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owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm; CE-BM-Final.indd 1

11/8/2007 6:59:34 AM


a&S@ESifh aemufausmzHk; yef;csD - OD;0if;xGef; twGif;'DZdkif; tjyiftqif - O'gef;pmapmiftzGJ@ uGefjyLwm jrefrmpmvHk; - Radio Burma Group

owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm; CE-BM-Final.indd 2

11/8/2007 6:59:34 AM


owif;orm; owdxm;p&m

jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm;

pma&;q&mr ar_idrf; u a&;om;รฐypkonf?

pma&;q&m armifomrn u ulnDwnf;jzwfonf?

owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm; CE-BM-Final.indd 3

11/8/2007 6:59:34 AM


rmwdum trSmpm ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ²

1

tcef;(1) a0g[m&trSm; ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ²

2

tcef;(2) toHxGuftrSm; ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² 10 tcef;(3) pmvHk;aygif;owfyHktrSm; ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² 26 tcef;(4) o'NgtrSm; ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² 36 usrf;udk;pm&if; ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² 00

owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm; CE-BM-Final.indd 4

11/8/2007 6:59:34 AM


trSmpm jrefrmbmompum;udk toHk;jyKI owif;tcsuftvufrsm; a&;om;xkwfv$ifhaeaom owif;orm;wdk@ taejzifh jrefrmbmompum;udk u|rf;usifydkifEdkif&ef vdktyfygonf// owif; tcsuftvufrsm;. wdusrSefuefr_rSm bmompum;u|rf;usifr_tay:rSDI ajymif;vJEdkifaoma=umihf jzpfonf/ o'Nga&;xH;k jzpfap/ a0g[m&toH;k tE_e;f jzpfap/ owfyjkH zpfap/ toHxu G jf zpfap wpHw k ck rSm;,Gif;c|wfacsmfv#if owif;tcsuftvuf. t&nftaoG;rsm; avsmhyg;oGm;ygonf/ o'NgrSm;v#if w&m;vdku w&m;cHjzpfoGm;Edkifonf// a0g[m&rSm;v#if r&nf&G,fbJ qJovdk jzpfoGm;Edkifonf// owfyHkrSm;v#if t"dy`g,fwufwufpif vGJoGm;Edkifonf/ toHxGufrSm;v#if av;eufaompum;onf &,fp&m jzpfoGm;Edkifonf/ bmompum;tm;enf;r_a=umihf t&nftaoG;avsmhyg;aeaom owif; tcsuftvufrsm;udk rD'D,mrsm;wGif rawG@csiftqHk; awG@ae&onf/ r=um;csiftqHk; =um;ae&onf/ y&dowfwdk@ESpfoufaom owif;rD'D,mwdk@udk =unhfvdkufv#if ta&;tom; tajymtqdk toHae toHxm; pepfusonfh t&nftcsif;ESifh jynfhpHkonfudk {uefawG@&rnf/ owif;aumif;wyk'fudk &&Sd&eftwGuf tvGefcufcJonfudk owif;orm;wdkif; odonf/ od@k aomf ,if;owif;aumif;onf bmompum;c|w, f iG ;f r_a=umihf owif;vGJ owif;rSm;wck tjzpfo@kd ajymif;oGm;Edik o f nfukd owdxm;oifo h nf/ tenf;qH;k tm;jzihf owif;y&dowf. tod^m%ftwGi;f od@k wef;ueJ pku d rf 0ifomG ;bJ a0hvnfa=umifywf rjywfrom; jzpfaewwfonf/ ta&;tom;tajymtqdk rwwfojzihf y&dowfrSm raxrJhjriftvkyfcH&ovdk cHpm;&onfrsm; &Sdonf// ra&r&m Za0Z0g pOf;pm;&cufaewwfonf / / bmompum;wG i f tawG ; tac: t,l t qwd k @ tjyif ,Of a us;r_ tEkynmrsm;vnf; 'GefwGJyg0ifaeonfudk owdjyK&ygrnf/ ausmufaumif;wyGifh jzpfvmzdk@twGuf ausmufaoG;twwf vdktyfouJhodk@ owif;aumif;wyk'f jzpfay:vmzdk@twGuf bmompum; twwfynm vdktyfonf/ jrefrmy&dowfudk OD;wnfaeaom owif;orm;wdk@taejzifh jrefrmpm jrefrmpum;udk yg&*lajrmuf r[kwfaomfrS wdwdusus a&;om; ajymqdkwwf&ef vdktyfonf/ jrefrmbmompum;ESifh ywfoufI tajccHOya'owd@k udk odxm;oiho f nf/ jrefrmpm ta&;tom;ESihf jrefrmpum;tajymtqdw k @kd wGif jzpfavhjzpfx&Sdaom tvGJtrSm;rsm;udk odxm;oihfonf// Tpmtkyfonf owif;orm;wdk@ twGuf jrefrmpm jrefrmpum;ukd wdwdusus a&;om;ajymqdkEdkif&ef tultnDay;rnfh pmtkyfwtkyf jzpfygonf/

owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm; CE-BM-Final.indd 1



11/8/2007 6:59:34 AM


tcef; (1) pum;oHk; trSm;/ a0g[m& trSm; jrefrmhtoHa&'D,dkeSifh jrefrmh¶kyfjrifoH=um;tygt0if rD'D,mrsm;wGif jrefrmpum;vHk;udkyif tac:a0:rSm;/ toHk;rSm;rsm;jzifh ajymqdkrd=uonfudk awG@ae&ygonf? tac:a0:rSm;jcif;onf ajymqdkvdkaom t"dy`g,fvGJacsmfapEdkifaoma=umifh vlxktwGuf qufo, G af &; =um;cHrsm;jzpfaom rD', D morm;rsm;taejzifh pum;vH;k / a0g[m& rSeu f efa&;udk txl; *±kjyKoifhygonf? a'ooHk; tac:a0:rsm; jrefrmEdkifiHonf vlrsKd;uGJrsm;pGmaexdkifaom EdkifiHjzpfonfhtwGuf bmompum;uGJrsm; &Sdaeonfhtjyif a'otvdkufuGJjym;onfh a'od,pum;rsm;vnf; &Sdygonf? rD'D,morm;rsm;onf a'ooHk; pum;rsm;udk em;vnfxm;oifh/ odxm;oifh+yD; roJuGJonfh a0g[m&rsm;udk aoaocsmcsm ar;jref;pHkprf;+yD; oHk;pGJoifhygonf? Oyrm- a'otrnfrsm;ac:&mwGif txl;ojzifh owdxm;oifhonf? - u&ifjynfe,f&Sd ‘c,m;&Gm’udk ‘bk&m;&Gm’[k rSm;,Gif;a=unmjcif;rsKd;udk owdjyKoifh onf? xdk@twl rSm;wwfaom a'otrnftcsKd@ukd Oyrmtjzpf wifjyygrnf? yJcl; - A*dk; ppfudkif; - Z*dkif; 'DyJ,if; - 'y,if; vyGwWm - vwfyGwfwm rwW&m - r',m qm;vif;}uD; - qvif;*sD; EGm;xdk;}uD; - exdk;*sD; rkwWr - r'r 'g;u - 'u ausmuffyef;awmif; - ausmufya'gif; jrif;jcH - jrif;*sH wHwm;OD; - ''tl; - [k ac:&onfudk owdxm;&ygrnff? 

owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm;

CE-BM-Final.indd 2

11/8/2007 6:59:35 AM


Oyrm- yckuLU Y arwWmyd@k ºucsaD om oHCmrsm;udk ppfwyfu t=urf;zufErdS ef if;onfh ta=umif; owif;wckwGif ‘bwfcGuf’ [laom toHk;wckudk awG@&ygonf? xdk ‘bwfcGuf’ qdkonfrSm pifppf ‘bwf*G’ om jzpfygonf? bwf*GqdkonfrSm xdka'ow0dkufY ‘avmuf av;cG’udk ac:onfh toHk;tE_ef;jzpfonf? odk@aomf xdk a'ooHk;a0g[m&udk rodojzifh ‘bwfcGuf/ rwfcGuf’ [k tvGJvGJ trSm;rSm; oHk;oGm;=uonfhtwGuf owif;em;axmifolrsm;twGuf em;vnfr_vGJjcif;/ r&Sif; vif;jcif;rsm; jzpfaponf? tnmbufY ‘aumufn‡if;usnfawmifh’udk ‘cJvHacsmif;/’ ‘vufESdyf"mwfrD;’udk ‘'kwfrD;/’ rkH&GmbufY‘ rD;ajymif;’udk ‘rD;ykavG’/ armfvòrifbufrSm ‘jrif;vSnf;’udk ‘bHkjywf’ ponfjzifh ac:aom a'od,oHk;rsm;udk odxm;oifhonf? 'Hk;wdkufuGif;[laom toHk;rsKd;udk owif;ajymolu ('Hk;wdkufuGif;qdkonfrSm bkef;awmf}uD;rsm; ysHawmfrlonfhtcgoHk;onfh ok\efuGif;udk qdkvdkygonf?) [lI xnfh&Sif; ay;&ef vdkayonf? &Gmaqmfudk ,ckacwfY &mxl;&mcHtoHk;tE_ef;jzifh &,u [k oHk;E_ef;aomfvnf; owif;wyk'Yf ‘&Gmapmf’(&Gmaqmf) [k oH;k onft h jyif pmvH;k aygi;f owfyu kH vnf; rSm;aeygao; onf? xdt k oH;k tE_e;f onf wEdik if v H ;kH twdik ;f twmESihf em;vnfEidk &f rnf[o l nfh owif; ta&;tom; pnf;urf;ESifhvnf; udkufnDr_r&Sday? twdkaumuftoHk; owif;rsm;wGif tzG@J tpnf;rsm;/ Xmeqdik &f mrsm;. trnfrsm;udk ajr-a=u;-&Si;f / v,f-pdkuf-&Sif;/ a&-&if;jrpf ponfh twdkaumufoHk;jcif;rsKd;udk a&Smif&ygrnf? Oyrm/ trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfudk owif;tpuwnf;u w}udrfrS tjynfh tpHk rdwfqufrxm;bJ 'D-csKyf [k awmufav#mufa=unmjcif;rsKd; jzpfonf? xdkodk@ twdkaumufac:a0:oHk;pGJjcif;a=umifh xdkowif;rsdK;udk w}udrfwcgr# em;r axmifzl;olrsm;/ xdktzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESifh tu|rf;r0ifolrsm;twGuf r&Sif;vif;jcif;/ em;rvnf jcif;rsm; jzpfapygonf? xdk@twl !¸ef=um;a&;rª;csKyf udk !¸efcsKyf/ ygarmuQcsKyf udk yg-csKyf [k oHk;jcif;rsKd; udkvnf; owif;ta&;tom;wGif a&Smif&rnfjzpfygonf?

owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm; CE-BM-Final.indd 3



11/8/2007 6:59:35 AM


olr [lonfhtoHk; ,ckaemufyikd ;f owif;rsm;Y olr qdak om emrfpm;toH;k ESihf ywfouf+y;D tjiif;yGm; p&mjzpfaeygonff? pifppf olr qdo k nfrmS &opmayxJu xGuaf y:vmaom toH;k qef;wckjzpfonf?f odk@aomf owif;rsm;wGif oHk;avhr&Sdaom/ oHk;zdk@vnf;rvdktyfaom t!¸ef;emrfpm;om jzpfygonf? Oyrm (1) - rpPwm*efbm&Du a':atmifqef;pk=unfukd olr &J@ aetdrrf mS oGm;a&muf awG@qHck yhJ gw,f? - rpPwm*efbm&Du a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk ol@aetdrfrSm oGm;a&muf awG@qHk cJhygw,f? Oyrm (2) - a':atmifqef;pk=unfu trsK;d om;jyefvnfoifjh rwfa&;eJ@ywfoufwhJ olr&J@ oabmxm;udk wifjycJh+yD;jzpfygw,f? - a':atmifqef;pk=unfu trsKd;om;jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;eJ@ywfoufwJh ol@ oabmxm;udk wifjycJh+yD;jzpfygw,f? a=umfjim/ a=unm aemuftrSm;wckuawmh a=umfjim eJ@ a=unm udk ruGJjym;wmyg? - EdkifiHawmftpdk;&u jrefrmtm;upm; zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;twGuf tbufbufrS aqmif&Guf vkyfudkifay;aea=umif; owif;pma&'D,dkrsm;rS r=umc% a=umfjim ajym=um;aeaomfvnf; vufawG@Y c&D;ra&mufvSay? (a=unm [ka&;rSrSefrnf) - ,cktcg pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;&Sif}uD;rsm;onf rdrdwdk@vkyfief; atmifjrifa&;twGuf a=umfjim udk tm;udk;vm=uonf? ta&;rSm;/ tokH;rSm; pum;rsm; trSwfrxifa&;rdokH;rd&mrS ta&;rSm;tokH;rSm; jzpfoGm;wwfaom pum;rsm;jzpf onf? toHxGuftwdkif; vdkufa&;rd&mu ta&;rSm;oGm;&jcif;jzpfonf? toHxu G yf t Hk wkid ;f r=umrDukd r=umrS/D rkom;udk rlom;/ rifukd rSi/f jrm;ukd jr‡m;/ oGm;vsufvmvsufudk oGm;v#ufvmv#uf/ vsifjrefudk v#ifjref [k rSm;a&;wwfjcif;rSm toHxu G yf u Hk kd vdu k +f y;D rSm;a&;rdwwfjcif; jzpfygonf?f 

owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm;

CE-BM-Final.indd 4

11/8/2007 6:59:35 AM


ygVdpum; trSm;rsm; rSm;,Gif;&Gwfqkdrd&mu tokH;wGifoGm;+yD; ta&;tom;yg rSm;oGm;wwfaom pum;rsKd;vnf; &Sdygonf? om"ujy&v#if axmrem [laom ygVdpum;onf csD;rGrf;jcif;[k t"dy`g,f&ygonf? od@k aomf axmrem udk axmyem [k rSm;,Gi;f &Gwq f rkd &d mrS tok;H wGio f mG ;+y;D cs;D rGr;f axmyem [k trsm;okH;ae=uygonf? pifppfwGif csD;rGrf;axmrem [k okH;rS rSefygvdrfhrnf? xkd@twl terw*~ [laom ygVdpum;onf tpr&Sdaom/ tpudkrodEdkifaom [k t"dyg` ,&f ygonf? ToHo&m}u;D . tpudrk odEikd o f jzifh terw*~ oHo&m [k ok;H avh&=dS u ygonf? ra&wGuEf idk af tmif rsm;jym;onf [laom t"dyg` ,jf zifv h nf; ok;H =uygao;onf? ’ayghayghae ayghayghpm;olrsm; terw*~ &Sdavonf’ [laom tokH;rsKd;jzpfonff? odk@aomf terw*~ ukd tewuUr [k rSm;,Gif;&Gwfqdkrd&mu ’'DvdkvlawG tewuUryJ’ [laom tok;H rsK;d udk tcsK@d uok;H ae=uygonf? terw*~ [ko;Hk rS rSeyf gvrd rhf nf? a&;ykcH si;f eD;pyfaompum;rsK;d a=umifh a,mifrmS ;ok;H rdwwfaom pum;rsK;d vnf; &Sdygonf? uwd (0efcHcsuf/ oabmwlnDcsuf/ tcsdef;tcsufpum;) ESifh *wd (vm;&m/ owW0g wdk@ao+yD;aemuf tcsdef;tcsufae&m) wdk@onf a&;ykHcsif;eD;pyfaom ygVdpum;ESpfvkH; jzpfyg onff? qifw, l ;kd rSm;jzpfonht f jyif uwd udv k nf; *wd [kyif toHxu G o f nft h wGuf *wdjyK / *wday; [k a,mifrSm; okH;rdwwf=uygonf? uwdjyK / uwday; [kokH;rS rSefyg.? xdk@twl u¶k%m (oem;jcif;) ESifh *¶k (tav;xm;jcif;) wdk@onfvnf; a&;ykcH si;f eD;pyfaom ygVpd um;ESpv f ;Hk jzpfygonf? u¶k%m ukd *¶k%m [k toHxu G o f nft h jyif qifwl,dk;rSm;jzpfaom *¶k (*¶kpdkuf/ *±kjyK) uvnf; &Sdaeojzifh *¶k%m [k a,mifrSm; okH;rd wwf=uonf? u¶k%m [kokH;rS rSefygrnf? t"dy`g,ft& eD;pyfr_&SdonfudkvdkufI tokH;rSm;wwfaom pum;rsKd;vnf; &Sdygonf? t"dÏmef onf t"dÏme [laom ygVdpum;rS qif;oufI pdwfYpGJjrJpGm jyÏmef; owfrSwfjcif;/ wnfaqmufjcif;[k t"dyg`,f&ygonf? oEMdÏmef onf oEMdÏme [laom ygVdpum;rS qif;oufvmI pdwq f ;Hk jzwfjcif;/ pdwyf ikd ;f jzwfjcif; [k t"dyg` ,&f ygonf? oEMÏd mefjyKonf/ oEMÏd mefcsonf [k ok;H avh&ydS gonf? oEMdÏmef udk t"dÏmef ESifh a&m+yD; oH"dÏmef [k rSm;okH;wwf=uygonf? oEMdÏmef [k okH;rS rSefygrnf?

owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm; CE-BM-Final.indd 5



11/8/2007 6:59:35 AM


roHk;oifhaom toHk;vGJ toHk;rSm;rsm; (±kef@&if;=urf;wrf;aom tqJtqdk toHk;tE_ef;rsm;ESifh t&yfoHk;pum;rsm;) Oyrm (1) - ppftpdk;&[m bmyJvkyfvkyf&qdkwJh taetxm;rsKd;eJ@ vufr0hH jzpfaewmyg? vufr&G@H uom toH;k rSejf zpfonf? r0Hh u a=umuf&@GH onft h "dy`g,jf zpf+y;D / r¶G@H urS ra=umuf onfh t"dy`g,fjzpfI t"dy`g,f vHk;0vGJrSm;oGm;aponfh toHk;rSm;jzpfygonf? Oyrm (2) - qENjyoHCmawmf tenf;qHk; tyg;waxmifausmfavmuf zrf;cHxd cJhygw,f? (zrf;qD;cH cJh&ygw,f) zrf;cHxd [lonfhpum;vHk;onf t&yfoHk;pum;jzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh pHbmompum;oHk;&ef vdktyfonfh rD'D,mrsm;wGif roHk;pJGoifhyg? zrf;qD;cH& udkom oHk;&ygrnf? Oyrm (3) - òr@tESH@ vHkjcHKa&;awG wif;wif;usyfusyf csrSwf xm;ygw,f? (cs) csrw S f [laomtoH;k rSm pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf; Oya'ta&;t&mrsm; owfrw S f uef@owf&mYom oHk;ygonf? vkHjcHKa&;csjcif;udk csxm; [kom oHk;ygonf? Oyrm (4) - ocsKõif;ajrae&m owfrSwfay;vdkufwJh twGuf olwdk@tzdk@ 'D ocsKõif;ajrae&mudk yxrqHk; t}udrf toHk;jyKcJh&wm jzpfygw,f? (yxrqHk; tjzpf) xdk0guswGif yxrqHk;t}udrf [laomtoHk;u aemufxyft}udrfrsm;pGm &Sdaeao;onf[k edrdwfzwfonfh qifhyGm;teuf oufa&mufaeygonf? xdk@a=umifh vHk;0rSm;,Gif;aeonf[k rqdkEdkifaomfvnf; t"dy`g,frjywfrom; jzpfaponfh 0gus[k qdkEdkifonf? jzpfoifhonfrSm ‘yxrqHk; tjzpf’[laom azmfjycsufrsKd; jzpfonf? Oyrm (5) - w±kwftm%mydkifrsm; r,m;i,f ,lwJhudpPeJ@ ywfouf+yD; æ r,m;i,f [laomtoHk;onfvnf; t&yfoHk;pum;omjzpfonf? owif;oHk;taejzifh qdkyg u vuf&SdZeD;tjyif xm;&Sdaom aemufxyfZeD;r,m; odk@r[kwf aemufxyfZeD;r,m; [k oHk;E_ef;oifhygonf? 

owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm;

CE-BM-Final.indd 6

11/8/2007 6:59:35 AM


- oHCmawmf ESpfOD; udk ar;jref; cJhygw,f? jrefrm±d;k &mtpOftvm tac:ta0:rsm;udk *±kpu kd o f ;kH pG&J ygrnf? xd@k a=umifh ‘oHCmawmf ESpyf g; udk av#mufxm;ar;jref; cJhygw,f’ [kom jzpf&ygrnf? Oyrm (6) - awmifOuUvmyrS ausmif;wdu k f wck udk 0ifa&mufp;D eif;cJw h ,fv@kd od&ygw,f? (ausmif;wdu k f wwdu k )f jrefrmpum;ac:xHk;t& ausmif;wdkufwwdkuf [laomtoHk;udk *¶kjyKoifhygonf? xdk@ twlyif EGm; waumif ppfwyf wwyf bk&m; ESpfql ouFef; ESpfpHk ausmif; wausmif; tdrf wtdrf puf±Hk w±Hk &[ef;r,fawmf ausmif;xdkifq&mawmf}uD;. zcrnf;awmf - paom toHk;rsm;udk *±kwpdkuf oHk;pGJ&rnfjzpfonf? Oyrm (7) - paumhaps; w0dkufrSmawmif vloGm;vlvm ajcmufuyfaew,fvdk@ od&ygw,f? vuf&Sdtac:a0:rSm AdkvfcsKyfaps;jzpf+yD;/ w&m;0ifowfrSwfxm;aomtrnfrSm AdkvfcsKyfatmif qef;aps; jzpfygonf? owif;em;axmiforl sm;u vGwv f yfa&;r&cifu ac:a0:cJo h nfh paumhaps; [laomtrnfukd odrxm;ygu xdkowif;rSm r&Sif;vif;aomowif; jzpfoGm;Edkifygonf? owdjyK&rnfh tcsufjzpfygonf? xdkuJhodk@yif *E<Daq;±Hk udk ta&S›ydkif;aq;±Hk *srcEMmaq;±Hk udk A[dktrsdK;orD;aq;±Hk}uD; umwdkvpfaq;±Hk udk pHjyaq;±Hk owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm; CE-BM-Final.indd 7



11/8/2007 6:59:35 AM


bm;vrf; udk r[mAE<Kvyef;jcHvrf; za&Zmvrf; udk taemf&xmvrf; pywfvrf; udk Adkvfatmifausmfvrf; c&pfvrf; udk odrfjzLvrf; - pouJhodk@ ,ae@acwf vlodrsm;aom w&m;0if toHk;twdkif; ajymif;vJoHk;pGJ&ef vdkygonf? Oyrm (8) - xdkpcef;rS wm0efus&Jt&m&Sdu oHCmawmfudk uGrf;rpm; eJ@ / -D;pm; [k ajymonf? xdk0gusudk owif;tjzpf a&;om;azmfjyvdkygv#if - xdkpcef;rS wm0efus&Jt&m&Sdu wdkif;xGmqJqdkcJhonf[k xdkum,uH&Sif oHCmawmfu ajymjyygonf [k a&;om;Edkifygonf? (owif;azmfjycsuf[lonf y&dowftm; av;pm;or_jzifh a&;om;a=unm azmfjy&onf jzpfI t&yfoHk;qefonfh qJa&;wdkif;xGmonfh tajymtqdk ta&;tom;wdk@udk a&Smif=uOf&ef vdkayonf?) Oyrm (9) - xdktpDtpOfudk rae@u v$ifhxkwf cJh+yD;jzpfygw,f? xkwfvkyf&efjyifqif+yD;rS v$ifhjcif;jzpfojzifh toHk;rSefrSm xkwfv$ifhom jzpfonf? (wcgw&H xkwfv$wf [k oHk;onfudkyif awG@&wwfygao;onf?) Oyrm (10) - xdkudpPESifhywfoufI wpHkw&m ajz&Sif;jcif;rjyKbJ a'ocHtm%mydkifawG&J@ wm0efom jzpfw,fvdk@ v$Jcs ajzqdkoGm;ygw,f? v$Jcs [laom pum;onfvnf; t&yfoHk;pum;yifjzpfonf? owif;oHk;pum;t&qdkv#if ‘xdkudpPESifhywfoufI wpHkw&m ajz&Sif;jcif;rjyKbJ a'ocHtm%mydkifrsm;. wm0efom jzpfonf[k tjypfyHkcs ajzqdkoGm;ygonf’ [kom a&;oifhygonf? Oyrm (11) - wu,fvdk@ tJ'DaxmufcHyGJudk rvdkufbl;vdk@jiif;qef&if '%faiG 2000 uae 3000 xd ±dkufxnfh w,fvdk@ od&ygw,f? xdkowif;Y 2000/ 3000 [laom ta&twGufrSm usyfaiGjzpfa=umif; azmfjy&efvdk+yD;/ 

owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm;

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±dkufxnfh [laomtoHk;onfvnf; t&yfoHk;bmompum; jzpfaeygonf? xdk@a=umifh owif;oHk; pHbmompum;jzifhom oHk;pGJ&ygrnf? xdk@a=umifh ‘wu,fvdk@ tJ'DaxmufcHyGJudk rvdkufbl;vdk@jiif;qef&if '%faiG usyf 2000 uae usyf 3000 txd '%faiG±dkufcH&w,fvdk@ od&ygw,f’ [k a&;om;oifhygonf? Oyrm (12) - 'DtpDtpOfudk em;axmifwJhtwGuf aus;Zl;yg? xdk ajym=um;csufwGifvnf; aus;Zl;yg [laom toHk;onf t&yfoHk;pum;jzpfonfhtjyif t"dy`g,ftm;jzifhvnf; jynfhpHkr_r&Sdaom 0gus jzpfaeygonf? owif;oHk;t&qdkv#if ‘'DtpDtpOfukd em;axmifwt hJ wGuf aus;Zl;wifygw,f’ [k tjynft h pHk ajymoifyfh gonf? Oyrm (13) - romydk@wmudkawmh AdkvfcsKyfrª;}uD;oef;a&$ wufa&mufjcif;r&Sdbl;vdk@ od&ygw,f? jzpfoifhonfrSm ‘tokbtcrf;tem; udk AdkvfcsKyfrª;}uD;oef;a&$ rwufa&mufbl;vdk@ od&ygw,f’ [kom pHtoHk;tE_ef; okH;oifhygonf? txufYwifjycJah om owdjyKz, G af 0g[m&toH;k / pum;oH;k rsm;rSm rD', D mrsm;wGif trSww f rJo h ;kH pGaJ ewwfaom toH;k rSm;rsm;jzpfygonf? txl;ojzifh toHvi$ rhf 'D , D m (a&'D,)kd rsm;wGif awG@ae&onfhtrSm;rsm; jzpfygonf?

owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm; CE-BM-Final.indd 9



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tcef; (2) toHxGuftrSm; jref r mh t oH a &'D , d k e S i f h jref r mh ± k y f j rif o H = um; tygt0if rD ' D , mrsm;wG i f jrefrmpum;vHk; udkyif toHxGuftrSm;rsm;jzifh ajymqdkrd=uonfudk awG@ae&ygonf? toHxGufrSm;jcif;a=umifh ajymqdkvdkaom t"dy`g,fudk vGJacsmfapEdkifaoma=umifh rD'D,morm;rsm;taejzifh pum;oHyDa&;udk txl; *±kjyK oHk;E_ef;oifhygonf? xdk@a=umifh jrefrmhrD'D,mwGif awG@&aom rSm;avh&Sdonfh toHxGufrSm;rsm;udk twwfEdkifqHk; óu;pm; &SmazGI wifjyygrnf? ygVd toHxGufrsm; arwWmokwf - rpfwmokwf (rspfwm r[kwf) ynmwwf - yifnmwwf (ysifnmwwf r[kwf) ÉDum - wD*g ('D*g r[kwf) u¾ - uef'gh (*ef'gh r[kwf) edpP"l0 - edpfp'l0 (ae@w'l0 r[kwf) ywWydk%f - ywfwydkif (bwfvbdkif r[kwf) aumv[v - (aumvm[mv r[kwf) 0gus - 0ufusmh (0gufus udk aygif;a&;xm;aom pmvHk;aygif;jzpfI 0ufusmh [k zwf&ef)/? xdk@twl ousomuD p=u0Vm p=u0aw;rif; "rRp=um y&duQ&m vufsm a,bk,s tm0Z…ef; tmvmyov†my 10

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oufusmh om*D puf=um0vm puf=u0a';rif; 'rpufusm y&dwfc,m vuf,m a,bHk, tm0ZfZef; tmvmyomvmy

owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm;

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- ygVdwGif n onf ^ ESpfvHk;aygif;xm;jcif;jzpf+yD; a&S@pmvHk;. towfyif jzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh n a&S@u pmvHk;udk zwfvsif ^ oH (wenf;tm;jzifh ‘if’oH/ ‘ef’owf) ESifh zwf&onf? Oyrm ynm - yifnm ykn - ykefn yÉd^m^f - b'defnif 0dnm^f - 0defnif onm - oifnm tnrn - tifnrifn tn=w - tifnw& omrn - omrifn tbdnm^f - tbdefnef toHxGuf/ pmvHk;aygif;ESifh t"dy`g,f qufpyfr_ toHxGufqifoa,mif &Sdaomfvnf;/ pmvHk;aygif;rwlbJ t"dy`g,ftm;jzifh qufpyfaeaoma=umifh tvGefrSm;avh&Sdonfh pum;vHk;rsm;udk txl;owdxm; &ygrnf? xdkpum;vHk;rsm;rSmvnf; rSm;ygu t"dy`g,fvGJacsmfoGm;onfhtwGuf rrSm;oifhonfh trSm;rsm;yifjzpfygonf? Oyrm - us ESifh cs wGif us onf tvdktavsmufjzpfjcif;udk jyonfh t"dy`g,f jzpf+yD;/ cs rSm jyKjcif;udk jyonfh t"dy`g,fjzpfonf? xdkuJhodk@yif uGm onf tvdktavsmuf jzpfjcif;oabmudk jy+yD;/ cGm u jyKjcif;oabm jzpfonf? xdkodk@aom pum;vHk;rsm;xJrS wcsdK@udk Oyrm jyvdkygonf? jzpfjcif;jy jyKjcif;jy uGm cGm usuf csuf aºu ac| yJh zJh +idrf; +id‡rf; eyf ESyf owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm; CE-BM-Final.indd 11

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jzpfjcif;jy a&G@ arsm vef vGwf aEG; jrKyf vGifh aysmuf yGifh jywf nyf yG avsmh

jyKjcif;jy a&$@ ar#m vSef v$wf aE$; jr‡Kyf v$ifh azsmuf zGifh jzwf n‡yf zG av#mh

pum;oHtquftpyf/ tjzwft&yf pum;oHESpfoHudk wqufwpyfwnf; ajymonfhtcg a&S›pum;oH. t&Sdefu aemufu pum;oHudk v$rf;rdk;wwfygonf? Oyrm - ‘ykvif;uGJ’[laom pum;vHk;udk ajymonfhtcg a&S@pum;oH ‘ykvif;’. oHjyif;v$r;f rd;k r_a=umifh aemufu ‘uG’J [laom oHnif;u toHjyif;od@k ajymif;oGm;um ‘yvif;*G’J [k jzpfoGm;onf? xdkodk@ ajymif;&mwGif oHnif;- oHwif;- oHjyif; oufqdkif&m twGJtzuf twdkif;om ajymif;onf? atmufazmfjyyg twGJtvdkuf toHajymif;jcif;jzpfonf? oHnif; u us p w y o 12

oHwif; oHjyif; c * cs *s q Z x ' z b oS ( jrefrm toHxGuft& oHjyif; o jzpfonf)

owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm;

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Oyrm upm;p&m uwHk; uwkef;uwdkuf uav; ukÉD ukaÉ ukodkvf udk,fxl;udk,fc|ef ukefpHkqdkif ukefonf cg;ydkufaqmifwyf cHwGif;ysuf acgif;}uD;ydkif; aiGa=u; p=u0aw;rif; aq;qdkif quf&uf qif;wk aqmif;wGif; q,fck w&m;yGJ wdkif;&if;om; wnf;cdk wef;vsm; xD;oHk;eef;oHk; a'ocH "g;pmcH ae@pm; eif;jym; enf;enf;

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*Zm;Z,m *'Hk; *'Hk;*'dkuf cav; uk'D *a' uko_d udk'l;udkc|ef ukefZHkZdkif ukefoSnf *Adkufaqmifwyf *'Gif;Asuf a*gif;*sD;Adkif; aiGa*s; pufus0a';rif; aq;Zdkif Z,uf qif;'k aqmif;'Gif; q,f*k w,m;bGJ wdkif;,if;oSm; wJcdk wef;,m; xD;o_H;eef;o_H; a'o*H "Zm*H ae@Zm; eif;Asm; eJeJ owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm;

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yl;aygif; yef;jcH yef;yif jznf;jznf; AdkvfcsKyf bdoduf bk&m;yHkawmf bkef;awmf}uD; bGJ@=udKoifwef; rD;owf armfuGef; armfuGef;0if rif;wkef; rif;ajrmufwefqm rdef@cGef; rsdK;aph rsdK;quf ,mawm ,lusHK;r& a&aumif;a&oef@ a&cJqdkif a&csdef a&pufcs &Jwdkuf &Jom; &efol ±kyfjrifoH=um; &Hk;cef; vcpm; vl}uD; vlñuH 14

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yl;abmif; yef;*sH yef;bif ajz;ajz; bdk*sKwf bdwfodwf z,m;yHka': zkef;a':*sD; bGJ@*sdKoif'ef; rD;oSwf armf*Gef; armf*Gef;0if rif;'kH; rif;ajrmuf'Zm rdef@*Gef; rsdK;aZh rsdK;Zuf ,ma'g ,l*sKef;r,mh a,a*gif;a,oSef@ a,*JZdkif a,*sdef a,Zufcs ,J'dkuf ,JoSm; ,Hoª ,kwfrsifoH*sm; ,Hk;*ef; v*ghZm; vl+*D; vl*sHK

owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm;

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vlawmfvlaumif; vlxk avoH vifpHkr,m;zuf v,fuGuf v,fcGef vGefqef vSnfhpm; 0uftlacsmif; 0ef}uD; 0efxkyf0efydk; 0efxrf; 0rf;a&m*g o=um; oajyyef; ordkif;a=umif; olykef aowrf;pm aor_aocif; oHo, om;aumif om;ydkufaumif oHCmxk opfawmxGufypPnf; oGm;=u oGm;csif [efcsuf tysdKpif tm%mydkif tdkpmrif;pm tif;vsm;vrf;

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vla': vla*gif; vl'k avoSH vifZHkr,zuf v,f*Guf v,f*GH vGefZH vSnfhZm; 0uftla*smif; 0ef*sD; 0ef'kwf0efAdk; 0ef'ef; 0ef;a,m*g oS*sm; oSaAsAef; ordkif;a*smif; oSAkH ao'ef;Zm aor_ao*if; oHoS, om;a*gif om;bdkufaumif oHCm'k opfawm'Guf jypfpnf; oGm;*s oGm;*sif [ef*suf tysdKZif tm%mbdkif tdkZmrif;Zm tif;,m;vef; owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm;

CE-BM-Final.indd 15

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11/8/2007 6:59:36 AM


tdrfaxmifonf tdrfom tdrfOD;cef;

- - -

tdefa'gifoS,f tdefoSm tdeftl;*ef;

- qifx h yfpum;vH;k rsm;udk ajymvsiv f nf; a&S@pum;oHrS oHjyif;v$r;f rd;k r_a=umifh 'kw, d Asn;f . pum;oHu oHjyif;odk@ ajymif;onf? Oyrm zG,fzG,f&m&m - zG,fbG,f,m,m aumif;aumif;rGefrGef - aumif;a*gif;rGefrGef pD;pD;ydkifydkif - pD;ZD;ydkifAdkif acsacsjrpfjrpf - acsa*srspfrspf wdkif;&if;om;csif; - wdkif;,if;om;*sif; wdkif;&if;om;tcsif;csif; - wdik ;f ,if;om;tcsi;f *si;f ,Hk,Hk=unf=unf - ,Hk,Hk=unf*sD pnfpnfum;um; - pnfZDum;*g; aysmfyGJ ¶$ifyGJ - aysmfbGJ ¶$ifbGJ uZm;ckefpm; - *Zm; ckefZm; bk=unfh=unfh - bk*sd usd - pum;oHESpfckudk wqufwpyfwnf; &Gwfqdk&mwGif a&S@pum;oHonf toufatmifhoH jzpfv#ifrl aemufpum;oHu rajymif;vJbJ oHnif;jzifhom xGufonf? rsm;aomtm;jzifh toufatmifh&aom -uf / -pf/ -wf/ -yf oHwdk@. aemufwGif vdkufaom pum;oHwdk@ rSm toHrajymif;ay? Oyrm pufuGif; - pufuGif; owfuGif; - owfuGif; opfqdkif - opfqdkif tdyfcef; - tdyfcef; vkyfc - vkyfc - odk@aomf e*dkrlvu oHnif;rS oHjyif;odk@ ajymif;vJ+yD;jzpfonfh pum;oHjzpfv#ifrl a&S›u 16

owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm;

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toufatmifhoHjzpfaomfvnf; aemufpum;oHu oHnif;odk@ rajymif; awmhay? Oyrm 0ufacgif; - 0ufa*gif; qdwfcsdK - qdwf*sdK taemufaxmifh - taemufa'gifh - pum;oHESpfoHudk wqufwpyfwnf; &Gwfqdkonfhtcg a&S›o&oHonf =um;o&oH odk@ ajymif;wwfonf? Oyrmpma&; - pa,; aoewf - oewf xrif;&nf - xra, w&m;0if - w,0if E_wfcrf; - EScrf; olcdk; - ocdk; EGm;r - er ig;ajcmuf - iajcmuf vufbuf&nf - vzufa, - pum;oHESpfoH wqufwnf;¶Gwf&mwGif a&S› o&oHu =um; o&oHodk@ ajymif;v#if aemuf o&oHu oHjyif; (odk@) oHwif; odk@ ajymif;wwfonf? Oyrm0g;uyf - 0*wf em;usyf - e*swf ig;pdrf; - iZdef; eef;rawmf - eef;ra': pum;0dkif; - Z*0dkif; w&m;0if - w,0if w&m;cGif - w,*Gif jrefrmpm - jrrmZm

owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm; CE-BM-Final.indd 17

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- aemufu Asnf;oH vdkufrajymif;onfh ¹cif;csuf pum;vHk;rsdK;vnf; &Sdonf? ig;yd EGm;odk; ESmacgif; oGm;zHk;

- - - -

iyd eodk; ESacgif; ozkef;

