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oD&dvuFmAk'<bmomordkif; 0gvfydkvm &m[kvm History of Buddhism in Ceylon by

Walpola Rahula

oD&dvuFmEdkifiHum; pdwf0ifpm;zG,f aumif;onf/ EdkifiHi,f oavmuf pmay? ,Ofaus;rIESihf ordkif;tpOftvm &Snfvsm; jrifhrm;onf/ ,aeY jrefrmEdkifiHwGif pmoifom; &[ef;awmf rsm; oifMum;aeMu&aom jrwfAk'¨\ rl&if; ygVdawmfrsm;udk t"dyÜm,f zGifhqdkonhf t|uxmusrf;rsm; tm;vkH;eD;yg;rSm wkdif;wpfyg;om;wdkY em;vnfEdkifap&ef &nf½G,fí a&S;a[mif; oD[dkVfbmomjzihf a&;om;xm;onhf rl&if; oD[dkVf t|uxm usrf;rsm;rS at'D ig;&mpk tcsdefu ygVdbmomodkY jyefqdkcJhaom usrf;rsm;jzpfonf/

t&Sifauvmo "rRmp&d,/ B.A. (Philo) M.A. (Buddhism) jrefrmjyefonf


C t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef tcef; 8 bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm; 1 wnfaqmufykH tcef; 9 bkef;BuD;ausmif;wkdufrsm; 2 ausmif;wdkuftkyfcsKyfa&; tcef; 10 &[ef;awmfrsm;\ vlrIb0 1 wdk;wufrIrsm; tcef; 11 &[ef;awmfrsm;\ vlrIb0 2 vIyf&Sm;rIrsm; tcef; 12 &[ef;awmfrsm;\ vlrIb0 3 NcKd;NcHpGmusihfokH;jcif; tcef; 13 oD[dkVf &[EÅmrsm; tcef; 14 vl0wfaMumifrsm;\ b0 1 vlrIa&; tcef; 15 vl0wfaMumifrsm;\ b0 2 bmoma&; tcef; 16 tcrf;tem;rsm;ESihf yGJawmfrsm;

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;   219-256

255-282

285-315 317-354

oD&dvuFmAk'<bmomordkif; tEk&m"yk&acwf (bDpD 3 &mpk - at'D 10 &mpk)

0gvfydkvm &m[kvm

History of Buddhism in Ceylon The Anuradhapura Period 3rd Century BC – 10th Century AC

by Walpola Rahula

357-382

385-404

407-447

449-460 463-493

t&Sifauvmo "rRmp&d,/ B.A (Philo) M.A. (Buddhism) jrefrmjyefonf


rmwdum bmomjyefol\ rdwfquf usrf;jyKol\ trSmpm ABBREVIATIONS

ykHESdyf&mZ0if 254 N Wickiup Road Apache Junction, AZ 85219

ed'gef; usrf;udk;&if;jrpfrsm; tcef; 1 tdE´d,ordkif;aemufcH tcef; 2 Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEdkifiH 1 vlrIa&;tajctae tcef; 3 Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEdkifiH 2 bmoma&;tajctae tcef; 4 Ak'¨0g' jyefYyGm;vmjcif; tcef; 5 Ak'¨0g' EdkifiHawmfbmom jzpfvmjcif; tcef; 6 wdk;wufrIESpfumvrsm; 1 tcef; 7 wdk;wufrIESpfumvrsm; 2

i-ps 1-6 7 9-43 54-64

67-94

19-117 119-139 141-163 165-184 187-216


Z

t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

ESihf tjcm; twk,lzG,f oD[dkVfjzpf&yfrsm;ESihf tvGefyif &if;ESD;Mu onf/ ,if;odkY &if;ESD;aeoavmufvnf; orkdif;wGif xif&Sm; onhf oD&dvuFm omoemh0efaqmif yk*¾KdvfausmfwdkY\ omoem jyK pdwf"mwf? &ufa&mrIESihf trsm;aumif;usKd; aqmif½GufrIrsm; rSm Ak'¨0g'D jrefrmwdkY\ ESvkH;om;ü tenf;ESihftrsm; ae&m,l vTrf;rdk;vsuf &Sdonf/ ,if;wdkY\ aqmif½Gufrsm;tay: av;pm; twk,lvsufvnf; &SdMuonf/ oD&dvuFmEdkifiHum; pdwf0ifpm;zG,f aumif;onf/ EdkifiHi,f oavmuf pmay? ,Ofaus;rIESihf ordkif;tpOftvm &Snfvsm; jrifhrm;onf/ ,aeY jrefrmEdkifiHwGif pmoifom; &[ef;awmfrsm; oifMum;aeMu&aom jrwfAk'¨\ rl&if; ygVdawmfrsm;udk t"dyÜm,f zGifhqdkonhf t|uxmusrf;rsm; tm;vkH;eD;yg;rSm wkdif;wpfyg;om; wdkY em;vnfEdkifap&ef &nf½G,fí a&S;a[mif; oD[dkVfbmomjzihf a&;om;xm;onhf rl&if; oD[dkVft|uxmusrf;rsm;rS at'D ig; &mpktcsdefu ygVdbmomodkY jyefqdkcJhaom usrf;rsm;jzpfonf/ wpf enf;tm;jzihfqdkrl ax&0g' tpOftvmu vufcHxm;onhf jrwf Ak'¨\ w&m;awmfrsm;tay: t"dyÜm,faumuf,lrI tm;vkH;rSm oD[dkVfynm&SifwdkY oD[dkVfbmomjzihf a&;om;jyKpkxm;aom ydkYcs pOfjzpfonf/ xkdYaMumifh oD[dkVf vlrsKd;wdkY\ pmaytqifhtwef;udk cefYrSef;MunhfEdkifonf/ ,if;ydkYcspOfonfvnf; bDpD 3 &mpku oD&D vuFmEdkifiHodkY Ak'¨omomoemudk ,laqmifoGm;cJhol tdE´d,{u &mZf taomu\om;awmf t&Sifr[dE´ESifh omoemjyK yk*¾KdvfwdkY \ ydkYcspOfyif jzpfonf/ t&Sifr[dE´\ ydkYcspOf[lonf jrwfAk'¨ y&dedAmÁ ef pHawmfrlcsdefrSpí rjywfvyfaom rax&f tpOftquf wdkY\ ydkYcspOfyif jzpfonf/ xdkYaMumihf oD&dvuFmEdkifiHtm; ax& 0g' tpOftvmudk rysuf,Gif;atmif aumif;pGm xdef;odrf;xm; cJhonhf EdkifiHtjzpf *kPf,lav;pm;&rnf jzpfonf/ ,if;odkY ordkif;ESihf ,Ofaus;rI tpOftvm BuD;rm;ívnf; oD&dvuFmonf tEÅ&m,f taESmihft,Suf trsKd;rsKd;? usL;ausmf

rmwdum tcef; 17 ynma&; aemufqufwGJ 1 r[m0d[m&[lonf aemufqufwGJ 2 acwftvdkuf ordkif;jzpfpOfrsm; aemufqufwGJ 3 oD[dkVf rif;qufrsm;

 

i

495-518 521-523 524-527 528-532


bmomjyefol \ rdwfqufpum; jrefrmEdkifiH Ak'¨omoem ordkif;onf oD&dvuFmEdkifiH Ak'¨bmom ordkif;ESihf acwftqufqufwGif ywfoufrI&SdcJhonf/ jrefrmEdkifiH ü ax&0g' tkwfjrpfudk csay;cJhonhf &Sift&[Honfyif oD&d vuFmEdkifiHrS <uvmoljzpfaMumif; tqdk&Sdonf/ yk*HacwfrSonf ,aeY acwfwkdifatmifyif jrefrm&[ef;awmfrsm;onf oD&dvuFm odkY <ua&mufNyD; tcsKdU ynmoif,?l tcsKdUrSm Ak'¨"r® jyefYyGm;a&; twGuf aqmif½Gufvsuf&SdMuonf/ rGefbk&if "r®apwDrif;onf jrefrmEdkifiHrS yÍöif;avmif; omraPrsm;udk oD&dvuFmEdkifiH&Sd uvsmPDjrpftwGif; a&odrfü &[ef;cHNyD; jrefrmEdkifiHü pifMu,f oefY&Sif;onhf omoemrsKd;qufopfwpf&yfudk wnfaxmifcJhonf/ oD&dvuFmrS ynmwwf &[ef;awmfrsm;vnf; jrefrmEdkifiHodkY <u a&mufNyD; omoemjyKjcif;? odu©mopfcH,ljcif;rsm; &SdcJhMuonf/ 'Dy0if? r[m0if? aAm"d0ifpaom ygVdrS jrefrmjyefqdkxm; onhf usrf;rsm;? ,if;usrf;wdkYudk tajccHonhf Zdew¬yumoeD ponfESihf jrefrm&mZ0ifrsm;\ ed'gef;ydkif;ponhf jrefrmbmom usrf;pmrsm;udk zwf&jcif;? xdkxdk "r®uxdu q&mawmfrsm;u ,if;usrf;*efrsm;rS Zmwf0w¬K taMumif;t&mrsm;udk xkwfazmfNyD; erlemjyK a[majymjcif;rsm;aMumihf Ak'¨0g'D jrefrmvlrsKd;wdkYonf t&Sifr[dE´? t&SifroCFrdwåm? taomu? a'0geHyd,wdó? 0¥ *grPd? 'k|*grPd? jAm[®Pwdóolykefab;? r[m0d[m&ausmif; wdkufpaomtrnfrsm;? &[EÅmt&SifjrwfwdkY\ taMumif;t&mrsm;


X

t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

r[m0Ho#Dum? aAm"d0Ho#Dum? &o0g[deDESihf oD[dkVfbmomjzihf a&;om;onhf edum,o*F[usrf;rsm;rSm rl&if;usrf;wdkY\ pmrsuf ESmtwkdif; jzpfygonf/ r[m0Hopmudk,fudk udk;um;&mü yxr *Pef;rSm tcef;udk &nfñTef;NyD; 'kwd, *Pef;rSm *gxmyk'f eHygwfudk qdkvdkonf/ Oyrm r[m0Ho 35;46 [kqdkvQif r[m0H o tcef; 35? *gxm trSwf 46 [k em;vnf&ef jzpfonf/ 'Dy0H ousrf;udk udk;um;&müvnf; xdkenf;twl jzpfonf/ pmayokawoDrsm;taejzihf oD&dvuFm Ak'¨bmomordkif;udk avhvmrIrSwpfqihf ppfrSefonhf Ak'¨bmomqdkif&m A[kokw t axGaxGudk &&SdNyD; xdkxdk ygVdawmf t|uxmusrf;rsm;ü yg&Sdonhf azmfjycsufrsm;tay: tawG;tjrifopfrsm;jzihf ydkrdkem;vnfvmEdkif vdrhfrnf[k arQmfvifhygonf/ t&Sifauvmo t&DZdk;em;jynfe,f? tar&duefjynfaxmifpk/ 30 Zlvdkif? 2008/ n 11;37 em&D/

bmomjyefol\ rdwfqufpum;

ps

wdkufcdkufcH&rI taxGaxGESihf vufatmufjyKcH&rI tBudrfBudrf &Sdvihfum; EdkifiHESifh vlrsKd; ,aeYwdkif tajcrysufbJ wnfwHhae Edkifjcif; jzpfonf/ oD&dvuFmonf 'wfcsf? ay:wl*DESihf NAdwdoQwdkY \ udkvdkeDb0odkY ESpfaygif; ig;&mavmuf usa&mufcJhonhf wdkif atmif ,aeYacwfwGif Ak'¨bmom0ifOD;a& &Spfq,f &mEIef; &Sdaeao;jcif;rSm tHhMozG,fjzpfonf/ ,aeYwdkifvnf; ,Ofaus;rI udk pepfwus xdef;odrf;NyD; jyKpkysKd;axmifrIrsm; &Sdonf/ jrefrmedkifiHESihf ywfoufrI&SdNyD; av;pm;zG,f aumif;onhf ax&0g' Ak'¨bmomEdkifiHwpfck\ ordki;f jzpfpOfudk acwftjrifjzihf okH;oyfjcif;rSm vdktyfonf/ jrefrmwdkY em;vnfaom 'Dy0if? r[m0if ponfESihf ygVdawmf t|uxmusrf;rsm;\ tqdkudk acwfrDpGm awG;jrifokH;oyfrIrsm;rSm &Sdvnf;&Sdoifhonf/ taemuf wdkif; ynmoifMum;rIwGif a0zefqef;ppfonhf tawG;tjrifjzihf okH;oyfjcif; (Critical Thinking) udk txl; OD;pm;ay;onf/ ygVd awmf t|uxmusrf;wdkY\tqdkudk ,kHMunfrItajccHrQjzihf r[kwf bJ orkdif;tjrif? vlrIa&;½IaxmihfESihf aMumif;usKd; qDavsmfrI&Sdr&Sd [laom ,kwådenf;rsm;jzihf avhvm qef;ppfonf/ ,if;odkY qef; ppfjcif;jzifh trSefw&m;twGuf trsm;oabmwl vufcHEdkifonhf tajz wpf&yfudk &&SdEdkifonf/ ocFef;pmvnf; &,lEdkifonf/ oD&dvuFm ynm&Sif urÇmausmf a'gufwm 0gvfydkvm &m[k vmt&Sifjrwf a&;om;aom History of Buddhism in Ceylon - The Anuradhapura Period usrf;onf oD&dvuFmedkifiH\ Ak'¨bmom ordkif;udk avhvmqef;ppfrI jzpfaomfvnf; Ak'¨0g'qdkif&m ,kHMunf csufESihf awG;ac: ,lqcsufwpfcsKdUudk acwfrD a0zefqef;ppf onhf tjrifjzifh aMumif;usKd;udk azmfxkwfNyD; okH;oyfcsufrsm; yg&Sd onf/ orm;½dk;us tjrifrS cGJxGufNyD; acwfrD qef;opfaom tawG;tjrifrsm;jzihf ordkif;jzpfpOftay: csOf;uyfonf/ ,if;odYk aom avhvmqef;ppfrIrsKd;rSm jrefrmEdkifiH Ak'¨bmomqdkdif&m pmay wGifvnf; &Sdoifhonfom jzpfonf/ txl;ojzihf Ak'¨omoemqdkif  


n

t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

&m wuúodkvfrsm;ü tvm;wl okawoeusrf;pmrsKd; a&;om; jyKpk oihfonf/ þusrf;ü azmfjyonhf xl;jcm;onhf tawG;tjrif wpf csKdUudk jrefrmpmzwf y&dowfrsm;? txl;ojzihf t*Fvdyfpmayudk zwftm; enf;awmfrlMuonhf jrefrmEdkifiHu q&mawmf oHCm awmfrsm; zwfrdNyD; jiif;qdak csyonhf odkYr[kwf oabmwlvufcH onhf tvm;wl okawoepmwrf;rsm; xGef;awmufvmap&ef arQmfvihfcsufjzihf þusrf;udk jrefrmjyefqdk jzpfoGm;ygonf/  þusrf;ü a'gufwm 0gvfydkvm &m[kvm\ okH;oyfcsufrsm; rSm &J&ihfNyD; ajymifajrmufonf/ ygVdrkwåu0dedpä, (ygVdawmfü rygonhf tqkH;tjzwfrsm;) jzpfay:vm&jcif;\ taMumif;&if;rSm at'D ig;&mpkESihf ,if;rwdkifrD tcsdefu EdkifiHa&;? vlrIa&;ESihf &[ef;awmfrsm;\ aeYpOfb0 ajymif;vJvmrIt& jrwfAk'¨ ynwf xm;onhf 0de,odum© yk'ftcsKdUudk abmiftwGif;rS vdr®myg;eyfpGm jyKjyif ajymif;vJvdkjcif;aMumihf jzpfaMumif; okH;oyfonf/ t| uxmusrf;wdkYü azmfjyonhf y&d,wåd? y#dywåd? y#da0"[laom omoemokH;&yfwGif y&d,wådonf omomemawmf\ rlv &if;jrpf jzpf\[laom "r®uxdu rax&fwdkY\ tqdkrSmvnf; 0gvfydkvm \ tjrift& Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ rl&if;tmabmfESihf udkufnDjcif; r&Sdacs/ ,if;onf aeYpOfvlrIb0 vdktyfcsufaMumihf wdk;wuf ajymif;vJoGm;onhf t,ltqjzpfaMumif; qdkonf/ wpfzef &[EÅm[laom a0g[m&ESihf ywfoufí qef;ppfrI jyK&mwGif &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvf wpfyg;\ t&nftcsif;udk owfrSwfjcif; rsm;rSm rlvt"dymÜ ,frS ajymif;vJjcif;? uGJvGJjcif;rsm; &SdykHudkvnf; azmfjyonf/ xdkacwfu &[EÅmtcsKdUrSm bmoma&;ESihf trsKd;om; a&;&m t,lonf;rIrsm;yif &Sdao;aMumif; r[m0Hoü azmfjyonhf &[EÅm&Spfyg; taMumif;udk udk;um;NyD; oufaojyxm;onf/ ,if; azmfjycsufrSm rl&if;ygVdawmf t|uxmusrf;wdkYü azmfjyonhf &[EÅm t&Sifjrwfrsm;ESihf vkH;0 jcm;em;aMumif; jyqdkonf/ odkYjzihf at'Dig;&mpku oD[dkVf&[EÅm[lonf rnfodkY oabm&SdaMumif; okH;oyfcsufrSm pdwf0ifpm;zG,f aumif;onf/

bmomjyefol\ rdwfqufpum;

#

a'gufwm 0gvfydkvm &m[kvmu ]]Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf pMu0aw;rif;üvnf; Ak'¨jzpfvmrnfh yk*¾KdvfuJokdY vu©Pm 32 yg; yg&SdaMumif;ESihf Ak'¨udka&m pMu0aw;rif;udkyg apwDwnfxdkuf aMumif; a[mawmfrlonf/ ,if;,lqcsufudk tajccHíyif ]tEk Zmemrd bdu©a0 &mZleH tEk0wådwkH = bk&ifrif;wdkY\ tvdkodkY vdkufpdrfhaomiSm cGihfjyK\}[k bk&if;rif;wdkYudk OD;pm;ay;ívnf; a[mawmfrlonf}}[k rSwfcsufay;onf/ odkY&mwGif ynm&Sif &m[kvmtaejzihf t|uxmusrf;rsm;\ tqdkudk rsm;pGm udk;um;ouJhodkY þae&müvnf; t|uxmzGifhudk aocsmpGm pdppfNyD; qdkoihfonf/ t|uxmü ]rif;wdkY\ tvdkodkY vdkufpdrfhaomiSm cGihfjyK\[lonf aemufodkY (wpfv) qkwfNyD; 0gqdk 0guyf&mü &[ef;awmfrsm;rSm rnfonhf tusKd;qkwf,kwfrI r&SdEdkifaomaMumihf rif;tvdkodkYvdkuf&ef cGifhjyKjcif;jzpf\/ odkYjzpfí "r®ESifh nDaom udpörsKd;ü rif;tvdkodkY vkduf&rnf/ t"r®udpörsKd; jzpfvQifum; (bk&ifrif;rsm; tygt0if) rnfol\ tvdkodkYrQ vdkuf zG,f rvdkacs (t"r®dau ye e uópd tEk0wådwAÁH? 0d-| 3? 150)} [k twdtus zGifhqdkcsuf&Sdonf/ þusrf;udk jyKpkoludk,fwdkifvnf; ax&0g' &[ef;awmf jzpf í jrefrm ax&0g' Ak'¨0g'Dwpfa,muf taejzihfvnf; usrf;*ef vm pmom;rsm;ESihf tawG;tjrifrsm;tay: 0gvfydkvm &m[kvm enf;wl cHpm;MunfhEdkifonf/ odkY&mwGif oabmwljcif; rwljcif;rSm pmzwfol tay:wGifom rlwnfNyD; &m[kvm\ okH;oyfcsuf rsm;tay: rdrdwdkYudk,fwdkif jyefvnfokH;oyf a0zef qef;ppfonhf pmwrf;rsm; jyKpkwifjy&efom jzpfonf/ usrf;udk;rsm;ESihf ywfoufí tenf;i,f rSmzG,f&Sdygonf/ 0gvfydkvm &m[kvm udk;um;cJhonhf ygVdawmfESihf t|uxm usrf; rsm;rSm oD[dkVfrljzpfojzihf ,if;wdkYudk yd#uwfokH;ykH pD'D½Grf (*dktif umrl) jrefrmbmom pmrsufESmjzihf jyefvnf wdkufqdkifay;xm; ygonf/ oD[dkVfrlom&SdNyD; jrefrmrl &Sm;yg; odkYr[kwf rawGUzl;onhf


4

t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; uREkfyftaejzihf þusrf;pm us,fvGef;oGm;rnfudk pdk;&drf ojzihf &Hzef&Hcg &nfñTef;csufrsm;ESihf erlemykHpHrsm;udk jzpfEdkiforQ tusOf;rQudkom azmfjyygonf/ odkYwap tcsKdUae&mrsm;ü &mpkESpf aygif; rsm;pGmtvGefu rwljcm;em;onhf NrdKUjy,Ofaus;rItwGif; aexdkifcJhMuaom vlrsKd;wpfrsKd;\b0udk em;vnfNyD; ESpfoufrI twGuf vkdtyfonhf tydkif;tjcm;wpfckudk pmzwfol\ pdwfxJü zefwD;ay;vdkonhf txl;&nf½G,fcsufjzihf tawmftwef &Snfvsm; onhf 0w¬Kjzpf&yfrsm;udk azmfjyygonf/ þusrf;ü rMumcPyif 0dquf (ygVd a0omc)? 0ofpf (ygVd 0ó)? ayg, (ygVd Oaygox)? twqDvf (ygVd t|*FoDv)? aAm (ygVd aAm"d)? yD&dwf (ygVd y&dwå)? 'ga*gb (ygVd apwd,) ponhf oD&dvuFma0g[m&rsm;udk okH;EIef;xm;ygonf/ taMumif; rl ,if;a0g[m&rsm;rSm tjynfjynfqdkif&m Ak'¨bmom txl;a0g [m&rsm;tjzpf 0ifa&muf ae&m,lxm;NyD; jzpfaomaMumihfwnf;/ tdyfcsf urf; (H. Kern) udk,fwdkifyif apwd,ESifh pwly a0g[m& rsm;twGuf 'ga*gb[laom a0g[m&udk okH;pGJcJhonf/ (Manual of Indian Buddhism, pp. 91-92)/ zm[D[ef\c&D;pOfusrf;udk bm omjyefcJhol a*s v*f*sD (J. Legge) onf r[marm*¾v’m,e [l aom tqifhjrifhtoHxGuftpm; rk*vef[laom ½dk;½dk; oD&dvuFm a0g[m&udk okH;pGJNyD; ]þAk'¨om0u\ oD&dvuFmtrnf rk*vef [laom a0g[m&rSm ydkrdk toHxGuf& vG,fulonf} (p. 44, n.4)[k qdkcJhonf/ odkYjzpfí oD&dvuFmokH; Ak'¨bmoma0g[m& trsm;pk rSm ygVdouúw a0g[mrsm;xuf ydkrdktoHxGuf& vG,fulonf/ vef'ef ygVdawmftoif;rS xkwaf 0onhf ygVdusrf;pm ig;ck ajcmufckrSwpfyg; þusrf;ü tokH;jyKonhf usefygVdusrf;rsm;rSm oD[dkVfrl ygVdusrf;rsm; jzpfMuonf/ uREfkfyf\q&mjzpfol oD&dvuFmwuúodkvf? ygVdXme ygarmu© *sDyD rmvmvmaqau&tm; uREkfyftay: ulnDrItm;vkH; t wGuf aus;Zl;pum;udk xkwfazmfajymqdk&ef cufcJavmufatmif yif aus;Zl; BuD;rm;ygonf/ þusrf;ü azmfjyonhf tcsuf t

usrf;jyKol\ trSmpm urÇmhAk'¨bmom EdkifiHrsm;twGif; oD&dvuFmEdkifiHu &,lxm;aom xif&Sm;onhf tcef;u@onf &Sif;vif;NyD; em;vnfvG,fonhf oD&dvuFm Ak'¨bmomordkif;usrf;wpfapmif vdktyfcsufudk wdk;jrifh aponf/ odkY&mwGif ordkif;OD;tprSonf ,aeYacwfxd ordkif;pOf wpfavQmufvkH;rSm usrf;pmtkyfwpftkyfwnf;jzihf azmfjy&ef rjzpf Edkifavmufatmif us,f0ef;onf/ Ak'¨0g'tpydkif;acwfudkyif a0zefqef;ppf odkYr[kwf jynhfjynhf pkHpkH avhvmEdkifrnf r[kwfacs/ a'gufwm t'du&rf (Dr. E.W. Adikaram)\ ]at'D 5 &mpk ygVdbmom t|uxmusrf;rsm;ü azmfjyonhf oD&dvuFm Ak'¨bmomtajctaeusrf;}onfom þ ordkif;e,fy,fwGif okawoeqefqef a&;om;xm;onfh ,ck tcsdefxd wpfckwnf;aom usrf;jzpfonf/ odkY&mwGif ,if;usrf;ü azmfjyxm;csuft&qdkvQif ,if;usrf;rSm Ak'¨0g' usqif;oGm;rIESifh pm&dwå ysufjym;oGm;rItay: oHa0*jzpfyGm;ol Oyoumwpf a,muf\ oabmxm;udk azmfjyonf/ þusrf;\ oabmxm; cH,lcsufESihf bmom&yftay: csOf;uyfykHwdkYrSm ,if;usrf;ESihf wpf rsKd;wpfzkH jcm;em;onf/ a'gufwm t'du&rf\ usrf;pmonf at'D 5 &mpkwdkif atmifomazmfjyNyD; tcsuftvufrsm;ESifh ywfoufí ygVdbm om t|uxmusrf;rsm;udk rSDjirf;jyKonf/ þusrf;pmürl acwf tydkif;tjcm; ydkrdkus,fjyefYNyD; &Edkifoa½GU taxmuftxm; tm; vkH;eD;yg;rS tcsuftvufrsm;udk azmfjyonf/ ed'gef;ydkif;wGif þusrf;pmü tokH;jyKxm;onhf taxmuf t xm; &if;jrpfusrf;rsm;udk tusOf;csKyf jyefvSef okH;oyfxm;onf/


2

t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

&if;jrpfusrf; trsm;pkudk a&S;OD;ynm&Sifrsm;u tao;pdwf a0 zefokH;oyfxm;NyD;jzpfí uREkfyftaejzihf vuf&Sd&nf½G,fcsufESihf oufqkdifonfh tcsuftvuf tenf;i,frQudkom okH;oyfyg onf/ odkYwap a&S;OD;ynm&Sifrsm;taejzihf o[ó0w¬KESihf &o 0g[deD ESpfusrf;? txl;ojzifh ,cktcsdefxd* ykHrESdyf&ao;onhf o[ó0w¬Kusrf;udk avhvmqef;ppfrI rjyKxm;aomaMumihf xdk ESpfusrf;ESihfywfoufí ydkrdk&Snfvsm;pGm azmfjy&efvdkygonf/ yxr tcef;okH;ckwGif Ak'0¨ g'c&D;pwifcJh&m taomurif;\ tdE´d,EdkifiHESihf oD&dvuFmEdkifiHodkY Ak'¨0g'ysHUESHYvmykH aemufcHordkif; udk azmfjyonf/ ,if;aemuf tcef;av;wGif oD&dvuFmEdkifiHü Ak'¨0g'tajcusoGm;ykHESihf tcef;ig;wGif Ak'¨0g'onf EdkifiHawmf\ bmomw&m; vsifjrefpGm jzpfomG ;ykHwdkYudk azmfjyonf/ tcef; ajcmufESifh ckepfwdkYü avhvmaeqJ acwftydkif;tjcm;twGif; Ak'¨ 0g' twuftusjzpfykHrsm;odkY pmzwfoltm; cyfokwfokwf qGJac: oGm;onf/ tcef;&SpfESihfudk;wGif Ak'¨0g',Ofaus;rI\ wnf&mjzpf onhf bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm;ESihf ywfoufí zGJUpnf;ykHoGifjyif? avmuDa&;udpörsm;ESihf tkyfcsKyfykHrsm;udk ½IaxmifhrsKd;pkHrS aqG;aEG; xm;onf/ Ak'¨0g'ordkif;ESihf Ak', ¨ Ofaus;rI wdk;wufcJhonhf bkef; BuD;ausmif;b0tay: ½IaxmifhokH;rsKd;udk tcef;okH;ck cGJjcm;í azmf jyonf - tcef;wpfq,fjzihf &mpkESpfrsm; wpfavQmufvkH; vlrI a&; pD;yGm;a&; vTrf;rdk;rIrsKd;pkHatmufwGif Ak'¨0g'\ wdk;wufrIjzpf pOfudk qef;ppfNyD;? tcef;wpfq,fhwpfjzihf Ak'¨0g'\ ykHrSefaqmif ½GufpOfudk okH;oyfvsuf? tcef;q,fhESpfwGif Ak'¨0g'&Sd a&S;a[mif; oljrwfusihfpOf0g' jzpfay:vmykHudk aqG;aEG;onf/ tcef;q,fhokH; wGif a&S;acwfoD[kdVfü &[EÅmrsm;tjzpf &nfñTef;jcif;cH&onhf olawmfpif &[ef;awmfrsm;\ ta&;ygrIudk BudK;pm; azmfxkwf onf/ tcef;q,fhav;jzihf tcef;q,fhig;wGif wifjyrnhf vl0wf *

1959 – ckESpf? (oD[dkVftu©&mjzihf) atyD Ak'¨'wårax&f wnf;jzwfxkwf a0onhf tcsdefrwdkifrDtxd (udk &nf½G,fonf)/

usrf;jyKol\trSmpm

3

aMumif Oygoumrsm;\ bmoma&;b0aemufcHtjzpf pD;yGm;a&; ESihf vlrIa&;ZmwfckHrS ¤if;wdkY\vlrIb0taMumif;udk azmfjyonf/ tcef;q,fhajcmuf wpfckvkH;jzihf xif&Sm;vmonhf Ak'¨w&m;awmf \ ta&;BuD; tpdwftydkif;wpfck jzpfvmonhf bmoma&; taqmifta,mifrsm;? tcrf;tem;rsm;ESihf yGJawmfrsm;taMumif; udk azmfjyonf/ a&S;acwf oD&dvuFm\ ynma&;ESihfywfoufí tenf; i,frQomod&NyD; wpfpkHwpf&m a&;om;csufrsm; rawGU& acs/ aemufqkH;cef;ü a&S;a[mif;oD[dkVf\ avmuD avmukwå&m ynma&; pepftaMumif;udk BudK;pm;í aqG;aEG;xm;onf/ aemuf qufwGJtjzpf oD&dvuFm Ak'¨bmomordkif;wGif ta&;BuD;onhf tcef; wpfcktjzpfyg0ifonhf r[m0d[m&[laom a0g[m&udk &Sif;vif; &ef aqmif;yg;wdk wpfyk'fudk xnhfoGif;xm;onf/ oD&dvuFm r[m,meAk'¨bmomtaMumif;udkrl BuKH&mtcef; rsm;ü Mum;ñSyf taMumif;t&mtjzpfom aqG;aEG;ygonf/ odkY&m wGif oD&dvuFmodyÜH*sme,f Ceylon Journal of Science, Section G, Vol. II wGif a'gufwm tufpf y&e0dwe (Dr. S. Paranavitana) yk*¾Kdvfu tvGefjynhfpkH aumif;rGefonhf ]oD[dkVfr[m,meAk'¨0g'} aqmif;yg;jzihf azmfjyxm;NyD;jzpfí oD&dvuFm r[m,meAk'¨0g' ESifhywfoufí oD;jcm;tcef;wpfck xnhfoGif;azmfjy&efrl uREfkyf wrifoufouf csefxm;cJhonf/ þusrf;wGif pmaytEkynmESifh ywfoufí oD;oefY tcef; zGJUí azmfjyxm;jcif; rjyKay/ ,if;taMumif;t&mESifh ywfoufí a&;om;xm;csuf rsm;pGm &SdNyD;jzpfonf/ ykHpHtm;jzihf a'gufwm rmvmvmaqau&\ ]oD[dkVfygVdpmayusrf;} jzpfonf/ odkYwap owfrSwfacwf tydkif;tjcm;twGif; pmaywdk;wufrItaMumif; jyqdkoihfonhf tcsuftvuftcsKdUudkrl &if;jrpfusrf;rsm; aqG;aEG; rItcef;? bkef;BuD;ausmif;b0ESihf ynma&; tcef;rsm;ü tusOf;rQ azmfjyygonf/ xdkYtwlyif tEkynmtaMumif;udk oD;oefYazmf rjyaomfvnf; oufqdkifonhf ae&mrsm;ü &nfñTef;azmfjycsufrsm; udk awGU&rnfjzpfonf/


usrf;jyKol\trSmpm

5

vufwdkif;yif q&m\ *½kwpdkuf Munfh½Ijcif;rS rvGwfEdkifay/ ok awoe tawGUtBuKHESihf pmayESHYpyfonhf q&m a'gufwm rm vmvm aqau&ESihf twlwuGaqmif½Gufjcif;rSm ESpfoufzG,f aumif;NyD; tusKd;&Sdaom pnf;urf;wpf&yfvnf; jzpfonf/ rdwfaqG &[ef;okH;yg;jzpfMuonfh (1) 0de,jyóemrsm;pGm ESihf ywfoufí wefzdk;&Sdonhf aqG;aEG;rIrsm;jzihf uREkfyftm; ulnD cJhonhf uG,fvGefol wdyd#ump&d, ['dy@v0dZÆmvuFm& 'kwd , ausmif;tkyf ynmavmurax&f (2) ygVdbmomESifhpmay t xl;ojzihf tzGifhusrf;rsm;qdkif&mwGif us,fajymonhf A[kkokwjzihf uREkfyftm; ulnDcJhonhf 'kwd,ausmif;tkyfESihf ñTefMum;a&;rSL; ,u©'ka0od&d ynm&mr rax&fESihf (3) us,f0ef;onhf jyóem tcsKdUESihf ywfoufNyD; aqG;aEG;cGifhay;cJhonfh ,if;ausmif;wdkuf\ ausmif;tkyfBuD; wdyd#ump&d, aum#a[ae ynmudwådrax&f wdkYtm; aus;Zl; txl;wifygonf/ uREkfyf\ usrf;pmESihf ywfoufNyD; rqGuwnf;u pdwf0ifpm; cJhol oD[dkVfwuúodkvf t*FvdyfpmXme ygarmu© a'gufwm tD; tufzf pD vl'dk0pfuf (Dr. E.F.C. Ludowyk)onf t*Fvdyfpm ta&;tom;wGifomru tzdk;wefonhf wdkufwGef;csuf rsm;pGmudk vnf; ay;cJhonf/ uREkfyftaejzihf ulnDrItm;vkH;twGuf yg armu©BuD;udkvnf; aus;Zl;txl;wifygonf/ þusrf;pmESihf ywf oufí a0zefaqG;aEG;rI rsm;pGmESihf tzdk;wef wdkufwGef;csuf tcsKdUay;cJhol ordkif;ygarmu© a'gufwm tdyfcsf pD a&; (Dr. H.C. Ray) tm;vnf; aus;Zl;pum; qdkygonf/ a&S;acwf oD[dkVfajrykHudk jyifqifay;ol rpöwm pD 'AsL edudk vufpf (Mr. C.W. Nicholas)ESihf oD&dvuFm a&S;a[mif;okaw oeXmeu wnf;jzwfxm;aom tEk&m"yk&NrdKU ajrykHudk tokH;jyK cGifhay;onhftwGuf a&S;a[mif;okawoeXme? XmerSL;udkvnf; aus;Zl;wifygonf/ þusrf;pm\ tu©&mpOftñTef;udk MuifempGm pDpOfay;ol


6

t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

yJ&pfNrKdUom; trf *sdrf; bmx&ef Adkuefa' (M. Jean Bertrand Bocande) tm; aus;Zl;wifygonf/ aemufqkH;taejzihf enf;rsKd; pkHjzihf MuifempGm ulnDtMuHay;cJhol oD&dvuFma0g[m&tbd"mef t,f'DwmcsKyf rpöwm *sLvD,yfpf 'D vefem'dkvDESifh þusrf;pm xGufay:vmatmif zefwD;cJhonhf a'[d0gvc½dkif? ae'drvNrdKU Ak'¨,Ofaus;rIXmewdkYtm; aus;Zl;wifygonf/ 0gvfydkvm &m[kvm "r®,xe r0x ygvDrefvrf; od&d Z,0ga'eyk&? aumhawNrKdU Mo*kwfv? 1993 ckESpf/

ABBREVIATIONS

CBhA CJSc DhAG DPPN EHBC ERE EZ. Fa Hein

Catubhnavartthakatha (Saratthasamuccaya) Ceylon Journal of Seience. Dhampiya-Atuva-Gatapadaya Dictionary of Pali Proper Names by G/)/ Malalasekera. Early History of Buddhism in Ceylon Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. Epigraphia Zeylanics. A Record of Buddhist Kingdoms: An Account of the Chinese Monk Fa Hien of his Travels in India and Ceylon translated by J. Legge. HBT. History of Buddhist Thought by E.J. Thomas. HIL. History of Indian Literature by M. Winternitz. Hiuen Tsiang Buddhist Records of the Western World translated from the Chinese of Hiuen Tsiang by Samuel Beal. JAG. Jataka-Atuva Gatapadaya. JRAS. (CB) Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Beylon Branch). Manu Manusmrt MIB Manual of Indian Buddhism by H. Kern. Pjv. Pujavaliya PLC Pali Literature of Cehlon by G.P. Malalasekera (1928) RE. Rock Edicts of Asoka. Rjv. Rajavaliya RsvT. Rasavahini Tika Sat.Br. Satapatha Brahmana SBE Sacred Books of the East. Shv Sahassavatthu. UCR University of Ceylon Review.

jrefrm pmzwfy&dowfrsm;twGufjzpfí ygVdawmf t|uxm usrf;ñTef; oauFwudk razmfjyawmhbJ t*Fvdyfbmom usrf;pm rsm;ESihf jrefrmtu©&mjzihf ykHrESdyf&ao;aom ygVdusrf;pmtcsKdU\ twdkdrSwf oauFwrsm;udkom azmjfyygonf/ tcsKdUusrf;rsm;rSm tjynhftpkH azmfjyí usrf;ñTef;oauFw azmfjy&ef rvdktyfaom aMumihf csefxm;cJhygonf/


12 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; 1

rsm;udk udk;um;csufrsm; awGU&onf / 'Dy0Hoyg taMumif;t&mrsm;onf jrwfAk'¨\jzpfawmfpOf tusOf;? jrwfAk'¨ oD&dvuFmodkY a'opm&D <ua&mufykHESihf pNyD; at'Dav;&mpk r[maoerif;vufxufwGif NyD;qkH;onf/ 'Dy0Ho usrf;\ rajyjypfonhf bmompum;ESihf a&;[ef? o'´ga&;qdkif&m xl;jcm;csufrsm;? xyfcgxyfcg jyqdkrIrsm;ESifh azmfjyykH tpDtpOf rusrIwdkYonf pmzwfoltm; ,if;usrf;udk yk*¾Kdvfwpfa,mufu tpOftwkdif; a&;om;onfr[kwfbJ oD[dkVfuRef; a'otoD;oD; acwfumv tzkHzkHwGif aexkdifcJhMuonhf *gxmAE¨a&;zGJUrI ruRrf; usifolwdkY\ xyfjznhf a&;om;csufrsm;tjzpf ,kHMunfaponf/ t&Sifr[mAk'¨aCmoonf ¤if;\ oreÅygom'dum 0de,| uxmü ordkif;qdkif&m ed'gef;udkazmfjy&mü 'Dy0Housrf;udk rSDjirf; 2 jyKcJhaMumif; ygarmu© 0DvsH*dkif*gu ,lqcJhonf / odkY&mwGif ygVd t|uxm usrf;rsm;a&m 'Dy0Housrf;yg tokH;rsm; xif&Sm;onhf &if;jrpfusrf;wpfckrS &,lcJhonf[q k dkrl ydkí rSefuefzG,f&Sdonf/ ayg&mPuxmrsm;ESihf txl;razmfjyonhf tjcm;aom rl&if;usrf; tcsKdUrS orEÅygom'dumü udk;um;cJhonhf *gxmtcsKdUrSm 'Dy0Ho 3 usrf;*gxmESihf tenf;i,fom uGJjym;onfudk awGU&onf / a&S; a[mif; oD[dkVfbmom t|uxmusrf;rsm;onf 'Dy0Housrf;\ udk;um;&m &if;jrpfusrf;rsm; jzpfaMumif; rSef;qEdkif&monf/ 4 r[m0Housrf; - yxrydkif; (tcef; 1 rS tcef; 37 \ *gxmtrSwf 50 xd)udk at'D ig;&mpk cefYu tEk&m"yk&NrdKU? 'DC 1

0d-| 1? 56/ tbd-| 3? 107/ *dkif*g? r[m0Ho (t*Fvdfyf) bmmomjyef? ed'gef;? pm-11/ 3 'Dy0Ho tcef; 12? 35-39 *gxmESihf 0d-| 1? pm- 41 vm *gxmrsm;ESihf 'Dy0Ho tcef; 4? 50-51 *gxmrsm;/ 0d-| 1? pm- 19-20 *gxmrsm;udk EIdif;,SOfMunfhyg/ 4 ygarmu© *dkif*gESihf tjcm;rsm;pGmaom ynm&Sifrsm;u a,bk,stm;jzihf tcef; 1 rS tcef; 37 *gxmtrSwf 50 xdudkomvQif r[m0Husrf; t 2

ed'gef; usrf;udk;&if;jrpfrsm; þusrf;pm tajcjyKcJhonhf t"du&if;jrpfusrf;rsm;udk (ordkif;t&) tkyfpkckepfrsKd; cGJjcm;Edkif&monf – 1/ ygVdawmfusrf;pmrsm; 2/ taomu ausmufpmrsm; 3/ oD&dvuFm ausmufpmrsm; 4/ ygVdordkif;usrf;rsm; 5/ ygVdbmom t|uxmusrf;rsm; 6/ tpOftvm Zmwf0w¬Krsm;ESihf 7/ ygVd oD[dkVf taxGaxGusrf;pmrsm; 1/ ygVd awmf usrf;pmrsm; ygVdtzGifhESihf tjcm;usrf;rsm;wGif azmfjyonhftwkdif; Ak'¨bmom taMumif; txl;ojzihf oHCmawmfrsm;taMumif; ½IaxmihfrsKd;pkHrS aqG;aEG;&mü "r®0de,qdkif&m usrf;pmrsm;\ tultnDudk ,if; wdkY\ ordkif;qdkif&m wdk;wufrIudk ajc&mcH&ef vdktyfonhf ae&m wdkif;rS &,lonf/ tdE´d,ESifh oD&dvuFm Ak'¨bmom\ tapmydkif; &mpkESpfrsm;twGif; ygVdawmfusrf;pmrsm; wdk;yGm;rIudk oufaojy &ef taxmuftxm; &Sdaomfvnf; ,if;wdkY\ wdk;wufrIrSm uefY oufcsuf&SdNyD; aemufqkH; t&Sifr[mAk'¨aCmo rax&fu oD[dkVf bmom ygVdawmf tzGifhusrf;rsm;udk ygVdbmomodkY jyefqdkvdkuf


10 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

csdef at'Dig;&mpkwGif ygVdawmfusrf;rsm;rSm pepfwus pDpOfNyD; jzpfaMumif; oHo,jzpf&ef taMumif;r&Sdacs/ 2/ taomuausmufpmrsm; taomuausmufpmrsm;onf bDpDokH;&mpk tdE´d,\ vlrIa&;ESihf bmoma&;b0 jyefvnfwnfaqmufjcif;ESifhywfoufí av;pm; &aom tcsuftvuftwGuf aus;Zl;wifxdkufonhf taxmuf txm;rsm;jzpfvsuf ,if;ausmufpmrsm;udk þusrf;ü tdE´d, aemufcHordkif;udk azmfjy&mwGif us,fjyefYpGm tokH;jyKxm;onf/ 3/ oD&dvuFm ausmufpmrsm; bDpDokH;&mpk Ak'¨0g' a&muf&SdvmNyD;aemufrSom oDd[dkVfuRef;ü pm ayta&;tom; rSwfwrf;rsm;udk awGU&onf/ ,if;wkdYteuf & [ef;awmfrsm; aexdkifp&mtjzpf tokH;jyKaom*l0&Sd a&oa&muf pGef;rsm; (Drip-ledges) atmufwGif a&;xGif;xm;aom pmwrf; rsm;ü awGU&onhf tapmqkH; rSwfwrf;rsm;onf bDpD 3 &mpk odkY r[kwf 2 &mpkcefYtxd a&S;usonf/ c&pfESpfrwkdifrD awGU&onhf xdkrSwfwrf;rsm;rSm a,bk,s tm;jzifh ]þrnfþrnfaom*ludk oHCmtm; vª'gef;\}[k azmfjy onhf ykHaouJhodkY tvGefwdkawmif;aom vª'gef;rIjy a&;rSwfcsuf rsm; jzpfMuonf/ a&avSmifuef? wl;ajrmif;ESihf v,fuGif;rsm;rS&onfh 0ifaiG rsm;? a&rS &onhftcGefrsm;? &[ef;oHCmESihf bkef;BuD;ausmif;rsm; udk xdef;odrf;apmihfa&Smuf&ef tjcm;0ifaiGrsm;tm; ay;tyfrIudk rSwfwrf;wifonfh ausmufxGif; ta&;tom;rsm;udk at'Dyxr &mpk aemufydkif;wGif awGU&onf/ ,if;rSwfwrf;rsm;ü bkef;BuD; ausmif;wkdufrsm; wnfaqmufrIESihf jyKjyifrIrsm; taMumif;udk rMumcP awGU&onf/ bmoma&; &nf½G,fcsuftrsKd;rsKd;twGuf ulnDyHhydk;rIykHpHwpfck tjzpf pyg;ESifh tjcm;oD;ESHwdk;rsm; ay;tyfrIudk at'D av;&mpkrS

usrf;udk;&if;jrpfrsm;

11

pwif awGU&Sd&onf/ bmoma&;qdkif&m ulnDyHhydk;rItjzpf aiGaMu; tyfESHrIrsm;udk ig;&m;pk aemufydkif;rSom awGU&Sd&onf/ bkef;BuD;ausmif;rsm;ESihf a'oqdkif&m tpkd;&tkyfcsKyfa&;? Oy a'ESihf xkH;pHrsm;uJhodkYaom udpörsm;ESihf oufqdkifonhf &Snfvsm;NyD; wefzdk;&Sdaom ausmufxGif; ta&;tom;rsm;udk at'Dudk;&mpk aemufydkif;ü awGU&onf/ ausmufxGif;pmrsm;onf xkH;pHtwdkif;yif ,if;acwfu yk*¾Kdvfrsm;ESihf vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;udk azmfjyygu wefzdk;t&SdqkH; orkdif;qdkif&m &if;jrpfrsm; jzpfMuonf/ odkYwap ausmufpmrsm; wGif twdwfjzpf&yfrsm;udk jyqdkaomtcgürl xdkrSwfwrf;rsm;\ ta&;ygrIrSm &mZ0ifusrf;rsm;xufydkí ta&;rygawmhacs/ q,f &mpk rwdkifrDausmufpmrsm;ü q,fhESpf&mpkausmufpmrsm;wGif t awGUrsm;onhf pum;wefqmqifí a&;om;rIrsKd;udk awGU&onf/ &mpkESpf apmapmydkif;umv tvGefwdkawmif;aom ausmuf pmrsm;rSmyif taMumif;t&m tm;avsmfpGm pum;vkH;wpfvkH; odkY r[kwf 0guswpfaMumif;yifjzpfap tzdk;wef owif;tcsuf t vufrsm; yg0ifouJhodkY &mpkESpfaESmif;ydkif;umv ausmufpm&Snf rsm;üvnf; ordkif;tcsuftvuf tajrmuftjrm;udk ay;xm; onf/ a&S;acwf oD[dkVfausmufpmrsm;ü tpdk;&ydkif;qdkif&mESifh 1 yk*¾Kdvfa&;qdkif&m rSwfwrf;rsm; yg0ifonf/ 4/ ygVdordkif;usrf;rsm; 'Dy0Housrf;onf ,aeYwdkifwnf&Sdao;onhf a&S;tusqkH; oD&d vuFmordkif;usrf;jzpfonf/ 'Dy0Housrf;\ ,aeYacwfykHpHusrf;udk at'Dav;&mpk vuf&m[k ,cktcg oabmwlMuonf/ at'D ig;&mpk tpydkif;wGif a&;om;cJhonfh t&Sifr[mAk'¨aCmo\ t| uxm usrf;rsm;ü 'Dy0HotrnfESifh ,if; 'Dy0Housrf;rS *gxm 1

oD[dkVfausmufxGif; rSwfwrf;tm;vkH;udk r&Edkifawmhacs/ þusrf;ü twGJ 1 rS 4 xd ykHESdyfxm;aom ausmufpmrsm;udkom tokH;jyKxm;ygonf/


16 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

yg&Sdonfh avmuDa&;&m ordkif;aMumif;onf bmoma&;ordkif;udk 2 avmuf tom;ray;acs/ (ordkif;q&m) um&fef u ,if;ordkif; usrf;rsm;onf oD&dvuFm Ak'¨bmomordkif;twGuf tvGefta&; ygrIESihfywfoufí txl; todtrSwfjyKxdkufaMumif; qdkcJhonf/ 3 ygarmu© *dkif*gu ,if;ordkif;usrf;ESpfapmiftm; orkdif; &if;jrpf 4 usrf;rsm;tjzpf owdrloihfaMumif; ,lqonf / r[m0Ho\tzGifhusrf;onf r[m0Ho#Dumtjzpf vlodrsm; aomfvnf; ,if;trnfjzihf usrf;jyKq&mu rnfonhfae&mwGifrSm ac:a0:jcif;rjyKacs/ usrf;jyKyk*¾Kdvf\ udk,fydkiftrnfrSm 0How¬ yumodeD jzpfNyD; &Sif;jyacgif;pOfrSm yZÆ ya'g½k 0Ho0PÖem jzpf onf/ usrf;jyKyk*¾KdvfrSm tpOftvmt& r[memr (r[m0Ho usrf;jyK r[kwfol) rax&fwpfyg; a&;om;cJhaMumif; ,kHMunfMu onf/ vef'efygVawmftoif; (Pali Text Society)twGuf ,if; usrf;udk wnf;jzwfay;cJhol rmvmvmaqau&u r[m0Ho#D 5 umudk at'D 8 &mpkESihf 9 &mpkcefY[k ,lqcJhonf / r[m0Ho#D umonf a&S;a[mif; oD[dkVft|uxm? tpOftvmpum; (ayg &mP)? Owå&0d[m&t|uxm? 0de,|uxm? 'Dy0Ho|uxm? oDrm|uxm? apwd,0Ho|uxm? r[maAm"d0Ho|uxm? o[ó0w¬Kt|uxm? *P²dy'0PÖemuJhodkYaom &if;jrpfusrf; rsm;rS tav;*½kjyKxdkufonhf tcsuftvufopf trsm;tjym;udk &,lcJhaMumif; uREfkyfwdkY em;vnf&onf/ aemufqkH;azmfjycsufrSm r[m0Hovm cufcJonhf pum;vkH;rsm;ESihf 0gusrsm;udk tusOf; 1 2

þusrf;? pm 329 udk ½Iyg/ Manual of Indian Buddhism by Kern, p 9.

