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d mq_[gbdm ŠKqZkleb\ucZg]ebckdbcDgb]Z  ^ey deZkkh\h[s_h[jZah\Zl_evguordheª L;De_f_glv_\ZJ.A. Shannon ²H[gbgkdŠLblmeª]ª

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1


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Review ......................................... 3 &KDSWHU>h[jh ih`Zeh\Zlv \:\kljZebx ...... 5 &KDSWHURdhevgZy `bagv ................... 19 &KDSWHUJZaghh[jZab_ dmevlmj ............. 42 &KDSWHUHebfibckdb_ b]ju ................. 56 &KDSWHU>bdZy ijbjh^Z :\kljZebb .......... 74 &KDSWHUFmaudZ bbkdmkkl\h ............... 86 &KDSWHUHiul jZ[hlu ..................... 104 JZ[hqZy l_ljZ^v  ............................ 121 Chapter 1 .................................. 121 JZ[hqZy l_ljZ^v  ............................ 155 Chapter 2 .................................. 155 Chapter 3 .................................. 178 Chapter 4 .................................. 197 3Z[hqZy l_ljZ^v  ............................ 206 Chapter 5 .................................. 206 Chapter 6 .................................. 221 Chapter 7 .................................. 238

2


REVIEW

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Y jZ^ ij_^klZ\blv \Zf +DSS\ (QJOLVK Wlhl mq_[gbd ihagZdhfbl \Zk kh fgh]bfb Zki_dlZfb `bagb \ :\kljZebb bklhjb_c ]_h]jZnb_cdmevlmjhcyaudhfnehjhcb nZmghc :\kljZebckdh_ Ihkhevkl\h l_kgh jZ[hlZeh k Z\lhjZfb gZ^ ih^]hlh\dhc wlh]h mq_[gbdZ b y fh]m \Zk aZ\_jblv qlh \u g_ lhevdh memqrbl_k\h_agZgb_Zg]ebckdh]hyaudZ gh b lZd`_ kfh`_l_ m\b^_lv:\kljZebxbagmljb Y gZ^_xkvqlh\ZfihgjZ\blkyaZgbfZlvkyihwlhfmmq_[gbdmb magZ\Zlvh[:\kljZebb@_eZx\Zfmki_oh\\ mq_[_ >`J;_gleb :\kljZebckdbcihkhe

IhagZdhfvl_kvk i_jkhgZ`Zfb Wlh ² ]eZ\gu_ ]_jhb k dhlhjufb \u \klj_lbl_kv \ Happy English-3. Hev]Z Djueh\Z q_lujgZ^pZlv e_l Oh^bl \ kj_^gxx rdhem \ Fhkd\_ Jhkkby Wlh ih_a^dZ \ :\kljZebx ² __ i_j\Zy ih_a^dZ aZ ]jZgbpmHev]_gjZ\blkybamqZlvyaudb KZrZDjueh\r_klgZ^pZlve_loh^bl\ kj_^gxxrdhem\ Fhkd\_ Jhkkby <u \_jhylgh ihfgbl_ dZd \klj_qZebkv k KZr_c \ +DSS\(QJOLVKb +DSS\ (QJOLVKdh]^Zhgihk_sZe <_ebdh[jblZgbxb Kh_^bg_ggu_RlZlu:f_jbdbKZrZex[bliml_r_kl\h\Zlv Hev]Z²_]hk_kljZ Lhf Jhm r_klgZ^pZlv e_l oh^bl \ kj_^gxx rdhem \ Kb^g__ :\kljZebyLhfgbdh]^Zg_[ueaZ]jZgbp_cGhm g_]hfgh]h^jma_c bajZaguokljZgHggZ^__lkyqlhkdhjhih_^_laZ]jZgbpmHev]Zb KZrZ[m^ml`blvk Lhfhfb _]hk_fv_cihdZhgb[m^ml\ Kb^g__ AZq_fmqblvZg]ebckdbcyaud" :g]ebckdbc \_jhylgh kZfuc rbjhdh jZkijhkljZg_gguc yaud gZ A_fe_ Ex^b ih \k_fm fbjm ]h\hjyl gZ Zg]ebckdhf Hgb g_ \k_ bkihevamxl _]h dZd bo hkgh\ghc yaud < g_dhlhjuo kljZgZo lZdbo dZd Gb]_jby b Bg^by kms_kl\m_l fgh]h jZaebqguo yaudh\ b ihwlhfm\ wlbokljZgZoZg]ebckdbcyaudbkihevam_lkydZd ŠhnbpbZevgucªbebŠ\lhjhcªyaud^eyijZ\bl_evkl\Z[bag_kZb h[jZah\Zgby Hij_^_e_ggu_ Šf_`^mgZjh^gu_ª ijhn_kkbb lZdb_ dZd ibehl Z\bZebgbc b Z\bZ^bki_lq_j lj_[mxl agZgby Zg]ebckdh]h yaudZ :g]ebckdbclZd`_jZ[hqbcyauddhfivxl_jh\?keb<uagZ_l_Zg]ebckdbcyaud<ufh`_l_h[sZlvkyk ex^vfbkh\k_]hfbjZihkj_^kl\hfdhfivxl_jZ 3


AgZebeb<uwlhh[Zg]ebckdhfyaud_" :g]ebckdbcyaudaZjh^bekyhdheh e_lgZaZ^\ :g]ebb < ^j_\g_Zg]ebckdhf[ueh\k_]hhdhehg_kdhevdbolukyqkeh\ < g_f[uehgZfgh]h[hevr_hdhgqZgbcq_f\ kh\j_f_gghfZg]ebckdhfyaud_ K_cqZk\ Zg]ebckdhfyaud_[he__fbeebhgZkeh\ < Hdknhj^kdhfKeh\Zj_[he__ jZaebqguokeh\ Kj_^gbcihevah\Zl_evagZ_lhl^h keh\ Hkgh\gZy fZkkZ Zg]ebckdbo keh\ i_j\hgZqZevgh [ueb ba eZlbgkdh]hyaudZ <u fh]eb [u gZibkZlv khlgb kljZgbp gZ Zg]ebckdhf yaud_ bkihevamyhdheh keh\bf_xsboeZlbgkdh_ijhbkoh`^_gb_ < kZfhf [eb`Zcr_f [m^ms_f dZ`^uc q_l\_jluc kfh`_l ]h\hjblvihZg]ebckdbLu²h^bgbagbo

<hijhku^eyh[km`^_gby Hl\_lvgZ\hijhku  Kdhevdhq_eh\_d\ fbj_]h\hjylgZZg]ebckdhfyaud_" About 1300 000 000 (one fourth of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population) speak (QJOLVK Hdheh q_l\_jlb gZk_e_gby A_feb ]h\hjyl gZ Zg]ebckdhf yaud_

 GZah\bg_dhlhju_bakljZg\ dhlhjuoex^b bkihevamxlZg]ebckdbc yaud dZd h^bg ba hnbpbZevguo yaudh\ ^ey ijZ\bl_evkl\Z [bag_kZb h[jZah\Zgby Nigeria, India, Mauritius, Pakistan, Seychelles, Saint Lucia, Puerto Rico, Gibraltar, Malta,  Kdhevdh\j_f_gblum`_bamqZ_rvZg]ebckdbcyaud" I have been learning English for 5(6,7,8,9, 10) years.  L_[_gjZ\blkymqblvZg]ebckdbcyaud"Ihq_fm"Ihq_fmg_l" Yes, I do. I like to learn English because I can communicate with people from other FRXQWULHV >Z. fg_gjZ\blkymqblvZg]ebckdbcyaud ihlhfmqlhy fh]mh[sZlvkyk ex^vfbba^jm]bokljZg   DZdlubkihevam_rvk\h_agZgb_Zg]ebckdh]hyaudZ" I communicate with my pen friends in English. I try to read books by American and English writers in the original. Y h[sZxkv kh k\hbfb ^jmavyfb ih i_j_ibkd_ gZ Zg]ebckdhf yaud_ Y iulZxkv qblZlv dgb]bZf_jbdZgkdbob Zg]ebckdboibkZl_e_c\ hjb]bgZe_

 AgZ_rvebludZdb_gb[m^v_s_bghkljZggu_yaudb" No, I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t.

H l_[_ Ihq_fmlubamqZ_rvZg]ebckdbcyaud"IhklZ\vdj_klbdgZihjlb\ij_^eh`_gbcdhlhju_emqr_\k_]hh[tykgyxll\hbfhlb\u Y ohqmqblZlvdgb]b`mjgZeub ]Za_lugZZg]ebckdhfyaud_ 4


Wlhij_^f_l\ fh_fmq_[ghfieZg_ Wlhihfh`_lfg_gZclbohjhrmxjZ[hlm Y ohqmiml_r_kl\h\ZlvaZ]jZgbpm Y ohqmmqblvkyaZ]jZgbp_c Fg_qZklhijboh^blkyjZa]h\Zjb\Zlvk bghkljZgpZfb Y [uohl_ekfhlj_lvnbevfub l_e_i_j_^ZqbgZZg]ebckdhfyaud_  Fh`_rv eb lu gZa\Zlv _s_ g_kdhevdh ijbqbg ih dhlhjufklhblbamqZlvZg]ebckdbcyaud"Ih`ZemcklZh[km^bk\hb b^_bb ijbqbguk h^ghdeZkkgbdZfb I want to live abroad. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d like to associate with people from other countries to learn more of their ways and culture. 5. DZdhc ba wlbo gZ\udh\ y\ey_dlky ^ey l_[y kZfuf \Z`guf" Ihq_fm" IhklZ\v hlf_ldb hl  kZfuc \Z`guc  ^h  gZbf_g__\Z`guc gZijhlb\yq__d JZa]h\Zjb\ZlvgZZg]ebckdhfyaud_ IbkZlvgZZg]ebckdhfyaud_ QblZlvgZZg]ebckdhfyaud_ IhgbfZlvZg]ebckdbc\ jZa]h\hj_

CHAPTER 1. >H;JHIH@:EH<:LV< :<KLJ:EBX JZa]h\hjgZyijZdlbdZ

KZrZb Hev]Z[m^ml`blv\ Kb^g__\ Z\kljZebckdhck_fv_Hgb lZd`_ ih_^ml \ DZg[_jjm klhebpm :\kljZebb b \ F_ev[mjg Wlh i_j\Zyih_a^dZHev]baZ]jZgbpm Ih`ZemcklZ ijhqlbl_ ke_^mxsb_ ^bZeh]b \kemo AZl_f jZau]jZcl_bok h^ghdeZkkgbdZfbH[jZsZcl_hkh[h_\gbfZgb_gZ nhjfu ]eZ]heh\ Ihke_ lh]h dZd aZdhgqbl_ qblZlv ih`ZemcklZ\uihegbl_aZ^Zgbyke_^mxsb_aZ^bZeh]Zfb Ijb[ulb_\ :\kljZebx LhfIjb\_l<u²KZrZb Hev]Z"Y ²Lhf KZrZ b Hev]ZIjbylghihagZdhfblvkyLhf LhfFg_lh`_ijbylghihagZdhfblvky>h[jhih`Zeh\Zlv\ :\kljZebxDZdijhreZih_a^dZ" KZrZHgZ[ueZhq_gv^ebgghc Hev]ZFuijhe_l_eb  qZkh\ dh]^Z magZeb qlh fu ijhe_l_eb lhevdhiheh\bgmjZkklhygby^h:\kljZebb KZrZFujZ^u[ulva^_kv Lhf<uh[ZlZdohjhrh]h\hjbl_ihZg]ebckdb<um`_[u\Zeb \ Zg]eh]h\hjys_ckljZg_" 5


KZrZ< ijhrehf]h^my _a^be\ Kh_^bg_ggu_RlZlu:f_jbdb: ^\Z]h^Z^hwlh]hy [ue\ <_ebdh[jblZgbb Hev]ZWlh²fhyi_j\Zyih_a^dZaZ]jZgbpm LhfKdhevdh\j_f_gb\ubamqZ_l_Zg]ebckdbcyaud" Hev]Z< dhgp_]h^Z[m^_lm`_ljb]h^ZdZdy bamqZxZg]ebckdbc KZrZ  Fu gZ^__fky qlh a^_kv fu memqrbf k\h_ agZgb_ Zg]ebckdh]h Lhf M \Zk lZd`_ [m^_l \hafh`ghklv bamqblv Z\kljZebckdbc ^bZe_dl KZrZDh]^Zy mqbeky\ :f_jbd_y magZeqlh kms_kl\mxl g_dhlhju_jZaebqbyf_`^m[jblZgkdbfb Zf_jbdZgkdbfZg]ebckdbf:\kljZebckdbcZg]ebckdbckbevghhlebqZ_lkyhl[jblZgkdh]hb Zf_jbdZgkdh]h" Lhfg_lg_hq_gvkbevghG_dhlhju_keh\ZijbrebhlZ[hjb]_gh\ lZdb_dZd[mf_jZg]b d_g]mjm Hev]ZDlhlZdb_Z[hjb]_gu" Lhf :[hjb]_gu ² dhj_ggu_ `bl_eb :\kljZebb dhlhju_ `beb a^_kvgZijhly`_gbblukyqe_l^hlh]hdZd\ :\kljZebxijbieueb_\jhi_cpu<uih_^_l_\ ^jm]b_]hjh^Zihke_Kb^g_y" KZrZ>Zfukh[bjZ_fZylZd`_ih_oZlv\ DZg[_jjmb F_ev[mjg Lhf Y ^mfZxqlh m \Zk [m^_lhq_gv bgl_j_kgZy ih_a^dZ Y b fhy k_fvy kqZkleb\u qlh \u [m^_l_ `blv k gZfb \h \j_fy ij_[u\Zgby \ Kb^g__ KZrZb Hev]ZKiZkb[hqlhijb]eZkbeb I_j\u_\i_qZle_gby LhfDZdb_m \Zki_j\u_\i_qZle_gbyh[:\kljZebb" Hev]Z i_j\h_ qlh gZ f_gy ijhba\_eh \i_qZle_gb_ ² lh dZdb_ a^_kv\k_\_`eb\u_b \gbfZl_evgu_ Lhf>ZZ\kljZebcpuhq_gv^jm`_ex[gu KZrZa^_kv^Z`_\h^bl_ebex[_aguHgbhklZgZ\eb\ZxlfZrbguqlh[uijhimklblvi_r_oh^h\ Lhf M i_r_oh^h\ \k_]^Z _klv ij_bfms_kl\h gZ ^hjh]_ : ^ey Z\lh[mkh\b lZdkb\u^_e_gZki_pbZevgZyihehkZqlh[uex^bihevamxsb_ky h[s_kl\_gguf ljZgkihjlhf j_`_ ijboh^behkv `^Zlv \ mebqghf^\b`_gbb KZrZWlha^hjh\h Lhf: luHev]ZQlhluaZf_lbeZ" Hev]Z GZ f_gy ijhba\_eh \i_qZle_gb_ dhebq_kl\h jZkl_gbc b ilbp`b\msboijyfh\ ]hjh^_ Lhf Kb^g_c hdjm`_g gZpbhgZevgufb iZjdZfb >Z`_ \ p_glj_ ]hjh^Zilbpu]g_a^ylkygZ^_j_\vyojy^hfk hnbkgufba^Zgbyfbb h`b\e_ggufbmebpZfb 6


Hev]Z<b^bfhZ\kljZebcpu^_ckl\bl_evghex[ylijbjh^m Lhf>ZfuklZjZ_fkyaZsblblvgZrmijbjh^mb `b\hlguoFu hkhagZeb ijh[e_fu hdjm`Zxs_c kj_^u lhevdh dh]^Z ihgyeb dZd fgh]h ^_j_\v_\ fu kjm[beb b kdhevdh \b^h\ `b\hlguo bkq_aeh K_cqZkfubkihevam_fjZagu_dhgl_cg_ju^eyk[hjZ\lhjkujvy^ey [Zghd[mluehdb ijhklhfmkhjZ\ jZaebqguof_klZoih\k_fm]hjh^mK_cqZk^_j_\vykZ`Zxlih\k_c:\kljZebb Hev]ZY m^b\beZkvhfmqlha^_kvhk_gv>hfZk_cqZk\_kgZ KZrZ Fu lZd`_ aZf_lbeb qlh a^_kv `b\ml ex^b ba jZaguo kljZg LhfHdhehq_l\_jlb]jZ`^Zg:\kljZebbjh^bebkvaZ]jZgbp_cb fb]jbjh\Zeb\ :\kljZebx<u[ug_ohl_eb ihclb kh fghc \ rdhem" Y [u ihagZdhfbe \Zk kh k\hbfb ^jmavyfb Fgh]b_ ba gbo ba ^jm]bokljZg KZrZ K m^h\hevkl\b_f Lu oh^brv \ rdhem i_rdhf beb _a^brvgZrdhevghfZ\lh[mk_" LhfDZ`^uc^_gvy _a`m\ rdhemgZeh^d_ Hev]ZLu^h[bjZ_rvky^hrdheugZeh^d_ Lhf>ZfhyrdheZgZoh^blkyq_j_aaZeb\ KZrZEh^dbhq_gvihimeyjgua^_kvg_lZdeb"Y aZf_lbefgh`_kl\hiZjhfh\^eyi_j_\hadbex^_c\ [mol_Kb^g_y LhfLZddZdKb^g_c[ueihkljh_ghdhehfhjyqZklhi_j_ijZ\eylvkygZiZjhf_[uklj__ H ^bZeh]Zo Hl\_lvgZ\hijhku Ijb[ulb_\ :\kljZebx  DZdhc]hjh^ihk_sZxlKZrZb Hev]Z" They are visiting Sydney.  DZdhc[ueZboih_a^dZ" Their yrip was very long.  Kdhevdhhgbm`_ijhe_l_ebdh]^ZmagZebqlhhgbijhe_l_eb lhevdhiheimlb^h:\kljZebb" They had been flying for 12 hours when they learned that theywere only half way to Australia.  ;u\ZeebKZrZ\ <_ebdh[jblZgbb"Dh]^ZhglZf[ue" Yes, he has. He was there three years ago.  ;u\ZeZebHev]ZaZ]jZgbp_c" No, she hasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t.  Kdhevdh\j_f_gbHev]ZbamqZ_lZg]ebckdbcyaud" She has been studying English two and half years.  Kdhevdh\j_f_gblu[m^_rvbamqZlvZg]ebckdbcyaudd dhgpm wlh]h]h^Z" 7


I will have been studying English for 45 years by the end of this year.   :\kljZebckdbc Zg]ebckdbc kbevgh hlebqZ_lky hl Zf_jbdZgkdh]hb [jblZgkdh]h\ZjbZglh\" No, it is not very different from American and British English.  DlhlZdb_Z[hjb]_gu" Aborigines are the Australian natives. They had been living in Australia for thousands of years before the first Europeans came.  DZdb_Z\kljZebckdb_]hjh^Zihk_lylKZrZb Hev]Z" They will be visiting Canberra and Melbourne.  K d_f[m^ml`blvKZrZb Hev]Z\h\j_fyij_[u\Zgby\ Kb^g__" They will be staying with Tom and his family. I_j\u_\i_qZle_gby  Qlhijhba\_eh\i_qZle_gb_gZKZrmb Hev]m\ Kb^g__" Olga was impressed by the politeness and helpfulness of people. She was also impressed by the number of different plant and birds that live right in the city. Sasha was impressed by the fact that drivers stop to let pedestrians cross.  >eydh]hhklZgZ\eb\Zxlky\h^bl_eb" The drivers stop for pedestrians to cross.  >eyZ\lh[mkh\b lZdkb\u^_e_gZki_pbZevgZyebgby"AZq_f" Yes, they are. Buses and taxis are given a special line, so that people who use public transport rarely wait in traffic.  Ihq_fm\h\k_fKb^g__kZ`Zxl^_j_\vy" Trees are being planted because Australians are trying to protect their nature.  Q_fhdjm`_gKb^g_c" Sydney is surrounded by national parks.  =^_jh^bebkv^\Z^pZlviylvijhp_glh\Z\kljZebcp_\" Twenty-five per cent of Australians were born overseas.  =^_gZoh^blkyrdheZLhfZ" Tomâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s school is located across the bay. 2. KDGEHHQIO\LQJ²e_l_eb m`_kdhevdhlh\j_f_gb

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8


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Ludh]^Zgb[m^v[ue\ ^jm]hckljZg_"?keb^ZjZkkdZ`b k\hbf h^ghdeZkkgbdZf h k\hbo \i_qZle_gbyo h kljZg_ GZijbf_jqlhluaZf_lbekjZamdZdijb[ue\ wlmkljZgm"DZdkbevghwlZkljZgZhlebqZ_lkyhll\h_ckljZgu" I have been to Great Britain. I visited it last year. The first thing noticed was that the English were very reserved and polite. They never pushed each other. They all patiently wanted in a line and no one thought of jumping the queue. The next thing was the fact that they drive on the left side of the road. Of course I knew about that but it still surprised me when I saw it with my own eyes. It was very inconvenient to cross the road as I had to look on the right and then on the left. It was strange to see that no one laughed or spoke in the Tube. They all read newspapers or just looked before themselves.  JZau]jZcl_ ^bZeh] \ iZjZo H^bg mq_gbd [m^_l Lhfhf Z ^jm]hc[m^_l \RX LhfIjb\_lDZd^_eZ" You+L,¶PILQHWKDQNV$QGKRZ DUH\RX" KiZkb[hohjhrh: m l_[y"

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LhfM f_gy^\Z[jZlZb k_kljZ =jZffZlbdZ 3. I drink tea every day. (Present Simple) I am drinking tea now. (Present Progressive) I have never drunk tea. (Present Perfect) I have been drinking tea for 2 hours. (Present Perfect Progressive) I drank tea yesterday at a party. (Past Simple) I was drinking tea when my friend came in. (Past Progressive) I had already drank coffee when he suggested to go to a cafeteria.(Past Perfect) I had been drinking coffee for a couple of hours when I saw him. (Past Perfect Progressive I shall drink cocoa tomorrow. (Future Simple) I shall be drinking tea tomorrow at 10 oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;clock. (Future Progressive) I shall have drunk my tea by this time tomorrow. (Future Perfect) I shall have been reading a book for 3 hours by the time you come. (Future Perfect Progressive)

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\k_]h k\_lZ ijb\e_dZ_l djZkhlZ Kb^g_y Kj_^ba_fghfhjkdbc debfZl_]h\i_qZleyxsb_]Ze_j_bfma_bZjobl_dlmjZb iZjdb Wlh²jZchg\ dhlhjhf`b\mlKZrZb Hev]Z< \uoh^gu_ex^_c fh`ghm\b^_lv\h^\hj_ Wlh²rdheZLhfZHgZ[ueZihkljh_gZe_lgZaZ^ Hi_jgucL_ZljKb^g_y²h^bgbakZfuoaZf_qZl_evguoijbf_jh\ Zjobl_dlmju  \_dZ Hg [ue aZ^mfZg ^Zlkdbf Zjobl_dlhjhf >`h_jghfMlahghfWlh²kbf\hedmevlmjghc`bagbKb^g_y DebfZl L_ieuc b mf_j_gguc khegp_ k\_lbl [hevrmx qZklv ]h^Z L_fi_jZlmjZ\h^ue_lhfihP_evkbxAbfhc Ijb l_iehf kheg_qghf debfZl_ g_m^b\bl_evgh qlh Kb^g_c ² ]hjh^ ex[bl_e_c kihjlZ G_ m^b\bl_evgh qlh wlhl ]hjh^Z [ue \u[jZg^eyijh\_^_gbxHebfibckdboB]j]h^Z < ahhiZjd_ \ LZjhg]_ fh`gh m\b^_lv i_jvy f_o ieZ\gbdb b deudb Ijbjh^gmx kj_^m h[blZgby lsZl_evgh jZajZ[Zlu\Zeb ki_pbZebklu< ahhiZjd_h^bgbakZfuodjZkb\uoi_caZ`_c\ Kb^g__ Kb^g_chdjm`_ghd_Zghfb gZpbhgZevgufbiZjdZfb >Zcl_djZldh_baeh`_gb_lh]hqlh\umagZebh Kb^g__ Sydney is the largest and oldest city in Australia. Nearly four milion people live there. Most of its residents are English in background, buy more than a quarter of the population of the city was born overseas. Sydney is a beautiful city with numerous museums, impressive galleries, architecture and parks. Every year tourists from all over the world visit Sydney. The climate is warm and sunny. Many of its inhabitants are sport lovers and the city was chosen to host the 2000 Olympic Games. <uibrbl_ij_^eh`_gbyk iZkkb\gufaZeh]hfb i_j_\_^bl_bogZjmkkdbcyaud 2Q ZHHNHQGV SHRSOH FDQ EH VHHQ LQ WKH \DUG < \uoh^gu_ ex^_c fh`ghm\b^_lv\h^\hj_ ,WZDVEXLOW\HDUVDJRHgZ[ueZihkljh_gZe_lgZaZ^ ,WZDV FRQFHLYHGE\'DQLVKDUFKLWHFW-RHUQ8W]RQHg[ueaZ^mfZg ^ZlkdbfZjobl_dlhjhf>`h_jghfMlahghf 1RZRQGHUWKHFLW\ZDVFKRVHQWRKRVWWKH2O\PSLF*DPHVG_ m^b\bl_evgh qlh wlhl ]hjh^Z [ue \u[jZg ^ey ijh\_^_gbx HebfibckdboB]j]h^Z 6\GQH\LVVXUURXQGHGE\RFHDQDQGQDWLRQDOSDUNVKb^g_chdjm`_g hd_Zghfb gZpbhgZevgufbiZjdZfb )HDWKHUVIXUILQVDQGIDQJVFDQEHIRXQGDWWKH7DURQJD]RR< ahhiZjd_\ LZjhg]_fh`ghm\b^_lvi_jvyf_oieZ\gbdbb deudb 1DWXUDO KDELWDWV ZHUH FDUHIXOO\ GHVLJQHG E\ H[SHUWV Ijbjh^gmx kj_^mh[blZgbylsZl_evghjZajZ[Zlu\Zebki_pbZebklu 11


MgbdZevgZybklhjby:\kljZebb DZiblZg>`_cfkDmdhldjue:\kljZebx\ ]h^m?]hihkeZebhldjulvh]jhfgu_a_febdhlhju_ihfg_gbxfgh]boex^_cgZoh^bebkv d x]m hl wd\ZlhjZ Hg \ukZ^beky x`g__ lh]h f_klZ ]^_ gZoh^blkyKb^g_c\ Gh\hfX`ghfMwevk_Hgij_^ty\beijZ\ZgZ wlmqZklva_f_ev^eydhjhey:g]ebb < lh\j_fy\ :g]ebb[uehfgh]hkhpbZevguoijh[e_f;ue\ukhdbc mjh\_gv [_ajZ[hlbpu Ij_klmighklv [ueZ h^ghc ba kZfuo [hevrbo ijh[e_f IjZ\bl_evkl\h gZdZau\Zeh ex^_c kZ`Zy bo \ lxjvfu J_r_gb_f ijh[e_fu i_j_iheg_gguo lxj_f ^ey :g]ebb klZeZ\ukuedZaZdexq_gguo\ ^Zevgb_dhehgbbHgbfh]ebhljZ[hlZlv k\hc ijb]h\hj dZd q_jghjZ[hqb_ \ gh\uo dhehgbyo b \ dhgp_ dhgph\ aZjZ[hlZlv k\h[h^m Ihwlhfm \  ]h^m dZiblZg :jlmj Nbeebi [ue dhfZg^mxsbf gZ h^bggZ^pZlb dhjZ[eyo ieZ\msbo \ :\kljZebx Hdheh  ba  ex^_c gZoh^b\rboky gZ dhjZ[eyo [ueb hkm`^_ggufb Wlbo i_j\uo ihk_e_gp_\ ijb\_lkl\h\Zeb Z[hjb]_gui_j\u_h[blZl_eb:\kljZebb< :\kljZebb\ lh\j_fy`beh ijb[ebabl_evghZ[ejb]_gh\ <_ebdh[jblZgbyaZy\beZk\hbijZ\ZgZ\kxl_jjblhjbx:\kljZebb\ ]h^m< ]h^mijb[ebabl_evgh\ lj_oklZodbehf_ljZo hlKb^g_yh[gZjm`bebahehlhEx^bmklj_fbebkv\ ahehlu_iheyaZ khklhygbyfbWlhijb\e_dehjZa[hcgbdh\dhlhjuogZau\Zeb[jh^y]Zfb G_^ D_eeb [ue ba\_klguf ij_klmigbdhf Hg [ue hq_gv mfguf[Zg^blhf <  ]h^m :\kljZeby klZeZ gZpb_c \ khklZ\_ ;jblZgkdhc Bfi_jbb \h \j_fy ijZ\e_gby dhjhe_\u <bdlhjbb Wlh gZa\Zeb kh^jm`_kl\hf:\kljZebbM :\kljZebb[ueZhq_gvh]jZgbq_ggZydhgklblmpby <_ebdh[jblZgby ijh^he`ZeZ ijbgbfZlv j_r_gby hkms_kl\eylv\g_rgxxiheblbdm:\kljZebb < ]h^m:\kljZebyh[j_eZg_aZ\bkbfhklvhl<_ebdh[jblZgbb Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku   KqblZ_rv eb lu qlh bklhjby :\kljZebb mgbdZevgZ" Lu fh`_rvgZa\Zlv_s_h^gmkljZgmk ihoh`_cbklhjb_c²k [jblZgkdbfbihk_e_gbyfbdhj_ggufb`bl_eyfbm`_`b\rbfblZfahehlhc ebohjZ^dhc" No, I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t think Australiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s history is unique. There is a country with a similar history. It is the United States of America. When the British came to settle in America, the natives had been living there for many years. Only in America natives were Indians. And there was a goldrush DIWHUJROGKDGEHHQGLVFRYHUHGLQ&DOLIRUQLD G_ly g_kqblZxqlhbklhjby:\kljZebbmgbdZevgZ?klv_s_h^gZkljZgZk ihoh`_cbklhjb_cWlhKh_^bg_ggu_RlZlu:f_jbdbDh]^Z[jblZgpuijb_oZeb 12


\ :f_jbdm dhj_ggu_ `bl_eb`beblZf m`_fgh]b_]h^uLhevdh \ :f_jbd_dhj_ggufb`bl_eyfb[uebbg^_cpuB lZflh`_[ueZahehlZyebohjZ^dZihke_lh]hdZd\ DZebnhjgbbh[gZjm`bebahehlh   DZdmxqZklvbklhjbb:\kljZebblukqblZ_rvmgbdZevghcbeb bgl_j_kghc" The fact that the first settlers were convicts is unique. I canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t remember any other country where something like that happened. I VXSSRVH LW KDG LWV LPSDFW RQ WKH IRUPLQJ RI WKH QDWLRQ lhl nZdl qlh i_j\u_ ihk_e_gpu [ueb dZlhj`gbdZfb mgbdZe_g Y g_ ijbihfgx ^jm]hckljZgu\ dhlhjhc[uehqlheb[hih^h[gh_>mfZxwlhhdZaZeh\ebygb_gZnhjfbjh\Zgb_gZpbb  H[tykgbl_agZq_gb_wlh]hij_^eh`_gby At that time there were many social problems in Britain, such as unemployment, crime and crowded prisons. JZkiheh`bl_ih`ZemcklZkh[ulbygZ\j_f_gghcrdZe_ 1770 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Captain Cook discovered Australia. 1788 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Captain Phillip commanded eleven ships with convicts on board to Australia. 1827 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Great Britain claimed all of Australia. 1851 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; gold was discovered not far from Sydney. 1901 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Australia became a nation within the British Empire. 1931 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Australia gained independence from Great Britain. <uibrbl_]eZ]heumihlj_[e_ggu_\ nhjf_^_ckl\bl_evgh]hb kljZ^Zl_evgh]haZeh]Z Active voice Passive voice 'LVFRYHUHG²hldjue %HOLHYHG²iheZ]Zeb /DQGHG²\ukZ^beky &ODLPHG²ij_^ty\beijZ\Z :DVKDYLQJ²bf_eZ :DV²[ueZ 3XQLVKHG²gZdZau\Zeh &RXOG²fh]eb &RPPDQGHG²dhfZg^h\Ze :HUH²[ueb &ODLPHG²ij_^ty\beijZ\Z 5XVKHG²mklj_fbebkv $WWUDFWHG²ijb\e_deh %HFDPH²klZeZ +DG²bf_eZ &RQWLQXHG²ijh^he`ZeZ *DLQHG²h[j_eZ

:DVVHQW²[ueihkeZg :HUHJUHHWHG²boijb\_lkl\h\Zeb :DVGLVFRYHUHG²[uehh[gZjm`_gh :DVFDOOHG²[uehgZa\Zgh

5. Discovered â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the Past Simple Tense Believed â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the Past Simple Tense 13


Landed â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the Past Simple Tense Claimed â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the Past Simple Tense Was having â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Was â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the Past Simple Tense Punished â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the Past Simple Tense Could â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the Past Tense Commanded â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the Past Simple Tense Were â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the Past Simple Tense Claimed â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the Past Simple Tense Rushed â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the Past Simple Tense Attracted â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the Past Simple Tense Became â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the Past Simple Tense Had â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the Past Simple Tense Continued â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the Past Simple Tense Gained â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the Past Simple Tense Was sent â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the Past Simple Tense Passive Were greeted â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the Past Simple Tense Passive Was discovered â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the Past Simple Tense Passive Was called â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the Past Simple Tense Passive

:\kljZebyk_]h^gy :\kljZeby²wlhh^gh\j_f_gghb dhglbg_glb kljZgZb hkljh\ Wlhr_klZyih\_ebqbg_kljZgZb kZfucfZe_gvdbcdhglbg_gl\ fbj_:\kljZebyjZkiheh`_gZ\ x`ghfihemrZjbbIhwlhfmlZfe_lh dh]^Zm gZkabfZZ abfZlZfdh]^Zm gZke_lhBgl_j_kghmagZlvqlh yg\Zjv²kZfuc`Zjdbcf_kyp\ :\kljZebb Ihq_fmYg\ZjvkZfuc`Zjdbcf_kyp\ :\kljZebb? January is the hottest month in Australia because when we have winter Australia has summer. :\kljZebyjZkiheh`_gZd x]mhl:abbf_`^mLbobfb Bg^bckdbf hd_ZgZfb :\kljZeby ² kZfuc kmohc dhglbg_gl \ fbj_ H]jhfgu_ mqZkldba_febgZklhevdhkmob_qlhgZgbogbdlhg_`b\_lGZk_\_j_ gZoh^ylky ljhibq_kdb_ e_kZ gZ x]h\hklhd_ ² kg_`gu_ ihey \ p_gljZevghc qZklb ² imklugb Z gZ x]_ b x]haZiZ^_ ² ieh^hjh^gu_ a_feb:\kljZebylZd`_kZfuciehkdbcdhglbg_glihke_:glZjdlbdb Ih`ZemcklZ, h[tykgbl_ agZq_gb_ wlh]h ij_^eh`_gby «Huge areas are so dry that they are uninhabited». That means that the land there is very dry, there is hardly any water or plants there and no one can live there. :\kljZeby ² mj[Zgbabjh\ZggZy kljZgZ Hdheh  gZk_e_gby `b\_l\ kZfuo[hevrbo]hjh^Zo;hevrZyqZklvgZk_e_gby`b\_l \ x]h\hklhqghc qZklb kljZgu b lhevdh  gZk_e_gby `b\_l \ k_evkdhcf_klghklbDZg[_jjZ²klhebpZ:\kljZebbWlhg_kZfuc 14


[hevrhc ]hjh^ Kb^g_c b F_ev[mjg ]hjZa^h [hevr_ RlZl LZkfZgbyhl^_e_ghldhglbg_glZ:\kljZebyWlhrlZl²hkljh\ QlhlZdh_island state? An island state is state which occupies an island. :\kljZebcpu ex[yl ^bdmx ijbjh^m :\kljZebckdh_ ijZ\bl_evkl\hm^_ey_l[hevrh_\gbfZgb_aZsbl_hdjm`Zxs_ckj_^u< ijhrehf [ueh \ujm[e_gh fgh]h ^_j_\v_\ IjZ\bl_evkl\h ieZgbjm_l ihkZ^blv fbeebZj^ ^_j_\v_\ d  ]h^m Hgb m`_ ihkZ^beb  fbeebhgh\^_j_\v_\K_cqZkih\k_c:\kljZebbkZ`Zxl^_j_\vy Ihq_fmih \k_c:\kljZebbkZ`Zxl^_j_\vy? The trees are being planted all over Australia because the Government pays a lot of attention to the preservation of the environment and because many trees had been cut down. :\kljZebcpulZd`_ex[ylkihjl:\kljZebyy\ey_lkyh^`ghcba g_fgh]bokljZgdhlhju_ ijbgbfZeb mqZklb_ \h \k_o Hebfibckdbo B]jZokl_o ihj dZd bo hj]Zgbah\Zeb Hebfibckdb_ B]ju ijh\h^bebkv\ F_ev[mjg_\ ]h^mb [m^mlijh\h^blvky\ Kb^g__\  ]h^m Ih`ZemcklZaZdhgqbl_ij_^eh`_gb_b h[tykgbl__]hagZq_gb_ Australia is one of the few countries in the world that has participated in all of the Olympic games since they were organized. That means that very few countries participated in all Olympic Games. Australia was one of them. :\kljZeby ² kljZgZ ]jZ`^Zg_ dhlhjhc hlghkylky d jZaebqguf dmevlmjZf q_l\_jlv gZk_e_gby jh^bebkv aZ ]jZgbp_c :\kljZeby klZeZ ^hfhf ^ey ihk_e_gp_\ ba  kljZg :[hjb]_gu khklZ\eyxl \k_]hebrvgZk_e_gbyk_cqZk Ih`ZemcklZ, h[tykgbl_agZq_gb_wlh]hij_^eh`_gbyAbout a quarter of the population is foreign born. That means that a quarter of Australians were born in other countries and then came to live in Australia. >eylh]hqlh[u[hevr_magZlvh[ :\kljZebbbkihevamcl_ dZjlu\ wlhfmq_[gbd_qlh[uhl\_lblvgZwlb\hijhku  DZdb_kljZguhd_Zgub fhjyhdjm`Zxl:\kljZebx" Australia is surrounded by the Pacific and the Indian Oceans. It is to the south from Asia.  < :\kljZebbljbhkgh\gu_j_dbFh`_l_eb\ubogZa\Zlv" Murray, Darling, Diamantina  < :\kljZebbkZfuc[hevrhcdhjZeeh\ucjbn\ fbj_DZdhg gZau\Z_lky" The Great Barrier Reef  AgZ_rvebludZdb_gb[m^vbgl_j_kgu_nZdluh[:\kljZebb" 15


Australia is located in the southern hemisphere so when we have warm months, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cold in Australia, though the lowest temperature is 17 degrees. The centre of the continent is a vast desert. Forests are tropical or deciduous. >eybgnhjfZpbb DebfZl LZd dZd :\kljZeby gZoh^blky \ x`ghf ihemrZjbb k_ahgu a^_kv i_j_\_jgmluihhlghr_gbxd l_fdhlhju_[u\Zxld k_\_jmhlwd\ZlhjZKZfu_\eZ`gu_f_kypuf_`^mZij_e_fb bxg_f K_ahgu <_kgZk_gly[jv²ghy[jv E_lh^_dZ[jv²n_\jZev Hk_gvfZjl²fZc AbfZbxgv²Z\]mkl Kj_^gyyfZdkbfZevgZyl_fi_jZlmjZ\ Kb^g__ H^_`^Z H^_`^Z gZ ih^deZ^d_ ² kZfZy ijZdlbqgZy \ mkeh\byo :\kljZebb <h^hg_ijhgbpZ_fZy dmjldZ ihe_agZ gh ^Z`_ \ k_j_^bg_ abfu iZevlh g_y\ey_lkyg_h[oh^bfuf\ Kb^g__:\kljZebcpuh[uqghh^_\Zxlky\ ih\k_^g_\gmxh^_`^m JZagbpZ\h\j_f_gb :\kljZebygZoh^blkyd aZiZ^mhlebgbbi_j_f_gu^Zl]^_gZqbgZ_lky^_gvihwlhfmkhegp_\ Kb^g__\klZ_ljZgvr_q_f\ [hevrbgkl\_ f_kla_fgh]hrZjZDh]^Z\u\ Kb^g__\uqlbl_ qZkZ^eylh]hqlh[u\uqbkeblvf_klgh_\j_fy\ =hgdhg]_ qZkh\^eylh]hqlh[u\uqbkeblvf_klgh_\j_fy\ IZjb`_ qZkh\^eylh]hqlh[u\uqbkeblvf_klgh_\j_fy\ Ehg^hg_ qZkh\^eylh]hqlh[u\uqbkeblvf_klgh_\j_fy\ GvxChjd_ qZkh\^eylh]hqlh[u\uqbkeblvf_klgh_\j_fy\ KZgNjZgpbkdh qZk^eylh]hqlh[u\uqbkeblvf_klgh_\j_fy\ Lhdbh :\kljZebckdbcZg]ebckdbc F_gy ah\ml Kvxa_g ;Zle_j b y ba^Zl_ev \ ba^Zl_evkl\_ ŠKeh\Zjy FZdmZjbÂŞ Y jZ[hlZeZ g]Z^ keh\Zj_f k l_o ihj dZd _]h gZqZeb \  ]h^mKeh\ZjvFZdmZjb[ue\i_j\u_him[ebdh\Zg\ ]h^m?]hkqblZxlgZpbhgZevgufkeh\Zj_fZ\kljZebckdh]hZg]ebckdh]hyaudZ Q_f Z\kljZebckdbc Zg]ebckdbc hlebqZ_lky hl hklZevguo Zg]ebckdboyaudh\\ fbj_"Gm^eygZqZeZk\h_cbklhjb_cDh]^Z[jblZgkdh_ ijZ\bl_evkl\h hkgh\Zeh ihk_e_gb_ ^ey hkm`^_gguo \ [mol_ Kb^g_y hgh g_l aZ^mfu\Zehkv h ebg]\bklbq_kdbo ihke_^kl\byo Ih ijhr_kl\bb \j_f_gb dZlhj`gbdb b ihk_e_gpu \ayeb Zg]ebckdbc yaud b ijbkihkh[beb_]h^eybogh\h]h^hfZbaf_gyyagZq_gb_keh\bebaZbfkl\mygh\u_ 16


KZfuf ijhkluf kihkh[hf jZkijhkljZg_gby Zg]ebckdh]h yaudZ \ :\kljZebb qlh[u hl\_qZlv ihlj_[ghklyf ihk_e_gp_\ [ueh aZbfkl\h\Zgb_bayaudh\Z[hjb]_gh\hkh[_ggh\ hibkZgbbnehjub nZmguLZd [uebgZa\Zgug_dhlhju_`b\hlgu_lZdb_dZdd_g]mjmdhZeZb \hf[Zl DmdZ[mjjZ ba\_klgZy Z\kljZebckdZy ilbpZ dhlhjZy a\mqbl dZd kf_o q_eh\_dZlh`_[ueZgZa\ZgZlZd ?keb\uihk_lbl_:\kljZebx\ufh`_l_aZf_lblvqlhkms_kl\m_l jZagbpZf_`^mklZjrbfb fheh^ufihdhe_gb_fb f_`^mex^vfb`b\msbfb\ ]hjh^_b ex^vfb`b\msbfb\ [mr_Ij_^klZ\bl_ebfheh^h]h ihdhe_gby `b\msb_ \ ]hjh^_ bf_xl kdehgghklv aZbfkl\h\Zlv fh^gu_jZa]h\hjgu_\ujZ`_gbyba:f_jbdb AZf_lghQlhg_kfhljygZjZaf_j :\kljZebb\k_ ]h\hjylh^bgZdh\h GZrZ hjnh]jZnby hljZ`Z_l [jblZgkdmx ljZ^bpbx gh gZ gZk \k_ [hevr_\eby_lZf_jbdZgkdbcZg]ebckdbcFuhklZgh\bebkv]^_lhf_`^m gbfb Fu ibr_f FRORXU dZd FRORU beb dZd FRORXU gh qlh m^b\bl_evghfuibr_fPHWUHdZdPHWUHZ g_PHWHU Hkgh\gu_]hjh^Z\ :\kljZebb L_dlhohl_e[umagZlv[hevr_h[hkgh\guo]hjh^Zo:\kljZebb ih`ZemcklZijhqlbl_wlbhibkZgby :^_eZb^ZklhebpZX`ghc:\kljZebbDjZkb\ucijhfure_gguc ]hjh^GZk_e_gb_hdhehq_eh\_d ;jbk[_g klhebpZ rlZlZ D\bgke_g^ Ljhibq_kdbc debfZl ^_eZ_l _]hdjm]eh]h^bqgufdmjhjlhfGZk_e_gb_hdheh q_eh\_d DZg[_jjZklhebpZ:\kljZebbJZkiheh`_ggZhkgh\ghcL_jjblhjbb:\kljZebb\ kZfhcx`ghcqZklbGh\h]hX`gh]hMwevkZ?^bgkl\_ggucbahkgh\guoZ\kljZebckdbc]hjh^h\jZkiheh`_gg_gZih[_j_`v_GZk_e_gb_hdhehq_eh\_d >Zj\bg klhebpZ b kZfuc [hevrhc ]hjh^ K_\_jghc L_jjblhjbb Ljhibq_kdbcdebfZlGZk_e_gb_hdhehq_eh\_d Oh[Zjl klhebpZ Z\kljZebckdh]h rlZlZhkljh\Z LZkfZgbb Oheh^gu_abfuGZk_e_gb_hdhehq_eh\_d I_jl klhebpZ rlZlZ AZiZ^gZy :\kljZeby H^gb ba emqrbo debfZlbq_kdbomkeh\bc\ :\kljZebbGZk_e_gb_q_eh\_d Kb^g_cklhebpZGh\h]hX`gh]hMwevkZKZfucklZjucb [hevrhc ]hjh^\ :\kljZebb=eZ\gucijhfure_ggucp_glj :\kljZebb Ihqlb q_l\_jlvZ\kljZebcp_\`b\mla^_kvGZk_e_gb_ q_eh\_djZkl_l F_ev[mjgklhebpZ<bdlhjbb<lhjhcih\_ebqbg_]hjh^\ :\kljZebb< g_fijh\h^bebkvHebfibckdb_b]ju]h^ZGZk_e_gb_ hdhehq_eh\_d =hkm^Zjkl\_gguc]bfg :\kljZebcpu^Z\Zcl_\hajZ^m_fky 17


Ihlhfmqlhfufheh^ub k\h[h^gu M gZk_klvahehlZya_feyb bah[beb_qlh[uljm^blvky GZr^hfhihykZgfhj_f GZrZa_feybah[bem_l^ZjZfbijbjh^u DjZkhlhc[h]Zlhcb j_^dhc GZkljZgbp_bklhjbbimklvdZ`^ucwlZi Ij_mfgh`Z_lDjZkhlm:\kljZebb < jZ^hklguomkbebyolh]^Zkih_f`_ Ij_mfgh`bfDjZkhlm:\kljZebb Ih^kbyxsbfX`gufDj_klhf Fu[m^_fljm^blvkyk_j^pZfbb jmdZfb Qlh[ugZrKhxa KlZeagZf_gbluf\h\k_oa_feyo K l_fbdlhijb_oZebaaZfhj_c Fuih^_ebfky[_a]jZgbqgufbjZ\gbgZfb H[t_^bgbfky`_kf_eh Qlh[uij_mfgh`blvDjZkhlm:\kljZebb < jZ^hklguomkbebyolh]^Zkih_f`_ Ij_mfgh`bfDjZkhlm:\kljZebb

>eybgnhjfZpbb =_j[ :\kljZebb ² hnbpbZevgZy wf[e_fZ Z\kljZebckdh]h ijZ\bl_evkl\Z²[ue^Zjh\Zgdhjhe_f=_hj]hf 9\ ]h^m=_j[khklhbl ba sblZ kh^_j`Zs_]h wf[e_fu r_klb rlZlh\ >_j`Zl_eb sblZ ² ij_^klZ\bl_eb f_klghc nZmgu ² d_g]mjm b wfm F_klgh_ jZkl_gb_ k `_elufbp\_lZfbZ\kljZebckdZyZdZpbylZd`_ijhy\behkv\ ]_j[_ GZpbhgZevgucijZa^gbd:\kljZebbyg\Zjyhlf_qZ_l^Zlm\  ]h^mdh]^ZdZiblZg:jlmjNbebiiba ;jblZgkdh]h Dhjhe_\kdh]h<h_gghfhjkdh]h NehlZ dhfZg^h\Ze nehlbeb_c ba  dhjZ[e_c b ijbieue\ Ihjl>`_dkhg ;molmKb^g_y  NeZ] :\kljZebb ² _^bgkl\_gguc neZ] jZa\b\Zxsbcky gZ^ \k_f dhglbg_glhf FZe_gvdbc ]hkm^Zjkl\_gguc neZ] Kh_^bg_ggh]h Dhjhe_\kl\Z<_ebdh[jblZgbbb k_\_jghcBjeZg^bbij_^klZ\ey_lkh[hcbklhjbq_kdmx k\yav k ;jblZgb_c r_klv [hevrbc k_fbdhg_qguo a\_a^ ij_^klZ\eyxl r_klv RlZlh\ b L_jjblhjbc Z fZe_gvdb_ a\_a^hqdb ba X`gh]hDj_klZ²\u^ZxsZykyoZjZdl_jgZyq_jlZghqgh]hg_[Z\ x`ghfihemrZjbb >eybgnhjfZpbb KZrZb Hev]Zihemqbebwlhldhg\_jl\ kZfhe_l_Dh]^Ze_l_eb\ :\kljZebx KiZkb[hNhg^>_l_cH[t_^bg_gguoGZpbcm`_iylv^_kyle_l[hj_lky k [he_agyfb g_^h_^Zgb_f b gbs_lhc Iheh`b\ k\h_ ih`_jl\h\Zgb_\uih^^_j`bl_jZ[hlmihkiZk_gbx`bag_c^_l_c 18


<u fh`_l_ k^_eZlv ih`_jl\h\Zgb_ \ ex[hc \Zexl_ >Z`_ bghkljZggu_ fhg_lu b [Zgdghlu dhlhju_ \u g_ fh`_l_ bkihevah\Zlv ^hfZfh]mlbf_lvagZq_gb_^eyj_[_gdZ Ih`ZemcklZhl^Zcl_dhg\_jlqe_gmwdbiZ`Z\h\j_fyihe_lZ i_gkh\²\k_qlhgm`gh^eylh]hqlh[udmiblvdZikmeu\blZfbgZ : qlh[u aZsblblv  ^_l_c hl ke_ihlu ijbqbghc dhlhjhc y\ey_lkyiehoh_iblZgb_  nmglh\ ² aZsbsZ_l j_[_gdZ hl r_klb [he_ag_c k e_lZevguf bkoh^hf GZnmglZfh`ghdmiblvgZ[hjmq_[gbdh\^eygZqZevghcrdheu

CHAPTER 2. RDHEVG:Y@BAGV

LhfKZrZb Hev]Z jZa]h\Zjb\Zxl h rdhevghc `bagb \ :\kljZebbKZrZb Hev]Zihc^ml\ rdhem\f_kl_k Lhfhf Ih`ZemcklZ ijhqlbl_ ke_^mxsb_ ^bZeh]b \kemo AZl_f jZau]jZcl_ bo ih jheyf k h^ghdeZkkgbdZfb H[jZsZcl_ hkh[h_ \gbfZgb_gZmihlj_[e_gb_bgnbgblb\Z]_jmg^byb ijbqZklby Ihke_ ijhql_gby \uihegbl_ ih`ZemcklZ mijZ`g_gby ke_^mxsb_aZ^bZeh]hf B^_f\ rdhem LhfFgh]b_bamq_gbdh\fh_]hdeZkkZohlylk \Zfb\klj_lblvky FulhevdhqlhaZdhgqbebbamqZlvbklhjbxJhkkbb\ wlhfk_f_klj_ b gZfbgl_j_kghmagZlv[hevr_h kh\j_f_gghcJhkkbbY [uohl_e qlh[u\uihrebkhfghc\ rdhemaZ\ljZ<Zfwlhih^oh^bl" KZrZAZ\ljZ[ueh[uaZf_qZl_evghIjZ\^ZHev]Z" Hev]Z >Z Y [u ohl_eZ m\b^_lv gZ qlh ihoh`Z Z\kljZebckdZy rdheZ KZrZY lh`_L_[_gjZ\blkyl\hyrdheZLhf" LhfHq_gvRdheZdhlhjmxy ihk_sZyfgh]hgZpbhgZevgZLZf ^_ckl\bl_evgh bgl_j_kgh mqblvky ihlhfm qlh m f_gy _klv \hafh`ghklv\klj_qZlvkyk ex^vfbkh\k_]hfbjZ Hev]ZFg_lh`_gjZ\blvky\klj_qZlvkyk ex^vfbba^jm]bokljZg KZrZLhfdZdb_m l_[yex[bfucij_^f_lu\ rdhe_" LhfFg_gjZ\blkybklhjby ]_h]jZnby mjhdb [bag_kZ b bgnhjfZlbdZ>mfZxfg_gjZ\ylky[hevrbgkl\hfhboij_^f_lh\ Hev]ZA\mqbllZdqlhl\hyrdheZij_^hklZ\ey_lfgh]hbgl_j_kguodmjkh\ LhfHgbgZkZfhf^_e_klZjZxlkyih^]hlh\blvgZkd `bagbihke_ kj_^g_c rdheu GZf lZd`_ \u^_eyxl \j_fy gZf lZdb_ dmjku dZddmebgZjbyjZ[hlZ ih ^_j_\m gZ\udb jZ[hlu \ hnbk_ nhlh]jZnby^jZfZb nbadmevlmjZ 19


KZrZIhk_sZlvjZaebqgu_rdheu\k_]^Zbgl_j_kghY ihk_lbe g_kdhevdhrdhedh]^Zy [ue\ :f_jbd_b \:g]ebb Hev]ZFugZ^__fkyihk_lblvrdhemdh]^Zih_^_f\ F_ev[mjg KZrZGZqlhihoh`F_ev[mjg" LhfLZfhq_gvohjhrh<k_]h\hjylqlhF_ev[mjghq_gvihoh` gZ_\jhi_ckdbc]hjh^ Hev]Z<hkdhevdhfu\uc^_faZ\ljZqlh[uihclb\ rdhem" LhfFu\uc^_fhdhehqZkh\ KZrZFuihieu\_f\ rdhemgZeh^d_" Lhf>ZIeZ\Zgv_ gZeh^d_² qZklv ih\k_^g_\ghc `bagb \ :\kljZebb GZc^bl_ b i_j_\_^bl_ bgnbgblb\ ]_jmg^bc b ijbqZklby \klj_qZxsb_ky\ l_dkl_ 0HHWLQJ²\klj_qZlvky +DYLQJILQLVKHG²aZdhgqb\ 6WXG\LQJ²bamqZlv .QRZLQJ²magZlv 7RFRPH²ijbreb 7RVHH²ihkfhlj_lv 6WXG\LQJ²mqblvky 7RPHHW²\klj_qZlv 0HHWLQJ²\klj_qZlv 6WXG\LQJ²bamqZlv 7RSUHSDUHih^]hlh\blv 7RWDNH²aZgbfZlvky 9LVLWLQJ²ihk_rZlv 7RYLVLW²ihk_lblv %RDWLQJ²ijh]medbgZeh^dZoieZ\Zgv_gZeh^dZo Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku   Ohlyl eb fgh]b_ ba mq_gbdh\ \ deZkk_ LhfZ ihagZdhfblvky k KZr_cb Hev]hc"<HVWKH\DUH  M^h[ghebKZr_b Hev]_ihclbk Lhfhf\ rdhemgZ ke_^mxsbc^_gv"<HVLWLV  Lu[uohl_eihkfhlj_lvqlhbak_[yij_^klZ\ey_lZ\kljZebckdZyrdheZ"<HV,ZRXOG  Ihq_fmLhfmgjZ\blky_]hrdheZ"7RPOLNHVKLVVFKRROEHFDXVH it is multicultural.  LhfkqblZ_lqlh\ _]hrdhe_bgl_j_kghmqblvkyg_lZdeb"Ihq_fm" <HV KH GRHV +H WKLQNV WKDW VWXG\LQJ LQ KLV VFKRRO LV LQWHUHVWLQJ because he has an opportunity to meet people from all over the world   DZdb_ m LhfZ ex[bfu_ ij_^f_lu \ rdhe_" 7RP¶V IDYRXULWH subjects at school are History, Geography, Business Studies and Computer Science. 20


  DZdb_ m l_[y ex[bfu_ ij_^f_lu \ rdhe_" 0\ IDYRXULWH subjects are Literature, Foreign Language and History.  Ij_^hklZ\ey_lebrdheZLhfZfgh`_kl\hbgl_j_kguodmjkh\" Yes, it does.   KqblZ_rv eb lu qlh ihk_sZlv jZaebqgu_ rdheu bgl_j_kgh" Qlh lu gZoh^brv bgl_j_kguf" <HV , GR , WKLQN LWÂśV LQWHUHVWLQJ WR learn about the courses, about students activities and clubs.   DZdhc Z\kljZebckdbc ]hjh^ ihoh` gZ _\jhi_ckdb_ ]hjh^Z" Melbourne is similar to a European city.   <h kdhevdh Lhf KZrZ b Hev]Z ihc^ml \ rdhem" 7KH\ ZLOO leave for school at 8 a.m.  DZdhgb^h[_jmlky^hrdheu"7KH\ZLOOJHWWRVFKRROE\ERDW Ih^_ebl_kvfukeyfbh ihk_s_gbbrdheu   ?keb [u lu [ue ^bj_dlhjhf kj_^g_c rdheu qlh [u lu k^_eZe"M dh]h[ulufh]ihijhkblvkh\_lZ" If I were a high school principal I would try to make studies more interesting. I would organize different activities to encourage students to express their creativity. If I needed advice I would ask the students.  Qlhlu^mfZ_rvh[mgbnhjf_^eymq_gbdh\kj_^g_crdheu On the one hand uniform saves a lot of trouble. You donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t need to think what to wear. All students look the same and there are no problems of making someone not wear a very short skirt or metal chains. On the other hand students cannot express their individuality. Besides, a uniform might be not very comfortable, especially for those who wear jeans and sneakers.  JZau]jZcl_ ih jheyf ke_^mxsbc ^bZeh] \ iZjZo H^bg mq_gbd[m^_lLhfhfZ ^jm]hc[m^_l\RX TomY [uohl_eqlh[uluihr_ekhfghc\ rdhemAZ\ljZl_[_ ih^oh^bl" You<HVLWLV'R\RXOLNH\RXUVFKRRO" Ih^oh^blL_[_gjZ\blky l\hyrdheZ"

Tom >Z Fg_ gjZ\blky fhy rdheZ Ihfbfh h[uqguo dmjkh\ fhy rdheZ ij_^hklZ\ey_lfgh]h bgl_j_kguo dmjkh\ dmebgZjby jZ[hlZ ih ^_j_\mnhlh]jZnbyb ^jZfZ: dZdb_dmjkuij_^hklZ\ey_ll\hyrdheZ" You: Our school offers Choir, Drama and Cooking. What are your IDYRXULWHVXEMHFWV" GZrZrdheZij_^hklZ\ey_li_gb_\ ohj_^jZfmb dmebgZjbxDZdb_m l_[yex[bfu_ij_^f_lu"

TomFg_gjZ\blky bamqZlv bklhjbx ]_h]jZnbx mjhdb [bag_kZ b bgnhjfZlbdm: dZdb_m l_[yex[bfu_ij_^f_lu" You: My favourite subjects are Maths, Geography and Computer 6FLHQFH 'R \RX JHW WR VFKRRO E\ ERDW" Fhb ex[bfu_ ij_^f_lu ² fZl_fZlbdZ ]_h]jZnby b bgnhjfZlbdZ Lu ^h[bjZ_rvky ^h rdheu gZeh^d_"

21


Tom>ZY \k_]^Z^h[bjZxkv^hrdheugZeh^d_: dZdlu^h[bjZ_rvky^hrdheu" You,JHWWRVFKRROE\EXV Y ^h[bjZxkv^hrdheugZZ\lh[mk_  TomKdhevdh\j_f_gbl_[_lj_[m_lkyqlh[u^h[jZlvky^hrdheu" You: It usually takes me about twenty minutes to get to school. And KRZ ORQJ GRHV LW WDNH \RX WR JHW WR VFKRRO" H[uqgh y ^h[bjZxkv ^h rdheuaZ^\Z^pZlvfbgml: kdhevdh\j_f_gbl_[_lj_[m_lkyqlh[u ^h[jZlvky^hrdheu"

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11. 1) Peter likes playing tennis. Does Peter like playing tennis? 2) Ann is not keen on watching football. Is Ann keen on watching football? 3) David and Cathy enjoy going to the theatre. Do they enjoy going to the theatre? 4) John doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t like staying in the hotel. Does John like staying in the hotel? 5) Robert likes listening to music. Does he like listening to music? 6) Bill loves working in Sydney. Does he love working in Sydney? 12. E  KDYLQJJLYHQ ij_^eh`gh_^hiheg_gb_  EHLQJDWWUDFWHG ijyfh_ ^hiheg_gb_    EHLQJ SXQLVKHG ij_^eh`gh_ ^hiheg_gb_  4) GLVWXUELQJ h[klhyl_evkl\h  KDYLQJNHSW ij_^eh`gh_^hiheg_gb_  14. a) 1) raining? 2) discussing? 3) speaking? 4) playing? 5) Working? 23


b) 1) reading this article. 2) Making such mistakes. 3) Going there. 4) Solving the mystery. 5) Sitting there on the sand. c) 1) telling him everything. 2) Continuing this work? 3) Getting her on our side? 4) Making such noise? 5) Watching TV? d) 1) in remembering his face; 2) answering; 3) travelling to China; 4) going there alone to talk to him. IjhqblZcl_b magZcl_ >h[jhih`Zeh\Zlv\ F_ev[mjgIjhdZlbl_kv gZ=hjh^kdhfDjm]h\hfLjZf\Z_ <Zf ihgjZ\blky iml_r_kl\h\Zlv ih F_ev[mjgm gZ =hjh^kdhf Djm]h\hfLjZf\Z_Hgoh^bldZ`^u_fbgmlk mljZ^h\_q_jZ IhdZ kb^brv \ ljZf\Z_ dhg^mdlhj h[jZlbl \Zr_ \gbfZgb_ gZ kZfu_bgl_j_kgu_^hklhijbf_qZl_evghklbF_ev[mjgZ F_ev[mjg²fgh]hgZpbhgZevguc]hjh^;he__q_l\_jlbgZk_e_gbyjh^behkvaZ]jZgbp_cWlh^hffgh]bodmevlmjguo]jmii]h\hjysbo gZ  yaudZo b ijb^Zxsbo F_ev[mjgm _]h g_ih\lhjbfuc oZjZdl_j< F_ev[mjg_h^gbbakZfuo[hevrboihk_e_gbc]j_dh\b blZevygp_\ F_ev[mjg ² ijbagZggZy KlhebpZ Dmevlmju \ :\kljZebb k fmaudhc lZgpZfb hi_jhc dhf_^b_c b l_Zljhf fbjh\h]h deZkkZ Ihwlhfmhldbgvl_kvb gZkeZ`^Zcl_kvih_a^dhc :jobl_dlmjZ F_ev[mjgZ [ueZ lsZl_evgh ijh^mfZgZ Ijh_dlbjmy gh\u_ a^Zgby Zjobl_dlhju F_ev[mjgZ ^mfZxl h i_caZ`_ b h lhfqlhhdjm`Z_lkljhbl_evgmxiehsZ^dm GZpbhgZevgZy =Ze_j_y <bdlhjbb hkgh\ZggZy \  ]h^m y\ey_lky ]hkm^Zjkl\_gghc ]Ze_j__c bkdmkkl\ =Ze_j_y ij_^klZ\ey_l \uklZ\db bkdmkkl\Z dZd kh\j_f_ggh]h lZd b bkdmkkl\Z ijhreh]h ba :\kljZebbb ba^jm]bokljZgWlhf_klhklhblihk_lblv<_ebdhe_igZydhee_dpbyh[sbfqbkehf[he__jZ[hlgZqbgZyk dZjlbg kdmevilmju b nhlh]jZnbb b dhgqZy ijbdeZ^guf bkdmkkl\hf ]jZ\xjZfbb jbkmgdZfb Hldjuluc \  ]h^m <bdlhjbZgkdbc P_glj Bkdmkkl\ ba\_kl_g k\hbfb jhkdhrgufb ihf_s_gbyfb b ribe_f ba klZevghc iZmlbgu b \ukhlhcf_ljh\Kfhljh\ZyIehsZ^dZ;ZrgbJbZelhjZkiheh`_ggZy gZ  wlZ`_ kZfh]h \ukhdh]h \ F_ev[mjg_ a^Zgby h[_ki_qb\Z_l iZghjZfguc\b^gZF_ev[mjgb hdjm`Zxsb_^hklhijbf_qZl_evghklb < P_glj_ gZoh^blky F_ev[mjgkdbc Dhgp_jlguc AZe Fma_c Bah[jZabl_evguoBkdmkkl\b ljb ]eZ\guo l_ZljZ \ dhlhjuo h[sbf qbkehfihf_sZ_lkyq_eh\_dk \jZsZxs_ckykp_ghcki_pbZevgh^eyhi_ju Wdkdmjkbb GZke_^b_ :[hjb]_gh\ G_ ijhimklbl_ \hafh`ghklv magZlvh[h^ghcbakZfuoklZjuodmevlmj\ fbj_Ihk_lbl_ie_f_g24


gu_a_febZ[hjb]_gh\ihagZdhfvl_kvk ex^vfb b magZcl_ h ljZ^bpbhgguoih\_jvyoh h[jZa_`bagb < F_ev[mjg_`b\mlkZfu_nZgZlbqgu_kihjlkf_gu\ fbj_L_ggbk ]hevn[_ck[heb nml[hek_jnbg]\h^gu_eu`bijh]medbgZeh^dZo iZjmkguckihjl\_ehkihjlb [_]hq_gvihimeyjgu\ F_ev[mjg_ G_ aZ[m^vl_ ihk_lblv F_ev[mjgkdbc AhhiZjd Hkgh\Zgguc \  ]h^m hg y\ey_lky h^gbf ba klZj_crbo ahhiZjdh\ \ fbj_ Wlh ^hf^ey[he__`b\hlguo H[yaZl_evgh khc^bl_ k ljZf\Zy qlh[u ihijh[h\Zlv k\_`bc khd baZj[mah\^ugvfhjdh\bZi_evkbgh\b l^<u\u[bjZ_l_njmdlu bebh\hsbb m`_q_j_afbgmlmiv_l_hq_gv\dmkgmxkf_kvG_[_kihdhcl_kvke_^mxsbcZ\lh[mkkdhjhih^hc^_l DebfZl mf_j_gguc < F_ev[mjg_ q_luj_ q_ldh jZaebqbfuo k_ahgZAbfZk oheh^gufbghqZfb\_kgZb hk_gv\hkoblbl_evguE_lh l_ieh_>h`^bjZkij_^_e_gu ihjh\gm gZ\_kv]h^L_fi_jZlmjZ \h^uabfhce_lhf Yg\Zjvb n_\jZev²kZfu_l_ieu_f_kypu\ F_ev[mjg_l_fi_jZlmjZ^hoh^bl^h]jZ^mkh\ Kmffbjmcl_ lh qlh \u ijhqblZeb h F_ev[mjg_ Ih`ZemcklZ mihlj_[ebl_bgnbgblb\]_jmg^bcb ijbqZklb_dh]^Z\hafh`gh Youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll enjoy travelling around Melbourne on the City Circle Tram. While you are sitting on the tram, the conductor will point out the most interesting sights in Melbourne. Melbourne is home to many cultural groups, speaking 170 languages and giving Melbourne a unique character. When designing buildings, architects in Melbourne think hard about the scenery and the surroundings of the building site. Melbourne is considered to be the acknowledged Culture Capital of Australia because it has world-class music, dance, opera, comedy and theatre The National Gallery of Victoria, established in 1861, is the state art gallery. This place is worth visiting.The magnificent collection, totaling over 70 000 works, range from paintings, sculpture and photography to decorative arts, prints and drawings. The Rialto Tower Observation Desk, situated on level 55 of Melbourneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tallest building, provides a panoramic view of Melbourne and the surrounding landmarks. The Centre houses the Melbourne Concert Hall, Performing Arts Museum and three major theatres collectively seating 5 880 people with a revolving stage especially for opera. Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t miss the opportunity to learn about one of the oldest living cultures in the world. The tourists can go on Aboriginal Heritage tours they will learn about one of the oldest cultures in the world, visit tribal lands and meet the people. 25


Playing tennis, golf, baseball and football, surfing, water-skiing, boating, yachting, cycling and running are very popular in Melbourne. Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t forget to visit the Melbourne Zoo. Established in 1857, it is one of the oldest zoos in the world. Make sure to try fresh juice made of watermelons, melons, carrots, oranges etc.

