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June 2011 | Vol. 3 | No. 6 | Pages 1805–1884 Date of Publication 26 June 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print)

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JoTT Essay

3(6): 1805–1817 3rd Asian Lepidoptera Conservation Symposium

Special Series

Launching and steering flagship Lepidoptera for conservation benefit Tim R. New Department of Zoology, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086, Australia Email: t.new@latrobe.edu.au

Date of publication (online): 26 June 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 June 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: Robert Michael Pyle Manuscript details: Ms # o2621 Received 02 November 2010 Final revised received 04 April 2011 Finally accepted 09 May 2011 Citation: New, T.R. (2011). Launching and steering flagship Lepidoptera for conservation benefit. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(6): 1805– 1817. Copyright: © Tim R. New 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Author details: Emeritus Professor Tim New has worked on many aspects of insect conservation policy and practice, and has published extensively on these themes. Acknowledgments: This essay is based on a keynote talk prepared for the Third Asian Lepidoptera Conservation Symposium, Coimbatore, India, in October 2010. I wish to thank the primary organisers, Dr. B.A. Daniel and Dr. C. Gunasekaran, for inviting me to this meeting. I am very grateful to Dr. Paul Waring for delivering this talk in my unavoidable but unexpected absence, and to two reviewers for their helpful comments.

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Abstract: Lepidoptera, particularly butterflies and large moths, are popular targets for conservation efforts and as flagship species can help to publicize the need for habitat and resource protection and the ecological value of invertebrates. Here I present an overview of the relevant issues in selecting and promoting flagship species, and discuss how local community support for conservation may be encouraged, using examples from Australia. Keywords: Australia, butterflies, conservation education, icon species, moths, species conservation.

Problems of communication in insect conservation Perceptions of insects vary widely, but one predominant attitude is that they are generally pests that should be suppressed or eradicated rather than conserved - an image that is incompatible with efforts to conserve insects. This ‘perception barrier’ has many components, and is confounded by the high numbers of species involved - a factor that can easily induce feelings of overwhelming helplessness at the magnitude of conservation need. It is sobering to reflect that entomologists cannot yet agree within orders of magnitude how many kinds of insect exist on earth. Indeed counting species has become somewhat of an industry in itself, even though it is not practical conservation, simply an indication of the magnitude of the tasks we face as natural environments are diminished and changed progressively by human activities. It is pertinent to contrast conservation acceptance for insects with that accorded to vertebrates, which are much less diverse but more tangible and appealing to many people. Whereas in ethical terms, a rare beetle or fly may be just as needy of attention as a tiger or elephant, they tend to be diminished in perception. However, it is perhaps salutary that, despite the massive conservation resources they have received and continue to receive, almost half the world’s 634 primate species are still severely threatened from loss of habitat and exploitation for bush meat and trade (IUCN 2010). Even strongly resourced and globally-supported

This article is part of the peer-reviewed Proceedings of the 3rd Asian Lepidoptera Conservation Symposium (3ALCS-2010) jointly organized by the IUCN SSC South Asian Invertebrate Specialist Group (SAsISG); Department of Zoology, Bharathiar University; Zoo Outreach Organisation and Wildlife Information Liaison Development, held from 25 to 29 October 2010 at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. http://www.zooreach.org/3alcs2010.html

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vertebrate conservation programs directed at species of almost universal appeal do not assure their targets of any sustainable future. They show that the attitudes and needs of local communities and their support for conservation efforts are of critical importance to success. Conservation of insects is about far more than individual species. It involves the heart of ecological sustainability and habitat conservation, with the roles of insects and other invertebrates, identifiable or not, as the major governors of processes in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. As E.O. Wilson famously pointed out some years ago, invertebrates are ‘the little things which run the world’ (Wilson 1987). Our role is to emphasize this point and explain it at every opportunity, and at the same time promote insect conservation through any means available to us. Because many people can relate to species as meaningful entities, and can see parallels between ‘saving the orangutan’ or the Black-headed Coucal and ‘saving the Queen Alexandra’s birdwing’, individual species considerations are a valuable focus. The practical dilemma is how to select the insect species that have greatest impacts on the ways we can make conservation effective and in how political capital may be garnered through demonstrating success and wider benefits. Some focus on those taxa that are better-known and more acceptable to the public is a logical way to select from amongst the hordes of insect species that may be threatened, or nominated as such under protective legislation. Triage is almost inevitable in any such context, but with the reality that selecting a species for attention may also increase risks to others, equally or even more deserving, by precluding them from equivalent attention. Any such selected species is in essence a flagship for wider conservation interest. What is an icon or flagship species? Flagship species are ‘charismatic species that attract public support’ (Andelman & Fagan 2000). Many have other positive values that may render them valuable as surrogates, such as by becoming umbrella or indicator species in some way but, as Simberloff (1998) emphasized, this is not a prerequisite and a flagship must simply ‘arouse public interest and sympathy’ as a symbol of conservation concern. Despite its original religious connotation, the term ‘charisma’ as applied 1806

in conservation incorporates ‘ability to influence or impress people’, so that a flagship species is broadly a ‘rallying point’ (or marketing tool) for conservation concern. How it is perceived depends largely on the human context in which it occurs. Most commonly, ‘flagship species’ are large vertebrates, particularly mammals or birds - and the perceptions of large carnivores, for example, may differ markedly with proximity and chances of being eaten! International perceptions of ‘charisma’ may not always be emulated locally, so that the challenge of ‘universal charisma’ may be daunting. Even for one of the most favoured insect groups, dragonflies, perceptions may range from important cultural icons to pests of aquaculture operations through larval depredations on hatchling fish. In general, butterflies and some other Lepidoptera have overcome this acceptance hurdle, at least to the extent of their conservation not being actively opposed. However, understanding ‘biophilia’ is complex (Simaika & Samways 2010); suffice, here, to note that some insects are indeed sympathetically considered because ‘people like them’. Knowledge of insects is uneven across different major taxonomic groups. Many groups are poorly documented, with knowledge unlikely to improve greatly. These insects include many of the most diverse taxa, such as the vast array of small parasitoid Hymenoptera and many families of small beetles and flies, as well as whole orders of insects that intrude little onto public awareness or concern, and remain of little concern other than to a small handful of specialists. Psocoptera are one such example amongst these ‘meek inheritors’ (New 2000), and are unlikely ever to become icons as wider conservation rallying points. In contrast, some insect groups are accepted as wellknown and ‘popular’ - amongst these, butterflies are paramount, but followed by Odonata, some larger moths and some larger beetles, with this familiarity stemming largely from hobbyist interests, mainly collecting. As noted in the first of this series of symposia ‘Big colourful butterflies invoke the ‘vertebrate’ approach to Lepidoptera conservation because they are …. charismatic species that imply ‘heroic’ conservation measures should be taken ….’ (Kitching 2007). More generally ‘Animal beauty is a paradigm of aesthetic value’ (Hettinger 2010). Collectively, these ‘popular’ insects constitute a high proportion of the species on

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which conservation has been traditionally focused, because perception is positive and knowledge has become sufficient to detect declines and threats, by people likely to be concerned about these, and to publicize those concerns. Particularly in parts of the northern temperate region, ‘butterfly conservation’ has long been accepted as respectable and an integral part of wider conservation need, with that acceptance gradually inducing emulation elsewhere. One outcome is the acceptance we see today - the desire and sincere motivation to conserve Lepidoptera in parts of the world that are less sympathetic and less well-resourced but which harbour high proportions of the world’s 20,000 or so butterfly species, and where it is important that the limited support available is used to the greatest possible effect. The premise advanced in the Hong Kong declaration (2007), namely ‘that the Lepidoptera have a special place in human perception, culture and nature appreciation’, underpins much of the attitude and approaches to using them for advocacy. In addition (a) many are themselves targets for individual species conservation and (b) many species or assemblages may be valuable ‘tools’ in being putative surrogates for wider conservation of the biotopes in which they occur, and of the coexisting but little-heralded accompanying ‘biodiversity’. It is perhaps important to emphasise that, despite many advocacies for use of butterflies and, more rarely, of other Lepidoptera as indicators or surrogates, rather few studies have actually demonstrated this by statistical analyses confirming correlation with other taxa (see Fleishman & Murphy 2009). However, single species conservation studies of insects have been almost wholly developed in well-resourced temperate regions, with relatively low species richness and many resident entomologists, and the logistic impediments to developing parallels elsewhere remain formidable. Moves for habitat protection have largely taken the place of this ‘fine focus’ insect conservation in the tropics, for example. Some of the reasons for this have been discussed recently for tropical butterflies (Bonebrake et al. 2010), with the need for more individual species studies emphasised. Lepidoptera, our major focus here, have been referred to as ‘Ambassadors of biodiversity’, and are viewed also as umbrella taxa purported (but, as noted above, only rarely proven) to be surrogates for much wider conservation effort as either single species or

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diverse assemblages (New 1997). However, they fall unevenly into three major functional groups (‘butterflies’, ‘macromoths’, ‘Microlepidoptera’, as terms used widely amongst hobbyists, in particular) in conservation assessment - and the differences between these are evident even amongst the putatively well known western European fauna. These groups differ greatly in attributes suitable for use as flagships, and it is instructive to compare and contrast their relevant features, in order to suggest relativity of value in what a flagship species should and may achieve. Consider the following relative features for butterflies: (i) low species richness within a sound taxonomic framework so that many taxa are both recognisable and identifiable reliably; (ii) long history of collector interests based on aesthetic appeal and diurnal activity likely to have led to production of illustrated handbooks facilitating further interests; (iii) reasonable general framework of biological understanding and distributional information, often with valid comments on ‘rarity’ and susceptibility to environmental changes; (iv) these generalities augmented by detail from an increasing number of species conservation cases in many parts of the world and covering diverse taxa and biotopes as examples; and (v) high appeal and sympathy for their wellbeing, with rather little fear of actual or economic damage. These advantages are shared with some larger moths, mainly showy families such as Saturniidae (with economic benefits an additional advantage) and Sphingidae, or diurnal taxa that may be thought of as ‘honorary butterflies’ because they are visible, so equally amenable to study, and often colourful! In contrast, many other macromoths are nocturnal and less accessible, and belong, with Microlepidoptera, firmly to the largely unknown (especially in the tropics) insects still viewed with considerable suspicion and for which knowledge is grossly inadequate to make any detailed case for species conservation need or, even, to define major centres of richness or endemism other than in very general terms. In noting that the number of described Microlepidoptera in south east Asia was around 6000 species, Robinson et al. (1994) commented also that the number still to be discovered was likely to be ‘at least the same number again’. Two practical problems are associated with inability to gain flagship status: (i) that high numbers of unidentified or difficult to identify described species render many identifications of species within those faunas tentative

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or uncertain, and (ii) flagships are ideally conspicuous most moths, being crepuscular or nocturnal in activity, are not seen as easily unless they are deliberately sought. Many people are largely unaware of them. In contrast, the conspicuousness of diurnal butterflies renders them far more accessible, with the greater interest contributing to greater knowledge by a greater workforce. As Kendrick (2007) emphasised, far more people appreciate butterflies than appreciate moths, with one outcome being that reliable information on conservation status and needs is also markedly less for moths. Species accorded flagship status are a minute fraction of the total number of around 160,000 described Lepidoptera and an estimated 500,000 species that may exist (Kristensen et al. 2007), and the sheer diversity of these, and other insects, can easily induce feelings of bewilderment in seeking how conservation may best be pursued. Only in parts of Europe is it currently possible to evaluate conservation status of many Microlepidoptera other than in the most generalised terms, reflecting attention from substantial numbers of resident enthusiasts. Kristensen et al. (2007) noted that the ‘average amateur lepidopterist’ (‘having exhausted the challenges [at the collector’s level!] presented by the local butterflies’: Kristensen et al. 2007: 708) tends to make the transition from butterflies to macromoths and subsequently often to micromoths, of the national fauna, rather than to butterflies of neighbouring countries. Elsewhere, however, in any practical sense, Microlepidoptera are both unknown and unknowable as candidates for species-focused conservation; together with Psocoptera and many others, they can be conserved only by assuring that the ecosystems in which they occur are sustained (Franklin 1993). Perhaps the essence of a flagship species is that it is ‘visible’, broadly seen as worthy of conservation, and accepted as such by the wider community rather than by scientist advocacy alone. It thus becomes a ‘symbol’ of local, regional or national interest - an ambassador for insect conservation together with the habitats on which it and they depend, and able to help in fostering both cooperation and participation in conservation activities. Local pride is often important, so that narrow range endemics may be particularly suitable for promotion. Some unusual biological feature or attribute, novelty value, may capture public interest and help considerably in the important steps of 1808

communication and education so vital in enlisting and sustaining community interests. Wider conservation importance for the species (for example, indicator or umbrella values - although the terms may lead to confusion in defining its role) may augment its functional importance considerably. Fundamentally, a flagship (or icon) species is one that is readily recognised, ideally has some ‘charisma’, and can be used in its own right to publicise, encourage and sustain broader conservation endeavour for its own benefit and for that of the environment in which it can thrive. How can we make a species into a flagship? Criteria that may be useful to consider in deciding whether a particular species might be a useful flagship are numerous, but may have a high emphasis on local significance and importance (Table 1). For this adoption to occur, it follows that wide support for conservation must be canvassed, and seen as justified and important by demonstrated (‘evidence-based’) conservation need. Formal listing of a species may be useful, even necessary, to gain Table 1. Ten criteria for consideration in choosing effective flagship species (after Bowen-Jones & Entwistle 2002) Criterion

Comments

Geographical distribution

Within regional area of interest. Endemic or restricted distribution may increase local importance

Conservation status

Traditionally, high risk, but common species may also be valuable

Ecological role

Benefit increased if has some critical or central role in ecosystem: provides opportunity to explain importance

Recognition

Ideally distinctive and not confused with other species by target audience

Existing usage

If used elsewhere, may be useful endorsement, but might also create mixed messages; avoid conflicts of interest

Charisma

Often subjective and variable. (Other novelty or interest may be as important)

Cultural significance

Identify carefully. May provide opportunities for endorsement

Positive associations

Increase likelihood of effectiveness (Strong associations are not necessarily positive)

Traditional knowledge

Valuable source of information. Provide opportunities for reinforcement and expansion

Common names

May influence public perception. May need to change to improve popular image

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official recognition and may be a passport to accepted worth. Lists of threatened species can easily become very long and strongly biased towards particular taxonomic groups; Schedule 1 of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972, for example, includes 128 butterfly taxa and the only other insect is a dragonfly. Such lists, with this Act listing 450 butterflies, many of them subspecies that are difficult to recognise, across the three relevant schedules, are invaluable in demonstrating the vast scales of conservation need to politicians and managers, but engender a feeling of helplessness in deciding how to proceed constructively. Fleets (species lists) need flagships for guidance and focus, and large fleets (long species lists) may need especially influential flagships with umbrella capacity. However, not all listed insect species become practical flagships. Some others become flagships almost by default, simply from the attention they receive and this is perhaps the most frequent context in which they are launched. They may be elevated retrospectively, to the benefit of all involved, as they become betterknown and achieve notoriety. This fortuitousness is rather different from deliberately commissioning flagship species from amongst a fleet of possible threatened and ecologically varied candidates, based on defining the desirable parameters and outcomes and, possibly, complementarity with other species efforts. Thus, in a common scenario, we may be faced with a decision to elevate ‘more butterflies’ (a strategy increasingly likely to be fruitful as the bulk experience on this group continues to be augmented and still more species contribute to the pool of experience and knowledge) or, by incorporating other insects to emphasise ‘more variety’, adopt a different strategy and convey a rather different political message. This necessitates a pragmatic decision to either capitalise on our greatest expertise and demonstrated capability (butterflies) or to take a greater risk for possibly wider ecological advantages. In Victoria (Australia), for example, the trio of flagship species comprising a butterfly (the Eltham Copper, Paralucia pyrodiscus lucida), a damselfly (the Ancient Greenling, Hemiphlebia mirabilis) and the Giant Gippsland Earthworm (Megascolides australis) convincingly demonstrated some aspects of the ecological variety and roles of threatened invertebrates at the time the State’s conservation act was being developed in the late 1980s (Yen et al. 1990).

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Choice amongst taxa for conservation preference or need will almost always be possible, and it behooves us to be able to justify any selections we make. What species should we concentrate on? Turning more deliberately to Lepidoptera, we can presume that most, probably all, of the species advanced will themselves need conservation or be useful in promoting conservation of key habitats. The collective premises are likely to include at least some of (i) the species being scarce or localised; (ii) threatened in some tangible way, with the most likely threat being loss or despoliation of limited habitat, but with definition of the threat becoming the basis for alleviative conservation management; (iii) local endemics, perhaps known only from single sites of other very narrow range; (iv) ecological specialists, perhaps with larval food plants also threatened; (v) suggested reliably to be of conservation concern and so (vi) accepted as needing support and management. Many are likely also to be listed formally on some advisory or legal schedule of ‘threatened species’, a step that elicits very mixed reactions from people and, however well-intentioned, can sometime impede information gathering and study of critical value for conservation (Sands & New 2002). We are highly likely to need further basic research on such species (many of which are inherently difficult to study through being scarce and specialised) to clarify the details of management needed, and site-based management and field research demands that the site(s) be secure. Other aspects of triage may also be relevant – for example the taxonomic lineage of the species and the vulnerability and ecological features of the biotope it inhabits may influence ranking for priority. However species may be selected, ability to differentiate those species unambiguously is needed, and not always present. Two practical counters to this are available: to employ taxon groups above single species level as the units either because of conjoint needs (Maculinea butterflies, Synemon sun-moths) or an easily recognisable common appearance within which only some species are of concern (birdwing butterflies). Either approach, used with care, may enhance conservation attention.

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How can we do it? Two practical restrictions for insect species-level conservation efforts are immediately obvious. First, professional or agency support for insect conservation is, and is likely to remain, grossly inadequate for the tasks faced. Second, without augmentation of this resource base from community and volunteer interests, many of them supporting (‘steering’) flagship species, many butterfly conservation programmes could not proceed properly and many others would already have failed. Experience has gradually led to a number of ‘working rules’ for fostering these wider interests, and progressing along the gradient from ‘awareness communication - cooperation - support/participation’ by local agencies and communities. Two time-scales are involved, and intergrade. The initial interests (awareness) may be a short-term reaction to media exposure, novelty or wider environmental concerns and wane once the initial flurry of activity attendant on crisis-management has passed. However, support may then be needed during a practical conservation programme extending over a decade or more of monitoring, site management and biological observations, so that interest must be sustained, often in competition with changing priorities as new cases arise, and the local community changes in composition and interests. Perhaps the most important unifying and integrating need is that the community has a firm sense of ownership and cooperative participation in the species/project, rather than being seen simply as a biddable work force whose activities are governed by ex cathedra direction from officialdom. Coupled strongly with this, all interested constituencies and groups should be involved. This wide input is essential in designing the initial conservation plan, because it is likely to lead to a harmonious continuing relationship based on trust, respect and consultation, with consideration of all viewpoints based on mutual inputs and understanding of both needs and constraints. A management team should represent all interested parties, in developing a plan, perhaps using some scheme similar to that outlined by New (2009), but modified for local circumstances, as a preliminary template for consideration. Several commentators have remarked that ‘volunteer groups’ and interests for conservation are largely the province of societies that are ‘middle class’ 1810

- those in which people can develop sympathy for conservation, extending beyond fulfilling their own immediate needs for food and living and with leisure time to devote to such more tangential activities. It is not realistic to expect people to willingly forego basic needs, and so not surprising that community support is difficult to enlist in regions with burgeoning human populations and marginal incomes. The scenarios in New Guinea and China in which ‘butterfly ranching’ has become an income-generating exercise of tangible benefit to local people, are paralleled by a few butterfly houses and similar commercial enterprises elsewhere in the region, but will remain exceptional, and in marked contrast to community inputs in leisure-rich societies such as Australia. In these contexts it is possible to categorise features that either encourage or discourage community interests, and to plan to foster those interests (Williams 1996). Encouragement features include ensuring that the community can identify with the conservation initiative, involving them from the earliest stages, developing programmes that consider their benefit, listening to community concerns, and gaining trust and ensuring that information is distributed in a timely and appropriate way. Discouraging interest results from failures to recognise community interests and level of ecological understanding, so that resentment may occur through apparent ‘talking down’ and enthusiasm dampened, failing to provide appropriate support after initiating programmes, and not facilitating any sense of ownership. In principle, but not always in practice, these pointers are transferable. Although Williams’ (1996) parameters were derived initially from her experiences with vertebrate and ecosystem recovery programmes, they encapsulate well the needs for butterflies or any other flagship species. Collectively, they emphasise the need for education and increasing awareness, and it is perhaps in this arena that greatest progress in many societies can be made. Promotion of Lepidoptera for ecotourism (including butterfly reserves), photography, educational tools in schools, for example, has been undertaken in this region. The declaration of several birdwings as ‘National Butterflies’ of Papua New Guinea in 1968 drew wide attention to their plight and significance. The butterfly garden at Changi International Airport (Singapore) is a notable feature. Appearance of Lepidoptera on stamps attracts wide attention from philatelists and tourists.

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Examples could be multiplied substantially, but the collective image of butterflies and, more rarely, other Lepidoptera, is associated strongly with conservation need by such activities. Icon species, with individual interest or special significance and that people wish to see (perhaps as ecotourists) or conserve, are a fundamental component of bridging the concepts of diversity and individual species vulnerability, but this is a context far different from needs for enhancing practical conservation management of those species. Cooperation needs planning and continued review. It can not proceed from neglect, arrogance, presumption and lack of tact in dealings amongst participants. Any of these may be perceived as ‘issuing orders’. Insisting on accountability or deadlines, however routine to managers, is often inimical to volunteer inputs. Tensions amongst varied groups of people with differing priorities can arise from many sources, not least the individual personalities involved. ‘Chains-of-command’ across government agencies and scientific bodies (as, commonly, the drivers of the programmes) need considerable tact. The collective views of constituents or stakeholders with different interests can create conflict without clear discussion. Ineffective communication - perhaps by use of technical terms when they are not strictly needed, or lack of explanation of the measures and procedures and why they are to be used or proposed for consideration must also be avoided. Notwithstanding this, effective leadership and coordination of the management team is necessary, together with responsible documentation of the management scheme and its progress (objectives, practical steps, timing, budget, lead participants and control, and any other component of the programme) adopted. Supportive “Friends’ groups” for any species or site may arise independently of any more official body, particularly in communities with a strong environmental ethic or in which naturalists’ clubs or similar interests occur. Any such important initiatives merit the strongest encouragement, not least as relevant and knowledgeable local advocates, and the most basic and informed support likely to be available and, in some cases, leading to effective networks of people for conservation support. The Australian case for the Bathurst copper butterfly (Paralucia spinifera) is an excellent example (Nally 2003). In this example, the initiative by a local café in Lithgow designating

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themselves as a sponsor helped to generate interest and support within the local community and led to participation by local groups in measures such as growing and planting larval food plants, education (including preparation of instruction kits), weed control on butterfly sites, and others. ‘Local pride’, involving the vital sense of ownership, may come from simplesounding measures, one of which is implied above – the allocation of a local patronymic common name. P. spinifera is known as the Bathurst copper or Lithgow copper, after the two major towns within its narrow range in New South Wales, as well as by ‘purple copper’ as a more neutral epithet. Dedication of a site as a reserve named for a local supporter or dignatory is also likely to appeal. One of the dedicated reserves for the Eltham copper (Paralucia pyrodiscus lucida, a close relative of P. spinifera and named for an outer eastern suburb of Melbourne, Victoria) is called the ‘Pauline Toner Reserve’ commemorating the late local State parliamentarian whose enthusiasm and support were important catalysts in the initial conservation campaign. Adoption of species as local icons, supported by publicity such as information leaflets, education initiatives, involvement of local people and cooperation with managers of sites, perhaps coordinated by meetings or informal on-site gatherings (where the sites can withstand this pressure), all contribute to local pride. The common flow-on is realisation that the taxon is of much more than local importance, so that far wider advocacy can also be very worthwhile. Local and national entomological societies may provide sources of information and energy – in Australia, the Entomological Society of Queensland and the Entomological Society of Victoria have both helped to guide butterfly conservation projects, and the national science agency (CSIRO) was a critical driver of much of the campaign for the Richmond birdwing butterfly (Ornithoptera richmondia) (Appendix 1, Sands et al. 1997). Endemism itself generates conservation value amongst threatened species, so that a defined geographical transition from local to national global significance (such as by inclusion on a national Red Data Book or entry on the global IUCN Red List) may help emphasise value to local managers. Much of the impetus for conservation of birdwing butterflies, for example, has historically come from people who have

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never seen them in the wild, nor visited the countries in which they occur: the conservation interest has arisen from the spectacular aesthetic appeal of birdwings, and their flagship values as ambassadors for tropical forest ecosystems. What might we expect to gain? Restricted resources available for insect conservation ensure that, in many instances, conservation programmes simply cannot be undertaken properly from these alone, and depend critically on additional inputs and interest from the wider community. With willing participation of volunteer helpers, every aspect of planning and management may become better focused and more easily achieved, not least by incorporating expertise, experiences, interest and labour not available from any other source, or expensive and difficult to procure. For Lepidoptera, examples of this aid include (i) undertaking additional surveys to detect the species; (ii) monitoring of known populations; (iii) undertaking research tasks under guidance; (iv) other tangible physical help in site maintenance – activities such as fencing, weed control, pruning, sanitation, preparation of signage, and many others; (v) advocacy and support, perhaps through education programmes or informal talks; (vi) fund-raising activities. Any such list is bounded only by definition of needs in any individual case. In conjunction, some informal record of interest expressed and available as special needs occur may help to respond to suggestions or queries that arise. Few reactions are more off-putting to people asking how they can help, than to be met with only a vague and non-welcoming response. A simple leaflet about the insect and its needs can make substantial positive impression. It is, however, important that coordination of the whole project is maintained, and that impetuous and unplanned activities are not pursued. The management team, in reviewing and setting priorities amongst all objectives and tasks needed, will consider all viewpoints and activities proposed within the overall mission of the project and in the spirit of the flexible (adaptive) management. That approach can incorporate unexpected changes as they arise, without compromising the integrity of the programme. Concerned ‘citizen scientists’ occur in all walks of life, and many people interested in natural 1812

history are passionate about participating or helping in conservation activities once they become aware of the need. More focused enterprises have led to such interest groups being incorporated into surveys, such as for alien ladybird beetles in North America (Losey et al. 2007, through Cornell University), but the roles of volunteer observers have long been implicit in surveys and documentation of Lepidoptera, such as for the Monarch Butterfly Danaus plexippus in North America (one of few globally-acknowledged flagship insect species, and the focus of continuing conservation need, linked to its spectacular seasonal migrations: Brower 1995) and the preparation of the Atlas of British butterflies (Asher et al. 2001). Whilst any related activities are likely to contribute to a conservation programme, it is commonly important to adhere to some pre-agreed sequence of priorities to gain most planned benefits. Habitat as a central issue A moth or butterfly can thrive only in places where its critical resources can be assured at times they are needed; a ‘habitat’ is much more than just ‘a place to live’, and calls for habitat protection, augmentation and restoration are the most universal themes in species management plans. They reflect that habitat loss or change is the greatest, and potentially universal, threat to the species (New et al. 1995). Most commonly, Lepidoptera management is site-focused rather than primarily resource-focused. But, in many cases, it is not really known which characteristics of the site render it suitable for the particular species, and how those characteristics may be managed. Even for the well-known British butterflies, as Dennis has recently emphasised (Dennis 2010), many important aspects of their resource needs and usage are still unclear. Following the interpretation advanced by Dennis and his colleagues in that context (Dennis et al. 2006, 2007), ‘resources’ fall into two broad categories. ‘Consumables’ are larval foodplants, adult nectar sources and (for some Lycaenidae) obligate mutualistic ants - the more obvious needs that are the most regular focus of conservation enhancement, both in terms of supply and distribution. ‘Utilities’ are the numerous wider environmental factors needed, such as - perhaps bare ground for basking, flyways for patrolling, perches for territorial behaviour, retreats for overwintering or for pupation, particular microclimates and topography,

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or any other of the numerous factors that govern an insect’s normal behaviour and development, and allow it access to consumables. Ultimately, understanding resource needs and supply and assuring their availability is the core of species management. Many of the practical tasks that can devolve on community support relate directly to this, and the examples below illustrate this focus, with considerations of resource quantity, quality, accessibility, distribution and security encompassing most aspects of ‘habitat’ suitability. Management may need to be concentrated on sites currently occupied by the flagship species, or to explore the needs for translocation of insects, sometimes accompanied by preparation of additional sites to receive them. Without understanding resource needs, it may be difficult to render any site management optimal. Representative problems and attendant tasks include: 1. Dealing with problems on small isolated sites as remnants in a formerly hospitable landscape now changed and unsuitable, with the presumption that the insect population is functionally isolated. 2. Ensuring adequate continuing supply of consumables in a dynamic environment, such as by countering successional changes. Most commonly this may entail enhancement of foodplants, perhaps from nursery-grown stock, to sustain carrying capacity and distribution and to facilitate connectivity. 3. Linked strongly with this, prevention of additional threats: removal of alien weeds or other invasives, general sanitation, prevention of vandalism, assuring site security - perhaps by changes in tenure and ownership. 4. Considering range-wide or landscape-level conservation for the species and how the species’ needs may be integrated more widely, and orchestrated with other conservation priorities in the area or for the particular biotope involved. Some examples from Australia: process and benefits The above entails assuring site security, definition and removal of further threats, defining conservation objectives and the measures to achieve these, and planning logical ways to undertake these, with formulation of budget and allocation of primary responsibility. This ideal is rarely possible, and even

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many of the most important Lepidoptera species conservation programmes have simply ‘grown’ and developed gradually as their complexities become evident. Realistic retrospective appraisal of how and why particular projects have succeeded or failed can be instructive. Some of the above points on roles of flagship Lepidoptera in wider habitat conservation, and interacting with local communities to achieve this, are demonstrated by outlines of three recent and continuing projects in Australia. The social and environmental pressures influencing how each of these has arisen and progressed help to emphasise that scientifically-based conservation management proceeds in much wider governing environment in which community interest and support is critical. The cases differ in emphasis, but are unified by the taxa being signalled formally as threatened, and some comparative details are summarised in Appendix 1. They help to demonstrate the practical uses of flagships in a variety of different ecological and conservation contexts. The first two are the longest-running such campaigns for insects in Australia. 1. The Eltham Copper Butterfly (Paralucia pyrodiscus lucida Crosby, Lycaenidae) exemplifies taxa on small urban remnant sites, in enforcedly isolated populations, presumed survivors from a former much wider range, and for which conservation is essentially site-based and necessarily intensive. It is a flagship for urban remnant sites close to Melbourne. 2. The Richmond Birdwing Butterfly (Ornithoptera richmondia (Gray), Papilionidae) exemplifies taxa with high aesthetic appeal and that can range widely over a landscape whilst dependent on particular resources within complex subtropical forest environments. It is a flagship for subtropical forests, and for the dangers of introduced species. 3. The Golden Sun-moth (Synemon plana Walker, Castniidae) represents an endemic genus, and is restricted to native grassland areas in the south east, where it is listed nationally as critically endangered. It is a flagship for native grasslands, which are regarded as the most threatened ecosystem in the region and have been reduced to no more than 1% of their former extent by urban and agricultural developments. S. plana is one of a trio of flagship animal species viewed as critical advocates for threatened native grasslands the three are publicised as ‘a legless lizard, an earless

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dragon, and a mouthless moth’ but the moth is accorded at least the same significance as the two reptiles; in itself this scenario is unusual. What next? The three Australian cases noted above and in Appendix 1 are progressing within a social environment in which sympathy for butterflies is wellestablished and ‘respectable’, and in which community support is likely to be accessible. This is not always the case, unless very tangible, material, benefits can be demonstrated. Even then, fostering sympathy for even the most notable of insects amongst vast human populations striving for basic necessities and with incomes measured in, at most, a few dollars a day, will remain difficult or impossible. Many aspects of the public relations exercises that are almost standard components of conservation campaigns for charismatic insects in Australia or North America are almost impossible; people simply cannot ‘buy the T-shirt’. The most wide-ranging attempt to use a butterfly flagship in this way has been for Queen Alexandra’s Birdwing (Ornithoptera alexandrae) in Papua New Guinea, based on it being a powerful and popular symbol, accepted globally as significant, for tropical rainforest as amongst the richest of all terrestrial biotopes. Always elusive, the butterfly has been under threat from two forms of forest loss - replacement of primary forest by commercial oil palm plantations, and timber extraction. The broad conservation plan during the1990s, in large part funded from Australia’s programme of foreign aid, sought to promote O. alexandrae as a flagship/umbrella species to reduce primary dependence on rain forest and reduce the need to clear it, whilst facilitating income generation and alternative livelihoods for local people. Some aspects of the programme were discussed by New (2007), and the main point recapitulated here is the attempt to promote a notable flagship species into all of the interacting environmental, social and economic milieu throughout its full geographical distributional range. Operations on this large scale are unlikely to become numerous, not least because of their duration and need for resources over a long period. They are also difficult to promote without direct and readily forthcoming incentives for local communities or landholders to participate, because the most immediate perception is often that the conservation activities will restrict 1814

activity and lead to loss of income. However, increasing calls for single-species focus in insect conservation to be supplanted by wider approaches to conserve habitats within landscapes, or assemblages - however wise in anticipating greater returns for effort and limited resources, and considered widely to be the only viable path to sustainability - in many cases fail to appeal in the same way as conserving individual species. They are also more complex to monitor or otherwise evaluate, particularly for the multitudes of small or less-conspicuous organisms. Lepidoptera assemblages are indeed valuable tools in assessing ecosystem integrity and influences of human disturbance, but many subtleties appear only on analysis at the species or near-species level. A major value of flagship species is that they constitute ‘footholds’ for monitoring, advocacy, and broadening community participation and interest in conservation. Individual treatments of carefully selected flagship species remind us of the intricacies of insect resource need. If those studies are wholly replaced by broader programmes, without tracking the fates of representative individual taxa within assemblages, we might become vulnerable to not only losing massive proportions of locally endemic species that share our world, but also to not knowing if and why this has occurred. Surely our heritage is worth more than this? I would urge that we continue to benefit from the understanding of individual species programmes, as ambassadors for the wider importance of insects, and to strenuously encourage any ways in which community networks can be formed and fostered to assure a secure future for those species and the environments on which they, and we, depend. The reality of this interdependence is here conveyed through members of a diverse insect group that: (i) depends fundamentally on food plants for larvae; (ii) often manifest very specific associations and interdependence (iii) which are sometimes complicated further by obligate involvement with other organisms (such as mutualistic ants); (iv) contains many localised and declining species, and combined with (v) public acceptance and sympathy for their wellbeing together with (vi) an increasing variety of demonstrated conservation successes. Many of these cases have involved highly innovative management steps based on sound and increasing biological understanding and