3

*dkif*g\ r[m0Hot*Fvdyfbmomjyefed'gef;? pm – 9/ tao;pdwfrsm;udk Geiger \ 'Dy0HoESihf r[m0Ho? B.C. Law \ Chronicles of Ceylon usrf;rsm;udk ½Iyg/ 5 r[m0Ho#Dum ed'gef;? pm- 109/ 4

On the

usrf;udk;&if;jrpfrsm; 13 1 oE´aoemywd\ausmif;wdkufü oDwif;okH;cJhaom r[memrac: onhf rax&fwpfyg; a&;om;cJhaMumif; od&onf/ 'kwd,ydkif; (tcef; 37? *gxm 51 rS tcef; 49 txd)udk at'D 13 &mpkwGif t&Sif"r®udwådrax&f a&;om;onf/ aygvkEé½k0NrdKUwGif jzpfzG,&f Sd onf/ þusrf;ü r[m0Ho\ tjcm;tydkif;rsm;udk &Hzef&Hcg udk; um;aomfvnf; usrf;tprS tcef; 52 txdaom tpdwftydkif; udkomvQif t"duESifh cyfrsm;rsm; tokH;jyKxm;onf/ jzpf ,lqMuonf/ ,if;usrf;\ useftpdwftydkif;rsm;udk *dkif*gu ESpfwGJ cGJí wnf;jzwf bmomjyefxm;onfhtwdkif; ¤if;wdkYu plV0Housrf;[k ac:a0:Muonf/ odkY&mwGif ,if;odkY ydkif;jcm;owfrSwfjcif;ESihf ywfouf í taMumif;wpfpkHwpf&m &SdykHr&acs/ *dkif*gu (plV0Ho twGJ 1? ed'gef; pmrsufESm 1 wGif) tydkif; 2 ESihf 3 udk trnfay;&mü ñSdonhftaejzihf r[m0Ho tcef; 99 ? *gxm 76 tm; plV0Hotjzpf &nfñTef;xm;onf/ odkYwap ,if;azmfjycsufrSm caemfceJYEdkifvGef;onf/ ,if;onf ]tpOf tquf}ESifh ordkif;usrf;r[kwf[laom t"dyÜm,fjzihf ]r[m&mZm tpOf tquf}(r[m0Ho)ESihf ]plV&mZmtpOftquf}(plV0Ho)udk &nf½G,fonf/ ,if;tcef; *gxmtrSwf 78 wGif ]r[m0HoH ed|dwH} [kyif qdkonf/ r[m0Housrf;jyKq&mrsm;onf r[m0Ho plV0Ho[k cGJjcm;owfrSwf jcif;rjyKcJhMuay/ ¤if;wdkYonf usrf;pmwpfckvkH;wGif tcef;toD;oD;\ ed*kH; ü ykHaoazmfjyonfhpmaMumif;t& ,if;usr;f wpfusrf;vkH;udk tprStqkH; wkdif r[m0Ho[kyif trnfay;cJhMuonf/ cGJjcm;ac:a0:&ef pwifcJhMu olrsm;rSm edum,o*F[usrf;ESihf &mZm0vd, usrf;jyKyk*¾Kdvf rsm;uJhodkY aom aESmif;acwf usrf;jyKyk*¾Kdvfrsm;om jzpfMuonf/ qef;onfrSm edum ,o*F[usrf;jyKq&monfyif *dkif*g cGJjcm;owfrSwfcJhonhf plV0Housrf; rS tcef; 37 \ *gxm trSwf 75 udk r[m0Housrf;[k (edum,? pm13) udk;um;cJhjcif;jzpfonf/ edum,o*F[usrf;jyKq&monf tcef; 37 udk r[m0Housrf;ü xnfhoGif;cJhovm; qdkonfudkrl uREkfyfwdkY rod&ay/ þusrf;ü tcef; 1 rS tcef; 101 txd r[m&mZ0ifwpfckvkH;udk ,if;\usrf;jyKq&mwdkY rSnfhac:cJhonfhtwdkif; r[m0Ho[kyifac:a0: xm;onf/ udkvHbdkNrdKUu ykHESdyfonhf pmtkyfüvnf; wpftyk fvkH;udk r[m 0Ho[kyif rSnhfac:onf/ 1 r[m0Ho#Dum ac: 0How¬yÜumoeD? pm – 687/


14 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

r[m0Husrf;um; &if;jrpfusrf; rsm;pGmudk tajccHonf/ usrf; \tpqkH; (tcef; 1? *gxm2) wGif t&Sifr[memrrax&fu a&S;q&m (ayg&mP)wdkY a&;om;NyD; xyfcgxyfcg jyqdkrIrsm; rvdk tyfbJ tus,fcsJUum;csufrsm;uJhodkYaom rSm;,Gif;rIrsm; yg&Sdonhf tvm;wl usrf;wpfapmif&SdaMumif; azmfjyonf/ ,if;usrf;rSm vuf&Sd 'Dy0Husrf;jzpfap tjcm;usrf; wpfckjzpfap 'Dy0Hoonf r[m0Housrf;jyKq&m\ rSDjirf;usrf; wpfcktjzpf oHo, rjzpf oihfacs/ wpfzef t&Sifr[memronf tpOftvmajymqdkonfwdkY (okwdawm p tm*wH)udkvnf; xnfhoGif;cJhonf/ ta&;ygonhf ukodkvftrsKd;rsKd; taMumif;udk a&;om;xm; 1 onf h ]ukodkvfpmtkyf} (yknaygw¬u)[k ac:onhf bk&ihfrdom;pk rsm;ESihf <u,f0olrsm;\tdrfü odrf;qnf;xm;aom tjcm;rSwf wrf;rsm;vnf; &Sdao;onf/ ,if;rSwfwrf;rsm;ü trsm;pkrSm ausmif;wdkuf? apwD? a&uefESihf wl;ajrmif;rsm; ponfESihf tjcm; rsm;pGmaom bk&ifESihf rª;rwfrsm;\ tvª'gea&;&m aqmif½GufrI 2 rsm;udk tajcjyKMuonf / 'kwd, 'yÜKv [kvnf;ac:aom yxr O',bk&if (793-797 at'D)onf ¤if;\ qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;udk pmtkyfwGif a&;rSwfxm;apNyD; eef;awmfü vkHNcKHpGm odrf;qnf;xm; 3 aMumif; qdkonf / bk&iftcsKdU\ trdefYt& jyKpkxm;aom tpdk;& 4 aqmif½Gufcsuf rSwfwrf;rsm;vnf; &SdMuonf / xdkYjyif 'gXm"mwk 5 6 0Ho ? auo"mwk0Ho ESihf tvm;wl usrf;rsm;pGm uJhodkYaom 7 ordkif;qdkif&m a&S;OD; a&;om;csufrsm;vnf; &SdMuao;onf/

usrf;udk;&if;jrpfrsm;

15

r[m0Housrf;onf uAsmAE¨ESihf pdwful;rsm;jzihf rGrf;rH csJU um; xm;aomfvnf; usrf;jyKyk*¾Kdvfrsm;onf &Edkifonhf udk;um; usrf;rsm;twdkif; tvGefopöm&SdpGm a&;om;xm;onf/ rl&if;usrf; wdkYü azmfjyonhf tao;pdwf tcsuftvufrsm;udk r[m0Hoü 1 tvGef *½kwpdkuf xnhfoGif;azmfjyonf / &if;jrpfusrf;rsm;wGif 2 rygonfh tcsuftcsKdUudkyif azmfjyonfrSm aocsmonf / r[m0Ho yxrydkif;usrf;jyKyk*¾Kdvf\ bufrvdkuf rQwrIum; pHwifavmufonf/ usrf;jyKyk*¾Kdvfonf EdkifiHjcm;om; wrDvfvlrsKd; tkyfcsKyfolrsm;udkyif EdkifiHjcm;om;rsm; jzpfvihfupm; tu,fí ¤if;wdkYtaejzihf trSefwu,f aumif;rGefolrsm;jzpfvQif rQw aumif;rGefaMumif; jyqdkcJhonf/ wrDvf tmPmodrf;olrsm; jzpf Muonfh aoeESihf *kwådu yk*¾KdvfESpfa,mufudk "r®ESifhtnD tkyf 3 csKyfolrsm;jzpfaMumif; azmfjyonf / oD&dvuFmxD;eef;udk vuf eufjzihf tEdkifodrf;,lcJhonfh apmVwdkif;om; {Vm&rif;om;rSmrl vlBudKuf rrsm;cJhacs/ odkY&mwGif r[memrax&fu xdkrif;om; onf rQwNyD; pDrHcefYcGrJ IwGif bufrvdkufaMumif;ESihf jzpf&yfrsm;udk 4 axmufjyNyD; erlemrsm; xkwfjyonf / tcsKdUae&mrsm;wGif r[m0Hotm; ordkif;rSwfwrf;tjzpf,lq &efcJ,Of;onf/ r[m0Housrf;onf oD&dvuFmordkif;usrf;r[kwf vQif ,if;onf oD&dvuFm Ak'¨0g'ordkif;usrf;tjzpf aocsmayguf qdkEkdifNyD; þoD&dvuFmAk'¨0g'ordkif;usrf;onf oD&dvuFmordkif;\ t"du tpdwftydkif;wpfcktjzpf ae&m,lonf/ 'Dy0Hoa&m r[m 0Hoyg ESpfusrf;vkH; Ak'¨0g'ordkif;rsm; jzpfMuonf/ ¤if;usrf;rsm;ü

1

þusrf; pmrsufESm 444 udk ½Iyg/ Oyrm r[m0Ho? tcef; 32? 26 *gxm/ tcef; 38? 46 *gxm/ tcef; 79? 62 *gxm/ 3 r[m0Ho? tcef; 59?20 *gxm/ 4 ,if;usrf;? tcef; 59? 7 *gxm/ 5 ,if;usrf;? tcef; 37? 93 *gxm/ 6 ,if;usrf;? tcef; 39? 49 ESifh 56 *gxm/ 7 þusrf;? pmrsufESm – 81? 85 udkvnf;½I/ 2

1

Oyrm r[m0Ho? tcef; 14? 17? 21? 24? 30/ tcef; 38? 59 *gxm/ tcef; xlix ? 66-67 *gxmwdkYudk ½Iyg/ 2 r[m0Ho? tcef; 19? 44 *gxm/ *Pem, y&dapäa'g? ayg&maP[d e bmodawm (ta&twGuf tydkif;tjcm;udk a&S;q&mwdkY azmjy rxm;yg)/ 3 ,if; tcef; 21? 11 *gxm/ 4 ,if; tcef; 21? 14 *gxm/


20 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

usrf;udk;&if;jrpfrsm; 1

'wGm taEÅ cD&,m*kH vbdwGm *wbdu©K0w¬Kapw¬ uaxwAÁH} þae&mü tpwGif &&SdorQ tpm;tpmudk uav;rsm;tm; ay;pGefYNyD; EdkY,m*kqGrf;udk &zdkYtwGuf xGufcGmoGm;aom &[ef; 0w¬Kudkvnf; azmfjyoihf\}/ ,if;0w¬Kjzpf&yfrsm;udk azmfjyrxm;ojzihf ,cktcg ,if;wdkY udk ajc&mcHvdkuf&ef rvG,fulawmhacs/ odkYwap ,if;jzpf&yf rsm;rSm t|uxmusrf;rsm;udk a&;om;pOfu ,aeYacwfwGif ajracG;ESihf pyspfoD;ykHjyifudk vltrsm; em;vnfouJhodkY xdkacwf 2 u vltrsm; odvG,fonfrSm xif&Sm;onf / 6/ tpOftvm Zmwf0w¬Krsm; 3 o[ó0w¬Kt|uxm odkYr[kwf o[ó0w¬Kyu&P usrf; onf oD[dkVfwuúodkvfpmMunhfwdkufü "mwfykHrdwåL ESpftkyfESihf vufa&;rlwpftkyf &Sdonf/ (1) o[ó0w¬Kyu&Pusrf;? NAdwdoQjywdkuf&Sd ay½Gufrl oD[dkVf tu©&ma&; rdwåL t½Guf 40? ay½Gufa& 154 csyf &Sdonf/ pmvkH;yg pmrsufESmwpfck\ t&SnfrSm 16 vufrjzpfonf/ ay wpf½GufvQif udk;aMumif;&Sdonf/ t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh ]þo[ó 0w¬Kyu&Pusrf;udk 1894 ckESpfwGif tEk&m"yk&NrdKU tpdk;&Xme udk,fpm;vS,f tdyfcsf aeaAvD tDpfauG;vsm; (H. Neville Esquire) xHodkY a*gavNrdKU? *ifawmw&yf? wdblrdum&mrausmif; wdkufae tufpf ynmeE´ qxm0d& yk*¾Kdvfu vufaqmifay;onf}/ 1

,if; pm? 29/ aemufxyf erlemrsm;udk 0dok'¨d 1? 120/ tH-| 1? 395 wdkYü ½Iyg/ 2 rl&if;usrf;rsm;? obm0ESihf ygVdt|uxmusrf;rsm;ü yg0ifrIrsm;udk tao; pdwfavhvmvdkygu t'du&rf (E. W. Adikaram)\ Early History of Buddhisn in Ceylone usrf;pm tydkif; 1 udk ½Iyg/ 3 aemufxyf okawoetwGuf tvif;a&mifay;a&;twGuf jiif;ckHrI t enf;rS wpfyg; þtaMumif;t&mudk Unversty of Ceylon Review twGJ 2? pm-86-91 wGif awGU&onf/

17

1

csKyf &Sif;jycsufjzpfaMumif; xif&Sm;onf / 5/ ygVdbmom t|uxmusrf;rsm; at'D ig;&mpk tEk&m"yk&NrdKU r[m0d[m&ausmif;wkdufwGif a&; om;onhf t&Sifr[mAk'¨aCmo\ ygVdawmftzGifhusrf;rsm;onf bDpD 3 &mpkrS at'D 5 &mpktxd oD&dvuFm Ak'¨bmomordkif;udk jyefvnf qef;ppfrItwGuf tm;xm;EdkifNyD; tqDtESpfjynfh0onhf tcsuftvuf &if;jrpfrsm;jzpfonf/ t&Sifr[mAk'¨aCm\ vkyf ief;rSm wnf;jzwfol bmomjyefyk*K¾ dvfjzpfaomfvnf; rdrdwm0efudk jynhfpkHpGm aqmif½GufcJhykH&NyD; t&Sifjrwf\ wwfuRrf;rIESihf ta&; ygrIaMumihf t&Sifjrwftm; ,ckacwfwGif t|uxmusrf; tm; vkH; eD;yg;udk a&;om;cJholtjzpf ,lqcH&onf/ yd#uwfokH;ykH\ tzGifh t|uxmusrf;rsm;udk t&Sifr[dE´ oD&dvuFmodkY aqmif,l cJhaMumif;ESihf oD[dkVfuRef;ol uRef;om;wdkY\ tusKd;twGuf ,if; t|uxmusrf;rsm;udk rlvu oD[dkVfbmomjzihf a&;om;cJh 2 aMumif; t&Sifr[mAk'¨aCmorax&fu qdkonf / rlv odkYr[kwf r[mt|uxm? r[mypö&dt|uxmESihf uk½kE´dt|uxmusrf;rSm ta&;ygonfh wdyd#uusrf;pm tm;vkH; eD;yg;rQ\ tzGifhusrf;rsm;udk txnfudk,fjyKcJhonhf oD[dkVfbmom tajccH tzGifhusrf;rsm; jzpfMuonf/ ,if;usrf;rsm;tjyif tvGef ta&;rygonhf oD[dkVfbmomtzGifhusrf; trsm;tjym;vnf; &Sd onf/ ,if; (oD[dkVfbmom) yd#uwfokH;ykH tzGihfusrf;rsm;udk a&S; tusqkH;aom pmayvuf&mrsm;tjzpf ,lqEdkifonf/ ,aeYacwf wGif ,if; (oD[dkVf) t|uxmusrf;rsm;tm;vkH; rwnf&SdMuawmh acs/ tqdkyg oD[dkVfbmom rl&if;usrf;rsm;rS aumufEkwfcsuf 1

2

&Sif;vif;pGm avhvm&ef rmvmvmaqau&\ &Sif;vif;aumif;rGefonhf r[m0Ho#Dumed'gef;udk ½Iyg/ t&Sifr[mAk'¨aCmo\ 'D-| 1? r-| 1? tH-| 1 odkYr[kwf oH-| 1 usrf;rsm;\tp yPmr*gxmrsm;udk ½Iyg/


18 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; 1

twdktxGmrsm;udk "rÜd,mt#K0g*g#my', (oD[dkVfusrf;)ü awGU Edkifao;onf/ oD[dkVf t|uxmusrf;rsm;onf ykHpHwpfrsKd;wnf;jzihf wnf NidrfrI r&SdcJhacs/ ,if;usrf;rsm;onf bDpD okH;&mpkwGif pwifcJh aomfvnf; &mpkESpfrsm; Mumjrifhvmojzihf wjznf;jznf; wdk;yGm; vmNyD; tcsuftvufopfrsm; pkaygif;vmcJhonf/ ,if;usrf;wdkY \ wdk;yGm;vmrIoauFwudk tenf;qkH; at'D 2 &mpktxd awGU 2 &SdEdkifonf/ taMumif;rl t|uxmusrf;wpfapmif ü at'D 127171 twGif; tkyfcsKyfcJhaom 0obrif;tm; &nfñTef;xm; onfudk awGU&aomaMumihf jzpfonf/ topfxnhfoGif;aom t csuftvufrsm;rSm tvGefobm0usonhf a'oqdkif&m wdkufqdkif jzpf&yfrsm;ESihf uRef;aevlxk\ vlrIa&;ESihf bmoma&;b0rsm; jzpfMuonf/ ,if;jzpf&yfopfrsm;udk xnfh&jcif;\ &nf½G,fcsufrSm ordkif; odkYr[kwf a'oqdkif&m tajctaersm;udk oifcef;pm ay;&ef r[kwfacs/ ,aeYacwfwGif ,if;azmfjycsufrsm;udk ordkif; okdYr[kwf vlrIa&;&nf½G,fcsufjzihf tokH;jyKMuaomfvnf; trSef aomf xda&muf ½kd;pif;onhf[efjzihf w&m;"r®ESihf ukd,fusihfw&m; OD;wnfcsufrsm;jzihf o½kyfazmf &Sif;jy&efom &nf½G,fonf/ t&Sifr[mAk'¨aCmoonf ¤if;\ t|uxmed'gef; (yPm r)rsm;ü rdrdtaejzihf oD[dkVfbmom t|uxmusrf;rsm;udk ygVd bmomodkY jyefqdk½kHomjzpfNyD; ,if;odkYjyefqdk&müvnf; rvdktyfbJ tus,fcsJUjcif;? xyfcgxyfcg jyqdkjcif;rsm;ESifh roufqdkifaom taMumif;t&mrsm;udk csefxm;rnfjzpfaomfvnf; r[m0d[m& 0goDwdkY\ ydkYcsrItpOftvmudk aoGznfrnfr[kwfaMumif; qdk onf/ t&Sifjrwf\ &nf½G,fcsufü tokH;rusí csefcJhaom t csuftvuftcsKdUrSm oufqdkifrI r&Sdjcif;aMumihfyif jzpfvifhupm; ,if;wdkYudk xdef;odrf;xm;EdkifchJrl ,aeYacwfwGif tvGef tokH;0if 1 2

,if;usrf;? pm – 79? 80? 105? 136? 148? 149/ 0d-| 2? 68/

usrf;udk;&if;jrpfrsm;

19

0ifygvdrfhrnf1/ xdktcsdefu vlxktwGuf tvGefxif&Sm;aom aMumihf csefxm;jcif;vnf; jzpfEdkifonf/ t|uxm usrf;jyKq&mrsm;a&m tjcm;yk*¾Kdvfrsm;yg tcsuf tvufwpfckudk o½kyfazmf&ef? jiif;qdkrIwpf&yfudk vufcHap&ef? odkYr[kwf MunfndKolrsm;tm; bmoma&; pdwf"mwf jyif;jyvm rItwGuf qGJaqmif&ef jzpf&yf0w¬Kwpfck vdktyfonhf tcgwdkif; vkHvkHavmufavmuf &,lEdkifonfh a&S;acwf oD[dkVfjzpf&yfxl;rsm; udk &vG,fonhf ae&mwpfck&SdaMumif; ,kHMunf&ef taMumif;&Sd 2 onf / ,if;jzpf&yfrsm;rSm w&m;a[m yk*¾KdvftwGufa&m em,lol y&dowftwGufyg tvGefodvG,faMumif; t&Sifr[mAk'¨aCmo taejzifh ae&mrsm;pGmwdkYü ,if;wdkYudk ñTef;½kHom ñTef;NyD; tao; pdwfazmfjyjcif; rjyKonfudk axmufí xif&Sm;ygonf/ Oyrmjy&rl 0dok'¨dr*fü ]awvuE´&du0w¬K apw¬ uaxwAÁH}3 ]þae&mü awvuE´&du0w¬Kudkvnf; qdktyf\}/ ]pD0&*krÁ0godutrÁcg'u 4 r[mwdóaw¬&0w¬Kyd {w¬ uaxwAÁH } þae&mü o&ufoD;udk bkOf;ay;onhf pD0&*krÁt&yfae t&Sifr[mwdórax&f\ qdkoihf \}/ ]tm'dawm y|m, v'¨H v'¨H bdu©H wMw wMw 'g&umeH 1

r[m0Ho#Dum? pm 193 ü rZÑdredum,f plVoD[em'okwftzGifh oD[dkVf t|umü ZeomeESihf taomu("r®maomu)wdkY\ r,fawmf taMumif; azmfjycsuf yg&SdaMumif; qdkonf/ odkYwap ,if;tcsuftvufrSm ,aeY acwf t&Sifr[mAk'¨aCmo\ plVoD[em'okwft|uxmü rawGU&acs/ ,if;onf t&Sifr[mAk'¨aCmotaejzifh oD[dkVfbmom t|uxmudk t jynhftpkH bmomrjyefqdkaMumif; xif&Sm;aom om"u jzpfonf/ wpfcg wpf&Hürl uk#uPÖ\jrif; *kV0PÖuJhodkYaom taMumif;udkyif tvGefpdwf 0ifpm;zG,f tao;pdwftcsufudkyif azmfjyonf (r-| 3? 112)/ 2 tH-| 1? 395 ü vmaom 'g½kb@ur[mwdó rax&f\ jzpf&yfudk &o0g[deD twGJ 2? pm- 33 ESihf 43 wdkYüvmaom wdóm,0w¬K ESifh eukvó0w¬Krsm;udk NcKHikH Edkif;,SOf Munhfyg/ 3 0dok'¨d 1? 27/ 4 ,if; 1? 44/


24 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

onhf ygVdbmomusrf; wpfapmifudk tajccHaMumif; yPmrü qdkonf/ o[ó0w¬Kusrf;onf þü ñTef;qdkonfh tqdkyg ygVd bmomusrf; jzpfEdkifygoavm/ uG,fvGefol [mh*f aeAD;vf (Hugh Nevill)u ¤if;pkaqmif; xm;onhf ykHrESdyf&ao;onhf pmrlpm&if; (,ck NAdwdoQjywdkuf trSwfpOf 115)wGif o[ó0w¬K yu&Ponf ygVdbmoma&; &o0g[deDusrf;\ tajccH jzpfaMumif;ESihf ,if;usrf;onf "r®½kpd *dkPf;\usrf;pm jzpfaMumif; rSwfcsufay;onf/ odkYwap rmvm vmaqau&tvdkrl ,if;usrf;tm; tb,*d&d*dkPf;xGuf usrf; 1 jzpfaMumif; rSwfcsufjyK&ef taMumif;r&Sd[k ,lqonf / a*gX£rÁ&0w¬Kü awGU&onhf ]Owå&0d[m&0godaem ye {0H 2 0'EÅd = Owå&0d[m&ausmif;ae yk*¾Kdvfrsm;u þodkY qdkMu\} [l aom pmaMumif;t& o[ó0w¬Kusrf;onf "r®½kpd*dkPf;om;rsm; [kqdkvdkonfh Owå&0d[m&0goD&[ef;wdkY\ usrf;pm r[kwfonf rSm aocsmonf/ &o0g[deDusrf;ed'gef;ü t&Sif&|ygv\usrf;onf a&S;acwf &[EÅmrax&fwdkY rdefYawmfrlcJhMuNyD; a&S;q&mwdkY oD[dkVfbmom jzihf rSwfwrf;wifxm;onhf 0w¬Kjzpf&yfrsm;udk ygVdbmomodkY jyef qdkjcif;jzpfaMumif; qdkonf/ &o0g[deDusrf;yPmrü usrf;jyK yk*¾Kdvfu oD[Vt|uxmenf;udk rSDjirf;jyKaMumif; qdkonf/ o[ó0w¬Kudk zwf½Iygu ,if;usrf;onf oD[dkVfrl&if;\ wkduf ½dkuf wpfcgwav cyfMurf;Murf; ygVdbmomjyef jzpfaMumif; t awmftwef &Sif;vif;pGm azmfjyonf/ o[ó0w¬Kü wpfcgwpf&H o'´ga&; rrSef? racsmrGwf? <uyfqyfNyD; rnfonhf pmayawmuf ajymifrI [efyefrQ r&Sdacs/ ,if;usrf;ü ]oD[dkVfygVd}[kyif ac:Edkif avmufonhf oD[dkVfbmom wGJvkH;rsm;? tokH;tEIef;rsm;udk wdkuf 1 2 3

Pali Literature of Ceylon, pp. 128-129.

&o0g[dusrf;üvnf; ,if;pmaMumif;udk awGU&onf/ Rasavahini I, Intro. vv. 5-7.

usrf;udk;&if;jrpfrsm; 21 (2) o[ó0w¬Kyu&Pusrf;? NAdwdoQjywdkuf&Sd ayrl/ oD[dkVf tu©&ma&;/ rdwåL½Gufa& 50/ ay½Gufa& 298/ pmyg ay½Guf t&Snf 10 vufr&Sdonf/ pmwpfrsufESmwGif 7 aMumif; odkY r[kwf 8 aMumif; &Sdonf/ (3) o[ó0w¬Kt|uxm? vufa&;rl? bm;e'fpmMunfhwdkuf? &efukef? jrefrm? jrefrmtu©&ma&;/ usrf;jyKyk*¾Kdvf trnfrod&/ yPmrwGif Ak'¨? "r®? oHCmtm; &Sdckd;NyD;aemuf usrf;jyKyk*¾Kdvfu oD[Vmp&d, (oD[dkVfq&m)rsm;udk tav;*½kjyKaMumif;ESihf usrf;pmygtcsufrsm;udk oD[V|uxm (oD[dkVfbmom tzGifhusrf;rsm;)ESihf q&mtpOftqufrS &&Sd 1 aMumif; qdkonf / usrf;jyKESpfESihf ywfoufí raocsmacs/ odkYwap o[ó 0w¬Kt|uxm[laomtrnfESihf ,if;usrf;udk r[m0Ho#Dumü udk;um;jcif;aMumifh ,if;usrf;udk at'D 9 pkxuf apmaom acwf wpfckwGif a&;om;aMumif; xif&Sm;onf/ t|uxm[laom a0g [m&onf tEk&m"yk&acwf tapmydkif;umvwGif rsufarSmuff acwfrSmxuf ydkrdkus,fjyefY cHhnm;onhf t"dyÜm,fudk aqmifonf/ ,aeYacwfwGif ,if;a0g[m&onf wdyd#uygVdawmftzGifh t| uxmusrf;udkom qdkvkdonf/ odkY&mwGif tEk&m"yk&acwfwGif ,if;a0g[m&onf wdyd#uygVdawmfrSwpfyg; tjcm;pmaytrsKd; tpm;tm;vkH;udk t"dyÜm,f oufa&mufonf/ odkYjzpfí o[ó 0w¬KuJhodkYaom trsm;ajymykH0w¬Kusrf;pmwpfckudkyif t|uxm[k ac:a0:xm;jcif;jzpfonf/ xdkacwfü wdyd#uygVdawmfudk txl; &nf½G,fonhf ygVdawmfrsm;ESihf ,if;wdkY\tzGifh t|uxmusrf; rsm;tygt0if r[maAm"d0Hot|uxm (r[maAm"dyif ordkif; usrf;)? apwd,0Hot|uxm (apwDawmfrsm; ordkif;usrf;)? r[mapwd,0Hot|uxm (r[mapwDordkif;usrf;)? 'Dy0Hot| uxm (oD[dkVfuRef;ordkif;)? r[m0Hot|uxm (rif;qufrsm; 1

o[ó0w¬KH bmodóH? oD[V|uxme,H? *PSdwGm p&d,0g'ð p/


22 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

ordkif;)uJhodkYaom tjcm;pmayusrf;*eftm;vkH; t|uxmusrf; rsm;jzpfMuonf/ ,if;azmfjyNyD; usrf;tm;vkH;rSm oD[dkVfbmom usrf;rsm;jzpfMuonf/ oD[Vt|uxm [laomtrnfonf a, bk,stm;jzihf oD[dkVfbmomjzihfa&;aom usrf;tm;vkH;udk ac: a0:okH;pGJjcif;jzpfonf/ xdktcsdefu #Dum[kac:onhf pmayykHpH r&Sdao;ay/ #Dum[laom a0g[m&onf ouúwMoZm vTrf;rdk; onhf at'D 10 &mpk ESihf 11 &mpk aygvkEé½k0acwf twGif; usrSom a&yef;pm;vmjcif; jzpfonf/ uREkfyfwdkYod&orQ t&Sif tmeE´m\ rlv#Dumonf yxrqkH;aom #Dumusrf;jzpfonf/ rlv#Dumudk at'D 10 odkYr[kwf 11 &mpkcefYwGif a&;om;onf/ t&SiftmeE´monf ½lyod'¨d ygVdo'´gusrf;jyK t&SifAk'¨yÜd,\ q&m jzpfonf/ at'D 12 &mpk tv,fcefYwGif a&;onhf arm*¾vm’ ef usrf;jyKyk*¾Kdvfonf t&SifAk'¨yÜd,\ ½lyod'¨dusrf;udk odonf/ xdkY aMumifh tu,fí t&SiftmeE´mudk at'D 10 odkYr[kwf 11 &mpk wpfcsdefcsdefwGif owfrSwfygu tvGef rSm;zG,f&m r&SdEdkifacs/ odkY jzpfí #Dumusrf; pmaytpydkif;udk tMurf;jzif;tm;jzihf at'D 10 &mpkESihf 11 &mpktwGif;[k owfrSwfEdkifonf/ ,if;acwfrwdkifrD usrf;pmtm;vkH;udk a,bk,stm;jzihf t|uxm[laom trnf atmufwGif todrsm;ykH&onf/ azmfjyyg tcsufrsm;t& o[ó 0w¬Kt|uxmudk tenf;qkH; at'D 9 &mpk xufapmaom acwf [k owfrSwfEdkifonf/ o[ó0w¬Kt|uxmü r[m0HoESihf r[m0Hot|uxm ESpfusrf;vkH;udk udk;um;xm;NyD; ]Owå&0d[m&0g'D}wdkY azmfjyonhf ,lqcsufwpf&yfudkvnf; &nfñTef;xm;onf/ r[m0Housrf;udk udk;um;aomaMumifh ,if;usrf;onf at'D 5 &mpkxuf aemuf usonf/ oD[Vt|uxm (ed'geuxm) ESihf r[m0Hot|uxm (usrf;pmudk,f)wdkYudk udk;um;aomaMumihf o[ó0w¬Kt|uxm taejzihf a&S;usaom usrf;wpfapmifjzpfaMumif; azmfjyonf/ taMumif;rl oD[Vt|xmusrff;tm; udk;um;rIudk 10 &mpk rwdkif rDcefY a&;om;cJhonhf ygVdbmomESihf oD[dkVfbmom usrf;rsm;ü

usrf;udk;&if;jrpfrsm;

23

rawGU&aomaMumihfjzpfonf/ o[ó0w¬Kt|uxmudk a&;om; onhfcsdefwGif avhvmolrsm; r[m0Hot|uxmudk zwf½Iaom tcsufonf o[ó0w¬Kusrf;jyKq&mu ¤if;\ pmzwfy&dowf tm; aemufxyf tao;pdwfrsm;twGuf r[m0Hot|uxmusrff; 1 udk ñTef;qdkcsufaMumifhjzpfaMumif; xif&Sm;onf / txufwGif jyqdkcJhtwdkif; at'D 9 &mpkcefY[k ,lq&onfh r[m0Ho#DumwGif o[ó0w¬Kt|xumrS udk;um;csuf okH;ckyg 2 onf / yxrESpfck (ok&medr®v0w¬KESihf a*gX,drÁ&0w¬K)udk vuf a&;rlü awGU&onf/ wwd,0w¬K (omvDrif;om;0w¬K)udkrl rawGU &/ trSefaomf vufa&;rlü omvDrif;om;0w¬K wpfckvkH;udk `rIyf xm;onf/ ,if;ü omvdrif;om;ESihf ywfoufí ]omvd&mZ ukrm&0w¬KH r[m0Hao 0kwåea,e a0'dwAÁH/ omvd&mZukrm& 0w¬K 'kwd,H} [laom 0guswpfaMumif;rQom ygonf/ þonfrSm omvdrif;om;taMumif; awGU&orQjzpfonf/ rl&if;usrf;pmrS a&;ul;olonf &Snfvsm;onhf 0w¬Kudk ul;,lrItwGuf 0efav;í oufom&m&ap&ef pmzwfoltm; r[m0Houdk udk;um;vsuf ,if;0w¬Kudk `rSKyfxm;cJhovm; odkYr[kwf vufa&;rlonf o[ó 0w¬Krl&if;\ twdkcsKyfykHpHwpfckudk &cJhovm;[lonfudk vufa&;rl aemufxyfwpfcsKdUudk rawGUrcsif; twdtus rqdkEkdifacs/ odkYwap o[ó0w¬Kudk tajccHonf[k a,bk,stm;jzihf ,kHMunfxm; onfh &o0g[deDusrf;wGif omvdrif;om;taMumif; azmfjycsufudk 3 r[m0Ho#DumwGif azmfjyonhftwdkif; awGU&onf / &o0g[eDusrf;jyK t&Sifa0a'[rax&fu ¤if;\usrf;onf tEk&m"yk&NrdKU r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkuftwGif; *kwå0uFy&da0P ausmif;ü oDwif;okH;onhf t&Sif&|ygv[kac:onhf rax&f a&; 1

2 3

t,H ye oacFayg? 0dw¬ma&m ye r[m0Ho|uxm,H 0kawåm/ tw¬d au[d wawm *a[waAÁm ("r®maomur[m&mZó 0w¬K)/ Mahavamsa Tika, pp 451, 452, 607. Rasavahini II, p. 116.


28 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

a,muf\ trnfrsm;udk azmfjyonf/ odkYwap eE´drdwå ('kwd, 0*f? 0w¬KtrSwf 6)ESihf a0VKokre0w¬K (pwkw¬0*f? 0w¬KtrSwf 9 üygNyD;)wdkYrSm qdkNyD;0w¬Krsm; jzpfMuonf/ odkYjzpfí 0w¬Krsm;udk ol&edr®vjzifh pwifNyD; 0w¬Kav;ckNyD;aemuf qkH;oGm;onf/ wpfzef q|r0*f\ yxrqkH; 0w¬Kü ]oacFaye 'k|*grPd&anm 0w¬KH yXrH} [laom pum;&yf 0gusrQomygonf/ 'kwd,0w¬K omvd rif;om;taMumif;udkvnf; azmfjyrxm;bJ pmzwfoltm; ,if; 0w¬Kudk r[m0HorS &,l&ef wdkufwGef;xm;onf - ]omvd&mZ ukrm&0w¬KH r[m0Hao 0kwåea,e a0'dwAÁH/ omvd&mZukrm& 0w¬KH 'kwd,H/ odkYwap ,if;0w¬Kudkvnf; trSefwu,f azmfjy ouJhodkY a&wGufxm;onf/ ]tedpöm 0w ocFg&m} ("r®aom@u0w¬K? yxr0*f yxr 0w¬K) jzihf tpjyKonfh *gxmtzGifhonf tvGef tao;pdwfjzpfNyD; ESpfoufzG,f aumif;onf/ xkdYjyif ,if;tzGifhü ]umv0drkwåH edó&PH edAÁmeH} uJhodkYaom eufeJonhf 'óeqdkif&m t"dyÜm,f zGifhqdkcsufrsm; yg&Sdonf/ usrf;pmwpfckvkH;wGif ,if;*gxm wpfyk'f wnf;üom ,if;odkY tao;pdwf zGifhqdkonf/ tjcm; &nfñTef;usrf;rsm;ü rawGU&onfh ordkif;qdkif&m t csuftvuf trsm;tjym;udk o[ó0w¬Kusrf;ü azmfjyonf/ ykHpHtm;jzihf &o0g[deDusrf;ü awGU&onhf ]'kAÁd|dr[m&mZ}\ Zpf jrpfESihf ywfoufonhf oJvGefptcsKdUudk ,if;usrf;ü jyqdkonf/ ]jAm[®Pwd,H apm&b,H}onf t|uxmusrf;rsm;ESihf ordkif; usrf;rsm;üawGU&NrJ 0gusjywff jzpfaomfvnf; ]wd,H} [laom a0g[m&udkrl &Sif;jy&ef cufcJonf/ o[ó0w¬Küum; ]jAm[®P wdóaapm&b,H}[k (av;Budrf) twdtus qdkonf/ zkó a'0aw¬&0w¬Konf &o0g[deDü rawGU&onhf tcsuftvuf opf vkH;0jzpfonf/ &o0g[deDü zkóa'00w¬K ygaomfvnf; 'k|*grPdrif;BuD;\ xif&Sm;onhf ppfolBuD; jzpfonf/ o[ó 0w¬Kyg zkóa'0aw¬&fum; o'¨gwdórif;BuD;\ ESrawmf\om; (u#uem&0goD zkóa'0aw¬a&m emr o'¨gwdór[m&anm

usrf;udk;&if;jrpfrsm;

25

½dkufbmomjyefrI rsm;pGm awGU &onf/ ykHpHtm;jzihf – umvod*gvH ydrÁa&m t*¾a[od (umvod*gvó 0w¬K) w0 o[m,uH ok0aygwuH rm&dwapma&mwd tm[ (As*¾ó 0w¬K) {wó rEkóó a*['dEé rEkaóm (apm&a*a[ 0godwrEkóó 0w¬K) r,SH tm[m&H cg'dwGm tm*r'gvuH rH £awm rkÍöEkyg,H ua&m[Dwd (apm&a*a[ 0godw rEkóó 0w¬K) w0 uxeyapöuAka'¨g emr uD'daomwd ("r®maomu r[m&mZó 0w¬K) oD[V'Day Owå&ypäd,H ('EÅuk#KrÁduó 0w¬K) wH ylZH u&Pora, (uÍöea'0d,m 0w¬K) ponfwdkY jzpfonf/ ,if;odkYaom 0gusrsm; usrf;pmwpfckvkH; jynhfESufaeojzihf ,if;usrf;udk aumif;pGm zwf½Iem;rvnfEdkifbJ oD[dkVfbmom pum;udk vkHavmufatmif rwwfuRrf;ygu rESpfoufEdkifacs/ wpfcgwpf&H ]ayg'H uDVdwkH} ]wdkufcdkuf odkYr[kwf eyef;vkH;&ef} (a*gV£rÁ&0w¬K)uJhodkYaom tokH;tEIef;rsm;udk awGU&onf/ odkY wap ,if;tokH;rsKd;udk ygVdbmomü awGU&rnfr[kwfacs/ ayg' [laoma0g[m&onf wdkufckdufjcif; t"dyÜm,f&Sdonhf ygVdouf oD[dkVfa0g[m& jzpfzG,f&Sdonf/ Oyrm pyg;BuD;a>rteufa[m ydrÁa&m (okH;½dk;okH;pOf ygVda0g[m& tZ*&? oD[dkVf ydrÁK&m)? t&yf odkYr[kwf e,fy,f a'o eHab; teufa[m ypäd,H (oD[dkVf yo? ygVdrSef yó) paom a0g[m&rsm; jzpfonf/ o'´genf; a&;xkH;rrSefonhf 0gusrsm;udkvnf; awGU&onf/ ykHpHtm;jzihf MoavmauwGm twåaem *aw (apm&Cmwuó 0w¬K) tx em0g owå'd0oH *wumav ork'´raZÑ bdZÆd ('EÅuk#KrÁduó 0w¬K)


26 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

&anm ykawåm 0dZm,d (apm&a*a[ 0godwrEkóó 0w¬K) ponf/ ,if;odkY o'´ga&;xkH;ESihf tokH;tEIef; rrSefonfwdkYudk awGU& ouJhodkY aumif;rGefonhf wGJvkH;rsm;udkvnf; awGU&ao;onf/ ykHpHtm;jzihf – ,xm a"mawe yawåe (wdó'[&omraP&ó 0w¬K) 1 'ku©maywGm (apm&Cmwu0w¬K) ,if;usrf;ü Zmwu|uxmwGif yg&Sdaom 0gusrsm; vTrf;rdk; aeonfudkvnf; awGU&onf/ &o0g[deDyPmrü a&S;acwf&[EÅmt&SifjrwfwdkY oD[dkVfbm omjzihf rdefYMum;onhf 0w¬Kjzpf&yfrsm;onf ae&mXme trsKd;rsKd;ü (ww¬w¬LyyEémed 0kwåmed) pwifcJhaMumif; azmfjyonf/ o[ó 0w¬Kusrf;vm ykHpHrsm;pGmwdkYonf ae&mXmetrsKd;rsKd;rS EIwfajym taMumif;t&mrsm;udk tajccHaMumif; xif&Sm;pGm azmfjyonf/ 0w¬Kjzpf&yfwpfck odkYr[kwf wkdufqdkifrIwpf&yfESihf ywfoufí wpfcgwpf&H ]£wd 0kwåmed} ]þodkY qdkukef\} [k tqkH;owfxm; onf/ ykHpHtm;jzihf – wm0wðoba0 edAÁwåðokEÅd 0'EÅd (umuó 0w¬K) pwl[d rmao[d *awmwd 0'EÅd (plVem*aw¬&ó 0w¬K) tv'¨|meH emr e|mwd 0'EÅd (yl0yAÁw0goD wdóaw¬&ó 0w¬K) &o0g[deDusrf;jyKyk*¾Kdvfu rdrd\usrf;pmrSm yke½kwåd (qdkNyD; onfudk xyfqdkjcif;) uJhodkYaom trSm;rsm;jzihf jynhfaeonhf t&Sif &|ygv\ ygVdbmomjyefudk jyefvnf rGrf;rH a&;om;jcif;rQom 1 jzpfaMumif; 0efcHxm;onf / o[ó0w¬Kusrf;udk xkwfcsif;ayguf zwfrdol rnfolrqdk ,if;usrf;rSm bmompum;t&a&m pDpOfrIt&yg jyefvnf rGrf;rH 1 2

oku©maywGm? Ze0obokwf? 'D 2? 182/ yke½kwåm'da'gao[d wrmod? oAÁH tmukvH temukvH u&dómrd/ &o0g[deD? yPmr*gxm? trSwf 7/

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27

a&;om;&ef tvGefvdktyfonf[k cHpm;&onf/ o[ó0w¬Kusrf; pDpOfykHü pnf;urf;a&m enf;vrf;yg r&Sdacs/ ykHrSeftm;jzihf wpf0*f (tcef;wpfck)pDü 0w¬K 10 ckpD &SdNrJjzpf aomfvnf; (o[ó0w¬Kü) wpf0*fü 0w¬K 5 ck? tjcm;wpf0*fü 9 ck? aemufwpfckürl 11 ck &Sdonf/ 0w¬Ktpü 0w¬K\trnf onf tqkH;üazmfjyonhf trnfESihfrwlonfudk rMumcPawGU& onf/ 0w¬Kacgif;pOfrsm;rSm zGifhq&dk Sif;jyNyD; &Snv f sm;vsuf rmwd um oabmjzifh azmfjy&ef &nf½G,fonf/ ykHpHtm;jzihf plv *v’&a| tmoeomvH Z*¢EÅó Oygouó 0w¬K? r[m*gar wdór[m0d[ma& "r®okwaeom'ó 0w¬K – ponf/ ,if; zGifhqdk&Sif;jy 0w¬Kacgif;pOfykHpHrSm oD[dkVfaus;vufae yk*¾Kdvfrsm; twGif; 0w¬Kjzpf&yfrsm;ü ,aeYwkdifyif awGU&qJjzpfonf/ av;ckajrmuf0*f\ pmay[efrSm tjcm;tm;vkH;ESihf vkH;0 jcm;em;onf/ 0w¬Kwpfckonf ,if;0w¬K\vkd&if;udk tusOf; azmf jyonhf *gxmwpfyk'fjzihf tpysKd;onf/ tqkH;wGif ]awe 0kwåH} [l aom pum;ESpfvkH;tNyD; ,if;*gxmudk jyefqdkonf/ wpfcgwpf&H tpysKd;*gxmNyD;aemuf 0w¬Kudk ]wH ,xmEkok,saw} jzihf zGifh onf/ av;ckajrmuf0*fonf ouúw MoZmvTrf;rdk;rI &SdykH&onf/ 0w¬Krsm;udk pDpOf&müvnf; pepfwusr&Sdacs/ 0w¬Ktm;vkH; a&maxG;aeMuonf/ ZrÁK'Dy0w¬Krsm;udk oD[dkVf0w¬Krsm; tMum;ü [dkwpfck'Dwpfck awGU&onf/ umu0PÖwdó0w¬K (9 ckajrmuf 0*f? 0w¬KtrSwf 5)onf trSefpifppf umu0PÖwdó? 'k|*grPD ESihf a0VKokre trnf&onfh yk*¾KdvfokH;a,muftaMumif; jzpf onf/ odkYwap ,if;0*ftqkH;ü ,if;udk azmfjyjcif;r&SdbJ q,fck ajrmuf0w¬Ktjzpf 'k|*grPd0w¬K[k trnfay;xm;onf/ ,if;ü ]'k|*grPdtb,r[m&anm 0w¬K r[m0Hao 0dw¬m&dwar0/ wH wawm *a[wAÁH} [kom qdkonf/ odkYwap 0w¬KwpfckvkH;udk azmfjyrSom aumif;rGefrnf[k ,lq&onf/ ig;ckajrmuf0*fü usrf;jyKyk*¾Kdvfonf tpOftwkdif; wpfa,mufNyD; wpfa,muf azmfjy&ef &nf½G,fonhftwdkif; 'k|*grPdrif;\ ppfolBuD; q,f


32 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

avmufonfh oD[dkVf rSwfwrf;a[mif;tcsKdUudk rSDjirf;jyKcJhonf[l aom tcsufudkrl oHo,jzpfzG,f rvdkacs/ 1 &o0g[deDonf *gxmñSyf ygVdpum;ajyjzifh a&;om;xm; aom 0w¬K 103 yk'fudk pkpnf;xm;onhf usrf;jzpfonf/ ,if; usrf;udk u@ESpfck cGJxm;onf/ yxru@ü ZrÁK'Dy (tdE´d,)ESifh oufqdkifonhf 0w¬K 40 yg0ifNyD; 'kwd,u@ü vuFm (oD[dkVf) ESihf oufqdkifonhf 0w¬K 63 yk'fyg0ifonf/ yPmr*gxmt& &o0g[deDusrf;jyKyk*¾Kdvfonf 0e0goD*dkPf; 0if t&Sifa0a'[rax&fjzpfNyD; ,if;rax&fonf oD[dkVfuRef;&Sd oD&dyg'taMumif; zGJUqdkonhf ygVduAsmausmf orEÅul#0PÖem usrf;ESihf oD[Vo'´vu©Pmac: oD[dkVfo'´gusrf;rsm;udkvnf; a&;om;cJhonf/ xdkrax&f\ q&mrax&ftm; tmeE´0e&we tjzpf azmfjyxm;onf/ ,if;usrf;udk a,bk,stm;jzihf at'D 14 &mpk tapmydkif;wGif a&;om;aMumif; ,lqxm;Muonf/ odkYwap xdkusrf;u rSDjirf;jyKcJhonhf EIwfajymESihf usrf;xGuf &if;jrpfrsm;rSm ,if;acwfxuf rsm;pGm apmykH&onf/ &o0g[deDusrf;udk rdwfquf&mü usrf;jyKyk*¾Kdvfu usrf;pm\ ordkif;udk azmfjyonf/ a&S;acwf &[EÅmrax&fjrwfwdkYonf txl; xl;aom t&yfa'oü jzpfysufcJhonhf 0w¬KaMumif;rsm;udk oD[dkVf bmompum;jzihf ajymjycJhMuonf/ ,if;wdkYudk a&S;q&mwdkYu pkaqmif;xm;cJhMuonf/ r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkuf&Sd *kwå0uFy&d 1

at'D 14 &mpk *'vma'Pd0d[m&ü oDwif;okH;aexkdifcJhaom "r®udwåd trnf&Sdrax&f a&;om;cJhonhf ]o'¨r®mvuFm&,} trnf&Sd oD[dkVfbm omjzihf a&;om;xm;onhf usrf;wpfapmif&Sdonf/ ,if;usrf;onf &o 0g[deDusrf; bmomjyefjzpfonfrSm aocsmaomfvnf; &o0g[deDusrf; wGif rygonhf arawå,s0w¬KESihf y'krm0wD0w¬KESpfck yg0ifonf/ ,if; (oD[dkVf)usrf;onf wdkuf½u dk fbmomjyef usrf;r[kwfbJ pum;tvuFm qifí Oyrmrsm;jzihf jyefvnfa&;om;aom 0w¬Krsm;jzpfMuonf/ o'¨r®m vuFm&, usrf;jyKyk*¾Kdvfonf &o0g[deDusrf;jyK yk*¾KdvfuJhodkYyif 0e0goD *kdPf;0ifjzpfonf/

usrf;udk;&if;jrpfrsm;

29

b*ded,m ykawåm) jzpfonf/ xdkYaMumihf ,if;rax&fonf 'k| *grPdrif;BuD;\ wlawmfjzpfonf/ 'k|*grPd odkYr[kwf o'¨g wdórif;wdkYü ESr&Sdonf[laomtcsufudk tjcm; rnfonhfusrf; ürQ rawGU&acs/ zkóa'0 rax&ftaMumif;udk tjcm;usrf;*ef rsm;pGmwdkYü 1 awGU&onf/ orEÅygom'dum (0de,|uxm) ü ,if;rax&f taMumif;udk wHjrufvSnf;jcif;\ tusKd;udk o½kyfazmf&mü jyqdk onf/ tjcm;tao;pdwf rsm;pGmudk `rIyfxm;cJhonf/ wHjruf vSnf;jcif;ESihf ywfoufonhftaMumif;ESihf rm&fewf udk,fxifjy onhf taMumif;rsm;udkom azmfjyonf/ o[ó0w¬Kü rm&fewf wpf&ufom vmonf/ orEÅygom'dumü rm&fewfonf wpfaeY wnf;ü arsmuftoGif? EGm;toGif? ajcqmaeaom a,musfm; toGifjzihf okH;Budrf vmonf/ ,if;rax&fudk u#tE¨um&0goD 2 zkóa'0rax&f[k ac:wGifonf/ om&o*F[usrf; ü xdkrax&f udk umvE¨umv0goD zkóa'0rax&f[k ac:wGifNyD; &nf½G,f csufwlnDonf/ tao;pdwftcsuf trsm;tjym; csefvSyfxm;cJhNyD; rm&fewf udk,fxifjyjcif;vnf; wlnDonf/ o'¨r®&wemu& (15 3 &mpk tapmydkif;a&; oD[dkVfbmomusrf;pm) ü ,if;rax&fudk umvuE´ zkóa'0rax&f ac:onf/ (,if; oD[dkVfusrf;t& tqdkyg umvuE´ausmif;wkdufonf ½k[kPt&yfü&Sdonf)/ ,if; usrf;ü rm&fewfonf ykHpHwpfrsKd;wnf;jzihf wpfaeYwGif okH;Budrf qufwdkuf vmaMumif; qdkonf/ þusrf;üvnf; rlv0w¬K\ tao;pdwf trsm;tjym;udk csefxm;cJhNyD; wHjrufvSnf;jcif;ESihf ywfoufonfESihf rm&fewf vmaESmihf,SufonfwdkYudkom azmfjy onf/ ,if;0w¬Kudk wHjrufvSnf;jcif;\ tusKd;udk csD;rGrf;&ef azmf 4 jyjcif;jzpfonf/ 0dok'¨dr*fusrf;ü ,if;rax&ftm; u#uE´&0goD 1 3

4

0d-| 4? 174/

2

Sārasangaha, p. 33.

Saddharmartnākara, p. 334.

