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VolumeI No. 3

Winter 1997-1998



COMMITTEE PUBLICATIONS Judy Greenlield GraemeDavis Frank Pettee OavidLovering MaryPratchett ESSSTAFFLIAISON Dr. RobertPickering


Alfred Lucas: Egypt'sSherlockHolmes by Dr.MarkGilberg


Scandalin the EmbalmingHouse by Dr.W. BensonHarer

of the published fourtimesperyearby members THEOSTRACONis Egyptian StudySociety.The ESS,a supporlgrouPof the DENVER 10 MUSEUMoF NATURALHISTORY,is a non-prolitorganization by whosepurposeis to studyancientEgypt.Articlesarecontributed 12 is andscholarson a voluntarybasis.Memberparticipation members part written or without in $/hole Nothingmaybe reprinted encouraged. permrssron. 13 01998 EgyptianStudySociety


Publicationof the Ostraconis supPonedby a grant from THE PETTYFOUNDAT'ON


Mereruka:Drawingon Life for the Dead by CharlesE. Cook The New EgyptianMummiesExhibitat DMNH by GraemeDavis LectureRepons Houseof Scrolls:BookReviews The ElectricPapyrus:New Media Reviews

AffRED LUCAS EGWTSSHERIOCKHOLMES b!'Mark Gilbery The Laboratoryof the GovernmentChemisl

Alfred Lucas About the Author Dr. Mark Gitberg has a BS and MSc from Stanlord University, and earned his PhD at the LJniversity of London lnstitute of Archaeology. ln 1983 he ioined the Conservation Processes ResearchDivisionof the Canadian ConseNationlnstitute.ln 1987 he was aDDointed Scientilic Otlicer in the Materials Conseruation Division ol the Austalian Museum. Since 1994 he has been Research Coordinalor lor the l'tational Center for Preseruation Technology and Ttaining in Natchitoches, Louisiana.

lntroduction To date, most ol what we know about early developments in archaeologjcalconservalion may be derived lrom the published works ol only a handfulof individuals.Alfred Lucas, chemist at lhe Cairo Museum, was one ol these few who laid the groundworklor many of the most importantdevelopmentsin the lield of archaeological conservation,and had a Profoundimpact upon the establishmentof materialsconservationas a profession.

Surprisinglylittle is known ol Lucas'personallife. Much of what we do know derives from a handful of obituariesPublishedsoon atter his death by several of his cclleagues and close friencis.He was born on August 27, 1867 in Charlton-upcn-[4edlock,Lancashire, or salesman.Lucas England.His latherwas a commercialtraveler, attended private schools in Manchesler. In August, 1891, after passing the entrance examinations in chemistry physics and mathematics, Lucas was appointed a "student" in the Inland RevenueLaboratoryin London.At the time all sludentswere also required to atiend a two year course at the Royal School ot Science (now known as lmperialCollege).Lucas successlully completedlhe course, and in April of 1893 was appointed "temoorary assistant", The lnland Revenue Labcratory later became the t aboratory of the GovernmentChemist,which recently celebrate.lits 1501h The Laboratorywas initlallytormedtor the purposeof anniversary. alcohol content oi beer and wine importedinto the analyzing Britainin orderto establishthe requiredcustcm duties.Over the wers expandedio include years,the Laboralory'sresponsibilities products The govof commercial the analysis ol a wide variety generally six days a week, hours, long worked chemists ernment periorming tedious chemical anaiysis without the aid of modern analytical instrumenlation.No doubt it was here that Lucas perfecled the analyticalskills which were to serve him so well years later in Egypt.

Egypt and the GovernmentAnalytical Laboratory In 1897 Lucas was placed on extended leave from lhe Civil Serviceafter contractingtuberculosis.A year later he left for Egypt, where he made a complete recovery Lucas probablychose Egypt for health reasons, though opportunitieslor advancemenl for a young, aspiringcivii servant were certainly greater in the colonies than at home. Cairc at the turn ot the century was an exciting, vibrant ciiy, though the rise of Arab nationalismsoon made British rule increasingly tenuous. Like many expatriates, Lucas took reluge at the Turf Club - which served as a "gentlemen'sclub" for the British in Egypt - though he soon secured a small flat in the suburb of Garden City. In May 1898,not long after his arrivalin Cairo, Lucasjoinedthe Salt Department,which later became the EgyptianSalt and Soda Company.Less lhan a year later, he accepted another position as a chemist at the GeologicalSurvey Departmentunderlhe direction of Sir HenryLyons.Therehe manageda smallchemicallaboratofor the analysis ol ry in the gardens ot the Public Works N,linistry, Egyptianminerals. lt was here that Lucas undoubtedlydeveloped his passion for Egyptology,as his duties invariably brought him inlo contact with ancient monumentsand sites. Duringthis time he publisheda number of importantstudieson the soils and waters of the Nile, as r,/ellas the deteriorationol building stones in Egypt.

Alfred Lucas was the quintessential conservation scientist. An analyticalchemistby trainingwith a strongbackgroundin forensic science, Lucas was ideally suited to elucidate the technical achievementsof the ancient Egyptians.Though probablybest known for his work Anclent Egyptian Materials and lndustnes (reDublished in a revisededitionas lateas 1989),Lucaspublished numerousarticlesand books on the care and preservationof to the bulk of his contributions materials.lronically, archaeological In 1912,with the additionot the AssayOtficeand a smallpetrolethe lield took place after his retiremenl at 55 um division,this laboratorybecame a separate departmentunder Lucas's direction, relerred lo as the Government Analytical Laboratoriesand Assay Office. Lucas assisted the British military

authoritieson a number of important chemical matters duting the First World War. For his etforts he receivedthe Order of the Brilish Empire. Egypt subsequentlyawarded him the third order of the Nile and the fourth order ol Osmania.

publicationin 1926 ol the first comprehensivetreatise on the subiecl: Ancient Egyptian Mateials- Extensively revised in successive edilions, it grew to become a standardte)dbook,layingthe ground' work work ror many of the most importantadvances in Egyptology' At the time ol its publication,few archaeometricstudies ol ancient Egyptian materials had been conductedwith any degree ol rigor, and interenceswere often made based on incompleteor inconclu' sive evidence. Lucas brought a much-needed objectivity to the study of ancient Egyptianmaterials,and succeededin dispellinga number oI prevailingmisconceptionsparticularlywith regatd to the true nature of taience, the materials used in mummification,and the use ol antimony in ancient Egypt.

