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Alexandria

Lapa_Case Studies 2010

des Courtis Pierre Yang Sizhou Rodrigues InĂŞs Florindo Eva Mato Marta


8th MEDITERRANEAN SEA PORT RANKING - TEUs - 2008 WORLD PORT RANKING - AAPA Surveys


8th MEDITERRANEAN SEA PORT RANKING - Tons - 2008 WORLD PORT RANKING - AAPA Surveys


CitiesAlliance - CDS Final Proposal WorldBank Data

57%


EGYPTIAN FLOWS PASSING THREW THE ALEXANDRIAN HARBOUR CitiesAlliance - CDS Final Proposal WorldBank Data

100

60%

100

80

80

60

60

40

40

20

20

0

0

47%


-331

Pharos

Lighthouse 135m

Topography of Anciant Alexandria, Barbara Tkaczow Travaux du centre d’Archeologie Méditerranéenne Tome 32

Porte de Canope Canal

Links Alexandria and the Nil

Heptastade

Long as 7 stadiums : 1295m

Porte de la Lune Mariotis Lake


641

Enclosed

Fortification totally closed towards the sea

Topography of Anciant Alexandria, Barbara Tkaczow Travaux du centre d’Archeologie Méditerranéenne Tome 32 Alexandrie, une nouvelle dynamique pour le quartier historique Skroder Nermine, Cabessa Gaëlle

Artificial hills

Created to control

Canal

Dried

Mariotis Lake


1517

Quait-Bay Castle

Topography of Anciant Alexandria, Barbara Tkaczow Travaux du centre d’Archeologie Méditerranéenne Tome 32 Alexandrie, une nouvelle dynamique pour le quartier historique Skroder Nermine, Cabessa Gaëlle

New symbol of powerness

“Modern” City

Strategic position for defense and visual control

Old City Deserted


1798 Housing

Shops, Mosques

Topography of Anciant Alexandria, Barbara Tkaczow Travaux du centre d’Archeologie Méditerranéenne Tome 32 Alexandrie, une nouvelle dynamique pour le quartier historique Skroder Nermine, Cabessa Gaëlle

Customs

Regulates trade

Marine

Arsenal

Old city abandoned

Under ruins


1807

Turquish quarter

Topography of Anciant Alexandria, Barbara Tkaczow Travaux du centre d’Archeologie Méditerranéenne Tome 32 Alexandrie, une nouvelle dynamique pour le quartier historique Skroder Nermine, Cabessa Gaëlle

Narrow streets, irregular lots

Ras-el-Tin Palace

Government gardens and institutions

New “European” Quarter

Colonial city, building regulations and occidental city planning

Mahmudiyya Canal

Over the old trail

North wall destructed


1840 Topography of Anciant Alexandria, Barbara Tkaczow Travaux du centre d’Archeologie Méditerranéenne Tome 32 Alexandrie, une nouvelle dynamique pour le quartier historique Skroder Nermine, Cabessa Gaëlle

Reconstruction

the harbour and the arsenal

Extention towards West

Urban Planning

New director plan that does not dialog with the existant


1850 Topography of Anciant Alexandria, Barbara Tkaczow Travaux du centre d’Archeologie Méditerranéenne Tome 32 Alexandrie, une nouvelle dynamique pour le quartier historique Skroder Nermine, Cabessa Gaëlle

Southern wall destructed

Harbour extention

New docks to facilitate trade to Europe

Fast urban growth

Urban development without a guiding pattern


1952

Dilapidation of the Turquish quarter

Extension towards the Est The centre is overpopulated

Rural exodus

Causes lack of housing

Topography of Anciant Alexandria, Barbara Tkaczow Travaux du centre d’Archeologie Méditerranéenne Tome 32 Alexandrie, une nouvelle dynamique pour le quartier historique Skroder Nermine, Cabessa Gaëlle


x18

Antiquity

Nowadays


6

DISTRICTS http://www.bibalex.org/alexmed/AlexandriaDatabase/Reports.aspx ALEX MED - Bibliotheca Alexandrina

al-Montaza Sharak

al-Amriya Wassat Agamy al-Gomrok


Alexandria

Matruh

Kafr el-Sheikh Damietta Dakahlia Port Said Gharbia Sharqia Monufia Beheira Qalyubia Ismailia North Sinai Giza Cairo

