooring

3/4” Hardwood Flooring

1’x 3” Original Decking 1”x 3” Original Decking

Original 2”x 8” Joists Gypsum Board

Original Heavy Timber Beam 7”x7” Original Structure Original Heavy Timber Column

Figure 5.11

Original 2”x 8” Joists

Hardwood Flooring

Original Heavy Timber Beams 7”x 7”

Concrete with Metal Decking

Concrete on Metal Decking

Open Web Steel Joists

Original Brick Wall

Steel I-Beam Joist

Drop Ceiling Wrapped with Gypsum

W16x45 Steel I-beam Joist

New Concrete Wall

Figure 5.12

Existing Basement

New Construction

Figure 5.13

Wall Section


125|126

Figure 5.14


North Overview

Figure 5.15


127|128

South Overview

Figure 5.16


Main Lobby

Figure 5.17


129|130

Signage Wall

Figure 5.18


View from Original into New

Figure 5.19


131|132

Working Gallery

Figure 5.20


Roof of Original

Figure 5.21


133|134

Indoor and Outdoor Cafe

Figure 5.22


Figure 5.23


135|136


Figure 5.24


139|140

Works Cited

Fram, Mark. Well-Preserved. 3rd ed. Ontario: Boston Mills Press, 2003. City of Savannah. “Ellis Square.” Web. 8 November 2011 < http://savannahga.gov/cityweb/p&tweb.nsf/ 02e67f6f5dc1d3e585256c2f0071940a/5ec6a1cca9ba14e68 52571f7002c8d62? OpenDocument>. De Teel Patterson Tiller. “Obey the Imperatives of Our Own Moment: A Call for Quality Contemporary Design in Historic Districts.” Forum Journal. Volume: 21. Summer 2007: 1-13. Print. ICOMOS. “Resolutions of the Symposium on the Introduction of Contemporary Architecture into Ancient Groups of Buildings.” Web. 5 November 2011<http://www.international.icomos.org/ publications/93towns7e.pdf>. Safdie Architects. “Telfair Museum of Art, Jepson Center for the Arts.” Web. 8 November 2011 <http://www.msafdie.com/#/projects/Telfairmuseumofartjepsoncenterforthearts>. Sottile & Sottile. “Savannah College of Art and Design Museum of Art.” Web. 8 November 2011 <http://www.sottile.cc/SCAD-Museum-of-Art-Sottile-Folio-Excerpts.pdf>. Tate Moderns. “The Building.” Web. 9 October 2011 <http://www.tate.org.uk/modern/building>. The Morgan Library & Musuem. “The Renzo Piano Expansion and Renovation.” Web. 9 October 2011. <http://www.themorgan.org/about/historyMore.asp?id=27>. Tyler, Norman. Historic Preservation. 1st ed. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2000. Tyler, Norman. Historic Preservation. 2nd ed. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2009.

Zak Robinson Thesis Book  

Zak Robinson Thesis Book

Zak Robinson Thesis Book  

Zak Robinson Thesis Book

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