As head of this new department, Lucas became somewhat of a local celebrity as an expett witness on folensic matters. He acquired a reputationas a ballistics and hand-writingexpert and testilied at various criminal proceedings involving tirearms and forgeries.One ol his colleaguesdescribedhim as "not an easy witness to bully or browbeat, and his evidence was otten vital lor either the condemnation or acquittal ot the accused". The local Englishianguage newspaper, The Egyptian Gazette, kequenlly reported Lucas'testimony at various criminal trials including the The puported use of antimony by the ancient Egyptianswas par"Great ConspiracyTrial" of 1923, where he identified the poason licularlycontroversial.Antimony plating had been repotted by Fink and Kopp (1933) who described several copper objects possessapplied to the lip ot an arrow used in a murder. ing scattered surlace spots which they identifiedas metallic antiIn a more celebratedcase, Lucas calculatedthe irajectoryof a bul' mony. Lucas disputed their findings, and suggestedlhat the preslet which had been accidentallyfired by a British soldier lrom a ence of antimony was more likely the result ot the electrolytic train, killing a passenger in an adjacenl compartment.Apparently, process used to clean the objects. Antimony, he said, reduction the bullet deflectedofl some ironwork in the station before enteran uncommon impurity in ancient Egyptian copper was not ing through the window and striking lhe victim. Lucas worked out and electrolyticcleaning may have reduced antimonycorobjects, mathematicallywhere the bullet struck the ironwork, and located rosion products in the objects lo their metallic state, thus producthe actual mark. ing the appearanceol plating. His keen interest in forensic science led him to Dublishnumerous however,was not alwayswelcomed by the archaeologipapers on the applicationof chemistryto criminal investigations-In His work, Though most archaeologistsrespectedhis contrical community. 1920 he published one of the first English texts on the subject, Lucas, neither an archaeologistnor historianby lraining, butions, Legal Chemistry and Scientific Ciminal lnveslgation- An expand' was consideredan interloperby others. Some criticismswere jused version ot this work, Forensic Chemisfry,was publishedthe fol' titied. His publishedworks frequentlylacked adequatedescriptions lowing year and became a standard lextbook on the subject. ol the procedureshe used to analyze Egyptianantiquities,and his Subsequent editions lrequently drew upon his experience with referencecilations were often incomplete, archaeologicalmaterials,which he often used as examples. In his discussion ot the decompositionot the human body aller death, It was not long alter his arrival at the Cairo Museum lhat Lucas Lucas frequently rererrred to Egyptian mummificalion praclices. was approachedby Howard Carterto assisl in the scientificexamHe also used Egyptian antiquities as examples to illustrate how inationand Dreservationof the antiquitiesexcavatedfrom the tomb chemicalanalysiscould be used to eslablish the authenlicityof an of Tutankhamun. Lucas proved lo be one of Carler's most loyal and dedicated supporters,and served him well lhroughout many anltoue. seasons of excavation.Though the molivesand intentionsol many His forensic work drew crilical acclaim both al home and abroad. of the individuals associated wiih the excavation ol the tomb ot praise medicalfrom the eminent Legal Chemistry rcceived high Tutankhamun were often called inlo question, Lucas was always legaf expert, C.A. Mitchell, editot ol The Anatst Excerpts trom reproach.Indeed,Lucas has been describedas "probably beyond Forensic Chemistry even appeared in The Egyptian Gazene, the only truly honest person associaled with the project" (Hoving which relerred to him as "Egypt's Shetlock Holmes.' He probably 't978). relished this reputation given his londness tor detective thrillers, parlicularly the works ol Austin Freedman and John Rhode. Lucas, along wilh the talented young archaeologistArthur Mace, who had a reputationas a skilled excavator and restorer,estabApparently,many ol the authors were his personalfriends. lished a makeshitt laboratoryin the empty tomb of Seti ll, located directly opposiie the opening ot Tutankhamuns'tomb. Antiquities The Cairo Museumand the Tomb of Tutankhamun were translerredthere for preliminarytreatmentprior io the joutney In March 1923, Lucas retired from the Civil Service aged 55, to to the Cairo Museum. After treatmenl and packing, ihe artifacts pursue his interest in Egyptian archaeology. For years he had were transported by camel or mule to the Nile some six miles maintained a small chemical laboratory at his tlat at Gresham away,and loaded onto a steamerlor Cairo. Conditionsin the tomb House in Garden City. lt was here with the aid of a small electric were ditficultto say the least. Cramped and exiremely hot, Lucas fumace that he was able to reproduce ancient faience, the com- and Mace labored long hours trying to keep pace as the tomb was position of which was a matter of great dispute. Within a monih ol cleared of its contents. his retirement, Lucas was appointed consulting chemist to the Highly descriptiveaccounts oI lite in this conservationlaboratory EgyptianDepartmentot Antiquitiesin Cairo, where he served both were published in many popular newspapers throughout 1923, otficiallyand unotficiallyuntil his death in 1945. In 1932 his con- including lhe Ewptian Gazette, The New Yotk Times, and The tract was not renewed,though he remained at the Museum working as a volunteeruntil December 1934 when, once again, he was given otficialstatus and a small salary. Lucas was fascinated with the technical achievements of lhe ancient Egyptians.Over the years he published numerous studies describingthe compositionand method ot manufactureof a range of ancient Egyptian materials. These studies culminated in the

q.st1fi+ Caftouch e of Tutanhkam en


Iimes. A number of these newspapers published interviews with Lucas, who did much to popularize conservalion by drawing the public'sattention to many behind-the-scenesactivities. ln the tolfowing articfe published byThe Times, Lucas described many ot the difliculties he encountered when preserving lhe antiquities excavatedlrom the lomb. Though he possessedlittle, it any, experience in the treaimenl ot archaeological materials, Lucas displayed a remarkablesensitivitylor their care and preservaiion. "Many of the objects are in such a condition that before they are photographed, recorded, packed, or transpo,ted to Cairo they must be cleaned, strengthened and repaired. Any error in treatment might ruin them, and would probably be irrepaable. Thus, some of the atticles are of wood covered with plaster (gesso), which in tum is gilt or painted, and also frequently omamented with coloured inlay. How is such an object to be treated? Manifestly, the first thing to do is to remove superficial dust, which may usually be done by means ol a small pair of bellows or by gentle brushing with an anist's small, soft, dry b stle. A duster cannot be used, as this might catch in any loose gold and cause damage. After removing the loose dust, although thete is considerable improvement in the appeatance, neither the gold (or paint) nor inlay is yet bight and clean. At this stagte it frequently seems probable that tteatment with water might be helpful, but belore water is used it must be known whether it will cause any injury. What wi be the eftect ol water on the dry wood, what on the gilt or paint, what on the gesso, what on the inlay, and what on the cementing mate al? Before these questions can be answered the nalure and propefties ol all these materials must be analyzed. The nature ol the mate als must also be known before the object can be correctly described. What, for example, is the composition of the colourcd inlay? ls it glass, faience, or stone? Very liftle chemical work has been done on many of the problems mentioned, and of that little a considerable propotlion of the results are so scaftered in scientific journals that they cannot easily be traced. Frequently, too, the chemist has not been in sulficiently intimate contact with the archaeological side ol the question and, therefore, from the results of a single analysis ot a small lragment of a specimen, about which he knows lit e or nothing, he relrains from giving a detinite opinion. At this point, too, other chemical problems present themselves. For instance, whal are the nature and cause of the strongly adherent amorphous coating frequently found on faience inlay or the white coating on faience vessels? From the reply to these questions the nature of the chemical changes that have taken place may be deduced and so methods of cure may be devised. A chemical analysis, therefore, of all surtace incrustations or deposits is essential. Again, what is the composition ot the vaious cementing materials originally used? How was the gesso made to adhere to wood or gold fastened to gesso? What cement was used for inlay on gesso and for inlay on jewehy, rcspectively? What is the best cementing material lor refastening loose gold or


laase inlay, since a mateial employed by the Ancient Egyptians in the dry climate of Upper Egypt is not necessaily suitable for the damDer climate of museums?" Lucas and Mace developedan impressivesystem tor documenting the condition and treatment applied to the individual objects, using cross-reterencedindex cards which can still be tound in the GriffithArchives al Oxtord. Treatmentwas minimal.Objects were cleaned of dirt using sofi bristle brushes and bellows,and, if necessary strenglhenedby impiegnationwith paraffinor beeswax, or celluloid(cellulosenitrate) dissolved in acetone.They also undertook minor reDairson certain ilems. The use ol celluiosenitrateas a consolidantlor the treatment of archaeologicalmaterials had only recentlybeen introduced.Lucas recognizedits potentialbut al the same time was aware of its limitations,particularlyits lendency to discolorwith age: "Celluloid does ol course tum sligh y yellow in time, but the amount of discolouration shown by a 1/" solution is vety small and all other colourless lixative solutions I know also discolor." Altogether,Lucas worked nine full seasons at Luxor. The rest of his time was spent in Cairo perlorming chemical analysis and preparingobjectsfor exhibition.Duringthe summer,he would travel to England to visit family and consult with colleagues at the BritishMuseum - where he was already known as "Tutankhamun's doctor." Throughout his lite, Lucas remained intimately involved with the care and preservationof lhe antiquitiesexcavated from Tutankhamun'stomb. He even assisted in packing and unpacking when the objects were moved trom lhe museum during World War ll as a safeguardagainst ltalian bombing.Withouta doubt,the survival of many ot these antiquitiescan be attributedto his eflorts. One event, in particular,epitomizesthis devotion.When the British Broadcasting Company wanted to record the sound of one of Tutankhamun'ssilver trumpets, a musician from the army unit in the Kasr el-Nil balracks was asked to come to the Cairo Museum to play it the nighl betore the broadcast.When no one was looking, he slipped a mouthpiece into lhe instrument,ramming it into place with the palm of his hand and causing the ancient seam to open trom end to end. Lucas spent the entire night in the laboratory re-solderingthe metal. When the Museumwas openedthe tollowing morning,the trumpet was back in its case. In 1924, Lucas published his mosl definitivework on the preservation ot archaeological artifacts. Antiquities: Their Restoration and PreseNationdtew heavily upon his experiencewith the treatment of Tutankhamun'stomb. Though it contained few technical advances, it was signilicant tor its overall approach to the treatment of archaeologicalmalerials. Lucas' guiding philosophywas relatively simple. To preserve an object, its composition and method ot manutacturemust be thoroughlyunderstood,as well as the exact nalure of the change ot deterioration which has occurred. Moreover,the long-lerm impact oI the proposed treat-