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H[jZah\Zgb_\ ;jblZgbb Ih`ZemcklZijhqlbl_ke_^mxsbciZjZ]jZnAZl_fhl\_lvl_ gZ\hijhkubkihevamyih^q_jdgmlu_keh\Z Fgh]b_[jblZgkdb_^_lbb^ml\ rdhem\ beb]h^Z_kebjy^hfk ^hfhf_klvb]jh\ZyrdheZ<k_^_lbb^ml\ gZqZevgmxrdhem\ \hajZkl_ e_lG_dhlhju_jh^bl_ebieZlylaZlhqlh[ubo^_lboh^beb\ qZklgmx rdhemgh\k_^_lbbf_xlijZ\hihclb\ ]hkm^Zjkl\_ggmxrdhemdhlhjZy[_kieZlgZyAZl_fhgb[m^mlmqblvky\ kj_^g_crdhe_^hbeb e_l G_dhlhju_ mq_gbdb j_rZxl ijh^he`Zlv h[mq_gb_ \ mgb\_jkbl_l_ beb\ ihebl_ogbq_kdhfdhee_^`_]^_hgbbamqZxlZdZ^_fbq_kdb_ij_^f_lu >jm]b_ j_rZxl ihclb \ dhee_^` ]^_ hgb fh]ml bamqZlv [he__ ijZdlbq_kdb_ij_^f_lulZdb_dZdbkdmkkl\hbebbg`_g_jbx Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku  DZdZyrdheZy\ey_lkyi_j\hc\ dhlhjmxj_[_ghdfh`_lihclb" $SOD\VFKRROLVWKHILUVWDFKLOGFDQDWWHQG I_j\hcrdhehc\ dhlhjmxj_[_ghdfh`_lihclby\ey_lkyb]jh\ZyrdheZ   ?kebj_[_gdme_l\ dZdmxrdhemhghgZoh^bl\ ;jblZgbb" ,IDFKLOGLV\HDUVROGKHVKHDWWHQGVSULPDU\VFKRRO ?kebj_[_gdme_lhghgZoh^bl\ gZqZevgmxrdhem   H[yaZl_evghebieZlblvqlh[umqblvky\ ]hkm^Zjkl\_gghcrdhe_" 1R LW LVQ¶W 6WDWH VFKRRO LV IUHH G_l g_ h[yaZl_evgh =hkm^Zjkl\_ggZyrdheZ[_kieZlgZy   < dZdhf\hajZkl_mq_gbdaZdZgqb\Z_lkj_^gxxrdhem" $VWXGHQWFDQOHDYHVHFRQGDU\VFKRRODWWKHDJHRIRU Mq_gbd fh`_laZdhgqblvkj_^gxxrdhem\ \hajZkl_bebe_l   Dm^Zb^_lq_eh\_dqlh[ubamqZlvbklhjbx" $SHUVRQ JRHVWRD XQLYHUVLW\ WR VWXG\ +LVWRU\ Qlh[u bamqZlv bklhjbxq_eh\_db^_l\ mgb\_jkbl_l   Ih`ZemcklZ gZibrbl_ hibkZgb_ kbkl_fu h[mq_gby \ \Zr_ckljZg_KjZ\gbl_k\hbaZibkbk aZibkyfb h^ghdeZkkgbdh\ Kh\iZ^ZxlebaZibkbh^ghdeZkkgbdh\k \Zrbfb" In Russia many children can go to a nursery at the age of 3 or 4. All children start primary school at the age of 7. Some parents can pay for a private school but every child can attend a state school. Then the children move on to a secondary school. They can leave it at the age of 15 or 17. They can continue their education at a college or go to a university. < Jhkkbb^_lbfh]mlihclb\ ^_lkdbckZ^\ ²]h^Z<k_^_lb b^ml\ gZqZevgmxrdhem\ \hajZkl_e_lG_dhlhju_jh^bl_ebfh35


]mlieZlblvaZh[mq_gb_\ qZklghcrdhe_ghex[hcj_[_ghdfh`_l mqblvky\ ]hkm^Zjkl\_gghcrdhe_AZl_f^_lbi_j_oh^yl\ kj_^gxx rdhemHgbfh]mlaZdhgqblv__ \\hajZkl_bebe_lHgbfh]ml ijh^he`blvh[jZah\Zgb_\ dhee_^`_bebihclb\ mgb\_jkbl_l

H[jZah\Zgb_\ :\kljZebbijhlb\h[jZah\Zgby \ Kh_^bg_gguoRlZlZo DZ`^ucrlZlb l_jjblhjby\ :\kljZebbba^Zxlk\hbaZdhguh[ h[jZah\Zgbb Lh `_ fh`gh kdZaZlv b h KR: B \ :\kljZebb b \ KR: \ gZebqbb bf_xlky qZklgu_ rdheu \ ^hiheg_gb_ d [_kieZlguf]hkm^Zjkl\_ggufrdheZf < KR: ^_lb \ \hajZkl_ hl  ^h  h[yaZgu oh^blv \ rdhem < :\kljZebb ^_lb \ \hajZkl_ hl  ^h  h[yaZgu oh^blv \ rdhem aZ bkdexq_gb_fLZkfZgbb< LZkfZgbb^_lboh^yl\ rdhem^he_l < KR:^_lkdb_kZ^uy\eyxlkyh[yaZl_evgufbZ \:\kljZebbg_l < :\kljZebbmq_[guc]h^khklhysbcbaq_luj_ok_f_kljh\gZqbgZ_lky\ n_\jZe_f_`^mk_f_kljZfbkms_kl\m_l^\_g_^_ebdZgbdme Q_l\_jluc b ihke_^gbc k_f_klj dhgqZ_lky ijb[ebabl_evgh 20 ^_dZ[jyJh`^_kl\_gkdb_dZgbdmeukh\iZ^Zxlk dhgphfrdheub gZqZehf dZgbdme Mq_gbdb \ha\jZsZxlky \ rdhem \ n_\jZe_ < KR:dZgbdmeu^eylkyk bxgyihZ\]mkl < :\kljZebb gZqZevgZy rdheZ ^_eblky gZ r_klv deZkkh\ Kj_^gyyrdheZkhklhblbadeZkkh\k k_^vfh]hih^\_gZ^pZluc<k_ mq_gbdbkj_^g_crdheughkylnhjfmMq_gbdbkj_^g_crdheu\ KR: g_ghkylnhjfm\ rdhe_ Mq_gbdb\ Kh_^bg_gguoRlZlZo_^yl]hjyqbce_gq\ rdhe_:\kljZebckdb_mq_gbdbg_l < :\kljZebb[hevrb_rdheugZoh^ylky\ [hevrbo]hjh^ZogZih[_j_`v_ Rdheu k h^gbf ij_ih^Z\Zl_e_f jZkiheh`_gu \ k_evkdhc f_klghklbMqbl_ev\ k_evkdhcf_klghklbfh`_lmqblv\k_deZkku\ dhlhjuo fh`_l [ulv ih h^ghfm ^\mf mq_gbdZf Mq_gbdb `b\msb_ ^Ze_dh hl ]hjh^Z mqZlky \ ŠRdheZo ih \ha^momª DZ`^uc ^_gv \h \j_fy\ dhlhjh_^he`gu[ulvrdheZhgbkemrZxlmqbl_eyihjZ^bh M mq_gbdh\k\hbdgb]bHgbhl\_qZxlgZ\hijhku\ fbdjhnhgMqbl_evhij_^_ey_l^hfZrgb_aZ^Zgby<uiheg_ggmx^hfZrgxxjZ[hlm hlijZ\eyxl ih ihql_ mqbl_ex HgZ h[km`^Z_lky ih fbdjhnhgm bkijZ\ey_lkyb hlkueZ_lkyh[jZlgh< Kh_^bg_gguorlZlZog_dhlhju_ ^_lbmqZlky^hfZBojh^bl_eby\eyxlkybomqbl_eyfb  Ih`ZemcklZ jZkiheh`bl_ ke_^mxsb_ ml\_j`^_gby ih gm`gufaZ]heh\dhf:\kljZebybebKh_^bg_ggu_RlZlu :\kljZeby Kh_^bg_ggu_RlZlu Summer vacation from December to Secondary school students do not wear )HEUXDU\ E_lgb_ dZgbdmeu k ^_dZ[jy XQLIRUPV WR VFKRRO M_gbdb kj_^g_c ihn_\jZev  rdheug_ghkylnhjfm\ rdhem 

36


:\kljZeby Some students go to School of the Air. G_dhlhju_mq_gbdbmqZlky\ ŠRdheZo ih\ha^momª  Students ages 6 to 15 or 16 attend school. >_lb k  ^h  beb  e_l oh^yl \ rdhem  Secondary school students wear uniforms WRVFKRRO Mq_gbdbkj_^g_crdheughkylnhjfm  Students do not eat a hot lunch at school. Mq_gbdbg__^yl]hjyqbce_gq\ rdhe_ 

Kh_^bg_ggu_RlZlu Children ages 5 to 16 attend school. >_lbk ^he_loh^yl\ rdhem  Students eat a hot lunch at school. Mq_gbdb _^yl ]hjyqbc e_gq \ rdhe_  Summer vacation from June to $XJXVW DZgbdmeu k bxgy ih Z\]mkl  Some students attend school at home. G_dhlhju_^_lbmqZlky^hfZ 

 >h[Z\vl_ lj_lvx dhehgdm ^ey k\h_c kljZgu H[mq_gb_ \ \Zr_ckljZg_ihoh`_gZh[mq_gb_\ :\kljZebbbebKR:" Russia. 6HFRQGDU\ VFKRRO VWXGHQWV GR QRW ZHDU XQLIRUPV WR VFKRRO M_gbdb kj_^g_c rdheug_ghkylnhjfm\ rdhem  &KLOGUHQDJHVWRDWWHQGVFKRRO >_lbk ^he_loh^yl\ rdhem  6WXGHQWVHDWDKRWOXQFKDWVFKRRO Mq_gbdb_^yl]hjyqbce_gq\ rdhe_  6XPPHUYDFDWLRQIURP-XQHWR$XJXVW DZgbdmeuk bxgyihZ\]mkl 

(GXFDWLRQ LQ P\ FRXQWU\ UHVHPEOHV WKDW RI WKH 8QLWHG 6WDWHV H[mq_gb_\ fh_ckljZg_ihoh`_gZh[mq_gb_\ KR:  ;_ahiZkghklvij_`^_\k_]h ;_ahiZkghklv \ Z\lh[mk_ \Z`gZ gh [hevrbgkl\h g_kqZklguo kemqZ_\ijhbkoh^yldh]^Zex^b\g_Z\lh[mkZ Ohly k_jv_agu_ g_kqZklgu_ kemqZb d kqZklvx j_^db hkgh\ghc aZ[hlhc Z\lh[mkghc bg^mkljbb y\eyxlky fheh^u_ ex^b i_j_[_]Zxsb_ ^hjh]m ihke_ lh]h dZd koh^yl k Z\lh[mkZ AZihfgbl_ qlh \h^bl_ebg_\b^yl\ZkZ \ug_\b^bl_Z\lhfh[bebklh\ihdZZ\lh[mk \k__s_klhbl <_`eb\hklv²gZ\lhjhff_kl_ Ih`ZemcklZmagZcl_qlhy\ey_lkyohjhrbfb ^h[juf\ wlbo ijZ\beZoDZdb_bawlboijZ\bek^_eZeb[u\Zkemqr_" <f_kl_k [_ahiZkghklvxijbgbfZcl_\h\gbfZgb_\_`eb\hklvih hlghr_gbxd ^jm]bfiZkkZ`bjZf ?keb\ Z\lh[mk\oh^blih`behcq_eh\_d mklmibl__fm_ck\h_ f_klh Ihfgbl_\ Z\lh[mkZog_jZaj_rZ_lky_klvb iblv >_j`bl_kmfdbih^k\hbfkb^_gv_fZ g_\ ijhoh^_bebgZkb^_gv_ G_ hl\e_dZcl_ \h^bl_ey beb ^jm]bo iZkkZ`bjh\  iehobf ih\_^_gb_fbeb]jhfdbfba\mdZfb I_j_^ l_f dZd \hclb \ Z\lh[mk ijb]hlh\vl_ m^hklh\_j_gb_ gZ ijh_a^[be_lbebf_ehqv IjZ\bevgh\oh^bl_\ Z\lh[mkg_lhedZcl_kvb g_iboZcl_kv 37


AZjZg__ij_^mij_^bl_\h^bl_eydh]^Z\uohlbl_khclb Ihfgbl_ qlh k\hbfb ohjhrbfb fZg_jZfb \u ih^Z_l_ ijbf_j fZe_gvdbf^_lyf ;he__e_]dbc^hklmi =hkm^Zjkl\_gguch[s_kl\_ggucljZgkihjl\ Kb^g__^_eZ_lijh_a^ gZ Z\lh[mk_ ^ey ex^_c bf_xsbo ljm^ghklb k i_j_^\b`_gb_f \dexqZyex^_ci_j_^\b]ZxsbckygZbg\Zeb^guodheykdZob ex^_c k ^_lkdbfbdheykdZfbe_]q_ Ijh\h^ylky kh[jZgby k ex^vfb jZaguo ]jmii bg\Zeb^ghklb gZ dhlhjuo h[km`^Z_lky \k_klhjhggbc ^he]hkjhqguc ieZg qlh[u ljZgkihjlklZe[he__e_]dh^hklmiguf Rdhevgu_aZij_lub ij_^ibkZgby\ :\kljZebb\  < G? HiZa^u\Zcl_\ rdhem Bkihevamcl_`Zj]hggu_\ujZ`_gby IhdZau\Zcl_k\hbjmdbb dhe_gb Oh^bl_k ]jyagufbgh]lyfb QblZcl_aZij_s_ggu_fZl_jbZeu Ijheb\Zcl_q_jgbeZ KlZ\vl_deydku L_jycl_im]h\bpuk [hlbghd Ijboh^bl_\ rdhemk \bkysbfbih^ly`dZfb J\bl_ghkdb DeZ^bl_ehdlbgZiZjlm Djmlbl_kv\ rdhe_ Klmqbl_gh]Zfb Ljh]Zcl_ebph Q_rbl_kv DeZ^bl_ey]mr_d\ klhemqbl_ey Ijbghkbl_^hfZrgboaf_c\ rdhem Meu[Zcl_kv ObobdZcl_ JZa]h\Zjb\Zcl_ Ofmjvl_kv <_k_ebl_kv\hh[s_ <  Ijboh^bl_\ rdhemaZjZg__ Ijbghkbl_mqbl_exy[ehdh :ddmjZlghaZ\yau\Zcl_\hehku Oh^bl_k qbklufbjmdZfbb gh]lyfb :ddmjZlghibrbl_ Mqbl_eZlugvb ]j_q_kdbc 38


 Qlh \u ^mfZ_l_ h aZij_lZo b ij_^ibkZgbyo \  ]h^m \ :\kljZebb" They are very strict. I think pupils felt like convicts. They were not allowed to do natural things and were made to be always on the alert. DZd\u^mfZ_l_k_cqZk\ :\kljZebbaZij_lub ij_^ibkZgbykbevghhlebqZxlkyhlaZij_lh\b ij_^ibkZgbc]h^Z" Yes, I think Doâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s and Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ts greatly differ from 1880. I think now pupils are given more freedom. <ufh`_l_gZibkZlvkibkhdaZij_lh\b ij_^ibkZgbck\h_c rdheu"  IhklZjZcl_kv qlh[u ijZ\beZ [ueb \ iheh`bl_evghc nhjf_ GZijbf_j gZibrbl_ ŠIjboh^bl_ \ rdhem \h\j_fyÂŞ \f_klhŠG_hiZa^u\Zcl_ÂŞ Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t Do Push Come to school on time Bring knives Be neat Smoke Be clean Bring alcohol Write carefully Pay attention during your classes Ask the teacher to explain Be ready with your homework Be polite Respect your classmates and teachers Help your classmates Be active ?keb\uohlbl_[ulvohjhrbfq_eh\_dhf AZihfgbl_wlbijhklu_ijZ\beZ Ih^qbgycl_kvklZjrbfihfh]Zcl_ih^hfm KfhjdZcl_kv\f_klhlh]hqlh[urfu]Zlvghkhf ;m^vl_ij_^Zggu^jmavyf ;m^vl_qbklufbb hijylgufb IjbgbfZcl_hl\_lkl\_gghklvaZlhqlh\u^_eZ_l_ <k_]^Zfhcl_jmdbi_j_^_^hc Qbklbl_am[ub jZkq_ku\Zcl_\hehkumljhfb \_q_jhf >urbl_ghkhf Hldju\Zcl_hdgZ^g_fb ghqvx B]jZcl_gZ\ha^mo_dZdfh`gh[hevr_ JZgheh`bl_kv²qZkh\kgZ²jZgh\klZ\Zcl_ Fhcl_kvk fuehfb l_iehc\h^hcdZdfh`ghqZs_ Dh]^Zih\Zr_fmfg_gbxwlbijZ\beZ[uebgZibkZgu \ :\kljZebb" I suppose they were written many years ago. 39


 DZd \u kqblZ_l_ ke_^h\Zgb_ wlbf ijZ\beZf k^_eZ_l \Zk ohjhrbfbex^vfb" I think they would make me healthy and clean but at the same time they mention some features of a good person, like obeying oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s elders and accepting responsibility. DZdb_ijZ\beZ\u[u^h[Z\bebbebaZf_gbeb" Look after those who are younger than you are Help your friends Be polite Be punctual IjZdlbdm_fkykemrZlv Ibkvfhba:\kljZebb KZrZ gZibkZe >`hmb IjhkemrZcl_ dZd >`hmb qblZ_l ibkvfh \kemoIjhkemrZcl__s_jZab h[\_^bl_ijZ\bevgu_hl\_lu ba ijb\_^_gguogb`_ kf7DSHVFULSWV Hl\_lvl_gZke_^mxsb_\hijhku  =^_gZoh^blkyKZrZ" 6DVKDLVLQ$XVWUDOLD KZrZgZoh^blky\ :\kljZebb   >he]hebhglZfgZoh^blky" +HKDVEHHQWKHUHIRUWZRZHHNV HggZoh^blkylZfm`_^\_g_^_eb   HghklZgh\beky\ ohjhr_fhl_e_" 1RKHLVQ¶W+HLVVWD\LQJZLWKDQ$XVWUDOLDQIDPLO\ G_lHg`b\_lk Z\kljZebckdhck_fv_c   Hgkh[bjZ_lkyihk_lblvZ\kljZebckdmxrdhem" No, he isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t. He has already visited an Australian school. He is going on H[FXUVLRQWKHQH[WGD\ G_lHgm`_ihk_lbeZ\kljZebckdmxrdhemHg kh[bjZ_lkygZwdkdmjkbxgZke_^mxsbc^_gv 

IjZdlbdm_fkyibkZlv Ih`ZemcklZ \u[_jbl_ ^jm]Z ih i_j_ibkd_ ba wlhc]eZ\u Ih`ZemcklZgZibrbl__fm _cibkvfhBkihevamcl_wlhg_hnbpbZevgh_ ibkvfh dZd h[jZa_p ?keb \u aZohlbl_ ihkeZlv ibkvfhg_h[oh^bfu_Z^j_kZijb\_^_gugb`_ E_gbg]jZ^kdbcijhki_dl Fhkd\ZJhkkby >hjh]ZyWfbeb Ijb\_lf_gyah\ml:g^j_cb y`b\m\ Fhkd\_Jhkkby Y ijhqblZel\h_ibkvfh\ k\h_fmq_[gbd_+DSS\(QJOLVKb y[u ohl_eklZlvl\hbf^jm]hfihi_j_ibkd_LugZibkZeZqlhlub]jZ_rv gZkZdkhnhg_Y b]jZxgZkdjbid_DZ`^uc^_gvihke_rdheuy oh`m\ fmaudZevgmxrdhemFhyex[bfZyfmaudZ²^`Zab deZkkbq_kdZyfmaudZ 40


GZ^_xkvqlhlukdhjhgZibr_rv L\hc^jm]ihi_j_ibkd_:g^j_c 12 Prospect Mira Moscow, Russia 173613 November 15, 2003 Dear Alysia, Hello. Me name is Zhenya and I live in Moscow. I read your letter in me textbook and Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d like to become your pen friend. You wrote that you have a cat and a dog. I like animals very much. I have a dog, a parrot and a turtle. They are all funny. The turtleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s name is Tutty. She is very slow and phlegmatic. I like tennis too. Please write more about yourself. Hope to hear from you soon. Best wishes, Zhenya. Ijhki_dlFbjZ Fhkd\ZJhkkby ghy[jy] >hjh]Zy:ebkby Ijb\_lF_gyah\ml@_gyb y`b\m\ Fhkd\_Y ijhq_el\h_ibkvfh \ k\h_fmq_[gbd_b ohl_e[uklZlvl\hbf^jm]hfihi_j_ibkd_LugZibkZeZqlh m l_[y_klv dhrdZ b kh[ZdZ Y hq_gv ex[ex `b\hlguo M f_gy_klvkh[ZdZihim]Zcb q_j_iZoZQ_j_iZomah\mlLmllbHgZhq_gv f_^e_ggZyb ne_]fZlbqgZyY lh`_ex[exl_ggbkIh`ZemcklZgZibrb ih[hevr_h k_[_ GZ^_xkvqlhlukdhjhgZibr_rv K gZbemqrbfbih`_eZgbyfb @_gy

 ?keb\uohlbl_ihkeZlvibkvfhh^ghfmbamq_gbdh\\ DZlhebq_kdhfDhee_^`_DZkbfbjihrebl_ibkvfhihwlhfmZ^j_km  ?keb\uohlbl_gZibkZlvh^ghfmbamq_gbdh\Dhee_^`ZKj_^g_]hH[mq_gbyKljZlfhj\Zfgm`ghihkeZlvibkvfhihwlhfmZ^j_km DZdgZibkZlvebqgh_ibkvfh :^j_khlijZ\bl_ey >ZlZ Ijb\_lkl\b_beb\klmibl_evgZyqZklvibkvfZ Hkgh\ghcl_dklibkvfZ AZdexqbl_evgZyqZklv Dhgph\dZ Ih^ibkv :^j_khlijZ\bl_eyGZibrbl_k\hcZ^j_k\ \_jog_fijZ\hfm]emibkvfZG_ibrbl_k\h_bfy >ZlZGZibrbl_^Zlmih^Z^j_khfHklZ\vl_f_klhf_`^mZ^j_khfb ^ZlhcKms_kl\mxljZagu_gZibkZgby^Zlu 41


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CHAPTER 3. J:AGHH;J:AB?DMEVLMJ

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KZrZY keurZeqlhGbdheZcFbdemohFZdeZcjmkkdbcmq_gucb iml_r_kl\_ggbd[ue\ Kb^g__ <bdlhjIjZ\bevghGbdheZcFbdemohFZdeZcijbieue\ Kb^g_c \  ]h^m Hg hkgh\Ze fhjkdmx [bheh]bq_kdmx klZgpbx \ :\kljZebbHg`bea^_kvg_kdhevdhe_lHg`_gbekygZZ\kljZebcd_b mg_]h jh^bebkv^\ZkugZBoihlhfdb\k__s_`b\ml\ Kb^g__ Hev]ZIjZ\^Z"Y agZxqlhhgmf_j\ Jhkkbb?]hfh]beZgZoh^blky \ KZgdlI_l_j[mj]_ <bdlhj< :\kljZebxijb_a`Zxlfgh]hex^_cbaJhkkbb<uagZeb qlh gZrZ agZf_gblZy [Ze_jbgZ :ggZ IZ\eh\Z b gZr agZf_gbluc i_\_pN_^hjRZeyibgihk_lbeb:\kljZebx\ ]h^m" Hev]ZH:ggZIZ\eh\Z[ueZ\_ebdhclZgph\sbp_c <bdlhj>ZB j_p_ilijb]hlh\e_gbyibjh]ZIZ\eh\hca^_kvhq_gv ihimeyj_g:\kljZebcpuqZklh_]h_^ylY fh]m^Zlv\Zfwlhlj_p_il <ZfgZ^hijb]hlh\blv_]hb kZfbfihijh[h\Zlv IZjhfuKb^g_y <bdlhj<ufgh]h^hklhijbf_qZl_evghkl_chkfhlj_eb\ Kb^g__" KZrZ>Z <bdlhj: \uieZ\ZebgZiZkkZ`bjkdhfiZjhf_" Hev]Z?s_g_l <bdlhj<ZfgZ^hihieZ\ZlvgZiZjhf_ihdZ\u\ Kb^g__Lh]^Z\u kfh`_l_m\b^_lv^hklhijbf_qZl_evghklbKb^g_yk \h^u KZrZ>Zy keurZeqlhdZ`^hfmlmjbklmklhblm\b^_lvHi_jguc AZeKb^g_yk \h^u Hev]ZGZfgZ^haZieZlblvaZih_a^dmgZiZjhf_" <bdlhj >Z dZ`^uc ^he`_g dmiblv [be_l qlh[u ih_oZlv gZ ijh]medm KZrZ=^_fufh`_fdmiblv[be_l" <bdlhj< ihjlm Hev]Z Fu [u lZd`_ ohl_eb ih_oZlv gZ wdkdmjkbx gZ Z\lh[mk_ ih Kb^g_xY keurZeqlha^_rgxxZjobl_dlmjmklhblm\b^_lv GZc^bl_b i_j_\_^bl_fh^Zevgu_]eZ]heu\ l_dkl_ &RXOG²g_fh][u +DYHWR²^he`gu &DQ²fh]m 6KRXOG²^he`guklhbl :LOOEHDEOH²kfh`_l :LOOEHDEOH²kfh`_l_ &RXOG²g_fh][u 0XVW²^he`_g &DQ²fh]m +DYHWR²gm`gh Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku  KdhevdhgZpbc`b\_l\ :\kljZebb" 2YHUQDWLRQDOLWLHVOLYHLQ$XVWUDOLD ;he__gZpbcijh`b\Zxl\ :\kljZebb   Hldm^Zkhk_^LhfZ" 43


7RP¶VQHLJKERULVIURP5XVVLD Khk_^LhfZbaJhkkbb   Ihq_fmKZr_b Hev]_klhblih]h\hjblvk gbfdZd\u^mfZ_l_" They should talk to him because he can tell them about Russians who OLYHLQ$XVWUDOLD Bfklhblih]h\hjblvk gbfihlfmqlhhgfh`_ljZkkdZaZlvbfh jmkkdbo`b\msbo\ :\kljZebb   Dlh[uei_j\ufjmkkdbfh[hkgh\Z\rbfky\ Jhkkbb" The first Russian to settle in Australia was Peter Potoski, a Russian sailor DQG DUP\ RIILFHU I_j\uf jmkkdbf h[hkgh\Z\rbfky \ Jhkkbb [ue I_ljIhlhpdbcjmkkdbcfhjydb hnbp_jZjfbb   DZdhcba\_klgucjmkkdbcq_eh\_dihk_lbe:\kljZebx\ ]h^m"Qlhhg^_eZe\ :\kljZebb"=^_hgihohjhg_g" 1LNRODL0LNORXKR0DFOD\YLVLWHG$XVWUDOLDLQGHHVWDEOLVKHGD PDULQHELRORJLFDOVWDWLRQ+HZDV EXULHGLQ5XVVLDGbdheZcFbdemoh FZdeZcihk_lbe :\kljZebx\ ]h^mHghkgh\Zefhjkdmx [bheh]bq_kdmxklZgpbx?]hihohjhgbeb\ Jhkkbb   DZdb__s_agZf_gblu_jmkkdb_ex^bihk_lbeb:\kljZebx" $QQD3DYORYDDQG)HGRU6KDODSLQYLVLWHG $XVWUDOLD :ggZ IZ\eh\Z b N_^hjRZeyibgihk_lbeb:\kljZebx   < q_klvdh]h[uegZa\Zgibjh]"<ZfagZdhfwlhlibjh]" Anna Pavlova has a cake named after her. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m not familiar with it. Ibjh][uegZa\Zg\ q_klv:gguIZ\eh\hcHgfg_g_agZdhf   ;uebebKZrZb Hev]ZgZiZkkZ`bjkdhfiZjhf_\ Kb^g__" 1RWKH\KDYHQ¶W G_l   Ihq_fmbfklhblijhdZlblvkygZiZkkZ`bjkdhfiZjhf_" They should take a ride on the paasenger ferry because they will be DEOHWRVHHWKHVLJKWV RI6\GQH\IURP WKHZDWHUbfklhblijhdZlblvky gZiZkkZ`bjkdhfiZjhf_ihlhfmqlhhgbkfh]mlm\b^_lv^hklhijbf_qZl_evghklbKb^g_yk \h^u

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VLudZlZekygZiZkkZ`bjkdhfiZjhf_\ Kb^g__" You1R,KDYHQÂśW G_l  L_[_^_ckl\bl_evghklhblijhdZlblvkyihdZlua^_kv You: Yes, I know that every tourist should take a ride. Do I have to EX\ D WLFNHW WR ULGH D IHUU\" >Z y agZx qlh dZ`^hfm lmjbklm klhbl ijhdZlblvkygZiZjhf_Fg_gm`ghieZlblvqlh[uijhdZlblvky"

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=jZffZlbdZ 3. On Mondays I have to get up at 7.30 a.m. On Tuesday I have take the dog for a walk. On Wednesday I have to wash the dishes. On Thursday I have to go to my courses. On Friday I have to tidy up my room. On Saturday I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have to go to school. On Sunday I have to do my homework. 4. 1) First you have to boil some milk for one minute. 2) Then you have to let the milk stand for five minutes. 3) Next, you have to add a little yogurt and stir. 4) After that you have to leave the mixture in a warm place for eight hours. 5. First you have to beat whites until stiff. Then you have to add cold water and beat again. Next, you have to add sugar gradually while still beating. After that, you have to add vinegar, vanilla and flour still beating. Then you have to place on greased paper on a greased tray and bake it for 45 minutes. Then you have to leave it cool in the oven. 45


DZdZym f_gyjZ[hlZ" GZibrbl_gZa\Zgb_jZ[hlugZebkld_[mfZ]bMq_gbdbiulZxlky magZlv qlh wlh aZ jZ[hlZ aZ^Z\Zy \hijhku GZibf_j hgb fh]ml kijhkblv©L_[_gm`ghjZgh\klZ\Zlvfgh]hjZ[hlZlvghkblvmgbnhjfm"ª 7. LhfKfhljbk\_lg_jZ[hlZ_l >`bewlhg_ijh[e_fZLhf<k_qlhgZfgm`gh²wlheZfihqdZ LhfB fg_g_gjZ\blkyp\_lkl_g >`beWlhg_ijh[e_fZLhf<k_qlhgZfgm`gh²wlhdjZkdZ b dbklb Z Lhf<u]ey^blqm^_kgh>`be >`be>Zg_iehoh LhfLumklZeZ" >`be>ZQlhfg_gm`glZdwlhqZrdZqZy LhfG_lijh[e_f>`beY ihc^mb k^_eZxl_[_qZc 8. 1) I need a tennis raquet, a ball and a net. 2) I need a visa, a suitcase, a ticket, a camera and money. 3) I need flour, cheese, eggs, tomatoes, meat and mashrooms. 9. 1) need ironing; 2) need mending; 3) needs cutting; 4) need throwing away; 5) needs tidying up.; 6) need washing.; 7) needs repairing; 8) needs feeding. 10. FZevqbdM f_gy[u\Zxlkkhjuk jh^bl_eyfbihih\h^mlh]h fh`ghebfg_]meylv\_q_jhf >_\hqdZM f_gylh`_Fhbjh^bl_ebg_jZaj_rZxlfg_oh^blvgZ ^bkdhl_dbFg_lZd`_g_jZaj_rZxl]meylvk fZevqbdZfb >_\hqdZ Fg_lh`_Y ^he`gu[ulv^hfZ\ ^_kylvbebfhbjh^bl_ebhq_gvjZkk_j^ylky FZevqbdHZ yg_^he`_gY fh]m]meylvkdhevdhfg_gjZ\blky >_\hqdZ M f_gy[u\Zxlkkhjuk jh^bl_eyfbihih\h^m^hfZrg_c jZ[hlu Hgb kqblZxl qlh y hq_gv e_gb\Zy b ^_eZx g_^hklZlhqgh ^hfZrg_c jZ[hlu Hgb aZklZ\eyxl f_gy ^_eZlv ^hfZrgxx jZ[hlm ^\Z qZkZdZ`^uc\_q_j FZevqbdFhbjh^bl_ebkqblZxlqlhkebrdhfqZklhoh`mgZ\_q_jbgdb 11.  M l_[y[u\Zxlkkhjuk jh^bl_eyfbihih\h^mlh]hfh`gh ebl_[_]meylv\_q_jhf"1R,GRQ¶W  JZaj_rZxlebl_[_oh^blvgZ^bkdhl_db"<HVWKH\GR  JZaj_rZxlebl_[_]meylvk fZevqbdZfb^_\hqdZfb"<HV,DP  >he`_geblu[ulv^hfZ\ ^_kylv"1R,GRQ¶W  Fh`_rveblu]meylvkdhevdhl_[_gjZ\blky"<HV,FDQ  ;u\Zxlebm l_[ykkhjuk jh^bl_eyfbihih\h^m^hfZrg_cjZ[hlu"1R,GRQ¶W 46


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hg`be[ueZgZa\ZgZ©ih[_j_`v_FZdeZyª< _]hq_klv[uebgZi_qZlZgufZjdbb kms_kl\m_lfgh]he_]_g^h g_fkj_^biZimZkh\ GbdheZcFbdemohFZdeZcaZ\h_\Ze^h\_jb_b \hkobs_gb_f_klguo `bl_e_c\ Gh\hc=\bg__Bg_kfhljygZlhqlhhgaZ[he_efZeyjb_c\ Gh\hc=\bg__b kbevgh[he_ehggZibkZe©gb dh^ghfmm]hedma_fgh]hrZjZ\ dhlhjhffg_ijboh^behkv`blv\h\j_fyfhbokljZgkl\bcy g_qm\kl\h\ZelZdhcijb\yaZgghklbdZdd ih[_j_`vxGh\hc=\bg__ª HlgZmqghcjZ[hluFbdemohFZdeZyqZklhhl\e_dZeZ_]hdZfiZgbyijhlb\g_kijZ\_^eb\hklb[_euoHg[uehaZ[hq_giheh`_gb_f gZjh^h\Lboh]hhd_ZgZ\ k\hboZgljhiheh]bq_kdbobkke_^h\Zgbyob hg[ueh[_kihdh_gihke_^kl\byfbbodhglZdlh\k [_eufbex^vfb Mom^r_gb_ a^hjh\vy \ugm^beh FZdeZy i_j__oZlv \ [he__ mf_j_ggucdebfZl:\kljZebbHgijb_oZe\ Kb^g_c\ ]h^m]^_hg ijbgye mqZklb_ \ bgl_ee_dlmZevghc b gZmqghc `bagb ]hjh^Z ?]h bgl_j_kh\Zeh[eZ]hihemqb_Z[hjb]_gh\\ :\kljZebbb bkdZekihkh[uaZsblblvboHglZd`_ij_^eh`bekha^Zgb_fhjkdhc[bheh]bq_kdhc klZgpbb \ Kb^g__ b jZ[hlZe lZf g_kdhevdh e_l Fbdemoh FZdeZc`_gbeky\ ]h^m>\Z_]hkugZjh^bebkv\ Kb^g__ < dhgp_ dhgph\ FbdemohFZdeZc \_jgmeky \ Jhkkbx qlh[u dhgljhebjh\Zlv him[ebdh\Zgb_ k\hbo jZ[hl ?]h ^g_\gbdb ibkvfZ b ^hdmf_glu[uebhim[ebdh\Zgub hg_f[uehgZibkZghg_kdhevdh dgb]Kh[jZgb__]h[mfZ]_klv\ Kb^g__HklZevgu_Zgljhiheh]bq_kdb_b wlgh]jZnbq_kdb_fZl_jbZeuojZgylky\ Jhkkbb FbdemohFZdeZcmf_j\ Jhkkbb\ ]h^m\ \hajZkl_e_l< _]h q_klvgZa\ZgBgklblmlWlgh]jZnbb\ KZgdlI_l_j[mj]_Z lZd`_fgh]b_ mebpu \ Jhkkbbb gZMdjZbg_< q_klv e_lg_]h x[be_y Fbdemoh FZdeZy\ Kb^g_cbaJhkkbb[ueZijb\_a_gZ[jhgah\ZykdmevilmjZ Ihke_ kf_jlb FbdemohFZdeZy _]h `_gZ \_jgmeZkv \ Kb^g_c K_cqZk_]h\gmdbk k_fvyfb`b\ml\ :\kljZebb Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku  =^_jh^bekyFbdemohFZdeZc" 0LNORXKR0DNOD\ ZDV ERUQ LQ 5XVVLD FbdemohFZdeZc jh^beky \ Jhkkbb   Dlhhg[ueihijhn_kkbb" He was an outstanding scientist, humanist, traveller, anthropologist and ]RRORJLVW Hg[ue \u^Zxsbfky mq_guf ]mfZgbklhf iml_r_kl\_ggbdhfZgljhiheh]hfb ahheh]hf

  Dlh [ue i_j\uf _\jhi_cp_f klmib\rbf gZ a_fex Gh\hc =\bg_b" Miklouho-Maklay was the first European to visit New Guinea. FbdemohFZdeZc [ue i_j\uf _\jhi_cp_f klmib\rbf gZ a_fex Gh\hc=\bg_b" 48


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  <u agZ_l_ ^jm]bo agZf_gbluo jmkkdbo ex^_c `b\rbo \ :\kljZebb" I know that Fedor Shaliapin and Anna Pavlova lived in Australia for VRPHWLPH Y agZxqlhN_^hjRZeyibgb :ggZIZ\eh\Z`bebdZdh_ lh\j_fy\ :\kljZebb

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pbhggu_i_kgbZ[hjb]_gh\h a_fe_h ]hjh^_h[hdjm`Zxs_ckj_^_b h lhfqlhagZqbl[ulvq_jguf[_eufbeb^jm]h]hp\_lZ Ihke_q_luj_oe_lh[mq_gbygZ]jZnbdZ\ I_jl_WjgbgZqZeaZgbfZlvky h[s_kl\_gghc jZ[hlhc h[mqZlv g_ Z[hjb]_gh\ dmevlmj_ Z[hjb]_gh\ Dh]^Z hg [ue j_[_gdhf ^y^b b klZjrb_ qe_gu k_fvb ^Zeb ljZ^bpbhggh_bfyZ[hjb]_gh\ŠMg^ZfmjmªK_]h^gyhgg_kqblZ_lk_[y gb ]hjh^kdbf gb ljZ^bpbhgguf Z[hjb]_ghf ŠY ijhklh `b\m lZd dZdy agZxJh^hfy ba[mrZ@b\my \]hjh^_Y ijbkihkZ[eb\Zxkv d ex[hfm f_klm \ dhlhjhf gZoh`mkv Y fh]m ihclb \ [mr b hklZ\blv]hjh^ihaZ^bb fh]m\_jgmlvky\ ]hjh^hklZ\b\[mrª B \k_`_WjgbijbagZ_lqlh_]hgZke_^b_^Z_l_fmqm\kl\h[_ahiZkghklbŠHgh^Z_lfg_agZlvd_fy y\eyxkvª Bkdmkkl\hZ[hjb]_gh\ Kbf\heub boagZq_gb_ Dhgp_gljbq_kdbcdjm]fh`_lh[hagZqZlv\h^hiZ^eZ]_jv^_j_\h bebf_klh\klj_qb KZfucklZjucbdhgh]jZnbq_kdbckbf\heq_eh\_dZ Q_eh\_dk dhiv_fb [mf_jZg]hf Ke_^wfm Ke_^d_g]mjm AZ]jZ`^_gb_ Dheh^_pb l_dmsZy\h^Z AZlukyqbe_lie_f_gZZ[hjb]_gh\kha^Zebbkdmkgu_dZjlbgugZ i_kd_ b l_e_ bkihevamy i_khd hojm djh\v i_jvy \_ldb b k_f_gZ ^eyk\hbop_j_fhgbc

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AgZ_l_eb\u" ;he__ebljh\^ba_evgh]hlhieb\Zbkihevam_lkyZ\lh[mkZfb Kb^g_y dZ`^uc ]h^ K^_jgbc Hebfibckdbc IeZ\Zl_evguc ;Zkk_cg\f_sZ_lebljh\\h^uLZdbfh[jZahfdhebq_kl\h lhieb\Z bkihevam_fh]h Z\lh[mkZfb Kb^g_y aZihegbl  HebfibckdboIeZ\Zl_evguo;Zkk_cgh\ AgZ_l_eb\u" IZjhfuKb^g_yi_j_\hayl[he__ iZkkZ`bjh\dZ`^uc]h^ gZdZ`^h]hqe_gu i_jkhgZeZ :\lh[mku Kb^g_y i_j_\hayl [he__  iZkkZ`bjh\gZkem`Zs_]h AgZ_l_eb\u" :\lh[mkuKb^g_yijh_a`Zxl [he__  fbeebhgh\ dbehf_ljh\ \ ]h^  wlh jZ\gh ih ^ebg_ jZkklhygbx ijh_a`Z_fhfm \k_f iZjdhf Z\lhfh[be_c\hdjm]A_febljbjZaZ wlhjZ\ghih ^ebg_ jZkklhygbx ijh_a`Z_fhfm h^gbf Z\lh[mkhfZ\lhfh[be_c\hdjm]A_febjZaZ wlhjZ\ghih^ebg_jZkklhygbxhlKb^g_y^hI_jlZ\ h^gmklhjhgmihfgh`_gghfmgZ AgZ_l_eb\u" <h^bl_eb Z\lh[mkh\ b wdbiZ` iZjhfh\ dZ`^uc ]h^ \uau\Zxlky ^h[jh\hevpZfbqlh[ukh[jZlvr_klviheguoZ\lh[mkh\gh\uob]jmr_d hl \khbo deb_glh\ gZ Jh`^_kl\h b wlb b]jmrdb b^ml gm`^Zxsbfky^_lyfdhlhju_\jy^ebihemqZlfgh]hih^Zjdh\gZJh`^_kl\h AgZ_l_eb\u" < bgnhjfZpbhgghcebgbbZ\lh[mkh\ih_a^h\b iZjhfh\_klvl_e_nhg ^ey ex^_c k gZjmr_gb_f kemoZ dhlhju_ ihevamxlky l_e_nhggufbi_qZlgufbfZrbgdZfb AgZ_l_eb\u" :\lh[mkub iZjhfuKb^g_yi_j_\haylihqlbfbeebhgh\iZkkZ`bjh\\ ]h^ wlh\ h^bggZ^pZlvjZa[hevr_gZk_e_gby:\kljZebb ihqlb\ q_luj_jZaZ[hevr_gZk_e_gby;jblZgbb  wlh jZ\gh lj_f q_l\_jluf gZk_e_gby Kh_^bg_gguo RlZlh\ :f_jbdb AgZ_l_eb\u" ?kebihklZ\blv\k_Z\lh[mkuKb^g_y H^bgaZ^jm]bfjy^[m^_l^ebghcdbehf_ljh\ H^bg gZ ^jm]hc  dbehf_ljh\ Wlh agZqbl qlh hgb [m^ml \ \ukhlmdZdiheh\bgZ]hjuW\_j_kl <f_kl_b \a\_kblv lhgg dbeh]jZffKj_^g_klZlbklbq_kdbckehg\_kbllhggZ\lh[mkujZ\guih\_kmkehgZf 55


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CHAPTER 4. HEBFIBCKDB?B=JU

JZa]h\hjgZyijZdlbdZ KZrZ b Hev]Z ijb_oZeb \ DZg[_jjm klhebpm :\kljZebb KZrZ a\hgblLhfmihl_e_nhgm Ih`ZemcklZijhqlbl_wlb^bZeh]b\kemoAZl_fjZau]jZcl_bo k h^ghdeZkkgbdZfbHkh[h_\gbfZgb_h[jZsZcl_ gZ kh]eZkh\Zgb_ \j_f_gIhke_ijhql_gb_\uihegbl_aZ^Zgbyijb\_^_ggu_gb`_ DZg[_jjZ Lhf:eeh" KZrZ:eehFh]my ih]h\hjblvk Lhfhf" LhfWlhy KZrZIjb\_lLhfWlhKZrZy a\hgxbaDZg[_jju LhfIjb\_lKZrZDZd\Zfk Hev]hcgjZ\blkyDZg[_jjZ" KZrZGZfa^_kvhq_gvgjZ\blkyLudh]^Zgb[m^v[ue\ DZg[_jj_" Lhf>Zfgh]hjZa KZrZIhq_fmklhebpZ:\kljZebbjZkiheh`_gZ\ DZg[_jj_Z g_ \ Kb^g__beb\ F_ev[mjg_"HgbgZfgh]h[hevr_q_fDZg[_jjZ Lhf Ih wlhfm ih\h^m [ueb ^ebl_evgu_ kihju B Kb^g_c b F_ev[mjg ohl_eb [ulv klhebp_c <f_klh lh]h qlh[u ijh^he`Zlv ^_[Zlu[uehijbgylhj_r_gb_kha^Zlvgh\uc]hjh^^eyklhebpu KZrZ A^_kv \k_ lZdh_ a_e_gh_ b _kl_kl\_ggh_ <ha^mo lZdhc k\_`bc LhfLuaZf_lbeqlh^Z`_a^Zgb_iZjeZf_glZihdjulhljZ\hc" KihjlgZhldjulhf\ha^mo_ Lhf=^_\uhklZgh\bebkv\ DZg[_jj_" KZrZFuhklZgh\bebkvm hq_gvohjhr_ck_fvb Lhf<u[m^_l_mqZkl\h\Zlv\ dZdbogb[m^vf_jhijbylbyogZhldjulhf\ha^mo_" KZrZ>Z K_]h^gy ^g_f fu ih_^_f dZlZlvky gZ \_ehkbi_^Zo B qe_gu k_fvb kdZaZeb qlh hgb \havfml gZk k kh[hc ieZ\Zlv gZ [Zc^Zjd_b \ihoh^Hgbex[ylkihjlgZhldjulhf\ha^mo_ 56


Lhf DZg[_jjZ ² aZf_qZl_evgh_ f_klh ^ey kihjlZ gZ hldjulhf \ha^mo_ KZrZGZfkdZaZebqlhHebfibckdb_b]ju[m^mlijh\h^blvky\ Kb^g__< dZdhf]h^mbo[m^mlijh\h^blv\ Kb^g__" Lhf< <_kvKb^g_ck_cqZk]hlh\blkyd Hebfibckdbfb]jZf KZrZ AZo\Zlu\Zxs_ DklZlb lu g_ fh] [u ^Zlv fg_ l_e_nhg <bdlhjZ"Y [uohl_eiha\hgblv_fm LhfDhg_qgh <bdlhjb LhfjZa]h\Zjb\Zxl <bdlhjLhflu]h\hjbek KZr_c" Lhf>Zhga\hgbefg_\q_jZ <bdlhj?fmgjZ\blkyDZg[_jjZ" LhfHgkdZaZeqlh_fmb Hev]_DZg[_jjZhq_gvihgjZ\beZkv <bdlhj=^_hgbhklZgh\bebkv" LhfHgkdZaZeqlhhgbhklZgh\bebkvm ohjhr_ck_fvb <bdlhjQlh_s_hgkdZaZe" LhfHgkijhkbef_gy [ue eby \ DZg[_jj_ Ijbjh^Z DZg[_jju iZg_]hijhba\_eZ[hevrh_\i_qZle_gb_HgkdZaZeqlhhgZihc^ml \ ihoh^gZ[Zc^ZjdZo <bdlhjA^hjh\h LhfB hgohl_eagZlvdh]^Z\ Kb^g__[m^mlijh\h^blvkyHebfibckdb_b]juHglZd`_ihijhkbef_gy^Zlv_fml\hcl_e_nhg Ih`ZemcklZhl\_lvl_gZke_^mxsb_\hijhku  IhgjZ\beZkvebKZr_b Hev]_DZg[_jjZ" 7KH\OLNHG&DQEHUUDYHU\PXFK Bfhq_gvihgjZ\beZkvDZg[_jjZ   ;ueebLhf\ DZg[_jj_" <HVKHKDV >Z   Ihq_fmklhebpZ:\kljZebbgZoh^blky\ DZg[_jj_" There was a debate about it. Sydney and Melbourne wanted to be capital DQGLQWKHHQGLWZDVGHFLGHGWRFUHDWHDQHZFLW\IRUWKHFDSLWDO Ihwlhfm ih\h^m[uebkihjuKb^g_cb F_ev[mjgohl_eb[ulvklhebp_c< dhgp_dhgph\[uehj_r_ghkha^Zlvgh\uc]hjh^^eyklhebpu   Q_fihdjulha^Zgb_iZjeZf_glZ" ,WLVFRYHUHGZLWKJUDVV HgihdjulljZ\hc   &d_f\ DZg[_jj_hklZgh\bebkvKZrZb Hev]Z" 7KH\DUHVWD\LQJZLWKDQLFHIDPLO\ HgbhklZgh\bebkvm ohjhr_c k_fvb   Q_fKZrZb Hev]Z[m^mlaZgbfZlvky\h\j_fyk\h_]hij_[u\Zgby\ DZg[_jj_" They will go canoeing and camping. They will also go bicycle riding. Hgbihc^ml\ ihoh^gZ[Zc^ZjdZo   <ZfgjZ\blkykihjlgZhldjulhf\ha^mo_" 57


Yes, I do. I like bicycle riding as well as basketball and volleyball. I DOVR OLNH FDPSLQJ YHU\ PXFK >Z Fg_ gjZ\blky \_ehkihjl Z lZd`_ [Zkd_l[heb \he_c[heFg_lZd`_hq_gvgjZ\blkyoh^blv\ ihoh^u  =^_[m^mlijh\h^blvkyHebfibckdb_B]ju]h^Z" 7KH  2O\PSLF *DPHV ZLOO EH KHOG LQ 6\GQH\ Hebfibckdb_ B]ju]h^m[m^mlijh\h^blvky\ Kb^g__   QlhLhfkdZaZe<bdlhjm" Tom told Vistor that Sasha had called him the day before and told him that he liked Canberra very much. Tom also said that Sasha was staying with a nice family and that he would be going canoeing and camping. He told Victor that Sasha had asked him about the Olympic *DPHVDQGKDGDVNHG7RPWRJLYHKLP9LFWRU¶VWHOHSKRQHQXPEHU Lhf kdZaZe<bdlhjmqlhKZrZa\hgbe_fm\q_jZb kdZaZeqlh_fmhq_gv ihgjZ\beZkv DZg[_jjZ Lhf lZd`_ kdZaZe qlh KZrZ hklZgh\beky m ohjhr_ck_fvbb qlhhgkh[bjZekyihclb\ ihoh^gZ[Zc^ZjdZoHg kdZaZe<bdlhjmqlhKZrZkijZrb\Ze _]h h[ Hebfibckdbo B]jZo b ijhkbeLhfZ^Zlv_fml_e_nhg<bdlhjZ  Yaudl_e_nhgguojZa]h\hjh\ G_dhlhju_ba\_s_cdhlhju_\ufh`_l_mkeurZlvihl_e_nhgm fh]mla\mqZlvkljZggh WlhhagZqZ_l Dlh\u" Ih`ZemcklZih\lhjbl_k\h_bfy Y g_ihgyeqlh\ukdZaZeb<ug_fh]eb[uwlhih\lhjblv" A^_kvg_kdhevdhhl^_eh\Dhlhjucbagbo\Zfgm`_g" Ih^h`^bl_ <ug_ih^h`^_l_" Y kh_^bgx\Zkk wlbf ghf_jhf Ih`ZemcklZ ih^h`^bl_ G_ \_rZcl_ljm[dm HghgZjZa]h\Zjb\Z_lihl_e_nhgmk d_flh >jm]b_ex^blh`_ohlylih]h\hjblvk gbfg_cHklZ\Zcl_kvgZ ebgbbb gZ\Zra\hghdhl\_lyl\ ihjy^d_hq_j_^b <uohlbl_qlh[uy i_j_^ZeZ_fmqlhgb[m^v" ?keb \u kdZ`_l_ fg_ k\h_ bfy b ghf_j l_e_nhgZ hg  hgZ \Zf i_j_a\hgbl Kh\_l Dh]^Z\ukfhljbl_ghf_jnbjfubeb^hdlhjZ\ l_e_nhgghcdgb]_\ufh`_l_m\b^_lvghf_jk ihf_ldhc$+wlhagZqbl©Ihke_qZkh\ª ihke_ jZ[hlu ?keb \u a\hgbl_ jZgh mljhf beb iha^gh \_q_jhf \u fh`_l_ iha\hgblv ih wlhfm l_e_nhgm qlh[u k\yaZlvky k gm`guf\Zfq_eh\_dhf

58


=jZffZlbdZ 1. Sasha said that they are so much bigger the Canberra. Tom answered that there had been a long running debate about that and that both Sydney and Melbourne had wanted to be the nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s capital. Tom added that a decision had been made to create a new city for the capital. Sasha said that everything was green in Canberra and that the air was fresh. Tom asked him if he had noticed that the Parliament House was covered with grass. Tom asked Sasha where he was staying in Canberra and Sasha answered that they were staying with a nice family. Tom asked if they would participate in some outdoor activities and Sasha said that they would. He said that their family had said they would take them canoeing and camping. Tom said that Canberra was a great place for outdoor sports. Sasha said that they had been told that the Olympics would be held in Sydney. He asked what year they would be in Sydney. Tom answered that it would happen in the tear 2000. He said that Sydney was preparing for the Olympics. Sasha said that it was very exciting and asked Tom if he could give him Victorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s telephone number. Tom said he could. Victor asked Tom if he had spoken with Sasha. Tom answered that Sasha had called him the day before. Victor asked if Sasha liked Canberra and Tom answered that Sasha had said that they liked Canberra very much. Victor asked where they were staying and Tom answered that they were staying with a nice family. Victor asked what else Sasha had said. Tom said that Sasha had asked him if he had been to Canberra and that he had said he was very much impressed by the nature of the city. He said that they would be canoeing and camping. Victor said that it was great. Tom said that Sasha had wanted to know when the Olympic Games would be held in Sydney and had asked Tom to give him Victorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s telephone number. 4. 1) Sasha said that Olga had never been to an English speaking country before. 2) Sasha said that they would visit Canberra. 3) Sasha said that Canberra is the capital off Australia. 4) Sasha said that he had been travelling a lot lately. 5) Sasha said that he was thinking of going to Canada. 6) Sasha said that he had never been to Canada. 7) Sasha said that Victor had not lived in Sydney very long. Ijhqlbl_b magZcl_ DZg[_jjZ²klhebpZ:\kljZebb DZgv_jjZ²^hfZ\kljZebckdh]hijZ\l_evkl\Zb ihkhevkl\kljZg kh\k_]hfbjZ MdjZr_gb_f]hjh^Zy\ey_lkygh\h_a^Zgb_iZjeZf_glZhldjulh_ \ ]hm^A^_kvaZk_^Z_lijZ\bl_evkl\hDZg[_jjZlZd`a_ba\_kl-

59


gZ dZd ijbjh^gZy klhebpZ b hgZ gboh^blky g_^Ze_dh hl kZfuo wnn_dlguoi_caZ`_c:\kljZebb <ha^mo a^_kv k\_`bc b [h^jysbc G_m^b\bl_evgh qlh ex^b \ DZg[_jj_ex[ylijh\h^blv\j_fygZhldjulhf\ha^mo_ < DZg[_jj_ fgh]h fma__\ DZg[_jjm ijh_dlbjh\Ze Zf_jbdZg_p DZg[_jjZ²©jZc^ey\_ehkbi_^bklh\ª < DZg[_jj_jZkiheh`_guba\_klgu_^hklhijbf_qZl_evghklb:\kljZebbGZpbhgZevgZy=Ze_j_yGZpbhgZevgucP_gljGZmdbb L_ogheh]bb<ukrbcKm^b klZjh_a^Zgb_iZjeZf_glZgZoh^ylkya^_kv DebfZl Mf_j_gguc Abfgb_ ghqb fh]ml [ulv oheh^gufb k fhjhaguf mljhfb kheg_qguf^g_f<h\k_k_ahguij_h[eZ^Zxlkheg_qgu_^gb DjZldZybklhjbyHebfibckdbob]j Dh]^Z\k_gZqZehkv Kh]eZkghbklhjbq_kdbfaZibkyfi_j\u_b]ju[uebijh\_^_gu\ ]h^m^hgZr_cwju\ Hebfibb=j_pbyD ]h^m\ B]jZomqZkl\h\Zeb]j_dbkh\k_om]hedh\=j_pbbB]juijh\h^bebkv[dZ`^u_ q_luj_]h^Z\ q_klvdhjhey[h]h\A_\kZKhh[sZ_lkyqlh\ jZggbo B]jZo[uehlhevdhh^ghkhklyaZgb_²[_]gZyj^h\ Ih`ZemcklZh[tykgbl_agZq_gb_ij_^eh`_gby It means tat the Games were held to show that the Greeks respected their god, Zeus. WlhagZqblqlhb]juijh\h^bebkv^eylh]hqlh[uihdZaZlvqlh ]j_dbm\Z`Zebk\h_]h[h]ZA_\kZ  <b^ukhj_\gh\Zgbc <kdhj_ [ueb ^h[Z\e_gu b ^jm]b_ \b^u khj_\gh\Zgbc \dexqZy [hdk [hjv[m h[t_^bg_ggu_ [hdk b [hjv[m f_lZgb_ ^bkdZ f_lZgb_ dhivyb iju`db\ ^ebgmD Hebfibckdbfb]jZf[ueb^h[Z\e_gu ]hgdb gZ dhe_kgbpZo aZijy`_gguo q_lujvfy ehrZ^vfb =hgdb gZ dhe_kgbpZo [ueb hq_gv ihimeyjgu DhfZg^u ba ^\mo beb q_luj_o ehrZ^_c kdZdZeb  djm]h\ ih ^hjh`d_ Fh]eb mqZkl\h\Zlv  dhe_kgbpBgh]^Zijhbkoh^bebklhedgh\_gbyIha`_[ueb^h[Z\e_gu ]hgdbgZehrZ^yo Ih`ZemcklZh[tykgbl_agZq_gb_ij_^eh`_gby In the very earlier Olympics the athletes competed only in 200yard VSULQW /DWHU WKH\ EHJDQ WR FRPSHWH LQ RWKHU VSRUWV < kZfuo jZggbo Hebfibckdbob]jZokihjlkf_gukhj_\gh\Zebkvlhevdh\ [_]_gZ yj^h\Iha`_hgbklZebkhj_\gh\Zlvkyb \^jm]bo\b^ZokihjlZ  <j_f_ggZyrdZeZHebfibckdbob]j GZijhly`_gbb  e_l b]ju ijh\h^bebkv j_]meyjgh k bgl_j\Zehf \ q_luj_ ]h^Z Ki_pbZevgu_ ihkuevgu_ gZijZ\eyebkv \h \k_o

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gZijZ\e_gbyo qlh[u h[ty\blv gZqZeh b]j b ^Zlv kb]gZe aZdhgqblv \k_jZkijbb \hcgu^hdhgpZB]jKh\j_f_ggu_Hebfibckdb_b]ju \k_ _s_ ijh\h^ylky dZ`^u_ q_luj_ ]h^Z gh bo ij_ju\Zeb \  b ]h^ZoFbjh\ufb<hcgZfb Ih`ZemcklZh[tykgbl_agZq_gb_ij_^eh`_gby The Games are held then four years pass and then the Games are held DJDLQ Ijh\h^ylkyB]juaZl_fijhoh^blq_luj_]h^Zb aZl_fhiylv ijh\h^ylkyB]ju  Dh]^Z ]j_dh\ aZ\h_\Zeb jbfeyg_ \h \lhjhf \_d_ ^h gZr_c wju gZqZekymiZ^hdB]j< ]h^mgZr_cwju\baZglbckdbcbfi_jZlhj Nh_^hkbcaZij_lbeB]juLjb^pZlve_lkimklybfi_jZlhjN_h^hkbc ijbdZaZe iheghklvx jZajmrblv ojZfu Hebfibb <  ]h^m Zjo_heh]b\gh\vhldjueb]hjh^ Ih`ZemcklZh[tykgbl_agZq_gb_ij_^eh`_gby 7KHHPSHURUIRUEDGHWRKROGWKH*DPHV Bfi_jZlhjaZij_lbeijh\h^blvB]ju  < ]h^m;ZjhgIv_j^_Dmj[_lZggZibkZeibkvfZ\ kihjlb\gu_ hj]ZgbaZpbb \k_o kljZg < k\h_f ibkvf_ hg hibkZe h[jZah\Zl_evgmx p_gghklv kihjlZ ^ey kh\j_f_ggh]h q_eh\_dZ hkgh\Zggmx gZ b^_ZeZo ]j_dh\ >\Z ]h^u kimkly ijhreb i_j\u_ Hebfibckdb_ B]ju DZd\ukqblZ_l_bf__lebkihjlh[jZah\Zl_evgmxp_gghklv" Ih`ZemcklZh[tykgbl_ihq_fm I think that there is educational value in sport. Sport teaches people discipline. It makes a character stronger. Sportsmen learn to lose with GLJQLW\ Y kqblZx qlh \ kihjl_ _klv h[jZah\Zl_evgmx p_gghklv Kihjl mqbl ex^_c ^bkpbiebg_ Hg aZdZey_l oZjZdl_j Kihjlkf_gu mqZlkyijhb]ju\Zlvk ^hklhbgkl\hf  < kh\j_f_gguo Hebfibckdbo b]jZo kihjlkf_gu fZjrbjmxl \ iZjZ^_ gZ hldjulbb B]j I_j_^ iZjZ^hf aZ`b]Z_lky nZd_e IeZfy nZd_eZijbghkblkyk f_klZ]^_gZoh^beZkvHebfibyLZf_]haZ`b]Z_lhlemq_ckhegpZb wklZn_lhcijbghkyl\ ]hjh^\ dhlhjhfijh\h^ylkyB]ju Ih`ZemcklZh[tykgbl_agZq_gb_ij_^eh`_gby The flame to light the torch is carried from the place where Olympia KDGEHHQE\WKHUHOD\UXQQHUV IeZfy^eynZd_eZijbghkblkyk f_klZ ]^_gZoh^beZkvHebfibywklZn_lhc[_]mgh\  Jhkkby gZqZeZ ijbgbfZlv mqZklb_ \ Hebfibckdbo B]jZo \  ]h^mK l_oihjJhkkbyfgh]hjZa\ub]ju\ZeZahehlu_k_j_[jygu_b [jhgah\u_f_^Zeb< ]h^mHebfibckdb_B]juijh\h^bebkv \ Fhkd\_