0dok'¨dr*¾ 1? 221/ (jrefrmrlü u#tE¨um&0goD [k&Sdonf)/


30 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

zkóa'0rax&ftjzpf qdkonf/ xdkrax&fonf rm&fewf zef qif;jyonhf Ak'¨ykHawmfudk Munfh½I&if; &[EÅmtjzpfudk &onf/ tjcm; tao;pddwfrsm;udk azmfjyrxm;ay/ apwD,ifjyifudk wH jrufvSnf;aMumif;ESihf ykHpHtrsKd;rsKd;jzihf rm&ewf vma&muf aESmihf ,SufaMumif;vnf; rjyqdkay/ &nfñTef;NyD; usrf;*efwdkYü azmfjy onhf taMumif;t&mrsm;wGif o'¨gwdórif; ESrawmf\om; jzpf aMumif; razmfjyMuaomfvnf; usrf;tm;vkH;ü zkóa'0 rax&f onf rm&fewfzefqif;jyonhf Ak'¨ykHawmfudk zl;ajrmf&if; &[EÅmjzpf 1 oGm;aMumif; wlnDpGm azmfjyMuonf / o[ó0w¬K[laom trnft& ,if;usrf;ü 0w¬Kjzpf&yf aygif; wpfaxmifyg&SdaMumif; qdkvdkonf/ trSefaomf 0w¬Ka& 94 yk'frQom yg&Sdonf/ wpfaxmifESihf ig;&muJhodkYaom cefYrSef; a& wGufrIrsm;udk a,bk,stm;jzihf a&S;acwf ygVdpmayü ta&t wGufrsm;rIudk azmfjy&ef okH;avh&Sdonf/ ,if;odkY okH;onfqdkaomf vnf; 94 [laomta&twGufrSm o[ó[laom a0g[m&udk okH;Edkif&ef enf;vGef;vSonf/ ,if;ESihf ywfoufí rmvmvmaqau&u tvGefpdwf0if pm;zG,faumif;aom azmfjycsufwpfckay;cJhonf/ ¤if;u o[ó [laom a0g[m&onf ESpfoufz, G faumif;aom? thHMozG,f aumif;aom? 0rf;ajrmufzG,f aumif;aom[k t"dyÜm,f&onfh ouúwa0g[m& ]o[&S}ESihf nDaom ygVda0g[m& jzpfEdkifaMumif; 2 MuHqcJhonf / odkYjzpfygu usrf;acgif;pOf ]o[ó0w¬Kt|uxm 1

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odkYr[kwf ]o[ó0w¬Kyum&P} [lonf ]Munf½TifzG,f 0w¬K rsm;usrf;}[k t"dyÜm,fxGufrnfjzpfNyD; tawmftwef ESpfouf zG,faumif;onf/ oó0w¬Kusrf;udk ]t&om&Sdaomjrpf} odkYr [kwf ]&owdkYpD;qif;&m} odkYr[kwf ]MunfEl;zG,f zefwD;&Sif}[k t"dyÜm,f&onhf ]&o0g[deDusrf;}ESihf EIdif;,SOfMunhfygu txuf yg t"dyÜm,f zGifhqdkcsufrSmydkí aMumif;usKd;qDavsmfonfudk awGU& onf/ odkYjzpfrl ]o[ó} ESihf ]&o0g[deD} acgif;pOfESpfckvkH;rSm t"dyÜm,f wlnD&awmhrnf jzpfonf/ ,if;onf ]&o0g[deDusrf;} onf ]oD[V0w¬Kusrf;}udk rDSjirf;jyKonf[laom tcsufudk axmufcHjcif;jzpfonf/ &o0g[deDusrf;ü oD[V0w¬Kusrf;ESihf pum;vkH;rsm; wlnD onhf 0gustrsm;tjym; yg&Sdonf/ &o0g[deDusrf;vm udÍöd o*F[0w¬Kü bk&ifhxD;apmihfewf ½Gwfqdkaom *gxmonf pum; vkH; wpfvkH;ESpfvkH;uvGJí o[ó0w¬Kü awGU&onhf *gxm twdkif; jzpfonf/ a*g|£rÁ&rax&f &[EÅmjzpfNyD;aemuf ½Gwfqdk aom*gxmonf &o0g[deDü ydkrdkaumif;rGefNyD; o'´ga&;rSefatmif jyKjyifxm;onfuvGJí ESpfusrf;vkH;ü twlwljzpfonf/ txufyg ,lqcsufrsm;u ]tEk&m"yk&NrdKU? r[m0d[m& ausmif;wdkuf? *kwå0*Fy&da0Pausmif;ae t&Sif&|ygvrax&f a&;cJhaom o[ó0w¬Kusrf;onf at'D 14 &mpk t&Sifa0a'[ rax&fu &o0g[deDusrf;tjzpf jyefvnfjyKjyif rGrf;rHa&;om;cJh aomusrf; rjzpfEdkifbl;vm;}[laomtar;udk jzpfay:vmaponf/ o[ó0w¬Kusrf;onf bmompum;rnufanm o'´ga&; nHhaomfvnf; ordkif;wefzdk; rsm;pGm&Sdygonf/ ,if;usrf;onf xdk acwftcsdefu usrf;jyKyk*¾Kdvf vufvSrf;rD &&SdEdkifaom rDScdktm;xm; twef;rSqkH;jzwfvsuf a0g[m&Zpfjrpfwpfck taejzihfvnf; ,lqEdkifonf/ ][ó}onf ][&f&S} rSjzpfap? ][m,S} rSjzpfap qif;oufvmEdkifonf/ vef'ef ygVdawmftoif; tbd"mefudkvnf; ½Iyg/ xdkYjyif ]awoH £'H bmodwH [óuH a,0 orÜZÆwd (r 2? 234) udkvnf; ½Iyg/


36 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

onfrSm aocsmygonf/ ygVdt|uxm usrf;rsm;acwf at'D 5 &mpkxufyif a&S;usEdkifzG,f&Sdonf/ &o0g[deDusrf;vm 0w¬Krsm; pGmonf Zmwfedygwfawmf tpOftvmü awGU&onhf Ak'¨&Sif awmfjrwf\ twdwfb0 jzpf&yfrsm;ESihf ywfoufonf/ odkYwap &o0g[deDESihf Zmwfawmfrsm;tMum;ü t"duESihf tajccH jcm;em; csufrsm; &Sdonf/ Zmwfawmfrsm;ü wd&pämefrsm; pum;ajymonhf 0w¬K rsm;pGmygaomfvnf; &o0g[deDü usD;uef;iSuf wpfrsKd;om 1 ¤if;\EIwfjzifh pum;ajymonfudk awGU&onf / Zmwu0w¬Krsm;ü awGU&ouJhodkY vlom;bmompum;udk ajymqdkojzihf iSufrsm;udk csD;rGrf;qdkjcif; r[kwfbJ iSufwdkY\ bmompum;udk em;vnfjcif; twGuf vlom;tm; rGrf;qdkjcif; jzpfonf/ tjcm;aom wd&pämef rsm;rSm ¤if;wdkY\ EIwfjzihfyif pum;rajymMuay/ 'k|*grPdrif; BuD;\ jrif;ronf rdrd\tpm;tpmudk bdu©KoHCmtm; rQa0vkd ojzihf rdrd\qE´udk yg;pyfrSrqdkbJ ajrBuD;cwfNyD; t&dyfedrdwfjyí 2 qdkonf / 'k|*grPd\qifonf BuD;jrwfonhf todynmESihf jynfh pkHonf/ ¤if;tm; atmifajrudk &SmazGcGifhjyKaomfvnf; ¤if;tae jzihf rdrd\r[mAsL[m tpDtpOfrsm;udk EIwfrS>ruf[í qdkEdkifpGrf; 3 4 r&Sday / avwGifysH0Jonhf Aka'¨eD\jrif;onfyif pum;rajymacs / tpOftvm a&S;usrIudk oufaojyKonhf &o0g[deDusrf;ü awGU&onhf aemufwpfcsufrSm 0w¬Krsm;pGmwdkYü wefcdk;jym#d[mrsm; 5 udk awGU&jcif;jzpfonf / ewfa'0gwdkY vlom;a&SUwGif ay:vmNyD; ¤if;wdkYESihf wlnDonhf a0g[m&rsm;jzihf vGwfvyfpGm ajymqdkrIrsm; 6 yg0ifonfh tcsKdU0w¬Krsm;rSm 0drme0w¬Kudk owd&aponf / 1 2 3 4 5 6

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usrf;udk;&if;jrpfrsm;

33

1

a0P ü oDwif;okH;aexdkifaom &|ygvtrnf&Sdrax&fu ,if; oD[dkVfbmom 0w¬Krsm;udk ygVdbmomodkY jyefqdkcJhaomfvnf; ,if; usrf;onf trSm;rsm;ESihf xyfcgwvJvJ jyqdkrIrsm; jynfhESufae onf/ odkYjzpfí ]uREkfyf ,if;usrf;udk jyefvnfjyKjyif rGrf;rH a&; om;ygtHh/ ,if;usrf;udk tm½kHpl;pdkufí em,lyg/ ,if;0w¬Krsm;udk a&S;acwf &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfrsm; ajym;jycJhonf jzpfaomaMumihf ,if; ajymjycsufrsm;udk olawmfaumif;rsm; av;pm;&rnf}[k usrf;jyK yk*¾Kdvfu qdkcJhonf/ 14 &mpkwGif 0wf½kHopf qifjref;NyD; &o0g[deD emrnfopf udk ay;cJhaomfvnf; ,if;usrf;yg taMumif;t&mrsm;onf a&S; t&d,myk*¾Kdvfrsm;\ acwfqDodkY a&mufaeonf/ &o0g[deD usrf; jyKq&m\ azmfjycsufrsm;tjyif ,if;usrfü vTrf;NcKHaeonhf tpOf tvmrsm;\ a&S;usrIudk oufaojy&efvdkonhf pOf;pm;zG,f t csufvuf rsm;pGm yg&Sdonf/ &o0g[deDusrf;onf o[ó0w¬Kusrf;udk rSDjirf;jyKaMumif; a,bk,stm;jzihf okawoDynm&Sifrsm; oabmwlMuonf/ &o 0g[deDusrf; yPmrü &nfñTef;onhf t&Sif&|ygv\ usrf;onf o[ó0w¬KjzpfEdkifaMumif; rSwfcsufay;xm;NyD; jzpfonf/ t&Sif a0a'[rax&fu t&Sif&|ygonf a&S;acwf &[EÅmBuD;rsm; oD[dkVfbmomjzihf ajymjycJhonfh 0w¬Kjzpf&yfrsm;udk ygVdbmomodYk jyefqdk½kHrQom jzpfaMumif; jyqdkonf/ o[ó0w¬Kusrf;jyK yk*¾Kdvf u ¤if;\usrf;onf oD[V|uxmusrf;ESihf q&mpOfajym½kd; 2 pum;udk tajccHaMumif; twnfjyKonf/ ,cktcgwGif oD[V |uxm[lonfudk &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfrsm; oD[dkVfbmomjzihf a&;om; xm;cJhonhf usrf;tjzpf a,bk,stm;jzihf ,lqMuonf/ odkYjzpfí t&Sif&|ygvonf a&S;acwf &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfrsm; oD[dkVfbmomjzihf ajymjycJhaom 0w¬Krsm;udk ygVdbmomodkY jyefqdkonf[laom &o 1

(trnfem rxif&Sm;bJ aemufusEdkifzG,f&Sdonhf) a&S;q&mwpfyg; a&;onhf &o 0g[deD#Dumusrf;ü 0uFy&da0P[k azmfjyonf (,if;? pm-3)/ 2 o[ó0w¬KH bmodóH? oD[V|uxme,H *PSdwGm p&d,0g'Íö/


34 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

0g[deDusrf; azmfjycsuftm; þo[ó0w¬Kusrf;udk &nfñTef;rI tjzpf ,lqEdkifonf/ usrf;pmESpfapmifvkH;udk aocsmpGm *½kpdkufzwf½I avhvmygu ,if;,lqcsufudk axmufcHygvdrfhrnf/ taMumif;t&mwGif om ru 0gusrsm; wGJvkH;rsm; pmydk'fwpfckvkH;yif usrf;ESpfapmifvkH; wl nDrI&SdMuonf/ &o0g[deD ta&;tom;onf o[ó0w¬Kxuf ydkrdkpepfus acsmrGwfNyD; uspfvpfonfrSm oHo,jzpfzG,f rvdkacs/ 1 odkYwkdifatmif &o0g[deDusrf;ü ]oD[dkVf-ygVd} tokH;tEIef;rsm; ESihf 2 ygVdysuf oD[dkVfa0g[m&rsm; yg0if aeqJjzpfonf/ usrf;pmESpfckvkH;ü pmvkH; wpfvkH;ESpfvkH;rSvGJí pmaMumif;csif; xyfwlnDonhf *gxmrsm; yg&Sdonf/ ykHpHtm;jzihf &o0geDusrf; udÍödo*F[0w¬Kvm – ]om"k om"k ukrm&dau? o'¨g, "r®ZD0deD/ wGH [d 'geH ''rmem? om"k ylZm o'g b0} *gxmESihf o[ó0w¬K uk@doCFm0w¬Kvm – ]om"k om"k ukrm&dau? o'¨god "r®ZD0deD/ om"k 'geH t'god wGH? om"k ylZm o'g b0} *gxmwdkYudk ,SOfMunhfyg/ &o0g[deDusrf; a*gX,drÁ& 0w¬KwGif awGU&onhf ]o*Fgraoma@m y&owåKr'´aem? ola&m p 0Da&m Av0g y&mbdbl/ ½k'´ó ,u©óod&H 0demo,H? udavooDoH p wawm 0demo,H} [laom *gxmESihf o[ó0w¬Kvm ,if;0w¬Kü awGU&onfh ]o*Fgraoma@m y&owåK r'´aem? ola&m p 0Da&m p Av0g y&mbdbl/ 'kVK'´ó ,u©ó oDoH o,H 0demo,d? 1

ykHpHtm;jzihf ]&mZyk&daom oyÜð wkarS cg'dómrDwd waZÆaEÅm bm,m ayod (&o0g[deD ? pm-33)/ 2 Oyrm ]r[laev} (oD[dkVf rmaevf) &o0g[deD? pm- 62? ]aygaome} (oD[dkVf aygaome) &o0g[deD? pm-11/

usrf;udk;&if;jrpfrsm;

35

t0dZÆmoDoH p t[H 0demo,H} *gxmjzihf ,SOfMunhfyg/ odkYwap usrf;*efESpfckü txl;ojzihf trnfemrrsm;ESihfywf oufí uGJjym;onhftcsufrsm;vnf; rsm;pGmyg&Sdonf/ ykHpHtm;jzihf &o0g[deDusrf;vm r[m0gyd0d[m& trnfudk o[ó0w¬Kü r[m0go0d[m&[k ac:xm;onf/ &o0g[deDü rif;BuD; uk¥&ZÆ ESihf ckd;om;BuD; [m&Owdu trnfrsm;udk o[ó0w¬Kü uk@ &ZÆ? t&wd trnfrsm;jzifh awGU&onf/ ,if;odkYaom uGJjym;csuf rsm;udk rsm;pGmawGUEdkifonf/ ,if;wdkYteuf tcsKdUrSm wpfqihf ul; ,lolrsm;\ trSm;rsm;jzpfEdkifonfrSm aocsmonf/ tcsuftvuf awmfawmfrsm;rsm;udk o[ó0w¬Kxuf &o 0g[deDusrf;u ydkrdk tao;pdwf azmffjyxm;NyD; ,if;udk aemufydkif; wdk;wufrI\ oauFwtjzpf ,lqEdkifonf/ o[ó0w¬Kusrf;u ]{aum bkZa*g} a>rwpfaumif[k omrefqdkxm;ygu &o0g[deD usrf;u ,if;udk ]a*geooayÜg} a>rayG; odkYr[kwf a>ra[muf[k twdtus qdkonf/ o[ó0w¬Kü ]a*gvd,*gar p@mv ykawåm}[k qdkonfudk &o0g[deDü ]a[av’mvd *gar A[kavm emr p@mvykawåm}[k twdtus qdkonf/ o[ó0w¬Kü ]owm&[*gxH 0wGm}[kqdkaomfvnf; &o0g[deDü ,if;*gxmudk ]uóy'oAave a'oem eE´jAm[®aPe p trSmuH okw aomraAm"dowåó uxdwm y&rwK¬0EÅda,m owm&[ *gxm a,m y&d0awåwGm} [k azmfjyonf/ wpfzefrl wpfcgwpf&H o[ó0w¬Kü jyqdkonfh xif&Sm; onhf tcsufrsm;rSm &o0g[deDü aysmufaeonf/ odkYwap ,if; jzpf&yfrsKd;rSm &Sm;&Sm;yg;yg; jzpfonf/ txufyg tcsuftvufrsm;t& tu,fí &o0g[deDusrf; onf o[ó0w¬Kusrf;udk rDSjirf;rjyKvQif tenf;qkH; ,if;ESpf usrf;vkH; wpfckwnf;aom rSDjirf;usrf;rS tcsuftvufrsm;udk & ,lonf[k qdkEdkifzG,f&Sdonf/ ,if;rDSjirf;usrf;rSm rnfodkYaom usrf;jzpfrnfudk uREkfyfwdkY rajymEdkifacs/ &o0g[deDusrf;ü azmfjyonfhtpOftvmonf tvGefa&S;us


40 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

&o0g[deD0w¬Krsm;onf a&S;acwf tdE´d,ESihf oD[dkVfwdkY\ oGifjyif "avhESifh vlrIa&;tajctaersm;ESihf ywfoufí opfvGifNyD; pdwf 0ifpm;zG,f tvif;a&mifwpfck ay;ojzihf ,aeYacwf uREfkyfwdkY tzdkY tusKd;rsm;onf[k rSefuefpGm ½Ijrif,lqEdkifonf/ tcsKdU0w¬K rsm;ü pdwful;,Of '@m&D wpf0ufavmufwGif ta&;ygonhf 1 ordkif;qdkif&m tcsuftvufrsm; yg0ifEdkif&monf / 7/ ygVd oD[dkVf taxGaxG usrf;rsm; bDpDokH;&mpku Ak'¨*,m r[maAm"dyifrBuD;rS ,laqmifvmcJhonhf tEk&m"yk&NrdKU&Sd aAm"dyifordkif;udk azmfjyaom r[maAm"d0H o usrf;onf ,cktcg Oywdótrnf&Sdrax&f a&;cJhonf[k a, bk,stm;jzihf vufcHxm;onhf ygVdpum;ajyusrf;jzpfonf/ usrf; pma&;onhf acwfumvudkrl twdtus rowfrSwfEdkfifao;acs/ r[m0Ho#Dum (at'D 9 &mpkcefY)usrf;ü r[maAm"d0Houxm 2 [kac:aom usrf;wpfapmifudk &nfñTef;cJhonf / *dkif*g (Geiger) onf ],aeYwdkif wnf&SdqJjzpfonfh r[maAm"d0Housrf;} tjzpf 3 ,lqcJhonf / odkYwap rmvmvmaqau&url ,if; r[maAm"d 4 0Housrf;udk r[m0Ho#Dumxuf aemufusaMumif; ,lqonf / od&d"r®m&mrum; ,if;usrf;udk t&Sifr[mAk'¨aCmoESihf aygVKEé 5 ½k0acwf t&Sifom&dykwå&mwdkY tMum;wGif xm;onf / acwft ydkif;tjcm; rnfodkY&Sdap r[maAm"d0Housrf;onf a&S;acwf q&mh q&mrsm; (ykAÁmp&d,auo&D[d) a&;om;cJhaom aAm"dyifordkif; qdkif&m ydkrdka&S;usonhf usrf;pmwpfckudk tajccHcJhonf/ tqdkyg rl&if;usrf;rSm ,cktcg aysmufqkH;oGm;NyD[k ,lq&onf/ 1

Pali Leterature of Ceylon, p. 226.

2

r[m0Ho#Dum? pm-412/ 'Dy0Ho ESihf r[m0Ho? pm-49/ r[m0Ho#Dum? ed'gef;? pm- 107/

3 4 5

Mahabodhivamsa-ganthipadavivaranaya, Preface, p.1

usrf;udk;&if;jrpfrsm;

37

&o0g[deDüygonhf *gxmtrsm;pkrSm t&Sifa0a'[rax&f \ a&;om;csufrsm; jzpfonf/ ]awem[k ayg&mPm? 0kwåH a[wH ayg&maP[d? b0aEÅw¬? awe 0kwåH}ponhf ykHrSef pum;qufrsm; jzihf usrf;pmwpfckvkH; ae&mtESHYtjym;wGif usrf;a[mif;rsm;rS *g 1 xmrsm;udk xnfhoGif;xm;onf / *gxmyk'frsm;udk &,lonhf usrf; 2 pmrsm;teuf r[m0Housrf;udkomvQif jyqkdonf / &o0g[deDusrf;vm oD[dkVfuRef;jzpf 0w¬Krsm;teuf ig;q,f &mEIef;rSm a&m[et&yfrSjzpfNyD; q,fhig;&mEIef;rSm tEk&m"yk& NrdKUrS jzpfonf/ usef0w¬Ktrsm;pkrSm em*'Dy? Owå&yó? 'u©dP yóESihf ypädryó ponfjzihf jyefYusJaeonfh a'orsm;rS jzpf onf/ 0w¬Kjzpf&yfrsm;\ jzpfay:&ma'oudk azmfjy&ef cufcJonhf jzpf&yfrsm;vnf; yg&Sdonf/ txufü azmfjycJhonhf ae&ma'o tm;vkH;rSm aemufqkH; bDpo D kH;pkESihf at'Dyxr &mpkESpfrsm;twGif; Ak'¨omoemawmfxGef;um;cJhonhf ta&;ygonhf A[dkXmersm; jzpf cJhonf/ txl;ojzihf a&m[PZeyk'ft&yf jzpfonf/ aemufay: NrdKUawmfrsm; odkYr[kwf ae&ma'orsm; jzpfonfh ykvw¬dyk& (ayg vkEé½k0) odkYr[kwf ZrÁKa'´gPd ('rÁa'Pd,)uJhodkYaom a'orsm; udk &o0g[deDusrf;ü razmfjyacs/ þonfrSm pmaypkaqmif;rI wpfckrSvmonfh 0w¬Kjzpf&yfrsm;onf tqdkygAk'¨omoemESihf ywf oufonhf tcsuftjcm ae&ma'orsm; rxif&Sm;vmrDuyif NyD; pD;aeNyDjzpfaMumif; axmufjyEdkifzG,f&Sdonf/ &o0g[deDusrf;ü azmfjyonhf aemufqkH;bk&ifrSm tEk&m" yk&NrdKUü at'D 249 rS 268 txd tkyfcsKyfcJhonhf od&dem*rif; jzpfonf/ &o0g[deDusrf;vm c&pfay:NyD;aemuf tkyfcsKyfcJhonfh aemufbk&if wpfyg;rSm 'kAÁd|d (r[m'gXdu r[mem*) at'D 6770 jzpfonf/ odkYwap xlyg&mr&Sd tod*¾g[uy&da0Pudk &nf 1 2

,if;? pm-116? 141? 143? 186/ ,if;? pm-98? 101? 103? 122/


38 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

ñTef;xm;onf / tod*¾g[u ]oefvsufudkifaqmifol} [laom bJGUrSm tdE´d,rS jrwfAk'¨\ auo"mwk qHawmf"mwfudk o,f aqmifcJhonhf odvmumvudk *kPfjyK&ef yxr arm*¾vm’ erif; 2 (at'D 496-513)u *kPfjyKay;tyfonhf bGJUjzpfzG,f&Sdonf / odkY jzpfí tod*¾g[uy&da0Pudk ,if;acwfrwdkifrD odkYr[kwf ,if; acwfNyD;aemuf wnfaqmufcJhzG,f&Sdonf/ &o0g[deDusrf;ü azmf jycJhonhf tjcm;rif;tm;vkH;rSm c&pfESpfrwkdifrDu rif;rsm; jzpfMu onf/ umu0PÖwdó? 'k|*grPd? o'¨gwdóESihf vZÆdwdórif; rsm;udk rMumcP azmfjyonf/ rmvmvmaqau&onf 0w¬Ktrsm;tjym;udk oD[dkVfwGif yd#uwfokH;ykHudk ayxuftu©&mwifonhf 0¥*grPdrif; (bDpD 29-17) vufxufcefYtwGif; jzpfaMumif; rSwfcsufjyKcJhonf/ ¤if; (rmvmvmaqau&)u rl&if;usrf;wpfckwGif xyfrH jznfhpGufjcif; rsm;avm? odkYwnf;r[kwf xdk(0¥*grPdrif;)acwfNyD;aemuf rsm; rMumrD rl&if;0w¬Kjzpf&yfrsm;udk pkpnf;cJhaMumif; azmfjyoavm[k 3 ar;cGef;xkwfcJhonf / &o0g[deDusrf;vm 0w¬Kjzpf&yfrsm;onf acwftqufquf wGif oD[dkVfuRef;oluRef;om;rsm;twGif; tvGefYtvGef xif&Sm;cJhykH &onf/ a&S;acwfrsm;ü &[ef;awmfrsm;onf rdrdwdkY<ua&muf&m t&yfwdkif;wGif vl0wfaMumifrsm;tm; pm&dwå`rSifhwifa&;twGuf a[majymñTefjycJhzG,f&Sdonf/ ]wó uxH okwGm bdu©L oEÅK|m wawm y|m, *gred*r&mZ"meDok pm&duH p&rmem rEkómeH 4 wH orÜwåð 0aPÖwGm rEkaó 'gem'Dok a,m aZokH} ]xdkol\ jzpf&yfudk Mum;&NyD;aemuf &[ef;awmfrsm;onf ESpfoufyDwd jzpf NyD; xdktcsdefrSpí NrdKU½GmZeyk'f rif;aejynfawmfwdkYü c&D;a'opm &D<uMuaomtcg vltaygif;tm; ,if;0w¬Kjzpf&yfudk csD;rGrf;pum;

usrf;udk;&if;jrpfrsm; 39 qdkNyD; vltaygif;tm; 'geponfü arGUavsmfapMuNyD}/ ]bdu©L wó uxH okwGm *w*w|mae a'0 ykawåe uwur®H yum 1 aowGm A[kZae 'gem'Dok 'oukov uar®ok eda,maZokH }/ ]&[ef;awmfrsm;onf xkdyk*¾Kdvf\pum;udk Mum;NyD;aemuf a&muf &mt&yfü ewfom; jyKvkyfonfhtrIudk azmfjyí vltaygif;tm; 'gepaom ukovur®yx 10 yg;ü arGUavsmfapMuNyD}/ tqdkyg Oyrmrsm;u ,if;0w¬Kjzpf&yfrsm;onf ae&ma'o trsKd;rsKd;ü jzpfysufcJh(ww¬w¬LyyEémed)NyD; a&S;acwf &[EÅmt&Sif jrwfwdkY oD[dkVfbmomjzihf ajymjycJhaMumif; (t&[m yka& tbmokH 'Dybmom,) azmfjyonf/ tqdkyg0w¬Krsm;taejzihf oD[dkVfvlxktMum; arG;zGm;&SifoefcJhonf [laomtcsufrSm rPd ol&d,? ol&edr®vpaom tokH;rsm;onhf a0g[m&rsm;t& xif 2 &Sm;pGm od&onf / yk*¾Kdvfa&;trnfemrrsm;udk &Sif;jy&ef BudK;yrf; rIrsm;rSm ,aeYacwf aus;vufae yk*¾Kdvfrsm;tm; tvGef vG,ful onf/ &o0g[deDusrf;onf oD&dvuFm&Sd Ak'¨bmom bkef;BuD; ausmif;rsm;ü ygVdoifausmif;om;rsm;\ yxrqkH;zwfpmtkyf tjzpf ,aeYwkdifyif a&yef;pm;qJjzpfonf/ wpfcgwpf&H &o0g[deDusrf;onf r[m0HoESihf tjcm;wpf ae&m&mü awGU&onfudk jznfhpGufNyD; tcsuftvufopfrsm;udk ay;onf/ ykHpHtm;jzifh bk&ifod&em*udk tiftm;okH;í rif;jyKvm onhf pGefYpm;olwpfa,muftjzpf r[m0Hoa&m &o0g[deDusrf; 3 yg oabmwlMuonf / r[m0Hoü od&dem*ukd uk@em*\ a,mufz[kqdkonf/ &o0g[deDt& od&dem*tm; ykPÖm;rsKd; vl i,f[kod&ojzihf ¤if;taMumif; pdwf0ifpm;zG,ftcsuf jzpfonf/ tu,fí &o0g[deDtqdkudk vufcHrl uk@em*\ rdcif bk&ifr onf ykPÖm; trsKd;orD;jzpfaMumif; xif&Sm;onf/

1

1

1

2

,if;? pm-123? 124/ r[m0Ho? tcef; 39? 49-56 *gxm/

3

Pali Literature of Ceylon, p. 225.

4

&o0g[deD 2? pm-13/

2 3

,if;? pm-26? 71? 84/ ,if;? pm- 26? 71? 84/ r[m0Ho? tcef; 36? 21-23 *gxm/ &o0g[deD 2? pm-7/


usrf;udk;&if;jrpfrsm;

41

r[maAm"d0Housrf;um; tEkynmusrf;tjzpfa&m r[maAm "dyif ordkif;usrf;tjzpfyg tNrJav;pm;jcif; cH&onf/ r[maAm"d 0Ho#Dum? r[maAm"d0Hoy&duxm ("r®jy'Dydumusrf;)? r[maAm "d0Ho*E¦dy'0d0&P? r[maAm"d0o H y'w¬0PÖemuJhodkYaom acwf toD;oD;wGif a&;om;cJhonhf #Dumusrf;rsm;pGmu a&S;q&mwdkY taejzihf r[maAm"d0Housrf;udk rnfrQ ta&;ygonf[k,lq aMumif; azmfjyonf/ ,if;usrf;udk at'D 14 &mpk pwkw¬ y&uúrAm[krif;vufxufü 0dv*r®KvoHC&mZrax&fu oD[V r[maAm"d0Housrf;trnfjzihf oD[dkVfbmomodkY jyefqdkcJhonf/ Ak'¨pG,fawmf"mwf ordkif;usrf;jzpfonhf 'gXm0Ho usrf;udk at'D 12 &mpk (at'D 1197 ckESpfNyD;aemuf rsm;rMumrD jzpfEdkif onf) wGif ppfolBuD; y&uúr\ awmif;yefrIaMumifh ykvw¬dy&k (aygVKEé½k0)NrdKU t&Sifom&dykwå&m\ wynhfjzpfol t&Sif&mZ*k½k "r®udwådrax&fu ygVdbmomjzihf a&;om;cJhonf/ usrf;jyKyk*¾Kdvf u ¤if;\usrf;udk a&S;a&S;u oD[dkVfbmomjzihf a&;om;cJhonhf Ak'¨pG,fawmf"mwfordkif;usrf;udk tajccHaMumif; azmfjyonf (*g xmtrSwf 10)/ oD[dkVfbmomjzihf a&;om;xm;onhf 'gXm0Ho oEé, ('gXm0Hoedó,)usrf;ü ,if;a&S;OD; oD[dkVfusrf;udk udwåd od&darC0PÖrif; (at'D 362-389) vufxuf Ak'¨pG,fawmfudk oD[dkVfodkY o,f,lvmpOf a&;om;cJhaMumif; qdkonf/ (,if;oD[dkVf 1 rl&if;usrf;udk r&Edkifawmhacs/) r[m0Housrf; ü udwådod&darC 0PÖrif;onf pG,fawmf"mwfordkif;usrf;rsm;ü azmfjyonhftwdkif; Ak'¨pG,fawmfjrwftm; ylaZmfcJhaMumif; qdkonf/ ,if;üazmfjyonfh ordkif;usrf;[lonf t&Sif"r®udwåd rSDjirf;jyKcJhonfh oD[dkVfa&S;usrf; jzpfzG,f&Sdonf/ *dkif*gurl r[m0Ho ñTef;qdkusrf;onf "r®udwåd\ 2 'gXm"mwk0Housrf;jzpfaMumif; azmfjyonf / odkY&mwGif "r®udwåd udk,fwkdifyif udwådod&darC0PÖrif;onf pG,fawmf"mwfudk yl 1 2

r[m0Ho? tcef; 37? 93 *gxm/ plV0Ho t*Fvdyfbmomjyef? twGJ 1? pm-7 atmufajcrSwfcsuf 4/


42 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

aZmf apmihfa&SmifhrIqdkif&m rSwfwrf;wpfapmifudk a&;om;apNyD; aESmif;acwf rif;rsm;onf ,if;rSwfwrf;yg ñTefMum;csufrsm;udk 1 vkdufemMuaMumif; azmfjycJhonf / t&Sif"r®udwåd ,if;usrf;udk ygVdbmomjzihf a&;om;&jcif;\ &nf½G,fcsufrSm oD[dkVf bmom pum;udk rzwfwwfonhf tjcm;EdkifiHrsm;rS yk*¾Kdvfrsm;\ tusKd; 2 twGufjzpfonf / Ak'¨y&dedAÁmefpHcsdefrSpNyD; yÍörbk0aeuAm[k rif;vufxuf (at'D 1360-1391) wdkifatmif oD&dvuFm Ak'¨bmomordkif; tusOf;csKyf usrf;jzpfaomfvnf; edum,o*F[usrf;rSm tvGef ta&;ygonf/ ,if;usrf;udk a,bk,stm;jzihf 'kwd,0D&Am[krif; (at'D 1391-1397) vufxuf 'kwd,"r®udwådtjzpf xif&Sm;ol a'0 &u©dw Z,Am[k r[mowå0d& a&;om;onf/ usrf;jyKyk*¾Kdvfonf ¤if;\usrf;udk (usrf;jyKol\ pum;t wkdif;) ]aMumuf½GHUjcif;ESihf rsufESmvdkufjcif; uif;awmfrlMuonhf a&S;rax&fwdkY a&;om;csufrsm;ESihf rsufarSmufacwfwGif jrifMum; 3 od&onfrsm;}udk tajccHonf / edum,o*F[usrf;jyKyk*¾Kdvfonf a&S;rax&frsm;tm; ]aMumuf½GHUjcif;ESifh rsufESmvdkufjcif;uif;ol rsm;} tjzpf t&nftcsif; owfrSwfjcif;rSm tvGef ta&;ygonf/ ,if;rSwpfqifh xdkrax&fwdkY\ a&;om;csufrsm;onf bufrvdkuf taMumufESifh rsufESmvdkufrI rvTrf;rdk;aMumif; azmfjyonf/ ,if; azmfjycsufudk xdkusrf;\ wefzdk;tjzpf uREfkyfwdkY ,lqEdkifonf/ edum,o*F[usrf;jyKq&monf usrf;*efrsm;pGmESihf uREkfyfwdkY ,aeY r&Edkifawmhonfh Ak'¨bmomynm&Sif rsm;pGmudk od&Sdyk&H onf/ ,if;usrf;onf r[m0d[m&*dkPf; oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmom ordkif;usrf; jzpfonfrSm xif&Sm;onf/ 1 2 3

'gXm? pm-406-4-7/ ,if;usrf;? pm-10/ edum,o*F[? pm-1/

usrf;udk;&if;jrpfrsm;

43

þ(taxGaxG)usrf;pm acgif;pOfatmufwGif ylZm0vd,? &mZm0vd,? &mZ&wemu&,? xly0HoESihf "mwk0HouJhodkY aom tjcm; rsm;pGmaom usrf;rsm;vnf; tzdk;wef orkdif;tcsuf tvufrsm; yg&SdMuonf/ 00000000


48 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

ausmufpm trdefYjyefwrf;rsm;rS tuJjzwfEdkifonf/ ausmufpm trSwf 2? 5 ESihf 13 wdkYwGif taomuvufatmufcH EdkifiHrsm;udk azmfjyxm;onf/ awmifzufwGif apmV (Cholas) wdkif;? yef'sm (Padyas)? owd,ykwå(Satiyaputras)ESifh au&mvykwå (Keralaputras) wdkif;rsm;ü qkH;onf/ ajrmufzufwGif ¤if;\tifyg,monf [dr0EÅmawmifajcodkYwkdif us,fjyefYonf/ uuf&SfrD;,m;ESihf eDayg EdkifiHrsm;&Sd taqmufttkHrsm;u ,if;wdkYonf taomu tifyg ,m\ tpdwftydkif;rsm; jzpfcJhaMumif; azmfjyMuonf/ taemuf ajrmufzufwGif qD&D,ef;bk&if tef;wD;a,mhcf(Antiochus)\ e,f y,fodkYwkdif a&mufcJhojzihf bk&iftef;wD;a,mhcf\ vufatmuf cH yg&Sm;ESifh qD;&D;,m;odkYwdkif us,fjyefYcJhonf/ ,0e (Yavanas)? uarÁmZ (Kambojas)ESihf *E¨m& (Gandhāras) wdkif;oljynfom;rsm; tm; taemufajrmufzufwGif aexkdifolrsm;tjzpf azmfjyonf/ taomu\ bdk;awmf pE´*kwårif;onf bDpD 304 cefYwGif ppfcsDrI wpf&yf atmifjrif NyD;qkH;NyD;aemuf tvufpE´mbk&if\ ppfolBuD; wpfOD;jzpfol qJvsLuyfpf (Seleucus)xHrS t&D;,m; (Aria)? tm&m acsm&Sm;(Arachosia)? a*N'dK&Sm; (Gedrosia)ESihf y½dkyedqma' (Paropanisadai)[laom e,fy,f av;ckudk odrf;,lcJhonf/ xdkYjyif bDpD 262 cefYwGif us,fjyefY jyif;xefonhf ppfyGJudk qifETJNyD;aemuf taomuonf uvd*Fwdkif;udk atmifEdkifcJhonf/ ]bk&if taomuvufatmuf&Sd tdE´d,tpdk;&onf w&m; Oya'ESihf EdkifiHa&;tjrift& bk&if{&mZf pepfom jzpfonf/ odkY wap t&yfa'o rsm;pGmwdkYü tdE´d, tcsKyftjcm tmPmydkifpdk;rI onf taemufwkdif; oufOD;qHydkif bk&ifpepfxuf rsm;pGm ydkrdk 1 uefYowfrIrsm; &Sdonf} / vlYtzGJUtpnf;udk bmoma&;ESihf bmoma&;r[kwfonhf vl wef;pm;rsm;jzihf wnfaqmufxm;onf/ bmoma&;yk*¾Kdvfrsm;wGif jAm[®P? orPESihf ygo@[k okH;rsKd; uGJjym;onf/ ygo@rsm; 1

Mookerji's Asoka, p. 47.

tcef; 1 tdE´d,ordkif;aemufcH oD[dkVfa&S;OD; Ak'¨bmomordkif;udk em;vnfNyD; auseyfrI&Sdap&ef uREkfyfwdkYtaejzihf aemufcHordkif;tjzpf oD[dkVfuRef;odkY Ak'¨0g'udk ydkYay;cJhonhf bDpDokH;&mpk tdE´d,EdkifiHESihf ,if; (Ak'¨0g')udk cH,lcJh onhf Ak'¨0g'rwkdifrD oD[dkVfuRef;wdkYESihf ywfoufí a,bk,s tawG;tjriftcsKdU &Sdxm;&ef vkdayonf/ tdE´d,EdkifiHrS omoem jyKyk*¾KdvfwdkY oD[dkVfuRef;odkY Ak'¨0g'udk o,f,lvmaomtcg ¤if; wdkYonf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ w&m;"r®udkomru tdE´d,Ak'¨bmom ,Ofaus;rIESihf xkH;wrf;pOfvmwdkYudkyg o,f,lvmcJhonf/ oD&d vuFm&Sd Ak'¨bmomqdkif&m ylaZmfrIrsm;? tcrf;tem;rsm;? yGJawmf rsm;eSihf apmihfxdef;rI tm;vkH;eD;yg;avmufrSm a'oqdkif&m jyKjyif ajymif;vJrI tenf;rSwpfyg; oD&dvuFmodkY acwfOD;ykdif; tdE´d, omoemjyKrax&fwdkY ay;tyfcJhonfh usifhpOf tpOftvmrsm;om jzpfMuonf/ odkYjzpfí oD&dvuFmodkY Ak'¨0g' a&muf&Sdvmonhf acwfwGif tdE´d,ü xGef;um;aeaom tajctaersm;ESihf ywf ouf í tawG;tjrifwpf&yf &Sdxm;&ef OD;pGm vdktyfonf/ Ak'¨0g'onf bDpD ajcmuf&mpkwGif Am&mPoDNrdKU £odywe t&yfü yÍö0*¾Dig;OD;wdkYtm; Ak'&¨ Sifawmfjrwfu w&m;OD;a'oem a[mMum;jcif;jzihf todynmESihf udk,fusifhw&m;qdkif&m vIyf&Sm;rI wpf&yftaejzihf pwifcJhonf/ Ak'¨oufawmfxif&Sm; &SdpOftwGif; **Fgjrpf0Sef;a'otwGif; wjznf;jznf; jyefYESHYoGm;NyD; 0dE¨,mawmif


46 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

tdE´d,ordkif;aemufcH

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

wef;ESihf [dr0EÅmawmifwef;rsm;tMum;&Sd tdE´d,ajrmufydkif; EdkifiH i,frsm;pGmwdkYü wnfwhHjyefYESHYcJhonf/ bk&ifrif;rsm;? trwfBuD;rsm;? olaX;ol<u,frsm;ESihf ukefonfBuD;rsm;? ykPÖm;rsm;ESihf v,form; rsm;onf xdkacwfu vufcHxm;NyD;jzpfonfh oDtdk&DESihf usifhpOf tcsKdUudk qefYusifawmfvSefonhf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ opfvGifonhf "r®vrf;pOfudk vdkufemusihfokH;vmMuonf/ bDpD 483 cefY Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf y&dedAÁmefpHvGefawmfrlcsdefwGif tdE´d,ajrmufydkif;&Sd ta&;ygonhf EdkifiHtm;vkH;eD;yg;rQukd ,if; awmfvSefonhf "r®vrf;pOfopfu euf½Idif;pGm vTrf;rdk;oGm;NyD;jzpfykH& onf/ r[my&dedAÁmeokwfawmft& aemufcHordkif;trsKd;rsKd;&SdMu onfh EdkifiH&Spfckonf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ "mwfawmfa0pkudk &vdk aMumif; awmif;qdkMuonf/ þonfrSm Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwftaejzihf ,if;EdkifiHrsm;ü udk,fawmfjrwf\ tqkH;trudk emcHolwynhf rsm; pGm&SdaMumif; azmfjyjcif;jzpfonf/ odkYwap Ak'¨y&dedAÁmefpHNyD;aemuf ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm Mumonhfwkdif rnfonhfEdkifiHurQ Ak'¨\"r®udk Edkif iHawmf\ bmomw&m;tjzpf owfrSwfonf[laom tcsufudk oufaojy&ef taxmuftxm; r&Sdacs/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf y&dedAÁmefpHNyD;aemuf rsm;rMumrD rdk;&moD 0g wGif;umvwGif xdktcsdefu Ak'¨\wynhfom0ursm;teuf odu©m 0g tBuD;qkH;ESihf touf&SifqJjzpfonhf t&Sifr[muóyrax&f OD;aqmifNyD; rm*"bk&if tZmwowåK\ taxmuftyHhjzihf &mZ N*dK[fNrdKUü yxroH*g,em wifonf/ ,if;\ &nf½G,fcsufrSm Ak'¨ &Sifawmfjrwf\ w&m;rSefrsm;udk pepfwus pkpnf;&ef jzpfonf/ ,if;oH*g,emwifyGJBuD;ü Ak'¨\teD;aeom0u t&SiftmeE´mESihf 1 t&SifOygvdwdkYrSm t"du OD;aqmifyg0ifolrsm; jzpfMuonf / &mpkESpf wpfckcefYtMum bDpDav;&mpk yg#vdykwfbk&if um vmaomurif;vufxuf a0omvDNrdKU r[m0kefausmif;wkdufae rsKd;½dk;udktaMumif;jyKí rSnfhac:rIt& 0ZÆD[kwGifonhf &[ef;tkyfpk

onf NcdK;NcHpGmusihfMuHonhf rax&fBuD;rsm;tm; pdwfrcsrf;ajrU jzpf 1 aponhf okH;pGJrItopf q,frsKd;udk jyKvkyfMuonf / xdktcsdefu t&Sif,o? t&Sifa&0wESihf t&SifoAÁumrd[laom oHCem,u r[max&fokH;yg;\ vrf;ñTefrIjzihf a0omvDNrdKUü 'kwd,oH*g, emwifNyD; 0ZÆD&[ef;wdkY jyKvkyfonhf q,fcsufudk rSm;,Gif;azmuf jyefaMumif; jyifqifcJhMuonf/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ rSefuefpifMu,f 2 onhf "r®onf wpfpkHwpfckaom tcsdefxd oefY&Sif;aecJhonf / 'kwd,oH*g,emNyD;aemuf ax&0g'r[kwfbJ rSm;,Gif;olrsm; tjzpf owfrSwfcH&aom &[ef;tkyfpkonf tjcm;wpfae&mwGif pk½kH;MuNyD; pifNydKifoH*g,emwifvsuf ax&d,*dkPf;ESihf jcm;em; aom r[moHCdu (odkYr[kwf r[moH*Dwd)trnfjzifh *dkPf; wpf ck wnfaxmifMuonf/ aemuf&mpkESpfrsm;twGif; ax&0g'*dkPf; 3 uGJ trsKd;rsKd;ESifhtwl *dkPf;BuD; q,fh&Spf*dkPf; ay:aygufcJhonf / bDpD av;&mpk ukefcgeD;wGif pE´*kwåarm&d,rif;onf cefYrSef; ajc tmz*efepöwefrS rdkifqdk (Mysore)e,fxd EdkifiHudk csJUxGifvsuf BuD;rm;NyD; wefcdk;xefonhf tifyg,mudk wnfaxmifonf/ ,aeY acwf tdE´d,tjyifbufESihf ygudpöwef taemufzsm;a'oxd e,f 4 y,frsm;onf pE´*kwårif;\ tifyg,m atmufwGif &SdcJhonf / pE´*kwårif;\om; AdE´Kom&onf zcif\ tifyg,mudk xdef; xm;Edkif½kHru awmifydkif;a'oodkYyif csJUxGifcJhzG,f&Sdonf/ bDpD 274 cefYwGif AdE´Kom&\om; taomuonf pGrf;&nfESihfjynhfpkH onhf aum#d vspmPusuJhodkYaom EdkifiHawmftMuHay;yk*¾Kdvfrsm; \ vdr®muRrf;usifonhf vrf;ñTefrIjzihf {u&mZfbk&ifBuD; ESpfyg; wnfaxmifcJhaom tifyg,mBuD;udk qufcHonf/ bk&iftaom u\ tifyg,m twdkif;tqudk rif;BuD;udk,fwkdif xkwfjyefcJhonhf 1 2 3 4

1

0d-| 1? 4/ r[m0Ho? tcef; 3/

47

0d 4? 491/ 0d-| 1? 27/ r[m0Ho? tcef; 4/ r[m0Ho? tcef; 5? 1-5 *gxm/ edum,o*F[? pm 5-6/ Mookerji's Asoka, p. 12.


52 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

vmNyD;aemufrSom Ak'¨0g'tay: ESpfESpfumum ouf0ifvmNyD; 1 rif;BuD;udk,fwkdif vkdufemusihfokH;rIrsm; jyKcJhonf/ r[m0Housrf; ü bk&iftaomuonf apmapmykdif;umvrsm;ü ¤if;\ &ufpuf Murf;wrf;rIaMumifh p@maomu(vlMurf;taomu)[k xif&Sm;cJh aomfvnf; w&m;"r®ESihf arGUavsmfol jzpfvmNyD;aemuf "r®maom 2 u[k xif&Sm;vmaMumif; azmfjyonf / o'¨ð 0oeuyk&daom/ 0d-| 3? 351) PTS ygVdtbd"mefusrf;üvnf; bdu©K*wdu (-*wdu wnfyk'fatmufwGif Munhfyg) yk'fudk awGU&onfrSm ygXfysuf t|uxmpmrlrS &,lxm;jcif; jzpfz, G f&Sdonf/ tawGUtBuKHEkol wpfa,muftzdkY zwf&cufonhf oD[dkVfta&; ]b}ukd ]*}tjzpf vG,f vG,fyif rSm;,Gif;Edkifonf/ bk&iftaomu\ &[ef;oHCmawmfrsm;ESihf eD;uyfpGmqufqHrIonf oHCmawmfrsm;ESihf &if;ESD;uRrf;0ifrI odkYr[kwf eufeJonhf "r®tvif;udk &&Sd&eftwGuf wpfckwpfckaom tcsdefydkif;xd oHCmawmfrsm;ESihf twl bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufwpfckü twlwuGaexdkifjcif;rsm; &SdEdkifonf/ edum ,o*F[usrf; (oD[dkVfbmomusrf;? pm-7) ü taomurif;BuD;onf t&Sifarm*¾vdykwåwdórax&f\ ausmif;wkdufü bmom0g'trsKd;rsKd;udk avhvm&ef ckepf&uf aexdkifcJhaMumif; azmfjyonf/ þü bk&iftaomu udk twl,l&ef BudK;pm;cJhNyD; xdakY Mumifhyif w½kwftaomurif;[k a,bk ,stm;jzihf owfrSwfcH&vsuf ausmif;wdkufwpfckü &[ef;awmfrsm;ESifh twl aexdkifcJhol at'D 5 &mpk w½kwf {u&Zf vD,ef ODxnf (Lian-uth thi, 5 century A.D.) taMumif;rSm pdwf0ifpm;zG,f jzpfonf/ 1 r[m0Ho 5? 189 *gxm/ 2 rlum*sD(Mookerji)u ,if;'@m&D azmfjycsufrsm;rSm owåKMurf;udk a½T tjzpfodkY ajymif;vJypfonhf bmomw&m;udk trTrf;wifjcif; jzpfaMumif; ,lqonf (Asoka, p. 5)/ trSefaomf ausmufpmtrSwf 13 ü uvd*F ppfyGJtwGif; rif;BuD;\ &ufpufMurf;MuKwfrItwGuf aemifwylyefrI pdwf rcsrf;ajrUrIESifh ywfoufonhf ckdifvkHonhfrSwfcsuf yg&SdNyD;jzpfonf/ ,if; ausmufpmü rif;BuD;onf xdktcsdefu p@ ]Murf;wrf;ol} wpfa,muf jzpfaMumif; azmfjyonf/ rlum*sD\ ]taomu} pmtkyf pmrsufESm 165 atmufajcrSwfcsuf trSwf 6 udkvnf; ½Iyg/

tdE´d,ordkif;aemufcH

49

teuf xdkacwfu txif&Sm;qkH;rSm taomurif;BuD; udk,fwdkif ausmufxGif;*lrsm; vª'gef;cJhzl;onhf ed*P²rsm;ESihf tmZD0ursm; jzpfMuonf/ ausmufpmtrSwf 9 ü azmfjyonhftwdkif; xdktcsdef u vlBudKufrsm;aom bmomw&m;ü tESpfrJh yGJvrf;obifrsm; ESihf t,lonf;rIrsm; jynhfaeykH&onf/ rdom;pkb0 tawG;tjrif rSm tqihftwef; jrifhykH&onf/ wd&pämefwdkY\ MuifempGm jyKrl&ef awmif;qdkrIudkyif todtrSwfjyKonf/ orPjAm[®Prsm;ESihf t jcm; &aoh&[ef;rsm;udk axmufyhH&efrSm tdrf&mwnfaxmifolrsm; \ wm0efjzpfonf/ trsKd;orD;rsm;\ aumif;usKd;ESihf tqifhjrihf a&;udk txl;tav;ay;onf/ trsKd;orD;ta&;ESifh ywfoufí 1 wm0ef,l&onhf oBwDtZÑur[mrwåac: 0efBuD;rsm;&Sdonf / ynma&;b0onf bk&m;ausmif;rsm;ü t"dutm;jzihf A[dk jyKonf/ odkYwap ynmoifMum;jcif;ESihf ,Ofaus;rIonf vlxk tMum;rSmyif cGJjcm;rI &SdykH&onf/ vlxktrsm; zwf½Iem;vnfvdrfh rnf[k ,lqNyD; taomuausmufpmrsm;udk ouúwbmomjzifh ra&;bJ t&yfokH;bmompum;jzihf a&;om;xm;jcif;onf omref vlwef;pm; vlxktwGif; pmayzwf½IEdkifol OD;a&rsm;jym;aMumif; ñTefjyonf/ Aifqif at qrpf (Vincent A. Smith)u ]taomu acwf Ak'¨bmom0if vlxktMum; pmayzwf½IwwfrI &mEIef;rSm vuf&Sd NAdwdoQtkyfcsKyfcH tdE´d,EdkifiHa'otrsm;&Sd vlOD;a&xuf 2 ydkrsm;Edkifrnf[k uREfkyfxif\}[k qdkcJhonf / taomuacwfu tdE´d,wGif yg#vdykwåESifh a0'domuJhodkY aom NrdKUBuD;rsm;pGm&Sdonf/ pE´*w k åbk&ifhw&m;½kH;odkY a&mufvmol AkdvfcsKyf qJvsLuyfpf (Seleucus)\ *&doHwref ar*gpoif;eufpf (Megasthenes)u yg#vdykwfNrdKUawmfudk arQmfpif 570 ESihf *dwf aygif;rsm;pGm&Sdonhf NrdKU½dk;wHwdkif;jzihf um&Hxm;aMumif; azmfjycJh onf/ NrdKUawmfwpfavQmufwGif ay 600 us,fNyD; vufvH 30 1 2

taomu ausmufpmtrSwf 11/ Mookerji's Asoka, p. 35.


50 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

1

eufaom usKH;&Sdonf / uuf&SfrD;,m;&Sd &S&Dem*gNrdKUESihf eDayg&Sd NrdKU awmfrsm;rSm taomuudk,fwdkif wnfaqmufcJhonf[k ,lq& onf/ EdkifiHawmf wpfvTm;ü yg#vdykwf&Sd taomum½kH ausmif; wdkufuJhodkYaom bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufBuD;rsm;ESihf qefcsDESihf bm& [kw t&yfrsm;rSmuJhodkY apwDykxdk;rsm;jzihf jynhfaeonf/ ]Ak'¨0g' ESihfywfouforQteuf "mwfawmfapwDtm; ylaZmfrIudk trSefyif 2 taomurif;u tpjyKcJhonf} / taomurif;onf Ak'¨0g'Dtjzpf arG;cJholr[kwfay/ ¤if;\ zcifESihf bdk;awmfwdkY\ bmomw&m;ESihf ywfoufí tawmf twef aocsmrI r&Sdaomfvnf; ¤if;wdkY Ak'¨0g'D r[kwfMuonfrSm aocsmonf/ tjcm;rnfonhf ae&mwGifrS axmufcHjcif;? qefY usifjcif;r&Sdaom *sdef;0g'tpOftvm wpfckt& taomu\ bdk; awmf pE´*kwårif;onf *sdef;0g'D jzpfaMumif;ESihf b0oufwrf; ukefqkH;onfxd b0aemufqkH; aeY&ufrsm;udk &[ef;0wfjzihf ae 3 xkdif&ef xD;eef;udk pGefYcJhaMumif;qdkonf / 'dAsm0'geusrf;wGif crnf;awmf AdE´Kom&rif;onf taomurif; xD;eef;udkqufcH rIESihfywfoufí ar;jref;vdkojzihf yd*Fv0ó (Pingalavatsa) t rnf&onhf tmZD0uudk xD;eef;odkY yihfzdwfcJhaMumif; rSwfwrf; 4 5 wifxm;onf / r[m0Ho#Dumusrf; ü oD[dkVfbmom rZÑdredum ,t|uxmusrf;udk udk;um;vsuf Zeometrnf&onhf tmZD 0u &[ef;onf bk&ifAdE´Kom&rdom;pk udk;uG,fcH yk*¾KdvfjzpfNyD; ¤if;onf t0wfrpnf;onfh bkef;BuD;jzpfaMumif; azmfjyonf/ þ azmfjycsufrS Zeome tmZD0u &[ef;onf 'd*rÁ& (Digambara) 1

Cambridge Shorter History of India, I. p. 21.

2

Sir John Marshall: The Moauments of Sanchi, I. p. 21.

3

Cambridge Shorter History of India, I. p. 34.

4

Mookerji; op. cit, p. 3, 5.