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common sense, and the outcomes indeed render many Lepidoptera worthy ‘ambassadors for biodiversity’. Priority tasks for the future include refining and extending this influence further, and seeking means to increase the conservation benefit and influence of these studies. As one example, the central importance of resource/habitat protection is still based on very inadequate knowledge of distribution patterns and local richness of Lepidoptera within areas already set aside for conservation. In such areas both study and necessary management could be undertaken without the complex problems that arise from work on private lands or those of uncertain tenure; for Australia, systematic surveys of selected insect groups in major protected areas have been advocated (Sands & New 2003). Their advantages include basic inventory and information gathering, aiding credibility of conservation advocacy and status allocation. That template helps in setting priorities amongst the many deserving species that are potentially flagships, and honing their use in wider conservation programmes for the critical habitats on which they and numerous other species depend. Without fostering such species as powerful messengers, much of the need for conservation would be much more difficult to convey effectively. Flagship Lepidoptera are amongst the most potent tools for promoting awareness of insect conservation need, and in increasing community awareness through scales extending from local to national, or even wider. Key organisations, such as Butterfly Conservation (UK, now expanded to Europe) and the Xerces Society (US) had their gestation in this way, with their foundations from promotion of flagship butterflies now extended to much wider influence and support. REFERENCES Andelman, S.J. & W.F. Fagan (2000). Umbrellas and flagships: efficient conservation surrogates or expensive mistakes? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97: 5954–5959. Asher, J., M. Warren, R. Fox, P. Harding, G. Jeffcoate & J. Jeffcoate (2001). The Millennium Atlas of Butterflies in Britain and Ireland. Oxford University Press, Oxford, xx+433pp. Bonebrake, T.C., L.C. Ponisio, C.L. Boggs & P.R. Ehrlich (2010). More than just indicators: a review of tropical butterfly ecology and conservation. Biological Conservation

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143: 1831–1841. Bowen-Jones, E. & A. Entwistle (2002). Identifying appropriate flagship species: the importance of culture and local contexts. Oryx 36: 189–195. Brower, L.P. (1995). Understanding and misunderstanding the migration of the Monarch Butterfly (Nymphalidae) in North America. Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society 49: 304–385. Dennis, R.L.H. (2010). A Resource-based Habitat View for Conservation - Butterflies in the British landscape. WileyBlackwell Publishing, Oxford, xii+406pp. Dennis, R.L.H., T.G. Shreeve & H. Van Dyck (2006). Habitats and resources: the need for a resource-based definition to conserve butterflies. Biodiversity and Conservation 15: 1943–1968. Dennis, R.L.H., T.G. Shreeve & D.A. Sheppard (2007). Species conservation and landscape management: a habitat perspective. pp. 92–126. In: Stewart, A.J.A., T.R. New & O.T. Lewis. (eds). Insect Conservation Biology. CAB International, Wallingford. Fleishman, E. & D.D. Murphy (2009). A realistic assessment of the indicator potential of butterflies and other charismatic taxonomic groups. Conservation Biology 23: 1109–1116. Franklin, J.F. (1993). Preserving biodiversity: species, ecosystems, or landscapes? Ecological Applications 3: 202–205. Hettinger, N. (2010). Animal beauty, ethics and environmental preservation. Environmental Ethics 32: 115–134. [Hong Kong (2007)]. Hong Kong Declaration on the Conservation of Lepidoptera. pp. 148–149. In: Kendrick, R.C. (ed.) Proceedings of the First South East Asian Lepidoptera Conservation Symposium, Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, Hong Kong. IUCN (2010). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (www.iucn redlist.org/) Kendrick, R.C. (2007). The conservation assessment of moths in Hong Kong. pp. 71–82. In: Kendrick, R.C. (ed.). Proceedings of the First South East Asian Lepidoptera Conservation Symposium, Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, Hong Kong. Kitching, R.L. (2007). Tigers, lobsters, hawks and pugs: moth assemblages in conservation [abstract and presentation notes]. pp. 9–15. In: Kendrick, R.C. (ed.) Proceedings of the First South East Asian Lepidoptera Conservation Symposium, Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, Hong Kong. Kristensen, N.P., M. Scoble & O. Karscholt (2007). Lepidoptera phylogeny and systematics: the state of inventorying moth and butterfly diversity. Zootaxa 1668: 699–747. Losey, J.E., J.E. Perlman & R. Hoebeke (2007). Citizen scientist rediscovers rare nine-spotted ladybird, Coccinella novempunctata, in eastern North America. Journal of Insect Conservation 11: 415–417. Nally, S.C. (2003). Community involvement in the conservation of endangered purple copper butterfly Paralucia spinifera

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Edwards and Common (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Records of the South Australian Museum, Monograph series 7: 217–224. New, T.R. (1997). Are Lepidoptera an effective ‘umbrella group’ for biodiversity conservation? Journal of Insect Conservation 1: 5–12. New, T.R. (2000). How to conserve the ‘meek inheritors’. Journal of Insect Conservation 4: 151–152. New, T.R. (2007). Broadening benefits to insects from wider conservation agendas. pp. 301–321. In: Stewart, A.J.A., T.R. New & O.T. Lewis (eds). Insect Conservation Biology. CAB International, Wallingford. New, T.R. (2009). Insect Species Conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, xiv+256pp. New, T.R. (2010). Butterfly conservation in Australia: the importance of community participation. Journal of Insect Conservation 14: 305–311. New, T.R., R.M. Pyle, J.A. Thomas, C.D. Thomas & P.C. Hammond (1995). Butterfly conservation management. Annual Review of Entomology 40: 57–83. Robinson, G.S., K.R. Tuck & M. Shaffer (1994). A Field Guide to the Smaller Moths of South-East Asia. The Natural History Museum, London, 309pp. Sands, D.P.A. & T.R. New (2002). The Action Plan for Australian Butterflies. Environment Australia, Canberra, vi+377pp. Sands, D.P.A. & T.R. New (2003). Coordinated invertebrate

surveys in Australia’s national parks: an important tool in refining invertebrate conservation management. Records of the South Australian Museum, Monograph series 7: 203– 208. Sands, D.P.A., S.E. Scott & R. Moffatt (1997). The threatened Richmond birdwing butterfly (Ornithoptera richmondia [Gray]): a community conservation project. Memoirs of Museum Victoria 56: 449–453. Simaika, J.P. & M.J.Samways (2010). Biophilia as a universal ethic for conserving biodiversity. Conservation Biology 24: 903–906. Simberloff, D. (1998). Flagships, umbrellas and keystones: is single-species management passé in the landscape era? Biological Conservation 83: 247–257. Williams, S. (1996). Community involvement in the species recovery process: insights into successful partnerships. pp. 87–96. In: Stephens, S. & S. Maxwell (eds). Back from The Brink. Refining The Threatened Species Recovery Process. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton. Wilson, E.O. (1987). The little things that run the world (the importance and conservation of invertebrates). Conservation Biology 1: 344–346. Yen, A.L., T.R. New, B. Van Praagh & P.J. Vaughan (1990). Invertebrate conservation: three case studies in southeastern Australia. pp. 207–224. In: Clark, T. & J.H. Seebeck (eds). Management and Conservation of Small Populations. Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield, Illinois.

Appendix 1. Outline summaries of three conservation programmes involving flagship taxa of Lepidoptera in eastern Australia 1. Paralucia pyrodiscus lucida Crosby (Lycaenidae, the Eltham Copper Butterfly, near Melbourne populations). Subspecies described from outer eastern Melbourne, reduced heavily by urban expansion, but small populations confirmed in 1987 on small (1-2 hectares) isolated sites, some scheduled for imminent housing development. Initial interest coincided with development of Victoria’s Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988; Minister for Conservation approved development moratorium pending status investigation, as the first insect used as a flagship in the State. Local community highly sympathetic and adopted the copper as a symbol for conservation, with a continuing ‘Friends’ group’; major funding from government (commonwealth and state) and local efforts enabled purchase and reclassification of several sites, with three declared as dedicated butterfly reserves bearing a strong sense of local ‘ownership’. Ecology: Larvae are monophagous on Bursaria spinosa (Pittosporaceae) and have mutualistic relationship with Notoncus ants; they are nocturnal and pass the day in ant nests at the base of foodplants, and ants ‘shepherd’ them up plants to feed at night. Small area of sites limits population size, and Eltham populations have butterflies present throughout summer. Populations are site-dependent, isolated by housing development and paved roads. Conservation scenario: Small isolated urban sites, on which butterfly populations are conservation-dependent and management needs can be intensive and individualistic. Threats include natural succession leading to canopy closure and loss of Bursaria, weed invasion and other ‘edge effects’, vandalism and waste dumping, and fuel buildup leading to perceived dangers from fires by local residents. Sites span a variety of administrative tenures, and on each, butterflies, Bursaria and ants are all distributed patchily. Conservation measures: Butterfly listed for protection, and distribution and abundance trends in main sites evaluated annually by counts of adults and caterpillars by volunteer community helpers. Management emphasis on sustaining site quality and resource supply, whilst avoiding excessive human intrusion into small sites. Main sites with permanently marked 10 x 10 m grids, in which individual occupied foodplants tagged for cumulative

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recording. Practical steps include weed removal (hand labour) and suppression / successional regeneration / canopy opening- fuel reduction by hot control burning; general high intensity continuing management with substantial community input, including representation on statewide management group. Selected references: Braby et al. (1999), New et al. (2000), Webster (2008), New (2010). 2. Ornithoptera richmondia (Gray) (Papilionidae, the Richmond Birdwing, south eastern Queensland and north eastern New South Wales). The most southerly Australian birdwing, found in rainforest habitats that have been largely cleared to leave fragmented pockets and cause loss of the birdwing over much of its former range. Species with high public appeal, so declines accepted as realistic and undesirable; initially listed as of conservation significance in 1974, and a focus of major community conservation programme since the late 1980s; this has emphasised habitat features on range-wide or landscape level. Ecology: Larvae feed on two species of native vines (Aristolochiaceae) found in rainforest, the main one being Pararistolochia praevenosa, reduced in parallel with forest loss and, with the butterfly, now mainly found in riparian forest remnants. The butterfly is a strong flyer and can track vines over substantial distances, so conservation has landscape focus. Conservation scenario: In addition to the major losses of primary habitat, the species’ decline is exacerbated by spread of an alien ornamental species of vine, Dutchman’s Pipe (Aristolochia elegans) into remaining forests and elsewhere across the landscape. This vine is highly attractive to female O. richmondia for oviposition, but foliage is toxic to hatchling caterpillars, which die after feeding. The major conservation needs are thereby twofold; enhancement of native foodplants by extensive plantings, and removal of the alien vine throughout the butterfly’s range. Conservation measures: Major community involvement from outset of project, with major emphasis on production of nursery-grown native vines for distribution to schools and individuals for augmentation planting and observation of butterfly colonisation, removal of Dutchman’s pipe and

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Conservation of Lepidoptera protection of sites occupied by the birdwing. Range-wide coordination through conservation agencies, with early involvement of CSIRO’s Double Helix Club encouraging interests of young people: by 1997 more than 300 schools were involved and more than 29,000 nursery-propagated vines had been distributed. Later development of the Richmond Birdwing Recovery Network Inc. (now Richmond Birdwing Conservation Network), with more than 400 members in mid-2009, with major emphasis on growing and planting vines on public and private land, in a system of ‘corridors’ to expand the birdwing’s range by facilitating its natural movement. A lively and informative network newsletter is augmented by meetings involving instruction sessions on vine identification and propagation (with handbook manuals produced), visiting lecturers and field trips to maintain coordination of activities. Captive breeding of Richmond birdwing has been attempted in large field cages. Selected references: Sands et al. (1997), Sands & Scott (2002), Sands (2008). 3. Synemon plana Walker (Castniidae, the Golden Sun-moth, south eastern mainland Australia). One of an endemic radiation of about 40 Castniidae, many of them threatened (some perhaps extinct), due to loss of native grasslands. S. plana is listed federally as ‘critically endangered’ and also listed individually under each of the three range Acts (for Victoria, New South Wales, Australian Capital Territory), reflecting the extensive losses of native lowland grasslands for agriculture, urban and industrial developments throughout the region: many remaining fragments are close to cities and under continued pressure for development. As a symbol for one of the most threatened regional ecosystems, S. plana is one of few high profile moths in Australia. It occurs mostly on small isolated grassland fragments in varying stages of degradation, and most populations appear to be small; difficulties of detecting and enumerating moths have involved considerable volunteer help and interest from community environmental groups. Ecology: S. plana is difficult to study. Caterpillars are subterranean and feed on roots of native grasses; it is not yet clear whether the lifecycle takes one, two, or even three years. Adults are shortlived (about three to five days) and, with rudimentary mouthparts, do not feed. Males fly fast, but only under warm, calm, dry conditions and for a few hours in the middle of the day: survey opportunities are thereby limited. Females fly little, but mostly rest on the ground, responding to overflying males by exposing their bright orange hind wings. At any site, the flight season extends over about six to eight weeks, but rapid turnover of individuals renders counting moths difficult, as numerous visits are needed. Apparent distribution on a site may change over this time, as emergence may be influenced by soil temperatures and, thus, microtopography. Conservation scenario: Detection and protection of occupied sites dominates conservation concerns; many of these are small, isolated, close to settlement, and threatened by imminent development; many are also highly degraded by weed invasion and alien grasses introduced for stock grazing. With improved knowledge of moth detection, S. plana is being found progressively at many such sites.

T.R. New Conservation measures: Advocacy for S. plana, with two threatened grassland lizards also dependent on remnant native grasslands, has led to a ‘portfolio’ approach with these three flagship species. Major input from volunteers, including field days organised through community environmental groups, in detecting presence of moths in grassland sites, and attempting to assess distributions of populations. Primary conservation need is to prevent sites being lost to development, and to assess whether realistic compromise, such as use of ‘habitat offsets’ may be viable in helping to maintain habitat. One of two foci (with S. selene) of first dedicated sun-moth reserve; only one of eight species of Synemon in Victoria may be ‘secure’ without such measures. Selected references: Douglas (1993, 2004), Gibson & New (2007). REFERENCES Braby, M.F., B.D. Van Praagh & T.R. New (1999). The dull copper, Paralucia pyrodiscus (Lycaenidae). pp. 247–260. In: Kitching, R.L, E. Scheermeyer, R.E. Jones & N.E. Pierce (eds). Biology of Australian Butterflies. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood. Douglas, F. (1993). The conservation status, distribution and habitat requirements of diurnal Lepidoptera in central and western Victoria (Part 1: Family Castniidae). Department of Natural Resources and Environment, East Melbourne, 29pp. Douglas, F. (2004). A dedicated reserve for conservation of two species of Synemon (Lepidoptera: Castniidae) in Australia. Journal of Insect Conservation 8: 221–228. Gibson, L. & T.R. New (2007). Problems in studying populations of the golden sun-moth, Synemon plana (Lepidoptera: Castniidae) in south eastern Australia. Journal of Insect Conservation 11: 309–313. New, T.R. (2010). Butterfly Conservation in south-eastern Australia; Progress and Prospects. Springer, Dordrecht, x+190pp. New, T.R., B.D. Van Praagh & A.L.Yen (2000). Fire and the management of habitat quality in an Australian lycaenid butterfly, Paralucia pyrodiscus lucida, the Eltham copper. Metamorphosis 11: 154–163. Sands, D. (2008). Conserving the Richmond Birdwing Butterfly over two decades: where to next? Ecological Management and Restoration 9: 4–16. Sands, D.P.A. & S. Scott (2002). The Richmond birdwing butterfly (Ornithoptera richmondia [Gray]): its natural history and progress towards recovery. pp. 32–47. In: Sands, D. & S. Scott (eds). Conservation of birdwing butterflies. SciComEd Pty & THECA, Chapel Hill, Brisbane, 48pp. Sands, D.P.A., S.E. Scott & R. Moffat (1997). The threatened Richmond Birdwing Butterfly (Ornithoptera richmondia [Gray]): a community conservation project. Memoirs of Museum Victoria 56: 449–453. Webster, A. (2008). Eltham Copper Butterfly Paralucia pyrodiscus lucida. Draft Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement (revision, Action Statement no 39). Department of Sustainability and Environment, Victoria.

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Pollination biology of Impatiens cuspidata Wight and Arn. (Balsaminaceae), a rare and endemic balsam of the Western Ghats, India A.K. Sreekala 1, A.G. Pandurangan 2, R. Ramasubbu 3 & Shrishail K. Kulloli 4 Scientist, Plant Systematics and Evolutionary Science Division, Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute Pacha-Palode, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695562, India 3 In charge, Horticulture Section, CSIR Madras Complex, Tarmani, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600113, India 4 Field Officer, Spice Board, Developmental wing, Somawarpet, Karnataka, India Email: 1 ak.sreekala@gmail.com (corresponding author), 2 agpandurangan@mail.com, 3 racprabha@yahoo.com, 4 sreekulloli@gmail.com 1,2

Date of publication (online): 26 June 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 June 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: K.R. Sasidharan Manuscript details: Ms # o2385 Received 12 January 2010 Final revised received 11 May 2011 Finally accepted 28 May 2011 Citation: Sreekala, A.K., A.G. Pandurangan, R. Ramasubbu & S.K. Kulloli (2011). Pollination biology of Impatiens cuspidata Wight and Arn. (Balsaminaceae), a rare and endemic balsam of the Western Ghats, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(6): 1818–1825. Copyright: © A.K. Sreekala, A.G. Pandurangan, R. Ramasubbu & Shrishail K. Kulloli 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Author Details: see end of this article. Author contributions: AKS designed the work, corrected the manuscript and guided during the study. AGP coordinated the work, raised the funds, provided necessary comments and guidance for the field work and manuscript preparation. RR carried out the field and laboratory work and consolidated the results and prepared the manuscript. SKK assisted during the filed work and manuscript preparation Acknowledgement: The financial support received through a Major Research Project [No SP/SO/PS-09/2003 dated 17-03-2005] from the Department of Science Technology, New Delhi is gratefully acknowledged. We thank Director TBGRI for extending a necessary logistic support during the project. Thanks are due to R. Thulashidharan for help during field collection.

Abstract: The pollination biology of Impatiens cuspidata, a rare and endemic balsam from the Western Ghats, has been studied with special reference to phenology, pollination, pollen-pistil interactions, breeding experiments and stigma receptivity. It flowers at night between 2330 and 0430 hr; flowering days extend up to 160 days in a year. The anther dehisced one day before anthesis, which confirmed the protandrous condition of the flower. Pollen-ovule ratio was calculated as 1729:1. Hawk moths, honeybees, flies and butterflies are the major pollinators of Impatiens cuspidata. Pollen grains are oval, having an average diameter of 28.24μm. Pollen viability by FCR test confirmed that 82% pollen grains are viable on the day of anthesis. Best pollen germination along with 1636μm tube development was achieved in Brewbakers medium. Stigma was more receptive (up to 80%) on the first day of flower opening. It chiefly reproduced by means of cross pollination, where the fruit set was only 40%, but artificial cross-pollination through xenogamy enhanced fruit set up to 80%. The plant is an obligate out-crosser and self incompatible, as confirmed by various hand pollination experiments. Seed germination in natural and controlled conditions was only 20%. Its dependence on a specialized habitat, bottlenecks in sexual reproduction, low percentage of seed germination and other abiotic factors could be reasons for its limited distribution and endemism. Keywords: Impatiens cuspidata, phenology, pollination biology, stigma receptivity, xenogamy. Tamil Abstact: «¡¢Â ÁüÚõ ÌÈ¢ôÀ¢ð¼ þ¼îÝÆø¸¨Çì ¦¸¡ñ¼ §ÁüÌò¦¾¡¼÷ Á¨Ä¢ý þõ§À…¢ÂýŠ ¸ŠôÀ¢§¼ð¼¡ ±ýÈ À¡ø…õ Ũ¸ò¾¡ÅÃò¾¢ý Á¸Ãó¾î §º÷쨸 ¯Â¢¡¢Âø ÀüÈ¢ Å¢¡¢Å¡É ¬ö× ¦ºöÂôÀð¼Ð ÁüÚõ þó¾ ¬öÅ¢ø ÓØ ¯¼üÜÚ ÅÇ÷, Á¸Ãó¾î§º÷쨸, Á¸Ãó¾õ- Ýø þ¨¼Å¢¨É, ÁüÚõ þÉô¦ÀÕì¸ «¨ÁôÒ ¬¸¢Â¨Å ÀüÈ¢ Á¢Ìó¾ ¸ÅÉõ ±ÎòÐ즸¡ûÇôÀð¼Ð. þ¾ý ÁÄ÷ Å¢¡¢Ôõ §¿Ãõ þÃ× 10.00 Á½¢ Ó¾ø Å¢ÊÂü¸¡¨Ä 04.30 Ũà ±É츽츢¼ôÀð¼Ð ÁüÚõ ÅÕ¼ò¾¢üÌ 160 ¿¡ð¸û âìÌõ ±É «È¢ÂôÀð¼Ð. Á¸Ãó¾õ â Å¢¡¢Å¾üÌ ´Õ ¿¡ÙìÌ ÓýÀ¡¸§Å ¦ÅÊì¸ò¦¾¡¼í̸¢ÈÐ þÐ Óý¬ñ¨Á Ó¾¢÷ «¨¼¾¨Äì ¸¡ðθ¢ÈÐ. ´Õ ÁÄ¡¢ø Á¸Ãó¾ àû-Ýø Å¢òÐ, 1729ìÌ ´ýÚ ±ýÈ Å¢¸¢¾ò¾¢ø «¨ÁóÐûÇÐ. ÀÕóÐôâ, §¾É£ì¸û, ®ì¸û ÁüÚõ Åñ½òÐôâ¸û Ó츢 Á¸Ãó¾î§º÷ì¨¸ì ¸¡Ã½¢¸Ç¡Ìõ. Á¸Ãó¾ò àû Åð¼ ÅÊÅÓ¨¼Â¾¡¸×õ ºÃ¡º¡¢Â¡¸ «¾ý Å¢ð¼õ 28.24 Ññ½Ç× ¬Ìõ. â Å¢¡¢ó¾ ¿¢¨Ä¢ø Á¸Ãó¾ àû¸Ç¢ý šبÁ 80 º¾Å £¾õ ±ýÚ ±·ô.º¢.¬÷ ±ýÈ ¬ö× ãÄõ ¯Ú¾¢ ¦ºöÂôÀð¼Ð. º¢Èó¾ Á¸Ãó¾ò àû Ó¨ÇôÒò¾¢Èý (82 º¾Å £¾õ) ÁüÚõ Á¸Ãó¾ Ìơ¢ý ¿£Çõ 1639 Ññ½Ç× ±ýÀÐ Òå¦Àì¸÷ ±ÉôÀÎõ ÅÇÃÇõ ãÄõ ¦ÀÈôÀð¼Ð. â Å¢¡¢ó¾ Ó¾ø ¿¡û, Ýø ÓÊ¢ý ¸Õ×Úõ ¾¢Èý 80 º¾Å £¾õ ŨÃì ¸½ì¸¢¼ôÀð¼Ð. þÐ «Âø Á¸Ãó¾î§º÷쨸 ãÄõ «¾¢¸Á¡¸ þÉô¦ÀÕì¸õ ¦ºö¸¢ÈÐ, þ¾ý ãÄõ ¯ñ¼¡Ìõ ¸É¢ ¯ÕÅ¡¾ø º¾Å £¾õ 40 ¬Ìõ ¬É¡ø ¦ºÂü¨¸ Ó¨È «Âø Á¸Ãó¾î§º÷쨸 (…£¦É¡§¸Á£) þ¾ý ¸É¢ ¯ÕÅ¡¾ø º¾Å £¾ò¨¾ 80 ¬¸ ¯Â÷ò¾¢ÔûÇÐ. þó¾ò ¾¡ÅÃÁ¡ÉÐ ¯Ú¾¢ ¦ºöÂôÀð¼ «ÂøÁ¸Ãó¾î§º÷쨸¡Ç÷ ±ýÀÐõ ¾ýÁ¸Ãó¾î§º÷쨸ŢÕõÀ¡¾Ð ±ýÀÐõÀø§ÅÚ ¦ºÂü¨¸«ÂøÁ ¸Ãó¾î§º÷쨸¬ö׸Ǣý ãÄõ¯Ú¾¢ ¦ºöÂôÀð¼Ð. þ¾ý Å¢¨¾ Ó¨ÇôÒò¾¢Èý ¦ÅÚõ 20 º¾Å £¾õÁðΧÁ. þ¾ý ¾É¢ôÀð¼ þ¼îÝÆøšبÁ, Àø§ÅÚ þÉô¦ÀÕì¸ò ¾¨¼¸û, ̨Èó¾ Å¢¨¾ Ó¨ÇôÒò¾¢Èý ÁüÚõÀø§ÅÚ ¸¡Ã½¢¸û¾¡ý þ¾ý ̨ÈÅ¡É þ¼îÝÆøÀ¸¢÷Á¡Éò¾¢üÌõÌÈ¢ôÀ¢ð¼ þ¼îÝÆ¢ ¬Å¾üÌõ¸¡Ã½õ¬¸¢ýÈÉ.

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Pollination biology of Impatiens cuspidata

A.K. Sreekala et al.

INTRODUCTION Pollination biology provides a framework to test a diverse array of paradigms in several subdisciplines of biology (Bawa et al. 1993). It also plays a critical role in the formation of seed and fruits. There are very few attempts made on pollination biology of Impatiens except by Rust (1977, 1979), Tian et al. (2004), Sreekala et al. (2007, 2008). A comprehensive study on pollination biology of Impatiens was fundamental to investigations into its reproductive syndrome, systematics and evolutionary biology. The family Balsaminaceae comprises two genera; Hydrocera Blume and Impatiens Linn., which are commonly known as balsams, jewel weed, snap weed or touch-me-not (Willis 1973). The genus Impatiens is supposed to be one of the largest group among the flowering plants (Sreekala et al. 2007), comprising more than 1000 species (Grey-Wilson 1980; Clifton 2000; Pieter et al. 2006). It is essentially sub-cosmopolitan species and mainly distributed in montane areas in the Old World tropics and subtropics (Grey-Wilson 1980; Yuan et al. 2004), but several species occur in temperate Eurasia and North America (Pieter et al. 2006). Native species are absent from the South America and Australia. Impatiens is phytogeographically a unique genus, which has its greatest development in the Indian region and is found chiefly in moist sub-temperate areas. In India, the concentration of Impatiens species is remarkably local and occurs in three major centers of diversity including the Himalaya in the north, Western Ghats in the south and parts of northeastern states. Although the altitude in southern India is lower compared with the Himalaya, conditions are favourable for the growth of Impatiens since the region gets rainfall from both southwest and northeast monsoons. There is no doubt that in respect of Impatiens, the Western Ghats are the second richest area in the Indian subcontinent and perhaps in the World (Bhaskar 1981). The genus contains over 206 species in India (Vivekananthan et al. 1997; Vishwanathan & Manikandan 2003; Bhasker 2006), half of which occur in southern India and more than 86 are endemic to the Western Ghats (Nair 1991). Due to their restricted distribution, nearly 30 species of Impatiens are already threatened with uncertain future (Vajravelu & Daniel 1983; Pandurangan & Pushpangadan 1997; Sreekala et al. 2008).

Figure 1. The study area in the Western Ghats

Though the ideal climatic conditions prevailing in the Western Ghats region provide suitable habitat for the balsams, their populations are rapidly declining due to various biotic and abiotic factors. A comprehensive study on pollination biology of endemic balsams has not been made so far due to their habitat specificity, island biogeography, delicate nature and explosive fruits. Against this background, one such wild ornamental balsam namely Impatiens cuspidata has been selected for the present investigation on pollination biology encompassing phenology, pollination, pollinator behaviour, pollen viability, stigma receptivity and breeding behaviour to find out possible reasons for its limited distribution in the Western Ghats.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Impatiens cuspidata naturally occurs in evergreen, sholas and montane grasslands of southern Western Ghats (Fig. 1). The study was conducted on Impatiens cuspidata in natural conditions, which was located from

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Pollination biology of Impatiens cuspidata

A.K. Sreekala et al.

Neymakkad gap of Munnar, Idukki District, Kerala, India. The area is located between 9015’–100 21’N and 76015’–77025’E. Impatiens cuspidata is a shrub and may attain a height of 1.5m or even more in dense shola forests at an altitude of 1500–2000 m (Image 1a). This species is found to be associated with Impatiens leschenaultii, I. coelotropis, I. henslowiana, Rubus sp. Alternanthera sp. and Rhodomytrus sp. The area experiences rainfall from both southwest and northeast monsoons and receives an average rainfall of 3000mm except in Anaimudi where some times rainfall exceeds 7000mm. The region harbours vegetation types such as moist deciduous, semievergreen, evergreen, shola and montane grasslands. The study was conducted during March 2005 and December 2007. Five populations were selected for the present investigation in the natural condition. Twenty healthy plants were selected from each population and observations were made on a day-to-day basis in natural habitats on flowering phenology, which include season, habit, development, anthesis etc. Floral morphology was also studied with the help of hand lens and dissection microscope. Fifty flower buds were selected from different populations and observations were made between 2330 to 0830 hrs to study the time of flower opening (anthesis) and anther dehiscence. The number of pollen grains contained in each anther was determined by the method suggested by Cruden (1977) to determine P/O ratio of the candidate species. Pollen fertility was assessed by acetocarmine and glycerin staining technique. The stained pollen grains were treated as fertile and unstained pollens were counted as sterile. Pollen viability was checked by FCR (fluorochromatic reaction) test using fluorescein diacetate (FDA). To study the pollen germination in vitro, pollen grains were incubated in sucrose medium of different concentrations (2, 5, 10, 15, & 20 %) and Brewbakers medium (Brewbaker & Kwack 1963) containing 2% sucrose for two hours. After two hours the percentage of pollen germination and tube elongation was noticed. Stigma receptivity was studied visually with the help of hand lens and by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) test according to the method of Scribailo & Posluszny (1984). In vivo pollen germination was checked by using aniline blue (Aldrich chemical 86.102-2) florescence microscopic method as designed by Shivanna & Rangaswamy (1992). The preparations were observed under the 1820

fluorescent microscope (Lieca DME Germany). Percentages of pollen germination in the stigmatic surface and average tube length were calculated. Continuous observations during July 2005 to March 2006 were made on behaviour of different pollinators. The pollinators were collected and identified with the help of experts from Kerala Agricultural University and KFRI (Kerala Forest Research Institute). The foraging period and the type of food collected by different visitors on daily basis were recorded by close observations. Different pollination systems such as autogamous self pollination (B), emasculation and hand crossing (S), emasculation and hand out crossing (O) and natural pollination (N) were tested in the field. Treatment ‘S’ was conducted to examine geitonogamy through artificial pollination using pollens from different flowers of the same plant. Treatment ‘O’ was conducted to examine xenogamy through artificial cross pollination by using pollens from flowers of different plants but within the populations. Twentyfive healthy flowers for each treatment from each population were chosen randomly and observed for fruit set. The developed fruits and seeds were collected and their numbers were recorded. In addition, the weight of each seed was also measured and recorded. Twenty mature capsules were selected randomly from five populations in the field for this experiment. The distance to which seeds ejected from the capsules were measured. In the laboratory 240 seeds, from capsules of each plant were taken and soaked overnight to Table 1. Floral biology of Impatiens cuspidata Floral characters

Observations

Flowering period

August–December

Flower opening time

1130–0430hrs

Flower colour

Light pink

No. of anthers/flower

5

Anther dehiscence time

One day before anthesis

Mean no. of pollen grains/flower

34,571

Pollen size

28.24µm

Stigma type

Wet and non-papillate type

Stigma receptivity

0800–0230 hr

Mean no. of ovules/flower

20

Fruit setting in natural condition

40%

Pollen fertility

80%

Pollen viability

82%

Pollen germination %

96%

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Pollination biology of Impatiens cuspidata

A.K. Sreekala et al.

a

Image 1. Pollination biology of Impatiens cuspidata a - population of I. cuspidata; b - full bloom flowers; c - pollen viability by FCR test; d - in vitro pollen germination by Brewbakers medium; e - receptive stigma with stigmatic lobes; f - in vivo pollen germination; f - fruit set in natural habitat

soften the seed coat. The soaked seeds were then placed on germination paper and incubated at 250C and germination percentage was recorded.

RESULTS The flowers of I. cuspidata are light pink in colour (Image 1b) born at apical cyme in pair or solitary and spur is straight, oblong and glabrous. Capsules are ellipsoid and cuspidate in nature; contains 14–16

seeds in each capsule. The plant starts flowering in the month of August and it extends up to December with peak flowering during October. The flower buds take 6–11 days from initiation to full bloom. The flowering period is extended up to 160 days in a year and the average life span of the individual flower is 2–3 days. The flowers bloom in the night between 2330 and 0430 hr, confirming their nocturnal nature. Anther dehisced one day before flower opening which confirmed the protandrous condition of the flowers (Table 1). The mean number of pollen grains per flower was found to

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Table 2. In vivo pollen germination of Impatiens cuspidata Treatments

Period after flower opening (anthesis) I day

II day

III day

Drooping stage

Total no. of stigmas observed

10

10

10

10

No. of stigmas showing germination

8

4

2

0

% of stigma receptivity

80

40

20

0

Total no. of pollen retained on stigma

28,520

3,430

165

11

Mean no. of germinated pollen

11,430

865

14

--

% of pollen germination

62

23

6

--

Pollen tube length (mm)

917

136

46

--

be 34,571 and the mean number of ovules was twenty. Therefore the pollen ovule ratio was calculated as 1729: 1 (Table 1). Pollen grains are oval and have an average size of 28.24µm in diameter. The acetocarmine staining technique revealed that 80% of the pollen grains were fertile. Pollen viability by FCR test confirmed that 82% pollen grains were viable on the day of anthesis (Image 1c) and gradually reduced after second day of anthesis. In vitro pollen germination studies by using different concentration of sucrose and Brewbakers medium revealed that pollen grains were viable only up to the minimal period. Effect of sucrose on in vitro pollen germination studies revealed that 68% of pollen grains germinated and produced 1003µm tube in 5% sucrose medium. Best pollen germination (96%) along with 1636µm tube development was achieved in Brewbakers medium after four hours of incubation (Image 1d). Receptivity of stigma is a critical factor for successful completion of post pollination events. The stigma is wet and non-papillate type (Heslop-Harrison & Shivanna 1977). Stigmas were more receptive up to 80% on the first day of flower opening (Table 2 & Image 1e); by showing 62% in vivo germinating pollens along with 917µm long pollen tube on the stigmatic surface (Table 2 & Image 1g). Subsequently, the receptivity percentages and in vivo germinating pollens were decreased on successive days after blooming. In I. cuspidata, pollen grains were well adhered on the stigmatic surface due to sticky nature and presence of pollen threads. Pollen tubes penetrate the stigmatic region and reached up to the ovary and fertilized the ovules. The fertilized ovules developed into seeds with only 20% germinability. When I. cuspidata flowers bloom in the night 1822

Table 3. Pollinators and their characteristics in Impatiens cuspidata Visitors

Visiting time

Foraging nature

Foraging hours

Apis cerana

Day

Nectar & pollen

0700–0400 hr

Trigona sp.