- a&S@wGif ‘t’ygaom pum;oHrsm;Y ‘t’onf =um;o&oHuJhodk@ xGuf&ojzifh toHtm; enf;aoma=umifh aemufu pum;oHukd wpHw k &m rv$r;f rd;k Edik af y? xd@k a=umifh ‘t’aemufwiG f pum;oH rajymif;ay? Oyrm tudkif; - tudkif; tcef; - tcef; t}uD; - tusD; tpkwf - tpkwf tyif - tyif tzGJ@ - tzGJ@ touf - touf txdef; - txdef; tqifh - tqifh tcsuf - tcsuf twGJ - twGJ - a&Sp› um;oHa&m aemufpum;oHyg oHnif;Asn;f rsm;jzpfv#irf l a&S› =um;o&a&m aemufvu kd f oHyg / oHjyif;odk@ ajymif;onf? Oyrm pm;yGJ - ZbGJ urf;yg; - *bm; ol}uD; - \*sD; yg;pyf - AZyf pum;0dkif; - Z*0dkif; 18

owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm;

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pum;oH orm;±dk;us

- -

Z*oH or,dk;*smh

- tcsKd @aom ‘pum;vH;k wG’J rsm;wGif tv,frS ‘t-o&’oHonf =um;o&oHo@kd ajymif;wwf onf? Oyrmrdef;r=urf; - rdef;r*sef; rdef;rxdef; - rdef;r'def; rdef;uav; - rdef;cav; wdwfwqdwf - wdwfwqdwf ajymprSwf - aysmZrSwf eef;rawmf - eef;ra': wyfrawmf - wyfra': vwfwavm - vwfwavm ±kwfw&uf - ,kwfw,uf - o&oH ajymif;vJr_oabmt& a&S@o& td o&oH rS t o&oH odk@vnf;aumif;/ tH (tef) o&oH rS t o&oHjyif; od@k vnf;aumif;/ tk o&oHrS t o&oHo@kd vnf;aumif; ajymif;aom pum;vHk;rsm;vnf; &Sdonf? Oyrm - td o&oH rS t o&oH odk@ ud&d,m - u&d,m wd&p>mef - w&dwfqef edrdwf - erdwf zdeyf - zeyf bDvl; - bvl; 0D&d, - 0&d, od=um;rif; - oS*sm;rif; tH (tef) o&oH rS t o&oHjyif; odk@ qHyif - ZAif uefawmh - *a'gh owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm; CE-BM-Final.indd 19

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wHwm; wHcg; wefcdk; uefpGef;&Guf =urf;ydk; wefqmqif yef;awmif;òr@

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(tk o&oHrS t o&oHodk@) ukvm;xdkif - ukvm;tkyf - yk*Hòr@ - ykvJykwD; - ykodrfòr@ - ykqdef -

''g; '*g; '*dk; *ZGef;&Guf *sAdk; 'Zmqif ba'gif;òr@ uvm;xdkif uvm;tkyf b*Hòr@ yvJb'D; yodefòr@ yqdef

- pum;oHESpfoHudk t=um;wGif ydkif;jzwf&yfem;r_&Sd+yD; ¶Gwfqdkv#ifrl toH rajymif;ay? Oyrm at;puf - at;puf =uHhcdkif - =uHhcdkif jyifqif - jyifqif wrf;w - wrf;w xdef;odrf; - xdef;odrf; pnf;urf; - pnf;urf; odrf;ydkuf - odrf;ydkuf o,fxkwf - o,fxkwf odef;qk - odef;qk onf;xef - onf;xef oHk@yef; - oHk@yef; oHk;oyf - oHk;oyf jrefrmpmay - jrefrmpmay 20

owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm;

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tEkynm ,Ofaus;r_ prf;oyf wnfaxmif pkyHk qHo azmfxkwf

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tEkynm ,Ofaus;r_ prf;oyf wnfaxmif pkyHk qHo azmfxkwf

- arG;pm;pum;vHk;rsm;&Gwfqdk&mwGif rl&if;toHESifh teD;pyfqHk;&Gwfqdk&ojzifh pum;oHrsm; rajymif;vJoavmufyif jzpfonf? Oyrm *smuif - *smuif aumfzD - aumfzD w,fvDzkef; - w,fvDzkef; ygwD - ygwD aumifpD - aumifpD umwGef; - umwGef; uGefysLwm - uGefysLwm vefjcm; - vHcsm; armfawmfum; - armfawmfum; qdkifu,f - qdkifu,f ypfpwdk - ypfpwdk aumfyD - aumfyD - pum;oHa=umifh t"dy`g,foufa&mufr_/ }ud,m/ emrf ponfwdk@ ajymif;vJonfudkvnf; awG@&onf? Oyrm tr_xrf; - olonf y&dabm*ukr`%DwckwGif tr_xrf;onf? (}ud,m) - olonf y&dabm*ukr`%DwckwGif tr_xrf;('ef;) jzpfonf? (emrf)

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oufaocH - w&m;cHudk oufaocH ypPnf;ESifhwuG zrf;rdcJhonf? (emrf - oufao*H [k toHxGufonf)) - xdktr_twGuf ausmif;tkyfq&m}uD;u oufaocH ygonf? (}ud,m - oufaocH [kom toHxGufonf) pmwnf; - xdkr*~Zif;wGif olu wm0efcH pmwnf; jzpfonf? (emrf - pm'D; [k toHxGufonf) - xdkpmtkyfudk ol pmwnf; cJhjcif;jzpfonf? (=ud,m - pmwD; [k toHxGufonf) 0gqdk - Ak'<bmombkef;awmf}uD;rsm;onf 0gqdkvwGif c&D;roGm;=u&yg? (emrf - 0gZdk [k toHxGufonf) - 0gwGif;umvjzpfojzifhf &efukefòr@wGif 0gqdkae=uonfh oHCmawmfrsm;rSm e,fodk@ jyef&ef tcuftcJñuH=u&onf? (=ud,m - 0gqdk [kom toHxGufonf) acgif;yHjk zwf - ppftpd;k &onf jynfov l x l . k b¾mudk ‚wd@k ud, k u f sKd ;twGuf oHk;pGJaeaom acgif;yHkjzwf rsm;yifjzpfonf?‘ (emrf - a*gif;AHkAswf [k toHxGufonf) - jrefrmoH&;kH onf ud, k hf Edik if o H m;. ac|;enf;pmudk acgif;yHjk zwf tjrwfxw k o f nfh ae&mwGif xif&Sm;onf? (=ud,m- ‘a*gif;yHkzswf’[k toHxGufonf) toHvi$ rhf 'D , D mrsm;Y Armwdik ;f &if;om; r[kwo f nfh tjcm;aom wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsK;d rsm;u ‚wd@k . rdcifbmompum; r[kwaf om jrefrmbmompum;jzifh owif;a=unm&mwGif pH toHxGuftjzpf yDoatmif rxGufEdkifonfh jy\em &Sdygonf? rsm;aomtm;jzifh awmifay:a'oae wdik ;f &if;om;wd@k rSm ‘w’ESihf ‘o’/ ‘p’ESi’hf q’/ ‘cs’ ESifh ‘&S’toHrsm;udk yDoatmif uGJuGJjym;jym; rxGufEdkifjcif;/ xdk@twl jrefrmjynf txufydkif; a'owGifaexdkifaom jrefrmvlrsKd;rsm;. a'od,oHa=umifh ‘-Gef’ ESifh ‘-Gif’ oH ruGJjcif; (Oyrm- a&wGif;-a&wGef;/ 7 ck-cGifeck)/ ‘w’ ESifh’o’oH ruGJjcif;rsm;&Sdaeygonf? xdkpum;oHrsm;udk Tpmwrf;wGif tao;pdwf raqG;aEG;awmhyg? pum;vHk;. 22

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qdv k &kd if; t"dyg` ,u f kd xdcu kd af pavmufonfh pum;oH ryDor_w@kd udo k m OD;pm;ay; wifjyxm; ygonf? ,ae@ toHvi$ rhf 'D , D mrsm;wGif awG@&avh&adS om trsm;pk rSm;avh&adS eaom toH xGufrSm; tcsKd@udk vufvSrf;rDoa&G@ wifjyygrnf? pmvHk;aygif; toHtrSef toHtrSm; uav;òr@ uav;òr@ uav;oli,f cav;oi,f umuG,f um*G,f udk,fusdK;&Sm udk,f*sdK;&Sm a=umuf&G@H a=umuf,Gef@ acgif;yHkjzwf acgif;bHkzswf jidrf;csrf;a&; ndef;*sef;a,; pum;}uD; pum;us,f Z**sD; Z**s,f pum;jyef Z*Asef pum;0dkif; Z*0dkif; pmwnf; pm'D; pHjy pefAs qkawmif;yGJ qkawmif;bGJ qif;&JwGif; qif;,J'Gif; wqifhcH wqifh*H w&m;0if w,0if xlaxmif xla'gif xlxyf xl'yf 'gayrJh 'gaArJh aeomxdkifom aeoSmxdkifoSm aemufqHk;ydwf aemufqHk;bdwf EdkifiH EdkifiH EdkifiHawmf EdkifiHa':

cav;òr@ uav;oli,f umuG,f udk,fusdK;&Sm a=umuf,$ef@ acgif;yHkzswf ndef;csrf;a,; Z*usD; Z*us,f Z*ysef Z*g;0dkif; pm'J pefys qkawmif;yGJ qif;,JwGif; (qif;,J'Gef;- a'ooH) 'Zifh*H w,m;0if xlaxmif xlxwf 'gaAeJ@ aeomxdkifom aemufqHk;ydwf Edkif*H Edkif*Ha':

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enf;enf;pD eJeJZD eJeJ pD AdkvfcsKyf bdk*sKwf bdkcsKwf jrefrmpmay jrrm pmay jrrm Zmay vufatmufi,fom; vufatmufi,foSm; vufatmufi,fom; vGrf;ol@yef;acG vGrf;oª@yef;a*G vGrf;ol@yef;acG 0goem 0goSem 0goem 0dkif;0ef; 0dkif;0ef; 0dkif;0if; 0efcH 0efcH 0ifcH 0ef}uD;csKyf 0ef*sD;*sKwf 0if*sD;csKwf 0efxrf; 0ef'ef; 0ifxef; oabmxm; oabm'g; oabmxm; omrefumv#efum orH*g ,SH*g orHum,SHum om;axmuforD;cH om;a'guforD;*H om;axmuforD;cH olcdk;usifholcdk;=uH ocdk;*sifh ocdk;*sH ocdk;usifh ocdk;usH aocef;&Sifcef;jywf ao*ef;,Sif*ef;Aswf aocef;,Sifcef;yswf aoajy;&Sifajy; aoaAs; ,SifaAs; aoays; ,Sifays; oHcsyfumum; oH*swfumum; oHcsyfumum; oHql;=udK; oHql;*sdK; oHpl;usdK; oHo, oHoS, oHo, o=uFef oif;*sH o*sH odk@ayrJhvdk@ odk@aArJhvdk@ Edk@aArJhvdk@ odk@r[kwf&if odk@r[kwf,if Edk@r[kwf,if oufaocH oufao*H oufaocH tzrf;qD;cH tzrf;ZD;*H tzrf;qD;cH tbdk;tbGm; tzdk;tzGm; tbdk;tbGm; trdef@pm trdef@Zm trdef@pm toHzrf;puf toHzrf;Zuf toHbrf;Zuf at;csrf;om,ma&; at;*sef;om,ma,; at;csef;om,ma,; 88 rsdK;quf 88rsdK;Zuf 88 rsdK;quf

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jrefrmrD', D mrsm;wGif pum;oHyaD &;udk ta&;t&mvkyI f ajym&onfrmS trsm;oH;k bmompum;udk trsm;em;vnfEdkifonfh pHESifhudkufnDrS ydkI xda&muf toHk;0ifaoma=umifh yif jzpfygonf? xdk@a=umifh trsm;tm;jzifh vGJrSm;wwf+yD;/ qdkvdk&if;t"dy`g,fudkvnf; xdcdkuf apEdik af om trSm;rsm;udo k m aqG;aEG;wifjyxm;ygonf? xd@k jyif +y;D jynfph akH om pmwef;wapmif vnf; r[kwfbJ owdjyKEdkif±Hkr#udkom &nf&G,fygonf?

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tcef; (3) pum;aygif;owfyHk trSm; jrefrmrD'D,mrsm;wGif &ifqdkifae&aom jy\emrSm pmvHk;aygif;owfyHkjy\em jzpfonf? wcsKd@t,ltqrsm;t& ‘pmvHk;aygif; b,fvdkaygif;aygif; zwfwJhol em;vnf&if +yD;wmyJ’ [k vGJrSm;pGm wkH@jyefajymqdkjcif;rsdK;yif &Sdaeygonf? pifppfwGif bmompmaywrsKd;. pHt& owfyHko'Ng rSefuefjcif;u xdkbmompmay. wefzdk;yif jzpfygonf? xdk@jyif aemufxyfta&;}uD;onfrSm pmvHk;aygif;owfyHkrSm;jcif;a=umifh qdkvdk&if; t"dy`g,f vGJrSm;oGm;apaom jy\emyifjzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh pmvHk;aygif;owfyHk u¾ ta&;ygyHkudk om"ursm;ESifh &Sif;vif; wifjyoGm;ygrnf? owfyHkrSm;onfESifh t"dy`g,f vGJoGm;onfh pum;vHk;rsm; atmufazmfjyyg pum;vHk;rsm;onf trsm;pk rSm;avh&Sdaom pmvHk;aygif; owfyHkrsm; jzpfygonf? aygif;qHk - aygif;pHk aygif;qHk rSm wae&mowfrSwf+yD;/ aygif;pkawG@qHkaom t"dy`g,fjzpf+yD;/ aygif;pHk u awmh trsKd;rsKd;aomt&mrsm; pkHvifpkaygif;jcif; jzpfonf? ±_wfcs - ±_H@cs ±_wfcs u tjypfwifonfh t"dy`g,f jzpfonf? trsm;rSm;oHk;avh&Sdaom ±_H@cs rSm t"dy`g,f txl; r&Sday? xdk@a=umifh ±_wfcs’ uom trSefjzpfonf? ynmwwf - ynmwuf azmfjyyg -wf ESihf -uftrSm;udv k nf; trsm;tjym; awG@&onf? pifppf ynmwwf qdo k nfu ynmudk wwfajrmufjcif;oabm jzpf+y;D / ynmwuf qdo k nfu ynmwckukd tqifh wcko@kd wufjcif; oabmrsKd ;om jzpfI t"dyg` ,t f m;jzifh vH;k 0 rwlaoma=umifh rrSm;oifah om pmvHk;aygif;yif jzpfygonf? xdkuJhodk@yif wwfajrmuf - wufajrmuf csDwuf - csDwwf oufqdkif - owfqdkif 26

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ajymvsuf qdkvsuf - ajymv#uf qdkv#uf vsuf udk toHxu G t f & -#uf ESihf rSm;,Gi;f a&;rdjcif; jzpfonf? pmvH;k aygi;f trSerf mS ajymvsuf qdkvsuf jzpfonf? -# rygaom pmvHk;rsm;rSm tvsif tjref tvsOfrjywf vsufqm;

-# ygaom pmvHk;rsm;rSm oGm;v#if a&mufrnf vrf;av#muf a&v#H

vspfvsL±_ - vpfvsL±_ trsm;qH;k rSm;wwfonfh pmvH;k aygi;f jzpfonf? toHxu G t f & pmvH;k aygi;f =uaom a=umifh vpfvsL±_[k rSm;aygi;f ae=ujcif;jzpfonf? pmvH;k aygi;f trSerf mS vspv f sL±_ jzpfonf? olcsnf; - ol}uD; vltrsm;pkrSm;wwfaom pmvHk;aygif;yif jzpfygonf? csnf; .t"dy`g,frSm tjcm; rnfolr#ryg/ olwdk@omyg0ifonf[laom t"dy`g,fjzpf+yD; }uD; rSmrl ri,faomt"dy`g,fjzpfI pmvHk;aygif;rSm;onfESifh rl&if;t"dy`g,f vGJacsmfoGm;apygonf? Oyrm - 'DudpPudk =uHhzGH@awG}uD; udkifwG,fajz&Sif;aewm jzpfygw,f? (rSm;) - 'DudpPudk =uHhzGH@awGcsnf; udkifwG,fajz&Sif;aewm jzpfygw,f? (rSef) - jy\emrSefor#udk OuUÏ}uD; wm0ef,lajz&Sif;ae&ygw,f? (rSm;) - jy\emrSefor#udk OuUÏcsnf; wm0ef,lajz&Sif;ae&ygw,f? (rSef) rnfolr# - rnfolrS xdkpmvHk;aygif;onfvnf; rSm;avhrSm;x&Sdaom pmvHk;aygif; jzpfonf? rsm;aomtm;jzifh rnfolrS [k toHxGuftwdkif; a&;ae=uonf? owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm; CE-BM-Final.indd 27

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- rnfolr# r0if&? - rnfolr# jzwfoef;oGm;vmcGifh rjyK? urBmra=u - urBmraus ‘urBmra=uæ Armajy(jynf)æ 'dk@bdk;bGm;tarGESpfrdk@ cspfjrwfEdk;ay’ [laom oDcsif;pmom;Yygonfh urBmra=u onf a=urG/ a=uysuf [lonfh t"dy`g,fjzpf+yD; urBm}uD; ra=uysufEdkifovdk Armonfvnf; urBmwnfoa&G@wnffjrJrnf/ ra=uysufEdkif[k wifpm;zGJ@ qdkjcif;jzpfonf? aus rSmrl ausaysmuf [laom t"dy`g,fjzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh urBmra=u twGuf a&;xHk;owfyHk trSefrSm a=u jzpfonf? urBmyif a=uysufaomfvnf; urŠnf;O'gef; url rausaysmufap&æ [laom t"dy`g,fjzpfonf? ‘urBmra=ubl;/ igwdk@aoG;eJ@ a&;cJh=uwJh armfuGef;aw;’ wGifvnf; t"dy`g,f woabmwnf;yif jzpfygonf? ‘urBm}u;D ra=uysuEf ifkd o f uJo h @kd jynforl sm;. aoG;ESiahf &;cJah om armfueG ;f aw;onfvnf; ra=uysuEf ikd f ’ [laom t"dyg` ,yf ifjzpfonf? xdkuJhodk@ rSm;wwfonfh/ rSm;avh&Sdonfh pum;vHk;tcsKd@udk wifjyygrnf? pmvHk;aygif;trSm; - pmvHk;aygif; trSef avsmhcs - av#mhcs wmql - wmpl tn‡dK; - tòi; wkef@jyef - wkH@jyef emusOf; - emusnf; &yfqJ - &yfpJ oGm;aepJ - oGm;aeqJ pm;&dwf - p&dwf ae@vnf - ae@v,f pHepf - pepf qifEJG - qifE$J 0ifcH - 0efcH 0dkif;0if; - 0dkif;0ef; jzef@csD - jzef@csd ESdrfESif; - ESdrfeif; 28

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v$ifhjypf - v$ifhypf uspfvpf - uspfvspf ygXd / ygテ重 - ygVd oI - oa&G@ a=umuf&$H@ - a=umuf&GH@ aツコu;arG; - au|;arG; aqmifhqdkif;/ apmifhpdkif; - apmifhqdkif; xdkifaqmifh - xdkifapmifh wckjcif; - wckcsif; vnfqif;cH - vnfpif;cH &iftkwfruGm - &iftkyfruGm vufqkwf vufudkif - vufqkyfvufudkif pGJudkif jyEdkifzdk@ - qGJudkifjyEdkifzdk@ vufeufpGJudkif - vufeufqGJudkif vm'fay;vm'f,l - vmbfay; vmbf,l y&dwfowf / y&dom'f - y&dowf t}udwfte,f - tusdwfte,f tcJra=u - tcJraus nm%f&nf/ n%f&nf - ^m%f&nf (Om%f&nf) tusOf;wef - tusnf;wef wif;wdefa=ueyf - wif;wdrfauseyf wa,mufxJ - wa,mufwnf; ta&mifaqmif - ta,mifaqmif csufjcif;vGwf - csufcsif;v$wf urBmwv$m; ESifh urBmw0Srf; a&m+yD; urBmwvGrf; [k ajymjcif;rsKd;? toHxGuftwdkif;a&;aom trSm; tkyfxkyf - at;'dtay:rSm - at;ovdk -