ment method must be taken into consideration.Lucas foresaw the need tor a scientitic approach to the treatmenl ot archaeological materials,and at the same time he recognizedthe need tor highly-trained, skillgd crattsmen capable ot undertaking the actual lreatment. He believedlhis blending of art and science in conservation could only be achievedthrough the combinedetfortsof ded. icated scienlisls and conservators. "Although the principles on which the cleaning and preseruation of antiquities are based demand a considerable amount ol scientific and chemical knowledge, the application of these pdnciples is largely a matter of skilled manipulation founded upon long training and improved constant praclice. At one time all wotk ol the nature of that under consideration was undeftaken without scientifb advice, but now the tendency is often in the other direction, and the chemist is expected, not only to advise methods, but also to carry them out. The most satistactory arrangement, howevef is to have a small staff of trained and skilled wokmen with a consulting chemist, who has specialized in the subjecL attached, and every large museum should possesssuch a statf." Though his most important work was associatedwith the tomb ot Tuiankhamun,Lucas provided invaluableassistancelo American, British and French excavators active in Egypt during the early '1900's.His etforts on behalf of George Reisner,in particular,did much to secure the Dreservationof the antiouitiesexcavatedfrom the Tomb of Queen Heter-pheres, the molher of Khufu. The preservationof many of the antiquitiesexcavated by N4ontetfrom the intact burial of King Shashanq at Tanis also owes much to


Lucas. His ettorts on behalf of other archaeologists, however, remain poorly documented in the literaturethough references to his analyticalwork can be found throughoutthe publishedwork of Engelbach(1946),Brunton(1930)and others. The War Years and the Theban Tombs During World War ll Lucas broadcasted regularly to troops stationed in Egypl, and trequently lectured at hospitals and military camps. He telt a deep atfection lor the soldiers, and delighted in entertainingthem. His services were also much in demand by the military authorities, both American and British, who sought his forensicexpertisein numerous courts martial. In spite of the war and failing health, Lucas still remainedactive. In 1941 he was asked to serve on a commission io consider ihe restorationol the Theban tombs which lor years had sutferedtrom vandalism,llooding and general neglect. Lucas was an obvious choice given his knowledgeof local hydrologyand geology,as well as his experiencewith the preservationof large stone monuments and siles. Some years earlier,Lucas had conductedone of the first environmentalsurveys of the Theban tombs. The commissionwas primarilyinterestedin the preservationol the extant wall paintings, which were in extremely poor condition and had undergonea limited amount of restoration. Lucas himsell was particularly concernedwith the restorationwork undertakenby a paintings restorer who had succeeded in matchingthe colors on the tomb walls so well that it was impossible to distinguish what was original and what was new. Lucas believed that such indetectiblerestoration should not be allowed under any circumslances, and that the

tombs were in need ol an architectto eftect structuralrepairs,and not a paintings restorer lo make the wall paintings simply look "pretty".He cautionedagainstany attemptat furthertreatmentunlil a complele scientiticinvestigationwas conducied. In one ot his last officialduties, Lucas'sense of justice was evident when he drew the Commission'satlenlion to the salary paid to his Egypliansuccessorai the Cairo Museum: 'lncidentally I should like to draw attention to the fact that Zaki lskander Hanna Effendi is grossly underyaid and cenainly he should be promoted to the nert class at the least. At present he is paid 212 per month, the next class being double that. I am told that one or more ol Stoppelaere's assistants, who are 'not in the same street' as regards qualitications with him, have been promoled to the higher class. This does not make for satisfactionand good work." Lucas died at the age of 78, while on his way to Luxor to attend a meeting of the Commissionto inspect the tombs. Lucas's death might have been prevented had it not been tor an unlikely sequence of events. For years he had suffered trom heart problems.Guy Brunton,a fellowmemberof the commissionwho was travelingwith Lucas on the train, carried Lucas' heart medicineso that he could administerthe drug in the event of a heart attack. For some reason they were travelingon ditferent arabiyas (carc\ lrcm the train station to lhe hotel in Luxor when Lucas lell ill. Brunton arrived too late to save him. Lucas died on December 9, 1945, the lone survivor ol Tutankhamun'scurse. As a bachelor,the bulk of his estate was left to his brother,sister,and each of their children.Though his notes on the conservationof the tomb of Tutankhamunwere translerred lo the GritfithArchivesat Cambridge,little else remains other than his publishedworks. He left behind a body of work without parallel in any other branch of archaeology.In lotal he publishedover 100 books and papers, includingtwo small booklets entilled A Potted Histoty ot Egypt and A Pofted History of Lybia which he printed at his own expense.A deeply religiousman with an ardent interestin Biblicalarchaeology,Lucas also publisheda little-knownwork ent! lled The Boute of the Exodus of the lsraelitesfrcm Egypt in 1938. Lucaswas clearly ahead ot his time. Fortunatelyfor Egyptology,he was the right man, in the right place, at the right momentin history

Selected References Brunton,G. '1930.Qau and Badarilll. London:BritishSchoolof Archaeologyin Egypt. Engelbach,R. 1945. Allred Lucas dies in harness.The Egyptian Gazette,9 December. Fink, C.G. and A.H. Kopp. 1933. Ancient Egyptianantimony plating on copper objects. MetropolitanMuseum Studies 4: 163-167. Hoving,T. 1978. Tutankhamun,the untold story. New York: Simon and Schuster. Hurst,H.E. 1945-1946.AltredLucas.O.B.E.,FR.l.C.,FS.A. Bulletinde l'lnslituted'Egypte28:163-164. Lucas,A. 1902. The disintegrationof building stones in Egypt. Cairo: GeologicalSurvey Department.

The EgyplianGazette,April1oth1922.Egypt'sSherlockHolmes - Forensicchemistry- Crimeandthe chemist- Mr.A. Lucas' Book. tombThe EgyptianGazette,March27th 1923.Tutankhamen lntensiveworkin lhe laboratories. tomb- Some The EgyplianGazette,5 April1923.Tutankhamen chemicalproblems. interesting irial The EgypiianGazetteApril21si 1923.The greatconspiracy poison. and bombs intrigue Revolvers, story ol Amazing trial The EgyptianGazette,April23rd 1923.The greatconspiracy - The attackon Mr.T.w. Brown- Planto use poisonedarrows.

chairsrestored The NewYorkTimes.April4th 1923.Pharaoh's to beauty. Lucas,A. 1920. Legal chemistry and scientificcriminal investigaThe NewYorkTimes,April4th 1923.Savingtomb relicsis chemand Co, Longmans, Green tion. New York icalproblem- Expertsmustdeterminecharacterof changesin Lucas, A. 1921. Forensicchemistry.London: E. Arnold and Co. to preserveobjecls. composition Lucas, A. 1923. Tutankhamen'stomb - some interestingchemical The NewYork'Iimes,December13ih 1923.Spendday trealing problems.The Times,5 April. Dharaohtreasures. Lucas, A. 1924. Antiques: their restorationand preservation. The NewYorkTimes,December24th 1923.Pharaohchariots London:E. Arnoldand Co. platedwithgold- Besioralionrevealsexquisiledesignsin preLucas, A. 1926. Ancient Egyptian materials.London: Longmans, ciousstones,glassandfaience. Greenand Co. The NewYorkllmes, December1oth 1945.Dr. Lucas,survived Lucas,A. 1927. Notes on the early history of lin and bronze. 'pharaohcurse'. Journalof EgyptianArchaeology14:100.101. The l'imes(London),February1st 1923.Treasuresfromlhe Lucas,A. 1938. The Route oI the Exodus ol lhe lsraeliteslrom tomb- Expertsworkat Luxor- King'sWondertulSandals. Egypt.London:EdwardArnoldand Co. The Times,February26lh 1923.Luxo/sexperlsat workLucas,A. and J.R. Harris. 1989. Ancient Egyptianmaterialsand Fiestoring the treasure. industries.Rev. ed. London: Histories & Mysteriesof Man Ltd. The Times,Aprilgth '1923.Luxoiworkcontinuing- Preservation McLean,M., and K. McDonnell.1992.A Surveyof the Howard of treasures. Carter and Alfred Lucas Materials resultinglrom the discovery lombThe Times,December13th1923.Tutankhamen's and excavationot the tomb ol Tutankhamunin the Gritfith progress. work in Resloralion Archiveof the AshmoleanMuseum,Oxford,England,September The Times,December20th 1923.The pharaohtomb15-24,1992.Los Angeles:GCl. Preserving the specimens, Mitchell,C.A. 1920.Reviewof LegalChemistryand Scientific The Times,January3lst 1923.Treasuresof Luxor- Lord Investigation,by Altred Lucas. The Analysl 45: 245-246. description Carnavon's - The expertstask. H.J. 1946.Mr. AltredLucas,O.B.E.Nature157:98Plenderleilh, 31st 19239.The Egyptiantreasure- Workot The Times, January 99. By AllredMace. ol theexcavator. removal- Responsibility