Suez

Faiyum Beni Suef

South Sinai

6th of October Minya Asyut Sohag Qena Luxor New Valley Red Sea Aswan

29 GOVERNORATES http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egypt


Governorate of Alexandria

Mubarak

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/14376/Alexandria

Ministry of Local Affairs

Governor Adel Aly Labib

Local Council

Assits the governor


Arab Republic of Egypt

Mubarak

http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5309.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egypt

Dr. Ahmed Nazif

President since 1981 Prime Minister since 2004 (after the assassination of President Sadat)

Advisory Council Consultative

Supreme Constitutional Court

& People’s Assembly

Cabinet Appointed by the president Voted in 1981

State of Emergency

Arbitrary detentions No press freedom restricted freedom of assembly

Anti-Terrorism Law

In place since 2007 replacing the emergency law gives to the police wide powers of arrest and surveillance


PARADIS INFERNAUX, Les villes hallucinées du néo-capitalisme, direction: Mike Davis et Daniel B. Monk LE CAIRE, PAYS DE RÊVE, de Timothy Mitchell

SUBVENTIONS But in return the egyptian government has to buy american armament Oil prices regulation

Imposes economical reform program

EGYPT GOVERNMENT Financial aids and increase of the interest rate

Public Banks

Investments with very low interest

Influent Groups/Family Networks FINANCE COMPANIES & CONTRACTORS

Baghat, Seoudi, Mohamed Mahmoud, Mansour, Arabian International, Osman, Orascom, ...


4+1 Rentes, L’Egypte Antique . com http://www.legypteantique.com/economie-egyptienne.php

5 incomes


iussp2009.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=90245

Remmitances to Egypt by Egyptians abroad

10 8 Return of migrants from the Arab Gulf countries, after Gulf War

6 4 2 0 1990 1992

1994 1996

1998 2000 2002 2004 2006

2008


1.9M Temporary migration

ncbr.ruhosting.nl/html/files/zohrystatement.pdf

0,8% 3,4% 11,9%

10,0% 5,0%

17,4%

Work motivations

48,3% 1,2%

Egyptians are not elegible to any kind of citizenship rights, so they return to their country


0.8M Permanent Migration

ncbr.ruhosting.nl/html/files/zohrystatement.pdf

12% Other countries 38,6% USA 4,4% France 4,9% Netherlands 7,3% Greece Australia

Canada 8,5% Italy 13,3% 10,9%


www.migrationdrc.org/publications/research.../AymanReport.pdf

Egypt

3000000

Increasing of the illegal migration to Europe through the mediterranean sea

2500000

Decline in the number of work contracts from Arab Gulf countries

2000000 1500000 1000000

Open-door economic policy

500000 0

1975

1980

1986

1990

1996


4+1 Rentes, L’Egypte Antique . com http://www.legypteantique.com/economie-egyptienne.php

5 incomes


CitiesMayors Statistics http://www.citymayors.com/statistics/richest-cities-2005.html WorldBank Data 2005

30bn

10%


2nd 30bn 10% 90bn 30% BIGGEST CITY IN EGYPT CitiesMayors Statistics http://www.citymayors.com/statistics/richest-cities-2005.html WorldBank Data 2005


CitiesAlliance - CDS Final Proposal Worldbank Data 2004

7.1% 10.3%


Paradis Infernaux, Les Villes infernales du néo-capitalisme. Direction Mike Davis et David B. Monk LE CAIRE, PAYS DE RÊVE, de Timothy Mitchell

20%


CitiesAlliance - CDS Final Proposal World Bank Data - 2004

30%

10%


Paradis Infernaux, Les Villes infernales du néo-capitalisme. Direction Mike Davis et David B. Monk LE CAIRE, PAYS DE RÊVE, de Timothy Mitchell