OD;xkyf tJ'Dtay:rSm tJovdk

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wpf jy\em jrefrmjynfwGif;rS pmvHk;aygif;owfyHk owfrSwfcsuft& wpfudk ta&twGuf *%ef; wpf (1) tjzpf oHk;&rnfjzpfonf? Oyrm- wpfck/ wpfaumif/ wpfa,muf/ wpfEdkifiH/ wpfa'o ta&twGuf r[kwfaom w toHk;Y wpf roHk;&yg? Oyrm- wrifwum / wcgwav/ wcgw&H/ wrk[w k cf si;f / wrsK;d wzH/k w&Ha&mtcg/ waoGrwdrf;/ wav;wpm;/ w±dkwao/ waqG;waEG;? odk@aomf ‘wpf’ oHk;&rnfhae&mwGif ‘w’ oHk;jcif;u rrSm;Edkifaoma=umifh ‘w’udkom tvG,f wul toHk;jyKoifhygonf? us - =u - we*FaEGae@=u rS xyfrHawG@qHkrSm jzpfygw,f? (rSm;) - we*FaEGae@us rS xyfrHawG@qHkrSm jzpfygw,f? (rSef) - awG@aeus ae&mrSm csdef;qdkxm;ygw,f? - 'Dae&mrSm tm;vHk; qHk=uzdk@ csdef;qdkxm;ygw,f? - t&m&St d qifrh sm; tpnf;ta0;usi;f yaeusjzpfaom cef;r (1) wGif toifah e&m ,lxm;=u&efjzpfonf? rJh - r,fh rJh . t"dy`g,frSm r&Sd/ r[kwf/ uif;rJh [laom tjiif; t"dy`g,fjzpfonf? xd@k a=umifh tjiif;oH;k pum;vH;k jzpfonfh 'gayrJh udk rJh jzifh pmvH;k aygi;f &jcif; jzpfonf? Oyrm - usaemf eufjzefus&if vmcJhyghr,f? 'gayrJh rvmjzpf&if zkef;qufvdkufyghr,f? - usaemf aeraumif;ayrJh a&mufatmif vmyghr,f? - usr EdkifiHa&;vkyfcsifygw,f? 'gayrJh tzrf;cH&rSmudk a=umufygw,f?

r,fh . t"dy`g,frSmrl pm-pum;ajywGif oHk;onfh rnfh yifjzpfonf? tem*wf jy pum;oHk;jzpfonf? jyKvkyfrnf[k t"dy`g,faqmifojzifh tjiif;jy ‘rJh’ ESifh qef@ usifbufjzpfonf? Oyrm - olvmr,fh ta=umif; ajymxm;ay;yg? 30

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- rpPwm*efbm&D[m vmr,fh &ufowWywftwGi;f rSm jrefrmEdik if u H kd oGm;a&muf rSm jzpfygw,f? - aemufwae&mudk a&$@ajymif;awmhr,fq h q J rJ mS tzrf;cHvu kd &f wm jzpfygw,f? - olwdk@ jyKvkyfr,fh axmufcH}udKqdkyGJu twkta,mifom jzpfygw,f? -g tydk ywfouf udk ygwfouf/ ywf0ef;usif udk ygwf0ef;usif [k ta&;rsm;=uonf? jrefrmpmvH;k aygi;f xH;k t& ygwf [lonfh aygi;f xH;k r&Syd g? ywf [lonfrmS wywfvnf+y;D jyefvnf qdu k af &mufonf[o l nfh t"dyg` ,jf zpfonf? xd@k a=umifh ywf0ef;usif/ ywfouf/ ywfywfvnf [laom pmvHk;aygif;om trSefjzpfonf? tem*wfonfvnf; xdkenf;wlyif? vHk;csif;Asnf;udk -g xnfhaygif;jcif;onf ygVd aygif;xHk;omjzpf+yD; jrefrmpmaygif;xHk;Yr&Sdyg? xdk@a=umifh tem*gwf r[kwf? tem*wf om trSef jzpfonf? vJ - vnf; toHk; ‘b,fvdkpDpOf=urvJ qdkwmudkvnf; xnfhoGif; pOf;pm;=u&rSm jzpfygw,f’ [laom0gusrsKd;udk ‘b,fvdkpDpOf=urvnf;’ [krSm;a&;=uonfudk trsm;tjym;awG@&onf? ar;cGe;f oabmtoH;k u vJ jzpf+y;D ‘xd@k twl’ [k t"dyg` ,o f ufa&mufonfh ae&m rSmrl vnf; udk oHk;&rnfjzpfonf? tjiif;pum; odk@aomf . aemufqufudk vnf; [kom pmvHk;aygif;I odk@aomfvnf; u trSefjzpfonf? acsmfvJ a&mxdkif / tvJtuGJ / vJrd_@yif/ ajcmufjypfuif; oJvnf;pif/ rkqdk;vnf; om;aumif/ om;aumifvnf; rkqdk; ol tEdkif&.? odk@aomfvnf; r0gºuGm;? ol tEdkif&aomfvnf; r0gºuGm;? “ar;cGef;udkvJ/ acsmfumvJ æ olvnf;/ igvnf;/ odk@aomfvnf;” vnf;aumif; eJ@ ‚ vnf;aumif; udk ‘jzpfap’ [laom oabmESifh twlwlyif oHk;ygonf? - &efukefòr@rS rEœav;òr@odk@ um;ESifh vnf;aumif;/ &xm;ESifh vnf;aumif;/ av,mOfysHESifh vnf;aumif; oGm;Edkifygonf? owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm; CE-BM-Final.indd 31

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‚ udkawmh t!¸ef;pum;vHk;tjzpfom toHk;jyKygonf? ‘jrefrmEdik if t H a&;twGuf rpPwm*efbm&Du tm&Sa'otwGi;f &Sd acgi;f aqmif rsm;ESihf vSnv hf nfawG@qHrk nfjzpfonf? ‚. tm&SwiG ;f c&D;pOfrsm;+y;D qH;k onfah emufwiG f jrefrmEdik if o H @kd oGm;a&mufrnf jzpfonf’ ‘tcsut f vufreS rf sm;&&S&d ef ordik ;f qdik &f mpmtkyrf sm; &SmazGzwf¶&_ rnf jzpfonf? ‚pmtkyfrsm;udk A[dkpm=unfhwdkufY &Edkifonf? yJ / bJ yJ udk twlw l /l pifppf/ om [lonft h "dyg` ,rf sK;d ESihf oH;k onf? yif [laomtoH;k udk pmpum;ajywGif oHk;+yD; pum;ajymwGifrl yJ udkoHk;onf[k qdkEdkifygonf? Oyrm- olvnf; usaemfhvdk ausmif;om;ygyJ? - q&mvnf;yJ 'DyGJudk wufygw,f? - 'DvdkyJ pGef@v$wftepfemcH=u&ygw,f? - wdkif;jynfpnf;vHk;nD!Gwfa&;udk a':atmifqef;pk=unfyJ vkyfEdkifwmyg? - ppftpdk;&uyJ(om) tvHk;pHk ysufokOf;a&;udk OD;wnfaewmyg? bJ udkrl jiif;qefaom ‘r[kwf’ 0gusrsm;wGifoHk;onf? bJ udk oHk;vsif a&S›wGif tjiif;jy pum;vHk; r ESifhwGJI r - bJ ykHpHjzifh oHk;&ygonf? Oyrm - ppftpdk;&onf trSefudk 0efrcHbJ vdrfnmaeus jzpfonf? - ravhvmbJ ajymygu rSm;wwfonf? - raocsmbJ rpGyfpGJoifhyg? zl; - bl; zl; udk =uHKawG@ jzpfysufcJhzl;onf [laom teufjzifh oHk;onf? Oyrm - xdkqdkifwGif xrif;pm;zl;onf? - usKdufxD;±dk;apwDudk zl; zl;onf? - xdkif;EdkifiHwGif tvkyfvkyfzl;onf? - ol@udk wcgr# rawG@zl;bl;vdk@ xifw,f? bl; udk jiif;y,fjcif;jy ‘r’ ESifhwGJI oHk;onf? tjiif;pum;. tqHk;owf ‘ypPnf; pum;vHk;’ jzpfonf? 32

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Oyrm- ol tpdk;&tvkyf rvkyfbl;? - 'Dwm0efudk ol rauscJhbl;? - 'Dppftpdk;&udk raxmufcHygbl;? - ol vkyfaewmawGu rrSefuefbl;? zuf - buf zuf udk (1) twlwuG wnf&Sdjcif; oabm t"dy`g,fESifh oHk;onf? - tazmftzuf (vkyfazmfudkifzuf/ oGm;azmfvmzuf)/ wGJzuf/ pHkzuf/ =uifzuf/ aygif;zuf/ vdkufzuf (2) ocsFm udef;*%ef;rsm;ESifhwGJvsifvnf; zuf udk oHk;onf? vufESpfzuf/ oHk;zufjrif/ tem;ig;zuf&Sdaom yOP*H/ ESpfOD;ESpfzuf

buf udk (1) t&yfrsufESm/ tcsdef ae&mudk azmfjy&mwGif oHk;onf? - ta&S›buf/ taemufbuf/ awmifbuf/ ajrmufbuf - urf;em;bufrmS / aps;a&Sb › ufrmS / awmbufrmS / b,fbuf/ nmbuf/ aebuf/ nbuf/ (2) ol/ ig/ usm;/ r ESifh wGJvsifvnf; buf udk oHk;onf? tazhbuf/ ol@buf udk,fhbuf/ q&mhbuf/ tpdk;&buf (3) tp pmvHk;rsm;wGif buf [k aygif;onf? - bufpHk/ bufwl/ bufrvdkuf/ bufawmfom;/ bufuef

rD - rSD rD [lonfh toH;k onf ‘rd’ ESih f teufwyl if jzpfonf? zrf;rd/ &rdonfh oabmyif jzpf.? Oyrm - ‘bwfpu f m;udk rDvu kd o f nf’ [laom t"dyg` ,o f nf bwfpu f m;udk t& trdjzpfonfh oabmyif? xdk@a=umifh rD udk trD vdkuf/ tcsdefrD/ tvsOfrD/ pHcsdefrD/ acwfrD [lonfh t&trd vdkufaom oabmjzifh oHk;onf? rD udk wcgw&H ‘r’ ESifhvnf; wGJoHk;onf? owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm; CE-BM-Final.indd 33

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Oyrm - r=umrD/ rpm;rD/ ra&mufrD/ rajymrD/ rvmrD? rSD udk - t&m0wˆKwckckESifh xdrdatmifjyKonfh oabmY oHk;onf? Oyrm - eH&HwGif ausmudkxdatmifuyfonfudk ausmrSDonf [k oHk;jcif;rsdK; jzpfonf? tm;udk; tm;xm;jyKonfh / udk;um;onfh oabmrsm;wGifvnf; rSD udk oHk;onf? Oyrm - rSDcdkonf/ rSDjirf;onf/ rSD0Jonf/ rSDcdk&m/ trSDjyK? xdk@jyif X ESifh Ï uGJjym;r_udkvnf; owdxm;oifhygonf? X udk Xme Xmae uJhodk@ vHk;csif;oHk; rsm;wGif oHk;+yD; Ï udkrl towftjzpf oHk;onf? Oyrm - OuUÏu XmecsKyfwGif ±Hk;xdkifonf? ,if;wGif ‘OufuXfX’ [laom aygif;xHk;udk waygif;wnf; a&;jcif;jzpfI Ï udk oHk;&rnf? a& - &nf a& udk aomufa&/ oHk;a&/ uefa&/ qnfajrmif;a& ponfjzifh oHk;onf? xdk@jyif ta&twGuf/ a&wGufonf wdk@udkvnf; a& [kom pmvHk;aygif;onf? &nf udkrl t&nf ESifh ywfouf+yD; oHk;onf? oHyk&m&nf/ azsmf&nf/ aq;&nf/ rsuf&nf/ ESm&nf/ [if;&nf/ aoG;&nf/ za,mif;&nf/ t&nf=unf ponfjzifhoHk;onf? xdk@jyif t&nftcsif; / t&nftaoG; wdk@udkvnf; &nf jzifhom pmvHk;aygif;onf? I / a&G@ I udk yk'fpkESpfck/ 0gusESpfa=umif;wdk@udk qufpyfay;aom yk'fqufpum;vHk; orŠE< tjzpf oHk;onf? ta&;pum;ajywGif toHk;rsm;onf? Oyrm - arwWmydk@ vrf;av#muf&mwGif yg0ifcJhI tzrf;qD;cHcJh&jcif;jzpfonf? - vlqdk;udk &Juzrf;I pcef;odk@ ac:aqmifoGm;onf? - olajymI em;axmifae&onf? - xdktr_ESifh ywfoufI oufaotjzpf qifhac:jcif;jzpfonf? 34

a&G@ udk pOfwGif [laomt"dy`g,fjzifhoHk;onf? ,if;wGif I udk roHk;&yg? Oyrm owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm;

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- pkaqmif;&oa&G@owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk wifjyxm;ygonf? - tJ'Dtvkyfudk vkyfaeao;oa&G@awmh tcuftcJawG &ifqdkifae&OD;rSmygyJ? - raoao;oa&G@ quf+yD; wdkufyGJ0ifaerSmyg? - ckvdk tcsdefrsKd;rSm wwfEdkifoa&G@ 贸u;pm;ae=uzdk@ vdkygw,f? - vlr_a&;vkyfief;awGtwGuf vdktyfoa&G@udk ulnDjznfhqnf;ay;oGm;r,fvdk@ ajym=um;oGm;ygw,f??

Y / E_duf Y udk ae&mjyyk'ftjzpfvnf;aumif;/ tcsdefjyyk'ftjzpfvnf;aumif; oHk;ygonf? ta&; pum;ajywGifom oHk;onf? Oyrm - &efukef貌r@ a&$wd*Hkbk&m;ajcawmf&if;Y jzpfyGm;cJhaom - eHeuf 9 em&DY usif;yrnfjzpfonf? - aetdrfY 0ifa&muf&SmazGcJhonf? E_duf onf E_duf,lonf/ E_dufxkwfonf [laom t"dy`g,fjzpfonf? Ed_ufEd_uf c|wcf |wf (aoaocsmcsm ESit hf "dyg` ,w f )l / E_u d Ef u _d Ef EJS JS (eufeufeeJ J ESihf t"dyg` ,w f )l [lIvnf; }ud,m0daooe toHk; &Sdonf? Oyrm - uav;wpk ykpGefvHk; Ed_ufae=uonf? - cg;ydkufEd_ufudk &Jpcef;ydk@vdkufonf? - ydkufqHudk tdwfxJrSm E_duf,lyg? - odvdkor#udk Ed_ufxkwf ar;jref;EdkifcJhonf? - v#Kd@0Sufxm;or#udk Ed_uf,l azmfxkwfEdkifcJhonf? - xdkjy\emESifh ywfoufI Edd_ufEd_ufc|wfc|wf ar;jref;xm;&ef vdkonf? - oufqdkif&mynm&yfudk Edd_ufEd_ufESJESJ odoljzpfrSom ynm&Sif[k owfrSwf&rnf jzpfonf? ,ckpak qmif;wifjycJo h nfh owdjyKz, G f rSm;avhrmS ;x&Sad om pmvH;k aygi;f owfyrkH sm; rSm vufvSrf;rDor#udkom wifjyxm;jcif; jzpfygonf? xdk@a=umifh vdktyfcsufrsm;udk awG@&Sdyg u a0zeft=uHjyK jznfhpGufay;=uapvdkygonf?

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tcef; (4) o'Ng trSm; rnfonfb h mompum;rqdk o'Ngtay: tajccHIom wnfaqmuf zG@J pyfxm;jcif; jzpfonf? jrefrmpmtqdkt& ‘o'Ngrwwf pmrwwf’[kyif qdkavh&Sdygonf? rD'D,morm;rsm;taeESifhrSmrl jrefrmpmwwfjcif; rwwfjcif;xuf rdrdajymqdk a&;om;onfh ta=umif;t&m tzGJ@tEGJ@/ owif;tcsuftvufwdk@udk zwfol em;axmifol trsm;u tvG,fwul em;vnfoabmaygufatmif wifjyEdkif&ef ydkrdkta&;}uD;ygonf? xdt k cgwiG rf l rdrw d ifjyaom pmESihf pum;wd@k ajyjypf&iS ;f vif;&ef/ t"dyg` ,f oabm oGm;rSefuef&ef/ bmompum;*k%f&nfESifh jynfhpHk&efwdk@twGuf o'Ngoabmudkem;vnfa&;/ o'NgrSefuefa&;wdk@ ta&;ygvmygonf? tb,fa=umifhqdkaomf o'Ng[kac:onfh pum;vHk;zGJ@xHk;/ yk'fzGJ@xHk;/ 0guszGJ@xHk;/ yk'fae&mtxm;todkrsm; rSefuefygrS/ ae&mwus&SdygrS/ teuft"dy`g,fwdus+yD; qdkvdk&if;udk a&mufaoma=umifh jzpfonf? tu,fI o'Ngpum;vH;k tok;H tE_e;f rsm; vGrJ mS ;aeygv#if teuft"dyg` ,f axGjym; wwf+yD; vdk&if;ra&mufbJ &Sdwwfygonf? xdk@a=umifhyif o'NgtoHk;tE_ef;udk *±kpdkuf&jcif; jzpfonf? txl;ojzifh Tpmtkyfyg o'Ngydkif;wGif ,ae@ pm-e,f-Zif;ESifh a&'D,dktoHv$ifh tpDtpOfrsm;Y rSm;avh&Sdaom/ rSm;wwfaom/ trSm;trSef roJuGJaom toHk;rSm;rsm;udk avhvmpkaqmif;+yD; wifjyaqG;aEG;xm;ygonf? tajympum;ajy/ ta&;pum;ajy owif;orm;rsm;onf tajympum;ajyudkoHk;rnfavm/ ta&;pum;ajy oHk;rnf avmqdkonfudk qHk;jzwfI aoaocsmcsma&;om;ajymqdk=u&ef vdkygonf? pum;ajyESpfrsKd;udk a&maESma&;jcif;a=umifh t"dy`g,f±_yfaxG;aponf? txl;ojzifh toHv$ifhrD'D,mwGifqdkv#if xdkodk@aomtrSm;u ydkrdkodomapygonf? Oyrm (1) - vufvSrf;rDoavmufom xkwfjyefEdkifao;jcif; jzpfygw,f? azmfjyyg 0gusudk Todk@jyifEdkifonf? - vufvSrf;rDoavmufyJ xkwfjyefEdkifygao;w,f? - vufvSrf;rDoavmufom xkwfjyefEdkifao;wmjzpfygw,f?