Day

Nectar & pollen

0730–0230 hr

Macroglossum variegatum

Night

Nectar

1140–0330 hr

M. corythus

Night

Nectar

1230–0300 hr

Butterflies

Day

Nectar

0630–0500 hr

Flies

Day

Nectar

0730–0330 hr

between 2330 and 0430 hr, two species of hawk moths: Macroglossum corythus and M. variegatum were found to forage actively. They helped in pollination by their rapid and frequent visit to flowers for nectar collection. Pollen loads were found on the head and long proboscis of hawk moths, which transferred pollen grains from one flower to another from the same plant or another plant and thus favoring geitonogamy or xenogamy. The foraging periods of honeybees were mainly during daytime from 0700 to 1600 hr. Honey Bees visited many flowers and spent an average of 2–4 seconds in each flower, whereas hawk moths spent slightly long duration from 3–6 seconds in each flower. Bees (Apis cerana indica & Trigona sp.) were found to be the most abundant visitors and they visited more flowers than any other pollinators. Butterflies were active during daytime and in fine weather, they actively visited the flowers, spending an average of 3–5 seconds on individual flower for nectar. However, when the weather was cloudy, butterflies were less active and in rainy days, they were completely inactive. Flies were intermittent visitors and found to be poor pollinators (Table 3). In general, hawk moths in night and honey bees in day time served as better pollinators, but they

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A.K. Sreekala et al.

Table 4. Fruit set in different modes of pollination in Impatiens cuspidata No. of flowers pollinated

% of fruit set

Bagged (B)/ autogamous-self

No. of flowers set fruit

25

0

0

Emasculation and hand crossing (S)

25

14

56

Emasculation and hand out crossing (O)

25

19

76

Natural pollination (N)

25

Treatments

10

40

were not sufficient to pollinate all the flowers in the selected populations. In I. cuspidata, different breeding experiments were carried out to find the reproductive capacity of the plant. In natural condition, 40% fruit set was observed (Image 1f). The fruit set was not observed in autogamous self pollination. However, 56% fruit set was observed in geitonogamy and 76% in xenogamy (Table 4; Fig. 2). Breeding experiments like geitonogamy and xenogamy produced more fruits and seeds than the natural pollination. The average weight of the individual seeds produced by the treatments of natural, geitonogamy and xenogamy were 1.5, 1.7, 2.0 mg respectively which indicated that the seeds produced by artificial pollination were more healthy and viable than natural system because of combination of gametes from different flowers or plants. The fruit development took 25–30 days for attaining maturity after fertilization. As capsules mature, the fruit wall ruptured and the seeds were ejected up to 0.60–1.25 m away from the mother plant and this is the only way of dissemination of seeds in the present taxa. Seeds germinate after dehiscing from the capsule in a favorable place but very few of them established into seedlings in the natural condition. But seeds developed through xenogamy produced more seedlings. In the laboratory condition, the germination of seeds obtained through natural pollination was 20%. DISCUSSION The members of Balsaminaceae have their greatest development in the Indian region and are remarkably endemic. Endemism gives us clue that they are in restricted distribution, either due to their reproductive syndrome or by anthropogenic pressures. Knowledge on phenology and floral morphology are essential for

No. of flowers pollinated / set fruit % of fruit set

Pollination biology of Impatiens cuspidata 76

80 70 56

60 50

40

40 25

30 20 10

25

25

25

19

14

10

0

0 Autogamous self pollination

% of fruit set

Geitonogamy

Xenogamy

Treatments No of flowers set fruits

Natural pollination

No. of flowers pollinated

Figure 2. Fruit set in different modes of pollination systems in Impatiens cuspidata

conducting studies on breeding systems particularly on pollination syndrome if any. Impatiens cuspidata starts flowering in the month of August and continued up to December and reached a peak during October and anthesis commenced between 2330 and 0430 hr on the next day. About 62% of Impatiens species in the Western Ghats flower during July–December, 16%   15% during January–March. during April–June and Interestingly 18% of the balsams flower throughout the year if conditions are favorable (Rajalal et al. 1996). Bhaskar & Razi (1974) had reported that majority of the wild balsams grown in the high altitude areas are night blooming and have a wide range of timing with regard to pollen germination. The anther dehisced one day before anthesis, which in turn confirmed their protandrous condition. This observation was similar to that of I. platypetala, I. korthalsii, and I. eubotrya in Sumatra (Kato et al. 1991). In I. cuspidata, pollen viability is highest on the day of anthesis and then gradually decreased on successive days after anthesis. This observation is similar to that of I. reptans in China (Tian et al. 2004). In vitro pollen germination test indicated that highest percentage of pollen germination and tube elongation was observed in Brewbakers medium. Sucrose acts as a nutritive material for pollen germination (Johri & Vasil 1961) and it helps in maintaining osmotic balance between the germination media and pollen cytoplasm (Mukerjee & Das 1964). Germination percentages were significantly low in higher concentration of sucrose medium.

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Pollination biology of Impatiens cuspidata

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According to Shivanna & Johri (1985), the optimum concentration of sucrose varies from species to species. In the present investigation, Brewbakers medium is the most suitable for pollen germination in I. cuspidata. Besides the medium contain carbohydrates, boron and calcium which are other important substances required for pollen germination and tube growth (Brewbaker & Kwack 1963). Pollen germination and subsequent post pollination events depend upon the receptivity of the stigma, its nature and compatibility. It is well known that the flowers of Impatiens have enormous diversity and different pollinators. Impatiens cuspidata is pollinated by honeybees, hawk moths and butterflies. In different climatic regions, species of pollinators vary. In sub tropical regions of Africa the Impatiens species are pollinated by humming birds as well as by insects. In temperate zones, pollinators are bumblebees and humming birds (Rust 1977, 1979; Heinrich 1979; Kato et al. 1989). In I. cuspidata, bees (Apis cerana indica and Trigona sp.) are the most important pollinators and visited more flowers than any other pollinators during day time for nectar and pollen gathering. There is a strong relationship between the weather and foraging activity of pollinators. When the weather is fine, butterflies are more active and spend on an average 2–6 seconds on a flower at each visit. But when the weather is cloudy and rainy, the butterflies and hawk moths are less active. The present investigation agrees with the findings on I. coelotropis (Sreekala et al. 2008). In I. cuspidata, 40% fruit set was observed in natural pollination. However, artificial cross pollination (geitonogamy and xenogamy) enhanced the fruit set rate up to 76%. Pollination experiments demonstrated that, artificial cross-pollination enhanced the rate of fruit and seed set in I. cuspidata. The balsams are highly evolved members among the order Geranials as evident from their marked zygomorphic flowers and nectariferous spur. The arrangement of stamens, pistil and spur are markedly adapted for cross pollination in Impatiens (Bhaskar & Razi 1974) and hence most of the species of Impatiens reproduce by cross pollination (Schmitt & Gamble 1990; Lu 2000, 2002). Stigma receptivity is a critical factor for successful completion of post pollination events. Usually it is highest soon after anthesis but it varies from species to species, depending upon the temperature and humidity (Shivanna & Johri 1989). But in I. 1824

cuspidata, stigmas remained receptive only after the shedding of androecium and gradually increased for 8–14 hr. The receptivity ends after 14 hours but at the same time its pollen viability reduced drastically. The adhesion of pollens on the stigma is a primary requirement for successful pollination. After landing on the stigmatic surface, pollen grains are subjected to hydration and then pollen wall proteins are released on to the stigmatic surface (Heslop-Harrison et al. 1975). In I. cuspidata, pollen grains are well adhered on the stigmatic surface. Pollen tubes penetrate the stigmatic surface and reached up to the ovary and successfully fertilize the ovules. The fertilized ovules developed into seeds. The percentage of seed set was only 60%. Seeds are not dormant and they germinate immediately. Experimental results also substantiate the same. Very few germinated seeds were established into seedlings and remaining perished. This may be due to insufficient flow of nutrients into seeds. Therefore the study suggests that, absence of dormancy, protandry, self-incompatibility, pollinator limitation and perishing of considerable percentage of seedlings prior to establishment in combination with other abiotic traits are contributing factors for regulation of population size of I. cuspidata in its natural condition.

REFERENCES Bawa, K.S., K.N. Ganeshaiah & R. Umashankar (1993). Editors note. Current Science 65: 191–192. Bhaskar, V. & B.A. Razi (1974) Nocturnal pollen germination in Impatiens (Balsaminaceae). Current Science 43(19): 626– 628. Bhaskar, V. (1981). The genus Impatiens L. in south India: endemism and affinities. Indian Forester 107(6): 368–378. Bhaskar, V. (2006). Impatiens clavata Bhaskar sp. nov.- a new scapigerous balsam (Balsaminaceae) from Bisle Ghat Western Ghats south India. Current Science 91(9): 1138–1140. Brewbaker, J.L. & B.H. Kwack (1963). The essential role of calcium ion in pollen germination and pollen tube growth. American Journal Botany 50: 859–865. Clifton, R. (2000). Geraniales Species Checklist Series: Vol 6. Geraniaceae - Bentham and Hooker tribe VIII Balsaminaceae. Dover, The Geraniaceae Group, 396pp Cruden, R.W. (1977). Pollen ovule ratios: a conservative indicator of breeding systems in flowering plants. Evolution 31: 32–46. Grey-Wilson, C. (1980). Impatiens of Africa- Morphology, Pollination and Pollinators, Ecology, Phytogeography, Hybridization, Keys and a Systematics of all African Species

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with a Note on Collecting and Cultivation. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 235pp Heinrich, B. (1979). Resource heterogeneity and patterns of movements in foraging bumblebees. Oecologia 40: 235– 245. Heslop-Harrison, R., B. Knox, J.Y. Heslop-Herrison & O. Mattson (1975). Pollen wall proteins: emission and role in incompatibility response, pp. 189–202. In: Deckett, J.G. & P.A. Racey (eds.). The Biology of Male Gamete. Biological Journal of Linnaean Society 7. Heslop-Harrison, Y. & K.R. Shivanna (1977). The receptive surface of the angiospermic stigma. Annals of Botany 41: 1233–1258. Johri, B.M. & I.K. Vasil (1961). Physiology of pollen. Botanical Review 27: 325–381. Kato, M.I., M. Itino, I. Hotta, E. Abbas & H. Okada (1989). Flower visitors of 32 plants species in west Sumatra. Occasional papers of the Kagoshima University Research center for South Pacific No. 16: 15–31. Kato, M.I., M. Itino, I. Hotta & T. Inoyue (1991). Pollination of four Sumatran Impatiens species by hawk moths and bees. Tropics 1: 59–73. Lu, Y.Q. (2000). Effect of density on mixed mating systems and reproduction in natural populations of Impatiens capensis (Balsaminaceae). International Journal of Plant Science 161: 671–681. Lu, Y.Q. (2002). Why is cleistogamy a selected reproductive strategy in Impatiens capensis (Balsaminaceae)? Biological Journal of Linnaean Society 75: 543–553. Mukerjee, S.K. & P.K. Das (1964). Palynology in horticulture and plant breeding, pp. 305–326. In: Nair, P. K. K. (eds.). Recent Advances in Palynology. Nair, N.C. (1991). Endemism on the Western Ghats with special reference to Impatiens L., pp. 93–102. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Rare, Endangered and Endemic Plants of Western Ghats. Kerala Forest Dept. (Wildlife Wing), Thiruvanathapuram, Special Publication No: III. Pandurangan, A.G. & P. Pushpangadan (1997) Causes of Rarity and Extinction of Species in Plants with Reference to Western Ghats. Frontiers in Plant Science. Om Sai Graphics, Hyderabad, 381pp. Pieter, L.C., P.G. Koen, B.T. Steven & F.S. Erick (2006). Floral development in three species of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae). American Journal of Botany 93(1): 1–14. Rajalal, R., A.G. Pandurangan & P. Puspangadhan (1996). Systematic studies of Balsaminaceae in Peninsular India. Journal of Swamy Botanical Club 13: 59–62. Rust, R.W. (1977). Pollination in Impatiens capensis and I. pallida (Balsaminaceae). Bulletin of Torrey Botanical Club 104: 361–367. Rust, R.W. (1979). Pollination in Impatiens capensis: pollinators and nectar robbers. Journal of Kansas Entomological Society 52: 297–308. Schmitt, J. & S.E. Gamble (1990). The effect of distance from the parental site of offspring performance and inbreeding depression in Impatiens capensis a test of the local adaptation

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hypothesis. Evolution 44: 2022–2030. Scribailo, R. W. & U. Posluszny, (1984). The reproductive biology of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae. I. Floral biology. Canadian Journal of Botany 62: 2779–2787. Shivanna, K.R. & N.S. Rangaswamy (1992). Pollen Biology - A Laboratory Manual. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, 332pp Shivanna, K.R. & B.M. Johri (1989). The Angiosperm Pollen: Structure and Function. Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi, 235pp. Sreekala, A.K., R. Ramasubbu, S.K. Kulloli & A.G. Pandurangan (2007). Pollination biology of Impatiens henslowiana Arn. (Balsaminaceae). Indian Journal Botanical Research 3(1): 165–171. Sreekala, A.K., A.G. Pandurangan, R. Ramasubbu & S.K. Kulloli (2008). Reproductive biology of Impatiens coelotropis Fischer. A critically endangered balsam from the southern Western Ghats. Current Science 95(3): 386–388. Tian, J., L. Keming & H. Guangwan (2004). Pollination ecology and pollination system of Impatiens reptans (Balsaminaceae) endemic to China. Annals of Botany 93: 167–175. Vajravelu, E. & P. Daniel (1983). Materials for A Catalogue of Threatened Plants of India. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, 265pp. Vishwanathan, M.B. & U. Manikandan (2003). A new species of Balsaminaceae, Impatiens tirunelvelica, from peninsular India. Bulletin Botanical Survey of India 45(1–4): 189–194. Vivekananthan, K., N.C. Rathakrishnan, M.S. Swaminathan & L.K. Ghara (1997). Balsaminaceae, pp. 96–229. In: Hajara, P.K., V.J. Nair & P. Daniel (eds.). Flora of India (Malphighiaceae-Dichapatalaceae)–4 . Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta. Willis, J.C. (1973). A Dictionary of The Flowering Plants and Ferns. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 591pp. Yuan, Y.M., Y.I. Song, E.E. Geuten Koen, S. Rahelivololona, E. Wohlhauser, S. Fischer, S. Smets & P. Kupfer (2004). Phylogeny and biogeography of Balsaminaceae inferred from ITS sequence data. Taxon 53: 391–403.

Author Details: Dr. A.K. Sreekala is currently holding a scientist position in TBGRI. She is recipient of several awards and published as many research papers in National and International journals. She presently working on reproductive biology of RET plant species from the Western Ghats. Dr. A.G. Pandurangan is scientist F & Head, Plant Systematics and Evolutionary Science Division, Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute. He is the recipient of several national and international awards. He is selected as a member on expert committee of many organizations. He has more than 200 research papers in national and international Journals. He is presently working on systematics of grasses, sedges, balsams, Asclepiadaceae, floristic study of Kerala, reproductive biology of RET Balsams and. Dr. R. Ramasubbu was working as senior research fellow in the DST funded projects and currently holding a position of Incharge, Horticulture section, CSIR-CMC, Chennai. He has published several research papers in national and international journals. Mr. Shrishail K. Kulloli was also worked as senior research fellow for the same project. Now he is field officer, Spice Board, Somawarpet, Karnataka. He has published several research papers and has contributed articles on Western Ghats.

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Captive elephants – an overview Heidi S. Riddle 1 & Christopher Stremme 2 Riddle’s Elephant and Wildlife Sanctuary, PO Box 715, Greenbrier, Arkansas 72058, USA Veterinary Society for Sumatran Wildlife Conservation, Komplek Bumi Asri 60D, Jalan Asrama, Medan 20126, Sumatra-Indonesia Email: 1 gajah@windstream.net (corresponding author), 2 stremme@gmx.net

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Date of publication (online): 26 June 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 June 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: April Yoder Manuscript details: Ms # o2620 Received 01 November 2010 Finally accepted 20 May 2011 Citation: Riddle, H.S. & C. Stremme (2011). Captive elephants – an overview. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(6): 1826–1836. Copyright: © Heidi S. Riddle & Christopher Stremme 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Author Details: Heidi S. Riddle is co-founder of Riddle’s Elephant and Wildlife Sanctuary, USA. She facilitates elephant conservation via education and study, and advises conservation organizations. She is a member of IUCN SSC Asian Elephant Specialist Group, and Conservation Breeding Specialist Group. Christopher Stremme is a veterinarian active in elephant care and management. He is program director of the Veterinary Society for Sumatran Wildlife Conservation (VESSWIC) Elephant Health Care Program, overseeing the medical care of wild and captive Sumatran elephants. He consults with elephant programs throughout Asia and in western facilities. Author Contribution: Both the authors have contributed equally to this paper.

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Abstract: Currently a significant portion of the world’s elephant population is in captivity, mainly in Asia. Elephants have a long history of captivity in both Africa and Asia, and have adapted to many environments. Today, due to evolving needs and philosophies, some changes have occurred in the use of captive elephants, and debate about their welfare and management is increasing. To address this, several countries are developing higher standards of care via policies and guidelines; unfortunately most elephant range countries do not have a national strategy concerning their captive elephant population. Challenges in elephant medicine are always present, yet there is a lack of standardized requirements for veterinary care in elephant range countries, and the ability of veterinarians to treat elephant diseases is often limited. In recent years, much has been learned about elephant physiology, biology, and communication from captive elephants, and this knowledge supports management decisions affecting both captive and wild populations. Captive elephants present important educational and fundraising opportunities in support of conservation, but these are often not fully leveraged. Future considerations include implementing changes to improve staff support and training, establishing comprehensive registration of all captive populations, and ensuring that captive management does not negatively impact wild elephant populations. Keywords: Captive elephants, conservation, education, management, policies, staff training, standards, welfare.

Introduction This paper presents a general overview of captive elephants - history, current management status and strategies, contributions via science and education, and considerations for the future. Captive elephants are those in direct human care and control. The words “domestic” and “domesticated” have been used to describe captive elephants; however, that characterization is not necessarily correct. While historical records indicate that elephants have been closely linked with humans for thousands of years (Sukumar 2003), they have not been selectively bred by humans for certain traits, as is the case with other animals defined as “domestic” such as dogs, cats, or cattle. Furthermore, the majority of captive elephants in the world today were originally born in wild herds and subsequently captured. Currently there are between 30,000 to 50,000 Asian Elephants Elephas maximus, and about 500,000 African Elephants Loxodonta africana worldwide (Riddle et al. 2010). Regional studbooks and government estimates (AsERSM 2006) suggest that approximately 12,000–15,000 of the world’s elephants are living in captivity, and most of these animals are in Asia. Approximately 25% of the entire Asian Elephant population is currently in captivity (Desai 2008), and that number is likely higher. The largest single population of captive elephants is in India and numbers about 3,400 individuals (AsERSM 2006). According to regional studbooks, there are fewer than 1000 captive African Elephants worldwide, and most Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | June 2011 | 3(6): 1826–1836


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of these are housed in non-range countries. Elephants have adapted to a wide variety of captive environments: in ancient times they were implements of war; more recently they work in forest camps, are venerated in temples, and displayed in zoological facilities (Lair 1997). Today, due to evolving needs and philosophies, changes are occurring in the uses of captive elephants around the world, and the debate about their welfare and management is increasing. In a growing number of countries, higher standards of elephant care and management are being addressed by identifying welfare parameters (Varma 2008), and developing policies and guidelines suggesting more opportunities for socialization, larger spaces with natural substrates, and better handling techniques (Olson 2004). Overall there is a need to recognize concerns about captive elephant care and welfare, and to implement improved standards of husbandry, handling, and management allowing captive elephants to achieve a maximum of their natural behaviors and social interactions. As elephants are long-lived animals, it is probable there will be elephants in captivity for many years in the future, even without adding large numbers of new animals to the existing captive populations. Therefore it is essential that long-term strategies addressing the need for and care of captive elephants be developed and implemented without further delay.

The management of captive elephants Historical perspective Elephants have had a close connection with mankind for thousands of years. The first known use of captive elephants in both Africa and Asia was for war. Their successful military use spread as far as Europe by 331 B.C. (Scullard 1974). In times of war, elephants carried heavy loads and were used to charge enemy lines in combat. With the advent of gunpowder warfare in the 15th century A.D., the use of captive elephants as war animals began to diminish. In Asia, ancient Sanskrit texts from India document the region’s long-standing association between humans and elephants, where elephants were first captured and trained for warfare and as beasts of burden. One of these early texts, the “Arthasastra”, provides some

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detail about elephant capture, training and care, as well as use in war (Sukumar 2003). Large numbers of captive elephants were kept by Asian rulers: during the Mughal period in India in the early to mid 17th century A.D., there were tens of thousands of captive elephants in the empire, illustrating that many elephants still lived in those regions. After the Mughal period, the use of elephants in battle waned, but their functional use transporting military troops and supplies in Asia continued into the 20th century (Sukumar 2003). During ancient times in Africa, elephants were captured and trained by the Egyptians and Carthaginians as implements of war (Scullard 1974). After about 500 A.D., there are no further records of elephants being captured for use in battle in Africa. In early 1900, the former Belgian Congo (now Democratic Republic of the Congo) established a program to capture and train African Forest Elephants Loxodonta africana cyclotis for plowing fields and pulling wagons to move soil and rocks for road construction (Laplume 1911). This practical use of elephants was thought to have little future as the capture and training process required long delays, was costly, and risky (Laplae 1918). Nevertheless, the capture and training program continued until the country’s independence in the 1960s, and anecdotal information indicates that there were still trained elephants in the region through the 1970s. Captive elephants have also been displayed in menageries, zoos, and circuses since antiquity. Some of the earliest recorded zoo elephants were acknowledged as being kept by a Syrian king in the 9th century B.C., having been captured in Syria, which was then part of their natural range (Sillar & Meyler 1968). Elephants were brought to Rome around 250 B.C. to be used in combat spectacles involving gladiators and wild animals, and to participate in circus, the first such documented use (Sillar & Meyler 1968). Across their African and Asian range and into Europe, captive elephants were part of menagerie type exhibits for centuries. In contrast, the first captive elephant to arrive on the American continent was a single animal brought to New York in the late 1700s from India (Goodwin 1951). Modern day management Presently, the majority of captive elephants come from capture programs. While the large scale capture

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of elephants for captivity has declined in very recent years, both legal and illegal captures continue in some countries. Some elephant range countries have used capture as a tool to address increasing conflicts due to the re-settlement of local people in or near elephant habitat (Basrul et al. 2001). This strategy can cause welfare issues for the captured elephants when husbandry conditions are under-funded, and policies guiding the utilization of these elephants are inadequate (Stremme et al. 2007). In other countries, capture was one component of management policy to control overpopulation through culling of wild elephants in areas with limited space, such as within fenced parks (Balfour et al. 2007). These various types of sanctioned large-scale captures have diminished significantly; currently most legal captures are of individual problem elephants that repeatedly come into conflict with humans, causing damage, injury, or death. Today in Africa, captive elephants are primarily used for tourism activities such as elephant back safaris, and for exhibition in zoos and circus. The majority of these animals are Savanna Elephants Loxodonta africana africana, with very few Forest Elephants still in captivity. Less than half of the 37 African Elephant range countries manage a captive elephant population, and these are mostly southern African nations. A very small number of elephants are in zoos in northern African non-range countries. Many of the captive elephants in Africa today came from culling operations (Cadman 2007). In recent years, culling as a conservation management tool has been practiced much less frequently in Africa, and where there is an interest to supplement captive populations in this region, captive breeding programs are being established. Currently all 13 Asian Elephant range countries have a captive population. However, the numbers, uses, and need for captive elephants differ from country to country (AsERSM 2006). While some uses of captive Asian Elephants have become obsolete (i.e. as war animals), other uses are increasing, such as elephant-back patrols to monitor protected areas or to mitigate human-elephant conflict (HEC) (Azmi et al. 2006). Within Asian range countries captive elephants are managed in a variety of environments; their ownership and management is by government agencies, commercial organizations (i.e. tourist resorts, circus), 1828

religious institutions, and private individuals. They are used for a variety of purposes: for practical work, i.e. logging, transport, patrolling, HEC mitigation, and for cultural activities, i.e. tourism, ceremonial, display, performance, and education. Historically, logging was one of the most locally important economic uses of captive elephants in Asia; this reached a peak in the mid 19th century (Sukumar 2003). Today, due to a ban on logging in several Asian countries, the use of elephants for this type of work has considerably diminished. In countries where large numbers of captive elephants were used for this purpose, some former logging elephants now provide tourism activities such as rides and shows (Godfrey & Kongmuang 2009); however, the lack of this specific work has forced other elephants to be used for questionable purposes such as begging in cities, thereby increasing welfare concerns (Angkawanish et al. 2009). Presently a few Asian countries still rely on logging elephants, and consideration should be given to the potential of illegal trans-border movement of captive elephants from countries who do not use these animals for logging to countries who do. In non-range countries, captive elephants are primarily used for exhibition, performance, and education in zoological institutions, commercial organizations (circus), and private facilities. As elephants in these countries are largely for display, over the past decade the focus has been on developing management systems. These systems originate from two basic concepts: free contact management where staff and elephants share the same space, and protected contact management where staff and elephants are separated by some form of barrier (Olson 2004). Currently most non-range facilities manage their elephants using a combination of these two basic systems, however most adult male captive elephants are managed in a protected contact system, in contrast to the free contact system used with adult males in range countries. Variables such as gender, age, and disposition of the exhibited elephants, staff expertise, and enclosure design and size all contribute to the management style used by a facility. Every management system has inherent rewards and difficulties for the exhibited elephants and staff, and this needs to be carefully considered when developing elephant programs. There is a need to better leverage opportunities in

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these small non-range country elephant populations for study, public awareness, fundraising, and advocacy in support of the conservation of wild elephants and their habitats. Non-range elephant exhibitors at times overestimate the effect their outreach programs and fundraising have on conservation and on the general public’s awareness of issues and challenges facing elephants today. The impact of such programs should be constantly evaluated and improved to ensure successful public education and awareness, as well as effective support of conservation actions. Management strategies The management of captive elephants is a controversial issue; there is a great deal of debate as issues of ideology and ethics are easy topics upon which to disagree. However, the continued discussion has led to increased efforts to address captive elephant concerns by identifying welfare parameters important for management (Varma 2008), as well as improving care, husbandry, handling, and training techniques through the development of professional guidelines and standards for captive elephant management (Olson 2004). Successful captive elephant management relies on a clear strategy, as well as outlining proper policies, protocols, and standards. Policies need to assess the purpose for captive populations, long-term goals, and the implications for humane management of these populations (Desai 2008). Practical standards need to be developed to address the physical and social environment of these animals, as well as their purpose. Monitoring and enforcement mechanisms need to be considered so that standards can be successfully implemented (Desai 2008). Written policies and protocols are important for success as these tools aid the consistency of elephant management programs; periodic review of the policies ensures that standards are met and even improved where needed. Specific captive elephant management protocols designed with individual, regional, and national differences in mind are more likely to succeed. Effective captive elephant management protocols should examine all aspects of management programs and address individual situations such as the local need and use of the elephants, number of animals, type of environment (physical, work, social), personnel support and training, and animal welfare (Olson 2004;

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Desai 2008). Non-existent, poorly written, or poorly executed protocols can contribute to the neglect of captive elephants’ needs. Recently, some elephant range countries have included captive elephant management policy in their national strategy for elephant conservation. Examples include the “National Norms and Standards for the Management of Elephants” issued by the government of South Africa in 2008, and the “Strategy and Conservation Action Plan for Sumatra and Kalimantan Elephants 2007-2017” (Strategi Dan Rencana Aksi Konservasi Gajah Sumatra Dan Gajah Kalimantan 2007-2017) adopted by the Indonesian government in 2007. The South Africa document outlines provisions for captive elephants such as management plans and registration. In the Indonesian plan, the government highlights the importance of synergetic elephant conservation addressing both wild and captive populations via two main points: utilizing captive elephants for various conservation strategies and programs such as HEC mitigation, and maintaining a stable, self-sustaining captive population through careful management and breeding. Decisions and policies about captive elephant management are more successful when based on a formal strategy and it is unfortunate that most elephant range countries do not have a national strategy or goal to address the management of their captive elephant populations. Another challenge for national strategies is the fact that in some range countries elephant populations are classified under separate legislation: the wild population is offered a protected wildlife status, while the captive elephant population is considered on the same level as working livestock (Godfrey & Kongmuang 2009). Without a clear and unified goal, legislation is less likely to protect elephants adequately. National elephant strategies need to review and implement systematic legislation to assist the management and protection of their elephant populations. There is heightened awareness about the welfare needs (biological and social) of elephants (Varma 2008), yet in many regions these needs are not always served by practical captive elephant management decisions. Welfare issues exist in all kinds of management and ownership systems, often due to a lack of consistent standards and operational procedures for captive elephant management from government oversight bodies (Lair 1997). Recently, in an attempt to better

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address captive elephant well being, a range country issued a national directive requiring that elephants residing in zoos be transferred to forest camps. While this type of directive may offer a welfare improvement for a few captive animals, it does not provide adequate direction for enhancing the management of the entire captive elephant population in that country (Bist 2010). Medicine Due to a lack of standardised national regulations and requirements for the health management of captive elephants (e.g. preventative and treatment schemes, disease management, medical staff training, equipment requirements), the quality of implemented veterinary care mostly depends on the willingness, knowledge, and intent of owners, managers, and handlers or mahouts (Stremme et al. 2007). Additionally, the lack of resources and of properly trained staff leads to inadequate health management of vast numbers of captive elephants, especially in range countries (Stremme et al. 2007; Angkawanish et al. 2009). There is a need to improve the capacity of elephant veterinary care in range countries to advance the welfare of these animals; so ongoing education and training programs for veterinary students and local veterinarians are essential (Stremme et al. 2007). Furthermore, ongoing programs should be developed in close collaboration with responsible government authorities and elephant owners and handlers to ensure sufficient and sustainable captive elephant health care. In addition to providing better resources and qualified veterinary expertise, it is necessary to develop and support range country research programs about diseases and health management of local captive elephant populations (Stremme et al. 2007). Of particular interest are the study, identification, treatment, and prevention of diseases that may be transmitted from captive elephants to wild elephants (and vice versa), as well as from other species to elephants (and vice versa). In range countries, infectious disease control and management need to be considered where captive and wild elephants share the same environment (i.e. forest camps in Asia or elephant back safari camps in Africa), where livestock potentially carrying infectious diseases that may be transmitted to elephants enter wild elephant habitat, 1830

and when captive elephants are moved between different environments. The most common diseases and disorders affecting captive elephant populations have been described by various authors (RĂźedi 1995; Fowler & Mikota 2006; Stremme et al. 2007; Alex 2009; Angkawanish et al. 2009; Chakraborty 2009; Chandrashekaran et al. 2009; Sarma 2009) and include: * Parasitic diseases including various types of endo and ecto parasites * Bacterial diseases such as salmonellosis (Salmonella spec.), colibacillosis (E. coli), hemorrhagic septicaemia (Pasteurella multocida), tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), tetanus (Clostridium tetani), anthrax (Bacillus anthracis), blackleg (Clostridium spec.) * Viral diseases such as rabies, elephant pox, foot and mouth disease, encephalomyocarditis (EMC), elephant endotheliotropic herpes virus (EEHV) * Non specific and non infectious disorders such as various types of foot diseases (affecting sole and nails), wounds and wound infections, eye lesions (conjunctivitis, keratoconjunctivitis, corneal lesions), constipation and colic, skin conditions, tusk and molar problems, malnutrition. The occurrence of several of these disorders is often linked to inadequate daily husbandry procedures, poor hygiene in the elephant housing area, improper use of tools, and lack of appropriate preventative schemes (Stremme et al. 2007; Angkawanish et al. 2009). To improve the overall health of captive populations it is crucial to address such basic management issues. One of the challenging veterinary issues is the elephant endotheliotropic herpes virus (EEHV), which was originally identified in zoo elephants in Europe (Ossent et al. 1990), and has now been found in multiple wild and captive elephant populations (Wiedner & Schmitt 2009). EEHV is characterized by high mortality and seems to mainly affect juvenile animals. Diagnosis is only achieved via blood testing of an elephant with an active case (Metzler et al. 1990; Latimer et al. 2007; Richman 2007), and very few animals have survived treatment. Intensive study continues in order to determine transmission, and improve prevention and treatment options Another recent focus of veterinary research is tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) (TB). TB

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is particularly a concern for captive elephants in range countries where the human population has a high rate of infection. Currently a trunk wash culture is the most widely accepted diagnostic tool (Olson 2004; Abraham & Davis 2008). Other methods are being investigated as elephants shed the mycobacterial organisms irregularly, but techniques used for diagnosis in other species are either not possible or dependable with elephants (Wiedner & Schmitt 2009). Treatment of tuberculosis in elephants is difficult as several of the drugs used cause severe toxicity in elephants (Wiedner & Schmitt 2007), so further study of treatment options is critical. Most captive elephant facilities in non-range countries have preventative veterinary schemes that include regular vaccinations, blood and fecal testing, TB trunk wash, vitamin and mineral supplementation, as well as provisions for dung removal, rodent and other pest management (Olson 2004). However, many of these facilities manage overweight elephants and this also can contribute to various problems, e.g. birth problems, joint and foot problems, as well as arthritis (Sadler 2001; Fowler & Mikota 2006; Lewis et al. 2010). Interestingly, one disease, elephant pox, has been a problem in Asia and several European facilities (Baxby & Ghaboosi 1977; Pilaski et al. 1992; Chakraborty 2009; Chandrasekharan et al. 2009), but to date has not been diagnosed in captive elephants housed in other non-range regions such as North America, and the reason for this is unknown.