-0,35% Migratory balance

http://html.rincondelvago.com/poblacion-del-valle-del-nilo.html

2 000 000, average value

Geographical position Meeting point between Europe, Africa and Asia

2007 000, average value

Demographic pressure Unemployment Demand of Land

0


http://www.forcedmigration.org/guides/fmo029/fmo029.pdf triceratops.brynmawr.edu/dspace/bitstream/10066/.../Kitroeff_10_1-2.pdf

Alexandria

32,5%

31%

25%

1927 1937

1907

1952

The city´s foreign population has declined

Egypt´s revolution. Nationalization of services and industries of the Nasser era. Concentration of state investment in Cairo.

36,822

22,881

3000 Refugees, the majoroty are Sudanese

14,351 7,318

Greeks Italians British French

1937

0,075% of population


22% Of state population

http://www.nationmaster.com/country/eg-egypt/imm-immigration

Between 750000 and 4 million immigrants in Egypt Vs 70,6 million in Europe

Before 1952: 60,000 Before 1940: 60,000 Before 1907: 63,000

Refugees


+/

3 M Refugees

www.forcedmigration.org/guides/fmo029/fmo029.pdf http://www.unhcr.org

“Four freedom agreement�, January 2004

1951 Refugee Convention and 1967 Protocol

Garantee both Egyptians and Sudanese freedom of movement, residence and work

1971 Constitution African Refugee Convention 1974

No domestic laws

UNHCR (1954) Memorandum of Understanding Refugees status determination Repatriation

Deportation Resetlement

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

75% Sudanese Mostly going to Israel by crossing Sinai Border Palestinians 16% Somalis

2% Ethiopian, Eritreans, Sierra Lions United States,Canada, Australia, Europe


research.ncl.ac.uk/forum/v5i1/azaz.pd

is growing by

1 million

every 9 months


“a burden on the public budget of the State”


5.4M

6000000

IS THE POPULATION PROJECTED BY 2015 IN ALEXANDRIA research.ncl.ac.uk/forum/v5i1/azaz.pd

5000000 4000000 3000000 2000000 1000000 0

1907 1917 1927

1937 1947 1960 1976 1986 1996 2015


The World Factbook - Land Use

33% LESS THAN 15y OLD

Switzerland 15,6 % France 19,6 %


CitiesAlliance - CDS Final Proposal Worldbank Data 2004

40’000 new jobs/y


CitiesAlliance - CDS Final Proposal Worldbank Data 2004 OCSTAT http://www.creame.ch/blog/index.php?post/2010/08/02/Le-dynamisme-économique-et-la-création-d-entreprise-à-Genève

40’000 new jobs/y


OBJECTIVE

investigate and build on the city’s competitiveness

The World Bank, Ahmed Eiweida (urban management specialist)

iniciated in 2004

Partnership Forum Allow public, business and non-governmental partners to work together

3 Pillars were defined during the forum

1.

Formulate a local economy development strategy

2. Devise a comprehensive strategic development plan for Lake Marriout and the surrounding area

3. Develop a comprehensive urban upgrading strategy for squatter settlements

City Development Strategies Alexandria will take advantage of its competitive endowments, better manage local assets, remove constraints to private sector-led growth, and ensure the socioeconomic integration of the poor in the development processes.

3 project development objectives

1.

Supporting Alexandria’s economic development and utilisation of local assets through investments in environmental regeneration and land use development

2. Supporting private sector development

through removing infrastructural and administrative constraints

3. Improving access of residents in squatter settlements to infrastructure, basic services and income-generating opportunities


Dealing with Construction Permits in Alexandria 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

http://www.doingbusiness.org/Data/ExploreEconomies/Egypt/Sub/Alexandria /topic/dealing-with-licenses