5

r[m0Ho#Dum? 192-3/ (odkYaomf þtaMumif;t&mudk t&Sifr[mAk'¨ aCmo\ rZÑdredum,t|xmü razmfjyay/ bmomjyefol)

tdE´d,ordkif;aemufcH

51

*dkPf;0if *sdef;bkef;BuD;jzpfaMumif; em;vnf&onf/ r[m0Ho#Dum 1 usrf; ü Zeometrnfudkyif aemufazmfjycsufwpf&yf awGU& ao;onf/ ,if;azmfjycsufü Zeomeonf AdE´Kom&bk&ifh rdzk&m; \ rdwfaqGESifh twdkifyifcHyk*¾KdvfjzpfaMumif; qdkonf/ orEÅygom 2 3 'dum ESihf r[m0Ho ESpfusrf;vkH;ü AdE´Kom&onf jAm[®P0g'D jzpf aMumif;? jAm[®P0g'D *dkPf;trsKd;rsKd;rS &[ef;rsm;udk qnf;uyf aMumif;? bk&iftaomuonf okH;ESpfywfvkH; ¤if;zcif\ t,l 0g'udk vkdufemusihfokH;cJhNyD; tbdodufcHNyD;aemuf av;ESpfajrmuf wGif Ak'¨0g'DjzpfvmaMumif; wlnDpGm qdkMuonf/ taomutae jzihf *ltcsKdUudk tmZD0ursm;tm; vª'gef;cJhonfudk axmufí ¤if; taejzihf rdrdudk,fwkdif tcsdefumv wpfcktxd udk;uG,fcJhNyD; rsKd; ½dk;pOfquf udk;uG,fcJhonhf tmZD0u &[ef;rsm;tm; ylaZmfrIjyKcJh 4 aMumif; ñTefjyonf / bk&iftaomuonf bdodufcHNyD;aemuf ESpftenf;i,f t MumwGif Ak'¨0g'D Oyoumjzpfvmonf/ odkYwap ESpfESpf okH;ESpf cefYxd rdrd\ bmomw&m;topfESihf ywfoufNyD; uGJuGJjym;jym; 5 r&Sdao;acs/ Ak'¨0g'D &[ef;oHCmawmfrsm; ESihf eD;uyfpGm qufqH 1

2 r[m0Ho#D? 190/ 0d-| 1? 44/ r[m0Ho 5? 34/ 4 Am&mAm& awmifukef;&Sd edaj*m"ESihf cgvwdu ausmufxGif;*lrsm;/ 5 jA[®*d&dt&yf&Sd ausmufpmtrSwf 1 wGif ]oHaC Oy,Daw} [laom pm wpfaMumif; yg&Sdonf/ ]&[efoHCmawmfrsm;xH tzl;ajrmf oGm;onf} [k a,bk,stm;jzifh bmomjyefqdkEdkifonf/ ynm&SiftcsKdUu taomurif; BuD;onf trSefyif Ak'¨0g'D&[ef;jyKoGm;aMumif; qdkvdkonf[k ,if;0gusudk t"dyÜm,f aumuf,lMuonf/ ynm&Sif rlum*sD(Mookerji)url bdu©K*wdu tqihfudk ñTefjyjcif; jzpfEdkifonf[k BuHcJhonf/ ynm&Sif A½l;0g (Barua)\ (Inscriptions of Asoka, II, p. 334)yg rSwfcsufudkvnf; ½Iyg/ trSwfpifppf bdu©K*wdu r[kwfbJ bdu©Kbwdu ]&[ef;oHCmudk qnf;uyfol} ('D 2? 176/ 'D-| 4? 717 udk ½Iyg)[k jzpfonf/ t&Sifr[mAk'¨aCmo tvdkt& bdu©Kbwdu[lonf ]bkef;BuD;ausmif; wpfckü &[ef;awmfrsm;ESihftwl aexdkifol}[k qdkvdkonf (bdu©Kbwdaumwd {uo®ð 0d[ma& bdu©L[d 3


56 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

rsm;udk em,l&rnf? em,l&ef qE´&Sdae&rnf[k em;vnfjcif;jzihf oihfjrwf nDñGwfjcif;onf csD;rGrf;xkduf\} [k aMunmcJhonf/ jcm;em;jcif;r&SdbJ orP jAm[®PwdkY\ vGwfvyfrIudk ygVd awmfusrf;*efrsm;ü tav;xm; azmfjyouJhodkY rif;BuD;\ ausmuf pmrsm;üvnf; jynfolY 0wå&m;tjzpf txl;jyK azmfjycJhonf/ bmomt,l0g' ajrmufjrm;pGm wnf&Sdaeonhf tifyg,m BuD;udk tkyfcsKyfNyD; ESvkH;pdwf0rf; BuD;jrwfol bk&iftaomuonf bmomw&m;rsKd;pkHudk udk;uG,fMuonhf rdrd\ wkdif;oljynfom; tm;vkH;udk ajymqdk awmif;yef&rnhf udk,fusifhw&m; pepfwpfck udk ajymif;vJa&;ESihf ywfoufí pdwfrcsrf;ajrU jzpfcJhonf/ odkYjzpf í rif;BuD;onf ¤if;\ ausmufpmrsm;wGif rMumrcP okH;EIef;cJh onhf ]"r®}[laom pum;vkH;udk ]vlBuD;rdb q&morm;wdkYtm; av;pm;jcif;? &aoh&[ef; orPjAm[®P aqGrsKd;rdwfaqG oli,f csif; taygif;toif; aus;uRef rDSckdol qif;&J'ku©a&mufaeol rsm;tm; oihfwifhpGm auR;arG; apmihfa&Smufjcif;? ouf&Sdrsm;tm; owfjzwfrIrS a&SmifMuOfjcif;? Muifemjcif;? opömapmihfodjcif;? twGif;tjyif pifMu,fjcif;? odrfarGUjcif;? olawmfaumif;yDojcif;? rdrdudk,fudk xdef;odrf;jcif;? aus;Zl;odwwfjcif;? udk,fusihfoDv pif Mu,frItay: cdkifrmonhf pdwfqE´ESihf tusKd;rJh rjzKef;wD;bJ pk aqmif; acRwmjcif;}txd t"dyÜm,frsm;jzihf udk,fpm;jyK zGihfqdkcJh onf/ "r®[laom pum;vkH;atmufü taomurif;BuD; t "dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcJhonhf ,if;ukd,fusihfw&m;a&;&m pnf;rsOf;rsm;tm; *dkPf;*P tkyfpktrsKd;rsKd;udk vkdufemusihfokH;olrsm;? &aoh&[ef; rsm;ESihf tdrfaevlrsm;? rif;BuD;\ tifyg,m twGif;tjyifrS vlxk? vl½dkif;rsm;ESihf ,Ofaus;NyD; EdkifiHrsm;? tdE´d,EkdifiHom;ESihf tdE´d, EdkifiHom; r[kwfolrsm; tm;vkH;u vufcHEdkifonf/ ,if;odkYjzihf bk&iftaomuonf trsm;qdkif bmomw&m; wpfckudk wnf axmif&ef BudK;yrf;cJhNyD; ,if;\ BudK;yrf;csufonf ordkif;wGif yxrqkH; jzpfzG,f&Sdonf/

tdE´d,ordkif;aemufcH

53

uvd*FppfyGJtwGif; xdwf½GHUzG,f vlYtoufaygif;rsm;pGm qkH; ½IH;jcif;ESihf vltajrmuftjrm; qif;&J 'ku©a&muf&rIudk udk,fwkdif 1 awGUjrif&ojzihf bdufodufcHNyD;aemuf &SpfESpfajrmuffwGif oHCm awmfrsm;\ aumif;aom vrf;ñTerf IrSwpfqifh taomurif;BuD; onf ajymif;vJoGm;onf/ ,if;onf rif;BuD;\ b0wpfcsKdUauGU jzpfonf/ ]rif;BuD;\ "r®udk apmifhxdef;rI? "r®udk cspfjrwfEdk;rIESihf 2 "r®udk a[mMum;rIrsm;onf us,fjyefYvmcJh\} / rif;BuD;onf aemufxyf atmifjrifrIrsm;twGuf oefvsuf"m;udk qGJrxkwf awmhbJ odrf;qnf;cJhNyD; xdktcsdefrSpNyD; "r®0dZ, [kac:onhf udk,fusihfw&m;ESihf pdwfydkif;b0 atmifjrifrItwGuf wpdkufrwf rwf aqmif½GufcJh\/ ,if;onf rif;BuD;tm; BuD;jrwfaom 3 atmifjrifoltjzpf ,lqjcif; cH&ap\} / bmjAKausmufpm (Bhābru Edict) ESihf rd*'g0kef? aumorÁDESihf qefcsDt&yfwdkYü awGU&onhf ausmufpmwdkifwdkYü azmfjycsuft& ,cktcsdefwGif Ak'¨0g'onf bk&iftaomu\ t"duudpö jzpf vmonf/ taomuonf Ak'¨0g'udk tdE´d,\ EdkifiHawmfbmom jzpfaponhf yxrqkH;aom bk&ifjzpfonf/ taomuxHrS Ak'¨ 0g'udk &&SdcJhonhf oD&dvuFmEdkifiHonf ,if; Ak'¨0g'tpOftvmudk oD[dkVf aemufqkH;bk&ifrsm; vufxufwkdif vdkufem usihfokH;cJh onf/ &[ef;oHCmawmfrsm;udk &nfñTef;onhf bmjAK ausmufpm ü bk&iftaomuonf bdu©Krsm;? bdu©KeDrsm;ESihf Oyoum Oyg odumrsm;tm; yd#uwfygVdawmfrsm;rS xkwfEkwfxm;onhf okwåef ckepfckudk rMumcP Mum;emqifjcif&ef wdkufwGef;xm;onf/ rd* 'g0kef? aumorÁDESihf qefcsD ausmufpmwdkifrsm;ü oHCmoif;uGJrIudk jzpfay:aponhf rnfonhf bdu©K bdu©KeD rqdkudk vl0wfvJ& rnfjzpfNyD; bkef;BuD;ausmif;rsm;ü aexkdifcGifh rjyK&ef trdefYxkwf 1 2 3

ausmufpmtrSwf 13/ ausmufpmtrSwf 13/ ausmufpmtrSwf 13/


54 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

jyefxm;onf/ ,if;odkYjzihf rif;BuD;onf Ak'¨0g'\ avmuDa&; OD;aqmifrIudk vufcHvsuf Ak'¨0g' aumif;usKd;twGuf ouf0if vIyf&Sm;onhf pdwf0ifpm;rIudk &,lcJhonf/ taomurif;w&m;\ ,kHMunfrItopfonf ¤if;\b0wpf ckvkH;ESihf tusihfp½kdufudkyg ajymif;vJypfykH&onf/ ¤if;\ pdwfydkif; b0 ,kHMunfrItopfESihf qefYusifonhf xdktcsdefu vdkufemqJ xkH;pHESihf bk&ifrif;wdkYqdkif&m ñTefMum;csuf trsm;pkudk zsufypfNyD; tjcm;wpfyg;ESihf tpm;xdk;cJhonf/ rif;BuD;\ ,kHMunfrI topfu jyKjyifvdkufonhf ESvkH;om; tajymif;tvJonf rif;BuD;\ yk*¾Kdvf a&;b0udkomru jynfolYa&;&m ay:vpDESihf tkyfcsKyfa&;u@udk yg oufa&mufapcJhonf/ rif;BuD;\ aemufqkH; EdkifiHa&;pGefYpm;rI jzpfonhf uvd*FppfyGJNyD;aemuf rif;BuD;onf ppfyGJudk vkH;0pGefYvkduf onf/ ausmufpmtrSwf 13 ü ]tu,fí wpfpkHwpfa,mufonf rif;BuD;tm; tjyKoabmaqmifonfh emusifaprIwpfckudk jyKbdrl rif;BuD;onf xdkyk*¾Kdvftm; jzpfEdkiforQ cGifhvTwfrIudk xkdufwefol tjzpf ,lqvdrfhrnf}[k qdkonf/ rdrd\ EkdifiHe,fy,fESihf qufpyf aeonhf wdkif;EdkifiHrsm;ESihfywfoufí rif;BuD;u uvd*Fausmufpm trSwf 2 wGif ]rif;BuD;onf vltaygif;u rif;BuD;udk raMumuf ½GHUMuap&ef? ,kHMunfMuap&ef? rif;BuD;xHrS aysmf½TifrIudk &&SdMuNyD; aomuylyefrIudk r&&SdMuap&ef tvdk&Sd\}[k qdkonf/ rif;BuD; onf ausmufpmtrSwf 9 ü ]rif;jrwfr[m\ udk,fusihfoDvudk usihfokH;rI &vm'ftjzpf ppfpnf½Grf;oHonf (ppfonfrsm;udk r [kwfbJ) "r®udk zdwfac:jcif; jzpfvm\} [k qdkonf/ bk&iftaomu\ Ak'¨0g'tay: wuf<upGm pdwf0ifpm;rIESifh euf½Idif;pGm MunfñdkrIonf tjcm;bmomw&m;rsm;tm; ao;odrf oGm;atmif rjzpfapcJhay/ xdkESihf qefYusifvsuf rif;BuD;taejzihf bmomw&m; tm;vkH;tay: ylaZmfoumjyKcJhNyD; ypönf;0w¬Krsm; jzihf axmufyHhrIrsm;udkom jyKvkyfcJhonf/ bmomw&m;ESihf ywfoufonhf onf;cHrIpdwf"mwfudk Ak'¨ udk,fwdkif wynhfom0ursm;tm; a[mMum;cJhNyD;jzpfonf/ rZÑdr

tdE´d,ordkif;aemufcH

55

edum,f? OygvdokwfwGif emvE´mNrdKUae txifu&vlcsrf;om ed*P²em#ykwå (Zder[m0D&)\ wynhfjzpfol Oygvdonf Ak'¨\ wynhfom0u jzpfvdkaMumif; jrwfAk'¨tm; avQmufxm;onfudk rSwfwrf;wifxm;onf/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfu Oygvdtm; Ak'¨0g'D Oygoum jzpfvmNyD;aemufrSyif ed*P²wdkYtm; vdktyfonfrsm;jzihf axmufyhHrIudk qufvufjyKvkyf&ef wdkufwGef;awmfrlonf/ bk&if taomuonf bmoma&;ESihf ywfoufonhf tvm;wl onf;cH em;vnfrIrsKd;udk euf½dIif;pGm cH,lxm;onfrSm aocsmonf/ ausmufpmwdkiftrSwf 6 wGif rif;BuD;u þodkYqdkonf ]ig onf *kdPf;*PtoD;oD;rS &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; ylaZmfzG,f trsKd; rsKd;jzihf ylaZmf\}/ wpfzefvnf; ]bk&ifrif;jrwfonf a'otm; vkH;wGif rsKd;EG,ftoD;oD;rS vlom;tm;vkH; twlwuG aexdkifrIudk 1 vdkvm;awmfrl\} / rif;BuD;onf ]bmomw&m; tm;vkH;\ tqkH; 2 traumif;rsm; wkd;wufrIü pdwf0ifpm;awmfrl\} / bk&if taom uonf bmoma&;*dkPf;wpfcku tjcm;wpfckudk apmfum;rIudk tvdkr&Sdacs/ ausmufpmtrSwf 12 wGif rif;BuD;u ]rdrdbmom w&m;udkom csD;rGrf;pum;qdkNyD; tjcm;bmomw&m;rsm;udk ykwf cwfuJh&JUjcif; rvkyf&/ ...,if;odkY rvkyfbJ tjcm;bmom w&m;rsm;udkvnf; taMumif;wpfckckjzihf csD;rGrf;pum; qdk&rnf/ ,if;odkYjyKjcif;jzihf bmomw&m;wpfckonf ,if;\ wdk;wufjyefY yGm;rIudka&m tjcm;bmomw&m;\ jyefYyGm;rIudkyg taxmuftul jyK\/ ,if;odkYr[kwfvQif rdrdbmomw&m;udka&m tjcm;bmom w&m;udkyg epfemap\/ taMumif;rl rdrdbmomw&m;tay: ESpf oufrIudkom taMumif;jyKí rdrdbmomw&m;udkom csD;rGrf;qdkNyD; tjcm;bmomw&m;udk uJh&JU½Iwfcsolonf ajymif;jyeftm;jzihf rdrd bmomw&m;tm; ydkrdk xdcdkufepfemapaomaMumihf jzpf\/ odkYjzpf í vltm;vkH;onf tjcm;yk*¾Kdvfrsm; a[mMum;onfh w&m;"r®udk 1 2

ausmufpmtrSwf 7/ ausmufpmtrSwf 12/


60 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

csLpf (Antiochus)ESihf ,if;\ tdrfeD;csif;rsm; tygt0if ae&mwdkif; ü vlom;wdkYtm; aq;ukoa&;XmeESihf awm½dkif;wd&dpämefwdkYtm; aq;ukoa&;Xme [laom aq;ukoa&;Xm ESpfrsKd;wdkYudk wnf aqmufay;\/ vla&mwd&dpämefrsm;yg tokH;0ifonhf aq;zuf0if opfyifrsm;udk r&Sdao;onhf ae&mwkdif;ü ta&;wBuD; pdkufysKd;ap \/ aq;zuf0if opfjrpf opfoD;rsm; r&Sdao;onhf ae&mwkdif;ü rSm,l pdkufysKd;ap\/ vrf;ab;rsm;ü a&wGif; a&uefrsm; wl;azmf ap\/ vlom;rsm;a&m awm½dkif;wd&dpämefrsm;yg csrf;om aysmf½Tif a&;twGuf opfyifrsm; pdkufysKd;ap\}[k qdkonf/ odkY&mwGif jynfwGif;jynfy ,if;odkYaom BuD;rm;us,fjyefY onfh vlrIa&;aumif;usKd;aqmif½GufrI tm;vkH;onf bmomw&m; av;pm;NyD; pm&dwåeuf&dIif;ol taomu\pdwfudk tm;&auseyfrI rjzpfapEdkifao;ay/ jyKNyD;orQ aumif;usKd; aqmif½GufrItm;vkH; onf rwnfNrJbJ ½kyfydkif;qdkif&m ulnDaxmufyHhrIom jzpfNyD; ,if; vª'gef;ay;urf;rIrsm;rSm rqdkpavmufomjzpfonf/ rif;BuD; tae jzihf "r®'geESihfwlaom 'ger&Sd[k jyif;jypGm cHpm;rdcJhonf (em 1 owd {wm&doH 'geH ,m&doH "r®'geH) / odkYjzpfí rif;BuD;onf "r®jyefYyGm;a&; &nf½G,fcsufjzihf ,cif u rwnf&Sdzl;ao;onhf (e blwjyKAÁ) ]"r® r[mrMw}[kac:onhf 2 omoemjyK Xmeopfwpfck zGifhvSpfonf / ausmufpmtrSwf 5 ü ,if; r[mrMwrsm;udk "r®wnfwhH jyefYyGm;a&;ESihf bmomw&m;udk cspfjrwfEdk;olrsm;\ aumif;usKd;csrf;oma&;wdkYtwGuf bmoma&; *dkPf;*PtoD;oD;ü cefYxm;aMumif; jyqdkonf/ tqdkyg "r®r[m rMwrsm;udk a,me? uarÁmZ? *E¨m&ESifh rif;BuD;\ taemufzuf usKd;jyKvkyfief; jzpfonfh ]"r®jzihf atmifEdkifjcif;}\ &nf½G,fcsuftjzpf obm0tm;jzifh xif&Sm;pGm ay:vm&rnfjzpfonf} (rlum*sD? pm-132? atmufajcrSwfcsuf 2)/ 1 ausmufpmtrSwf 11/ ]oAÁ'geH "r®'geH Zdemwd = tvªtm;vkH;wGif "r® 'geonf tjrwfqkH; jzpf\} ("r®y'? tcef; 25? 21 *gxm)/ 2 ausmufpmtrSwf 5/

tdE´d,ordkif;aemufcH 57 bk&iftaomuonf rdrdjynfolrsm; udk,fusihfw&m;aumif; rGefwdk;wufa&;twGuf enf;rsKd;pkHudk tokH;jyKcJhonf/ ausmufpm wdkif trSwf 7 t& bmomw&m; tqkH;trrsm;udk oifMum;NyD; vufawGU tokH;csrIrsm;udk jyKvkyfcJhonf/ rif;BuD;onf Ak'¨0g'D? *sdef;0g'D? tmZD0uESihf tjcm;bmom0g'Drsm; jzpfMuonhf &[ef; &Sifvl jynfoltMum; rdrd\ arwåma&SUoGm;jyKonhf oifMum;csuf rsm;udk jyefYESHYap&ef "r®r[mrwå("r®a&;&m0efBuD;)rsm;ESihf &mxl; tqifh trsKd;rsKd;&Sdonhf t&m&Sdrsm;udk cefYxm;onf/ jynfol t rsm;\ udk,fusihfw&m;ESihf pm&dwåa&;&m aumif;rGefrItwGuf &nf ½G,fonfh ,if;"r®r[mrwåXmeonf taomurif;BuD;\ udk,f ydkifqef;opfwDxGifrI vkH;0jzpfonf/ rif;BuD;onf a&S;acwfbk&if rif;rsm; vkyfavhvkyfx&Sdonhf awmvkdufjcif;ESihf tyef;ajzc&D; xGufjcif;rsm;tpm; wdkif;oljynfom;rsm;tm; tBuHÓPfay;&efESihf Ak'¨0ifae&mawmfrsm;udk zl;ajrmf&ef bk&m;zl;c&D;xGufjcif; ("r® ,m 1 Mwm)rsm; jyKcJhonf / udk,fwdkif bk&m;zl;c&D;xGufonfomru t qihfjrihft&m&Sdrsm;tm;vnf; wm0efwpf&yftaejzihf rdrd\ pHerl 2 udk ,lMu (bk&m;zl;c&D;xGuf)&ef ñTefMum;cJhonf / wdkif;ol jynf om;rsm;\ bmomw&m; todpdwf"mwfrsm; jynhf0vm&efESifh udk,fusihfaumif;rGefonhfb0odkY Edk;<uvmap&ef bk&iftaomu onf bdk;ab;pOfqufrsm;uJhodkY ppfrufa&;&mtiftm;jzihf aqmif ½Gufjcif;tpm; qifajymifuonhf ewf&xm;rsm;ü ewfom; ewf orD;½kyfykH cif;usif;jyorIrsm;? o½kyfazmfrIrsm; yg0ifonhf ESpfouf zG,f ewfavmu oGifjyifrsm;jzihf jynfoltaygif;tm; qGJaqmif 3 vsuf pnf;½kH;vIHYaqmfcJhonf / bmjAKausmufpmü azmfjycsuft& Ak'¨usrf;pmrsm;udk a[mMum;jcif;udkyif bmoma&;qdkif&m yGJvrf; obifrsm;jzihf aqmif½GufcJhykH&onf/ 1 2 3

ausmufpmtrSwf 8/ ausmufpmtrSwf 3/ ausmufpmtrSwf 4/


58 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

bk&iftaomu\ ]"r®EdkifiHawmf}onf vlom;rsm;twGuf om uefYowfxm;cJhonf r[kwfacs/ ausmufpmtrSwf 2 wGif rif;BuD;onf ]vlom;twGuf aq;ukorIXme? awm½dkif;wd&dpämef rsm;twGuf aq;ukorIXme? &Sm;yg;onhfae&mrsm;ü vlom;rsm; twGufa&m awm½dkif;wd&dpämefrsm;twGufyg aumif;Edk;&m&m aq; buf0ifopfyifrsm; rSm,lpdkufysKd;apaMumif;} azmfjyonf/ ausmuf pm trSwf 1 ü ]rnfonhf ouf&Sdowå0gudkrQ rowfjzwf& ,Zf rylaZmf&}[k trdefYxkwfjyefcJhonf/ rif;{u&mZfonf wpfcsdef wnf;wGif bk&ihfrD;zdkaqmif tokH;jyK&ef owå0grsm;tm; owfjzwf jcif;udkvnf; &yfqdkif;cJhonf/ tifyg,m wpf0ef;vkH;ü ouf&Sd wd&dpämeftaygif;\ toufudk umuG,f&ef trdefYxkwfjyefcJhonf/ ausmufpmwdkiftrSwf 5 t& rif;BuD;onf tcsKdUaom wd&dpämef rsm;tm; owfjzwfjcif;? oif;uGyfjcif;? oHyluyfí wHqdyfcwfESdyf jcif;ESihf ig;rQm;jcif;rsm;udk txl;aeY&ufrsm;ESihf Ak'¨bmom Oykof aeYrsm;ü wm;jrpfcJhonf/ ]txJwGif ouff&Sdrsm;&Sdaeonhf opfoD; tcsKdUudkyif rD;r½IdU&/ taMumif;rJhjzpfap? tMurf;jyKrlvdkí jzpfap (ouf&Sdowå0grsm; twGuf) opfawmrsm;udk rD;r½IdU&/ ouf&Sdrsm; onf tjcm;ouf&Sdrsm;\ tpm;tpm rjzpfap&}[kvnf; trdefY xkwfjyefcJhonf/ ausmufpmwdkiftrSwf 7 wGif rif;BuD;u ]vrf; jrifhrsm;ay:üvnf; vlom;rsm;ESihf uRJEGm;wd&dpämefrsm; t&dyfcdkem; aeEdkif&ef yanmifyifrsm; pdkufysKd;&rnf? ¤if;wdkY oufaomihf ouf omjzpfa&;twGuf o&ufO,smOfrsm; pdkufysKd;jcif;? wpfaumo 0uf tuGmta0;wkdif;ü a&wGif;a&uefrsm; wl;jcif;? em;ae aqmif p&yfwefaqmif; aqmufvkyfjcif;? ae&mtESHYwGif a&jzefY jzL;a&;Xmersm;zGifhxm;jcif;rsm; jyK&rnf} [k qdkonf/ taomurif;BuD;onf rdrd wkdif;oljynfom;rsm;\ aumif; usKd;udkom aqmif½Gufjcif;jzihf tm;&auseyfjcif; r&Sday/ rdrd tifyg,m\ tjyifzuf txl;ojzihf rdrdtkyfcsKyfonhf e,fy,fESihf uyfaeonhf EdkifiHrsm;odkY tm½kHpdkufcJhonf/ oD[dkVfodkY &nfñTef; zG,f&Sdaom tcsufrsm;ygonhf ausmufpmtrSwf 2 wGif ]rif;BuD;

tdE´d,ordkif;aemufcH

59

tkyfcsKyfonhf e,fedrdwftwGif;ESihf tpGeftzsm;&Sd apmV (Cholas)? yef"sm (Pāndyas)? owd,ykMw (Satiyaputras)? au&mvykMw 2 (Keralaputras)ESihf wrÁyPÖD (Ta½bapa½º¿)? *&dbk&if tefwD,kd 1

taomu ausmufpmyg wrÁyPÖdonf oD[dkVfuRef;udk qdkvkdovm; odkY wnf;r[kwf tdE´d,awmifydkif; wdEéD (Tinnevelly) jrpf0Srf;&Sd wmr&myg&feD (Tāmraparº¿) jrpf0Srf;a'ovm; qdkonhftcsuEf Sihf ywfoufí t,ltq uGJjym;vsuf&Sdonf/ A½l;0g; (Barua) a&;om;onfh ]taomuausmufpm rsm;} (Inscriptions of Asoka) usrf;? tydkif; 2? pm- 235-6 ü Ta½bapa½º¿ (wrÁyPÖD)[laom a0g[m&ESihf ywfoufí &Snfvsm;onfh aqG;aEG;csuf wpf&yfyg&Sdonf/ Aifqif at qrpf (Vincent A. Smith)url xdkpum;vkH;udk oD[dkVfudk &nf½G,fonf[k r,lqbJ wdEéD(Tinnevelly) jrpf0Srf;&Sd wmr&m yg&feD (Tāmraparº¿) jrpfudk ,lqonf/ a&;acsmif"l&D (Raychaudhuri)um; ,if;pum;vkH;tm; oD[dkVfuRef;udk &nf½G,fonf[k ,lqonf/ *&doHwref ar*gpoif;epfpf (Megasthenes)u oD[dkVfuRef;tm; wmy½dkAmeD (Taprobane = wrÁyPÖdudk qdkvkdonf)[k &nfñTef;cJhonf/ ,if;azmfjycsufonf tdE´d, EdkifiHwGif;rSma&m tjyifrSmyg taomuacwf rwdkifrDuyif oD[dkVfuRef; tm; ,if;(wrÁyPÖd) trnfjzihf trsm;odMuNyDjzpfaMumif; azmfjyonf/ A½l;0g;onf ,if;a0g[m& rnfonfudk &nfñTef;onf[laom tcsufudk azmfrjycJhay/ aqG;aEG;rI tNyD;wGif olu ]ygVdESifh oD[dkVf bmomrsm;jzihf a&;om;onhf Ak'¨bmomordkif;usrf;rsm;ü a'0geHyd,wdórif; vufxuf Ak'¨omoem jyefYyGm;a&;twGuf oD[dkVfuRef;odkY taomurif;BuD; apvTwf vdkufaom Ak'¨omoemjyK tzGJUtaMumif;udk twdtus azmfjyxm;onf/ xdkYjyif tpOftvmt& at'D yxr&mpk tapmydkif;wGif a&;om;cJhonhf ]y&d0g&ygVd} y&d0gygVdawmfüyif xdkemrnfudk rSwfwrf;wifxm;onf/ odkY&m wGif udk,fydkif (ordkif;) cGeftm;&Sdonhf taomuausmufpmrsm;udk aqG; aEG;aejcif;jzpfí uREfkyfwdkYtaejzihf ,if;odkYaom pmaytpOftvm tqdk udk tajccHtjzpf oD[dkVfudk rsufESmomay;onfhtaejzihf r,lqoihfacs} [k qdkonf/ odkYwap rlum*sDurl taomuausmufpmyg wrÁyPÖdudk oD[dkVfuRef;tjzpf tcdkiftrm ,lqonf/ ¤if;;u ]xdkYjyif tifyg,mBuD; wpfckudk tkyfcsKyfolwpfa,muftm; wdEéDjrpf0Srf;a'ouJhodkYaom ae&mi,f udk ¤if;\EdkifiHawmftjyifzuf a'orsm;tjzpf ñTefjyaMumif; pOf;pm;&ef rarQmfvihfEdkifygacs/ aemufqkH;wGif rif;BuD;\om;awmfu ,if;tifyg,m \ bmomw&m;udk ay;tyfcJhonfh oD[dkVfonf rif;BuD;\ vlom; aumif;


64 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

usKd;aqmif vkyfief;ESihf vlrIa&; aumif;usKd;aqmif½GufrIrsm; yg0if onhf taomurif;BuD;\ Ak'¨omoemjyKvIyf&Sm;rI e,fy,f t wGif;ü &SdaeNyDjzpfonf/ t&Sifr[dE´\ oD[dkVfuRef;ü vkyfaqmifrI tcsdefumv(bDpD 252)onf rsm;pGmaemufusojzihf ,if;vkyfief; tm; taomuausmufpmrsm;ü azmfjy&ef rjzpfEdkifacs/ odkYwap t&Sifr[dE´\ vkyfief; tajccHtwGuf rsm;pGm jyifqifxm;NyD; jzpfonhf oD[dkVfESihf taomurif;w&m;BuD;wdkY\ qufqHrIrsm; 1 taMumif;udk jyqdkxm;onf / 1

Mookerji : p. 36.

00000000

tdE´d,ordkif;aemufcH

61

e,fjcm;a'o&Sd tjcm;vlrsKd;rsm;tMum; cefYtyfxm;onf/ "r®udk vdkufem usihfokH;olrsm;\ aumif;usKd;csrf;omESihf qif;&JrSvGwf ajrmufjcif;wdkYtwGuf ,if;trwfrsm;udk ppfom;rsm;? ppfAdkvfcsKyf rsm;? jAm[®Pbmom *dkPf;uGJrsm;? *[ywdrsm;? cdkudk;&mrJholrsm;? tdkrif;rpGrf;ol oufBuD;½G,ftdkrsm;ü cefYtyfxm;onf/ xdktrwf rsm;onf tusOf;om; jzpfrIqefYusifa&; vkyfaqmif&ef? arG;uif; puav; rsm;pGm&Sdolrsm; odkYr[kwf touft½G,faMumifh uH raumif; taMumif;rvSbJ qif;&J'ku©a&mufaeolrsm;tm; vGwf vyfcGifhay;jcif;wdkYtwGufvnf; vkyfydkifcGifh tmPm&Sdonf/ ausmufpmtrSwf 13 wGif ]t"du atmifjrifrI[k rif;w&m; BuD;,lqNyD; tifyg,m twGif;tjyif&Sd vltaygif;tm; Budrfzef rsm;pGm atmifjrifNyD; jzpfonhf} a"r®0dZ,ac: w&m;jzihf atmifrI BuD; taMumif;udk azmfjyonf/ rif;BuD;\ "r®0dZ,onf qD;,m; bk&if tefwD ,kdcsyfpf (Antiochus)? tD*spfbk&if ywdkavrD (Ptolemy)? rufqD'ef bk&if tefwD*dkeyfp (Antigonus of Macedon)? qdkif&DeD bk&if r*ghpf (Magas of Eyrene)? tDyD&yfpf bk&if tvuf pE´m (Alexander of Epirus) bk&ihfEdkifiHrsm;ESihf apmV? yef'sm (Pandyas = yef*syf)rS onf wrÁyPÖd(oD[dkVf) EdkifiHrsm;txdyif us,f jyefYcJhonf/ rif;BuD;u qufvufazmfjyonf ]ae&mwdkif;ü vl trsm;onf rif;w&m;BuD;\ bmomw&m; oGefoifqkH;rrIudk vdkufem usihfokH;vsuf&SdMu\/ rif;w&m;BuD;\ oHwrefrsm; oGm; a&mufjcif;r&Sdonhf EdkifiHrsm;ü aexdkifolrsm;yif rif;BuD; avhusihf tm;xkwfrI? pl;prf;rIESihf "r®vkdufemusihfokH;rIrsm;udk Mum;&jcif;ü ¤if;wdkYudk,fwkdif vkdufemusihfokH;NyD; aeMuvdrfhrnf/ "r®jzihf atmif Edkifjcif;onf t&yfa'o tm;vkH;udk atmifEdkifjcif;rnf\/ wpfzef t&yfa'otm;vkH;udk atmifEdkifjcif;onf arwåmcHpm;rI\ &vm'f jzpf\/ w&m;aom atmifEdkifjcif;rsm;wGif arwåmudk &&Sd\}/ 1 oD[dkVf ygVdbmom tpOftvmrsm;ü t&Sifr[marm*¾vd 1

0d-| 1? 37/ r[m0Ho 5? 191 *gxm/


62 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

ykwåwdórax&f\ oifMum;csufrsm;aMumifh taomurif;w&m; BuD;onf xdkrQavmuf (vlrIaumif;usKd;? Ak'¨omoemhtusKd;aqmif ½GufrI) twdkif;twmjzihf Ak'¨omoemawmfESihf aqGrsKd; awmfpyfol tjzpfqdkEdkifcGifh r&Sdao;[kqdkvkdonfh ypönf;av;yg; axmufyHhol ]ypö,'g,um}omvQif jzpfao;aomaMumihf Ak'¨omoemawmf ESihf aqGrsKd;awmfpyfol Ak'¨omoemhtarGcH ]omoe'g,m'} jzpf vmEdkif&ef om;awmf r[dE´ESihf orD;awmf oCFrdwåmwdkYtm; om oemhabmifodkY 0ifa&mufapcJhaMumif; rSwfwrf;wifxm;onf/ rif;BuD;\ oHCmawmfrsm;tay: jrihfrm;pGm av;pm;rIESihf tm; ay;rIwdkYaMumihf oHCmrsm;twGif; rvdkvm;tyfonhf tusifhysuf rIrsm; ay:vmaomaMumihf nDñGwfrEI Sihf Nidrf;csrf;rIudk taESmihf t,Suf jzpfaponf/ ax&0g'u vufcHxm;onhf ,lqcsufrsm; usifhpOfrsm;ESifh qefYusifonfh *dkPf;uGJtrsKd;rsKd; ay:aygufcJhonf/ ,if; tajctaeonf taomubk&iftm; yg#vdykwåNrdKUawmfü 1 wwd, oH*g,emwif&ef wGef;tm;ay;cJhonf / &nf½G,fcsufrSm ]yd#uwfokH;ykHudk p,fMu,fap&efESihf t"r®0g'Drsm;udk okwfoif&ef jzpfNyD; taomu\ t"dupdk;&drfrIrSm rnfonhf awG;ac:ajrmfjrif rI odkYr[kwf bmom0g'a&;&m w&m;"r®xufrqdk EdkifiHawmfu wnfaqmufxm;onhf bmoma&; taqmufttkHu ydkNyD;t"du 2 jzpfonf} / ax&0g'todkuftNrKHudk jiif;qdkolrsm;onf &mZN*dK[f NrdKUteD; emvE´mNrdKUü oD;jcm; oH*g,emwpfck wifMuonf/ ,if; tkyfpktopfrS ,if;wdkY\ udk,fydkifusrf;*efrsm;udk a&;om;vsuf 3 *dkPf;udk;*dkPf; jzpfay:cJhonf / taomurif;BuD;onf oHCm pnf;vkH; nDñGwfrIESihf ywfoufí ausmufpmwdkifrsm;jzihf wdus 4 onhf trdefYtmPmrsm; ? oHCmoif;uGJrIudk jzpfay:apol rnfol rqdkonf vlxGuf&rnfjzpfNyD; bkef;BuD;ausmif;rS xGufcGmoGm;& 1 2 3

0d-| 1? 45/ r[m0Ho 5? 228 *gxm/

tdE´d,ordkif;aemufcH 63 rnf[k xkwfjyefxm;onftxd tvGef pdk;&drfonf/ ]a,bk,s ,l qcsuft& taomu\ taxmuftyHhjzifh jzpfay:vmonfh yd# uwfawmfonf wwd, yg#vdykwå oH*g,emudk jzpfay:aponhf 1 ygVdtpOftvm\ ppfreS frIudk twnfjyKonf} / wwd,oH*g,emNyD;aemuf ,if;oH*g,em\ oHCmhOaoQmif jzpfNyD; tajrmftjrif BuD;rm;awmfrlonhf t&Sifr[marm*¾vdykwå wdórax&f\ vrf;ñTefrIjzihf Ak'¨omoemawmf t&SnfcHh wnf whHa&;twGuf oD[dkVftygt0if udk;EdkifiHodkY omoemjyKyk*¾Kdvfrsm; 2 udk apvTwfcJhonf / taomurif;BuD;\om;awmf t&Sifr[m r[dE´onf oD[dkVu f Ref;ü Ak'¨omoemawmf wnfwHha&;twGuf wm0efay;jcif; cH&onf/ oD[dkVfbk&if a'0geHyd,wdórif;BuD; onf tdE´d,bk&ifxH tzdk;wef vufaqmifyPÖmrsm;ESihftwl oH wrefrsm;udk tdE´d,odkY apvTwfNyD; rdwfaqGjzpfvdkrIudk azmfjyNyD;jzpf onhftwdkif; taomutaejzihf rdrd\vkyfaqmifcsufrSm oD[dkVf uRef;ü tvGefYtvGef tusKd;jzpfxGef;rnf jzpfaMumif; awG;rdcJhykH& onf/ tdE´d, Ak'¨omoemjyKtzGJUrsm; oGm;av&m a'owdkif;ü atmifjrifcJhonf/ a,meu"r®&u©dw rax&fuJhodkYaom *&dvlrsKd; rsm;yif Ak'¨0g'D&[ef;awmfrsm; jzpfomG ;Muonf/ odkYwap taom urif;BuD;\ Ak'¨0g'a&;&m aqmif½GufrI a'otm;vkH;teuf oD[dkVfonf tusKd;tjzpfxGef;qkH; jzpfonf/ ]ausmufpmrsm;wGif azmfjyoa½GU oD[dkVfuRef;tm; ausmufpmtrSwf 2 ESihf 13 wdkYü wrÁyPÖdtjzpf azmfjyNyD; ¤if;\ "r®0dZ,EdkifiHawmf tpDtrHudk wdk;csJU&ef "r®'lwrsm; apvTwfcJhaom edkifiHrsm;pm&if;ü taomu rif;BuD;udk,fwkdif xnhfoGif;xm;NyD;jzpfonhf EkdifiHwpfcktjzpfvnf; azmfjyonf/ odkYjzpfí ,if;ausmufpmrsm;udk a&;om;csdef (bDpD 258-257)wGif ausmufpmtrSwf 2 t& oD[dkVfonf awm½dkif; wd&pämefrsm;ESihf vlom;rsm;\ qif;&JrI oufoma&;uJhodkYaom t

Sir John Marahall: The Monuments of Sanchi, I,p. 22.

1

4

Barua: Inscriptions of Asoka, II,p. 379.

2

0d-| 1? 47/ r[m0Ho 7? 1 *gxm/

edum,o*F[? pm? 7-8/

rd*'g0kef? aumorÁDESihf qefcsD ausmufpmrsm;/


68 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

rsm;tjzpf wrÁyPÖd? 0dZdwyk&ESihf Oywdó*gruJhodkYaom tjcm; a'orsm; &SdcJhonf/ odkYwap y@Kumb,rif;u bDpDav;&mpk\ aemufqkH;ESpfrsm;wGif tEk&m"yk&NrdKUudk xif&Sm;onhf NrdKUawmft jzpf `rSifhwifvkdufcsdefrSpí tEk&m"yk&onf vuFmuRef;EdkifiH\ NrdKUawmftjzpf &mpkESpfaygif; q,fhESpfck cefYrQ Mumanmif;cJhonf/ bDpDokH;&mpk ukefqkH;csdefwGif tEk&m"yk&NrdKU\ Adokumynm wdk;wufrIrSm tqihfjrifh tajctaeodkY a&muf&SdNyD; jzpfykH&onf/ tEk&m"*grudk yxrOD;pGm wnfaqmufcJhNyD; rdrdemrnfjzihf ac: wGifapcJhol y@Kumb,\ OD;av;awmf tEk&m"onf rdrdae 1 xdkif&ef &mZa*[ac:onhf tdrfwpfaqmif aqmufvkyfcJhonf / y@Kumb,onf &efolrsm;udk ESdrfeif;NyD; tEk&m"yk&NrdKUodkY 0if a&mufaomtcg OD;av;awmftEk&m"onf atmifjrifol wlawmf armiftm; rdrd\tdrfudk ay;tyfNyD; tjcm;tdrfwpfaqmif oGm; 2 a&mufaexkdifonf / tEk&m"yk&rwdkifrD eef;pdkufNrdKUawmfjzpfonfh onf/ ,if;aus;½Gmrsm;ü 0dZdwNrdKUawmf yg0ifonf – 0dZdwH e*&H (r[m 0Ho? 7? 41)/ wpfzef r[m0Ho tcef; 10? 42 *gxmü ]uv[H e*&H emr *garm ww¬ uawm t[k = uv[NrdKU[kac:onhf aus;½Gmudk xdk ae&mü wnfaqmuf\}[k qdkonf/ a&m[Pt&yf&Sd r[m*grudk ,if;NrdKU awmftaejzihf t&Sdeft0gESihf <u,f0rIudk tEk&m"yk&NrdKUESihf NydKifqdkifvsuf awmifydkif;a'oNrdKUawmf jzpfvmNyD; aemufydkif;umv txdyif r[m*gr ]½GmBuD;}[k tNrJwrf; ac:a0:cJhonf/ at'D wpf&mpkü ywdkavrDu ¤if;\ oD[dkVfuRef;ajrykHü tEk&m"yk&tm; taema&mj*r® (Anourogram-mon)[k ac:a0:onf/ ywdkavrDonf tEk&m"yk&taejzihf tvGefwdk;wufNyD; um vESihf oD[dkVfEdkifiH\ xD;pdkdufNrdKUawmf txift&Sm; jzpfaeckdufrSmyif ,if; NrdKUawmftm; ]j*r®H} (j*mr = *gr = aus;½Gm)[k okH;EIef;cJhonf/ t&Sifr[m Ak'¨aCmo\ ],ó *gró tEk&m"yk&aó0 a'G £E´cDvm (0d-| 1? 214)/ *gr[laoma0g[m&udk tajccHrlvtm;jzihf tkyfpk? tpkta0;? t odkif;t0dkif; odkYr[kwf tajccsaexkdifrI t"dyÜm,frsm;jzihf okH;EIef;onf/ 1 r[m0Ho 9? 2/ tEk&m"onf tdE´d,ajrmufydkif;rS &,lonhf tpDtpOfjzihf wnfaqmufcJhykH&aomaMumihf ,if;udk txl;jyK azmfjy jcif;jzpfonf/ 2 r[m0Ho 10? 73-74 *gxm/


tcef; 2 Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEdkifiH (1) vlrIa&;tajctae bDpD okH;&mpkwGif oD[dkVfEdkifiH\ NrdKUawmfrSm tEk&m"yk& jzpfonf/ rlvtEk&m"½Gmtm; NrdKUawmftjzpfodkY wdk;wufatmif aqmif½Guf cJholrSm y@Kumb, (377-307 bDpD) jzpfNyD;1 ¤if;taejzihf tvGef aumif;rGefpGm wnfaqmufcJhykH&onf/ y@Kumb,rif; rwdkifrDu oD[dkVfwGif NrdKUawmftaejzihf txl;jyKac:a0:Edkifonfh ae&m r&Sdao;acs/ vltrsm;aexkdifonhf tcsuftjcmae&m tm; vkH;udk *gr(½Gm)[k ac:a0:onf/ odkY&mwGif r[m0Ho\ a&S;OD; u@ü *gre*&[laom pum;vkH;rsm;udk aus;½GmNrdKUBuD; NrdKUi,f[k 2 rcGJjcm;bJ okH;EIef;cJhNyD; ae&ma'owpfck\ t½G,ftpm; tus,f t0ef;ESifh ywfoufí qkH;jzwfrIwpf&yf&&Sd&ef rjzpfEdkifacs/ tEk &m"yk&NrdKUawmf rxif&Sm;vmrD tcsdefwdktwGif; tpdk;& ½kH;pdkufNrdKU 1 2

r[m0Ho? tcef; 10? 75 *gxm/ *grESihf e*&[laom ygVdtokH;ESpfrsKd;rSm xifxif&Sm;&Sm; jcm;em;rI&Sdonf/ *gr[lonf aus;½Gm? e*&[lonf NrdKU jzpfonf/ ykHpHtm;jzihf awe acg ye ora,e oked"0óum&m r*"r[mrwåm yg#vd*gar e*&H rmayEÅd 0ZÆDeH y#dAm[m, = xdktcsdefü oked"ESifh 0óum &trnf&onhf r*" EdkifiH\ trwfcsKyfESpfa,mufwdkYonf 0ZÆDwkdif;om;wdkYudk xdef;csKyfEdkif&ef yg#vd½Gmü NrdKUwpfNrdKUudk wnfaqmufaeMuonf} ('D 2? 53)/ odkY&mwGif r[m0Ho a&S;OD;u@rsm;ü ,if;cGJjcm;rIudk todtrSwf rjyKcJhacs/ ykHpHtm; jzihf r[m0Ho tcef; 7? *gxmtrSwf 41 wGif 0dZ,EdkifiHawmf\ trwf rsm;onf a'otrsKd;rsdK;ü aus;½Gm rsm;pGmwdkYudk wnfaqmufMuonf[k qdk


72 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

&onf/ ,if;Xme t&m&Sd\wm0efrmS ntcsdef tpdk;&tkyfcsKyfrI udk pDrHa&;jzpfonf/ xdktcsdefrSpí NrdKUawmfü e*&*kwådvrsm; &Sd 1 vmcJhonf / ,if;onf aESmif;acwfrsm;ü NrdKUawmf0ef\ a&SUajy; ykHpH jzpfzG,f&Sdonf/ tEk&m"yk&NrdKUawmfteD;ü yef;jcHESpfck&Sdonf/ eE´e0e(aemif tcg aZmwd0e[k ac:wGifcJhonf)onf awmifzuf*dwf tjyif avmufwGif NrdKUawmfESihf qufvkeD; jzpfonf/ t&Sifr[dE´ oD[dkVf uRef;odkY a&mufNyD;aemuf rsm;rMumrD&ufrsm;twGif; w&m;trsm; 2 pkudka[mcJhonfrSm þeE´0efO,smOfwGif jzpfonf / r[marC 0eO,smOfrSm y@Kumb,\om;awmf rk#od0rif; wnfaxmif 3 cJhNyD; opfoD; yef;rmefrsm; xGufonf / þO,smOfrSm NrdKUawmfESihf reD;ra0;wGif&SdNyD; NrdKUawmfta&SUbuf*dwf tjyifbufavmufwGif 4 wnf&Sdonf / ,if;O,smOfxJwGif bk&iftwGuf wnfaqmufxm; aom bk&ifhtdrfawmf(&mZa*[) &Sdonf/ t&Sifr[mr[dE´rax&f tdE´d,rS <ua&mufNyD;aemuf &ufaygif;rsm;pGm oDwif;okH;cJhonf 5 rSm þbk&ifhtdrfawmfü jzpfonf / yef;jcHwGif;ü om,monhf a& avSmifuefrsm; a&tdkifrsm;&Sdonf/ O,smOf0if;twGif; uuk"0gyd 6 trnf&Sd a&avSmifuefi,fESihf bk&ifhtdrfawmf ajrmufzufü 7 r½kwåtrnf&Sd a&tdkif&SdaMumif; azmfjyonf / ,if;O,smOfxJü (y@Kumb,\) OD;av;awmf tEk½k'¨rif; 8 wl;azmfcJhonfh a&avSmifuefwpfck wnf&SdNyD; jzpfaomfvnf; y@Kumb,rif;onf NrdKUawmftm; a&jzefYjzL;&ef a&avSmifuef 9 wpfck xyfrHwl;azmfcJhonf / NrdKUawmfjyifbufü y@Kumb,rif; 1

2 r[m0Ho 10;80-81/ r[m0Ho 15;1/ 4 r[m0Ho 11;2/ r[m0Ho 15;8? 11/ 6 5 r[m0Ho 1;12? 30/ r[m0Ho 15;52/ 7 r[m0Ho 15;30/ r[m0Ho#Dum? pm-344/ 8 r[m0Ho 10;88/ 9 r[m0Ho 9;11/ 3

Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEdkifiH

vlrIa&;tajctae

69

Oywdó*grü {uxlPdu[kac:onhf xif&Sm;onhf taqmuf ttkH wpfcktaMumif;udkvnf; od&onf/ {uxlPdu [laom trnfemrt& wdkifwpfvkH;wnf;jzihf wnfaqmufxm;onhf ,if; tdrfudk y@Kumb,\ OD;av;awmfrsm;u ¤if;wdkY\ nDrawmf pdwåmtm; om;awmf xGef;um;jcif;rS umuG,f&ef tusOf;csvdkí wnfaqmufcJhaomfvnf; ,if;onf ratmifjrifonhf BudK;pm;rI om jzpfonf/ ,if;taqmufttkHudk av0ifavxGuf jywif; 1 ayguf (*0u©)rsm;jzihf wnfaqmufxm;onf / a'0geHyd,wdó rif;BuD;vufxuf (bDpD 247-207)üyif tEk&m"yk&NrdKU½Sd taqmufttkH tenf;i,frSm tm;vkH;eD;yg; xyf wlnDpGm &Sdaeao;ykH&onf/ taqmufttkH ypönf;rsm;ESihf tawGU tBuKH&ihfusihfonfh Adokumynm&Sifrsm; csKdUwJhaezG,f&Sdonf/ ykHpH tm;jzifh a'0geHyd,wdórif;onf t&Sifr[dE´twGuf oihfwihf avsmufywfonhf aep&mtaqmufttkHwpfckudk rawGUEdkifjcif; jzpfonf/ rif;BuD;onf tvsiftjrefyif ½THUtdrfwpfckaqmufvkyf vsuf ,if;udk tjyifu rD;½IdUNyD; ajcmufatmif jyKvkyfonf/ ,if; tdrfudk ajcmufaoGUatmif rD;½IdUonhf taMumif;aMumihf eH&Hrsm; rnf;eufvmNyD; ausmif;udkvnf; umVygom'y&da0P ]jymom'f 2 eufausmif;}[k ac:wGifcJhjcif; jzpfonf / ,if;ausmif;udk rnfodkY 1 2

r[m0Ho 10;95-102/ r[m0Ho 25;203? 204/ ygarmu© *dkif*g (Geiger)u ]oDCH Ouúm, oku©maywGme rwådum} 0gusudk ]rif;BuD;onf ½THUtkwfrsm;udk rD;jzihf tvsiftjref ajcmufatmif jyK vkyfap\} (r[m0Ho? t*Fvfyfbmomjyef/ He had the bricks of cla dried speedily with fire.)[k bmomjyefxm;onf/ odkYwap rwådum [laom a0g [m&onf ]tkwf}teufudk ra[mbJ ]&THU? ½THUap;}udkom a[monf/ t u,fí ]tkwf} teufudk qdkvdkcJhvQif yk'ftrSefjzpfonhf ]£|dum} yk'fudk t vG,fwul okH;EIef;cJhEkdifonf/ umVygom'y&da0Pausmif;onf opfom; acsmif; ½THUap;jzihf aqmufvkyfonfh taqmufttkH jzpfzG,f&Sdonf/ jref jref NyD;atmifaqmufvkyfvdkí odkYr[kwf taqmufttkH jyKvkyfNyD; eH&Hrsm; ajcmufae[efjzpfapvkdí ½THUap;udk rD;`rIduf tajcmufcHvdkufykH&onf/ a'0g


70 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

wnfaqmufcJhonf [laomtcsufrSm &Sif;vif;rIr&Sdacs/ odkYwap ausmif;aqmuf&ef zkwfNyD;tkwfrsm;udk r&Edkif? tenf;qkH; NrdKUawmf twGif;ü vG,fulpGm r&EdkifonfrSm aocsmonf/ tu,fí ydkrdkoifhavsmfonhf ae&mxkdifcif;udk ay;&ef tajc tae&SdvQif a'0geHyd,wdórif;BuD;taejzihf bk&if taomu\ om;awmf tdE´d,\txl;{nfhonf bk&ihfomoemjyK yk*¾Kdvftm; ,if;odkYaom oDwif;okH;p&mausmif;rsKd;udk ay;tyfrnf r[kwfay/ a'0geHyd,wdóonf t&Sifr[dE´tm; tvGefav;pm;awmf rlí tjcm;yk*¾Kdvfrsm; ydkifqkdifNyD;jzpfonhf tdrfwpfckudk oljrwf yk*¾Kdvftm; vª'gef;vdkpdwfr&Sd[k jiif;qdkEdkifonf/ odkYwap ,if;odkY jzpfzG,fr&Sd/ taMumif;rl a'0geHyd,wdóonf t&Sifr[dE´ <u a&mufNyD; 'kwd,aeYwGif t&Sifjrwftm; r[marC0etwGif;&Sd tdrfwpfaqmifü wpfnwm oDwif;oHk;&ef yihfzdwfonf/ t&Sif 1 jrwfuvnf; vufcHonf / ,if;tdrfrSm tenf;qkH; bk&if? rdzk&m; ESihf eef;awmf ta>ct&Hrsm;jzpfonhf tjcm;yk*¾Kdvfrsm; tokH;jyK NyD;jzpfrnfrSm oHo, jzpfzG,frvdkacs/ NrdKUawmfü vltrsm; pnf;½kH;pka0;&eftwGuf cef;rBuD; &SdykHr& acs/ NrdKUaevltrsm; t&Sifr[dE´udk zl;ajrmfNyD; w&m;emvdkMuaom tcg rif;BuD;onf eef;awmfOypmtwGif;ü vkHavmufonhf cef;r wpfckr&Sdonfudk odjrifojzihf bk&ifhpD;awmfqifxm;onhf cef;rudk eHyd,wdórif;BuD;tm; xlyg½kHapwD wnfaqmufrnhf tkwfrsm; jyKvkyf &ef tvkyform;rsm; &&SdvkdaMumif; taMumif;Mum;vkdufonf (r[m0Ho 17;38)/ odkYjzpfí xkdtcsdefu tkwfjyKvkyfenf;udk wwfodNyD;jzpfonf/ r[m0Housrf;taejzihf umVygom'y&da0P trnfESihfywfoufí xif aMu;jzihf &Sif;vif;rIudk xnhfoGif;cJhjcif;vnf; jzpfEdkifonf/ tac:ta0: rsm;ESihfywfoufí ,if;odkY pdwfrSef;jzihf &Sif;vif;rIrsm;rSm tawmfxif&Sm; onf (ykHpHtm;jzihf vAk*gr&Si;f vif;csuf? r[m0Ho 10;72/ rPdol&d, ESifh ol&edr®v &Sif;vif;csuf? &o0g[deD 2? pm -26? 71? 84/ vdpä0D? 0ZÆD ESihf a0omvD &Sif;vif;csufrsm;? okwåed-| 1? 264)/ 1 r[m0Ho 15;12? 13/

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&Sif;vif;&efESihf vltrsm;pk½kH;Edkifa&;twGuf jyifqif&ef trdefYay;cJh 1 onf / bk&ifh &[ef;awmf (\w&m;)udk em,l&ef vltrsm;pk½kH; vmMuonfrSm ,if; (bk&ihfqifawmftdrf) wGif jzpfonf/ t&Sif r[dE´\y&dowfrSm ydkrdkrsm;jym;vmojzihf w&m;pcef;udk qifawmf tdrfrS NrdKUawmfawmifzuf*dwf jyifzuf&Sd t&dyfaumif;? at;csrf; NyD; pdrf;vef;xlxJonhf bk&ifhO,smOftwGif; avaumif;avoefY 2 rsm;&&Sdonhf arGUavsmfzG,f eE´eO,smOfodkY ajymif;a½TUcJhonf / ,if; tajccHtcsufrsm;t& xkdtcsdefu tEk&m"NrdKUawmfü taqmufttkHrsm; taxGaxG vdktyfcsuf&SdcJhykH&onf/ avm[ ygom'uJhodkYaom taqmufttkHBuD;rsm; oD[dkVfNrdKUawmfü ay: aygufvmonfrSm Ak'¨0g'wnf&dSNyD;aemufrSom jzpfonf/ y@K umb, wnfaqmufcJhaom bmoma&;taqmufttkH tawmf rsm;rsm; &SdcJhNyD;jzpfonfqdkaomfvnf; vloltrsm;tjym; pka0;Edkif avmufonhf taqmufttkHMuD; wpfck&SdcJhonhf taxuftxm; r&Sdacs/ þtcsufonf vltrsm;tjym; pk½kH;rI r&SdcJh? &SdcJhonf qdk vQifawmif ,if;pk½kH;rIrsm;udk [if;vif;jyifae&mü usif;ycJhMu aMumif; ñTefjyonf/ oD[dkVfom;rsm;onf bmoma&; w&m;rsm; Mum;em&efuJhodkYaom txl;&nf½G,fcsufjzihf vlolpk½kH; pnf;a0;cJh MuonfrSm Ak'¨0g' a&muf&SdNyD;aemufrSom jzpfzG,fonf/ tEk&m"NrdKUawmfü NrKdUawmfoefY&Sif;a&; tajctaeonf t qihfjrifh trdefYwpf&yf jzpfcJhykH&onf/ y@Kumb,tkyfcsKyfpOf NrdKU awmf oefY&Sif;a&;twGuf yef;rIdufoGef 500? rdv’m &Sif;vif;ol 200? vlaorsm;udk okomefodkY vTifhypfol (okb &mZm) 150? NrdKU 3 awmfudk apmihfMuyfol 150 &Sdonf / y@Kumb,onf rdrdudka&m rdcifudkyg ulnDcJhNyD; rdrdtm; xD;eef;udk ay;tyfcJhol OD;av;awmf tb,twGuf e*&*kwådv (NrdKUapmihf)[kac:onhf &mxl;Xmetopfwpfck wDxGifcJhaMumif; od 1 2

r[m0Ho 14;61/ 0d-| 1? 59/ r[m0Ho 15;1-2/

3

r[m0Ho 10;91-92/


76 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

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t&Sifr[dE´onf a'0geHyd,wdórif;BuD;tm; xdkae&mwGif Ak'¨&Sifawmf jrwfu em*wdkYtm; atmifEdkifykH taMumif;udk ajymjyonf (r[m0Ho? 19;35)/ ,if;jzihf ZrÁKaumvywåeonf em*'DuRef;wGif &SdaMumif; azmfjy onf/ r[m0Housrf;t& azmjfyNyD; jzpf&yfonf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf em*'Dy odkY 'kwd,tBudrf <uawmfrlpOfwGif jzpfonf/ 2 3 r[m0Ho 19;37 *gxm/ r[m0Ho 12?;12/

Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEdkifiH

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wnfaqmufcJhonfh r[mok omeac: A[dkokomefBuD; wpfck&SdNyD; 1 ,if;okomefxJü ao'PfuGyfrsufonhf ae&mvnf; &Sdonf / NrdKUawmfü tvkyfvkyfMuonfh p@mv (okb&mZm)wdkY ae xkdifonhf p@mv*gronf A[dkokomef\ taemufajrmufbuf 2 3 wGif &Sdonf / tqdkyg p@mvaus;½GmwGif r[m0Ho üay;xm; onhf ta&twGuft& y@Kumb,rif;vufxufu tenf;qkH; vlOD;a& 2000 cefY &SdcJhykH&onf/ ,if;½Gm\ ta&SUajrmufzufwGif 4 eDpokomeac:onhf p@mvrsm;twGuf okomefwpfck&Sdonf / a'0geHyd,wdóacwfwGif NrdKUawmfteD; jrif;aZmif; wpfc&k Sd 5 aMumif; azmfjyonf / y@Kumb,rif; wnfaqmufcJhonhf qif 6 ajczkH; aus;½Gm ('Gg&*gr)vnf; av;½Gm&Sdonf / bDpDokH;&mpkwGif awmifukef;a'orsm;ESihf ta&SUbufurf; 7 ajc rS wpfyg; oD[dkVfwpfuRe;f vkH;onf vufawGUtm;jzihf tvGef xlxyfzG,f r&Sdaomfvnf; vlOD;a& trsm;tjym; aexdkifcJhMuykH& onf/ vlaexkdifí tqifajyaom ae&mtm;vkH;eD;yg; avmufudk vlwdkY odrf;ydkuf aexkdifMuNyD; jzpfonf/ [ife&Dygum (Henry Parker)u r[m*grESihf ,if;\ywf0ef;usif aus;½Gmrsm;udk oD[dkVf uRef;odkY yxqkH;0ifa&muf aexdkifonhf a&S;OD; tm&d,efvlrsKd;rsm; yxrqkH; tajccscJhonhf ae&mrsm;tjzpf jiif;qdkonf/ (¤if;t vdkt&) awmifykdif;&Sd ud&dE´ (Kirinda) t&yfonf ,if;vlrsKd;wdkY 1

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74 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

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Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEdkifiH

vlrIa&;tajctae

75

yxrqkH; aexkdifcJhonhf ae&mtppf jzpfonf/ [ife&Dygumu t"duvlrsKd;rsm; t"dutajccsaexkdifonfh t&yftm;vkH;udk *gr 1 ½Gm[k ac:a0:cJhNyD; NrdKUawmfonf r[m*grjzpfvm\[k qdkonf / uREkfyfwdkYtaejzihf ,if;wifjycsufudk oabmwlonfjzpfap rwlonfjzpfap awmifydkif;&Sd 0v0g**F? ud&dE´dMo,? rPd**F ESihf ukHAkuúHMo, jrpfrsm;wnf&Sdonhf {&d,monf oD[dkVfuRef;ü yxr OD;qkH; vltajccs aexdkifcJhonhf a'ojzpfonfudkrl oHo, jzpf zG,frvdkacs/ bDpDokH;&mpkwGif umZ&*gr (,ckacwf uw&*gr)ü cwåd,vlrsKd;pk wpfpk&SdcJhonf/ ,if;cwåd,rsKd;EG,frS udk,fpm;vS,f rsm;onf t&SifroHCrdwåm tdE´d,rS ,laqmifvmonhf r[m aAm"dudkif;ylaZmfyGJ tcrf;tem;rsm;odkY wufa&mufcJhonhf xif&Sm; 2 aomyk*¾Kdvfrsm;wGif yg0ifcJhMuonf / yxrOD;qkH;aom aAm"dyif 3 i,fudk umZ&*grü pdkufysKd;cJhonf / a'0geHyd,wdó\ tpfudk &ifcGifydkufbk&if r[mem*onf bk&ifr\ opömazmuf tEÅ&m,f rSvGwfajrmuf&ef rdom;pkESihftwl tEk&m"yk&NrdKUawmfrS a&m[P 4 t&yfodkY xGufajy;NyD; r[m*grudk tkyfcsKyfcJhonf / r[mem* onf tEÅ&m,f&SdpOf r[m*grodkY csufjcif;xGufoGm;onhf tcsuf aMumihf xdkt&yf&Sd cwåd,wdkYonf tEk&m"yk&&Sd bk&ifhrdom;pkESihf qufoG,frI&SdaMumif; qdkEdkifonf/ oD[dkVfordkif; wpfavQmufwGif a&m[P t&yftm; vGwfvyfrItwGuf aemufqkH; ckdudk;&m vGwf ajrmufe,fajrtjzpf awGU&onf/ tEk&m"yk&NrdKUawmfü wdkif;wpf yg;om;wdkY usL;ausmf0ifa&mufcsdef odkYr[kwf jynfwGif;a&;½IyfaxG; aecsdefwdkif;ü bk&ifrif;rsm;? trwfrsm;? &[ef;awmfrsm;ESihf vGwf vyfrIESihf tumtuG,fudk tvdk&Sdol tjcm;aom yk*¾Kdvfrsm;onf awmifydkif;a'oü ckdvIHcJhMuonf/

xdkYjyif ,aeYwdkif ae&mtwdtusudk razmfxkwfEdkifao; onhf pE´e*gr[kac:onhf cwåd,wdkY aexkdifcJhonhf tjcm;ae&m wpfck vnf;&Sdonf/ a'0geHyd,wdórif;vufxuf tEk&m"yk& NrdKUawmfü r[maAm"dyif ylaZmfyGJrsm;odkY wufa&mufcJhonfh 1 cwåd, udk,fpm;vS,frsm;ü pE´e*grrSvnf; yg0ifcJhonf / ,if; 2 *grüvnf; yxrqkH; r[maAm"dyifyGm;udk pdkufysKd;cJhonf / vkHNcKHrItwGuf r[mem*rif;om; r[m*grodkY c&D;xGufjcif; jzihf tEk&m"yk&ESihf r[m*grwdkYtMum; qufoG,frI&SdaMumif; azmf jyonf/ ,if;a'oESpfckudk qufoG,fonhf vrf;onf apwd,*d&d (,cktac: r[dEÅavh)? upäuwdw¬ (rm*aEÅmw) odkYr[kwf 0¹ rmeuwdw¬ (o[ówdw¬ odkYr[kwf '[oawmw? tó r@vwdw¬ [kvnf; ac:onf)? r[d,*FP (,ckacwf tvkw Ek0&)? 'DC0gydESifh *kwå[mvu (Akwåv) a'owdkYudk jzwfoGm;& 3 onf / ,if;vrf;\ trsm;qkH;tydkif;ü vloljywfonhf awm awmifrsm;wnf&Sdaomfvnf; (tEÅ&mra*¾ t*grum&an) vrf; wpfavQmufwGif vlol tajccsaexkdifonhf a'otrsm;tjym;&Sd 4 rnfudk oHo,jzpfzG,frvdkacs / tEk&m"yk&ESihf rdkif 60 odkYr[kwf 70 cefYtwGif;&Sd c½kdife,f y,frsm;ü vloltrsm;tjym; aexdkifcJhMuykH&onf/ OD;av;rsm;udk qefYusif awmfvSefonhf ppfqifa&;pDrHcsufü y@Kumb,onf e,fpGefZeyk'f (ypöEÅ*gr)rsm;udk odrf;oGif;&ef awmifzuf bdEÅEé (Bintanna)c½kdif a'gvyAÁw (,aeYacwf a'gvv a0v jzpfzG,f 5 &Sdonf)txd qkwfcGmcJh&aMumif; azmfjyonf / odkYjzihf tenf;qkH; tEk&m"yk&ESifh a'gvyAÁwtMum;&Sd c½dkife,fy,frsm;ü vlol 6 aumif;pGm tajccsaexdkif pnfum;aeNyDjzpfonf /

1

Paker: Ancient Ceylon (1909), p. 240-241.