Acknowledgements lor theirkind The authorwishesto thankthe followingindividuals preparation paper: Francesca Piqu6,Dr. ol this in the assistance LA.E.Edwards,Mrs.MargaretOrr,Dr.VincentDaniels,Dr. Nigel Dr.J.R.Harris,Ms.MarshaHill,Mr.P.W.Hammond J. Seeley, andDr. NasriSkandr.


This article was originallypublished in the Joumal of the American lnstitute of Conservation, wilh a much more exhaustive bibliographyand an appendix listing Lucas' many books and arlicles, which have been ommitted here for reasons of space.The ESS wishes to lhank Dr. Gilberg and JAIC Edilorin-Chief Chandra Reedy for permissionto reprinl this article.

intheEmb IIouse Scandal [y U.Bemol lluer About the Author W. Benson Harer is a physician in San Bernatdino, CA. He is inter ested in scientific methods for the study ol mummilication practices in ancient Egypt. Harer also serues on the Boad of Governors for ARCE (Amedcan Research Center in EWqI, and is also a member of the ESS. This anicle is here repinted with special permission by Tefty Walz, Executive Dircctor of the Ameican Besearch Center in Egypt, and Dr. Harer. lt appeared in the October 1997 issue ot the ARCE newsleller.

would be unseen. lt was only if some vandal desecrated it by unwrappinglhat such derelictionwould be revealed.Non-destructive x-ray has been an option in this past century In some cases medical endoscopescan be inserted through availableorifices to permit limited internal insDection. The key to mummificationwas to induce dehydrationot the body betore putretactionoccurred.The hot dry climate ot the Nile Valley lacilitatedthis. In fact predynasticburials in which the naked body was simply buded in the dry sand often yielded splendidmummies. ln modern DNA analysisthese often yield better resultsthan from tissue lrom mummiesprepared thousands of years later.

The disadvantageto this simple and ettectivetechnique was that the corpse was al risk of being unearthedand consumedby a jackAs a physicianand a student ot ancient Egypt, I am convincedlhat al or other maraudinganimal. Protectingthe body with a basket or no signiricantevolution in either human body or human behavior wooden cotfin ultimately resulted in only the skeleton remaining. has occurredsince the dawn of civilization.Recent reassessment Ettectiveembalmingtherefore was a necessity. if the first scientitic autopsy ol an Egyptian mummy done in 1821 Since dehydrationis the key, the ancient Egyptiansrecognizedthe reinforces that belief. The Ameican Way of Death by Jessica need to removethe organs with a high fluid content -brain, lungs, Mitford \.yasa blockbuster muckraking sensation when published liver, spleen and organs ot the gastroinlestinaltract. The latter in in 1963. She related lales ol fraud, overcharging,and deceitful particular were laden with putrefying bacteria. The kidneys are practices. Sensationaljournalists tollowed wilh tales ol desecra- relroperitonealand nol inside the abdominalcavity. Thereforelhey tion and appears that lhe Ancient EgyptianWay of were usually left in place. Death was no better The dehydrationprocesswas enhancedby stutfingthe corpse with It is common knowledge that the Egyptians believed in life after linen,clay or natronand then totallyburyingit under a mound of death which was similar to the lile they enjoyedon the banks of the nairon.Natronis a crude mixtureof sodiumchlorideand sodium Nile. Furthermorein contrasl to our modern beliefs, they believed carbonate and sodium bicarbonate. The high salt concenlralion you can lake it with you. Finally they believed that preservalionof inhibitedgrowth ol bacteria and fungus and insects while the body lhe body was important for tull enjoyment ol their life after death. dried. The result was a significant embalming industry which flourished The brain was accorded no particular significance by the for many centuries. Egyplians, so it was discarded. However,to avoid disruptingthe Then, as now the majorityot those in the businesswere honorable appearance of the mummy il was removed by breaking through people who performed a necessary service at a fair price, giving lhe sinuses at the back of the nose and extracting the brain appropriatevalue tor the costs incurredby the deceased person's through that oritice. In his experimentalmummification,Bob Brier lamily or estate. Then as now lhere were those who failed that standardthrough avarice or sloth. In the earliest dynasties mummiticationwas reserved,or the king. Gradually it was extended to other royalty,the nobility and ultimately to everyone who could atford it. The more elaborate process cosl more, but beyond a certain point the increasedcost and use ot expensivesupplementsdid not produce a higher quality mummy. Mummificalionwas carried out for about 3000 years. Over such a great span of time it is not surprisingto find some modificationsin the is generallyagreed that the qualityof embalming was at its besl about Dynasty 20-21. Gradually in later dynasties less attentionwas paid to the actual preservationof the body and more to the external appearance ot the wrapped mummy. The art of the bandageultimatelyoutstrippedthe skill of the embalmer. Some late mummies looked splendid, but actually contained incompletebodies,sometimeseven body parts, and sometimes no body at all! Sincethe finalwrappedmummy was all the lamily mightsee, the opportunitywas presented to skip aspects of the process which

lound this to be the most tedious and difficultpart of the process. No doubt some ancient embalmers would agree because modern investigationhas revealed instances where holes were made in the externalskull lor easy access - a true shortcut. In at least one instancethe entire top ol the skull was sawed otf so the brain could be removed. lt was replaced afterward and held in place by bandages. Jessica Mitford would not have been surprised. Properprotocol limited disruptionof the body, so the standardprocedure was to make an incision in the lateral lower left abdomen just laige enough lor lhe embalmer to insert his hand to extractlhe other organs.Use ot a small knife would facilitatethe process.The same opening would then be used to insert the linen wrapped packets ol natron or natron pellets to fill the space and enhance dehydration.This would require about one month. To extract the lungs, the operator mighl be required to insert his arm past his elbow. lt would have been a simple matterto make a very large incision into the midline to lacilitate this process, but I am unaware of any instance where this was done. This suggests a very strong taboo againsi such desecralion.Becausean artificial orifice had been created into the body, it was necessarylo protect ii. Accordinglya specialamuletwas usuallyplacedover the inci sion. A plaquewith the ud.Fleye was often used, but trequentlythe two fingers amulet (index and middle) was substituted.The latler oftenshow markingsof jointsand nailsand can clearlybe identilied as representingeitherthe right or lhe left hand. lf these lingers representthe handof the embalmer,my informalcensussuggests that the number ol leit-handed embalmers exceeded lhat in the modernooDUIation. As alternativeto the incision,the embalmercould inserthis hand throughthe anusto extractlhe internalorgans.This usuallyresulted in laceration of the anus, but no amuletic protection was required.This processwas used in both male and female mummies. lam unaware of any instancein which the vagina was enteredto extract the viscera. The heartwas the most importantinternalorgan. lts presencean the body was essential.A speciallarge amuletto proteclit was oftenlhe onlyamulelfound.Sometimesit had the stylizedanatomic shape of the hjeroglyphfor the heart or it could be a large inscribed scarab. This could prolect or even substitute for the

