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Contemporary Nutrition A Functional Approach 4th Edition Wardlaw Solutions Manual Download:http://testbanklive.com/download/contemporary-nutrition-afunctional-approach-4th-edition-wardlaw-solutions-manual/ Contemporary Nutrition A Functional Approach 4th Edition Wardlaw Test Bank Download:http://testbanklive.com/download/contemporary-nutrition-afunctional-approach-4th-edition-wardlaw-test-bank/ CONCE PT CHE C K: S OL UTIO NS

CHAPTER 1 Concep t Ch eck 1.1 1. W hat are the f actors that influence our food choic es? Hunger and appeti te infl uence our food choic es. Factors su ch as fl avor, ap pearan ce, and tex ture; earl y influ ences, routines, and habit s; adve rtisi ng and r estaurant m e nus; economi cs and conv enie nce; seekin g emot ional c omfort; social chan ges; a nd hopefull y, nutrit ion and healt h conc erns, also gre atl y influ en ce our food choices. Nort h Americans probabl y respond m or e to ex ternal, appeti te relat e d forces than to hun ger - r elated ones in choosi ng wh en and wh at to eat. 2. How do hunger and appe ti te differ in the wa y th e y influence our d esire to e at? Hunger is the prim aril y p h ysical o r internal desir e to find and eat food. Fulf il li ng it creat es sati et y—no furth er desire to eat ex ist s. Food int ake is also aff ected b y app eti te - related ( ex ternal) for ces l i ke social custom s, ti me of da y, and bein g with ot hers. 3. W hat factors influenc e sa ti et y? S ati et y is i nfluenc ed b y h unge r -r elated (inte rnal) si gnals f rom the brain and other or gans, as well as the cont ent of the foods i n the meal. Concep t Ch eck 1.2 1. How do we de fine nutrit ion? Nutriti on is the stud y o f f ood and nutrients — their digesti on, absorption, an d metaboli sm, and their ef fect on h ealt h and disease. 2. W hat are the thre e leadin g c auses of d eath fo r whi ch diet pla ys a pa rt? C ardiovascular (hea rt) di sease, in cludi n g h ypert en sion and stroke; som e for ms of canc er; and diabetes a re li fe -thre atening chronic dise ases for which a poo r diet i s known to be a risk factor and which a cc ount for two -thi rds of all deaths i n North Americ a .


Concep t Ch eck 1. 3 1. W hat are the six classes of nutrients? Food contains t he vit al n utrients essenti al for goo d healt h: carboh yd rates, l ipi ds (fats and oil s), proteins, vi tamins , mi nerals, and wat er. 2. W hat are the thre e gene r al functi ons of nutrients i n the bod y? Nutrients have thre e gen eral fun cti ons i n the bod y: (1) to provide m ateri als for buil ding and maintaining the bod y; (2) to act as r e gulators f or ke y metaboli c r eact ion s; and (3) to participate in metaboli c r eacti ons t hat provide the ener g y ne cessa r y to su sta i n li fe.


Concep t Ch eck 1. 4 1. W hat are the en er g y ( cal orie) valu es for e ach of t he “en er g y nutrients�? A comm on unit of measu rement for ener g y is t he kil ocalorie (kc al). On av e ra ge, carboh ydr ates and p rotei n provide 4 kcal pe r gra m of ener g y to t he bod y, while lipi ds provide 9 kcal pe r gram. Although not consider ed a n utrient, alcohol provid es about 7 kcal per gram. The othe r classes of nutrients (vita mi ns, m inerals, and wate r) do not suppl y calo ries bu t ar e es senti al for prope r bod y fu ncti oning. Concep t Ch eck 1.5 1. W hat are the six steps used in t he scientific metho d? S tep 1 of the scientific m ethod i s the observati on of a natur al phenomenon and askin g questi ons about i t . In S te p 2, scientis ts gene rate h yp otheses which a re poss ibl e ex planati ons about t he ca use of the phenomenon. Proving the h ypoth esis , however, requires cont rolled ex per im ents, s o in S tep 3, research ex periments a re con ducted. In S tep 4, findi ngs ar e evalu ated b y o ther sci enti sts and publi shed. In S tep 5, f oll ow -up ex periments are condu cte d to confirm or ex tend the findings. S tep 6 is t o ac cept or r eject h ypothesis. Concep t Ch eck 1. 6 1. S urve ys indi c ate that we could i mprove our diets b y fo cusing on which t yp e of food sources? S urve ys in t he United St a tes and C anada sho w that we gene rall y ha ve a va riet y of foods avail able to us. Howev er, som e of us could i mprove our diets b y f ocusin g o n food sources rich in v arious vit ami ns, m inerals, and fib er, such as fruit s, ve getab les, and whole gr ains. 2. The consum pti on of which t yp es of foods shoul d be reduc ed to attain and maintain good healt h? M an y o f us shoul d reduc e our consum pti on of cal ories, added su gar, protei n, sol id fat, cholesterol, salt , and al co holi c bevera ges. Thes e re comm endati ons are consi stent wit h an overall goal t o att ain and maintain good he alt h. Concep t Ch eck 1. 7 1. W hat are som e di et, ph ys ical acti vit y and li fest yl e recomm endati ons fo r hea lt h promoti on and dis ease pr eventi on? Diet