Obtain cadastral documents from the survey................................................................................................................................. Obtain technical approvals from an independent syndicate engineer........................................................................................ Obtain location permit from the office of planning in the Alexandria governorate.................................................................. Submit building permit application to Licensing department of the Alexandria governorate............................................... Receive inspection and obtain project clearance from Ministry of agriculture....................................................................... Receive inspection and obtain project clearance from Civil defense bureau........................................................................... Obtain project clearance from the Alexandria Water general authority.................................................................................... Obtain project clearance from the Alexandria Electricity distribution company..................................................................... Receive inspection prior to permit issuance from the Licensing office..................................................................................... Pay real estate tax at the Tax authority........................................................................................................................................... Obtain building permit from the Licensing office............................................................................................................................. Receive on-site inspection from the Licensing office.................................................................................................................... Receive final inspection by a committee from the Licensing office........................................................................................... Obtain letters from Licensing office about water and sewage connection and about electricity cables installation.... Obtain certificate of natural disaster from an independent syndicate engineer..................................................................... Obtain the water and sewerage connection..................................................................................................................................... Apply for an electricity connection with the Alexandria electricity distribution company................................................... Receive electrical inspection............................................................................................................................................................... Obtain electricity connection............................................................................................................................................................... Obtain phone connection from Telecom Egypt................................................................................................................................. Register the building with the real estate registry.........................................................................................................................

7 days 3 days 5 days 1 day 60 days 30 days 21 days 21 days 1 day 1 day 30 days 1 day 1 day 2 days 1 day 45 days 1 day 1 day 19 days 18 days 45 days

EGP 110 EGP 1,750 No cost EGP 2,000 No cost No cost No cost No cost No cost EGP 30 No cost No cost No cost No cost EGP 102 EGP 15,000 No cost No cost EGP 15,000 EGP 850 EGP 2,000


research.ncl.ac.uk/forum/v5i1/azaz.pd

There is a signiďŹ cant expansion in the western parts, where the big areas of needed land available; and in the eastern and southeasthern areas of the city where cultivated land is.

Water bodies Desert/sand Water bodies

Urban Fabric Urban Fabric Fish farm/saline

Water bodies

Green Lands

Green lands

Urban Fabric

However, most of this urban expansion is not planned by the government


28.7%

Hectares

OF INCREASE FOR URBAN FABRICS IN ALEXANDRIA (1984-1993) research.ncl.ac.uk/forum/v5i1/azaz.pd

350000 300000

1993

250000

1984

200000 150000 100000 50000 0

Urban Fabric

Green Islands

Fish Farm / Salin

Desert

Water Bodies


35,8% OF THE LABOR FORCE OF ALEXANDRIA ALEXANDRIE, UNE NOUVELLE DYNAMIQUE POUR LE QUARTIER HISTORIQUE Cabessa Gaëlle et Skröeder Nermine - 2008


2/5

of Egypt’s industrial production http://www.bibalex.org/alexmed/AlexandriaDatabase/Reports.aspx


Types of migrants www.migrationdrc.org/publications/research.../AymanReport.pdf

Rural to Urban 1976

1986

25%

13%

Before 1975: GOLDEN AGE OF MIGRATION, Nasser´s industrial revolution Migration from all parts of Egypt to work in the new factories

Urban to Rural 1986

1996

10%

23%

1.Old Migrants: integrated in social and economical life Return migration of retired rural-urban migrant workers back to their home villages.

2. Established migrants: who have kep their identity, link to their origins Peripherical districts

3. Circular migrants: who kept their family in a rural part of the country


>1/5 of the population AlexandriaKafr el-Sheikh DakahliaDamiettaPort Said

Internal Migrants

Gharbia

Beheira Matruh

Monufia Cairo

Sharqia Ismailia North Sinai Qalyubia Giza

Faiyum

Suez South Sinai

Beni Suef

7% www.zohry.com/thesis/chapter3.pdf

Main directions of internal migration 1. From South to North 2. The Suez Canal Zone 3. From the hinterland to Cairo and Alexandria 4. Frontier governorates

Minya

Asyut Sohag Qena Luxor New Valley Red Sea

Aswan

1/5 of the population

Internal migration is responsible for the distribution of nearly 25 % of Egypt´s population.