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Oyrm (2) - qufvufI vkyfudkifoGm;rnfyJ jzpfygw,f? trSefrSm - qufvufI vkyfudkifoGm;rnfom jzpfonf? - qufvuf+yD;awmh vkyfudkifoGm;rSmyJ jzpfygw,f? [kom ajym&rnfjzpfonf? udk - tm; toHk;rSm; txl;ojzifh ,ckacwfwGif udk tpm; tm; udkcsnf; rSm;,Gif; oHk;pGJae=uonf udkvnf; awG@&onf? udk toHk;udk tjyKcH&ol (uH) . aemufquftjzpf oHk;&ygonf? Oyrm- o&ufyifudk tbdk;pdkufcJhonf? - omoema&;0ef}uD;tjzpf OD;jrifharmifudk cef@tyfonf? - acG;udk ±dkufonf? - avSudk avSmfonf? vufcHoludk azmfjyv#if tm; udk oHk;onf? Oyrm- wdkifuyfem&Dudk q&mr}uD;tm; ay;tyfvª'gef;onf? - wd&p>meftm; au|;arG;jyKpkjcif;onf }uD;pGmaomukodkvfjzpf.? - &wemoHk;yg;tm; &nfpl;vª'gef;yg? rS - u toHk; rD'D,mrsm;wGif rS ESifh u udkvnf; rSm;,Gif;oHk;aeonfudk }udrfzefrsm;pGm awG@& ygonf? rS toHk;udk ta&;Yom toHk;rsm;+yD; xGufcGm&mjyyk'ftjzpf oHk;onf? Oyrm - rEœav; rS &xm;jzifh vmcJhonf? - pmoifcef; rS xGufcJhonf? owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm; CE-BM-Final.indd 37

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- jrefrmjynf rS 1988 ckESpfuwnf;u xGufcJhjcif;jzpfonf?

u toHk;udk ta&;wGifa&m tajymwGifyg oHk;onf? xGufcGm&mudk !¸ef;&mY oHk;onf? Oyrm- b,fu vmovJ? - òr@u vmygw,f? - &efukefuae av,mOfeJ@ vmcJhwmyg?

jyKol/ ajymol/ jzpfol/ &Sdol udk &nf!¸ef;v#ifvnf; u udk oHk;onf? Oyrm - armifarmif u nDnDhudk ±dkufwmyg? - ausmif;rwufcsifbl;[k eDeDu ajymonf? - 0g0g u armfvòrifrSm &Sdaewmyg? - jrefrmpmXme u q&mryg? - obmywd}uD; u rdef@cGef;ajym=um;rSm jzpfygw,f?

u ae&mwGif rS ukd okH;rdonfhtwGuf wcgw&HwGif t"dy`g,f ajymif;jyef apmufxdk; jzpfoGm;wwfygonf? atmufyg0gusESpfa=umif;udk =unfhyg? - or0g,rtoif; u 0,f,lxm;aom vlokH;ukefrsm;udk xyfqifh jzef@jzL; ay;rnf? - or0g,rtoif; rS 0,f,lxm;aom vlokH;ukefrsm;udk xyfqifhjzef@jzL; ay;rnf? T0gusEpS af =umif;onf t"dyg` ,cf si;f qef@usib f uf jzpfonf? yxr0guswiG f or0g,rtoif;onf vlokH;ukefrsm;udk 0,f,lolvnf; jzpfonf? xyfqifhjzef@jzL;olvnf; jzpfonf? or0g,rtoif;onf xdktvkyfESpfckpvkH; vkyfa=umif; u aemufqufu azmfjyaeygonf? 'kw, d 0guswiG rf l or0g,rtoif;onf vlo;Hk ukerf sm;ukd a&mif;csol jzpfomG ; ygonff? tjcm; yk*~dKvf tzGJ@tpnf;wckcku or0g,rtoif;rS vlokH;ukefrsm;udk 0,f,l+yD; xyfqifhjzef@jzL;onf[k t"dy`g,f&oGm;ygonf? rS onf ‘aps; rS 0,fvmonf’ [louJhodk@ xGufcGm&mudkjyaom aemufquf 38

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jzpfonfhtwGuf ‘or0g,rtoif; rS 0,f,lxm;aom vlokH;ukef’ [k okH;vkdufaomtcg vlokH;ukefonf or0g,rtoif;wGif r&SdawmhbJ ‘xGufcGm’oGm;+yD; tjcm;olwdk@vufxJ a&mufoGm;&jcif; jzpfygonf? xdk@a=umifh jyKvkyfoljzpfa=umif; azmfjyvdkv#if rS udk rokH;bJ u udk okH;rSom rSefrSefuefuef em;vnfEkdifygvdrfhrnf? jzifh - ESifh toHk; rsm;aomtm;jzifh jzifh udk toHk;cHjy0dbwf tjzpf oHk;onf? Oyrm- wkwf jzifh ±dkufonf? - aoewf jzifh ypfonf? - uGef'dkvDZm±dkufpfutar&duefEdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD;taejzifh 0ifa&mufajym=um; onf? - jrpf}uD;em;odk@ av,mOfc&D;pOf jzifh oGm;rnf? ESihf udk toH;k cHjy0dbwftjzpfvnf;aumif;/ 0guscsi;f / yk'cf si;f qufpyfonfh tquf ypPnf; tjzpfvnf;aumif; oHk;onf? Oyrm - armifarmif ESifh nDnD ausmif;odk@ twlwl oGm;onf? - jynfov l x l . k vdv k m;csuf ESihf oHCmawmfrsm;. vdv k m;csurf sm;rSm twlwyl if jzpfonf? - &efukefòr@ ESifh yJcl;òr@udk um; ESifh tvG,fwul ae@csif;jyef oGm;vmEdkif onf? - tpdk;&tae ESifh tm%mpufudkoHk;I udkifwG,f&rnf jzpfa=umif;æ (‘tpkd;&u tm%mpufoHk;I udkifwG,f&rnfjzpfa=umif;’ [koHk;v#if ydk&Sif;.? ‘taeESifh/ taejzifh’ onf cGeftm;aysmhapaom toHk;tE_ef;jzpf.?) ‘ESifh/ jzifh’ toHk;udk vGJrSm;pGm oHk;avh&Sdonfudkvnf; awG@&ygonf? ‘pGm’ jzifhqHk;aom yk'frsm;aemufwGif ‘ESifh/ jzifh’ udk xnfhokH;&efrvdkyg? odk@aomf trsm;pku xnfhoHk;usifh &SdaeonfudkawG@&onf? Oyrm av;pm;pGmjzifh ta=umif;=um;tyfygonf? (jzifh - rvdk) owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm; CE-BM-Final.indd 39

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usef;rmpGmESifh wm0efxrf;aqmifvsuf &Sda=umif;? (ESifh - rvdk) xdkwm0efudk rarhravsmh xrf;aqmifcJhrnfjzpfa=umif;jzifh ajym=um;oGm;cJhygonf? (jzifh -ydk) xdkuJhodk@yif ‘a=umif;’ ESifhqHk;aom yk'frsm;aemufwGifvnf; ESifh / jzifh toHk;xnfh&ef rvdkyg? Oyrm - jzpfay:aeaom jy\emrsm;udk +idrf;csrf;pGm pnf;urf;wus aqmif&Gufay;a&;yif jzpfa=umif;ESifh ajym=um;cJhygonf? (ESifh - ydk) - TtpDtpOfudk pufwifbm 18 &ufae@u pwifcJhjcif; jzpfa=umif;jzifh a=unm cJhonf? (jzifh - ydk) (ae@-ydk) (pufwifbm 18 &uf qkv d #if +y;D jynfph +kH yjD zpf.? ae@udk we*FaEG-wevFm/ tzdw/f Oykof ponhf ae@wdk@twGuf oHk;jrJjzpf.?) um - cg um ESihf cg onf ta&;uGaJ omfvnf; toHxu G q f ifojzifh a&;&mY a&maxG; wwfonf? wòyifeuf (od@k r[kw)f qufwu kd f jzpfysuaf =umif;jyvdak omf um udk oH;k onf? Oyrm - tdyf um pm; um aeonf? - &,f um arm um ajymonf? - rkef@pm; um pmzwfaeonf? ‘tcsdef’/ ‘tcg’/ ‘umv’ udkjyvdkaomf cg udk oHk;onf? Oyrm - i,fpOftcg ynmr&Smv#if }uD; cg rS aemifw&vdrfhrnf? - yef;rsm;udk qkyfum =uJ+yD;aom tcgv#if - a&mufcgeD; / jzpfcgeD; - ckcsdefcg - touf}uD;cg rS cufr,f?

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teuf - wGif toHk; tpktaygif;xJrS wpdwfwydkif;udk cGJxkwfjyaom pum;vHk;tjzpf teuf / wGif wdk@udk oHk;onf? odk@aomf ESpfrsKd;pvHk;udkrl wòyifwnf;oHk;p&m rvdkyg? Oyrm - a,musmf ;av;wd@k teufwiG f armifarmifonf tvdrmR qH;k jzpfonf? (rSm;) - ausmif;&Sd rde;f uav;wd@k teuf w0ufcef@rSm tm;upm;t&mY xl;c|e=f uonf? - jzLjzLum; jrifzl;or# rdef;uav;wdk@wGif tvSqHk;jzpfonf? jzpfap - odk@r[kwf - aomfvnf;aumif; - vnf;aumif; - armifarmif jzpfap / nDnD jzpfap q&mrqD vmcJhyg? - eDeD odk@r[kwf oef;oef; q&mrESifh vmawG@yg? - taz aomfvnf;aumif;/ tar aomfvnf;aumif; cGifhvmwdkif&rnf? - twef;ydik q f &mru vnf;aumif;/ twef;wm0efcu H vnf;aumif; qufvuf aqmif&Guf&rnf? - olonfvnf; xdek nf;vnf;aumif;? (‘va*gi;f ’ [k toHxu G zf wfaomfvnf; t"dyg` ,t f & ‘twlw’l [k oufa&mufojzifh vnf;aumif; [kom a&;&rnf?) onf - rSm onf ESifh rSm udk jyKvkyfol (uwWm;aemufquf) tjzpf oHk;onf? 0guswckwnf;wGif onf ESifh rSm udk wòyifwnf; oHk;&ygu a&S›uwWm;aemufwGif onf udk oHk;+yD;/ aemufuwWm;aemufwGif rSm udk oHk;onf? Oyrm- ndKnKd onf aeraumif;I tvkyrf qif;Edik jf cif;jzpf+y;D vSvrS mS ud, k af &;ud, k w f m ta&;}uD;udpP&Sdaoma=umifh tvkyfrqif;Edkifjcif; jzpfonf? - ESif;qDyef;onf &eH@oif;+yD; py,fyef;rSm ar$;}udKifonf? - om;t}uD;onf pmawmf+yD;/ om;ti,frSm vdrRma&;jcm;&Sdonf? [laom - paom - ponf - ponfh ,ae@ vltrsm;tok;H wGiaf eaom o'Ngo;Hk trSm;wckrmS [laom tpm; paom ukd rSm;okH;jcif;yif jzpfonf? paom onf wcsKd@w0ufomazmfjyvdkaom tcsufrsm;. aemufwGif owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm; CE-BM-Final.indd 41

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okH;& aompum;quf jzpfygonf? ponf/ ponfjzifh/ ponfwdk@ rSmvnf; paom ESifh oabmcsif;wlaom pum;qufrsm; jzpfygonf? ,ckazmfjycsufrsm;rSm tjynfhtpkHr[kwfao;yg? aemufxyf usefygao;onf [laom t"dy`g,fjzifh okH;jcif;jzpfygonf? Oyrm- vkyfom;jynfol@ae@pOf/ a=u;rkH paom jrefrmowif;pmrsm;wGif qkay;yGJ owif;udk awG@Edkifygonf? T0gusudk=unfhv#if vkyfom;jynfol@ae@pOfESifh a=u;rkH owif;pmESpfapmif. trnfudkom azmfjy+yD; paom [k okH;vdkufojzifh jrefrmhtvif;/ Adkvfwaxmif [laom usef jrefrmowif;pmrsm;udkyg &nf!¸ef;vdka=umif; odEkdifygonf? tjynfhtpkHazmfjyvdkv#if‘vkyfom;jynfol@ae@pOf/ a=u;rkH/ jrefrmhtvif;/ Adkvfwaxmif [laom jrefrm owif;pmrsm;wGif qkay;yGJowif;udk awG@Ekdifygonf’ [k [laom udk xnfhokH;Ekdifygonf? a&S›uazmfjyaom owif;pmtrnf tm;vkH; jynfhpkHa=umif;/ csefrxm;a=umif; [laom u azmfjyaeygonf? odk@aomf [laom ae&mY paom udk xnfh+yD; atmufyguJhodk@ rSm;okH;ae=u onfudk r=umc%awG@&ygonf? - vkyo f m;jynfo@l aepOf/ a=u;rk/H jrefrmhtvif;/ Adv k w f axmif paom jrefrmho wif;pmrsm;wGif qkay;yGJowif;udk awG@Edkifygonf? pOf;pm;=unfyh g? ,ae@xkwaf 0aeaom jrefrmowif;pm av;apmifpvk;H tjynfh tpkHvnf; azmfjy+yD;ygvsuf paom udk xnfhvdkufjyefaomtcg aemufxyf jrefrmowif;pm &Sdaeao;onfht"dy`g,f oufa&mufoGm;avonf? xdk@twl‘tok;H vk;H qdo k nfrmS ta&;/ tzwf/ twGuf ponf wd@k udk qdv k jkcd if; jzpfonf’ ‘Tausmif;wGif rlvwef;/ tv,fwef;/ tqifhjrifhwef; ponfh twef; tm;vk;H udk oif=um;ay;aeonf’ [laom 0guswdk@wGifvnf; ponf/ ponfh wdk@ tokH;rsm; aeygonf? tcsuftvuf tjynfhtpkHazmfjyxm;ygvsuf ponf/ ponfh wdk@udk rvdkbJ xnfhxm;aoma=umifh jzpfygonf? ‘tok;H vk;H qko d nfrmS ta&;/ tzwf/ twGuf wd@k udk qdv k jkd cif;jzpfonf’ ‘Tausmif;wGif rlvwef;/ tv,fwef;/ tqifhjrifhwef; [lonfh twef; tm;vkH;udk oif=um;ay;aeonf’ [ka&;rS rSefygvdrfhrnf? 42

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tcsuftvufrsm; tjynfhtpHk azmfjyrnfqkdv#if aemufu paom/ ponf/ ponfh wdk@ xnfhp&mrvkdyg? [laom/ [lonf/ [lonfh wdk@udk vkdtyfovdk xnfhokH;&efom jzpfygonf? yk'fxm;ajymif;jyef0gus - ck;d r_usL;vGeaf om armifped /f tz OD;rS@J ukd tvkyjf zifh axmif'%f ok;H vuscaH p&ef trdef@csrSwfvdkufonf? T0gusudk tokH;vkH;aus+yD;cgp v,form;OD;}uD; wa,mufu zwfrdrnf qdv k #if ’[ifæ om;u ck;d r_usL;vGew f m bmjzpfv@kd tazuaxmifus&wmvJ’ [k wtHw h =o ar;aumif;ar;vdrfhrnf? ar;vnf; ar;avmufp&myif? T0gusrsKd;a&;olrsm; &Sdaeygonf? ‘ckd;r_usL;vGefaom armifpdef (tz OD;rSJ@) udk tvkyfjzifh axmif'%fokH;v uscaH p&ef trde@f csrw S v f u kd o f nf’ [k tztrnfukd uGi;f puGi;f ydwx f J xnfah &;v#if awmfyg ao;onf? w&m;cHtrnfaemufwGif tztrnfxnfh&aom ±kH;xkH;pHt&a&;jcif;[k oabm aygufEdkifp&m &Sdygonf? xdkodk@ ra&;bJ‘OD;rSJ@.om; ckd;r_usL;vGefaom armifpdefudk tvkyfjzifh axmif'%fokH;v uscHap&ef trdef@ csrSwfvdkufonf’ [k a&;v#ifrl ydkI&Sif;ygonf? ydkIvnf; jrefrm0gus yDoygonf? ‘jrefrm0gus yDoonf’[k txl;jyKI qdk&jcif;rSm txufyg 0gusuJhodk@ jrefrm 0gusryDoaom jrefrm0gusrqefaom 0guszGJ@ykHrsKd;udk r=umc%awG@&wwfaoma=umifh jzpfygonf? atmufygwdk@udk =unfhyg? Oyrm (1) - OD;wifxGwf/ puf±kHrª;/ *kefeDpuf¶kH ESifh OD;vSa0/ vufaxmuf tif*sifeD,m/ csnf r #if E S i f h txnf p uf wd k @ onf puf ¶ k H v k y f i ef ; rsm;ud k ok H ; v=umr# avh v m&ef bDatpDav,mOfjzifh *syefEdkifiHodk@ xGufcGmoGm;=u.? xd0k guswiG f ’OD;wifxw G /f puf¶rHk ;ª / *keef pD uf¶’Hk [laom zG@J xk;H rsK;d ukd pmtdwf ay: wGif vdyfpmtjzpfa&;v#if trnfudk csufcsif;odatmifa&;jcif;jzpfI bmrSajymp&mr&Sdyg? 0gustjzpf xnfha&;v#ifrl jrefrmzGJ@xkH; r[kwfonfhtwGuf ajymp&m&Sdvm ygonf? jrefrmzGJ@xkH;wGif *k%fxl;0daooudk azmfjyaom txl;jyKpum;rsm;u a&S›uae+yD; txl;jyKcH& olu aemufuvdkuf&ygonf? xdk@a=umifh ‘*kefeDpuf¶kH/ puf¶kHrª; OD;wifxGwf’ [k zGJ@rSom jrefrmzGJ@xkH; owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm; CE-BM-Final.indd 43

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yDoygvrd rhf nf? ,ckrl *syefo@kd oGm;olrsm;rSm OD;wifxw G Ef iS hf OD;vSa0wd@k r[kwb f J ‘*keef pD uf¶EHk iS hf csnfr#ifESifhtxnfpuf¶kH’ wdk@jzpfonf[k t"dy`g,fxGufaeygonf? jzpfoifhonfrSm - *kefeDpuf¶kH/ puf¶kHrª; OD;wifxGwfESifh csnfr#ifESifhtxnfpuf±kH vufaxmuf tif*sief , D m OD;vSa0 wd@k onf puf¶v Hk yk if ef;rsm;udk ok;H v=umr#avhvm&ef bDatpDav,mOfjzifh *syefEdkifiHodk@ xGufcGmoGm;=u.? Oyrm (2) - tcrf;tem;wGif obmywdtjzpf OD;jrarmif/ uxdu jrefrmpmXme/ &efuek f 0dZm… ESio hf yd w H` uUov kd f u aqmif&u G +f y;D tcrf;tem;rª;tjzpf OD;ode;f [ef/ enf;jy/ jrefrmpmXme/ vkyfom;rsm;aumvdyfu aqmif&Gufonf? xd0k guswiG v f nf; obmywdEiS hf tcrf;tem;rª;wd@k rSm OD;jrarmifEiS hf OD;ode;f [ef wdk@ r[kwfbJ &efukef 0dZ…mESifhody`HwuUodkvf ESifh vkyfom;aumvdyfrsm;jzpfonf[k t"dy`g,f aumuf&ygrnf? jzpf&rnfrSm - tcrf;tem;wGif obmywdtjzpf &efukef 0dZ…mESifhody`HwuUodkvf jrefrmpm Xme uxdu OD;jrarmifu aqmif¶u G +f y;D tcrf;tem;rª;tjzpf vkyo f m;rsm;aumvdyf jrefrmpm Xme enf;jy OD;odef;[efu aqmif&Gufonff? Oyrm (3) - a':at;/ ukeo f nf/ trSwf 23/ =um;awm&vrf;/ A[ef;/ &efuek òfr@onf rEœav;òr@ Y ¶kww f &uf uG,v f eG o f mG ;ygI rEœav;òr@Yyif o+*õK[f+y;D pD;yga=umif;? xdk0guswGifvnf; uG,fvGefolrSm &efukefòr@ozG,f jzpfaeayonf? pifppf a&;oifhonfrSm - ‘&efukefòr@/ A[ef;=um;awm&vrf;/ tdrftrSwf 23 ae ukefonf a': at; onf rEœav;òr@Y ¶kwfw&uf uG,fvGefoGm;ygI rEœav;òr@Yyif o+*õK[f+yD;pD;yga=umif;’ uJhodk@om jzpfonf? Tod@k jzifh txl;jyKpum;rsm;udk a&Su › xm;+y;D txl;jyKc&H olukd aemufu xm;rS om yk'fxm;ajymif;jyefrjzpfbJ jrefrm0gus zGJ@xkH;ESifhnD!Gwfrnfjzpfa=umif; *¶kjyKoifhygonf? tpDtpOfysuf 0gus yg0ifaomtcsufrsm;udk a&S›aemuftpDtpOftwdkif; azmfjy&efvdktyfonfh 0gusrsKd;wGif tpDtpOfrSef&ef ta&;}uD;onf? tpDtpOfrwnfhygu t"dy`g,fyg wrsKd;wzkH jzpfoGm;wwfygonf? Oyrm (1) - ppfawGòr@/ armfvòrif/ jrpf}uD;em;/ vGdKifaumfòr@wdk@onf rGefjynfe,f/ ucsif 44