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 Ih`ZemcklZ jZkiheh`bl_ bklhjbx Hebfibckdbo B]j ih \j_f_gghcrdZe_ 766 B.C. The first Olympic Games were held. 2 B.C. The decline of the Games began because the Greeks were conquered by the Romans. 393 A.D. The Olympic Games were banned by the emperor Theodosius 1. 1875 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Archaeologists rediscovered Olympia. 1894 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Baron Pierre de Coubertin wrote a letter to all the athletic organizations. 1896 The first modern Olympic Games took place. 1916 The Olympics were not held because of the World War I. 1940 The Olympics were not held because of the World War II. 1944 The Olympics were not held because of the World War II. 1952 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Russia joined the Olympics. 1980 The twenty-second Olympic games were held in Moscow. Ih`ZemcklZhl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku  Dh]^Zb ]^_gZqZebkvHebfibckdb_B]ju" 7KH2O\PSLF*DPHVZHUHVWDUWHGLQ%&LQ*UHHFH Hebfibckdb_B]jugZqZebkv\ ]h^m^hgZr_cwju\ =j_pbb   Dh]^ZB]ju[uebaZij_s_gu" 7KH*DPHVZHUHEDQQHGLQ$' B]ju[uebaZij_s_gu\  ]h^mgZr_cwju   DlhgZibkZeibkvfh\h\k_kljZguhibku\Zyh[jZah\Zl_evgmx p_gghklvkihjlZ^eykh\j_f_ggh]hq_eh\_dZ" %DURQ3LUUHGH&RXEHUWLQGLG ;ZjhgIv_j^_Dmj[_lZg    .h]^Z [ueb ijh\_^_gu i_j\u_ kh\j_f_ggu_ Hebfibckdb_ B]ju" The first modern Olympic Games took place in 1896, two years after 3LHUUHGH&RXEHUWLQÂśVOHWWHUi_j\u_kh\j_f_ggu_Hebfibckdb_B]ju [uebijh\_^_gu\ ]h^mq_j_a^\Z]h^Zihke_ibkvfZIv_jZ^_ Dm[_jlZgZ

 Ihq_fmHebfibckdb_B]juklZebkbf\hehffbjZb ^jm`[u" The Olympic Games are the symbol of peace and friendship because sportsmen from all the countries of the world come to take part in it. Hebfibckdb_B]jZy\eyxlkykbf\hehffbjZb ^jm`[uihlhfmqlh kihjlkf_gu\k_okljZgfbjZijb_a`Zxlkhj_\gh\ZlvkygZgbo   Dh]^ZJhkkbyklZeZmqZkl\h\Zlv\ hebfibckdboB]jZo" 5XVVLD MRLQHG WKH 2O\PSLFV LQ  Jhkkby gZqZeZ ijbgbfZlv mqZklb_\ HebfibckdboB]jZo\ ]h^m 

62


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g_dhlhju_ ba \Zk kfh]ml ijb_oZlv \ :\kljZebx _keb g_ gZ B]ju ]h^Z\ Kb^g__lhdh]^Zgb[m^v\ [m^ms_f  Ij_^klZ\vl_ qlh \u j_ihjl_j dhlhjuc kh[jZe bgnhjfZpbx h[ Hebfibckdbo b]jZo  ]h^Z JZkkdZ`bl_ h^ghdeZkkgbdZf qZklv lh]h h q_f \u magZeb Ih`ZemcklZ bkihevamcl_ dhk\_ggmxj_qv I was told that there would be 27 sports on the programme of the 200 Olympic Games ranging from Archery to weightlifting. Triathlon and Taekwondo would be contested for the first time. Some of the sports popular in Australia, such as Australian rules football, Rugby League and cricket would not be included in the programme as they were not played LQ D VLJQLILFDQW QXPEHU RI FRXQWULHV Fg_ kdZaZeb qlh \ ijh]jZff_ hebfibckdboB]j[m^_l  ]h^Z  \b^h\ kihjlZ hl klj_ev[u ba emdZ^hih^gylby ly`_kl_cKhj_\gh\ZgbyihljbZlehgmb lZcd\hg^h [m^ml ijh\h^blvky \ i_j\uc jZa \ Kb^g__ G_dhlhju_ ihimeyjgu_ \ :\kljZebb \b^u kihjlZ lZdb_ dZd nml[he ih Z\kljZebckdbf ijZ\beZfeb]Zj_][bb djbd_lg_[m^ml\dexq_gu\ ijh]jZffmihlhfmqlh\ gbob]jZ_lg_^hklZlhqgh_dhebq_kl\hkljZg

A member of the Sydney organizing Committee for the Olympic Games told me that the 2000 Olympics would focus on two primary ]RQHV6\GQH\2O\PSLF3DUNDQGWKH6\GQH\+DUERXU=RQH Qe_gHj]ZgbaZpbhggh]h Dhfbl_lZ Kb^g_y ih Hebfibckdbf B]jZf kdZaZe fg_ qlh Hebfibckdb_ B]ju  ]h^Z [m^ml ijh\h^blvky \ ^\mo hkgh\guo ahgZo Hebfibckdbc iZjd Kb^g_y b AhgZ =Z\Zgb Kb^g_y  A member of the Sydney organizing Committee for the Olympic Games told me that Sydney Olympic park at Homebush was being built on former industrial land the rehabilitation of which was seen as a major environmental triumph for Sydney. I was told that it would be the site of WKH2O\PSLF6WDGLXPDQGWKHDWKOHWHVÂś9LOODJH Qe_gHj]ZgbaZpbhggh]hDhfbl_lZKb^g_yihHebfibckdbfB]jZfkdZaZefg_qlhHebfibckdbc iZjd Kb^g_y \ Ohmf[mr kljhblky gZ a_fe_ dhlhjZy [ueZ ijhfure_ggufjZchghfb h[gh\e_gb_ dhlhjhc kqblZ_lky [hevrhc ih[_^hc Kb^g_y \ h[eZklb hdjm`Zxs_c kj_^u A^_kv [m^_l f_klh ^eyHebfibckdh]hklZ^bhgZb Kihjlb\ghc>_j_\gb  A member of the Sydney organizing Committee for the Olympic Games told me that a series of festivals would be held in the years leading up to the Games. They would tell the story of Australiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s PXOWLFXOWXUDO GHYHORSPHQW Qe_g Hj]ZgbaZpbhggh]h Dhfbl_lZ Kb^g_yihHebfibckdbfB]jZfkdZaZefg_qlh [m^_l ijh\_^_gZ k_jby n_klb\Ze_c ij_^r_kl\mxsbo B]jZf Hgb jZkkdZ`ml h[ bklhjbb jZa\blby:\kljZebbkljZguk [hevrbfjZaghh[jZab_fdmevlmj  65


Ij_^klZ\vl_qlh\u²j_ihjl_j_s_jZaKh[_jbl_bgnhjfZpbxh[ HebfibckdboB]jZo\ \Zr_ckljZg_bebkh[_jbl_bgnhjfZpbxh[ ba\_klghfkihjlkf_g_\ \Zr_ckljZg_JZkkdZ`bl_ h^ghdeZkkgbdZfqlh\umagZebbkihevamydhk\_ggmxj_qv The Olympic Games â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Moscow 1980. The Olympic Games of 1980 were held in Moscow. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979 led to the largest boycott in the history of the Olympic movement. U.S. president Jimmy Carter took the lead in the call for a boycott of the 1980 Olympics, and approximately 60 other nations joined the Americans in staying away from Moscow. The level of competition clearly suffered from the boycott. The Soviet team won 80 gold medals and 195 medals in all in the most lopsided final tally since the U.S. domination of the 1904 Games. The track-andfield competition saw several disappointing times. The 800 and 1,500metre runs boasted the world's two best performers, Steve Ovett and Sebastian Coe, both of Great Britain. Although Ovett won the 800-metre run and Coe the 1,500-metre, both races were characterized by overly cautious running and unimpressive times. The 5,000 and 10,000-metre runs were won by Miruts Yifter of Ethiopia. The East German women dominated the swimming as they had in 1976, capturing 11 of the 13 gold medals. The Soviet men, led by Vladimir Salnikov, won seven events. >eybgnhjfZpbb DZlZgb_gZev^m <uex[bl_dZlZlvkygZdhgvdZo" DZlZgb_gZev^m²aZf_qZl_evguc\b^kihjlZWlh\_k_ehb wlh ihe_agh^eygh] Kms_kl\m_l ljb \b^Z dZlZgby gZ ev^m kdhjhklghc [_] gZ dhgvdZonb]mjgh_dZlZgb_b lZgpugZev^m >Zlu  I_j\uc dZlhd [ue hldjul \ P_gljZevghf IZjd_ \ Gvx Chjd_ Nb]mjgh_dZlZgb_klZgh\blkyHebfibckdbf\b^hfkihjlZ  Kdhjhklghc [_] gZ dhgvdZo klZgh\blky Hebfibckdbf \b^hfkihjlZ GZklhevgucl_ggbk <Zf gjZ\blky gZklhevguc l_ggbk" Wlh hq_gv ihimeyjgZy b]jZ GZ kZfhf ^_e_ \ gZklhevguc l_ggbk b]jZ_l [hevr_ ex^_c q_f \ ex[mx^jm]mxb]jm G_kdhevdhnZdlh\ GZklhevgucl_ggbkklZgh\blkyHebfibckdbf\b^hfkihjlZ Fyqfh`_l[ulv`_elufbeb[_eufHg\_kbl]jZff

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Klhel_fgha_e_guc?]h^ebgZf_ljZZ rbjbgZf_ljZ K_ldZkZglbf_ljh\\ \ukhlmHgZ^_eblklhegZ^\_iheh\bgu  MagZcl_ dZd lZgpu gZ ev^m klZeb Hebfibckdbf \b^hf kihjlZ ,kHGDQFLQJEHFDPHDQ 2O\PSLF6SRUWLQ  ,W ZDV ILUVW LQFOXGHG in the Olympic progamme in the Games in Innsbruck, Austria. LZgpu gZ ev^m klZeb Hebfibckdbf \b^hf kihjlZ \  ]h^m Hgb\i_j\u_[ueb\dexq_gu\ hebfibckdmxijh]jZffmgZB]jZo\ Bgk[jmd_:\kljby  Lu²iehohckihjlkf_g" Lhqlhlu²iehohckihjlkf_gebrZ_ljZ^hklbhlb]j ?kebludh]^Zgb[m^vb]jZe\ dhfZg^_lugZ\_jgydZ\b^_eijbf_ju iehobo kihjlkf_gh\ ?]h beb __ e_]dh magZlv Wlh lhl qe_g dhfZg^u dhlhjuc r\ujy_l fyq beb jZd_ldm \ ]g_\_ Wlh lZd`_ l_ kihjlkf_gudhlhju_`mevgbqZxlmfure_gghb]jZxlg_ihijZ\beZfb aeylkygZkm^vxb kihjlb\gh]hkm^vx IjhklhjZa\e_dZcl_kv Kihjl ij_^hklZ\ey_l \hafh`ghklv ^ey mijZ`g_gbc ^ey lh]h qlh[u aZ\h^blv ^jma_c mqblvky jZ[hlZlv \ dhfZg^_ b ohjhrh ijh\h^blv\j_fyIh[_^Z²wlhlhevdh\b^bfZyklhjhgZmki_oZOhjhrb_lj_g_jub kihjlkf_guagZxlwlh Iehob_ kihjlkf_gu fh]ml ih\ebylv gZ \kx dhfZg^m Hg fh]ml ij_\jZlblvijhb]jurbebih[_^mdhfZg^u\ g_kqZklv_^ey\k_oAZihfgbl_ _keb ^Z`_ \ZrZ dhfZg^Z ijhb]jZeZ \hafh`gh \u b]jZeb hq_gvohjhrhgZijbf_jaZ[beb_^bgkl\_gguc]he^eydhfZg^u Ohjhrbckihjlkf_g Ih[_^Z ² wlh _s_ g_ \k_ gh \k_ ohlyl ih[_^blv DZd ohjhrbc kihjlkf_gkijZ\ey_lkyk ijhb]jur_f"<hlg_kdhevdhb^_c  G_\Z`ghdZdkbevghluohq_rv\ub]jZlvihcfbqlh^jm]b_ lh`_ohlyl\ub]jZlv  ?keblukh\_jrbehrb[dmihklZjZckyhklZlvkykihdhcgufb ih^mfZch lhf]^_k^_eZeg_ijZ\bevghlh]^Zlu[m^_rvagZlvqlh gm`ghmemqrblv\ ke_^mxsbcjZa  ?keb ih[_^beZ ^jm]Zy dhfZg^Z iha^jZ\v bo Ihcfb qlh lu klZjZekydZdfh]G_evay\bgblv^jm]mxdhfZg^maZijhb]jur  GZmqbkvkijZ\eylvkyk ]g_\hfihablb\ghgZijbf_jihieZ\Zc bebijh[_]biZjmdjm]h\ Ihcfb qlh ^Z`_ _keb lu ijhb]ju\Z_rv lu \k_ jZ\gh fh`_rv ihemqZlvm^h\hevkl\b_hlb]juk ^jmavyfb DhfZg^guc^mo Ohjhr__ fZkl_jkl\h hagZqZ_l lZd`_ b ku]jZgghklv b]jhdh\ dhfZg^u DZd qe_g dhfZg^u lu mqbrvky jZ[hlZlv k ^jm]bfb qlh[u 67


^hklbqvh[s_cp_ebGm`ghih^^_j`b\Zlvqe_gh\k\h_cdhfZg^uZ hgb^he`guih^^_j`b\Zlvl_[y H^gZ fheh^Zy kihjlkf_gdZ ]h\hjbl h \j_f_gb dh]^Z hgZ e_qbeZkvhlljZ\fub b]jhdb__ dhfZg^uih^[Z^jb\Zeb__ \h\j_fylj_gbjh\dbihieZ\ZgbxHgZkdZaZeZqlhboih^^_j`dZklbfmebjh\ZeZ__dh]^ZhgZg_ohl_eZieulv <g_b]ju Ohjhr__ fZkl_jkl\h lj_[m_l lZd`_ agZlv p_gm ly`_ehc jZ[hl_ mihjkl\m b klj_fe_gbx ^h[blvky emqrbo j_amevlZlh\ Wlb mjhdb fh`ghijbf_gblv d rdhe_ fmaud_ mjhdZf [Ze_lZ b ex[hc ^jm]hc ^_yl_evghklbKhojZgycl_k\hxp_evb jZa\e_dZcl_kv Ih`ZemcklZhl\_lvl_gZke_^mxsb_\hijhku  DZdb_ijbqbgukms_kl\mxl^eylh]hqlh[uaZgbfZlvkykihjlhf"DZdZyijbqbgZgZ\Zr\a]ey^y\ey_lkykZfhc]eZ\ghc" You can have exercises and thus better your health. You can meet new people and make friends. You can learn about teamwork. And you FDQ MXVWKDYH D JRRG WLPH Lu fh`_rv mijZ`gylvky b lZdfb h[jZahf memqrblv k\h_ a^hjh\v_ Lu fh`_rv \klj_qZlvky k gh\ufb ex^vfbb aZ\h^blv^jma_cLufh`_rvgZmqblvkyjZ[hlZlv\ dhfZg^_B lufh`_rvijhklhohjhrhijh\h^blv\j_fy   Dlhy\ey_lkyiehobfkihjlkf_ghf" A bad sport is a person who make losing or winning miserable for everyone. He cheats, purposely fouls someone and gets angry with the XPSLUH Iehohc kihjlkf_g ² wlh lhl dlh fh`_l ij_\jZlblv ijhb]jurbebih[_^m\ g_kqZklv_^ey\k_oWlhlZd`_lhldlh`mevgbqZ_l mfure_gghb]jZ_lg_ihijZ\beZfb aeblkygZkihjlb\gh]hkm^vx   GZkdhevdh^ey\Zk\Z`gh\ub]jZlv" It is important, that canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be argued. But it seems to me that itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s more important not to win but to participate and to do your best. I also think that though losses are unpleasant they make you want to practice more DQGWR LPSURYH Wlh \Z`gh k wlbf g_ ihkihjbrv Gh fg_ dZ`_lky qlh\Z`g__ g_\ub]jZlvZ mqZkl\h\Zlv b \ueh`blvky gZ ihegmx Y lZd`_kqblZxqlhohlyijhb]jurbb g_ijbylguHgbklbfmebjmxl l_[y[hevr_ijZdlbdh\Zlvkyb kh\_jr_gkl\h\Zlvky   Qlh^ey\ZkagZqblohjhr__kihjlb\gh_fZkl_jkl\h" Good sportsmanship is to be able handle losing, to be a part of the WHDPDQGWRSUDFWLFHDORW Ohjhr__fZkl_jkl\h²wlhmf_gb_kijZ\eylvkyk ijhb]jurZfb[ulvqZklvxdhfZg^ub fgh]haZgbfZlvky

 Qlh\ufh`_l_k^_eZlvqlh[uklZlvohjhrbfkihjlkf_ghf" I can work hard, I need to learn perseverance and patience, I have to VWULYH IRU P\ SHUVRQDO EHVW Fg_ gm`gh fgh]h jZ[hlZlv gZmqblvky mihjkl\m b l_ji_gbx Fg_ gm`gh klj_fblvky ^h[blvky emqrbo j_amevlZlh\  68


 <Z`guebqe_gudhfZg^u"Ihq_fm" Yes, they are. They are supportive of each other and help one DQRWKHU >Z \Z`gu Qe_gu dhfZg^u ih^^_j`b\Zxl ^jm] ^jm]Z b ihfh]Zxl^jm]^jm]m  Dh^_dkih\_^_gbyb]jhdh\  B]jZcihijZ\beZf  Gbdh]^Zg_kihjvk hnbpbZevgufebphf?kebluk q_flhg_ kh]eZk_gihijhkblj_g_jZbebf_g_^`_jZih^hclbd hnbpbZevghfm ebpm\h\j_fyi_j_ju\Zbebihke_khj_\gh\Zgby  Dhgljhebjmck\hcl_fi_jZf_gl   JZ[hlZc h^bgZdh\h ohjhrh ^ey k_[y b ^ey dhfZg^u Wlh [m^_lihe_aghb ^eyb]judhfZg^ub ^eyl_[y   ;m^v ohjhrbf kihjlkf_ghf Ijb\_lkl\mc \k_ ohjhrb_ b]ju g_aZ\bkbfh hl lh]h ijbgZ^e_`Zl eb hgb l\h_c dhfZg^_ beb ijhlb\gbdZf   Hlghkbkv dh \k_f b]jhdZf lZd dZd [u lu ohl_e qlh[u hlghkbebkvd l_[_   <aZbfh^_ckl\mc k lj_g_jhf b]jhdZfb l\h_c dhfZg^u b ijhlb\gbdZfb;_agbog_[ueh[ugbdZdh]hkhj_\gh\Zgby  B]jZcjZ^blh]hqlhwlh\_k_ehª <ukhdhf_lblv ?\Z DZfbgd_j  e_l feZ^rbc j_ihjl_j ba KZml ;jmgk\bdZ Gvx>`_jkb Ih`ZemcklZ ijhqlbl_ ke_^mxs__ bgl_j\vx b hl\_lvl_ gZ \hijhkuke_^mxsb_aZgbf >`bg >jbkdhe ² mqZklgbd ]hghd gZ bg\Zeb^guo dheykdZo dhlhjZy jh^beky \ khklhygbb ba\_klghf dZd ©jZks_ie_gguc iha\hghqgbdª qlhhagZqZ_l qlh __ kibgghc fha] g_ijZ\bevgh jZa\beky ?DEx^bhlghkylkyd \Zfg_lZddZd\k_fbaaZlh]hqlh\ui_j_^\b]Z_l_kv\ bg\Zeb^ghcdheykd_" >>Bgh]^ZG_dhlhju_ex^b^mfZxlqlh_keby bkihevamxbg\Zeb^gmx dheykdm fhb fha]b g_ hq_gv ohjhrh jZ[hlZxl Hgb g_ ihgbfZxl qlh bg\Zeb^ghklv ² wlh dZd oZjZdl_jbklbdZ wlh dZd bf_lvdZjb_]eZaZbebk\_leu_\hehku ?DDZd\ugZqZebaZgbfZlvkykihjlhf\ bg\Zeb^ghcdheykd_" >>Dh]^Zfg_[uehiylgZ^pZlve_ly \klj_lbeZiZjgydhlhjuc b]jZe\ nml[hegZ bg\Zeb^ghcdheykd_ Y gZqZeZb]jZlv\ khnl[he [Zkd_l[hel_ggbkb jZd_l[he ?DKdhevdh\ulj_gbjm_l_kv" >>Y lj_gbjmxkvhl^\mo^hiylbqZkh\\ ^_gvY ihgbfZxly`_klbljb²q_luj_jZaZ\ g_^_exb ijh_a`Zxhl^hfbev\ g_^_ex 69


?D < dZdbo \b^Zo kihjlZ \u ijbfbl_ mqZklb_ \ E_lgbo HebfibckdboB]jZo]h^Zb \IZjZebfibckdboB]jZo" >> < Hebfibckdbo B]jZo y [m^m ijbgbfZlv mqZklb_ \ ]hgdZo gZf_ljh\< IZjZebfibckdboB]jZoy [m^m mqZkl\h\Zlv\ ]hgdZogZf_ljh\gZf_ljh\f_ljh\b \fZjZnhg_ ?DDZdh_khh[s_gb_\u[uohl_ebi_j_^Zlv" >>Ex^b^mfZxlQlh_keblu^h[bekymki_oZlhlulZdbfmki_rgufb jh^bekyGhwlhg_lZdFh_ihkeZgb_lZdh\hF_qlZcl_h [hevrhfb fgh]hjZ[hlZcl_?keb\u\ukhdhf_lbl_^Z`__keb\u wlh]hg_^h[v_l_kv\u\k_jZ\ghijba_febl_kvkj_^ba\_a^ IZjZebfibckdb_ B]ju ² wlh hebfibckdb_ b]ju ^ey kihjlkf_gh\k bg\Zeb^ghklvxHgbijh\h^ylky\ lh`_\j_fydh]^Zb Hebfibckdb_B]ju <hajZkle_l Jh^ghc]hjh^Fbemhdbrl<bkdhgkbgK_cqZk`b\_l\ ]RZfiZgvrlBeebghck Jh^gu_[jZlvybebk_kljuH^gZk_kljZb ljb[jZlZ >hklb`_gby r_klbdjZlguc ih[_^bl_ev [hklhgkdh]h fZjZnhgZ iylv jZa ih[be fbjh\hc j_dhj^ K_j_[jyguc f_^Zebkl \ ]hgdZo gZ f_ljh\\ HebfibckdboB]jZo]h^Z\ ;Zjk_ehg_MklZgh\be fbjh\hcj_dhj^\ fZjZnhg_b \]hgdZogZf_ljh\ Lhqgu_ k\_^_gby B]jZ_l gZ ]blZj_ b ibr_l k\hx fmaudm Ljb jZaZŠ[_]ZeljmkphcÂŞk ij_ab^_glhfKh_^bg_gguorlZlh\ Ih`ZemcklZhl\_lvl_gZke_^mxsb_\hijhku  QlhlZdh_ŠjZa^\h_gguciha\hghqgbdÂŞ" Spina bifida is a disease when the spinal cord did not develop properly. ŠJZks_ie_gguc iha\hghqgbdÂŞ hagZqZ_l qlh kibgghc fha] g_ijZ\bevghjZa\beky   Ihq_fmg_dhlhju_ex^bhlghkylkyd >`bg g_lZddZd d ^jm]bfex^yf" Some people treat her differetntly because they donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t understand that GLVDELOLW\LVMXVWDFKDUDFWHULVWLF G_dhlhju_ex^bhlghkylkyd g_cg_ lZd dZd dh \k_f ihlfm qlh hgb g_ ihgbfZxl qlh bg\Zeb^ghklv ² wlhdZdoZjZdl_jbklbdZ    DZdbfb \b^Zfb kihjlZ gZ bg\Zeb^ghc dheykd_ aZgbfZ_lky >`bg" 6KHLVSOD\LQJZKHHOFKDLUVRIWEDOOEDVNHWEDOOWHQQLVDQGUDTXHWEDOO HgZ b]jZ_lkhnl[he[Zkd_l[hel_ggbkb jZd_l[hegZbg\Zeb^ghcdheykd_   DZdqZklh>`bglj_gbjm_lky" 6KHWUDLQVWZRWRILYHGD\VSHUGD\VL[GD\VDZHHN HgZlj_gbjm_lkyhl^\mo^hiylbqZkh\r_klv^g_c\ g_^_ex   Dh]^Zijh\h^ylkyIZjZebfibckdb_B]ju" 70


The Paralympic games are held at the same time as the 2O\PSLFV IZjZebfibckdb_Bg]jZijh\h^ylky\ h^gh\j_fyk Hebfibckdbfb   DZd\u^mfZ_l_qlhagZqblŠVKRRWIRUWKHPRRQÂŞ" ,W PHDQV WR ZDQW VRPHWKLQJ ELJ VRPHWKLQJ JUHDW Wlh agZqbl ohl_lvq_]hlh[hevrh]hq_]hlh\_ebdh]h    AgZ_l_ eb \u dh]hgb[m^v dlh i_j_^\b]Z_lky k ihfhsvx bg\Zeb^ghc dheykdb" ?keb ^Z lh hlghkbrvky eb lu d g_c  g_fm g_ lZd dZd d ^jm]bf ex^yf baaZ lh]h qlh hg  hgZ bkihevam_l bg\Zeb^gmxdheykdm" 1R,GRQÂśWEXWLI,GLG,ZRXOGWUHDWWKDWSHUVRQDVDQ\RWKHU G_l g_agZxGh_keb[uagZelhhlghkbeky[ud wlhfmq_eh\_dmlZd`_ dZdd ex[hfm^jm]hfm  Ih`ZemcklZi_j_qblZcl_klZlvx_s_jZab i_j_ibrbl___ \ dhk\_gghcj_qb]^_\hafh`gh The reporter asked Jean Driscoll if people treated her differently. Jean answered that some people did. She said that they thought that because she used a wheelchair her brains didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t work well. She added that they didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t understand that disability was like a characteristic. The reporter asked Jean Driscoll how she had started in wheelchair sports. Jean answered that when she had been 15 she had met a guy who played wheelchair football and she had stated playing softball, basketball, tennis and raquetball. The reporter asked Jean Driscoll how much she trained. Jean answered that she trained two to five hours a day, six days a week. She added that she lifted weights and pushed 130 or 150 miles a week. The reporter asked Jean Driscoll in which events she would be competing in the Olympics and the Paralym0pics. Jean answered that she would compete in the 800 meter event in Olympics. In Paralympics she would race in 1500-meter, 5000-meter and 10000-meter and the marathon. The reporter asked Jean Driscoll what message she would like to tell. Jean answered that people thought that if a person was successful, he had been born that way. She said that if one shot for the moon, even if one didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t make it, one would still land among the stars. EZdeZg>`hgk Ih`ZemcklZ ijhqlbl_ ke_^mxsbc l_dkl Ihke_ ijhql_gby \hh[jZabl_ qlh \u ² j_ihjl_j b bkihevamcl_ bgnhjfZpbx qlh[ugZibkZlv\hh[jZ`Z_fh_bgl_j\vxEZdeZgZ>`hgkZ >ey hlpZ jh`^_gb_ i_j\h]h j_[_gdZ \k_]^Z ihegh gZ^_`^ Hg fh`_l aZohl_lv kugZ Z jh^blky ^hqv hg fh`_l aZohl_lv ZjlbklZ Z

71


ihemqblky\h^bl_ev]jmah\bdZbebhgfh`_laZohl_lvahehlh]hf_^ZebklZZ mj_[_gdZ[m^_lp_j_[jZevguciZjZebq < fZjl_]h^Z`bagv=j_]]Z>`hgkZbaf_gbeZkvgZ\k_]^Zhg klhedgmekyk h^gbfbakZfuokeh`guobkiulZgbc\ `bagb?]hkug jh^bekyke_iufb kp_j_[jZevgufiZjZebqhf?]hbfyEZdeZg < \hajZkl_e_lhl_pih\_e_]hgZ^jm`_kdb_khj_\gh\Zgbyih [_]m Wlhl ihoh^ ij_\jZlbeky \ klj_fe_gb_ d f_ql_ d f_ql_ klZlv emqrbf K_]h^gy EZdeZg ² ahehlhc f_^Zebkl iZjZebfib_p Hg \ub]jZe f_^ZevgZIZjZebfibckdboB]jZo\ :leZgl_HgmklZgh\bej_dhj^u \ khj_\gh\Zgbyo\ bg\Zeb^guodheykdZohl^hf_ljh\b hg y\ey_lkyq_fibhghf:\kljZebbihih^gylbxly`_kl_c\ \_kh\hcdZl_]hjbb^hdbeh]jZff < \hajZkl_  e_l m EZdeZgZ _klv kihkh[ghklb b gZf_j_gby kha^Zlv^eyk_[y^he]hkjhqgh_[m^ms__\ kihjl_b [m^_lkhj_\gh\Zlvky lZd qZklh dZd lhevdh fh`gh \ :\kljZebb Hg lZd`_ ohq_l k^_eZlv dZjv_jm \ kihjlb\ghc bg^mkljbb nblg_kZ b gZqg_l ihk_sZlv ih^oh^ysb_ dmjk_ gZ ke_^mxsbc ]h^ EZdeZg ihy\beky gZ gZpbhgZevghf b f_klghf l_e_\b^_gbb \ F_ev[mjg_ ij_^klZ\eyy kihjl b hl^uo^eybg\Zeb^h\Hghq_gvaZbgl_j_kh\Zg\ jZa\blbbkihjlb\guo khhjm`_gbc^ey bg\Zeb^h\Hg [u ohl_e klZlv bgkljmdlhjhf kihjlb\gh]haZeZ^eykihjlkf_gh\bg\Zeb^h\Hgk g_l_ji_gb_fh`b^Z_l wlbo gh\u_ \hafh`ghklb lZd `_ dZd b Hebfibckdb_ B]ju  ]h^Z\ Kb^g__ Interviewer: When did you decide to take up sport? Lachlan: Once my father took me to a fun run and after that I decided to be the best. I: What medals and records do you have? L.J. :I won a Gold medal at Atlantic Paralympics. I hold all the records from 100 metres through to 800 metres in Wheelchair Track competition. I am the Australian Powerlift Champion in the 52 kg division. I: What are your plans for the future? L.J. I want to pursue a career in the fitness industry. I will begin studying the courses next year. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m keenly interested in the development of sport and facilities for the disabled and I want to become a gym instructor for the disabled sportsmen. Wlhhlju\hdbaklZlvbDZjhebguH\_jbg]lhggZibkZgghcb EZdeZg_>`hgk_\h\j_fyIZjZebfibckdboB]j\ :leZgl_Ih`ZemcklZijhqlbl__]hb ihkqblZcl_kdhevdhjZabkihevah\ZgZ dhk\_ggZyj_qv F_ev[mjgkdbc mqZklgbd khj_\gh\Zgbc gZ bg\Zeb^guo dheykdZo EZdeZ_>`hgkmklZgh\be\q_jZfbjh\hcj_dhj^\ fm`kdbokhj_\gh\ZgbyogZf_ljh\b klZeiZjZebfibckdbfq_fibhghf 72


>`hgk m dhlhjh]h p_j_[jZevguc iZjZebq kdZaZe qlh hg g_ g_j\gbqZ_lohly_]hhl_p=j_]]>`hgkkdZaZeqlhebqgh_]h\k_]h ljyk_l ŠG_lª kdZaZe >`hgk Šwlh \k_]h ebrv _s_ h^gh khj_\gh\Zgb_ ^eyf_gyY ]h\hjbewlhk_[_B wlhihfh]ehª ?]hieZgih_]hkeh\Zf[ue_oZlvdZdfh`gh[uklj__k kZfh]h gZqZeZ Ih kjZ\g_gbx k ^jm]bfb khj_\gh\Zgbyfb IZjZebfibckdb_ B]ju [ueb^h\hevghe_]dbfbihlhfmqlhg_gm`gh[uehih\hjZqb\Zlv >`hgk kdZaZe qlh hg \ub]jZe wlm f_^Zev ^ey k\h_]h mqbl_ey \ rdhe_ LZd`_\q_jZ\ e_]dhcZle_lbd_DZljbgZMw[[m dhlhjhclZd`_p_j_[jZevguciZjZebq\ub]jZeZk_j_[jygmxf_^Zev\ iju`d_\ ^ebgm ŠY \k_kbeZgZijZ\beZgZwlhihlhfmqlhagZeZqlh_keby wlh]h g_k^_eZxm f_gyg_[m^_lrZgkZihemqblvahehlhghy \ueh`beZkv gZihegmxb aZ\h_\ZeZk_j_[jygmxf_^Zevª Mw[[ kdZaZeZ qlh hgZ lj_gbjh\ZeZkv d iju`dZf \ ^ebgm \k_]h q_luj_f_kypZ < l_q_gb_wlbo^\mo^g_cIZjZebfibckdboB]j:\kljZeby\_^_l ihdhebq_kl\mf_^Ze_ck k_fvxahehlufbf_^Zeyfb Reported speech is used 6 times.

IjZdlbdm_fkykemrZlv Ih`ZemcklZijhkemrZcl_ke_^mxsbc^hdeZ^AZl_fhl\_lvl_ gZ\hijhku GZqgbl_dZ`^uchl\_lk wlbokeh\ZBkihevamcl_dhk\_ggmx j_qv  DZdhc]hjh^[ue\u[jZg^eyijh\_^_gbyHebfibckdboB]j\ ]h^m" Mrs. Graham said that Sydney had been chosen tom host the Olympic *DPHV RI  Fbkkbk =jwf kdZaZeZ qlh Kb^g_c [ue \u[jZg ^ey ijh\_^_gbyHebfibckdboB]j\ ]h^m   DZd^he]h:\kljZebymqZkl\h\ZeZ\ HebfibckdboB]jZo" Mrs. Graham said that Australia has participated in the Olympic *DPHVVLQFH Fbkkbk=jwfkdZaZeZqlh:\kljZebymqZkl\h\ZeZ \ HebfibckdboB]jZok ]h^Z   =^_[uebijh\_^_guB]ju\ ]h^m" Mrs. Graham said that The Games were held in Melbourne in 1956. Fbkkbk =jwf kdZaZeZ qlh B]ju ijh\h^bebkv \ F_ev[mjg_ \  ]h^m

 Dhfmijbg_kmlihevamkihjlb\gu_khhjm`_gbydhlhju_kljhylky^eyHebfibckdboB]j" 73


Mrs. Graham said that all of Sydneyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s citizens would benefit from the IDFLOLWLHV Fbkkbk=jwfkdZaZeZqlhkihjlb\gu_khhjm`_gbyijbg_kmlihevam\k_f`bl_eyfKb^g_y 

CHAPTER 5. >BD:YIJBJH>::<KLJ:EBB

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dh\ Fu oh^bf gZ wdkdmjkbx ih ahhiZjdm b ijbgbfZ_f mqZklb_ \ jZaebqguof_jhijbylbyoDZ`^uc]h^fumagZ_fqlhlhgh\h_Fg_ lZd`_gjZ\blkykZfhfmoh^blv\ ahhiZjd?kebohlbl_y k\h`m\Zk\ ahhiZjd Hev]ZWlh[ueh[uaZf_qZl_evghY [uohl_eZm\b^_lvd_g]mjm dh]^Zfu[m^_flZfFumagZebQlhkms_kl\m_l\b^h\d_g]mjm G_dhlhju_jZaf_jhfk q_eh\_dZZ g_dhlhju_fZe_gvdb_dZddhrdZ KZrZ: ]^__s_fh`ghm\b^_lv^bdmxijbjh^m:\kljZebb" Lhf < :\kljZebb fgh]h gZpbhgZevguo iZjdh\ ]^_ aZsbsZxl `b\mxijbjh^mGZpbhgZevgucIZjdDZdZ^m²kZfuc[hevrhcgZpbhgZevguc iZjd :\kljZebb ?keb \u ihc^_l_ lm^Z \u m\b^bl_ [hevrh_ jZaghh[jZab_ jZkl_gbc b `b\hlguo Fgh]b_ ba wlbo `b\hlguo b jZkl_gbc \klj_qZxlky lhevdh \ :\kljZebb ?s_ h^gh bgl_j_kgh_ f_klh ² wlh Fhjkdhc IZjd ;hevrh]h ;Zjv_jgh]h jbnZ LZf`b\ml\b^h\ju[u Hev]Z ?keb [u fu agZeb qlh \ :\kljZebb \klj_qZ_lky klhevdh jZkl_gbcb `b\hlguofu[ujZgvr_koh^beb\ ahhiZjd GZc^bl_b i_j_\_^bl_khkeZ]Zl_evgh_gZdehg_gb_dZdhgh \klj_qZ_lky\ l_dkl_ , ZLVK \RX FRXOG VWD\ ORQJHU Ohl_ehkv [u qlh[u \u hklZebkv ih^hevr_ ,I\RXZHUHXVDQG\RXRQO\KDGDIHZGD\VOHIWZKDWZRXOG\RXGR"?keb[ulu[uegZgZr_ff_kl_b ml_[yhklZ\Zehkv[u\k_]hg_kdhevdh ^g_c\ :\kljZebbq_f[uluaZgyeky" ,I,ZHUH\RX,ZRXOGYLVLWWKH7DURQJD=RRKHUHLQ6\GQH\GZ\Zr_f f_kl_y [uihk_lbeahhiZjdLZjhg]Za^_kv\ Kb^g__ ,I\RX¶GOLNH,¶OOWDNH\RXRQDWRXURIWKH]RR?kebohlbl_y k\h`m\Zk \ ahhiZjd 7KDWZRXOGEHJUHDWWlh[ueh[uaZf_qZl_evgh ,ZRXOGOLNHWRVHHVRPHNDQJDURRVZKHQZHJRWKHUHY [uohl_eZm\b^_lvd_g]mjmdh]^Zfu[m^_flZf If we had known there were so many plants and animals that can only be IRXQGLQ$XVWUDOLDZHZRXOGKDYHJRQHWRWKH]RRHDUOLHU?keb[ufuagZebqlh\ :\kljZebb\klj_qZ_lkyklhevdhjZkl_gbcb `b\hlguofu[u jZgvr_koh^beb\ ahhiZjd Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku  ?keb[u\ufh]ebihk_lblvZ\kljZebx\u[uihreb\ ahhiZjd" If I could visit Australia, I would go to the Zoo.  ?keb[u\u[ueb gZf_kl_KZrbb Hev]bb m \Zk hklZ\Zehkv [u\k_]hg_kdhevdh^g_c\ :\kljZebbq_f[u\uaZgyebkv" If I were Sasha and Olga I would visit the Taronga Zoo in Sydney.  AZq_fkms_kl\mxlahhiZjdb" The zoos display animals and they protect endangered animals. 75


 QlhagZqblŠ(QGDQJHUHGÂŞ" Endangered means an animals that could become extinct if nothing is done to protect it.  Qlh\ ahhiZjd_^_eZxlk `b\hlgufbihke_lh]hdZdhgbihijZ\bebkv" After animals recovered from sickness they are returned to their natural habitat.  DZdqZklhLhfoh^bl\ ahhiZjd" He goes to the zoo every year.  Dlhhj]Zgbam_lrdhevgu_ihk_s_gby\ ahhiZjd" The educational center of the zoo organizes school visits.  Qlh[uohl_eZm\b^_lvHev]Z_kebhgZihreZ\ ahhiZjd" She would like to see some kangaroos when she goes there.  < \Zr_f]hjh^__klvahhiZjd"?keb^fh`gheblZfm\b^_lv`b\hlguo:\kljZebb" Yes, there is a zoo in my cisty. You can see kangaroos and koalas there.  =^__s_ex^bfh]mlm\b^_lv^bdmxijbjh^m:\kljZebb" People can see wildlife in National Parks.  DZdgZau\Z_lkykZfuc[hevrhcgZpbhgZevguciZjd:\kljZebb" Kakadu National Park is the largest one.  ?keb\ulm^Zihc^_l_qlh\ulZfm\b^bl_" If  Kdhevdh\b^h\ju[`b\_l\ FhjkdhfIZjd_;hevrh]h;Zjv_jgh]hjbnZ" 1500 species of fish live in Barrier Reef Marine Park.   ?keb [u KZrZ b Hev]Z agZeb qlh \ :\kljZebb \klj_qZ_lky klhevdhjZkl_gbcb `b\hlguoqlh[uhgbk^_eZebjZgvr_" If they had known there were so many plants and animals that can only be found in Australia, they would have gone to the zoo earlier. =jZffZlbdZ 7. I would tell them in a loud voice to keep silence. Yes, I would. I would choose Masha / Sasha. I would go Hawaii to swim and sunbathe. I would choose to be the most athletic. I would but lots of toys for orphans. I would pick 24. It would be about nature. I think that children should not be allowed to watch certain movies and TV shows. They shouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be permitted to see kind movies that would teach them to be devoted to their friends and to do good things. 76


8. If the sun stopped shining everything would die. If the ocean dried up all the fishes would be lost. If there was no more school, people would be uneducated. If I couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t laugh, I would be a very sad person. If time stood still, things would stop happening. If dolls came to life, it would be a nightmare. If people were invisible, they would not be able to associate because they would not see each other. If there were no animals, people would be vegetarians. IjhqblZcl_b magZcl_ DZdb_ij_djZkgu_^_j_\vy, b gZ\_jgydZ, dZdhc`_ijZdjZkghc^he`gZ[ulvlZf`bagv :glhgQ_oh\

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dZ\ dhlhjhchgbghkyl^_l_gur_c\klj_qZxlky\ Z\kljZebb b Gh\hc =\bg__ HklZevgu_  \klj_qZxlky \ X`ghc :f_jbd_ Hkgh\gu_]jmiiu\b^h\kmfqZluc  D_g]mjm  Hihkkmfu  Iehlhy^gu_kmfqZlu_ kmfqZlu_fmjZ\v_^ukmfqZlu_djhlu dhrdb

 DhZeu\hf[Zlu  IeZp_glZjgu_ ² fe_dhiblZxsb_ qvb ^_l_gurb jh`^Zxlky \ [he__ jZa\blhf khklhygbb b ijhba\h^yl ohjhrh jZa\blmxieZp_glmFgh]b_\b^u\klj_qZxlky\ :\kljZebb Dblub ^_evnbgu F_klgu_\b^udjukb fur_c E_lmqb_furb >bg]h f_klguc\b^kh[Zdb  Lxe_gb Ihq_fm\ :\kljZebbfgh]hmgbdZevguo\b^h\`b\hlguo" :\kljZeby[ueZbahebjh\ZgZ^he]h_\j_fyihwlhfm[uehfZeh h[f_gZ k `b\hlguf fbjhf hklZevgh]h fbjZ GZijbf_j \ :\kljZebbg_ldhiulguoohluh^ghZi_jlmjgu_\klj_qZxlky \ :\kljZebb b Gh\hc=\bg__ DebfZl:\kljZebbqZklhg_ij_^kdZam_fLZffh`_l [ulv^he]bc i_jbh^aZkmobgZ\h^g_gbyb ih`ZjuLZdb_ijh[e_fulj_[mxlhkh[hc Z^ZilZpbbGZijbf_jDjZkguc D_g]mjmfh`_l ijbhklZgZ\eb\ZlvjZa\blb_k\h_]haZjh^urZ^hl_oihjihdZmkeh\byg_memqrZlky < p_ehfagZgbch nZmg_:\kljZebbfZehKqblZ_lkyqlh\ :\kljZebbf_`^mhl^h\b^h\`b\hlguogh^hkboihj lhevdh[uebhibkZgu Ilbpu < :\kljZebb h]jhfgh_ dhebq_kl\h \b^h\ ilbp ihqlb \ ljb jZaZ [hevr_q_f\ ?\jhi_G_dhlhju_boilbp²i_j_e_lgu_ iml_r_kl\mxl f_`^m:\kljZeb_cb ^jm]bfbkljZgZfb\ aZ\bkbfhklbhlk_ahgZ G_dhlhju_hq_gv[ebadbd fhjkdbf\b^Zf>jm]b_\klj_qZxlkylhevdh\ :\kljZebbIlbpfh`ghjZa^_eblvgZljb]jmiiu\ khhl\_lkl\bbk bo  Dex\hf Ihkfhljbl_ gZ bo dex\u b ihijh[mcl_ ^h]Z^Zlvky qlhhgb_^yl EZidZfbM eZijZaghcnhjfujZagu_ij_^gZagZq_gby Ij_kfudZxsb_ky ;he__\b^h\ij_kfudZxsbokyba\_klgu\ :\kljZebbG_dhlhju_ ihoh`bgZ\b^uijh`b\Zxsb_\ ^jm]bof_klZo^jm]b_mgbdZevgu Ih`ZemcklZhl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku  Kdhevdh\b^h\jZkl_gbcb `b\hlguc\klj_qZxlky\ :\kljZebb" 78


Nearly half a million species live in Australia.   DZdb_ ^\Z dhglbg_glZ gZoh^ylky ijb[ebabl_evgh gZ l_o `_ rbjhlZoqlhb :\kljZeby" South America and Africa occupy approximately the same range of latitudes.  Qlh\dexqZ_l\ k_[yl_jfbgŠ`b\hlgh_" The term ÂŤanimalÂť includes mammals, insects, reptiles, amphibians and birds.  DZdb_ljblbiZfe_dhiblZxsbokms_kl\m_l" The three types of mammals are monotremes, marsupials and placentals.  D dZdhfmlbimhlghkblkyq_eh\_d" Human is a placental.  QlhagZqbl_kebilbpZi_j_e_lgZy" A migratory bird travels seasonally overseas and back. Keh\Zjv H^ghZi_jlmjgh_kmfqZlh_bebieZp_glZjgh_" Wlbkibkhd`b\hlguo\klj_qZxsboky\ :\kljZebbJ_rbl_ dZdb_bagboH^ghZi_jlmjgu_kmfqZlu_Z dZdb_ieZp_glZjgu_ Koala-Marsupials; Bat Placentals; Dolphin Placentals; Platypus onotremes; Kangaroo-Marsupials; Seal Placental.  Kh_^bgbl_ dZ`^h_ keh\h ba \_jog_]h jy^Z kh keh\hf ba gb`g_]h Fauna â&#x20AC;&#x201D; animals; Monotreme â&#x20AC;&#x201D; egg; Pouch Marsupials; Bird â&#x20AC;&#x201D; parrot; Placental â&#x20AC;&#x201D; whale. AZdZlu Ij_djZkgu_aZdZlujZckb_g_[_kZ ?kebijbkemrZlvkyfh`ghmkeurZlv Djbdb`b\hlguo Hgbah\mlk\hbo^hq_j_c Hgbah\mlk\hbokugh\_c B dh]^Zl_keurZlwlhhgb[_]mld fZfZf GZklmiZ_lghqv @b\hlgu_]hlh\ylkydhkgm IjhkuiZxlkykh\u HgbgZqbgZxlih^djZ^u\Zlvky Ijhoh^blfgh]hl_fguoqZkh\ FZfZijhkuiZ_lkyqlh[ukdZaZlv ŠIjhkuiZcl_kvfZe_gvdb_^_l_gurb ]hlh\vl_kvd gh\hfm^gxÂŞ FZjdhEmbk

79


DZjlZahhiZjdZ DZjluih^\_j]Z_lkybaf_g_gbyfLZddZdf_klZ\hev_jh\`b\hlguo i_jbh^bq_kdbf_gyxlkyKijhkbl_m gZrbo^h[jh\hevp_\bebkhljm^gbdh\qlh[u\Zfihfh]ebgZclbgm`gh_gZij\e_gb_ G_\uiheg_gb_ijZ\be:dlZKh\_lZAhheh]bq_kdboIZjdh\fh`_l ijb\_klbd m^Ze_gbxq_eh\_dZ baahhiZjdZLZjhg]Zb ihke_^mxs_fm\ha[m`^_gbx^_eZ  Ih`ZemcklZ ihkfhljbl_ gZ dZjlm ahhiZjdZ LZjhg]Z b hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhkuijb\_^_ggu_gb`_  ?keb\ugZoh^bl_kv\ :njbdZgkdhfIjm^mb ohlbl_ihiZklv\ L_Zlj Hldjulbc fbfh dZdh]h dbhkdZ \u ijhc^_l_" DZdb_ mkem]b ij_^hklZ\eyxlky\ wlhfdbhkd_" If you were at African Waterhole and wanted to get to the Discovery Theatre you would pass a safari Kiosk. It is a cafe, you can eat there.   ?keb \u \ bg\Zeb^ghc dheykd_ kfh`_l_ eb \u ihk_lblv ahhiZjdLZjhg]Z" Yes, people in wheelchairs can visit the Taronga Zoo. There is a wheelchair route going through it.   DZd \u ^mfZ_l_ dZdbo `b\hlguo \u m\b^bl_ gZ ijh]med_ ih :\kljZebb" You can see kangaroos at the Australia Walkabout.  Ijh]medZih:\kljZebbjZkiheh`_gZ\ KgZdZjl_=^_jZkiheh`_guDhrdb>`mg]e_c"Y L_ZljLxe_g_c"   ?keb \Zf gm`gZ ihfhsv \ gZoh`^_gbb \uoh^Z ba ahhiZjdZ dh]h\ukijhkbl_" I would ask staff for assistance.  < dZdh_\j_fyijhoh^blihke_^gbcj_c^<ha^mrgh]hKZnZjb"

<b^u`b\hlguo:\kljZebbih^\_j`_ggu_hiZkghklb Gbdlh gbdh]^Z g_ m\b^bl dZd jZckdbc ihim]Zc e_lbl ih g_[m JZckdb_ihim]Zb\uf_jeb<ufbjZgb_²wlhgZ\k_]^Z K ihk_e_gby \ :\kljZebb _\jhi_cp_\ \  ]h^m ljb^pZlv \b^h\ fe_dhiblZxsbo b ilbp b hdheh  \b^h\ jZkl_gbc bkq_aeh ?s_  \b^h\ fe_dhiblZxsbo ilbp ij_kfudZxsboky ey]mr_d b ju[ fgh]b_ khlgb \b^h\ [_kiha\hghqguo b  \b^h\ jZkl_gbc kqblZxlky \ hiZkghklbb fh]ml\uf_j_lv\ l_q_gb_^_kylb²^\Z^pZlbe_l Hkgh\gZy ijbqbgZ bkq_agh\_gby ² gZjmr_gb_ _kl_kl\_gghc kj_^u ?kl_kl\_ggZy kj_^Z kh^_j`bl \k_ qlh gm`gh `b\hfm kms_kl\m ^ey \u`b\Zgby ijhkljZgkl\h k\_l \h^m ibsm b mdjulb_ JZajmr_gb_hdjm`Zxs_ckj_^ufh`_lijhbahclbdh]^ZjZklbl_evghklv mgbqlh`Zxl ^ey a_fe_^_eby e_kgh]h ohayckl\Z ]hjh^h\ RZolbeb^hjh]WlhlZd`_fh`_lijhbahclbdh]^ZhkmrZxl[hehlZ bebi_j_dju\Zxlj_db^eyojZg_gby\h^uHdhehiylb^_kylb\b^h\ 80


ij_^klZ\e_gguo `b\hlguo `b\ml \ :\kljZebb Wlb `b\hlgu_ hohlylkygZ^jm]bo`b\hlguobebkjZ`ZxlkyaZibsmbebm[_`bs_ K_]h^gy fu emqr_ ihgbfZ_f m]jham gZ\bkrmx gZ^ gZr_c ^bdhcijbjh^hcq_fi_j\u_ ihk_e_gpuB \k_ `_ fu kha^Zeb ^hihegbl_evgu_ m]jhau lZdb_ dZd jZa\blb_ ]hjh^h\ b ijhfure_gghklb aZ]jyag_gb_ b lhj]h\ex `b\hlgufb b f_ohf Ihim]Z_\ gZijbf_j g_e_]Zevgh \u\hayl aZ ]jZgbpm QZklh ihim]Zb g_ fh]ml ijbkihkh[blvkyd gh\hchdjm`Zxs_ckj_^_b mfbjZxl Ex^b²_^bgkl\_ggu_`b\hlgu_kihkh[gu_kiZklb\ufbjZxsb_ \b^uGhaZq_fkiZkZlv\b^u";_ajZaghh[jZaby\b^h\A_fey[m^_lg_ ]h^gu^ey`bagbq_eh\_dZJZkl_gbyb `b\hlgu_ihfh]Zxlih^^_j`b\Zlv obfbq_kdbc [ZeZgkZlfhkn_ju E_kZ ihfh]Zxl ih^^_j`b\Zlv aZiZku\h^uJZkl_gbyb `b\hlgu_ihfh]Zxlkha^Z\Zlvihq\mHgbij_^hklZ\eyxl ibsm b k^_j`b\Zxl iZjZablh\ b [he_agb Hgb lZd`_ ij_^hklZ\eyxlihklhyggucbklhqgbdm^b\e_gbyb jZ^hklb Ih`ZemcklZHl\_lvl_gZwlb\hijhku  Qlhgm`gh`b\hfmkms_kl\mqlh[u\u`blv" A living thing needs space, light, water, food and shelter to survive.  Qlhy\ey_lkyhkgh\ghcijbqbghc\ufbjZgby" The main cause of extinction is the destruction of the habitat.  Qlhfh`_lih\ebylvgZijh^he`bl_evghklv`bagb`b\hlguob jZkl_gbc"  Dh]^Z`b\hlgh_klZgh\blkybkq_agm\rbf" The animal becomes extinct when is can no longer be found in the world.  Fh`ghebih\_jgmlvbkq_agh\_gb_gZaZ^" No, extinction is forever.  .Zdb_m]jhaugZ\bkZxlgZ^gZr_c^bdhcijbjh^hc" Our wildlife faces such threats, as urban and industrial development, pollution, and pet and fur trade.  Fh`_l_eb\uijb\_klbijbf_ju`b\hlguodhlhju_fh]mlbkq_agmlvbaaZdZdhclhq_jludhlhjmxp_gblq_eh\_d deudbf_ojh]Z " elephants, turtles, furry animals.  (kebex^bg_aZsblyl\ufbjZxsb_\b^udlhaZsblbl" No one else but people can protect endangered species.  ?keb[u\ufh]ebkiZklb\ufbjZxsb_\b^u\u[uklZeb" Yes, I would. Ihke_^g_]hd_g]mjm\ZeeZ[b\b^_eb\ ]h^mKqblZ_lkyqlh wlh `b\hlgh_ \uf_jeh baaZ jZkqbkldb kj_^u h[blZgby ^ey n_jf b kihjlb\ghchohlu <ukhdb_ p_gu ij_^eZ]Z_fu_ dhee_dpbhg_jZfb ba ^jm]bo kljZg ihhsjyxl dhgljZ[Zg^guo \u\ha fgh]bo mgbdZevguo b jZaghp\_lguo Z\kljZebckdbo `b\hlguo lZdbo dZd ihim]Zc k ahehlufb ie_qZfb 81


FZe_gvdb_djZqdb]g_a^ylkydhehgbyfb\^heviey`_c]^_ex^b \_a^_oh^gu_fZrbgub kh[Zdbfh]mle_]dhboihlj_\h`blv:]_glkl\ZihaZsbl_^bdhcijbjh^ub ^h[jh\hevpuh]jZ`^Zxlf_klZ]^_ ]g_a^ylkyilbpub iZljmebjmxliey`bqlh[uaZsblblvfZe_gvdmx fhjkdmxilbqdm Ihl_jy _kl_kl\_gghc kj_^u b ju[heh\kl\h mf_gvrbeb qbkeh ju[u\ j_qghckbkl_f_Fmjj_c>Zjebg] JZkqbkldZ b \uiZk kbevgh mf_gvrbeb dhebq_kl\h jZkl_gby i_gbgkmeZ]\bg_ygZihemhkljh\_?cj\ X`ghc:\kljZebb H^bqZ\rb_dhrdb\klj_qZxlkyih\k_c:\kljZebbHgbm[b\Zxl fgh]bo `b\hlguo \dexqZy fZe_gvdbo fe_dhiblZxsbo ilbp ey]mr_dij_kfudZxsbokyb gZk_dhfuoDhrdbm]jh`Zxlihimeypbb [Zg^bdmlZ\ rlZl_<bdlhjby_^bgkl\_gghcgZdhglbg_gl_ Ebkbpu qZklbqgh \bgh\Zlu \ mf_gvr_gbb qbke_gghklb [_lhg]h\ ie_cg \Zg^_jkh\ b ^jm]bo a_fe_jhcguo `b\hlguo Ebku ij_^klZ\e_ggu_ \  ]h^m ebku k_cqZk \klj_qZxlky ih \k_c :\kljZebb< l_ojZchgZo]^_bog_l\ LZkfZgbbb ljhibq_kdhcqZklb :\kljZebbihl_jbfZe_gvdbofe_dhiblZxsbo[uebf_gvr_ Djhebdb [ueb kZfufb jZajmrbl_evgufb ba ijb\_a_gguo `b\hlguoHgb\klj_qZxlky\h\k_oqZklyo:\kljZebbdjhf_ljhibq_kdhc qZklb Hgb ihklhyggh ih\j_`^Zxl h]jhfgu_ kmob_ qZklb :\kljZebb qj_af_jguf \uiZkhf Kt_^Zy \dmkgu_ ljZ\u hgb lZd`_ kgbfZxldhjmk ^_j_\v_\ DZd \u ^mfZ_l_ dlh beb qlh m]jh`Z_l `b\hlguf" DZdb_ `b\hlgu_gZoh^ylkyih^m]jhahc\ \Zr_ckljZg_" In my country tigers, white bears, and some species of eagles are endangered. :abZlkdbckehg²kehgh\Zydhklvy\ey_lkyijbqbghclh]hqlhkehgh\m[b\ZxlWlhh^bgbafgh]boaZij_s_gguoijh^mdlh\ba`b\hlguo <_gp_ghkguc]hem[v²kZfuc[hevrhcbak_f_ckl\Z]hem[bguo HjZg]mlZg] =jb\bkluc\hed²wlhl\hed\u]ey^bldZd[hevrZydjZkgZyebkbpZgZoh^meyo Fbkkbkbikdbc Zeeb]Zlhj ² h^gh \j_fy Zeeb]Zlhjh\ m[b\Zeb lukyqZfbbaaZbodh`b DZjebdh\uc ]biihihlZf ² wlh `b\hlgh_ ijh\h^bl \ \h^_ f_gvr_\j_f_gbq_fh[uqguc]biihihlZf DhZeZ DhZeZ²h^ghbakZfuoba\_klguob ex[bfuo`b\hlguo\ :\kljZebbDhZeu`b\ml\ e_kbkluojZchgZo\ dhlhjuo_klvih^oh^ysZyibsZ Hgb hq_gv ijb\_j_^eb\u_ _^hdb iblZxlky ihqlb bkdexqbl_evgh ebklvyfb w\dZebilZ DhZeu j_^dh ivxl Hgb ihemqZxl ^hklZlhqgh_ dhebq_kl\h\h^ubak\h_cebkl\_gghc^b_lu 82


;hevrmxqZklv^gydhZeukiylgZjZa\bedZo^_j_\v_\Z i_j_^\b]Zxlkyb iblZxlkyghqvxHgbgZb[he__Zdlb\gukjZamihke_aZdZlZ DhZemqZklhg_ijZ\bevghgZau\Zxl ©f_^\_^_fdhZeZªHg\hh[s_g_hlghkblkyd k_f_ckl\mf_^\_^_clZddZdwlhkmfhqgh_fe_dhiblZxs__Z g_ieZp_glZjgh_ Kj_^gyyijh^he`bl_evghklv `bagb dhZeu\ ^bdhcijbjh^_ hdhehe_lghba\_klgukemqZbDh]^Zhgb`bebe_l\ g_\he_ DZe_g^ZjvkhojZg_gbydhZe fbeebhgudhZe`beb\ e_kZo\hklhqghcb x`ghc:\kljZebb ;he__fbeebhgZdhZe[uehm[blhbaaZbordmjuaZr_klvf_kyp_\ ;he__^\mofbeebhgh\rdmjdhZe[uehwdkihjlbjh\Zghba:\kljZebb  <eZklb ih AZsbl_ >bdhc Ijbjh^u rlZlZ <bdlhjby aZsblbebhkljh\gu_ihimeypbbdhZe DhZeubkq_aeb\ X`ghc:\kljZebb dhZe[uebm[blu\ D\bgke_g^_aZh^bgf_kyp <eZklbrlZlZ<bdlhjby\uimklbebdhZegZijb]h^gu_e_kgu_l_jjblhjbbihf_j_lh]hdZdihimeypbb\ hkljh\ghfaZih\_^gbd_m\_ebqbebkv DhZe\uimklbeb\ jZchgh\rlZlZ<bdlhjby >mfZc]eh[Zevgh^_ckl\mcehdZevgh

KiZk_fhdjm`Zxsmxkj_^m G_kdhevdhkh\_lh\dZdlufh`_rvbaf_gblvkblmZpbx KiZklbhdjm`Zxsmxkj_^mihfh]ml^_ckl\bydZ`^h]hq_eh\_dZ >_ckl\by wlb ijhklu b bo fh`gh [ukljh k^_eZlv Gh \k_ \f_kl_ hgb ijbg_kml wnn_dlb\guc b iheh`bl_evguc \deZ^ \ khojZg_gb_ hdjm`Zxs_c kj_^u Kms_kl\m_l fgh]h \_s_c dhlhju_ q_eh\_d fh`_lkh\_jrZlvdZ`^uc^_gv A^_kvijb\_^_gkibkhdkh\_lh\dZdkgbablv bkihevah\Zgb_we_dljhwg_j]bbdhlhju_bamqZxlmq_gbdb\ :\kljZebb DZdb_ ba gbo ih^oh^yl ^ey f_klZ ]^_ lu `b\_rv" Qlh ba wlh]hlum`_^_eZ_rv"  Dh]^Z\hafh`ghoh^bl_i_rdhfbeb_a^bl_gZ\_ehkbi_^_  <udexqZcl_k\_lb we_dljhijb[hjudh]^Z\ubfbg_ihevam_l_kv  IjbgbfZcl_^mrf_gvr_\j_f_gbqlh[uwdhghfblv\h^m  IhdmiZcl_ ijh^mdlu i_j_jZ[hlZggu_ gZ \lhjkujv_ dhlhju_ fh`gh i_j_jZ[hlZlv gZ^_`gu_ ih^^Zxsb_ky j_fhglm ^haZijZ\eyxsb_kyih\lhjghbkihevam_fu_  Ibrbl_gZh[_boklhjhgZoebkldZ  GZ^_\Zcl_ [hevr_ h^_`^u abfhc \f_klh lh]h qlh[u \dexqZlvh[h]j_\Zl_ev 83


KlZjZcl_kv]hlh\blvg_kdhevdh[ex^h^gh\j_f_ggh >h[bjZcl_kv ^h jZ[hlu beb ^h rdheu ihevamykv h[s_c fZrbghcih^h]h\hj_gghklb  Bkihevamcl_ ]hjh^kdhc ljZgkihjl beb \_ehkbi_^ \f_klh fZrbgu  Oh^bl_ i_rdhf \ fZ]Zabgu gZoh^ysb_ky ih [ebahklb Z g_ _a^bl_lm^ZgZfZrbg_  I_j_jZ[Zlu\Zcl_fZkehf_lZe[mfZ]mkl_dehb ieZklbd  Qbgbl_l_dmsb_djZgu  G_hklZ\eycl_\h^ml_qv  Bkihevamcl_djm`dbb klZdZgu\f_klh[mfZ`guoklZdZgqbdh\  M[_^bl_kvqlh^\_jvoheh^bevgbdZohjhrhaZdjulZ  Bkihevamcl_[_ev_\mx\_j_\dmZ g_kmrbevgucZiiZjZl  IeZgbjmcl_k\hbih_a^dbqlh[uwdhghfblv[_gabg  Bkihevamcl_wg_j]hwnn_dlb\gu_we_dljbq_kdb_eZfihqdb  G_\ueb\Zcl_fZkeh`bjfhehdhbebobfbdZlu\ jZdh\bgm  Ihhsjycl_k\hxrdhemgZiheh`bl_evgh_hlghr_gb_d aZsbl_hdjm`Zxs_ckj_^u  Fh`_l_ eb \u ijb^mfZlv _s_ dZdb_gb[m^v kihkh[u khojZg_gbywg_j]bb" Kha^Zcl_\ rdhe_^hkdmh[ty\e_gbcbeb]Za_lmdhlhjZyijb\e_q_l\gbfZgb_d ijh[e_fZfhdjm`Zxs_ckj_^u\ \Zr_fjZchg_ ;md_lup\_lh\ Yjdb_ [jhkdb_ klZeb [he__ ihimeyjgu ;he__ fh^gu_ p\_lu k_cqZkkh_^bgyxlk [he__klZjufbnZ\hjblZfbdZdbjbk b ojbaZgl_fZLxeviZglZd`_hq_gvihimeyjgucp\_lhd< :\kljZebblxeviZguihy\eyxlky\ i_jbh^k Zij_eyihk_gly[jvbebhdly[jv Yjdh `_elu_ hjZg`_\u_ b djZkgu_ p\_lu qZklh klZ\yl \ h^gm dhjabgm]hjrhdbeb\ [md_lA_e_gZyebkl\ZlZdZydZdebklvyw\dZebilZ^h[Z\ey_lkyqlh[ujZa[blvp\_l KZfuc ihimeyjguc kihkh[ kh_^bg_gby p\_lh\ ² wlh [md_l Bo fh`gh^_j`Zlv\ jmd_b hgb^_r_\e_q_fp\_lu\ dhjabgZob ]hjrdZo < [md_l_fh`_l[ulvg_kdhevdh\b^h\p\_lh\beblhevdhh^bgp\_lhd :\kljZebcpu h[uqgh ihkueZxl p\_lu ih hkh[uf kemqZyf lZdbf dZd jh`^_gb_ j_[_gdZ k\Z^v[Z ^_gv jh`^_gby b ihohjhgu < :\kljZebb _klv ki_pbZevguc ^_gv  k_gly[jy dhlhjuc gZau\Z_lky ©>_gvGZjpbkkZªKms_kl\m_lljZ^bpbyihdmiZlv\ wlhl^_gv[md_l gZjpbkkh\\ agZd m\Z`_gbyd kljZ^ZxsbfhljZdh\uoaZ[he_\Zgbc <k_^hoh^uhlijh^Z`b^mlgZbkke_^h\ZgbyjZdZ Ih`ZemcklZhl\_lvl_gZwlb\hijhku  M \Zk_klvex[bfucp\_lhd" My favorite flower is lily.  DZdb_p\_luihimeyjgu\ \Zr_ckljZg_"  

84


Chrysanthemum, tulips, irises, daisies, lilies and roses are popular in our country.   ?keb [u \u khklZ\eyeb [md_l ba jZaguo p\_lh\ dZdb_ p\_lu \u[u\u[jZeb" I would choose roses and lilies. I would also add some green foliage.  IhdZdbfkemqZyfZ\kljZebcpu^Zjylp\_lu"IhdZdbfkemqZyf\u^Zjbl_p\_lu" Australians give flowers on the birth of a baby, weddings, birthdays and funerals. I give flowers on birthdays, weddings, birth of a child, moving to a new flat and on different celebrations.  < \Zr_ckljZg__klvhkh[uc^_gvdZdŠ>_gvGZjpbkkZÂŞ"_keb[u \ufh]ebkha^ZlvlZdhc^_gvdhfm[u\uhl^Zeb^hoh^uhlijh^Z`" We donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have such a day, if I could create such a day, I would give all the proceeds to the asylums. >Z\Zcl_ih\_k_ebfky Kha^Z^bfijh^mdlug_\j_^gu_^eyhdjm`Zxs_ckj_^u Kha^Zcl_kh[kl\_ggucijh^mdlubkihevamyke_^mxsb_j_p_ilu Qbklys__kj_^kl\h Qlh[ukha^ZlvqbklysmxiZklmih^oh^ysmx^ey\k_oih\_joghkl_c gZijbf_j kdZf__d jZdh\bg iebl  kf_rZcl_ ^\mm]e_dbkeuc gZljbc kh^m k \h^hcqlh[uk^_eZlviZklm Qlh[ukhojZgblvjZkl_gbyhlgZk_dhfuo ½ dmkdZfueZ qZcgZyeh`dZjZaf_evq_ggh]hq_kghdZ ebljh\]hjyq_c\h^u Ohjhrh i_j_f_rZcl_ b ^Zcl_ gZklhylvky \ l_q_gb_  qZkh\ JZkiuebl_dZdhllZedb\Zxs__kj_^kl\h^eykhkmsbob dmkZxsboky gZk_dhfuo >_abgnbpbjmxs__kj_^kl\h Qlh[u^_abgnbpbjh\ZlvmqZkldblZdb_dZd\ZggZ^mrb lmZe_l bkihevamcl_ mdkmk beb ZffbZd dhlhju_ g_ \j_^yl hdjm`Zxs_c kj_^_ QZrdZ mdkmkZ ^_abgnbpbjm_l lmZe_l \Zggu ^mrb lZa k mdkmkhfijb^ZkllZd`_[e_kd HohlZgZaZsblgu_f_oZgbafu DZ`^h_ `b\hlgh_ ih^\_j]Z_lky hiZkghklb \ k\h_c _kl_kl\_gghc kj_^_ @b\hlgh_ \u`b\Z_l baaZ k\h_]h kljh_gby nhjfu \g_rghklbb ih\_^_gbyGZijbf_j`b\hlgh_fh`_l]Zjfhgbqghkeblvkykh kj_^hcfh`_l^jZlvkyZ fh`_lm[_`Zlv[eZ]h^Zjyk\h_ckdhjhklb < ke_^mxsbc jZa dh]^Z \u ihc^_l_ \ ahhiZjd gZc^bl_ `b\hlgh_dhlhju_ Fh`_lf_gylvp\_l Bf__l]hjbahglZevgu_ihehku Bf__lhklju_am[u 85


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juciehoh\b^blDh]^ZhgZb^_l\ fma_c_c^ZxlfZl_jbZeudZjlu b bgnhjfZpbxh fma__gZi_qZlZggu_djmigufrjbnlhf KZrZ>he`gh[ulvwlhhq_gvihfh]Z_l <bdlhj Y kh[bjZxkv ihclb \ fma_c bkdmkkl\Z aZ\ljZ Ohlbl_ ihclbkhfghc" KZrZDhg_qghGZfgm`gh[ulvm LhfZ^hfZ\_q_jhfgh^g_f m gZk_klvk\h[h^gh_\j_fy <bdlhjIj_djZkghFg_lh`_gm`gh[ulv^hfZ\_q_jhf Ih`ZemcklZhl\_lvl_gZke_^mxsb_\hijhku  FmaudZb bkdmkkl\h\Z`gZyqZklv`bagb:\kljZebb" Yes, they are.  FmaudZb bkdmkkl\h\Z`gZyqZklv\Zr_c`bagb" Yes, they are.  DZdex^bh^_\Zxlky^eyihk_s_gbyl_ZljZ\ :\kljZebb" People get dressed for the theatre in Australia. Women wear long dresses and men wear tuxedos.  Qlhohq_lm\b^_lvKZrZ" Sasha is eager to see some Aboriginal art.   M KZrb b Heb [ue rZgk ihk_lblv GZpbhgZevgmx =Ze_j_x dh]^Zhgb[ueb\ DZg[_jj_" No, they didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t.  Qlhfh`gh^_eZlv\ GZpbhgZevghc=Ze_j__" You can watch films and videos about art and artists, study art books in the library and have lunch at the cafe.  QlhlZdh_iml_r_kl\mxsZy\uklZ\dZ" A travelling exhibition is a suitcase with different kinds of artwork, which is sent to children who live in remote areas of the country.   DZd \u kqblZ_l_ iml_r_kl\mxsb_ \uklZ\db ² wlh ohjhrZy b^_y"Ihq_fm" Yes, I think itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a great idea because children who live in remote areas have no other opportunity to see works of art.  DZdb_mkem]bfgh]b_fma_bij_^hklZ\eyxlbg\Zeb^Zf" Museums have parking areas just for the disabled. There are ramps for people who use wheelchairs. For those who canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t see well large-print material is available.  DZd\ukqblZ_l_wlbmkem]bihfh]Zxl Yes, I think they are helpful. They unable the disabled see artworks.  <uagZ_l_dh]hgb[m^vdlhba\e_d[uihevambalZdbomkem]" No, I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t.