Loss represents

36% of the population gaign

www.migrationdrc.org/publications/research.../AymanReport.pdf

Urban, In 276,499 Out 100, 964,

Ras El- Tin

Egypt 1996

Mancheya Goumrouk

In - migration , Urban to Urban 83,7 % Rural to Urban 16,3% Out-migration, Urban to Urban 76,4% Urban to Rural 23,6%


http://www.bibalex.org/alexmed/AlexandriaDatabase/Reports.aspx

Abu-Kir Montazah Cornaiche Road

Mostafa Kamel St

Sidi Gaber Eastern Port Agricultural Road

Transport within the city is provided by tram service, as well as a system of taxis and buses.

Suez Canal

Alexandria Port Max St

Dekheila Port

Kabary Road

Extension of Internacional Road

Agami Desert Road Om Zegheo Road

Matrouh

Borg-el-Arab

Coastal Road

El-Kafouri Road

Desert Road

Cairo

Cairo

Ring Road

Internacional Road

Rosetta


1st 3 million tourists LOCAL DESTINATION WorldBank Data


CitiesAlliance - Reuters http://af.reuters.com/article/investingNews/idAFJOE59J0PG20091020?sp=true

only 309’000


3%

OF INTERNATIONAL VISITORS CitiesAlliance - Reuters http://af.reuters.com/article/investingNews/idAFJOE59J0PG20091020?sp=true


ALEXANDRIE, UNE NOUVELLE DYNAMIQUE POUR LE QUARTIER HISTORIQUE Cabessa Gaëlle et Skröeder Nermine - 2008


Park Cemetery

Sports garden

Urban gardens Gardens

Archaeological parks Agricultural land


Antique aerial aqueductsturned into streets

Antique canal is mantained, and aqueducts can be recognised on the city structure

Fortification voids into parks

Rests of towers and void between the tracks of the fortifications

Trails of old directive plans

In red, the Antique Orthogonal plan and in yellow the European Quarter under Mohammed Ali

Old fortification turned into streets

Almost all the walls can be recognised in the city


The World Factbook - Land Use

2.3% ARABLE LAND

Switzerland 9.91 % France 33.46 %


95% OF THE WATER RESOURCES PROVIDED BY THE NILE RIVER FOR THE COUNTRY http://www.bibalex.org/alexmed/AlexandriaDatabase/Reports.aspx


Du Nil à Alexandrie, histoires d’Eaux Isabelle Hairy Centre d’études alexandrines - CNRS

e b d

c

a a: main canal XVIe century b: main canal XVIIe century c: subterranean aqueduct d: main canal extension e: aerial aqueduct transformed in subterranean aqueduct XVIII century transformed in subterranean aqueduct XVIII century XVII century 1679 - 1687

XVII - XVIII century


3 40.000 m

Wells Cisterns

Du Nil à Alexandrie, histoires d’Eaux Isabelle Hairy Centre d’études alexandrines - CNRS

“No cisterns no water, no water no city”


80%

km2 350

OF DECREASE IN SURFACE WATERS OF LAKE MARYUT DURING 204 YEARS (1801 - 2005)

300 250 200

Lake 150

Saline

100

Fish farm

50

Swamp

0

1930

1949

1970

1991

2005


www.oecd.org/dataoecd/57/4/33330510.pdf unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0007/000757/075728eo.pdf

CLIMATE CHANGE Risks through sea level rise on the coastal zone

3-5mm/year Temperature increases of 1.4ยบC and 2.5ยบC are projected by 2050 and 2100


www.oecd.org/dataoecd/57/4/33330510.pdf

Decreasing water availability from the Nile

Higher temperatures in the semi-arid regions

as a result of changes in precipitation

Implications for Agriculture it is already happening

coastal subduction reduced sediment loads due the construction of the High Aswan Dam


www.oecd.org/dataoecd/57/4/33330510.pdf

45%

of the population is currently located at an elevation below the sea water However, these locations are protected from inundation, either naturally or through hard structures


60%

% 100

OF POPULATION AFFECTED WITH A SEA LEVEL RISE SCENARIO OF 0.25 M www.oecd.org/dataoecd/57/4/33330510.pdf