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jynfe,f/ u,m;jynfe,f/ &ckdifjynfe,fwdk@wGif toD;oD;&Sd=u.? xdk0gus t& ppfawGòr@onf rGefjynfe,fY/ armfvòrifòr@onf ucsifjynfe,fY/ jrpf}uD;em;òr@ onf u,m;jynfe,fY/ vGdKifaumfòr@onf &ckdifjynfe,fY toD;oD; wnf&Sdonf[k t"dy`g,fxGuf aeygonf? 0gusa&S›ydkif;&Sd tcsufrsm;ESifh aemufydkif;&Sd tcsufrsm;udk tpDtpOftwdkif; razmfjy ojzifh t"dy`g,fysufoGm;a=umif; awG@Ekdifonf? a&;oifhonfrSm ‘ppfawGòr@/ armfvòrifòr@/ jrpf}uD;em;òr@/ vG,faumfòr@wdk@onf &ckdifjynfe,f/ rGefjynfe,f/ ucsif jynfe,f/ u,m;jynfe,fwdk@Y toD;oD; &Sd=u.’ [lI jzpfonf? Oyrm (2) - ausmif;q&mrsm;/ ukeo f nfrsm;/ v,form;rsm;onf pdu k yf sK;d jcif;/ pmoif=um;jcif;/ a&mif;0,fjcif; vkyif ef;rsm;udk toD;oD; vkyu f ikd =f u&jrJ jzpfonf? xdk0guswGifvnf; -ausmif;q&mu pdkufysKd;jcif;/ v,form;u a&mif;0,fjcif;/ ukefonfu pmoif=um;jcif; tvkyfwdk@udk vkyf&onf[k t"dy`g,fxGufaeygonf? trSefrSm ‘ausmif ; q&mrsm;/ v,f o rm;rsm;/ uk e f o nf r sm;onf pmoif = um;jcif ; / pdkufysdK;jcif;/ a&mif;0,fjcif; vkyfief;rsm;udk toD;oD; vkyfudkif&jrJjzpfonf’ [k a&;rSom &Sif;vif; rSefuefrnf jzpfygonf? yk'fxm;rSm;0gus 0guswa=umif;wGifyg0ifaom yk'frsm; ol@ae&mESifhol rSefrSefuefuefr&Sdv#if t"dy`g,fwrsKd; ajymif;oGm;onftxd jzpfEdkifygonf? xdktcgrsKd;wGif pma&;olqdkvdkonfu wrsKd;/ t"dy`g,faygufonfuwjcm; jzpfoGm;wwfygonf? Oyrm (1) - uav;i,fonf vrf;ay:u tbkd;tdkudk =unfhae.? - uav;i,fonf tbkd;tkdudk vrf;ay:u =unfhae.? T0gusESpfa=umif;pvkH;wGif uav;i,fonf =unfhaeol/ tbdk;tdkonf t=unfch &H oljzpfygonf? od@k aomf vrf;ay:u [laom yk'af e&mudv k u kd I f 0gusrsm; t"dyg` ,f uGJjym;oGm;a=umif; awG@Ekdifygonf? tbkd;tdkonf vrf;ay:rSm &Sdaea=umif; yxr0gus u azmfjyonf? uav;i,fonf vrf;ay:rSm&Sdaea=umif; 'kwd,0gusu azmfjyonff? owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm; CE-BM-Final.indd 45

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pma&;olonf yxr0gus. t"dy`g,frsKd;udk azmfjyvdkv#if jyxm;onfhtwdkif; ‘vrf;ay:u’ udk ‘tbdk;tdk’ ESifh uyfxm;&vdrfhrnf? xdkodk@uyfrxm;bJ 'kwd,0gusuJhodk@a&;v#if qdkvdkaomt"dy`g,frxGufbJ ‘yk'fxm;rSm;0gus’ jzpfoGm;ygvdrfhrnf? Oyrm (2) - 1948 ckESpfwGif vGwfvyfa&; qkH;¶_H;cJhaom jrefrmEdkifiHonf vGwfvyfa&;udk jyefvnf&&SdcJhonf? T0gusonfvnf; yk'fxm;rSm;0gusjzpfygonf? T0gustwdkif;qkdv#if jrefrmEdkifiHonf 1948 ckESpfwGif vGwfvyfa&;qkH;¶_H;&ovkd jzpfaeygonff? pifppf ‘1948ckESpfwGif’ [laom yk'fonf ‘vGwfvyfa&; qkH;¶_H;cJh&aom’ESifh rqdkif? ‘vGwfvyfa&;udk jyefvnf&&SdcJhonf’ESifhom qkdifonff? xdk@a=umifh‘vGwfvyfa&;qkH;¶_H;cJh&aom jrefrmEdkifiHonf 1948 ckESpfwGif vGwfvyfa&;udk jyefvnf&&SdcJhonf’ [k qdkif&myk'fcsif; uyfvkdufrS vdktyfaomt"dy`g,f &ygrnf? Oyrm (3) - obmywd}u;D tm; trSmpum; ajym=um;ay;yg&ef yef=um;tyfygonf cifAsm;? xdyk ef=um;csuo f nfvnf; yk'x f m;rSm;0gus jzpfaeygonf? ‘obmywd}u;D tm;’ [laom yk'fonf ‘trSmpum;ajym’ ESifh rqdkif? yef=um;jcif;ESifhom qkdifonff? odk@aomf qdkif&myk'fESifh uyfrxm;onfhtwGuf tjcm;wpkHwa,mufu obmywd }uD;tm; trSmpum;ajym&awmhrvdkvdk t"dy`g,faygufoGm;ygonf? trSefrSm ‘trSmpum;ajym=um;ay;&ef obmywd}uD;udk yef=um;tyfygonf cifAsm;’ [k a&;om;rnfqkdv#if tyef=um;cH&aom obmywd}uD;ESifh yef=um;[laom }ud,mwdk@uyfae onfhtwGuf t"dy`g,faumufvGJp&m r&Sdawmhyg? Oyrm (4) ‘tvGef&ufpuf=urf;=uKwfaom EdkA,fqk&Sif vlxkacgif;aqmif a':atmifqef; pk=unfudk ta=umif;rJh csKyfaESmifxm; onfh ppftpdk;&tm; ta&;,loifh+yDjzpfonf’ [laom yk'fxm;rSm;ykHrsdK;jzpfygonf? pifppf a&;&rnfrSm - EdkA,fqk&Sif vlxkacgif;aqmif a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk csKyfaESmifxm;onfh tvGef&ufpuf=urf;=uKwfaom ppftpdk;&tm; ta&;,loifh+yD jzpfonf?

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Oyrm (5) ‘&xm;ay:uae ausmif;om;xkodk@ qdk+yD; pmusJcsoGm;w,fvdk@ od&ygw,f’ [laom 0guswGifvnf; ae&mjyyk'fu oufqdkif&m}ud,myk'fESifh uyfae&rnf jzpfonff? ‘ausmif;om;xk o d k @ qd k w J h pmawG u d k &xm;ay:uae usJcsoGm;w,fvdk@ od&ygw,f’ [k a&;rSom qdkvdk&if;u &Sif;vif;pGm ay:vGifayrnf? odk@jzpfI yk'fxm;rSefatmif rnfonfhtcsufudk *¶kjyKoifhoenf;? *¶kjyKoifhaom tcsufudk pum;wcGef;wnf;ESifh azmfjyEkdifygonf? ’qdkif&m/ qkdif&mcsif; twwfEdkifqkH; uyfxm;yg ’ [lI jzpfygonf? rSeyf gonf?f 0gusxw J iG f b,ftcsuEf iS hf b,ftcsuq f ikd o f enf;? b,fy'k Ef iS hf b,fy'k f qkdifoenf;? xdkodk@*¶kjyK+yD; qkdif&mtcsufcsif; qdkif&myk'fcsif; twwfEdkifqkH; uyfxm;rnf qdkv#if yk'fxm;rSm;0gusrsKd;jzpfp&m r&Sdawmhyg? Tae&mwGif qkdif&m/ qdkif&myk'frsm;[k qdkEkdifaom yk'fav;pkHudk azmfjyvkd ygonf? (1) emr0daooe (emrfudk txl;jyKaom yk'f) ESifh emrf/ (2) }ud,m0daooe (}ud,mudk txl;jyKaom yk'f) ESifh }ud,m/ (3) emrf (jyKvkyfol) ESifh }ud,m/ (4) emrf (jyKvkyfcH&ol) ESifh }ud,mwdk@jzpfonff? qdik &f m/ qkid &f myk'w f @kd eD;uyfru _ v kd u kd I f 0gusrsm; t"dyg` ,u f w JG wfyu Hk kd atmufyg twdkif; awG@Ekdifygonff? emrfudk txl;jyKaomyk'f ESifh emrf - qif;&Jaom tbd;k td. k om;i,fonf oem;zG,af umif;avpG? (qif;&Jorl mS tbdk;tdk jzpfonff?) - tbd;k td. k qif;&Jaom om;i,fonf oem;zG,f aumif;avpG? (qif;&Jorl mS om;i,f jzpfonff?) }ud,mudk txl;jyKaom yk'f ESifh }ud,m - q&monf ausmif;om;rsm;tm; rqln=H u&ef pmoifcef;xJwiG f qk;H r.? (qk;H r aom ae&monf pmoifcef;xJwGif jzpfonf) - q&monf ausmif;om;rsm;tm; pmoifcef;xJwGif rqlnH=u&ef qkH;r.? (pmoifcef;xJwiG f rqln=H u&ef/ qlnv H v kd #if pmoifcef;tjyifo@kd xGu=f u&ef [lI t"dyg` ,f &onf?) owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm; CE-BM-Final.indd 47

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uwWm; (jyKvkyfol) ESifh }ud,m - qlylaeaom 'g,umudk q&mawmfonf pdwfqdk;aoma=umifh ac:,l}udrf; armif;.? (q&mawmf pdwfqdk;aeonf?) - pdwq f ;kd aoma=umifh qlyal eaom'g,umudk q&mawmfu ac:,l}urd ;f armif;.? ('g,um pdwfqdk;aeonf?) uH (jyKvkyfcH&ol) ESifh }ud,m - pmar;yGJusolrsm;onfhtwGuf pkHprf;ppfaq;&ef ausmif;tkyfq&m}uD;tm; wdkif=um;.? (pkHprf;ppfaq;&ef q&m}uD;udk wdkifjcif;) - pmar;yGJusolrsm;onfhtwGuf ausmif;tkyfq&m}uD;tm; pkHprf;ppfaq;&ef wdkif=um;.? (wm0eff&Sdaom q&m}uD;tm; pkHprf;ppfaq;&ef txufodk@wdkifjcif;) - tckta&;tcif;rSm &[ef;&Sifvl 200 cef@ ppftpkd;& vufcsufa=umifh touf qH;k cJ&h +y;D 6000 cef@ xde;f odr;f cHae&+yv D @kd Edik if w H umowif;Xmersm;u azmfjyygw,f? (jyKvyk f cH&olESifh oufqdkifonfh }ud,m uyfrxm;jcif;a=umifh qdkvdk&if; r&Sif;vif; jzpfaeonf?) - tckta&;tcif;rSm ppftpkd;&vufcsufa=umifh &[ef;&Sifvl 200 cef@ touf qHk;cJh&+yD; 6000 cef@ xdef;odrf;cHae&+yDvdk@ EdkifiHwumowif;Xmersm;u azmfjyygw,f? yk'fxm;rSefv#if vdkcsifonfh t"dy`g,fvnf; rSefrSefuefuef ay:xGufvmrnf om jzpfygonf? yk'fxm;¶_yf0gusrsm; 0guszGJ@&mwGif wcgw&H yk'ftxm;todk ae&mrusaomtcg yk'fxm;rSm;0gus tqifhodk@ ra&mufonfhwdkif yk'fxm;¶_yf oGm;onfh tjzpfrsKd; a&mufoGm;wwfygonff? yk'fxm;¶_yfoGm;ojzifh [dkvdkt"dy`g,faumuf&rvdk onfvkdt"dy`g,faumuf& rvkd jzpfoGm;wwfykHrsKd;udk qkdvdkjcif;jzpfygonf? om"u jyygrnf? - &Sr;f jynfe,f awmif}u;D òr@ESihf rdwv Dˆ mòr@wGif pkaygi;f &Sijf yKyrJG sm; usi;f yonf? T0gusonf yk'fxm;rrSm;aomfvnf; yk'fxm;¶_yfxm;aom0gus jzpfonf? awmif}uD;. jynfe,fudkazmfjy+yD; rdwˆDvm.wdkif;ukd razmfjybJ ‘&Srf;jynfe,f awmif}uD;òr@ ESifh rdwˆDvmòr@wdk@’ [lI a&;vkdufonfhtwGuf awmif}uD;a&m rdwˆDvmyg &Srf;jynfe,fxJrSm &Sdovdkvdk t"dy`g,f¶_yfoGm;&jcif; jzpfygonf? rdwv Dˆ monf &Sr;f jynfe,frmS r&Sad =umif; trsm;todyifjzpfojzifh t"dyg` ,t f ae jzifh rSm;Edkifp&mta=umif;r&Sdyg? odk@aomf yk'ftxm;todk ae&mrusonfhtwGuf pmzwfol 48

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. pdwfxJwGif ¶_yfoGm;Edkifygonf? xdkodk@ra&;bJ‘&Srf;jynfe,f awmif}uD;òr@ESifh rEœav;wdkif; rdwˆDvmòr@wdk@wGif pkaygif; &SifjyKyGJrsm; usif;yonf’ [k a&;v#if ¶_yfp&m ta=umif;r&Sdyg? ‘awmif}uD;òr@ESifh rdwˆDvmòr@ay:wGif pkaygif;¶SifjyKyGJrsm; usif;yonf’ [k jynfe,f wdkif;trnfrsm; ESpfae&mvkH;rxnfhbJ a&;v#ifvnf; t"dy`g,f&Sif;vif;onfyif jzpfygonff? 0gusxJu tav;ay;ykHoabm 0gusxw J iG f rdrt d av;ay;vkad omtcsuu f kd pmzwfou l vnf; ta&;}u;D onf [k tav;teuf oabmaygufvmatmif azmfjyEkdifjcif;onfvnf; 0guszGJ@ykH wdwdusus &Sdjcif;a=umifhyif jzpfygonf? ta=umif;tcsi;f t&m twlwyl ifjzpfaomfvnf; 0gusz@JG yku H v kd u kd I f tav;ay; ykH uGmjcm;r_rsKd; &Sdwwfygonf? om"ujyygrnf? - rr Tpmtkyfudk 0,fvmonf? - Tpmtkyfudk rr 0,fvmonff? T0gusEpS af =umif;onf ta=umif;t&mvnf; twlwjl zpfygonf? yxr0gus onf zGJ@±kd;zGJ@pOf 0gusykHpHrsKd; jzpfygonff? rr (uwWm;)/ Tpmtkyu f kd (uHy'k )f / 0,fvmonf (}u, d myk')f [laomtpDtpOf jzifh zGJ@xm;jcif;jzpfonf? xd@k tjyif pmtky0f ,fvmolonf ‘rr’ jzpfonf[al om tcsuu f kd OD;OD;zsm;zsm; azmfjyvkdaom oabmygygonf? 'kw, d 0gusrmS rl 0,fvmaom pmtkyu f d k tav;ay;azmfjyvdo k nfh oabm&Syd gonf? rr0,fvmaom pmtkyfrSm tjcm;pmtkyf r[kwfbJ Tpmtkyf jzpfa=umif; t"du azmfjyvdkonfhtwGuf ‘Tpmtkyfudk’ [lI pum;pkudk a&S›qkH;uxm;I a&;zGJ@onf[k qdkEdkifygonf? tav;ay;vdo k nft h csuu f kd t&ifq;Hk owd&wwfonfh obm0t& t&ifq;Hk azmfjyonfh oabmjzpfygonf? tav;ay;vdo k nft h csuu f kd 0gus. aemufq;Hk ykid ;f wGif xm;wwf=uygonf? jrefrm0gusrsm;onf }ud,mjzifhtqkH;owfavh&Sdonf? }ud,mudkazmfjyrS 0gus.qdkvdkcsuf +yD;jynfhpkHonff/ xif&Sm;onf? owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm; CE-BM-Final.indd 49

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xdk@a=umifh }ud,monf 0gus.aemufqkH;tydkif;vnf; jzpfonf/ ta&;}uD;qkH; tydkif;vnf; jzpfonf? pmzwfoo l nf 0guswa=umif;qk;H atmifzwfv#if }u, d mudk aemufrS zwf&onf jzpfI }u, d mjzifah zmfjyonft h csuo f nf pmzwfo. l &ifxJ ylyal EG;aEG; xifuse&f pfwwf onf? xkdoabmt& tav;ay;vkdaomtcsufudk 0gus.aemufqkH;tydkif;wGif }ud,mESifh azmfjyjcif;jzifh av;eufxif&Sm;vmEkdifygonf? om"ujyygrnf? - v,fxGefaeaom Tv,form;}uD;onf usef;rmoefpGrf;.? - usef;rmoefpGrf;aom Tv,form;}uD;onf v,fxGefae.? T0gusESpfa=umif;onf t"dy`g,ftwlwljzpfaomfvnf; tav;ay;r_csif; rwlyg? yxr0gusudk zwfvdkufv#if v,form;}uD;. usef;rmoefpGrf;r_udk owdjyKrdoGm;+yD;/ 'kwd,0gusudk zwfvdkufv#if ol v,fxGefae. [laom pum;&yfu pmzwfol.pdwfxJwGif ylylaEG;aEG; pGJxifusef&pfEdkifygonff? odjk zifh yxr0gusonf use;f rmoefprG ;f r_ukd tav;ay;aom0gusjzpf+y;D 'kwd, 0gusurl v,fxGefonfudk tav;ay;aom 0gusjzpfygonf? xdk@twl ‘jrjronf ±kyrf acsmaomfvnf; oabmaumif;onf’ [lI oabmaumif;jcif; udk tav;ay; a&;om;Ekdifonfhenf;wl ‘jrjronf oabmaumif;aomfvnf; ±kyfracsm’[lI ±kyfracsmjcif;udk tav;ay; a&;Ekdifygonf? Tod@k jzifh pum;ok;H &mwGiv f nf;aumif;/ 0gusz@JG &mwGiv f nf;aumif;/ pma&;ol . qkdvdkcsufudk tav;taygh/ taysmhtrmyg rusefatmif azmfjyEkdifonfqdkv#if wdwdusus &SdEkdifonf[k qdkEkdifygonf? 0gusxJu pum;azmif;yGr_ pum;okH;uspfvspfr_tydkif;wGif jycJhonfhenf;wl 0guszGJ@&mwGifvnf; auG@0dkuf vSnfhywfum pum;a=um&SnfonfhtwGuf pum;azmif;yGr_ jzpfwwfygonf? - trSew f u,f azmfjy&rnfqv kd #if v,fvyk if ef;jzifh toufarG;aom v,form; rsm;onfum; EkdifiHawmf. EkdifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&;ponfh ta&;udpPrsm;wGif pD;yGm;a&; zGH@+zdK;r_ukd taxmuftuljyKaeolrsm;jzpfonf[k rvGJraoG qdkEdkifayonf? T0gusonf pum;azmif;yGr_ xif&mS ;atmif wrifzefw;D a&;jyaom0gusjzpfonf? odk@aomf pum;azmazmoDoDokH;+yD; T0gusrsKd; a&;wwf=uonfudk awG@&wwfygonf? 50