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Ih`ZemcklZhl\_lvl_gZke_^mxsb_\hijhku  dlhlZdhcEZjjbKblkdb"<udh]^Zgb[m^vkeurZebh g_f" Larry Sitsky is a composer, pianist, musicologist, teacher, lecturer and broadcaster. I have never heard of him.  =^_hgjh^beky" He was born in Tianjin, China.  Ihq_fmih\Zr_fmfg_gbxhgijb_oZe\ :\kljZebx" He came to Australia because there are wider opportunities for a musician.  =^_hgmqbeky" He studied at the New South Wales Conservatorium of Music, then he studied at the San Fransisco Conservatory. 91


 >he`_gebhg[ueieZlblvaZmq_[m" No, he didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t. He was awarded scholarships.  =^_hgjZ[hlZ_l" He works at Canberra School of Music.  DZdhcfmaudhchgbgl_j_km_lky" He is interested in the music of Russian eccentric and problematic composers.  DZdhcfmaudhcbgl_j_km_l_kv\u" Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m interested in jazz and blues.  DZdhibkZebb]jmgZnhjl_ibZghKblkdb" Sitskyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s piano was described as dark, sinister, uneasy, highly strung and hotly passionate.  <ukfh`_l_ku]jZlvIj_ex^bxÂ&#x2039;ba Š>\_gZ^pZlbFbklbq_kdboIj_ex^bcÂŞKblkdb"Qlh\uh g_c^mfZ_l_" I canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t even imagine how it may sound. Ih`ZemcklZhij_^_ebl_dh]^Zb dZd\ l_dkl_bkihevah\Zgu]eZ]heuWREHb WRKDYH +DGJLYHQ²\kihfh]Zl_evguc]eZ]he KDGEHJXQ\kihfh]Zl_evguc]eZ]he KDGH[SHULPHQWHG\kihfh]Zl_evguc]eZ]he +DVPDLQWDLQHG\kihfh]Zl_evguc]eZ]he +DVEHHQGHVFULEHG\kihfh]Zl_evguc]eZ]he :DVJUDQWHG\kihfh]Zl_evguc]eZ]he ZDVDSSRLQWHG\kihfh]Zl_evguc]eZ]he ZDVkfukeh\hc]eZ]he LV²kfukeh\hc]eZ]he >Zcl_ibkvf_ggh_bebmklgh_djZldh_baeh`_gb_l_dklZ Larry Sitsky is a famous contemporary musician, composer and teacher. He was born in China and in 1951 he came to Australia. He had given his first concert at the age of 11. In Australia and later in San Francisco he was awarded scholarships. In 1966 he was appointed Head of Keyboard Studies a at the Canberra School of Music and later the Head of Musicology and the Head of Composition studies. He had been interested in Russian Romantic tradition and has maintained this interest. He was the first Australian to visit USSR. He was particularly drawn to the most individual, eccentric and problematic composers. His own music is described as dark, sinister, uneasy and hotly passionate. :\kljZebckdbcFheh^_`gucHjd_klj :\kljZebckdbc Fheh^_`guc Hjd_klj [ue \Z`ghc kbehc \ fmaudZevghc `bagb gZpbb h[mqZy emqrbo fheh^uo fmaudZglh\ :\kljZebb kljh]hklyf ijhn_kkbhgZevghc `bagb \ hjd_klj_ < hjd_klj_ ihqlb  mq_gbdh\\ \hajZkl_hl^he_lM hjd_kljZ\u^ZxsZykyj_imlZpby\ :\kljZebb b \h \k_f fbj_ Hgb b]jZeb \ :g]ebb =heeZg^bb >Zgbb 92


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Š<uah\jhdfmaud_ÂŞ²wlhjZ[hlZ\f_kl_k ^jmavyfbjh^bl_eyfb ihebp_ckdbfbmqbl_eyfbijhn_kkbhgZeZfbkj_^kl\fZkkh\hcbgnhjfZpbbb bg^mkljbbjZa\e_q_gbcEhamg]Š<k_fbjguc\uah\jhdfmaud_ÂŞ²Š\ub]jZlv²wlha^hjh\hMqZkl\h\Zlv²_s_emqr_ÂŞ Ih`ZemcklZhl\_lvl_gZke_^mxsb_\hijhku  Qlh\u^mfZ_l_h Š<k_fbjguc\uah\jhdfmaud_ÂŞ"\u[uohl_ebijbgylvmqZklb_\ dhgdmjk_" I think Rock Global Challenge is a great idea. It is an opportunity for teenagers to associate and to have fun. They can express their creativity. I would like to take part in its competitions.  Ihq_fm\k_mqZklgbdb^he`gukh]eZkblvkyg_dmjblvg_ijbgbfZlv gZjdhlbdb b g_ iblv Zedh]hevgu_ gZibldb \h \j_fy ijh\_^_gbydhgdmjkZ" All the participants have to agree not to smoke, drink alcohol or take drugs because it makes young people see that they can have a good time without it.   Qlh agZqbl wlh ij_^eh`_gb_ Š<uah\ jhd fmaud_ kha^Zg ^ey lh]hqlh[uh[t_^bgblvih^jhkldh\ ih\k_fmfbjm \ h[sbgm m dhlhjhc[m^_lp_evm\Z`_gb_d k_[_b d^jm]bfÂŞ" It means that this competitions were started to teach teenagers to respect each other, to make them feel they are not alone and that there is a great number of people who can be their friends.  >eyq_]h[uekha^ZgŠ<k_fbjguc\uah\jhdfmaud_ÂŞ" It is designed to link teenagers in a commonality of purpose and respect for themselves and for others.  Kdhevdhmq_gbdh\ijbgbfZxlmqZklb_\ dhgdmjk_\ :\kljZebb dZ`^uc]h^" 50000 students compete in Australia each year.  DZd\u^mfZ_l_Qlh\Z`g__ih[_^blvbebijbgbfZlvmqZklb_" I think itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s more important o take part in the event. Kha^Z^bf]jmiim JZa^_ebl_kv gZ ]jmiiu b ij_^klZ\vl_ qlh \u bkihegbl_eb jhd fmaudbbeb^`ZaZH[km^bl_b^_bgZkq_l\Zrbo]jmii <Zr_c]jmii_gm`gh[m^_l  GZa\Zgb_^ey]jmiiub ^ey\k_o__ qe_gh\  Bfb^` ]jmiiu JZajZ[hlZcl_ dhklxfu ^ey \uklmie_gby GZjbkmcl_bogZieZdZl_j_deZfbjmxs_f\ZrlmjihkljZg_  =Za_lgZy klZlvy jZkkdZau\ZxsZy qblZl_eyf h ij_^klhysbo \uklmie_gbyo]jmiiu  LjbibkvfZhlh[h`Zxsboihdehggbdh\  >baZcg[be_lh\gZij_^klZ\e_gb_  >baZcgh[eh`db^ey\Zr_]h^bkdZ 95


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8. Fma_cIZmwjoZmkMq_gbdb²deZkkh\bkihevamxlpbnjh\u_ dZf_ju \ \uklZ\d_ Dhkfhk Jhkkbckdbc emghoh^ gZoh^blky gZ aZ^g_fieZg_ 9. P_gljbgnhjfZpbhgguol_ogheh]bc\ Fma__IZmwjoZmk kihgkbjm_lky :c;bWf :\kljZeby El^  DmjZlhj \uklZ\db BgnhjfZpbhggu_l_ogheh]bbk mq_gbdhfkj_^g_crdheu Mkem]b^eybg\Zeb^h\ Mkem]b^eyex^_ck nbabq_kdbfbgZjmr_gbyfb Kms_kl\m_l ki_pbZevgZy klhygdZ ^ey bg\Zeb^h\ Dhebq_kl\h f_klh]jZgbq_ghlZdqlh\Zfgm`ghaZjZg__aZdZaZlvf_klhFukh\_lm_faZdZau\Zlvf_klhihf_gvr_cf_j_aZ^\Z^gy^hihk_s_gby qlh[uba[_`Zlvh]hjq_gby KdZlub ebnlu\ Fma__IZmwjoZmkhlf_q_gugZdZjl_ Ih`ZemcklZ ihfgbl_ qlh i_j_^\b`_gb_ ih kdZlZf fh`_l [ulv mlhfbl_evguf Ihk_lbl_eyf i_j_^\b]Zxsbfky gZ bg\Zeb^guo dheykdZo ij_^ihqlbl_evg__ ihevah\Zlvky ebnlZfb beb ijbclb k ^jm]hfk kbevgufbjmdZfb Bg\Zeb^gu_dheykdbfh`gh\aylvgZijhdZl\ hkgh\ghfohee_ Mkem]b^eyex^_ck hkeZ[e_ggufkemohf Ihbsbl_\ Fma__wlhlagZdHghagZqZ_lqlha^_kvij_^eZ]Zxlky mkem]b^eyex^_ck hkeZ[e_ggufkemohf Ij_^eZ]Zxlky i_qZlgu_ fZl_jbZeu ih^e_`Zsb_ \ha\jZlm ^ey g_dhlhjuo\b^_hb Zm^bhaZibk_c^_fhgkljbjmxsboky\ aZeZo\uklZ\db Mkem]b^eyex^_ck hkeZ[e_ggufaj_gb_f Ki_pbZevgu_lmjufh]ml[ulvaZdZaZgu^eyke_iuoex^_cb ihk_lbl_e_c k hkeZ[e_gguf aj_gb_f Wlb lmju ^Zxl ijhoh^ dh fgh]bfwdkihgZlZfg_\uklZ\e_gguf\ k\h[h^ghf^hklmi_ AZdZa^he`_g[ulvijhba\_^_gaZjZg__qlh[u]ZjZglbjh\Zlvj_a_j\bjh\Zgb_ihf_s_gbc ?keb\u\ q_feb[hg_m\_j_gubebohlbl_ihemqblv[hevr_bgnhjfZpbb h[jZlbl_kv \ klhe kijZ\hd AZihfgbl_ kem`Zsb_ a^_kv ^eylh]hqlh[uihfhqv\Zf DZjlu k hkyaZ_fuf bah[jZ`_gb_f b g_dhlhju_ fZl_jbZeu gZi_qZlZggu_ rjbnlhf ;jZcey beb djmiguf rjbnlhf [ueb ij_^hklZ\e_guDhjhe_\kdbfH[s_kl\hfKe_iuo Ihc^bl_gZwdkdmjkbxihmjh\gxFma_yIZmwjoZmk<hc^bl_ q_j_a \oh^ kh klhygdb ^ey bg\Zeb^h\ b ke_^mcl_ klj_ehqdZf ih dhfgZlZf k  ih  H[km^bl_ mkem]b ij_^hklZ\ey_fu_ g_ lhevdh ^ey bg\Zeb^h\ ^ey \k_o  ih f_j_ ijh^\b`_gby ih fma_x Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku  Ihke_ihk_s_gbyfma_yj_rbl_m^h[_gebfma_c^eybg\Zeb^h\" Yes, it is. 102


 MdZaZl_e_c]Zj^_jh[Zb fZ]Zabgukm\_gbjh\gZdZjl_gHlDZd\u ^mfZ_l_]^_hgbgZoh^ylky"7KHFORDNURRPLVLQWKHPDLQHQWUDQFHIR\HU  Fh`_l_eb\ugZa\Zlv_s_dZdb_gb[m^vmkem]bg_h[oh^bfu_ bg\Zeb^Zf"  Ihkfhljbl_gZa\ZgbydhfgZlgZmjh\g_DZd\u^mfZ_l_dZdb_lZf\uklZ\db" In the first room there might be objects connected with childhood and games. Probably there are toys, clothes and little beds. In the second room examples of lace are exhibited. You can also learn hoe to make it. The third room provides a collection of different chairs. The fourth room contains different objects connected with music: various instruments, techniques and records. The fifth room gives information on the anatomy and mentality of a person. The sixths room houses computers and information on the information technology. In the seventh room you can lean about different experiments and probably conduct one yourself. The objects of the eighth room are connected with space. You can see videos about space there and see different models of spaceships. The ninth room provides a wide range of vehicles. In the tenth room you will be informed on the topic of communication. You will learn about its history and the present.   ?keb \u ohlbl_ ihclb gZ ki_pbZevgmx wdkdmjkbx \ fma_c gm`ghebaZdZaZlv__ aZjZg__" Yes, I must.  ?keb\Zf\h\j_fyij_[u\Zgbygm`gZbg\Zeb^gZydheykdZ]^_ __ fh`gh\aylv" You can get a wheelchair at a cloaking desk in the main entrance foyer.  <umf_l_qblZlvgZyaud_;jZcey"1R,GRQÂśW

>Z\Zcl_ih\_k_ebfky Bgkljmf_glZevgZyfmaudZ Ih^klZ\vl_gZa\Zgbybgkljmf_glh\d dZjlbgdZf Drums â&#x20AC;&#x201D; f; Guitar â&#x20AC;&#x201D; b; Violin â&#x20AC;&#x201D; c; Piano â&#x20AC;&#x201D; g; Trumpet â&#x20AC;&#x201D; d; Pianino â&#x20AC;&#x201D; e; Saxophone â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a. Dlhq_faZgbfZ_lky" AZihegbl_ ijhims_ggu_ [md\u ^hihegbl_ gZa\Zgby wlbo ijhn_kkbcb khihklZ\vl_bok dZjlbgdZfb A â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 4; B â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 7; C â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 3; D â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 2; E â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 6; F â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 1; G â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 5. FmaudZ^hfZ Ih^klZ\vl_gZa\Zgbyij_^f_lh\d dZjlbgdZf 103


Hi-fi stereo â&#x20AC;&#x201D; c; Record player â&#x20AC;&#x201D; b; Album â&#x20AC;&#x201D; e; Compact disc â&#x20AC;&#x201D; d; Loudspeaker â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a; Cassette â&#x20AC;&#x201D; g; Headphones â&#x20AC;&#x201D; f.

IjZdlbdm_fkykemrZlv 1. kf7DSHVFULSWV Ij_^klZ\vl_qlh\ugZoh^bl_kv\ h^ghfbake_^mxsbof_kl =hjh^\ qZkibd K_evkdZyf_klghklvhdjm`_ggZy]mklufdmklZjgbdhf Ih^\h^hc IhiZeb\ m`Zkgmx[mjx < dhkfbq_kdhfdhjZ[e_ < ^`mg]eyo GZrmfghcnZ[jbd_ihijhba\h^kl\mfZrbg GZhkljh\_  < ]jmii_ h[km^bl_ dZdZy fmaudZ ih^hc^_l d lhfm f_klm dhlhjh_\u\u[jZeb In the city at peak hour I would choose loud electronic music. It is as rhythmic as the city itself. In the country I would listen to the native Aboriginal music or just to the sounds of nature. Underwater quiet classical music would be suitable. If I were caught in a wild storm I would choose something sinister. It could be classical of electronic music. In a spaceship I would listen to drum-n-bass. In the jungle would like to listen to something cheerful, because I think itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s scary there. In a noisy factory where cars are manufactured industrial music would be best. On an island I would listen to reggae. It gives the right mood.

CHAPTER 7. HIULJ:;HLU

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Lhf>Zy jZ[hlZx\ f_klghc[b[ebhl_d_WlhkZfZyklZjZy[b[ebhl_dZ\ Kb^g__ HeyQlhlulZf^_eZ_rv" LhfY ihfh]Zxex^yfgZclbdgb]bb bgnhjfZpbxdhlhjZy bf gm`gZY lZd`_i_j_klZ\eyxdgb]bk ihedbgZ ihedm b j_hj]Zgbah\u\Zx [b[ebhl_dm ihke_ lh]h dZd \k_ moh^yl Wlh ^_ckl\bl_evgh ohjhrZyjZ[hlZHgZfg_gjZ\blky[hevr_q_ffhyij_^u^msZyjZ[hlZB ex^bk dhlhjufby jZ[hlZxijbylg__ KZrZDZdqZklhlujZ[hlZ_rv" hfIhdZwlhg_f_rZ_lmq_[_Y fh]mjZ[hlZlvklhevdhkdhevdh ohqmH[uqghy jZ[hlZx^\Z^gy\ g_^_exb bgh]^ZgZ\uoh^guo KZrZM fgh]bomq_gbdh\l\h_]h\hajZklZ_klvjZ[hlZ" Lhf>Z[hevrbgkl\hfhbo^jma_cjZ[hlZxlhkh[_ggh\ dZgbdmeu HeyDZdlugZr_ewlmjZ[hlm" LhfY gZr_e__ \h\j_fyG_^_ebHiulZjZ[hlu G_^_eyHiulZJZ[hlu KZrZQlhlZdh_G_^_eyHiulZJZ[hlu" LhfWlhg_^_ey\h\j_fydhlhjhc mq_gbdbdeZkkZfh]mlihijh[h\ZlvihjZ[hlZlv\ h[eZklbdhlhjmxhgb\u[_jmlM mq_gbdh\ _klv \hafh`ghklv ihjZ[hlZlv \ [ZgdZo hl_eyo fZ]ZabgZo j_klhjZgZob ^Z`_\ dZ[bg_l_\jZqZMq_gbdZfdhlhju_ohjhrhjZ[hlZxl qZklhij_^eZ]Zxlf_klh HeyDZdbgl_j_kgh LhfG_dhlhju_ mq_gbdb kqblZxl qlh wlh kZfZy bgl_j_kgZy g_^_ey mq_[gh]h ]h^Z ihlhfm qlh hgb fh]ml bkiulZlv dZdhc `bagv fh`_l[ulvihke_rdheu KZrZIhq_fmluj_rbejZ[hlZlv\ [b[ebhl_d_" LhfY ohl_ejZ[hlZlv\ [b[ebhl_d_[hevr_q_f\ ex[hf^jm]hf f_kl_ ihlhfm qlh fg_ gjZ\blky ijh\h^blv bkke_^h\Zgby K_cqZk y agZx ihqlb \k_ h lhf dZd jZ[hlZ_l [b[ebhl_dZ qlh ^_ckl\bl_evgh ihe_aghdh]^Zfg_gm`ghgZclbbgnhjfZpbx^eyijh_dlZ\ rdhe_ HeyLuihevam_rvkydhfivxl_jhfgZjZ[hl_" Lhf>Z<ky[b[ebhl_dZdhfivxl_jbabjh\ZgZIhqlb\k_ dgb]b b `mjgZeu\ [b[ebhl_d_aZg_k_gu\ dhfivxl_j Hey<ufgh]hjZ[hlZ_l_gZdhfivxl_j_gZjZ[hl_" LhfDZ`^uc^_gvK_cqZky m`_[he__m\_j_ghjZ[hlZxgZdhfivxl_j_q_fdh]^Zy lhevdhgZqZejZ[hlZlv\ [b[ebhl_d_ KZrZDZdhcohjhrbchiul Lhf>Z : _keb \ [b[ebhl_d_fZeh ex^_c dh]^Z y jZ[hlZx y fh]m aZgylvky^hfZrg_cjZ[hlhc<hafh`ghwlhkZfZyemqrZyqZklvjZ[hlu Ih`ZemcklZhl\_lvl_gZke_^mxsb_\hijhku JZ[hlZLhfZ  =^_jZ[hlZ_lLhf"7RPZRUNVDWDOLEUDU\ 105


 Qlhhg^_eZ_l"+HKHOSVSHRSOHWRILQGWKHERRNVDQGLQIRUPDWLRQ they need. He also reshelves the books and reorganizes the library.  ?fmgjZ\blkyjZ[hlZ" Yes, he does.  DZdhc[ueZ_]hij_^u^msZyjZ[hlZihkjZ\g_gbxk wlhc" His previous job was less interesting. The people Tom works at the library with are nicer.  DZdqZklhLhfjZ[hlZ_l" He usually works two afternoons a week and sometimes weekends.  Fgh]b_ebZ\kljZebcpu\hajZklZLhfZjZ[hlZxl" Yes they do.  DZdLhfgZr_ewlmjZ[hlm" He found it during Work Experience Week. G_^_eyHiulZJZ[hlu  < dZdbof_klZomq_gbdbjZ[hlZxl\h\j_fyG_^_ebHiulZJZ[hlu" They can work in banks, hotels, restaurants, stores and even doctorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s offices.  :\kljZebckdbfmq_gbdZfgjZ\blkyG_^_eyHiulZJZ[hlu" Yes, they do.  Ihq_fmLhfj_rbejZ[hlZlv\ [b[ebhl_d_" Tom decided to work in a library because he likes to do research.  Mf__lebLhfihevah\Zlvkydhfivxl_jhf" Yes, he does.  DZdmxbgnhjfZpbxfh`ghgZclb\ dhfivxl_j_[b[ebhl_db" You can find information on almost every book and magazine. H l_[_  M \Zk_klvG_^_eyHiulZJZ[hlu\ rdhe_" No, we donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t.  DZd\ukqblZ_l_G_^_eyHiulZJZ[hlu²ohjhrZyb^_y"Ihq_fm" Yes, I think itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a great idea because students have an opportunity to try this work and to decide if they want to have this profession or some other.  =^_[u\uohl_ebihijh[h\ZlvihjZ[hlZlv" I would like to try to work in a large company with amny people. I think it wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be boring to work there. =jZffZlbdZ 3. I am best at biology. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m worst at Physics. I like Mathematics least of all. I like English best of all. Ih^gbfZykvihe_klgbp_mki_oZ Ambitious. I seek success. Motivated. I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t do things that are unnecessary.

106


Neat. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m always clean and tidy. Accurate. I almost never make mistakes. Enthusiastic. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m eager and have a feeling of excitement. Reliable. People can rely on me, I wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t fail them. 12. If you make something soft or softer you soften it. If you make something hard or harder you harden it. If you make something tight or tighter you tighten it. If you make something weak or weaker you weaken it. If you make something bright or brighter you brighten it. If you make something dark or darker you darken it.

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 Q_fhgZex[blaZgbfZlvky\ k\h[h^gh_\j_fy" 6KHOLNHVJDUGHQLQJDQGSOD\LQJWHQQLVLQKHUVSDUHWLPH HgZex[bl aZgbfZlvkykZ^h\h^kl\hfb b]jZlv\ l_ggbk\ k\h[h^gh_\j_fy  BfyWfbebEvxbk :^j_kIZjd<_c:^_eZb^ZX`gZy:\kljZebyL_e >ZlZjh`^_gbyZij_ey]h^Z =jZ`^Zgkl\hZ\kljZebcdZ HiuljZ[hludZkkbjDhee_^`L:N? K ]h^Z²ihgZklhys__\j_fyK_dj_lZjvhnbkf_g_^`_j\ >`hgkBgdhjihj_cl_^:^_eZb^Z H[jZah\Zgb_]K_jlbnbdZlh kj_^g_fh[jZah\ZgbbrdheZ <_klObee:^_eZb^Z  >biehf h[ hdhgqZgbb dmjkh\ k_dj_lZj_c Dhee_^` K_dj_lZj_c=Zfbevlhg:^_eZb^Z GZ\udb FZrbghibkv  m^Zjh\ \ fbgmlm  [mo]Zel_jby b kl_gh]jZnby M\e_q_gbyKZ^h\h^kl\hb l_ggbk  DZdb_ ba \ur_i_j_qbke_gguo ihabpbc fh]ml ih^hclb Wfbeb"Ihq_fm" The position of the secretary / typist would be most suitable for Ms. Lewis because she has all the skills required, such as typing speed, shorthand and filling procedures. More than that, she has working H[SHULHQFH LQ WKLV SRVLWLRQ fbkk Evxbk [hevr_ \k_]h ih^hc^_l ^he`ghklv k_dj_lZjyfZrbgbkldb ihlhfm qlh m g__ _klv \k_ g_h[oh^bfu_ gZ\udb lZdb_ dZd kdhjhklv i_qZlb kl_gh]jZnby b kha^Zgb_Zjob\Z;he__lh]hm g___klvhiuljZ[hlu\ wlhc^he`ghklb  < \Zr_ckljZg_ex^bibrmlj_axf_"H[km^bl_jZaebqby Yes, in our country people write CV as well. They write their name, address, nationality, date of birthday, education and employment. Sometimes people also write if they are married or single. We also write about our hobbies and interests. Many people also write some FKDUDFWHULVWLFVVXFKDV©DFFXUDWHª©UHOLDEOHªDQGVRRQ < gZr_ckljZg_ ex^b lh`_ ibrml j_axf_ Hgb ibrml bfy Z^j_k =jZ`^Zgkl\h ^Zlm jh`^_gby h[ h[jZah\Zgbb b hiul_ jZ[hlu Bgh]^Z ex^b _s_ ibrml`_gZluhgbbebohehkluFulZd`_ibr_fh k\hbooh[[bb bgl_j_kZo Fgh]b_ ex^b lZd`_ ibrml k\hb oZjZdl_jbklbdb lZdb_ dZd©<gbfZl_evgucª©gZ^_`gucªb l^

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Doctor-competent, accurate, experienced Teacher-punctual, enthusiastic, neat Hairdresser-competent, motivated Photographer-ambitious, energetic, intelligent Artist-intelligent, enthusiastic, ambitious Secretary-accurate, punctual, neat Lawyer-competent, punctual, reliable DZdb_bawlbodZq_kl\m \Zkijbkmlkl\mxl">eydZdboaZgylbc\ugZ\Zr\a]ey^ih^oh^bl_" I can be a reporter because Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m energetic and enthusiastic. I can also be a photographer because Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m ambitious, energetic and intelligent. I canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be a secretary because Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m not accurate, punctual or neat. Wlh^_lZebj_axf_IheZ=m^f_gZIh`ZemcklZaZihegbl_ lZ[ebpm 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

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J:;HQ:YL?LJ:>V CHAPTER 1 Lesson 1

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2. 1) I always go to bed early, but my sister never goes to bed early. 2) I usually spend my vacation in the village, but my friends seldom spend their vacation in the village. 3) I often visit my granny, but my aunt rarely visit my granny. 4) My parents always watch television on Sundays, but they do not go to the cinema often. 5) He often has tea with us, but he never helps us. 6) Mr Brown works in his office on weekdays, but he doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t work on Sundays. AZ^Zc\hijhkud ih^q_jdgmlufkeh\Zf 1) Does he like to take pictures of his friends? 2) Who never shares his thoughts with anybody? 3) Why does Jane spend her holiday with his family? 4) Does Ann feel better now? 5) Can he pitch a tent? 6) How much fish are there in the river in summer? 4. 1) Are you a good swimmer? Are you good at swimming? 2) Where do you like to go in summer? 3) Can(do) you play the guitar? 4) Who is your best friend? 5) What do your friends do in summer? 6) How many Russian live in Australia? >hihegbl_ij_^eh`_gbyBkihevamcl_keh\Zbakdh[hd 1) What time does the train leave? 2) My brother does not live at home. 3) Where do you come from? 4) I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t think Jill likes me very much. 5) What time does Ken get home after work? 6) Penny comes from Calgary in Canada. 7) How many languages do you speak? 8) Anne doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t drink coffee, but she likes tea. 122


7. 1) I know that he is leaving for the village tomorrow. 2) Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m not going to have a car much longer. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m selling it next week. 3) The next train leaves for Tonbridge at six oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;clock. You can still catch it. 4) Is Ted coming here this morning? 5) Duncan said: ÂŤIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m going to the University tomorrow. The term begins soon.Âť 6) What are you doing tonight? IhklZ\vl_]eZ]heu\ kdh[dZo\ gm`gmx\j_f_ggmxnhjfm 1) A: Look, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s raining. B: Yes, it rains most of the days at this time of year. 2) Goodnight. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m going to bed. I always go to bed early during the week. 3) Most days John cycles to work, but since itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s raining today he is taking the car to work. So Mary is doing shopping at the local shop instead of the supermarket where she usually goes. 4) A: Where are the children? B: They are playing in the garden. They get home from school at about four and usually go straight out to play with their friends. 5) We usually watch the news on TV at seven oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;clock, but tonight we are watching that new soap opera. <u[_jbl_ijZ\bevgmxnhjfm]eZ]heZ 1) are not listening; 2) does not want; 3) donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t understand; 4) hear; 5) do you see; 6) doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t remember; 7) think, doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t love.  Hldjhcl_ kdh[db Ijhqlbl_ \kemo i_j_\_^bl_ gZ jmkkdbc yaudh[tykgbl_mihlj_[e_gb_3UHVHQW6LPSOHb 3UHVHQW3URJUHVVLYH   GRHVQÂśW VSHDN Hg g_ hq_gv ohjhrh ]h\hjbl ihZg]ebckdb

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Lesson 2

Lesson 3 Quiz 1.  XWXUH6LPSOH h[_sZgb_qlheb[hk^_eZlv\ [m^ms_f

  3UHVHQW3URJUHVVLYH ²aZieZgbjh\Zggh_ ^_ckl\b_ \uiheg_gb_ dhlhjh]h aZ\bkbl hl ]h\hjys_]h )XWXUH 6LPSOH ² h[_sZgb_ qlh eb[hk^_eZlv\ [m^ms_f   3UHVHQW3URJUHVVLYH ²aZieZgbjh\Zggh_ ^_ckl\b_ \uiheg_gb_ dhlhjh]h aZ\bkbl hl lh]h dlh ^_eZ_l WR EH JRLQJ WR ² gZf_j_gb_ )XWXUH6LPSOH²j_r_gb_\ fhf_glj_qb  3UHVHQW6LPSOH²[m^ms__^_ckl\b_dhlhjh_ijhbahc^_lihjZkibkZgbx  7REHJRLQJWR²gZf_j_gb__s_g_ldhgdj_lghc^h]h\hj_gghklb   3UHVHQW 6LPSOH ² [m^ms__ ^_ckl\b_ dhlhjh_ ijhbahc^_l ih jZkibkZgbx   3UHVHQW3URJUHVVLYH ²aZieZgbjh\Zggh_ ^_ckl\b_ \uiheg_gb_ dhlhjh]haZ\bkblhl]h\hjys_]h  Ih^q_jdgbl_ ijZ\bevgh mihlj_[e_ggmx \j_f_ggmx nhjfm 1) are you going; 2) Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m going out; 3) he is working; 4) I will go; 5) Is getting; 6) Are having, are you going to invite; 7) Is Ann coming; 8) I will wait; 9) Are you doing; 10) leaves. Mihlj_[bl_will bebto be going to. 1) Will send; 2) Are going to collect; 3) Are going ; 4) Will go. I_j_\_^bl_gZjmkkdbcyaud  Y iha\hgxl_[_dZdlhevdhhgijb^_l   Nj_^ [m^_l qblZlv dgb]m ihke_ lh]h dZd k^_eZ_l ^hfZrgxx jZ[hlm  Ih^h`^bihdZijb^_lLhf 125


  Fbkl_j FZdE_gghg dmibl dhfivxl_j dh]^Z gZdhibl ^hklZlhqgh^_g_]  DZdihklmibll\hc^jm]_kebihqlZevhgg_^hklZ\bl_]hihqlm"  Qlhlu[m^_rv^_eZlv_keblug_[m^_rvagZlvdZdjZ[hlZlv gZdhfivxl_j_"  ?kebm E_gu[m^_l\j_fyhgZgZibr_libkvfhk\h_cih^jm]_  ?kebhgbkfh]mlihfhqvl_[_hgbwlhk^_eZxl  < wlbo ijb^Zlhqguo mihlj_[e_gh )XWXWUH 6LPSOH ihlhfm qlhwlhijb^Zlhqgu_batykgbl_evgu_Hgbhl\_qZxlgZ\hijhk qlh"q_]h"h q_f" IhklZ\v]eZ]heu\ kdh[dZo\ ijZ\bevgmxnhjfm 1) comes, will see; 2) plays, will get; 3) draws, will know; 4) will not know, arrive; 5) will go, catches; 6) will play, have; 7) am, will call. Qlhijhbahc^_l_keb 1) If my friend sends me a letter, I will answer it. 2) If I go to my granny, I will swim. 3) If my friends go hiking, I will pitch a tent and make a fire. 4) If I receive a letter from an American friend, I will answer in English. 5) Is it rains, I will take an umbrella. 6) If I have to go to America, I will learn a lot of English words. 7) If I canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t translate the text, I will ask my friend to help. 8) If my mother is busy, I will wash the dishes. IhklZ\v]eZ]heu\ kdh[dZo\ ijZ\bevgmxnhjfm 1) will talk, get; 2) will be; 3) will wait, gets; 4) wants, will meet; 5) will be, treat; 6) goes; 7) will become, grows up; 8) will stay, call; 9) will go; 10) will not, arrives; 11) will buy, gets; 12) will come, is; 13) will not go, rains; 14) will buy; 15) will you do, have passed; 16) will come, invite; 17) will leave; 18) will they go; 19) is coming; 20) will call; 21) will wait; 22) are having, will you come; 23) will write, will forget. I_j_\_^bl_gZZg]ebckdbcyaud 1) He promises that he will come in time. 2) ÂŤYou will become a good specialist in a few yearsÂť, said the teacher. 3) We are going to visit our aunt on Sunday. Will you come with us? 4) Sorry, but I canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t help you. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m leaving tomorrow. 5) They are going to travel in summer. 6) If she comes in time, we will see her, 7) Jane doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know if he will go to London on Sunday. 8) When are they going to write a letter to Mary? 9) Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cold. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll put on my coat. 10) They are leaving tomorrow, arenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t they? 11) What will happen if he doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t come? 126


12) When she is home, she will call you. 13) I wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t help you, if you donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t tell me the truth. 14) Is it going to rain? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; No, it isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t, 15) Will he be home, when Mary calls? 16) No one knows when they will build this house. 17) If John doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t call, Mary will be very upset. 18) They wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t take a car, if itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s late. 19) This train arrives at 8 p.m. 20) There will be many friends of her daughterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. I_j_\_^bl_jZkkdZagZjmkkdbcyaudb aZl_fi_j_kdZ`bl_ _]hgZZg]ebckdhf FZfZ ihemqbeZ ibkvfh hl k\h_c \hkvfbe_lg_c ^hq_jb <hl hlju\hdbag_]hŠ?keby kemrZxjZ^bhg_]h\hjbfg_qlhy ^he`gu ^_eZlv^hfZrgxxjZ[hlm?keby k^_eZxqlhlhiehoh_g_djbqbgZ f_gy ?keb \ ^hf_ [_kihjy^hd g_ \bgb f_gy \ wlhf ?keb lu ohq_rv qlh[u y k^_eZeZ qlhgb[m^v g_ aZ[u\Zc kdZaZlv ŠIh`ZemcklZÂŞ?keby b]jZx\ bgl_j_kgmxb]jmg_hlijZ\eycf_gy\ ihkl_ev ?keb y ijhrm qlhgb[m^v g_ hl\_qZc \k_]^Z ŠG_lÂŞ ?keb oheh^gh g_\u\h^bfZrbgmG_]h\hjbŠg_evayÂŞlZdqZklh Homework  Ijhqlbl_ \kemo I_j_\_^bl_ gZ jmkkdbc yaud H[tykgbl_ mihlj_[e_gb_3DVW3URJUHVVLYH  IZjZ^gZy^\_jv^hfZ[ueZhldjulZFbkl_jBaZj^kb^_em hdgZqblZy]Za_lm >_ckl\b_\ lhqghmdZaZggucfhf_gl\ ijhrehf

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 Hgihkfhlj_egZKw[[bHgZkfhlj_eZl_e_\bahjk dhrdhcgZ dhe_gyo >_ckl\b_\ lhqghmdZaZggucfhf_gl\ ijhrehf

  JhfZ kdZaZe  ŠIjb\_l \k_f Fu ijhoh^beb fbfh b m\b^_eb k\_l\ klm^bbFuih^mfZebqlhm \Zk\_q_jbgdZª >_ckl\b_\ lhqghmdZaZggucfhf_gl\ ijhrehf

 Lhffb[ue]jmklgucihlhfmqlhhgm_a`Zemljhf AZieZgbjh\Zggh_^_ckl\b_\ [m^ms_fkh]eZkh\Zgb_\j_f_g

  Hg ihkfhlj_e q_j_a mebpm qlh[u ih]ey^_lv `^_f eb fu >_ckl\b_\ lhqghmdZaZggucfhf_gl\ ijhrehf

 ŠQlh<u^_eZeb\ GvxChjd_fbkl_j;jZmg"ª² ŠY iulZeky gZclb dh]hgb[m^v dlh dmibe [u fhc hl_evª >_ckl\b_ ijhbkoh^b\r__\ hij_^_e_gguchlj_ahd\j_f_gb  127


 Ijhqlbl_ \kemo I_j_\_^bl_ gZ jmkkdbc yaud H[tykgbl_ mihlj_[e_gb_3DVW3URJUHVVLYHb 3DVW6LPSOH  L_fg_ehghgbdlhg_ohl_emoh^blv >_ckl\b_\ lhqghmdZaZggucfhf_gl\ ijhrehf

  Y _oZe ih k_evkdhc ^hjh]_ dh]^Z m\b^_e Fwjb >_ckl\b_ \ lhqghmdZaZggucfhf_gl\ ijhrehf

  Y ihkfhlj_eZ gZ k\h_]h fm`Z Hg qblZe ibkvfh >_ckl\b_ \ lhqghmdZaZggucfhf_gl\ ijhrehf

  E_gq aZdhgqbeky Lhf dmjbe kb]Zj_lm ;Zj[ZjZ kb^_eZ gZ ih^hdhggbd_k dgb]hc\ jmdZo >_ckl\b_\ lhqghmdZaZggucfhf_gl\ ijhrehf

  Y ij_^eh`be iha\hgblv _fm gh hgb kdZaZeb qlh l_e_nhg g_ jZ[hlZ_l >_ckl\b_ijhbkoh^beh\ i_jbh^\j_f_gbdhlhjucgZqZekyb aZdhgqbeky\ ijhrehf   Y aZ]eygme\ dZ[bg_lhlpZHgjZ[hlZe >_ckl\b_\ lhqghmdZaZggucfhf_gl\ ijhrehf

  HgZ fgh]h iml_r_kl\h\ZeZ dh]^Z [ueZ fheh^Zy" J_]meyjgh ih\lhjy\r__ky^_ckl\b_   Jh[_jlqZklhb]jZegZ]blZj_b i_ek\hbex[bfu_i_kgb J_]meyjghih\lhjy\r__ky^_ckl\b_   IhklZ\vl_ ]eZ]heu \ kdh[dZo \ gm`gmx nhjfm 3DVW 3URJUHVVLYHbeb3DVW6LPSOH 1) phoned, was doing; 2) met, was working; 3) asked, was watching; 4) was driving, had; 5) were doing, found.  IhklZ\vl_ ]eZ]heu \ kdh[dZo \ gm`gmx nhjfm 3DVW 3URJUHVVLYHbeb3DVW6LPSOH 1) opened, started; 2) were enjoying, went; 3) heard, began; 4) were talking, heard; 5) heard, ran; 6) was checking, called; 7) were writing, rang; 8) broke in, were sleeping; 9) ran off, swimming; 10) was shopping, lost; 11) was playing, broke; 12) met, were working. IhklZ\vl_]eZ]heu\ kdh[dZo\ gm`gmxnhjfm 1) was phoning, arrived; 2) was opening, rang; 3) was, saw; 4) was doing, saw; 5) cut, was shaving; 6) read, went; 7) did wait; 8) was, noticed; 9) were you doing; 10) was walking, started; 11) sat, began; 12) came, looked, went; 13) was she laughing, saw; 14) had, was laughing; 15) were waiting, arrived; 16) was coming; 17) was having, started. I_j_\_^bl_gZZg]ebckdbcyaud 1) How did he used to spend his evenings when he lived in London? 2) When he came he would stay at our place. 3) She lost her keys while she was walking to school. 4) When he looked at her she was crying. 5) I met Meggy when she was walking home. She was leaving on Friday. 6) She thought that Mark was joking. 128


7) Everyone was looking at Carry when I entered. 8) He didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t used to call me so early. 9) She was busy when I came to her yesterday. She was getting ready for her exams. 10) He came to me yesterday when I was taking a shower. 11) She used to travel a lot when she was young, didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t she? Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku  Kb^g_c²kZfuc[hevrhcb kZfucklZjuc]hjh^\ :\kljZebb" Yes, it is.  Kdhevdhq_eh\_d`b\_l\ Kb^g__" Nearly four million people live in Sydney.  Hldm^Zjh^hf[hevrbgkl\h`bl_e_c" Most of the residents are English in background.  Hldm^Zjh^hfq_l\_jlvgZk_e_gby" A quarter f the residents were born overseas.  ;hevrbgkl\hex^_c\ :\kljZebb]h\hjylihZg]ebckdbg_lZdeb" Yes, they do.  GZdZdbo_s_yaudZo]h\hjylfgh]b_ex^b" Italian, Greek, Arabic / Lebanese, Chinese and Spanish are commonly spoken.  Qlhijb\e_dZ_llmjbklh\\ Kb^g__" Sydneyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s natural beauty attracts tourists from all over the world.  DZdhc\ Kb^g__debfZl" In Sydney the climate is temperate and warm with sunshine most of the days.  Qlhfh`ghm\b^_lv\ AhhiZjd_LZjhg]Z" Feathers, fangs, fur and fins can be found in the Tarongf Zoo.  =^_[m^mlijh\h^blvkyHebfibckdb_B]ju]h^Z"Ihq_fm" The 2000 Olympic Games will be held in Sydney because Sydney is then city of sport. 5. travelled, did, went, was, learned, learned, took, went, spent, sunbathed, swam, were, twisted, fell, cut, gave in, came, recognized, looked, went, visited, speak, understand, stayed, travelled, did, made, spent, had to, lives, needs, kept, picked, made, taught. Ijhreufe_lhfy fgh]himl_r_kl\h\Zeb ^_eZefgh`_kl\hjZaguo \_s_c< bxg_y ihr_e\ ihoh^Wlh[uehgZklhys__ijbdexq_gb_ Y gZmqbekyklZ\blviZeZldmb jZa\h^blvdhklj_Y lZd`_gZmqbeky b]jZlv gZ ]blZj_ b i_e jZagu_ ohjhrb_ i_kgb Y k^_eZe fgh]h nhlh]jZnbck\hbo^jma_cb k_[y FuieZ\ZebgZ[Zc^ZjdZofgh]b_bagZkijh\_ebfgh]h\j_f_gbgZ ju[Zed_GZfih\_aehk ih]h^hcb fuaZ]hjZebb fgh]hdmiZebkv

Lesson 4

129


Dhg_qgh[ueb b g_dhlhju_ijhbkr_kl\byH^bg ba gZrbo ^jma_c ih^\_jgme gh]m ^jm]hc miZe b jZa[be dhe_gh gh \k_ ohjhrh qlhohjhrhdhgqZ_lkyFug_k^Z\Zebkvb \_jgmebkv^hfhc`b\ufb b a^hjh\ufb Fhb jh^bl_eb k ljm^hf magZeb f_gy y [ue lZdbf kbevgufb y]hj^bekykh[hc < bxe_y kjh^bl_eyfbih_oZeaZ]jZgbpmFuihk_lbeb=heeZg^bxEx^blZf]h\hjylih]heeZg^kdbghhgblZd`_ihgbfZxlZg]ebckdbcIh_a^dZ[ueZg_hq_gv^hjh]hcihlhfmqlhfuhklZgZ\eb\Zebkv \ ^_r_\uo ]hklbgbpZo b iml_r_kl\h\Zeb \ hkgh\ghf gZ Z\lh[mkZo FuhkfZljb\Zeb^hklhijbf_qZl_evghklbb ih^jm`bebkvkhfgh]bfbex^vfbFuijh\_eb\ =heeZg^bb^\_g_aZ[u\Z_fu_g_^_ebb gZgZkijhba\_eZh]jhfgh_\i_qZle_gb___ djZkhlZ < Z\]mkl_ fg_ ijbrehkv _oZlv d [Z[mrd_ HgZ `b\_l \ fZe_gvdhc ^_j_\g_ g_^Ze_dh hl gZr_]h ]hjh^Z M g__ [hevrhc kZ^ b ihwlhfm_cgm`gZfhyihfhsv\ k[hj_mjh`Zy;Z[mrdZg_^Z\ZeZfg_ hl^hogmlv<f_kl_fukh[bjZebnjmdlub h\hsbb ]hlh\beb\Zj_gv_ b khe_gvyHgZlZd`_gZmqbeZf_gykh[bjZlvy]h^ub ]jb[u Questions Did you travel this summer? Where did you go in June? Was it an adventure? What did you learn? Did you play the guitar? Did you take a lot of pictures of your friends? Were you lucky with the weather? Did you swim and sunbathe? Were there some mishaps? What happened to your friends? What did one of your friends twist? What did one of your friends cut? You came home safe and sound, didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t you? Where did you go in July? What language do people speak in Holland? Do they understand English? The trip was expensive, wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t it? Did you stay at guesthouses or at hotels? Did you travel by bus? How much time did you spend in Holland? Were you impressed? Where did you have to go in August? Where does your grandmother live? 130


Has she got a big garden? Why does she need you to help her with the harvest? Did your granny keep you busy all the time? What did you do together? What did she teach you to do?  IjhqblZcl_ jZkkdZa AZ^Zcl_ \hijhku >Zcl_ djZldh_ baeh`_gb_ IhkuedZ KZfhe_lhiha^Zeb ^_l_dlb\uijh`^Zeb\ Zwjhihjlm\k_mljhHgb `^Zeb\Z`gmxihkuedmk [jbeebZglZfbbaX`ghc:njbdbDh]^ZkZfhe_lijb[ueg_dhlhju_ba^_l_dlb\h\`^Zeb\ ]eZ\ghfa^Zgbb\ lh \j_fydZdhklZevgu_`^ZebgZZwjh^jhf_>\h_fm`qbg\ayebihkuedm k kZfhe_lZ b hlg_keb__ \ a^Zgb_lZfh`gb Dh]^Zhgbhldjueb ^jZ]hp_ggmxihkuedmhgZ[ueZgZiheg_gZdZfgyfbb i_kdhf 1) Who was waiting? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Detectives were waiting. 2) How long were they waiting? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; They were waiting all morning. 3) What were they expecting? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; They were expecting a valuable parcel. 4) Did the plane arrive? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Yes, the plane arrived. 5) Where were the detectives waiting? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; They were waiting on the airfield and inside the main building. 6) Where did they carry the parcel? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; They carried the parcel into the Customs House. 7) What was there in the parcel? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; There were stones and sand. Detectives waited all morning at the airport for a valuable parcel with the diamonds to arrive. When the plane arrived they carried the parcel into the Customs house and opened it. There were only stones and sand. 1AZdhgqbl_ij_^eh`_gbybkihevamy 3UHVHQW3HUIHFW 1) He canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t call his friend because he has lost his note-book. 2) My mother canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t wear her dress because she has not finished it. 3) Mr Downey canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t read the newspaper because the stman has not delivered it. 4) Mrs Wolff canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t do anything because she has just learned about her sonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s illness. 5) I canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t fly to Australia because I havenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t got enough money yet. 2. 1) Have you ever eaten with chopsticks? 2) Have you ever been to Sydney? 3) Have you ever spoken to aborigine? 4) Have you ever flown to Australia? 5) Have you been to the theatre this month? 6) Has you English been improved lately?

Lesson 5

131


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132


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IhklZ\vl_]eZ]heu\ kdh[dZonhjfm3UHVHQW3HUIHFWb 3DVW Simple. 1) A. Have you seen it? B. Saw; 2) went, havenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t been; 3) A. Have met, B. have been; 4) A. Have tried, B. Left. IhklZ\vl_]eZ]heu\ gm`gmxnhjfm 1) have travelled; 2) has never called; 3) did he call; 4) played, was, have played; 5) has heard; 6) has flown; 7) havenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t seen; 8) have ever spoken to; 9) lived, moved; 10) have not had, has been ill; 11) met; 12) hasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t gone; 13) have seen, did you see, was; 14) has published, did he publish; 15) has worked; 16) invented; 17) did Pushkin write; 18) have gone; 19) has opened; 20) has broken, did it happen. I_j_\_^bl_gZZg]ebckdbcyaud I. â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Hello, Dick! I havenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t seen you for ages. Youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve been to England, havenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t you? When were you there? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; I was there in October. 133


â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Did you go alone? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Yes, I did. â&#x20AC;&#x201D; What cities have you visited? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; I spent a week in London, then I went to Brighton. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the best resort I have ever seen. â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Have you been to Coventry? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Yes, I have, i liked the cathedral very much. Have you heard about it before? II. 1) I used to play tennis often. 2) Carrie has been often ill lately. 3) ÂŤHow is Tom?Âť â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ÂŤI donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know. He hasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t called yet.Âť 4) ÂŤHave you seen her today?Âť â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ÂŤYes, I have. We dined together at a restaurantÂť. 5) Look John has bought a new car. I have never seen such a car before. 6) Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the most interesting book I have ever read. 7) Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the most tasty cake, I have ever eaten. 8) ÂŤHave you seen him this week?Âť â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ÂŤNo, I havenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;tÂť. â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ÂŤWhen did you see?Âť â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ÂŤI saw him last month.Âť 9) I have met Sabby recently. She looks fine. 10) Somebody is screaming. What has happened 11) ÂŤWhatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the news?Âť â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ÂŤMy sister has bought a new flat.Âť â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ÂŤHave they bought furniture?Âť â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ÂŤNo, they havenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;tÂť. 12) Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m going to a party today. But I havenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t bought a prsent yet. 13) She has been often ill lately. 14) Jane has visited two countries this year. It was magnificent. IhklZ\vl_]eZ]heu\ kdh[dZo\ ijZ\bevgmxnhjfmI_j_\_^bl_gZjmkkdbcyaudI_j_kdZ`bl_jZkkdZa Ih_a^dZ\ :\kljZebx Ebg^Z ihemqbeZ ibkvfh hl k\h_]h [jZlZ JbqZj^Z Hg \ :\kljZebbHg gZoh^blky lZf m`_ r_klv f_kyp_\ JbqZj^ ² bg`_g_j Hg jZ[hlZ_l \ djmighc nbjf_ b m`_ ihk_lbe fgh]h jZaebqguo f_kl \ :\kljZebbHglhevdhqlhdmibeZ\kljZebckdmxfZrbgmb kt_a^be\ Webk Kijbg]a fZe_gvdbc ]hjh^hd \ p_glj_ :\kljZebb JbqZj^ gbdh]^Z g_ [ue aZ ]jZgbp_c ^h wlh]h ihwlhfm ih_a^dZ [ueZ ^ey g_]h m\e_dZl_evghc Has received, has been, working, has visited, has bought, went, has never been, found. 1) Sydney is the oldest and largest city in Australia. 2) The population is four million people. 3) The population is mainly English in background. 4) English is the main language spoken< but one in five Australians speak also Italian, Greek, Arabic, Lebanese, Chinese or Spanish. 134


5) Mediterranean climate, galleries, museums, architecture and parks attract tourists to Sydney. <u[_jbl_ijZ\bevguchl\_l  Wlhll_dklh >`_cfk_Dmd_ Kb^g__ Dhjhe_:g]ebb Bklhjbb:\kljZebb  Q_eh\_dhldju\rbc:\kljZebx\ukZ^beky D k_\_jmhlKb^g_y < Gh\hfX`ghfMwevk_ D \hklhdmhlwd\ZlhjZ  Q_eh\_dhldju\rbc:\kljZebxij_^ty\beijZ\ZgZg__^ey Dhjhey>Zgbb Dhjhey:g]ebb DhjheyNjZgpbb   DZiblZg :jlmj Nbebii dhfZg^h\Ze dhjZ[eyfb ieu\rbfb \ :\kljZebxihlhfmqlh ;ue\ukhdbcmjh\_gv[_ajZ[hlbpu Ij_klmighklv[ueZh^ghcbagZb\Z`g_crboijh[e_f Lxjvfu[uebi_j_iheg_gu  I_j\u_ihk_e_gpu[ueb =j_dZfb =heeZg^pZfb :g]ebqZgZfb :[hjb]_gZfb  Ex^bmklj_fbebkv\ :\kljZebxihlhfmqlh ;ueZh[gZjm`_gZg_nlv LZf[uel_ieucdebfZl ;uehh[gZjm`_ghahehlh  :\kljZebyklZeZqZklvx;jblZgkdhcbfi_jbbijb dhjhe_\_<bdlhjbb dhjhe_=_gjbo_9,,, dhjhe_\_?ebaZ\_l_,,  :\kljZebyklZeZg_aZ\bkbfhc <  <  <  <  Homework 1.  LujZa]h\Zjb\Z_rvihl_e_nhgmm`_[he__ihemqZkZ IRU

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 AZihegbl_ ijh[_eu ]eZ]heZfb \ nhjf_ 3UHVHQW 3HUIHFW Progressive. 1) Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve been waiting; 2) I have been studying; 3) They have been playing; 4) have been watching; 5) has been working; 6) have been walking. IhklZ\vl_]eZ]heu\ kdh[dZo\ gm`gmxnhjfm 1) has been teaching; 2) have been dancing; 3) has been learning; 4) has been raining; 5) have been waiting; 6) have you been working; 7) it has been raining; 8) has been crying; 9) has he been looking.  H[t_^bgbl_ iZju ij_^eh`_gbc bkihevamy 3UHVHQW 3HUIHFW Progressive 1) She has been writing a letter for an hour. 2) They have been talking since morning. 3) It has been raining for half an hour. 4) She has been cooking for 2 hours. 5) He has been making fire for 20 minutes. 6) He has been making pictures for half an hour.  IhklZ\vl_ ]eZ]heu \ kdh[dZo \ gm`gmx nhjfm 3UHVHQW 3HUIHFW3URJUHVVLYHbeb3UHVHQW3HUIHFW 1) have been learning; 2) have done; 3) ]has loved; 4) has written; 5) have been working; 6) have been catching, has caught; 7) have been saving, has saved; 8) do know, have known; 9) have been talking; 10) have been talking, havenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t finished; 11) has been; 12) has bought; 13) has been thinking; 14) have had, have had.

Lesson 6 Quiz  IhklZ\vl_ ]eZ]heu \ kdh[dZo \ gm`gmx nhjfm 3UHVHQW 3HUIHFW3URJUHVVLYHbeb3UHVHQW3HUIHFW 1) have been; 2) havenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t seen; 3) have been cooking, cleaning, digging; 4) have been sitting; 5) have not been standing; 6) have been; 7) have known; 8) have seen. I_j_\_^bl_gZZg]ebckdbcyaud 1) We have been in this shop for 20 minutes already and we havenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t bought anything yet. 136


2) ÂŤWhat is he doing?Âť â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ÂŤHeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s playing tennisÂť. â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ÂŤHow long has he been playing?Âť â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ÂŤHe has been playing for 2 hoursÂť. â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ÂŤhow many games has he already played?Âť 3) they have been travelling for 2 weeks and have called twice. 4) ÂŤLook! Her bathing suit is wet.Âť â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ÂŤIt means that she has been swimmingÂť. 5) ÂŤWhereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Molly?Âť â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ÂŤShe is illÂť. â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ÂŤSince when has she been ill? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ÂŤShe has been ill since ThursdayÂť. 6) They have already discussed the first question and now they are discussing the second one. They have been discussing it for an hour already. 7) Your eyes are red. Have yon been crying? IhklZ\vl_]eZ]heu\ kdh[dZo\ gm`gmxnhjfmI_j_\_^bl_ gZZg]ebckdbcyaud We have just moved to a new flat. We have been working hard all the morning. We tried to get our new room in order. We own over a thousand books and the room is rather small, so we put the books on the floor. At the moment they are covering every inch of the floor space and we have to walk on them to get in or out the room. When Liz saw all these books on the floor, she said: ÂŤThis is the prettiest carpet I have ever seen.Âť She gazed it for some time then added: ÂŤYou do not need bookcases at all. You can just sit here in your spare time and read the carpet. Fu lhevdh qlh i_j__oZeb \ gh\mx d\Zjlbjm Fu jZ[hlZeb \k_ mljhFuklZjZebkvijb\_klbgZrmgh\mxdhfgZlm\ ihjy^hdM gZk hdhehlukyqbdgb]Z dhfgZlZ ^h\hevghfZe_gvdZyihwlhfmfuiheh`bebdgb]bgZihe< gZklhysbcfhf_glhgbihdju\ZxldZ`^uc ^xcfijhkljZgkl\ZgZihemb gZfijboh^blky oh^blvihgbfqlh[u \hclb \ dhfgZlm beb \uclb ba g__ Dh]^Z Eba m\b^_eZ \k_ wlb dgb]bgZihemhgZkdZaZeZŠWlhkZfucdjZkb\ucdh\_jdhlhjucy dh]^Zeb[h \b^_eZÂŞ HgZ kfhlj_eZ gZ g_]h dZdh_lh \j_fy Z aZl_f ^h[Z\beZŠ<Zf\hh[s_g_gm`gudgb`gu_rdZnu<ufh`_l_ijhklhijboh^blvkx^Z\ k\h[h^gh_\j_fyb qblZlvdh\_jÂŞ 3  GZc^bl_ \ l_dkl_ ke_^mxsb_ ij_^eh`_gby b ijhqlbl_ bo \kemo 1) Australia is located in the southern hemisphere. 2) Australia is situated south of Asia, between the Pacific and the Indian Oceans. 3) Huge areas of land are so dry that they are uninhabited. 4) Desert in the centre and fertile croplands in the south and south-west. 5) Australia is a very urban state. 6) It is an island-state. 7) The Australian government plays a lot of attention to the preservation of the environment. 8) Australia has participated in all Olympic Games since they were organized. 137


 AZ^Zcl_  \hijhkh\ d l_dklm b bkihevamcl_ bo dZd ieZg ^eyi_j_kdZaZ 1) In which hemisphere is Australia located? 2) Why are huge areas are uninhabited. 3) Is Australia the second flattest continent? 4) Is Australia an urban country? 5) Where is the 70% of population live? 6) Which state is separated from the continent of Australia? 7) What is paid a lot of attention now? 8) Why are new trees being planted all over Australia? 9) Do Australians love sports? 10) Where were the Olympic Games held in 1956? Homework 2. Ijhqlbl_\kemoH[tykgbl_mihlj_[e_gb_3DVW3HUIHFWI_j_\_^bl_gZjmkkdbcyaud   Hg kijhkbe f_gy aZ\ljZdZe eb y >_ckl\b_ kh\_jr_ggh_ ^h ^jm]h]h^_ckl\by\ujZ`_ggh]h3DVW6LPSOH   HgZ[ueZm\_j_gZqlhhggbdh]^Z^hwlh]hg_\jZe_c >_ckl\b_kh\_jr_ggh_^h^jm]h]h^_ckl\by\ujZ`_ggh]h3DVW6LPSOH

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5. 1) I didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t watch the film because I had seen it before. 2) I didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know Michael. In fact I had never met him before. 3) I couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t let Sally my book because I had left it at home. 4) I knew London well because I had lived there for years. 5) I felt so bad, I was sure I had caught a cold. 6) John couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t go to work because he had caught a cold. 7) We donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t live in Colchester any more. We had moved to Oxford.