C onsum ing enou gh essen ti al nut rients, i ncludi ng fi ber, whil e moder ati ng en er g y, sol id fat, cholesterol, added su ga r, and al cohol i ntake c an result in: • In cre ased bon e mass du ring chil dhood and adole scence


• P reventi on of som e adu lt bone loss and ost eoporosis , especiall y in ol de r a dult s • Few er dent al cari es • P reventi on of digesti ve problems, such as const i pati on • Decr eased sus cepti bil it y to som e c ance rs • Decr eased d e grad ati on of the reti na ( espe ciall y t hrough int ak e of gr een a nd oran ge ve getables) • Low er risk of ob esit y a nd related dise ases, such as t ype 2 diabetes and cardiovas cular dise ase • R educed risk fo r defici enc y diseas es, such as an emi a (throu g h ad equate i ntake; and of iron, folate, oth er nutrients) Ph ysical Ac tivity Adequate, r e gular ph ysic al acti vit y ( at l east 30 mi nutes on most or all da ys ) helps reduc e the risk of: • Obesit y • T ype 2 diabetes • C ardiovascular dise ase • S ome adult bone loss and los s of muscle tone • P remature a gin g • C ertain can cers L if estyle Mini miz ing alcohol int ak e (no more than two d rinks per da y fo r men and o ne drink for women and all adult s a ge 65 ye ars and old er) h elps prevent: • Live r disease • Accidents Not sm oking ci gar ett es o r cigars helps p revent: • Lun g canc er, other


Conte mpora r y Nutriti on : A Fu nc tional App roa c h , 4 th E dition AN S W E RS TO S TUDY Q UES TIONS Fo r m an y o f the S tu d y Q u e stion s, ind ividu a l an swe rs will va r y. E xa m p les of a p p rop ria te a n swe rs to t he se su b jective qu e stio n s a re sh own . CH AP TER 1 1. Des c ribe the proce s s that c ontrols hunger a nd s a tie ty i n the body . Lis t othe r fa c tors that i nflue nc e our food c hoice s . (LO 1 .1 ) Hun ge r is a ph ysiolo gi ca l d rive t o e at, an d is co n tro lle d b y in te rna l bo d y m e cha n ism s. A s nu trie n ts a re p roce sse d b y t h e sto ma ch a nd small int e stine , th e se o rga n s comm un icat e with t he live r a n d b rain , red u cing f u rth e r fo o d in ta ke . T he live r a lso u se s its d ire ct n e rve p ath wa ys to t he b rain t o sign a l hu n ge r a nd fu lln e ss. Th e h yp o tha lam u s, a p o rtion of the b rain , he lps to re gu late h u n ge r an d sa tie ty. T h e fe ed ing ce n te r of th e h yp o th a lam u s sign a ls th e b od y t o e at, wh e rea s th e sa tie ty ce n te r sign a ls th e b od y t o st op eatin g. B e side s hu n ge r – th e in te rna l, p h ysiolo gical d ri ve t o f in d an d e a t f o od – ma ny e xte rna l f a cto rs co ntrib u te to fo od ch o ices. S om e of th e se f a cto rs in clude f lavo r, te xtu re, a n d a pp e a ran ce of f oo d s; e a rly lif e e xp e rie n ce s; rou tin e s o r h ab its; a d ve rtising; so cial ch an ge s; e con om ics; a n d n u trition kno wled g e .