deceased heart. Proper attentionto extractedorgans (other than the inconsequential brain) was very important.They were grouped into tour segments separatelyentrusledto tour sons of Horus.They were Probably washed and dehydratedin a similar fashion to the body and then consignedto specialcontainerswhich (at the ancienl Greek's suggestion)we call canopic jars. The lung was under the protection of Hapiwith the head ol a baboon.The liverwas guardedby the human-headedlmsety.The stomach was the responsibilityot Duamutel wiih a jackal's heaci. Finally the intestines fell to Qebehsehnufwith the head ot a hawk. Canopic jars have not proved to be a useful source lor modern analysis. Contents typically were discarded upon excavataonlor misguided aesthetic reasons. Residual tissue, when present, is usually so deterioraledthat nature ol the contents defies analysis. An alternate in later mummiticationwas the use of canopic packets. The previously described organs were desiccated and lhen wrapped in linen bundles which were inserted back into the embalmed body. A wax image of the appropriate son of Horus might be affixed or the correspondingtaience amulet used. These packels may be seen on x-ray when they are present. Dummy canopicjars mighl also be used as magical substitutesfor tul! jars. The dummy has all lhe e)dernalappearance of a true jar, but it is solidand holdsnothing!Sincemagicpermittedpicturesor modelsto be eflectivesurrogatesfor the real thing, the tact lhat the dummy canopichad no contentswas of no consequence. Another puzzle to me is the fale of organs olher than lungs, liver, stomach and intestineswhich were extracted during mummification. In the course of blindly rippingout the viscera they must have routinely extracted the spleen and often a kidney or two. Uterus and ovaries also woulcihave been extracted from many females. The ancient Egyptian medical papyri provide us with specilic namesfor all these is unlikelysuch organs,whichwere as part ol the four segnamed,could be misidentified specifically ments destinedfor canopicjars. So what did the embalmerdo when he looked at a treshly extractedspleen? He could include it with other canopic contenls. Alternatively,he could return it to the bocy.He couldsimplydiscardit, which stridesme as an implausible reaction to something likely to occur with some frequency. Another possibilityis to incorporateit into one of the most enigmatic ot burial goods, the Tekenu. The Tekenu is a compactly shrouded ligure with a human head which is dragged on a sled lo the tomb. Scholars debate its content and significance.One theory is that it is a bundle of reedsand mud to which may be added any portions ol the deceased not in the mummy or in the canopics.This could be the answerto lhe above question. However,other scholarsbelievethe Tekenuwas a humansacrifice - perhapsa criminalor prisonerof war - who served as a surrogaie to be punishedfor any misdeeds of the deceased.Perhaps it was a model ot such a prisonerwhich magicallyserved as a substilute for the same purpose. Perhaps at various times it was any of the above.





Dependingon the fashionof the periodand expense,a hundredor more other amuletsot varioustypes might be incorporatedinto the wrappings to protect various body parts. This would also present an opportunityto cheat lhe client by omittingsome or all. Since we have no contact to compare with work perlormed on any mummy, we cannot concludethat such fraud actually occurred.

The Sonsof Horus from TheMummyby E. A. WauisBudge,Dovet Press 1989 However,malfeasanceclearly did occur in the matter ol extraction


of the viscera. By great good tortune the paradigm is the first scaentific autopsy of an ancient Egyptian mummy pertormed in 182'l by the pioneer obstetrician-gynecologist,Augustus Bozzi Granville. We don't know whether or nol Dr. Granville's mummy odginally was accompanied by dummy canopic jars, but with the exception of some of the intestines,all of the normal contents for real canopics were lett rn situ.

The British Museum Press threatens to publish a book detailing the current and past aulopsies in the near luture. ll is co-editedby myself and Dr. John Taylor.The scandalousdeficiency in extraction of the viscera probablywould have outraged her lamily, but it provideda wonderfulopportunityto expand science in Egyptology.

Herodotus.the Greek historianwho visited Egypt in the sth century BC, has given us the only detailed account of mummification. presenled This is regurgitatedin almost every book on the subject. Herodotus Albert a female mummy by Sir was Granville Edmonstone. Granville spent 1-2 hours every afternoon for six viewed Egypt with awe and with an open mind. Some ot his reports weeks conducting a detailed autopsy of it in the drawing room of seemto tit the cynicalH.L.Menckenadage"ll you keep your mind his home and published his findings in the Transactions of the open,peoplewilllill it with all sortsol garbage."Thereseemslittle doubt that many ot lhe things that Herodotuswas told do not stand Royal Society of London in 1825. the scrutiny ol modern scholarship.Nevertheless,his account of Granville believed he had the most perlect mummy yet recorded is essentially correcl. mummilication because it contained lungs, liver, spleen, gall bladder, kidneys, was told that there was a delay of three days in the ureler, bladder, cecum and appendix, uterus, tubes and ovaries. Herodotus woman to the embalming the corpse of a beautiful little work delivery of by these findings. So Granvillewas not at all surprised had been done betore him that he fully expected to find lhese house in order lo discouragethe embalmers from having coitus organs- Today we realize that the family ol his subject had been with the corpse. lt appears that necrophilia is a generally repugthe victims of embalming-houseabuse. The embalmershad tailed nant perverse practice which also echoes to the ancient days to removethe viscera as lhe processrequired.Through great good anotherscandalin the embalminghouse. fortune these organs survived with excellent preservation. The excellent preservation of Dr. Granville's mummy indicates Granvilleconcluded his subject had an ovarian tumor and died of there was no such delay. The mummies do show a poor state of "ovarian dropsy" (cancerwith ascites). preservation compatible with delay in starting the process. Perhaps the embalmer who was charged with removing the vis- However,this is uncommon and is not tound in disproportionate cera was a ditferent individualthat the embalmer who extracted numberot females. her brain. The latter process was carried out transnasally in the approved lashion even though it was more dillicult and challenging. The elitractionof the brain was complete and this observation Poslscript folkswhofailedto receive astonished Granville. He observed that some sort of hot solution I usedto worryaboutthoseunfortunate proper mummilication because of poverly, mischance in the cirhad been poured in to lacilitatethe process. malfeaThe long-torgottenremains of Granville's mummy lay in a store cumstancesof their demise or even embalming-house providroom at lhe Brilish museum tor many decades. An internalional sance. Not to worryl The compassionateEgyptianreligion pleasant life. As Erik alternate though less route to the atter ed an consorlium of experts has recenlly reautopsiedthe mummy using primeval notes, the ubiquitous water of Nun fills the Homung modern techniques.Tissues were studied by x-ray, both light and of such individuals drifted Here the naked bodies underworld. techniques electron microscopy and cutting edge new anallic based on molecularbiology.This re-autopsydemonstratedtor the throughthe underworldto their rebirthand thus escapedfinal annipreferredto lirst time the presence ol a lethal parasite along the Nile whose hilation- the worst of alllates. Nevertheless,they, too, properly and accompanied by all their travel tirst class embalmed presence had been long suspected but never proved, talciparum possible. goods when was lhal tumor was malaria. lt also showed that this oldest known ovarian benton. This anicle firsl appeared in the October 1997 issue of the ARCE Newslener The American Research Center in Egypt otfers vaious programs and resources tor its members, in addition to the ARCE Newsletter See The Ostrccon, Vol-I No. 1 (Summer 1997) tor a repoft by Dick Haryood on the ABCE 1997 Annual Meeting, and The Oslracon, Vol. I No. 2 (Fa,, 1997) for a review of ABCE', Web site on the lntemet. Frank Pettee has limited numbers of these back issues, as well as informalion and application lorms lor ESS members who are interested in joining ARCE. See p. 12 lor a sneak preview of the lorthcoming mummies exhibit at Denver Museum of Natural Histoty.


