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WHO'S WHO IN ANCIENTEGYPT

c u b it s ,t h re e p a lms ,a n d t wo f in g e rs( 6 ' 6 " ! ) i n h e ig h t . 2 His s t a t u a ryd e p ic t sh im a s a m i d d l e a g e d ma n , h is p o s e mo re b ro o d i n g a n d reflectivethan god-likeas most previousroyal statues had been. Senusertmay have wanted t o b e re me mb e re da s a ru le r c o n c e rn e df o r h i s p e o p le ,f o r h is ma n y in s c rip t io n sd wel l o n t h i s subject. He wrote:

From Newberry, Ancient Egyptian Scarabs

FEATUREDPHARAOH III SE N U S E R T (Ruled1878 - 1841 BCE)

By David Pepper Ahout the Author: David Pepper is a professional engineer and commercial pilot and has a BS in Physics, an MS in Aerospace Engineering,and a Mastersin BusinessAdministration. He has served on the ESSBoardas treasurerand is currently chair of the publicationscommittee. T h e M i dd le Ki ngdom rulers of ancient Eg y p t brought stability and prosperity back to the country after the chaotic years of the First I n t e r m ed ia tePer iod. The 11'n Dynasty k in g , M e n tuh o tepll, had re-unifiedthe two la n d s , and a few years later, Amenemhet, probably h i s v izi er , se ize dthe throne and founde d t h e 1 2 ' hDyna stya n d its line of powerfulkings. A l t h oug hAm en e mhet'sson, S enusertl, w a s a powerful ruler, it was his great-grandson, Se n use r t l l l , w ho is remembered as t h e g r e a te stp h a r a o hof the Middle K ingdom. He w a s m ost l i kely the famous S esostris , t h e l e g e nd a r y Egyp tian king spoken of in t h e w r i t i ngs o f Classical authors such a s Herodotus, who stated that this king sailed i n t o the l nd ia n Ocean and then marc h e d through the Levant into Europe,defeatingthe Sc y t hia n sa n d Thraciansalongthey way.1 Senusertlll chose Khakaure,"appearingas the s o u l o f R e," a s his throne name. Man e t h o d e s cr i be d h im as a great warrior, a n d m e n tio n e dtha t the king was very tall at f o u r Summer1996

"l am a king who speaksand acts. My heart's intentions are carriedout by my arm. I am one to in orderto seize,impatient who is aggressive succeed, and w ho does not al l ow a ma t t er t o lie i n hi s heart."

T h is wa s writ t e n o n a b o u n d a rys t e laa t S e m n a in Nu b ia . He g o e s o n t o s a y : " l a m o n e wh o c o n s id e rsc la ima nt sa n d a m gentle,but I am not gentletowardsan enemy " who attacks. Senusert lll was the f ifth king of the 12'h Dynasty, and he is credited with f inally , ho re d u c in gt h e p o we r o f t h e lo c a ln o mar c h s w h a d s e iz e d a u t h o rit y a t t h e b e g in ni n go f t h e First IntermediatePeriod. At the time of his coronation,Senusert'sregionalgovernorswere using epithets and titles that had previously been strictly royal prerogatives. They were e v e n d a t in g t h e y e a rs a c c o rd in g t o e a c h n o ma rc h ' sre ig n ! B y t h e e n d o f h is r u l e ,t h e s e n o ma rc h sh a d a p p a re n t lylo s t p o we r, a n d t h e y n o lo n g e r b u ilt p ro v in c ia lt o mb s . Se n u s e r t ' s c e n t ra liz in g o f t h e a d min is t ra t io wa n s a brilliant s t o k e o f g e n iu s ,f o r h e a p p a re n t lyre l o c a t e dt h e h e re d it a ryg o v e rn o rs h ip sb a c k t o h is c a p i t a la t L is h t , wh e re h e c o u ld k e e p c lo s e r c o n t r o l o n t h e ro y a lb u re a u c ra c y . 3 S e n u s e rtlll is b e s t k n o wn f o r h is c a m p a i g n s a g a in s t t h e Nu b ia n s . S o b e k h u , o n e o f h i s s o ld ie rs ,a ls o t o o k p a rt in t h e s e ca m p a i g n s , a n d s t a t e din h is a u t o b io g ra p h y : "His

majesty proceeded southwards to

overthrow the B ow men of N ubi a." o

In a statue now located in the Brooklyn Mu s e u m,S e n u s e rtlll is s h o wn s e a t e du p o n a lo w b a c k e dt h ro n e (s e e F ig u re 1 ). H i s n a m e , " K h a k a u re , "is e n g ra v e do n h is b e lt , an d o n t h e Page18

Ostracon v7 n2  

Journal of ESS

Ostracon v7 n2  

Journal of ESS

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