2. Des c ribe how y our food pre fere nce s ha v e be e n s ha pe d by the follow ing fac tors : a . E x pos ure to foods a t a n ea rly a ge b. Adv e rtis ing (wha t is the ne we s t food y ou ha v e trie d?) c . E a ting out d. P e e r pre ss ure e . E c onomic fac tors (LO 1 .1 ) Fo o d ch o ices a re inf lue n ced b y m an y f a cto rs: a. B e ing ra ised b y a ve ge ta ria n m o th e r, Iwasexposedtoawidevarietyof f ruits a nd ve ge ta b les f ro m a yo u n g a ge andneverwentthroughapicky stage o r refu se d t o e a t ve ge ta b les.


b. A t the groce ry st o re, the re we re co u po n s a n d f ree sam p les of a ne w t yp e of ce rea l b a r. I tried it, like d it, an d p u rcha se d it f o r b rea kf a st th is wee k. c. B e ca u se we we re in a h u rry a n d st op p ed atafastfoodrestaurant,my foodch o ices a t lu n ch to d a y we re e xce ssi ve in ca lorie s, fa t, a nd sodium .


d. A t T h an ksgivin g d inn e r, m y gran d mo the r off e red m e a se co n d h e lp ing o f m a she d p o ta toe s an d gra vy. I d idn ’t wa n t to h u rt he r f ee lin gs, so I ate t he e xtra p o rtio n . e. E xp e n se s p la y a m a jo r ro le in m y d iet pa tt e rns. A s a co lle ge stu d ent, fu n d s a re lim ite d , so I re a lly t r y t o e a t in e xp e nsive f o od item s o r th o se t ha t a re o n sa le. Fo r e xa mp le, I p u rcha se d ca nn ed p ea ch e s in stea d of f re sh p e a ch e s. 3. Wha t produc ts i n y our s uper ma rk e t re fle c t the c onsume r de ma nd for he a lthie r foods ? For c onve nie nc e ? (LO 1 .1 ) Ma n y groce r y st o res no w o ff e r a n o rga n ic a isle o r h ea lth fo od a isle, wh ich ref lects a ch an ging t ren d in co n sume r d em and s. In t e rm s of con ve n ien ce , th e f roze n fo od se ctio n h as b e com e la rg e r th an eve r a n d ma n y su p e rm arket s n o w off e r p re p a red m e a ls, su ch a s sa nd wiche s an d ro a ste d ch icken .

4. Name one c hronic dis e as e as s oc ia ted wi th poor nutrition ha bits. Now lis t a few c orres ponding r is k fa c tors . (LO 1.2 ) Card iova scu lar d isea se is a ch ron ic d ise a se a sso ciate d with p oo r nu tritio n a l h a b its. A fe w co rre sp on d ing risk f a cto rs a re high b loo d ch o leste rol, h igh b loo d p ressu re, ina de qu a te ph ysical a ctivit y, d iab e tes, a nd smokin g.

5. Des c ribe two s ources of fat a nd ex pla in why the diffe re nce s a re i mport a nt in te rms of ove ra ll hea lth. ( LO 1 .3 ) T he re a re t wo b a sic typ e s of f at, un sa tu rated fa t an d sa tu rate d f a t. P lan t o ils te n d t o co n ta in m an y u n sa tu rate d f a tty a cids, wh ich m a ke th em liqu id a t room te mp e ratu re. Ce rta in u n sa tu rated fa tt y a cids a re e sse n t ial n u trien ts, a nd som e m a y a lso lowe r b lood ch o leste rol. An ima l f a ts a re oft e n rich in satu rate d fa tt y a cids, wh ich ma ke th em so lid a t roo m t em pe ratu re. S atu rate d fa tt y a cids ten d to raise b lood cho lest e ro l. 6. Ide ntify thre e wa ys that w a ter is use d in th e body . (LO 1 .3 ) In d ividu a l a n swe rs will va r y. E xa mp le: T o n am e ju st a fe w f u n ction s, wa te r a cts a s a so lve n t a nd lu b rica n t, p rovide s a m ed ium fo r tran spo rt of nu trie n ts a n d wa ste s, a n d h e lps t o re gu lat e bo d y t em pe ratu re. 7. E x pla in the c once pt of c a lori e s as i t re la tes to foods. What a re the v a lue s us e d to c alc ula te kc al from gra ms of c a rbohydra te, fat, protei n, a nd a lc ohol? (LO 1.4 )