Lesson 7 2. IhklZ\vl_]eZ]heu\ kdh[dZo\ gm`gmxnhjfm 1) had met; 2) got, had learnt; 3) had seen, came; 4) had passed; 5) had gone; 60 invited, was, had promised; 7) offered, refused, had had; 8) had entered, rang; 9) felt, came, went; 10) had heard, decided. I_j_\_^bl_gZZg]ebckdbcyaud 1) ÂŤWhy didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t you invite Jane to the cinems yesterday?Âť â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ÂŤShe had already seen the filmÂť. 2) She had watched the film and was telling her friend about it. 3) Whe Liz came home she remembered that she had left the keys at the office. 4) He remembered John. John had been his friend for 20 years. 5) Betsy had dinner and turned on the TV set. 6) Peter had shaved and was looking for his shirt. 139


7) After the guests ahd left she went to bed. 8) She said that she hadn’t seen him for two weeks. 9) He was very tired. He had worked since morning. 10) Before they moved to Tomsk they had lived in Krosnoyarsk for 10 years. 11) Hardly had he posted the letter when he got a fax.

Lesson 8 Test (2d level) < g_dhlhjuoij_^eh`_gbyo_klvhrb[dbGZc^bl_bob bkijZ\vl_ 1) I have known Dima for a long time. 2) He has been here for 2 hours already. 3) Does it often rain in autumn? 4) Who is playing in the yard? 5) Does your father work? 6) Where were you on Sunday? 7) — (correct) 8) He is running faster than his friend. 9) Many European kids drink soft drinks, don’t they? 10) There are a lot of passengers at customs, aren’t there? 11) — (correct) 12) when I came she was writing a letter. 13) He had written his letter by 10 o’clock yesterday. 14) After he had read the book, he wrote a composition. 15) He was eating a sandwich when I saw him. 16) What had you done by 5 o’clock last night? 17) Where is he going tomorrow? 18) Who was singing when you came? 19) Has he been your friend since childhood? 20) While Mrs Garret was making a cake, Natalie cleaned the rooms. I_j_\_^bl_gZZg]ebckdbcyaud 1) She met Den when she was doing the shopping. 2) She won’t go to the party if she doesn’t have a new dress. 3) Steven Spielberg will have made a new film by the end of the 1998. 4) She read in the book that the Romans were the first to invade Britain. 5) «How many films have you seen this month?» — «I have seen three films». 6) «Do you hear anything?» — «No, I have been listening for a minute but I don’t hear anything». 7) I have been doing my homework for an hour already when my friend called. 8) After Betsy has cooked diner she will go shopping. 140


9) She knew that she had made a mistake. 10) ÂŤWhat is she doing now?Âť â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ÂŤshe is on vacation. She has been on vacation for a moth already.Âť 11) While Mary was making coffee her daughter laid the table. 12) While he was making notes he remembered that he had left the book at home. 13) I had done my homework by 5 oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;clock yesterday, hadnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t I. 14) ÂŤHave they been to Australia?Âť â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ÂŤYes, they haveÂť. â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ÂŤHow long were they there?â&#x20AC;&#x2122; 15) ÂŤWho do you see now?Âť â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ÂŤI see you and your friend.Âť 16) ÂŤDoes he know this man?Âť â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ÂŤYes, he doesÂť. ÂŤHow long has he known him? IhklZ\vl_]eZ]heu\ gm`gmxnhjfm a) are playing, play, is kicking, is running, is looking, do not like. b) Died, left, spent, bought, went, stayed, listened gave, kept, lost. c) Have received, has been, has lived, has visited, has visited, has bought. d) 1) did you buy. 2) has never sent. 3) have you had. 4) fought. 5) have just won. _  1) was leaving, arrived. 2) worked, was sitting (sat). 3) Was walking, met. 4) Was reading, heard. 5) Was watching. IhklZ\vl_keh\Z\ ijZ\bevghfihjy^d_qlh[uihemqbeky \hijhk 1) Why does he call often? 2) Where did he go last year? 3) Do your children come from school late or early? 4) When is he coming tomorrow? 5) By what time had he translated the text yesterday? 6) Who sent him the letter last week? 7) What were they doing at 5 oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;clock yesterday? 8) Who was at her birthday party last year? 9) What have they already done? 10) What will you do if he calls you tomorrow? IhklZ\vl_]eZ]heu\ gm`gmxnhjfmAZ^Zcl_\hijhkh\d l_dklm Lived, had, said, will bake, wet, put, mixed, remembered, had not put, did, put, was, lay, opened, hopped, left, run, can, tried, cried, will stop, catch, met, had lived, ate. 1) did the old woman and the old man have children? 2) What did the woman want to bake? 3) What did she do in the kitchen? 4) What did the woman forget to put? 5) What did the boy do when the old woman open the oven? 6) What did the boy cried when the woman ran after hik? 7) What did the animals try to do?

141


Test (3d level) 1I_j_\_^bl_gZZg]ebckdbcyaud 1) «Where is Mary? I don’t see her.» — «She is talking to my friend.» 2) When Sasha and Olga were flying to Australia, they met a lot of Russians. 3) He called me yesterday when I was taking a shower. 4) She used to travel a lot in her youth, didn’t she / 5) They had already arrived in Australia, when their parents received the telegram. 6) «Are you listening to radio?’ — «No, I’m not. You can turn it off». 7) When Betsy called, Tom had already left. 8) She had arrived in London and now she was looking for her friends’ house. 9) No sooner had Sasha and Olga entered the zoo, when they saw a kangaroo. 10) Who knows this man? 11) They won’t go in car, if it’s late. 12) No one knew when his plane had arrived. 13) This train arrived at 8 p.m. 14) How long have you been working for this firm? 15) There will be many friends of her daughter. 16) Robin hoped that Caroline had already come. 17) I don’t know if Robert will receive the letter tomorrow. 18) How do you feel? 19) Sasha and Olga’ parents were happy that the children had flown successfully. 20) «You look tired.» — «I have been working much today.» 21) He doesn’t understand her because she speaks English fluently. 22) Where’s Mary? I haven’t seen her lately. 23) Speak louder. She doesn’t hear you. 24) Hardly had he entered the room when the phone rang. 25) He is writing a book about Australia now.  IhklZ\vl_ ]eZ]heu \ gm`gmx nhjfm Ijhqlbl_ jZkkdZa b aZ^Zcl_\hijhkh\d l_dklm Was, did, travelled, went, had been, was, was, would miss, asked, got, fell, woke, was, looked, was, got, didn’t understand, had not woken, asked, hadn’t woken, looked, told, had done, was approaching, woke, didn’t want, put, finished, put. 1) Did Mark Twain do a lot of travelling? 2) Why was he very sleepy and tired? 3) What did he ask the guard to do? 4) Where was the train when he woke up? 5) What couldn’t he understand? 142


60 What did the guard do when the train was approaching the town? 7) Why didn’t the American want to get off the train? < g_dhlhjuoij_^eh`_gbyo_klvhrb[dbGZc^bl_bob bkijZ\vl_ 1) We will do nothing unless he comes in time. 2) I don’t hear you. 3) — 4) he wrote a composition for 3 hours yesterday. 5) — 6) he likes apples, doesn’t he? 7) I want to buy this book. 8) Does it often snow in winter? 9) We met at 5 o’clock at his office. 10) He didn’t used to call so early, did he? 11) You have never been to America, have you? 12) They built this house in 1997. 13) Where did you see him? 14) Nobody knows when he is coming. 15) Helen was watching the film when Fred called. 16) — 17) no sooner had he heard the news when Maggie called. 18) They have a dog and a cat. 19) They had lived in Brighton before they moved to Liverpool. 20) He said that he had lost his key. 21) I didn’t know that Sally had already seen this film. 22) «How long have they been in England?» — «they have been in England for 2 months and are not coming back yet.» 23) Who knows this man? 24) Tom had been playing football for 2 years when he joined the sports club. 25) He had been watching TV for an hour when his parents came.

Lesson 9 3 4. was impressed — impress, Past Simple Passive are given — give, Present Simple Passive am impressed — impress, Present Simple Passive is surrounded — surround, Present Simple Passive had been cut- cut, Present Simple Passive had been lost — lose, Present Simple Passive are being planted- plant, Present Progressive Passive was surprised — surprise, Past Simple Passive were born — bear, Past Simple Passive 143


is located- locate, Present Simple Passive was built â&#x20AC;&#x201D; build, Past Simple Passive Homework AZihegbl_ijh[_eu\ lZ[ebp_ How often is the room cleaned? By whom was the first computer invented?

The first computer was invented by Charles Babbage in 1823. â&#x20AC;&#x201D; I_j\uc dhfivxl_j bah[j_e QZjeva;Z[bq\ ]h^m

The problem was being discussed ZKHQ .LP FDOOHG Hgb h[km`^Zeb ijh[_fmdh]^Ziha\hgb^ZDbf

Will the students be examined in May? Is the baby being Why is the baby bebathed now? ing bathed now?

Has the contract been signed by John Wilson? Why had his friend been arrested? When will the money have been paid?

 I_j_\_^bl_ k Zg]ebckdh]h gZ jmkkdbc yaud Ih^q_jdgbl_ dhgkljmdpbbkhkljZ^Zl_evgufaZeh]hf3UHVHQW6LPSOH3DTVVLYH Past Simple Passive, Future Simple Passive.  LVGUXQN DhdZdhemivxl\h\k_ffbj_   ZDVVROG Wlmdgb]mijh^Zeb^\Zf_kypZgZaZ^   ZDVKHDWHGDQGWDNHQ Fhjkdmx\h^mih^h]j_\Zebb ibebk fhehdhf   ZLOOEHPHW < Zwjhihjlmbo\klj_lylbo^jmavy   ZDVWROG H q_fjZkkdZaZebFZjbg_"

 LVWDONHG Ihq_fmh[wlhcdgb]_lZdfgh]h]h\hjyl"

 ZLOOEHLQYLWHG FZjbgmijb]eZkylgZ\_q_jbgdm"

 LVYLVLWHG DZ`^uc]h^Ehg^hgihk_sZxllukyqblmjbklh\g_ lZdeb"

 I_j_\_^bl_ k Zg]ebckdh]h gZ jmkkdbc yaud Ih^q_jdgbl_ dhgkljmdpbb kh kljZ^Zl_evguf aZeh]hf 3UHVHQW 3URJUHVVLYH Passive, Past Progressive Passive  LVEHLQJODXJKHG Ihq_fmgZ^gbfkf_xlky"

  ZHUH EHLQJ DVNHG Dh]^Z fu ijb[ueb bo jZkkijZrb\Zeb h bo ih_a^d_\ ?]bi_l  144


 LVEHLQJORRNHG =^_fhykh[ZdZ"AZg_ck_cqZkijb]ey^u\Zxl ijZ\^Z"

 ZDVEHLQJW\SHG DZdhc^hdmf_gli_qZlZebdh]^Zlu\hr_e   ZDVEHLQJGLVFXVVHG H[km`^Zeb_]hij_^eh`_gb_dh]^Zhgiha\hgbe   ZDVEHLQJEDNHG IhdZibjh]i_dkyhgbm[bjZebdhfgZlm   LVEHLQJID[HG KfhljbIhnZdkmi_j_^ZxldhgljZdl   I_j_\_^bl_ k Zg]ebckdh]h gZ jmkkdbc yaud Ih^q_jdgbl_ dhgkljmdpbbkhkljZ^Zl_evgufaZeh]hf3UHVHQW3HUIHFW3DVVLYH Past Perfect Passive, Future Perfect Passive.  KDVEHHQWDONHG H _]hgh\hcdgb]_fgh]h]h\hjbeb\ ihke_^g__ \j_fy   KDYHEHHQVROG Kdhevdhdgb][uehijh^Zgh\ wlhff_kyp_"

 ZLOOKDYHEHHQVROG WlZdgb]Z[m^_lijh^ZgZd dhgpmwlhcg_^_ebg_lZdeb"

 KDGEHHQWDXJKW HgkdZaZeqlhh[mqZekyZg]ebckdhfmyaudmm ghkbl_eyyaudZ   KDGEHHQVSHQW Kdhevdh^_g_][uehihljZq_ghij_`^_q_f\u h[gZjm`bebqlhijhbkoh^bl"

 KDVQRWEHHQOLYHG < dhfgZl_g_`bebf_kyp    KDV EHHQ DFFHSWHG FZjbgZ kqZkleb\Z ?_ ijbgyeb \ :g]ebckdbcMgb\_jkbl_l  AZihegbl_lZ[ebpmIjhqlbl_\kemo

Lesson 10

Impression Pedestrian Rarely Traffic Surround Nest Species Garbage Citizen Recycle Overseas Migrate harbour

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; [pi'destri n] [ â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;re li] â&#x20AC;&#x201D; â&#x20AC;&#x201D; [nest] [â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;spi: i:z] â&#x20AC;&#x201D; [â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;sitizn] [riâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;saikl] [â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;ouv â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;si:z] â&#x20AC;&#x201D; â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

<i_qZle_gb_ I_r_oh^ J_^dh Mebqgh_^\b`_gb_ Hdjm`Zlv =g_a^blvky <b^u Fmkhj =jZ`^Zgbg I_j_jZ[Zlu\Zlv AZ]jZgbp_c I_j_k_eylvky [molZ

I_j_\_^bl_keh\Z\ kdh[dZogZZg]ebckdbcyaudIjhqlbl_\kemoI_j_\_^bl_gZjmkkdbcyaud  FLWL]HQVZHUHERUQ Fgh]b_ba]jZ`^Zg:\kljZebbjh^bebkvaZ ]jZgbp_c   /DQH Kms_kl\m_lki_pbZevgZy^hjh`dZ^eyZ\lh[mkh\b lZdkb  145


  3HGHVWULDQV <h^bl_eb hklZgZ\eb\Zxl fZrbgu b `^ml ihdZ i_r_oh^ui_j_c^ml^hjh]m    3URWHFWVSHFLHV ?keb fu g_ [m^_f hojZgylv ijbjh^m fgh]b_ \b^ubkq_agml    5HF\FOLQJ ELQV Kms_kl\mxl ki_pbZevgu_ dhgl_cg_ju ^ey k[hjZ\lhjkujvy    3DVVHQJHU IHUULHV LQ 6\GQH\ +DUERXU KZrZ h[jZlbe \gbfZgb_ gZ[hevrh_dhebq_kl\hiZkkZ`bjkdboiZjhfh\\ Kb^g_ckdhc[mol_   ,VVXUURXQGHG Kb^g_chdjm`_ggZpbhgZevgufbiZjdZfb  2OJDZDVLPSUHVVHGZLWK GZHev]mijhba\_eh\i_qZle_gb_qlh \k_\_`eb\ub ]hlh\uihfhsv  +DGEHHQFXW HgbhkhagZebqlhkebrdhffgh]h^_j_\v_\[ueh\ujm[e_gh  10) Was surprised that it was autumn in Australia, and it was winter DWKRPH Hev]Z[ueZm^b\e_gZqlh\ :\kljZebbhk_gvZ ^hfZabfZ  3. 1) He should go to Australia. He will be impressed by the beauty of this country. 2) The house is surrounded by gardens. 3) He said that some species had been protected since 1990s. 4) This part of the town was being separated when we came here 2 years ago. 5) The system will have been improved by the end of this year.

Lesson 11 2. Quiz IhklZ\vl_]eZ]he\ gm`gmxnhjfmkljZ^Zl_evgh]haZeh]Z 1) was; 2) will be ; 3) is being; 4) will be ; 5) was; 6) was being; 7) was; 8) had been; 9) has been. AZ^Zcl_\hijhkugZqbgZxsb_kykhke_^mxsbokeh\ 1) Will the money be spent on books? On what will the money be spent? 2) why are the hotels in Frankfurt fully booked?Âť 3) can the work be done in two days? In how many days can the work be done? 4) Must the letter be sent immediately? What must be sent immediately? 5) to whom has the contract just been faxed? I_j_^_eZcl_ij_^eh`_gby\kljZ^Zl_evgucaZeh] The letter was shown to his mother by Mike. The gate is locked every night by Sabby. Interviews will be held by them in September. The house has been sold by the Smiths this month. A letter is being translated from Russian into English by her. 146


When he entered the last student was being interviewed. <u[_jbl_ijZ\bevguchl\_lb ijhqlbl__]h\kemo  Wlhll_dklh Kvxa_g;Zle_j Keh\Zj_FZdmbjb - :\kljZebckdhfZg]ebckdhf  Keh\ZjvFZdmbjb[ue\i_j\u_him[ebdh\Zg\ - 1931 - 1970 - 1981   :\kljZebckdbc Zg]ebckdbc hlebqZ_lky hl hklZevguo \ujbZglh\Zg]ebckdh]hyaudZihlhfmqlh I_j\u_hkm`^_ggu_b ihk_e_gpu]h\hjbebihZg]ebckdb I_j\u_hkm`^_ggu_b ihk_e_gpug_qblZebb g_ibkZeb  I_j\u_ hkm`^_ggu_ b ihk_e_gpu f_gyeb agZq_gb_ keh\Z beb aZbfkl\h\Zebgh\u_keh\Zdhlhju_m^h\e_l\hjyebboihlj_[ghklb Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku   DZdbf h[jZahf Zg]ebckdbc yaud jZkijhkljZgbeky \ :\kljZebb" $Q HDV\ ZD\ IRU (QJOLVK WR H[SDQG ZDV WR ERUURZ IURP WKH Aboriginal languages.   DZdb_ keh\Z [ueb aZbfkl\h\Zgu ba yaudZ Z[hjb]_gh\" 6XFK words as kangaroo, koala, kookaburra and wombat were borrowed from the Aboriginal languages.   Kms_kl\mxl eb yaudh\u_ jZaebqby f_`^m klZjrbf b fheh^uf ihdhe_gbyfb" DZdb_" <HV WKHUH DUH 7KH \RXQJHU JHQHUDWLRQ tends to take colloquialisms from America.   :\kljZebckdZy hjnh]jZnby khhl\_lkl\m_l [jblZgkdbf beb Zf_jbdZgkdbfljZ^bpbyf"7KHVSHOOLQJUHIOHFWV%ULWLVKWUDGLWLRQ  ?klveb\ebygb_Zf_jbdZgkdh]hZg]ebckdh]h"<HVWKHUHLV,WLV increasingly influenced by American English.

Lesson 12

Homework I_j_\_^bl_ke_^mxsb_l_dklugZjmkkdbcyaud Dhfivxl_ju  ijhbkoh`^_gb_ Bah[j_gghQZjeva;_j[bq GZpbhgZevghklv[jblZg_p >ZlZ P_evf_oZgbq_kdZykq_lgZyfZrbgZjZ[hlZxsZygZiZjm IjZjh^bl_ev \k_o kh\j_f_gguo dhfivxl_jh\ [ue bah[j_l_g QZjevahf;_j[bq_fHg^he`_g[ueijhba\h^blvkeh`gu_jZkq_lu b ZgZebabjh\Zlv bo ;jblZgkdh_ ijZ\bl_evkl\h kihgkbjh\Zeh 147


- qlh[u ihkljhblv _]h H]jhfgZy fZrbgZ ;_j[bqZ ^he`gZ [ueZ ijh]jZffbjh\Zlvky k dhfihklbjh\Zgghc [mfZ`ghc e_glu JZkq_lu ^he`gu [ueb ijhba\h^blvky k ihfhsvx lukyq \jZsZxsbokyam[qZluodhe_kbdh\^\b]ZxsbokyjuqZ]h\b ihjrg_c ?keb [u \k_ qZklb [ueb k^_eZgu ^_ckl\bl_evgh ijZ\bevgh hg [uf_^e_gghjZ[hlZeGhbog_k^_eZebijZ\bevgh

Ih\_jbl_eb\u" <  ]h^m bg`_g_ju Fma_y GZmdb \ Ehg^hg_ ihkljhbeb fZrbgm;_j[bqZHgZjZ[hlZeZ Dhfivxl_ju  ^hfZ Ihimeyjbah\Zguk^_eZgub aZims_guKwjDeZc\Kbgde_j GZpbhgZevghklv[jblZg_p >ZlZ P_ev ;ulv i_j\uf dhfivxl_jhf klhysbf f_gvr_  ^heeZjh\gZdhlhjhffh`ghmqblvky KwjDeZc\Kbgde_jg_bah[j_e^hfZrgbcdhfivxl_jghhgk^_eZe_]h^hklmigufijhklufex^yfHgk^_eZewlhkijh_dlbjh\Z\b kh[jZ\kZfuc^_r_\ucdhfivxl_j=;Kbg_de_jZ[ueijh^ZgaZ nmglh\kl_jebg]h\ M =;[ueZ\gmlj_ggyyiZfylv\k_]hdbeh[Zcl dbeh[Zcl² [ZclZh^bg[ZcljZ\_g[md\_bebpbnj_ M kh\j_f_gguodhfivxl_jh\iZfylvihf_gvr_cf_j_dbeh[Zcl =;[uefZe_gvdbck ieZklbdh\hcdeZ\bZlmjhchgihdZau\Ze ebgbbbaagZdh\gZ^hfZrg_fl_e_\bahj_Ghwlh[uedhfivxl_j

Ih\_jbl_eb\u" AZlhl]h^dh]^Z_]haZimklbebdhfivxl_jh\=;Kbge_jZ[uebijh^Zgug_dhlhju_^_r_\e_dZdijbklZ\dZ =;aZf_gbe=;Z aZl_f=;6SHFWUXPfgh]b_\k__s_\ mihlj_[e_gbb< ]h^mKbgde_jijh^Zek\hc[bag_knbjf_Š:fkljZ^ª Dhfivxl_ju  hkgh\gu_ijbgpbiu Dhfivxl_jkhklhblbafbeebhgh\\dexqZl_e_cb \udexqZl_e_c Dhfivxl_jm Š]h\hjylª qlh ^_eZlv yaudhf Š\dexqblv ² \udexqblvª \ ^_ckl\bl_evghklb Šª beb Šª Wlh gZau\Z_lky Š^\hbqguc dh^ª  beb  ² wlh hq_gv h]jZgbq_ggZy bgnhjfZpby h^bg [bl Dhfivxl_jmgm`gh\hk_fv[blh\qlh[ujZkihagZlv[md\mbebpbnjm h^bg [Zcl GZijbf_j  ² \hk_fv [blh\ ij_^klZ\eyxsboh^bg[Zcl < kh\j_f_gguodhfivxl_jZo\k_k^_eZghhq_gvfZe_gvdbf Fbeebhgu \dexqZl_e_c k bo kh_^bg_gbyfb gZi_qZlZgu gZ djhr_qguoŠqbiZoªbakbebdhgZdZdŠkh_^bg_ggu_ko_fuª

148


G_dhlhju_ Šqbiuª klZgh\ylky iZfylvx dhfivxl_jZ Ši_j_dexqZl_ebªkhojZgyxlbgnhjfZpbxb ]hlh\u__ \hkijhba\_klb>jm]b_ Šqbiuªbkihevamxlky^eybgkljmdpbc M dhfivxl_jZ^he`gu[ulvq_ldb_bgkljmdpbbWlbbgkljmdpbb gZau\Zxlkyijh]jZffhc wlhkeh\h\k_]^Zibr_lkylZd\ ebl_jZlmj_ h \uqbkebl_evghc l_ogbd_ bgh]^Z fu bgkljmdlbjm_f dhfivxl_ji_qZlZygZdeZ\bZlmj_Dhfivxl_jihdZau\Z_llhqlhfugZi_qZlZebgZŠmkljhckl\_ajbl_evgh]hhlh[jZ`_gbyªbebŠfhgblhj_ª Dhfivxl_ju  kh\j_f_gguci_jkhgZevgucdhfivxl_j Bah[j_l_g:c;bWf GZpbhgZevghklvZf_jbdZgpu >ZlZ P_evij_^hklZ\blvI_jkhgZevgucDhfivxl_j NbjfZ :c;bWf F_`^mgZjh^gu_ ;bag_k FZrbgu  aZimklbeZ ID\ ]h^m<kdhj_ihke_^h\Zebmemqr_ggu_\_jkbb ;Zah\ucIDbf_e\k_]hdbeh[Zclhi_jZlb\ghciZfylvHi_jZlb\gZyiZfylv²\kljh_ggZyiZfylvdhfivxl_jZbkihevam_fZy^ey ijh]jZffguo bgkljmdpbc ^ey jZ[hq_]h ijhkljZgkl\Z b ojZg_gby bgnhjfZpbb M i_j\h]hID[uelhevdh^bkdh\h^>bkd_lu²kj_^kl\ZaZibkb ijh]jZffb mkljhckl\h\u\h^ZbgnhjfZpbb < ^bkdh\h^_^bkd_lukqblu\Zxlkyb aZibku\ZxlkyHgbgZau\ZxlkyŠ]b[dbfb^bkdZfbªihlhfmqlhbagZqZevgh]gblZdbfbb [ueb K_]h^gy ^bkdb \ [hevrbf [_klhf ^ey ojZg_gby bgnhjfZpbb \kljh_gu\ [hevrbgkl\hdhfivxl_jh\ Ih\_jbl_eb\u" ;hevrbgkl\hi_jkhgZevguodhfivxl_jh\\ fbj_y\eyxlky Š:c;bWfªkh\f_klbfucghk^_eZguhgbjZagufbnbjfZfb ;hevrbgkl\h dhff_jq_kdbo ijh]jZff ² we_dljhggZy h[jZ[hldZ l_dklZ djmighnhjfZlgZylZ[ebpZb l^gZibkZgu^eydhfivxl_jh\:c;bWfkh\f_klbfuo Dhfivxl_ju  dhfivxl_jgu_ijh]jZffu Dhfivxl_ju^_eZxllhevdhlhqlhbf]h\hjylQZklhfuohlbf qlh[udhfivxl_j^_eZeh^gm b lm`_ \_svkgh\Z b kgh\ZIhwlhfm \uimkdZxlkyklZg^Zjlgu_bgkljmdpbb²ijh]jZffu KgZqZeZ \ijhq_f dhfivxl_jm gm`gh agZlv \ dZdhc qZklb _]h \kljh_gghc iZfylb ojZgblv bgnhjfZpbx b dZd k g_c jZ[hlZlv Hkgh\gZy ijh]jZffZ gZau\Z_lky hi_jZpbhggZy kbkl_fZ beb hi_jZpbhggZykbkl_fZ^bkdZ  H^ghcihimeyjghckbkl_fhcij_^klZ\e_gghc:c;bWfIDy\ey_lky'26 khdjZs_gghhlhi_jZpbhggZykbkl_fZ^bkdZFbdjhkhnl  Ihke_^gb_ mkh\_jr_gkl\h\Zgb_ 06'26 iha\hey_l \Zf ]h\hjblv 149


dhfivxl_jmqlh^_eZlvmdZau\ZygZkeh\Z \_sbbebdZjlbgdb gZ wdjZg_WlZijhklZykbkl_fZgZau\Z_lky:LQGRZV Dh]^Zdhfivxl_jihemqZ_lhi_jZpbhggu_bgkljmdpbbhgfh`_l [ulvaZijh]jZffbjh\Zg^_eZlvfgh]b_\_sbIhimeyjgu_ijh]jZffu \dexqZxl h[jZ[hldm l_dklZ [Zau ^Zgguo lZ[ebpu b ]jZnbq_kdb_ijh]jZffu Ijh]jZffuh[jZ[hldbl_dklZ[_amij_qgh\hkijhba\h^ylgZi_qZlZggh_keh\h ;Zau^ZgguoojZgylfZkkmbgnhjfZpbb²^eye_]dh]h^hklmiZ Ijh]jZffuk lZ[ebpZfbojZgylb \hkijhba\h^ylpbnju =jZnbq_kdb_ijh]jZffukhklZ\eyxl]jZnbdbb ^bZ]jZffu L_kl mjh\_gv

I_j_\_^bl_jZkkdZagZZg]ebckdbcyaudI_j_kdZ`bl__]h gZke_^mxs_fmjhd_ ;mfZ`gbd <kdhj_ \ky ^_j_\gy magZeZ qlh [ueZ ihl_jygZ djmigZy kmffZ ^_g_];_gLbiibg]f_klgucfykgbdihl_jyek\hc[mfZ`gbddh]^Z g_k k\hb k[_j_`_gby gZ ihqlm ;_g [ue m\_j_g qlh _]h [mfZ`gbd gZr_eh^bgba`bl_e_c^_j_\gbgh_fm_]hg_\_jgmeIjhrehljb f_kypZ b h^gZ`^u mljhf ;_g gZr_e k\hc [mfZ`gbd i_j_^ k\h_c ^\_jvx Hg [ue aZ\_jgml \ ]Za_lm b kh^_j`Ze iheh\bgm l_o ^_g_] dhlhju_hgihl_jye\f_kl_k aZibkdhc ©<hj ^Z gh \hj lhevdh gZiheh\bgmª ^\Z f_kypZ kimkly ;_gm ijbkeZeb g_fgh]h ^_g_] k aZibkdhc  ©L_i_jv \hj lhevdh gZ ª kh \j_f_g_f lZdbf h[jZahf ;_gm\_jgmeb\k_^_gv]b< ihke_^g_caZibkd_]h\hjbehkv©L_i_jv y gZq_klgucq_eh\_dª Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku  H q_fmagZeZ\k_^_j_\gy" The whole village learnt that a large sum of money had been lost.  < q_f[uem\_j_g;_g" Ben was sure that one of the villagers found his wallet but he didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t return it.  Qlhkemqbehkvljbf_kypZkimkly" Ben found his wallet at his front door.  Qlh[ueh\ [mfZ`gbd_" There was half of his money and a note.  IjbkeZebeb;_gmf_kypZkimkly_s_^_g_]" Yes, it was.  ;uebeb\k_^_gv]b\ha\jZs_gu;_gmkh\j_f_g_f" Yes, it was.

Lesson 13

150


AZihegbl_ijh[_eu :g]ebckdh_ ij_^eh`_gb_

Jmkkdh_ ij_^eh`_gb_

2) This book was published last year.   WlZ k_cqZk i_qZlZ_lky

Lbi\hijhkZ

1) Is this book published every year? 2) When was this book published? 3) What book will be published next year? dgb]Z 4) Why is this book being printed now?

5)This book was being printed when he called.

5) When the book was being printed?  Wlmdgb]mm`_ 6) This book has already been gZi_qZlZeb published, hasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t it? 7) This book had been pub7) By what time had the book lished by September 1st. been published? 8) This book will have been 8) Will this book have been published by the next school published by the next school year. year or later?

I_j_\_^bl_gZZg]ebckdbcyaud 1) An interesting film was shown to them. 2) Misha is happy. A new bicycle was given to him. 3) The address was written in pencil. 4) His novel will be published in June. 5) When I entered, he was listened to with great interest. 6) Sasha and Olga were met by their friends from Australia. 7) Sydney is surrounded by parks, isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t it? 8) What city has been chosen to host the Olympic Games of 2000? 9) Who was Australia discovered by? 10) The first settlers were greeted by the Aborigines. 11) Tasmania is separated from Australia, isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t it? 12) Where is Australia located (situated)? L_kl mjh\_gv

IhklZ\vl_]eZ]heWREH\ ijZ\bevgmxnhjfmkljZ^Zl_evgh]haZeh]Z 1) will be; 2) will be; 3) is being ; 4) are. AZ^Zcl_\hijhkugZqbgZxsb_kykhkeh\\ kdh[dZo 1) What was she promised by Betsey? Was she promised a trip to London by Betsey? 2) What had been done before they arrived? When had the work been done? 3) Whose stay in England has been paid by Sergeyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s parents? 4) Why was she being looked at? When was she being looked at? 5) What is being discaussed? Are very important problems beibg discussed? 151


 IhklZ\vl_ ij_^eh`_gby \ kljZ^Zl_evguc aZeh] b i_j_\_^bl_gZjmkkdbcyaud   7RXULVWV ZHUH RIIHUHG D IUHH VLJKWVHHLQJ WULS LmjbklZf ij_^eh`beb[_kieZlgmxwdkdmjkbx  $OHWWHULVEHLQJGLFWDWHGWRWKHVHFUHWDU\E\ 0U%URZQIbkvfh ^bdlh\Zehkvfbkl_jhf;jZmghf_]hk_dj_lZjx 3) The siutcase was being packed by Mr. Bailey, when Mr. Baileyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wife FDOOHGFbkl_j;_cebmdeZ^u\Zeq_fh^Zgdh]^Ziha\hgbeZ_]h`_gZ  7KHFRQWUDFWKDGEHHQVLJQHGE\WKHHQGRIWKHPRQWK DhgljZdl [ueih^ibkZg^hdhgpZf_kypZ I_j_\_^bl_gZZg]ebckdbcyaud 1) Has her English improve since you talked to her last? 2) When he entered the room he noticed that the window was opened. 3) When was she told about it? 4) She was taught how to play this game last year. 5) By the end of November everything will have been covered with snow. 6) Why Nina was being laughed at when she sang? 7) He didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know he was being watched. 8) What was being discussed when you came in? 9) Tennis has been played for more than 100 years. 10) In the Australian English many words has been borrowed from the Aboriginal languages. 11) The Australian English is influenced by the American English. 12) The first settlement was founded by the British Government. 13) What is Sydney surrounded by? 14) Rare species of animals and birds should be protected. IhklZ\vl_]eZ]heu\ kdh[dZo\ ijZ\bevgmxnhjfmAZ^Zcl_ iylv \hijhkh\ d jZkkdZam I_j_kdZ`bl_ jZkkdZa gZ ke_^mxs_fmjhd_ 1) worried; 2) had received; 3) was asked; 4) was wanted, didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t worry; 5) was told, had been found; 6) had been picked up; 7) would be sent; 8) was surprised, had been stolen. Why Robin Bailey worried all day? What was he asked to do? What was he told by the policeman? Where his bike would be sent? Why was Robin surprised?

Lesson 14 3 Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku  QlhlZdh_]_j[" A coat of arms is the official emblem of the government. 152


 D_fhg[ue^Zjh\Zg:\kljZebb" It was granted by King George V.  Baq_]hkhklhbl]_j[" The coat of arms consist of a shield containing the badges of the six states. The supporters are emu and kangaroo. There is a wattle on the coat of arms. DZdhc^_gvy\ey_lkygZpbhgZevguf^g_f:\kljZebb" The 26th of January is Australiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s national day.  Qlhwlhl^_gvhlf_qZ_l" This day marks the date in 1788 when captain Phillip commanded a fleet and sailed into the Port Jackson. Hibrbl_neZ]:\kljZebb Australiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s flag is blue. A small Union Jack in the corner represents the historical link with Britain. There are seven-pointed stars which represent the six States and the Territories. There are small stars which form the Southern Cross. Ijh\_jvl_k_[yQlh\umagZebbawlhc]eZ\u" Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku  Dlh\klj_lbeKZrmb Hex\ Zwjhihjlm" Tom did.  Kdhevdh\j_f_gbaZgyi_j_e_l^h:\kljZebb" It took them about 24 hours to get to Australia.  KdhevdhkljZgKZrZihk_lbe^hwlh]h" Sasha has visited two countries â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the USA and Great Britain.  Ihq_fmKZrZb Heyijb_oZeb\ :\kljZebx" They came to Australia to improve their English and to learn more about Australiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s culture.  DZdb_keh\ZijbrebbayaudZZ[hjb]_gh\" ÂŤBoomerangÂť and ÂŤkangarooÂť came from the Aborigines.  DlhlZdb_Z[hjb]_gu" Aborigines are the Australian natives. They had been living there for thousands and thousands of years before the first Europeans came. Ih^q_jdgbl_ijZ\bevgu_ml\_j`^_gby  Ex^b\ :\kljZebbhq_gv\_`eb\u_b ^jm`_ex[gu_  I_r_oh^Zfijboh^blky^he]h`^Zlvqlh[ui_j_clb^hjh]m  Fgh]b_ilbpu`b\mlijyfh\ ]hjh^_  Dh]^ZHeyijb_oZeZ\ :\kljZebx[ueZ\_kgZ Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku  DZdhc]hjh^kZfuc[hevrhcb klZjuc\ :\kljZebb" Sydney is.  Kb^g_cgZoh^blkygZk_\_j_:\kljZebb" No, it is not.

Lesson 17

153


 =^_jh^bebkvfgh]b_`bl_eb]hjh^Z" Lots of Sydney’s residents were born overseas.  DZdh_a^Zgb_\ Kb^g__ijhba\h^bl[hevrh_\i_qZle_gb_" The most impressive building in Sydney is Sydney Opera house.  Kdhevdhq_eh\_d`b\ml\ Kb^g__" Population is about 3,700, 000 and it is still growing. >hihegbl_ij_^eh`_gby 1) the Australia was discovered in 1770 by James Cook. 2) The discoverer of Australia claimed it for the King of England. 3) The first settlers were convicts. 4) People rushed to Australia because gold was discovered there. 5) Australia became independent in 1931. 60 Australia is located in the southern hemisphere. 7) The hottest month in Australia is January. 8) About 70 per cent of the population live in the 10 largest cities. 9) Canberra is the capital of Australia. 10) The Olympic Games were held in Melbourne in 1956 and will be held in Sydney in 2000. 11) Is in London it’s 8 a.m., in Sydney it is 10 p.m. 12) People in Australia speak Australian English. AZihegbl_lZ[ebpm Zf_jbdZgkdbc Apartment

[jblZgkdbc

bath

:\kljZebckdbc

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Bath lift Tin

Candy cookie French fries

Biscuit porridge Form

Porridge Year

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Public toilet The movies / the pictures Shop Petrol Soccer Holiday Surname

Subway / metro

Store Petrol Football Holiday Last name Sneakers fall

Trainers / gymshoes

6. 1) You’re welcome. 2) That’s all right. 3) I’m fine thanks. 4) Buy. See you later. 5) Yes, it is. 6) Congratulations. 7) Thank you very much. 8) Yes, please. 154


7. a coat of arms, Australiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s flag, the date when the first ships sailed into Port Jackson. GZibrbl_gZa\Zgbyl_jjblhjbcgZdZjl_ Ke_\ZgZijZ\hZHVWHUQDXVWUDOLD1RUW\HUQ7HUULWRU\4XHHQVODQG South Australia, New South Wales, KZfucgb`gbcrlZl9LFWRULD Hkljh\7DVPDQLD

J:;HQ:YL?LJ:>V CHAPTER 2 Lesson 1

Homework 2. Many of the students in my class are interested in meeting you. Fgh]b_bamq_gbdh\fh_]hdeZkkZohlylk \Zfb\klj_lblvky  Having just finished studying Russian history this semester we are LQWHUHVWHGLQNQRZLQJPRUHDERXW5XVVLDWRGD\ FulhevdhqlhaZdhgqbebbamqZlvbklhjbxJhkkbb\ wlhfk_f_klj_b gZfbgl_j_kghmagZlv[hevr_h kh\j_f_gghcJhkkbb  ,¶GOLNH\RXWRFRPHZLWKPHWRVFKRROWRPRUURZ Y [uohl_eqlh[u\uihrebkhfghc\ rdhemaZ\ljZ  ,¶G OLNH WR VHH ZKDW DQ $XVWUDOLDQ VFKRRO LV OLNH Y [u ohl_eZ m\b^_lvgZqlhihoh`ZZ\kljZebckdZyrdheZ  Studying there is really interesting, because I have an opportunity to PHHW SHRSOH IURP DOO RYHU WKH ZRUOG LZf ^_ckl\bl_evgh bgl_j_kgh mqblvkyihlhfmqlhm f_gy_klv\hafh`ghklv\klj_qZlvkyk ex^vfb kh\k_]hfbjZ  ,DOVRHQMR\PHHWLQJSHRSOHIURPRWKHUFXOWXUHV Fg_lh`_gjZ\blvky\klj_qZlvkyk ex^vfbba^jm]bokljZg  I like studying History, geography, Business Studies and Computer 6FLHQFH Fg_gjZ\blkybklhjby]_h]jZnbymjhdb[bag_kZb bgnhjfZlbdZ  7KH\UHDOO\ WU\WRSUHSDUHXV IRU OLIHDIWHU KLJK VFKRRO Hgb gZ kZfhf ^_e_klZjZxlkyih^]hlh\blvgZkd `bagbihke_kj_^g_crdheu  We are even given time to take courses such as cooking, Wood-working, 2IILFH6NLOOV3KRWRJUDSK\'UDPDDQG3K\VLFDO(GXFDWLRQ GZflZd`_\u^_eyxl\j_fygZflZdb_dmjkudZddmebgZjbyjZ[hlZih^_j_\mgZ\udbjZ[hlu\ hnbk_nhlh]jZnby^jZfZb nbadmevlmjZ  9LVLWLQJ GLIIHUHQW VFKRROV LV DOZD\V LQWHUHVWLQJ Ihk_sZlv jZaebqgu_rdheu\k_]^Zbgl_j_kgh  :HKRSHWRYLVLWDVFKRROZKHQZHJRWR0HOERXUQH FugZ^__fky ihk_lblvrdhemdh]^Zih_^_f\ F_ev[mjg  155


%RDWLQJ LV UHDOO\ D SDUW RI HYHU\GD\ OLIH LQ $XVWUDOLD IeZ\Zgv_ gZ eh^d_²qZklvih\k_^g_\ghc`bagb\ :\kljZebb  Hldjhcl_kdh[db<umqbl_gZbamklv 1) to visit; 2) Are interested in meeting; 3) Convinient; 4) What an Australian school is like; 5) Attends; 6) Studying; 7) Studying; 8) Most of his classes, a lot of interesting courses, cooking, wood-working, office skills; 9) Similar.

Lesson 2 Homework 1. to be attracted; to have been explained; to be attending; to have established; to be explained; to be impressed; to have been improving; ton have been punishing; to be regarded. 2. 1) His task was to attract her attention. 2) We must protect the environment. 3) He made Helen borrow some money from him. 4) Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d rather not explain anything to Mark 5) She was too old and weak to influence the events. 6) Sydney was chosen to host 200 Olympic Games. 7) She is clever and beautiful enough to impress any guy. 8) Diana was happy to have participated in the conference. 9) I have a lot of friends to be met at the station. 10) Does your brother need to attend classes on Saturday? 11) Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d like to share my impressions about visiting England. 12) He was the first to be asked some questions. 13) They were to help him. 14) Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t let him worry. H[t_^bgbl_^\Zij_^eh`_gbybkihevamy&RPSOH[2EMHFW 1) Her teacher expects her to improve her English. 2) Mr Dickinsonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pupils believe him to be a very good teacher. 3) The parents would like their children to be polite. 4.  ,GRQÂśWZDQW0ZU\WRFRPHEDFN 2) We know her to be a very kind woman.  :HH[SHFWWKHPWh SDUWLFLSDWHLQWKHGLVFXVVLRQ 4) I would like Linda to share the room with you. <u[_jbl_ijZ\bevguci_j_\h^ih^q_jdgmluonhjf  [ \ \ [  I_j_\_^bl_ k Zg]ebckdh]h gZ jmkkdbc yaud Ih^q_jdgbl_ Complex Object.  Hgbohlylqlh[ufuihk_lbebbo\ ke_^mxs_ff_kyp_  Luohq_rvqlh[uhgZhlijZ\beZibkvfh\f_klhl_[y"   Qlh h`b^Z_l mqbl_ev qlh[u _]h mq_gbdb k^_eZeb \ ke_^mxs_ff_kyp_" 156


 Dh]^Zluh`b^Z_rvqlhhgbijb_^ml"  Hgohl_e[uqlh[u_]hkugklZeklhfZlheh]hf  HgZg_h`b^ZeZqlhwdaZf_gugZqgmlky\ Zij_e_  Hgbh`b^Zebqlhbo^hqvohjhrhk^ZklwdaZf_gu  Hgh`b^Zeqlh^hfihkljhyld dhgpmfZy  Lbfg_ohl_e[uqlh[uJbqZj^Zijb]eZkbebgZ\_q_jbgdm  Y qZklhkeurZeqlhlhgZ]h\hjbeZihg_f_pdb  G_aZklZ\eycf_gyih\lhjylvwlhkgh\Z  Mqbl_evjZaj_rbedeZkkmmclb^hfhcihjZgvr_  Ludh]^Zgb[m^v\b^_edZdhgZieZ\Z_l"  Gbdlhg_aZf_lbeqlhfuihdbgmebdhfgZlm  HgZohl_eZqlh[u__ fm`h^he`be^_g_]qlh[udmiblvfZrbgm  HgZg_ohl_eZqlh[u__ kugZhlijZ\beb\ ^jm]hc]hjh^  Fuh`b^Z_fqlhdhgljZdlih^ibrmlgZke_^mxs_cg_^_e_  Y agZxqlhhg²hq_gvhiulguc\h^bl_ev  FZjlZg_h`b^ZeZqlh_caZ^Z^mllZdhc\hijhk  LukeurZedZdhgZih_l" H[t_^bgbl_^\Zij_^eh`_gby 1) Mrs. Banker watched the children playing. 2) We heard him promise to marry Jane. 3) They saw the woman enter the house. 4) Bill heard her laughing. <u[_jbl_gm`gmxnhjfm]eZ]heZ k WRbeb[_aWR Hldjhcl_kdh[dbI_j_\_^bl_gZjmkkdbcyaud   0RWKHU PDGH KHU VRQ WHOO KHU WKH WUXWK FZfZ aZklZ\beZ kugZ kdZaZlv_cijZ\^m

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I_j_\_^bl_k jmkkdh]hgZZg]ebckdbcyaud 1) They went to Moscow to visit their friends. 2) Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s useful to swim im the swimming pool. 3) She told children to go to bed. 4) Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m glad to have met you. 5) Excuse me, can I help you? 6) Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; s interesting to study languages. 7) Every citizen must protect the nature. 8) Weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d rather not tell her anything. 9) Shoul I pay now? 10) He would play football when he was tyounger. 11) Youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d better go by bus. 157


12) Do you want them to stay at your place? 13) She shouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t work so much. You must help her. 14) He heard somebody knock the door. 15) Robin expected Kim to have passed the exam. 16) I saw Mark enter the house. 17) ÂŤWhat did she want him to do?Âť â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ÂťShe wanted him to marry herÂť. 18) We didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t want them to be late for the train. 19) Dan didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t expect the dealers to have sold 100 000 books. 20) Stewart wants the book to be printed in June. 21) She asked Tom not to borrow money from Robin. 22) Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t let him punish the child. 23) Let Mary explain everything to you. 24) What made you believe him? 25) Let us not think about it.

Lesson 3 Homework 1. Hi, Jaoo, My name is Olga and Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m a student in a Russian school. I live in Moscow, the capital of Russia. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s funny that some people might think that you have koalas in your backyards. At the same time many people are sure that there are bears in the streets of Moscow. I think itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s great that your school is multi-cultural. You get to meet people from different countries and learn some interesting things about their culture. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m in year 11 at a secondary school. Our school is co-educational. We usually get along with one another. I study Maths, Russian, Chemistry, Biology and other subject. When I finish school I hope to do to a University and study economics. I have a brother. He is two years younger that I am. Our family often has barbeques, which gives us time to talk to each other. Please, write more about your hobbies and your friends. Olga Novikova. I_j_\_^bl_mklghk Zg]ebckdh]hgZjmkkdbcyaudGZc^bl_ b ih^q_jdgbl_&RPSOH[6XEMHFW  DZ`_lkyqlhhgfgh]himl_r_kl\h\Ze KHÂŤWRKDYHNQRZQ

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Lesson 4

158


  <Zf gZ\_jgydZ ihgjZ\blky wlZ ^_\mrdZ HgZ hq_gv djZkb\Zy (you. to like)  Ba\_klghqlhhgbih`_gbebkve_lgZaZ^ WKH\WRKDYHEHHQPDUULHG

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  =h\hjyl qlh hgb iml_r_kl\mxl m`_  g_^_eb WKH\ WR KDYH been travelling) Homework 1. (1) 1) What atmosphere does Dianeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s school have? 2) What school does her uniform represents? 3) What is Dianeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s background? 4) Do they have barbeques occasionally? 5) What does Diane want to become? (2) 1) Where are Chrisâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s parents from? 2) What is his favourite subject? 3) What school does Chris attend? 4) What game does he like to play? 5) What are the differences between Australian Rules Football and soccer? (3) 1) What school does Alysia attend? 2) What year she is in? 3) What does she intend to do when she finishes school? 4) What are Alysiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hobbies? 5) Is Drama one of her favourite subjects? (4) 1) What school does Carmina study in? 2) What country did she migrate from? 3) Do es she call Australia home? 4) Are conflicts rare in her school? 5) What should you expect to eat if you come to Australia? (5) 1) Can koalas and kangaroos be found in the streets? 2) What state does Jaoo live in? 3) Is there a strong feeling of belonging? 4) What school does Jaoo attend? 5) Where was he born? (6) 1) How old is Daniela? 2) Is she originally a Portual? 3) Do the students of Casimir College get to meet people from different countries? 4) Does Daniela have to wear a uniform at school. 5) What are her hobbies? (7) 1) What is Sandra currently studying? 2) Is Sandra half Lebanese and half Armenian? 3) What languages does she speak? 4) How old is she? 5) Does she enjoy living in a big household? (8) 1) Is Glenroy far from Melbourne? 2) What school does Emily attend? 3) Where does she play alto saxophone? 4) Is she in her schoolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s debating team? 5) What do Emily and her friends do when they go to Melbourne? (9) 1) Does Paul go to Casimir College? 2) Does his school have a happy atmosphere? 3) What are Paulâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hobbies? 4) When did his parents migrate to Australia? 5) What background does Paul have? 159


(10) 1) What is Graceann learning now? 2) What is her school called? 3) What kind of school is it? 4) Is school made up of students from all different countries? 5) What does she like to do? >hihegbl_ij_^eh`_gbyb i_j_\_^bl_bogZjmkkdbcyaud  %ULWDLQ LVVXSSRVHGWREHWKHPRWKHU RI IRRWEDOO KqblZ_lky qlh ;jblZgby²jh^bgZnml[heZ  2) Columbus was an explorer who is supposed to be the first to GLVFRYHU $PHULFD Dhemf[ [ue bkke_^h\Zl_e_f dhlhjuc ij_^iheh`bl_evgh[uei_j\ufdlhhldjue:f_jbdm

 (OHFWULFLW\LVEHOLHYHGWREHLQYHQWHGE\)DUDGD\ KqblZ_lkyqlh we_dljbq_kl\hbah[j_eNZjZ^_c  I_j_\_^bl_k jmkkdh]hgZZg]ebckdbc 1) Alla Pugacheva is believed to be the most popular singer in our country. 2) The elevator is believed to be invented by an American Otis in 1853. 3) He is unlikely to take part in the conference. 4) He is sure to win this tournament. 5) Ht delegation of the Russian scientists is reported to have arrived in America. 6) Australia is supposed to have been discovered in 1770. 7) She seems to know everything. 8) She proved to be the best student in our class. 9) He is likely to call you tomorrow. 10) She is unlikely to help you. 11) This book is said not to be published in autumn. 12) You are sure to like Australiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nature and its inhabitants.

Lesson 5

Lesson 6 Homework I_j_\_^bl_k Zg]ebckdh]hgZjmkkdbcyaud   Hg [ue aZgyl i_j_\h^hf klZlvb   Y ihfgx qlh ijhkbe __ k^_eZlv wlh   HgZ g_ kihkh[gZ \aylv gZ k_[y hl\_lkl\_gghklv 4) Wlh g_ klhbeh lh]h qlh[u ljZlblv gZ wlh \j_fy   I_j_klZgv kf_ylvkygZ^gbf HgZijh^he`beZjZ[hlZlv\ qZk Ihq_fmlu \k_]^Zba[_]Z_rvjZa]h\Zjb\Zlvk g_c Hg[jhkbedmjblve_lgZaZ^ HgZg_fh]eZg_^mfZlvh g_f ?cgjZ\behkvqblZlvdh]^Z hgZ [ueZ fheh^hc"  Bf m^Zehkv ih^ibkZlv dhgljZdl   FZevqbdZgZdZaZebaZlhqlhhgkh\jZe

160


Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku   <k_ mq_gbdb KljZlfhjkdhc Kj_^g_c Rdheu bamqZxl >hfh\h^kl\h"²<HVDOOWKHVWXGHQWVVWXG\+RPH(FRQRPLFV  < q_faZdexqZ_lkyp_evwlh]hij_^f_lZ"²7KHDLPRIWKHVXEMHFWLV to develop skills in food preparation and gain an understanding of health issues.   Qlh mq_gbdb mqZlky ]hlh\blv" 7KH VWXGHQWV OHDUQ WR FRRN Crocodile Bread, Sausage Rolls soup and many other tasty dishes.  Ihq_fmkeh`ghgZa\Zlv[ex^Zb j_p_iludhlhju_lhevdhZ\kljZebckdb_ ² ,W LV GLIILFXOW WR PHQWLRQ IRRGV RU UHFLSHV WKDW DUH particularly Australian because Australian food is a result of a great diversity of cultures.  DZdb_[ex^Z _klv lhevdh \ :\kljZebb" ²<DEELHV DQGNDQJDURR steak are unique to Australia.  DZdhcihimeyjguc kihkh[ ijb]hlh\e_gby ibsb" ² %DUEHTXH is a popular style of preparing food.

Lesson 7

Homework 2. 1) Australian school offers a wide range of activities. 2) The students go in for athletics, swimming and cross country. 3) The students who are involved in these activities are awarded Academic Achievement Awards. 4) The students are offered further activities for development, when they participate in public speaking, debates and student government. 5. 1) Youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll enjoy travelling around Melbourne on the City Circle 7UDP <ZfihgjZ\blkyiml_r_kl\h\ZlvihF_ev[mjgmgZ=hjh^kdhf Djm]h\hfLjZf\Z_  2) While you are sitting on the tram, the conductor will point out the PRVWLQWHUHVWLQJVLJKWVLQ0HOERXUQH IhdZkb^brv\ ljZf\Z_dhg^mdlhj h[jZlbl \Zr_ \gbfZgb_ gZ kZfu_ bgl_j_kgu_ ^hklhijbf_qZl_evghklbF_ev[mjgZ  3) It is home to many cultural groups, speaking 170 languages and giving 0HOERXUQH D XQLTXH FKDUDFWHU Wlh ^hf fgh]bo dmevlmjguo ]jmii]h\hjysbogZyaudZob ijb^ZxsboF_ev[mjgm_]hg_ih\lhjbfucoZjZdl_j  4) When designing buildings, architects in Melbourne think hard DERXWWKHVFHQHU\DQGWKHVXUURXQGLQJVRIWKHEXLOGLQJVLWH Ijh_dlbjmy gh\u_ a^Zgby Zjobl_dlhju F_ev[mjgZ ^mfZxl h i_caZ`_ b h lhf qlhhdjm`Z_lkljhbl_evgmxiehsZ^dm  5) The National Gallery of Victoria, established in 1861, is the state DUWJDOOHU\ GZpbhgZevgZy=Ze_j_y<bdlhjbbhkgh\ZggZy\ ]h^my\ey_lky]hkm^Zjkl\_gghc]Ze_j__cbkdmkkl\  6) This place is worth visiting Wlhf_klhklhblihk_lblv  161


7) The magnificent collection, totaling over 70 000 works, range from paintings, sculpture and photography to decorative arts, prints and GUDZLQJV <_ebdhe_igZydhee_dpbyh[sbfqbkehf[he__jZ[hlgZqbgZyk dZjlbgkdmevilmjub nhlh]jZnbbb dhgqZyijbdeZ^gufbkdmkkl\hf]jZ\xjZfbb jbkmgdZfb  8) The Rialto Tower Observation Desk, situated on level 55 of Melbourneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tallest building, provides a panoramic view of Melbourne DQGWKHVXUURXQGLQJ ODQGPDUNV Kfhljh\Zy IehsZ^dZ ;Zrgb JbZelh jZkiheh`_ggZy gZ  wlZ`_ kZfh]h \ukhdh]h \ F_ev[mjg_ a^Zgby h[_ki_qb\Z_l iZghjZfguc \b^ gZ F_ev[mjg b hdjm`Zxsb_ ^hklhijbf_qZl_evghklb  9) The Centre houses the Melbourne Concert Hall, Performing Arts Museum and three major theatres collectively seating 5 880 people with DUHYROYLQJVWDJHHVSHFLDOO\IRURSHUD < P_glj_gZoh^blkyF_ev[mjgkdbc Dhgp_jlguc AZe Fma_c Bah[jZabl_evguo Bkdmkkl\ b ljb ]eZ\guol_ZljZ\ dhlhjuoh[sbfqbkehfihf_sZ_lkyq_eh\_d k \jZsZxs_ckykp_ghcki_pbZevgh^eyhi_ju  10) Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t miss the opportunity to learn about one of the oldest living FXOWXUHVLQWKHZRUOG G_ijhimklbl_\hafh`ghklvmagZlvh[h^ghcba kZfuoklZjuodmevlmj\ fbj_  11) Playing tennis, golf, baseball and football, surfing, water-skiing, boating, yachting, cycling and running are very popular in Melbourne. L_ggbk]hevn[_ck[heb nml[hek_jnbg]\h^gu_eu`bijh]medb gZ eh^dZo iZjmkguc kihjl \_ehkihjl b [_] hq_gv ihimeyjgu \ F_ev[mjg_  12) Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t forget to visit WKH0HOERXUQH=RR G_aZ[m^vl_ihk_lblv F_ev[mjgkdbcAhhiZjd  13) Established LQLWLVRQHRIWKHROGHVW]RRVLQWKHZRUOG Hkgh\Zgguc\ ]h^mhgy\ey_lkyh^gbfbaklZj_crboahhiZjdh\\ fbj_  14) Make sure to try fresh juice made of watermelons, melons, FDUURWVRUDQJHVHWF H[yaZl_evghkhc^bl_k ljZf\Zyqlh[uihijh[h\Zlvk\_`bckhdbaZj[mah\^ugvfhjdh\bZi_evkbgh\b l^  1.   DZd q_eh\_d fh`_l h[t_oZlv F_ev[mjg"2QH FDQ HQMR\ travelling around Melbourne on the City Circle Tram.  Qlhk^_eZ_ldhg^mdlhjihdZ\u\ ljZf\Z_" The conductor will pint out the most interesting sights in Melbourne.  DZd\ufh`_l_^hdZaZlvqlhF_ev[mjg²]hjh^k jZaghh[jZab_fdmevlmj" Melbourne is a multi-cultural city because over a quarter of the population was born overseas.