Contributions of captive elephants Biological studies Captive elephants offer unique opportunities to understand details about how these animals function. In recent years, much has been learned about elephant physiology, biology, and communication from captive elephants. However, biological studies of elephants should not be limited to the captive environment; every effort should be made to support such research with wild elephants. The scientific study of captive elephants can help improve field techniques. In one example, controlled testing using captive elephants allowed comparison of DNA found in dung to DNA found in blood. Matching these samples confirmed that dung is a reliable source

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of DNA allowing noninvasive genotyping (Fernando et al. 2003). Dung extracted DNA from wild elephants has become a useful tool to address conservation questions such as genetic diversity in small or isolated populations. Detailed monitoring of captive elephants has led to interesting biological discoveries. For example, the observation of liquid emanating from elephant ears was first documented and studied in captive elephants (Riddle et al. 2000). The close proximity of elephants in a zoo allowed the first recordings of infrasound produced by elephants (Payne et al. 1986). The evidence of such elephant-emitted sounds paved the way for ongoing field research in Africa and Asia to understand how wild elephants use these sounds (Payne et al 2003; Nair et al. 2009; de Silva 2010). While the use of sophisticated electronic recording equipment allows scientists to listen in on elephant auditory communication, other modern instrumentation also contributes to a better understanding of the species: portable ultrasound units allow scientists to visualize the internal organs of elephants (Hildebrandt et al. 1998, 2000); video camera technology records distant behaviors under poor light conditions for subsequent review (Shulte et al. 2007); highly sensitive instrumentation provides detailed chemical analyses (Rasmussen 1999); and thermal imaging is an opportunity to measure from a distance the external and, to some extent, the internal temperatures of elephants (Weissenboeck 2006). Preliminary testing with captive elephants helped develop the use of these various technologies, now being used to collect data from wild elephants and inform conservation management. In addition to sound, smell is an important sense driving elephant behavior (Rasmussen 1999). By studying captive elephants, researchers learned which chemical signals were linked to specific behaviors and used in communication from female-to-female, male-to-male, mother-to-offspring, female-to-male, and male-to-female (Rasmussen & Schulte 1998; Rasmussen & Krishnamurthy 2000; Bagley et al. 2006; Meyer et al. 2008). Another medium closely studied in the captive environment is breath. Elephant breath contains brief, rapidly diffusing social signals communicating an immediate individual-to-individual message (Rasmussen & Riddle 2004). Over several years,

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more than a hundred breath samples from captive male elephants (African and Asian) were analyzed (Rasmussen & Riddle 2004). The analyses and concurrent blood measurements confirmed that breath compounds differ between individuals depending on their overall health, and whether they were in musth. Wild and captive male Asian and African Elephants go through musth, a male-specific condition. Studies of wild male elephant behavior explain how differences between musth and non-musth males affect reproduction and social dynamics (Desai & Johnsingh 1995; Poole 1996), while data collected from captive male elephants fills in many details about musth physiology (Lincoln & Ratnasooriya 1996; Rasmussen et al. 2002; Greenwood et al. 2005). Male elephants successfully reproduce while in or out of musth (Hollister-Smith 2005), but have to be in good condition to sustain musth. Observations of wild elephants indicate that bulls in poor condition do not come into normal musth (Poole 1996), and this appears to be true in captivity (Brown et al. 2007), indicating that musth is an important gauge of male health and vigor. Knowledge about pharmacological properties and the effects of drugs used for elephant treatment and tranquilization (Gray & Nettasinghe 1970; Jainudeen 1970; Fowler 1981; Jacobson et al. 1985, 1987; Fowler & Mikota 2006) has been attained by studying the effects on captive elephants. This data benefits wild elephant management, e.g. during sedation of wild elephants for translocation, fitting GPS or radio collars, and treatment of injured wild elephants. Reproduction As wild elephant populations diminish, the role of breeding programs can be important to sustain captive populations – where there is a need or desire to do so. The necessity for captive breeding programs differs from context to context. In some regions there is no interest or need to increase the number of captive elephants (AsERSM 2006), and therefore captive breeding programs would not be implemented. In other regions, particularly in non-range countries, breeding programs sustain small populations (Olson 2004). When captive breeding programs are considered, it is important to carefully assess and plan for many factors, e.g. cost, resources, genetic stock, and animal welfare. 1832

If the currently declining captive population in range countries is considered valuable for longterm conservation strategies (genetic value, use in conservation programs, i.e. HEC management, habitat patrols, and eco-tourism), there is a need to establish stable self-sustaining populations. In many regions this will require revising existing management structures, from current systems that often focus on elephant utilization, towards management systems highlighting planned captive breeding programs as one main goal of captive management. Captive breeding in range countries has often been opportunistic, relying on wild male elephants breeding captive females who are in the forest for grazing; this situation provides a healthy genetic diversity but can also lead to an undesired increase in the cost (of funds and resources) of managing additional elephants. In non-range countries, captive elephant breeding programs have to rely on small numbers of reproductively viable animals, and therefore require studbooks and scientific study to ensure the genetic diversity and health of these small populations (Olson 2004). Captive elephant studies have supplemented the knowledge of female and male reproductive physiology (Hildebrandt et al. 2006), enabling successful assisted reproduction. Facilities with a focus on reproduction have produced second-generation (F2) offspring with both parents also born in captivity (Riddle 2002). The use of technology such as ultrasound provides a better understanding of the reproductive potential of individual elephants (Hildebrandt et al. 1998, 2000). The knowledge gained from these studies has been applied to certain conservation quandaries - for instance, the development of an immuno-contraceptive vaccine to control locally overabundant African Elephant populations in a non-lethal manner (FayrerHosken et al. 2000; Delsink et al. 2006). Education and awareness Elephants appeal to people of all ages, especially to those who do not have to live with the threats of their presence. Around the world, facilities and private owners managing captive elephants have a responsibility to promote and support ongoing public education about elephant conservation by sharing information, creating awareness of problems and issues facing wild elephants, encouraging advocacy, and raising financial support where possible (Riddle

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et al. 2003). Every single facility and owner managing captive elephants reaches members of the public - from local villagers to international tourists - therefore every elephant facility should share important educational concepts about wildlife and the environment. Education can be started very simply via signage, and/or literature handed out to visitors, and/or presentations to the public. As a well-recognized animal, captive elephants raise public awareness about the species and about challenges confronting wild elephants, such as loss of habitat. In turn, public awareness helps motivate support for conservation and habitat protection policies (Nagendran & Riddle 2009), and provides significant opportunities for fundraising. Many of these opportunities are being missed. Education should be ongoing and programs periodically assessed to ensure that every opportunity provided by captive elephants is leveraged, thereby creating attitudinal and behavioral changes beneficial to elephant conservation. Education should also target those people who directly work with captive elephants. In some regions there is an increasing interest to educate elephant handlers or mahouts about environmental management and conservation strategies, therefore enabling them to better understand and support conservation actions (Azmi et al. 2006). Through improved awareness, the daily management of captive elephants in the care of these handlers also progresses. Building networks is an important tool for creating better communication and improving professional awareness. Several such captive elephant manager groups now exist: in 1988, elephant keepers in North America created the Elephant Managers Association (EMA); in 2006, mahouts in Indonesia organized as the Communication Forum for Indonesian Mahouts (FOKMAS). Future considerations In the future, it is imperative to continue enhancing the capacity of staff directly responsible for captive elephants (i.e. elephant managers, keepers, mahouts) via ongoing educational opportunities and support of the profession itself (Stremme et al. 2007). In most Asian range countries, knowledge about elephant handling, care, and training was developed long ago and passed down from generation to generation amongst tribes and families traditionally managing captive elephants (Vanitha et al. 2009). But in

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many areas this tradition no longer continues. Low incomes, a diminishing standard of living, and fewer work opportunities for mahouts have reduced the attractiveness of the mahout profession, causing children of families and tribes traditionally working as mahouts to seek other job opportunities. This results in the loss of long-established knowledge and experience. Presently, elephant facilities in these countries either hire fewer mahouts or hire handlers without extensive elephant background and experience, which can result in improper care of the captive elephants (Vanitha et al. 2009). Another necessary tool to improve management is through comprehensive registration of captive elephants - especially of captive Asian Elephants in range countries (Lair 2002). Registration assists in monitoring captive populations, and may help prevent illegal trade in captive elephants and their body parts (i.e. ivory) (AsERSM 2006). In some countries, registration is carried out in conjunction with a specific identification tool, such as the use of microchips implanted under the elephant’s skin (Dutta et al. 2007). Effective registration strategies should include a documentation of numbers and specific utilization of captive elephants, in order to evaluate options available for long-term management of these animals. Discussions and efforts to identify and address concerns surrounding captive elephant populations should continue. This will ensure that in every management system high standards of welfare and husbandry are implemented, and that wild populations are not negatively impacted via removal of individuals for captivity, the introduction of diseases, poorly planned releases, and other such factors (AsERSM 2006). As elephants are long lived animals, it is reasonable to conclude that there will be captive elephant populations well into the future, and effective management strategies need to include mechanisms to ensure compliance with higher standards of husbandry and care, as well as identifying long-term goals that can provide support to these captive populations without affecting wild populations (Desai 2008). It would be prudent to seriously consider and make decisions now about the long-term role of captive elephants, especially those in range countries. Considerations should include whether there is a realistic need to maintain genetically valuable

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populations to back up conservation strategies encompassing activities such as reintroduction into rehabilitated habitat, genetic refreshment of small pocketed populations, or wild elephant and habitat management (Stremme et al. 2007; Desai 2008). Most importantly, these decisions should benefit both wild and captive elephant populations, and not simply support one population at the expense of the other.

Conclusion Wildlife around the world is continually managed more intensely by humans. As the result of habitat loss and fragmentation, local elephant populations in several range countries may already be facing extinction; captivity may be the only option for survival. Presently some range countries have a larger population of captive elephants than wild ones, so in some regions the likelihood of captive elephant populations outliving wild populations seems to be an inevitable part of the future. Communication and exchange of information between managers of captive elephants and field conservationists is vital. Captive elephants can contribute to conservation via biological information, public awareness of the threats facing wild elephants, and support of conservation actions. Each of these contributions is important; however, to be truly successful, all opportunities presented by captive populations should be maximized. Ensuring the long-term survival of African and Asian Elephants requires effective communication and collaboration in all aspects of elephant management, care, and study.

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JoTT Short Communication

3(6): 1837–1841

A new site record of the Grizzled Giant Squirrel Ratufa macroura (Pennant, 1769) in the Hosur forest division, Eastern Ghats, India and its conservation significance N. Baskaran 1, K. Senthilkumar 2 & M. Saravanan 3 Asian Nature Conservation Foundation, Innovation Centre 1st Floor, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560012, India Email: 1 baskar@ces.iisc.ernet.in (corresponding author), 2 ksenthilkumar@ces.iisc.ernet.in, 3 saravanan@ces.iisc.ernet.in

1,2,3

Abstract: The Grizzled Giant Squirrel is endemic to southern India and Sri Lanka. In India it is distributed in isolated populations with less than 500 mature individuals, restricted mostly to patchy riverine habitats. We have recorded the presence of this species (minimum 14 individuals) across eight locations in Hosur forest division along the Cauvery riverine forest, north of earlier reported locations in the Eastern Ghats. The documentation of this species in the study area adds to our understanding of its distribution. These squirrels are canopy dwellers, hence discontinuous forest restricts their movement and dispersal. Measures including stop auctioning Tamarindus indica fruits on large scale for commercial purpose by Forest Department, restoration of habitat, maintenance of canopy continuity, reducing anthropogenic pressure and translocating squirrels from larger populations are suggested to enhance the long-term survival of this habitat specialist, which is on the brink of local extinction in the study area. We also suggest a comprehensive population assessment of the species to reevaluate its global status. Keywords: Distribution, Eastern Ghats, Hosur forest division, Ratufa macroura.

Date of publication (online): 26 June 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 June 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print)

Grizzled Giant Squirrel Ratufa macroura (Image 1) is endemic to India and Sri Lanka. It is distributed in isolated populations with an estimated population of less than 500 mature individuals in India and with a contiguous distribution in Sri Lanka (IUCN 2010). Habitat loss and hunting continue to reduce its numbers significantly throughout most of its ranges (Joshua & Johnsingh 1992, 1994; Molur et al. 2005). The population size of the Grizzled Giant Squirrel has its number in India has declined by about 30% in the last 25 years (Molur et al. 2005) and is presently listed as Near Threatened in the IUCN Red List (Joshua et al. 2008). Placed in Appendix II of CITES to regulate its international trade and is also included under Schedule I (Part I) of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act (1972). In India, the Grizzled Giant Squirrel is patchily distributed in the Western and Eastern Ghats, with larger populations found in the former. In the Western Ghats, there are two major populations each numbering 200–300 individuals in Periyar-Agasthyamalai and Anamalai landscapes. The Periyar-Agasthyamalai population has around 200 individuals (Joshua 1992;

Editor: Hema Somanathan Manuscript details: Ms # o2632 Received 20 November 2010 Final revised received 28 January 2011 Finally accepted 14 May 2011 Citation: Baskaran, N., K. Senthilkumar & M. Saravanan (2011). A new site record of the Grizzled Giant Squirrel Ratufa macroura (Pennant, 1769) in the Hosur forest division, Eastern Ghats, India and its conservation significance. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(6): 1837–1841. Copyright: © N. Baskaran, K. Senthilkumar & M. Saravanan 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Acknowledgements: We are grateful to the Tamil Nadu Forest Department for permitting this study and the Asian Nature Conservation Foundation (ANCF) for funding. We also thank Mr. K.G. Avinash, GIS Expert, ANCF in helping us to produce the distribution maps. OPEN ACCESS | FREE DOWNLOAD

Image 1. Grizzled Giant Squirrel Ratufa macroura

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New record of Grizzled Giant Squirrel

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Palraj et al. 1992; Palraj & Kasinathan 1993) and is distributed in the Srivilliputhur Grizzled Giant Squirrel Sanctuary. The Anamalai population totals about 300 individuals (Joshua et al. 2008) and is spread across Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, (numbering about 150–200, Ramachandran 1993; Senthilkumar et al. 2007), and Anamalai Tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu (with no estimated figures, Kumar et al. 2007). Besides, a few individuals have been reported from Palani Hills in the Western Ghats (Davidar 1989; Sharma 1992). In the Eastern Ghats, a small population is reported from Kanakapura forest division, in southern Karnataka (Karthikeyan et al. 1992; Kumara & Singh 2006), which is considered as the northern-most population (Kumara & Singh 2006). The species is confined largely to riverine habitats in the rain shadow areas of southern India, feeds primarily on seeds of immature and mature fruits from trees and climbers, with a strong preference for Tamarindus indica (Joshua 1992; Ellerman 1961). The R. macroura in southern India is sympatric with the Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica in the Palani Hills and Azhagarkoil and Ayyanarkoil area of Srivilliputhur Grizzled Giant Squirrel Sanctuary (Joshua 1992). Unlike the R. indica, which has a wider distribution and larger population across central and southern India (Ellerman 1961; Borges 1989; Ramachandran 1992), the distribution of R. macroura is confined to the southern India (Joshua 1992), and their populations are small and patchy (Ellerman 1961). Any new information in the occurence or distribution of the species is therefore crucial for its conservation. Study Area The study was carried out as part of a biodiversity survey of the vertebrate fauna in Hosur Forest Division and its contiguous habitats in Dharmapuri forest division (11.750–12.690N & 77.300–78.750E) from June 2009 to May 2010, located in the Eastern Ghats. The study area spreads over 1896km2 and is bordered by Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary (CWS) on the southern side, Ramnagara forest division on the western side and is surrounded mostly by human settlements on the northern and eastern sides. The area represents tropical dry thorn, dry deciduous and mixed deciduous vegetations and a few patches of lowland dry evergreen forest, a patch of high altitude (1395m Guttirayan Hill) montane evergreen forest and a large 1838

tract (65km) of riverine habitat along the Cauvery River, which is the largest perennial river in southern India, flowing between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu on the southern side of the study area. The area also has a few Hindu temples (Madhesvaran and Dhabakuli Appan), situated along the Cauvery River that attract a large number of pilgrim every year. Methods A rapid questionnaire survey was undertaken, in which the local community and forest department staff were shown photographs of various species of mammals including the two species of giant squirrels (R. indica and R. macroura) and a checklist of mammals was thus prepared. This was followed by a reconnaissance survey carried out on foot in search of various species of mammals, including direct sightings of giant squirrels and their signs (nest/drey) in the forested habitats of the study area. These surveys provided information on existence of R. macroura and confirmed the absence of R. indica in the study area. Based on the reconnaissance survey findings, we divided the study area into three categories, viz., areas with no distribution (with no direct sightings or nest), areas of possible distribution (only with old nest) and areas of confirmed distribution (direct sighting with new and old nests) of R. macroura. Subsequently, an intensive systematic survey was carried out on foot during morning (0700–1000 hr) and evening (1500– 1800 hr) for a period of 2–7 days both in the areas of possible and confirmed distribution for further affirmation of the presence of R. macroura and also to map the extent of distribution in detail. From the direct sightings of R. macroura during these surveys, the number of squirrels found in each of the surveyed areas were estimated. Geo-coordinates collected using Global Position System (GPS) for each squirrel sighted were incorporated into the study site map using Geographical Information System and a distribution map was prepared. The earlier reported locations such as CWS and Kanakapura Forest Division, Anamalai Tiger Reserve, Palani Hills, Chinnar WS and Srivilliputhur Grizzled Giant Squirrel WS were obtained from published literature (Davidar 1989; Joshua 1992; Sharma 1992; Karthikeyan et al. 1992; Kumara & Singh 2006; Senthilkumar et al. 2007) to produce a comprehensive distribution map of the species in India.

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New record of Grizzled Giant Squirrel

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Results and Discussion Intensive surveys over a year across the entire habitat in Hosur forest division and its contiguous habitats in the adjoining Dharmapuri forest division recorded the presence of R. macroura in the Hosur forest division along the riparian habitat of Cauvery River. The present documentation is the first scientific report on the existence of R. macroura in the study area. Joshua (1992), who surveyed Dharmapuri forests (the present study area) during Feb–May 1989 (based on potential sites of occurrence that he listed, from the 1920–30 specimen collection locations of the Bombay Natural History Society, and inquiries with forest officials, and conservationists), reported the absence of the R. macroura. Kumara & Singh (2006), who documented the species in habitats further southwest of our study area (from Shivanasamudra Falls to Mekedatu on the Cauvery River in Karnataka), considered the same as the northern-most population of the species in its entire distribution range. This clearly indicates that the existence of this species on the Tamil Nadu side in the Hosur forest division was unknown earlier. In total during this study, we

8000’0”E

7600’0”E

recorded a minimum of 14 individuals, in addition to 62 nests located at eight different sites along the riverine patch of Cauvery (Image 2) in Hosur Forest Division. The present record adds to the completeness of the distribution of R. macroura with a new northern most extension in the Eastern Ghats of India (Image 3). The distribution of R. macroura reported earlier along the Cauvery River in Karnataka (Karthikeyan et al. 1992; Kumara & Singh 2006) and by the present study along the same Cauvery River in Tamil Nadu, indicate that these are probably parts of a larger contiguous population found in the past and presently isolated due to lack of canopy contiguity. Being a canopy dweller, the species largely depends on the tree canopy contiguity for its movement, nesting and breeding (Joshua 1992). All the eight sites, where the squirrels were found, were reserved forests (Kestur, Bilikal and Mallahalli), but they were isolated from each other due to discontinuity in the canopy. The maximum stretch of contiguous canopy was less than 120m in length and 25m wide, thus limiting free movement of R. macroura between the isolated patches. These patches naturally lack canopy contiguity on the

77030’0”E

7800’0”E

78030’0”E

1200’0”N 12030’0”N

1000’0”N

1200’0”N 800’0”N

12012’0”N

77030’0”E

77032’30”E

77035’0”E

77037’30”E

77040’0”E

Image 2. The study area of Hosur and Dharmapuri Forest Divisions and the Grizzled Giant Squirrel distribution identified

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New record of Grizzled Giant Squirrel

N. Baskaran et al.

1200’00”N

1000’00”N

800’00”N

7600’00”E

7800’00”E

north-south axis due to the change of riverine forest into tropical dry thorn forest on the north and the Cauvery River on the south. Further, these patches are presently restricted to the northern bank of the Cauvery over a length of 20km on the upstream, out of 65km stretch of the riverbank within Hosur and Dharmapuri forest divisions. Therefore, gaps in canopy contiguity can pose a major threat to the long-term survival of the few isolated individuals due to detrimental effects of restricted gene flow through restricted movement and dispersal. In addition, disturbances from the presence of cattle grazers, cattle pens (farm) and pilgrims can further deteriorate the quality of the habitat for the squirrels due to overgrazing by cattle, wood cutting and, forest fire. 1840

Image 3. The distribution of Grizzled Giant Squirrel in different landscapes along Eastern and Western Ghats (Distribution sites: 1 Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary & Kanakapura Forest Division; 2 - Hosur Forest Division; 3 - Anamalai Tiger Reserve; 4 & 5 - Palani Hills; 6 - Chinnar WS; 7 - Srivilliputhur Grizzled Giant Squirrel WS). (Source data: present study, and published data from Davidar 1989; Joshua 1992; Sharma 1992; Karthikeyan et al.1992; Kumara & Singh 2006; Senthilkumar et al. 2007).

Management Recommendations Although such small populations with isolated individuals are neither demographically nor genetically viable, the species is found more often in small numbers (Davidar 1989; Karthikeyan et al. 1992; Kumara & Singh 2006; Kumar et al. 2007), with restricted distribution mostly to riverine habitats, which is generally patchy in nature. The riverine habitats along the Cauvery River are potential sites for the species, and hence measures such as (a) restoration of habitat and maintenance of canopy continuity (through afforestation of preferred tree species like Tamarindus indica and Mangifera indica), (b) stop auctioning the Tamarindus indica fruits on large scale

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New record of Grizzled Giant Squirrel

for commercial purpose by Forest Department, (c) reducing anthropogenic pressure along the riverine habitats (through strict management action against the cattle pens that are along the gallery forest of Cauvery River), and, (d) translocation of a few individuals of R. macroura (in consultation with experts on these aspects regarding number of individuals and age-sex classes and in keeping with the needs and guidelines suggested by the Reintroduction Specialist Group) from larger populations to this habitat would not only enhance their long-term survival, otherwise on the brink of local extinction, but will also ensure the availability of the largest riverine habitats for this habitat specialist. The species lacks an updated comprehensive database on the distribution and population status across its ranges. Since the species perhaps faces the threat of becoming extinct in India, it definitely deserves attention of conservationists to reevaluate its global status. Unless the species receives immediate attention for its protection and conservation, it will be a difficult task to save it from extinction (Paulraj 1991).

REFERENCES Borges, R. (1989). Resource heterogeneity and the foraging ecology of the Malabar Giant Squirrel (Ratufa indica). PhD Thesis. University of Miami, Florida. Davidar, P. (1989). Grizzled Giant Squirrel Ratfa macroura distribution in Kudirayar. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 86(3): 437. Ellerman, J.R. (1961). The fauna of India including Pakistan, Burma and Ceylon. Mammalia - 2nd Edition, Vol. 3. Rodentia. The Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, 884pp. IUCN (2010). Red List of Threatened Species Version 2010.1 downloaded on May 27, 2010. Joshua, J. (1992). Ecology of the endangered Grizzled Giant Squirrel (Ratufa macroura) in Tamil Nadu, South India. PhD Thesis. Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. Joshua, J. & A.J.T. Johnsingh (1992). Status of endangered grizzled giant squirrel and its habitats, pp.151–159. In: Singh, K. & J.S. Singh (eds.). Tropical Ecosystems: Ecology and Management. Willey Eastern Ltd., New Delhi. Joshua J. & A.J.T. Johnsingh (1994). Impact of biotic

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disturbances on the habitat and population of the endangered Grizzled Giant Squirrel Ratufa macroura in South India. Biological Conservation 68: 29–34. Joshua, J., W.I.L.D.P.T.S. de A. Goonatilake & S. Molur (2008). Ratufa macroura. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. <www.iucnredlist. org>. Downloaded on 06 June 2011. Karthikeyan, S., J.N. Prasad & B. Arun. (1992). Grizzled Giant Squirrel Ratfa macroura Thomas and Wroughton at Cauvery valley in Karnataka. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 89(3): 360–361. Kumar, M.A., M. Singh, S.K. Srivastava, A. Udhayan, H.N. Kumara & A.K. Sharma (2002). Distribution patterns, relative abundance and management of mammals in Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99(2): 184–210. Kumara, H.N. & M. Singh (2006). Distribution and relative abundance of giant squirrel and flying squirrel in Karnataka, India. Mammalia 70: 40–47. Molur, S., C. Srinivasulu, B. Srinivasulu, S. Walker, P.O. Nameer & L. Ravikumar (2005). Status of Nonvolant Small Mammals: Conservation Assessment and Management Plan (C.A.M.P) Workshop Report. Zoo Outreach Organization/CBSG-South Asia, Coimbatore, India, 618pp. Paulraj, S. (1991). Grizzled Giant Squirrel in the final throes of extinction process. Zoos’ Print 6(10): 1–2. Paulraj, S., N. Kasinathan & K. Rajendran (1992). Studies on the biology of Grizzled Giant Squirrel Part I. Population, feeding, home range and activity pattern. Research report, Tamil Nadu State Forest Department. Paulraj, S. & N. Kasinathan (1993). Scanty known Grizzled Giant Squirrel (Ratfa macroura) of India: Status and Conservation. Indian Forester 119: 828–833. Ramachandran, K.K. (1992). Certain aspects of ecology and behaviour of Malabar Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica (Schreber). PhD Thesis. Department of Zoology, University of Kerala, 191 pages. Ramachandran, K.K. (1993). Status survey and distribution of endangered Grizzled Giant Squirrel in Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India. Indian Journal of Forestry 16(3): 226–231. Senthilkumar, K., G. Agoramoorthy & M.J. Hsu (2007). Population size, density and conservation status of Grizzled Giant Squirrel in Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, India. Mammalia 71(1): 89–94. Sharma, N. (1992). Status of and ecology of Grizzled Giant Squirrel (Ratfa macroura) in the Palani Hills. M.S. Dissertation, Pondicherry University.

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JoTT Short Communication

3(6): 1842–1850

Checklist and nesting patterns of avifauna in and around Mayiladuthurai region, Tamil Nadu, India A. Mohamed Samsoor Ali 1, S. Asokan 2, R. Manikannan 3 & P. Radhakrishnan 4 New No.12, Old No. 3/10, New Street, Kollapuram, Tiruvarur District, Tamil Nadu 609608, India Associate Professor, 3Lecturer, & 4Ph.D. Research Scholar, Department of Zoology & Wildlife Biology, A.V.C. College (Autonomous), Mannampandal, Mayiladuthurai, Tamil Nadu 609305, India Email: 1 amsamsoor@yahoo.co.in (corresponding author), 2 beeasokan@gmail.com, 3 manikannanr@yahoo.co.in, 4 samyradhakrishna@yahoo.co.in

1 2

Abstract: Seventy-five taxa of birds belonging to 41 families were recorded in the Mayiladuthurai region, Tamil Nadu, India during January 2006 to December 2006. Sixty-two species of these were residents and 13 were local migrants. Among the birds recorded in this study, about 26 species were insectivores and other dominating types included omnivores, predators, granivores and frugivores. Breeding habits of 30 species were recorded, of five different nesting types, viz., cup nesters, cavity / hole nesters, platform nesters, pendant nesters and ground nesters. The birds used a variety of nesting materials, mostly twigs, fibres, sticks, leaves and grasses for nest construction. Thirteen species laid pure white eggs without any markings and nine species laid white eggs with various colour combinations and markings. Some species laid glossy blue, blue green, red and brown coloured eggs. Keywords: Avifauna, eggs, nesting birds, nest types.

The Indian subcontinent has diverse avifauna with 1300 bird species (Grimmett et al. 1999). Recently there is an increased awareness of the need to prepare

Date of publication (online): 26 June 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 June 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: Ignacy Kitowski Manuscript details: Ms # o2299 Received 28 August 2009 Final revised received 01 May 2011 Finally accepted 12 May 2011 Citation: Ali, A.M.S., S. Asokan, R. Manikannan & P. Radhakrishnan (2011). Checklist and nesting patterns of avifauna in and around Mayiladuthurai region, Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(6): 1842–1850. Copyright: © A. Mohamed Samsoor Ali, S. Asokan, R. Manikannan & P. Radhakrishnan 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Acknowledgements: Authors are thankful to the Principal, the Management and the Head of the Department of Zoology & Wildlife Biology, A.V.C. College (Autonomous), Mannampandal, Mayiladuthurai for facilities and encouragements. We sincerely express our thanks to the Subject Editor and anonymous referees for their valuable comments on the manuscript. OPEN ACCESS | FREE DOWNLOAD

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checklists of birds on a wider scale, although such work is often confined to sanctuaries and forest ranges (Kannan 1998; Mahabal 2000). Collective checklists of birds for specific regions like lakes (Sahu & Rout 2005; Reginald et al. 2007), wetlands (Ravindran 1995; Sivaperuman & Jayson 2000), mangroves (Pandav 1997; Oswin 1999), wildlife sanctuaries (Relton 1998; Mahabal 2000; Aravind et al. 2001; Chhangani 2002) and university campuses and institutes (Jayapal 1995; Sundar 1998; Nameer et al. 2000; Ramitha & Vijayalaxmi 2001; Dookia 2002; Praveen & Joseph 2006) have also been published. The information on checklists and nesting patterns of birds in Mayiladuthurai region is scattered. A few reports that exist (Asokan 1998 a,b; Chandru & Asokan, 1999; Asokan et al. 2003, 2009b; Sivakumaran & Thiyagesan 2003; Neelanarayanan 2007) are chiefly related to the population and feeding ecology of birds. Barring a few observations on the nesting behaviour of birds (Thiyagesan 1991; Sivakumar & Jayabalan 2004; Asokan et al. 2008, 2009a) there are no detailed studies of their nesting patterns. We present in this paper a detailed account of our observations on checklists and nesting patterns of avian species in Mayiladuthurai region. Materials and Methods Study area: The Mayiladuthurai Taluk is located on the Cauvery River bank between 18018’N and 79050’E in Nagapattinam District, Tamil Nadu, India. Agriculture is the major economics of this area, which contributes a high share of rice production to the state. Sugarcane, groundnut, green gram, black gram, cotton, etc are the other major crops cultivated in this area. The Cauvery River and its tributaries are major perennial water sources used for irrigation. Woody vegetation is sparse in the form of groves and roadside trees. The predominant tree species found in the study area are

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Nesting patterns of avifauna

Coconut Cocos nucifera, Palm Borassus flabellifer, Iluppai Madhuca indica, Mango Mangifera indica, Rain Tree Enterolobium saman, Tamarind Tamarindus indicus, Banyan Ficus benghalensis, Peepal Ficus religiosa, Poovarasu Thespesia populnea, Karuvai Acacia arabica, Odhian Odina wodier and Neem Azadirachta indica. Important shrub species are Kattukaruvai Prosopis juliflora, Kattamani Jatropha glandulifera and Adathoda Adathoda visica. Plantations of Casuarina Casuarina equisetifolia, Teak Tectona grandis and Bamboo Bamboosa arundinacea are also found in the study area. Based on the northeast monsoon the study area is divided into four seasons viz., post-monsoon, summer, pre-monsoon and monsoon. Summer ranges from April to June (with a mean maximum temperature of 380C) and the northeast monsoon between October and December. The cold season starts in November and may last till January. Bird survey: The checklist is primarily based on field work conducted in two habitats, viz., river banks (Cauvery River) and agricultural lands of Mayiladuthurai region from January 2006 to December 2006. Birds were observed between 0500 and 0900 hr with the help of 7x50 field binoculars. Birds sighted during the study period were categorized according to their status as residents and local migrants. The identification of birds was done using field guides (Grimmett et al. 1999; Ali 2002). The checklist was prepared using standardized common and scientific names by Manakadan & Pittie (2001). Nesting patterns: The nesting behaviour study was carried out during January 2006 to July 2006, when most birds breed. Nests were located and data on nest characteristics, eggs and nest sites were recorded with standard methodologies as described by Pettingill (1985) and Soni et al. (2004). The photographs were taken with a NIKON Digital Camera. Results and Discussion A list of birds recorded from Mayiladuthurai region and their common name, scientific name, vernacular name (Tamil) and feeding habits is reported in Table 1. The study reveals the occurrence of 75 species of birds belonging to 41 families and 13 orders. Among the 13 orders, Passeriformes dominated the list with 35 species followed by Ciconiiformes, Cuculiformes and Coraciiformes with six species each; Falconiformes with five species, Charadriiformes and Columbiformes

A.M.S. Ali et al.

with three species each; Galliformes, Strigiformes, Apodiformes and Piciformes with two species each; Podicipediformes, Gruiformes and Psittaciformes with one species each. Out of the 75 species, 62 species were common residential birds and 13 species were local migrants. The local migrants, viz., Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis, Yellow Bittern Ixobrychus sinensis, Asian Open-bill Stork Anastomus oscitans, Yellow-wattled Lapwing Vanellus vanellus, Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos, Pied Crested Cuckoo Clamator jacobinus, Small Green-billed Malkoha Phaenicophaeus viridirostris, Indian Pitta Pitta brachyura, Common Swallow Hirundo rustica, Redrumped Swallow Hirundo daurica, Blythâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Reed Warbler Acrocephalus dumetorum, Asian Paradise Flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi and Ashy Woodswallow Artamus fuscus were recorded only in certain months of the year i.e. Augustâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;January. Birds of diverse food habits were observed, viz., insectivores (26 species), omnivores (22 species), predators (16 species), granivores (8 species) and frugivores (3 species). A greater diversity of avian species was recorded at the Cauvery River banks because of greater vegetation densities and food availability. Along both sides of the river banks, many wooded tree species, scrub and bushy type stumpy vegetation were distributed and it provided roosting and nesting-sites for many bird species. A number of birds were recorded in the agricultural fields. Paddy is the main crop of the study area and is cultivated round the year. Birds such as the Black Drongo, Indian Roller, Small Bee-eater, White-breasted Kingfisher, Common Myna, Pond Heron, egrets, etc., are very common birds in the agricultural lands and feed mostly on insects. Such birds are useful in the control of injurious insects in various crops (Asokan et al. 2009b). The number of species recorded in the present study was low when compared to some earlier studies in Tamil Nadu (Jayapal 1995; Oswin 1999; Balasundaram & Rathi 2004; Reginald et al. 2007). The present study was carried out on two selected habitats only, future studies will cover all the areas of Mayiladuthurai regions and list more numbers of avian species. In total, 30 species belonging to 22 families were recorded nesting in the study area (Table 2; Image 1). A total of 125 nests were recorded during the study period and the highest number of nests observed were of the Common Myna (n=16) followed by the Small Bee-eater (n=15) and the White-breasted Kingfisher (n=9). Five

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Table 1. Checklist of birds recorded in and around Mayiladuthurai region Common name

Scientific name

Vernacular name

Feeding habit

Tachybaptus ruficollis

Mukkulipan

IN

Podicipediformes: Podicipedidae 1

Little Grebe Ciconiiformes Ardeidae

2

Little Egret

Egretta garzetta

Vellai Kokku

PR

3

Large Egret

Casmerodius albus

Periya Kokku

PR

4

Cattle Egret

Bubulcus ibis

Mattu Kokku

PR

5

Indian Pond-Heron

Ardeola grayii

Madaiyan

PR

6

Yellow Bittern

Ixobrychus sinensis

Sengkokku

PR

Anastomus oscitans

Nathai-kothi Narai

PR

Ciconiidae 7

Asian Openbill-Stork Falconiformes: Accipitridae

8

Black-shouldered Kite

Elanus caeruleus

Kalla Parunthu

PR

9

Black Kite

Milvus migrans

Semparaunthu

PR

10

Brahminy Kite

Haliastur indus

Karudan Paraunthu

PR

11

Shikra

Accipiter badius

Valluru

PR

12

Eurasian Sparrowhawk

Accipiter nisus

Parunthu

PR

Galliformes: Phasianidae 13

Grey Francolin

Francolinus pondicerianus

Kowtharai

OM

14

Indian Peafowl

Pavo cristatus

Myil

OM

Amaurornis phoenicurus

Kanankozhi

OM

Gruiformes: Rallidae 15

White-breasted Waterhen Charadriiformes: Charadriidae

16

Yellow-wattled Lapwing

Vanellus vanellus

Manjal-mooku Aalkatti

IN

17

Red-wattled Lapwing

Vanellus indicus

Chivapu-mooku Aalkatti

IN

Actitis hypoleucos

Ullan

IN

Scolopacidae 18

Common Sandpiper Columbiformes: Columbidae

19

Blue Rock Pigeon

Columba livia

Maada Pura

GR

20

Spotted Dove

Streptopelia chinensis

Mani Pura

GR

21

Eurasian Collared Dove

Streptopelia decaocto

Sambal Pura

GR

Psittacula krameri

Pachaikilli

FR

Psittaciformes: Psittacidae 22

Rose-ringed Parakeet Cuculiformes: Cuculidae

23

Pied Crested Cuckoo

Clamator jacobinus

Kondai Kuyil

OM

24

Brainfever Bird

Hierococcyx varius

Kuyil

OM

25

Common Cuckoo

Cuculus canorus

Kuyil

OM

26

Asian Koel

Eudynamys scolopacea

Kuyil

OM

27

Small Green-billed Malkoha

Phaenicophaeus viridirostris

Kuyil

OM

28

Greater Coucal

Centropus sinensis

Senbaham

PR

Tyto alba

Koogai / Chavukuruvi

PR

Athene brama

Pullianthai

IN

Strigiformes: Tytonidae 29

Barn Owl Strigidae

30

Spotted Owlet Apodiformes: Apodidae

31

Asian Palm Swift

Cypsiurus balasiensis

Uzhavara Kuruvi

IN

32

House Swift

Apus affinis

Uzhavara Kuruvi

IN

Coraciiformes: Alcedinidae 33

Small Blue Kingfisher

Alcedo atthis

Meankothi

PR

34

White-breasted Kingfisher

Halcyon smyrnensis

Ven-marbu Meankothi

PR

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A.M.S. Ali et al.