A ca lorie is a me a su re of he a t e ne rgy: th e a mo u n t of h ea t it ta ke s to raise t h e te mp e ratu re of 1 gram of wa te r 1 °C. E n e rgy i s st o red in t he che m ica l b on d s in th e ca rbo h yd rate s, f at, a n d p rote in in th e fo ods we e a t. W e ca n u se th is ch e m ica l e ne rgy t o p e rfo rm b o d y f un ctio n s, f ro m p um p ing io n s a cross ce ll m em b ran e s to m o ving ske let a l m u scles. Fo ods ge n e rally p rovide ca lorie s f r o m


m o re th an on e so u rce. Th e fu e l va lue fo r a gram of ca rbo h yd rate is 4 kca l, a gram of fa t is 9 kca l, a gram of p rote in is 4 kca l, a nd a gram of a lcoho l is 7 kca l. 8. A bowl of P a ne ra ’s broc c oli c he ddar s oup c onta ins 21 gra ms carbohydra te, 1 3 gra ms fa t, a n d 1 2 gra ms protei n. Ca lc ula te the pe rc e nta ge of c a lorie s de riv e d from fa t. (LO 1 .4 ) 2 1 gram s x 4 ca lorie s/gram of ca rbo h yd rate = 8 4 ca lorie s f ro m ca rbo h yd rate 1 3 gram s fa t x 9 ca lorie s/gram of f at = 1 17 ca lorie s f rom f at 1 2 gram s p rote in x 4 ca lorie s/gram of p rote in = 4 8 ca lorie s f ro m p rote in 8 4 + 11 7 + 48 = 21 3 tota l ca lorie s 1 1 7 ca lorie s f rom fa t/21 3 to ta l ca lorie s = 0 .5 5 x 1 0 0 = 5 5 % ca lorie s fro m fa t

9. Acc ording to national nutrition s urv ey s , whic h nutrie nts te nd to be underc onsume d by ma ny North Ame rican s ? Why do y ou think this is the c a se ? (LO 1 .5 ) S o me No rth Am e rica ns h a ve in a de qu a te in take s of iron , ca lcium , vit a m in A , va rio u s B vita m ins, vita m in C, vita m in D, vita m in E, po ta ssium , zinc, a nd f ibe r. T h is is p rim a rily b e ca use of a n in a de qu a te f ruit, ve ge ta b le, a n d wh o le grain int a ke , a s we ll a s o ve r -co n sum p tio n of su ga red sof t d rin ks an d sn a cks.

10. Lis t four Hea lthy Pe ople 2 02 0 obje c tiv e s for the United S tates. How would y ou ra te y ours e lf in ea c h a re a ? Why ? (LO 1 .5 & 1 .6 ) Fo u r Hea lth y P eo p le 20 2 0 o b ject ive s f o r th e Unite d Sta te s a re a s follo ws: a. In crea se t he p rop o rtion of a du lts wh o a re a t a h ea lth y we igh t. A t 5 ’7 ” a n d 1 4 0 p o un d s, I am a t a h e a lth y we i gh t. b. In crea se t he va rie ty a n d co ntrib u tion of ve ge ta b les to th e d iet s of the p o pu lat ion a ge s 2 y e a rs a n d o lde r. I u su a lly co n sum e o ne o r two se rvings of ve ge ta b les p e r da y. I sh ou ld increa se m y co n sum p tio n of ve ge ta bles. c. Red u ce co n su mp tio n of sa tu rate d f a t in th e p op u lat ion a ge s 2 ye a rs a n d o lde r. I u sua lly se lect p o u ltry a n d f ish in ste ad of red m ea t, so t he se ch o ices a re lo we r in satu rated f at. Howe ve r,


I sh o u ld cu t d o wn o n t he a m ou n t of ch ee se I e at, a s th is is a so u rce of sa tu rate d fa t. d. Red u ce co n su mp tio n of so d ium in t he po p u la tion a ge s 2 ye a rs a nd olde r. I p repa re m o st of m y f o o d s a t h om e ra th e r tha n re lying o n f a st f oo d o r f roze n m ea ls. T h is h e lp s me to ke ep m y so d ium inta ke with in a he a lth y ran ge . 11. Lis t fiv e s trate gies to a v oid we ight gai n during c olle ge . (LO 1 .7 ) Five st rate gies to a vo id we igh t ga in d u rin g co lle ge a re:


a. E a t b re a kfa st. b. P lan ah ea d to ea t a balan ce d me a l o r sn a ck e ve r y 3 – 4 ho u rs. c. L im it liqu id ca lorie s b y d rin king wa te r in ste a d of h igh -ca lorie soft d rinks, f ruit ju ice, a lcoho l, o r coff ee . d. K e e p a sta sh lo w-ca lor ie, n utritio u s sna cks, su ch a s p retze ls, ligh t m icro wa ve p o p co rn , an d f ruit (f resh , ca n ne d , o r d rie d ). e. E xe rcise a t lea st 3 0 m in u te s a t le a st 5 da ys a we e k.