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T0guswGif t"dy`g,fwl ta=umif;rxl;vSaom pum;ydk rsm;aeygonf? ‘trSef wu,fazmfjy&rnfqv dk #i’f [k tb,fa=umifah &;&oenf;? aemufu ajymonfh pum;onf trSefwu,fjzpfonfqdkv#if xdkpum;udkxnfh&ef vdktyfygoavm? ‘v,f,mvkyfief;jzifh toufarG;aom’ [laom emr0daooeudkvnf; xnfhp&m rvdkyg? ‘v,form;’ qdkv#if vkHavmufyg+yD? ‘EdkifiHawmf. EkdifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&;/ ponfh ta&;udpPrsm;wGif’ [laom pum;pkrSmvnf; tydkjzpfaeygonf? ‘rvGJ raoG rSwf,lEkdifayonf’ [laom pum;rSmvnf; rdrdajymonfhtcsuf rSefygonf[k xyfrH oufaoxl onfhoabmuvGJI ta=umif;rxl;vSyg? xdkpum;rsm;ukdz,f+yD; ‘v,form;rsm;onf EdkifiHawmf. pD;yGm;a&; zGH@+zdK;r_udk taxmuftuljyKaeolrsm; jzpfonf’ [ka&;v#if ydI k uspu f spv f spv f sp&f ydS gonf? yxr0gus ESifhvnf; t"dy`g,fwlygonff? xdk@a=umifh 0guszGJ@&mwGif ta=umif;xl;r&SdbJ okH;±kd;okH;pOfjzpfI okH;&aom pum;rsKd;/ auG@0dkufvSnfhywfaompum;rsKd;udk a&Smifrnfqdkv#if uspfvspfr_&Sdygrnf? 0gusxJu pum;xyfr_ t"dy`g,fwlnDeD;pyfaompum;rsm;udk wGJokH;jcif;jzifh pum;xyfouJhodk@ 0gusxJwGifvnf; t"dy`g,fwl pum;ESpfvkH; rvdktyfbJxnfhokH;jcif;/ pum;wvkH;udk rvdktyfbJ ESpfcgxyf okH;jcif;wdk@a=umifh pum;xyfwwfygonf? xkdtcg xdk0gusonf ruspfvspfawmhyg? - Trdef;rysKdonf r,Ofaus;aom/ ±kdif;ysaomtjyKtrl t}udrf}udrf tzefzef jyKonfhtwGuf csD;usL;p&mrjzpfbJ uJh&J@p&mjzpfoGm;&awmhonf? T0guswGif t"dy`g,fwlpum;rsm;udk rvdktyfbJ ESpfcgxnfhokH;xm;onfudk awG@Edik yf gonf? ‘r,Ofaus;aom’ ESihf ‘±kid ;f ysaom’/ ‘t}urd }f urd ’f ESihf ‘tzefzef’/ ‘cs;D usL;p&m rjzpf’ ESihf ‘uJ&h @J p&m’ wd@k onf t"dyg` ,w f l pum;rsm; jzpfygonf? xdpk um;rsm;udk wvk;H pDom xnfhokH;v#ifvnf; xdkt"dy`g,fyif&ygonf? =unfhyg? - Trdef;rysKdonf r,Ofaus;aom tjyKtrludk t}udrf}udrf jyKonfh twGuf csD;usL;p&m rjzpfawmhay? - Trde;f rysKo d nf ±dik ;f ysaom tjyKtrlukd tzefzefjyKonft h wGuf uJ&h phJ &mjzpf oGm;&onf? T0gus ESpaf =umif;pvk;H t"dyg` ,t f wlw l yl if jzpfygonf? }uKd u&f mwa=umif;ok;H v#if vkHavmufyg+yD? xdk@twl owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm; CE-BM-Final.indd 51

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- ppfawmif;jrpfonf a&pD;oefonfjzpf&m xkdodk@a&pD;oefonfhtwGuf avS oabFmrsm; oGm;vm&mY xdkodk@oGm;vmaom avSoabFmrsm;wGif tEœ&m,f &Sdayonf? T0guswiG f rvkt d yfbJ pum;rsm; ESpcf gxyfaea=umif; awG@Ekid yf gonf? xyfae aompum;rsm;udkz,fI‘ppfawmif;jrpfonf a&pD;oefonft h wGuf oGm;vmaom avSoabFmrsm;wGif tEœ&m,f&Sdayonf’ [k a&;v#ifvnf; xkdt"dy`g,frsKd;yif &ygonf? xdkuJhodk@yif - obm00ef ; usif xd e f ; od r f ; umuG , f a pmif h a &S m uf a &;twG u f ‚. vkyaf qmifcsurf sm;udk av;av;eufeuf vkyaf qmifco hJ nf[k rnfonfh tcgur# rawG@=u&yg? - ‚taejzifh obm00ef;usifxdef;odrf;umuG,f apmifha&Smufa&;twGuf rnfonfhtcgur# av;av;eufeuf vkyfaqmifcJhjcif; r&Sdyg? pum;xyfonfhta=umif;udk azmfjy&mY ‘rvkdtyfbJ’ [k pum;cHcJhygonf? vdktyfI pum;xyfjcif;rsKd;rSmrl udpPr&Sdyg? ‘r,Ofaus;jcif;[laom ±kdif;ysjcif;aywnf;?‘ [laom 0guswGif ‘±dkif;ysjcif;‘ udk ‘r,Ofaus;jcif;‘[k t"dy`g,f zGifhEkdifayonf? T0guswGif pum;wvkH;udk t"dy`g,fwlpum;wvkH;jzifh zGifhqdkjyjcif; jzpfonfh twGuf t"dy`g,fwl/ pum;wl pum;ESpfvkH;rygI rjzpfyg? vkdtyfI pum;xyfjcif; jzpfygonf? xkd@twl- Taq;udk eHeuf (9) em&D w}udrf/ rGef;vGJ (3) em&D w}udrf wdkufyg? T0guswiG f ‘w}urd ‘f [laom pum;ESpcf g xyfjcif;rSm vkt d yfI xyfjcif; jzpfonf? aq;wdkuf&rnfh t}udrfrsm;udk w}udrfpD azmfjy&eff vdktyfaoma=umifh jzpfygonff? Tr#qdkv#if 0gusxJwGif rvdktyfbJ pum;xyfr_onf 0gusudk azmif;yGap a=umif; odomavmufyg+yD? pum;ajy uspfuspfvspfvspf&Sd&ef pum;okH;uspfvspf&ef vdkygonff? 0guszGJ@ uspfvspf&efvnf; vdkygonf? xdkodk@ uspfvspf&ef pum;zGmjcif;/ pum;xyfjcif;wdk@udk a&Smif&ygrnf? 0gus&Snfv#if ±_yfwwfonf owif;axmuftcsK@d u 0gusukd t&Sn}f u;D a&;wwf+y;D tqH;k rowfwwfawmhbJ &Sdwwf.? xdktcg 0dbwf[kac:aom aemufqufwGJ ypPnf;rsm;udk rEdkifojzifh +yD; udk oHk;v#if wav#mufvHk; +yD; jzpfaewwfygonf? xdk@twl I/ um/ &m/ wkef;/ &if; æ ponfwdk@udk tyfa=umif;xyf oHk;avh&Sdonf? 52

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Oyrm (1) - vlenf;pkuom jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif; a&v$rf;rdk;r_ qdk;&Gm;jyif;xefvmaom obm0azmufjyefrr_ sm;onf/ urBm}u;D ylaEG;vmr_. vuQ%mrsm; jzpfa=umif; od&q dS ufpyf Edkif=uaomfvnf; obm0ywf0ef;usifqdkif&m ta&;u pdk;&drfpdwf pdk;pOf;r#r&Sdaom jrefrm ppftpdk;&twGuf Towif;tcsuftvufrsm; rodEdkif=uaom jrefrmjynfolvlxktwGuf a0;ae&qJ jzpfonf? txufyg 0gusonfvnf; &Snv f sm;+y;D yk't f xm;todv k rJG mS ;r_a=umifh t"dyg` ,f r&Si;f vif;onfuakd wG@&ygonf? ,if;udk atmufygtwdik ;f &Si;f vif;atmifa&;om;Edik yf gonf? - jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif; a&v$rf;rdk;r_ qdk;&Gm;jyif;xefvmaom obm0 azmufjyefr_ rsm;onf urBm}uD;ylaEG;vmr_. vuQ%mrsm;jzpfonfudk vlenf;pkavmufom qufpyf od&SdEdkif=uygonf? obm0ywf0ef;usif qdkif&mta&;twGuf pdk;&drfpdwf pdk;pOf;r# r&Sdaom jrefrmppftpdk;&a=umifh jrefrmjynfolrsm;tzdk@ vdktyfonfh owif;tcsuftvufrsm;ESifh a0;ae&qJ jzpfygonf? Oyrm (2) - ,refae@reuf 9 em&Dcef@wGif rauG;wdkif;/ wdkif;twGif;a&;rSL;/ c,u/ r,u ESifh omoema&;Xme wm0ef&Sdolrsm;u um; 4-5 (av;ig;) pD;cef@jzifh ,refae@u jzpf&yfESifh ywfouf+yD; pmoifwdkufrsm;odk@ vdkufvHI awmif;yefav#mufxm;&m tv,fwdkufodk@ ta&mufwiG f tv,fwu kd f oHCmrsm;u tm%mydik rf sm;udk zrf;qD; xde;f odr;f vdu k +fy;D ‚wd@k . um; 4 pD;udk Adv k cf sKyv f rf;ray:Y rD;±d@_ vdu k o f nf[k yckuLU òr@cHrsm;ESihf oHCmawmfwyg;u ajymonf? txufyg 0guswiG v f nf; &Snv f sm;aoma=umifh t"dyg`,f ±_yaf xG;oGm;onfuk d awG@&onf? ,if;udk yk't f xm;todjk yifqif+y;D 0gus cGIJ jyefvnf a&;om;ygu &Si;f vif;oGm;Edik yf gonf? - ,refae@u jzpfysucf ahJ om oHCmawmfrsm;ESihf ywfoufonfh jy\emtwGuf ,ae@eHeuf 9 em&Dcef@wGif rauG;wdik ;f twGi;f a&;rSL;/ c,u/ r,uESihf omoema&;Xme wm0ef&o dS rl sm;u pmoifwu kd rf sm;od@k awmif;yefav#mufxm;&ef vma&muf=uonf? xdo k @kd vma&mufpOf tv,fwu kd o f @kd ta&mufwiG f tv,fwu kd o f C H mrsm;u tm%mydik rf sm; ESihf ‚wd@k pD;vmaom um; 4-5 (av;ig;) pD;udk zrf;qD;xm;vdu k +f y;D um; 4 pD;udrk l Adv k cf sKyv f rf;ray: wGif rD;±_@d ypfvu kd =f uonf[k yckuLU òr@cHrsm;ESihf oHCmwyg;u today;onf? Oyrm (3) - pmaypdppfa&;u xkwfjyefonfh rl0g'topfrsm;wGif ,cif&Sd+yD;om; pnf;urf; csufrsm; yg0ifouJhodk@ pnf;urf;csuf topfrsm;vnf; yg0if+yD; ‚tcsufrsm;ESifh udkufnDrS a=umfjimvufcH&efESifh rSm;,Gif;r_ wpHkw&m&Sdygu xnfhonfh r*~Zif;*sme,ftm; xkwfa0cGifh owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm; CE-BM-Final.indd 53

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ydwfonftxd ta&;,l&rnf jzpfonf? txufyg0gus&Snfonf txl;jyKyk'f a&S›aemufvGJ+yD; OD;wnfcsufrwlonfh yk'fpk wdk@udk 0dbwf rsm;ESifh qufxm;ojzifh em;vnfr_ r&Sif;rvif;jzpfaponf? trSefrSm - pmaypdppfa&;u xkwfjyefonfh rl0g'topfrsm;wGif pnf;urf;csuftopfrsm; ESit hf wl ,cif&+dS y;D om;pnf;urf;csurf sm; jyefvnfyg0ifonfukd awG@&onf? xd@k jyif csrw S x f m; onfh pnf;urf;csurf sm;ESiu hf u kd n f rD S a=umfjimvufc&H efjzpf+y;D wpHw k &m rSm;,Gi;f onfh r*~Zif; *sme,ftm; xkwfa0cGifhydwfonftxd ta&;,l&rnf jzpfonf? xdkodk@ 0gus&Snfr_a=umifh t"dy`g,f a&maxG;aponfh Oyrmwck xyfjyygrnf? Oyrm (4) - pmaypdppfa&;. pnf;urf;csurf sm;wGif aq;vdyEf iS hf trsK;d orD;pm;yGx J ;kd ac:aom a=umfjimrsm;udk azmfjycGirhf jyKa=umif; azmfjyxm;+y;D Edik if jH cm;rS vmaom a=umfjimrsm;udk cdik rf mr_ &Srd &Sd ppfaq;&efEiS hf a=umfjim o±kyaf zmfyrkH sm;. teuft"dyg` ,u f kd &Si;f jy&rnf[k yg&adS =umif; pHpk rf;od&&dS onf? txufyg pma=umif;onf owif;tjzpfa&;&mY twefi,f&Snfvsm;onf[k qdkEkdifygonf? trSef a&;&rnfrSm - pmaypdppfa&;. pnf;urf;csurf sm;wGif aq;vdyaf =umfjim ESihf trsK;d orD;pm;yGx J ;kd ac:aom a=umfjimrsm;udk azmfjycGifhrjyKa=umif; yg&Sdonf? xdk@jyif EdkifiHjcm;rSvmaom a=umfjimrsm;udk cdkifrmr_&Sdr&Sd ppfaq;&efESifh a=umfjim o±kyfazmfyHkrsm;. teuft"dy`g,fudk &Sif;jy&rnf[kvnf; yg&Sda=umif; pHkprf;od&Sd&onf? Oyrm (5) - ’u|eaf wmfonf vrf;ay:u jzpf&yfwckujkdrif&I pma&;q&mrif;&Sif a&;om;cJah om vrf;ay:u 0wˆKww kd yk'u f kd owd&vmygonf’ [laom0gusu t"dyg` ,±f y_ af xG;aeaponfukd awG@&onf? T0gusudk yk'ftxm;todk ae&mrajymif;bJ ’u|efawmfonf vrf;ay:u jzpf&yfwckudk jrif&ygonf? TwGif pma&;q&m rif;&Sif a&;om;cJhaom vrf;ay:u 0wˆKwdkwyk'fudk owd&vmygonf’ [lI 0guswdkESpfck cGJa&;v#ifvnf; t"dy`g,f&Sif;vif;a=umif; awG@Ekdifygonf? Oyrm (6) - 88 rsK;d qufausmif;om;acgi;f aqmifrsm;udk ppftpk;d &u zrf;qD;vdu k af yrJh jynfol rsm;&J@ +ird ;f csr;f pGm qENjyyGrJ sm; qufvuf ay:ayguv f m+y;D aemufq;kH rSm oHCmawmfrsm;vnf; yg0ifqENjyvm&mrSm ppftpkd;&u pufwifbmrSm t=urf;zufapmfum;+yD; ESdrfeif;wma=umifh 54

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oHCmawmfrsm;u tm%mydkifrsm;eJ@ rqufqHa&; ywWeduUKZ…e uHaqmif oydwfarSmufawmf rl=uygw,f? txufazmfjyyg rvdt k yfbJ &Snv f sm;aeonfh 0gusuvnf; t"dyg` ,f r&Si;f rvif; jzpfaeonfudk awG@&onf? - 88rsKd;qufausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;udk ppftpkd;&u zrf;qD;vdkufayrJh jynfolrsm;&J@ +idrf;csrf;pGm qENjyyGJrsm; qufvuf ay:aygufvmaecJhygw,f? aemufydkif;rSm oHCmawmfrsm;vnf; yg0ifqENjyvm&mrSm ppftpkd;&u pufwifbmvrSmawmh qENjyr_udk t=urf;zufapmfum;+yD; ESdrfeif;cJhygw,f? tJ'DtwGuf oHCmawmfrsm;u tm%mydkifrsm;eJ@ rqufqHa&; ywWeduUKZ…e uHaqmif oydwfarSmufawmfrl=uygw,f? tcsKyfqdkv#if rdrdqdkvdkcsuf &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; jzpfapvdkv#if twwfEkdifqkH; 0gus wdkwkda&;&ef/ rvGJra&SmifomI 0gus&Snf&Snf a&;&onfhtcgrsKd;wGifvnf; yk'ftxm;todk tquftpyfukd txl;*±kjyK&ef vdktyfygonff? 0guszGJ@pnf;yHk rnD!Gwfjcif; 0gusrsm;udk zGJ@pnf;onfhtcg yk'ftxm;todk rSefuefa&;u ta&;}uD;ouJhodk@yif zGJ@pnf;yHknD!Gwfjcif;onfvnf; ta&;}uD;onf? odk@rSom qdkvdkaomt"dy`g,fudk wdwdusus &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;azmfjyEdkifrnf? zG@J pnf;yHn k ! D w G jf cif;qdo k nfrmS 0gus. tp tv,f tqH;k wd@k tcsi;f csi;f nD!w G f onfh oabmjzpfonf? a&S@aemuftzGit hf ydwf nD!w G jf cif;oabmvnf; yg0ifonf? zG@J pnf;yHk rnD!Gwfv#if teuf ±_yfaxG;oGm;wwfonf? Oyrm (1) ‘xef;wufvkyfief;aygrsm;aom txuftnma'o ajrvwfydkif;&Sd jynfol@ aq;&Hkrsm;rS usef;rma&;0efxrf;rsm;onf cg;±dk;usdK;jcif;ESifh aygif±dk;usdK;jcif; vlemrsm; uko jyKpjk cif; vkyif ef;rsm;udk u|r;f usipf mG wwfajrmufxm;&ef vdt k yfvyS gonf’ [laom 0guswiG f cg;±dk;usdK;jcif;ESifh aygif±dk;usdK;jcif; vlemrsm;ukojyKpkjcif;[k ‘jcif;’udk rsKd;rwlbJ qufwdkuf oHk;jcif;a=umifh t"dy`g,f r&Sif;vif;awmhbJ jzpfoGm;onfudk awG@Edkifonf? trSefrSm ‘xef;wufvyk if ef;aygrsm;aom txuftnma'o ajrvwfyikd ;f &Sd jynfo@l aq;&Hk rsm;rS usef;rma&;0efxrf;rsm;onf cg;±dk;usKd;aomvlemrsm;ESifh aygif±dk;usdK;aom vlemrsm; ukojyKpkjcif; vkyfief;rsm;udk u|rf;usifpGm wwfajrmufxm;&ef vdktyfvSygonf’ [lI jzpf&rnf?