Lesson 8

162


 GZkdhevdboyaudZo]h\hjylex^b`b\msb_\ F_ev[mjg_" People living in Melbourne speak 170 languages.  Fgh]heb]j_dh\b blZevygp_\`b\_l\ F_ev[mjg_" Yes, many Greeks and Italians live in Melbourne.  Ihq_fmF_ev[mjgkqblZ_lkyijbagZgghcdmevlmjghcklhebp_c :\kljZebb" Melbourne is considered to be the acknowledged Culture Capital of Australia because it has world-class music, dance, opera, comedy and theatre.   H q_f ^mfZxl Zjobl_dlhju dh]^Z ijh_dlbjmxl a^Zgby \ F_ev[mjg_" When designing buildings in Melbourne architects think about the scenery and the surroundings of the building site.  Dh]^Z[ueZhkgh\ZgZGZpbhgZevgZy=Ze_j_y The National Gallery was established in 1861.  Ihq_fmwlhf_klhklhblihk_lblv" This place is worth visiting because it presents exhibitions of historical and contemporary art from within Australia and other countries.  Q_fba\_kl_gP_gljBkdmkkl\<bdlhjby" Victorian Arts Centre is known for its superb facilities and 115 meter webbed steel spire.  DZdgZau\Z_lkykZfh_\ukhdh_a^Zgb_F_ev[mjgZ" The name of the tallest building in Melbourne is the Rialto Tower.  QlhgZoh^blky\ P_glj_" The Centre houses the Melbourne Concert Hall, Performing Arts Museum and three major theatres.   Qlh m\b^yl lmjbklu _keb ih_^ml gZ wdkdmjkbx GZke_^b_ :[hjb]_gh\" If the tourists go on Aboriginal Heritage tours they will learn about one of the oldest cultures in the world< visit tribal lands and meet the people.   >hdZ`bl_ qlh \ F_ev[mjg_ h^gb ba kZfuo nZgZlbqguo kihjlkf_gh\\ fbj_ Melbourne has one of the most fanatical sporting public in the world because such sports as playing tennis, golf, baseball, football, surfing, water-skating, boating, yachting, cycling and running are very popular.  Dh]^Z[uehkgh\ZgF_ev[mjgkdbcahhiZjd" The Melbourne Zoo was established in 1857.  < dZdhfk_ahg_emqr_\k_]hihk_lblvF_ev[mjg" I think winter is the best season to visit Melbourne. Homework L_e_\b^_gb_ Bah[j_e>`hgEh^`b;ZcZj^<eZ^bfbjA\hjudbg 163


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Lesson 10

167


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<Z`guc\hijhk Dm^ZijhiZ^Zxl\k_[meZ\dbdh]^Z\Zfgm`gZh^gZ[meZ\dZ" =_jmg^bcbgnbgblb\ijbqZklb_WRSURWHFWEHQWILWWLQJVOLSSLQJ making, spring, Ijhqlbl_l_dklaZl_fhl\_lvl_gZ\hijhkuke_^mxsb_aZ gbf @_gsbgZ\ ]hem[uo^`bgkZoklhyeZm \bljbgu^hjh]h]hfZ]ZabgZ OhlyhgZjZafureyeZfbgmlmhgZ\hreZ\ fZ]Zabgb ihijhkbeZihdZaZlv_cieZlv_\bk_\r__\ \bljbg_Ijh^Z\pmh[kem`b\Zxs_fm__ g_ ihgjZ\behkv dZd hgZ [ueZ h^_lZ Ij_ajbl_evgh \a]eygm\ gZ g__ hg kdZaZe qlh ieZlv_ ijh^Zgh @_gsbgu \ureZ ba fZ]ZabgZ jZkk_j`_gghcb j_rbeZgZdZaZlvijh^Z\pZgZke_^mxsbc^_gvHgZ\_jgmeZkvgZ ke_^mxs__mljhh^_lZy\ f_oh\h_ iZevlh k kmfhqdhc \ h^ghcjmd_ b ^ebggufahglhf\ ^jm]hcGZc^ylh]h]jm[h]hijh^Z\pZHgZihijhkbeZlh`_ieZlv_G_ihgbfZydlhhgZijh^Z\_p[uejZ^h[kem`blv__ K h]jhfguf ljm^hf hg \ah[jZeky gZ \bljbgm qlh[u ^hklZlv ieZlv_ M\b^_\wlh`_gsbgZkdZaZeqlhhgh_cg_gjZ\blkyHgZjZa\e_deZkv aZklZ\b\ijh^Z\pZ^hklZlvihqlb\k_qlh[uehgZ\bljbg_ij_`^_q_f dmiblvieZlv_dhlhjh_hgZihijhkbeZi_j\uf  DZd\u ^mfZ_l_ m `_gsbgu o\Zlbeh [u ^_g_] qlh[u dmiblv ieZlv_" Yes, she had enough money. She bought it in the end.  Ihq_fmhgZg_ihgjZ\beZkvijh^Z\pm" The assistant didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t like her because her was wearing jeans.  Ihq_fm`_gsbgZijbreZ\ lhlfZ]ZabggZke_^mxsbc^_gv" She came to the shop the following day to punish the rude assistant.  GZreZebhgZ]jm[h]hijh^Z\pZ" Yes, she did.  Ihq_fmijh^Z\_p[uejZ^h[kem`blv__ gZwlhljZa" He was eager to serve her because she was wearing a fur coat and had a handbag and a long umbrella.  HgZdmibeZ\k_ieZlvy\ \bljbg_g_lZdeb" No, she didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t.  QlhhgZk^_eZeZ\ dhgp_dhgph\" She made him bring almost everything from the window before she bought the dress she had first asked for. I_j_\_^bl_k jmkkdh]hgZZg]ebckdbc 1) They are certain to like Tomâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s school. 2) the Sydney Opera house is know to be one of the greatest examples of the 20th century architecture. 3) He is likely to have read this book. 4) The Australian school happened to teach Russian history. 5) Tom and Sasha are sure to become friends. 169


6) She enjoyed dancing when she was young. 7) I remember seeing him last week. 8) Australia is worth visiting. 9) He is not capable of translating this text, is he? 10) Ann continued to walk without stopping. 11) Peter stopped singing 5 years ago. 12) They couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t help remembering their journey. 13) Not having found her phone number he couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t call her. 14) Having read the letter she run out of the room. 15) She was looking for the telegram received the day before. 16) The guests sitting at the table are my sisterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s friends. 17) Having visited Tomâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s school Sasha and Olga learnt many interesting things. L_kl mjh\_gv

I_j_\_^bl_l_dkl\ ibkvf_gghcnhjf_ :d\ZeZg] Bah[j_e@ZdDmklhb Wfbev=Zgg GZpbhgZevghklvnjZgpma >ZlZ P_evkgZ[`ZlvgujyevsbdZ\ha^mohfijblhf`_^Z\e_gbbqlh b hdjm`Zxs__fhj_ @Zd Dmklh lhqgh h[tykgbe =Zggm qlh _fm [ueh gm`gh Wfbev =Zggk^_eZewlhK g_j_]mebjm_fufk`Zluf\ha^mohf b ^Z\e_gb_f fhjy m\_ebqb\Zxsbfky k ]em[bghc \k_]^Z [ueZ hiZkghklv lh]h qlhe_]db_gujyevsbdZkiexsZlky < Zd\ZeZg]__klvki_pbZevgucdeZiZgj_]mebjmxsbcihklmie_gb_\ha^moZ Dh]^Zgujyevsbd\u^uoZ_l^Z\e_gb__]h\u^hoZhldju\Z_l\uoh^ghc deZiZg dhlhjuc hldexqZ_l ih^Zqm \ha^moZ Dh]^Z hg \^uoZ_l \gmlj_gg__ ^Z\e_gb_ kgb`Z_lky b \g_rg__ ^Z\e_gb_ \h^u aZdju\Z_l deZiZg b h[jZlgh \dexqZ_l ihklmie_gb_ \ha^moZ <ha^mo ihklmiZ_l^hl_oihjihdZ^Z\e_gb_\ deZiZg_kh\iZ^Z_lk ^Z\e_gb_f\h^uAZl_fhgaZdju\Z_lky IhklZ\vl_]eZ]heu\ gm`gmxnhjfmI_j_\_^bl_l_dklgZ jmkkdbcyaud\ ibkvf_gghcnhjf_ Meeting Running Pretending meeting Coming Preventing To follow 170


Meeting Doing Coming Speaking Y i_j_reZ mebpm qlh[u ba[_`Zlv \klj_qb k gbf gh hg m\b^_e f_gyb ih^[_`Zed fg_Ijbl\hjylvkyqlh y _]h g_ aZf_lbeZ [ueh [_kihe_agh ihwlhfm y _fm ihfZoZeZ Fg_ gbdh]^Z g_ gjZ\blky \klj_qZlvLhgb;mrZG_\Z`ghgZkdhevdhlu[ueaZgylZhg\k_]^Z gZklZb\ZegZlhfqlh[uihclbk lh[hcFg_gm`gh[uehijb^mfZlv kihkh[ihf_rZlv_fmke_^h\ZlvaZfghc\k_mljh ŠIjb\_lLhgbÂŞ²kdZaZeZyŠIjbylgZy\klj_qZÂŞ ŠIjb\_l FZj]Zj_lÂŞ ² hl\_lbe Lhgb ŠY dZd jZa ^mfZe dZd ijh\_klbmljh^hlh]hdZdm\b^_el_[yLug_aZgylZgbq_fg_lZdeb"ÂŞ ŠG_lÂŞ²hl\_lbeZyŠY b^mÂŞ ŠLug_\hajZ`Z_rv_keby ihc^mk lh[hc"ÂŞ²kijhkbehg^hlh]hdZdy aZdhgqbeZ]h\hjblv I_j_\_^bl_k jmkkdh]hgZZg]ebckdbc 1) She seems to have forgotten about our meeting. 2) He seemed to very happy. 3) The journey to Australia happened to be very interesting. 4) The songs of ÂŤThe BeetlesÂť are believed to be always popular. 5) The doctor happened to be on board. 6) She seems not to be angry with us. 7) They seem to have been friends before. 8) The book is likely to be in the library. 9) They are certain to be back by Sunday. 10) What your mother liked to do (was fond of doing) when she was young? 11) Do you remember him coming this week? 12) What is worth seeing in your city? 13) Did she succeed in buying this book? 14) He always avoids speaking on this topic, doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t he? 15) They went on talking without taking any notice of him. 16) Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t give up swimming. 17) Tatyana couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t help falling in love with Onegin. 18) I called but Misha was busy fixing the TV set.

Lesson 11 2 Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku  DlhZ\lhjwlh]hibkvfZ" 7KHDXWKRURIWKLVOHWWHULV(PLO\$QGHUVRQ :\lhjibkvfZ²Wfbeb:g^_jkhg  171


 DhfmhghgZibkZgh" 7KHOHWWHULVZULWWHQWR-LOO WlhibkvfhgZibkZgh>`be   H q_fwlhibkvfh" 7KLVOHWWHULVDERXWWKHGHEDWLQJWHDPRIZKLFK(PLO\LVDPHPEHU Wlh ibkvfhh ^bkdmkkbhgghcdhfZg^_qe_ghfdhlhjhcy\ey_lkyWfbeb   Dh]^ZWfbeb\i_j\u_gZqZeZmqZkl\h\Zlv\ rdhevguo^_[ZlZo" (PLO\ EHJDQ LQWHUVFKRRO GHEDWLQJ ZKHQ VKH ZDV LQ  <HDU Wfbeb \i_j\u_ gZqZeZ mqZkl\h\Zlv \ rdhevguo ^_[ZlZo dh]^Z [ueZ \  deZkk_   Ihq_fmhgZj_rbeZwlbfaZgylvky" She decided to take it up because she wanted to improve her public VSHDNLQJ VNLOOV HgZ j_rbeZ wlbf aZgylvky ihlhfm qlh hgZ ohl_eZ memqrblvk\hbgZ\udb\ im[ebqguo\uklmie_gbyo   QlhagZqbl[ulvlj_lvbfdlh\uklmiZ_l" To be the third speaker in the team means to rebut the other team and to VXPPDUL]HWKHDUJXPHQWVRIRQHÂśVWHDP ;ulvlj_lvbfdlh\uklmiZ_l AgZqblhijh\_j]Zlv^h\h^uhiihg_glh\b kmffbjh\ZlvZj]mf_gluk\h_cdhfZg^u   Ihq_fmWfbebgjZ\blky[ulvlj_lvbfdlh\uklmiZ_l" 6KHOLNHVLWEHFDXVHVKHJHWVWKHODVWZRUG ?cwlhgjZ\blkyihlhfm qlhhgZihemqZ_lihke_^g__keh\h  I_j_\_^bl_k jmkkdh]hgZZg]ebckdbc 1) Every state and territory in Australia makes its own education laws. 2) Australia and the USA have public schools and private schools. 3) In Australia children between ages of five and fifteen are required to attend school. 4) Australiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s school year consists of four terms and begins in February. 5) There are two weeks of holidays between terms 6) Secondary school in Australia consists of grade seven through twelve. 7) Schools where one teacher may teach all grades are located in the country.  Ijhqlbl_ b i_j_\_^bl_ l_dkl AZl_f h[km^bl_ _]h k h^ghdeZkkgbdZfb :dlh Ijh]jZffZoKj_^gboRdhe\ Ih^^_j`dmK\h[h^u Kha^Zgguc k_gZlhjhf ;j_^eb \  ]h^m )6$663 bkihevah\Zekyr_klve_lIjh]jZffZdhlhjuckihgkbjm_lBgnhjfZpbhggh_ Z]_glkl\h KR: b mijZ\ey_l :f_jbdZgkdbc Kh\_l Ij_ih^Z\Zl_e_c Jmkkdh]h YaudZ :f_jbdZgkdbc p_glj Khljm^gbq_kl\Z \ h[eZklb H[jZah\Zgby b Bamq_gby yaudh\ iha\hey_l ijb[ebabl_evgh  klm^_glZf klZjrbo deZkkh\ Jhkkbb mqblvky \ KR: h^bg mq_[guc ]h^

Lesson 12

172


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>hihegbl_ij_^eh`_gby 1) Students living far from the city attend ÂŤSchools of the AirÂť. 2) When itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s time for school they listen to the teacher on the radio. 3) Students answer questions over the microphone. 4) The teacher assigns homework to do. 5) Having done homework, the students mail it to the teacher. 6) Then the teacher discusses the homework over the microphone corrects it and sends it back. Homework 1. GZdhg_plh ijbreZ \_kgZ K\_lbl khegp_ ilbpu ihxl k\k_ p\_l_lY kqZkleb\Q_j_af_kypaZdhgqZlkyaZgylbyK_cqZky ^mfZy qlhy [m^mkdmqZlvihrdhe_e_lhfQ_]hfg_[m^_lg_o\ZlZlv"Fhy rdheZkZfZyh[uqgZyLZdZydZdmxfh`ghm\b^_lv\h\k_ofZe_gvdbo ]hjh^Zo Wlh q_luj_owlZ`gh_ a^Zgb_ gbq_f g_ \u^_eyxs__ky kgZjm`b gh ijb\e_dZl_evgh_ \gmljb I_j\uc wlZ` ij_^gZagZq_g ^eymq_gbdh\feZ^rbodeZkkh\;b[ebhl_dZb dZn_l_jbclh`_gZoh^ylky gZ i_j\hf wlZ`_ D g_fm ijbfudZ_l kihjlaZe GZr kihjlaZe ^_ckl\bl_evghohjhrbcb mq_gbdZflZf\k_]^ZjZ^u:]Z<hli_j\h_q_]hfg_[m^_lg_o\ZlZlvFh_]hlj_g_jZih[Zkd_l[hemb fh_c 174


dhfZg^u GZrZ [Zkd_l[hevgZy dhfZg^Z mqZkl\h\ZeZ \h fgh]bo khj_\gh\Zgbyob \k_]^Zih[_`^ZeZ GZi_j\hfwlZ`_lZd`_gZoh^ylkyrdhevgu_fZkl_jkdb_]^_^_\hqdb mqZlky rblv Z fu jZ[hlZ_f k ^_j_\hf b f_lZeehf Fg_ g_ m^Zekywlhlij_^f_lY lhqghg_[m^mkdmqZlvihgZrbfrdhevguf fZkl_jkdbf Gh_klv_s_h^gZ\_svdhlhjhcfg_ [m^_l g_ o\ZlZlv Qlh wlh" GZ\lhjhfwlZ`_fh_crdheugZoh^ylkydZ[bg_lujZaebqguoij_^f_lh\fZl_fZlbdbebl_jZlmjunbabdbbklhjbbZg]ebckdh]hyaudZ<h\j_fyrdhevgh]h]h^Zy gbdh]^Zg_aZoh`m\ dZ[bg_lfZl_fZlbdb _keb m f_gy g_l lZf mjhdZ Y g_ ex[ex fZl_fZlbdm HgZ keh`gZyb yfZehqlhihgbfZx : wlh gZr dZ[bg_l Zg]ebckdh]h Y hq_gv ex[ex Zg]ebckdbc yaud Y ijh\h`m fgh]h \j_f_gb \ wlhf dZ[bg_l_ ihke_ lh]h dZd mjhdaZdhgqbekyFhymqbl_evgbpZihZg]ebckdhfmyaudmhq_gvmfgZydjZkb\Zyb wg_j]bqgZy GZ__mjhdZofufgh]h_magZ_fh[:g]ebbb :f_jbd_qblZ_fb jZa]h\Zjb\Z_f KemrZlv ex^_c ]h\hjysbo gZ Zg]ebckdhf yaud_ Z aZl_f hl\_qZlv gZ bo \hijhku hq_gv bgl_j_kgh Fu lZd`_ kfhljbf \b^_hnbevfu gZ Zg]ebckdhf yaud_ b aZl_f h[km`^Z_f bo < wlhf ]h^m gZ mjhdZo Zg]ebckdh]h y \umqbe g_kdhevdh Zf_jbdZgkdbo i_k_g b ihlhf i_ebogZ\_q_jbgd_Wlh[uehaZf_qZl_evgh<k_fihgjZ\behkv GZlj_lv_fwlZ`_gZoh^ylkydZ[bg_lu^eyklZjrbodeZkkh\ : \hl _s_ h^gZ \_sv dhlhjZy fg_ gjZ\blky \ fh_c rdhe_ Wlh gZrrdhevguckZ^Y [u ohl_eqlh[u\u_]h m\b^_eb\_kghcLZf _klvy[ehgbb \brgbb hgbk_cqZk\ p\_lmFujZ[hlZ_f\ g_fk Zij_ey ih hdly[jv dZ`^uc ]h^ Gm ^mfZx gZ k_]h^gy ^hklZlhqgh Fg_ihjZb^lbkiZlvihlhfmqlhaZ\ljZ\ qZkh\m f_gyi_j\ucwdaZf_gY k^Zf\k_wdaZf_gud bxgyb [m^mk\h[h^_g Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku  <ZrZrdheZgZoh^blky\ ^_j_\g_beb\ ]hjh^_" My school is in the town.  HgZgh\ZybebklZjZy" Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rather old.  DZdhgZ\u]ey^bl" It looks plain outside.  ?klvebi_j_^rdhehcqlhgb[m^v" There is garden in front of my school.  QlhgZoh^blkygZdZ`^hfwlZ`_rdheu" On the ground floor there is a cloakroom, a canteen, doctorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s office. The gymnasium is attached to it. on the first floor there are also workshops where boys try to create something of wood or metal and girls sew or knit. The first floor is for junior pupils. On the third and the fourth 175


floor there are classrooms for different subjects. The hall is also on the fourth floor. Various meetings and concerts are held there.  M \Zk_klvex[bfZydeZkkgZydhfgZlZ" Yes, I do. It is our English classroom.  Ihq_fmhgZ\ZfgjZ\blky" I like it because it is a bright room, decorated with cheerful pictures and posters. There are a lot of plants in it.  DZdhcm \Zkex[bfucij_^f_l"Ihq_fm" My favourite subject is English. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s interesting to read and listen in English.  Q_f\uaZgbfZ_l_kvgZmjhdZoZg]ebckdh]h" We read, write and discuss texts. We also listen to tapes and watch films in English. We play different games imagining that we are some other people.  Bgl_j_kgueb\ZrbmjhdbZg]ebckdh]hyaudZ" Yes, they are. Our teacher is clever and enthusiastic, she always invents something new so it is never boring at her classes.   Qlh \u ihdZ`_l_ ^jm]m ba ^jm]h]h ]hjh^Z _keb hg ijb^_l \ \Zrmrdhem" I would show him out wall paper which contains different articles written by pupils and drawings.  <u[m^_l_\kihfbgZlvk\hxrdheme_lhf" Yes, I will. 3. My school My school begins at 9.30 a.m. and ends at 2.40 p.m. we have a break for lunch in the middle of the day. I go to school by bus. I like my school because we all get along with each other. I enjoy spending time with my friends at school. I also like my teachers. We do not wear uniform and I think itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s good because pupils can express their individuality. Our school building is rather old. It looks plain outside. There is garden in front of my school. There are apple trees, which are in blossom in spring. On the ground floor there is a cloakroom, a canteen, doctorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s office. The gymnasium is attached to it. on the first floor there are also workshops where boys try to create something of wood or metal and girls sew or knit. The first floor is for junior pupils. On the third and the fourth floor there are classrooms for different subjects. The hall is also on the fourth floor. Various meetings and concerts are held there. The library is also on the fourth floor. It is large and lit with sunlight. I go there to look for extra material after school. I can also find there interesting books to read. My favourite subject is English. We read, write and discuss texts. We also listen to tapes and watch films in English. We play different games imagining that we are some other people. Our teacher is clever and 176


enthusiastic, she always invents something new so it is never boring at her classes. Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku  DZd\ukqblZ_l_\ dZdhf\hajZkl_j_[_gdmemqr_\k_]hihclb \ rdhem" I think the best age for a child to go to school is 7.  >he`gueb[ulv]hkm^Zjkl\_ggu_b qZklgu_rdheu" Yes, I think there should be different types of schools to make a choice.  >he`guebmq_gbdbghkblvnhjfm" No, I think pupils should not wear uniforms. Children should wear clothes which they feel comfortable in.  <ZfgjZ\ylky\Zrbmq_[gbdb"DZdhc\Zrex[bfucmq_[gbd" Yes, I do. I like my English textbook. It is well designed and contains a lot of interesting and useful information.  Ihq_fmijh]jZffbklubaJhkkbbe_]dhfh]mlgZclbjZ[hlmaZ ]jZgbp_c" Programmers from Russia can easily find the job overseas because computers are necessary in every field now.  ?keb\um \Zk[ue\u[hjdZdhcrdhe_\u[uaZohl_ebmqblvky\ Zf_jbdZgkdhcZ\kljZebckdhcjmkkdhcbebZg]ebckdhc" If I were given a choice Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d choose Russian school.

Lesson 13

Ijh\_jvl_k_[yQlh\umagZebbawlhc]eZ\u" <klZ\vl_ijhims_ggu_keh\Z 1) Melbourne 2) Multicultural 3) Culture Capital 4) The Victorian Arts Centre 5) Melbourne zoo 6) January and February 7) 7 to 11 8) bottle green pullover, grey shirt, grey school trousers or shorts, black leather shoes and the College baseball jacket. 9) Bottle green pullover, brown shoes, College baseball jacket. In summer a school dress or a white shirt and bottle green pleated shorts. In winter a white shirt and either the school tartan skirt or dark green tailored trousers. 10) Team sports, athletics, swimming, cross country competitions, school orchestra, music ensembles, debating team and student government. 11) Home Economics

Lesson 14

177


12) To develop skills in food preparation and gain an understanding of health issues. 13) Crocodile Bread 14) Barbeque 15) a debating team 16) a play school 17) primary 18) private 19) state 20) education 21) private and public 22) 6 to 15 23) four 24) February, December 25) seven through twelve AZihegbl_ lZ[ebpm ŠQlh \u agZ_l_ h ba\_klguo bah[j_l_gbyo"ÂŞ Bah[j_l_ Bah[j_l_gh GZpbhgZe >ZlZ P_ev gb_ vghklv Tape re1898 corder television John Logie Baird 1926, Vladimir Zwo1925â&#x20AC;&#x201C; rykin 1928 Electric Scottish, To provide an electric light light bulb American source, to replace gas light or candles Thomas Adams American In the To silently exercise the jaws 1870â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s camera 1826 To preserve a photographic image

CHAPTER 3 Lesson 1

3.  ?]hijhbaghr_gb_g_evay[ukljhbkijZ\blv kihkh[ghklv

 Wg^jxg_fh]h^he`blvWgg^_gv]b kihkh[ghklv

 <ufh`_l_hklZ\blvdexqgZklhcd_ \hafh`ghklvjZaj_r_gb_

 Ba\bgbl_fh]my \Zfihfhqv" \hafh`ghklvjZaj_r_gb_

 HgZg_kfh`_liha\hgblvaZ\ljZ?_g_l\ ]hjh^_ kihkh[ghklv

 Y g_fh]ih\_jblvqlhhgZ\ureZaZfm`aZJh[_jlZ kihkh[ghklv

 HgZkmf__lhijh\_j]gmlv" kihkh[ghklv

 Dh]^Zhgkfh`_ldmiblvfZrbgm" kihkh[ghklv

 Wlh]hj_[_gdZg_evay[uehgZdZau\Zlv kihkh[ghklv

 Hgbkfh]mlbki_qvDjhdh^beh\ucOe_[" kihkh[ghklv

178


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Homework IhklZ\vl_]eZ]heu\ gm`gmxnhjfm 1) could not; 2) could; 3) canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t; 4) cannot; 5) will be able; 6) will be able; 7) can be published; 8) can / could. I_j_\_^bl_k jmkkdh]hgZZg]ebckdbc 1) You canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t smoke here. 2) He can work 8 hours. 3) This TV set canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be repaired. 4) Could you give me another pair of shoes? 5) Sorry, I couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t call you in the morning. 6) Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m afraid he wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be able to help you. 7) If you go to Australia you will be able to see a kangaroo. 8) The contract can be signed this week. 9) When will she be able to answer Johnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s letter? 10) I couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t do anything because I wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t able to work. 11) Where could I meet you? 12) Nothing can be done in this case. 13) Is you canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t explain it in English, I will help you. Ijhqlbl_jZkkdZaI_j_\_^bl_gZjmkkdbcyaudKhklZ\vl_ \hijhkh\b hl\_lvl_gZgbo < ]h^mihke_k\h_]hihe_lZgZ^K_\_jgufihexkhfZf_jbdZgkdbc bkke_^h\Zl_ev J? ;bj^ mki_rgh kh\_jrbe ihe_l gZ^ X`guf Ihexkhf \ i_j\uc jZa B ohly kgZqZeZ ;bj^ b _]h ex^b kfh]ebk^_eZlvfgh]hnhlh]jZnbc]hje_`Zsboih^ gbfbkdhjhm gbogZqZebkvg_ijbylghklb< dZdhclhfhf_gldZaZehkvqlhkZfhe_l jZah[v_lky Hg fh] i_j_e_l_lv q_j_a ]hju lhevdh ih^gy\rbkv gZ \ukhlm  nmlh\ ;bj^ kjZam `_ ijbdZaZe k\hbf ex^yf \u[jhkblv^\Z[hevrbof_rdZk _^hcLh]^ZkZfhe_lkfh]ih^gylvkyb i_j_e_l_lv ]hju gZ \ukhl_  nmlh\ gZ^ gbfb L_i_jv ;bj^ agZe qlh kfh`_l ^hklbqv X`gh]h IhexkZ dhlhjuc [ue gZ jZkklhygbb fbevihlhfmqlh\i_j_^b[hevr_g_[ueh]hjKZfhe_lfh]e_l_lvgZ^[_kdhg_qgufb[_eufbjZ\gbgZfb[_akeh`ghkl_c 1) When did R.E. Byrd fly over the South Pole? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; R.E. Byrd flew over the South Pole in 1929. 2) Were Byrd and his men able to make a great many photos? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Yes, they were. 3) In what case could the plane to get over the mountains? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; It could get over the mountains only if it rose to 10000 feet. 4) What did Byrd order? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; He ordered to throw out the food sacks. 5) Was the plane to rise after that? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Yes, it was. 6) Did Byrd know that he would reach the South Pole? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Yes, he did. 179


7) Was it difficult for the aircraft to fly over the plains? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; No, it could fly over it without difficulty.

Lesson 2 Homework 1.  Lu^he`_g[ulv^hfZd qZkZf ^he`_gkl\h\Zgb_

 WlhijZ\behgm`ghh[tykgblv_s_jZa ^he`_gkl\h\Zgb_

 Hg\u]ey^bl[e_^guf?fm gm`gh koh^blv d \jZqm ^he`_gkl\h\Zgb_

 <ug_^he`gua^_kvdmjblv ijbdZaZgb_

 ?cgm`ghfgh]hjZ[hlZlvqlh[uaZjZ[hlZlv^_gv]b ^he`_gkl\h\Zgb_

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 HgZg_^he`guaZ[ulvhlijZ\blvwlbibkvfZWlhhq_gv\Z`gh ^he`_gkl\h\Zgb_

 GZfg_gm`ghlhjhiblvkyK_cqZk\k_]hqZkZ \ugm`^_gghklv

 L_[_gm`gh[m^_lij_^mij_^blv__ \ugm`^_gghklv

 Bfg_gm`gh[ueh`^Zlvf_gyY agZe^hjh]m \ugm`^_gghklv

  <Zf g_ gm`gh hl^Z\Zlv fg_ wlh aZ\ljZ Fg_ wlh g_ ihgZ^h[blky \ugm`^_gghklv

  Wlh hq_gv ihimeyjguc j_klhjZg GZf gm`gh [m^_l aZdZaZlv klhebd \ugm`^_gghklv

  Y ^he`_g k^_eZlv wlh k_cqZk" G_l g_ gm`gh ijbdZaZgb_ g_h[oh^bfhklv

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 <k_\ ihjy^d_G_gm`gh[_kihdhblvky g_h[oh^bfhklv

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  ?keb ihc^_l ^h`^v l_[_ ijb^_lky hklZlvky ^hfZ \ugm`^_gghklv

180


 Hgg_m\_j_gqlh_fmijb^_lkyk^Z\ZlvwdaZf_gihbklhjbb \ugm`^_gghklv

IhklZ\vl_]eZ]heu\ gm`gmxnhjfm 1) donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have to; 2) must I do; 3) mustnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t; 4) have to; 5) do I have to; 6) did you have to; 7) will have to; 8) is the train to; 9) have to; 10) will have to; 11) neednâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t ; 12) do I need. I_j_\_^bl_gZjmkkdbcyaud<umqbl_gZbamklv Reyiy ŠLugZau\Z_rvwlhreyihc"ÂŞ²kdZaZey k\h_c`_g_ ŠKh\k_fg_h[yaZl_evgh[ulv]jm[ufihwlhfmih\h^mÂŞ²hl\_lbeZfg_`_gZkfhljykv\ a_jdZeh Y k_e gZ h^bg ba wlbo kh\j_f_gguo klmev_\ k ^ujdZfb b klZe `^ZlvFugZoh^bebkv\ fZ]Zabg_m`_iheqZkZZ fhy`_gZ\k__s_ klhyeZi_j_^a_jdZehf ŠFu g_ ^he`gu ihdmiZlv \_sb _keb hgb gZf g_ gm`guÂŞ ² \^jm]aZf_lbeyB ihqlbkjZamih`Ze_eh[wlhf ŠLug_^he`_glZd]h\hjblvÂŞ²hl\_lbeZfhy`_gZŠFg_g_gm`ghgZihfbgZlvl_[_h lhfm`Zkghf]Zeklmd_dhlhjucludmibe\q_jZÂŞ ŠY kqblZxqlhhgdjZkb\ucÂŞ²kdZaZey Š=Zeklmdh\ m fm`qbgug_[u\Z_lkebrdhffgh]hÂŞ Š: m `_gsbgug_[u\Z_lkebrdhffgh]hreyihdÂŞ²hl\_lbeZ hgZ Kimkly^_kylvfbgmlfu\f_kl_\urebbafZ]ZabgZGZfh_c`_g_[ueZreyidZdhlhjZy\u]ey^_eZdZdfZyd

Lesson 3 Homework 4 I_j_\_^bl_gZjmkkdbcyaud  L_[_gm`ghihkfhlj_lvnbevfHgklhbllh]h  GZeblv\Zf_s_qZx"G_lkiZkb[h  >_\mrdbl\h_]h\hajZklZg_^he`gukfhlj_lvlZdb_nbevfu  Y ^mfZxl_[_ke_^m_lkhh[sblvjh^bl_eyf]^_lugZoh^brvky  Hg]h\hjblqlhfg_ke_^m_l[ulvhklhjh`g__  Fg_i_j_a\hgblv_fm"  Fh`_l[ulvluklZg_rvibkZl_e_fdh]^Zgb[m^v  Y kijhkbe_]hfh`ghebfg_iha\hgblv_fm  Fh]my ^Zlv\Zfk\hx\babldm"  Kdhevdhgm`ghaZieZlblv\h^bl_ex"  Jh[_jlg_kf_eihkfhlj_lvfZl_jb\ ebph  HgZ[ueZlZdjZkk_j`_gZqlhlhevdhFZj]j_lhkf_ebeZkvaZ]h\hjblvk g_c  L_[_ke_^m_lkijhkblvjZaj_r_gbyij_`^_q_f\uclbbaaZklheZ 181


Ijhqlbl_b i_j_\_^bl_jZkkdZaIjb^mfZcl_gZa\Zgb_AZ^Zcl_\hijhkh\I_j_kdZ`bl_jZkkdZa Be careful about your wishes. H^gZ`^u`be^Z[ueq_eh\_dm dhlhjh]h[ueZg_fZy`_gZb wlh _]h hq_gv i_qZebeh ihlhfm qlh hg __ hq_gv ex[be Q_j_a dZdh_lh \j_fyhgihr_ed ^hdlhjmb kdZaZeŠ<ufh`_l_k^_eZlvlZdqlh[u fhy `_gZ aZ]h\hjbeZ"ª Š<hafh`gh fh]mª Š<u fh`_l_ ihijh[h\Zlvª²kdZaZefm`ŠY ijb\_^m__ aZ\ljZª GZ ke_^mxsbc ^_gv ^hdlhj ijh\_e hi_jZpbx b g_fZy `_gZ gZqZeZ ]h\hjblv HgZ ]h\hjbeZ lZd fgh]h b lZd ]jhfdh qlh q_j_a g_kdhevdhqZkh\fm`ih[_`Zeh[jZlghd ^hdlhjmb kdZaZeŠ<ufh`_l_ fhx `_gm k^_eZlv hiylv g_fhc"ª Šg_lª ² kdZaZe ^hdlhj Škms_kl\m_lfgh]hkihkh[h\aZklZ\blvg_fmx`_gsbgmaZ]h\hjblv gh gb h^gh]h qlh[u aZklZ\blv `_gsbgm aZfheqZlvª ŠQlh `_ fg_ ^_eZlv"ª²kijhkbefm`qbgZ²Šy kdhjhmfjm_kebfg_ijb^_lky kemrZlv__ p_euc^_gvªŠGmª²kdZaZe^hdlhj²ŠY g_fh]mk^_eZlv__ hiylvg_fhcghy fh]mk^_eZlv\Zk]emobfb \Zfg_gm`gh [m^_l __ kemrZlvª ŠHq_gv ohjhrhª ² kdZaZe fm`qbgZ ² Šk^_eZcl_wlhLZd[m^_lemqr_ª 1) What made the amn sad? 2) What did he ask doctor to do? 3) Why did the wife began to speak? 4) Why did the man came to the doctor again? 5) What did he ask him to do this time? L_kl mjh\_gv

I_j_\_^bl_k Zg]ebckdh]hgZjmkkdbc  G_fh][uy ih]h\hjblvk fbkl_jhf;jZmghf" Fh]my kijhkblv dlh wlh"   JZ[hlm gm`gh k^_eZlv k_]h^gy   <Zf g_ gm`gh \klZ\Zlv \  mljZ   Ba\bgbl_ gh \Zf ijb^_lky ih^h`^Zlv 6) Ihq_fm _c gm`gh [ueh gZibkZlv _fm ibkvfh"   < dZdh_ \j_fy ^he`_g ijb[ulv ih_a^"   L_[_ ke_^m_l [ulv [he__ \_`eb\uf 9) Fg_i_j_a\hgblv"G_lg_gm`gh IhklZ\vl_]eZ]heu\ kdh[dZo\ gm`gh_\j_fy 1) wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be able to; 2) was to; 3) couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t; 4) will you be able; 5) was to; 6) have to; 7) were you to; 8) neednâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t . Ijhqlbl_b i_j_\_^bl_l_dkl ŠIjb]hlh\vl_ ih`ZemcklZ [be_luÂŞ ² kdZaZe dhgljhee_j \oh^y\ ih_a^ IhdZ dhgljhee_j ijh\_jye [be_lu h^bg ba iZkkZ`bjh\ rZjbe ih dZjfZgZf Dhgljhee_j ihkfhlj_e gZ g_]h meu[gmeky b kdZaZeŠ<u^_j`bl__]h\ am[ZokwjÂŞAZl_fhg\ur_e ŠDZdhc\ujZkk_yggucÂŞ²kdZaZeh^bgiZkkZ`bj

Lesson 6

182


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Lesson 8

184


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185


10) You should offer him your help. 11) He established a biological station. 12) Eventually she had to go to Germany, didn’t she? 13) He felt great affection for this country. Homework 2. His image will stay with me forever. At the turn of the century people wanted a place where they could totally relax. You shouldn’t judge people for what they wear. He will be kicked out of the club for airing such opinions. The leading scientist retired from his researches and went to live in his estate in the country. He dreamt of a faraway land with exotic plants and beautiful birds. All his troubles were due to money and his creditors didn’t leave him alone. He thought that she had a great deal of superstitions and considered it best not to tell her anything. The author created brilliant metaphors. In conditions of security people forget their suspicions. The editor of the magazine informed them that they had to work harder. He strongly doubted that his dreams could be implemented. The meeting lasted three hours. It was so boring that everyone thought it was an eternity. The young socialist didn’t try to conceal his views. Every Christian would consider it a sin. The atmosphere in the gang was brotherly. The city was his source of imagination. He tried to spend his time with people, mainly in various cafes and pubs. The reality always interferes with our dreams. She wanted to return to her little village and breed little sheep. I was bitterly disappointed by your behaviour. It wasn’t a truly kind thing, you had your interest in it.

Lesson 10 3. 1) The image of Australia can be judged by the ideas and opinions of the leading Russian writers.… 2) For Anton Chekhov Australia was a far away place where the troubles of life did not reach. 3) He used Australia as a metaphor for rest and security. 4) Loe Tolstoy had a totally different view. 5) One of the very few Russian writers who had a chance to compare his imagination to reality was Konstantin Balmont. 186


4. Anton Chekhov For Anton Chekhov Australia was a faraway land. He thought that the troubles of life could not reach iot. He imagined Australia as a place of reat and security. When he was at his estate he felt like he was at the end of the world. It reminded him of Australia. There in his own little Australia he felt good. The only thought that disturbed him was that his creditors could kick him out of his Australia. Leo Tolstoy Tolstoy had a different view. He considered Australia a young society and thought that it had an opportunity to implement his ideals. He wrote to one Australian socialist that Australians had a chance to establish a truly Christian and brotherly way of life. He thought that they could be free from the sins of the world. Konstantin Balmont, as many other Russian writes and poets, thought of Australia as an exotic place and a source of imagination. He was greatly disappointed to see that it was also a modern society. Which bred sheep, made machines and built railroads.

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Lesson 14 Homework 1.  BklhjbxjZkkdZau\Z_l Zg]ebqZgbg ]j_d Z[hjb]_g 2) :[hjb]_gÂŞagZqbl Fhjyd I_j\uc`bl_ev Hkm`^_ggu_ba:g]ebb 3) :[hjb]_gu`b\ml Hdhehfhjy < imklug_ B lZfb lZf 4) :[hjb]_guihy\bebkv\ :\klvjZebb 194


K dZiblZghfDmdhf >hdZiblZgZDmdZ e_lgZaZ^ 5) :[hjb]_gu Bf_xlmq_[gbdbqlh[umqblvky G_mf_ebgbqblZlvgbibkZlv AZihfbgZebijhreh_\ i_kgyo 6) :[hjb]_gu\_jyl\ ;h]h\ >moh\ F_qlZgb_ 7) hkgh\gh_aZgylb_Z[hjb]_gh\ m[b\Zlv`b\hlguo kh[bjZlv_^m kjZ`Zlvkyk \jZ]Zfb 8) :[hjb]_gug_kljhbeb^hfh\ihlhfmqlh Hgb[hyebkv^moh\ Hgbi_j__a`Zebb hohlbebkv LZfhq_gv`Zjdh 9) :[hjb]_gug_ghkbebh^_`^mihlhfmqlh HgZbf[ueZg_gm`gZ >h`^vr_ehq_gvj_^dh Hgbgbdh]^Zg_[he_eb 10) :g]ebckdb_ihk_e_gpu Ijbg_keb\ :\kljZebxemqrmx`bagv Ijb\_aeb[he_agb Bkihjlbeb`bagvZ[hjb]_gh\ 2. 1) The word aborigine means first inhabitant. 2) Aborigines live near the sea and in the desert. 3) Aborigines came to Australia over 40 000 years ago. 4) They have no history books to study because they could not read or write. 5) They kept track of their past through the songs and stories. 6) They believe in Dreaming. 7) The main job for every Aborigine is to find food. They spend over three-quarters of the day gathering food. 8) Everyone had to know what was safe to eat and what was not. 9) They had to be careful not to over-pick fruits and vegetables so that they might grow the nest year. 10) Their weapons consisted of a wood spear, a club and a boomerang. 11) They didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t build houses because they were constantly moving to new places. 12) No they didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t. 195


13) Yes, they did. They knew how to start a fire. 14) Aborigines became experts in finding water because water was the most important thing they needed to live. 15) They looked after their old people and loved their children. They shared food equally. 16) When people from Great Britain came to Australia they took aborigines’ land. They brought diseases. They defeated aborigines. 17) Modern aborigines work in the cities or on large ranches. Their children attend school.

Lesson 15 2. 1) Ernie Dingo is a well-known artist, entertainer, musician and comic. 2) Ernie Dingo is best known for the character he played in the film «Crocodile Dandee». 3) He performs Australian music. 4) He sings about the land, the city, the environment and what it means to be black white or any colour. 5) He started teaching Aboriginal culture to non-Aborigines. 6) When he was a child his name was Oondamooroo. 7) He lives his life the way he knows. 8) He lives in the city. 9) He comes from the bush. 10) He gets his sense of security from his traditional heritage. Ijh\_jvl_k_[y Qlh\umagZebbawlhc]eZ\u" 1. AZihegbl_ijh[_eu a) 1) over 200; 2) Peter Potosky; 3) In 1804; 4) Nikolai Miklouho Maklay; 5) Ballet dancer; 6) Cake’s recipe; 7) Fedor Shalapin; 8) Miklouho Maklay, «Maklay Coast»; 9) Anton Chekhov; 10) Leo Tolstoy; 11) English; 12) Italian, Greek, French, Spanish, Turkish, Arabic languages, Polish, Vietnamese, German; 13) Settler come to Australia from the UK, New Zealand, Chins, India, Vietnam, Philippines, South Africa; 14) First inhabitant; 15) 40000; 16) their songs and stories; 17) to find food; 18) water; 19) Charlie, «Crocodile Dandee» 2. b) Kbf\heub boagZq_gby Concentric circles A person Man with a spear and boomerang Emu footprint Kangaroo footprint Windbreak Waterholes and running water.

Lesson 17

196


CHAPTER 4 Lesson 2 Homework 2. 1) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; g; 2) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; h; 3) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a; 4) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; i; 5) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; b; 6) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; j; 7) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; c; 8) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; e; 9) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; d; 10) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; f.

Lesson 3 1I_j_\_^bl_gZjmkkdbcyaud  Hgg_agZedm^ZhgZmreZ  LhfkijhkbeFwjbihq_fmhgZ\q_jZhiha^ZeZ  FZfZihijhkbeZkugZiha\hgblv_c^g_f  HgZkdZaZeZ_fmg_dmjblv\ dhfgZl_  HgZgZibkZeZqlh=j_]hjbijb_a`Z_lgZke_^mxsbc^_gv  Jh^bl_ebO_e_gkijhkbeb__g_kh[bjZ_lky eb hgZ gZ\_klblv bo\ \hkdj_k_gv_  FZjlbgihh[_sZeg_]h\hjblvgbdhfmh[wlhfkh[ulbb  FZfZgZihfgbeZkugmg_jZa]h\Zjb\Zlvk g_agZdhfpZfb  Mqbl_evih`Zeh\Zekyqlh_]hmq_gbdbhq_gvfZehagZxl  FZevqbdhljbpZeqlh\b^_e>`_cg\ ]hjh^_   Fbkl_j ;_cd_j ihijhkbe mq_gbdh\ khh[sblv jh^bl_eyf h kh[jZgbb  FZfZ;h[ZgZihfgbeZ_fmqlhhg^he`_g[ue\klj_lblvkyk k_kljhc  HgbmagZebqlhgZke_^mxs_cg_^_e_\_q_jbgdbg_[m^_l  Hgohl_eagZlvdlhihkeZe_fml_e_]jZffm  Fw]]bm[_^beZfZfmgbq_]hg_]h\hjblviZi_   HgZ kijhkbeZ kemrZ_l eb fZevqbd FZevqbd hl\_lbe qlh kemrZ_l  Hgbg_agZebkdhevdh]hkl_cijb^_lgZ\_q_jbgdm  Hghl\_lbeqlhklZlvy[ueZi_j_\_^_gZ  Hgbkhfg_\ZebkvQlhhgijb[m^_l\h\j_fy  KdZ`bfg_]^_l\hbjh^bl_eb  HgZijbagZeZqlh[ueZg_ijZ\Z  Hgij_^mij_^be\hjZqlhiha\hgbl\ ihebpbx  Lhfohl_eagZlvdlha\hgbe_fm\q_jZ I_j_\_^bl_ij_^eh`_gbybamij\ ijyfmxj_qv 1) He said, «I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know where she has gone to.» 2) Tom asked, «Mary, why were you late yesterday?» 3) Mother said, «Son, call me in the afternoon.â&#x20AC;&#x2122; 4) She said, «Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t smoke in the room.» 5) She wrote, «Gregory will come tomorrow.» 6) Helenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s parents asked, «Will you visit us on Sunday?» 197


7) Martin said, «I won’t tell anybody about the event.» 8) The Mother said, «Don’t talk to strangers.» 9) The teacher said, «My pupils know very little.» 10) The boy said, «I didn’t see Jane in the town.» 11) Mr. Baker said, «Please, inform your parents about the meeting.» 12) Bob’s mother said, «You have to meet your sister.» 13) They heard, «There will not be a party the next week.» 14) He wondered, «Who sent me the telegram.» 14) Maggie said, «Mother, don’t tell anything to father.» 16) She said, «Are you listening to me?» the boy sad, «Yes, I am.» 17) They asked, «How many guests will come to the party?» 18) He replied, «The article has been translated.» 19) They said, «it’s doubtful that he will come in time.» 20) — 21) she said, «I was wrong, I admit it.» 22) He said, «I will call the police.» 23) Tom said, «Who called me the day before, I wonder?’ 3. a) 1) why she called. 2) where he has been. 3) …when they will arrive. 4) how long you have known him. 5) where your friend works. 6) when he was sick. 7) how much sugar there is in the sugar bowl. 8) what was built in your street last year. 9) why he was angry with Jane. 10) how far it is from here. b) 1) he will be in tomorrow. 2) you have seen this film. 3) he know the man. 4) the police warned you. 5) there will be any tests the nest year. 6) he was late. 7) I am right. 8) they are from England. 9) there was any news from him. 10) he has seen her this week.

Lesson 4 1 D GZc^bl_wlbij_^eh`_gby\ l_dkl_b ijhqlbl_bo\kemo Canberra is the home of Australia’s Government and embassies from around the world. This is where Australia’s government meets. Canberra is also the «natural capital» and is within easy reach of some of Australia’s most spectacular countryside. E I_j_\_^bl_gZZg]ebckdbcyaud No wonder the people of Canberra love to spend their time outdoors! Canberra is a cyclist’s paradise». Homework 1. Canberra is the home of Australia’s Government and embassies from around the world. The centre place of the city is the New Parliament House. It is easy to reach most spectacular countryside of Australia from Canberra. 198


The people of Canberra love to spend their time outdoors because the air there is fresh and crisp. There are many museums in Canberra. The national Gallery, the National Science and technology Centre, the High Court and the Old Parliament House are located in Canberra.

Lesson 5 Homework LKH ILUVW 2O\PSLF*DPHV ZHUH KHOG LQ 776 B.C. the Games were held every four years in honour of the king of the gods, Zeus. There was one event in the earliest Olympiad: the 200-yard sprint. For 1000 years the games were held every forth year. During the Olympic Games there were no wars and disputes. In A.D. 393 the Byzantine Emperor Theodosius 1 banned the Games. In 1894 Baron Pierre de Coubertin wrote a letter to the athletic organizations of every country. He described the educational value of sport. The first modern Olympic Games took place in 1896. Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku  DZdb_khj_\gh\Zgby\dexqZeb^j_\gb_Hebfibckdb_B]ju" The ancient Olympics included sprint, wrestling, boxing, pankrathion, the discus throw, the javelin throw and the long jump.  Hibrbl_p_j_fhgbxhldjulbykh\j_f_gguoHebfibckdboB]j The athletes parade on a field. The torch is lighted with the flame, which was carried from the site of Olympia by relay runners.  Dh]^ZJhkkbygZqZeZmqZkl\h\Zlv\ HebfibckdboB]jZo" Russia joined the Olympic Games in 1952. Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku  B]juHebfibZ^u[m^mlijh\h^blvky\ Kb^g__" Yes, it will.  Kdhevdh^g_c[m^mlijh^he`ZlvkyB]ju" The Olympic Games will last over 17 days.  Wlh[m^_li_j\ucjZadh]^ZB]juijh\h^ylky\ :\kljZebb" No, it wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t.  Dh]^Zb ]^_ijh\h^bebkvi_j\u_B]ju" The first Games were held in 766 B.C. in Greece  MqZkl\h\ZeZeb:\kljZeby\ B]jZok ]h^Z" Yes, she has.  Ba\_klghqlh:\kljZeby\ub]ju\Z_lf_^Zeb" Yes, she is.  Ex^b\ :\kljZebbih^^_j`b\ZxlB]ju" Yes, they do. More than 100000volunteers offered their services.

Lesson 6

199


 KdhevdhkljZgb kihjlkf_gh\^he`gumqZkl\h\Zlv" About 200 countries and 10 000 athletes are expected to participate.  Kdhevdh\b^h\kihjlZ\ ijh]jZff_" There are 27 sports. They are. from Archery to weightlifting. Triathlon and Taekwondo, shooting, canoeing, rowing, mountain bike and equestrian.  =^_[m^mlijh\h^blvkyhkgh\gu_khj_\gh\Zgby" The main events will take place in two primary zones â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Sydney Olympic Park and the Sydney Harbour Zone.  Kdhevdhf_kl\ HebfibckdhfKlZ^bhg_" The Olympic Stadium will provide 110 000 seats for the spectators.  Kdhevdhkihjlkf_gh\[m^ml`blv\ Kihjlb\ghc>_h_\g_" 10 000 athletes will live in the Athletesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Village.   DZdh_ \Z`gh_ kh[ulb_ [m^_l ijZa^gh\Zlvky \ :\kljZebb aZ ]h^^hHebfibckdboB]j]h^Z" The centenary of the declaration of Australian Federation will be celebrated one year before.  Dh]^ZgZqg_lkydmevlmjgZyhebfibZ^Z" The cultural Olympiad will start in 1997.  DZdb_f_jhijbylbyhgZ[m^_l\ k_[y\dexqZlv" It will include the Festival of Dreaming, A Sea Change, Reaching the world and Harbour Of life festival.

Lesson 9 Homework K^_eZcl_^hdeZ^h >`bg>jbkdheb EZdeZg_>`hgk_  Bfy-HDQ'ULVFROO  <hajZkl  Qlhk gbfk g_ckemqbehkv"6SLQD%LILGD  DZdb_m g_]hj_amevlZlu\ gZklhys__\j_fy"6L[WLPHZLQQHURI Boston marathon, broke the world record five times. Silcer medalist in 800-meter races, world record in marathon and 10000-meter races.   DZdb_ m g_]h  m g__ ieZgu gZ [m^_s__" 7R FRPSHWH LQ WKH olympics and the Paralympics. 1) Lachlan Jones 2) 19 3) cerebral palsy 4) a Gold medal at Atlantic Paralympics, holds all the records from 100 metres through to 800 metres in Wheelchair Track competition, the Australian Powerlift Champion in the 52 kg division. 5) To pursue a career in the fitness industry, to begin studying the courses next year, to become a gym instructor for the disabled sportsmen. 200


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I_j_\_^bl_\ dhk\_ggmxj_qv 1) He tells not to tell a lie. 2) Jane asked if I had heard he. 3) He said he was busy. 4) He asked what I had said. 5) John asked Linda if she was free that evening. 6) She asked Gregory if he was all right. 7) Tom said that the letter had been sent the day before. 8) Sabrina said that she didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know when he would arrive. 9) He asked when the contract would be signed. 10)The secretary asked Mr. Krutov if they had received their fax. I_j_\_^bl_k Zg]ebckdh]hgZjmkkdbcyaud  Hgg_agZeihq_fmhgZiha\hgbeZ  FZfZkdZaZeZkugmb^lbkiZlv  >`_cfkkijhkbef_gy[ueeb\ :g]ebb^hwlh]h  HgZkijhkbeZ]^_wdaZf_gh\Zebklm^_glh\  Hgg_[uem\_j_gijb^_lebhgZ  Hgkijhkbe[m^_lebibkvfh]hlh\hd ke_^mxs_fm^gx  HgZihijhkbeZk\h_]h[jZlZgbq_]hg_]h\hjblv;hjbkm  Hgkijhkbe__q_fhgZaZgbfZ_lky b hgZ kdZaZeZ qlh ibr_l dgb]m  HgkdZaZeqlh\b^bldZdhgZaZoh^bl\ ehf  Hgg_[uem\_j_gqlh\h^bl_evgZc^_l^hjh]m  Hgkijhkbedh]^Zhgbkfh]mlk^_eZlvjZ[hlm  HgZkijhkbeZkdhevdhkZoZjZ\ qZ_ >hihegbl_ij_^eh`_gbyke_^myijbf_jm 1) Wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t they? 2) Wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t there be? 3) Did he? 4) Wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t they? 5) Doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t it? 6) Didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t he? 7) Isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t it? 8) Can he? 9) Wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t he? Ijhqlbl_l_dklb hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku K_dj_lZjvkdZaZeqlhfbkl_j ^;_c^_gijbf_lf_gyY hq_gvg_j\gbqZedh]^Z\hr_e\ _]hdZ[bg_lHgg_ih^gye]heh\mdh]^Zy \hr_e Ihke_lh]hdZdy k_ehgkdZaZeqlh^_eh[uehiehohHgkdZaZefg_ qlh nbjfZ g_ fh]eZ iha\heblv k_[_ ieZlblv lZdb_ [hevrb_ aZjieZlu >\Z^pZlvq_eh\_dm`_mrebY agZeqlhijbreZfhyhq_j_^v ŠFbkl_jO_c^_gÂŞ²kdZaZey keZ[uf]hehkhf ŠG_i_j_[b\ZcÂŞ²kdZaZehg AZl_fhgmeu[gmekyb kdZaZefg_qlhy [m^mihemqZlvgZ [hevr_ Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku  Dlhohl_e\Zk\b^_lv"

Lesson 11

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Mr. Heyden did.  DZd\uk_[yqm\kl\h\Zebihwlhfmih\h^m" I felt nervous.  Dm^Z\uihreb" I went into his office.  KdZaZeebfbkl_jO_c^_gqlh^_eh[uehiehohbebhgkdZaZe qlh\k_[uehohjhrh" He said that business was bad.  Fh]eZebnbjfZieZlblvlZdb_[hevrb_aZjieZlubebg_l" The firm couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t pay such large salaries.  Kdhevdhq_eh\_dm`_mreb" Twenty people had already left.  Ihijhkbeebfbkl_jO_c^_g\Zklh`_mclbbebg_l" Mr. Heyden didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t ask me to leave.  Qlhfbkl_jO_c^_gkdZaZe\Zf" He told me I would receive an extra 2000$ a year. L_kl mjh\_gv

KhklZ\vl_ij_^eh`_gbyke_^myijbf_jm 1) Joy asked Mary where she was going to spend her holiday. 2) Everybody asked us why the tickets were so expensive. 3) Framk asked his wife how Maryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s children were. 4) Mrs. Jones asked her neighbour who was going to buy her house. 5) Bill asked his friend when he was planning to come to Colchester. 6) I asked Maria what she was going to do next. 7) Peter asked policeman where he could get the bus to Liverpool. I_j_\_^bl_k Zg]ebckdh]hgZjmkkdbc  HgZkhfg_\ZeZkvqlhhg[m^_lgZke_^mxsbc^_gv  HgijbagZeqlhagZe__ m`_^\Zf_kypZ  HgbmagZebqlh\_q_jbgdZ[m^_lgZke_^mxs_cg_^_e_  HgbjZkkljhbebkvqlhbog_ijb]eZkbeb  Hgohl_emagZlvfh`ghebaZdZaZlv[be_luihl_e_nhgm  HgbhljbpZebqlhagZxlwlh]hq_eh\_dZ  HgZkdZaZeZqlhg_ohq_lqlh[uhgqlheb[hagZe  Lhfohl_eagZlvihq_fm>`_cg g_ij_^mij_^beZ_]hh k\h_f ijb_a^_  HgkdZaZeqlhh`b^Z_lkyqlhO_e_gijb_^_l\ ex[hcfhf_gl  HgZih`Zeh\ZeZkvqlhk g_ciehohh[jZsZebkv  HgZkijhkbeZihq_fmhgg_ij_^mij_^be__ jZgvr_  HgZg_h`b^ZeZqlhhgm[_^blvjh^bl_e_chlimklblv_]h I_j_\_^bl_k jmkkdh]hgZZg]ebckdbcyaud 1) The Olympic Games will be held in Australia in 2000, wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t they 2) The athletes will compete in 25 events, wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t they?

202


3) Do you know where I can find her? 4) They letters are to be sent today, arenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t they? 5) Do you know what her name is? 6) He is never late for the classes, isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t he? 7) Do you know how much the food costs? 8) John was to meet her at the station, wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t he? 9) This rule has been explained to them, has it not? 10) They didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know about it, did they? 11) There were a lot of fans at the match, werenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t there? 12) Do you know when they will come? 13) Do you know how to get to the sea? Ijhqlbl_b i_j_\_^bl_l_dkl Dh]^Z>`_d OZlqbgkhg [ue \ [hevgbp_hg ihijhkbe ^hdlhjZ kdZaZlv_fm[ueZebhi_jZpbymki_rghcgh^hdlhjhldZaZekywlhk^_eZlv GZ ke_^mxsbc ^_gv iZpb_gl ihijhkbe l_e_nhg m djh\Zlb Dh]^Z hg [ueh^bghgiha\hgbe^hdlhjmMhjj_gmDh]^Z^hdlhj ih^hr_e d l_e_nhgm fbkl_j OZlqbgkhg kdZaZe qlh hg ohl_e [u magZlv khklhygb_ h^gh]h iZpb_glZ >`_dZ OZlqbgkhgZ Hg kijhkbe [ueZ eb hi_jZpby fbkl_jZOZlqbgkhgZmki_rghcb ^hdlhjkdZaZe_fmqlhhgZ[ueZmki_rghc AZl_f hg kijhkbe dh]^Z fbkl_jm OZlqbgkhgm fh`gh [m^_l ihclb^hfhcb ^hdlhjkdZaZe_fmqlh_fmijb^_lkyhklZlvky\ [hevgbp__s_gZ^\_g_^_ebAZl_f^hdlhjkijhkbe[ueebhgjh^kl\_ggbdhf iZpb_glZŠG_lÂŞ²hl\_lbeiZpb_glŠY ²fbkl_j>`_dOZlqbgkhgÂŞ Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku  Qlh^hdlhjMhjj_ghldZaZekykdZaZlvk\h_fmiZpb_glm>`_dm OZlqbgkhgm Dr. Warren refused to tell Jack Hutchinson if the operation had been successful.  DhfmiZpb_gliha\hgbegZke_^mxsbc^_gv" The patient called Dr. Warren.  H dhfhgkijZ\eyeky" He inquire about Jack Hutchinson.  Hl\_lbeeb^hdlhjgZ\hijhkuh iZpb_gl_dhlhju__fmaZ^Z\Zeb" Yes, he did.  Kijhkbeebhg[ueeba\hgysbcjh^kl\_ggbdhfiZpb_glZ" Yes, he did.  KdZaZeeba\hgb\rbcd_fhg[ue" Yes, he did. GZibrbl_\ ijyfhcj_qb^bZeh]f_`^miZpb_glhfb ^hdlhjhf â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Doctor, has the operation been successful? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; I canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t tell you right now. â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Good afternoon. Could I speak to Dr. Warren? 203


â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Speaking. â&#x20AC;&#x201D; I â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;m calling to inquire about a patient, Jack Hutchinson. Has Mr. Hutchinsonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s operation been successful? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Yes, it has been successful. â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Could you tell me when Mr. Hutchinson will be allowed to go home? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; He will have to stay in the hospital for another two weeks. Are you a relative of the patient? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; No, I am not. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m Mr. Lack Hutchinson.

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1. 1) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; h; 2) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; b; 3) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; f; 4) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; c; 5) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a; 6) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; g; 7) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; d; 8) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; e. I_j_\_^bl_k jmkkdh]hgZZg]ebckdbcyaud 1) he asked if anyone saw her the previous week. 2) Tom wondered where Sasha and Olga were. 3) She said that she wanted him to come on Sunday. 4) They doubted whether the Browns had invited them to the party. 5) He didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know hwy she had not warned him. 6) They doubted that they would understand the Australian English. 7) She told her son not to smoke. 8) He wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t sure when he would be able to translate the text. 9) They denied that they knew that man. Ijhqlbl_l_dklb i_j_\_^bl__]hgZjmkkdbcyaud ;u\rbc ij_fv_j fbgbklj fbkl_j E_cg ijhb]jZe gZ ihke_^gbo \u[hjZo K_cqZk hg hklZ\ey_l iheblbq_kdmx `bagv b hg m_oZe aZ ]jZgbpmFhc^jm]BaZj^\k_]^Z[uenbgZgkh\ufijhlb\gbdhfJZ^bdZevghc Ijh]j_kkb\ghc IZjlbb fbkl_jZ E_cgZ Ihke_ \u[hjh\ fbkl_j BaZj^ ihr_e d ^hfm [u\r_]h ij_fv_j fbgbkljZ Dh]^Z hg kijhkbe`b\_leba^_kvfbkl_jE_cgihebp_ckdbcgZihklmkdZaZe _fm qlh ihke_ k\h_]h ihjZ`_gby [u\rbc ij_fv_j fbgbklj m_oZe aZ]jZgbpmGZke_^mxsbc^_gvfbkl_jBaZj^hiylvijbr_ed ^hfm Lhl `_ ihebp_ckdbc f_^e_ggh ijh]meb\Zeky hdheh \oh^Z dh]^Z fbkl_jBaZj^aZ^Zelhl`_\hijhkOhlyb g_kdhevdhih^hajbl_evgh gZ wlhl jZa ihebp_ckdbc hl\_lbe _fm lh `_ kZfh_ GZ ke_^mxsbc ^_gvfbkl_jBaZj^_s_jZaijbr_ed lhfm^hfm b aZ^Ze lhl `_ \hijhk GZ wlhl jZa ihebp_ckdbc \ur_e ba k_[y ŠY m`_ kdZaZe \Zf \q_jZb ihaZ\q_jZÂŞ²aZdjbqZehgŠFbkl_jE_cgijhb]jZegZ\u[hjZoHgm^Zebekyhliheblbq_kdhc`bagbb m_oZeaZ]jZgbpmÂŞ ŠY agZxÂŞ²hl\_lbefbkl_jBaZj^ ŠGhfg_gjZ\blkykemrZlv dZd\uwlh]h\hjbl_ÂŞ Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku  Dlhijhb]jZegZihke_^gbo\u[hjZo" Mr. Lane did.  Q_fhgaZgbfZekyk_cqZk" He was retiring from political life. 204


 Dm^Zhgm_oZe" He went abroad.  Fbkl_jmBaZj^mgjZ\bekyij_fv_jfbgbklj" No, he did not.  Qlhk^_eZefbkl_jBaZj^ihke_\u[hjh\" Mr. Izard went to the ex-Prime ministerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s house.  Qlhhgkijhkbem ihebp_ckdh]hgZihFlm" He asked if Mr. Lane lived there.  Ihr_eebfbkl_jBaZj^lm^ZgZke_^mxsbc^_gv" Yes, he did.  AZq_fhglm^Zoh^be"AZ^Z\Zeebhgh^bgb lhl`_\hijhkdZ`^ucjZadh]^Zijboh^belm^Z" He went there to ask if Mr. Lane lived there. Yes, he did.  Ihq_fmhglZd^_eZe" He did so because he liked to hear that Mr. Lane had retired from political life and had gone abroad. Qlh\umagZebbawlhc]eZ\u" Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku Yes, they did. They saw that the city was very natural and green. AZihegbl_ijh[_eu

Lesson 12

Dlhwlh"

Could I have your name please? Just a moment. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m putting you through. Your call has been placed in a queue Could you ring / call back?

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QlhhagZqZxl[md\u:Gdh]^ZhgbgZibkZgui_j_^l_e_nhggufghf_jhf" After Hours. It means that you can use this number to find this person if you call early in the morning of late in the evening. <u[_jbl_ijZ\bevguchl\_l 1) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; c; 2) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; c; 3) b; 4) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a; 5) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a; 6) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; b. AZihegbl_ijh[_eu\ lZ[ebp_ 1896 Athens, Greece 1900 Paris, France 205


1904 St Louis, Missouri, US 1908 London, England 1956Melbourne, Australia 1960 Rome, Italy 1964 Tokyo, Japan 1976 Montreal, Canada 1992 Barcelona, Spain 1996 Atlanta, Georgia, US 2000 Sydney, Australia. >hihegbl_ij_^eh`_gby  200  0,000; 5,000  3,5  40,000  15,000  27  triathlon; taekwondo AZihegbl_ijh[_eu\ lZ[ebp_ HebfibckdZyijh]jZffZ 1) Archery 15) judo 2) athletics  kh\j_f_ggh_iylb[hjv_  [Z^fbglhg 17) 4) 18) sailing 5)  klj_ev[Z 6) 20)  FDQRHLQJ²dZghw 21)  \_ehkihjl 22) taekwondo  dhgguckihjl 23) 10)  ljbZlehg 11) 25) 12) gymnasics  ih^gylb_lu`_kl_c 13) handball  [hjv[Z 14) hockey

J:;HQ:YL?LJ:>V CHAPTER 5 Lesson 1

Homework I_j_\_^bl_khq_lZgbykeh\\ kdh[dZogZZg]ebckdbc 1) how did he like Melbourn and Canberra. 2) he could have stayed. 3) what he would do. 4) if he were them. 5) endangered animals. 206


6) provide, wounded or orphaned. 7) they are returned. 8) education center. 9) go round the Zoo on a tour. 10) would like. 11) huge variety. 12) 1500 species of fish live.

Lesson 2 Homework Ij_^klZ\vl_k_[_qlhLhfaZ^Z_l\Zf\hijhkuh `b\hlguo b ijbjh^_f_klZ\ dhlhjhf\u`b\_l_Qlh\uhl\_lbl_" If Tom asks me how many species of birds live in our region, I will answer that a great variety of birds live in our region. If Tom asks me when the birds come back, I will answer that they come back in spring. If Tom asks me where the birds fly away, I will answer that they fly overseas. If Tom asks me when spring begins, I will answer that it begins in March. If Tom asks me if it is hot in summer I will answer that it is. If Tom asks me if there is a zoo in my city I will answer that there is. If Tom asks me how the environment is protected I will answer that laws are being made to protect it. If Tom asks me if I want to see the Great Barrier Reef, I will answer that I do.