CH AP TER 2 1. How would y ou ex plain the c once pts of nutrie nt de ns ity a nd e ne rgy de ns ity to a fourth-gra de c lass (LO 2 .1 )? Calo rie s give u s e n e rgy. W e ne e d ju st e n ou gh ca lorie s to he lp u s sta y h e a lth y, lea rn, an d p lay. If we h a ve t o o ma n y ca lories, th ou gh , we m igh t gain to o mu ch we i gh t a n d fe e l tired an d sick. W e n ee d to ch o o se f oo d s th a t h a ve a lo t of n u tritio n – vita m ins a nd m ine rals t o h e lp u s grow – b u t no t to o m an y ca lorie s. Nut rie n t -d en se fo od s are go o d fo o d s t o e a t. Th e y gi ve u s a lo t of h ea lth y vita m ins a n d m ine rals, bu t th e y d o no t give u s t o o ma ny ca lorie s. W e sh ou ld ch o o se m o re fo od s th a t a re nutrie n t de n se, su c h a s f ru its, ve ge ta b les, e ggs, a n d o a tm e a l. En e rgy d e n sity is a n o the r wa y t o d e scrib e f o od s to he lp u s m a ke h e a lth y ch o ices. A n en e rgy -d e n se f o od ha s a lo t of ca lo rie s in a small a mo u nt of fo o d. So me e xa mp les of en e rgy -d e n se f o od s a re co o kie s, ch ip s, an d p e an u t b u tte r. Ha ving a sm a ll a m ou n t of som e en e rgy -d e n se f o od s is f ine , b u t we n ee d to m a ke su re we a re ge tt ing go o d n u trition a lo n g with o u r ca lorie s. W e sh o u ld ch o o se e ne rgy-d e n se fo o d s like co o kies a nd ch ips less oft en o r in sm a lle r a m ou n ts. In ste a d , ch oo se nu trie n t -de n se f ood s like ap p les a n d ca rro ts to h e lp u s grow, lea rn, a n d p lay. 2. Des c ribe the intent of the Die tary G uide line s for Ame ric a ns. Bas e d on the dis c uss ion of the Dietary G uideli ne s for Ame rica ns , s ugges t two k e y die tary c ha nges the ty pic a l North Ame rican a dult s hould c onside r m a king. (LO 2 .2 ). Die ta ry G u ide lin e s ha ve b ee n issue d to h e lp im p rove t he he a lth of a ll A m e rican s, a ge s 2 an d o lde r. Th e gu ide lin e s emp h a size b a lan cing fo o d in ta ke with p h ysical a ctivit y t o m an a ge b o dy we igh t; i n crea sing co n su mp tion of f ruits, vege ta b les, wh o le grain s, a n d lo w-fa t da iry f o od s; an d d e crea sing co n sum ptio n of d ieta ry so m e com p on en ts su ch a s so lid f ats an d ad de d su ga rs, a n d so d iu m. A m a jo r criticism is t h a t t he se gu ide lin e s a re ve ry ge n e ral. Fo r e xam p le, ch olest e rol an d sa lt co n su mp tion aff e ct p e op le in d iff e re n t ways. 3. Wha t die tary c ha nges w ould y ou ne e d to ma k e to c omply wi th the he a lthy e a ting guidel ine s e x empli fie d by MyP la te on a re gula r bas is (LO 2 .3 )? A ge n e ral cha n ge will b e to a vo id o ve r size d p o rtio n s. Sp e cif ic chan ge s wo u ld inclu d e in cre a sing f ruit a n d ve ge ta b le con sump tio n a t e a ch me a l so th a t f ruits a n d ve ge ta b le s co ve r h a lf of the p la te a t e a ch me a l. G ra ins sho u ld b e de crea se d to o ccu p y o n ly sligh tl y m o re th an