1

r[maAm"d0Ho 19;54/ ,if; 19;62/ ,if; 22;2-8/

4

2 3 4

4 6

2 r[m0Ho 19;54/ ,if;? 19;64/ &o0g[deD 2? pm- 45? 48 ponf/ r[m0Ho 25;6-7/ 5 &o0g[deD 2? pm – 173/ Geiger: Mhavamsa Tran. p. 289. r[m0Ho 9;27/


80 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

twGufvnf; xif&Sm;onhf 0goemwpfckjzpfonf/ odkYjzpfí Or®m'pdwå\ tpfudkrsm;? y@Kumb,\ OD;av;rsm;onf wkrÁ& 1 awmü trJvdkufMujcif; jzpfonf / a'0geHyd,wdórif; vuf xufwGif trJvdkufjcif;onf ausmfMum;onhf bk&ifhtm;upm; wpfrsKd;jzpfvmonf/ a'0geHyd,wdó\ ausmfMum;onhf rdóu awmif (aemiftcg r[dEÅavh)odkY trJvdkuf taysmfc&D;rsm;udk BuD; 2 us,fonhf aysmfyGJpm;c&D;rsm;tjzpf aqmif½GufcJhonf / ,if;rif; BuD;onf rif;cpm;a,musfm;rsm;ESihftwl NrdKUawmfrS a0;uGmonhf 3 awmifukef;rsm;odkY tajy;tvTm; oGm;avh&Sdonf / vkdufygolrsm; ESihftwl tpm;pmudk o,f,loGm;NyD; naecsrf;wGif rif;BuD;tm; 4 awmifukef;wGif naepmauR;arG;onf / trJvdkufjcif;onf owf jzwfjcif; odkYr[kwf tpm;tpmtwGufom &nf½G,fonf r[kwf 5 bJ tm;upm; wpfrsKd;vnf;jzpfonf (rd*0H uDVdwkH t*g) / odkYjzpf í a'0geHyd,wdóonf csKHEG,fydwfaygif;wdkYudk pm;onhf owd ynmrJhol wd&pämefowå0gtm; owfjzwf&ef roihfavsmf (yrwåH wH e ,kwåH 0dZÑdwkH)[k qifjcifrdcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ odkYjzpfí rif;BuD; onf rdrd\av;BudK;udk acgufodrf;NyD; om;orifrsm;tm; touf ab;rS vGwfajrmufrItwGuf aumif;jrwfonhf tcGifhta&;wpf 6 &yfudk ay;cJhonf / 1

r[m0Ho 10;2/ bk&if tmv0uonf wpfywfvQifwpfBudrf trJvdkufoGm;aMumif; rSwf om;&onfrSm pdwf0ifpm;zG,faumif;onf (Sāratthasamussaya, p. 211)/ taomuausmufpm trSwf 8 ü taomurif; rwdkifrD tdE´d,a&S;bk&if rsm;onf ¤if;wdkY\ aysmf½TifrItwGuf trJvdkufoGm;avh&SdaMumif; qdkonf/ r[m0Ho 5;154 *gxmü taomu\ nDawmf wdórif;om;onf awmvdkufxGufjcif;udk ESpfoufaMumif; jyqdkonf/ 3 r[m0Ho 14;2/ 4 ,if; 14;24/ 5 ,if; 14;1-2/ 6 ,if; 15;3-4/ 2

Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEdkifiH

vlrIa&;tajctae

77

0vd,(oDbmoma&;)usrf;ü tEk&m"yk&rS xGufajy;vmol a'0g eHyd,wdó\nD r[mem*\om; ,#mvwdóonf auvPd 1 ,udk tkyfcsKyfNyD; apwDwpfql wnfaMumif;qdkonf / ,if;rif;rsKd; onf oD[dkVfuRef;ü a&S;tusqkH; tajccsolrsm;ü yg0ifaMumif; ,lqvQif tawmfyif aMumif;usKd; ckdifvkHonf/ r[m0Ho#Dumü oD[dkVfuRef;odkY a&muf&SdvmMuonhf a&S;OD; tm&d,efvlrsKd;rsm;onf a&udk vG,fulpGm&Edkifonfh ae&ma'o 2 rsm;ü tajccsaexkdifcJhMuaMumif; jyqdkonf / ,if;rSm t"du tm;jzihf oD[dkVfuRef;ü tajccHjrpfrsm; teD;wGif jzpfonf/ tEk &m"yk&NrdKUawmfESihf Oywdó? OaZÆeD? O½ka0vESihf 0dZdwuJhodkY aom NrdKUawmfjyifzuf&Sd a&S;OD; aus;½Gmrsm;onf u'rÁe'D (rv 3 0wkMo,)? *rÇD&e'DESihf uvmMo, jrpfurf;wGif wnf&SdMuonf / ,if;aemuf txl;ojzihf upäuwdw¬(rm*aEÅmw) 0ef;usif&Sd r[ 0gvd**F (Mahavāliganga)ESihf trÁe**F t&yfrsm;wGif tajccsae xdkifcJhMuonf/ awmifydkif; tajccsaexdkifrIrsm;ü ukrÁKuúHMo, (Kumbukkanoya)? arPdu**F(uyÜuE´&)? ud&dE´dMo,ESihf 0va0 **F[laom jrpfav;cktwGif; yg0ifonf/ aemufxyf tajccs aexdkifonhf ae&mwpfckrSm auvPd**F jrpf0Srf;a'o jzpfonf/ jrpfa&udk vG,fvG,fulul r&Edkifonhf ae&mrsm;ü tajccsaexdkif Edkif&ef qnfajrmif; wmwrHBuD;rsm; wnfaqmufMuonf/ okdYjzpf í tEk&m"rif;ESihf y@Kumb,rif;wdkY wnfaqmufcJhonhf a& avSmifuefrsm;ESihf ywfoufí ordkif;OD;wGif tawmftwef cdkifvkH 4 rI&Sdonf / aexdkifrnfha'oü a&tvkHtavmuf &&Sda&;twGuf ,if; pdk;&drfrIonf a&S;OD;tajccs aexdkifolrsm; (a&m aESmif;acwf 1

Rājāvaliya, p. 17.

2

r[m0Ho#Dum? pm-261/ wo®ð wo®ð orÜEéovdvmoa, blrdyÜa'ao *gar eda0o,kH/ r[m0Ho 7;43/ r[m0Ho 9;11/ 10?;85? 88/

3 4


78 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

oD[dkVfvlrsKd;rsm;yg) ,if;wdkY\ t"du oufarG;0rf;ausmif; tae jzihf pdkufysKd;a&;udk trSDjyKaMumif; oufaojyonf/ r[m0Ho 1 usrf;ü u@Kumb,\ OD;av;awmf *d&du@od0onf 100 u&Do ({u 800 cefY) ajr{&d,mudk pdkufysKd;cJhaMumif; qdkonf/ aumufodrf;csdefudk vlwdkif; vlwef;pm;edrfhjrifhr[l yg0ifqifETJonhf yGJawmfBuD;tjzpf ,lqonf/ *d&du@od0rif;\ ½kyfqif;Mueftif ESihf jynfhpkHonfh orD;awmf ygvD (aemiftcg ok0PÖygvD)onf olYcrnf;awmfESifh aumufodrf;olrsm;twGuf pm;aomufzG,f&m rsm; o,faqmifvsuf a0g,mOfawmfpD;NyD; ta>ct&Hrsm;ESifhtwl 2 v,fxJodkY udk,fwdkif xGuf<uawmfrlonf / pdkufysKd;a&; vkyfaqmifolrsm;\ xkH;pHtwdkif; a&S;OD;tajccs aexdkifolrsm;onf uRJEGm;arG;jrLjcif;jzihf pdkufysKd;a&;udk aqmif ½GufMuonf/ 'Gg&r@vac:onhf aus;½GmwGif aexdkifol EGm; ausmif;om;rsm; (a*gygvum) taMumif;udk azmfjycsufyg&Sdonf/ 3 r[dEÅavht&yf teD;&Sd ,if;½Gmonf t"dutm;jzifh EGm;ausmif; 4 om;rsm;jzihf wnfaqmuf zGJUpnfxm;ykH&onf / 'DC*grPdESihf (Or®m') pdwåwdkY\tdrfü t,kHMunf&qkH;aom uRefrsm;teuf wpf a,mufrSm pdwå[kac:onfh EGm;ausmif;om; (a*gygvuH pdwåH)jzpf 5 onf / EGm;ausmif;jcif;onf ,aeYwkdifyif &Sdaeao;ojzihf a&S; 1

r[m0Ho 10;29-31/ oka'¨g'erif; (Ak'¨\ crnf;awmf)BuD;\ crf;em;onhf jzpf&yfwpfcktjzpf usif;ycJhonhf v,fxGefr*Fvm (0yÜer*Fvm) yGJawmftm; trSwf&apEdkif onhf qufpyfywfoufrIrSm pdwf0ifpm;zG,faumif;onf/ ,if;tcrf;t em;odkY rif;om;i,f od'¨w¬udkyif v,fxJodkY ,laqmifoGm;ao;onf/ pdkufysKd;a&;ESihf ywfoufonhf trSwfw&yGJawmfrsm;udk *&drsm;ESihf a&mr vlrsKd;wdkY usif;yMuouJhodkYyif ousvlrsKd;rsm;vnf; yGJawmfrsm; usif;yMu zG,f&Sdonf/ *d&du@od0rif;vnf; ousrsKd;jzpfNyD; oka'¨g'erif;BuD;ESihf rd om;pk qufEG,fywfoufrI&Sdonf (r[m0Ho 7;18)/ 3 r[m0Ho 23;23/ 4 5 r[m0Ho 10;13/ ,if; 9;22/ 2

Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEdkifiH

vlrIa&;tajctae

79

acwfaus;½Gmrsm;ü txif&Sm;qkH; oufarG;0rf;ausmif; tvkyf wpfckjzpfonf/ trJvdkufjcif;onf pdkufysKd;a&; odkYr[kwf EGm;ausmif;jcif;uJh odkYyif ta&;ygykH&onf/ awmBuD;rsufrnf;twGif; jyefYusJaeonhf aus;½Gmrsm;ü aexkdifMuolrsm;tzdkY trJvdkufjcif;udk oufarG;0rf; ausmif;rI enf;vrf;tjzpf xifjrifMuonfrSm obm0usonf/ trJvkdufjcif;onf y@Kumb,rif;tzdkY eDpokomeESihf ygomP awmifwdkY tMum;ü trJvdkuform;rsm;twGuf wJwef;wpfck 1 aqmufay;cJh&onftxd ta&;ygonf / ,if;trJvdkuform;rsm; onf tEk&m"yk&NrdKUawmfodkY tom;rsm; ykHrSef jzefYjzL;ay;zG,f&Sd onf/ Asm"a'0(trJvdkufolrsm;\ewf)[kac:onhf ewfom;wpf a,mufonf trJvkdufolrsm;\ oufpGefYqHzsm; vkyf&yfrsm;ESihf 2 ywfouffí ñTefMum;rIjyKonf / 3 [ife&Dygum u ,aeYwdkifatmifyif 0Eéd, (vlrsKd;)wdkYonf trJvdkufrxGufrD wpfaeYwGif ¤if;wdkY aus;½Gm&Sd a&uefwGif a& csKd;vsuf udk,fhudk,fudk pifMu,fatmifvkyfNyD; ¤if;wdkY arQmfvifh onhftwkdif; trJvdkuf&mü atmifjrifap&ef yJGvrf;wpfck usif;y Muonf[k okH;oyfcJhonf/ ,if;onf y@Kumb,acwf Asm" a'0 tpGJtvrf;a[mif;udk qufcHrIwpf&yf jzpfzG,f&Sdonf/ tom;uifrSm txl;pm;aomufzG,fwpfrsKd; jzpfykH&onf/ rMumcPyif trJvdkufNyD;aemuf om;aumif&onhf ae&mwGif tom;udk rD;awmufjzihf uifMuonf/ ,if;odkY jyifqifonhf 4 tom;udk t*Fg&rHo[kac:onf / trJvdkufjcif;onf qif;&Jom; rsm;twGuf oufarG;0rf;ausmif; wpfckjzpfouJhodkY csrf;omolrsm; 1 2

r[m0Ho 10;95 - tm0goygvd Asm"meH w'g tmod eda0odwm/ ,if;? 10;89/

3

Parker : Ancient Ceylon, p. 168.

4

r[m0Ho 10;14-16/ Am&PoD&mZmyd t*Fg&yuúH rHoH cg'dómrDwd a'0ð tm'g, t&nH y0da|m (tbd-| 2? 452)/ a&m[P Zeyk'frS rkqdk; wpfa,mufvnf; t*Fg&yuúrHoudk pm;okH;onf (tH-| 1? 27)/


84 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

bk&ifrsm;ü oifhavsmfonhf bdodufcHrIrsm; r&SdcJhacs/ tenf;ESihf trsm;rSm a'oqdkif&m acgif;aqmifrsm; odkYr[kwf *grPdrsm; jzpf Muonfh a&S;OD;bk&ifrsm;onf NyD;jynhfpkHonhf bdodufcHrIESihf ywf oufí t,ltqrsm; &SdykHr&acs/ odkY&mwGif ¤if;wdkYtaejzihf rdrd udk,fudkrdrd tkyfcsKyfol tmPmydkifrsm;tjzpf ,lqMuaomtcg rif;crf;rif;em;taejzihf usif;yonhf tcrf;tem; wpfck&SdcJhonf/ r[m0Housrf;wGif azmfjyonfhtwdkif; y@Kumb,rif;\ xD; eef;odrf; rSwfwrf;wdkt& ,if;tcrf;tem;udk wpfaphwpfapmif; 1 od&Sd&onf / y@Kumb,onf xD;jzL odkYr[kwf OD;av;awmfrsm;\ EdkifiH awmfxD;jzLudk ,laqmifvmzdkY trdefYay;NyD; tEk&m"yk&NrdKU&Sd obm 0tkdif(Zmwó&)wGif ,if;xD;jzLtm; aq;aMum okwfoifap onf/ ,if;aemuf ,if;xD;jzLudk rdrdtm;aqmif;rdk;apNyD; ,if;a& tdkifrS a&Munfjzihf rdrd\ bdodufcHr*Fvmudk tav;teuf yuf zsef;vsuf ok0PÖygvDtm; Muif,mawmfrdzk&m;tjzpf wifa`rSmuf onf/ ,if;azmfjycsufrSm OD;av;awmfrsm; bdodufcHpOfuvnf; tqdkyg EdkifiHawmfxD;jzLawmfyif tokH;jyKcJhaMumif; ñTefjyonf/ bdodufcH&mü ta&;tBuD;qkH;udpörsm;teuf wpfckrSm t crf;tem;twGif; bk&iftaejzihf rdzk&m;wifa`rSmufrnfh cwåd, tEG,f trsKd;orD; &Sd&jcif;jzpfonf/ 0dZ,rif;om;\ pDrHcefYcGJol rsm;u wnfaqmufrI trsm;tjym; wnfaqmufNyD;aemuf 0ef BuD;rsm;taejzihf 0dZ,tm; bk&iftjzpf wifa`rSmufvdkaMumif; avQmufwifMuaomfvnf; rif;om;u wpfcsdefwnf;wGif cwåd, rsKd; owdkYorD;udk rwifa`rSmufEdkifoa½GU ,if;odkY rjyKvdkao; aMumif; jiif;qdkcJhonf/ trwfrsm;onf tdE´d,awmifydkif;&Sd r"k&m NrdKUodkY ,if;udpötwGuf bk&ifhrsKd;EG,frS rdzk&m;avmif;&&Sd&ef oHw 2 refrsm; apvTwfMuonf / 0dZ,rif;udk qufcHol y@Kumb, 1

r[m0Ho 10;77-78/

2

r[m0Ho 7;46-50/

Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEdkifiH

vlrIa&;tajctae

81

a&S;OD;tajccsaexkdifolrsm;onf t"dutm;jzihf v,f,majr tvkyfudk vkyfudkifMuNyD; EdkifiHtESHYtjym;ü ae&mopfrsm; &SmazG aexkdifMu&aomaMumihf yef;csDyef;yk tEkynmrsm;rSm rsm;pGm wdk; wufykHr&acs/ odkYwap r"k&mbk&ifonf 0dZ,rif; vufxufü ]tpnf;t½kH; q,hf&SpfckrS rdom;pkwpfaxmif} ydkYay;vdkufaMumif; 1 2 qdkonf / r"k&mrSvmcJhonhf tjcm;rsm;pGmaom rdom;pkrsm; onf EdkifiHwdk;wufrIudk taxmuftuljyKcJhNyD; vlOD;a& wdk;jrifhaponf/ 3 a'0geHyd,wdórif;vufxuf ukrÇum&tm0g# (tkd;xdrf; onf\wGif;)[k trnf&onhf xif&Sm;onhf ae&mwpfck&Sdonf/ ,if;wGif;onf tdk;xdrf;onfwdkY tkd;jyKvkyf&ef ajrap;rsm; wl;azmf &,laMumifh jzpfonhfwGif; jzpfzG,f&Sdonf/ a'0geHyd,wdórif;vufxuf ur®m&a'0[kac:onhf ewf a'0gwpfrsKd;taMumif; azmfjyxm;onfrSm aMumif;usKd;qDavsmf zG,f&Sdonf/ ur®m&a'0[lonf ]yef;yJorm;ewf}[k t"dyÜm,f&f EkdifNyD; a,bk,stm;jzihf ]ukefypönf; xkwfvkyfolrsm;\ ewf}[k t"dyÜm,f csJUxGif,q l Edkifonf/ ur®m&a'0 oifMum;a&;Xmejzihf xdktcsdefu yef;yJtvkyf½kHonf tvGefta&;ygaMumif; azmfjy onf/ ,if;odkYjzpf&onfrSm trJvdkuf&efESihf awmawmifteD; wGif aexdkifMuol aus;½Gmom;rsm;tzdkY rdrdukd,fudk umuG,f&ef vufeufrsm; rjzpfrae vkdtyfaomaMumifh jzpfonf/ r[m0Housrf;ü y@Kumb,rif;onf tbdufodufcHNyD; aemuf q,fESpftMumwGif oD[dkVfwpfuRef;vkH;&Sd aus;½Gmrsm;\ 4 e,fedrdwfrsm;udk wnfaqmuf owfrSwfay;aMumif; azmfjyonf / &mZ0if usrf;rsm;ü azmfjyoa½GU ,if;aus;½Gmrsm;pkudk ,if;wdkY\ 1

,if; 7;57/ ,if; 7;56/ 3 r[maAm"d0Ho? pm - 84/ r[modrfawmfBuD;\ e,fedrdwftydkif;tjcm; onf tqdkyg wGif; odkYr[kwf usif;udk jzwfausmfoGm;onf/ 4 r[m0Ho 10;103/ 2


82 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

acgif;aqmifemrnfrsm;udk taMumif;jyí ac:a0:xm;onf/ ykHpH tm;jzihf Oywdó½Gm? O½ka0v½Gm? &mr½Gm? 0dZdw½Gm? y@Kv½Gm ponfwkdYjzpfonf/ 0dZ,rif;acwfavmuf a&S;usonhfumvuyif Zey' odkYr [kwf c½kdife,frsm; wnfaqmufxm;onfh &nfñTef;csufrsm;udk 1 vnf;awGU&onf / y@Kumb,acwfü &nfñTef;xm;onhf c½dkif e,frsm;teuf *d&du@a'otrnf&dS c½dkifwpfckvnf; yg0ifcJh onf/ ,if;c½dkifudk ,if;c½dkifrS tcGefrsm;udk pm;&ol y@Kum 2 b,rif;\ om;awmf *d&du@od0 udk taMumif;jyKí rSnfhac: xm;jcif;jzpfonf/ oD[dkVfuRef;ü Ak'¨0g'rwkdifrDu bk&if[laom a0g[m&ESihf wlnDaom t"dyÜm,f&Sdonhf bk&ifrsKd;&SdcJhykHr&bJ a'otoD;oD;udk cGJa0tkyfcsKyfonhf a'oqdkif&m tkyfcsKyfolrsm;&Sdonfh A[dktpdk;& wpf&yfvnf; &SdykHr&acs/ qufoG,fa&; enf;vrf;rsm;tm; tvGef uefYowfxm;onfudkawGU&í tEk&m"yk&ESihf r[m*gr odkYr[kwf uvsmPD NrdKUrsm;tMum; tpOftNrJ ykHrSefqufoG,frIudk xdef; odrf;xm;&ef rjzpfEdkifcJhacs/ odkYjzpfí a'otoD;oD;rS acgif; aqmifrsm;onf tvdktavsmufyif xdka'orsm;\ tkyfcsKyfol bk&ifrif;rsm; jzpfoGm;Muonf/ ,if;azmfjyyg a'oqdkif&m tkyf csKyfolrsm;ESihfywfoufí owif;tpte tenf;i,frQom od& odkYr[kwf vkH;0 rod&acs/ odkYwap aus;vufa'oa&;&mrsm;udk aumif;rGefpGm pDrHcefYcGJonhf aus;½GmtzGJUtpnf; odkYr[kwf tkyf csKyfa&; taqmufttkHqdkif&m pepfwpfck&SdcJhaMumif; jyqdk&ef tawmfyif aMumif;usKd;qDavsmfonf/ tufpf y&e0dwe(S. Paranavitana)yk*¾Kdvfu c&pfESpf rwdkifrD *lxGif;pmtrsm;tjym;ü y½kru (Parumaka)[laom bGJUjzihf txl; 1 2

,if; 7;46/ trnf&if;rSm od0jzpfEdkiNf yD; *d&du@rSm ,if;NrdKUudk tkyfcsKyfoljzpf aom aMumihf a&SUrS qufac:xm;jcif; jzpfzG,f&Sdonf/

Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEdkifiH

vlrIa&;tajctae

83

jyKxm;onhf yk*¾vdutvª&Sifrsm;\ trnfemrrsm; yg0ifaMumif; qdkonf/ ouúwa0g[m& jyrkc (Pramukha) ygVda0g[m& yrkc (Pamukha) [laom rl&if;a0g[m&rS qif;oufaom y½kru (Parumaka)[lonf bGJUxl;*kPfxl;jzpfNyD; a&S;acwfrsm;wGif ,if; *kPfxl;jzihf todkif;t0dkif; tzGJUtpnf;wpfck\ acgif;aqmif em rnf xif&Sm;onf/ a&S;acwf oD[dkVfbk&ifrsm;\ txif&Sm;qkH; aom aemufxyf xD;okH;eef;okH; bGJUxl;jzpfonhf *grPdonf a0' a0g[m& j*mrPDESihfwlNyD; aus;½GmtkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJU\ acgif; aqmifjzpfonf/ ,if;a0g[m&rsm;udk cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmvsuf y&e0d weyk*¾Kdvfu ,if;*lxGif;ausmufpmrsm;wGif awGU&onfh aZX (aZ|)[laom a0g[m&vnf; rlvyk'f&if;wlNyD; tzGJUtpnf;wpfck \ acgif;aqmif odkY[kwf toufBuD;oludk qdkvdkaMumif; cefYrSef; azmfjyonf/ ,if;(a0g[m&½Iaxmihf)rS y&e0dwe yk*¾Kdvfu þodkY okH;oyfonf ]xdktrnfemrrsm;onf uREkfyfwdkYtm; a&S;acwfrsm;ü xif&Sm;jzpfay:cJhonhf bk&ifrif;wdkYtaMumif; em;vnfrItwGuf tawG;tjrifwpf&yfudk ay;ojzihf pdwf0ifpm;zG,fvnf;aumif;\/ tu,fí ,if;a0g[m& zGifhqdkcsufrsm;u uREkfyfwdkYtm; wpfckck ajymjyonfqdkvQif oD&dvuFm a&S;OD;bk&ifrsm;onf wpfqifhcHjzpf aomfvnf; xif&Sm;onhf tpnf;ta0;rsm;\ acgif;aqmifrsm; jzpfMuvsuf aemiftcg ¤if;wdkYtaejzihf tifydkif,mbk&if tjzpf ,lqvmaomtcg t"dyÜm,frJh jzpfoGm;onhf a&S;trnfa[mif; rsm;udk udk,fydkifi,f emrnftjzpf qufvufí tokH;jyKMu\/ oD&dvuFm bk&ifrsm;onf rdrdwdkYtaejzihf cwåd,rsKd;½dk;rsm; jzpf aMumif; qdkMuaomfvnf; ,if;odkYr[kwfbJ a0órsKd;rsm;om jzpf EdkifzG,f&Sd\/ ordkif;wifacwfrsm;twGif; tdE´d,bk&ifh rdom;pkrsm; 1 teuf tausmfMum;qkH;tcsKdUrSm a0órsKd;½dk;rsm;jzpfMu\} / a'0geHyd,wdórif;BuD; rwdkifrD Ak'¨0g'tBudK oD&dvuFmü 1

Epigraphia Zeylanica, p. 123.


88 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

eef;NrdKUudk wrÁyPÖdrS Oywdó½GmodkY a½TUajymif;cJhonf[laom t csufESihf y@K0goka'0 rif;vufxufxd tkyfcsKyfa&;udk ,if;NrdKUu yif pDrHcJhonf[laomtcsufrsm;u yka&m[dwfonf ta&;tyg qkH;jzpfNyD; trwftm;vkH;udk MoZmoufa&mufrI&SdaMumif; azmfjy onf/ yka&m[dwfonf rsm;aomtm;jzihf jAm[®Pjzpfonf/ y@K umb,rif;onf ¤if;\q&mjzpfol y@KvjA[®P\om; pE´ 1 tm; yka&m[dwftjzpf cefYtyfcJhonf / a'0geHyd,wdórif;ü t aomurif;xHodkY oGm;cJhaom nDawmft&d|rif;om;ESihftwl vdkuf 2 ygoGm;onhf yka&m[dwfwpfa,muf&Sdonf / vlxktm;vkH;\ acgif;aqmifjzpfonhf bk&ifrif;tjyif Ak'¨ 0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfuRef; vlUtzGJUtpnf;udk bmoma&;qdkif&mrsm; ESihf avmuDa&;&m aqmif½Gufolrsm;[k u@ESpfrsKd; cGJjcm;Edkif onf/ bmoma&;qdkif&m *kdPf;*Ptrsm;tjym;&SdNyD; ,if;wdkYonf 3 xD;eef;udk OD;aqmifrIjyKonf / avmuDa&; aqmif½Gufolrsm;udk cGJ jcm;vQif xkH;pHtwdkif; cwåd, odkYr[kwf tkyfcsKyfolrsm;? jAm[®P rsm; odkYr[kwf ynmwwf a[majym oifMum;olrsm;? a0órsKd;ü yg0ifEdkifonfh v,form;rsm;ESihf odk;EGm;xdef;ausmif;olrsm;? p@m v odkYr[kwf aus;uRef tvkyfvkyfMuonhf edrhfus csKdUwJholrsm;[k t"dutm;jzihf av;rsKd; cGJjcm;Edkio f nf/ tjzpfEdkifqkH; tjcm;trsKd; ZmwftoD;oD;ü yg0ifonhf vlYtzGJUtpnf; rsKd;pkH taMumif;udk 4 vnf; azmfjyonf / jAm[®Prsm;rSm csrf;omNyD; ynmwwfMuvsuf ¤if;wdkYonf aus;½Gm vlYtzGJUtpnf;rsm;ü t&Sdeft0g&SdNyD; av;pm;jcif;cHMu& 1 2

r[m0Ho 10;79/

,if; 11;20/ þ,lqcsufESihf ywfoufonhf aqG;aEG;rIrsm;udk a&SUtcef;wGif awGU&rnf/ 4 ,if;vlrsKd;pkrsm;\ wm0ef0wå&m;rsm;udk wdwdusus cGJjcm; owfrSwfxm; jcif; r&Sdacs/ ykHpHtm;jzihf cwåd,rsKd;jzpfol y@Kumb,rif;\ OD;av;awmf *d&du@od0onf aumowpf&m xGef,ufpdkufysKd;aMumif; jyqdkonf/ 3

Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEdkifiH

vlrIa&;tajctae

85

onfvnf; rdzk&m;taejzihf cwåd,EG,f rif;orD;udk r&rcsif; bd 1 odufcH&ef qE´r&SdcJhacs / ,if;jzpf&yfrsm;u bk&ifbdodufcHrIwGif rif;rsKd;rif;EG,f owdkYorD;rSm rjzpfrae vdktyfaom t&mjzpf aMumif; azmfjyonf/ 2 r[m0Ho#Dumusrf; ü oD[dkVfodkY jynhfpkHoifhjrwfonhf bd odufcHrIykHpHudk ydkYay;cJholrSm taomu rif;jzpfaMumif; twdtus azmfjyonf/ a'0geHyd,wdórif;onf y@Kumb,udk qufcH NyD;aemuf rsm;rMumrD yg#vdykwåNrdKU½Sd taomurif;BuD;xH tzdk; wef vufaqmiftrsm;tjym; ydkYay;cJhonf/ taomurif;tae jzifh oD[dkVf&Sd taqGawmf rif;w&m;xH rdrdjyefay;&rnfh oihfawmf aom vufaqmifypönf; a½G;cs,frt I wGuf tcuftcJESihf BuKHcJh onf/ oD[dkVfoHwrefrsm;tm; pkHprf;aomtcg bk&iftaomu onf oD[dkVfbk&ifrSm vkyfief;wpfcjk zihf tmPmydkifpdk;jcif;rS wpf yg; rdrd(taomu)uJhodkY bdodufcHtcrf;tem; r&SdaMumif; odcJh 4 onf / odkYjzpfí taomurif;onf taqGawmf oD[dkVfrif;xHoYdk NyD;jynhfpkHonhf bdodufcHr*FvmtwGuf vdktyfcsuf tm;vkH;udk ydkY ay;&ef qkH;jzwfcJhonf/ odkYjzihf taomuonf ],yfawmif? oif; uspf(o&zl)? oefvsuf? xD;jzL? ajceif; (zdeyf)? acgif;aygif;? em;\ a!mif;? pvG,f? a&waumif;? pE´ul;eD? tpmrcs&ao;onhf (topfusyfcRwf) 0wfvJawmfwpfpkH? tzdk;wef vufokwfy0g? em*wdkY ,laqmifvmonhf rsufpOf;? t½kPfa&mif ajrnuf(ajreD)? taemwwåa&pif? **Fgjrpfa&? r*Fvmtcrf;tem;wGif tokH;jyK onhf c&koif;? t½G,fa&muf owdkYorD;unm? a½Ttdk; a½Tyef;uef rsm;? tzdk;wef a0g,mOfawmf? zefcg;oD; oQpfoQm;oD;ESihf tzdk;wef awmf0if aq;0g;rsm;? aus;iSufwdkY o,f,lvmonfh oav;qef 1

,if; 7;17/ r[m0Ho#D? pm - 306/ 3 e tnH tbdaouy&d[m&H emr tw¬d? au0vH e0,|dum {0 ud& aom &ZÆH uma&wd (r[m0Ho#D? pm 186)/ 2


86 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

vSnf;tpnf; ajcmufq,fwdkuf? xdkYjyif bk&ifwpfyg; bdodufcH&m 1 ü vdktyfEdkifonhf t&mtm;vkH;}udk ay;ydkYcJhonf / aejynfawmfodkY jyefa&mufaomtcg oD[dkVftrwfBuD;rsm; onf bk&iftaomu oifMum;vdkufonhftwdkif; a'0geHyd, wdórif;BuD;tm; jynhfpkHonhf tcrf;tem;jzihf 'kwd,tBudrf bd 2 odufcHMuonf / þqufpyfrIwGif ,if;oufa&mufrI taMumif;udk rnfonhf &mZ0ifusrf; odkYr[kwf rnfonfhusrf;wGifrS rSwfwrf; rjyKcJhaomf vnf; ]a'0geHyd,}[laom *kPfjyKbGJUtrnfudkyif ]wdó}[laom trnfrQom&Sdonhf oD[dkVfbk&iftm; {u&mZfwpfyg;tjzpf *kPf jyKonhftaejzihf taomurif;u ay;tyfcJhaMumif; vufcH&ef aMumif;usKd;qDavsmfonf/ a'0geHyd,wdórwdkifrD oD[dkVfbk&if rsm;onf ,if;a&SUqufyk'f (a'0geHyd,)udk tokH; rjyKcJhMuacs/ a'0geHyd, ]ewfwdkY cspfjrwfEdk;jcif;cH&ol}[laom bGJUonf tdE´d,ü taomurif;BuD; rwdkifrDuyif tokH;jyKcJhaom bGJYjzpfNyD; ,if;a0g[m&udk acwfpum;jzihf ]jynhf&Sifrif;BuD;}[k vGwfvyfpGm bmomjyefqdkEdkifonf/ taomuausmufpmtrSwf 8 wGif ]twd MuwH tw&H a'0geHyd, 0d[m& ,Mw er edMurðok}[k yg&Sd onf/ bDtrf b½l;0g; t*Fvdyfbmomjyeft& ]a&Stcgwkef;u 3 bk&ifrif;rsm;onf taysmfc&D;rsm; oGm;cJhMu\} / a'0geHyd, yk'f udk bk&ifrif;rsm;[k omreftm;jzihfom bmomjyefqdkonf/ rlum *sD (Mookerji)url ,if;pum;vkH;udk ]t&Sifrif;rsm;} (Their Sacred Majesties)[k bmomjyefqdkvdkonf/ ,if;azmfjycsufonf ]a'0geH yd,wdó}[laom bJGUtrnfudk taomurif;BuD;tm; qufcH olrsm;vnf; tokH;jyKcJhaMumif; azmfjyonf/ ,if; ]a'0geHyd,)bGJU udk bk&iftaomu\ ajr;awmf 'o&xrif; udk,fwdkif em*&ZÆKed 1 2 3

Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEdkifiH

vlrIa&;tajctae

87

awmifukef;&Sd *lxGif;pmrsm;ü tokH;jyKcJhojzihf ,if;(bGJUudk) tokH; 1 jyKrIonf qufvuf wnf&SdaecJhykH&onf / a'0geHyd,wdóNyD;aemuf o'¨gwdó (bDpD 77-59)? vZÆd wdó (bDpD 59-50)? r[mplvdu r[mwdó (bDpD 17-3)? ul# uPÖwdó (at'D 16-38)ESihf r[mem* (at'D 556-559) uJhodkYaom oD[dkVfbk&if rsm;pGmwdkYonf ]a'0geHyd,}udk *kPfxl; 2 aqmifbGJUtjzpf tokH;jyKcJhMuonf / bk&ifhw&m;½kH;rsm;;ü trwfrsm;&Sd&mwGif ]yka&m[dw} (bk&ifh twkdifyifcH)trwfonf tqihf tjrihfqkH;jzpfonf/ 0dZ,rif;\ yka&m[dwrSm Oywdó*gr (Oywdó&Gm odkYr[kwf NrdKU)udk wnf 3 aqmufcJhol Oywdójzpfonf / 0dZ,rif;uG,fvGefNyD;aemuf xD; 1

r[m0Ho 11;28-32/ r[m0Ho 11;41/

2

Inscriptions of Asoka, II, p. 186.

3

See Mookerji : op. cit. pp 12, 150 n. 4.

umvMumaomf ,if;bGJUtrnfonf Ak'¨0g'Dbk&ifrsm;twGuf txl; jyKbGJUtrnfrsm;tjzpf ,lqcJhykH&NyD; Ak'¨0g'Dr[kwfonhf bk&ifrsm;u ,if; bGJUudk avSmifajymif&ef BudK;pm;cJhMuzG,f &Sdonf/ odkYjzpfí ]od'¨gEÅaumrk'D} usrf;ü ]a'0geHyd, £wd p rkac} (Siddhāntakaumudi, Bombay, 1929, p. 213.)[kqdkonf/ rlum*sDu ]eE´rif;rsm;? arm&d,rif;rsm;ESifh ok*Frif;rsm; acwftwGif; jynfpkHaumif;rGefonfh ,if;bJGUonf tvGef xif&Sm;onhf Ak'¨ 0g'D {u&mZfbk&ifrsm;udk qefYusifol aESmif;acwf jAm[®P0g'D t,l onf; bk&ifrsm;\tjrifü raumif;rIwpfcktoGif cHpm;rdMu\}[k ,lq onf/ odkYwap b½l;0g;url ,if;rSwcf sufudk raxmufcHacs/ b½l;0g;u ]ESdrfhcsaom tjrifonf ba¥m*sd 'D&dSwESihf tjcm;yk*¾Kdvfrsm; (Bhaµµoji D²kshita and others)tm; bk&iftaomuudk qefYusifaom rnfonhf *dkPf;*PpGJ t,lonf;rIaMumifhrS r[kwfacs/ taMumif;rl ,if;bGJUxl;udk (tokH;jyK&ef) wdkufwGef;aomtcg ,if;wdkYtaejzihf a&S;bk&ifrsm; txl; ojzifh bk&iftaomu\ trnfemrESihf ywfoufonfh xD;eef;okH;tjzpf a'0geHyd,wdóbGJUuJhodkYaom bGJUtrnf cefYtyfrIESihfywfoufí ¤if;wdkY rwdkifrD tpOftvmwpf&yf r&SdcJhaomaMumihfjzpf\} [kqdkonf/ rlum*sD\ Asoka, pp. 108-109 ESihf b½l;0g;\ Inscriptions of Asoka, II, pp. 219-220 wdkYudk Munhfyg/ E.Z. I, pp. 58, 144,148; Ibid. III, pp 154, 156.

r[m0Ho 7;44/


92 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; 1

pyfcJhonfrSm y@Kumb,rif;rS pwifonf / a&S;acwf tdE´d,ESihf oD[dkVfwdkYtMum; qufEG,frIonf a'0g eHyd,wdórif;vufxufwGif tjrifhqkH;jzpfonf/ taomurif; \ BuD;rm;xefjyif;onhf bk&if{u&mZftjzpf ausmfMum;rIonf ajrmufrSawmif ta&SUrStaemufodkYwkdif jyefYESHYoGm;onf/ rif;BuD; onf ¤if;\aumif;usKd;vkyfief;rsm;udk tjcm;bk&ifrif;rsm;\ e,f y,frsm;odkYyif csJUxGifcJhonf/ NyD;cJhaomtcef;ü taomurif;\ vlrIaumif;usKd;ESihf aq;0g;taxmuftyHhrsm;qdkif&m aqmif½Guf rIrsm;ü oD[dkVfEdkifiH2 yg0ifcJhaMumif;ESihf rif;BuD;\ "r®0dZ,pDrH udef;onf oD[dkVfuRef;ü atmifjrifaMumif; azmfjyNyD;jzpfonf/ þ onfrSm taomurif;BuD;onf vufeufudkif ppfom;rsm;aMumihf r[kwfbJ rif;BuD;\ ,Ofaus;rI? vlrIa&;ESihf bmomw&m;qdkif &m vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;aMumifh oD[dkVfEdkifiHol EdkifiHom;wdkY\ ESvkH; om;udk atmifEdkifcJhaMumif; qdkvdkjcif;jzpfonf/ wpfzef rif;BuD;u ¤if;\oHwrefrsm; roGm;a&mufcJhonhf tjcm;EdkifiHrsm;onfyif ¤if;\ pnf;urf;rl0g'rsm;udk vdkufemMuaMumif; qdkxm;onf/ a'0geHyd,wdóESifh taomurif;wdkYtMum; &if;ESD;uRrf;0if onhf qufqHrIwnf&SdcJhaMumif;ESihf bk&ifESpfOD;wdkYtMum; cspfMunf a&; zvS,fcJhMuaMumif; uREkfyfwdkY azmfjycJhNyD;jzpfonf/ oD[dkVf bk &ifzufrS ,if;odkYaom azmfa½GysLiSmrI tajctaeonf taomu rif;BuD;xHrS oD[dkVfEdkifiH&&SdcJhonfh tusKd;w&m;rsm;ESihf taomu rif;BuD; ydkifqdkifxm;onhf atmifjrifrItay: auseyfaomaMumifh 1

a&m[PNrdKUudk tkyfpdk;cJhol vmrmPdrd[dE´ (Lāmāºi Mihind) trnf& onf rif;om;wpfyg;onf ¤if;\trsKd;tEG,frSm y@Kumb,rS qif; oufcJh aMumif;qdkonf (E.Z. III,p. 222)/ pwkw¬ r[dE´bk&ifonf ¤if;\ trsKd; tEG,fudk y@Kumb,ESihf bk&ifoka'¨g'ewdkYrS qif;oufaMumif;? ,if; odkYqkdojzihf ¤if;rSm ousrsKd;ESihf qufEG,faMumif; azmfjyonf (EZ. III,p. 227)/ 2 wrÁyPÖd[lonfudk oD[dkVfuRef;tjzpf azmjfyjcif;ESihf ywfoufí þusrf; pmrsufESm 59? atmufrSwfcsuf 1 wGif Munfhyg/

Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEdkifiH vlrIa&;tajctae 89 onf/ ¤if;wdkYonf q&mrsm;jzpfNyD; vlxk\twdkifyifcH yk*¾Kdvfrsm; vnf; jzpfMuonf/ r[m0Housrf;ü rEÅ&rsm;udk uRrf;usifonhf jAm[®Prsm;u rdzk&m;pdwåm\om;onf xD;eef;udk taMumif;jyKí OD;av;awmftm;vkH;udk owfypfvdrfhrnf[k aMunmaMumif;azmfjy 1 onf / y@Kumb,udk rdcifu csrf;om<u,f0NyD; a0'usrf;rsm; udk wwfuRrf;onfh y@Kvtrnf&onhf jAm[®Pwpfa,mufxH tyfESHcJhonf/ bk&ifrif;wpfyg;twGuf vdktyfonhf 0dZÆmodyÜHynm &yfrsm;udk oifMum;ay;NyD; &efoludk wdkufcdkuf&ef ppfwyfwpfck zGJU Edkifavmufonhf aiGaMu;udk ay;tyfcJhonfrSm ,if; y@Kv 2 jAm[®Pjzpfonf / ZrÁKaumvqdyfurf;rS aAm"dudkif;udk aqmif,l cJhonhf tpDtpOfü tEk&m"yk&NrdKUodkYtoGm; jAm[®Pwd0uú½GmodkY t0ifwGif &yfem;cJh&aMumif; azmfjyonf (wd0uúó jAm[®Pó 3 *gr'Gga&) / ,if;&yfem;rIudk trnfemrxkwfazmfí xif&Sm;pGm ñTef;qdk NyD; tjcm;&yfem;onhf a'orsm;udkrl trnfemr txl;xkwfazmf jcif;r&SdbJ ]tjcm;rsm;pGmaom ae&mrsm; (Xmaeok awok awok p)}[kom azmfjyonf/ xdkYjyif jAm[®Pwd0uúudk tEk&m"yk&NrdKU aAm"dyifylaZmfyGJrsm;odkY wufa&mufonhf xif&Sm;onfh {nfhonf 4 rsm;teuf txl;azmfjyonf / aAm"dudkif; &Spfckteuf wpfckudk 5 þjAm[®P½Gmü pdkufysKd;cJhonf / tjcm;rsKd;EG,frsm;ESihf t"duus onhf yk*¾Kdvfrsm;\ tvkyftudkifrsm;uJhodkYaom &Edkifonhf &nf ñTef;rIrsm;udk þtcef; tpydkif;ü azmfjyNyD;jzpfonf/ Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfuRef;ü wefcl;(aZ|) vjynhfaeYwGif 6 usif;yaom xif&Sm;onhf yGJawmfESpfck&Sdonf / wpfckrSm a&yGJ 1 2 3 4 5 6

r[m0Ho 9;2/ ,if; 10;19-26/ ,if; 19;37/ r[m0Ho 19;54/ ,if; 19;61/ ,if; 19;1/ r[m0Ho-#D? pm – 329/


90 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

obif (ovdvudVdwH = oBuFefyGJawmf ?) jzpfonf/ ,if;yGJawmf 1 rSm vltrsm;twGuf t"du &nf½G,fonf/ &o0g[deDusrf;wGif 'k|*grPdrif;vufxufü rif;BuD;udk,fwkdifyg0ifqifETJcJhonhf wef cl;vüusif;onhf a&yGJobiftaMumif; azmfjyonf/ wefcl;v onf yljyif;&moDjzpfí ,if;vwGif a&yGJobifusif;yrIudk BudKqdk rnfjzpfonf/ aemufyGJawmfwpfckrSm trJvdkufyGJjzpfNyD; ,if;yGJü vnf; azmfjyNyD;twdkif; bk&ifudk,fwkdif yg0ifonf/ pdkufysKd;a&;ESifh qufEG,frI&Sdonhf yGJawmfrsm;taMumif;udk azmfjyNyD;jzpfonf/ Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfuRef;ü pmaya&;&m vIyf&Sm;rI t aMumif; azmfjycsuf rawGU&onfomru bDpDokH;&mpk rwdkifrD ausmufpma&;xdk;rIrsm;vnf; wpfpkHwpf&m rawGU&acs/ odkYwap tenf;qkH; tkyfcsKyfa&;vlwef;pm;ESihf jAm[®Prsm; twGif;ürl ynma&;udk vspfvsL½Ixm;jcif;r&Sd/ NrdKUawmftaemufzuf&Sd xdk jAm[®P\ trnfjzihf xif&Sm;onhf ½Gmwpf½GmwGif aexdkifonhf y@Kvtrnf&onhf jAm[®PxH y@Kumb,rif; ynmoif,l aMumif; azmfjycsufyg&Sdonf/ y@Kvonf rdrd\om;jzpfol pE´ ESihf y@Kumb,wdkYtm; twwfynmrsm; oifay;&onf[k qdk 2 onf / tjcm;ausmif;om;rsm;taMumif; azmfjycsufryg&Sdojzihf y@Kumb,taejzihf ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif jzpfavovm; [k pOf;pm;&efom &Sdonf/ oD[dkVfü tajccscJhMuonfh a&S;OD;tm&d,ef vlrsm;onf tdE´d,&Sd ¤if;wdkY\EdkifiHrS tm;vkH; twlwuG xGufvmcJhMuonf r[kwfacs/ oD[dkVfonf yifrtdE´d,wdkufi,ftwGif; jzpfay:onhf EdkifiHa&; vlrIa&; pD;yGm;a&; odkYr[kwf bmoma&;paom r[m ajymif;vJrIwdkif;u oD[dkVfvlrsKd;wdkY\b0udk ododomom vTrf;rdk;cJh onfxd tdE´d,ESihf eD;pyf&if;ESD;pGm qufEG,frI&Sdonf/ wavrEém& (Talaimannar) ESihf "Ekoaum'd (Dhanuskodi) wdkYtMum; a&t

Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEdkifiH

2

&o0g[deD 2? pm – 73/ r[m0Ho 10;20-23/

91

enf;i,f tus,ft0ef;om jcm;xm;rIonf ESpfEdkifiHtMum; ykHrSef qufoG,frIudk tydwftyifr&SdbJ aESmif;acwfrsm;wGif wpfcg wpf&H tvdk&r®ufBuD;onhf tdE´d,awmifydkif;rS tkyfcsKyfolrsm; oD[dkVfuRef;udk 0ifa&mufwdkufckdufrIrsm; &Sdaomfvnf; tdE´d,onf rdcifarwåmjzihf oD[dkVftm; vma&mufulnD&ef tNrJwrf; tqif oihfjzpfcJhonf/ ESpfEdkifiHtMum; ysLiSmvIdufvSJonhf qufqHrIrsm;rSm a&S;tus qkH;umvuyif wnf&SdcJhonf/ 0dZ,rif; (bDpD 483-445)ESihf ¤if;\vlrsm;onf ¤if;wdkY\ ZeD;avmif; owdkYorD;rsm;udk tdE´d, 1 awmifydkif; y@,EdkifiH r"k&mNrdKUrS &&SdcJhMuonf / r"k&mbk&if onf ¤if;\ om;rufawmf (oD[dVk fbk&if)xHodkY tEkokckrynm onf rdom;pk wpfaomif;&Spfaxmiftjyif qif jrif; &xm;rsm;ESihf 2 vufrI ynmonfrsm;udk ydkYay;cJhaMumif; od&onf / 0dZ,onf ¤if;\ a,mu©rawmfxHodkY tzdk;wef ykvJ&wemrsm;uJhodkYaom 3 vufaqmifyPÖmrsm; ay;ydkYNyD; cifrif&ifESD;rIudk xdef;odrf;cJhonf / 0dZ,rif;udk qufcHol ¤if;\wlawmf y@K0goka'0onf tdE´d, 4 ajrmufydkif;rS ousrif;orD;udk vufxyfcJhonf / aemufwGif ,if; orD;\ armifawmfrsm; oD[dkVfodkY a&mufvmMuNyD; uRef;oD[dkVf&Sd 5 ae&mtoD;oD;ü tajccsaexdkifMuonf / Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfü xif&Sm;onhf tBuD;jrwfqkH;bk&if y@Kumb,onf tdE´d, ajrmufydkif;rS a&mufvmMuonhf oustEG,f rif;om; ajcmuf 6 a,mufüyg0ifol 'DCm,k\ ajr;awmfjzpfonf / oD[dkVfbk&ifrsm; ¤if;wdkY\ tpOftqufudk Ak'¨\tEG,fjzpfonfh ousrsKd;ESihf quf 1 2 3 4

1

vlrIa&;tajctae

5 6

r[m0Ho 7;48-58? 69-72/ ,if; 7;56-57/ ,if; 7;73/ ,if; 8;18-27/ ,if; 9;60-11/ ,if; 9;13-27/


Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEdkifiH

vlrIa&;tajctae

93

jzpfonfrSm aocsmonf/ oD[dkVfbk&ifay;ydkYcJhonhf tzdk;wefvuf aqmifypönf;rsm;tay: aus;Zl;wkHYjyefonhf taejzihf taomu rif;w&m;BuD;u a'0geHydwdórif;\ tbdodufcH tpDt&ifudk jyifqifay;vsuf rdrd(taomurif;BuD;)udk,fwkdif Ak'¨"r®oHCmudk udk;uG,fouJhodkY oD[dkVfbk&iftm; Ak'¨0g'Dwpf a,mufjzpfvm&ef wdkufwGef;onhf owif;aumif;udk ydkYvdkufaomtcg ESpfEdkifiH t 1 jyef tvSef&if;ESD;rIonf txGwftxdyfodkY a&mufoGm;onf / 1

r[m0Ho 11;34-35? 'Dy0Ho 12;5-7/ odkY&mwGif 'Dy0Husrf;vm taom urif;BuD;\ aemufrSwfwrf; wpfckt&rl taomurif;BuD;onf a'0geH yd,wdórif;BuD;tm; Ak'¨0g'udk vufcH&ef wdkufwGef;aMumif; razmfjyay/ ,if;rSwfwrf;ürl taomurif;BuD;onf a'0geHyd,wdótm; rdrdtae jzihf Ak'¨"r®oHCmtm; qnf;uyfaMumif;udkom qdkaMumif; jyqdkonf ('Dy0Ho 11;35-36)/ ,if;onf oG,f0dkufaomenf;jzihf wdkufwGef;jcif; jzpfEdkifonf/ okwåedygwft|uxmü r[m0Hoü azmfjyonfESihf tawmfrsm;rsm; wl nDonhf azmfjycsufwpfck yg&Sdonf/ ajrmufydkif; u|0g[ebk&ifESifh Am &mPoDbk&ifwdkYonf taomurif;ESihf a'0geHyd,wdó rif;wdkYuJhodkY vkH; 0rawGUjrifzl;onfh rdwfaqG&if; rsm;jzpfMuonf/ wpfcgaomf u|0g[e onf rdwfaqG Am&mPoDbk&ifxH tzdk;rjzwfEdkifonhf 0wf½kHrsm;udk vufaqmifydkYcJhonf/ Am&mPoDbk&ifonf ,if;xuftzdk;wefonhf vuf aqmifypönf;udk a½G;cs,f&ef cufcJaejcif;ü opöm"r®[laom vufaqmif udk a½G;cs,fcJhonf/ xdktcsdefum; uóybk&m;&Sif toufxif&Sm; &Sdcsdef jzpfonf/ Am&mPoDbk&ifonf u|0g[exH avmuü Ak'¨"r®ESihf oHCm ay:xGef;aeNyDjzpfaMumif; owif;pum;udk ydkYay;cJhonf/ ,if; "r®vuf aqmifudk &&Sdaomtcg u|0g[ebk&ifonf Ak'¨udk oGm;a&muf zl;ajrmf&ef qE´ jzpfay:vmonf/ odkYaomf ¤if;\ trwfrsm;ESihf wlawmfu roGm; a&muf&ef rif;BuD;tm; wm;jrpfvsuf rdrdwdkYukd,fwdkif Ak'¨udkzl;ajrmf&ef oGm; a&mufcJhMuonf/ (a'0geH yd,wdó\ wlawmfvnf; yg#vdykwfNrdKUawmf odkY oGm;a&mufcJhonf/) ¤if;wdkY Am&mPoDodkY oGm;aecsdefwGif uóy bk&m;&Sif y&dedAÁmef pHvGefawmfrlojzihf ¤if;wdkY pdwfrcsrf;ajrUjzpfMuonf/ odkYwap &[ef;oHCm rsm;u ¤if;wdkYtm; o&P*kH aqmufwnf&ef tMuHay;Muonf/ bk&ihf wlawmfuvGJí usefyk*¾Kdvftm;vkH; &[ef;tjzpf