Lesson 3 LwfEbg RhleZg^kdZykdZadZ QZklv DZjl_joZn[uehm_^bg_gguff_klhfgZ]jZgbp_:g]ebbk RhleZg^b_c Ex^b [hyebkv oh^blv \ wlm kljZggmx kljZgm \ dhlhjhc kj_^b khkgh\h]h e_kZ [ue \her_[guc dheh^_p LZdbf [ue klbrhd dhlhjuchgbjZkkdZau\Zebk\hbf^hq_jyf >moblZfhqZjh\u\ZxlfZ]bq_kdbfbaZdebgZgbyfb Ihwlhfm^_\mrdbfheh^u_b q_klgu_ G_oh^bl_b g_b]jZcl_m \her_[gh]hdheh^pZ IhlhfmqlhlZfLwfEbg BfyLwfZEbgZ[uehba\_klghih\k_c]jZgbp_Hg[uefheh^uf q_eh\_dhf dhlhjh]h ^mob \udjZeb m ex^_c >_\mrdb dhlhju_ \klj_qZebkvk gbfijhiZ^ZebgZ\k_]^Z M Ehj^Z DZjl_joZnZ [ueZfheh^Zy ^hqv dhlhjmx a\Zeb @Zg_l ² mfgZy djZkb\Zy ^_\mrdZ k ahehlbklufb \hehkZfb HgZ [ueZ f_qlZl_evghc?cohl_ehkv\klj_lblvkyk LwfhfEbghfH^gZ`^u\_k_ggbf ^g_f @Zg_l j_rbeZ ij_g_[j_qv ij_^mij_`^_gbyfb b gZclb \her_[Homework

207


gucdheh^_pHgZ\ureZbaaZfdZk\h_]hhlpZb \hreZ\ e_kGZdhg_p hgZgZreZdheh^_p]em[hdh\ e_kmb jy^hfk gbf[ueZ[_eZyehrZ^v gh lZf g_ [ueh LwfZ EbgZ =em[hdh aZ^mfZ\rbkv @Zg_l khj\ZeZ [_emxjhamDZdlhevdhhgZwlhk^_eZeZihy\bekyfheh^hc q_eh\_d dZd _keb[uhg[ueijbajZdhfHg[ue\ukhdbfb djZkb\ufm g_]h[ueb ]em[hdb_k_ju_]eZaZb l_fgu_\hehkuWlh[ueLwfEbg ŠQlh ijb\_eh l_[y \ fhc e_k ^_\mrdZ b ihq_fm lu kh[bjZ_rv p\_luk fh_]hdheh^pZ"ª²kijhkbehg ŠDZjl_joZnihf_klv_fh_]hhlpZª²kdZaZeZ@Zg_l ŠIhwlhfm y [m^m ijboh^blv b ]meylv ih DZjl_joZnm g_ kijZrb\Zy gb m dh]h jZaj_r_gbyª ŠLukf_eZy^_\mrdZª ²kdZaZeLwf k meu[dhc ŠWlhl e_k ijbgZ^e_`bl^moZfb ya^_kvqlh[uaZsbsZlv_]h^eygboª ŠLuh^bgbagbo"ª²kijhkbeZ@Zg_lk m`Zkhf Š>ZwlhlZdª²kdZaZeLwfŠGhy g_\k_]^Z[ueh^gbfbagbo ?kebluihc^_rvkhfghc@Zg_ly jZkkdZ`ml_[_\kxbklhjbxª Gh@Zg_lg_fh]eZhklZlvky ŠY ^he`gZ b^lbª ² kdZaZeZ hgZ Š?keb y g_ ijb^m ^h \_q_jZ f_gygZqgmlbkdZlvY m`_^Z\ghmreZª ŠG_lZdm`^Z\ghª²jZkkf_yekydjZkZ\_pLwfŠG_lZdm`^Z\ghª B wlh[uehijZ\^hcDh]^Z@Zg_l\_jgmeZkv\ aZfhdba\her_[gh]he_kZgbdlhg_aZf_lbeqlh__ g_[ueh Dhg_qgh @Zg_l \ex[beZkv \ djZkb\h]h LwfZ EbgZ Dlh hg [ue" Ihq_fmhgZg_\b^_eZ_]hjZgvr_">_ckl\bl_evghebhgg_[ue`b\uf q_eh\_dhf"?kebhg[ue`b\ufq_eh\_dhf\ex[blkyebhg\ g__"<k_ e_lhhgZg_fh]eZ^mfZlvgbh dhfb gbh q_f[hevr_BlZdgZdhg_p hgZj_rbeZ\_jgmlvky\ e_kqlh[u\klj_lblvkyk Lwfhf HgZ kgh\Z m\b^_eZ [_emx ehrZ^v m dheh^pZ gh LwfZ g_ [ueh H^gZdhgZjhah\hfdmkl_\k__s_[uebjhaub @Zg_lkhj\ZeZ p\_lhdB kgh\Zbagbhldm^Zihy\bekyLwfdZd[m^lhhg`^Ze__ ŠKdZ`b fg_ Lwf Ebgª kdZaZeZ @Zg_l ŠY ^he`gZ agZlv wlh ² kdZ`bfg_dlhluLuojbklbZgbgbebluh^bgba^moh\"ª Lwf^he]hkfhlj_egZg__GZdhg_phgihdZqZe]heh\hcb kdZaZe ŠLh]^Zy jZkkdZ`ml_[_i_qZevgmxbklhjbxFhc^_^mrdZ[ue]jZnhf Jhdk[mj]kdbf H^gZ`^u oheh^guf ^g_f fu \ha\jZsZebkv k hohlu?keb[uy g__oZegZwlhc[_ehcehrZ^bb g_miZek g__dhjhe_\Z^moh\gbdh]^Zg_ ihcfZeZ [u f_gy b g_ k^_eZeZ k\hbf kem]hcHgZ^h\hevghijbylgZy]hkih`ZghhgZg_^h[juc^moDZ`^u_ k_fve_lhgZm[b\Z_lfm`qbgmb deZ^_l_]h\ dheh^_p?kebg_kemqblkyqm^Zlh\ ke_^mxsbcjZa[m^_lfhyhq_j_^vª Š?keb [u lu ex[beZ f_gy @Zg_l lu fh]eZ [u kiZklb f_gyª ijh^he`ZeLwfb k_cqZk\ _]h]hehk_[ueZfhev[ZŠ?keb[uy [ue `b\ufq_eh\_dhflu[uk`ZebeZkvgZ^hfghcª 208


ŠGhy ex[exl_[y\k_fk_j^p_fb _keb[uy lhevdhagZeZqlh^_eZlvy [uk^_eZeZ\k_qlh[uihfhqvl_[_ª²\kdjbdgmeZ@Zg_l ŠLh]^Z kemrZc k_]h^gy ghqvx dZgmg >gy \k_o k\yluo b wlh _^bgkl\_ggZy ghqv dh]^Z lu fh`_rv f_gy kiZklbª ² kdZaZe Lwf Ebg Š< iheghqv g_ jZgvr_ b g_ iha`_ ^mob ijh_^ml ijhp_kkb_c q_j_ae_kY [m^mk gbfb?keblu^_ckl\bl_evghex[brvf_gylu ijb^_rvkx^Zwlhcghqvxª QZklv ŠGhdZdy magZxl_[yLwfEbg"ª²kijhkbeZ@Zg_l Š<hlqlhlu ^he`gZk^_eZlvª²kdZaZe Lwf ŠY [m^m gZ [_ehc ehrZ^b ;ukljh ih^[_]b d g_c b kdbgv gZ_a^gbdZ k ehrZ^b Wlbf gZ_a^gbdhf [m^m y  gZ fh_c ijZ\hc jmd_ [m^_l i_jqZldZ gZ e_\hc ²g_lfhyreyiZ[m^_lk^\bgmlZgZaZ^hldju\Zyfhb\hehkuª Š>_j`b f_gy \ jmdZo kh \k_c kbehc ^_\mrdZ ?keb lu [m^_rv ^_j`Zlv f_gy ^mob [m^ml ij_\jZsZlv f_gy \ jZaguo `b\hlguo \ af_xihlhf\hf_^\_^y\h ev\Z b \ jZkdZe_gguc ^h djZkgZ `_e_aguc[jmkhdb \dhgp_\ ]hjysbcdZf_gvAZl_fb lhevdhlh]^Zlu ^he`gZ[ukljh[jhkblvf_gy\ \h^mdheh^pZ?kebluk^_eZ_rv\k_ wlhy [m^ml\h_cgZklhys_cex[h\vxgZ\k_]^Zb ykgh\ZklZgm`b\ufq_eh\_dhfGhwlhhq_gvljm^ghk^_eZlvb g_h^gZ^_\mrdZg_ kfh]eZfg_ihfhqv^hwlh]h?kebluk^_eZ_rv\k_wlh@Zg_ly [m^mkiZk_ghldhjhe_\u^moh\B aZihfgb_kebluex[brvf_gygbqlhg_ijbqbgbll_[_[hebª @Zg_lkemrZeZihdZLwfjZkkdZau\Zeb ihh[_sZeZk^_eZlvlZd dZdhg]h\hjbe Ke_^mxs_cghqvxhq_gvl_fguf[_aemggufdZgmghf>gy\k_o k\yluo hgZ gZ^_eZ l_iemx a_e_gmx gZdb^dm \ureZ ba ^hfZ b ih[_`ZeZ\ q_jguc\her_[guce_k Jh\gh \ iheghqv hgZ mkeurZeZ a\hg dhehdhevqbdh\ b m\b^_eZ ijhp_kkbx <her_[gu_ nhgZjb lmkdeh k\_lbebkv b @Zg_l kfh]eZ m\b^_lv dhjhe_\m b ^jm]bo ^moh\ GZdhg_p @Zg_l m\b^_eZ [_emx ehrZ^vHgZ\ukdhqbeZb kibogmeZLwfZb k`ZeZ_]hkh\k_ckbehc AZl_f ^mob gZqZeb djbqZlv \hdjm] g__ Ijhf_evdgmeZ a_e_gZy \kiurdZb @Zg_l\g_aZighihqm\kl\h\ZeZqlh^_j`blaf_x@Zg_l bgklbgdlb\ghohl_eZ[jhkblv__ghhgZ\kihfgbeZijhfhev[mLwfZ b _]h h[_sZgb_ b hgZ ^_j`ZeZ dj_idh AZl_f [ue f_^\_^v aZl_f e_\<k_`_@Zg_lbolh`_dj_idh^_j`ZeZAZl_fhgZihqm\kl\h\ZeZ [hevdZdd[m^lhhgZ^_j`ZeZjZkdZe_ggh_^hdjZkgZ`_e_ahGhhgZ ijh^he`ZeZ ^_j`Zlv B aZl_f [ue m`Zkguc ]jma ]hjys_]h dZfgy @Zg_l ihem`b\Zy k ljm^hf k[jhkbeZ _]h \ l_fgu_ \h^u dheh^pZ ;ue \kie_kd b Lwf Ebg \u[jZeky ba \h^u fhdjuc b [e_^guc gh _s_[he__djZkb\ucq_fjZgvr_ 209


AZl_f aZ]h\hjbeZ dhjhe_\Z ^moh\ ŠIjhdebgZx l_[y `_gsbgZ LumdjZeZkZfh]hdjZkb\h]hbafhbojupZj_cfh_]h`_gboZÂŞdjbqZeZhgZb dZdhcaehcdhjhe_\hchgZ[ueZ Gh@Zg_lb Lwfk_cqZk[uebk\h[h^guhlfZ]bq_kdbokbedhjhe_\u^moh\Ex[h\v@Zg_l[ueZkbevg__q_fqZjudhjhe_\ub dhjhe_\ZagZeZqlh[ueZih[_`^_gZ@Zg_lb Lwf\_jgmebkv\ aZfhd Hgb`beb\f_kl_hq_gvkqZkleb\h\kxbo`bagvb bodjZkb\uckug klZeEhj^hfDZjl_joZnZ GZc^bl_\ l_dkl_ijb^Zlhqgu_j_Zevgh]hmkeh\by If I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t come before night, they will be looking for me. If a miracle doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t happen, next time will be my turn. If you really love me, you will come here this night. If you hold me, the fairies will turn me into all sorts of beastsâ&#x20AC;Ś And remember that if you love me, nothing can hurt you. These are all the clauses of real condition, thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s why we use the Present Indefinite in the principal clause and the Future Indefinite in the subordinate clause. She wished she met Tam Lin. If you came with me, Janet, I would tell you the whole story.(unreal condition referring to the present, that is why we use the Past Indefinite and would + the Indefinite Infinitive) If he were a mortal man, would he love her? (unreal condition referring to the present, that is why we use the Past Indefinite and would + the Indefinite Infinitive) If I knew what to do, I would do anything to help you. (unreal condition referring to the present, that is why we use the Past Indefinite and would + the Indefinite Infinitive) If I had not been riding this horse and had not fallen from it, the Queen of the Fairies would have never caught me and made me her servant. (unreal condition referring to the past, that is why we use the Past Perfect Continuous and would + the Perfect Infinitive) If you did all this, then I would be your true love forever, and I would become a mortal man once more. (unreal condition referring to the present, that is why we use the Past Indefinite and would + the Indefinite Infinitive) Hl\_lugZ\hijhku  DlhlZdhcLwfEbg" Tam Lin was a young man whom fairies had stolen from people.  =^_hg`be" He lived in a fairy wood, by the fairy well.  Dlh[ueZ@Zg_l" Janet was a young daughter of the Lord of Carterhaugh. She was a clever and bonny girl with golden hair. 210


 =^_hgZ`beZ" She lived in her fatherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Hall in Cartrhaugh.  Ihq_fmex^b[hyebkv\her_[gh]hdheh^pZ" People were afraid of the fairyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s well, as Tam Lin was there. And girls who met Tam Lin disappeared forever.   Ihq_fm @Zg_l j_rbeZ gZ h[jZsZlv \gbfZgby gZ ij_^mij_`^_gby" Janet decided to ignore all the warnings, because she was a dreamer and she wished she met Tam Lin.  M\b^_eZebhgZLwfEbgZm dheh^pZ" At first there was no Tam Lin beside the well.  DZd@Zg_lm\b^_eZ_]h\i_j\u_" Janet plucked a white rose, and no sooner had she done this than a young man appeared, as if he were a ghost.  K^_eZeebLwfEbgqlhgb[m^liehoh_@Zg_l" No, he didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t.  DZdh_hlghr_gb_d LwfEbgm[uehm @Zg_lihke_boi_j\hc \klj_qb" Janet was in love with Tam Lin.  ;ueebLwfEbgkf_jlguf" Tam Lin was a mortal man, but he was stolen from people by a fairy folk.  DZdhgklZeh^gbfba^moh\" One cold day Tamâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s grandfather and Tam were riding back from the hunting. If Tam had not been riding that white horse and had not fallen from it, the Queen of the Fairies would have never caught him and made him her servant.  DZd@Zg_lfh]eZkiZklbLwfZ" Tam told Janet that the only way for her to save him was to come to the wood at Halloween night when the fairy folk rode in the procession through the wood. He told her that she should pull him down from his horse and then hold him tight in her arms, although the fairies would turn him into all sorts of beasts.  Qlhkemqbehkv\ O_eehmbg" At Halloween Janet came to the wood and did everything Tam had told her to do.  DZdZyj_Zdpby[ueZm Dhjhe_\u>moh\" The Fairy Queen knew she had been beaten and was extremely angry.  DZddhgqZ_lkyjZkkdZa" The story ends happily saying that Tam and Janet lived together in great happiness all their lives, and their bonny son became the Lord of Carterhaugh.

211


KIhklZ\vl_]eZ]heu\ kdh[dZo\ ijZ\bevghf\j_f_gb Had had, would have stopped; would have been, had dropped in; had paid, would not have; would study, were; will find, will never meet; had taken, would not have to; will sack donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t agree. 'Baf_gbl_ij_^eh`_gbydZd\ ijbf_j_ 1) I wish Chris did not watch a lot of television. 2) I wish they would not see her tomorrow. 3) I wish he were her brotherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s friend. 4) I wish Tom had not lost his wallet. 5) I wish the delegation had arrived. 6) I wish Ann were not sick. 7) I wish the message had been sent. 8) I wish they were not late. 9) I wish James had given Helen the flowers for her birthday. 10) I wish the letter had not been translated.

Lesson 4

Homework Ihl_jy\rb_ky Š?keb [u lu lhevdh ihkemrZe f_gy k_cqZk [u fu m`_ dj_idh kiZeb\ gZrbodjh\Zlyoª\hjqZeZR_ceZŠ>Z^hjh]Zy^mfZxqlh kiZeb [uª ² kdZaZe FZedhef iulZykv khkj_^hlhqblky gZ \h`^_gbbb gZk\h_cjZa^jZ`_gghc`_g_ohly\ lh`_\j_fym^_eyeqZklv \gbfZgbyk\hbfkh[kl\_gguffukeyf >h`^v klmqZe ih \_ljh\hfm kl_dem>hjh]Z[ueZmadhcb hiZkghcb hgbihl_jyebkv ?keb[uhgbih\_jgmebgZijZ\hgZihke_^g_fk\_lhnhj_hgb[u ^h_oZeb ^h g_[hevrhc ^_j_\mrdb JbdZjlhg gh hiylv `_ hgb g_ ^h_oZebIhq_fmwlhq_jlh\hf_klh[uehlZdly`_ehgZclb"?keb[u hgbih_oZeb\ ;ewdimedZdhgb^_eZebihke_^gb_^\Z^pZlve_lhgb [uba[Z\bebk_[yhl\k_owlbooehihlLZdbebbgZq_wlh[ueZb^_y R_ceuM g__\k_]^Z[ueblZdb_[e_klysb_b^_bdZdwlZ Š>he]h_s_"ª²kijhkbeZhgZ ŠG_ bf_x gb fZe_cr_]h ij_^klZ\e_gby ^hjh]Zyª ² _]h hl\_l [uefy]dbfŠY [hxkvfuihl_jyebkvª ŠIhl_jyebkv"ª ŠY [hxkvqlh^ZªFZedhefhklZgh\be fZrbgm b \dexqbe k\_l \gmljbHgiulZekygZsmiZlvdZjlm ŠL_[_ ke_^h\Zeh \a]eygmlv gZ wlh ^h lh]h dZd fu m_oZeb ba W^bg[mj]ZY [uijh\_jbeZfZjrjml_keb[uy agZeZqlhlukh[bjZ_rvky k[blvky k imlbª Ihq_fm hgZ \k_]^Z lZd ]h\hjbl ^mfZe FZedhefIhkemrZlv__lZdy ki_pbZevghk[bekyk imlbGh\k_qlh hgkdZaZe[uehŠY ^mfZxy agZx]^_fuih_oZebg_ijZ\bevgh^hjh]Zy?kebfujZa\_jg_fkya^_kvb ijh_^_fh[jZlghfbexbeb^\_ 212


fuijb_^_fd i_j_dj_kldm?kebfuih\_jg_fgZe_\hfuijb_^_f\ K_edbjd GZf ke_^h\Zeh ih_oZlv ih ^hjh]_ ;  ba W^bg[mj]Z ?keb [u fu lZd k^_eZeb Fu [ueb [u \ JbdZjlhg_ klh e_l gZaZ^ÂŞ R_ceZ gbq_]h g_ kdZaZeZ ŠY ihdZ`m l_[_ _keb lu g_ \_jbrvÂŞ ² ijh^he`Zehg\ ihjy^d_hiulZ]Z^ZygZqg_lebhgZkihjblvk gbf k_cqZk beb ihlhf ŠFu ih_oZeb wlbf iml_f Ihlhfm qlh lu _]h ij_^eh`beZfhy^hjh]ZyÂŞŠY lZdb agZeZqlhluh[\bgbrvf_gyÂŞ ²\ahj\ZeZkvhgZŠGbdlhgbdh]hg_h[\bgy_lÂŞ²hl\_lbehgiulZykvk^_eZlvk\hc]hehkdZdfh`gh[he__[eZ]hjZamfgufŠIjhklh [m^vjZkkm^bl_evghcZ ykhk\h_cklhjhguk^_eZx\k_qlh[uijb[ulv \ hl_ev q_j_aÂŤÂŞ hg ihkfhlj_e gZ qZku Šq_j_a qZk kZfh_ [hevr__ÂŞ HgZ ih^`ZeZ ]m[u iulZykv kijZ\blvky kh aehklvx ŠGZ l\h_ff_kl_y [uihr_\_ebeZkvK_cqZk ihqlb iheh^bggZ^pZlh]h b _keb fu g_ ijb_^_f lm^Z d iheghqb hgb hl^Z^ml gZrm dhfgZlm dhfmgb[m^v_s_ÂŞ Ijh\_jvl_k_[y :KhklZ\vl_\hijhkh\d l_dklmŠIhl_jy\rb_kyÂŞ 1) What was the place of their destination? 2) Why did they get lost? 3) What way out did Malcolm suggest? 4) What was Sheilaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s reaction to the news that they had got lost? 5) Why did they began to argue? %>hihegbl_ke_^mxsb_ij_^eh`_gby 1) â&#x20AC;Ś, he would speak English fluently. 2) â&#x20AC;Ś, there will be no human beings on the Earth soon. 3) â&#x20AC;Ś, he had not had so many accidents. 4) â&#x20AC;Ś, the weather were fine. 5) â&#x20AC;Ś, he had not been an hour late. 6) â&#x20AC;Ś, I would buy a castle. 7) â&#x20AC;Ś, it had not been so stuffy in the bus. 8) â&#x20AC;Ś, it were not so old. & IhklZ\vl_ ]eZ]heu \ kdh[dZo \ ijZ\bevgmx \j_f_ggmx nhjfm Would not have been, had rang; would have gone, had known; would not enjoy; would have had, had not told.

Lesson 5

D I_j_\_^bl_gZZg]ebckdbc 1) I wish we had visited Australia. 2) He would not have missed the train if he had got up earlier. 3) She would not have got wet, if she had taken her umbrella. 4) I wish she had not gone.

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5) I would buy this book if I were in your place. 6) She speaks English as if she spent many years in England. 7) I wish I could visit this Zoo. 8) What would you do if you were in my place? 9) Billâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s parents did not know when he would come. 10) I wish you had seen ÂŤThe TitanicÂť This film is worth seeing. 11) Where would you go if you were free tomorrow? 12) She would not have come if Bob had not phoned her. %GZc^bl_b i_j_\_^bl_ij_^eh`_gby\ dhlhjuo\klj_qZxlkykeh\Z VSHFLHVKDELWDWWRLQFOXGH Australia has nearly half million species of plants and animals â&#x20AC;&#x201D; one RIWKHJUHDWHVWYDULHWLHVRIDQ\FRXQWU\LQWKHZRUOG< :\kljZebbihqlb fbeebhg \b^h\ jZkl_gbc b `b\hlguo ihqlb kZfh_ [hevrh_ jZaghh[jZab_ba\k_okljZgfbjZ Australia, South America and Africa occupy approximately the same UDQJHRIODWLWXGHVDQGKDYHDVLPLODUYDULHW\RIKDELWDWV:\kljZebyX`gZy :f_jbdZb :njbdZgZoh^ylkyijb[ebabl_evghgZl_o`_kZfuorbjhlZob bf_xlijb[ebabl_evghh^bgZdh\mx_kl_kl\_ggmxkj_^m The team ÂŤanimalÂť includes not only mammals, but also insects, UHSWLOHVDPSKLELDQVELUGVHWFL_jfbgŠ`b\hlgh_ÂŞ\dexqZ_l\ k_[yg_ lhevdh fe_dhiblZxsbo gh b gZk_dhfuo ij_kfudZxsboky a_fgh\h^guoilbpb l^ It is believed that between 20 000 and 300 000 species are in $XVWUDOLDEXWVRIDURQO\DERXWKDYHEHHQGHVFULEHGKqblZ_lky qlh \ :\kljZebb f_`^m hl  ^h  \b^h\ `b\hlguo gh ^hkboihjlhevdh[uebhibkZgu &>hdZ`bl_qlh\ :\kljZebbg_h[uqgZynZmgZ Australia is unusual in fauna because there are 70% of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s marsupials, all of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s monotremes, a small percentage of placentals, an enormous diversity of parrots, a fascinating range of reptiles, amphibians and fish. There are also many unusual invertebrates. 'Hl\_lvl_gZke_^mxsb_\hijhku  DZdfe_dhiblZxsb_dhjfylk\hbo^_l_gur_c" Mammals produce milk to suckle their young.  Kh[ZdZ²fe_dhiblZxs__" A dog is a mammal.  DZdfugZau\Z_ffe_dhiblZxsbodhlhju_hldeZ^u\Zxlfy]db_ycpZ" Mammals that lay soft eggs are called monotremes.  DZdfugZau\Z_ffe_dhiblZxsbodhlhju_ghkyl^_l_gur_c \ kmfdZo"Ihq_fmbfijboh^blkywlh^_eZlv"

Lesson 6

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Mammals that carry their young in the pouches are called marsupials. They have to do so because the young are born in an immature state.  Qvb^_l_gurbjh`^Zxlky[he__jZa\blufbq_fm kmfqZluo" Placentalsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; young are born in a more mature state than those of marsupials.  Ihq_fmk hklZevguffbjhf[uehfZeZh[f_gZ`b\hlgufb" There has been little exchange with the rest of the world because Australia has been isolated for long periods of time.  DZdb_ijh[e_fulj_[mxlhkh[hcZ^ZilZpbb" Such problems as draught, frequent floods and fires require unique adaptation. &Hl\_lvl_gZke_^mxsb_\hijhku  Ihq_fmbkq_ad_g]mjm\ZeeZ[b" Toolache wallaby have become extinct because of the combination of habitat clearing and sport shooting.  Qlhihhsjy_lg_e_]Zevguc\u\haihim]Z_\k ahehlufbie_qZfb" High prices encourage the smuggling of the gioldenshouldered parrot.  Qlh^_eZ_lky^eylh]hqlh[uaZsblblvdjZq_d" Wildlife agencies and volunteers fence off the nest sites and patrol the beaches to help protect terns.  Ihq_fmdhebq_kl\hju[u\ j_qghckbkl_f_Fxjj_c >Zjebg] mf_gvrbehkv" The number of fish in the Murray Darling River system decreased because of habitat loss and fishing.   DZdb_ `b\hlgu_ y\eyxlky jZajmrbl_eyfb Z\kljZebckdhc ijbjh^u"Ihq_fm" Cats, foxes and rabbits are destructive for Australian wildlife. Cats kill many animals including small mammals, birds, frogs, reptiles and insects. Foxes are dangerous for brush-tailed bethongs, plain wanderers and other ground dwelling animals. Rabbits destroy arid parts by overgrazing. They not only eat palatable grasses but ringbark shrubs and trees.

Lesson 7

Homework  ;m^vl_ ]hlh\u jZkkdZaZlv h dhZeZo Ke_^mxsb_ \hijhku ihfh]ml\Zf  y\ey_lkyebDhZeZkZfufba\_klgufZ\kljZebckdbf`b\hlguf" Yes, it is.  =^_`b\mldhZeu" Koalas live in lightly wooded areas containing suitable food.  Q_fhgbiblZxlky" Koalas feed almost entirely on eucalyptus leaves.  Ihq_fmhgbj_^dhivxl" 215


They seldom drink because they obtain enough water from the diet of leaves.  Dh]^ZdhZeugZb[he__Zdlb\gu" Koala is most active just after sunset.   DhZeZ ² wlh h^ghZi_jlmjgh_ kmfqZlh_ beb ieZp_glZjgh_ fe_dhiblZxs__" Koala is a marsupial mammal.  DZdhckj_^gbckjhd`bagbdhZe" A koalaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s average life span is about 12 years in the wild, and sometimes 15 in captivity.

Lesson 9 Homework AZ^Zcl_\hijhkh\d l_dklm 1) What is the main objective of the Zooâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Education Centre? 2) What do they try to do? 3) Are we all part of the natural environment? 4) Do we need to be responsible for our interactions with our environment? 5) What should children and grow-ups recognize? 6) What do we need to think about? 7) Can our use of water, production of rubbish and energy consumption destroy our wildlife? 8) What will happen if we donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t change our behavior? 9) What can we do? 10) Should we appreciate the beauty of the nature?

Lesson 11 AZihegbl_ijh[_eu baby tooth radio leaf tax hero lorry wife loss Monkey piano wish nucleus way

babies teeth Radios Leaves taxes Heroes Lorries Wives Losses monkeys Pianos Wishes Nuclei Ways

Homework j_[_ghd / ^_lb am[ / am[u JZ^bh ebkl / ebklvy GZeh]gZeh]b =_jhc]_jhb =jmah\bd]jmah\bdb `_gZ / `_gu Ihl_jyihl_jb H[uavygZh[_avygu IbZgbgh @_eZgb_`_eZgby Y^jhy^jZ Imlvimlb

216


Salmon Photo phenomemon foot datum life bush guy chief

Salmon Photos Phenomena Feet Data Lives Bushes Gus Chiefs

Ehkhkvehkhkb Nhlh]jZnbynhlh]jZynbb Y\e_gb_y\e_gby Gh]Zgh]b >Zggu_ @bagv`bagb Dmkldmklu IZj_gviZjgb R_nr_nu

KhdjZs_ggucZg]ebckdbc <Zk dh]^Zgb[m^v ijb\h^beb \ aZf_rZl_evkl\h Z[[j_\bZlmju b Zdjhgbfu\ Zg]ebckdhf"Lh]^Za^_kvij_^klZ\e_gug_kdhevdhgZb[he__ mihlj_[bfuo khdjZs_gbc k h[tykg_gbyfb d gbf qlh[u ihfhqv\ZfihgylvwlmkljZggmxnhjfmZg]ebckdh]h >gb g_^_eb b f_kypu ]h^Z bgh]^Z khdjZsZxlky blZd \u \klj_lbl_0RQ ihg_^_evgbd 7XHV \lhjgbd :HG kj_^Z 7KXUV q_l\_j] )UL iylgbpZ 6DW km[[hlZ 6XQ \hkdj_k_gv_ b -DQ yg\Zjv

)HE n_\jZev 0DU fZjl $SU Zij_ev 0D\ fZc -XQ bxgv  -XO bxev $XJ Z\]mkl 6HSW k_gly[jv 2FW hdly[jv 1RY ghy[jv   'HF ^_dZ[jv  Dh]^Z mihfbgZ_lky ]h^ \u fh`_l_ \klj_lblv $' gZr_cwju beb%& ^hgZr_cwju $'mihlj_[ey_lky\f_klh$QQR'RPLQLqlhhagZqZ_l]h^OjbklZlZdqlhl_dmrbc]h^wlh $'   gw  %& hagZqZ_l %HIRUH &KULVW ^h OjbklZ  lZd gZijbf_jfufh`_fkdZaZlvqlhXebcP_aZjvjh^beky\ %& ^hgw  Lblmeu ghkbfu_ ih h[uqZx Z g_ ih aZdhgm klhysb_ i_j_^ bf_g_f q_eh\_dZ ² h[uqgh khdjZs_ggu_ nhjfu [he__ ^ebgguo keh\ 0U mihlj_[ey_lky \f_klh 0LVWHU fbkl_j  hkeZ[e_ggZy nhjfZ hl 0DVWHU ]hkih^bg  Z 0UV wlh ² khdjZs_ggZy nhjfZ hl 0LVWUHVV ]hkih`Z fbkkbk  h[hagZqZxs__ aZfm`gxx `_gsbgm H^gZdh 0LVV h[hagZqZxs__ g_aZfm`gxx `_gsbgm lZd`_ ijhbahr_^r__ hl0LVWUHVVkh\k_fg_bf__lkhdjZs_gghcnhjfuK_cqZkij_^eZ]Z_lkykh\k_fg_ mdZau\Zlvkmijm`_kdbcklZlmk `_gsbgu \ bf_gb b nhjfZ0V\u^\b]Z_lkykhagZq_gb_fdZd0LVVlZdb 0UVlZdqlh[u hgZ [ueZ khdjZs_gghc ^ey h[_bo nhjf ?keb \u \b^bl_ 'U i_j_^ bf_g_f q_eh\_dZ wlh agZqbl qlh hg ^hdlhj 'RFWRU  eb[h mq_guc eb[h\jZq5HY²khdjZs_ggZynhjfZhl5HYHUHQG ij_ih^h[guc  b _keb m q_eh\_dZwlhllblmewlhagZqblqlh hg k\ys_ggbd ;md\u (VTMihlj_[eyxlky\f_klh(VTXLUH ]hkih^bg \_`eb\ZynhjfZh[jZs_gby dhlhjZy fh`_l mihlj_[eylvky i_j_^ bf_g_f q_eh\_dZ \f_klh 0U i_j_^ bf_g_f ;md\u ^ey h[hagZq_gby dhlhju_ fh]ml mihlj_[eylvky ^ey h[hagZq_gby mgb\_jkbl_lkdhc kl_i_gb \k_]^Z klhyl ihke_ bf_gb q_eh\_dZ %$ beb %6F %DFKHORU RI $UWV RU 6FLHQFH[ZdZeZ\j]mfZgblZjguobeb_kl_kl\_gguogZmd 0$beb 217


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Lesson 12

218


&AZihegbl_lZ[ebpm B.C. U.N.O.

Before Crist United Nations British Broadcasting CorB.B.C. poration C.O.D. Cash On Delivery No Number Ms Mistress Ms Miss+Mrs M.A. Master of Arts Tues Tuesday Mr Mister V.A.T. Value Added Tax P.S. post scriptum North Atlantic Treaty OrNATO ganization I.O.U. I owe you Aug August R.S.V.P. please reply p.a. per annum C.B.D. Cash before Delivery O.K. all correct P.T.O. Please Turn Over i.e. id est A.D. anno Domini e.g. exempli gratia Fri Friday Ph.D doctor of Philosophy A.S.A.P. As Soon As Possible

^h gZr_c wju Kh_^bg_ggh_ Dhjhe_\kl\h

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Y <Zf ^he`_g Z\]mkl ih`ZemcklZ hl\_lvl_ \ ]h^ ieZl_` gZebqgufb ^h k^Zqb lh\ZjZ \k_ ijZ\bevgh kfhljb gZ ke_^mxs_c kljZgbp_ lh _klv ^h gZr_c wju gZijbf_j iylgbpZ ^hdlhj nbehkhnbb dZd fh`gh [uklj__

Homework  =^_ \u fh`_l_ \klj_lblv wlb Z[[j_\bZlmju" IhklZ\vl_ dZ`^mxZ[[j_\bZlmjmgZgm`gh_f_klh 1) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; b; 2) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; d; 3) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a; 4) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; c; 5) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; f; 6) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; e. <klZ\vl_ LVDUHZHUHZDV\ ijh[_eu are; is; is; is; was; are; is; is; is. %Mihlj_[bl_Z]^_wlhgm`gh What a pretty girl! What a talented doctor! What a smart woman! 'I_j_\_^bl_gZZg]ebckdbcyaud 1) If he had lent me money the previous year I would have bought a car. 2) They did not know when computer was invented. 3) Who discovered America?

Lesson 13

219


4) It is the picture by Rafael, and it is worthless. 5) What time does the sun rise in April? 6) The veil was raised and the play began. 7) The load was being raised with the help of a crane when we came. 8) Tolkienâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s novels were unknown in Russia for many years. 9) Few respect untruthful people. Homework  Ijhqlbl_ ke_^mxsbc iZjZ]jZn b i_j_\_^bl_ _]h gZ jmkkdbcyaud GZa\Zgbyfhg_l\ njZaZo < Zg]ebckdhf fgh]h \ujZ`_gbc \ dhlhjuo mihlj_[eyxlky gZa\Zgby;jblZgkdbofhg_l < k\yab k ^_ghfbgZpb_c ]h ]h^Z g_dhlhju_bafhg_l[hevr_g_kms_kl\mxlgh\ujZ`_gby\k__s_`b\u If you take care of the pennies, the pounds will take care of themselves dhi_cdZjm[ev[_j_`_l  ihlhfm qlh _keb \u aZ[hlbl_kv h fZe_gvdbo \_sZok [hevrbfb\_sZfb\k_[m^_l\ ihjy^d_h^gZdh_keb\uSHQQ\ ZLVHSRXQGIRROLVK wdhghfguc\ f_ehqZojZklhqbl_evguc\ djmighf  \uaZ[hlbl_kvh fZe_gvdbo\_sZob jZklhqbl_evgu\ [hevrbo?keb\u LQIRUDSHQQ\lh\u^he`guLQIRUDSRXQG gZa\Zeky]jma^_f²ihe_aZc \ dmah\ ihlhfmqlh_keb\uqlhlhgZqZeb\u^he`guwlhaZdhgqblv ?kebdlhlhGRHVQ¶WFDUHWZRSHQFH hlghkblky[_ajZaebqgh _fm\k_jZ\gh?keb\u]h\hjbl_qlhqlhlhklhblDSUHWW\SHQQ\ dmr \ubf__l_\ \b^mqlhwlhklhbl^hjh]h F_jZaZf_jm <u dh]^Zgb[m^v aZf_qZeb dZd fgh]h \ujZ`_gbc \ Zg]ebckdhf kh^_j`bljZaebqgu_nhjfubaf_j_gby" ?keb \u ]h\hjbl_ qlh dlhlh HYHU\ LQFK D JHQWOHPDQ gZklhysbc ^`_glevf_g  \u bf__l_ \ \b^m qlh hg gZklhysbc ^`_glevf_g gh _keb\u]h\hjbl_qlhhg ZRQ WEXGJHDQLQFK b g_ihr_\_eblky \u bf__l_\ \b^mqlhhghq_gvmijyfihih\h^mq_]heb[h$PLOHVWRQH ²hq_gv\Z`gh_b agZqbl_evgh_kh[ulb_Dh]^Z\uLQFKIRUZDUG\u ^\b]Z_l_kvhq_gvf_^e_gghb _kebZKHQ \RXJLYHVRPHERG\ DQLQFK WKH\WDNHDPLOHlh]^Zdh]^Z\u^Z_l_bfg_fgh]hhgb[_jmlfgh]h <RXFDQQRWJHWDTXDUWLQWRDSLQWSRW²qlhhagZqZ_lqlh\ug_fh`_l_ gZeblv hij_^_e_ggh_ dhebq_kl\h `b^dhklb \ _fdhklv \f_sZxsmx f_gvr__ dhebq_kl\h `b^dhklb wlh agZqbl Qlh \u g_ fh`_l_ k^_eZlvg_\hafh`gh]hb _keb\uKDYHWRQVRIVRPHWKLQJm \Zk[hevrh_dhebq_kl\hq_]heb[hB ihke_^g___keb\ZrZg]ebckdbcPLOHV EHWWHUWKDQDQ\ERG\HOVH¶V \ZrZg]ebckdbcgZfgh]hemqr_q_fq_c eb[h_s_ wlhagZqblqlhhggZfgh]hgZfgh]hemqr_ KhihklZ\vl_jbkmgdbb \ujZ`_gby a) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 6; b) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 1; c) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 5; d) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 2; e) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 3; f) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 4. 220


Ih^mfZcl_ h jmkkdbo ihkeh\bpZo b \ujZ`_gbyo dhlhju_ agZqZllh`_qlhb Zg]ebckdb_ihkeh\bpu\ l_dkl_ dhi_cdZjm[ev[_j_`_l wdhghfguc \ f_ehqZo jZklhqbl_evguc \ djmighf gZa\Zeky ]jma^_f²ihe_aZc\ dmah\gZklhysbc^`_glevf_giZe_p\ jhlg_ deZ^b <I_j_\_^bl_gZZg]ebckdbcyaud 1) If he saved money he would be rich. 2) He was penny wise, pound foolish. 3) This car cost a pretty penny. 4) Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a pity he doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t care an inch. 5) He couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t help helping her because he followed the rule ÂŤin for a penny, in for a poundÂť. 6) John understood that he couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t get a quart into a pint pot. 7) You have to be careful with this man. You give him an inch, he will take a mile. 8) ÂŤWhat is he like?Âť â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ÂŤheâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s every inch a gentleman. 9) This event was a milestone in the development of their relationships. 10) His English is miles better than Johnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s.

Lesson 14

Homework I_j_\_^bl_gZZg]ebckdbcyaud 1) She asked where the children were. 2) We donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know if there is fish in this lake. 3) Mother asked Ann where her clothes were. 4) He didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know if there was some money in the house. 5) He said that the goods were delivered in time. 6) The police doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know where Jonathan is, does it? 7) Why is the furniture in her house so old? 8) Is her knowledge in mathematics is poor she wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t pass the exam. 9) Was there butter in the cake? Yes there was. 10) He didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know if his information would be useful. 11) He asked his friend how many fish he had caught.

CHAPTER 6 Lesson 1 Homework I_j_\_^bl_gZZg]ebckdbcyaud 1) Australians are enthusiastic in art and music. 2) To go to the theatre women wear long dresses and men wear tuxedos. 221


3) Aboriginal art is very interesting. 4) They should have visited the National Gallery in Canberra. 5) There are many special exhibitions at the Gallery. 6) There are films and videofilms about art and artists. 7) The National Gallery has a travelling exhibition. 8) A suitcase of different kinds of artwork is sent to remote areas. 9) All museums have special services for the disabled. 10) How many museums are there in Australia? 11) She would like to see Aborigines’ drawings very much. 12) What cities did they visit during their trip to Australia? 13) If I were him I would have worn a tuxedo. 14) Do you like Aboriginal art? 15) After they were shown a film about this artist she wanted to see his paintings. 'I_j_\_^bl_gZZg]ebckdbcyaud 1) Is he a famous painter? 2) His paintings will be displayed at the National Gallery, won’t they? 3) When we were watching a film he remembered that he had seen this paainter’s works when he was in Australia. 4) She asked whom this painting was by. 5) When we were being told about this musician I wanted to listen to his music. 6) Is this museum visited by many tourists? 7) Who was this story written by? 8) There are endangered animals in Australia. 9) She were to meet at the theatre entrance, were they not? 10) There are many ways to help animals. 11) Will there be anyone at home when he comes? 12) I hope there will be no mistakes in your test.

Lesson 2

%>hihegbl_ij_^eh`_gbyb gZibrbl_bo\ ijZ\bevghfihjy^d_ 1) Easter holidays. — 5 2) Are interested in making up coursework of by those who would like to accelerate their program. — 7 3) Four years — 1 4) the second, January, the end of May. — 4 5) the last week of august, until the middle of December, four week, Christmas — 3 6) courses of study during the summer months. — 6

Lesson 3

222


7) Two terms or semesters. â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 2 Homework  Hl\_lvl_ gZ ke_^mxsb_ \hijhku b k^_eZcl_ ^hdeZ^u h[ Zf_jbdZgkdbo mgb\_jkbl_lZo  dhee_^`Zo bkihevamy \hijhku dZdieZg 1) Kdhevdhijh^he`Z_lkyh[mq_gb_" The period of study is four years. 2) Kdhevdhk_f_kljh\\ dZ`^hf]h^m" Each year comprises two terms. 3) Dh]^ZgZqbgZ_lkyi_j\uck_f_klj" The first term begins the last week of August. 4) Ijh^he`Z_lkyeb\lhjhck_f_klj^hdhgpZfZy" Yes, it does,. 5) Qlhij_^hklZ\eyxlfgh]b_dhee_^`b\h\j_fye_lgbof_kyp_\" Many colleges offer courses during summer months. 6) KdhevdhaZq_lh\^he`_gihemqblvklm^_glaZdZ`^uck_f_klj" An average student is expected to take 15 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 16 credits. 7) IjbdZdhfmkeh\bbklm^_glfh`_li_j_clbgZke_^mxsbcdmjk" A student can pass to the next year if he has accumulated more than 30 credits. 8) DZdhgbgZau\Zxl\lhjhdmjkgbdZ" They call a second year student a sophomore. 9) Dh]^Zklm^_gl]hlh\aZdhgqblvmq_[gh_aZ\_^_gb_" A student is ready for graduation after he has completed four years of study and has acquired 124 or 150 credits. I_j_\_^bl_gZZg]ebckdbcyaud 1) After he has taken his credits he will sit for examinations. 2) You have to work hard during a term, donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t you? 3) We would like this work to be done by the end of the month. 4) She is unlikely to have told him. 5) The teacher had to explain this rule once more. 6) She seems to have been in England. 7) When he called they were having a party. 8) He has been waiting for her for nearly an hour, and she hasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t come yet. 9) How long have you known this man? 10) She asked if he had received her letter. KHl\_lvl_gZke_^mxsb_\hijhku 1) Hdnhj^kdbcmgb\_jkbl_l²wlhkhvjZgb_dhee_^`_c" 2) Dh]^Z[uebhkgh\Zgug_dhlhju_badhee_^`_c"

Lesson 4

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3) DZdb_nmgdpbbm mgb\_jkbl_lZ" 4) DZdb__klm^_glu_klv\ dZ`^hfdhee_^`_" 5) H[tykgbl_ qlh lZdh_ kbkl_fZ ijbdj_ie_gby ij_ih^Z\Zl_ey d mq_gbdm" 6) GZkdhevdhk_f_kljh\jZa^_e_gmq_[guc]h^" 7) Dh]^Zijh\h^ylkywdaZf_guaZk_f_klj" 8) Qlhijhbkoh^bl_kebklm^_gjijh\Zeb\Z_lkygZwdaZf_g_" 9) Qlh [jblZgkdb_ klm^_glu ^he`gu gZ^_\Zlv aZdZ_qb\Zy mgb\_jkbl_l" ?I_j_\_^bl_gZZg]ebckdbcyaud 1) Are you interested in American Education system? 2) The period of study in an american college is four years, isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t it? 3) How many credits must a student take every term? 4) There are amnt colleges in Oxford that ahve students of all kinds. 5) The academic year in england is divided into three terms. 6) The examinations are held at the end of each term. 7) For a break of discipline a student can be fined. Homework IjhqblZcl_b i_j_\_^bl_wlhll_dkl K_gly[jv. Ijb[ulb_ Y kb`m\ k\h_cdhfgZl_hdjm`_ggZyq_fh^ZgZfbHgZimklZyb ^Z_lkhhl\_lkl\mxs__hsms_gb_F_gylhevdhqlhijb\_aeb\ mgb\_jkbl_l fhb ^jmavy Ij_`^_ \k_]h fu h[jZlbebkv \ kijZ\hqgmx ]^_gZfkdZaZebqlh^_eZlvI_j\uff_klhfgZr_]hgZagZq_gby[ueZkem`[Z`bevy]^_fuihemqbebdexqhlfh_cdhfgZluAZl_ffu lZd`_ihreb\ kem`[mijb_fZklm^_glh\qlh[uihemqblvklm^_gq_kdbc[be_lghhgZ\k__s_aZdjulZb g_hldjh_lky^haZ\ljZ<iheg_m^h\e_l\hj_ggu_l_fqlhhgbk^_eZebfhb^jmavyhklZ\bebf_gy h^gm b ih_oZeb ^hfhc B \hl y a^_kv qlh[u gZqZlv fhx gh\mx `bagvklm^_glZ< wlhc`bagbfg_ijb^_lkyaZ\_klbgh\uo^jma_cb \jZ]h\ magZlv dZd oh^blv aZ ihdmidZfb b klbjZlv \u[jZlv [Zgd ]^_ y hldjhx kq_l gZclb kZfmx ^_r_\mx l_e_nhggmx dhfiZgbx qlh[ua\hgblv^hfhc b ÂŤ dhg_qgh mqblky GZ^h k^_eZlv \k_ wlh b g_lgbdh]hdlh[ufh]ihfhqvbeb^Zlvkh\_lK wlh]hfhf_glZfhc ^hf ² [Zrgy J_ce_c h^gZ ba x`guo [Zr_g mgb\_jkbl_lZ BlZd k_cqZk m f_gy_klv^\Z\ZjbZglZEb[h miZklv gZ djh\Zlv b e_e_ylv k\hb]jmklgu_fukebeb[hÂŤ\uclbbadhfgZlub ihkfhlj_lvqlh ijhbkoh^bl< dhgp_dhgph\y \ureZba dhfgZlu b hq_gv kdhjh y m`_ kb^_eZ gZ dmog_ jZa]h\Zjb\Zy k ^\mfy ^_\mrdZfb Hgb h[_ ba BjeZg^bbb h[_boah\mlW\_ebgb hgb\u]ey^yllZd`_jZkl_jyggh b h^bghdhdZdb ygh\f_kl_fuihqm\kl\h\Zebk_[ygZfgh]he_]q_ 224


b jZkieZgbjh\Zeb^_gvIj_`^_\k_]hfuihh[_^Z_f\ h^ghfbadZn_ gZ l_jjblhjbb mgb\_jkbl_lZ aZl_f fu kh[bjZ_fky \ kmi_jfZjd_l Z aZl_f « ihkfhljbf Fu ^_eZ_f dZd aZieZgbjh\Zeb < fZe_gvdhfdZn_gZ]eZ\ghciehsZ^b iehsZ^v fgh]hex^_cA^_kv \ufh`_l_m\b^_lvij_^klZ\bl_e_cihqlb\k_okljZga_fgh]hrZjZ ;hevrbgkl\h ba gbo kb^bl aZ klhebdZfb gZ mebp_ jZa]h\Zjb\Zy b kf_ykvb dmjyY kfhljxgZgboghg_fh]mihgylvdlhbagbodZdb y lhevdh qlh ijb_oZe <k_ \u]ey^yl kqZkleb\h b jZkkeZ[e_ggh Ihke_[ukljh]he_gqZfuhlijZ\ey_fky \ kmi_jfZjd_l]^_fuijh\h^bfhdhehihemqZkZWlhL_kdhb hg^_ckl\bl_evghhq_gv[hevrhc Fu [jh^bf \^hev [_kdhg_qguo ihehd iulZykv jZah[jZlvky qlh emqr_ dmiblv Fu \k_ ^he`gu [ulv hq_gv ZddmjZlgu k jZkoh^hf ^_g_]GZdhg_p \u[hjk^_eZgb fukgh\Z^hfZM gZk_s__klvg_fgh]h \j_f_gb ^h h[_^Z b fu j_rZ_f ohjhr_gvdh h]ey^_lvky \hdjm]Fub^_f\ Nblg_kkp_gljb \ [b[ebhl_dm K_cqZk m`_ ihqlb l_fghb fufh`_fihex[h\ZlvkyhljZ`_gb_f[b[ebhl_db\ l_fguo \h^Zoha_jZFulZd`_\b^bf^hfZf_klh]^_`b\ml^jm]b_klm^_glu Ihke_ wlh]h fu j_rZ_f qlh k gZk ^hklZlhqgh b ijh\h^bf kihdhcguc\_q_j\ ©<_jog_f;Zj_ªgZr_ff_klghfiZ[_« Hdly[jv Mq_[Z K_]h^gy fh_ i_j\h_ aZgylb_ Y _s_ g_ ihagZdhfbeZkv gb k fhbfb mqbl_eyfbgbk fh_c]jmiihcI_j\h_kh[jZgb_ebg]\bklbq_kdh]hhl^_e_gby khklhblky \  mljZ \ e_dpbhgghf a^Zgbb  Y ^he`gZ [ulv hq_gv ZddmjZlgZ qlh[u g_ ijhimklblv _]h l_jjblhjby mgb\_jkbl_lZ ^_ckl\bl_evgZ[hevrZyb y\k__s_bf_xkeZ[h_ij_^klZ\e_gb_h lhf ]^_ gZoh^blky e_dpbhggh_ a^Zgb_ Dhg_qgh y hiZa^u\Zx gh \k_ `_ ijboh`m\h\j_fyqlh[umagZlvdlh^bj_dlhjufh_]hdmjkZb dZd[m^_lhj]Zgbah\ZgZ mq_[Z GZr_hl^_e_gb_ hq_gv [hevrh_ b hgh jZa^_e_ghgZjZagu_]jmiiu\ khhl\_lkl\bbk h[eZklvxki_pbZebaZpbbFhc hkgh\ghc ij_^f_l khpbhebg]\bklbdZ Khpbhebg]\bklbdZ \f_kl_ k khpbhebg]\bklbq_kdbfb f_lh^Zfb fhb h[yaZl_evgu_ ^bkpbiebgu Y ^he`gZihk_sZlvboj_]meyjgh>jm]b_^bkpbiebgu _s_ y fh]m\u[jZlvkZfZ?klvhdheh ij_^f_lh\\u[hjZ b g_h[yaZl_evgh ^_eZlv \u[hjijyfhk_cqZkGZf^Zebhdheh^\mog_^_evqlh[uihoh^blvihkemrZlv e_dpbb b j_rblv qlh fu kh[bjZ_fky ^_eZlv \ l_q_gbb hklZevghcqZklbq_l\_jlbH^gZdh\ ke_^mxs_cq_l\_jlbfukfh`_f\u[jZlv ^jm]b_ ^bkpbiebgu Ihke_\u[hjZ ^bkpbiebg gZf g_h[oh^bfh ihk_sZlv bo j_]meyjgh b ^_eZlv jZ[hlu gZ ij_^eh`_ggu_ mqbl_e_f l_fuLZd`_kms_kl\mxldjZcgb_kjhdb^eyk^ZqbjZ[hlDjZcgbckjhd wlh²ki_pbZevgZy^ZlZb \j_fydh]^Zklm^_gl^he`_gijbg_klbjZ[hlmk_dj_lZjxhl^_e_gbyDZdlhevdhk_dj_lZjvihemqZ_l__hgZaZghkbl \j_fy\ dhfivxl_jL_dlhhiZa^u\Zxll_jyxlbebimgdlZ \ ijh225


p_glghfkhhlghr_gbb \ ^_gvhlbodhg_qghchp_gdbJZ[hlZhp_gb\Z_lky\ ijhp_glZoLZdl_hj_lbq_kdb\ukrZyhp_gdZ²SHUFHQWgh\ ^_ckl\bl_evghklb  ² SHU FHQW ² kZfuc \ukhdbc \hafh`guc j_amevlZlQlh[uihemqblvkl_i_gvklm^_gl^he`_gihemqblvg_f_gvr_ q_f SHU FHQW aZ dZ`^mx ba jZ[hl >ey klm^_glh\ ihke_^g_]h dmjkZ wlhlmjh\_gvgZfgh]hgb`_ Mgb\_jkbl_lkdb_h[s_kl\Z K_]h^gy \_ebdbc ^_gv GZrb mgb\_jkbl_lkdb_ h[s_kl\Z ^_eZxl [hevrmx\uklZ\dmqlh[ugh\u_klm^_glufh]eb\klmiblv \ h[s_kl\h dhlhjh_ bf bgl_j_kgh Qlh[u klZlv qe_ghf gm`gh aZieZlblv \klmibl_evguc \aghk < g_dhlhjuo kemqZyo wlh \k_]h ebrv h^bg nmgl\ ^jm]bokemqZyowlhgZfgh]h[hevr_H[uqghqe_gh[s_kl\Z Z\lhfZlbq_kdbihemqZ_l\kxbgnhjfZpbxijb]eZrZ_lkygZe_dpbb h[km`^_gbyb \_q_jbgdbbdjhf_lh]hhgihemqZ_l[hevrmxkdb^dmgZ\oh^ghc[be_lgZ\_q_jbgdbh[s_kl\ZKms_kl\m_lijbf_jgh  jZaguo h[s_kl\ b dZ`^h_ ba gbo ij_^klZ\e_gh gZ ]eZ\ghc iehsZ^bY bfhb^jmavyoh^bf\hdjm]^mfZyb jZa]h\Zjb\ZyG_dhlhju_ ba h[s_kl\ g_ hq_gv bgl_j_kgu ^ey gZk =j_q_kdh_ h[s_kl\h Lmj_pdh_h[s_kl\hBjeZg^kdh_h[s_kl\hF_dkbdZgkdh_h[s_kl\h Hgb ^eyl_o ex^_cdhlhju_ijb_oZeb bawlbokljZgFu ijb^_f d gbfiha`_ dh]^Z m gbo [m^ml \_q_jbgdb b hgb ijb]eZkyl \k_o ihkemrZlvbofmaudmihijh[h\Zlvbo_^mb ihlZgp_\Zlvk gbfbQlh[uk^_eZlvwlhg_h[yaZl_evgh[ulvqe_ghfLZd`_kms_kl\mxlh[s_kl\Z hj]Zgbah\Zggu_ hl^_e_gbyfb lZdb_ dZd h[s_kl\Z khpbheh]bb dhfivxl_jZ ijZ\Z Hgb lh`_ g_ hq_gv ihimeyjgu < dhgp_ dhgph\ fu `_ ihk_sZ_f aZgylby LZd qlh [hevrbgkl\h klm^_glh\ ZlZdmxl iZjm klheh\ ijbgZ^e_`Zsbo h[s_kl\m ex[bl_e_c dbgh Z[khexlgucih[_^bl_ev b h[s_kl\mnblg_kZ<klmiblv\ gbo ^h\hevgh^hjh]hghwlhklhbllh]hGZijbf_jh[s_kl\hex[bl_e_c dbghihdZau\Z_lljbnbevfZ\ g_^_exb _]hqe_gufh]mlkfhlj_lv bo ijZdlbq_kdb [_kieZlgh \ lh \j_fy dZd hklZevguf klm^_glZf ijboh^blkyieZlblvihnmglZaZdZ`^ucnbevfH[s_kl\hnblg_kZ ^Z_ll_[_ijZ\h[_kieZlgh]h\oh^Z\ mgb\_jkbl_lkdbcnblg_kaZe IhwlhfmfuklZgh\bfkyqe_gZfbwlboh[s_kl\ Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku Ijb[ulb_ 1) Marianna will be doing her masterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s in the University of Essex. 2) MA means Master of Arts. 3) In her new life Marianna will have to make new friends and enemies, find out how to do her shopping and her laundry, choose a bank where she will open an account, find the cheapest telephone company to phone home and study. 4) Tesco is a supermarket. 226


5) Marianna’s impressions about Tesco are that it is a really enormous supermarket with endless shelves. 6) The students must be careful spending money, 7) as they don’t have enough money for wasting it? Besides extra expenditures are possible. Mq_[Z 1) Campus is the grounds and buildings of a university or college. 2) Marianna was able to find out who her course directors were and how the studies were going to be organized. 3) Marianna’s main subject is Sociolinguistics. 4) Module means anyone of several independent units that together form a course of study at a college or university. 5) Marianna has to choose three modules. 6) There are about 70 options to choose from. Students are given about two weeks to go, listen to the lectures and decide what they want to be doing for the rest of the term. Next term, however, they can pick up new modules. 7) Once the modules are chosen it is students’ responsibility to attend them regularly and write assignments on the topics suggested by the teacher. 8) A deadline is a special date and time when the student must bring the assignment to the secretary of the Department. 9) The assignment is brought to the secretary of the Department. As soon as she gets it she puts the time into her computer. Those who are late lose 2 or 3 points (per cent) per day from their final mark. 10) The work is marked in percent. 11) Theoretically the highest mark is 100per cent, but in reality 70 — 75per cent is the highest possible result. 12) To be awarded the degree a student should get not less than 60per cent for each of his assignments. This standard is much lower for the undergraduates. Mgb\_jkbl_lkdb_h[s_kl\Z 1) University socs are making a big exhibition so the new students can join the societies they are interested in. 2) To become a member one should pay an entrance fee. 3) Usually a soc’s member automatically receives all the news, is invited to lectures, discussions and parties and, moreover, gets a big discount from the entrance fee to the soc’s parties. 4) At the University of Essex there are about 50 different socs. 5) There are socs for those, who came from different countries: a Greek soc, a Turkey soc, an Irish soc, a Mexican soc. There are also socs, organized by departments: a Sociology soc, a Computer soc, a Law soc. The most popular socs are the Film soc and the Fitness soc, the members of the first one watch film nearly for free, the members of the second one are given a free annual entry to the University fitness room. 227


6) Marianna chose the Film soc and the Fitness soc.