on e -f ou rth of th e p late at ea ch m eal. Howe ve r, a t lea st ha lf of m y grain s sh ou ld be wh o le grain s. I will f ill th e rem ainin g sp a ce o n ea ch p lat e with so urces of p ro te in a nd chan ge t h e se to b e mo re le a n m ea ts a n d p o u ltry a nd p lan t so u rces of p rote in. I will in clud e f ish a s a p r o te in so u rce twice a we e k. I n ad d itio n I will h a ve 2 t o 3 cup s of lo w -f a t o r fa t -f ree d a iry p rod u cts e a ch da y o r oth e r rich sou rces of ca lcium . I will a lso ch o o se f oo d s su ch a s so up , b rea d, an d f ro ze n m ea ls tha t h a ve th e lo we r so d ium nu mbe rs a n d d rin k wa te r in ste a d of su ga ry d rin ks.


4. Des c ribe w ha t would ha ppen to the s tatus of a nutrie nt i n the body for a pe rs on who tra nsitions from a n ove rnouris he d to a n under nouris he d s ta te (LO 2 .4 ). T he st atu s of a n utrie n t in a n o ve rno u rish ed pe rson m a y b e p o te n tia lly to xic, ca u sing d am a ge to th e b o d y. A s t h e p e rso n d e crea se s t he in ta ke of th is nu trie n t, th e sta tu s of th e n utrie n t will d rop d o wn t o a de qu a te le ve l of sto rage a n d b lood leve ls o f th e n utrie n t. If th e in ta ke of the nu trie n t d rop s b e low t h e requ ire d a m ou n t, the sta tu s of th e nu trie n t will d rop re su lting in a de clin e in bo d y f u n ction s a sso ciate d with t h e n utrie n t. T h is d e clin e in nu trie n t sta tu s will lea d t o clinica l sym p to m s re lat ed to t he d e cline in b o d y f un ctio n .

5. Wha t s teps w ould y ou foll ow to e v alua t e the nutritiona l s tate of a n undernouris he d pe rson? (LO 2 .5 )? Nut ritio n a l a sse ssme n t wo u ld sta rt with ca ref ully reco rdin g a n d a na lyzing t h e p e rson ’s fa m ily h e a lth h isto ry. Ne xt th e pe rson ’s me d ical h isto ry wo u ld b e e va lua te d , e spe cially f o r a n y d isea se st ate s o r trea tm en ts th a t co u ld d e crea se n u trie n t a b so rption o r u ltim a te u se . A list of m e d ica tio n s t a ke n a n d t h e p e rson ’s so cial h isto ry (e .g., marita l sta tu s, living co n d ition s) wo u ld a lso b e a na lyze d . Mo st im p o rta n tly, th e f ive n utritio n a l -a sse ssm en t cate go rie s (AB CDE s) wo u ld be co m p le ted . Th e se in clud e a n th ropo me tric a sse ssm en t of he igh t, we igh t (an d we i gh t ch a n ge s), skinfo ld th ickn e sse s, a nd bo d y circu mf e ren ce s. In a dd ition a b ioch em ical a sse ssm en t of the con ce ntra tio ns of nu trie n ts a nd nu trie n t b yp rod u cts in th e b lood , u rin e, an d fe ce s, a nd t he a ctivities of sp e cif ic b lood e n zym e s wo u ld b e com p lete d . A clin ical a sse ssm en t wo u ld fo llo w, d u rin g wh ich a h ea lth p rof e ssio n a l wo u ld se a rch fo r a n y p hysical e vide n ce of d iet -rela te d d isea se s o r def icie n cies. Th e n a d iet a ry a ssessm e nt of a t le a st th e p reviou s f e w d a ys’ f oo d inta ke wo u ld b e d on e to de te rm ine a n y p o ssible p rob lem a rea s. Fin a lly, a n e n viro n m enta l a sse ssm en t wo u ld p rovide f u rth e r d e ta ils a b ou t th e living co n d ition s, e du ca tio n le ve l, a n d a b ility t o p u rcha se a nd p rep a re f oo d s n e ed e d to m a in ta in h ea lth . 6. How do RDAs a nd AIs differ from Dai ly Value s i n intention a nd a pplic a tion (LO 2 .6 )? Reco mm en d ed Dieta ry Allowa n ce s (RDAs) a re se t fo r m a n y n utrie n ts. RDAs ind icat e t h e am ou n t of a n utrie n t th a t is suff icie n t to m e et the ne ed s of 97 % t o 9 8 % of ind ividu a ls with in a po p u la tio n grou p . A d e qu a te In ta ke s (AI s) a re t he sta n da rd u se d wh e n no t en o u gh info rma tion is a va ila b le to se t a n RDA. A Is ind icat e t h e in ta ke le vel of a n u trien t th a t a pp ea rs to