94 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

xdkjyif oD[dkVfbk&ifonf ¤if;\rdwfaqG tdE´d,{u&mZf wkduf wGef;onhftwdkif; 'kwd,tBudrf bdodufcHtcrf;tem; usif;ycJh onf/ ,if;odkY aqmif½GufcsufrSm bk&ifESpfyg;\ cspfMunfrI oauFwjzpfEdkifouJhodkY taomu\ BuD;us,fcrf;em;rIatmufodkY cdkvIHjcif;ESihf (taomu\) oD[dkVftay: MoZm vTrf;rdk;rIvnf; jzpfEdkifonf/ ESpfEdkifiHtMum; ,if;odkYpwifcJhonhf cspfMunfrIonf bk&iftaomutm; ¤if;\om;awmf r[dE´ESihf orD;awmf oHCrdwåmtm; oD[dkVfü Ak'¨omoemudkwnfaxmif&ef omoem 1 jyKrsm;tjzpf apvTwcf hJonftxd jzpfonf / cH,lMuonf/ bk&ifhwlawmfonf uóyAk'¨ tokH;jyKawmfrlonhf ]"r® u&P}(a&ppfawmf)[laom ]y&dabm*"mwk}udk ,laqmifoGm;NyD; "r®0de, ü vdr®muRrf;usifonfh &[ef;awmfwpfyg;onf w&m;a[mMum;onf/ u|0g[erif;onf rax&fjrwfxH oGm;a&muf zl;ajrmfNyD; w&m;udk emMum; vsuf ausmif;wkdufwpfckESihf apwDwpfql wnfaqmufNyD; aAm"dyifwpfyif pdkufysKd;NyD;aemuf o&P*kHESihf ig;yg;&Spfyg;oDv aqmufwnfMuonf/ tvª'gejyKMuvsuf aovGefaomtcg ewfjynfavmuü jyefvnf arG;zGm; Muonf (okwåded-|? 469)/ 1 ESpfEdkifiHtMum; rMumcP ul;vl;qufqHrIonf tdE´d,ESihf oD[dkVfEdkifiHwdkY onf tapmqkH; bDpDokH;&mpkuyif yifv,fa&aMumif; qufqHrIrsm; &SdcJh aMumif; t"dyÜm,faumuf,l&ef aMumif;usKd;avsmfuefaMumif; azmfjyonf/

00000000


100 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; pdwåESihf umVa0v bDvl;ESpfa,mufyif jzpfonf/ þjzpf&yfu pdwåESihf umVa0v bDvl;ESpfa,mufrSm Xmae odkYr[kwf 0g'´gvlrsKd; acgif;aqmif ESpfa,mufvnf; r[kwf? trSef aomf y@Kumb,udk,fwdkif odolrsm;yifr[kwfbJ tpGJtvrf; aMumihf ,aeYwdkif wnf&Sdaeonhf bDv;l ESihf 0dnmOfowå0grsm; uJhodkY vltrsm;\ pdwftm½kHwGif wnf&Sdaeonhf aoolrsm;\ 0dnmOfowå0grsm; jzpfMuonf/ ,u©(bDvl;)owå0g tpGJtvrf;ESihftwl a&S;OD;aexdkifolwdkY \ tjcm;,Ofaus;rIrsm;uJhodkY Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfü xif&Sm;cJh cJhaom bdk;bGm;bDbifwdkYudk udk;uG,frI odkYr[kwf aooGm;olwdkY\ 0dnmOfrsm;udk t½dktaoay;rI taMumif;udk aqG;aEG;&ef vdktyf 1 onf / y@Kumb,ESihf xdkacwf jynfolwdkYonf opömwnfwHhNyD; rdrdwdkY cspfjrwfEdk;olrsm; aovGefNyD;aemuf ,u©rsm;tjzpf jyef vnfarG;zGm;NyD; b0a[mif;rS rdwfaqGrsm;ESihf acgif;aqmifrsm; tm; qufvuf apmihfa&Smufonf[laom ,kHMunfrI &SdcJhykH&onf/ pdwåESihf umVa0vwdkYESpfa,mufrSm ,if;odkYaom yk*¾Kdvfrsm;jzpfMu onf/ xdkYtwl y@Kumb,rdom;pk\ opömapmihfodaom aus; uReftrsKd;orD;jzpfcJhol pdwåmonf ,u©deD(bDvl;r)tjzpf jyefvnf arG;zGm;onf/ y@Kumb,onf b0a[mif;(vljzpfpOf)u aus; Zl;&SdcJhzl;aomaMumihf NrdKUawmfawmifzuf*dwfwGif ,if; bDvl;r 2 twGuf aexkdifp&mtdrf aqmufvkyfay;aMumif; od&onf / 1

2

Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics Dead udkvnf;

rS

Ancestor Worship and Cult of the

½Iyg/ r[m0Ho 10;85/ ,u©[laom a0g[m&\ t"dyÜm,frSm av;pm;xdkuf NyD; a'0 (ewf)wdkYavmuf tqifhrjrihfonhf vlom;vGef (ur®Zd'¨dwefcdk;&Sd onfh) owå0gjzpfonf/ apmapmydkif; ygVdpmaywGif ,u©[laom a0g[m& onf Ak'¨[laomt"dyÜm,f (r 2? 49)? ewfwdkYbk&if ouú(odMum;)rif; (r 1? 256/ 'D 2? 208)ESihf tjcm;ewfa'0gwdu kY dkvnf; ('D 2? 205) &nfñTef; onf/ Ak'¨tm; Munfñdkol bk&if AdrÁdom&onf Ze0ob,u©trnfjzihf arG;zGm;cJhonf('D 2? 166)/ t"dyÜm,f qGJokH;onhftaejzihf Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD

tcef; 3 Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEkdifiH (2) bmoma&;tajctae 1 bDpD okH;&mpk Ak'¨0g' oD[dkVfuRef;odkY Ak'¨ra&mufvmrD uRef;oD [dkVfü pepfwus zGJUpnf;xm;onhf trsKd;om; odkYr[kwf EdkifiHawmf bmomw&m; r&Sdao;onfrSm xif&Sm;onf/ w½kwfbk&m;zl;c&D; onf [l,ifqef (Hiuen Tsiang)\ tvdkt&aomf ]a&S;acwf oD[dkVfEdkifiHonf ukd,fusifhoDvraumif;onfh bmomw&m;udk pGJ 2 vef;cJh\} [kjzpfonf/ &mZ0ifusrf;udk taotcsm avhvmygu ,if;udk;uG,frIrsm;rSm a&S;OD;vlwdkY\ obm0w&m;ESihf wd&pämef udk;uG,frIqdkif&m t,lonf;rIrsm;jzpfaMumif; awGU&rnfjzpfonf/ 0dZ,rif;taMumif;ü ,u©(bDvl;) ,u©deD(bDvl;r)rsm;uJhodYk aom 0dnmOfavmuom;rsm;taMumif; azmfjycsufrsm;awGU&aomf vnf; bDpDav;&mpk y@Kumb,rif;acwfodkY a&mufonfhwdkif rnfonhfudk;uG,frI odkYr[kwf tpGef;a&mufrIykHpHudkrQ azmfjyxm; jcif;r&Sdacs/ &mZ0ifusrf;rsm;wGif awGU&onhf y@Kumb,\ vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;pGmwGif xdktcsdefu acwfpm;aeonhf udk;uG,f rIykHpHrsm;ESihfywfoufonhf ,lqcsuftcsKdU &Edkifonf/ y@Kumb 1

þtcef;ü &nfñTef;xm;onhf JRAS (CB) wGif tufpf y&e0dwe (S. a&;om;onhf tzdk;wefonhf Pre-Buddhist Religious Beliefs in Ceylon [laom pmwrf;udk Munhfyg/ 2 Hiuen Tsiang : Bk. XI, p. 246. (odkY&mwGif rSwfwrf;a&;ol [l,ifqef onf oD[dkVfuRef;odkY a&mufzl;cJhjcif; r&Sdacs/) Paranavitana)


98 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

,onf a&S;acwf tdE´d,ESihf oD[dkVfbk&ifrsm;\ xkH;wrf;pOfvm rsm;udk vdkufemNyD; rdrdacwfwGif xif&Sm;onfh tpGef;a&muf *dkPf; rsm;ESihf bmomw&m;rsm;udk wef;wl vGwfvyfrIESifh pdk;rdk;tkyfcsKyf jcif;rsm;jzihf OD;aqmifcJh&zG,f&Sdonf/ odkY&mwGif ¤if;\udk,fydkif ,kH MunfrI bmjzpfonf[laomtcsufrSm rod&bJ&Sdonf/ ¤if;tae jzihf rnfonhfudk;uG,frI ykHpHudkrQ pdwfwdrf;ñGwfjcif;r&SdbJ þ,kH Munfcsufwpfck aumif;ouJhodkY tjcm;wpfckvnf; aumif;onf [kyif ,lqcJhzG,f&Sdonf/ bDvl;rsm;udk udk;uG,frIrSm xif&Sm;NyD; xdktcsdefu vTrf;rdk;ae onhf ,kHMunfpGJvrf;rIwpfck jzpfaeykH&onf/ eef;wufNyD;aemuf rsm;rMumrDwGif y@Kumb,onf NrdKUawmfta&SUzufü umVa0 1 v bDvl;ESihf tb,a&uef tedrhfydkif; axmihfpGef;&Sd pdwå&mZ 1 bDvl;udk ESdrfeif;atmifjrifcJh&aMumif; qdkxm;onf / [ife&Dygum 1

2

umVa0v ewfuGef;onf tenf;qkH; at'Dav;&mpktxd wnf&SdcJhonf/ r[maoerif;onf ,if;umVa0vewfuGef;ae&mü apwDwpf qlwnfcJh aMumif; tqdk&Sdonf/ umVa0va*[ó Xmae xlyH p uma&od (r[m0Ho 37;44)/ a0omvDNrdKU&Sd Oa'e? a*gwru? owårÁ? A[kykwå? om&E´'ESihf pmygv ('D 2? 98)apwDrsm;uJhodkY abm**gr &Sd tmeE´apwD ('D 2? 78)ESihf tmV0D&Sd t*¾gV0apwD (okwåed-|2? 78)rsm;rSm rlvu ,u© (bDvl;)trsKd; rsKd;\ ewfuGef;rsm;jzpfNyD; aemiftcg ,if;wdkY\ trnfjzihf ,if;ewfuGef; rsm;udk trnfrSnfhac:Muonf/ odkYwap Ak'¨yGifhawmfrlNyD;aemufwGif ,if; ewfuGef;rsm;ae&mrsm;ü Ak'¨ESihf Ak'¨om0ursm; oDwif;okH;rnfh 0d[m& (ausmif;wdkuf)rsm; wnfaqmufcJhMuNyD; rlvemrnfrsm;twdkif;yif ac:a0: cJhMuonf (okwåed-| 2? 78/ tH-| 2/ 151/ 'D-| 2? 111)/ Ak'¨&Sif awmfjrwf udk,fwdkifyif tdE´d,EdkifiHwpfvTm; ysHUBuJaeonhf apwDrsm;udk a,bk,stm;jzihf &nfñTef;awmfrlcJhonf (r 1? 25/ "r®y'? tcef; 14? 10 *gxm)/ xkH;pHtm;jzihf apwD, (apwD)rsm;rSm ewfrsm;ESihf ,u©rsm; aexdkifonhf ae&mrsm;tjzpf,lqMuNyD; vltrsm;onf rdrdwdkY\ tcuftcJ rsm;twGuf ulnDrpap&ef ,if;ewfueG f;rsm;ü ylaZmfyocJhMuonf/ Ancient Ceylon, p. 26.

Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEdkifiH

bmoma&;tajctae

99

(Henry Parker)u ,if;bDvl;ESpfa,mufrSm 0g'´g (vāddā) vlrsKd; wdkY\ xif&Sm;onhf acgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfNyD; ]EdkifiHa&;em;vnfonhf bk&if (y@Kumb,)onf ,if;bDvl;ESpfa,mufwdkY\ t&Sdeft0g MoZmaMumifh rdrd\atmifEdkifrIudk rvTJraoG todtrSwfjyK&rnf udk od&SdcJhaMumif;} ,lqcJhonf/ ]þudpöESihfywfoufí ¤if; (y@Kumb,)\ EdkifiHa&; tajrmftjrif&SdrIonf EdkifiHawmftm; ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm Mumonfxd aoG;acsmif;pD;rI rvkHNcKHrIwdkYrS u,f wifcJhonfrSm ,kHrSm;zG,fr&SdbJ 0g'´gvlrsKd;wdkYtm; rdrd\vkyfaqmif rIrsm;udk ESpfoufonhf Nidrf;csrf;onfh Xmaersm;tjzpf ajymif; 1 vJypfEdkifcJh\} [k ¤if; ([ife&Dygum)u wifjycJhonf/ þonfrSm oD[dkVfuRef;odkY tm&d,efvlrsKd;wdkY 0ifa&mufrvmrD aexdkifcJhMu aom a&S;OD;vlrsKd;rsm;tjzpf &mZ0ifusrf;rsm;ü &nfñTef;cJhonhf ,u©(bDvl;)rsm;tm; y@Kumb,\ vdr®myg;eyfpGm ajz&Sif;wwf ykH taMumif;,kwådtwGuf erlemwpfck jzpfonf/ odkYwap azmfjyyg tcsuftvufrsm;ESihf ywfoufí a&Smif z,fz,fvkyf&ef taMumif; r&Sdacs/ Or®m'pdwåm rif;orD;tm; opömazmufvkyfBuHowfjzwfrnfh tBuHtpnfudk oabmwlvuf cHrnf r[kwfaomaMumihf rif;orD;\ vl,kHaus;uRefrsm; jzpfMu onfh pdwåESihf umVa0vwdkYudk armifawmf rif;om;rsm;u owf ypfcJhaMumif;ESihf ,if;uRefrsm;onf ,u©rsm;tjzpf jyefvnf arG; zGm;NyD; y@Kumb, rif;om;jzpfvmrnfh oli,fudk rdcif0rf;ü &SdpOfuyif apmihfa&SmufcJhaMumif; r[m0Housrf;ü twdtus 1 qdkonf / 0HykavG½dkif; toGifudkjyNyD; OD;av;awmfrsm;\ tm½kH pl; pdkufrIudk ajymif;ypfjcif;jzihf uRefrdef;ri,ftm; rif;om;ol i,fudk xnhfxm;onhf awmif;jzihf xGufajy;cGihf&atmif zefwD;ay;vsuf OD;av;awmfrsm;\ &ufpufonhfvufrS u,fwifcJhonfrSmvnf; 2 pdwåESihf umVa0v bDvl;ESpfa,mufyif jzpfonf / 1

r[m0Ho 9;22-23/

2

r[m0Ho 10;1-5/


104 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

¤if;\ ,kHMunfcsuft& ¤if;tay: aus;Zl;&SdNyD; ulnDchJMuaom ,u©ESihf ,u©deDrsm;twGuf ewfuGef; odkYr[kwf apwd,rsm; aqmufvkyfay;onf[kom qdkvdkonf/ 1 r[m0Housrf;ü ]yGJawmf aeYrsm;ü y@Kumb,onf pdwå &mZESihftwl xdkifckHwpfckHwnf;wGif xdkifNyD; vlrsm;udka&m ewfrsm; udkyg rdrda&SUü uckefapvsuf aysmf½Tif cHpm;\}[k qdkonf/ xdkYjyif 2 r[m0Housrf;ü yif yuwdrsufpdjzihf jrif&onfh umVa0vESihf pdwå&mZwdkYESihf (umVa0v pdawå[d 'dórmae[d) twl rif;BuD; onf ,u© blwwdkYESihf (,u©blw o[m, 0g) rdwfaqG jzpf vsuf pnf;pdrfudk rQa0cHpm;aMumif;vnf; jyqdkonf/ txufyg uAsmqefqef azmfjycsufrsm;rS ,u©wdkYonf vl wdkYjrifEdkifonhf ykHpHjzihfay:vmjcif;ESihf y@Kumb,onf vlxka&SU arSmufü ¤if;wdkYESihf twlxdkifonf[laom tcsufudk em;vnf&ef rvdkawmhacs/ ygum(Parker)u yuwdrsufpdjzihf jrifEdkifonhf umVa0vESifhpdwå[laom pum;vkH;rsm;jzihf ]av;pm;xdkufonhf at'Dig;&mpk orkdif;ynm&Sif\ vufudk xkwfazmfjyo\}[k ,lq 2 onf / aemufjzpfEdkifzG,f&Sdonhf &Sif;jyrIwpfckrSm rdrd\ BuD;us,f crf;em;rIudk txl;jyKazmfjy&ef y@Kumb,onf ,if;,u©wdkY\ ½kyfwkrsm;udk rdrdESihftqihfwl xdkifckHab;ü csxm;zG,f&Sd\[k jzpf onf/ tu,fí uREkfyfwdkY taejzihf ]twkcdk; rsufvSnfh (Imitative magic)}tjzpf xif&Sm;onhf a&S;OD;vlom;wdkY\ tawG;tjrif wpf &yfudk xnfhoGif; pOf;pm;cJhvQif y@Kumb,\ ,if;tjyKtrludk vG,fulpGm ESpfoufvufcEH dkifonf/ ],if;odkY jyKvkyfcsuf\ aemuf uG,fwGif wdrfjrKyfaeNyD; us,fjyefYonfh tqifhtwef;wpfckudk jzpf ay:apaomt"dyÜm,frSm tu,fí uREfkyfwdkYonf uREkfyfwdkY\qE´ 1 2 3

r[m0Ho 10;87-88 *gxm/ ,if; 10;104/ Anchent Ceylon p. 26 n. 1.

Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEdkifiH

bmoma&;tajctae

101

azmfjyyg tcsufrsm;onf aoolrsm;taejzihf &Hzef&Hcg ,u© odkYr[kwf ,u©deDrsm;tjzpf jyefvnf arG;zGm;NyD; ¤if;wdkYonf rdrd cspfESpfoufolrsm; vdktyfcsdefwGif tultnDay;&ef vma&mufMu onf[laom ,kHMunfrIwpf&yf&SdcJhaMumif; azmfjyonf/ ,if;,kH MunfrIrsKd;onf a&S;acwftdE´d,wGif Ak'¨rwdkifrDua&m Ak'¨yGifhay: 1 NyD;aemufrSyg xif&Sm;&SdcJhonf / t&Sifr[dE´onf oD[dkVfodkYa&muf NyD;aemuf 'kwd,aeYwGif aoolrsm;\ 0dnmOfavmuESifh ywf oufonhf Ak'¨pmayusrf;*ef ESpfckjzpfonhf ayw0w¬KESihf 0drme 2 0w¬KygVdawmfrsm;udk a[mMum;aMumif; od&onf / ,if;onf t&Sifr[dE´taejzihf oD[dkVfuRef; omoemjyKvkyfief;\ yPmr tqifhwGif a'ocHrsm;taejzihf t&Sifjrwf\w&m;udk vG,fvG,f ulul em;vnfNyD; ESpfoufaprnfh w&m;a'oemwpfckrS wpfqifh ¤if;wdkY\ pdwftm½kHudk tokH;csjcif;jzihf a'ocHwdkY\ ESvkH;om;udk &,lEdkif&ef jcifqifrdcJhzG,f&SdaMumif; ,lqEdkifonf/ oD[dkVfü a&S;OD; aexkdifcJhMuonhf vlrsK;d pk tcsKdUudkvnf; ,u©[k okH;pGJcJh onfrSm jzpfEdkifzG,f&Sdonf/ odkYjzpfrl ,if;oD[dkVf XmaevlrsKd;rsm;tm; ¤if; wdkYaovGefNyD;aemuf vlom;r[kwo f nhf ,u©(bDvl;)rsm;tjzpf jyefvnf arG;zGm;aom qif;ouf vlrsKd;rsm;tjzpf rSwf,lEdkif&monf/ ,u©rsm;udk udk;uG,fcJhMuNyD; ,u©wdkYtm; ,ZfylaZmfrI rsm;vnf; jyKvkyfcJhMuzG,f&Sdonf/ ,if;odkYjzihf ,u©udk udk;uG,folrsm;tm;vnf; udk;uG,fcH,u©wdkY\ trnf udk,lí ,u©vlrsKd;[k ac:a0:vmcJhykH&onf/ umva½GUaomtcg trnf emronfomru ¤if;wdkY\ wefcdk; £'¨dyg'fvnf; ajymif;vJoGm;onf([k rSef;qEdkif&monf)/ &d*fa0' (Ŗgve-da) usrf;vm 'go [laoma0g[m& onf tm&d,efvlrsKd; r[kwfol Xmaersm;? ewfqdk;rsm;? &u©orsm; [laom t"dyÜm,frsm;jzihf okH;EIef;rIrsm; ESihf EIdif;,SOfMunhfyg (History of Indian Literature by M. Winternix, I, p. 78)/ University of Ceylon Review Vol. I, No. 2 (November, 1943) wGif O.H. de A. Wijeaekera a&;om;onhf The Philosophical Impart of Vedic Yaksa and Pali Yakkha (p. 23-24) udkvnf; ½Iyg/ 1 ZmwfawmftrSwf 512? 544 ESihf 545 wdkYudk ½Iyg/ 2 r[m0Ho 14;58/ 0d-| 1? 47/


102 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

uG,fvGefolrsm;udk udk;uG,frIonf ]vlom;wdkY udk;uG,fonhf bmomw&m; rsKd;uGJBuD;rsm;teuf wpfckjzpf\/ udk;uG,folrsm; onf ouf&Sdvlom;wdkY\ vlrIa&;qufqrH Irsm;udk ½dk;&Sif;pGm odrf; qnf;xm;aMumifh ,if;udk;uG,frI\ tajccHrsm;udk em;vnf&ef r cufcJay/ uG,fvGefol aqGrsKd;onf ewfa'0g jzpfoGm;NyD; rdrd\ rd om;pkudk qufvufapmihfa&Smuf½kHjzpfNyD; b0a[mif;uuJhodkY aqG rsKd;rsm;xHrS pm;0wfaea&;rIudk &&Sdjcif;ü uG,fvGefol acgif;aqmif onf ¤if;\trsKd;udk apmihfa&SmufqJjzpfvsuf rdwfaqGrsm;udk ul nDjcif; &efolrsm;udk ESdrfeif;jcif;rsm;jzihf rdrd\t&Sdeft0gudk &,l xm;qJjzpfonfomru trSefukd ay;tyfNyD; trSm;udk jypf'Pf 1 cwfqJjzpf\} / ,if;,kHMunfrIonf oD[dkVfü A@m& tpGJtvrf; (Baº¹āra-cult)[k ,aeYacwfwdkif wnf&Sdjzpfonf/ ,if;pGJvrf;rI rSm ,aeYwdkif oD[dkVfuRef; tcsKdUa'orsm;ü jyKvkyfqJjzpfonfh uG,fvGefNyD; acgif;aqmifrsm;ESihf xif&Sm;onhf aqGrsKd;rsm;udk ½dk aoudk;uG,fjcif; jzpfonf/ rdaEé&d, t&yf&Sd {&mruefBuD;udk wnfaqmufcJhol r[maoe(at'D 4 &mpk)rif;ewftm; ukd;uG,f onhf rdaEé&d,a'a,sm (Minněriya-Deyyo) udk;uG,frIudk erlem tjzpf azmfjyEdkif&monf/ aus;vufvlwdkYonf aooltcsKdUrSm a*0v,u© (gevala-yakās = tdrfaeewf)rsm;tjzpf jyefvnfarG; zGm;onf[k ,kHMunfMuNyD; ¤if;ewfwdkYonf ¤if;wdkY\ pdwfaepdwf xm;tvdkuf apwemaumif; odkYr[kwf qdk;EdkifMuonf/ ,u© (yakkha) rS qif;oufvmonhf oD[dkVfa0g[m& ,um (yakā)udk 0g'´g (Vāddās) vlrsKd;rsm; twGif;rSmyif tusKd;jyKoljzpfap rjyKol 2 jzpfap yk&doewfrsm;tm;vkH;udk &nfñTef;onf / ,aeYwkdifyif aus;vuf½Gmom;tcsKdU wJi,frsm;aqmufNyD; xdkae&mwGif aool rsm;(0ifpm;onhf)ewfrsm;tm; ylaZmfyorIrSm xif&Sm;qJ jzpfonf/ odkYjzpfí pdwå&mZESihf umVa0vwdkYrSm Xmae0g'´gvlrsKd;acgif; 1

Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, Vol I, p. 425.

2

Parker : op. cit. p. 134.

Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEdkifiH

bmoma&;tajctae

103

aqmifr[kwfbJ uG,fvGefolewfrsm;udk t½dktaojyKjcif;jzihf xdk tcsdefu xif&Sm;onhf ,kHMunfrIaemufodkY vkdufcJhjcif;om jzpf aMumif; ,lqygu rSefuefzG,f&Sdonf/ txufwGif awGU&onfhtwdkif; y@Kumb,onf pdwå&mZ? umVa0v ,u©ESpfa,mufESihf ,cifb0u ¤if;rdcif\ tvkyf tauR;jzpfcJhol pdwåm,u©deDtm;vnf; aexdkdifp&mrsm;ay;cJhonf/ xdk,u©rsm;tjyif y@Kumb,onf 0v0grkcD (Valavā-mukh²) ,u©deDtm;vnf; eef;awmfy&d0kPftwGif; ewfuGef; aqmufvkyf ay;NyD; ,if;,u©wdkYtm; ESpfpOf ylaZmfyorIrsm;jyKcJhaMumif; t&dyf 1 ta,mifvnf; awGU&onf / 0v0grkcD [lonf jrif;rykHtoGifjzihf ,lqxm;onhf apwd,m trnf&Sdaom ,u©deD\ bGJUtrnfjzpf onf/ y@Kumb,onf ,if;jrif;rudk zrf;,l&&SdcJhNyD; xdef; odrf;xm;cJhonf/ jrif;ronf y@Kumb,\ OD;av;awmfrsm;udk 2 wdkufckdufonhf ppfyGJrsm;wGif tvGef tultnDay;cJhonf / odkYjzpf ívnf; y@Kumb,onf jrif;rukd txl;aus;Zl;wifav;pm;NyD; 3 eef;awmf0if;twGif; aexdkifp&m aqmufvkyfay;jcif;jzpfonf / odkYjzihf y@Kumb,onf ae&ma'otoD;oD;ü ,u©rsm; ESihf ,u©deDrsm;udk twnfwusjzpfaponf[laom r[m0Hoazmf jycsufrSm ,aeYacwf oD[dkVfvlrsKd;wdkY a'0gv, odkYr[kwf ewf uGef;rsm; aqmufvkyfNyD; ewfrsKd;pkHtm; ylaZmfyorI jyKMuouJhodkY 1

r[m0Ho 10;86/ ,if; 10;53/ 3 uk½k"r®Zmwfawmf (ZmwfawmftrSwf 276)vm pdwå&mZESihf r[m0Hovm pdwå&mZwdkYudk EIdif;,SOfavhvmygu pdwf0ifpm;zG,faumif;onf/ pdwå&mZ ,u©onf a&S;acwf tdE´d,&Sd xif&mS ;aom ,kHMunfpGJvrf;onhf t&m0w¬K (ZmwutrSwf? 276) jzpfonf/ xdkYjyif y'rmP0 Zmwfawmf (Zmwfawmf trSwf? 432)vm tórkcD ,u©deDESihf r[m0Hovm 0v0grkcD ,u©deD wdkYudkvnf; EdIif;,SOfyg/ xdkYtwlyif ,if;Zmwfawmfukd r[m0Hovm oD[Am[kjzpf&yfESihfvnf; EdIif;,SOfMunhfyg/ (G.C. Mendis \ The vijaya Legend, Paranvitana Felicitation Volume, p. 263 udkvnf; ½Iyg/ 2


108 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

odkYwap tenf;qkH; at'D 10 &mpk Ak'¨0g'Drsm;u t&Sifr[dE´ onf wdóa&uefwGif aexdkifonhf &u©owpfa,mufudk Ak'¨ 0g'odkY oGwfoGif;cJhaMumif; ,kHMunfMuonf/ þ&u©oonf Ak'¨ 0g'D jzpfoGm;NyD;aemuf Ak'¨0g'ESihf avmuaumif;usKd;twGuf aqmif½GufcJhaMumif; qdkxm;aomfvnf; ,if;&u©o\ b0t 1 aMumif; bmrQrod&acs / orEÅul# (Adam's Peak)wGifaeonhf ewfonfvnf; Ak'¨ 0g'rwdkifrD ewfwpfa,muf jzpfonf/ þewfonf rlvblwtm; jzihf ,u©jzpfzG,f&SdNyD; Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf oD[dkVfodkY yxrtBudrf <u a&mufawmfrlpOftwGif; Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfu ¤if;tm; Ak'¨tjzpfodYk oGwfoGif;NyD;aemuf ¤if;\tqifhtwef; ewfa'0g tjzpfodkY `rSihf wifcJhykH&onf/ tm#mem#d,okwfü okre[kac:onhf ,u©wpf a,muf &SdonfrSmvnf; rSwfom;zG,faumif;onf/ aESmif;acwf rsm;wdkifatmif okreewfudk r[m,me bk&m;avmif; okreb`'´ 2 tjzpf awGU&onf / oD[dkVfuRef;om;wdkY Ak'¨0g'udk vufcH,kHMunfvmonhfaemuf ydkif;üyif oD[dkVfuRef;om;wdkYonf ¤if;wdkY\ ½dk;&mewfa'0gwdkYudk qufvufí t½dktaojyKvdkcJhMuonf/ odkYwap Ak'¨0g'Drsm; jzpf vmjcif;ü ¤if;wdkYtaejzihf Ak'¨0g'Dr[kwfonfh ewfrsm;udk ½dkao udk;uG,fvdkpdwf r&SdMuacs/ odkYjzpfí ¤if;wdkYonf ,if; ewfrsm;udk Ak'¨0g'DtjzpfodkY oGwfoGif;ay;MuNyD; okreewfuJhodkYyif jrifhjrwf onhf ae&mü xm;Muonf/ a'oqdkif&m ewftrsm;pkESihf ywf oufí xdkenf;ESifESifyif jzpfMuonf/ Ak'0¨ g'D r[kwfol ta&; rygonfh ewftcsKdUvnf; &SdEdkifao;onf/ odkYwap Ak'¨0g'udk jzefYa0ay;Muol ta&;ygonhf ewftrsm;pkrSm rMumrD Ak'¨0g'D 1 2

Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEdkifiH

CJSe. Section G. Vol. II, Pt, I, p. 64. (S. Paranavitana Adam's Peak, an Artibus Asise Supplementum.udkvnf;

\ The God of ½Iyg/)

105

udk ,if;odkYaom qifwljzpf&yfrsKd;wGif ESpfoufapEdkifvQif rlvjzpf &yfonf ,if;qifwljzpf&yfodkY vdkuf&rnfjzpf\}/ ,if;onf ]½kyf wkqif;wkwGif&Sdaom wefcdk;u wpfpkHwpfa,muftm; xdkt&m 1 0w¬Ktay: wefcdk;udkay;onfqdkaom ,kHMunfrIwpfrsKd; jzpf\} / y@Kumb,wGif rdwfaqGtjzpfjzihf ,u©rsm; blwrsm;ESihf ujy azsmfajzrnfh ewfa'0grsm;ESihf vltrsm; &Sd\[laom azmfjycsuf onf þjzpf&yfü tHhMozG,f r[kwfacs/ y@Kumb,onf Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfuRef;ü tBu;D us,fqkH;ESihf tpGrf;EdkifqkH; bk&ifwpfyg;jzpfonfrSm aocsmonf/ odkYjzpfí y@Kumb,\ b0onf twdwfu BuD;us,fNyD; pGrf;tm;&Sdol tm;vkH;eD;yg;\ jzpf&yfrsm;uJhodkYyif vlom;vGef yk*¾Kdvfrsm;\ pdwful;,Of jzpf&yf rsm;jzihf 0ef;&Hxm;onf/ Ak'¨&SifawmfjrwfESihf wynhfom0ursm; onf a'0grsm;? ,u©rsm;ESihf blwrsm;udk rMumcP awGUqkHMu onf? 0dZ,rif;onf ,u©rsm;udk atmifEdkifonf? taomu rif;wGif tvdk&SdcsdefwGif ac:,lí&onhf aus;uRefrsm;tjzpf ,u© ESihf em*rsm;&Sdonf? od&doHCaAm"drif;onf tEÅ&m,fBuD;rm; onhf ,u©wpfa,mufudk atmifEdkifcJhonf? r[maoerif;onf ewfwdkYtm; pdefac:cJhonf? at'D 15 &mpk uAsmq&m ynm&Sif BuD;jzpfol awm#*rk 0 od&d &m[kvonfyif ¤if;ydkifEdkifonfh 2 ,u©rsm; &Sd&rnf[k ,kHMunfcH&jcif;twGuf vlodrsm;onf / y@Kumb,onf rdrdü wefcdk;&Sifrsm;\ ulnDrI&Sdonf[k ½dk;om;pGm ,kHMunfcJhEdkifzG,f&SdNyD; ,if;odkY,kHMunfojzifh ewfuGef; trsm;tjym; aqmufvkyfvsuf ¤if;wdkYulnDrItwGuf aus;Zl;qyf onhftaejzihf ¤if;wdkYtm; wkHYjyefaxmufyhHrIrsm; jyKcJhykH&onf/ xdkY jyif ¤if;taejzihf rdrdrSm axmufyhHulnDonfh ,u©wdkY\ cGeftm; 1

E.Z. I, p.23ff.; JRAS(CB), Vol. XXXI, No. 82, p. 305.

bmoma&;tajctae

2

R.R. Marrett \ Man in the Making pmtkyfyg

tcef; 2 ESihf 3 udk ½Iyg/ tvufpE´o*&dwfonf ¤if;\ b0wpfqifhwGif rufqD'kef (Macedon) NrdKUom; zdvpf (Philip)\om; r[kwfbJ ewfbk&m;wpfql\ om;jzpfNyD; ¤if;onf vlom;vGef wefckd;rsm;udk ydkifqdkifxm;aMumif; tqdk&Sdonf/


106 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

&SdaMumif; jynfolrsm;udk jyovsuf rdrd\ pdk;ydkifjcif;ESihf BuD;us,f jcif;rsm;jzihf jynfolrsm;tm; ESpfoufaprnfh EdkifiHa&;y&d,m,f wpfck tjzpfvnf; ,lqcJhzG,f&Sdonf/ tqdkyg ,u©rsm;tjyif tvGefta&;rygonhf ,u©trsm; tjym;vnf; &Sdao;onf/ Owå&0d[m&t|uxmusrf;udk udk;um; 1 onhf r[m0Ho#Dumusrf; t& ZkwdE¨&ac:onfh ,u©wpfOD;&SdNyD; ¤if;onf apwd,m odkYr[kwf 0v0grkcD,u©deD\ cifyGef;jzpfvsuf olonf od&Do0w¬KNrdKU wdkufyGJwGif usqkH;cJhonf/ þ,u©onf oD[dkVfuRef; ta&SUzsm;&Sd "kr&|awmif(O'krÁ&awmif[kvnf; ac: onf? ,aeYacwf 'drÁKvm*vawmif)wGif aexdkifonf/ y@Kum b,taMumif;ü ta&;ygonhfae&mwGif&Sdol 0v0grkcD ,u©deD\ cifyGef;ESihfywfoufNyD; tjcm; bmrSrod&acs/ y@Kumb,onf ra[o,u©twGuf ewfuGef;wpfck 2 aqmufvkyfay;aMumif; od&onf / ,if;ewfESihf ywfoufonfh aemufxyf bmrS rod&acs/ odkYwap ,if;ewfaexdkifonfh ewf uGef;onf a'0geHyd,wdórif;vufxufwdkif wnf&SdcJhykH&onf/ taMumif;rl xlyg&mrapwDawmfwGif Xmyemrnfh Ak'¨"mwfawmf rsm;udk o,f,lvmonhf qifonf ra[ZewfuGef;odkY a&muf 3 onfxd qufoGm;cJhaMumif; qdkxm;aomaMumihfjzpfonf / aemuf ydkif;ü ,if;ewfuGef;taMumif; azmfjycsuf wpfpkHwpf&m r&Sdawmh acs/ þonfrSm xlyg&mapwDawmf ywfvnfü jzpfay:vmonfh Ak'¨bmomtaqmufttkHrsm;tMum; aysmufuG,foGm;ykH&onf/ a'0geHyd,wdórif;vufxuf ur®m&a'0[k ac:onhf 4 aqmufvkyfa&;qdkif&mewf wpfrsKd;taMumif;udk azmfjyxm;onf / ,if;ewftaMumif;udk NyD;cJhonhf tcef;wGif aqG;aEG;cJhNyDjzpfonf/ 1

r[m0Ho#D? 289/ r[m0Ho 10;90/ 3 ,if; 17;30/ r[m0Ho#D? pm-378/ 4 r[maAm"d0Ho? pm-84/ 2

Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEdkifiH

bmoma&;tajctae

107

'k|*grPdrif;vufxufü yk&a'0trnf&Sd ewfwpfa,muf t 1 aMumif; azmfjyonf / tqdkyg ]NrdKUudkapmihfaeonhfewf}onf bDpD ESpf&mpkwGif yxrtBudrf &nffñTef;cJhaomfvnf; ,if;rwdkifrDuyif wnf&SdaecJhzG,f&dSonf/ xdkYjyif t&d|awmif (&dXd*vawmif)wGif aexdkifonfh Z,aoetrnf&Sdonhf ,u©wpfa,muf &Sdonf/ pD; csif;wdkufyJGwpfckwGif ¤if;udk 'k|*grPdrif;BuD;\ AkdvfcsKyfjzpfol 2 a*gX£rÁ&u ESdrfeif;cJhonf / NrdKUawmftaemufzuf *dwfteD; y@Kumb,rif; ae&mcsxm;ay;cJhonhf ypädr&mZdeD ]taemuf 3 rdzk&m;}trnf&Sd ewforD;wpfa,mufvnf; &Sdonf / þewforD; 4 \ vkyfaqmifrIESihf ywfoufNyD; bmrQ rod&acs / t&Sifr[dE´ <ua&mufcJhNyD; oD[dkVf&Sd vlom;vGef wefckd;&Sif ewfwdkYtcsKdUudk Ak'¨0g'DtjzpfodkY ajymif;vJcJhaMumif; arQmfvihfjcif; rSm obm0omvQif jzpfonf/ tjcm;urÇmh tpdwftydkif;odkY oGm; cJhMuonhf t&Sifjrwf\ rdwfaqGESpfyg;onf ,u©ESihf em*rsm;udk atmifEdkifNyD; Ak'¨0g'DjzpfapcJhaMumif;qdkonf/ uo®d&a'oodk oGm; a&mufcJhonfh rZÑEÅdu(Majjhantika)rax&fonf ,u©rsm; em*rsm; 5 *E¨AÁrsm;ESihf ukrÇ@rsm;udk atmifEdkifcJhaMumif; qdkonf / ok0PÖ blrdodkY oGm;cJhonhf t&SifaomPrax&fonf ,u©deDwpfa,muf 6 udk ESdrfeif;cJhonf / t&Sifr[dE´onf ,u©ESifh em*wdkYjzihf pkNyKHae onhf EdkifiHwpfckodkY vmcJh&aomfvnf; t&Sifjrwftaejzihf rnf onhf ,u©wdkYudkrQ Ak'¨0g'odkY ul;ajymif;apcJhaMumif; qdkrxm;acs/ 1

r[m0Ho 25?;87/ &o0g[deD 2? pm-89/ 3 r[m0Ho 10;89/ 4 y&0dweyk*¾Kdvfu ,if;taemufrdz&k m;onf [l,ifqef azmfjyonhf t aemufzuf trsKd;orD;rsm;\ rdzk&m;jzpfykH&aMumif; ,lqcJhonf/ (JRAS. CB. Vol. XXXI, No. 82, p. 309)/ 5 r[m0Ho 9;11-28/ 0d-| 1? 49/ 6 r[m0Ho 9;44-45/ 0d-| 1? 52/ 2


112 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

vufcHvQif ,if; (aomw¬domv)onf tapmqkH; bDpDav;&mpk tcsdefu tEk&m&m"yk&NrdKU&Sd jAm[®PwdkY aomw¬d0peudk ½Gwfqdk onhf ae&mcef;raqmif wpfckjzpfvdrfhrnf/ Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfü ed*P² (t0wfrpnf;ol)wdkY wnf&SdcJh onhf taxmuftxm;vnf; awGU&onf/ a&S;OD; ygVdpmayü ed*P²[laom a0g[m&onf Zdeudk &nfñTef;NyD; *sdef;0g'udk wnf 1 axmifol r[m0D&udk ed*P²em#ykwå [kac:onf / at'D ig;&mpk t|uxmusrf;rsm;ESihf ygVdordkif;usrf;rsm;üyif ed*P²[laomyk'f 2 tm; Zdeudk&nfñTef;cJhonf / y@Kumb,acwfwGif tEk&m"yk&NrdKUü aZmwd,? *d&dESihf ukrÇ@[k xif&Sm;onhf ed*P² okH;a,muf&Sdonf/ y@Kumb, onf ed*P²aZmwd,twGuf Zmwferd fhwdkY okomef\ ta&SUpl;pl; wGif ocFrf;ausmif;wpfck aqmufvkyfay;cJhonf/ *d&dtrnf&Sd ed*P²vnf; xdktae&müyif aeoGm;cJhonf/ y@Kumb,onf ukbrÇ@ ed*P²twGuf a'0ukv (0wfausmif;)wpfck wnf aqmufay;aMumif; od&NyD; ,if;0wfausmif;udk ,if;ed*P²\ 3 trnfjzihf ac:a0:Muonf / tqdkyg ed*P² okH;a,mufwdkY\ MunhfrIESihfqdkifonhf tpDt&ifwpfrsKd; odkYr[kwf (usufNyD;xrif;udk ajrBuD; ay:wGif BuJjzef;jcif;? rEÅ&m;wpfrsKd;udk xyfcgxyfcg ½Gwfqdkí qkawmif; jcif;? ,if;odkYjyKpOf 0efaqmifc ay;tyfjcif; odkYr[kwf yef;eHYom tom;csKd ponfh tydkvufaqmifrsm;jzihf jAm[®PwdkYudk ylaZmfyojcif;rsm;jzihf) t av;teufvkyf&onhf tpDt&ifrsKd; jzpfonf/ Monier Willians \ Skt. Eng. Dict. S.v. Svasti. udkvnf; ½Iyg/ 1 r 2? 35 (Oygvdokwå)/ 2 ed*P²[laom a0g[m&udk Ak'¨0g'Dr[kwfonhf t,l0g'tm;vkH;udk &nf ñTef;cJhonfrSm aESmif;acwf ygVdpmaywGifom jzpfonf/ Oyrm at'D 12 &mpk a&;om;onhf 'gXm0HowGif ,if;a0g[m&\ t"dyÜm,frSm aocsmrI r&SdaMumif; awGU&onf/ ,if;onf a0PÖ0 (209-210 *gxm)udk qdkonf rSm aocsmonf/ odkY&mwGif *gxmtrSwf 155 ürl ed*P²wdkYonf &SD0ESihf jA[®mudk ,kHMunfonf[k qdkxm;onf/ 3 r[m0Ho 97;99/

Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEdkifiH bmoma&;tajctae 109 1 rsm; jzpfvmMuonf / ,u©,kHMunfrIrsm;tjyif Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfü opfyifudk; uG,frI&SdaMumif; &mZ0ifusrf;rsm;ü taxmuftxm;rsm; awGU& onf/ a&S;OD;Ak'¨0g' ygVdawmfusrf;rsm;ü opfyifudk;uG,frIudk xif&Sm;onhf ,kHMunfrIwpfcktjzpf azmfjyNyD; tcsKdUopfyifrsm;udk 2 ]apwd, = apwD}[k ac:a0:xm;onf / aESmif;acwf yef;ykvuf &mrsm;üyif tcsKdUopfyifrsm;udk ]apwd,}rsm; pm&if;ü azmfjy 3 onf / rdk[if*sKd'½dk (Mohenjodaro)ESihf [m&yÜ (Harappa)NrdKUrsm;&Sd tdE´KNrdKUjy,Ofaus;rIwGif opfyifudk;uG,frIudk xif&Sm;pGm awGU& onf/ rdk[if*sKd'½dkwGifvnf; aAm"dyifudk &Sdckd;udk;uG,fMuaMumif; 4 ,lqMuonf / Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfü ½dkaop&mtjzpf,lqcH&onfh opf yifESpfyif&SdaMumif; aocsmonhf taxmuftxm;&Sdonf/ wpfyif rSm ,aeYacwfwdkifatmifyif a,bk,stm;jzihf ½dkaop&mtjzpf ESihf ewfwdkYaexdkifonhfae&mtjzpf ,lqcH&onfh yanmifyif jzpf onf/ y@Kumb,onf NrdKUawmf taemufzuf*dwf&Sd yanmif yifwGif ,u©wdkY\bk&if a0ó&0Ptm; ae&may;aMumif; od& 5 onf / aemuft½dktaocH opfyifrSm xef;yif (Palmyrah) jzpf onf/ y@Kumb,rif;onf Asm"a'0ewf ]rkqdk;ewf}tm; NrdKU awmf taemufzuf *dwfteD; xef;yifwGif ae&mcsxm;ay; 1

Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfuRef;ü ,kMH unfrI trsKd;rsKd;&Sdaeonhfteuf em*,kH MunfrItaMumif; azmfjyrxm;onfrSm tHhMozG,faumif;onf/ odkYwap xkH;pHr[kwfbJ ,aeYwdkif oD[dkVfaus;½Gmrsm;ü a>ra[mufrsm;ukd t½dkt aoay;aejcif;u a&S;acwfoD[dkVf&Sd ,kHMunfrIrsm;teuf a>ra[mufrsm; twGuf ae&m&SdaMumif; azmfjyonf/ 2 r 1? 25/ 'Dy0Ho 14;10/ 3

Ananda K. Coomaraswamy : History of Indian and Indonesian Art, p. 47.

4

Sir John Marshall : Mohendaro and the Indus Civilization, Vol. I, p. 63 ff.

5

r[m0Ho 10;89/


110 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

1

onf / [ife&Dygumu tqdkyg rkqdk;rsm;ewfonf tdE´d,awmif ydkif;rS Xmae (a&S;OD;vl)rsm;\ awmifukef;ewf (Hill God)ESihf wl aMumif;ESihf tvGefa&S;usonhf tcsdefu oD[dkVfü yxrqkH;vm 2 a&muf aexdkifolrsm;vnf; xdkodkYyif jzpfaMumif; ,lqcJhonf / odkYwap azmfjyyg wpfoD;wpfjcm;jzpfonhf erlemrSwpfyg; ½dkao p&m opfyifrsm;ü xef;yifudk xnfhoGif;cJhonf[laomtcsuf? ,if;(xef;yif)udk ,aeY aus;vufaeolwdkYtwGif; t½dktaojyK &m opfyiftjzpf ,lqMuonf[laom tcsufrsm;udk azmfjy&ef 3 oihfavsmfonhf taxmuftxm; r&Sdacs / 1

2 3

Asm"a'0ó wmvuH/ r[m0Ho 10;89/ 0DvsH*dkif*gu Asm"da'0ó [k zwfonf/ rmvmvmaqau&vnf; ,if;odkYyif zwfonf/ odkYwap xdk tcsdefwGif trJvdkufjcif;rSm ta&;ygonhf oufarG;0rf;ausmif;wpfck jzpf onf[laomtcsufESihf y@Kumb,onf rkqdk;rsm; aexdkifrnfh tdrfwef; rsm; aqmufvkyfay;onf (tm0goygvd Asm"meH? r[m0Ho 10;95) [l aomtcsufwdkYudk xnfhoGif;pOfpm;ygu okr*FvESifh Awk0EÅK'a0 (Batuwantudave)wdkY wnf;jzwfonhf r[m0Housrf;ü azmfjyaom ]Asm"a'0} trnfonf ydkí aMumif;usKd; qDavsmfonf/ Ancient Ceylon, p. 177.

y&e0dweurl Ak'¨vufxufu a&S;acwftEd ´d,wGif xef;yifudk t½dkt aojyKp&m opfyiftjzpf ,lqcJhzG,f&Sdonf[k ,lqonf/ ,if;,lqcsuf udk axmufcH&eftwGuf xdkyk*¾Kdvfu Oyrmwpfck xkwfjyonf/ ,if;rSm qAÁ*¾D&[ef;rsm; zdeyfcsKyf&ef xef;½GuftwGuf xef;yifudk ckwfjcif;tm; (Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfu) wm;jrpfcJhonf/ y&e0dweu vltrsm;onf xef;yif ü {ud`E´d, (½kyfZD0dwda`E´) &Sdonf[k ,kHMunfMuonf[k qdkonf (JRAS. CB., Vol. XXXI, No. 82, p. 318.)/ odkYwap ,if;azmfjycsufrSm xef;yifESihf ywfoufí &Sif;vif;jywfom;onhf ,lqcsufudk ray;acs/ taMumif;rl a&S;acwf tdE´d,ü xef;yifudkomr[kwf jrufyifrsm;tygt0if tyiftm; vkH;wGif {ud`E´d, (ZD0dwda`E´)&Sdonf[laom t,ltrSm xif&Sm;aMumihfjzpf onf/ tmV0DNrdKU? t*¾gV0apwDü oDwif;okH;Muaom &[ef;awmfrsm;onf ausmif;ocFrf;rsm; aqmufvkyf&ef opfyifrsm;udk ckwfvSJMuonf/ (opfyif \ trnfudk azmfjyrxm;ay/) þjzpf&yfü okH;EIef;azmfjycsufrSm twlwl jzpfonf ]{ud`E´d,H orPm ousykwåd,m ZD0H 0da[aXóEÅd? ZD0ondaem

Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEdkifiH

bmoma&;tajctae

111

txufwGif azmfjyNyD;onfh ,kHMunfpGJvrf;rIrsm;tjyif tjcm; bmomw&m;rsm;vnf; &Sdao;onf/ y&e0dweyk*¾Kdvfu a&S;t usqkH; ausmufpmrsm;ü Ak'¨0g'a&muf&SdNyD;aemuf rsm;rMumrDwGif oD[dkVfuRef;ü jAm[®Prsm; wnf&SdrItwGuf taxmufrsm;&Sd aMumif;ESihf odkYjzpfí jAm[®PwdkYonf Ak'¨0g'ra&mufrDüvnf; 1 wnf&SdcJh&rnf[k qdkonf / NyD;cJhaom tcef;ü vlYtzGJUtpnf; twGif; jAm[®PwdkY\ tcef;u@taMumif;udk aqG;aEG;cJhNyD;jzpf onf/ xdktcsdefu tEk&m"yk&NrdKUwGif jAm[®P0g'qdkif&m pmoif ausmif; trsm;tjym;&SdcJhonf/ r[maAm"d0Housrf;wGif 'd ,0gotrnf&Sd jAm[®P ydkifqdkif (aexdkif)onhf a'0a*[ (ewfuGe;f ) tm; r[modrfe,fedrdwfudk rSwfom;vsuf a'0geHyd,wdórif; vufxufwkdif xdef;odrf;xm; 2 aMumif; qdkonf / tjzpfEdkifqkH;rSm ,if;onf jAm[®P,kHMunfrI qdkif&m a'0gv, odkYr[kwf ewfuGef;jzpfonf/ tEk&m"yk&NrdKU&Sd y@Kumb,\ taqmufttkHrsm;wGif jAm[®Pbk&m;ausmif; jzpfzG,f&Sdonhf jAm[®PwdkY aexdkifp&mae&m (jAm[®P0w¬K)ukd 3 vnf; xnhfoGif;cJhonf / y@Kumb,onf aomw¬ domv [k ac:onhf taqmufttkHwpfckudkvnf; aqmufvkyfapaMumif; 4 qdkonf / r[m0Ho#Dumusrf;wGif ,if; (aomw¬domv) a0g [m&twGuf t"dyÜm,f ESpfrsKd;zGifh&mwGif wpfrsKd;rSm jAmPwdkY aomw¬d0peudk a[mMum;onhf cef;r[kjzpfonf? aemufwpfrsKd; 5 rSm aq;½kH[k jzpfonf / tu,fí yxrt"dyÜm,f zGifhqdkcsufudk 1

2 3 4 5

ZD0ondaem [d rEkóm ½ku©o®ð (0d 1? 237)}/ awGUjrifaeus jrufyif rsm;udkyif ½kyfZD0dwda`E´&Sdonf[k ,kHMunfMuonf/ JRAS. (CB), Vol. XXXI, No. 82, p. 322.

r[maAm"d0Ho? pm- 85/ r[m0Ho 10;102/ ,if; 10;102/ r[m0Ho#D? pm 296/ aomw¬domvm emr jAm[®PmeH 0peomvm *dvmeomvm 0g/ aomw¬d0pe[lonf ,Zfyal Zmf&ef jyifqifonhf ,kH


116 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

rnfrsm;udkvnf; awGU&onf/ tcsKdU eu©wftrnfrsm; aemufodkY vdkufírSnhfac:xm;onfh uoQPBuD#m (kşaºakr²¹ā)uJhodkYaom jynfolYyGJawmfrsm;udk usif;yMuonf/ r[m0Husrf;ü y@Kumb, onf qP(saºa)tcsdeftcgtwGif; pdwå&mZewfESihftwl xdkif 1 aMumif; jyqdkonf / þü qP(ouúw kşaºa )[laom a0g [m&onf r*Fvm&Sdaom tcsdet f cg tcdkuftwefYü usif;yonhf yGJawmf[k t"dyÜm,f&onf/ r[m0Ho#Dumusrf;ü a'0geHyd, wdórif;vufxufüvnf; a&obifyGJawmfudk eu©wfwm&mwpf 2 ckudk taMumif;jyKí usif;yaMumif;zGifhqdkonf / edrdwfzwfolrsm; aA'ifq&mrsm;ESihf ywfoufonhf &nfñTef;csuf rsm;pGm awGU& onf/ y@K0goka'0 a&mufvmrIudk aA'ifq&mwdkY BudKwifa[m 3 Mum;cJhonf / xdktwl b'´upömem a&mufvmrIudkvnf; aA'if 4 q&mwdkY BudKa[mcJhonf / rEÅ&m; uRrf;usifMuonfh jAm[®Prsm; u pdwåm\om;onf xD;eef;udk taMumif;jyKí ¤if;\OD;av; 5 awmfrsm;udk owfjzwfrnfjzpfaMumif; BudKwifa[mMum;cJhonf / y@Kumb,onf tEk&m"yk&NrdKUwnf udpöESihfywfoufí aA'if 6 q&m [l;&m;q&mrsm;ESihf wdkifyifcJhonf / [l;&m;q&mrsm;onf t&Sifr[dE´ESihf tjcm;rax&frsm;twGuf ae&mxdkifcif;rsm; jzefY cif;onfudk jrifaomtcg ¤if;wdkYu EdkifiHawmfudk xdkrax&fwdYk atmifEdkifNyDjzpfaMumif;ESihf xdkrax&frsm;taejzihf EdkifiHawmf\ 7 t&Sifocifrsm;jzpfvdrfhrnf[k a[mudef;xkwfcJhMuonf / Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfwGif ae&mXme toDoD;ü ,kHMunfol tkyfpk tenf;i,fESihftwl ,kHMunfrIESihf pGJvrf;rItaxGaxG &SdcJh

Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEdkifiH

r[m0Ho 10;87/ r[m0Ho#D? pm - 329/ 3 r[maAm"d0Ho 8;14/ 4 r[m0Ho#D? pm -272/ 5 r[m0Ho 9;2 / 6 r[m0Ho 10;76/

2

2

3 4

7

r[m0Ho 10;75/

113

0wfausmif;rsm;onf a'0geHy, d wdórif;vufxufwkdif wnf&Sd aecJhNyD; ,if;wdkYrSm r[modrfawmfBuD; e,fedrdwftwGif; yg0ifcJh 1 onf / ,if; (ed*P²0wfausmif;) okH;ckteuf *d&d\ ausmif;onf ta&;tygqkH;ESihf tcsrf;omqkH; jzpfzG,f&Sdonf/ r[m0Ho#Dum usrf;wGif bk&ifudk qefYusif vkyfMuHcJhMuonfh wdó? tb,ESifh Owå& trnf&Sd cv’m#em* (Khallāµanāga)\ wlawmfarmif okH; a,mufonf ,if;(*d&d\0wfausmif;)twGif;&Sd rD;vQHxJodkY ckefcs 2 NyD; udk,hfudk,fudk tqkH;pD&ifoGm;cJhMuaMumif; qdkonf / aemuf wufbk&if 0¥*grPdtb,rif;onf ,if;0wfausmif;udk zsuf qD;ypfNyD; xdkae&mwGif tb,*d&dausmif;udk wnfaqmufcJhonf/ aESmif;acwfrsm;wGif ed*P²wdkY\ 0wfausmif; r&SdawmhaMumif;ESihf tEk&m"yk&NrdKU odkYr[kwf oD[dkVfuRef; rnfonhfae&mwGifrS *sdef; bk&m;ausmif; t<uif;tusef&SdaMumif; ñTefjy&ef a&S;a[mif; t 3 axmuftxm; r&SdawmhaMumif; od&onf / tEk&m"yk&NrdKU&Sd *d&d ed*P²ausmif;jzpfykH odkYr[kwf a&S;acwftdE´d,&Sd ,u©(ewfbDvl;) ewfuGef;a[mif;rsm;\ jzpfykHuJhodkYyif *sdef;bk&m;ausmif;rsm;udk Ak'¨ 4 bmomausmif;rsm;tjzpf ajymif;ypfjcif;rSm xif&Sm;onf / xdktcsdefu oD[dkVfwGif oQD00g'wnf&SdcJhaMumif; ,kHMunf& onhf taxmuftxm;&Sdonf/ ,if;odkYjzpfí r[m0Housrf;ü y@Kumb,onf od0duomvmwpfck wnfaqmufcJhaMumif; 5 qdk onf / r[m0Ho#Dumü aomw¬domvm[laom a0g[m&ESihf ywfoufí t"dyÜm,fESpfrsKd; zGihfqdkonf/ yxr t"dyÜm,frSm od0 1

1

bmoma&;tajctae

r[maAm"d0Ho? pm - 84/ r[m0Ho#Dum? pmrsufESm 612 wGif ¤if;wdkY rD;xJckefcsonhfae&mrSm ,ck awGU&onhf tb,*d&dbk&m;wnf&Sdonhf ae&mjzpfaMumif; azmfjyonf/ JRAS. (CB), Vol. XXXI, No. 82, p. 326.

tvGefa&S;usonhf tcsdefu oD[dkVfuRef;odkY *sdef;bkef;BuD;rsm; vma&muf cJhrI jzpfEdkifacsESihf ywfoufNyD; JRAS. (CB), Vol. XXXI, No. 82, p. 324, ESihf Lewis Rice, Mysores and Coorg, p. 3 ff. wdkYudkvnf; ½Iyg/ 5 r[m0Ho 10;102/


114 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

jA[®m\ t*FgZmwf (oD0vd*F)wnf&Sdonhf taqmifjzpfaMumif; 1 ESihf 'kwd, zGifhqdkcsufrSm arG;zGm;&mtdrf[k jzpfonf / y&e0dwe yk*¾Kdvfu od0dumESihf aomw¬domvm[laom a0g[m&rsm;udk bm oma&;oabmygonhf tjcm;taqmufttkHrsm;ESifh twl azmfjy xm;ojzihf yxr,lqcsufrSm vufcHEdkifzG,f&SdaMumif; ,lq 2 onf / ,if;odkYjzpfonfqdkvQif þae&mü a&S;acwf oD[dkVfwGif vdift*Fgudk udk;uG,frItwGuf erlemwpfck&Sdonf/ r[m0Ho#Dum usrf;wGif r[memrrif; (at'D 334-362)onf oD[dkVfuRef; ae &m tm;vkH;ü&Sdonfh oD0vd*Frsm;udk zsufqD;ypfaMumif; qdkojzihf at'Dav;&mpkü oD0vdift*Fgudk udk;uG,frI us,fus,fjyefYjyefY &Sd 3 EdkifaMumif; ,lq&onf / oD[dkVfuRef;ü orPrsm;tjzpf vlodrsm;onhf y&dAÁZuESihf tmZD0ursm;? ygo@rsm;? yAÁZdwrsm;ESihf tjcm;&aoh&[ef;rsm; \ ta&twGufudk wlnDpGm awGU&Sd&onf/ r[m0Housrf;ü y@K umb,onf y&dAÁmZursm;twGuf bkef;BuD;ausmif;wpfckESihf tmZD0ursm;twGuf tdrfwpfaqmif wnfaqmufay;aMumif; qdk 4 onf / *d&ded*P²ESihf aZmwd,ed*P²wdkYaexdkifonhf ywf0ef;usif 5 wGif ygo@ESihf orPtrsm;tjym; aexdkifMuonf / r[m aAm"d0Housrf;t& a'0geHy, d wdórif;vufxuf y&dAÁmZu rsm;pGmtwGuf tm&mr(ausmif;wdkuf)rsm;&SdNyD; ,if;wdkYonf r[m 1

2 3

od0dumomvm emr od0vd*Fywd|mydwm omvm? 0dZm,eC&H 0g/ r[m0Ho#D? 296/ JRAS. (CB), Vol. XXXI, No. 82, p. 326.

rarQmfvihfbJ y@Kumb,\ OD;av;rsm;teuf wpfa,muf\ trnf emronf *d&du@od0? qdkvdkonfrSm *d&du@c½dkife,f\ oD0 jzpfonf (r[m0Ho 10;29)/ ,if;onf xdkacwf oD[dkVfü od0vd*F wnf&SdrIudk azmfjyEdkifonfh oG,f0dkufonhf taxmuftxm; wpfcktjzpf ,lqEdkifyg rnfavm/ 4 r[m0Ho 10;101-102/ 5 ,if; 10;98/

Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEdkifiH

bmoma&;tajctae 1

115

oDrm\ b,fzufwGif &Sdonf / y&dAÁmZursm;ESihf yAÁZdwrsm;onf Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfuRef;ü rsm;pGm&SdNyD; xif&Sm;aMumif; ordkif; usrf;rsm;ü ,if;wdkYudk &nfñTef;csuftcsKdUrS jrifawGUEdkifonf/ OyÜv0PÖmtrnf&Sd ewforD;onf 0dZ,rif;ESihf ¤if;\toif; t yif;rsm;udkulnD&ef y&dAÁmZutoGifjzihf oD[dkVfuRef; odkYa&mufvm 2 cJhonf / y@K0goka'0vnf; y&dAÁmZutoGifjzihf oD[dkVfuRef; 3 odkY a&mufvmonf / b'´upömemESihf trsKd;orD; 32 a,muf onf y&dAÁmZdum (y&dAdkZfrrsm;)toGif 0wfqifNyD; oD[dkVfuRef;odkY 4 a&mufvmcJhMuonf / ,if;jzpf&yfu yAÁZdwESihf y&dAÁmZursm;udk oD[dkVfuRef;om;wdkY odMuNyD; vlodrsm;vsuf vkHNcKHrItwGuf ESpf oufjcif; &SdMuonfudk azmfjyonf/ wmyo[kac:onhf bmoma&;tkyfpkwpfck taMumif;udk vnf; azmfjyonf/ y@Kumb,onf rkqdk;&yfuGufwef;vsm; tvGef ajrmufzufwGif tqdkyg wmyorsm;twGufvnf; ausmif; 5 wdkufwpfck wnfaqmuf ay;aMumif;qdkonf / wmyo[laom a0g[m&jzihf rnfonfudkqdkvdkaMumif; uGJjym;pGm rod&acs/ ,if; bmoma&; tkyfpkrsm;pGmtjyif rdpäm'd|dt,l&Sdol rdom;pkig;&m 6 vnf; rkqdk;wef;vsm;vdkif;\ ta&SUzufwGif aexdkifcJhonf / y@K umb,acwf oD[dkVfom;wdkYtjrifü rdpäm'd|d[lonf ,aeYacwf uREfkyfwdkYtzdkY pdwf0ifpm;zG,f wdrfjrKyfonfht&m wpfckjzpfonf/ Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfuRef;ü bmoma&;,kHMunfrI acgif;pOf jzihf wdkuf½dkuf oGif;,lEdkifzG,fr&Sdonhf tjcm;,kHMunfrIrsm;vnf; &SdcJhao;onf/ ,if;rSm aA'ifudk ,kHMunfrIjzpfonf/ vlom;wdkY\ eu©wfwm&mtrnfudk t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkrIonf a0'acwfrS tavh tusihf jzpfonf/ a&S;acwf a&m[PESihf tEk&m"uJhodkYaom t 1 2 4 6

r[maAm"d0Ho? pm- 84-95/ r[m0Ho 7;6/ r[m0Ho 8;24/ ,if; 10;100/

3 5

,if; 8;11/ ,if; 10;90/


120 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

ns)vlrsKd;rsm;onf

rlvtm;jzifh jrwfAk'¨\ wpfb0wm vkyfaqmif csufrsm;ü awGU&onhf r"sma'o (Madhyadeŝe)rS tajccsaexdkif 1 cJhMuonfh tm&d,eftEG,f cwåd,rsm;jzpfMuonf / apmapmydkif; u oD[dkVfuRef;odkY a&mufvmMuonhf yef*syfrdom;pkrsm;onf o bm0tm;jzihf Ak'¨ESihf"r®taMumif; A[kokwtcsKdUudk ,laqmifcJh rnfjzpfNyD; ,if;wdkYtxJrStcsKdUrSm Ak'¨0g'Drsm; jzpfEdkifonf/ taomurif;\ vlrIa&;vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;onf oD[dkVfodkYwkdif a&muf&SdoGm;aMumif; awGU&Sd&NyD; rif;BuD;\ 'lw(oHwref)rsm; onf t&Sifr[dE´rwkdifrD oD[dkVfodkY tvnftywf a&muf&SdcJhzG,f &Sdonf/ xdk{nfhonfrsm;onf taomurif;\ Ak'¨0g'a&;&m aqmif½GufrIrsm;taMumif; oD[dkVfvlrsKd;rsm;tm; ajymjyMurnfrSm 2 tvGefyif jzpfEdkifonf/ tdwfcsf tdk'ifbwf (H. Oldenberg) u aumif;rGefonhf taMumif;jycsufrygbJ oD[dkVfordkif;usrf;rsm;ü azmfjyouJhodkY Ak'¨0g'udk oD[dkVfuRef;odkY t&Sifr[dE´,laqmifvm cJhonfr[kwfbJ tdrfeD;csif; uvd*Fwdkif;rSwpfqihf wjznf;jznf; jyefYESHYcJhaMumif; ,lqonf/ odkYwap y@Kumb, wnfaxmifcJh onhf bmoma&; taqmufttkHrsm;teuf Ak'¨0g'qdkif&m t aqmufttkH wpfckwavrQ wnfaqmufaMumif; azmfjycsuf r 3 awGU&onfrSm xl;qef;onf / ,if;odkY razmfjybJxm;jcif;rSm t &Sifr[dE´tay: vkH;0tm½kH pl;pkdufap&efESihf ,if;odkYjyKjcif;jzihf *kPf,lxdkufonhf txif&Sm;qkH;aom yk*¾Kdvf bk&iftaomuESihf oD[dkVfuRef;odkY Ak'¨0g'udk o,f,lvmoludk qufoG,f&ef Ak'¨0g' ordkif;usrf;tzdkY obm0tm;jzihf pdwfñGwfrIaMumifh jzpfzG,f&Sd aMumif; tdk'ifbwfESihf rmvmvmaqau&wdkY ESpfa,mufvkH;yif 4 oabmwlMuonf / odkYwap ordkif;usrf;rsm;ü ,if;odkY odvsuf 1

PLC, p. 17; D.r. Bhandarkar : Carmichael Lectures (1918), p. 9.

2

Vinaya Pitaka, intro, p. 1.

3

r[m0Ho 10;96-102/

4

Vinaya, Intro. p. lii; PLC. p. 10.

Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEdkifiH

bmoma&;tajctae

117

onf/ odkYwap uREkfyfwdkYawGU&rnf jzpfonhftwdkif; ,if;wdkYwGif oD[dkVfü t&Sdeft0g&SdrIESifh ywfoufí Ak'¨0g' pnf;½kH;ouJhodkY pepfwus zGJUpnf;cJhonhf rnfonhf ,kHMunfrItkyfpk taMumif;rQ taxmuftxm; rawGU&acs/ 00000000


tcef; 4 Ak'¨0g'jyefYyGm;vmjcif; oD[dkVfuRef;odkY Ak'¨0g'udk ydkYay;cJholrSm bDpD okH;&mpk tv,f avmufwGif oD[dkVfodkY<ua&mufvmonfh taomurif;\ om; 1 awmf t&Sifr[dE´jzpfonf[k[k ,kHMunf&onf / ,if;onf oD[dkVfodkY Ak'¨0g' a&muf&SdvmrItwGuf w&m;0ifxkwfjyefrItjzpf ,lq Edkifaomfvnf; Ak'¨? Ak'¨"r®taMumif;ESihf pGrf;tm;&Sif Ak'¨0g'D tdE´d,{u&mZf\ vIyf&Sm;rItaMumif; owif;rsm;udk (t&Sifr[dE´ ra&mufrD) apmapmydkif;uyif oD[dkVfuRef;odkY ra&muf&SdcJhao;[k ,kHMunf&ef taMumif;r&Sdacs/ 0dZ,rif;vufxufü oD[dkVf tdE´d,ESpfEdkifiHtMum; tqufrjywf tjyeftvSefqufoG,frIrsm; wnf&SdcJhaomaMumifhjzpfonf/ tdE´d,awmifydkif; yef*syf (Pāº¹ya1

'Dy0Ho 7;18-19/ 11;39-54/ 0d-| 1? 38-76/ r[m0Ho 5;195/ 13; 15 *gxm/ w½kwfbk&m;zl;c&D;onf &[ef;awmf [l,ifqefu Ak'¨0g'udk ]ra[`E´ [kac:onhf taomur[m&mZm\ nDawmf}u oD[dkVfuRef;odkY aqmif,lcJhaMumif; qdkonf (Hiuen Tsiang, Bk. XI, p. 246.)/ odkY&mwGif ,if;azmfjycsuftay: txl;tav;jyK&ef taMumif;r&Sdacs/ [l,ifqef onf ¤if;\ owif;tcsuftvufudk wpfqifhpum;tm;jzihf &,lpkaqmif; cJhonf/ ygVdbmomrSwfwrf;rsm;rSm rsm;pGmydkrdk av;pm;xdkufonf/ r[dE´ onf oD[dkVfodkY <ua&mufvmNyD; oD[dkVfrSmyif omoemhwm0efudk xrf; aqmifNyD; oD[dkVfrSmyif ysHvGefawmfrlonf/ t&Sifr[dE´ESihf ywfoufí oD[dkVfvlxkonf tjcm;rnfonhf EdkifiHom;xufrqdk obm0tm;jzihf ydkrdk &ifESD;rI&SdNyD; ckdifvkHonhf owif;tcsuf tvuf &Sdvdrfhrnfjzpfonf/


124 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

0drme0w¬KrS jzpf&yf0w¬Krsm;udk a[mMum;onf/ ,if;a[mMum; csufonf uG,fvGefol 0dnmOfavmuom;rsm;udk ,kHMunfNyD;jzpf 1 onfh bk&ifhy&dowftm; ESpfoufaprnfrSm aocsmNyD; ¤if;wdkY tm; Ak'¨0g'tay:oabmwl vufcHEdkifaprnfjzpfonf/ ,if; a[mMum;csufonf ydkrdkESpfoufvufcHzG,f trlt&mjzihf eef;wGif; 2 olwdkYtm; &Sif;jyonf/ t&Sifr[dE´onf opöoH,kwfygVdawmf jzihf Ak'¨0g'\ opömav;yg;udkjyvsuf rdrd\w&m;udk tqkH;owf vdkufonf/ þokwåefü t&Sifjrwftaejzihf tqkH;rxif usifvnf &rnfh arG;aooHo&m\ aMumufrufzG,f aumif;ykHudkvnf; y&d owftm; azmfjycGifh&vdkufonf/ wdk;yGm;vmaeonhf y&dowftm; tjcm;aom a'oemtpD t&Dudk a[mMum;awmfrlonf/ þw&m; a'oemrsm;twGuf a½G; cs,fonfh okwåefrsm;rSm txl;ojzihf emMum;olrsm;\ pdwfydkif; qdkif&m &&SdrIESihf ,kHMunfrIrsm;aMumifh xl;jcm;Muonf/ yxrqkH; rSm aumif;uH raumif;uHwdkY\ tusKd;ay;? raumif;rIjyKolwdkYudk apmihfBudKaeonhf qif;&J'ku©ESihf i&Jom;wdkY\ ESdyfpufykHudk azmfjy 3 csufrsm;ESihf ywfoufonhf a'0'lwokwf (r 3? 191) jzpfonf/ ,if;okwåefrSm raumif;rI\ tusKd;qufrsm;udk aMumuf½GHUjcif;jzihf 4 raumif;rIudk jyKjcif;rS&yfpJ&ef vlwdkYudkqGJaqmif&ef ñTefjyonf / ,if;aemuf vl,kwfrmonf raumif;rIudk jyKjcif;aMumihf þb0 aemifb0wGif qif;&J'ku©udk cHpm;&ykHudk oifMum;onfh Amv 5 y@dwokwf (r 3? 178) awmfudk a[mMum;onf/ olawmf aumif;rlum; xdkodkYr[kwfbJ raumif;rIrS a&SmifMuOfNyD; aumif;rI udkjyKvsuf þb0 aemifb0wGif csrf;omonf/ w&m;awmfrsm; onf uH\tusKd;udk þb0wGif rnfodkYcHpm;&rnfqdkonhf tcsuf 1

r[m0Ho 14;55-58/ opömav;yg;udk azmfjyonhf oH,kwåedum,f\ aemufqkH;ydkif; jzpfonf/ 3 r[m0Ho 14;63/ 4 5 'Dy0Ho 13;7-8/ bDwð oawå ygykPðok/ 5 r[m0Ho 15;3-4/ 2

Ak'¨0g'jyefYyGm;vmjcif;

121

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Ak'¨0g'jyefYyGm;vmjcif;

129

eD;pyfaom ywfoufrI&Sdonfh ay;xm;NyD; yx0D0ifa'owpf ckwGif ]Ak'¨0g'wnfwHhrI} ,lqcsufonf jrwfAk'¨\ oifMum;csuf rsm;ESihf tawmftwef pdrf;aeonf/ ,if;odkYaom udpörsKd;udk Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf vkH;0 >ruf[awmfrrlzl;acs/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfu wynfhom0ursm;tm; ]owå0grsm;pGmwdkY\ aumif;usKd;csrf;om twGuf} urÇmwpfvTm;wGif "r®udka[mMum;&ef c&D;a'opm&D 1 vSnfhvnfzdkY apvTwfawmfrlonfrSm rSefonf / odkYwap EdkifiH wpfckwGif ]Ak'¨omoemwnfwHha&;} tpDt&if odkYr[kwf txl; enf;vrf;wpfckESifh ywfoufonhf ESpfoufrIrsm; odkYr[kwf ñTef Mum;csufrsm;udk rnfonhfae&mwGifrS a[mMum;awmfrrlacs/ Ak'¨ 0g'onf wpfudk,fa& bmomw&m;omjzpfonf/ vlwpfa,muf onf opömw&m;udk odjrifoGm;onfESihf wpfNydKifeuf ¤if;\ cE¨m udk,fwGif Ak'¨0g' wnfwHhNyD;jzpfonf/ odkYjzifh Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ wynhf&if;csm wpfa,mufjzpfonhf t&SifykPÖonf udk,fusihf oDv qkwf,kwfNyD; vlqdk;rsm;aMumifh emrnfBuD;onhf trdajr okemy&EÅwdkif;odkY oGm;NyD; vltajrmuftjrm;udk Ak'¨0g'odkY oGwf 2 3 oGif;ay;onf / rZÑdredum,ft|uxm tvdkt& aemiftcg jrwfAk'¨udk,fwdkifudk ,if;EdkifiHodkY yifhzdwfcH&onf/ odkYwap xdk a'oü ]Ak'¨0g'wnfwHhrI}taMumif; rdefYMum;csuf vkH;0r&Sday/ xkd twlyif bk&iftaomuESihf a'0geHyd,wdótaMumif;t&mESihf cyfqifqifwlonhf u|0g[eEdkifiH jzpf&yfwGif xdka'oü Ak'¨0g' wnfwHhrItaMumif; azmfjyjcif; r&Sdacs/ EdkifiHwpfEdkifiH odkYr[kwf a'owpfckwGif wnfaxmifonhf taejzihf omoem odkYr[kwf Ak'¨0g'udk wnfwHhapvdkonhf tawG;tjrif vdktifqE´udk taomubk&ifudk,fwdkif yxrqkH; 1 2 3

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130 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

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'Dy0Ho? 14? 21-25/ ,if;? 15? 182-183/

2 4

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136 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

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133

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134 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

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135

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1

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Ak'¨0g'jyefYyGm;vmjcif;

137

t&Sifr[dE´onf oD[dkVfuRef;odkY yd#uwfokH;ykH\tzGifh t|uxm usrf;rsm;udk ,laqmifvmcJhNyD; ,if;t|uxmusrf;rsm;udk oD[dkVf uRef;oluRef;om;wdkY\ tusKd;twGuf oD[dkVfbmomodkY jyefqdk 1 aMumif; rdefYqdkcJhonf / odkYjzifh t&Sifr[dE´onf oD[dkVfEdkifiHom; wdkYtm; pmaybmompum; wpfckudk zefwD;ay;cJhNyD; ,if;pmay u@udk crf;em;pGm zGifhvSpfay;cJhonf/ t&Sifjrwftaejzihf t 2 aomuacwf tu©&mudkvnf; tokH;jyKcJhzG,f&Sdonf / oD[dkVfuRef;wGif t&Sifr[dE´\ omoemjyKvkyfief; xl;jcm; ajymifajrmufpGm atmifjrifrIESihf xl;jcm;pGm t&Sdeft[kefjzihf Ak'¨ 0g' jyefESHYoGm;&jcif;rSm taMumif;w&m; rsm;pGm&Sdonf/ t&Sif [dE´ a&muf&Sdjcif;onf tdE´d,ESihf oD[dkVfwdkYtMum; vlrIa&;? ,Of aus;rIESihf oHwrefa&; qufqHrI tpDt&D\ atmifjrifrI &v'f jzpfonf/ a'0geHyd,wdóonf taomurif;ESihf rdwfaqG jzpf rIudk arQmfvihfawmihfwaeonf/ oD[dkVfbk&ifESihf ¤if;\aqGawmf rsKd;awmfrsm; jzpfMuaom ta&;ygonhf trwfrsm; Ak'¨0g'udk vufcHoGm;Muaomtcg usefyk*¾Kdvfrsm;rSm vG,fuloGm;NyD jzpf onf/ wpfEdkifiHvkH;eD;yg; jyefYusJaeonhf bmoma&;tkyfpki,f trsm;tjym; &Sdvihfupm; bmomw&m;topftay: qefYusif Edkifaom pepfwus pnf;vkH;rI odkY[kwf pGrf;&nf r&SdMuacs/ tjcm;wpfzufwGif Ak'¨0g'onf oD[dkVfEdkifiHom;wdkYtm; ,ck tcsdefxd ¤if;wdkY odNyD; vdkufem usihfokH;NyD;jzpfonfh bmomw&m; wdkYxuf rsm;pGm txufwef;usonfh b0jzpfpOfopf wpfrsKd;udk ay;tyfcJhonf/ ½kd;om;rI ykHpHwpfckrSm trsm;aumif;usKd;twGuf rdrdwdkY\ tcsdefudk `rIyfESHxm;Muonfh &[ef;awmfrsm;\ pifMu,f 1

2

oD[V'DyH ye tmbwmx 0odem r[m r[daE´e? xydwm oD[Vbmom, 'Dy0goDeH tw¬m,/ oD[dkVftrsKd;orD;rsm;\ b0ESihf tusihfp½dkufudk ykHpHoGif;vsuf ¤if;wdkY tay: t&SifroHCrdwåm\ MoZmvTrf;rdk;rIonfvnf; xyfwl xyfrQyif BuD;rm;vSygonf/


138 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

onhfb0onf bk&ifrif;BuD;udka&m wdkif;oljynfom;rsm;twGufyg vIHaqmf wuf<urIwpf&yf jzpfcJhonf/ bmomw&m;topfu oifMum;ay;onhf udk,fusihfw&m;a&;&m pnfurf;csufrsm;onf aysmf½TifNidrf;csrf;onhf vlrIb0udk jzpfay:aponf/ oD[dkVfvlrsKd;rsm;ESihf Mum;cHqufoG,frIonf omomjyKvkyf ief;tay: rqdkpavmuf wm;qD;rI&Sdonf/ bDpD 3 &mpk taom uausmufpmESihf oD[dkVfausmufpm bmompum;rsm;udk EIdif;,SOf MunfhvQif bmompum;ESpfckrSm tvkH;pkHeD;yg;rQ wlnDMuonfudk awGUEdkifonf/ tenf;i,f rqdkpavmufom uGJjym;NyD; bmom pum;wpfckjzihf ajymoltm; xkdyk*¾Kdvfazmfjyonhf t"dyÜm,frsm;udk rsm;pGm tcuftcJr&SdbJ em;vnf&ef jzpfEdkifonf/ bmomw&m; jyefYyGm;jcif;twGuf a[majymjcif;rSm t"du enf;pepfjzpfykH&onf/ ylaZmfzG,f&mrsm; jzpfonfh apwDawmfrsm;? aAm"dyifrsm;yg&Sdonfh ausmif;wkdufBuD;rsm;udk ta&;ygonhf aus; ½Gmrsm;wGif oHCmawmfrsm; oDwif;okH;Edkif&ef wnfaqmufcJhonf/ ,if;wdkYonf todynm&,lonhf tcsuftjcmae&mrsm; jzpfvm NyD; Ak'¨0g'ESihf Ak'¨,Ofaus;rIudk oifMum;ay;onf/ t&Sifr[dE´ onf tdE´d, bk&iftaomu\ omoemjyKenf;ESihf tvm;wl enf;udk oD[dkVfwGif vkdufemtokH;jyKcJhonf[k ,lqEdkifonf/ odkY wap (oD[dkVfwGif) rawGU&onhf tcsufESpfckrSm odomxif&Sm; aeonf/ bk&iftaomuonf "r®jyefYyGm;a&;twGuf ausmufpm wdkifrsm;pGmudk pdkufxlcJhonf/ odkYwap oD[dkVfü ausmufwkH; ay:rSm odkYr[kwf ausmufwdkifay:rSm a'0geHyd, wdórif;BuD; pdkufxla&;om;cJhonfh "r®vdyd ("r® ta&;tom;) wpfckwavrQ ,aeYwkdif rawGU&Sdao;ay/ tdE´d,{u&mZf taomu jyKvkyf ouJhodkY oD[dkVfwGif "r®r[mrwåXmersm;udk zGJUpnf;cJhjcif; r&Sd/ t&Sifr[dE´onf tdE´d,wGif zcrnf;awmf\ enf;vrf;udk vdkuf emNyD; oD[dkVfü "r®vdyd ("r®ta&;tom;)rsm; xkwfjyef&ef a'0geH yd,wdótm; tb,faMumifh tMuHrjyKcJhygoenf;/ oD[dkVfonf

Ak'¨0g'jyefYyGm;vmjcif;

139

tvGefao;i,fNyD; vltrsm;aexkdifonhf {&d,mtaejzihf bk&ifh trdefYawmfudk EdkifiHawmfwpf0ef;vkH; tvsiftjref xkwfjyefEkdif avmufatmif usOf;ajrmif;aomaMumihfayavm/ &[ef;awmfrsm; onf EdkifiHawmfwpf0ef;vkH; Ak'0¨ g'jyefYyGm;ap&ef ryifyef;EdkifbJ tokH;cscJhojzihf oD[dkVfü ,if;odkYaom owif;jzefYenf;vrf;rsm;udk tokH;jyKzG,frvdkaomaMumihf jzpfzG,f&Sdygonf/ 00000000


144 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

xkH;wrf;pOfvm odkY[kwf ]pm&dw}[lonf tb,fenf;/ a&S;acwf rsm;wGif tpOftquf qif;oufcJhaom olawmfaumif;wdkY\ xkH; wrf; (o'gpm&) rsm;onf bmoma&;Oya'ESifh w&m;0if jy|mef; csufrsm;tjzpf wlnDonhf pm&if;wGif ae&m,lNyD; EdkifiHawmfü wnf&SdNyD; Oya'\ tpdwftydkif;rsm; jzpfaeMuonf/ oD[dkVfü vnf; XmaewdkY\ Oya'onf EdkifiHawmf\ wnf&SdNyD; xkH;wrf; pOfvmrSvGJí wpfjcm;wpfyg; rjzpfEdkifacs/ odkYjzpfí {Vm&onf tpdk;&aumif; jzpfa&;twGuf ,if; (wnf&SdNyD; xkH;wrf;rsm;) udk vdkufemjcif;jzpfonf/ r[m0Housrf;ü þtcsufudk xif&Sm;ap onhf om"u trsm;tjym; &Sdao;onf/ bmwd,rif;(at'D 38-66)tm; Ak'¨0g'usihfxkH; tm;vkH;ESihf qdkifonhf a&S;bk&ifwdkY csrSwfcJhaom pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf; tm;vkH; 1 udk vkdufemcJhaMumif; azmfjyonf / r[m'gXdu-r[em*rif; (at 'D 67-79)onfvnf; a&S;rif;rsm;ESihf ¤if;\tpfudk csrSwfcJhonhf bmoma&; xkH;wrf;pOfvmtm;vkH;udk apmihfxdef;cJhonf/ r[dE´yGJ awmfudk crf;em;pGm usif;ycJhonhf od&darC0PÖ (at'D 362 cefY) u ,if;yGJawmftm; ESpfpOf usif;y&rnf[k wdk;`rSihfcJhonf/ at'D 13 &mpk r[m0Ho 'kwd,ydkif; a&;om;olu ,if;bk&ifhtrdefYudk xdkaeYtxd qufcHolbk&iftm;vkH; tpOfrjywf vkdufemcJhonf[k 2 azmfjyonf / a[myd#d*r (Hopiµigama) [kac:aom aus;½Gmtkyf csKyfa&;ESihf ywfoufaom pnf;rsOf;Oya'tcsKdUudk rSwfwrf;wif 3 xm;aom at'D 10 &mpkü a&;xkd;onhf ausmufpmwpfck wGif a&S;a[mif; Oya'rsm;udk a&S;a[mif; xkH;wrf;pOfvmrsm;tjzpf &nfñTef;xm;onf/ 12 &mpk wGif od&dwavem (Siritlenā) 4 w&m;½kH;\ w&m;0if twGif;a&;rª; odkYr[kwf trwf jzpfonf / 1 2 3

r[m0Ho? 34? 67/ ,if;? 34? 85/

Ak'¨0g' EdkifiH awmfbmom jzpfvmjcif; Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf y&dedAmÁ efpHvGefawmfrlNyD;aemuf &mpkESpf ESpfckcefY tMumwGif bk&iftaomuonf Ak'¨0g'tm; EdkifiHawmfbmom w&m;tjzpf tokH;jyKcJhonhf yxrqkH;aom bk&ifjzpfaMumif; awGU cJh&NyD;jzpfonf/ odkYwap oD[kdVfwGif Ak'¨0g'pwif a&muf&SdNyD; 1 aemuf ESpf&ufajrmufaeYrSpwifí EdkifiHawmfbmomw&m; jzpf oGm;cJhonf/ a'0geHyd,wdórif;BuD;\ t&Sifr[dE´tm; rif;BuD;taejzihf Ak'¨\ tmPma'oemawmftwGif; aexkdifEdkif&ef NrdKUawmftm; xnfhoGif;vsuf odrforkwf&ef awmif;yefjcif;rSm tvGefta&;BuD; 2 onf / bDpD okH;&mpk xdkaeYtcsderf Spí at'D 19 &mpk oD[dkVf (bk&ifwdkY\) tkyfcsKyfa&; qkH;cef;wkdifcJhonftxd Ak'¨0g'Dwpf a,mufonfom oD[dkVfbk&ifjzpf&ef w&m;0if tcGifhta&;&Sd onf/ at'D 10 &mpkESpfavmufu ,if;,kHMunfrIonf oD[dkVf bk&ifonf Ak'¨0g'Djzpf&onfomru bk&m;avmif; aAm"dowå (bk&m;jzpfvmrnfhol)vnf; jzpf&onftxd tvGef tm;aumif; 3 cJh onf / pwkw¬ r[dE´rif; vufxuf (at'D 956-972) aZw 1

3

,if; 37? 88089/

E.Z. III, p. 75. Badulla Pillar Inscription. (Revised in V, pt. 2, pp. 177195)

tcef; 5

4

Nks. p. 18.

2 3

EdkifiHawmfbmom[lonf EdkifiHawmfu w&m;0ifbmomtjzpf todt rSwfjyKcHxm;&aom bmomw&m;jzpfaMumif; qdkvdkonf/ r[m0Ho? 15? 182-183/ E.Z. 1, pp. 234, 237.


142 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; 1

0em&mr ausmufzsm ausmufxGif;pm wGif ]aAm"dowårsm;rS wpf yg; rnfolrQ oD&dvuFmbk&if jzpfEdkifrnf r[kwf}? wzef ],if; aAm"dowårsm;onf oAÁnKAk'¨xHrS azmfjyygtmrcHcsufudk vufcH &&SdNyD;jzpfonf}[k aMunmcJhonf/ udwådedoQu rv’rif; (at'D 1187-1196) u ¤if;\ ausmufxGif;pmrsm;wGif vuFm'Dyudk Ak'¨0g'u ydkifqdkifonf? odkY jzpfí apmVrsm; au&mVrsm;uJhodkYaom Ak'¨0g'Dr[kwfolrsm;onf oD[dkVfxD;eef; udk qufcHydkifcGifh r&Sd[k azmfjyxm;onf/ at'D 13 &mpkwGifa&;onhf ylZm0vd,trnf&Sd oD[dkVf uAsmusrf;wGif ,if;,lqcsufESihfywfoufí ydkrdk&Sif;vif;pGm azmf jyxm;onf ]þvuFm'DyuRef;um; Ak'¨0g'EdkifiHjzpf\/ ,if;onf &wemokH;yg; jynfhaeaom bPfwdkufESihf yrmwl\/ odkYjzpfí þuRef;ae rdpäm'd|dt,l&Sdolrsm;um; ,cifu ,u©rsm;uJhodkY wnfNrJvdrfhrnf r[kwf/ oD[dkVftm; Ak'¨0g'Dr[kwfolwpfa,muf twif;tMuyfjyKí acwåtm;jzihf tkyfcsKyfcJhvQifyif &SifawmfAk'¨\ *kPfaus;ZlaMumifh xdk (tkyfcsKyfol)\ tpOftqufonf wnfwHh vdrfhrnfr[kwf/ odkYjzpfí vuFmonf Ak'¨0g'D bk&ifrsm;twGuf om oihfwifhavsmufywfojzihf ¤if; (Ak'¨0g'Dbk&if)wdkY\ tpOf 2 tqufvnf; wnfwHhvdrfhrnf} / uE´DrS rmv0wåcsmwm (Malvatta Chapter*) u yifv,furf; ajce,frsm;udk tkyfcsKyfcJhonhf udkvrfbdk&Sd 'wfcsftkyfcsKyfa&;t&m &Sd azmvfcf (Falk: 1765-1785 A.D.) xH a&;om;onhf a&S;acwf oD[dkVfOya'ESihf oufqdkifonhf ordkif;rSwfwrf; wpfckwGif ]yxr 1

2

aygVKEé½k0? *vaygw? E.Z. xGif;pm/ ,if;? pm-159/

UUm o, 109.

143

qkH;aom Oya'rSm oD[dkVfbk&ifonf Ak'¨0g'udk rpGefY&? tjcm; 1 bmomw&m;udk rudk;uG,f&[kjzpf\} [kqdkxm;onf / ,if;,kHMunfcsufonf tenf;qkH; 19 &mpkaESmif;ydkif;umv txd vTrf;rdk;aeaomaMumifh oD[dkVf tkyfcsKyfa&;rª; ba&mif;&pf*f (Brownrigg)u t*Fvef&Sd 0Dvsrf 0Dvfbmazmhpf (William Wilberforce) tm; ZGefv 13 &uf? 1816 ckESpf &ufpGJjzihf ay;ydkYcJhonfh pmt& odEdkifonf/ ,if;pmwGif ]vGwfvyfonhf uE´Dbk&ihfEdkifiH ESihf Ak'¨bmomtMum; eD;uyfpGm qufEG,frI &SdcJhaMumif; ,ck &&Sd \/ EdkifiH&yfjcm; tmPm odkYr[kwf MoZmvTrf;rdk;rI tm;vkH;udk qefYusifNyD; Ak'¨u ¤if;wdkY\ bk&if{u&mZfudk umuG,f&ef pDrHay; onf[k ,kHMunfMu\}[k jzpfonf/ &Hzef&Hcg oD[dkVfuRef;udk tkyfcsKyfcJhMuonfh '&mAD'D,efvlrsKd; rsm;yif ¤if;wdkYpdwfxJü BudKufonfjzpfap rBudKufonfjzpfap t enf;qkH; &mxl;twGuf Ak'¨0g'Drsm;tjzpf cH,lcJhMuonf/ ykHpHtm; jzihf bDpD 2 &mpkwGif tEk&m"yk&NrdKUudk tkyfcsKyfcJhaom apmV (wdkif;Zmwd) rif;om; {V&onf oHCmawmfrsm;tm; zl;ajrmfNyD; qGrf;zdwf&ef apwd,awmif (r[dE¦avh) odkY oGm;cJhaMumif; od& onf/ ]{Vm&onf &wemokH;yg;\ *kPfaus;Zl;BuD;jrwfrIudk rod aomfvnf; xkH;wrf;pOfvmudk vdkufemNyD; (pm&dwH tEkygv,H) apwd,awmifodkY oGm;vsuf oHCmawmfrsm;tm; qGrf;zdwfcJh\}[k 2 r[m0Housrf;ü qdkonf / r[m0Ho ygVdordkif;usrf;jyKq&monf {Vm&onf Ak'¨0g'tay: trSefwu,f pdwf0ifpm;rIr&Sdaomf vnf; XmaewdkY\ wnf&SdNyD; xkH;wrf;pOfvmudk vdkufem&onf[k 3 ,lqykH&onf /

ajrmufbuf*dwf ausmuf

Pjv. p. 656.

[lonf *gr0goD*dkPf;[k ac:aom odD&dvuFm ax& 0g'Ak'¨bmom*dkPf;uGJ wpfck jzpfonf/ xdk*dkPf;rS a&;aompm[k ,lq ygonf (bmom jyefol)/

* Malvatta Chapter

Ak'¨0g' EdkifiHawmfbmom jzpfvmjcif;

1 3

2

r[m0Ho 21? 21-22/ r[m0Ho#Dum (twGJ2? pm-483)ü {Vm& qif;wkaqmifwpfck taMumif;udk azmfjyonf ]{Vm&y#drmC&}/ ,if;onf {Vm& wnf aqmufonhf Ak'¨qif;wkawmfudk xm;&Sdonfh taqmifudk qdkvdkoavm odkYr[kwf {Vm&udk,fwdkif\ qif;wkudk xm;onfh taqmifudk qdkvdk oavm[lonfudk &Sif;vif;pGm rod&acs/

Prabhāsadaya, 1930, May, p. 17.


148 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

1

&Sif;vif;pGm aMunmxm;onf / Ak'¨0g'udk umuG,foltjzpfjzihf rlvu Ak'¨ESihf &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfrsm;udkom &nfñTef;tokH;jyKonfh a0g [m&rsm;udkyif oD[dkVfbk&ifrsm;twGuf okH;EIef;vmonfxdyif bk&ifonf (vlxk\) tvGef av;pm;rIudk cH&onf/ ykHpHtm;jzihf Ak'¨odkY r[kwf &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvfrsm; uG,fvGefrItwGufom tokH;jyK onhf y&dedAd (y&dedAÁKw) [laom a0g[m&udk at'D 10 &mpkwGif 2 bk&ifwpfyg; uG,fvGefrIudk &nfñTef;í tokH;jyKcJhonf / xdkenf;twkdif;yif twdtustm;jzihf Ak'¨0g'D&[ef;awmfwpf yg;udkom &nfñTef;okH;EIef;&onhf vat-himi (OyZÑm,omrd) [l aom a0g[m&udk BuD;jrwfonhf av;pm;rIay;onhftaejzihf at'D 8 &mpkcefYrS pNyD; bk&ifrif;rsm;ESihf tkyfcsKyfolrsm;tm; ac: 3 a0:okH;EIef;cJhonf / 1

E.Z. I, p. 237, tumā pay sivur rak (nu.va)s.

2

E.Z. III, p. 76, 77, sataļosa piriniviyan bahanse.

3

þü Ak'¨\ oydwfawmfESihf ouFef;[lonf Ak'¨0g'udk udk,fpm;jyKonf/ t*Fvdyf bk&ihfbGJU (trnf) rSm ]Defender of the Faith = bmomw&m;udk umuG,fol} jzpfonf/

ykHpHtm;jzihf &móa[v (Rāssahela)ausmufpmudk ½Iyg/

E.Z. IV, p. 173, 174; Kirigallāva Pillar Ins. E.Z. II. p. 3-4; and BadullaPillar Ins. E.Z. III, p. 75; Kaļudiyapokuºda Ins. E.Z. III, p. 258-269, 264-266. a0aMurqif;*f (Wickremasinghe) u vat-himi onf ]ypönf;ydkif&Sif}

[k t"dyÜm,f&onfh vastu-svāmin odkYr[kwf ]bmoma&; udpörsm;udk ñTefMum;ol}[k t"dyÜm,f&onhf vātta-svamin [laomouúwpmvkH; rsm;rS qif;oufa0g[m&rsm; jzpfzG,f&SdaMumif; qdkonf (E.Z. I, p 35, n. 7.)/ y&e0dwe url qif;oufpum;vkH;rsm;ESihf ywfoufí wpfpkHw&m rSwfcsufjyKjcif;r&Sd (E.Z. III, p. 86.)/ au ynmudwåd (K. Paňňākitti) rax&f\ vat-himi onf ]OyZÑmomrd}rS qif;oufa0g[m&jzpf\[k qdk aom rSwfcsufrSm vufcHEdkifzG,f t&SdqkH;jzpfonf/ at'D 10 &mpkwGif a&;om;cJhonhf The Dhampiyā-Aµuvā-Gǎµapadaya usrf; (pm-116? aMumif;a& 10)wGif upajjhāyavatta½ a0g[m&udk ]vat teranaµa kaµayuiu vat}[k edó,jyefqdkxm;onf/ wpfzef ,if;usrf; (pm-153? aMumif;a& 14) wGifyif aAv|oDotrnfESihfywf oufí ]Ānanda mahaterun vajateru Belaµµhas²sa mahaterun.}[kqdkonf/

Ak'¨0g' EdkifiHawmfbmom jzpfvmjcif;

145

xkH;wrf;pOfvm[k t"dyÜm,f&aom oD[dkVfpum;vkH; Sirit ESihf ygVd a0g[m& pm&dwonf tpOftvmüyg0ifaom ,aeYacwf Oya' [laom t"dyÜm,fjzihf okH;EIef;onhf pum;vkH; rsm;jzpfMuonf/ azmfjyNyD; erlemrsm;rS EdkifiHawmf Oya'\ wpfpdwfwpfa'o tjzpf todtrSwfjyKcJhNyD; bk&ifrif;rsm; csrSwfcJhonhf bmoma&; tpOftvmrsm;ESihf usihfxkH;rsm;&SdaMumif; xif&Sm;pGm awGUjrifEdkif onf/ ,if;xkH;wrf;rsm;udk oD[dkVfvlrsKd;jzpfap '&mAD'D,efvlrsKd; jzpfap oD[dkVfbk&ifrsm;taejzifh av;pm; vdkufemcJhMu&onf/ {Vm&rwdkifrD tEk&m"yk&NrdKUü ESpf 30 cefY tkyfcsKyfcJhonhf aoeESihf *kwådv[laom wrDvfrif; ESpfa,mufonfyif Ak'¨0g'D rsm; jzpfcJhykH&onf/ ¤if;wdkY\ tkyfcsKyfrIudk &nfñTef;&mwGif r[m 1 0Housrf; ü "ar®e ]w&m;ojzihf} [laom a0g[m&udk okH;xm; jcif;rSm ¤if;wdkYonf Ak'¨0g'Drsm;taejzihf odkYr[kwf tenf;qkH; Ak'¨ 0g'xkH;pHrsm;ESihftnD EdkifiHawmfudk tkyfcsKyfcJhaMumif; qdkvdk&m a&mufonf/ Ak'¨0g'Dr[kwfol tjcm;wpfa,muftaejzihf rnfodkY "r®ESihftnD tkyfcsKyfEdkifygrnfenf;/ wd&dpämeftqihfrQ ,lqcH& onfh rdpäm'd|dwpfa,mufonf rnfodkYvQif "r®ESihftnD tkyfcsKyf Ekdifrnfenf;/ ck'´yg&dE´ (Khudda-Pārinda) rif;\ rdzk&m; (at'D 5 &mpk)\ ausmif;wkdufwpfcktm; vª'gef;rIudk rSwfwrf;wifonhf ausmuf 2 pm wpfckwGif wrD;vfvlrsKd;jzpfol rdrd\cifyGef;onftm; Ak'¨'go ck'´ yg&dE´[k azmfjyxm;onf/ ]Ak'¨\tvkyftauR;}[k t"dyÜm,f& onf Ak'¨'go[laom pum;vkH;udk twdtus &nfñTef;í okH;EIef; xm;jcif;rSm ck'´yg&dE´onf Ak'¨bmom0if odkYr[kwf tenf;qkH; ,if;odkYjzpfvdkol wpfa,mufjzpfaMumif; oufaojyonf/ ¤if;udk qufcHol yg&dE´onfvnf; t&*gr&Sd ¤if;a&;xdk;cJhaom ausmuf pmwGif Ak'¨bmombkef;BuD;ausmif; wpfausmif;odkY ¤if;\ vª'gef; 1 2

r[m0Ho? 21? 11/ E.Z. IV, p. 114.


146 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

1

Ak'¨0g' EdkifiHawmfbmom jzpfvmjcif; 2

rIrsm;udk rSwfwrf;wifcJhonf / uw&*gr&Sd aemuf ausmufpm 3 wpfckwGif wd&dw& (Tiritara) \om;jzpfol 'gxd,onf uw& *gr&Sd r*Fvr[mapwD (,aeYacwf ud&da0a[&) tm; vª'gef; axmufyHhrIwpfckudk xnhfoGif; azmfjyxm;onf/ 'gXd,[lonf yg&dE´ESihf ck'´uyg&dE´[laom wlnDonhf 4 wrD;vf rif;qufü yg0ifonf/ y&e0dwe ynm&Sif u at'D 5 &mpkukefxd 27 ESpfywfvkH; tEk&m"yk&NrdKUü tkyfcsKyfcJhaom ,if; 5 wrD;vf rif;om;rsm;onf Ak'¨0g'Drsm;jzpfonf[k ,lqonf / pwkw¬ t*¾aAm"drif;xHwGif cpm;cJhMuonhf aygw¬ukw¬ESifh r[m uE´uJhodkYaom wrD;vfvlrsKd; t&m&Sdrsm;pGmwdkYonfvnf; 0d[m& (ausmif;wdkufrsm;) aqmufvkyfNyD; bkef;awmfBuD;ausmif;rsm;udk 6 axmufyHhcJhMuaMumif; od&onf / uE´Dacwf '&mAD'D,ef bk&if rsm;onf a&S;acwf oD[dkVfbk&ifrsm;\ pHerludk vdkufemvsuf Ak'¨ 0g'udk ,kHMunfaMumif; aMunmí Ak'¨0g'xkH;pHrsm;udk apmihfxdef; NyD; Ak'¨0g'udk axmufyHhchJMuonfrSm tvGefxif&Sm;onf/ bk&ifrif;tm; omrefOyoumrsm;wGif xnhfoGif;aomfvnf; ¤if;wdkY\ &mxl;rSm vlomrefwdkEY Sifh tawmftwefjcm;em;onf/ okwåefrsm;wGif jrwfAk'¨ESihf puú0wådrif;wdkYudk xyfwleD;yg; owf 1 3

2

,if;? twGJ 3? pm-218/ ,if;ausmufpmwGifazmfjyonhf r['Vdr[em(Mahadaļi Mahanā)ESihf ¤if;\zcif o&w&, (Sarataraya)wdkYudk 'gXduESihf wd&dw& tjzpf (ynm&Sif) y&e0dweu ESpfoufzG,f taMumif;jycsufrsm; ay;xm; onf (CJSc. G. Vol. II, p.181. udk½Iyg)/

E.Z. IV, p. 113.

4

E.Z. IV, 114.