80

60

Below sl 0.25m asl

40

0.5m asl 1.0m asl

20

0

Population Beaches Residential Industrial Services

Tourism

Restricted Area

Urban

Vegetation Wetland

Bare soil


www.oecd.org/dataoecd/57/4/33330510.pdf

For a sea level rise of 0.5 m

30% 1.5M 195.000

of the city will be lost due to inundation

people will have to be relocated jobs will be lost


www.oecd.org/dataoecd/57/4/33330510.pdf

SOME MEASURES

Construction of new drainage systems breakwaters and dykes

Beach nourishment projects Implementation and enforcement of the existing laws that reduce coastal vulnerability New regulations that correct distortions To monitor land use, erosion patterns and mangrove areas, pollution from oil spills and from land-based sources Reorient economic policies Land use practices Measures to improve rain-harvesting techniques Dialog and cooperation among the Nile Basin states


Towards integrated management of Alexandria’s coastal heritage UNESCO

DAMAGE Increasing coastal population Pollution Rise of sea level Poor coastal protection measures

1997: Integrated and interdisciplinary approach on archeological sites

University of Alexandria Suprême Council of Antiquities United Nations Educational, Scientific and cultural organization

PRESERVATION

Open to public and scholars

MUSEUMS Underwater Museum Bibliotheca Alexandrina Albatre Tomb Mosaïc Museum National Museum El-Nabih Cistern Greek - Roman Museum


The great light house

Underwater archaeology

Quaitbay fort Ghabara cistern

Column of Pompey

Bibliotheca Alexandrina Underwater Archaeological Museum Ras-el-Tin Palace

Greek-Roman Museum

National Museum Kom-el-Dick Amphitheatre

Terra Santa Gabbari Nécropolis

Dioclétien Column

El-Nabih cistern HERITAGE/MUSEUMS EXCAVATIONS Du Nil à Alexandrie, histoires d’Eaux Isabelle Hairy Centre d’études alexandrines - CNRS

Marea Island


Du Nil à Alexandrie. Histoires d’eaux. Isabelle Hairy Centre d’Etudes Alexandrines - CNRS

XXe Construction of a garage XIXe Establishment of a garden XVIe - XVIIIe Hole recovering old construction materials XVe Construction of a floor, two canals and a cistern Roman Antiquity Housing structures and two cisterns Greek Antiquity Housing structures


2 14.675 m Centre d’études alexandrines - CNRS

Diana Theatre Britannic Consulate Cricket Ground Gabbari Nécropolis Ghabara cistern Garage Lux Fouad Terra Santa Marea Island

Alexandria today: 275.000 m2 Antique Alexandria: 16.000 m2


3

2 1 5

9

4

6

8

7

1: Cinema Majestic 2: Diana Theatre 3: Radio Cinema 4: Billardo Palace 5: Copte Patricarch 6: Greek Orthodox Patriarch 7: Cricket Ground 8: Britannic Consulate 9: Garage Lux Du Nil à Alexandrie, histoires d’Eaux Isabelle Hairy Centre d’études alexandrines - CNRS


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandria#Education http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandria_University http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandria_Higher_Institute_of_Engineering_and_Technology

PUBLIC 1938

Arab Academy for Science and Technology and Maritime Transport

Satellite University

Regional UNDP project

Cairo University Transport Committee of the Arab League United Nations

1972

PRIVATE Alexandria Institute of Technology 1996

Pharos University 2006

Senghor University 1990

Mohamed Ragab Foundation for social Development


Objective of the international competition: Give back to Alexandria his statue of intelectual capital

REVIVAL of Alexandria Library 1988 1400 architects 77 countries

Biblitheca Alexandrine, International architectural competition, 1990 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bibliotheca_Alexandrina

Cultivate the open-mindedness Deepen the fields of knowledge

International Dimension Snøhetta

Construction 1995-2002 220 M $ 8 M books 70’000 m²

MAIN DATA SOURCE OF THE MIDDLE EAST

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