m a inta in h e a lth . W he re a s th e RDAs a n d A Is a re sp e cif ic to ce rta in p op ulat ion grou p s, su ch a s ch ild ren o r p regn a n t wo me n , th e DVs a re ge n e ric b e cause it is no t fe a sible to list n u trien t reco mm en d atio n s fo r eve r y p o p u lat ion grou p o n th e fo od la be l. T he DVs a re u su a lly b a se d o n t he h igh e st RDA o r AI f o r vita m ins a nd m in e rals. Fo r n u trien ts su ch a s f a t a nd cho leste rol, t he DV s rep rese nt a m a xim um in ta ke le ve l b a se d on


a 2 00 0 -kca l d iet . 7. Wha t would y ou li s t as the top fiv e s ourc es of re lia ble nutrition informa tion? What ma k es thes e s ource s re li a ble (LO 2.7 )? Five re lia b le so u rces o f n u trition info rm atio n : a. Registe red d iet itian s a re re lia b le so u rces of nu tritio n info rma tio n. T he y h a ve co mp lete d rigo rou s cla ssroom an d f ie ld tra inin g a n d a re re qu ire d to e a rn con tinu ing e d u ca tion cre d its to m a inta in th e ir cre de n tia ls. RDs a re tra ine d to t ra n slate com p lex scie n tif ic kn o wled ge in to p ract ical n u trition a d vice fo r the pu b lic. b. P e e r-revie we d scie n tif ic p u b licatio n s a re a sou rce of inf o rm a tion on n u tritio n re se a rch. T he se jou rna ls pu b lish stu d ies th a t a re we ll -d e sign e d a n d re viewe d b y e xp e rts in t he f ield . It is i mpo rta n t to rem emb e r, h o we ve r, th a t nu tritio n reco mm en d atio n s a re n o t b a sed on t he re su lts of o n e stu d y; mu ltiple lines of e vide n ce a re re qu ire d t o su pp o rt n u tritio n reco mm en d atio n s. c. P rof e ssion a l nu tritio n orga n iza tio n s, su ch a s th e A ca d em y of Nu trition a nd Die te tics, a re re lia b le so u rces of nu tritio n info rm a tion . Th e A ca de m y d e ve lop s clinica l p ractice gu ide lin e s, ma int a ins a n E vide n ce An a lysis L ibra ry, a n d p ro vide s an swe rs to f re qu e n tly aske d qu e stion s to he lp b o th p rof e ssion a ls an d th e p u b lic id en tif y so u nd nu tritio n info rma tio n. d. Unive rsitie s a n d me d ica l ce n te rs a re re liab le so u rces of nu tritio n inf o rma tio n . T he se in stitu tio n s p rovide p ract ica l inf o rm a tion f o r h ea lth p rof e ssion a ls an d p a tie n ts. Ma n y su ch we b site s, su ch a s www.m a yo clin ic.co m , d ispla y t h e Hea lth o n th e Ne t sym b o l, wh ich ind icat e s t h e p ub lish e rs of th e site a re com m itt e d to d issem in a tin g eth ical a n d h igh -qu a lity h e a lth inf o rma tio n. e. Go ve rnm e nt o rga n iza tio n s th a t co nd u ct n u tritio n re sea rch an d d e ve lop n u tritio n gu ide lin e s a re o the r so u rces of re liable n u trition info rm atio n . Th e Fo o d a n d Drug A d m in istrat ion , th e U.S . De p artm e nt of A gricu ltu re, Hea lth Can a da , th e Cen te rs fo r Disea se Con tro l an d P reve n tio n , t he Na tiona l In stitu te s of Hea lth , a nd t he Fo od an d Nu trition B oa rd of the In stitu te of Me d icin e a re e xa m p les of su ch o rga n iza tio n s. E xp e rts in th e f ie ld co n du ct rese a rch, a n a lyze t h e fin d ings, a nd wo rk to ge th e r to f o rm u late nu tritio n reco mm en d atio n s, su ch a s th e DRIs. 8. Die titia ns e nc oura ge a ll pe ople to rea d la be ls on food pac k a ge s to le a rn more a bout w ha t they e a t. Wha t four nutrie nts c ould e a s ily be tra c ke d in y our die t if y ou re a d the Nutrition Fa c ts pane ls re gula rly on food prod uc ts (LO 2 .8 )?