MERBRT]I(A Drawing on life for the Dead Bv CharlesE. Cook About the Author: Charles E Cook, facilitatorof the Egypt and the Ancient RecordsStudy Gtoup, in the ESS, He rb a retired Pastor, with a Th.M. degree from Westminster TheologicalSeminary on Old Testamentand Semitic languages. whosenoblefamily Mererukawas the son oJNedjetempet movedin the royalcirclesof KingTeti,2345-2323BC, first in line of the 6th Dynastyin Egypt. He was marriedto Seshseshet, daughterof KingTeti,by whomhe had a son, Meri-Teti. As one amongthe elite,and son-in-law to the King,he heldhighoflicesandtitles,as Vizier,ChiefPriest, ChiefJusticeand Inspectorol the PyramidComplexof Teti.

hiswellbeingin the lifeto come.Andot course,thesewould be wovenintothe Complexol Teti'stuture. As Vizierhe had accessto the royallreasuryto do for himselt what he deemedappropriatetor lhe thirty-twohalls, rooms.chambers,nichesand corridorslendingtheirceilof the ings,wallsandpillarsto thechisel,brushandpolisher craftsmenwho broughtto existencehis dreamsfor his magnilicentmastaba.And whatdo we find?we find insightand portrayalas to the everydaylife of everybody.See the groundplanfor his mastabaand sketchesand dataas foF tows.

of time On the innerwallsof the tombarefrozenmoments He arrangedto have his mastabacloseto the Pyramidof thinlyslicedacrossa realityol life that encasesthe actor, the Kingas his burialplace.This mastabais his claimto the action,the sceneand ob.iectsand creaturespresentin Onecan relivewhatwasgongon. fame,beinglhe mostlavishcomplexot designanddecora- lhe happening. entombed hiswifeand tionyetto be found.Hismasterpiece on and patterns In the oillaredhallof Mererukawe watchthe farmers, son as well as himself,embodiedinspiration will knees, hoping the scribal record of lheir services lheir extendingbackto Khufuon the 4th Dynastyand drewupon readwell; a line of gardenerswith a pair of jars on yokes thegenerosity ol KingTetiunderwhomhe livedandserved. acrosstheirshoulderswalerthe bedsof lettuce;metalworkHisactivitiescenteredat Saqqara. ers putfingtheir blow pipes melt the mass lor the ingots; Mererukawas walkingon the shakygroundsurroundingthosegirlsare doinga livelydanceas handin handthey KingTetiwho was in the throesof settingup a newdynasty. pressthegrapeswiththeirfeet;hipposroarastheyareharThelailingruleof hispredecessor Unassawthewealthand poonedby menwhilelrogs and locustslookon trom rocks powerof the elileand nobilityrisingto the pointof alienat- and branches; thesemenare in the deserthunlingfor the the hyenain ing the monarchy.To this was addedthe fact that Tetiwas gazelleor oryx;those men are torce-feeding In the chaoel-tombof Seshseshet notof the royalline.Tetiroseto the occasionon bothfronts. effortsat domestication. we walchherdsmenand cattlefordinga canal;therearethe his rightto the throneTeti marriedlput,the scribestakingaccountof stock;another,spearingfish in the To legitimize daughter of Unas,by whomhe had a son and successor, marshes;and yet anotherhuntingbirdswith a throw-slick; Pepil. Hethentookstepsto makecertainlhe supportol the thoseslaughtering lor thereis oxenmustbe of the nobility elileand nobility. littlemeattor peasantryDo you hearthe harp?Seshseshet by marryinghimto is pluckinga tunefor Mererukaas theysil uponthe bed. KingTetigavehis blessingto Mereruka do you see the potsand chestsof gold, withthe eliteand There,underneath hisdaughter Seshseshet, thusidentitying perfumes lor adornmenl and oils and clothing, - the niceties noblesof the land.He then took the royaltitularHoruspleasure encounters. in their amorous "Sehelep-tawy", "Pacifier Two Lands" and name the of the intothe picture Followingare some simpletracingsto porlraytheseslices madeclearthe extentof his ruleby bringing Narmerwho unitedthe TwoLandsunderthe of lifeas it waslivedthen. thevenerable 1stDynasty. As a furtherbondwiththe eliteand nobilityhe grantedfreedomtromlaxesand the guaranteeof whal was ! / *n **,, fit for residence and required to buildtheir"funerary-homes" \ I rbsisbeB UERERUI(A , -:1N! provision Withthe groundnow firm under for the afterlife. wentto workon his mastaba. hisfeetMereruka retr Pylarld r J Therewere two avenuesto Mererukato providefor his X Palace.As FuneraryOverseerhe had inspiraSepulchral tionalaccessto Khufuof lhe 4th DynastywhosePyramid placedesigned to unitewith Tombwasa this-world dwelling afterlife, evenhavinghimself andprepareforthe next-world as aliveandstanding as he supervised shipsbeing depicled 0 500 ladened.Also, Mererukahad a kindredspiritwith Ty, a N OR IIIER N SIQQ AR A TempleOverseerin the sth Dynastywho was the firstto wallsto ensure havethe PyramidTextson the surrounding





A: Groundplan of Mereruka'smaslaba at Saqqara.Althoughthe 32 sectionsare not shown,the lhree burial areas are indicaledand the scaleof the statuerecesspointsto the overallsize (Walderingp. 77). B: Ka-statueof Mererukain the niche in the chapelwall, a false door, withthe ofieringaltar(Malekp. 108). C: Mereruka'swife Seshseshetplays the harp for him as they are seated on a couch (Baines/Malekp. 205) D: A relief showing craftsmen at work in a precious metal shop. p.81). Dwarlsare finishingcollarsand pectorals.(Strouhal

E: Girlsplayinga gamecalled'livingroundaboufin the inscription, as they are pressinggrapes(Malekp. 26) F: The hippopotamushunt was nol so much a sport as dealingwith the fiercestand mostpowerfulanimalon the Nile (Malekp.42). G: Butchersfellingan ox (Baines/Malekp. 147) (Strouhalp. 100-1). H: Gardenerswithjarswateringlettuce-beds Authot's note: the pictures above arc simple line-tracings, reduced to lit the page. References in parentheses refer to sources as listed in the bibliographtl

Bibliography Bains,Johnand Malek,Jarcmi, Atlas of AncientEgypt, 1980 NewYork:Faclson FilePublications,

Montet,Pierre,Livesof the Pharaohs,NewYork:The 1968. WorldPublishing Company,

Clayton,PeterA, Chroniclesof the Pharaohs,London: Thamesand Hudson,1994. Fakhry,A. Pyramids,Chicago:Universityof Chicago Press,1974.

Shaw,lan and Nicholson,Paul, TheDictionaryof Ancient EgyptNewYork:HarryN. Abrams,Inc.,1995.

Grimal,Nicolas,A HistoryOf AncientEgyptCambtidge: Publishers. Blackwell

Woldering,imgaJ4 Att ot the World- AncientEgypt,New Press,1963. York:Greystone

Strouhal,Eugen, L,/eof theAncientEgypl,ans,Norman: Press,1992. University of Oklahoma

Malek,Jaromir In the Shadowof the Pyramids,Notman: of Oklahoma Press,1986. University


TTte New Eggpttan Mummies Exhtbtt at DMNH A Sneak Preutew bg Gro.eme Dquis As readerswill probablyknow, the new, expanded Egyptianexhib. The bakery model and Book ot lhe Dead are on loan from Oenver it at DMNH is due to open in spring ot this year. lts new home, on Art Museum, and several other institutionshave contributedto lhe the [ruseum's first tloor opposite the Hall of Ancient Peoples,otter exhibit. A number of objects, including various amulets, are on a lot more space lhan the atfeclionately-named'closef where lhe long-term loan lrom the Universityol PennsylvaniaMuseum, and Museum's Egyptianexhibit has resided tor the last several years. one cat mummy comes from the University of Maine, The two As well as allowingthe objects to be displayed in a more accessi- mummies at lhe heart of the exhibit are on loan trom the ble and informative way, the additional space will allow objects Bosemount Museum in Pueblo - a reminderthat Egyptianobjects trom storageto be displayedtor the lirst time, along with donations are not only to be found in museumsof art and anthropology,since from ESS membersand loanstrom other museums. lhere was indeed a time when no Victorian house was comDlete without some spoils from Egyptl One panel will outline the history Accordingto currentplans,the exhibiiwill consistof 25 panelsand of the Flosemount'sMcolelland collection,and explain just how a cases in a single room. The tirst panel, outsidethe entranceto the group of Egyptianmummiescame to be in Pueblo,Colorado. exhibit,will give an introductionto mummies and the atterlife.The centerpieceof the exhibit will be two mummies (those mentioned As well as those inslitutionsthat have loaned items for the exhibit, in Bob Pickering'sOctober 1991 lecture, Ihe OstraconVol. 2 No. several other groups and individuals will be recognized in the 2), along with a s-minutevideo and some of lhe CT scans and panel ot creditsjust insidethe enlrance.The ESS is recognized,of computerreconstructionsfrom Bob's project.After a panel of basic course, as is the PeW Foundation - sponsors of the Ostracon, iniormalionon AncientEgypt,the exhibilwill focuson mummifica- among other things- the Universityot ColoradoHealthSciences tion, tombs and alterlifebeliefs. The existingtemple model is Center and UniversityHospital,who played a key role in the CTprominently displayed,and the ESS MummySludyGroup'srepro- scanningof the two McClellandmummies,and the Scientificand ductionsarcophagus(ihe Ostracon,Vol. I No. 2) will be displayed Cultural FacilitiesDistrict.This exhibit could never have haDoened alongside its ancienl counterparts.Animal mummies will also be without the help and co-operationof all these bodies (if that's not featured,along with tunerary goods such as amulets, ushabtis, a an unfortunateword to use in this context!),and lam sure that all miniaturebakery lids lrom canopic jars, and a Book ol the Dead ESS members will be Dleasedwith the result of this collaboralion. on papyrus.