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Oyrm (2) ‘b0zlvHka&;/ tvªjyKEdkifa&;/ oef;ºuG,folaX; jzpfvdkv#if xDxdk;yg’ [laom 0gusrSmvnf; ‘b0zlvHka&;/ tvª'ge jyKEdkifa&;/ oef;ºu,folaX; jzpfa&;twGuf xDxdk;yg’ [k nD!GwfpGm a&;rSom t"dy`g,f&Sif;vif;ayonf? Oyrm (3) - ayghqr_/ a&ul;tawG@t=uHKr&Sdr_ ESifh t&ufaopm aomufpm;xm;jcif;wdk@ a=umifh a&epfaoqHk;=u&jcif;jzpfonf[k oufqdkif&mu owday;csuf xkwfjyefxm;onf? xd0k guswiG v f nf; r_ ESihf jcif; wd@k [efcsurf nDaoma=umifh OD;wnf&m rwlouJo h @kd jzpfapygonf? trSefrSm ‘ayghqr_/ a&ul;tawG@t=uHK r&Sdr_ ESifh t&ufaopm aomufpm;xm;r_wdk@ a=umifh a&epf aoqHk;=u&jcif;jzpfonf[k oufqdkif&mu owday;csuf xkwfjyefxm;onf’ [k nDnGwfpGm a&;&rnfjzpfonf? r_ / r_ / jcif; (rSm;) r_ / r_ / r_ (rSef) jcif;/ jcif;/ jcif;(rSef) 0gustwGif; pum;vHk; vdkjcif; ydkjcif; - jrefrmEdik if u H vwfwavmjzpfysuaf ewJh tajctaeawGukd aemfa0;tpd;k &eJ@ tD;,l uae wpHw k &m ta&;,l aqmif&u G af y;zd@k twGuf jrefrmhta&;v_y&f mS ;olawGu 'Dru kd &ufwpf jrefrmhtoH±;kH pku d &f m aemfa0Edik if H atmfpvdòk r@rSm 'Duae@ qENjyawmif;qdyk gw,f? azmfjyyg 0gusrSm owif; oabmobm0t& pum;vHk;wcsdK@ vdkae ydkaeonfudk awG@Edkifygonf? vwfwavmjzpfysuaf ewJh tajctaeawGukd qdw k hJ azmfjycsuu f t"dyg` ,rf jynfph ykH g/ ‘jidrf;csrf;pGm qENjyolawGudk ppftpdk;&u t=urf;zuf ESdrfeif;aewJh vwfwavm tajctae awGeJ@ ywfoufvdk@’ uJhodk@ jynfhpHkatmif azmfjya&;om;oifhygonf? xdk@tjyif ‘tD;,l’ tpm; ‘Oa&myor*~ (tD;,l)’ [k tjynfhtpHk azmfjy&ygrnf? ‘'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH±Hk;pkduf&m’ [laom azmfjycsufuawmh t"duazmfjyvdkonfh ta=umif;t&meSifh oufqdkifr_r&Sdwma=umifh (roufqdkif/ rvdktyfaoma=umifh) rvdktyfwJh/ ydkaewJh azmfjycsufomjzpfygonf? trSefrSm 56

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‘jrefrmEdik if rH mS +ird ;f csr;f pGm qENjyolawGukd ppftpd;k &u t=urf;zuf ESrd ef if;aewJh vwfwavm tajctaeawGeJ@ ywfoufvdk@ ta&;,l aqmif&Gufay;zdk@ aemfa0tpdk;&eJ@ Oa&myor*~ (tD;,l) wdk@udk aemfa0a&muf jrefrmhta&;v_yf&Sm;olawGu atmfpvdkòr@rSm 'Dae@ qENjy awmif;qdkygw,f’ [k a&;Edkifygonf? rvdktyfbJ ydkaeaom pum;vHk;rsm;a=umifh pm. qdkvdk&if;udk ±_yfaxG;ap+yD; ta=umift&mudk azmif;yGapygonf? Oyrm (1) ‘aoqHk;olrsm;rSm oHCmawmfrsm;/ ausmif;om;vli,frsm;ESifh jynfolvlxkrsm; jzpf+yD; tenf;qHk; vl 200 ausmfausmf aoqHk;onf[k cdkifvHkaom owif;&yfuGufrS owif; &&Sdxm;ygonf’ [lonfh 0guswGifvnf; pum;vHk;tcsKd@ ydkaeonfudk xkwfy,fEdkifygonf? ‘oHCmawmfrsm;/ ausmif;om;rsm; tygt0if tenf;qHk; vlOD;a& 200 ausmf aoqHk;onf[k owif;&&Sdxm;ygonf’ [k vdk&if;om ay:vGifatmif a&;oifhygonf? Oyrm (2) ‘c&D;onfwif ta0;ajy;um;*dwEf iS hf wGv J suf ukeu f m;}u;D rsm; &yfem;pcef;yg wGI J zGiv hf pS x f m;aoma=umifh te,fe,ft&yf&yfrS vmonfh um;}u;D rsm; &yfem;&ef ae&mtwGuf tqifajyonfh tjyifæ’ [laom 0guswGif ‘wGJI’ rSm tydkpum;vHk; jzpfygonf? Oyrm (3) - tck qufvuf+y;D use&f adS eao;onfh owif;rsm;udk (a':EkE)k u a=unmvdrrhf mS jzpfygw,f? xdk0guswGif ao; ESifh vdrfh u tydkjzpfonf? Oyrm (4) ‘,if;wd@k udk pdu k yf sK;d a&;wGif toH;k jyKa&;/ arG;jrLa&;wGif toH;k jyKa&;ESihf aqmufvyk af &; vkyif ef;rsm;wGif toH;k jyK&ef wifoiG ;f cJjhcif;jzpfygonf’ [ka&;om;&mwGiv f nf; ‘toH;k jyKa&;’ [laom pum;vH;k rsm; xyfumxyfum toH;k jyKxm;onfrmS tydo k ;kH rsm;yifjzpfonf? trSerf mS ‘,if;wd@k udk pdu k yf sK;d a&;/ arG;jrLa&; ESihf aqmufvyk af &;vkyif ef;rsm;wGif toH;k jyK&ef wifoGif;cJhjcif; jzpfygonf’ [k a&;Edkifonf? Oyrm (5) - wm0efus &Jt&m&Sdu wpHkw&m ajzqdkzdk@ jiif;qdk oGm;cJhygw,f? ‘wpHkw&m’ [laomtoHk;onf t&Sdudk !¸efjyonfh pum;jzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh ajz=um;jcif; tvsOf;r&Sdonfudk ajymvdkv#if ‘wpHkw&m’ udk xnfha&;&ef rvdkyg?

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xd@k jyif ‘jiif;qd’k onfvnf; t"dyg` ,t f &qdv k #if acsy jiif;qef ajymqdjk cif; jzpfonf? tu,fI rnfo h nfph um;r# ajymjcif;r&Sb d J jiif;y,fonfqv kd #if jiif;qefonf[k oH;k jcif;u ydI k oifah v#mrf eS u f efygonf? xdk@a=umifh a&;oifhonf rSm - wm0efus &Jt&m&Sdu ajzqdkzdk@ jiif;qefcJhygw,f? rjynfhpHkbJ vdkaeaom pum;vHk;rsm;a=umifh t"dy`g,f tm;aysmhaeonfh 0gusrsm;vnf; &Sdonf? Oyrm (1) - u|Eyfk w f @kd . aqmify'k o f nf yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G af &;/ xdyw f u kd &f ifqikd af &; r[kw?f xdk0gusudk ‘u|Eyfk w f @kd . aqmify'k o f nf yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G af &;omjzpf+y;D / xdyw f u kd &f ifqikd af &; r[kwf’ [k jynfhpHkatmif a&;&rnf? Oyrm (2) ‘tck v (5) &uf a e@ &uf p G J e J @ a=unmcsuf w apmif x k w f j yef ’ [l a om 0guswGifvnf; wu,fwrf;yg&rnfjzpfonfh &ufpGJtwdtus rygonf udk awG@&onf? ‘pufwifbmv(5) &ufae@ &ufpGJeJ@ (pufwifbm (5) &ufpGJeJ@) a=unmcsuf wapmif xkwfjyef’ [k jzpfoifhygonf? Oyrm (3) - rJaqmuf qefvªyGJodk@ jrefrmvlrsKd; ESpfaomif;ausmf vma&muf=uonf? - rJaqmuf qefvªyGJodk@ jrefrmvlrsKd; ESpfaomif;ausmfvma&muf+yD; qefESifh pm;p&m rsm;udk ,l=uonf? (jrefrmEdkifiHom; ESpfaomif;ausmf [kqdku ydkrSefrnf?) Oyrm (4) - ,if;tr_wGif teft,fvf'D rwW&mòr@e,f pnf;¶Hk;a&; 'k-OuUÏ OD;ndK}uD;onf =uHhzGH@¶Hk;a&S›wGif *k%foduQmusqif;ap&ef +cdrf;ajcmuf ajymqdkr_ jypfr_qdkif&mOya' yk'fr (506) 'kwd,ydkif;jzifh axmif'%f 7 ESpf/ usef&Sdolrsm;udk yk'fr (506) 'kwd,ydkif; (114) OD;ndK}uD; +cdrf;ajcmuf ajymqdk&mwGif axmufcHr_jzifh axmif'%f 5 ESpfpD cscJhonf[k ‚u qdkonf? txufyg0gusonf rvdt k yfbJ &Snv f sm;aeonft h jyif vdak eaom pum;vH;k rsm; a=umifh t"dyg` ,±f y_ af xG;aeonfukd awG@&onf? vdak eaom pum;vH;k rsm;. ae&mudk atmuf 0guswGif =unfhyg? - ,if;tr_wGif tift,fvf'D rwW&mòr@e,f pnf;¶Hk;a&; 'k-OuUÏ OD;ndK}uD;onf 58

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=uHhzGH@¶Hk;a&S›wGif *k%foduQmusqif;ap&ef +cdrf;ajcmufajymqdkr_ jypfr_qdkif&m Oya' yk'fr(506) 'kwd,ydkif;jzifh axmif'%f 7 ESpf/ usef&Sdolrsm;udk yk'fr (506) 'kwd,ydkif; (114) OD;ndK}uD; +cdrf;ajcmuf ajymqdk&mwGif axmufcHr_jzifh axmif'%f 5 ESpfpD cscJhonf[k ‚u qdkonf? a&;oifhonfrSm - ,if;tr_wGif (trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf) teft,fvf'D (.) rwW&mòr@e,f pnf;¶Hk;a&; 'k-OuUÏ OD;ndK}uD;onf =uHhzGH@(jynfcdkif+zdK;) ¶Hk;a&S›wGif *k%foduQmusqif;ap&ef +cdrf;ajcmufajymqdkr_(a=umifh) jypfr_qdkif&m Oya' yk'fr(506) 'kwd,ydkif;jzifh axmif'%f 7 ESpf (csrSwfcH&jcif;jzpfonf?) (xdk@jyif) usef&Sdolrsm;udk yk'fr (506) 'kwd,ydkif; (114) (t&) OD;ndK}uD;(u) +cdrf;ajcmuf ajymqdk&mwGif axmufcH(cJh)r_jzifh axmif'%f 5 ESpfpD cscJhonf[k ‚u qdkonf? Oyrm (5) - OD;oef;vGiu f kd oHvufo;D jzifh xd;k oGm;olu =uzhH @HG (jynfcikd +f zKd ;) ¶H;k xJ ajy;0ifomG ; onfudk OD;ndK}uD;u awG@&SdcJhaoma=umifh +cdrf;ajcmuf ajymqdkcJhjcif;jzpfa=umif; od&onf? txufyg0guswGifvnf; pum;vHk; vdkaeaoma=umifh/ t"dy`g,f r&Sif;vif; jzpfaeonf? trSef jzpfoifhonfrSm - ‘OD;oef;vGifudk oHvufoD;jzifhxdk;+yD; xGufajy;oGm;ol =uHhzGH@ (jynfcdkif+zdK;) ¶Hk;xJ ajy;0ifomG ;onfukd OD;ndK}u;D u awG@&Scd ahJ oma=umifh =uzhH @HG (jynfcikd +f zKd ;) ¶H;k a&Sw › iG (f xd±k ;kH a&Sw › iG )f atmf[pf +cdrf;ajcmufcJhjcif; jzpfa=umif; od&onf? Oyrm (6) - ,if;od@k oHvufo;D jzifh txd;k cHc&hJ +y;D w&m;pGcJ x H m;&ol OD;oef;vGif touf(70) ESpfudk atmufwdkbm 2 &ufae@nu aetdrfY &Jrsm;u vma&muf zrf;qD; oGm;cJhonf? xdk0gusonfvnf; vdkaeaompum;vHk;wdk@a=umifh vdktyfoavmuf t"dy`g,f ray:vGifbJ &Sdonf? jzpfoifhonfrSm- ,if;odk@ oHvufoD;jzifh txdk;cHcJh&onfhtjyif w&m;pGJjcif;yg cHxm;&ol OD;oef;vGif touf(70) ESpfudk atmufwdkbm 2 &ufae@ nu aetdrfY &Jrsm;u vma&muf zrf;qD;oGm;cJhonf? Oyrm (7) - pufwifbmvukeyf ikd ;f rSm +ird ;f csr;f pGm qENjywJh oHCmawmfrsm;eJ@ ausmif;om;rsm; tygt0if jynforl sm;udk ypfcwf ±ku d Ef u S f n‡O;f yrf; +zKd cw JG ma=umifh &mcsaD oqH;k +y;D axmifcsD zrf;qD;cHae&+yD jzpfygw,f? txufyg 0guswGifvnf; ‘&mcsD / axmifcsD’ [laom toHk;rSm t&yfoHk;pum; owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm; CE-BM-Final.indd 59

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qefae+yD; ‘vlOD;a& &mESifhcsDI aoqHk;+yD;/ axmifESifh csDI zrf;qD;cH ae&+yD’ [louJhodk@om ydkrdk &Sif;vif;atmif a&;oifhygonf? xdk@jyif ‘ypfcwf ±kdufESuf n‡Of;yrf; +zdKcGJwma=umifh’ [laom yk'fpkudkvnf; ‘t=urf;zufjzdKcGJwma=umifh’ [k uspfuspfvspfvspf azmfjyEdkifygonf? yk'f txm;todk ae&mvGJjcif; Oyrm (1) -tppfaq; cH=uae&ygw,f? txufyg 0gusrSm ‘cHae’onf }ud,mt& jzpfpOfjytoHk;jzpf+yD; cGJxkwfI r&aom }ud,mtwGJjzpfonf? ‘=u’rSm trsm;jy toHk;jzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh }ud,maemufrSmom vdkuf&onf? tppfaq; cHae=u&ygw,f? (trSef) vkyfae&=uwm jzpfygw,f? vkyfae=u&wm jzpfygw,f? (trSef) Oyrm (2) - aemufxyf t=urf;zufESdrfeif;r_ jzpfryGm;atmifæ ‘jzpfyGm;’onf vHk;wGJ}ud,m jzpfonf? xdk vHk;wGJ}ud,m=um;wGif tjiif;pum;vHk; ‘r’udk xnfhoGif;I r&yg/ xdk@a=umifh ‘aemufxyf t=urf;zufESdrfeif;r_ rjzpfyGm;atmifæ’ [kom a&;rSrSefonf? xdkuJhodk@yif jzpfay: - jzpfray: (rSm;) - rjzpfay: (rSef) =udK;pm; - óu;rpm; (rSm;) - róu;pm; (rSef) cGJjcm; - cGJrjcm; (rSm;) - rcGJjcm; (rSef) yifyef;- yifryef; (rSm;) - ryifyef; (rSef) - [k oHk;jcif;rsdK;jzpfonf? Oyrm (3) - roif=um;ay;Edkifwmudk a0zefajymqdkoGm;ygw,f? azmfjyyg0gusY tjiif;pum;vHk; ‘r’udk ae&mvGJxnfhxm;jcif; jzpfonf? trSefrSm ‘oif=um;’u oD;jcm;}u, d mwwGJ jzpf+y;D ‘ay;’rSm a&S}› u, d mudk ydrk kd av;eufatmif axmufyhH ay;aom }ud,maxmufjzpfonf? ‘r’ rSm }ud,maxmuf ‘ay;’ udk jiif;qefxm;aom tjiif;pum;vHk;jzpfI xdk ‘r’onf ‘ay;’ESifhom ydkI oufqdkifonf?

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xdk@a=umifh ‘r’udk ‘ay;’ ESifhom uyfvsufoHk;v#if ydkI oifhawmfygonf? - oif=um;ray;EdkifwmrsdK;udk a0zefajymqdkoGm;ygw,f? xdkuJhodk@yif - rxdef;odrf;ay;Edkif - xdef;odrf;ray;Edkif (rSef) - ryHhydk;ay;Edkifyg - yhHydk; ray;Edkifyg (rSef) - rpHkprf;ay;Edkifygbl; - pHkprf;ray;Edkifygbl; (rSef) - yvyfpwpfypPnf;rsm;udk rD;ESifheD;aomae&mwGif ruyfxm;&? - yvyfpwpfypPnf;rsm;udk rD;ESifheD;aomae&mwGif uyfrxm;&? (rSef) T o'Ngydkif;qdkif&m tcsuftvufrsm;rSm owif;rD'D,mydkif;ESifh oifhawmfoa&G@/ vdktyfoa&G@udkom a&G;cs,f xkwfEkwf wifjyxm;jcif;jzpfygonf? xdk@a=umifh jrefrmo'Ngusrf; uJhodk@ tjynfhtpHk wifjyxm;jcif;r[kwfyg? owif;rD'D,mtwGuf toHk;wnfhap&efr#udkom &nf&G,fygonf?

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usrf;udk;pm&if; (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)

jrefrmtbd"mef (jrefrmpmtzGJ@) ygVdouf jrefrm a0g[m& tbd"mef jrefrmo'Ng (jrefrmpmtzGJ@) jrefrmpmvHk;aygif; owfyHkusrf; (jrefrmpmtzGJ@) jrefrmpum; jrefrmpmÂąkyfyHkv$m (armifcifrif- "EkjzL) jrefrmpm jrefrmpum; (jrefrmpmtzGJ@) pme,fZif;ordkif; pmwef;rsm; -yxrwGJ (pmayAdrmef) owif;vdkufjcif; ESifh owif;a&;om;jcif; tajccHvufpGJ

The Indochina Media Memorial Foundation)

(9) toHv$ifhXmersm; (10) tifwmeufpmrsufESmrsm; (11) jynfwGif;jynfyxkwf jrefrm yHkESdyfpmtkyfpmwef;rsm;

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yxrt}udrf yHkESdyfjcif; 2007 ckESpf/ Edk0ifbmv jrefrmowif;or*~ Burma Media Association u xkwfa0onf? tzGJ@u ukefuspm;&dwfuscHonf?

National Endowment for Democracy

owif;orm; owdxm;p&m jrefrmpmESifh pum;oHrsm; CE-BM-Final.indd 63

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J003