Fo u r n utrie n ts th a t ca n e a sily b e t racked u sing f oo d lab e ls a re vita min A , vita m in C, ca lciu m , a nd iron . Th e se a re th e fo u r nu trie n ts th a t a re co mm on ly la cking in d iet s of som e No rth Am e rica n s, a nd a re e sse n tia l fo r go o d h ea lth . 9. Define the USDA de finition for the te rm “orga nic � (LO 2 .8 ). Fe d e ral sta n da rds fo r o rga n ic fo od s re qu ire th a t a t lea st 95 % of ingred ients (by


we i gh t) m u st h a ve b een p rodu ced with o u t th e u se of che m ica l f e rtilize rs o r p e sticide s, ge n e tic e n gine e rin g, se wa ge slu d ge , an t ibio tics, o r irra d iatio n to be lab e led “o rga n ic” o n the f ron t of th e p a cka ge . If t he f ron t labe l inste ad sa ys “m a de with o rga n ic ingred ien ts, ” o n ly 7 0 % of th e in gred ien ts m u st b e o rga n ic. Fo r a n ima l p rod u cts, t he a n im a ls m u st graze o u tdo o rs, b e fe d o rga nic fe e d, an d ca n no t be e xp o sed to la rge a mo u n ts of a n tib iot ics o r growth h o rm one s.

10. Lis t s ome s pe cific hea lth c laims c a n be ma de on food la bels (LO 2 .8 ). A d iet with en o u gh ca lcium an d vita m in D and a red u ced risk of o ste o po rosis A d iet lo w in t o ta l fa t an d a re d u ce d risk of som e ca n ce rs A d iet lo w in sa tu rate d fa t an d ch o leste rol an d a re du ce d risk of ca rdio va scu lar d isea se (typ icall y re f e rre d to as h e a rt d isea se on th e lab e l) A d iet rich in f ibe r —con ta inin g grain p rod u cts, f ruits, a n d ve ge tab les—a n d a red u ced risk of so me ca n ce rs A d iet lo w in so d ium an d h igh in p o ta ssium an d a re d u ce d risk of h yp e rte n sion a nd st roke A d iet rich in f ruits a nd ve ge ta b les a nd a re d uce d risk of som e ca n cers A d iet a de qu a te in th e syn th e tic f o rm of the vita m in f o late (called f o lic a cid) a n d a re du ced risk of ne u ral tub e d efe cts (a typ e of b irth d efe ct) A d iet rich in f ruits, ve g e ta b le s, an d grain p rodu cts tha t co n ta in f ibe r a n d a red u ced risk of ca rdio va scu lar d isea se . Oa ts (oatme a l, o a t b ran , an d o a t f lo u r) a nd psyll ium a re two f ibe r -rich ingred ien ts th a t ca n b e sin gled o u t in red u cing th e risk of ca rdio va scu lar d isea se, a s lon g a s th e st a tem en t a lso sa ys t he d iet sh ou ld a lso be low in sa tu rate d fa t a n d ch o leste rol A d iet rich in wh o le -grain f o od s an d o the r p lant f o od s, a s we ll a s lo w i n t o ta l fa t, sa tu rate d fa t, a nd ch o leste rol, an d a re du ce d risk of ca rdio va scu la r d isea se a nd ce rta in can ce rs Fa tt y a cids f rom o ils p re se n t in f ish a nd a re du ce d risk of ca rdio va scu lar d isea se Ma rga rin e s co n ta inin g p lan t sta no ls a nd ste rols a n d a redu ced risk of ca rdio va scu lar d isea se


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Contemporary Nutrition A Functional Approach 4th Edition Wardlaw Test Bank  

Download: http://testbanklive.com/download/contemporary-nutrition-a-functional-approach-4th-edition-wardlaw-solutions-manual/ Contemporary N...

Contemporary Nutrition A Functional Approach 4th Edition Wardlaw Test Bank  

Download: http://testbanklive.com/download/contemporary-nutrition-a-functional-approach-4th-edition-wardlaw-solutions-manual/ Contemporary N...

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