Key to the erhibit : "The OsirisLegend" : "AncientEgypt"and "Pyramidsand Tombs" : Templemodel

: 'LooklnsidetheMummies" : Animalmummies ; Ushablis,foodolferingsand personalitems : .Powerof the Word"and "SacredWritinos" N,lummy #1 : Mummy#2 'A scribe'scolfinlid" : ESS tools ESS sarcophagus

LECTURE REPORTS THE DAMS AT ASWAN: THE SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS Presentedby Dr. Don Hughes ESS Meeting,October 21st 1997 Don Hughes'lecture was a sobering look at the impacls trom dams built at Aswan over the last 100 years. Don focused upon the tar-reachingsocial, political,health, ecological,agrarian,even militaryelfects of the Aswan High Dam. The constructionof the Aswan High Dam "representsa massive breakwith the past." For the first time in Egyptianhistory the High Dam enabled the Nile, wilh its unpredictablefloods and droughts, to be domesticated. The Dam was buih to conlrol waler levels, increasethe amount of arable land (enablingperennialagriculture and the growing oI cash crops), generate electricityand thereby boost industry and stockpile waler reserves in the event of political unresl amongst its upriver neighbors. There was a political agendaas well. With lhe Dam, Nasser crealed a monumentaltestamentto his own power and also sent a messageto the world that Egypi could accomplish huge engineeringfeats - without the help ol the U.S. (which had recenlly withdrawn its aid to Egypt). The anticipatedbenetils of the High Aswan Dam were tar, far outweighedby the environmentalhavoc it wreaked.A long laundry list of environmentalills, slemming trom the Dam, includeserosion of the Delta at a rate of 30 melervyear trom lack ot silt deposition, salinization,loss of 20% of the river's annual flow via evaporaiion, silting up of Lake Nassar, triggering earlhquakes trom the overburden on geologicfault, erosion of banks ,rom the deep scouring of the riverbed, decrease in the numberand diversityof fishes, rising ot the water lable and waterlogging,depletion ol soil fertility from lack ol inundations, overgrowth ol phytoplankton and hydrophytesand an increase in snail-bornediseases! Without the Nile inundations to replenish soil fertility, synthetic nitrogen and phosphatefertilizers,which pollute the river, began to be applied. lronically,all of the electricity generated by the High Dam is consumedby a plantwhichmanulactures fertilizer!And throughsalinization of the arable land (35%), urbanizationand erosion, Egypt has lost a sizeable portion ot its productive land. In fact, Egypt must import 70% ol its tood.

NEFERT'TI'SSECRET LATE BRONZE AGE PEBFUME Presentedby Dr. Cheryl Haldane Ward ESS SDecialLecture.October 27th 1997 Dr. Cheryl HaldaneWard ol the Instituteof NauticalArchaeologyEgypt ottered members ol the Society a glimpse inio ancient life. She lectured on finds from a shipwreck ol the Lale Bronze Age, ca. 1318-1316B.C.E.,discoveredotl the coastot southernTurkey at Ulu Burun.Contentsot the cargo on the Ulu Burunship were highly valued terebinthresin, coriander,and pomegranateswhich are sources of aslringentfor ancient perfume and incense manutacture. More than a hundred Canaaniteamphorascarried up to a ton ot terebinth resin which has a sharp, pungenl, turpentinelike odor. The tree from which this resin was laken, Pistacia terebinthus,is said to have covered lhe hills ol Syrian Damascus.

Pertumes and incense are depicled on ancient Egyptian wall Many of these negativeside etfectswere not unknown in the 1950s paintings,in reliefs,and on Minoan wall art at Knossos.They are when the Dam was planned. There were precedents. At the tum described in ancienl poems and mentioned on both Mycenaean of the ceniury under British rule, the tirst dam at Aswan was built. Linear B clay tablets and on cuneiform clay tablets found at ElThe old dam was heightened a few limes in the early part ot the Amarna. The cargo also included items such as cobalt-colored 20th century in order to increase its holding capacity. Even as discoid glass ingots; unworked elephant and hippopotamusivory; early as the '1890s,problems such as salinity, schistosomiasis, Atrican blackwood;tin and copper ingots; Near Eastern, Cypriol, walerloggingand loss of soil nulrients appeared. The raising of and Mycenaeanpottery; ivory crafted items; and Syro-Canaanite the originaldam brought such problems as downstreamscouring jewelry,includinga gold scarab bearingthe hieroglyphof Oueen and loweringof the river bed, along with their consequences. And Nefertiti.Large shippingjars were found on the ship's upper deck, atter 1933lhe retreat of the coastline lrom erosion was apparent. one filled with Cypriot export pottery and the other with whole However,ihe High Dam was a fait accompr, as the Nassar admin- is believedthat the Ulu Burun ship with its cargo isiration turned a deaf ear on all dissentingvoices regarding the of luxury goods traveled a counter-clockwiseroute across the Dam. EasternMediterraneanthat took it lrom the Syro-Palestiniancoast The Dam has broughl a host of problems to modern Egypi. lt is io Cyprus lo lrycenaean Greece and then lo Egypt before relurnsad, too, that the Hjgh Dam has obliteraledthe ancient Egyptian ing to the Levant. The ship supplied markets along the way that demanded large-scaleavailabilityol such luxury items. rhyihm of life, founded upon the Nile's rise and tall. Repod by Randall T. Nishiyama Bepon by Judy Greenfield

THE TOMB AND TREASUNES OF TUTANKHAMUN Presentedby Dennis McDonald ESS Meeting,November'l8th1997 Perhapsno name in ancient Egyptian historyelicits more recognition - or misunderstanding- than that ot Tutankhamun.This longtorgotten king captured the imagination of lhe world when his tomb, KV62, was discovered almost intact by Howard Carter in November,1922. Dennis McDonald covered the history of this "boy pharaoh" and the discoveryol his tomb in a presentationrich in slides and complete in text. The probable son of Akhenaten and a lesser queen, Kia, Tutankhamun changed his named trom Tutankhaten, "The Living lmage of Aten" to "The Living lmage of Amun" shortly after his ascensionto the throne ot Egypt and the return of the capital to Thebes. His reign recorded little ol note. When he died al lhe age of aboul nineteen,he was buried hastily in a small tomb in the tloor ot the Valley of the Kings that had been started lor someone etse. Shortly atter the king's burial, lhe tomb was robbed at least twice. Each time the thefts were discovered and the tomb resealed by the necropolisgualds. During the succeedingyears, the site ot the tomb was cove.ed in several layers of flood debris, built upon by lhe workman preparingthe tombs of Ramses V and Vl, and was lost to both sight and memory

a a0!l

Howard Carter was already a well-known ligure in Egyptology when he obtained the tinancial backing ol Lord Carnarvon to searchfor the lost lomb. When nothing was tound after four years, Carter convinced Lord Carnarvon lo fund one tinal season. Just days after work had begun, Carter discoveredsteps leadingto the tomb thirteen feet below the floor ol the Valley. Lord Carnarvon and his daughter, Lady Evelyn Herbert, were summoned from England, and the tomb was opened tor the first time in 3,200 years.


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Using a series of slides made trom old photographs,Mr. McDonald discussedthe history of the ten-year clearance ol the tomb, portraits ot the principalindividualsinvolved,and the politicalintrigues thal surrounded the discovery ol the iomb from the beginning. Despitehaving been robbedtvvicein anliquity,the treasuresfound in lhe modest tomb were slunning, both in sheer number and in artisticand archaeologicalvalue. Slides of many ol these artifacts were shown, including the such well-known items as the 221l, pound death mask and the 296 pound inner cotfin, both made of solidgold.