Common name

Scientific name

Vernacular name

Lesser Pied Kingfisher

Ceryle rudis

Vellai Meankothi

Feeding habit PR

Merops orientalis

Chinna Panchurutan

IN

Coracias benghalensis

Panaggadai

IN

Upupa epops

Saval Kuruvi

IN

Megalaima haemacephala

Kukkuruvam

FR

Dinopium benghalense

Markkothi

IN

Pitta brachyura

Arumani Kuruvi

IN

Meropidae 36

Small Bee-eater Coraciidae

37

Indian Roller Upupidae

38

Common Hoopoe Piciformes: Capitonidae

39

Coppersmith Barbet Picidae

40

Lesser Golden-backed Woodpecker Passeriformes: Pittidae

41

Indian Pitta Alaudidae

42

Sykes’s Crested Lark

Galerida deva

Vanambadi

OM

43

Eastern Skylark

Alauda gulgula

Vanambadi

OM

Hirundinidae 44

Common Swallow

Hirundo rustica

Thailan

IN

45

Red-rumped Swallow

Hirundo daurica

Thailan

IN

Motacillidae 46

Large Pied Wagtail

Motacilla maderaspatensis

Karuppuvalati

IN

47

Paddyfield Pipit

Anthus rufulus

Nettaikali

IN

Campephagidae 48

Small Minivet

Pericrocotus cinnamomeus

Milagai Chitu

IN

49

Common Woodshrike

Tephrodornis pondicerianus

Kassappakaram

IN

Pycnonotus cafer

Kondai Kuruvi

OM

Aegithina tiphia

Chinna Mambazhakuruvi

OM

Pycnonotidae 50

Red-vented Bulbul Irenidae

51

Common Iora Turdinae

52

Oriental Magpie Robin

Copsychus saularis

Vannathikuruvi

IN

53

Indian Robin

Saxicoloides fulicata

Carkuruvi

IN

Turdoides caudatus

Thavitu Kuruvi

Timaliinae 54

Common Babbler

OM

Sylviinae 55

Ashy Prinia

Prinia socialis

Saambal Kathirkuruvi

IN

56

Blyth’s Reed Warbler

Acrocephalus dumetorum

Naanal Kathirkuruvi

IN

57

Common Tailor Bird

Orthotomus sutorius

Thaiyalkara Kuruvi

IN

58

Orphean Warbler

Sylvia hortensis

Kathirkuruvi

IN

Terpsiphone paradisi

Rajawall Kuruvi

IN

Dicaeum erythrorhynchos

Pakku Chittu

FR

Monarchinae 59

Asian Paradise Flycatcher Dicaeidae

60

Tickells Flowerpecker Nectariniidae

61

Purple-rumped Sunbird

Nectarinia zeylonica

Manjal Thenchittu

OM

62

Purple Sunbird

Nectarinia asiatica

Thenchittu

OM

Estrildidae 63

White-throated Munia

Lonchura malabarica

Thiinai Kuruvi

GR

64

Black-headed Munia

Lonchura malaca

Thiinai Kuruvi

GR

Passer domesticus

Chittu Kuruvi

GR

Passerinae 65

House Sparrow

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Nesting patterns of avifauna Common name

A.M.S. Ali et al. Scientific name

Vernacular name

Feeding habit

Ploceinae 66

Streaked Weaver

Ploceus manyar

Thukkanan Kuruvi

GR

67

Baya Weaver

Ploceus philippinus

Thukkanan Kuruvi

GR

Sturnidae 68

Brahminy Starling

Sturnus pagodarum

Kondai Myna

OM

69

Common Myna

Acridotheres tristis

Narathan Kuruvi

OM

Oriolus oriolus

Mambazhakuruvi

OM

Dicrurus macrocercus

Karuvatuvalli

Artamus fuscus

….

OM

Oriolidae 70

Eurasian Golden Oriole Dicruridae

71

Black Drongo

IN

Artamidae 72

Ashy Woodswallow Corvidae

73

Indian Tree Pie

Dendrocitta vagabunda

Val Kakkai

OM

74

House Crow

Corvus splendens

Manikagam

OM

75

Jungle Crow

Corvus macrorhynchos

Andakagam

OM

IN - Insectivores; PR - Predators; GR - Granivores; FR - Frugivores; OM - Omnivores

different kinds of nesting patterns, viz., cup nesters (11 spp.), cavity / hole nesters (10 sp.), platform nesters (5 sp.), pendant nesters (3 sp.) and ground nester (1 sp.) were recorded. The birds used a variety of nesting materials for nest construction and most preferred soft fibres, grasses, twigs, sticks and leaves (Table 2). The Common Myna used more than five different varieties of nesting materials (twigs, roots, leaves, polythene, bird feathers and snake skin) for nest construction. Birds such as the Red-wattled Lapwing, Rose-ringed Parakeet, Whitebreasted Kingfisher, Small Bee-eater and Indian Roller did not use nesting materials and the Barn Owl laid its eggs on regurgitated pellets (Table 2). Nest construction and placement are correlated with the breeding season, suitable nest sites, nesting materials availability, food availability and predator’s interaction (Dial 2003). In the present study 11 species constructed cup nests with various materials and in a variety of locations (trees, bushes and shrubs). Many passerines and a few non-passerines (White-breasted Waterhen and Palm Swift) built this type of nest. Cavity / hole nests were used by numerous bird species and most bred either in natural tree holes / cavities and holes in walls or buildings. Some birds, such as the Rose-ringed Parakeet constructed their own nests and are referred to as primary cavity nesters. Species that use natural cavities / holes constructed by primary cavity nesters are called secondary cavity nesters (mynas, roller, robins, spotted owlet). The White-breasted Kingfisher and the 1846

Small Bee-eater are burrow nesting species and they dig a horizontal tunnel into sandy river banks, with a chamber at the tunnel’s end to house the eggs. Platform nests were constructed by one raptor (Black Kite), two Columbiformes (Blue Rock Pigeon and Spotted Dove) and two crow species (House and Jungle crows). The Columbiformes constructed simple platform nests with small sticks and fibres. The Blue Rock Pigeon nests were man-made structures like temple towers and the Spotted Dove placed nests in small, thick vegetation and trees. The Black Kite and crows used strong sticks, fibres, roots, cloth, etc. and the nests were usually placed on tree canopy. The nests look like a jumble of materials, but the sticks are usually placed in layers, beginning with a triangle, followed by more rotated, triangular layers. The pendant nests were constructed by the Baya Weaver, Streaked Weaver and Purple-rumped Sunbirds. Pendant nests are elongated sacs woven of pliable materials such as grasses and soft plant fibres. The Baya Weaver mostly preferred Palm trees for nest construction and the Streaked Weaver preferred swampy and rain flooded areas, particularly where there were reeds and tall grasses. The Red-wattled Lapwing laid eggs in open bare ground. Most species laid pure white eggs or white with various colour combinations. A few species laid blue or blue green, red and brown coloured eggs. Generally white eggs are formed by calcium carbonate; the pigments biliverdin and its zinc chelate give a blue or green and protoporphyrin produces reds and browns as the ground

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A.M.S. Ali et al.

Table 2. List of nesting bird species, number of nests, nest-site, nest type, nest materials and eggs observed Species Black Kite

# nests 2

Nest-site

Nest type

Nest materials

Eggs

Clutch size

Tree canopy

Platform nest

Twigs, cloth, paper

Dirty pinkish-white

2-3 2-3

White-breasted Waterhen

2

Bushes

Cup nest

Twigs, leaves, small stems

Pinkish-white with reddish-brown streaks and blotches

Red-wattled Lapwing

2

Ground

Ground nest

….

Greyish-brown with black blotches

1-3

Blue Rock Pigeon

3

Temple towers

Platform nest

Small sticks, fibres

White

2-3

Spotted Dove

3

Bush, small trees

Platform nest

Twigs, sticks, fibres

White

2-3

Rose-ringed Parakeet

4

Tree holes

Hole nest

…..

White

2-4

Barn Owl

3

Temple towers

Hole nest

Regurgitated pellets

White

4-6

Spotted Owlet

3

Tree holes / cavities

Hole nest

Fibres

White

2-4

White

2-4

White

3-4

Asian Palm Swift

5

Trees (palm trees)

Cup nest

Soft flowers, feathers

White-breasted Kingfisher

9

Sandy river banks

Hole nest

None

Small Bee-eater

15

Sandy river banks

Hole nest

None

White

3-5

Indian Roller

4

Tree holes

Hole nest

…..

White

3-4

Paddyfield Pipit

3

Paddy fields

Cup nest

Soft grasses

Bluish-white with brown blotches and spots

2-3

Common Woodshrike

2

Trees

Cup nest

Barks, fibres

Pale greenish-white with brown speckles

2-3

Red-vented Bulbul

4

Trees

Cup nest

Fibres, twigs

Pinkish-white with purplish-brown blotches

2-3

Common Iora

2

Trees

Cup nest

Grasses, fibres

Pinkish-white with purplish-brown blotches

1-2

Oriental Magpie Robin

4

Wall, tree holes

Hole nest

Grasses, twigs, leaves

Pale blue green with reddish-brown blotches

3-4

Indian Robin

2

Wall, tree holes

Hole nest

Grasses, feather, straw

White

2-3

Common Babbler

4

Trees

Cup nest

Grasses, rootlets

Glossy blue

2-4

Ashy Prinia

2

Bushes

Cup nest

Fibres, small sticks

Glossy brick-red

2-4

Common Tailor Bird

3

Trees

Cup nest

Fibres, leaves, cotton wool

Reddish-white with brownish-red spots

2-3

Purple-rumped Sunbird

2

Trees, wall

Pendant nest

Grasses, fibres

Greenish-white with brown shades

2-3

Black-headed Munia

3

Bushes, shrubs

Cup nest

Grasses, fibres, straw

White

3-5

Baya Weaver

5

Trees

Pendant nest

Paddy leaves, grasses

White

2-4

Streaked Weaver

3

Reeds

Pendant nest

Paddy leaves, grasses

White

2-4

Brahminy Starling

3

Tree holes

Hole nest

Grasses, leaves

Pale blue

2-5

Blue

2-5

Common Myna

16

Tree holes / cavities

Hole nest

Twigs, roots, leaves, polythene, feathers, snake skin

Black Drongo

5

Trees

Cup nest

Twigs, fibres

White with red spots

2-4 4-5

3-5

House Crow

4

Trees

Platform nest

Twigs, fine cloth, coir, fibres

Pale blue green with brown speckles and stretches

Jungle Crow

3

Trees

Platform nest

Twigs, fine cloth, coir, fibres

Pale blue green with brown speckles and stretches

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Black Kite

Blue Rock Pigeon

Barn Owl

White-breasted Kingfisher

Paddyfield Pipit 1848

A.M.S. Ali et al.

White-breasted Waterhen

Spotted Dove

Spotted Owlet

Small Bee-eater

Common Woodshrike

Red-wattled Lapwing

Rose-ringed Parakeet

Asian Palm Swift

Indian Roller

Red-vented Bulbul

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Nesting patterns of avifauna

Commom Iora

Common Babbler

Baya Weaver

Common Myna

Jungle Crow

A.M.S. Ali et al.

Oriental Magpie Robin

Ashy Prinia

Streaked Weaver

Black Drongo

Indian Robin

Black-headed Munia

Brahminy Starling

House Crow

Image 1. Nest and eggs of bird’s species recorded in the study area

colour (Kilner 2006). Lack (1968) stated that egg colour had no taxonomic significance, but that did show a relationship with the type of nesting-site. For example the hole nesting species tended to have immaculate white eggs, ground nesters surrounded by vegetation laid eggs of obscured brown, gray or olive, those nesting in forks of tree branches had eggs with blotches or shadow-marks on a white or blue background.

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REFERENCES Ali, S. (2002). The Book of Indian Birds (13th Revised Edition). Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 326pp. Aravind, N.A., D. Rao & P.S. Madhusudan (2001). Additions to the birds of Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, Western Ghats, India. Zoos’ Print Journal 16(7): 541–547. Asokan, S. (1998a). Studies on perch related characteristics of some insectivorous birds in Mayiladuthurai. Journal of Ecotoxicology and Environmental Monitoring 8(2): 145–151. Asokan, S. (1998b). Food and feeding habits of the small Green Bee-eater Merops orientalis in Mayiladuthurai. Journal of Ecobiology 10(3): 199–204. Asokan, S., A.M.S. Ali & R. Manikannan (2009a). Nest-site selection and nestling growth patterns of the Common Myna, Acridotheres tristis (Linnaeus, 1766). Geobios 36: 65–70. Asokan, S., A.M.S. Ali & R. Manikannan (2009b). Diet of three insectivorous birds in Nagapattinam District, Tamil Nadu, India - a preliminary study. Journal of Threatened Taxa 1(6): 327–330. Asokan, S., A.M.S. Ali & R. Nagarajan (2008). Studies on nest construction and nest microclimate of the Baya Weaver Ploceus philippinus (Linn.). Journal of Environmental Biology 29(3): 393–396. Asokan, S., K. Thiyagesan & R. Nagarajan (2003). Studies on Merops orientalis Latham 1801 with special reference to its population in Mayiladuthurai, Tamil Nadu. Journal of Environmental Biology 24(4): 477-482. Balasundaram, C. & S. Rathi (2004). Avifaunal diversity of Tiruverumbur Taluk, Tamil Nadu. Zoos’ Print Journal 19(3): 1417–1421. Chandru, G. & S. Asokan (1999). Studies on the population and habitat utilization pattern of some birds of agriculture importance in and around Mannampandal area. Journal of EcoPhysiology 2(4): 105–108. Chhangani, A.K. (2002). Avifauna of Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, in the Aravalli hills of Rajasthan. Zoos’ Print Journal 17(4): 764–768. Dial, K.P. (2003). Evolution of avian locomotion: correlates of flight style, locomotors modules, nesting biology, body size, development and the origin of flapping flight. Auk 120: 941– 952. Dookia, S. (2002). A checklist of birds of New Campus, J.N.V. University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan. Zoos’ Print Journal 17(9): 883–885. Grimmet, R., C. Inskipp & T. Inskipp (1999). Pocket guide to the Birds of Indian Subcontinent. Oxford University Press, New Delhi. 384pp. Jayapal, V.R. (1995). Birds of Annamalai University Campus, T.N. Newsletter for Birdwatchers 35(1): 7–10. Kannan, R. (1998). Avifauna of the Anaimalai Hills (Western Ghats) of southern India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 95(2): 193–214. Kilner, R.M. (2006). The evolution of egg colour and patterning in birds. Biological Review 81: 383–406. Lack, D. (1968). Ecological adaptations for breeding in birds. 1850

Methuen, London, 409pp. Mahabal, A. (2000). Birds of Talra Wildlife Sanctuary in lower western Himalaya, H.P. with notes on their status and altitudinal movement. Zoos’ Print Journal 15(10): 334–338. Manakadan, R. & A. Pittie (2001). Standardized common and scientific names of the birds of the Indian subcontinent. Buceros 6(1): 1–37. Nameer, P.O., R. Resminair, K.R. Anoop, S.G. Nair, R. Leksmi, & P. Radhakrishnan (2000). Birds of Kerala Agriculture University Campus, Thrissur. Zoos’ Print Journal 15(4): 243–246. Neelanarayanan, P. (2007). Diet of barn owl Tyto alba stertens Hartert 1929 in a portion of Cauvery Delta, Tamil Nadu, India. Zoos’ Print Journal 22(8): 2777–2781. Oswin, D.S. (1999). Avifaunal diversity in Muthupet mangrove forest. Zoos’ Print Journal 14(6): 47–53. Pandav, B. (1997). Birds of Bhitarkanika mangroves, eastern India. Forktail 12: 7–17. Pettingill, O.S. Jr. (1985). Ornithology in Laboratory and Field. Academic Press, London, 403pp. Praveen, J. & J.K. Joseph (2006). A checklist of birds of the National Institute Technology Campus, Kozhikode, Kerala. Zoos’ Print Journal 21(6): 2298–2300. Ramitha, M. & K.K. Vijayalaxmi (2001). A checklist of birds in and around Mangalore University Campus, Karnataka. Zoos’ Print Journal 16(5): 489–492. Ravindran, P.K. (1995). The Kole Wetlands - an avian paradise in Kerala. Newsletter for Birdwatchers 35: 2–5. Reginald, L.J., C. Mahendran, S.S. Kumar & P. Pramod (2007). Birds of Singanallur Lake, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. Zoos’ Print Journal 22(12): 2944–2948. Relton, A. (1998). Threatened birds of Karaivetti Bird Sanctuary, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu. Newsletter for Birdwatchers 38(2): 21–22. Sahu, H.K. & S.D. Rout (2005). Checklist of water birds in Mayurbhanj District, Orissa. Zoos’ Print Journal 20(9): 1992– 1993. Sivakumar, S. & J.A. Jayabalan (2004). Observations on the breeding biology of Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus in Cauvery delta region. Zoos’ Print Journal 19(5): 1472–1474. Sivakumaran, N. & K. Thiyagesan (2003). Population, diurnal activity patterns and feeding ecology of the Indian Roller Coracias benghalensis. Zoos’ Print Journal 18(5): 1091– 1095. Sivaperuman, C. & E.A. Jayson (2000). Birds of Kole Wetlands, Thrissur, Kerala. Zoos’ Print Journal 15(10): 344–349. Soni, V.C., P. Sharma, S.M. Dave, K. Bhalodia and V. Vijayakumar (2004). Nesting ecology of some terrestrial birds in Rajkot city (Gujarat). Journal of Current Bioscience 2(1): 907–104. Sundar, K.S.P. (1998). Birds of Pondicherry University Campus. Newsletter for Birdwatchers 38(2): 22–23. Thiyagesan, K. (1991). Ecology of cavity nesting birds in and around Mayiladuthurai, Tamil Nadu, South India. PhD Thesis. Bharathidasan University, Thiruchirappalli (Unpublished).

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JoTT Short Communication

3(6): 1851–1855

Western Ghats Special Series

Length-weight relationship and condition factor of an endemic stone sucker, Garra gotyla stenorhynchus (Jerdon, 1849) from two opposite flowing rivers in southern Western Ghats Fibin Baby 1, Josin Tharian 2, Kurian Mathew Abraham 3, M.R. Ramprasanth 4, Anvar Ali 5 & Rajeev Raghavan 6 Conservation Research Group, St. Albert’s College, Kochi, Kerala 682018, India Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, St. John’s College, Anchal, Kerala 691306, India 3 Postgraduate and Research Department of Zoology, Mar Thoma College, Tiruvalla, Kerala 689103, India 6 Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NZ, United Kingdom Email: 1 fibinaqua@gmail.com, 2 josinc@gmail.com, 3 kurianma@gmail.com, 4 ramprasanthmanasam@gmail.com, 5 anvaraliif@gmail.com, 6 rajeevraq@hotmail.com (corresponding author) 1,2,4,5,6 2

The mathematical relationship between length and weight of fishes (LWR) is a practical index suitable for understanding their survival, growth, maturity, reproduction, and general well being (Le Cren 1951). Information on LWR also allows for morphological comparisons among species, or among populations

Date of publication (online): 26 June 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 June 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: Neelesh Dahanukar Manuscript details: Ms # o2535 Received 03 August 2010 Final revised received 30 April 2011 Finally accepted 12 May 2011 Citation: Baby, F., J. Tharian, K.M. Abraham, M.R. Ramprasanth, A. Ali & R. Raghavan (2011). Length-weight relationship and condition factor of an endemic stone sucker, Garra gotyla stenorhynchus (Jerdon, 1849) from two opposite flowing rivers in southern Western Ghats . Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(6): 1851–1855. Copyright: © Fibin Baby, Josin Tharian, Kurian Mathew Abraham, M.R. Ramprasanth, Anvar Ali & Rajeev Raghavan 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Acknowledgements: Our study was funded by a grant from the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF) through the Western Ghats Program. We are grateful to K.K. Srivastava (Chief Wildlife Warden, Department of Forests and Wildlife, Government of Kerala) for permits, and to Unnikrishnan (DFO, Nilambur South); V.P. Jayprakash (Range Officer, Karulai, Nilambur) and John Mathew (Assistant Wildlife Warden, Silent Valley National Park) for their help with the logistics. We also thank our colleagues at the conservation Research Group (CRG), St. Albert’s College (Kochi), Ratheesh, Prasobh, Simmy Solomon and Shylaja Menon for their help and assistance and to Benno Pereira for the facilities provided. OPEN ACCESS | FREE DOWNLOAD

Abstract: Length weight relationship (LWR) and condition factor were studied in Nilgiri Garra, Garra gotyla stenorhynchus (Jerdon), from the rivers Chaliyar and Bhavani flowing through the Western Ghats Biodiversity Hotspot. The regression equation for LWR of the Nilgiri Garra from Chaliyar River was estimated as Log Wt = 2.920 Log L – 1.854, while those from Bhavani River as Log Wt = 2.594 Log L – 1.538. Although, the ‘b’ value observed from west flowing Chaliyar River (2.920) was higher than that from east flowing Bhavani River (2.594), they were statistically insignificant. Similarly, the Condition Factor (K) was higher in Bhavani populations (2.177) compared to Chaliyar (2.087), but were also statistically insignificant. The results indicated that populations of G. gotyla stenorhynchus in Chaliyar River followed an isometric like growth pattern with ‘b’ values close to cubic law. However local populations of the same species in Bhavani River are under stress as indicated by comparatively lower ‘b values. This difference in ‘b’ value between the two river populations may be due to the differences in physical habitat features of the locations from where they were sampled, including altitude, physical habitat features, water quality and their combined influence on the availability of food materials as well as stock/ population differences and yet to be identified stressors. Keywords: Condition factor, Garra gotyla stenorhynchus, length weight relationship, Western Ghats.

of the same species from different habitats and/or regions (Moutopoulos & Stergiou 2002). Although estimating LWR is considered to be a regular research work of fisheries scientists (Froese 2006), such data

This article forms part of a special series on the Western Ghats of India, disseminating the results of work supported by the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF), a joint initiative of l’Agence Française de Développement, Conservation International, the Global Environment Facility, the Government of Japan, the MacArthur Foundation and the World Bank. A fundamental goal of CEPF is to ensure civil society is engaged in biodiversity conservation. Implementation of the CEPF investment program in the Western Ghats is led and coordinated by the Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE).

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are currently available only for a restricted number of species (Kulbicki et al. 2005), especially in the Western Ghats. The same paucity of data also applies for the information on Condition Factor (K), which compares the well being of a fish based on the hypothesis that heavier fish of a given length are in a better condition (Bagenal & Tesch 1978). The Nilgiri Garra Garra gotyla stenorhynchus (Jerdon, 1849) is an endemic stone sucker found in the streams of southern and central Western Ghats (Dahanukar et al. 2004). G. gotyla stenorhynchus is collected and exported to the international aquarium pet trade under the name Pincer-faced Algae Eater (Raghavan 2010), and is also eaten by tribes and local communities residing along the river basins where they occur (Daniels 2002). They are generally caught

along with other stream fishes, often using destructive fishing practices including dynamiting and poisoning. As with many endemic freshwater fish species of the Western Ghats, there is very little information on the various aspects of biology and population status of G. gotyla stenorhynchus in its native range. The only previous study on the LWR of this species (Kurup et al. 2002) is rather vague and does not mention the sampling locations. An attempt is therefore made to determine and compare the LWR and the condition factor of this endemic stone sucker from two major rivers in the southern Western Ghats. Methods Samples of G. gotyla stenorhynchus for the present study originated from two rivers - Bhavani

Kerala

Figure 1. Sampling sites in Bhavani River and Chaliyar River

Â

Table 1. Altitude and physical habitat features of the sampling sites No 1

Site Kanjirakkadavu

River Chaliyar

Altitude (m) 96

Microhabitat

Substrate Type

Pool riffle

Sand & pebble

2

Paanapuzha

Chaliyar

196

Pool riffle

Sand & cobble

3

Thudikki

Bhavani

1038

Cascade

Bed Rock

4

Mukkali

Bhavani

540

Rapid

Cobble

1852

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(proportionality constant) and ‘b’ (exponent) of the LWR were estimated by least square regression (Zar 1999). The null hypothesis that b = 3 was tested using t test as described by Zar (1999; pp.342). To test whether the power b, calculated as a slope of the log-log plot for weight and length, was different for two rivers, we used t test as described by Zar (1999; pp. 362). Fulton’s Condition factor (K) was determined using the formula K = 100 W/L3 following Tesch (1971), where W is the weight of the fish and L is the length of the fish. The use of electro-fishing as the sampling method meant that the total fish population of the area could be sampled, with minimum sampling errors, and without causing damage to the wildr stock. Size range of specimens from Bhavani River was from 6.10mm to 18.30mm, while those from Chaliyar River were 8.80mm to 16.47mm.

(east flowing) and Chaliyar (west flowing) (Fig. 1) of Western Ghats. Random samples were collected from various sites in the Bhavani drainage located in the Silent Valley National Park, and Chaliyar drainage located in the New Amarambalam Reserve Forest (Table 1). To avoid sampling bias, fish were captured by the same type of gear (backpack electro-shocker) and during the same season (between March and June 2010). Fish samples (n = 104; 60 from Bhavani and 44 from Chaliyar) were measured for their total length (TL) and wet body weight (WT) using digital calipers (0.01mm), and weight scale with 0.001g accuracy at the field and released back into the stream. The LWR was subsequently determined using the equation W = aLb (Pauly 1984) and logarithmically transformed into log W = log a + b log L where W is the weight of the fish in gram and L is the total length of the fish measured in millimeter. The parameters ‘a’

1.8

2.0 1.8

1.7

1.6

1.6

1.4

1.4

Log Wt

Log Wt

1.5

1.3 y = 2.9203x - 1.8545 r = 0.9694

1.2 1.1

1.2 1.0

0.6

1.0

0.4

0.9

0.2

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.0

1.1

1.1 Log Lt

1.2

1.2

Figure 2. Length weight relationship of Garra gotyla stenorhynchus from Chaliyar River

1.3

0.0

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0 Log Lt

1.1

1.2

1.3

Figure 3. Length weight relationship of Garra gotyla stenorhynchus from Bhavani River

3.0

4.0

2.8

3.5

2.6

3.0

2.4

2.5

2.2

2.0

2.0 1.8

1.5

1.6

1.0

1.4

0.5 0.0

y = 2.5949x - 1.5388 r = 0.9546

0.8

1.2 Bhavani

Chaliyar

Figure 4. Comparison of ‘b’ values of length weight relationship of G. gotyla stenorhynchus from two rivers

1.0

Bhavani

Chaliyar

Figure 5. Comparison of condition factor values of G. gotyla stenorhynchus from two rivers

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Length-weight of a Garra

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Results The LWR of G. gotyla stenorhynchus from Chaliyar River in the form of a regression equation was estimated as Log Wt = 2.920 Log L - 1.854 (Fig. 2), while those from Bhavani River as Log Wt = 2.594 Log L - 1.538 (Fig. 3). The ‘b’ value of Chaliyar River (2.9203, SE = 0.1141) was not significantly different from the cubic value as expected by isometry (t = -0.6987, df = 42, p = 0.4886). However, the ‘b’ value of Bhavani River (2.5949, SE = 0.1063) was significantly different from the expected cubic value (t = -3.8096, df = 58, p = 0.0003) indicating that the species does not grow isometrically in Bhavani River. Even though the ‘b’ value of G. gotyla stenorhynchus obtained from Chaliyar River was slightly higher than that obtained from Bhavani River (Fig. 4) the difference was not significant (t = -1.7583, df = 100, p = 0.0818). Although the condition factor (K) (Fig. 5) of G. gotyla stenorhynchus from Bhavani River showed higher values (2.177) than from Chaliyar (2.087), these were statistically insignificant (t = 0.339; p > 0.05). Discussion Exponent of the arithmetic form and the slope of the regression line in the logarithmic form, ‘b’ is the most important parameter in a LWR (Froese 2006). If ‘b = 3’, then small specimens in the samples under consideration have the same form and condition as large specimens. If ‘b > 3’, then large specimens have increased in height or width more than in length, either as the result of a notable ontogenetic change in body shape with size, which is rare, or because most large specimens in the sample were thicker than small specimens, which is common. Conversely, if ‘b < 3’, then large specimens have changed their body shape to become more elongated or small specimens were in better nutritional condition at the time of sampling (Froese 2006). Differences in ‘b’ values and its variations from the ideal ‘3’ can also arise due to variations in habitat, gonadal maturity and preservation techniques among others (Tesch 1971; Wooton 1990). Recent evidence also indicates that LWR is also subjected to evolutionary selection (Kharat et al. 2008). In the present study, we compared the LWR and condition factor of G. gotyla stenorhynchus from two different rivers of the Western Ghats, flowing in opposite directions - Bhavani (east flowing) and Chaliyar (west flowing). 1854

In the present study, ‘b’ value of G. gotyla stenorhynchus from Bhavani River was lower than (but not statistically significant) that from Chaliyar River. One of the reasons for this difference could be the specific habitat preference of the species. G. gotyla stenorhynchus may be more suited to the pool riffle microhabitats in lower elevation zones (90–200 m), when compared to the rapid and cascade type of microhabitat in the higher altitudes (500–1100 m). The energy expenditure of the species for mobility could also be higher in the high altitude cascade and rapid microhabitats when compared to the milder pool riffle habitats in low elevation zones. There are also possibilities that an unknown stressor exists in Bhavani River as is evident from the previous reports of skeletal deformities in freshwater fish species (Raj et al. 2004). However, we did not observe any such morphological changes in the samples of G. gotyla stenorhynchus from this river. It is known that the regression coefficients for flattened fishes including those within the genus Garra are lower than the other species (Martin-Smith 1996). This may reflect inherently higher variability in the body shape, greater sexual dimorphism, than for heavy-bodied fishes, seasonal changes in gonad development or some other undetermined factor (Martin-Smith 1996). A significant deviation from the cube law and an ‘r’ value of 0.88 has been earlier reported in G. gotyla stenorhynchus (Kurup et al. 2002). However, the authors did not provide any information on the ‘b’ value, and also as to from where the samples were collected, thereby making it impossible to make a detailed comparison. The same authors also reported that G. surendranathanii had an ‘r’ value of 0.73 and also showed deviation from the cube law (without mentioning the ‘b’ value), and G. periyarensis had an ‘r’ value of 0.96, and that the ‘b’ value (value not mentioned) did not significantly deviate from the ideal value of ‘3’ (Kurup et al. 2002). Both G. surendranathanii and G. periyarensis are endemic to the Kerala region of the Western Ghats. To the best of our knowledge, there is no other study on the LWR of G. gotyla stenorhynchus. The ‘b’ values obtained in the present study (2.92 and 2.59) are also higher than those obtained on two Southeast Asian species of stone suckers, G. borneensis (2.45) (MartinSmith et al 1996) and G. cambodgiensis (Mazlan et al. 2007). Although Jha et al. (2005) studied the LWR

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Length-weight of a Garra

of G. gotyla gotyla from Nepal, the authors have not provided any ‘b’ value in their results, making a comparison difficult. Condition factor is a useful index for the monitoring of feeding intensity, age, and growth rates in fish (Oni et al. 1983). It is strongly influenced by both biotic and abiotic environmental conditions and can therefore be used as an index to assess the status of the aquatic ecosystem in which fish live (Anene 2005). Although the condition factor of G. gotyla stenorhynchus from Bhavani River was higher than from Chaliyar River (2.087), these were statistically insignificant. The K values of G. gotyla stenorhynchus are however lower than those obtained for G. cambodgiensis from northern Malaysia (Mazlan et al. 2007). The results of the present study indicate that populations of G. gotyla stenorhynchus in Chaliyar River follow an isometric like growth pattern with ‘b’ values close to cubic law and that local populations of the same species in Bhavani River have a lower ‘b value, deviating from the ideal ‘3’. However, there was no significant difference in the condition factor of the species between the two rivers.