Lesson 5 Homework Ijhqlbl_b i_j_\_^bl_ Ghy[jv G_ fh]m ih\_jblv qlh ijhr_e \k_]h ebrv f_kyp k l_o ihj dZd y ijb_oZeZ\ mgb\_jkbl_lK_cqZkl_jjblhjbymgb\_jkbl_lZwlhfhc^hf Y \klZx b b^m gZ e_dpbb Hgb \k_]^Z bgl_j_kgu_ b bgnhjfZlb\gu_ E_dlhju^ZxlgZfijhki_dlukh\k_fqlh[m^_l\ l_q_gb_e_dpbblZd qlhgZfg_ijboh^blkyl_jylv\j_fygZlhqlh[uibkZlv<f_klhwlh]h fu fh`_f ijbgbfZlv mqZklb_ b [_kdhg_qgh ^bkdmlbjh\Zlv Fu m`_ agZ_f l_fu gZrbo jZ[hl gh gbdlh _s_ g_ gZqZe ibkZlv bo Mqbl_ey lh`_g_kijZrb\ZxlgZkh gboHgb\k_]^ZjZ^uihfhqvghlhevdh_keb fu ijhkbf bo h[ wlhf M gZk \k_ _s_ f_kyp ^h i_j\h]h djZcg_]h kjhdZk^ZqblZdqlhfugZkeZ`^Z_fky`bagvxb gZrf_klguciZ[dhlhjuc gZau\Z_lky Š<_jogbc[Zjª\k_]^Z ihehg \_q_jhf Fu kfhljbf nbevfuoh^bf\ nblg_kaZeb gZjZagu_\_q_jbgdbmkljZb\Z_fu_h[s_kl\ZfbIhke_^gyybagbo[ueZhj]Zgbah\ZgZf_dkbdZgkdbfh[s_kl\hfb [ueZihk\ys_gZ>gx\k_ok\yluo<_kvmgb\_jkbl_lk^_eZedhklxfub dmibefZkdbWlh[ueihljykZxsbc\_q_j LZd`_[u\Zxl\_q_jZdh]^Zy kebrdhfmklZeZqlh[udm^Zlhb^lb Lh]^Zy ijhklhhklZxkv^hfZ< gZr_cd\Zjlbj_ljbgZ^pZlvdhfgZlGZ kZfhf ^_e_ wlh g_ d\ZjlbjZ Z wlZ` q_lujgZ^pZlbwlZ`gh]h ^hfZ gh ljZ^bpbhggh _]h gZau\Zxl d\Zjlbjhc Fu \k_ `b\_f \ gZrbo kh[kl\_gguo dhfgZlZo gh dmogy h^gZ ^ey \k_o GZf wlh gjZ\blky HgZ [hevrZy b kh\j_f_ggZy b \k_]^Z ihegZ ex^vfb dhlhju_ \ukemrZxl l_[yihfh]mll_[_bebijhklhm]hklyl dZdbfgb[m^vhkh[uf [ex^hf dhlhjh_lugbdh]^ZjZgvr_g_ijh[h\ZeWlhdem[ gZr_c d\Zjlbjuk h]jhfgufklhehfihk_j_^bg_aZdhlhjufo\ZlZ_lf_klZ^ey\k_o Ghy[jv Y ^_ckl\bl_evgh ih^Z\e_gZ DjZcgb_ kjhdb k^Zqb ijb[eb`ZxlkyZ fhbjZ[hlugZibkZgulhevdhgZiheh\bgmY g_agZxdZdy kh[bjZxkv aZdhgqblv \k_ \h\j_fy M f_gy bkkydeb b^_b y mklZeZ y g_kqZklgZDlhgb[m^vihfh]bl_fg_Ihq_fmy g_gZqZeZjZgvr_" Wlb^gb y mqmkv^_gvb ghqvY ijh\h`m [hevrmxqZklv \j_f_gb \ [b[ebhl_d_KeZ\Z[h]mhgZjZ[hlZ_l^h^_kylb\_q_jZDhg_qgh\k_ dgb]bdhlhju_fg_gm`gum`_^Z\ghjZah[jZebgh_klvlZd`_dhibb\k_odgb] dhlhju_ex^b g_ fh]ml \ughkblv lZd qlh y ihevamxkvbfb<hafh`ghihlj_[h\Zlvdgb]bh[jZlghm ^jm]boqblZl_e_c ?keby ijhrm[b[ebhl_dmhgbgZibrmlq_eh\_dmm dhlhjh]hdgb]Z qlh fg_ hgZ gm`gZ b aZklZ\yl _]h \_jgmlv __ jZgvr_ H^gZdh y g_ agZxihfh`_lebfg_wlhk_cqZkM f_gy g_l \j_f_gb `^Zlv Dhf228


ivxl_jgu_eZ[hjZlhjbbihegu\ wlb^gbKlm^_glu^he`gu`^Zlv\ ^ebgguohq_j_^yoqlh[uihihevah\Zlvkydhfivxl_jhf<k_ibrml jZ[hludZ`^uc\u]ey^blhaZ[hq_ggufb [e_^gufEZablv\ bgl_jg_l_kljh]haZij_s_ghex^yfgm`gudhfivxl_ju^eyjZ[hluFg_ ihkqZkleb\behkvm f_gy_klvkh[kl\_ggucdhfivxl_j\ dhfgZl_Y g_ fh]m ij_^klZ\blv dZd ex^b fh]ml khkj_^hlhqblvky \ i_j_iheg_gguo eZ[hjZlhjbyoMqbl_eyk_cqZk_^\Z eb ^hklmigu ^ey jZa]h\hjh\BodhgkmevlZpbhggu_qZkuiheghklvxjZkibkZgulZdqlhl_ dlhg_ih^mfZeh[wlhfjZgvr_mkeurZlihl_e_nhgmfmaudm G_dhlhju_ ba fhbo ^jma_c ijh^e_\Zxl kjhdb >jm]bfb keh\Zfb hgb oh^yl gZ e_dpbb `Zemxlky gZ `bagv gZ a^hjh\v_ gZijy`_ggu_ hlghr_gby?kebbfih\_a_lmqbl_evijh^eblbfdjZcgbckjhdk^Zqb gZ h^gm beb ^\_ g_^_eb Ihqlb dZ`^uc ]h\hjbl h ihemq_gbb ijh^e_gbygh[hevrbgkl\hbagZkkebrdhf]hj^uqlh[uijhkblvh g_f >_dZ[jv ŠKqZkleb\h]hJh`^_kl\ZdjhrdZÂŞ²ihxykemrZyfmaudmb miZdh\u\Zy q_fh^Zgu Y k^_eZeZ wlh Y gZibkZeZ jZ[hlu b k^ZeZ bo \h\j_fyY kh[bjZxkvijh\_klbfhbabfgb_dZgbdmeu\ \ZebckdhfLhjg[jb^`_Y g_\b^_eZbok lh]hi_qZevgh]hfhf_glZdh]^Zhgbijb\_aeb f_gygZl_jjblhjbxmgb\_jkbl_lZ;m^_li_qZevghijhsZlvkyk fhbfb khdmjkgbdZfb gZf_kyp gh ihqlb \k_ m_a`Zxl L_jjblhjby mgb\_jkbl_lZ\u]ey^blk_jhcb imklhcIhdZIh^t_oZehfh_lZdkb Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku 1) Yes, Marianna like the lectures, because they are always interesting and informative. The lecturers give the students handouts with everything they say during the lecture, so they donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have to waste their time on writing. Instead they can participate and have endless discussions. 2) No, the students donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t bother about writing assignments? As they still have a month before the first deadline. The teachers do not ask about them either. They are always happy to help, but only if the students ask them to. 3) They watch films, go to the fitness room and to different parties arranged by the socs. They are all enjoying themselves. 4) The Mexican soc organized a party devoted to Halloween. The whole University made costumes and bought masks. It was a great night. 5) The name flat is traditionally given to a floor of a 14-storeyed building. Every student lives in his own room, but the kitchen is for everybody to share. 6) Marianna has to spend day and night in the library as the deadlines are approaching and she is somewhere in the middle of writing her assignments. 229


7) Of course all the books Marianna needs are already taken, but there are copies of all books, that people cannot take out, so she is using them. 8) To reclaim the book means that it is possible to ask the library for a book which has been taken by someone else, and then they will write to this person that you need it and make him return it quicker. 9) The computer labs are full these days, as all the students have to use computers in their work. 10) The teachers are hardly available for talks now. Their consultation hours are fully booked, so those who did not think about it earlier have to face the music. 11) The expression to get an extension means, that if the teacher finds ground for it, he may extend the deadline for one or two weeks. 12) In order to get an extension one goes to the lectures and complain about life, health and stressful relationships. %Ijhqlbl_qlhijhbahreh^Zevr_ >\Z]h^Zkimkly K_]h^gyfhc\uimkdghc^_gvfhc ihke_^gbc^_gv \ Wkk_dk_<k_ jZ[hluwdaZf_gu^he]b_ghqb\ iZ[Zo\k_wlhk_cqZkihaZ^bY m`_g_ ihfgx dZd ly`_eh fg_ ijbrehkv jZ[hlZlv jZ^b wlh]h ^gy y ijhklh qm\kl\mx i_qZev baaZ lh]h qlh ijhreb fhb klm^_gq_kdb_ ^gb Fhb ^jmavyb ykh[bjZ_fkyihclb\ mgb\_jkbl_lkdbckh\_l]^_lblmefZ]bkljZ]mfZgblZjguogZmdaZdj_iblkyaZgZfb< ^Zggucfhf_gly ijbf_jyxfZglbxb klm^_gq_kdmxreyimFZglby^ebggZyq_jgZyb k\h[h^gZy k [hevrbf dZixrhghf b djZkgh[_ehc ih^deZ^dhc HgZ \u]ey^bldZdkj_^g_\_dh\Zyqlhg_m^b\bl_evghljZ^bpbyghkblvwlb h^_`^u\ mgb\_jkbl_l_^h\hevgh^j_\gyyKlm^_gluHdk[jb^`Z D_f[jb^`Zb Hdknhj^Z dZdfubogZau\Z_f\k__s_ghkylfZglbbgZwdaZf_gugh\ ^jm]bomgb\_jkbl_lZofZglbbgZ^_\Zxlebrvihhkh[uf kemqZyf B mgb\_jkbl_lkdbc kh\_l wlh ² kZfh_ \Z`gh_ kh[ulb_ J_amevlZle_lmq_[uQ_j_a^_kylvfbgmly m`_kb`m\ <_ebdhfAZe_Hg djZkb\h mdjZr_g b gZ ]eZ\ghc kl_g_ gZibkZg ^_\ba mgb\_jkbl_lZ Wkk_dk ŠQ_fljm^g__l_fk_j^p_kf_e__ªB]jZ_l]bfg b ijhn_kkhjZ b ^hdlhjZ mgb\_jkbl_lZ \oh^yl \ aZe Ihke_^gbf \oh^bl ehj^dZgpe_j GZg_fdjZkgZyfZglbyb reyiZHgijb\_lkl\m_l\uimkdgbdh\bojh^bl_e_c b ^jma_c aZl_f gZau\Z_l gZrb bf_gZ h^gh aZ ^jm]bf Dh]^Z ih^oh^blfhyhq_j_^vy ihem`b\Zhl\heg_gbyb g_ihfgxqlh^_eZlv ohlyi_j_^p_j_fhgb_cy \gbfZl_evghijhqblZeZbgkljmdpbbGZdhg_p y ih^oh`md ehj^dZgpe_jmhgiha^jZ\ey_lf_gyih`bfZ_lfg_jmdm b yihemqZxk\hc^biehf

Lesson 6

230


Homework <_jghbebg_\_jghbebg_lbgnhjfZpbb"?kebg_lbgnhjfZpbbihijh[mcl_ihjZafureylvbebmagZcl_ 1) wrong; 2) no information; 3) right; 4) wrong; 5) right; 6) wrong; 7) no information; 8) no information (but it is not right, Essex is close to London); 9) no information; 10) wrong; 11) wrong; 12) wrong; 13) wrong; 14) wrong; 15) no information; 16) right; 17) right; 18) wrong; 19) wrong; 20) wrong; 21) wrong; 22) no information; 23) no information; 24) no information (but it is true); 25) right; 26) wrong; 27) wrong; 28) wrong; 29) wrong. B]jZ;jhkvl_fhg_luK^_eZcl_^\Zbebljboh^Z\ aZ\bkbfhklbhllh]hqlhm <Zkhj_ebebj_rdZJZ[hlZcl_iZjZfb  B^bl_\ mgb\_jkbl_lb h[jZlbl_kv\ bgnhjfZpbhggh_[xjh  AZ[_jbl_dexqb\ kem`[_`bevy  GZc^bl_imlvd [Zrg_  Ij_^kZ\l_kv<Zrbfgh\uf^jmavyfihd\Zjlbj_JZamagZcl_h gbo  Dmibl_k_[_e_gq\ dZn_b ijhc^bl_gZ^\_de_ldb\i_j_^   KdZ`bl_ kiZkb[h ex^yf kb^ysbf jy^hf k \Zfb gZ q_luj_o jZaguoyaudZo  KhklZ\l_kibkhdihdmihdb hlijZ\eycl_kv\ L_kdh  Kijhkbl_]eZ\mh[s_kl\Zex[bl_e_cdbghh qe_gkl\_b \aghkZo  <hafbl_bgl_j_kgmxdgb]m\ [b[ebhl_d_  B^bl_\ nblg_kaZeb dmibl__`_]h^guc[be_l   B^bl_ \ iZ[ dmibl_ ib\Z ih]h\hjbl_ k ^jmavyfb b ijh^\bgvl_kvgZljbde_ldb\i_j_^  GZibrbl_b ihrebl_we_dljhggh_ibkvfh<Zrbfjh^bl_eyf  <u[_jbl_k_[_^bkpbiebgub h[tykgbl_\u[hj bkihevamcl_ rdhevgu_ij_^f_lubeb<Zr_\hh[jZ`_gb_

 Kijhkbl_<Zr_]hij_ih^Z\Zl_eyh[hp_gd_  Ihijhkbl_h ijh^e_gbbkjhdh\k^Zqb ijhimkdZ_l_oh^   B^bl_\ [b[ebhl_dmb \havfbl_dgb]mdhlhjZy<Zfgm`gZih mq_[_  B^bl_\ lmjbklbq_kdh_Z]_glkl\hb aZdZ`bl_[be_lu  Ihk_lbl_mgb\_jkbl_lkdbckh\_l $IhklZ\vl_]eZ]heu\ kdh[dZo\ ijZ\bevgmxnhjfm >be_ffZ Was, lived, had, spent. Died, sent. Would meet. Had had, spoke, hated / Came, was lying. Unlock, will lie. Thought, was, would be.

Lesson 7

231


Went, started, had read. Leave, remember, contains, unlock, will be blown. Exploded, explode, will blow. Could, opening, did not believe. Was, would think. %GZc^bl_bgnhjfZpbxdhlhjhcg_l\ l_dkl_ 1;3;4;5;7. ' Ijhgmf_jmcl_ kh[ulby `bagb EZjjb Kblkdb \ ijZ\bevghfihjy^d_ 4; 3; 6; 2; 1; 5.

Lesson 8

%Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku  Ihq_fm:\kljZebckdbcFheh^_`gucHjd_klj[ue\Z`ghckbehc \ fmaudZevghc`bagbgZpbbh[mqZyemqrbofheh^uofmaudZglh\" It has been a vital force in the nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s musical life, because it trains the best of Australiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s young musicians the rigours of professional orchestral life.   >hdZ`bl_ qlh m hjd_kljZ \u^ZxsZyky j_imlZpby \ :\kljZebbb \h\k_ffbj_ The Orchestra has played in many countries.  I_lZQ_cab]jZ_lgZkdjbid_bebgZibZgbgh" Peta Chase plays the violin.  >hdZ`bl_qlhhgZlZeZgleb\ucfmaudZgl She is a talented musician. She joined the Newcastle Conservatorium Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Symphony Orchestra and later became its leader. Then she was the leader of the Senior Orchestra at the Newcastle University conservatoruim. She had been awarded several scholarships and prizes for her contribution to music.

Lesson 9

Homework I_j_\_^bl_gZZg]ebckdbcyaud 1) What language is spoken in Holland? â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Dutch is spoken in Holland. 2) Is her husband a Spaniard or a Portuguese? 3) The Danes speak Danish, donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t they? 4) The Londoner love their city. 5) Liverpudlians are proud of the fact that ÂŤBeetlesÂť are from Liverpool. 6) People in Mexico speak Spanish, donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t they? 7) German is spoken in Austria. 8) Glaswegians speak English. Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t they? 9) Japanese and Chinese are known to be the most difficult languages to study. 10) The Scots are very courageous. 232


&JZkkdZ`bl_h g_fbkihevamyke_^mxsb_keh\Z Duncan Gifford is one of the most talented young musicians. He is in his fifth year at the Moscow Conservatoire. He is the winner of every major competition in Australia. He has appeared as soloist with many orchestras and toured Europe with the Australian Youth Orchestra. He has performed through Australia and many other countries all over the world. His first CD was released in 1993. ' J_deZfgu_ h[ty\e_gby Bamqbl_ ke_^mxs__ ;jblZgkdb_ f_klgu_ ]Za_lu h[uqgh kh^_j`Zl g_kdhevdh kljZgbp h[ty\e_gbcdhlhju_k]jmiibjh\ZguihdZl_]hjbyf<hlg_dhlhju_dZl_]hjbb b g_kdhevdh lbibqguo h[ty\e_gbc <u[_jbl_ dZl_]hjbx^eydZ`^h]hh[ty\e_gby 1) f; 2) c; 3) g; 4) a; 5) h; 6) e; 7) d; 8) b.

Lesson 10

Lesson 11 Homework Ijhqlbl_b i_j_\_^bl_ke_^mxsbciZjZ]jZn G_koh^bl_k mfZ Fgh]b_ \ujZ`_gby \ Zg]ebckdhf bf_xl keh\Z hlghkysb_ky d ]hjh^Zfb kljh_gbyf<hlg_dhlhju_bagbo?keb\uSDLQWWKHWRZQ UHG mkljhblvihihcdm \uijZa^gm_l_hq_gvrmfgh\ iZ[_bebj_klhjZg_ ?keb qlhlh LV MXVW XS \RXU VWUHHW jZa[bjZlvky \ q_feb[h  wlhdZd jZa lh qlh \Zf ih^oh^bl gh _keb \u WDNHWKH ZURQJ WXUQLQJ k\_jgmebg_lZf beb\uDUHRIIWKHWUDFN k[bebkvk imlb lh]^Z\u k^_eZebhrb[dm?keb\uKDYH \RXU EDFNWRWKHZDOO \ [_a\uoh^ghf iheh`_gbb  \u [hj_l_kv k [_agZ^_`ghc kblmZpb_c b _keb \u EDQJLQJ \RXU KHDG DJDLQVWD EULFN ZDOO [blvky ]heh\hc h[ kl_gm  \u ijbqbgy_l_k_[_[hevg_gm`gufbmkbebyfb$WRZHURIVWUHQJWK aZsblgbdgZ^_`gZyhihjZ  wlh dlhlh dlh ^Z_l kbeu b kf_ehklv hklZevgufDFDVWOHLQ6SDLQ bebLQWKHDLU \ha^mrgu_aZfdb ijb\e_dZl_evgZy gh g_hkms_kl\bfZy f_qlZ 7R EH RQ WKH WKUHVKROG RI VRPHWKLQJ [ulvgZ ihjh]_q_]heb[h  [ulv \ gZqZe_ gh\h]h hiulZ beb_kebVRPHWKLQJLVMXVWURXQGWKHFRUQHUagZqblwlhhq_gv[ebadh 7R GURSD EULFN k^_eZlv eyikmk  kdZaZlv dhfmeb[h qlhlh [_klZdlgh_ 7R OD\ WKH IRXQGDWLRQ iheh`blv gZqZeh  AgZqbl kha^Zlv kbevgmxhkgh\m^eyq_]heb[hgh_kebWRVULNHDWWKHIRXQGDWLRQ gZg_klb m^Zjihhkgh\_ agZqblijbqbgblv \j_^ hkgh\_ q_]heb[h ?keb \u H[SORUH HYHU\ DYHQXH bkihevah\Zlv \k_ \hafh`ghklb  \u bamqbeb dZ`^mx\hafh`ghklvZ _keb\uJRURXQGWKHEHQG khclbk mfZ \u kmfZkr_^rbc Khhlg_kbl_jbkmgdbb \ujZ`_gby a â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 5; b â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 4; c â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 6; d â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 3; e â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 1; f â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 2. 233


I_j_\_^bl_gZjmkkdbcyaud  Y g_\_jx_fmHg\k_]^Zkljhbl\ha^mrgu_aZfdb  Hgihqm\kl\h\Zeqlhj_r_gb_wlhcijh[e_fum`_[ebadh  Y [hxkvhgk^_eZ_leyikmk\ __ijbkmlkl\bb  Y ^mfZxwlZ\klj_qZiheh`blgZqZeh ieh^hl\hjgh]h khljm^gbq_kl\Z   HgZ g_ kfh]eZ g_ gZibkZlv ibkvfh ohly ihgbfZeZ qlh wlh jZajmrblhkgh\mbohlghr_gbc  HgZkhc^_lk mfZ_kebhgg_\ub]jZ_lkhj_\gh\Zgby   GZdhg_p >`hj` ihgye qlh hg [beky ]heh\hc h[ kl_gm b j_rbehklZ\blb^_xwdki_jbf_glZ  AZ^Zgb_[uehdZdjZa^eyg_]h I_j_\_^bl_gZZg]ebckdbcyaud 1) This work is not up his street. 2) He realized he took the wrong turning. 3) Her husband has always been a tower of strength for her. 4) He was notorious for the fact, that he could drop a brick at any moment. 5) If you donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t stop thinking about it, you will go rou6) nd the bend. 7) I had to tell everything, because I had my back to the wall. 8) He did not want to paint the town red on his birthday. 9) It is easier to live without building castles in Spain. 10) Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t waste your time. You are banging your head against a brick wall. &GZc^bl_bgnhjfZpbxdhlhjZykh^_j`blky\ l_dkl_ 1, 3, 6, 8, 9

Lesson 12

Homework GZc^bl_\ l_dkl_keh\Zih^oh^ysb_ih^ke_^mxsb_hij_^_e_gby 1) robbery; 2) an outlaw ; 3) a bushranger; 4) excitement; 5) bold; 6) threaten; 7) reply; 8) thunderbolt; 9) landscape; 10) western; 11) goldrush. KdZ`bl_g_kdhevdhkeh\h dZjlbg__ŠHklZgh\e_guª This painting is by an Australian artist Tom Roberts. It is based on a true story about a coach that was robbed during the goldrush in New South Wales. Bail up are the words the bushrangers shouted when they were robbing a coach. It reminds of an American western but the clothes, the landscape, the coach and the action in the picture are painted in such a way that it is clear that it is Australia. One robber is talking to a woman and we can see that he is not threatening her. 234


:KhihklZ\vl_bf_gZ\ dhehgdZob keh\ZIjb\_^_ggu_gb`_Keh\Zfh]ml[ulvbkihevah\Zgug_h^bgjZa A â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 15, 3, 2; B â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 6, 5, 3, 9, 24; C â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 6, 4, 20, ; D â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 10, 21, 22; E â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 11, 7; F â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 6; G â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 12; H â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 25, 14; I â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 28, 8, 6. <GZc^bl_keh\hdhlhjh_\u^_ey_lkybahklZevguo London â&#x20AC;&#x201D; is odd because the rest are the names of territories. Spiritual is odd because the rest of words are connected with nature. Artefacts is odd because the rest of words are connected with religion. Gang-ngarl is odd because the rest of words are not the names of clans. Matata is odd because the rest of words are the names of the paintings. 1935 is odd because the rest of words are the years of births of artists. desert is odd because the rest of words are not connected with nature. & AZihegbl_ g_^hklZxsmx bgnhjfZpbx b k^_eZcl_ fbgb ij_a_glZpbbh dZjlbgZo

Lesson 14

Om^h`gbd

=h^

GZa\Zgb_dZjlbgu

Goose Egg Hunt

=eZ]heu

To teach To develop To gain to display

KalumpiwarraNgulanintji

Ginger Riley Munduwalawala

Ngak-Ngak

Kms_kl\bl_evgu_ Artist Descendant Member Promotion

Stockman Images Reference Features Significance To paint To represent To focus To appear To show To depict To feature To issue To introduce To complete

Stamps Watercolor Exhibitions Recognition Founder Award Community Desert Rituals Design

235


Om^h`gbd

=h^

GZa\Zgb_dZjlbgu

=eZ]heu

Kms_kl\bl_evgu_ Content Fertility Belief Practice Nurture Sites

Om^h`gbd =h^ GZa\Zgb_dZjlbgu =eZ]heu Hector Jan- 1991 Ngarrgooroon To show dany Country To complete To resign

Kms_kl\bl_evgu_ Stockman Cook Concerns Dreamtime stories Establishment Catholic Church Chairman Artefacts

Homework

Lesson 15 Homework Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku  Ihq_fm>`bf<mevn_gkhgi_j_^Ze\ ^ZjGZpbhgZevghc=Ze_j_b:\kljZebbnhg^u" He donated funds to the Gallery to enable it purchase works of art to be taken to children who live in remote areas of Australia.  Qlhfh]ml^_lb^_eZlvk wdkihgZlZfb" Children can discuss and explore objects.   ;Z]h^Zjy dhfm q_fh^Zg k ijhba\_^_gbyfb bkdmkkl\Z iml_r_kl\m_lih\k_c:\kljZebb" Thanks to Jim and Elaine Wolfensonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s gift suitcase with artworks travells all over Australia. & GZc^bl_ \ l_dkl_ keh\Z dhlhju_ ih^oh^yl d ke_^mxsbf ]jmiiZfkeh\ Dazzling foremost Devote Win Focus 'AZihegbl_ijh[_eub i_j_kdZ`bl_l_dklBkihevamcl_dZd fh`gh[hevr_kh[kl\_gguokeh\ One of the Australiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s foremost artists (outstanding, famous) His work (his paintings)

Lesson 16

236


Dazzling beauty of Australia (magnificent nature) Sit (is situated, is located) Sydney Harbour The surrounding sandy beaches, sounds of lapping water, cjanging light In Sydney in 1940 To be an artist (to become) Began to study in one of the most important art schools Advertising Devote his energy to the creation of art Lives and works Australians and Australia

Lesson 17 Homework IjhqblZcl_b i_j_\_^bl_gZjmkkdbcyaud G_l_jycl_\j_fyihgZijZkgm JZkl_gby b p\_lu ^Zeb fgh`_kl\h jZa]h\hjguo \ujZ`_gbc \ Zg]ebckdhf <hl g_kdhevdh ba kZfuo mihlj_[bfuo lZdbo \ujZ`_gbc $IDPLO\WUHH jh^hkeh\gh_^j_\h wlh²kibkhd\k_oqe_gh\k_fvb7R JHW WR WKHWRS RI \RXU WUHH aZgbfZlv \b^gh_ iheh`_gb_  hagZqZ_lij_mki_\Zlv\ jZ[hl_ghWREDUNXSWKHZURQJWUHH gZiZklvgZ eh`gucke_^ hagZqZ_lihl_jylv\j_fyij_ke_^myg_lhlh[t_dl$ EUDQFK RIILFH nbebZe  wlh ² ih^dhgljhevgZy dhfiZgby 7R WZLJ ihgylv wlh²\g_aZighhkhagZlvqlheb[h?keb\uKHGJH m\beb\Zlvhlijyfh]hhl\_lZ bebEHDWDERXWWKHEXVK mdehgylvky hl ijyfh]h hl\_lZ  \u g_ ]h\hjbl_ lh]h qlh bf__l_ \ \b^m ijyfh Dh]^Z \uFDQ¶WVHHWKHZRRGIRU WKHWUHHV aZ^_j_\vyfbe_kZ g_\b^_lv \u g_ \b^bl_ qlhlh \ p_ehf baaZ ^_lZe_c 7R EH KHGJHG LQ [ulv k\yaZgguf  agZqbl [ulv h]jZgbq_gguf \ q_feb[h 7R SXW GRZQ URRWV hk_klv  hagZqZ_l hk_klv \ dZdhfeb[h f_kl_ b WR JHW WR WKH URRW RI VRPHWKLQJ ihgylv kmsghklv q_]heb[h  agZqbl gZclb ijbqbgm beb h[tykg_gb_q_fmeb[h7KHUH¶VQRURVH ZLWKRXWDWKRUQ g_l jhau [_a dhexq_d hagZqZ_lqlhg_^hklZldb_klv\ dZ`^hcohjhr_c\_sb$ WKRUQLQWKHIOHVK bklhqgbdihklhyggh]hjZa^jZ`_gby  wlh ² gZ^h_^eb\ucq_eh\_d$URV\ YLHZRIWKLQJV kfhlj_lvgZ\_sbq_j_ajhah\u_ hqdb  hagZqZ_l hq_gv hilbfbklbqgu_ \a]ey^u Z WR JLOG WKH OLO\ memqrZlv qlhlh b [_a lh]h ^hklZlhqgh ohjhr__  agZqbl baf_gylvqlhlhqlhb lZddjZkb\hb ihlhfmbkihjlblvwnn_dl KhihklZ\vl_dZjlbgdbk \ujZ`_gbyfb a â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 6; b â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 5; c â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 1; d â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 4; e â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 2; f â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 3; g â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 7.

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 I_j_\_^bl_ ij_^eh`_gby gZ Zg]ebckdbc yaud \ ibkvf_gghcnhjf_ 1) Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m afraid you are barking the wrong tree. 2) They had been talking for two hours yet, and I understood, that the partners were beating about the bush. 3) Does he work in a branch office? 4) Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m afraid they do not see the wood for the trees and will arrive at a wrong decision. 5) His grandfather came from Russia and put down roots in California. 6) She feared greatly that Henry would not twig the truth. 7) When he was thinking about his sister he reminded a proverb that thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s no rose without a thorn. 8) Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t gild the lily! You already look very nice.

CHAPTER 7 Lesson 1

<IhklZ\vl_]eZ]he\ kdh[dZo\ gm`gmxnhjfm 1) well, good; 2) wrongly, wrong; 3) terribly; 4) fast, fast; 5) good, well; 6) suddenly, sudden. Nearly; 7) easy, easily; 8) dark, rapidly; 9) good, easy, well, fard; heavily, heavy; 11) seriously; 12) happy, happily; 13) angrily; 14) hard, hard, busy; 15) hardly; 16) bad, bad; 17) usually Homework  Ijhqlbl_ b i_j_\_^bl_ l_dkl Ih^q_jdgbl_ ijbeZ]Zl_evgu_ gZj_qby b khq_lZgby gZj_qbc b ijbeZ]Zl_evg\o \ l_dkl_ aZl_fh[km^bl_dZdb_keh\Zqlhh[hagZqZxl Lhgg_evih^EZFZgr_f B^_y lhgg_ey ih^ EZFZgr_f g_ihkj_^kl\_ggh kh_^bgyxsbf :g]ebx b NjZgpbx g_ gh\Zy  e_l gZaZ^ njZgpmakdbc bg`_g_j kdZaZeGZihe_hgmqlhihkljhblv^ebgguclhgg_evih^EZFZgr_f \iheg_\hafh`ghlZddZdfhjkdh_^ghlZd`_dZdb kdZeuihh[_bf klhjhgZf EZFZgrZ khklhyl ba l\_j^h]h f_eZ GZihe_hgZ [hevr_ bgl_j_kh\ZeZ [hjv[Z k [jblZgpZfb q_f kh_^bg_gb_ ^\mo kljZg gZ\k_]^Zb \kdhj_ihke_wlh]hgh\Zy\hcgZf_`^m:g]eb_cb NjZgpb_cij_^hl\jZlbeZex[h_^Zevg_cr__jZa\blb_wlh]hijh_dlZ AZl_f \ dhgp_ uo LhfZk ^_ =Zfhg^ ba NjZgpbb b K_j >`hg Ohdrh ba ;jblZgbb ^\Z hq_gv mki_rguo bg`_g_jZ kha^Zeb \iheg_ j_Zebklbqguc ieZg `_e_agh^hjh`gh]h lhgg_ey dhlhjuc gZdhg_p ij_djZlbe [u baheypbx :g]ebb dZd hkljh\Z DhfiZgbb [ueb [ukljh kha^Zgu dZd \ ;jblZgbb lZd b \h NjZgpbb gh kZfb a_feygu_jZ[hlug_gZqZebkv^huoWdki_jbf_glZevguclhgg_ev^ebgghc \ ^\Z dbehf_ljZ [ue \ujul ba NhedklhgZ ih^ EZ

238


FZgr_fgh^Zevg_crb_^_ckl\by[ueb[ukljhijbhklZgh\e_guba aZ\hagbdr_]hj_Zevgh]hjbkdZ^jm]hc_\jhi_ckdhc\hcgu B lhevdhihke_ihke_^g_c\hcgu;jblZgbyb NjZgpbygZqZeb\k_jv_aaZ^mfu\Zlvkyh[hklZgh\e_gghfijh_dl_< ]jmiiZ bamqZxsZy ijh_dlu EZFZgrZ him[ebdh\ZeZ ij_^eh`_gb_ h `_e_agh^hjh`ghflhgg_e_baNhedklhgZ\ DZe_b q_luj_]h^ZkimklyijZ\bl_evkl\Z ^\mokljZgk g_hohlhckh]eZkbebkvgZdhg_pijh^he`blvwlbqZklhhldeZ^u\Z_fu_ijh_dluA_feygu_jZ[hlugZqZebkvghlhgg_evf_^e_gghijh^\b]Zeky<k_]hebrv^\Zk iheh\bghcdbehf_ljZlhgg_ey[ueb ijhjuluk h[_boklhjhgEZFZgrZdh]^ZijZ\bl_evkl\h;jblZgbbg_^Zevgh\b^ghij_djZlbehijh_dl\  H^gZdh\ uo;jblZgbyb NjZgpby\hah[gh\bebi_j_]h\hju b j_rbeb kha^Zlv dhgkhjpbmf qlh[u aZdhgqblv ijh_dl bkihevamy dZiblZekh[jZggucqZklgufh[jZahf;uehj_r_gh\ujulv`_e_agh^hjh`guclhgg_evq_j_a\kxl_jjblhjbxf_`^m^\mfykljZgZfb ]^_ Z\lhfh[bebklu fh]eb [u _a^blv gZ hldjuluo lh\Zjguo ieZlnhjfZo b [_a gbo \ h[hbo dhgpZo Lukyqb jZ[hqbo jZ[hlZeb djm]eu_kmldbbkihevamy\ukhdhl_ogheh]bqgh_h[hjm^h\Zgb_aZqZklmx \ hiZkguomkeh\byoihdZg_gZklmibe^he]h`^Zggucfhf_gldh]^Z njZgpmakdb_b Zg]ebckdb_bg`_g_jukfh]ebgZdhg_p ih`Zlv ^jm] ^jm]mjmdb]em[hdhih^\h^ZfbEZFZgrZ H]jhfgu_ \hdaZeu [ueb khhjm`_gu \ dZ`^hf dhgp_ lhgg_ey kh\_jr_ggh gh\u_ klZgpbb [ueb ihkljh_gu \ Ehg^hg_ b IZjb`_ \ukhdhkdhjhklgu_ih_a^Z[uebba]hlh\e_guqlh[ui_j_\hablviZkkZ`bjh\ ba ;jblZgbb gZ dhglbg_gl [uklj__ b k [hevrbfb m^h[kl\Zfbq_fdh]^Zeb[hjZgvr_ JZajZ[hlZggucOZdrhb =Zfhg^hflhgg_ev^ey i_j_k_q_gby dZgZeZ [ue gZdhg_p ims_g \ ^_ckl\b_ b ;jblZgby [hevr_ g_ [m^_l hlj_aZgZ hl k\hb _\jhi_ckdbo khk_^_c lZdbf bklhjbq_kdbf [Zjv_jhf dZd EZFZgr ;m^_l g_\hafh`gh ijhqblZlv lZdb_ aZ]heh\db dZd wlhl qZklh pblbjm_fuc ihy\b\rbcky h^gZ`^u \ [jblZgkdhc ]Za_l_©GZ^EZFZgr_flmfZgdhglbg_glbahebjh\Zgª &IjbeZ]Zl_evgh_bebgZj_qb_" 1) quiet; 2) near; 3) well; 4) loud; 5) deliciously; 6) angrily; 7) fine; 8) happy; 9) sick; 10) dark; 11) easy; 12) silent.

Lesson 2

Homework I_j_\_^bl_gZZg]ebckdbcyaud 1) When we saw him he could hardly speak. 2) He gets up early lately. 3) I feel well. 239


4) He spoke so fast that we could hardly understand him. 5) We had to work hard. 6) I like these flowers. They smell well. 7) She looked fine.(well) 8) Her voice sounds strange. 9) It got dark and we went home.

Lesson 3 Homework I_j_\_^bl_gZZg]ebckdbcyaud 1) Are you older or younger than your brother? 2) I’m two years older. 3) Is his younger sister an actress? 4) His task was the easiest. 5) «Sibirsky Tsirulnik «is the most interesting film she has ever seen. 6) His essay was the best one. 7) My friend lives farther from the school than I do. 8) Is your flat less comfortable than mine? 9) He knew very little about his parents. 10) She read more articles than her friend. 11) Ken Dawn is one of the most famous Australian artists. 12) She looks as well as 20 years ago. 13) He is not so kind, as you think he is. 14) The sooner he’ll understand it, the better. 15) The longer the night, the shorter the day. 16) Why study The more I study the more I know The more I know the more I forget The more I forget the less I know Why study? :I_j_\_^bl_gZZg]ebckdbcyaud 1) My library is not so old as the one in which Tom works. 2) I think the books in our library are not less interesting. 3) Tom helps people find the books they need. 4) After everyone leaves, he reshelves the books. 5) This job is better than his last job. 6) Tom can work as much as he wants but it should not interfere with his school work. 7) Most of his friends work.

Lesson 5

240


%Ijhqlbl_b i_j_\_^bl_gZjmkkdbcyaud < Zg]ebckdhffgh]hjZa]h\hjguo\ujZ`_gbc\ dhlhjuobkihevamxlky gZa\Zgby jZaebqguo qZkl_c l_eZ IURP KHDG WR WRH k ]heh\u ^hiyl <hlg_kdhevdhbakZfuojZkijhkljZg_gguo 7R NHHS \RXU KHDG khojZgylv kihdhckl\b_  agZqbl hklZ\Zlvky kihdhcguf Z WR ORVH LW ihl_jylv ]heh\m  agZqbl iZgbdh\Zlv b ^_eZlv]emihklb?kebqlhlhDERYHbebRYHU\RXUKHDG \ur_ihgbfZgby agZqbl^ey<Zkwlhhq_gvly`_ehihgylv ?kebm \ZkVRPHWKLQJRQWKHEUDLQ g_hl\yagZyfukev <ug_fh`_l_ wlh aZ[ulv Z _keb <u SLFNVRPHRQH¶VEUDLQV bkihevah\Zlv qm`b_ fukeb  <u h[km`^Z_l_ ijh[e_fm k gbfb qlh[u ihkfhlj_lv _klvebm gboohjhrb_b^_b 7R SD\ WKURXJK WKH QRVH ieZlblv [_r_ggmx p_gm  agZqbl ieZlblv kebrdhf \ukhdmx p_gm aZ qlheb[h gh _keb <u WXUQ XS \RXU QRVH DW VRPHWKLQJ hlghkblkyk ij_aj_gb_f <Zfwlhg_gjZ\blky?keb<u DOO HDU ij_\jZlblky\ kemo agZqbl<ukemrZ_l_hq_gv\gbfZl_evghZ _keb<uNHHS\RXUHDUWRWKHJURXQG gZ\hkljblvmrb <ukemrZ_l_b ke_^bl_aZij_^agZf_gh\Zgbyfb[m^msbokh[ulbc7RVHHH\HWRH\H kfhlj_lvh^gbfb]eZaZfb k d_feb[hagZqblkh]eZrZlvkyk gbf 7R NHHS VWLII XSSHU OLS khojZgylv ijbkmlkl\b_ ^moZ  wlh ² ljZ^bpbhggh [jblZgkdZy q_jlZ g_ ihdZau\Zlv wfhpbc \ [_^_ 7R KDYH \RXU WRQJXH LQ \RXU FKHHN ]h\hjblv g_bkdj_gg_  agZqbl ]h\hjblv h^gh Z ^mfZlv ^jm]h_ 7R KDYH D VZHHW WRRWK [ulv keZ^dh_`dhc  agZqblex[blvkeZ^hklbZ k^_eZlvqlheb[hE\WKHVNLQRI\RXUWHHWK _e__e_k^_eZlv agZqbl_^\Zkmf_lvqlheb[hk^_eZlv 7R VWLFN \RXU QHFN RXW jbkdh\Zlv ]heh\hc  agZqbl ^_eZlv qlh eb[h jbkdh\Zggh_ beb hiZkgh_ Z WR NHHS VRPHRQH DW DUP¶V OHQJWK ^_j`Zlv dh]heb[h gZ ihqlbl_evghf jZkklhygbb  agZqbl ba[_]Zlv [he__^jm`_kl\_gguohlghr_gbck d_feb[h?keb<uKDYHDILQJHU LQ HYHU\ SLH [ulv \h \k_f aZf_rZgguf  agZqbl <u \h\e_q_gu \h fgh`_kl\h jZaguo ijh_dlh\ 7R EH XQGHU VRPHRQH¶V WKXPE [ulv m dh]heb[hih^dZ[emdhf agZqbl[ulvih^qvbfeb[h\ebygb_f 7REHWKLFNVNLQQHG [ulvlheklhdh`bf agZqbl[ulv g_qm\kl\bl_evguf d djblbd_ Z WR EH WKLQVNLQQHG [ulv h[b^qb\uf  agZqbl [ulvkebrdhfqm\kl\bl_evguf?kebm <ZkEORRGERLOV ijb\h^blv\ [_r_gkl\h agZqbl<uq_flh\a[_r_guZ _kebIUHH]HVLQ\RXUYHLQV djh\v\ `beZoklug_l <ubkim]Zgu ?keb<uSXOOVRPHRQH¶VOHJ h^mjZqb\Zlv <u ^jZagbl_ _]h7RIDOO RQ \RXU IHHW kqZkleb\h hl^_eZlvky  agZqbl [ulv hq_gv mki_rguf 7R ILQG\RXU IHHW \klZlv gZ gh]b agZqbl ijb\udgmlvd kblmZpbbZ WR JHW FROGIHHW bkim]Zlvky agZqbl[hylvkyq_]heb[hbeb\hegh\Zlvky

Lesson 7

241


Khhlg_kbl_jbkmgdbk \ujZ`_gbyfb a â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 5; b â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 7; c â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 4; d â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 3 ; e â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 2; f â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 6; g â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 1. &GZc^bl_\ iZjZ]jZn_ke_^mxsb_\ujZ`_gby  to have a finger in every pie  to keep someone at armâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s length  to have a sweet tooth  to keep stiff upper lip  to be all ears  to keep oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s head  to pick someoneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s brains  by the skin of oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s teeth  to stick oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s neck out  to keep oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ear to the ground  to lose oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s head  to see eye to eye with someone  to have something on the brain  to turn up oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nose at something  to be above / over oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s head  to pay through the nose  to have oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tongue in oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; teeth  to get cold feet  to be under someoneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s thumb  to fall on oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s feet  to be thick-skinned  to pull someoneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s leg  to find oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s feet  to be thin-skinned  blood freezes in oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s veins. <JZ[hluDZdZyjZ[hlZm wlbo ex^_c" GZibrbl_ ijZ\bevgu_ ghf_jZ jy^hf k wlbfb keh\Zfb R_klv keh\ g_ [m^ml bkihevah\Zgu

Lesson 10

Homework  IjhqblZcl_ b i_j_\_^bl_ gb`_ijb\_^_ggu_ hlju\db AZ^Zcl_\hijhkh\ IhagZdhfvl_kv>`_cgMw[kl_j ?chgZlhevdhqlhaZdhgqbeZ mgb\_jkbl_lHgZmqbeZkvgZnZdmevl_l_f_g_^`f_glZ\ mgb\_jkbl_l_ aZdhgqbeZk hlebqb_fb hq_gvohq_lgZclbjZ[hlm< mgb\_jkbl_l_\k_ agZeb>`_cgHgZ\k_]^ZaZgbfZeZkZfu_hl\_lkl\_ggu_^he`ghklb b b]jZeZagZqbl_evgmxjhev\ `bagbmgb\_jkbl_lZHgZhj]Zgbah\u\ZeZ \_q_jbgdb wdkdmjkbb b ij_^klZ\eyeZ klm^_glh\ ihke_^g_]h dmjkZ \ 242


klm^_gq_kdhfkh\_l_\ l_q_gb_^\mok_f_kljh\H^ghbakh[ulbcdhlhjh_hgZhj]Zgbah\ZeZ ^Z`_ mihfbgZehkv \ =Zj^b_g_ HgZ [ueZ lZd`_ dZiblZghf mgb\_jkbl_lkdhc \he_c[hevghc dhfZg^u HgZ Z\lhj g_kdhevdboim[ebdZpbc ihf_g_^`f_glm b fZjd_lbg]m?_jZ[hlu [ueb gZi_qZlZgu\ b  HgZ hq_gv d\Zebnbpbjh\ZggZy q_klhex[b\Zy l\hjq_kdZy b kZfhm\_j_ggZy ebqghklv D kh`Ze_gbx hgZ lZd`_ \ukhdhf_jgZ g_l_ji_eb\Zb o\Zkleb\ZHgZ]h\hjbllhevdhihZg]ebckdbgh]hlh\Z \umqblv ^jm]b_ yaudb _keb __ gh\Zy ^he`ghklv [m^_l wlh lj_[h\ZlvM g__g_lhiulZjZ[hlughhgZ\havf_lkylhevdhaZ\ukhdhhieZqb\Z_fmxijbylgmxb d\Zebnbpbjh\ZggmxjZ[hlmOh[[b>`_cg ²bklhjbyb ]hlbq_kdZyZjobl_dlmjZ 1) What did Jane study at the university? 2) Why did everybody in the University know Jane? 3) What events did Jane arrange? 4) She is an author of several publications on Management and Marketing, isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t she? 5) Is Janeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hobby history or gothic architecture? IhagZdhfvl_kv:e_dkMhjZg]h^Z Hgihf_rZggZdhfivxl_jZoHgijh\h^bl\kxk\hx`bagv\ bgl_jg_l_HgiulZekyjZ[hlZlv\ g_[hevrhcdhfiZgbbb [uehl\_lkl\_ggufaZih^^_j`dm\k_ckbkl_fu ihevah\Zl_e_ch^gZdhkebrdhf [hevrZyhl\_lkl\_gghklvk^_eZeZjZ[hlm mlhfbl_evghc b ^Z`_ hiZkghc ^ey g_]h < ^_ckl\bl_evghklb _]h ihke_^gbc ijh_dl [ue iheguf ijh\Zehf b dhfiZgby m\hebeZ _]h :e_dkhq_gv^jm`_ex[gucm g_]hrbjhdbcdjm]hahjhgl\hjq_kdbcb ihe_agucq_eh\_dgh bgh]^Zhg g_fgh]h kl_kgbl_evguc g_gZ^_`guc b jZkk_ygguc< _]h[m^ms_cjZ[hl_^he`_g[ulvihklhygguc]jZnbd jZ[hlugZ[ex^_gb_b ihfhsvkhklhjhgu[m^msbodhee_] 1) What is Alexâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s main interest in life? 2) Does he have any work experience? 3) Why was he sacked from his previous work? 4) What are Alexâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s positive features of character? 5) What is he looking for in his new job? IhagZdhfvl_kvB\ZgGbdheZ_\e_lHghdhgqbeFhkdh\kdbc Mgb\_jkbl_lHgxjbklB\Zgki_pbZebabjm_lkyihijZ\Zfq_eh\_dZm g_]hk_fve_lhiulZdhgkmevlZpbhgghcjZ[hluWlZjZ[hlZ[ueZhq_gv d\Zebnbpbjh\ZggZy b l\hjq_kdZy gh d kh`Ze_gbx gbadh hieZqb\Z_fZy Hg hq_gv kihdhcguc \_`eb\uc ijbylguc b hg \k_f gjZ\blky Hgqj_a\uqZcghdhfi_l_gl_gb mf_gHgi_j__oZebaJhkkbb\ :g]ebx b bs_l gh\mxjZ[hlm M g_]hlZd`_hlebqgu_agZgby0LFURVRIW:RUG ([FHOb 3RZHU3RLQWM B\ZgZ\j_f_ggu_ljm^ghklbk ihemq_gb_fjZaj_r_gbygZjZ[hlmghhggZ^__lkyqlh_]h[m^msbcjZ[hlh^Zl_evih243


fh`_l_fm\ _]h ihemq_gbb< ^Zggucfhf_glhg [_j_lky aZ g_d\Zebnbpbjh\ZggmxjZ[hlmqlh[uk\_klbdhgpuk dhgpZfb 1) What University has Ivan graduated from? 2) Does he have any experience of advice work? 3) What are Ivanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s positive and negative features of character? 4) Ivan is experiencing some problems with the work permit, isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t he? 5) What computer programs Ivan knows? IhagZdhfvl_kvKhnby;jZmg]h^Z M g__g_lki_pbZevgh]h h[jZah\ZgbyghhgZex[bljZ[hlZlvk ex^vfbHgZhq_gvijb\e_dZl_evgZq_ldh\ujZ`Z_lk\hbfukebm g__ij_djZkguc\dmkb fZg_ju HgZ \k_]^Z ohjhrh h^_lZ hgZ h[Zyl_evgZ b dhgdmj_glhkihkh[gZKhnbyk\h[h^gh]h\hjblihnjZgpmakdbg_fgh]hihbkiZgkdbb ihg_f_pdb Ijh[e_fZ Khnbb \ lhf qlh hgZ e_gb\Z HgZ jZ[hlZeZ k_dj_lZj_f]h^ZgZaZ^ghkhqeZwlmjZ[hlmkebrdhfkdmqghcb g_ d\Zebnbpbjh\Zgghc H^gZdh __ jZ[hlh^Zl_eb [ueb kbevgh \i_qZle_gu_xb ^Zeb_chlebqgu_j_dhf_g^ZpbbIhke_wlh]hhgZ\ l_q_gb_lj_oe_liml_r_kl\h\ZeZihfbjmb l_i_jv]hlh\ZgZqZlvdZjv_jm ?c gm`gh qlhlh ^_ckl\bl_evgh keh`gh_ b l\hjq_kdh_ HgZ ]hlh\ZjZ[hlZlvk\_jomjhqgh 1) Does Sofia have any special education? 2) What are her positive characteristics? 3) When did she work as a secretary? 4) What is Sofiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s problem? 5) What kind of work she is looking for?  < \ur_ijb\_^_gghf l_dkl_ gZc^bl_ ijbeZ]Zl_evgu_ khhl\_lkl\mxsb_ hibkZgbyf ijb\_^_gguf gb`_ KhklZ\vl_ ij_^eh`_gbyihh[jZapm  People who are confident are sure of themselves and their abilities.  People who are boastful like to say how good they are at something.  People who are quiet donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t get excited or nervous about things.  People who are creative find it easy to produce new original ideas and things.  People who are ambitious hate to lose at anything.  People who are competent are usually sure of their own ability to do things.  People who are shy feel uncomfortable in social situations.  People who are domineering are always trying to control others without thinking too much how they feel.  People who are impatient hate waiting for things and have no sympathy towards peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s weakness.  People who are articulate are very good at talking and expressing their ideas.

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 AZihegbl_ lZ[ebpm ijbeZ]Zl_evgufb hibku\Zxsbfb q_jluq_eh\_q_kdh]hoZjZdl_jZ Iheh`bl_evgu_ HljbpZl_evgu_ efficient domineering ambitious impatient creative boastful confident shy Iheh`bl_evgu_ HljbpZl_evgu_ friendly insecure broad-minded absent-minded creative lazy helpful polite pleasant competent intelligent charismatic competitive articulate

Lesson 11 Homework <hlg_kdhevdhh[ty\e_gbch jZ[hl_AZdZdhcjZ[hlhcke_^m_lh[jZlblvky>`_cgB\Zgm:e_dkmb Khnbb" KZehgdjZkhluFboZ_evLhfZk Kem`Zsbck_dj_lZjv\_^msbcijb_fihk_lbl_e_c Ih^jh[gZybgnhjfZpbyh jZ[hl_ Ih^jh[gh_hibkZgb_jZ[hlulj_[h\Zgby FboZ_ev LhfZk kZehg djZkhlu \ukr_]h mjh\gy bs_l q_eh\_dZ `_eZxs_]hk^_eZlv dZjv_jmgZ ^he`ghklv kem`Zs_]h k_dj_lZjy \_^ms_]hijb_fihk_lbl_e_cgZfgh]hnmgdpbhgZevgmxjZ[hlm>eywlhc jZ[hlu g_h[oh^bfh g_dhlhjh_agZgb_ dhfivxl_jZ b hlebqgu_ gZ\udb h[s_gby?keb<uaZbgl_j_kh\Zebkvb <ZfgjZ\blkyjZ[hlZlvk ex^vfbih`ZemcklZk\y`bl_kvk >`_gbn_jbeb>_ggb To my mind Sophia should apply for this job. Kem`[Zljm^hmkljhckl\Z:^_ddh I_j_\h^qbd Ih^jh[gZybgnhjfZpbyh jZ[hl_ Ih^jh[gh_hibkZgb_jZ[hlulj_[h\Zgby Gm`guibkvf_ggu_b mklgu_gZ\udbi_j_\h^Zk Zg]ebckdh]hgZ jmkkdbc <u [m^_l_ ihfh]Zlv gZ \klj_qZo i_j_\h^blv nbgZgkh\mx bgnhjfZpbx ex^yf b i_j_\h^blv ^hdmf_glu <u ^he`gu bf_lv 245


hiul jZ[hlu \ ih^h[ghc ^he`ghklb <u [m^_l_ jZ[hlZlv k f_`^mgZjh^gufbijhn_kkbhgZeZfb[bag_kZ WlZ ^he`ghklv ² \j_f_ggh_ jZ[hq__ f_klh Z]_glkl\Z ih ljm^hmkljhckl\m :^_ddh Ih`ZemcklZ ihkueZcl_ <Zr_ j_axf_ k khijh\h^bl_evgufbibkvfZfbihwe_dljhgghcihql_k mdZaZgb_fmjh\gy g_h[oh^bfhc aZjZ[hlghc ieZlu _keb <u aZbgl_j_kh\Zgu \ wlhf lj_of_kyqghfijh_dl_ I suppose Ivan may apply for this job, although he has no prior experience within a similar business setting. Nelson, Riley, Mullins & Scarborough Hi_jZlhjkbkl_fuh[jZ[hldbl_dklh\ Ih^jh[gZybgnhjfZpbyh jZ[hl_ Ih^jh[gh_hibkZgb_jZ[hlulj_[h\Zgby H[jZ[hldZl_dklh\jZ[hlZ\ lj_lvxkf_gm NbebZem ehg^hgkdhc xjb^bq_kdhc dhfiZgbb gm`_g hi_jZlhj kbkl_fuh[jZ[hldb^ZgguogZjZ[hlm k \_q_jZ ^h mljZ k ihg_^_evgbdZihq_l\_j] Hlebqgu_agZgby0LFURVRIW:RUG([FHO3RZHU3RLQW Hiul jZ[hlu h[yaZl_e_g Hiul jZ[hlu \ Xjb^bq_kdhc dhfiZgbbh[yaZl_e_gIj_djZkgZyaZjZ[hlgZyieZlZb ihhsj_gby <gbfZgb_dZg^b^Zlu ²lhevdhihklhyggu_`bl_eb?\jhiufh]mlaZgylv^he`ghklv²kiZkb[h Neither Jane, nor Ivan, nor Alex, nor Sophia should apply for this job. GZ[hjkhljm^gbdh\^ey$ELJDLO6WDIILQJ Ih^jh[gZybgnhjfZpbyh jZ[hl_ >he`ghklvMq_gbdf_g_^`_jZDhfiZgby$ELJDLO6WDIILQJ LbiihegucjZ[hqbc^_gvAZjZ[hlgZyieZlZ HibkZgb_jZ[hlu H]jhfgu_dZjv_jgu_\hafh`ghklb\ DZgZ^_^eyg_^Z\gbo\uimkdgbdh\ dhee_^`_c <u ^he`gu [ulv h[sbl_evgu aZbgl_j_kh\Zgu \ ^_gv]Zo ]hlh\u d dhgdmj_gpbb b bf_lv q_ldmx p_ev Ihke_ lj_gbjh\hqghcijh]jZffu ²f_kyp_\ <Zf[m^_lij_^eh`_gl_klihf_g_^`f_glm b _keb <u _]h ijhc^_l_ <Zk \u^\bgml gZ ^he`ghklv ihfhsgbdZ f_g_^`_jZ ]^_ <ZrZ aZjZ[hlgZy ieZlZ [m^_l m\_ebq_gZ Ihfhsgbdf_g_^`_jZihemqZ_lijbf_jgh²\ ]h^>Zevg_crb_ ijh^\b`_gby ih kem`[_ ² jmdh\h^bl_ey mqZkldZ ²  ^hh[eZklgh]hjmdh\h^bl_ey ²  Wlh]hfh`gh^hklb]gmlv\ l_q_gb_e_lIj_`^_\k_]h<Zkh[mqZl\_^_gbx[bag_kZk [hevrbfdhebq_kl\hfaZgylbcihijh^Z`Zf b fZjd_lbg]mDhfiZgbyohq_lgZgylvq_eh\_dZ`_eZxs_]hk^_eZlv dZjv_jm k ohjhrbfb q_eh\_q_kdbfb dZq_kl\Zfb b \ukrbf h[jZah246


\Zgb_fWlhnZglZklbq_kdZyjZ[hlZ^eyl_odlhohq_lih^gylvky^h kZfh]h\_joZdZjv_jghce_klgbpu Jane should apply for this job. >he`ghklvK_dj_lZjv LbiihegucjZ[hqbc^_gv NZglZklbq_kdZy\hafh`ghklv[eZ]h^ZjyjZkrbj_gbx^ey\ukhdhhj]Zgbah\Zggh]hk_dj_lZjyk aZiZkhfwg_j]bbb ]hlh\h]hjZ[hlZlv ih^^Z\e_gb_fh[klZgh\dbwlh]heb^bjmxs_]hj_deZfgh]hZ]_glkl\ZHj]ZgbaZpby\klj_qkhklZ\e_gb_jZkibkZgbywlh\k_]hebrvg_dhlhju_bah[yaZgghkl_c FbgbfZevgu_gZ\udbi_qZlbhlkeh\\ fbgmlm Ohjhr__bebhlebqgh_agZgb_3RZHU3RLQWg_h[oh^bfh 16500â&#x2030;¤ ?keb<uaZbgl_j_kh\Zebkvwlhc^he`ghklvxbeb^jm]hcih^h[ghcjZ[hlhc\ gZr_cl\hjq_kdhch[klZgh\d_ih`ZemcklZk\y`bl_kv k >`m^bHeb\_jhf Fu²jZ[hlh^Zl_ev^ZxsbcjZ\gu_\hafh`ghklbijbijb_f_ gZ jZ[hlm G_ ihklhyggu_ `bl_eb <_ebdh[jblZgbb ^he`gu ihkeZlv^hdZaZl_evkl\hijZ\ZgZ`bl_evkl\hb jZaj_r_gb_gZjZ[hlm Wlh Z[khexlgh g_h[oh^bfh ^ey lh]h qlh[u j_axf_ jZkkfZljb\Zehkv Sophia should apply for this job. H[km^bl_hkgh\u\ZykvgZj_deZfguoh[ty\e_gbyodhlhju_ \u bamqbeb ^hfZDZdZy jZ[hlZ ih^oh^bl >`_cg Z dZdZy g_l" H[tykgbl_ihq_fm The first job isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t suitable for Jane as it is unskilled, it doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t require any special education. And for such an ambitious person as Jane is, it would be a step back in her career. The second one isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t suitable either as Jane doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know any foreign languages. The third one is not for her either, as she is not a word processor and of course she doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have any experience within a similar business setting. But the forth one is just up her street. It is a wellpaid, pleasant and skilled work, what is more, without any necessity of work experience, so it meets all her requirements. Jane wouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be interested in the last one, as she is not a secretary and doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t wont to be it.

Lesson 12

Bamqbl_ke_^mxs__ DZdibkZlvj_axf_">eyq_]hhghgm`gh" J_axf_ wlh ijhklh j_deZfZ qlh[u ijh^Zlv k_[y jZ[hlh^Zl_ex <u^he`guihkeZlvj_axf_jZ[hlh^Zl_eyf_kebhgbwlh]hijhkyl\ h[ty\e_gbb h jZ[hl_ beb qlh[u magZlv _klv eb \ZdZgkbb gZ dZdb_ Homework

247


eb[h ^he`ghklb BlZd p_ev <Zr_]h j_axf_ k^_eZlv <Zk ijb\e_dZl_evguf bgl_j_kguf ^hklhcguf jZkkfhlj_gby \ dhfiZgbb b aZ kq_lwlh]h^h[blvkykh[_k_^h\Zgby\ dhfiZgbb Klbev JZ[hlh^Zl_evg_ohq_l\b^_lvj_axf_dhlhju_\k_gZibkZguZ[khexlgh h^bgZdh\uf h[jZahf Ihwlhfm g_ i_j_ibku\Zcl_ ijhklh klZg^Zjlgu_ h[jZapu j_axf_ <Zr_ j_axf_ ^he`gh [ulv \Zrbf kh[kl\_gguf ebqguf b g_fgh]h hlebqZlky J_axf_ ^he`gh [ulv khklZ\e_gh gZ l_dklh\hf ijhp_kkhj_ beb ih djZcg_c f_j_ gZi_qZlZgh  ohjhrh kieZgbjh\Zgh b jZki_qZlZgh gZ ijbgl_j_ \ukhdh]h dZq_kl\ZJmdhibkgu_j_axf_^eyZmlkZc^_jh\ <hl^\ZijbgpbiZh[s_gbydhlhju_gZ^haZihfgblv Imklvhgh[m^_lijhklufb ]emiuf ?kebhgbwlh]hg_keurZeb<uwlh]hg_]h\hjbeb Qlh\dexqblv" Ebqgu_^Zggu_ Bfy^hfZrgbcZ^j_kZ^j_kdhee_^`Zl_e_nhggucghf_jwe_dljhgguc Z^j_k ^Zlm jh`^_gby ?klv eb m <Zk k\hy bgl_jg_l kljZgbqdZ"<dexqbl_wlh _kebhgZohjhrZy  H[jZah\Zgb_ MdZ`bl_mq_[gu_aZ\_^_gby]^_<u mqbebkvkgZqZeZkZfh_ihke_^g__<dexqZyex[u_ki_pbZevgu_ijh_dlub ^bkk_jlZpbx HiuljZ[hlu KgZqZeZ mdZ`bl_ kZfu_ ihke_^gb_ f_klZ jZ[hlu MdZ`bl_ bfy jZ[hlh^Zl_ey ^he`ghklv b hq_gv \Z`gh lh qlh <u ^_ckl\bl_evgh ^_eZebb ^hklb]ebgZwlhcjZ[hl_JZ[hlZk g_ihegufjZ[hqbf^g_f ^he`gZ[ulvlZd`_\dexq_gZ Bgl_j_ku Hgb[m^mlhkh[_gghaZbgl_j_kh\Zgu\ lhc^_yl_evghklb\ dhlhjhc<ujmdh\h^ysbcbebhl\_lkl\_ggucjZ[hlgbdEbqgu_bgl_j_kulZdb_dZdkh[bjZgb_fZjhd[m^mlbff_g__bgl_j_kgu_kebhgb g_ k\yaZgu k jZ[hlhc dhlhjmx <u ohlbl_ ihemqblv >Zcl_ lhevdh ^hklZlhqgu_^eyh[tykg_gby^_lZeb ?keb <u dZiblZg kihjlb\ghc dhfZg^ubfg_bgl_j_kghdh]^Zbf_ggh<u\klmibebgZwlm ^he`ghklv kdhevdh b]j <u ku]jZeb b \ kdhevdbo ih[_^beb  ?keb <u im[ebdh\Zeb klZlvb \ khZ\lhjkl\_ beb kZfhklhyl_evgh ^Zcl_ ih^jh[ghklb ?keb <u mqZkl\h\Zeb \ dZdhfeb[h \b^_ ^h[jh\hevghc jZ[hluih`ZemcklZ^Zcl_ih^jh[ghklb GZ\udb AgZgby bghkljZgguo yaudh\ hiul jZ[hlu gZ dhfivxl_j_ beb gZebqb_\h^bl_evkdh]hm^hklh\_j_gby^he`gu[ulv\dexq_gu

248


J_dhf_g^Zpbb H[uqgh ^Zxl ^\Z bf_gb h^gh k f_klZ mq_[u ^jm]h_ k ex[h]h f_klZjZ[hluM^hklh\_jvl_kvqlh[u\rb_jZ[hlh^Zl_ebohlyl^Zlv <Zfj_dhf_g^Zpbx>Zcl_ bo jZ[hqb_ b ^hfZrgb_ l_e_nhggu_ ghf_jZ_keb\hafh`gh %<hlh[jZa_p^_eh\h]hibkvfZIh`ZemcklZaZihegbl_ijhimkdbbkihevamywlbkeh\Zb keh\hkhq_lZgby In reference; Advertisement; An editor; The enclosed; Currently; Challenging; Do not hesitate; Thank you; Am looking forward Thank you. & >`_cg j_rbeZ h[jZlblky aZ ^he`ghklvx ihfhsgbdZ f_g_^`_jZ\ DZgZ^_<hl__ j_axf_ Bfy>`_cgMw[kl_j :^j_k<_ebdh[jblZgbyEhg^hg?KJ <JEhn[Zjb >ZlZjh`^_gbyfZy HiuljZ[hlug_l H[jZah\Zgb_  ² k_jlbnbdZl h kj_^g_f h[jZah\Zgbb ² kj_^gyy rdheZ k\ylhc FZjbb Ehg^hg  ² kl_i_gv [ZdZeZ\jZ ]mfZgblZjguogZmdihf_g_^`f_glm²Ehg^hgkdbcMgb\_jkbl_l Bgl_j_kubklhjby]hlbq_kdZyZjobl_dlmjZ ' >jm]hc dZg^b^Zl lZd`_ h[jZlbeky aZ wlhc ^he`ghklvx <hl_]hj_axf_ Fhgj_Zev Dwghgkljbl yg\Zjy Fbkl_jmIbl_jkhgm Abigail Abbot Dbg]kKljbl Lhjhglh M\Z`Z_fucfbkl_jIbl_jkhg Y ibrm\ hl\_lgZ<Zr_h[ty\e_gb_gZ^he`ghklvihfhsgbdZf_g_^`_jZ \ LZcfk Y lhevdh qlh hdhgqbe mgb\_jkbl_l b ihemqbe kl_i_gvihfZjd_lbg]m< mgb\_jkbl_l_y aZgbfZeg_kdhevdhhl\_lkl\_gguo^he`ghkl_cY k\h[h^gh]h\hjxihnjZgpmakdbm f_gyohjhrb_

Lesson 14

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agZgbyg_f_pdh]hY ljm^hex[b\p_e_mklj_fe_gkihkh[_gd l\hjq_kl\m b ex[ex keh`ghklb Y [u ohl_e qlh[u fhx dZg^b^Zlmjm jZkkfZljb\ZebgZj_deZfbjm_fmx^he`ghklvJ_axf_ijbeZ]Z_lky?keb m <Zk_klvdZdb_lh\hijhkug_aZf_^ebl_evghh[jZsZcl_kvdhfg_ Bkdj_gg_<Zr Ibl_j=jbg BfyIbl_j=jbg :^j_kDZgZ^ZFhgj_ZevDwghgkljbl >ZlZjh`^_gby GZpbhgZevghklvdZgZ^_p H[jZah\Zgb_  ² kl_i_gv [ZdZeZ\jZ ]mfZgblZjguo gZmd ih f_g_^`f_glm k hlebqb_f  ² fhgj_Zevkdbc mgb\_jkbl_l  ² ^biehf njZgpmakdh]h h[jZaqZ h[ hdhgqZgbb kj_^g_c rdheu ki_pbZebaZpbyihyaudZfb fZl_fZlbd_ HiuljZ[hlujZ[hlZ[Zjf_ghfgZg_ihegucjZ[hqbc^_gv H[s_kl\_ggZy ^_yl_evghklv Ba[jZgguc ij_^klZ\bl_ev klm^_glh\gZklm^_gq_kdhfkh\_l_\  GZ\udbk\h[h^gucnjZgpmakdbcjZa]h\hjgucg_f_pdbc Bgl_j_kuikboheh]bybgl_jg_l ?Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku 1) Peter is more likely to get this gob. 2) No, he isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t. 3) Peterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s CV is better laid out. 4) Jane forgot to mention her extracurricular activities. It was unnecessary to mention her lack of experience. Homework  I_j_ibrbl_ j_axf_ >`_cg qlh[u k^_eZlv _]h [he__ h[klhyl_evguf 43 Lothbury London EC2P 2BP United Kingdom Mr Peterson Abigail Abbot 156, Kingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Street Toronto Dear Mr Peterson I am writing in response to your advertisement for a trainee Manager in the Times. I have recently graduated from the University of London and have a degree in Marketing. In the University I took several very important positions involving leadership and responsibility and played a big part in the University life. I am an author of several publications on Management and Marketing. My works were published in 1997 and 250


1998. I am efficient, ambitious, creative and confident. I would like to be considered for the position you advertised. Please find my CV attached. Do not hesitate to ask me should you have any questions. I am looking Forward to hearing from you soon. Sincerely yours, Jane Webster Name: Jane Webster Address: 43 Lothbury London EC2P 2BP D.O.B. May 6, 1977 Nationality: British Education: 1999 BA in Management The University of London 1995 Certificate of Secondary Education St Maryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s School Extracurricular activities: Elected Students representative on a Studentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Council for 2 semesters. I was also the captain of the University volleyball team. Skills: A perfect command of Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint. Interests: History, Gothic architecture. 2. GZibrbl_<Zr_kh[kl\_ggh_j_axf_ Name: Petrov Ivan Address: 22 Solianka Street Moscow Russia D.O.B. 12.02.85. Nationality: Russian Education: a pupil of a secondary education school, Moscow Work experience: part-time jobs as messenger Extracurricular activities: the captain of the schoolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s football team Skills: Fluent English, a perfect command of Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint. Interests: Internet. $IjhqblZcl_b h[km^bl_l_dkl GZcfb m\hevg_gb_ ?keb <Zr_fm jZ[hlh^Zl_ex ihgjZ\blky <Zr_ j_axf_ <u ijb^_l_ gZ kh[_k_^h\Zgb_ Kh[_k_^h\Zgb_ wlh ihke_^gbc rZ] dh]^Z <Zr jZ[hlh^Zl_ev \klj_qZ_lky k <Zfb ebqgh aZ^Z_l <Zf \hijhku bebbgh]^Zl_klbjm_l<Zrbkihkh[ghklb Gh [u\Zxl kblmZpbb dh]^Z<u^Z`_g_ihgbfZ_l_qlh<Zkl_klbjmxl Ij_^klZ\vl_ qlh <u gZgbfZ_l_ dh]hlh gZ jZ[hlm DZd <Zf emqr_ hp_gblv dZg^b^ZlZ" Ih _]h dZg^b^Zlkdhfm j_axf_ _]h d\ZebnbdZpbb _]h hiulm jZ[hlu _]h ihq_jdm _]h agZdm ah^bZdZ" Ohly [hevrbgkl\h ba gZk iheZ]Z_lky gZ h[udgh\_ggh_ kh[_k_^h\Zgb_ bkke_^h\Zgby ijZdlbdb gZcfZ ijb\_eb d m^b\bl_ev-

Lesson 15

251


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Английский язык, 10-11 класс Т.Б. Клементьева 2012 год.