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Mr. McDonaldfinished his excellentpresentationwith an explosion of many of the "Mummy's Curse" legends that have revolved around the discoveryol the Tomb ot Tutankhamunfor the past 75 years. Repott by Dick HaNood



Weneedpeopleto help with thissectionol the Ostracon.Thepublications committee would love to hear lrom anyone who is intenestedin writingbiet repoftson ESSlecturesand otheractivities. You don't have to commityoutself to coveing every single lecture - once or twice a year wouldbe fine. I you are interested, please contactany memberof thepublicationscommittee.


House of Scrolls Book Reviews People of the Nile: Everyday Lite in Ancient Egypt by John Romer Crown Publishers,Inc.,New York,copyright1982 lsBN 0-517-548569 224 oD ln People of the Nile: Everyday Lile in Ancient Egypt, John Romel takes the reader not on a linear path through ancient Egyptianhistory, but rather on a meanderingjourney. People of the Nile does noi iake a fact-iilled, encyclopedicapproach, but instead focuses upon the broader trends and themes in ancient Egypt. Romer shows how art and architectureof the time reflectthese trends. Has angle on ancient Egyptianhistoryis not surprisingsince he has taughtboth architecture and art historyin England.Romerhimself admits in the Prelace that the intenl of his book is to explore "lhe hows and whys of the ancient monuments and the people who made them (p. 6)". In his words, Peopleof the Nile: "...doesnot adhere to a strict chrcnological order ol events, nor have I given equal weight to aI periods of ancient history"(p.6)."

tation of ancient Egyptianlite is dependent upon the biases of the scholars who study it. ...the remains of ancient Egypt seves as mirrors of our modern thought - also, therefore, of our modern society - and, lot better ot worce, the specialistswe have appointed to be guardians of our past are also subjecl to the myths, lads and pressures of our own t'me. (p. 51).

The book shouldhave been calledsomethinglike'AncientEgypt Through fts Monuments'as it title, People of the Nile: Everyday Life in Ancient Egypt, does not truly reflect its contents. In fact, there is scant referenceto everydaylite in these ancienttimes and almostall of the photographsare of monumentsand depictionsol royalty. lncidentally, the color photographsinterspersedin the text were taken by Romer betweenihe late 1960sand early 80s and are good quality.Sentencestend to be long, often puncconsistently tuatedwith many commas,and lfound myself havingto reread sentences lor content. Despite the sometimes awkward senlences, there were some lovely passages which demonstrate The book is certainlythoughtprovoking.For example, Fiomer Romer's passion for the subjeci matter. About Deir el Bahari he pointsout that the more chaoticperiodsin ancientEgyptcoincid- wntes, (highor low levels)of the Njle inundation.He ed with irregularities Deir el Bahai is one of those places on our planet also forced me lo re-examine Ptolemaic archiiecture, oiten diswhere a link has been made bef/veen eanh and heaven. missed by scholars as a caricature of the classic style - nearly Though ruined, lhe temple's platforms are still the stages for lraudulent. Romer describes Ptolemaicmonumentsas "Victorian" the gods, the original putposes of the place arc still contained in that the "massive conglomerutionsot style and form... in their within its walls. lt stands in a deeo hot silence filled with sum, have made a new aesthetic,a new aft' (p. 202). And, in facl, ancient time (p. '149). he points out that the superb craftsmanshipin this period surpassPeoDle ol the N,/e would most interest someone who likes their es that of earliertimes.AnotherDointhe made was that when the history lessons painted in broad strokes as the book does not court relocaled from Upper Egypt to the Delta, the Egyptians became more cosmopolitan through their contacts via the explorethe "usual" topics in any depth. Peview by Judy Greenfield Mediterranean.He also brings up the importantpoint that interpre-

New in at the DMNH Bookstore: Watch it Grow: Egyptian Pyramid Text by Elizabeth Longley,illustrationby John James Nature Company/Time-LifeBooks 1997 tsBN 0-7835-4877-X Aimed at younger readers,this book has a novel format in that the pages gel bigger as you go along. The first spread, which is fairly narrow, shows the site ot a pyramid being cleared, and subsequenl pages expand in width as they tollow the constructionof the pyramid complex stage by stage, including all the associated buildingssuch as the causeway and valley temple, and even the workers'village and temporary harbor where stone is delivered. While some ESS members make take exception to the fact that this book only considers the spiral ramp theory of pyramid construction,the standard of both art and text are extremelyhigh, and indeedthis book is as good an introductionfor the adult non-specialist as it is for the average fifth-gradertor whom it seems to have been written.

Egyptian Mummies - A Pop-Up Book Text by Hilary Polk, illustrationby Roger Stewart Dutton1997 lsBN 0-525-45839-5 One would expect a pop-up book about ancient Egypt, by its very nature, to be aimed at an elementary-schoollevel of readership, and to deal with only the broadest outlines of the subject. This book is a pleasant surprise on both counts. The whole work is Ditched more at the level of a Time-Life or National Geographic cotfee-tablebook than a book for children. The pop-upscenes,showingthe variousstagesin mummification The exhausand burial,are beautifullydesignedand illustrated. tively detailed artwork is accompanied by clear and fascinating pull no texl,and is nol for the squeamish;the authorand illustrator punches, perhaps because they know that their target audience are hardened Goosebumpsrcaders and will love the gory details! This book will educaleand amuseyoung and old alike.

Review by Graeme Davis "' Ostracon back iisues are still available at $1-52 each ! See Frank Penee or ca 777-5494 "'

Beview by Graeme Davis 15

The Electric Papyrus

Egyptology in the New Media


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http://ww/ fhe Egyptian Gazefte has provided news and commenlary on Egyptologyand things Egyptianfor many years (as a glance at the for Mark Gilberg'sarticleon AllredLucasin this issue bibliography will contirm),and its onlineeditionnow makesthis historicpublication accessibleto Egyptophilesworldwide. The site managesto be very graphjcallyappealing,withoutusing any of the animatedbellsand whistlesthal can make othersites slowto loadand hardto use on slowerInternetconneciionsll has clearly been designed for ease of use, and succeeds well in that respect. The front page carries a selection ol recent headlines currently including commentary on the Luxor massacre of November17th,the openingof a new museumin Nubiaand the discovery of the tomb of Maya, reported in January's Scr,ibes' Paltette- wilh an amusing and sometimestrenchant review of the historyof Tutmaniaand the Pharaoh'sCurse.Olderstories,going backto the beginningol 1995,are archivedby subiect,undersuch Judaica,and so headingsas Landmarks,Historica,Problematica, goings-on Egypt'sherpolitical surrounding ol lorlh.The coverage itageis hard to beat. ESS membersvisitingthe site will probablylong, as I did, for an exhaustivearchive of storieslrom the entire historyof the Egypthn Gazefte, wilh a search engine to help lind eveMhing on, say, Tutankhamun- but this as first and foremosta journalisticsite ratherthan a historialone. However,it is well worth bookmarking for its immediacyand its Egyptianviewpoint.Highlyrecommended. Review by Graeme Davis

The Abzu Egypt Flegionallndex, reviewed in The OstraconVol- I No. '1,is just one part of the extensiveWeb site maintainedby the Oriental Instiluteof the Universityol Chicago. Like Abzu, the rest of the Oriental Institute'ssite is designed to be lunctional rather than beautiful,and while it is a little Spartan compared to some other sites, it is fast to load and easy to use. In a review of this length it is difticultto do full justice to the wealth ol informationand resourcesthat can be found on this site. As well as informationon the Oriental Instituteitself, there are reports on research by statf and students, highlightsfrom the Institute'scollections,sampleslrom the photographicarchives,papers and dissertationson all aspects and areas of the ancient Near East, and even a virtual museum which cyber-visitors can explore using Apple's OuickTime VR player. The lnstitute's educational programsare coveredin detail,and the MuseumStorehas an online catalog,althoughlhere is no provisionfor online ordering,so goods must be purchasedby "snailmail".The lnstitute'sannual reportslor the past tew years are also online, as are the brochures from past exhibits,so that those who were there can recallthe experienceand those who weren'tcan see what they missed! All in all,the OrientalInstituteWeb site is a mustsee,with or without the Abzu RegionalIndex.Just be sure you'renot payingfor your onlineconnecttime by the hour, becauseyou're bound to spend a long time just wanderingaround,marvelingat what's availablehere! Review by Graeme Davis

Blvd.,DenverCO 80205 2001Colorado DenverMuseumof NaturalHistory, t()


Journal of ESS