References Anene, A. (2005). Condition factor of four Cichlid species of a man-made lake in Imo State, Southeastern Nigeria. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 5: 43–47. Raj, J.A., S. Seetharaman & M.A. Haniffa (2004). Skeletal deformities in a few freshwater fishes from Bhavani River, Tamil Nadu. Zoos’ Print Journal 19(9): 1628–1629. Bagenal, T.B. & F.W. Tesch (1978). Age and growth, pp. 101– 136. In: Begenal, T. (ed.). Methods for Assessment of Fish Production in Fresh Waters—3rd Edition. IBP Handbook No. 3, Blackwell Science Publications, Oxford, 365pp. Dahanukar, N., R. Raut & A. Bhat (2004). Distribution, endemism and threat status of freshwater fishes in the Western Ghats of India. Journal of Biogeography 31: 123– 136. Daniels, R.J.R. (2002). Freshwater Fishes of Peninsular India. Universities Press (India) Private Limited, 288pp. Froese, R. (2006). Cube law, condition factor and weight–length relationships: history, meta-analysis and recommendations. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 22: 241–253. Jha, B.R., H. Waidbache, S. Sharma & M. Straif (2005). Length weight relationship of Sucker head, Garra gotyla gotyla (Gray, 1830) in different rivers of Nepal and the influence of Monsoon. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 2(2): 147–153.

F. Baby et al.

Jerdon, T.C. (1849). On the fresh-water fishes of southern India. Madras Journal of Literature and Science 15(2): 302–346. Kharat, S.S., Y.K. Khillare & N. Dahanukar (2008). Allometric scaling in growth and reproduction of a freshwater loach Nemacheilus mooreh (Sykes, 1839). Electronic Journal of Ichthyology 4(1): 8–17. Kulbicki, M., N. Guillemot & M. Amand (2005). A general approach to length–weight relationships for new caledonian lagoon fishes. Cybium 29: 235–252. Kurup, B.M., K.V. Radhakrishnan & C.J. Euphrasia (2002). Length weight relationship of some of the endangered and critically endangered freshwater fishes of Kerala part of the Western Ghats. In: Life History Traits Of Freshwater Fish Population For Its Utilization In Conservation. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources (NBGFR)-National Agricultural Technology Program (NATP) Publication No 4. Lucknow, India, AA2 1-4. Le Cren, E.D. (1951). The length weight relationship and seasonal cycle in gonad weight and condition in the perch (Perca fluviatilis). Journal of Animal Ecology 20: 210– 239. Martin-Smith, K.M. (1996). Length/weight relationships of fishes in a diverse tropical fresh-water community, Sabah, Malaysia. Journal of Fish Biology 49: 731–734. Mazlan, A.G., A. Samat, A. Amirrudin & R. Balagurunathan (2007). Aspects on the biology of Garra cambodgiensis and Mystacoleucus marginatus (Cyprinidae) from Ulu Dungun, Terengganu. Malaysian Applied Biology Journal 36(1): 67–72. Moutopoulos, D.K & K.I. Stergiou (2002). Length-weight and length-length relationships of fish species from the Aegean Sea (Greece). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 18: 200–203. Oni, S.K., J. Y. Olayemi & J. D. Adegboye (1983). Comparative physiology of three ecologically distinct freshwater fishes, Alestes nurse Ruppell, Synodontis schall Bloch and S. schneider and Tilapia zilli Gervais. Journal of Fish Biology 22: 105–109. Pauly, D. (1984). Fish Population Dynamics in Tropical Waters: A Manual for Use With Programmable Calculator. ICLARM Studies and Reviews, Manila, Philippines, 8: 325pp. Raghavan, R. (2010). Ornamental fisheries and trade in Kerala, pp. 169–187. In: Sonnenschein, L. & A. Benziger (eds.). Conservation of Fishes in Kerala, India. World Aquarium, St. Louis, 294pp. Tesch, F.W. (1971). Age and growth, pp. 98–130. In: Ricker, W.E. (ed.). Methods for Assessment of Fish Production in Fresh Waters. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. Wooton, R.J. (1990). Ecology of Teleost Fishes. Chapman and Hall, London, 404pp. Zar, J.H. (1999). Biostatistical Analysis. Fourth edition. Pearson Education, India, 929pp.

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JoTT Short Communication

3(6): 1856–1861

Distribution of aquatic insects in phumdis (floating island) of Loktak Lake, Manipur, northeastern India Kiranbala Takhelmayum 1 & Susmita Gupta 2 Department of Ecology & Environmental Science, Assam University, Silchar, Assam 788011, India Email: 1 kirantakhelmayum@yahoo.com, 2 susmita_au@rediffmail.com (corresponding author)

1,2

Abstract: A study was made on the temporal fluctuations of distribution of aquatic insects around Phumdi Live (PL), Phumdi Mixed (PM) and Phumdi Dry (PD) areas of Loktak Lake. Phumdis are a heterogeneous mass of soil, vegetation and organic matter. The study revealed the presence of predators, and the absence of herbivores and detritivores in both PL and PM, the PD area was totally devoid of insects. Although both the habitats supported the same predator groups hemiptera and odonata, diversity and density in terms of family and species were higher in PL than in PM. Temporal fluctuations revealed that the ShannonWeiner’s Diversity Index values were highest in June for both PL (0.726) and PM (0.47). In both the sites the highest density was recorded in February. The relative abundance of hemiptera was higher than that of odonata in most of the months in PL. Phumdi Mixed was represented by one species of hemiptera only, in the month of February and dominated by odonates otherwise. Community composition of odonata larvae did not show any difference between the two habitats. Although the study revealed low diversity and density of insects in both sites, the PL community provided a better habitat to aquatic insects than that of PM. These are of value as fish food and in turn for fish production. Keywords: Phumdis, hemiptera, odonata, Loktak Lake, insect, diversity, density.

Date of publication (online): 26 June 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 June 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: R. Ramanibai Manuscript details: Ms # o2526 Received 26 July 2010 Final revised received 04 January 2011 Finally accepted 18 May 2011 Citation: Takhelmayum, K. & S. Gupta (2011). Distribution of aquatic insects in phumdis (floating island) of Loktak Lake, Manipur, northeastern India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(6): 1856–1861. Copyright: © Kiranbala Takhelmayum & Susmita Gupta 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Acknowledgements: The authors wish to thank Prof. Rajmuhon Singh, Department of Chemistry, Manipur University, Manipur, India, for his help and cooperation during the field and laboratory studies. Sincere thanks go to Dr. Animesh Bal, Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata for his help in hemipteran insect identification. OPEN ACCESS | FREE DOWNLOAD

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Loktak Lake, a Ramsar site, (93046’–93055’E & 24 25’–24042’N) is the largest fresh water lake (26km long and 13km wide with 980km2 catchment area) in the Manipur State of northeastern India (Fig. 1). The unique feature of the lake is the floating island called phumdis which form the Kaibul Lamjao National Park (the only home of Rucervus eldii eldii). Phumdis, are a heterogeneous mass of soil, vegetation and organic matter at various stages of decomposition (Image 1). They float on lake water with about one-fifth of thickness above and four-fifths under the water surface appearing in three distinct vertical zones, lying one above the other. The uppermost root zone is generally 0–15 cm thick followed by the next mat zone of 25– 65 cm and the lowermost peat zone 0–25 cm. Freefloating plants, such as water hyacinth and partly decomposed roots and rhizomes contribute greatly to its development. There are three types of phumdis. They are Phumdi Live (PL) mostly consisting of paragrass like Brachairia mutica, Alternathara phitoxiroides and plants like Salvinia calcullata, Cyperus difformis and Heydichium spicatum etc; Phumdi Mixed (PM) comprising both live and dry paragrass and plants, and Phumdi Dry (PD) comprising dead, dry paragrass and plants (Singh et al. 2003). Phumdis provide a biological sink to the key nutrients and govern the water quality and nutrient dynamics of the lake by absorbing most of the nutrients and accumulating them in their tissues (WISA & LDA 2002). Faunal distribution and their assemblage is strongly dependent on the composition and structure of vegetation (Korkeamaki & Suhonen 2002) and invertebrates are recognized as an essential food source for nesting and juvenile water fowl, fish, and amphibians in wetland systems (Swanson et al. 1979; Batzer et al. 1999). There are several studies on invertebrates, mainly aquatic insects in different fresh water systems or aquatic insects associated with individual plant species or with the plant community 0

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Aquatic insects in phumdis of Loktak Lake

K. Takhelmayum & S. Gupta

Imphal West District

Bishnupur District Senapati District

Image 1. Phumdis (floating mat) of Loktak Lake

Chura-chandpur District

Thoubal District

Figure 1. Loktak map, Manipur (source - Envis Centre in Biogeochemistry, J.N.U, New Delhi)

(Wellborn & Robinson 1987; Parsons & Malthews 1995; Das & Gupta 2010; Hazarika & Goswami 2010). No study on the insects of Loktak Lake is on record. In this study we attempt to find the temporal fluctuations of distribution of aquatic insects around different types of phumdis of Loktak Lake in terms of diversity and density. Extrapolation of this data might be of help to the planners in chalking out fish culture and lake management programmes. Materials and Methods Aquatic insects were collected from the southwestern region of the lake through an extensive survey around the PL, PM and PD habitats during February to July, 2008 whereby the vegetation was disturbed and a circular net (mesh size 60µm) was dragged around the vegetation for one minute (Subramanian & Sivaramakrishnan 2007). Three such drags constituted a sample. Collected insects were immediately sorted and preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol. They were later identified using a Dewinter advance stereozoom

Microscope with the help of standard keys (Kumar 1973a,b; Bal & Basu 1994a,b; Westfall & Tennessen 1996; ZSI 2004). A number of identified insects were confirmed in the entomological laboratory of the Zoological Survey of India. Diversity indices were worked out using the package Biodiversity Professional Version 2. Results and Discussion PL and PM areas were represented by two orders of insects, Hemiptera and Odonata; the PD area was devoid of insects. Seven species belonging to four families were recorded around PL. They were Ranatra varipes and Laccotrephes ruber (Nepidae), Gerris sp. (Gerridae), Diplonychus rusticus (Belostomatidae) belonging to the suborder Heteroptera, order Hemiptera and Tramea sp., Leucorrhinia sp., Sympetrum sp. belonging to the family Libellulidae of the suborder Anisoptera, order Odonata (Images 2 a–g). Around PM only four species belonging to two families, and two subfamilies were recorded. They were Diplonychus rusticus belonging to the family Belostomatidae and all three Odonata species recorded in PL. Among the families, Libellulidae was the most prominent, being present throughout in both sites (Table 1). The Shannon-Weiner’s Diversity Index values around PL were relatively higher in most of the months than that of PM. In both sites, Shannon H’ were highest in June, 0.726 for PL and 0.47 for PM. Around PL, the highest evenness was recorded in March and the lowest in July, while the Berger Parker Dominance index was just the reverse. In contrast, around PM the highest evenness was recorded in June and the lowest in April

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Aquatic insects in phumdis of Loktak Lake

K. Takhelmayum & S. Gupta

Table 1. Distribution of aquatic insects around Phumdi Live (PL) and Phumdi Mixed (PM) area of Loktak Lake. Order

Hemiptera

Odonata

Family / subfamily

Species

Nepidae Ranantrinae Nepinae

PL

PM

Ranatra varipes

+

-

Laccotrephes ruber

+

-

Gerridae Gerrinae

Gerris sp.

Belostomatidae Belostomatinae

Diplonychus rusticus

+

+

Libellulidae Trameinae

Tramea sp.

+

+

Leucorrhininae

Leucorrhinia sp.

Sympetrinae

+

Sympetrum sp.

+ +

-

+

Table 2. Temporal variation of Shannon Weiner diversity index (Hâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; ), Evenness index (J) and Berger Parker index of dominance (d) around Phumdi Live (PL) and Phumdi Mixed (PM) habitat of Loktak Lake Habitat

PL

PM

+

Diversity index

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

H'

0.714

0.598

0.657

0.292

0.726

0.353

J'

0.918

0.993

0.94

0.971

0.933

0.739

d

0.313

0.286

0.319

0.6

0.308

0.688

1/d

3.2

3.5

3.133

1.667

3.25

1.455

H'

0.423

0.292

0.398

0.426

0.47

0

J'

0.886

0.971

0.834

0.893

0.985

0

d

0.48

0.6

0.545

0.556

0.375

0

1/d

2.083

1.667

1.833

1.8

2.667

0

Image 2a. Ranatra varipes

Image 2d. Leucorrhinia sp. Image 2c. Laccotrephes ruber

Image 2b. Gerris sp.

Image 2g. Diplonychus rusticus Image 2f. Sympetrum sp. Image 2e. Tramea sp.

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Aquatic insects in phumdis of Loktak Lake 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

K. Takhelmayum & S. Gupta

Hemiptera

Feb

Mar

Apr

May Jun

PL

Jul

Feb

Mar

Apr May

Odonata

Jun

Jul

PM

Figure 2. Temporal fluctuation of density (no./unit time) of two orders of insects around Phumdi Live (PL) and Phumdi Mixed (PM) area.

(Table 2). The density of insects for both the orders was recorded the highest in February and the lowest in May in the PL area. Around PM, while Odonata was recorded throughout with the highest density in May, hemipterans were present only in the month of February (Fig. 2). The Loktak Lake has been declared as a Ramsar site because of its floating mass of vegetation phumdis, large water fowl population and unique fish breeding ground below the phumdis. It was also included in the Montreux Record, in 1993, due to several ecological problems (Ramsar Convention Bureau 1997). This study recorded low diversity and density of insects in both sites compared to other fresh water lakes like Kanjli Lake (Kaur et al. 2004) and Harike Wetland (Bath & Kaur 1997) in Punjab. The study revealed the presence of only predators in both sites while herbivores-detritivores were totally absent. The absence of sensitive groups like Ephemeroptera in both sites might be an indication of perturbations of the system (Rosenberg & Resh 1993). Another important factor could be predation pressure as aquatic insects are the food of insectivorous fishes, and are an important component in the diets of both nesting and juvenile waterfowl. Lake Loktak supports a significant population of water fowl and harbours a variety of air breathing insectivorous fish (Singh 1992; Singh 1999). The study recorded qualitative and quantitative differences in insect communities between the two sites, PL and PM, during the investigation period. It also recorded an absence of insects around PD. As availability of invertebrates depends on the availability of high quality plant habitat (Swanson et al. 1979) and plants are utilized by aquatic insects directly as a food source, sites for oviposition, and sources of respiratory

Â

oxygen (Rooke 1984) it could be said that the PD area comprising of dead and dry plants could not meet  their requirements for survival. Higher diversity and density of aquatic insects in PL than in PM could be attributed to the luxuriant vegetation of the PL area which might have attracted more insects that looked for refuge, oviposition site and food, as their assemblage is strongly dependent on the composition, structure and greater surface area provided by the vegetation types (Merritt & Cummins 1996; Korkeamaki & Suhonen 2002). Further local distribution patterns of macro-invertebrate communities could be significantly influenced by the competitors and predators of the particular habitat (Hart & Resh 1980). The PM area being composed of dry and live plants was not a good foraging ground for the predators. The presence of only Diplonycus rusticus in PM in the month of February in a much higher number than that in PL, mostly male with eggs on their back, could be due to the fact that the males looked for a safe area where predator pressure might be comparatively less for protecting their heavy egg mass laid by their female partners which made them less mobile reducing their foraging ability and increasing susceptibility to predators (Mc Gavin 1993; Kight et al.1995). Chilton (1990) also suggested that the close proximity of differing plant communities could allow for emigration and immigration of invertebrates between macrophytes. High association of Odonates with vegetation in aquatic systems has been recorded by several workers (Muli et al. 2000; Salmah et al. 2006). The absence of differences in the community composition of Odonata larvae during the investigation period between the two habitats agreed with the study on the three genera of Namibian Libellulidae (Frank et al. 2005). However, Odonata population was low in the PM area in most of the months and showed temporal fluctuation in both the sites. In May while their population decreased in PL, representing only Sympetrum sp., in PM it increased with the presence of all the three species. This variability of population could be attributed to several factors like mortality, hatching of eggs, emergence, predation and availability of food. Preponderance of family Libellulidae in both the sites may be due to the fact that it is the largest family of Odonata, tolerant to several anthropogenic impacts and armed with long mid dorsal and lateral spines for avoiding predators. Among the Hemipterans, larger

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Aquatic insects in phumdis of Loktak Lake

K. Takhelmayum & S. Gupta

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Feb

Mar

Apr PL

May

Jun

Ra

La

Jul Ge

Feb Di

Tr

representation of the family Nepidae in the PL area could be due to the fact that they usually inhabit lentic water where there is plenty of plant material for them to hold as they lie in wait for capturing prey (Usinger 1968; McCafferty 1981). The percentage of relative abundance of different species in the two habitats clearly indicated the preference of Hemipteran insects for PL. Although odonates did not show any differences in the community composition between the two habitats, temporal fluctuations in the percentage of relative abundance of different species were recorded. The absence of Leucorrhinia sp. till the month of June and the sudden recruitment in large number with the highest percentage of relative abundance in the month of July around PL could not be explained. However around PM their continuous increase in percentage relative abundance from February to May, and slight decrease in June indicated their preference for PM (Fig. 3). The importance of phumdis in maintaining the ecology of the lake has been opined by several workers (Shyamjai 2002; WISA & LDA 2002). Our study confirmed that the Phumdi Live community of the lake comprising of macrophytes and fresh plants provided better habitat to aquatic insects than that of Phumdi Mixed, which are of value as fish food and in turn fish production. This link between aquatic insects and fish production could perhaps be exploited for better economy of the state. References Bath, K.S. & H. Kaur (1997). Aquatic insects as bioindicators at Harike reservoir in Punjab-India. Indian Journal of 1860

Mar

Apr

Le

Sy

May PM

Jun

Jul

Figure 3. Temporal fluctuation of percentage relative abundance of different species of insects around Phumdi Live (PL) and Phumdi Mixed (PM) area. Ra - Ranatra varipes, La - Laccotrephes ruber, Ge - Gerris sp., Di - Diplonychus rusticus, Tr - Tramea sp., Le - Leucorrhinia sp., Sy - Sympetrum sp.

Environmental Science 2: 133–138 Bal, A. & R.C. Basu (1994a). Insecta: Hemiptera: Mesovelidae, Hydrometridae, Velidae and Gerridae, pp. 511–534. In: State Fauna Series 3: Fauna of West Bengal, Part 5. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta. Bal, A. & R.C. Basu (1994b). Insecta: Hemiptera: Belostomatidae, Nepidae, Notonectidae and Pleidae, pp. 535–558 pp. In: State fauna series 5: Fauna of West Bengal. Part 5. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta. Batzer, D.P., R.B. Rader & S.A. Wissinger (1999). Invertebrates in Freshwater Wetlands of North America; Ecology and Management. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1086pp. Chilton, E.W. (1990). Macroinvertebrate communities associated with three aquatic macrophytes (Ceratophyllum demersum, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Vallisneria americana) in Lake Onalaska, Wisconsin. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 5: 455–466. Das, K. & S. Gupta (2010). Aquatic hemiptera community of agricultural fields and rainpools in Cachar District, Assam, north east India. Assam University Journal of Science & Technolgy: Biological and Environmental Sciences 5(1): 123–128 Frank, S., S. Goran, K. Judith & G. Dunja (2005). Behavioural and life history traits in temporary and perennial waters: comparisons among three pairs of sibling dragonfly species. Oikos 108: 609–617. Hart, D.D. & V.H. Resh (1980). Movement patterns and foraging ecology of a stream caddisfly larva. Canadian Journal of Zoology 58: 1174–1185 Hazarika, R. & M.M. Goswami (2010). Aquatic hemiptera of Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(3): 778–782. Kaur, H., K.S. Bath, G. Moder & S.S. Dhillon (2004). Aquatic Invertebrate Diversity of Kanjli Lake, Punjab. Biodiversity and Environment 165–169. Kight, S.L., J. Sprague, K.C. Kruse & L. Johnson (1995). Are egg-bearing male water bugs, Belostoma flumineum, impaired swimmers?  Journal of Kansas Entomogical Society 68: 468–470.

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Korkeamaki, E. & J. Suhonen (2002). Distribution and habitat specialization of species affect local extinction in dragonfly odonata populations. Ecography 25: 459– 465. Kumar, A. (1973a). Descriptions of the last instar larvae of odonata from the Dehra Dun Valley (India), with notes on biology І (Suborder: Zygoptera). Oriental Insects 7 : 23–61. Kumar, A. (1973b). Descriptions of the last instar larvae of Odonata from the Dehra Dun Valley (India), with notes on biology І І. (Suborder: Anisoptera). Oriental Insects 7: 291–331. McCafferty, W. (1981). Aquatic Entomology. Boston (MA): Science Books International, Inc., 448pp. McGavin, G.C. (1993). Bugs of the World. Blandford, London, 193pp Merritt, R.W. & K.W. Cummins (1996). An introduction to the aquatic insects of North America. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque Iowa, 862pp. Muli, J.R., K.M. Mavuti & Ntiba (2000). Macro– invertebrate fauna of water hyacinth in the Kenyan water of Lake Victoria. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Science 26 : 281–302. Parsons, J.K. & F.A. Malthews (1995). Analysis of the associations between macroinvertebrates and macrophytes in a freshwater pond. North west Science 69: 265–275. Ramsar Convention Bureau (1997). Ramsar information paper. IUCN The World Conservation Union, Island, Switzerland, 1–14. Rooke, J.B. (1984). The invertebrate fauna of four macrophytes in a lotic system. Freshwater Biology 14: 507–513. Rosenberg, D.M. & V.H. Resh (1993). Freshwater Biomonitoring and Benthic Invertebrates. New York, Chapman and Hall, 448pp. Salmah, C.R., S.W. Tribuana & A.A. Hassan (2006). The population of Odonata (dragonflies) in small tropical rivers with reference to asynchronous growth patterns Aquatic Insects 28: 195–209. Shyamjai, S.S. (2002). Vegetation and phumdi of Keibul Lamjao National Park, pp. 29–36. In: Trishal C.L & T.H.

K. Takhelmayum & S. Gupta

Manihar (eds.). Management of Phumdis in Loktak Lake. Proceedings of a workshop held at Imphal, Manipur. Singh, H.T. (1992). Study of wetland ecosystem of Manipur valley from management perspective of fish, wildlife and environment. Final Report, Department of Science and Technology, Government of India. Singh, S.R.K. (1999). Project Report of Survey, Documentation and Validation of Infra - Technologies for Fishing Crafts and Gears, Government of India. Singh, T.S., J.G. Patel, G.S. Rajkumari, N.S. Singh, C.B. Santhosh & T.H. Manihar (2003). Wetland information systems for conservation and management of Loktak Lake, a project report. Subramanian, K.A. & K.G. Sivaramakrishnan (2007). Aquatic Insects for Biomonitoring Freshwater Ecosystems - A Methodology Manual. Asoka Trust for Research in Ecology and Environment (ATREE), Bangalore, India, 31pp Swanson, G.A., G.L. Krapu & J.R. Serie (1979). Foods of laying female dabbling ducks on the breeding grounds, pp. 47–57. In: Bookhout, T.A. (ed.). Waterfowl and wetlands - An integrated review, Proceedings of the Symposium, North Central Section of The Wildlife Society. Usinger, R. (1968). Aquatic insects of California. Los Angelos (CA): University of California Press, 507pp. Wellborn, G.A. & J.V. Robinson (1987). Microhabitat selection as an antipredator strategy in the aquatic insect Pachydiplax longipennis Burmeister (Odonata: Libellulidae). Oecologia 71: 185–189. Westfall, M.J. Jr. & K.J. Tennessen (1996). Odonata, pp. 164–211. In: Merrit, R.W. & K.W. Cummins (eds). An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America—3rd Edition. Kendell/Hunt Publishing Company. Dubuque, Iowa. WISA & LDA (2002). Management of Phumdis in Loktak Lake, pp. 9–23. In: Trisal, C.L & T.H. Manihar (eds.). Proceedings of a Workshop held at Imphal, Manipur. ZSI (2004). State Fauna Series 10: Fauna of Manipur, (Part-2) Insects. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, 625pp.

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On the presence of Long-billed Plovers Charadrius placidus in Rupa, Arunachal Pradesh in the summer months Manari Greeshma C/o Lt. Colonel S. Sarkar, Military Hospital Hisar, Haryana 900383, India Email: greeshma6@gmail.com

The Long-billed Plover is an East Asian bird, with a known distribution from Ussuri in southeastern Siberia, Russia, through North Korea and Japan to central China. Within the Indian subregion, it is known as a winter visitor to the eastern Himalaya and northeastern India, from northern Uttar Pradesh to the Assam Valley and Manipur; there are also a number of sight reports from Bangladesh and from Delhi to Sri Lanka and the Andamans (Rasmussen & Anderton 2005). From India it is reported as a winter visitor (Grimmett et al. 1999; Grewal et al. 2002; Rasmussen & Anderton 2005). According to Clements (2010), the species has three known breeding populations: the first in central China; the second in southeastern Siberia (Ussuri land and far eastern Russia), northeastern China and North Korea and the third on the Japanese islands of Honshu and Shikoku. Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) state that it breeds from northeastern Asia to southwestern

Date of publication (online): 26 June 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 June 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: Ramana Athreya Manuscript details: Ms # o2742 Received 31 March 2011 Finally accepted 02 May 2011 Citation: Greeshma, M. (2011). On the presence of Long-billed Plovers Charadrius placidus in Rupa, Arunachal Pradesh in the summer months. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(6): 1862–1863. Copyright: © Manari Greeshma 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Acknowledgements: I am thankful to Mr. Rohan Kamath, Pune, Maharashtra for identifying the bird and pointing me in the right direction vis-à-vis their breeding areas and my husband Lt Colonel Satyasom Sarkar for his support. OPEN ACCESS | FREE DOWNLOAD

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China and possibly southeastern Tibet. Materials and Methods: Riverine shingle beds below the helipad in Rupa (27011’60”N & 92024’E, 1800m), West Kameng District, Arunachal Pradesh, India, were visited frequently at dawn during 2009 and 2010. The frequency depended upon the highly unpredictable weather in that area, as well as other concerns. However, it is safe to say, that the area was visited at least once a week throughout the two years, except during long absences from the area in January 2010, April 2010, August–September 2010. During the first year, birds were photographed opportunistically and identified. By the winter of 2009, it emerged that the plovers observed through the summer months were Long-billed Plovers that were not known to spend the summer months in South Asia. Therefore, close observations were made through the summer of 2010, especially in June and July. On every visit during 2010, one to three individuals of the Long-billed Plover were observed. They were rather wary and did not permit a close approach. Since they were always found in the same general area, it was assumed that they were residents there. It was not possible to ascertain whether these three individuals constituted a breeding unit or not since a proper search for their nesting sites was not made. Lacking suitable equipment for observing the birds without disturbing them, it was not possible to discover any nesting sites and rather than risk disturbing the birds and potentially driving them away by manually searching for their nests, it was thought better to leave them alone and confirm their breeding status at a later date when appropriate equipment is available. However, they were photographed (Images 1–3) to confirm their identity. Through the months of May–July 2010 three separate individuals were observed inhabiting the shingle banks of the river and feeding in their typical solitary and unobtrusive fashion. Often they were seen singly but sometimes a pair was observed, foraging together and exhibiting other behaviour characteristic of pairs such as staying in close proximity to each other, reacting to threats or danger simultaneously, calling to each other. However, this behaviour could also have been unintentional.

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Breeding Long-billed Plovers in India

Image 1. Charadrius placidus - June 2010 (Rupa)

Manari Greeshma

Image 2 . Charadrius placidus July 2010 (Rupa)

Discussion: Long-billed Plovers are known to breed on riverine gravel bars (Anonymous 2009; Katayama et al. 2009). The habitat they have been observed in during the present study perfectly matches the above descriptions of their breeding requirements and it is therefore not unlikely that the individuals observed in Rupa constitute a small breeding population of the species. The individuals were present over a period of two consecutive years, strongly suggesting that they are residents rather than migrants. In any event, they were certainly not injured or otherwise incapacitated birds that were unable to complete the migration to their known summer breeding grounds in Eastern Asia, but a group of birds that prefers to reside in Rupa throughout the year rather than migrate to more favourable summering sites. Conclusion: Individuals of the Long-billed Plover found on the riverine shingle beds below the town of Rupa, Arunachal Pradesh, India, appear to be year round residents in the area. It is not unlikely that they breed in Rupa in summer and would therefore

Image 3. Charadrius placidus - July 2010 (Rupa)

constitute the only known breeding colony of this species in South Asia.

REFERENCES Anonymous (2009). The rivers are alive! Birds Korea. www. birdskorea.or.kr. Accessed on 25.x.2010. Clements, J.F. (2010). The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World. 6th Edition - with updates to December 2010. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. < http://www.birds.cornell.edu/ clementschecklist/Clements%206.5.xls/view> Grewal, B., B. Harvey & O. Pfister (2002). A Photographic Guide to The Birds of India. Periplus. Editions (HK) Ltd. Singapore, 512pp. Grimmet, R., C. Inskipp & T. Inskipp (1999). Pocket Guide to the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent. Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 84pp. Katayama, N., T. Amano & S. Ohori (2009). The effects of gravel bar construction on breeding Long-billed Plovers. Waterbirds 33(2): 162–168. Rasmussen, P.C. & J.C. Anderton (2005). Birds of South Asia. The Ripley Guide, Vol. 2. Smithsonian Institution and Lynx Edicions, Washington, D.C. & Barcelona, 375pp.

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Reproduction of the threatened Annual Killifish Austrolebias nigrofasciatus (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae), confined in a natural environment M.V. Volcan 1, A.P. Fonseca 2 & R.B. Robaldo 3 Instituto Pró-Pampa (IPPampa), Laboratório de Ictiologia. Rua Gomes Carneiro, 1043, bairro centro, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. 2 Programa de Pós-Graduação em Aqüicultura, Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG). Avenida Cassino, 2001, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. 3 Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPEL). Rua Cinco, 300, Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Email: 1 matheusvolcan@hotmail.com (corresponding author), 2 alincaf@gmail.com, 3 ricardo.robaldo@pq.cnpq.br 1

Annual killifishes are found in seasonal wetlands that tend to dry up at certain times of the year (Costa 2002). There are 324 species belonging to the Rivulidae family, and their distribution extends from southern North America through southern South America (Costa 2008). Austrolebias is the second most representative genus of annual fishes, with 34 recorded species (Costa 2008). Studies have shown that killifishes have elaborate reproductive behavior, mainly associated with the marked sexual dimorphism of the species (Belote &

Date of publication (online): 26 June 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 June 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: Neelesh Dahanukar Manuscript details: Ms # o2575 Received 18 September 2010 Final revised received 07 May 2011 Finally accepted 06 June 2011

Costa 2004; Garcia et al. 2008). However, little is known about their reproduction in their natural environment (Arenzon et al. 1999; Shibatta 2005). In Brazil, the annual fishes are considered one of the most threatened groups of vertebrates (Rosa & Lima 2008). Regarding the possible strategies for ensuring Rivulidae conservation, several authors stress the importance of conducting studies aimed to improve the knowledge on the biology and ecology of these species (Reis et al. 2003; Rosa & Lima 2008; Volcan et al. 2010). Reproductive success depends on timing, location and resource availability (Wootton 1990), and data on fish fecundity is important for estimating reproductive potential. Egg size influences the fitness of mothers and offspring (Bernardo 1996), being an important determinants of egg and larval quality that is positively correlated with egg and fry survival and larval growth rate (Gall 1975; Chambers 1997). Large young have among other things wider mouth gape, longer visual reactive distance and greater swimming speed than smaller conspecifics (Blaxter 1986; Miller et al. 1988). Austrolebias nigrofasciatus Costa & Cheffe, 2001 (Image 1) is a threatened annual fish, endemic to the waters of São Gonçalo channel, Patos-Mirim lagoon system and their tributaries, in southern Brazil (Reis et al. 2003; Rosa & Lima 2008; Volcan et al. 2009). The purpose of current investigation was to study the reproduction of A. nigrofasciatus confined in small cages in their biotope. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in a seasonal wetland (31048’25”S & 52025’11”W) in an

Citation: Volcan, M.V., A.P. Fonseca & R.B. Robaldo (2011). Reproduction of the threatened Annual Killifish Austrolebias nigrofasciatus (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae), confined in a natural environment. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(6): 1864–1867. Copyright: © M.V. Volcan, A.P. Fonseca & R.B. Robaldo 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Acknowledgements: The authors wish to express their gratitude to IBAMA/ICMBio for issuing the collection license (15108-1). A.P. Fonseca thanks CAPES/PROAP for the M.Sc grant. R.B. Robaldo (312035/2009-8) is research fellow of Brazilian CNPq. OPEN ACCESS | FREE DOWNLOAD

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Image 1. Male of Austrolebias nigrofasciatus captured in the floodplains of Padre Doutor Stream, southern Brazil.

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Reproduction of endangered Annual Killifish

35 30 25 No eggs

area about 5,000m2, located in the floodplain of Padre Doutor Stream (Patos-Mirim lagoon system) (Image 2). The sampled wetland is a shallow depression (about 30cm deep) with great diversity of macrophytes, invertebrates, especially larvae and vertebrates such as amphibians, and Cynopoecilus melanotaenia being the only annual fish species registered to this biotope besides A. nigrofasciatus. Hand-net (D shaped, 2mm mesh) was used to collect the broodstock. Fishes were captured, measured with a digital caliper (to the nearest of 0.01mm) for total length (TL). Three pairs were captured (males 37.6±3.8 mm and females 36.9±1.5 mm) and placed in small 5mm mesh net-cages with a volume of six liters. The mesh placed on the cage was used for slipping food into the cage, without allowing the fish to escape. A spawning nest was placed inside each unit consisting of a transparent plastic pot (20x15x5 cm) with 40g of acrylic yarn as a substrate for spawning. The nests were replaced each week, and the bottom of the cage aspirated to count the eggs. Fecundity was estimated as the total number of eggs produced during the reproductive period and is shown as mean ± standard deviation (SD). The diameters of all the collected eggs were measured (0.01mm) with a stereomicroscope equipped with micrometer scale. The experiment lasted four weeks (06 September to 04 October 2009). Every three days minimum and maximum temperatures (0C) of the water were recorded. Dissolved

oxygen (0.1mg/L), pH (0.01) and conductivity (0.1μS/ cm) were monitored at the same time intervals. Results and Discussions: Analysis of water showed that temperature was the abiotic variable with highest fluctuation during the sampling period (9–42 0C), ranging from 11 to 34 0C in one day. The average pH, dissolved oxygen and conductivity were 6.9±1.3 (6.3–10.5), 5.0±2.3 mg/L (3.4–8.2 mg/L) and 482.0±50.9 μS/cm (446–518 μS/cm), respectively. This wide variation in thermal and environmental conditions observed in the study, are typical of small seasonal wetlands and were also observed by other authors who studied Austrolebias species in their natural habitat (Errea & Danulat 2001; Volcan et al. 2011). A total of 258 eggs were collected in the three experimental units. Average fecundity was 21.5±12.0 eggs/female/week (Fig. 1a), with a wide variation over the study period (3–39 eggs/female/week; Fig. 1b). The average oviposition observed for A. nigrofasciatus is within the range found for other

20 15 10 5 A

0

3

2 Female

1

40 35 30 No eggs

Image 2. Wetland where the experiment was conducted, floodplains of Padre Doutor stream basin, southern Brazil.

M.V. Volcan et al.

25 20 15 10 5 0

B 1

2

Week

3

4

Figure 1. Fecundity mean (±SD) of each female of Austrolebias nigrofasciatus confined for four weeks in natural environment (A) and mean of weekly fecundity (B).

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Rivulidae. Liu & Walford (1969) observed a weekly fecundity similar to that observed in the present study for the Austrolebias bellotti with about 21 eggs/female. For Austrolebias toba, Calviño (2005) reported an average weekly fecundity of 57 eggs/ female. For Simpsonichthys boitonei, Shibatta (2005) found an average laying about three eggs/day. However, Volcan (2009) during a reproductive assay of A. nigrofasciatus in laboratory conditions observed a fecundity of approximately 30 eggs/week. These values contrast with the present findings where the confined specimens showed approximately 30% lower fecundity than those kept in laboratory. The eggs of A. nigrofasciatus had spherical shape and a 1.51±0.12 mm diameter (Fig. 2a). The egg diameter varied throughout the study period, showing a tendency to reduction from the first week when the average egg diameter was 1.63±0.10 mm (Fig. 2b), suggesting to a negative relationship between confinement time and egg diameter. The reduction in 1.70 1.65

Egg diameter

1.60 1.55 1.50 1.45 1.40 A

1.35

2 Female

1

3

1.75 1.70

Egg diameter

1.65

egg diameter during the study period may reflect the negative effect of confinement. Austrolebias males are always courting the females (Belote & Costa 2004). Garcia et al. (2008) observed an apparent energy loss in Austrolebias reicherti females during the reproduction event. Despite the efforts of the males to secure mating, the females were disinterested. We believe that maintaining the females under conditions of confinement for prolonged periods in the presence of males may end up exerting pressure to produce eggs continuously, making it impossible for the oocytes to reach the optimal size. According to Costa & Leal (2009), Leptolebias species have egg diameter ranging from 0.89 to 1.00 mm. For five species of Simpsonichthys, Fava & Piza (2007) observed that eggs had spherical shape and diameter ranging from 0.89 to 1.11 mm, while for S. boitonei an average diameter of 1.60mm was observed (Shibatta 2005). For C. melanotaenia, Arenzon et al. (1999) observed oocytes up to 1.37mm. These studies have corroborated our findings regarding the mean and wide variation in the egg diameter recorded for A. nigrofasciatus. Regardless the reproductive and environmental conditions, we observed that A. nigrofasciatus has a high fecundity rate even under confinement conditions, showing that a large number of eggs can be laid in a relatively short period of time. Despite the limitations of this study (especially the small number of samples), these data may help in designing and implementing strategies for the conservation of the species. Based on these results, new approaches and methods should be used to elucidate a clearer reproduction of Austrolebias species in their natural habitat. Knowledge of the biology of annual fishes is an important step to promote the conservation of this endemic and threatened group.

1.60 1.55

References

1.50 1.45 1.40 1.35 1.30

B 1

2

Week

3

4

Figure 2. Mean of egg diameter (±SD) of each female of Austrolebias nigrofasciatus in natural environment (A) and of weekly mean of egg diameter (B) during four weeks. 1866

Arenzon, A., A.C. Peret & M.B.C. Bohrer (1999). Reproduction of the Annual Fish Cynopoecilus maelanotaenia (Regan, 1912) based on a temporary water body population in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Hydrobiologia 411: 65–70. Belote, D.F. & W.J.E.M. Costa (2004). Reproductive behavior patterns in three species of the South American Annual Fish genus Austrolebias Costa, 1998 (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae). Boletim do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro

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514: 1–7. Bernardo, J. (1996). The particular maternal effect of propagule size, especially egg size: patterns, models, quality of evidence and interpretation. American Zoologist 36: 216–236. Blaxter, J.H.S. (1986). Development of sense organs and behavior of teleost larvae with special reference to feeding and predator avoidance. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 115: 98–114. Calviño, P. (2005). Austrolebias toba (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae), una especie nueva de pez anual de la Argentina. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales 7(2): 188–190. Chambers, R.C. (1997). Environmental influences on egg and propagule sizes in marine fishes, pp. 63–102. In: Chambers, R.C. & E.A. Trippel (eds). Early Life History and Recruitment in Fish Populations. Chapman and Hall, London, 596pp. Costa, W.J.E.M. (2002). Peixes anuais brasileiros: diversidade e conservação. Ed. UFPR, Curitiba, Brasil, 238pp. Costa, W.J.E.M. (2008). Catalog of Aplocheiloid Killifishes of The World - 1st Edition. Rio de Janeiro: Reproarte, 127pp. Costa, W.J.E.M. & F. Leal (2009). Egg surface morphology in the Neotropical seasonal killifi sh genus Leptolebias (Teleostei: Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae). Vertebrate Zoology 59(1): 25–29. Errea, A. & E. Danulat (2001). Growth of the Annual Fish, Cynolebias viarius (Cyprinodontiformes), in the natural habitat compared to laboratory conditions. Environmental Biology of Fishes 61: 261–268. Fava, D. & T.M. Piza (2007). Egg surface structure in the annual fishes Simpsonichthys (subgenera Ophthalmolebias and Xenurolebias) and Nematolebias (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae): variability and phylogenetic significance. Journal of Fish Biology 71: 889–907. Gall, G.A.E. (1975). Genetics of reproduction in domesticated rainbow trout. Journal of Animal Science 40: 19–28. García, D., M. Loureiro & B. Tassino (2008). Reproductive behavior in the annual fish Austrolebias reicherti Loureiro & García 2004 (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae). Neotropical Ichthyology 6(2): 243–248.

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Liu, R.K. & R.L. Walford (1969). Laboratory studies on life-span, growth, aging, and pathology of the annual fish Cynolebias bellottii Steindachner. Zoologica 54: 1–16. Miller, T.J., L.B. Crowder, J.A. Rice & E.A. Marschall (1988). Larval size and recruitment mechanisms in fishes: toward a conceptual framework. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 45: 1657–1670. Reis, R.E., Z.M. Lucena, C.A.S. Lucena & L.R. Malabarba (2003). Peixes. In: Fontana, C.S., G.A. Bencke & R.E. Reis (Orgs). Livro vermelho da fauna ameaçada de extinção no Rio Grande do Sul. Edipucrs, Porto Alegre, Brasil, 632pp. Rosa, R.S. & F.C.T. Lima (2008). Peixes, pp. 8–258. In: Machado, A.B.M., G.M. Drummond & A.P. Paglia (eds.). Livro vermelho da fauna brasileira ameaçada de extinção. Ministério do Meio Ambiente, Brasília. Shibatta, O. (2005). Reprodução do pirá-brasília, Simpsonichthys boitonei Carvalho (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae), e caracterização de seu habitat na Reserva Ecológica do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 22(4): 1146–1151. Volcan, M.V. (2009). Growth and fecundity of annual fish Austrolebias nigrofasciatus (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae) under laboratory conditions. MSc Dissertation, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, 59pp. Volcan, M.V., L.E.K. Lanés & A.C. Gonçalves (2009). Thereatened fishes of the world: Austrolebias nigrofasciatus Costa and Cheffe, 2001 (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 86(4): 443–444. Volcan, M.V., L.E.K. Lanés & A.C. Gonçalves (2010). Threatened fishes of the world: Austrolebias univentripinnis Costa & Cheffe 2005 (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 87(4): 319–320. Volcan, M.V., A.C. Gonçalves & L.E.K. Lanés (2011). Distribution, habitat and conservation status of two threatened annual fishes (Rivulidae) from southern Brazil. Endangered Species Research 13(2): 79–85. Wootton, R. (1990). Ecology of Teleost Fishes. Fish and Fisheries. Series 1. New York, Chapman and Hall. 404p.

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Light attracted butterflies: a review from the Indian sub-region with an inventory from West Bengal, India Soumyajit Chowdhury 1 & Rahi Soren 2 School of Oceanographic Studies, Jadavpur University, 32 Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Kolkata, West Bengal 700032, India 2 Ecological Research Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata, West Bengal 700019, India Email: 1 wildlifesc@gmail.com (corresponding author), 2 rahisoren@gmail.com 1

Some of the nocturnal Lepidoptera, mostly moths (Heterocera) are negatively heliotropic but positively phototactic, being impelled by an irresistible attraction to a bright lamp (Willey 1867). Phototaxis (attraction to artificial lights) has, however, been explained to be somewhat different from heliotropism (attraction to natural/sunlight) by Willey (1867). On the basis of exploiting natural light/sunlight, butterflies (Rhopalocera) can be categorized in two broad groups, viz., (i) the diurnal ones, with day flying habit and retiring at dusk, and (ii) the crepuscular ones, with a flying habit at dusk and even low-light conditions. For the night, they usually take shelter among bushes and trees. However, several observations regarding their occasional response to artificial light have been reported from both old and new worlds.

Date of publication (online): 26 June 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 June 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: Peter Smetacek Manuscript details: Ms # o2476 Received 03 June 2010 Final revised received 02 May 2011 Finally accepted 13 May 2011 Citation: Chowdhury, S. & R. Soren (2011). Light attracted butterflies: a review from the Indian sub-region with an inventory from West Bengal, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(6): 1868–1871. Copyright: © Soumyajit Chowdhury & Rahi Soren2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Acknowledgements: We are grateful to the Bombay Natural History Society for making an access to the necessary articles related to the present context by bringing out the DVD on 100 volumes of the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. OPEN ACCESS | FREE DOWNLOAD

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The occasional phenomenon regarding attraction of butterflies to artificial lights in the Indian subregion have been reported in the literature. The first report was published by J.I. Alfrey in a paper by Best (1951) concerning the sighting of Lime Butterfly (Papilio demoleus demoleus Linnaeus) attracted to “Kitson Oil Lamps” at night at the railways station in Jhansi (southern Uttar Pradesh State, India) during a migration. Later, more detailed observations were published by Usman (1956), Donahue (1962), Shull (1964), Shull & Nadkerny (1967), Nadkerny & Shull (1968), Sharma & Chaturvedi (1999), Nair (2001) and Sharma & Chaturvedi (2005). The present article deals with a review on the earlier observations on light-attracted butterflies in the Indian subcontinent with additions of four new species responding to the same from West Bengal. The primary objective is thus to elaborate the diversity and seasonal inclination of light-attracted butterflies in the Indian sub-region along with a possible explanation for such an unusual phenomenon. Materials and Methods: The primary review work regarding the cases of light-attracted butterflies in the Indian sub-region from the period between 1951 and 2005 was accomplished through literature surveys. Both inadvertent observations as well as designed experiments were undertaken during that period. However, the records for light-attracted butterflies in the urban (Kolkata) and forested regions (Samsing and Buxa of the Dooars) of West Bengal are new from this region and resulted from incidental observations during the period 2008 to 2009. No intentional lighttraps were designed in those places for attracting butterflies at night. Results: The light-attracted butterflies recorded by the earlier authors from 1951–2005 revealed 27 species belonging to five families. Table 1 shows a list of the species, along with the place; season of observation and the type of artificial light source to which they were attracted. The observations by the present authors (2008–2009) report six butterfly species that were attracted to light at night from Kolkata and Dooars (Samsing and Buxa) regions of southern and northern West Bengal, India. Four species reported here, viz. Papilio polytes Linnaeus, Tanaecia lepidea Butler, Neptis sp. and Pelopidas

Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | June 2011 | 3(6): 1868–1871


Light attracted butterflies: a review

S. Chowdhury & R. Soren

Table 1. A summary of the published data on butterfly species attracted to artificial light sources (1951–2005). Species

Observer

Place

Season (Year)

Artificial Light Source

1. Lime Butterfly (Papilio demoleus demoleus Linn.)

J.I. Alfrey (in Best 1951)

Jhansi (southern Uttar Pradesh, northerncentral India)

Data Deficient

Kitson oil lamps

2. Tailed Jay (Graphium agamemnon Linn.)

Sharma & Chaturvedi (2005)

Pune (Maharashtra, western India)

April (2002)

Neon tube

3. Common Emigrant (Catopsilia crocale Cramer)

Shull & Nadkerny (1967)

Surat Dangs (Gujarat , western India)

Mid June – Mid Oct (1961)

Mercury vapour lamp

4. Small Grass Yellow (Eurema brigitta Cramer)

Shull & Nadkerny (1967)

Surat Dangs (Gujarat, western India)

Mid June – Mid Oct (1961)

Mercury vapour lamp

5. Common Grass Yellow (Eurema hecabe Linn.)

Shull & Nadkerny (1967)

Surat Dangs (Gujarat, western India)

Mid June – Mid Oct (1961)

Mercury vapour lamp

6. Spotless Grass Yellow (Eurema laeta Boisd.)

Shull & Nadkerny (1967)

Surat Dangs (Gujarat, western India)

Mid June – Mid Oct (1961)

Mercury vapour lamp

7. Common Gull (Cepora nerissa Fab.)

Shull & Nadkerny (1967)

Surat Dangs (Gujarat, western India)

Mid June – Mid Oct (1961)

Mercury vapour lamp

8. Pioneer (Anaphaeis aurota Fab.)

Nadkerny & Shull (1968)

Dangs (S. Gujarat, western India)

Aug – Sep (1961)

Mercury vapour lamp

9. Small Salmon Arab (Colotis calais Cramer)

Nadkerny and Shull (1968)

Dangs (S. Gujarat, western India)

Aug – Sep (1961)

Mercury vapour lamp

10. Striped Tiger (Danaus chrysippus Linn.)

Donahue (1962)

New Delhi ( northerncentral India)

October (1961)

150W porch light, 60W tungsten bulb

11. Black Rajah (Charaxes solon Fab.)

Sharma & Chaturvedi (1999)

Tadoba National Park (Maharashtra, western India)

December (1996)

Data deficient

12. Common Evening Brown (Melanitis leda Linn.)

Donahue (1962)

New Delhi (northerncentral India)

August (1961)

Porch light

13. Blue Pansy (Junonia orithya Linn.)

Donahue (1962)

New Delhi (northerncentral India)

November (1961)

Porch light

14. Nigger (Orsotrioena medus Fab.)

Nair (2001)

Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary (Kerala, southern India)

February (2001)

Neon tube light

15. Common Castor (Ariadne merione merione Cramer)

Shull & Nadkerny (1967)

Surat Dangs (Gujarat, western India)

Mid June – Mid Oct (1961)

Mercury vapour lamp

16. Common Baron (Euthalia aconthea Cramer)

Shull & Nadkerny (1967)

Surat Dangs (Gujarat, western India)

Mid June – Mid Oct (1961)

Mercury vapour lamp

17. Yellow Pansy (Junonia hierta hierta Fab.)

Shull & Nadkerny (1967)

Surat Dangs (Gujarat, western India)

Mid June – Mid Oct (1961)

Mercury vapour lamp

18. Painted Lady (Vanessa cardui Linn.)

Shull & Nadkerny (1967)

Surat Dangs (Gujarat, western India)

Mid June – Mid Oct (1961)

Mercury vapour lamp

19. Red Pierrot (Talicada nyseus Guérin-Menéville)

Usman (1956)

Bangalore (Karnataka, southern India)

Mar – May (1955)

Tungsten lamp (25W)

20. Gram Blue (Euchrysops cnejus Fab.)

Nair (2001)

Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary (Kerala, southern India)

February (2001)

CFL lamp

21. Lime Blue (Chilades lajus Stoll)

Sharma & Chaturvedi (2005)

Sanjay Gandhi National Park (Maharashtra, western India)

September (2001)

Neon tube light

22. Tiny Grass Blue (Zizula hylax Fab.)

Nair (2001)

Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary (Kerala, southern India)

February (2001)

CFL lamp

23. Dark Grass Blue (Zizeeria karsandra Moore)

Shull & Nadkerny (1967)

Surat Dangs (Gujarat, western India)

Mid June – Mid Oct (1961)

Mercury vapour lamp

24. Powdery Green Sapphire (Heliophorus tamu tamu Koll.)

Nadkerny & Shull (1968)

Dangs (S. Gujarat, western India)

Aug – Sep (1961)

Mercury vapour lamp

25. Common Redeye (Gangara thyrsis Fab.)

Best (1956)

Bombay (Maharashtra, western India)

Feb – June (1956)

Lamp

26. Common Banded Awl (Hasora chromus Cramer)

Shull & Nadkerny (1967)

Surat Dangs (Gujarat, western India)

Mid June – Mid Oct (1961)

Mercury vapour lamp

27. Conjoined Swift (Pelopidas conjuncta Herrich-Schaeffer)

Shull & Nadkerny (1967)

Surat Dangs (Gujarat, western India)

Mid June – Mid Oct (1961)

Mercury vapour lamp

Papilionidae

Pieridae

Nymphalidae

Lycaenidae

Hesperiidae

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Light attracted butterflies: a review

S. Chowdhury & R. Soren

Table 2. A summary of the butterfly species attracted to artificial light sources as recorded by present authors (2008–2009) Species

Place

Season (Year)

Artificial light source

Kolkata (West Bengal, eastern India)

August (2009)

Neon tube light

2.Grey Count (Tanaecia lepidea Butler)

Samsing (West Bengal, eastern India)

June (2009)

Hazack lamp

3. Sailer species (Neptis Fabricius)

Samsing (West Bengal, eastern India)

June (2009)

Hazack lamp

4. Common Evening Brown (Melanitis leda Linn.)

Kolkata (West Bengal, eastern India)

October, November (2009)

Neon tube light

Buxa Tiger Reserve (West Bengal, eastern India)

May (2008)

Neon tube light

Kolkata (West Bengal, eastern India)

October (2009)

Neon tube light

Papilionidae 1. Common Mormon (Papilio polytes Linn.) Nymphalidae

Lycaenidae 5. Lime Blue (Chilades lajus Stoll.)

35

35.48

30 25 20

22.58

19.35

15 10 5

12.9

9.68

es (4 per sp iida .) e

H

Ly ca (6 en sp ida .) e

ym (1 pha 1 sp lida .) e

N

Pi e (7 rid sp ae .)

0

pi (3 lion sp ida .) e

40

Pa

Species richness/Family (in %)

6. Small Branded Swift (Pelopidas mathias Fab.)

Butterfly family

Figure 1. A graphical representation showing the relative richness for light-attracted butterfly species in terms of their families (1951–2009).

mathias Fab. are additions to the known butterflies subject to this phenomenon in India (Table 1), while Chilades lajus Stoll. and Melanitis leda Linn have also been reported earlier by Sharma & Chaturvedi (2005) from Maharashtra and by Donahue (1962) from Uttar Pradesh respectively. All the species were observed as single individuals during a single light-attraction event. No mass attractions were thus observed for the species in West Bengal. The observations by the present authors are detailed in Table 2. A total of 31 species of butterfly resulting from the past and present observations showed occasional response to a variety of artificial lights in different parts of the Indian region. Among these, nymphalids (35.48%) outnumber the rest, followed by pierids 1870

No. of incidents of light attraction

Hesperiidae

18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

Month

Figure 2. Incidences of butterfly species attracted to light in accordance with months (1951–2009), showing maximum records during the monsoon (Jun–Oct).

(22.58%), lycaenids (19.35%), hesperiids (12.9%) and papilionids (9.68%) (Fig. 1). The observations (Tables 1 & 2) also reveal a seasonal inclination for such a phenomenon, as the maximum incidents were recorded during the monsoon months (June–October) in the Indian sub-region (Fig. 2). Discussion and Conclusion: Crepuscular species, like Melanitis leda, are more active in the dark than the sun-loving, diurnal species, and thus are attracted more frequently to artificial lights (Donahue 1962). The phenomenon of light attraction among butterflies has been found to be inclined more in the monsoon season (June–October) in the Indian subregion. Heavy downpours during the monsoon months may disrupt the night-time shelters of some butterfly

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Light attracted butterflies: a review

individuals, inducing them to move from their former preferred site to a new one. In the absence of optimum light, they fail to do so using visual cues. In that case, a source of artificial light with an intensity enough to stimulate them to get attracted may serve the purpose of utilizing their visual potency to search for a safe shelter. Throne (1961) also suggested that a butterfly may fly at light if it is disturbed at night and is near the light in the first place. Heitzman (1965) was certain that a large percentage of the specimens collected at light were startled from their resting places in nearby trees or bushes by the collector or some larger insects attracted towards light. Donahue (1962), however, noted that the butterfly numbers were greatest during the monsoon months, particularly in arid areas (like New Delhi, where his observations were made) when there is an abundance of food. He therefore pointed out the coincidence of the population peak with the rainy season, and either one or both these factors might influence the activity of certain species at light. He also indicated the probable effect of temperature upon the nocturnal activity of the observed species, since most of his observations were in the monsoon months, with no record of any species in winter. Furthermore, as in most cases of butterfly attraction towards a light source near their resting places, occasional incidents were reported where specimens were drawn from a considerable distance (Heitzman 1965). Donahue (1962) also argued that in some instances the butterfly would have to expend some effort to reach that light. Moreover, approaching that source, many of them tend to settle near the light. As light is an important cue that attracts insects to sources of heat (Schowalter 2006), the warmth obtained on getting nearer the light may also help in thermoregulation. Further observations and experimentations on Indian butterflies being attracted to light at night may provide a less speculative explanation of phototactic and nocturnal behaviour.

S. Chowdhury & R. Soren

RefeRenCes Best, A.e.G. (1951). The Butterflies of Bombay and Salsette. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 50(2): 331– 339. Best, A.e.G. (1956). Further Notes and Additions to the list of Butterflies from Bombay and Salsette. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 54(1): 215–216. Donahue, J.P. (1962). Observations and records of butterflies attracted to light in India. Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society 16(12): 131–135. Heitzman, R. (1965). More observations on the attraction of diurnal lepidoptera to light. Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society 19(3): 179–180. nadkerny, n.T. & e.M. shull (1968). Insects attracted to light in the dangs, south Gujarat. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 65(3): 800. nair, V.P. (2001). Butterflies attracted to light at Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala. Zoos’ Print Journal 16(12): 670. schowalter, T.D. (2006). Insect Ecology: An Ecosystem Approach—2nd Edition. Academic Press Publications, USA, 574pp. sharma, R.M. & n. Chaturvedi (2005). Additions to the light attracted butterflies. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 102(1): 129. sharma, R.M. & n. Chaturvedi (1999). Black Rajah Charaxes fabius attracted to light at Tadoba National Park. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 96(1): 168–169. shull, e.M. (1964). Butterflies attracted to light in Gujarat State, India. Journal of the Lepidoperists’ Society 18(30): 159–163. shull, e.M. & n.T. nadkerny (1967). Insects attracted to mercury vapour lamp in the Surat Dangs, Gujarat State. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 64 (2): 256–266. Throne, A.L. (1961). Lycaenopsis pseudargiolus in light trap. Journal of Lepidopterists’ Society 14: 242. Usman, s. (1956). Some insects attracted to light—Part III. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 53(3): 482–484. Welling, e.C. (1963). Rhopalocera attracted by ulraviolet light in Central America. Journal of Lepidopterists’ Society 17(1): 37–38. Willey, A. (1867). Convergence in Evolution. New York, E. P. Dutton & Co, xiii+177pp.

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JoTT Note

3(6): 1872–1874

Hapalopilus nidulans (Polyporales: Polyporaceae) a new record from India C.K. Tiwari 1, Jagrati Parihar 2 & R.K. Verma 3 1,2,3 Forest Pathology Division, Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh 482021, India Email: 1 ck_scientist@yahoo.com, 2 jags.parihar@gmail.com (corresponding author), 3 rkverma28@rediffmail.com

The genus Hapalopilus P. Karst. was described with Polyporus nidulans Fr. as type species. The main distinguishing character is the cinnamon colour for the basidiocarp reacting strongly cherry red to violet with KOH. Otherwise it is microscopically similar to the species of Tyromyces P. Karst. Under natural conditions H. nidulans attacks dry logs or diseased branches; its mycelium soon spreads to the neighboring healthy branches and may ultimately kill the entire tree (Pilàt 1937). Earlier the species was reported from the northern hemisphere, Africa: Rwanda-Burundi, Akagera Park, southwest of Luluma, Ihema Lake, Rammelo on deciduous wood (Ryvarden & Johansen 1980). This fungus is not very common; single specimens are found on almost any broadleaved trees, such as: birch, mountain ash, oak, hornbeam, beech, aspen, hazel, alder and linden. It was also recorded in western Europe, East Asia, North America and Australia (Bondartsav 1953). The species has been intensively studied and

Date of publication (online): 26 June 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 June 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: Leif Ryvarden Manuscript details: Ms # o2622 Received 03 November 2010 Final revised received 24 May 2011 Finally accepted 13 June 2011 Citation: Tiwari, C.K., J. Parihar & R.K. Verma (2011). Hapalopilus nidulans (Polyporales: Polyporaceae) a new record from India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(6): 1872–1874. Copyright: © C.K. Tiwari, Jagrati Parihar & R.K. Verma 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank Dr. M.S. Negi, Director, TFRI, JBP, for providing necessary facilities. OPEN ACCESS | FREE DOWNLOAD

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systematically documented in a number of mycological books/ monographs of polypores such as Bondartsav (1953), Ryvarden & Johansen (1980), Imazeki et al. (1988), Corner (1991), Zhao & Zhang (1992), Nunez & Ryvarden (1995), Quanten (1997), Hattori et al. (2002). The species described by Corner from tropical Asia and West Pacific archipelago were treated in detail by Dai (2000). The present paper describes taxonomy and cultural study of Hapalopilus nidulans (Fr.) P. Karst. for the first time from India. Materials and Methods: The basidiocarps were collected during the rainy season, i.e., August to October 2008 from Chhattisgarh State of central India, geographically ranging from Katghora (22028’58.1” N & 82031’26.77”E), Kota (22038’78.3”N & 82061’26.9”E) and Kanker (20037’36.9”N & 82003’56.6”E) (Fig. 1). All macroscopic and habitat characteristics were noted in situ. The specimens were brought to the laboratory where detailed microscopic examinations were made. Identification was done with the aid of published papers, books and monographs (Bondartsav 1953; Ryvarden & Johansen 1980; Zmitrovich et al. 2006). The chemical reaction was determined by placing a small piece of material in 5% KOH solution. For microscopic study the specimens were thin sectioned by using a sharp razor blade. The cyanophily was observed in cotton blue mounted in lactophenol and amyloidy of structures in Melzer’s reagent. The photographs were taken with a Nikon F601 SLR camera, macroscopic and microscopic characters were studied under the stereo zoom Leica, model Wild M3Z and advanced research Microscope, Leica, model Leitz DMRB (Germany) with digital Leica EC3 camera. The culture was prepared by following isolation, purification from a basidiocarp on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium under aseptic conditions and incubated at 270C for six days then sub-cultured on PDA and incubated for six weeks. After development of the colony, cultural characters were observed and studied by following the method of Stalpers (1978). The specimens are deposited in the Mycology Herbarium of the Forest Pathology Division, Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur (TF). The records are new to India since the following

Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | June 2011 | 3(6): 1872–1874


New record of Hapalopilus nidulans

C.K. Tiwari et al. 840

820

800

a

b

Uttar Pradesh 240

Jharkhand

c

Madhya Pradesh

20µm

Chhattisgarh

d

20µm 220

f

e Maharashtra

g

Orissa

200

10µm

20µm i

h

10µm

10µm

Andhra Pradesh

Figure 1. Map of Chhattisgarh showing collection spots

180

authors do not mention them: Butler & Bisby (1954), Tandon & Chandra (1964), Bilgrami et al. (1979, 1981, 1991), Sarbhoy et al. (1975, 1986, 1996), Bhide et al. (1987) and Jamaluddin et al. (2004). Hapalopilus nidulans (Fr.) P. Karst. Revue mycol., Toulouse 3(9): 18 (1881). (Image 2a–i) ≡ Polyporus nidulans Fr., Syst. mycol. (Lundae) 1: 362 (1821) Material examined 19.x.2009, on stored logs of Shorea robusta Gaertn, Kota (Bilaspur, C.G.) (TF 1143); Katghora (Korba, C.G.) (TF 1145), 2.x.2009, on stored logs of S. robusta, Kanker, (TF 1144); 29.viii.2009, on stored logs of Anogeissus latifolia Wall, (TF 1148); Chloroxylon swietenia D.C. (TF 1146); Ougeinia oojeineusis (Roxb.) Hocherut, (TF 1149) and Terminalia tomentosa W&A, (TF 1147), Pithora (Raipur), coll. C.K. Tiwari,

Image 1. Hapalopilus nidulans a–e Fruitbody. a - Pileus; b - Hymenium; c - Basidia with trama; d - Basidospores; e - Generative hyphae. f–i Culture characters. f - Culture on Potato Dextrose Agar; g - Chlamydospores; h - Basidia with sterigmata; i - Generative hyphae with clamp connection.

Jagrati Parihar & R.K.Verma. This fungus causes white fibrous rot in the associated wood. Basidiome: annual, soft when fresh, brittle when dry, effuso-reflexed, sessile, dimidiate, 3–6.5 x 2–4.5 x 0.5–1.5 cm. Pileus: cinnamon (colour 1927 ChinookT (5H12); Mearz & Paul 1950), surface rough with few weak sulcate zones, the inner ones usually smoother than the distal ones, margin thick, entire. Hymenophore: concolorous with the pileus, pores thin walled angular, 1–2 per mm, pores surface with a few large cracks in basidiome, pore tubes up to 3–10 mm deep, cinammon to ochraceous. Context: light cinnamon, soft and fibrous, brittle up to 4 cm thick at the base. Chemical reaction: positive, all parts of the basidiocarp change to violet in KOH. Hyphal system: monomitic, generative hyphae, clamped, up to 6.0µm

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New record of Hapalopilus nidulans

C.K. Tiwari et al.

wide, thick walled, branched, smooth, cyanophilous, covered partly in amorphous substances mixed with polygonal reddish to brownish crystals in trama. Cystidia: absent. Basidia: clavate, hyaline, 14–16 x 6–7.5 µm, cyanophilous. Basidiospores: ellipsoid to cylindrical, hyaline, smooth, 3.5–5 x 2–2.5 µm, cyanophilous, non-amyloid. Culture: Growth characters: Growth slow, 1.5cm in one week. Advancing zone hyaline, even, appressed. Mat translucent, becoming farinaceous with raised felty granules, in some part floccose to floccose-felty, colour initially white later changing to buff pink to orange pink. Reverse unchanged. Odour soury. Hyphal characters: Advancing zone hyphae hyaline, thin to thick-walled, branched, clamped, up to 4µm wide. Aerial mycelium (a) hyphae as in the advancing zone (b) chlamydospores present, terminal, hyaline, thin-walled (c) basidia hyaline, thin-walled, clavate with sterigmata 12.0–18.5 x 4.5–7.0 µm. Remark: This fungus is recognized by its cinnamon colour and the striking violet reaction in KOH. The only difference compared with current descriptions is of the number of pores which are 1–2 per mm in the cited specimens, while other authors, such as Ryvarden & Johansen (1980), report 2–4 pores per mm

REFERENCES Bhide, V.P., A. Pandey, A.V. Sathe, V.G. Rao & P.G. Patwardhan (1987). Fungi of Maharashtra Supplement I. Maharashtra Association for the Cultivation of Science, Research Institute. Pune, 146pp. Bilgrami, K.S., Jamaluddin & M.A. Rizawi (1979). Fungi of India I. List and Reference.Today’s and Tomorrow’s Printers and Publisher, New Delhi, 467pp. Bilgrami, K.S., Jamaluddin & M.A. Rizawi (1981). Fungi of India II. Host Index and Addenda. Today’s and Tomorrow’s Printers and Publisher, New Delhi, 128pp. Bilgrami, K.S., Jamaluddin & M.A. Rizawi (1991). Fungi of India. List and References. Today’s and Tomorrow’s Printers and Publisher, New Delhi, 798pp.

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Bondartsav, A.S. (1953). The Polyporaceae of European part of USSR and Caucasus. Leningrad, 1106pp. Butler, E.J. & G.R. Bisby (1954). The Fungi of India. Imperial Council of Agriculture Research, Indian Science Monograph I, 18: 237pp. Corner, E.J.H. (1991). Ad Polyporaceae 7. Beihefte Zur Nova Hedwigia 101: 1–175. Dai, Y.C. (2000). A checklist of polypores from Northeàast China. Karstenia 40: 23–29. Hattori, T., M.K. Adhikiri, T. Suda & Y. Doi (2002). A list of polypore (Basidiomycotina, Aphyllophorales) collected in Jumla, Nepal. Bulletin National Science Museum, Tokyo, Series. B. 28: 27–38. Imazeki, R., Y. Otani, & T. Hongo (1988). Fungi of Japan. Yama Kei, Tokyo, 623pp. Jamaluddin, M.G. Goswamy & B.M. Ojha (2004). Fungi of India (1989-2001). Scientific Pubplisher Jodhpur, 326pp. Mearz, A. & M. R. Paul (1950). A Dictionary of Colour - Second Edition. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Incorporation, New York, 206pp. Nunez, M. & L. Ryvarden (1995). New and interesting polypores from Japan. Fungal Diversity 3: 107–121. Pilát, A. (1937). Additamenta ad floram Sibiriae asia centralis orientalisque mycologicam, pars quarta. Bulletin of Mycological Society France 52: 305–336. Quanten, E. (1997). The polypores (Polyporaceae s.1) of Papua New Guinea. Opera Botanica Belgica 11: 1–352. Ryvarden, L. & J. Johansen (1980). A Preliminary Polypore flora of East Africa. Fungiflora, Oslo, Norway, 636pp. Sarbhoy, A.K., J.L. Vashney & D.K. Agarwal (1986). Fungi of India (1977–81). Associate Publishing Company, New Delhi, 274pp. Sarbhoy, A.K., J.L. Vashney & D.K. Agarwal (1996). Fungi of India (1982–92). CBS Publisher & Distributer, New Delhi, 350pp. Sarbhoy, A.K., G. Lal & J.L. Vashney (1975). Fungi of India (Revised). Navyug Traders Bookseller & Publisher, New Delhi, 271pp. Stalpers, J.A. (1978). Identification of wood-inhabiting fungi in pure culture. Studies in Mycology 16: 248. Tandon, R.N. & S. Chandra (1964). Supplement to the List of Indian fungi (1957–1962). Bishen Singh, Mahendra Pal Singh and Periodical experts Dehradun. India, 246pp. Zhao, J.D. & X.Q. Zhang (1992). The polypores of China. Bibliotheca Mycologia 145: 1–524. Zmitrovich, I.V., V.F. Malysheva & A.S. Wjacheslav (2006). A new morphological arrangement of the Polyporales - I. Phanerochaetineae. Mycena 6: 4–56.

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JoTT Note

Achyranthes coynei Santapau, 1949 (Amaranthaceae) - an addition to the flora of Karnataka, India Sandeep R. Pai 1, Vinayak Upadhya 2, Harsha V. Hegde 3 & Sanjiva D. Kholkute 4 1,2,3,4 Regional Medical Research Centre (RMRC), Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Nehru Nagar, Belgaum, Karnataka 590010, India 4 National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, Jehangir Merwanji Street, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400012, India Email: 1 sandeeprpai@rediffmail.com, 2 sirsivinayak@yahoo.com, 3 harshavh@rediffmail.com (corresponding author), 4 sankhol@yahoo.com

During exploratory surveys for medicinal plants from the Western Ghats of Belgaum region, an interesting plant species belonging to the genus Achyranthes (Amaranthaceae) was collected. After critical investigation, it was identified as Achyranthes coynei Santapau, 1949. The voucher specimens have been deposited at the Herbaria of Regional Medical Research Centre (RMRC), Belgaum. The family Amaranthaceae is circumscribed with 850 species belonging to 71 different genera worldwide, out of which India is endowed with 60 species under 20 genera and an infraspecific taxa (Mishra & Singh

Date of publication (online): 26 June 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 June 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: Gopalakrishna Bhat Manuscript details: Ms # o2685 Received 27 January 2011 Final revised received 24 May 2011 Finally accepted 06 June 2011 Citation: Pai, S.R., V. Upadhya, H.V. Hegde & S.D. Kholkute (2011). Achyranthes coynei Santapau, 1949 (Amaranthaceae) - an addition to the flora of Karnataka, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(6): 1875–1879. Copyright: © Sandeep R. Pai, Vinayak Upadhya, Harsha V. Hegde & Sanjiva D. Kholkute 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Acknowledgements: First author (SRP) gratefully acknowledges ICMR, New Delhi for financial support in the form of post doctoral fellowship. Authors are indebted to Dr. Gopalkrishna Bhat, Udupi and Dr. Vinod B. Shimpale, Kolhapur for their valuable suggestions. The comments by Botanical Survey of India, Western Circle, Pune is duly acknowledged. Thanks are due to Mr. Vasanta Kahalkar for providing the literature. OPEN ACCESS | FREE DOWNLOAD

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2001). The genus Achyranthes has about 15 species distributed in tropical and subtropical regions in the world (Shu 2003) of which 2 species (A. aspera L. and A. bidentata Blume) have been reported from Karnataka, India (Sharma et al. 1984). Achyranthes coynei was first reported by Santapau in 1949 from Khandala, Maharashtra (Santapau 1949). Subsequently, the species was recorded from Raigad, Sindhudurg, Thane and Amaravati districts of Maharashtra, making it endemic to Maharashtra State (Singh et al. 2000; Mishra & Singh 2001). This species was categorized as rare in the Red Data Book of Indian Plants (Sharma & Kulkarni 1987) and in ENVIS Centre on floral diversity (2009) and as endangered by Mishra & Singh (2001). The species was earlier reported only from four locations in Maharashtra State, with an estimated distribution range of ca. 5,000km2 (Mishra & Singh 2001). The present investigation reports the extended distribution of A. coynei to Karnataka State. The repeated random sampling during the present study, resulted in the recording of this plant at three different localities, namely Madanabhavi of Bailhongal Taluka, Pachapur and Godachinmalki of Hukkeri Taluka in Belgaum District along the road side and on canal bunds. The collected specimens have been identified with the help of ‘Flora of Maharashtra State’ (Singh et al. 2000) and confirmed with the original description of the plant in ‘Flora of Khandala’ (Santapau 1967). The detailed descriptions of the plant with photographs are provided to enable its easy identification (Image 1a– h and Image 2). Achyranthes coynei Santapau, 1949 Sant. in Kew Bull. 1948: 488. 1949 et in Rec. Bot. Surv. India 16 (1), Fl. Khandala 224. 1967 (3rd Rev. ed.); Raghavan & Singh in Jain & Sastry (eds.), Pl. Cons. Bull. 3:4. 1983 et in J. Econ. Tax. Bot. 5 (1): 161. 1984; Singh & Raghavan ibid. 8(1): 34. 1986; Sharma & Kulkarni in Nayar & Sastry (eds.), Red Data Book Indian Pl. 2: 8, f. 1987; Almeida in J. Econ. Taxa. Bot. Addl. Ser. 8 (1), Fl. Savantwadi 1; 351. 1990; Kothari & Moorthy, Fl. Raigad 338, 1993; Almeida Fl Maharashtra 2: 194, 1996; Anon., India Glob. Threat. Taxa 2. 1996; Yadav in Pokle et al. (eds.),

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Achyranthes coynei in Karnataka

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b

a 9cm

5.26mm

c

d

1.28mm

f

e

h

g 1.05mm

0.98mm

0.67mm

Image 1. Achyranthes coynei Santapau (Amaranthaceae). a - habit; b - inflorescence; c - flower; d - flower bud; e - bract; f - androecium; g - gynoecium; h - fruits

Flow. Pl. Syst. Diver. Pt. 1: 44. 1997. Singh et al. Fl. Maharashtra State. Dicot Vol.2 779, 2000. Mishra & Singh End. Threat. Fl. Pl. MH. 196, 2001. Uttarani, Kempu Uttarani (Kannada), Lal Aghada (Marathi). Material examined: 10.xii.2010 and 03.i.2011, Godachinmalki, Pachapur and Madanabhavi in Belgaum District, Karnataka, India, coll. Sandeep Pai, Vinayak Upadhya and Harsha Hegde (RMRC 784, 1876

785 & 790). A perennial, profusely branching shrub, sub-erect, 2–4.5 m high. Stem terete, branches many, woody, younger ones pubescent, green or with purple patches, older ones glabrous or glabrescent, brown to purple in colour; nodes swollen. Leaves deciduous; dimorphic, lower ones big 15–23 x 7–10 cm; upper leaves gradually decreases in size, elliptic or lanceolate,

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Achyranthes coynei in Karnataka

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Image 2. a - Herbarium of Achyranthes coynei; b - Inflorescence: Flowers first erect, later patent, finally deflexed and appressed to the rachis; c - Bractioles.

acute or acuminate; subglabrous above, pubescent beneath especially on the mid rib, primary nerves and margins; margins entire; petiole 1–3 cm long, channeled, pink above, green beneath. Flowers in spikes, densely arranged on rachis; rachis thick, 35–60 cm long, densely pubescent, whitish. Flowers first erect, pointing towards tip of the inflorescence (mostly buds), later patent, finally deflexed and appressed to the rachis; opened flowers spreading, up to 1.5cm in dia.; rosy or purplish in colour. Bract single, persistent,

linear, membranous with distinct midrib, smaller than the longest tepal, up to 5mm long, with rosy tinge; bractioles two, linear, with thin papery wing like structure beneath, rosy or purplish. Tepals five, in two whorls, up to 8mm long, 1mm broad, glabrous, green with rosy to pink tinge, ribbed, margins scarious. Stamens five, filaments fused at base; staminodes fimbriate, alternatively placed with fertile anthers, fused together, rosy-pink-purple in colour, half the length of the filaments; antheriferous filaments and

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Achyranthes coynei in Karnataka

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lobes rosy-pink when young. Ovary truncate, one celled; style and stigma rosy pink; style 0.4cm long, filiform, stigma capitellate. Capsule ca. 5mm, styles persistent; capsule enclosed with persistent hardened sepals. Seed one, cylindrical, smooth, brown. Flowering and fruiting: September to March. Habitat: Found along the road side and canal bunds under the shade, growing in association with Achyranthes aspera L. and Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. ex. DC., Azadirachta indica Juss., Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd., Jatropha curcas L., Vitex negundo L., Alternanthera sessalis (L.) R. Br. ex. DC., Peristrophe paniculata (Forssk.) Brummit., Cassia tora L., Lantana camara L., Agave americana L. and Cardiospermum helicacabum L. Distribution: Endemic: Raigad, Amravati, Pune, Sindhudurg and Thane districts in northern Western Ghats of Maharashtra (Mishra & Singh 2001) and Belgaum District of Karnataka. Status: Endangered: its distribution in all the reported locations is rare and populations are severely fragmented, which needs immediate attention (Mishra & Singh 2001). In the present localities only few individuals have been found in Madanabhavi, while fairly good, fragmented populations were observed between Pachapur to Godachimalki villages, along a stretch of nearly 10km. Most of these populations are along the road sides, while a few are on the canal bunds in the agricultural lands. As both habitats are prone to maximum human interference, the development of conservation strategies for these populations is needed urgently. Medicinal use: The other species of Achyranthes, especially Achyranthes aspera L. locally known as ‘Uttarani’ or ‘Bili Uttarani’ is widely used by local traditional practitioners and Ayurvedic physicians in treating several disorders (Hebbar et al. 2004; Harsha et al. 2004; Upadhya et al. 2009). It was found during the study, that A. coynei is also named ‘Uttarani’ or ‘Kempu Uttarani’ by the local community who are using it for purposes similar to A. aspera L. Hence it is worthwhile to work on the phytochemical and medicinal investigations of A. coynei. Notes: As pointed out by Santapau, A. coynei is similar in appearance to A. aspera var. porphyristachya from which it differs in profusely branched shrubby habit (3.0–3.5 m tall); first erect, later patent, finally deflexed nature of flowers on the inflorescence; 1878

opened flowers spreading up to 2.0cm in diameter and their rosy-purplish colour (Santapau 1967). However, the diagram and the description of A. coynei given by Bhogaonkar & Devarkar (1999) did not match with Santapau’s description. It is interesting to note that all earlier localities of collection (Pune, Raigad, Sindhudurg and Thane, excluding Amravati) fall on or near the same longitude as of the present locality.

References Almeida, M.R. (1996). Flora of Maharashtra—Vol. 2. St. Xeviers College, Mumbai, 194pp. Almeida, S.M. (1990). Flora of Savantwadi, Maharashtra— Vol. 1. Indian Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany Additional Series, 351pp. Bhogaonkar, P.Y. & V.D. Devarkar (1999). Additions to the flora of Melghat. Some rare and uncommon plants. Technical Bulletin, No. VII. The Directorate, Project Tiger, Melghat, Amravati, 46–47. Harsha, V.H., S.S. Hebbar, G.R. Hegde & V. Shripathi (2004). Ethnomedicobotany of Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka State. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 46(1-4): 330–336. Hebbar, S.S., V.H. Harsha, V.. Shripathi & G.R. Hegde (2004). Ethnomedicine of Dharwad District in Karnataka, India - plants in oral healthcare. Journal of Ethnopharmacogy 94(2) : 261–266. Kothari, M.J. & S. Moorthy (1993). Flora of Raigad District, Maharashtra State—Series 3. Botanical Survey of India, Flora of India, 338pp. Mishra, D.K. & N.P. Singh (2001). Endemic and Threatened Flowering Plants of Maharashtra. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, 196–197pp. Phytogeographical distribution of rare, endangered, threatened and endemic taxa of Maharashtra, India (2009). Achyranthes coynei Santapau: Amaranthaceae R. In: ENVIS Centre on floral diversity, BSI, Howrah, WB, India. <http://www.bsienvis.nic.in/RET/maharashtra%20 index.htm > Downloaded on 10 January 2011. Raghavan, R.S. & N.P. Singh (1983). Endemic and Threatened Plants of Western India, pp. 8–11. In: Jain, S.K. & A.R.K. Sastry (eds.). Plant Conservation Bulletin, Project on the Study, Survey and Conservation of Endangered Flora (POSSCEF). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta. Raghavan, R.S. & N.P. Singh (1984). An inventory of endemic and vulnerable speceis of Western India deserving conservation, Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 5(1): 153–164. Santapau, H.S.J. (1967). Flora of Khandala on Western Ghats of India. Records of Botanical Survey of India, 224– 225pp. Santapau, H.S.J. (1949). Novitates Bombayenses. Kew

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Achyranthes coynei in Karnataka

Bulletin 3(3): 485–492. Sharma, B. D. & B. G. Kulkarni (1987). Achyranthes coynei Santapau, Amaranthaceae pp 8–9. In: Nayar, M.P. & A.R.K. Sastry (eds.) Red Data Book of Indian Plants—Vol 2. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta. Sharma, B.D., N.P. Singh, R.S. Raghavan & U.R. Deshpande (1984). Flora of Karnataka Analysis. Botanical Survey of India, Howrah, 227pp. Shu, N.X. (2003). Flora of China 5: 424–426pp. <http://flora. huh.harvard.edu/china//PDF/PDF05/Achyranthes.pdf> Downloaded on 01 January 2011. Singh, N.P. & R.S. Raghavan (1986). Endemic and threatened plants of western India. Ibid 8(1): 34.

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Singh, N.P., P. Lakshminarasimhan, S. Karthikeyan & P.V. Prasanna (eds.) (2000). Flora of Maharashtra State Vol— 2. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, India, 777–779pp. Upadhya, V., D. Mesta, H.V. Hegde, S. Bhat & S.D. Kholkute (2009). Ethnomedicinal plants of Belgaum region, Karnataka. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33(Suppl.): 300–308. Yadav, S.R. (1997). Flowering plants systematic and diversity, Vol. 1, p.44. In: Pokle, D.S., S.P. Nair & V.N. Naik (eds.). Proceedings, VII IAAT Annual Meet and National Conference.

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JoTT Note

3(6): 1880–1881

Asterina hugoniae sp. nov. (Dothideomycetes: Asterinaceae) from Kerala, India V.B. Hosagoudar 1, A. Sabeena 2 & M.C. Riju 3 Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695562, India Email: 1 vbhosagoudar@rediffmail.com (corresponding author), 2 asabeenarasheed@gmail.com, 3 rcmakkiyil@gmail.com 1,2,3

During the survey of the foliicolous fungi in the Western Ghats region of Kerala State, we came across a big liana, Hugonia mystax L. (Linaceae) found infected with the black mildew. Microscopic examination of the fungus and critical review of the literature revealed that it is a hitherto undescribed species of the genus Asterina. Hence, it is described and illustrated here in detail. Asterina hugoniae sp. nov. (Fig. 1)

Hyphae subrectae vel flexuosae, opposite vel irregulariter acuteque vel laxe ramosae, laxe vel arte reticulatae, cellulae 12–27 x 3–5 µm. Appressoria unicellularis, alternata vel unilateralis, ovata, integra vel plerumque sublobata, 5–12 x 5–10 µm. Thyriothecia dispersa, orbicularis, stellatim dehiscentes ad centre, ad 300µm diam.; margine raro fimbriatae; asci ovati vel globosi, octospori, 20–37 µm diam.; ascosporae conglobatae, 1-septatae, constrictus ad septatis, 22–27 x 10–15 µm, parietus leniter verrucosus. Pycnothyria numerosa, dispersa, orbicularis, ad 100µm diam., stellatim dehiscentes ad centre, margine crenatae vel fimbriatae; pycnothyriosporae unicellularis, globosae, ovatae, 15–22 x 12–20 µm, parietus glabrus. Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, subdense to dense, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent. Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 12–27 x 3–5 µm. Appressoria one

Material examined: 03.xi.2009, on leaves of Hugonia mystax L. (Linaceae), Malabar Botanic Garden, Kozhikode, Kerala, India, coll. A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju, TBGT 4249 (holotype), MycoBank No. 561716. Part of the collection (isotype) has been deposited in HCIO, New Delhi. Coloniae amphigenae, plerumque epiphyllae, subdensae vel densae, ad 2mm diam., confluentes. 8µm Date of publication (online): 26 June 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 June 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print)

a

Editor: R.K. Verma Manuscript details: Ms # o2753 Received 07 April 2011 Finally accepted 01 June 2011

b 17µm

Citation: V.B. Hosagoudar, A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju (2011). Asterina hugoniae sp. nov. (Dothideomycetes: Asterinaceae) from Kerala, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(6): 1880–1881. Copyright: © V.B. Hosagoudar, A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Acknowledgements: We thank Dr. A. Subramoniam, Director, TBGRI, Palode for the facilities. OPEN ACCESS | FREE DOWNLOAD

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d c

10µm

7µm e

7µm

Figure 1. Asterina hugoniae sp. nov. a – Appressorium, b – Thyriothecium, c – Ascus, d – Ascospores, d – Pycnothyriospores

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Asterina hugoniae sp. nov. from Kerala

celled, alternate to unilateral, ovate, entire to mostly sublobate, 5–12 x 5–10 µm. Thyriothecia scattered, orbicular, stellately dehisced at the centre, up to 300µm in diam.; margin rarely fimbriate; asci ovate to globose, octosporous, 20–37 µm in diam.; ascospores conglobate, 1-septate, constricted at the septum, 22– 27 x 10–15 µm, wall slightly verrucose. Pycnothyria numerous, scattered, orbicular, up to 100µm in diameter, stellately dehisced at the centre, margin crenate to fimbriate; pycnothyriospores unicellular, globose, ovate, 15–22 x 12–20 µm, wall smooth.

V.B. Hosagoudar et al.

Etymology: specific epithet is based on the host genus. This is the first report of the genus Asterina on the members of the family Linaceae (Hosagoudar & Abraham 2000).

Reference Hosagoudar, V.B. & T.K. Abraham (2000). A list of Asterina Lev. species based on the literature. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 24: 557–587.

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JoTT Note

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Curcuma bhatii (R.M. Sm.) Skornickova & M. Sabu (Zingiberaceae) and its mycorrhizal association P.P. Rajeshkumar 1, V.B. Hosagoudar 2 & Mathew Dan 1 1,2 Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695562, India Email: 2 vbhosagoudar@rediffmail.com (corresponding author)

Curcuma bhatii (R.M. Sm.) Skornickova & M. Sabu (Paracautleya bhatii R.M. Sm.) (Zingiberaceae) is an endemic, threatened plant (Nayar & Sastry 1988). It is the smallest southern Indian Zingiberaceae with a height of 12–15 cm (Sabu 2006) (Image 1a), having short rhizomes. It grows in the crevices of laterite rocks. It is found in a few scattered populations in Udupi District, Karnataka State, which is its type locality. The plant goes under dormancy for about six months by withering its aerial portion. Since, it is difficult to establish it in ex situ, it prompted us to study its microbial association which plays an important role in the nutrition of the plants. This plant was collected from its natural habitat for the mycorrhizal study and the voucher specimen is deposited in TBGRI (Mathew Dan no. 67521). Methods: The rhizosphere soil sample of the plant was collected for isolation of arbuscular mycorrhizal Date of publication (online): 26 June 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 June 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print)

Glomus aggregatum Schenck & Smith, 1982 Mycologia 74 (1): 80, 1982. (Image 1 b,c)

Editor: Richard Mibey Manuscript details: Ms # o2580 Received 23 September 2010 Final revised received 13 May 2011 Finally accepted 01 June 2011 Citation: Rajeshkumar, P.P., V.B. Hosagoudar & M. Dan (2011). Curcuma bhatii (R.M. Sm.) Skornickova & M. Sabu (Zingiberaceae) and its mycorrhizal association. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(6): 1882–1884. Copyright: © P.P. Rajeshkumar, V.B. Hosagoudar & Mathew Dan 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Acknowledgements: We thank Dr. A. Subramoniam, Director, TBGRI, Palode for the facilities and Dr. R. Rejukrishnan for locating its new populations. OPEN ACCESS | FREE DOWNLOAD

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spore by wet sieving and decanting method (Gerdemann & Nicolson 1963). Root hairs were cut into small pieces (ca. 1cm), decolourised by boiling them in 10% KOH for one hour, cooled to room temperature, washed thoroughly in distilled water, stained with Lactophenol-cottonblue to study the presence of vesicles and arbuscules (Philips & Hayman 1970). The percentage of mycorrhizal colonization was calculated as: (No. of mycorrhizal root segments / Total no. of root segments observed) x 100 The relative frequency of spores was calculated as: (No. of isolate for each species / Total no. of isolates) x 100 Fungal spores were identified on the basis of spore morphology (Schenk & Perez 1990). Result: Root colonization and AM spore count were determined. Curcuma bhatii revealed 95% infection (based on the above formula) and showed about 290 spores per 100g soil. Vesicles and hyphae were present in the roots. The mycorrhizal infection restricted to the epidermis and did not penetrate in to endodermis. Hyphae 2–7 µm broad. Vesicles globose to elongate, 25–50 x 17–20 µm, present in both intercellular and intracellular layer of cortical cells. Spores isolated from the rhizosphere soil belonged to Glomus aggregatum, G. glomerulatum, G. multicaule and Sclerocystis pachycaulis. The spores of Glomus aggregatum and Sclerocystis pachycaulis showed maximum relative frequency (Table 1).

Material examined: 24.vii.2010, spores isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Curcuma bhatii (R.M. Sm.) Skornickova & M. Sabu (Zingiberaceae), Udupi District, Karnataka, coll. P.P. Rajeshkumar, Slide no. TBGT 141. Table 1. Relative frequency of spores Species name

Relative frequency

Glomus aggregatum

33%

G. glomerulatum

10%

G. multicaule

23%

Sclerocystis pachycaulis

32%

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Curcuma bhatii and its mycorrhizal association

Chlamydospores formed in loose clusters or in sporocarps without peridium. Sporocarps are of variable size ranging from 800–1000 µm, hyaline to light yellow with a greenish tint in transmitted light. Chlamydospores globose, subglobose, obovate, irregular, 40–50 x 40–50 µm, hyaline to yellow; wall yellow to yellowish-brown, 1–3µm thick, outer wall slightly thicker and lighter in colour than the inner wall. Hyphae at the point of attachment to spore up to 8µm wide. Spore contents continuous with hyphal contents in young spores but get separated from the hyphal content in older spores by the inner spore wall; pore not occluded by hyphal wall thickening. Hyphal attachment straight to recurved sharply at the base of the spores. Glomus glomerulatum Sieverding Mycotaxon 29: 74, 1987 (Image 1d) Material examined: 24.vii.2010, spores isolated from the Rhizosphere soil of Curcuma bhatii (R.M. Sm.) Skornickova & M. Sabu (Zingiberaceae), Udupi District, Karnataka, coll. P.P. Rajeshkumar, Slide no. TBGT 144. Chlamydospores globose, yellowish-brown, up to 64µm in diam. Composite spore wall composed of two wall layers (wall 1 & 2) in one group (group A); wall 1 is yellow to brown, laminate and up to 3µm thick, on the surface of this wall a layer of hyphae is adherent but normally the spore surface is smooth; wall 2 is hyaline, membranous, up to 0.5µm thick and normally adherent to wall 1. Chlamydospores have two attached hyphae, yellow, straight to recurved. The pore of the hyphal attachment 1.6µm in diam. The pore is closed by second wall. Spore content hyaline, oily. Glomus multicaule Gerdmann & Bakshi, 1976 Trans. Brit Mycol. Soc. 66 (2): 340, 1976 (Image 1e) Material examined: 24.vii.2010, spores isolated from the Rhizosphere soil of Curcuma bhatii (R.M. Sm.) Skornickova& M. Sabu (Zingiberaceae), Udupi District, Karnataka, coll. P.P. Rajeshkumar, Slide no. TBGT 142. Sporocarps not seen. Chlamydospores dark brown, 167–200 µm in diam., subglobose with four hyphal attachments, attachments generally occur at opposite

P.P. Rajeshkumar et al.

ends of the spore. Spore wall up to 15µm thick, thickest at the point of hyphal attachments, rounded projections up to 1.6µm, regularly distributed over the wall surface. Sclerocystis pachycaulis Wu & Chen, 1985 Taiwania 31: 74, 1986 (Image 1f) Material examined: 24.vii.2010, spores isolated from the Rhizosphere soil of Curcuma bhatii (R.M. Sm.) Skornickova & M. Sabu (Zingiberaceae), Udupi District, Karnataka, coll. P.P. Rajeshkumar Slide no. TBGT 143. Sporocarp yellowish-brown, globose, 200–280 µm, consisting of terminal chlamydospore arranged on a central plexus of hyphae. Peridium not seen. Chlamydospores yellow to yellowish-brown, ovoid to ellipsoid, 32–40 x 22–27 µm, wall yellowish-brown, up to 3µm thick, with hyaline, separable outer layer, <1µm thick, usually chlamydospore content separated by 1–2 adventure septa below the spore attachment of attached hyphae. Attached hyphae up to 6.5µm with thick wall. Wall thickness of attached hyphae extending down for some distance, usually thicker than the chlamydospore wall. Discussion The plants grow on the shallow deep soil on rocks and crevices where the soil appears to be poor in nutrients, a condition which favours mycorrhizal fungi. Soil analysis study may prove this statement. Presence of characteristic mycorrhizal association points out the habitat specificity of this narrowly endemic species.

References Gerdemann, J.W. & T.H. Nicolson (1963). Spores of mycorrhizal Endogone species extracted from soil by wet sieving and decanting. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 46: 235–244. Nayar, M.P. & A.R.K. Sastry (1988). Red Data Book of Indian Plants. BSI, Calcutta, 250-251pp. Phillips, J.M. & D.S. Hayman (1970). Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesiculararbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 55: 158–161. Sabu, M. (2006). Zingiberaceae and Costaceae of South India. Indian Association for Angiosperm Taxonomy, Calicut

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a

c

e

b

d

f

Image 1. a - Habitat of Curcuma bhatti (R.M. Sm.) Skomickova & M. Sabu; b - Sporocarp of Glomus aggregatum Schenck & Smith; c - Chalmydospore of Glomus aggregatum Schenck & Smith; d - Chalmydospore of Glomus glomerulatum Sieverding; e - Chlamydospore of Glomus multicaule Gerdmann & Bakshi; f - Chalmydospores of Sclerocystis pachycaulis Wu & Chen.

University, India, 144pp. Schenk, N.C. & Y. Perez (1990). Manual for the Identification of VA Mycorrhizal Fungi. Synergistic Publications, USA, 1â&#x20AC;&#x201C;286pp.

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Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | June 2011 | 3(6): 1882â&#x20AC;&#x201C;1884


Dr. Larry M. Page, Gainesville, USA Dr. Malcolm Pearch, Kent, UK Dr. Richard S. Peigler, San Antonio, USA Dr. Rohan Pethiyagoda, Sydney, Australia Mr. J. Praveen, Bengaluru, India Dr. Muhammad Ather Rafi, Islamabad, Pakistan Dr. H. Raghuram, Bengaluru, India Dr. Dwi Listyo Rahayu, Pemenang, Indonesia Dr. Sekar Raju, Suzhou, China Dr. Vatsavaya S. Raju, Warangal, India Dr. V.V. Ramamurthy, New Delhi, India Dr (Mrs). R. Ramanibai, Chennai, India Dr. M.K. Vasudeva Rao, Pune, India Dr. Robert Raven, Queensland, Australia Dr. K. Ravikumar, Bengaluru, India Dr. Luke Rendell, St. Andrews, UK Dr. Anjum N. Rizvi, Dehra Dun, India Dr. Yves Samyn, Brussels, Belgium Dr. K.R. Sasidharan, Coimbatore, India Dr. Kumaran Sathasivam, India Dr. S. Sathyakumar, Dehradun, India Dr. M.M. Saxena, Bikaner, India Dr. Hendrik Segers, Vautierstraat, Belgium Dr. Subodh Sharma, Towson, USA Prof. B.K. Sharma, Shillong, India

Prof. K.K. Sharma, Jammu, India Dr. R.M. Sharma, Jabalpur, India Dr. Arun P. Singh, Jorhat, India Dr. Lala A.K. Singh, Bhubaneswar, India Prof. Willem H. De Smet, Wilrijk, Belgium Mr. Peter Smetacek, Nainital, India Dr. C. Srinivasulu, Hyderabad, India Dr. Ulrike Streicher, Danang, Vietnam Dr. K.A. Subramanian, Pune, India Mr. K.S. Gopi Sundar, New Delhi, India Dr. P.M. Sureshan, Patna, India Dr. Karthikeyan Vasudevan, Dehradun, India Dr. R.K. Verma, Jabalpur, India Dr. W. Vishwanath, Manipur, India Dr. Gernot Vogel, Heidelberg, Germany Dr. Ted J. Wassenberg, Cleveland, Australia Dr. Stephen C. Weeks, Akron, USA Prof. Yehudah L. Werner, Jerusalem, Israel Dr. Hui Xiao, Chaoyang, China English Editors Mrs. Mira Bhojwani, Pune, India Ms. Mary Regen Jamieson, Massachusetts, USA Dr. Fred Pluthero, Toronto, Canada Dr. Krishnan Srinivasan, Chennai, India

Journal of Threatened Taxa is indexed/abstracted in Zoological Records, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Index Fungorum, Bibliography of Systematic Mycology, EBSCO and Google Scholar.


Journal of Threatened Taxa ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print)

June 2011 | Vol. 3 | No. 6 | Pages 1805–1884 Date of Publication 26 June 2011 (online & print) Essay

Notes

3rd ALCS Special Series Launching and steering flagship Lepidoptera for conservation benefit -- Tim R. New, Pp. 1805–1817

On the presence of Long-billed Plovers Charadrius placidus in Rupa, Arunachal Pradesh in the summer months -- Manari Greeshma, Pp. 1862–1863

Communication

Reproduction of the threatened Annual Killifish Austrolebias nigrofasciatus (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae), confined in a natural environment -- M.V. Volcan, A.P. Fonseca & R.B. Robaldo, Pp. 1864– 1867

Pollination biology of Impatiens cuspidata Wight and Arn. (Balsaminaceae), a rare and endemic balsam of the Western Ghats, India -- A.K. Sreekala, A.G. Pandurangan, R. Ramasubbu & Shrishail K. Kulloli, Pp. 1818–1825 Review Captive elephants – an overview --Heidi S. Riddle & Christopher Stremme, Pp. 1826–1836 Short Communications A new site record of the Grizzled Giant Squirrel Ratufa macroura (Pennant, 1769) in the Hosur forest division, Eastern Ghats, India and its conservation significance -- N. Baskaran, K. Senthilkumar & M. Saravanan, Pp. 1837–1841 Checklist and nesting patterns of avifauna in and around Mayiladuthurai region, Tamil Nadu, India -- A. Mohamed Samsoor Ali, S. Asokan, R. Manikannan & P. Radhakrishnan, Pp. 1842–1850 CEPF Western Ghats Special Series Length-weight relationship and condition factor of an endemic stone sucker, Garra gotyla stenorhynchus (Jerdon, 1849) from two opposite flowing rivers in southern Western Ghats -- Fibin Baby, Josin Tharian, Kurian Mathew Abraham, M.R. Ramprasanth, Anvar Ali & Rajeev Raghavan, Pp. 1851–1855

Light attracted butterflies: a review from the Indian subregion with an inventory from West Bengal, India -- Soumyajit Chowdhury & Rahi Soren, Pp. 1868–1871 Hapalopilus nidulans (Polyporales: Polyporaceae) a new record from India -- C.K. Tiwari, Jagrati Parihar & R.K. Verma, Pp. 1872–1874 Achyranthes coynei Santapau, 1949 (Amaranthaceae) an addition to the flora of Karnataka, India -- Sandeep R. Pai, Vinayak Upadhya, Harsha V. Hegde & Sanjiva D. Kholkute, Pp. 1875–1879 Asterina hugoniae sp. nov. (Dothideomycetes: Asterinaceae) from Kerala, India -- V.B. Hosagoudar, A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju, Pp. 1880– 1881 Curcuma bhatii (R.M. Sm.) Skornickova & M. Sabu (Zingiberaceae) and its mycorrhizal association -- P.P. Rajeshkumar, V.B. Hosagoudar & Mathew Dan, Pp. 1882–1884

Distribution of aquatic insects in phumdis (floating island) of Loktak Lake, Manipur, northeastern India -- Kiranbala Takhelmayum & Susmita Gupta, Pp. 1856– 1861

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JoTT 3(6): 1805-1884 26 June 2011  

This 80-page issue contains 14 articles. It includes new description of a fungi and additional records of plants, rodent and fungi. One art...