5

xdkYjyif uREfkyfwdkYtaejzihf ,if;ausmufpmrsm;rS tqdkyg wrD;vfvlrsKd; bk&ifrsm;onf Ak'¨0g'Drsm;jzpfonfomru wkdif;oljynfom; rsm;ESihf ydkrdk eD;pyfNyD; wpfxyfwnf;jzpfap&ef (¤if;wdkY oD[dkVfudk tkyfcsKyfaepOf twGif;) ¤if;wdkY\ udk,fydkiftrnfrsm;wGif tb,ESihf r[mem*uJhodkY aom oD[dkVf bGJUemrnfrsm;udkvnf; xnhfoGif;cJhMuonf/ r[m0Ho? 46? 19-23/

6

147

rSwfxm;onf/ 'DCedum,fvm vu©PokwfwGif Ak'¨rSma&m puú0wådrif;rSmyg ESpfrsKd;vkH;ü r[myk&dovu©Pm okH;q,fhESpfyg; ESifh jynfhpkHMuaMumif; azmfjyonf/ tqdkyg r[myk&dovu©Pm 32 yg;ESihf jynfhpkHolonf tdrf&mwnfaxmif vlwdkYabmifü aeyg u puú0wådrif; jzpfrnf? tu,fí olonf vlYabmifudk pGefYcGm vQifrl Ak'¨jzpfvmvdrfhrnf/ t*Fkwå&edum,fü xdkyk*¾Kdvfrsm;onf vltrsm; aumif;usKd;csrf;omtwGuf arG;zGm;vmonfh yk*¾Kdvfxl; rsm;jzpfNyD; xdkyk*¾KdvfESpfrsKd;vkH;rSm xlyg&[ (apwDwnfxdkufol) 1 rsm;jzpfMuaMumif; azmfjyxm;onf / emrfavmuwpfckvkH;udk Ak'¨ &Sifawmfjrwfu pdk;rdk;xm;csdefwiG f puú0wådrif;onf avmuDykxk ZOfavmu\ pHjyr[mtkyfcsKyfolbk&if jzpfonf/ ,if;xifjrif ,lqcsufwGif tajccHvsuf omref bk&ifwpfyg;udkyif tjcm; omrefvlom;rsm;xuf rsm;pGmydkvGefonhftqihfudk ay;xm;onf/ odkYjzpfí Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfu &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; bk&ifwdkY\ ñTef 2 Mum;csufrsm;udk vkdufem&ef rdefYrSmaMumif; awGU&onf / odkYjzpfí oD[dkVfbk&iftm; Ak'¨omoemudk umuG,fapmihf a&Smufonfh avmuDa&;&m acgif;aqmiftjzpf ,lqcH&onfrSm tawmf obm0usygonf/ at'D 10 &mpkwGif pwkw¬ajrmuf r[dE´bk&ifu ]Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ qGrf;cHoydwfESihf ouFef;awmf udk umuG,f&ef &nf½G,fcsufjzihf} cwåd,onf bk&ifjzpfvm\[k 1

2

tH 1? 567/ r[my&dedAÁmeokwfawmfü xlyg&[ (apwDwnfxdkufol) ig;rsKd;azmfjyonf/ wxm*w? yapöuAk'¨? (t&d,m jzpfNyD;onhf Ak'¨\ om0u? puú0wåd&mZ wdkYjzpfonf ('D2? 117)/ Manusmŗti usrf;t& bk&if[lonf vla,mifzefqif;xm;onfh BuD;jrwfonhf ewfa'0gjzpfNyD; ouf&Sdowå0g tm;vkH;xuf xl;jcm;vGefjrwfonf (Manu. V, 93-94; 9697; VII, 4-13.)/ tEkZmemrd bdu©a0 &mZleH tEk0wådwkH (0d 3? 193)/ þü t|uxm zGifhqdkcsufrSm ]0gqdk0guyf xkwfjyefcsufESifh tjcm;aom "r®ESihfnDonhf ñTefMum;csufrsm;udkom vdkufem&ef vdkNyD; rnfonhf t"r®udpöudkrQ vdkufem&ef rvdkacs (0d-| 3? 350)} [k jzpfonf (bmomjyefol)/


152 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

1

vnf;qdkonf / t&Sifr[mwdó rax&fu 0¥*grPdESihf ¤if;\ ppfolBuD;rsm;tMum; eufeuf½Idif;½Idif; jzpfay:vmrnfh tusKd;quf 2 udk Nidrf;csrf;apykHtaMumif; jzpf&yfwpfck&Sdonf / "mwkaoerif; tm; rax&fwpfyg;u arG;pm;NyD; bk&ifjzpfvmatmif ynmoif 3 ay;cJhonf / MoZmcHbk&if r[dE´onf 'kwd, aoerif; (at'D 851-885) ESihf oabmwl vufrSwfxdk;&ef pdk;&drfaeaomtcg r[dE´rif;onf rdrd\ awmif;qdkcsufudk axmufcH&ef ¤if;ESifhtwl 4 &[ef;awmfrsm;udkyihfaqmifoGm;cJhonf / bk&ifrif;rsm;tm; tMuH ay; qkH;roltjzpf aqmif½GufcJhMuonfh yk*¾vdurax&frsm;ESifh 5 ywfoufonhf om"u trsm;tjym; &Sdonf / wpfcgwpf&HwGif &[ef;awmfrsm;onf tem*wfrif;om;rsm; a½G;cs,fjcif;ESihf ¤if;wdkYESpfoufonhf rif;om;rsm;udk axmufyHh jcif;? xD;eef;qufcHrI Oya'udk csKd;azmufjcif;txdyif aqmif½Guf Muonf/ o'¨gwdórif; uG,fvGef (bDpD 59) aomtcg EdkifiH awmf 0efBuD;rsm;onf xdk (bk&ifwifa`rSmufjcif;) udpötwGuf xlyg½kHausmif;wkdufü tpnf;ta0; jyKcJhMuonhf oHCmawmfrsm; \ oabmwlnDcsufjzihf (w&m;0if xD;eef;udk qufcHcGifh&Sdol) vZÆDwdóxuf ydkrdkESpfoufjcif;cH&ol xkv’xe (Thullatthana) udk 6 eef;wifcJhMuonf / &[ef;awmfrsm;onf yxr arm*¾v’merif; (at'D 496-516) tm; ¤if;\ ppfwyfrsm;udk bkef;BuD;ausmif; 7 wpfckü pnf;½kH;&ef cGifhjyKcJhMuNyD; arm*¾v’merif;u yxr uóy rif;udk atmifyGJ&NyD;aemuf xdkrif;tm; oHCmawmfrsm;u r[m 8 0d[m& ausmif;wkdufü crf;em;pGm BudKqdkcJhMuonf / 3

2 4 6

7

r[m0Ho? 24? 49-57/ ,if;odkY avQmufjcif;rSm avmu0wfpum; qdk jcif;ayavm/ 3 ,if;? 28? 71-77/ ,if;? 28/ 16/ 5 ,if; 51; 14/ Oyrm? r[m0Ho 42;22/ 46;6/ ,if;? 28? 17? 18/ odkYwap ,if; Mum;0ifaqmif½GufrIrSm &Sm;&Sm;yg; yg;jzpfNyD; w&m;0if bk&if\ trsuf&Sjcif;udk cHcJh&onf/ 8 ,if;? 39? 21/ ,if;? 39? 29-31/

Ak'¨0g' EkdifiHawmfbmom jzpfvmjcif;

149

avmuDrIudk acgif;aqmifolESihf Ak'¨0g'udk umuG,foltjzpf Ak'¨ omoemawmftm; aumif;pGm apmihf&efrSm bk&ifrif;wdkY\ t"du wm0efrsm;teuf wpfckjzpfonf/ odkYjzpfívnf; bk&ifrif;rsm; t aejzihf Ak'¨omoemawmftwGif; pnf;vkH;rIr&Sd odkYr[kwf tusifh odu©mysufjym;jcif; &SdaerIESihf BuKH&onhftcgwdkif; Ak'¨omoem awmf pifMu,foefY&Sif;a&;ü bk&ifrif;rsm; yg0ifywfoufaeonf 1 udk rMumcP awGUMu&onf / Ak'¨omoem\ pifMu,frIudk npf nL;apaom tvdkr&Sdtyfonhf rSm;,Gif;onhf tcsufrsm;ukd Oya' t& odkYwnf;r[kwf okwfoif&Sif;vif;jcif;jzihf ESdrfeif;&efrSm EdkifiH awmf\wm0ef jzpfonf/ oHCmtcsif;csif; vG,fulpGm ajz&Sif;í r&Edkifonhf oHCmhtjiif;yGm;rIrsm; jzpfay:vmwkdif; Mum;0ifajz &Sif;ay;&efvnf; bk&if\ wm0efjzpfonf/ ,if;odkYjzihf bk&if uPd&ZmEkwd ó (89-92 at'D) onf apwd,*d&d&Sd Oykof wGif ]tm,o®awm tmeE´ó OyZÑma,m aAv| oDaom (0d 2? 116)} [kvmonf/ at'D 12 &mwGif a&;om;onhf "r® jy'Dydum (oD[dkVf)usrf;(pm-293)ü vadǎjuran [laom oD[dkVfa0g[m& udk OyZÑmp&d,[laom t"dyÜm,fjzifh okH;xm;onf/ at'D 14 &mpkcefY vuf&mjzpfonhf r[m½lyod'¨o'´e,usrf; (pm-267)wGif OyZÑm,ó udk ]vajādurange}[k (oD[dkVfbmom) edó, jyefonf/ at'D 14 &mpk ukefcgeD;wGif a&;om;onhf edum,o*F[ (oD[dkVf)usrf; (pm-12) wGif vat-terun oD[dkVfa0g[mudk OyZÑm,aw¬& t"dyÜm,fjzihf okH;onf/ a0g[m& wpfvkH;csif;pDudk teufjyefqdkonhf a&S;a[mif; oD[dkVfbmom sanna (edó,) usrf;rsm;wGif ygVdoufa0g[m&ykHpHudk rl&if;ygVd odkYr [kwf ouúwudk edó,jyefqdk&ef jzpfEdkifonhf ae&mwdkif;ü tokH;jyK onfudk owd&oifhonf/ azmfjyNyD; txufygom"ursm;t& vaja, vada, vat ykHpHrsm;rSm OyZÑm, odkYr[kwf OyZÑrS qif;oufaMumif; awGU Edkifonf/ 'kwd,ajrmuf "edwtoHxGuf\ a&SUü&Sdonhf yxr &ó o&wpfvkH;udk jzKwfjcif;rSm oD[dkVfbmompum;ü tjzpfrsm;onf/ *dkif*g\ A Grammar of the Sinhalese Language, p. 34. udk ½Iyg/ ykHpHtm;jzihf a0g[m&duwdó? a*gXmb,? yxr arm*¾v’me? wwd, arm*¾v’me? odvmarC0PÖ? owår t*¾aAm"d ESihf 'kwd,ajrmuf aoerif; (wdkYjzpfonf)/ Cf. Pācit. p. 87

1


150 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

aqmif (odrf)ü oHCmhtjiif;yGm;rIESihf ywfoufí tqkH;tjzwf 1 ay;ol tjzpf wuf<upGm yg0ifcJhaMumif; od&onf / vlomref wpfa,muf oHCmhudpöESihfywfoufí tqkH;tjzwfay;&ef Oykof aqmif (odrf)twGif; 0ifcJh&onfhtcsufrSm xl;qef;onf/ odkYw ap bk&iftaejzifh ,if;udpöudk OykofaqmiftwGif;üom qkH;jzwf 2 cJhonfrSm aocsmonf / bk&ifonf odrftwGif;odkY oHCmawmf rsm;\ zdwfMum;rIaMumifh 0ifcJhoavm odkYwnf;r[kwf rdrd\ oabmtwdkif; 0ifcJhoavm[ludkrl twdtus rod&acs/ rnfodkY yif jzpfEdkifap? Ak'¨omoemawmftm; vlOyoum OD;aqmifol wpfa,muftaejzihf bk&ifwGif oHCmhudpöudk qkH;jzwfay;&ef trdefYtmPm trSefwu,f&SdcJh odkYr[kwf &Sdonf[k rdrdzmom 3 ,lqcJhonfrSm aocsmonf / r[maoerif; vufxuftwGif; aZw0e0d[m&udk tvªcHcJhonfh wdórax&ftm; w&m;a&;0ef 4 BuD;u vl0wfvJcJhonf / tqdkyg wdórax&ftm; oHCm (trsm;pk) u yg&mZdutmywfjzihf pGJqdkrIrSefuefaMumif; oufao jycJhaomfvnf; oHCmonf bk&ifhtultnDrygbJ xdkyk*¾Kdvftm; 5 vl0wfvJ&ef trdefYtmPm r&Sdacs / bk&ifonf ]Ak'¨omoemudk umuG,fol}jzpfaomfvnf; bk&ihf ulnDrI tcGifhtmPmrSm oHCmawmftm; ulnD tvkyftauR;jyK &efomjzpfonf/ bk&ifhtaejzihf oHCmhqE´udk qefYusifí twif; tMuyf vkyf&ef trdefYtmPm r&Sdacs/ ykHpHtm;jzihf odvmarC 0PÖrif; (617-626 at'D) r[m0d[m&oHCmtm; tb,*d&d 2 r[m0Ho 35;10-11/ r[m0Ho#D? pm-640/ bk&ihfvkyfaqmifrIudk oHCmxktm;vkH; oabmwlnDjcif; r&Sdaomfvnf; oHCmtrsm;pk\ oabmwlnDrI&SdcaJh Mumif; rSwf,loifhonf/ 4 r[m0Ho? 37? 39/ 5 yÍör uóyrif; (913-923)vufxuf tEk&m"yk&NrdKU&Sd ausmufxGif; pmt& oHCmtcsif;csif; rajyNidrf;Edkifonfhtcgwdkif; Ak'¨ omoemha&; &m tjiif;yGm;rIrsm;wGif EdkifiHawmf\ tqihfjrihft&m&Sdrsm; yg0ifywf oufrI&SdcJhaMumif;vnf; od&onf (E.Z. I, p. 44.)/

Ak'¨0g' EkdifiHawmfbmom jzpfvmjcif;

151

oHCmESifhtwl OykoftwljyK&ef awmif;yefaomtcg r[m0d[m& oHCmonf bk&ihfawmif;yefrIudk vdkufavsm&ef jiif;qdkcJhNyD; bk&if 1 onf rdrd\ qE´twdkif;aqmif½Guf&ef tmPm r&SdjzpfcJh&onf / aemufwpfBudrfwGif r[m0d[m&oHCmonf 'kwd,'gaXmywdó rif;tm; Oyoumwpfa,muftay: tBuD;rm;qkH; apmfum;rI jzpfonhf ywåedukZÆe (oydwfarSmufjcif;) uHudk jyKMuonf/ (odkY 2 wap) bk&ifonf r[m0d[m&oHCm\ qE´udk qefYusifcJhonf / bmoma&;ESifh t,ltqa&;&mrsm;ESihfywfoufí oHCmxk ESihf bk&ifrif;wdkYtMum; &Hzef&Hcg oabmwlnDrIrsm; r&SdcJhaomf vnf; EdkifiHa&;ESihf avmuDvlrIa&;udpöESihf ywfoufírl ,if;wdkY tMum; y#dyu©r&SdcJhonfrSm xif&Sm;onf/ &[ef;awmfrsm; tae jzihf udk,fwdkif wdkuf½kduf EdkifiHa&;tmPmudk &,l&ef BudK;pm;rI vkH;0 &SdcJhykHr&acs/ odkYaomf oHCmawmfrsm;onf rdrdwdkY\ tvdk qE´twdkif; aqmif½Guf&ef qGJaqmifEdkifaom bk&iftm; ulnD axmufyHh&ef ¤if;wdkY\ t&Sdeft0gudk tNrJwrf; tokH;jyKcJhMuonf/ odkYwap EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm; tcsif;csif;ESihf bk&ifa½G;cs,frI udkyif ajyNidrf;atmifaqmif½Guf&mü t"duae&mwGif yg0ifMu onhf &[ef;awmfrsm;taMumif; azmfjycsufrsm;&Sdonf/ a*g"*wå wdórax&f 'k|*grPdESihf tpfudkrif;om;wdkY tcsif;csif; jzpfyGm; onhf jynfwGif;ppfudk Nidrf;at;aponf/ 'k|*grPdonf rax&f jrwftm; þxufapmpD;pGm Nidrf;csrf;a&;vkyf&ef rdrdwdkYnDtpfudk ESpfa,muftm; rdefYMum;rI rjyKjcif;tay: tjypfwifNyD; touf ckepfESpft½G,f omraPi,fonfyif ppfyGJudk &yfpJapEdkifrnf[k

1 3

1 2

r[m0Ho 44;80/ ,if; 45;31/ r[m0Housrf;wGif 'gaXmywdó\ emrusef;jzpfrIESihf aemufqkH; uG,fvGefonfxd jzpf&jcif;wdkYrSm oHCmhqE´udk qefYusif onhf vkyf&yfaMumihf jzpf&onfrSm aocsmaMumif;ESihf ¤if;\ awmif; qdkrIudk vkdufavsm&ef ysufuGufrItay: oHCmawmftm; rSm;,Gif; onf[k ¤if;jrifaomaMumifh jzpfaMumif; azmfjyxm;onf/


156 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; 1

{Vm&rif; r[dE¦avht&yfrS xGufajy;&pOf ¤if;\ vSnf;bD;onf apwDawmftm; tenf;i,f xdcdkufapcJhonf/ 0efBuD;rsm;u jzpf ysufcJhykHudk rif;BuD;tm; avQmufxm;Muonf/ tm;vkH;tay: nD rQrIESihf bk&iftkyfcsKyfa&; rQwrIwdkYtwGuf ausmfMum;onhf bk&if rif;w&m;onf csufjcif;yif vSn;f &xm;ay:rS qif;NyD; vrf;ay: wGif 0rf;vsm;arSmufvsuf ]þ&xm;bD;jzihfyif ighOD;acgif;udk vnf; jzwfypfyg}[k qdkonf/ odkYwap 0efBuD;rsm;u jrwfAk'¨onf tjcm;yk*¾Kdvftm; xdckdufepfemrIudk vkH;0 tvdk&Sdawmfrrlyg[k avQmufNyD; xdcdkufoGm;onhf ysupf D;rIudk jyefvnfjyKjyifNyD; tjypf udkcH,l&ef awmif;yefMuonf/ þjzpf&yfjzihf a&S;acwf oD[dkVfü 0wfjyK&Sdcdk;&m Ak'¨ae&mawmfrsm;udk ysufpD;atmif vkyfjcif;twGuf ao'Pfay;aMumif; azmfjyonf/ trSefpifppf Ak'¨omoemonf tjynfht0apmifha&Smifhxm; aom EdkifiHawmfqdkif&m Xmewpfckyifjzpfonf/ yk*¾KdvfwpfOD;wpf a,mufESifh jynfoltrsm;onf tenf;pktwdkif;twmjzihf ausmif; wdkufrsm; wnfaqmufNyD; xdef;odrf;apmihfa&SmifhMuaomfvnf; Ak'¨ omoemawmf\ pifMu,foefY&Sif;rIudk umuG,fjcif;ESihf oHCm awmfrsm;ESihf bkef;BuD;ausmif;wkdufrsm;udk xdef;odrf;apmihfa&Smuf jcif;wdkYrSm t"dutm;jzihf EdkifiHawmf\ wm0efrsm;jzpfMuonf/ r[dEÅavhESihf tb,*d&duJhodkYaom ydkrdk BuD;us,fonhf ausmif; wdkufrsm;ESihf ywfoufonfrsm;udk apmihfa&Smuf&efrl EdkifiHawmfu vª'gef;onhf tjynhftpkH tNrJXmersm; &SdMuonf/ ,if;Xmersm;udk oHCmawmf\ oabmwlnDcsufjzihf bk&ifucsrSwfonhf pnf;rsOf; 2 pnf;urf;rsm;jzihf tkyfcsKyfxm;onf / ukefypönf;ESifhqdkifonhf tcGefrsm;udkyif omoemawmf xdef; odrf;apmihfa&Smufa&;twGuf pnf;Muyfxm;onf/ a&S;a[mif; r [mygVd wnf&SdcJhonhfae&mwGif awGU&aom avmif;avSwGif awGU 1 2

r[m0Ho 21;22-25/ E.Z. I p. 84, 115, 232.

Ak'¨0g' EkdifiHawmfbmom jzpfvmjcif; 153 at'D 10 &mpkwGif bk&ifhta&;udk wdkifyifaqG;aEG;cJhonhf oHCmawmfrsm; &SdcJhaMumif; azmfjyxm;onfudkyif awGU&onf/ ,if;azmfjycsufrSm oHCmtaejzihf EdkifiHawmf vlxktjrifudk udk,f pm;jyKjcif;tjzpf ,lqcJhaMumif; azmfjyonf/ aZw0efausmif; ausmufjym; a&;om;csuft& pwkw¬ r[dE´rif;onf aAm"dowå (bk&m;avmif;) rsm;jzpfMuonfh oD&dvuFmbk&ifrsm;um; ]oydwf awmfESihf ouFef;awmfudk umuG,f&eftvdkYiSm r[moHCm (&[ef; oHCmxkBuD;) u ay;tyfonhf bk&ihfpnf;pdrfudk &&SdNyD;aemuf bdodufcH tcrf;tem;aeYrSmyif bdu©KoHCmtm; tvkyftauR;jyK 1 apmihfa&Smuf&ef} tpOftvm&SdMu\[k xkwfjyefcJhonf / ,if;jzpf &yfrSm bk&ifwpfyg; xD;eef;&&Sda&;wGif oHCmawmfrsm;\ axmuf cHrIudk r&SdrjzpfvdktyfaMumif; xif&Sm;pGm azmfjyonf/ aESmif; acwfrsm;wGifvnf; bk&ifcefYtyfrIESihf ywfoufí ta&;ygonhf 2 tcef;wGif qufvufí yg0ifcJhMuonf / bk&ifrif;rsm;taejzihf Nidrf;csrf;atmifjrifonhf tpdk;&wpf &yf jzpfa&;twGuf &[ef;oHCmawmfrsm;\ ESvkH;om;udk&,l&ef tav;*½kjyK&onftxd vlxktay: oHCm;awmfrsm;\ MoZm oufa&mufrI BuD;rm;cJhonf/ oHCmawmfrsm;\ axmufcHrI&&SdrS om vlxkMunfñdk axmufcHrIudk &&Sdonf/ 'k|*grPdrif;onf 1

2

E.Z. I, p. 234, 237, 240: tumã pay sivur rak (nu-vq)s Mahasañghupiļiǎvyũ rajsiri pãmiã sãnã bisev vindna (da)vas mahasañg-haµ meheyaµ uvasar-vas.

ykHpHtm;jzihf r[m0Ho tcef; 49? 1-3 *gxmrsm;wGif yxr 0dZ,Am [krif; (at'D 1055-1114) uG,fvGefNyD;aemuf uG,fvGefol bk&ifh ESrawmf? ¤if;\ om;okH;a,muf? EdkifiHawmf 0efBuD;rsm;ESihf oHCmawmf rsm;onf twlwuG pnf;a0;MuNyD; wpfnDwpfñGwfwnf;yif udk,f pm;jyKbk&if (sub-king) tm; xD;eef;tyfcJhMuonf/ &mZm"d &mZoD[ rif; uG,fvGefNyD;aemuf uE´D\ aemufqkH;bk&if wifa`rSmufrIudk EdkifiHawmf 0efBuD;csKyfrsm;? oHCem,uq&mawmfrsm;ESihf a'o qdkif&m tkyfcsKyfa&;rª;rsm; yg0ifonhf tpnf;ta0;u jyKvkyfay;cJh onf (Davy \ Travels in Ceylon, p. 159 udk ½Iyg/)


154 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

Ak'¨0g' EkdifiHawmfbmom jzpfvmjcif;

155

],if;("mwfawmfrsm;ESihfoHCmawmf)wdkYtm; zl;jrif&jcif;rSm r*Fvm 1 &SdNyD; tumtuG,f t&Htwm; jzpfaomaMumifh} [kqdkNyD; ppfcsD pOf vSHwHzsm;wGif Ak'¨"mwfawmfrsm; xnfhoGif;vsuf oHCmawmf rsm;tm; ppfcsD&modkYyifhzdwfcJhjcif;rSm xdktaMumif;aMumihf jzpfzG,f &Sdonf/ 'kwd, r[dE´rif; (at'D 772-792)onf a&m[eudk qefYusifwdkufcdkufa&; tpDtpOfwpf&yf pwifrnfjyK aomtcg xlyg&mr ausmif;wdkufwGif ]&[ef;awmfrsm;ESihf ynm&Sdyk*¾Kdvf tm; vkH;udk} pnf;a0;ac:,lvdkufNyD; rdrd\ ppfa&; tpDtrHtwGuf 2 tMuHÓPfrsm;udk &,lcJhonf / aemufwpfenf;qdk&aomf rif;BuD; onf ,if;enf;jzihf rdrd\ ppfa&;tpDtrHESihfywfoufí jynfolY axmufcHrIESihf av;pm;cspfcifrIudk aocsmapcJhonf/ xD;eef;wufNyD;aemuf bk&ifwpfyg; yxrqkH;jyKaomt&mrSm tvª'gejyKjcif;? (omoemawmftm;) ylaZmfaxmufyHh&ef (oHCm awmfrsm;tm;) avQmufxm;jcif;? crf;em;onhf yGJawmfrsmudk usif; yonhf bkef;BuD;ausmif;wkdufrsm;tm; taqmufttkHrsm; wnf aqmufjcif; odkYr[kwf jyefvnfjyKjyifjcif;rsm;jzifh ¤if;\ bmom w&m;tay:pdwf0ifpm;rIudk jyo&efjzpfonf/ rlvu EdkifiHawmf\ avmuDa&;&mudpöjzpfonhf bk&ifwdkY\ tbdodufcHjcif;onf aemiftcg bmoma&; tcrf;tem;ykHpH 3 toGifodkY ajymif;vJoGm;cJhonf/ r[m0Ho#Dumusrf;wGif tqdkyg EdkifiHawmf vkyfaqmifrIESihf ywfoufonhf pdwf0ifpm;zG,f tao; pdwfwpfcsKdUudk azmfjyxm;onf/ tbdodufcH tcrf;tem;twGuf tokH;jyKrnfh rif;a`rSmufwefqmrsm; xnfhonhfcGufrsm;udk jrifhjrwf onhfae&mrsm; jzpfonfh txl;ae&m ckepfrsKd;rS &,lxm;onhf ajr nufjzifh jyKvkyfonf/ ,if;cGufjyKvkyf&ef ajrnufudk r[maAm"d? aMu;jymo'f? y*krÜrmvu? r[mapwD (½k0rfAmvdqm,) wdkY\

ajrmufzufavSum; qif;rsm;rSjzpfap odkYr[kwf pwkómvm ajrmufwHcg;atmufrSjzpfap? odkYr[kwf &[ef;oHCmrsm; ouFef; vSef;&ef tokH;jyKonfh orkZÆ0 (Samujjava) [k ac:onhf cef;r aqmif 0ifayguf avSum;ae&mrSjzpfap &,lavh&Sdonf/ azmfjyyg ae&mrsm;&Sd avSum;rsm;\atmufrS ajrnufrsm;udk ,l&rnf[l aom txl;owfrSwfcsufjzihf bk&ifwpfyg;\ tbdodufcHjcif;udk bmoma&;qdkif&m crf;em;rIwpfck &SdaMumif; ,lqaMumif; txif t&Sm; azmfjyonf/ aemufqkH;taejzihf 9 &mpk wGif tbdodufcH tcrf;tem;udk bkef;BuD;ausmif;rSmyif usif;yykH&onf/ ykHpHtm; jzihf 'kwd,aoerif;(at'D 851-885)onf ¤if;\ tbdodufudk r[mapwDawmfwGif usif;ycJhNyD; ,if;tcrf;tem;udk ESpfpOf usif; 1 y&rnf[kpma&;NyD; wdk;`rSihfowfrSwfcJhonf / tajccHOya'ü Ak'¨0g'yg0ifrt I ajctaerSm Ak'¨omoemudk qefYusifonhf vkyf&yfudk tqihfjrihfopömazmufrItjzpf owfrSwf onftxd jyif;xefcJhonf/ odkYjzihf wrD;vfvlrsKd;wdkY tkyfcsKyfaepOf twGif; "mwkaoerif;(at'D 460-478)udk qefYusifaom ppf &mZ0wfom;rsm;ESihf ywfoufonhf jzpf&yfrSm ]¤if;wdkYonf bk&if 2 udka&m Ak'¨omoemudkyg apmifha&SmufcJhjcif;r&Sd}[k jzpfonf / xdkYjyif o&PuF&oHC&mZm OD;aqmifonhf uE´DNrdKU rmv 0wåcsmwmrS udkvHbdk&Sd 'wfcsftkyfcsKyf a&;rª; azmufcf(Falk 17651785)xH ay;ydkYonhf (azmfjyNyD;) taxmuftxm;rS a&S;acwf oD[dkVf Oya' t&]apwDawmfrsm;ESihf aAm"dyifrsm;udk zsufqD;ol rsm;? omoemydkifypönf;udk vk,ufolrsm;rSm ao'Pfay;xdkuf\} 3 [k od&onf / ,if;Oya'onf bDpD 2 &mpkavmuf apmonhf tcsdefuyif tmPmouf a&mufrI&SdcJhaMumif; ,kHMunfEdkifavmuf onhf taxmuftxm;rsm; &Sdonf/ taMumif;rl tcgwpfyg;ü

1

1

2

2

r[m0Ho? 25? 1-4/ r*Fvm ap0 &u©m p? bdu©LeH 'óeH [d aem/ ,if;? 48? 126-127/ 3 r[m0Ho#D? pm-307/

3

r[m0Ho 40;82/ ,if;? 38? 38/ aw rH 0g omoeH 0g aem &u©ðok/ Prabhāsodaya, 1930, p. 19.


160 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; 1

ESpfyg;vkH;onf xD;eef;udk aocsmayguf &&SdcJhMuonf / a&S;acwfoD[dkVfwGif rxif&Sm;cJhonhf bk&ifrif;rsm;u EdkifiH awmftm; omoemawmfudk vª'gef;jcif;onf EdkifiHawmfonf Ak'¨ omoemawmftwGuf tvkyfonf[laom tajccHpnf;rsOf;\ t xdrf;trSwfvnf;jzpfonf/ a'0geHyd,wdóonf ¤if;\rif; t 2 jzpfudk r[maAm"dyiftm; vª'gef;cJhonf / 'k|*grPdonf ckepf &ufpD ig;BudrfpD Ak'¨omoemawmftm; oD[kdEdkifiH\ rif;tjzpf 3 ay;tyfcJhaMumif;od&onf / ,if;tcsdefwdkumvrsm;twGif; tpdk; &udk pDrHtkyfcsKyfcJhonfh enf;vrf;ESihfywfoufonhf owif;t csuftvufudk &EdkifvQif tvGefpdw0f ifpm;zG,faumif;ygvdrfhrnf/ bk&ifu xdktcsdeftwGif; bk&iftjzpfESifhywfoufonfudk aMu nmxm;NyD; tpdk;&tm; ykHrSeftwkdif; qufvufaqmif½Guf&ef cGifh jyKxm;jcif; jzpfEdkifzG,f&Sdonf/ odkY&mwGif tu,fí olykefoluef x<ujcif;uJhodkYaom tusKd;qufrsm;u bk&if\0ifa&mufaqmif ½Guf&rI rjzpfraevdktyfcJhvQif bk&iftaejzihf 0ifa&mufaqmif 4 ½Guf&ef tcsdefqGJaernf r[kwfacs / wdórif;onf oD[dkVfEdkifiH tm; umVAk'¨&u©dwrax&ftm; xdkrax&f a[mMum;aom w&m; 5 twGuf vª'gef;onhftaejzihf vª'gef;cJhonf / od&darC0PÖrif; 6 onf EdkifiHawmfwpfckvkH;udk pG,fawmf"mwftm; vª'gef;cJhonf / yxrarm*¾v’merif;onf tpfudk uórif;udk atmifEdkifNyD; aemuf r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkufodkYoGm;NyD; bk&iftjzpf\ oauF wjzpfonhf xD;jzLawmfudk oHCmawmftm; vª'gef;cJhaomfvnf; 1 2 3 4

5 6

r[m0Ho 42;42/ 44;1/ 43;64-65/ r[m0Ho 28;36/ ,if;? 31? 36? 90? 92? 111/ bk&ifonf ¤if;\tpdk;&ESihf ykHrSeftwdkif; tkyfcsKyfaepOf ,if;odkY vª'gef; jcif;rSm vkyf½dk;vkyfpOfrQom jzpfcJhavoavm/ r-| 2? 195/ 'gXm0Ho? tcef; 5? 360/

Ak'¨0g' EkdifiHawmfbmom jzpfvmjcif; 157 &onhf ausmufpm (10 &mpkjzpfzG,f&Sd) wGif ]þr[mygVdodkY NrdKU awmfodkY o,f,lvmonhf pyg;wpftdwfvQif wpfyw (pata)EIef; 1 o,f,lvm&rnf} [k aMunmxm;onf / Oykof (pôya)aeYrsm;ü ukefa&mif;ukef0,f vkyfjcif;udk Oya' jzihf wm;jrpfxm;onf/ odkY&mwGif ,if;odkY aeYrsm;ü ukefa&mif; ukef0,fjyKrl bmoma&;&nf½G,fcsufrsm;jzihf tokH;jyKrnfh 'PfaiG udk ay;aqmif&onf/ rlvu wwd,O',rif; (at'D 945953)vufxuf r[d,*FPteD;tem;wGif pdkufxlcJhonfh 10 &m 2 pkwGif a&;xdk;onhf ausmufpmwpfckwGif ]OykofaeYrsm;ü ukef a&mif;ukef0,fvkyfol rnfolrqdkonf rD;tvif;vª'gef;&ef qD wpfy'´ (padda) twkdif;twm ay;aqmif&rnf? ,if;qDrD; tvª udk r[d,*FPt&yf&Sd ausmif;wdkufBuD;ü vª'gef;rnf? qDjypf 'Pfud ay;aqmif&ef ysufuGufolrsm;rS a&S;a[mif;xkH;pHESihf tnD 'PfaiGrsm;aqmif&rnfjzpfNyD; ,if;udk rD;tvªtwGuf tokH;jyK& 3 rnf} [k azmfjyonf / bk&if;rsm;pGmwdkY xkwfjyefcJhonfh wd&dpämefrsm;udk rowf&[l aom rmCmw (Māghāta)trdefYrSm Ak'¨0g'ü oifMum;onhf t[ð omudk,fusifhw&m;wGif tajcjyKonhf bmoma&;oufouf jzpf onf/ rkqdk;vdkufNyD; toufarG;olrsm;&Sdonf/ ¤if;wdkYtaejzihf , 1

E.Z. III p. 133.

2

E.Z. III, p. 74. Badulla Pillar Inscription.

3

azmfjyyg Oya'rsm;ESihf xkH;pHtrsm;pkudk rsm;aomtm;jzihf 10 &mpkwGif ausmufwkH;ü a&;om;cJhaomfvnf; ,if;wdkYrSm a&S;acwfrsm; uyif vufawGU vdkufemNyD; jzpfaMumif; ,if;ausmufpmt& od&onf/ ykHpH r[m0Ho? 35? 6 - tmr@*grPdrif; (at'D 79-89)/ r[m0Ho 36? 28 – a0g[m&duwdórif; (at'D 269-291) jypf'Pftjzpf cE¨m udk,fudk ESdyfpufrIudk zsufodrf;/ rm0Ho 41? 30 – odvmumvrif; (at'D 524-537)/ r[m0Ho? 46? 3 - pwkw¬ t*¾aAm"d (at'D 658674)/ r[m0Ho 48? 23 – wwd,uóyrif; (at'D 717-724)/

4


158 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

cif toufarG;tvkyfudk pGefYNyD; topftvkyfrsm; vkyfMu&zG,&f Sd 1 onf / &[ef;awmfrsm;onf &[ef;awmfrsm;udk EdkifiHawmfu ¤if;wdkY \ pGrf;&nfESihf vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;ESihftnD csD;a`rSmufaxmufyhHrI 2 jyKonf / Ak'¨'gorif;onf xdkxdkt&yfa'o&Sd w&m;a[molrsm; \ vpmaiG ("r®bmPu0wåH)rsm;udk ñSday;NyD; xdkrif;onf ,if; "r® bmPuwdkYtm; tcGefESihftvkyftauR; (abma* uyÜd,um 3 &au)rsm; ay;aMumif;vnf; od&onf / a0g[m&duwdórif; 4 onf okH;odef; ay;NyD; &[ef;awmfrsm; ta<u;rS vGwfaponf / tdE´d,rS&&SdcJhonhf ta&;ygonhf Ak'¨"mwfawmftm;vkH;udk EdkifiHawmfydkiftjzpf ,lqcJhonf/ a'0geH yd,wdórif;vufxuf oD[dkVfodkY aqmif,lcJhonfh Ak'¨oydwfawmfudkrl eef;awmfxJrSmyif 5 odrf;qnf; xm;onf / 0¥*grPdrif;vufxuf wrD;vf usK;ausmf ol ckESpfa,mufteuf wpfa,mufonf Ak'¨oydwfawmftm; ¤if; wdkYESihftwl tdE´d,odkY ,laqmifoGm;NyD; aumif;pGm auseyfoGm;Mu onftxd Ak'¨oydwfawmfonf aemiftcg ta&;ygonhf EdkifiH 6 awmfydkifypönf;wpfck jzpfcJhonf / yxr Oywdórif; (at'D 4 &mpk)onf iwfrGwfab;ESihf yvdyfab;rsm;udk y,f&Sm;Edkif&ef ,if; oydwfawmftm; tcrf;tem;jzihf tokH;jyKcJhNyD; ,if;enf;twdkif; 7 qufvufNyD; tcrf;tem;usif;y&ef trdefYxkwfjyefcJhonf / Ak'¨ pG,fawmf"mwfudkvnf; EdkifiHawmfydkifypönf;ESihf trsKd;om;a&; vu©Pmtjzpf ,lqcJhonfrSmvnf; tvGefxif&Sm;onf/ aESmif;

Ak'¨0g' EkdifiHawmfbmom jzpfvmjcif;

acwfrsm;wGif ,if;Ak'¨jrwfpG,af wmfESihf oydwfawmf[laom "mwf awmfESpfckudk ydkifqdkifrIonf oD&dvuFmbk&iftjzpf todrSwfjyKcH &&ef tvdk&Sdonhf rif;om;tzdkY tvdktyfqkH;aom t&mtjzpf 1 ,lqjcif;cH&onf / oD[dkVfodkY odvmumv yifhaqmifcJhonhf Ak'¨ \ qHawmf"mwfudk qif;wkawmfaqmif wpfckwGif Xmyemxm;NyD; yxr arm*¾v’merif; (at'D 496-513) onf ,if;"mwfawmf 2 tm; txl; ylaZmfrIjyKcJhonf / qHawmf"mwfudk ,laqmifvmcsdefu txl;jyKtyfESif;cJhaom tod*¾g[bGJUonf bk&ifu tqihfjrihf bk&ifht&m&Sdrsm;tm; ay; tyfonhf bmoma&;qdkif&m *kPfjyKrIwpf&yfjzpfaMumif; ,lq&ef taMumif; &dSonf/ qHawmf"mwfudk yihf,lvmol odvmumv onf yxrqkH; tod*¾g[ (oefvsufo,faqmifol) bGJU&NyD; Ak'¨ "mwfawmfapmifha&Smufjcif;twGuf *kPfxl;udkvnf; ay;tyfc&H 3 onf / ,if; auo"mwktrdefY ESihf qufpyfaeonfh tod odkY r[kwf oefvsufrSm rif;om;od'¨w¬ &[ef;rjyKrD ¤if;\ qHyifudk 4 jzwfcJhaom oefvsufudk trSwftom;jyKjcif; jzpfzG,f&Sdonf / bk&ifhay;tyfonhf *kPfjyKbGJUxl;BuD;jzpfvmcJhonfh tod*¾g[ bGJUudk tvGefta&;ygolrsm;udkom ay;tyfcJhonf/ ,if;bGJUay; tyfcH&ol tm;vkH;onf aemiftcg xD;eef;udk qufcHMuonf/ odvmumv udk,fwdkifvnf; bk&ifjzpfvmcJhonf/ tod*¾g[bGJU jzihf *kPfjyKcHcJh&onhf 'kwd, oHCwdóESihf odvmarC0PÖrif; 1

Codrington : Short History of Ceylon, pp. 57, 60, 67, 77, 80. Mendis : Early

2

r[m0Ho? 39? 49-54/ r[m0Ho? 39? 54/ qHawmf"mwfudk odrf;qnf;xm;onhf y#drmC& odkYr[kwf qif;wkawmf aqmifwGif jrif;wpfaumif;\ ½kyfww k pfckudkvnf; odrf;qnf;xm; aMumif; azmfjyonf (r[m0Ho? 39? 52)/ ,if;onf rif;om;od'¨w¬ awmxGufonfhaeYu ¤if;\qHyifudk rjzwfrDpD;cJhonhf jrif; (u@u jrif;)trSwftom;jyK qif;wkjzpfzG,f&Sdonf/

1

,if;trdefYaMumihf wpfEdkifiHvkH; oufowfvGwf jzpfoGm;cJhovm; qdk onfudkrl rod&acs/ 2 r[dEÅavh&Sd pwkw¬ r[dE´rif; ausmufpmudk ½Iyg/ 3 ,if;? 37;173/ 4 5 ,if;? 36;39/ r[m0Ho 20;13/ 6 ,if;? 38;55/ ,if;oydwfawmfudk aemiftcg oD[dkVfodkY jyefvnf yifhaqmifcJhonf/ 7 ,if;? 37? 189-198/

159

3 4

History of Ceylon, pp. 107, 133.


Ak'¨0g' EkdifiHawmfbmom jzpfvmjcif; 161 1 ,if;udk jyefay;tyfcJhonf / 'kwd,t*¾aAm"drif;onf xlyg&mr apwDawmfudk jyefvnfjyKjyifNyD;aemuf EdkifiHawmftm; apwDawmf 2 udk vª'gef;cJhonf / EdkifiHawmf\ trsKd;om;ykdifypönf;? pGrf;tifESifh tkyfcsKyfrIpGrf; &nfrsm;udk tb,faMumihf Ak'¨omoemawmfwGif ,if;odkY &uf a&mpGm tyfESH&oenf;[lonfudk pkHprf;avhvm&ef pdwf0ifpm;zG,f ESihf vrf;nTefzG,faumif;onf/ &nf½G,fcsuf&Sdaom pdwfydkif;avh usihfrI oufoufESifh avmuDudpörsm;udk ausmfvGefoGm;jcif;ay avm/ ,if;odkY wpfpdwfwpfa'otm;jzihf jzpfonfrSm oHo, jzpfzG,f rvdkacs/ odkYwap þavmuwGif t"du tusKd;w&m;udk vsifjrefpGm &&SdcJhonfomjzpfonf/ bkef;BuD;ausmif;wkdufrsm;onf trsKd;om;,Ofaus;rIudk wnfaqmufay;aom ae&mXmersm;jzpf Muvsuf &[ef;awmfrsm;onf rif;om;rsm;rSpí v,form;rsm; txd wpfEdkifiHvkH;\ q&morm;rsm; jzpfMuonf/ &[ef;awmfrsm; onf bk&ifrif;rsm; wdkif;jynfudk Nidrf;csrf;pGm tkyfcsKyfEdkif&ef ul nDcJhMuonf/ 0de,ygVdawmft& &[ef;awmfrsm;onf bk&ifrif; 3 wdkY\ tvdkodkY vdkuf&jcif;rSm &[ef;awmfrsm;\ wm0efjzpfonf / &[ef;awmfrsm;onf bk&iftm; axmufcH&ef vlxktay: ¤if;wdkY\ MoZmt&Sdeft0gudk tokH;jyKcJhMuonf/ tjyef tvSef tm;jzihf bk&ifrif;wdkYu &[ef;awmfrsm; vdktyfonfrsm;udk apmihf a&Smufay;cJhMuonf/ ,if;udk yGifhvif;pGm azmfjyjcif;r&Sdaomfvnf; ,if;onf tjyeftvSef em;vnfrIwpf&yfjzpfonf/ bk&ifonf vlxkESifh eD;pyfpGm qufoG,frIESihf vlxktay: BuD;rm;aom MoZm vTrf;rdkrI&Sdonhf oHCmawmfrsm;ü xufjrufonfh 0g'a&;&mjzefYcsdrI enf;vrf;udk odjrifcJhonf/ odjkY hzpfí pufqkyfzG,f vlowfrIrsm; usKd;vGefcJhonhf bk&ifrsm;onf oHCmawmfrsm;udk ½dkaoylaZmfjyKNyD; 1 2 3

r[m0Ho? 39? 31/ ,if;? 42? 61/ 0d 3? 193/ (bmomjyefol\ rSwcf sufudk þusrf;? pm-147? atmufajc rSwfcsuf 2 udk ½Iyg/)/


162 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

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vlxkaxmufcHESpfoufrI&&Sd&ef oHCmawmfrsm;tm; EdkifiHawmfwpf 0ef;vkH;odkY apvTwfrIrsm;udk awGU&onf/ ykHpHtm;jzihf ykefuefol tjzpf ½kef;uefae&csdeftwGif; bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm; (xlyg &mr ausmif;wdkuftygt0if) udk vk,ufcJhol 'kwd,uó bk&if (at'D 641-650)onf xD;eef;&NyD;aemuf ausmif;wdkufrsm;tm; tBuD;tus,f axmufyhHrIrsm; jyKvkyfNyD; w&m;a[mq&mrsm;udk 1 EdkifiHwpf0ef;vkH;odkY apvTwfcJhonf / vltrsm; bmomw&m; vdkufpm;vQif bk&ifrsm;taejzihf wkdif;jynfudk tkyfcsKyf&vG,ful onf/ oD[dkVfbk&if r[memr\ w½kwfbk½ifxH ay;pmwpf apmifwGif wkdif;oljynfom;rsm; "r®udk vdkufemusihfokH;ygu bk&if 2 rif;rsm;onf aysmf½Tif&aMumif; qdkxm;onf / bk&ifrsm;onf vlxktaejzihf "r®udkusihfBuHygu wdkif;jynfwGif taESmihft,Suf rsm; r&Sdonfudk odjrifaomaMumihf aysmf½TifMujcif;jzpfonf/ bm omw&m;[lonf wnfaxmifNyD; tzGJUtpnf;wpfckudk xddef;odrf; &efESihf qef;opfwDxGifrIESihf awmfvSefrIrsm;udk tm;ray;&ef arQmf vifhaomaMumihf jzpfonf/ bk&ifrif;rsm;taejzihf tajccHtm; jzihf wkdif;oljynfom;rsm;\ pdwfxJwGif vufcHatmif BudK;pm;rIuJh odkYaom pdwfoabmxm;udk bmoma&;tzGJU wpfcku taumif; 1

2

r[m0Ho? 44? 148/ ygarmu©*dkif*gonf ]oAÁm*grd,bdu©L[d}[laom pum;vkH;rsm;udk ]wdkif;wpfyg;om; &[ef;awmftm;vkH;}[k (t*Fvdyf) bm omjyefqdkcJhonf/ t,fpD 0da'od[ (L.C. Wijesinha)url ]vltrsm;aexkdif onhfae&mwGif raexdkifMuonhf &[ef;jrwfrsm;}[k bmomjyefonf/ uREfkyf (0gvfydkvm &m[kvm)taejzihf ]oAÁm*grd,bdu©L[d}[k ygXfrSef,l onhf ,if;azmfjyyg (t*Fvdyf)bmomjyef ESpfckvkH;udk b0ifrusyg/ t u,fí ]oAÁ*grd,}[k ygXfrSef,v l Qif ]vSnfhvnfoGm;vmonhf &[ef; awmfrsm;tm;vkH; }bmomjyefqdkEdkifrnfjzpfNyD; taMumif;t&mESihf ydkrdkqD avsmfzG,f&Sdonf/ ]*grd,][lonf oGm;jcif;? vSnfhvnfjcif;? c&D;oGm;jcif; [k t"dyÜm,f&onf/ JRAS. (CB), Vol. XXIV, No. 88, I (1917), p. 83.

Ak'¨0g' EkdifiHawmfbmom jzpfvmjcif; 163 qkH; xkwfvkyfay;Edkifonf/ odkYjzpfí oHCmawmftwGuf bk&ifjyK vkyforQonf vkHavmufonhf tusKd;w&m;udk &&Sdaponf/ Ak'¨0g'udk EdkifiHawmfbmomtjzpf jy|mef;cJhonfhtcsdefrSpí Ak'¨0g'\ rlvtESpfom&jzpfonfh awmxGufjcif; NcdK;jcHjcif;rsm; aysmufqkH;cJhNyD; wjznf;jznf; bmoma&; EdkifiHa&;ESihf vlrIa&; wm0efrsm; pGm&Sdonfh bmoma&;tzGJUtpnf;wpfcktjzpfodkY wdk; wufoGm;cJhaMumif; 0efcH&rnfjzpfonf/ rnfonhf bmomw&m; twGufrqdk ,if;onf zGJUpnf;xm;onfh taqmufttkHwpfck jzpfvmaomtcg rlvykHpHtwkdif; qufoGm;&ef rjzpfEdkifacs/ t u,fí ,if;bmomw&m;onf ¤if;\ t&Sdeft0gESihf *kPfodu©m ukd xdef;odrf;xm;&vQif ,if;onf tcsdefMumaomf ajymif;vJoGm; NrJjzpfonf/ ]tajctaet& ajymif;vJrI odkYr[kwf ysufpD;qkH;½IH; jcif;} [lonf obm0\ rajymif;vJEdkifaom trdefYjzpfonf/ 00000000


168 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

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onf / Ak'¨omoemawmfESihf EdkifiHawmftwGuf &[ef;awmfrsm; onf vl0wfvJNyD; ppfwyftwGif; 0ifa&mufonftxdyif wuf <ucJhMuonf/ ykHpHtm;jzihf 'k|*grPd\ AdkvfcsKyfq,fa,muf teuf wpfa,mufjzpfNyD; ,cifu &[ef;awmfwpfyg;jzpfcJhonfh ax&ykwåtb,onf &[ef;b0rS vlxGufNyD; wyfrawmfxJ 0if &ef qkH;jzwfcJhonf/ atmifyJG&NyD;aemuf ,if;AkdvfcsKyfonf omo 2 emhabmifxJ jyef0ifNyD; &[EÅmjzpfoGm;onf / bk&if*grPd\ vSH 3 zsm;wGif Ak'¨"mwfawmfwpfckudk xnfhoGif;xm;onf / 'k|*grPd onf vlxkudk pnf;½kH;&efESihf trdajrrS EdkifiHjcm;om; tkyfpdk;ol rsm;udk ESifxkwf&ef vlxk\ bmoma&;ESihf trsKd;om;a&; pdwf 4 "mwftm;vkH;udk tpGrf;ukef tokH;cscJhykH&onf / 'k|*grPd (101-77 bDpD)onf r[mxly (Ruvanvālisāya)? r&dp0¥d (Mirisavāµiya) ESihf r[m0d[m& ausmif;wdkuf\ Oykof aqmif (odrf) jzpfaom bkHudk;xyfjrihfonhf avm[ygom'uJhodkY aom bmoma&;taqmufttkH rsm;pGmudk wnfaqmufcJhonf/ 'k|*grPdonf Ak'¨omoemawmftm; rdrdjynfov l lxk\ *kPf,l 5 p&mtjzpf aqmif½GufcJhNyD; r[m0Housrf; tvdk EdkifiHrsm;pGmrS vl trsm; r[mxlyapwD bk&m;yGJawmfudk Munhf½I&ef vma&mufMu onf/ ,aeYacwf a0omcyGJawmf (uqkefvjynhfAk'¨aeY) \ a&SU ajy;ykHpHudk þacwftwGif; tOD;qkH; awGU&onf/ 'k|*grPdonf 6 a0omcylZm ESpfq,fhav;rsKd;udk usif;ycJhaMumif; od&onf /

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r[m0Ho 25;2-4/ &o0g[deD 2? pm-93/ r[m0Ho 25;1/ 'k|*grPdtm; oD[dkVfordkif;pOfwpfckvkH;rS ,aeYacwfwdkifatmifyif wpf pdkufrwfrwf wnf&SdcJhaom bmoma&;tajcjyK trsKd;om;a&;0g'\ tm'dur®du (a&S;OD;yk*¾Kdv)f tjzpf rQwpGm ,lqEdkifygonf/ r[m0Ho? 29? 29/ ,if;? 27? 35/

r[m0Ho 21? 7/ &dXd*v (t&d|yAÁw) ü awGU&onhf c&pfESpfrwdkifrD oHCmawmfrsm;tm; *lrsm;vª'gef;rIudk azmfjyonhf ausmufpmrsm;ü ,if;awmifudk tapmqkH; bDpDokH;&mpkuyif w&m;tm;xkwf&m Xmetjzpf tokH;jyKcJhaMumif; azmfjyonf (E.Z. p. 136.)/ ol&wdórif; (bDpD 187-177)onf ,if; ae&mudk wdk;wufatmif aqmif½GufcJhonf (r[m0Ho? 21? 6) 3 r[m0Ho? 22? 23/ E.Z. III, p. 214. "mwk0Ho? pm- 22 wdkYü a&m [et&yf&Sd ausmif;wdkuf rsm;pGmwdkYudk r[mem*ESihf ,|mv, wdó ,*d oHkYvCª'mES hftwl awmif;yefaomtcg rif&;wd gef;i onf [k qdkoOyk nf/oftwljyK&ef 2

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169

onf wkdif;wpfyg;om;wdkY\ tkyfcsKyfrIaMumihf ysufpD;ae&NyD; bk&ifESihf ppfolBuD;wdkY tjiif;yGm;aeMuonf/ ynm&Sd&[ef;awmf onf ppfolBuD;rsm;tm; ]Ak'¨omoemawmfudk qufvufwnfwHh ap&ef rnfolu pGrf;aqmifEdkifrnfenf;? wrD;vfrsm;avm odkYr [kwf bk&ifrif;w&m;avm}[k ar;jref;onf/ ppfolBuD;rsm;onf rdrdwdkY\ oabmxm;rSm udk,fhudk,fudk owfao&rnfh taersKd; jzpfaMumif; oabmaygufoGm;Muonf/ odkYjzpfí wdóESihfr[m wdórax&fwdkYonf ppfolBuD;rsm;udk bk&ifxH ,laqmifoGm;Mu NyD; ,if;wdkYtMum; t&SnfwnfwHhonfh zsefajzjcif;udk aqmif½Guf 1 ay;vdkufMuonf / xdktcsdefu tu,fí tajrmftjrif BuD;rm;awmfrlMuonhf rax&fBuD;rsm;u Mum;0ifaqmif½GufrIr&SdcJhvQif Ak'¨0g'ESihf oD[dkVf vlrsKd;wdkY\ uHMur®m rnfodkYjzpfvmrnfudk rnfolrQ rajymEdkifacs/ bk&ifESihf ppfolBuD;rsm;om ynm&Sdrax&fBuD;rsm;\ aus;Zl;udk od cJhMuonf/ odkYjzpfí aus;Zl;wifonhftaejzihf bk&ifESifh ppfolBuD; rsm;u rax&fBuD;rsm;udk cHpm;rItjynhfjzihf þodkY avQmufxm;Mu onf ]tu,fí wynhfawmf&JU wkdif;jynfta&; aqmif½GufrI atmifjrifcJhygvQif wynhfawmfwdkY owif;pum;ydkYvdkufonfESihf t&Sifbk&m;wdkYrjzpfrae <uawmfrlMuygbk&m;}[k avQmufxm;Mu 2 onf / þonfrSm tb,*d&dESihf tjcm;ausmif;wdkufrsm;udk bk &ifESifh ppfolBuD;rsm;u r[mwdóESihf wdórax&fwdkYtm; vª 'gef;&jcif;\ taMumif;w&m;jzpfonf/ ,if;onf &[ef;yk*¾Kdvfwpfyg;tm; 0d[m&wpfckudk yk*¾vdu vª'gef;onhf yxrqkH;aom rSwfwrf; jzpfonf/ ,if;onf bk&if ESihf ppfAdkvfcsKyfrsm;tzdkY yk*¾Kdvfa&; aus;Zl;&SdrIaMumihf vkyfaqmif csuf oufoufjzpfonf/ r[mwdórax&fonf ,cifu e,f pGef e,fzsm;a'ü rxifr&Sm; aexdkifcJhNyD; aemiftcg bk&if\ t

'k|*grPdudk qufcHaom nDawmf o'¨gwdórif; (bDpD7759)onf Ak'¨omoemawmftwGuf rsm;pGm aqmif½GufcJhNyD; t aqmufttkH;rsm; aqmufvkyfcJhonhf 0d[m&trsm;tjym;wGif aESmif;acwf oD[dkVfAk'¨omoemordkif;wGif ta&;ygcJhonfh tEk 1 &m"yk&NrdKUawmfrS 'u©dPm*d&d0d[m& vnf; yg0ifonf/ bDpDwpf&mpk apmapmydkif;uyif bdu©Krsm;onf EdkifiHawmf ta&;udpörsm;wGif ydkrdk pdwf0ifpm;rI&SdcJhonf/ xkH;pHtwdkif; xD;eef; qufcHrItpOftvmudk qefYusifvsuf o'¨gwdó\ om;BuD; vZÆD wdóxuf ydkrdkESpfoufonhf om;i,f xlvxe (bDpD 59) tm; xD;eef;udk &&Sdatmif yl;aygif;BuHpnfrIwGif &[ef;awmfrsm; yg0ifcJh Muonf/ vZÆDwdó (bDpD 59-50) onf nDawmf xlvxetm; jzKwfcsNyD; oHCmtm; vkH;0MunfñdkrI r&Sdjcif;ü okH;ESpfwdkifwkdif 2 oHCmawmftm; vspfvsL½Ixm;cJhonf / bDpD 1 &mpk aESmif;ydkdif;wGif oD[dkVfAk'¨0g'ordkif;ü tvGef t a&;ygonhf tjzpftysuftcsKdUudk awGU&onf/ a&m[eZeyk'frS wdó (T²ya) jAm[®Ponf 0¥*grPd (bDpD 43) tm; ppfaMu nmvdkufonf/ wpfcsdefwnf;wGif tdE´d,awmifydkif;rS wrDvf ol ykef ckepfOD;onf tiftm;BuD;rm;onfh ppfom;rsm;ESifh r[mwdw¬ (Mannare) t&yfodkY usL;ausmfNyD; tEk&m"yk&odkY csDwufvmMu onf/ wpfEdkifiHvkH; awmifrS ajrmufxd ppfyGJrsm; tESHYtjym;wGif jzpfyGm;aeonf/ bDpD 43 rSpí q,fav;ESpf wkdifwdkif wrDvfvl rsKd; ig;a,muf tEk&m"yk&NrdKUü tpOftquf tkyfcsKyfMuonf/ ,if;tcsdeftwGif; 0¥*grPdrif;onf awmpGef Zeyk'ft&yfrsm; 3 wGif ykef;atmif;NyD;aexdkifcJh&onf / ,if;olykefab;BuD;tjyif jAm[®Pwdóolykefab;[k vlod rsm;onfh wpfEdkifiHvkH; rBuKHpzl; iwfrGwf acgif;yg;onhfab;ESihf BuKHawGU&onf/ vltrsm; tpm;tpmvkH;0r&Sd? vlom;udkyif pm;&

1

1

r[m0Ho? 28? 67-76/ 2 r[m0Ho? 28? 76-77/

2

,if;? 28? 7/ {Vm&\ tkwf*l[kvnf; ac:onf/ 3 r[m0Ho? 28? 17-20/ ,if;? 28? 37-42/


170 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

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tbd-| 2? 427? 318/ tH-| 3? 93/ r[m0Ho? 28? 100-101/ 'Dy0Ho? 20? 45/ edum,o*F[? pm-9/

wdk;wufrIESpfumvrsm; 1

171

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r[m0Ho? 28? 78-81/ edum,o*F[? pm-10/ 0¥*grPd tEk&m" yk&NrdKUrS ESdrfeif;cH&NyD; xGufajy;&aomtcg y@Kumb,rif; wnf aqmufcJhonhf *d&dausmif;rS ed*P²wpfa,mufu ]oD[dkVf irnf;BuD; xGufajy;NyD (yvm,wd r[mumVoD[aVm)}[k us,favmifpGm atmfcJhonf/ ,if;ed*P²rSm wrD;vfujym; tjzpfEdkifqkH; jzpfonf/ xdktcsdefu rif;BuD;onf ]tu,fí igtvdkjynfhcJhvQif þae&m wGif ig 0d[m& (Ak'¨bmombkef;BuD;ausmif;) wpfckwnfaqmufrnf[k pdwful;&SdcJhonf (r[m0Ho? 28? 42-44)


176 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

*kPf&nfESihf t&Sdeft0gudk tvGef½dkaopGm apmihfxdef;cJhMuonf/ r[m0d[m&oHCmawmfrsm;onf uGJjym;jcif;r&SdbJ EdkifiHawmfESihf jynfolwdkY\ av;pm;rI? opöm&SdrIESihf axmufyHhrIwdkYudk &&SdcJhNyD; (vlxk)tm½kHñGwfrIudk cGJjcrf;vsuf rdrdwdkYt,ltqudk rQa0&ef xdk e,fy,ftwGif;odkY 0ifvmonhf tkyfpkopfrsm;udk rESpfoufMuacs/ odkYwap vlrIa&;? EdkifiHa&;? pD;yGm;a&;ESifh ajymif;vJrItaxGaxG\ ykHrSef tusKd;qufjzpfonfh wdk;wufajymif;vJrItopfrsm;udk zdESdyf xm;&ef rjzpfEdkifacs/ oHCmxktwGif; uGJjym;rIonf ysufpD; qkwf ,kwfjcif;\ vu©Pmwpf&yf jzpfonfrSm aocsmaomfvnf; vIyf &Sm;rIESihf wdk;wufrI\ vu©Pmjzpfonf/ aemufxyf &mpkESpfokH;ckcefYumvrSm ykHrSefordkif;\ tajymif; tvJrsm;udk awGU&onf/ 0¥*grPd\ om;awmf apm&em* (bDpD 3-at'D 9)onf oHCmrsm;tm; &efNidK;zGJUNyD; ¤if;\nDtpfudk 0rf; uGJawmfol r[mplvdu r[mwdó (bDpD 17-3)tm; ykefuefqefY usifpOfu cdkvIHcGifhray;cJhaom ausmif;wdkuf q,hf&Spfckudk zsufqD; 1 ypfonf / Ak'¨0g'udk ¤if;\ apmfum;zsufqD;rIrSm r[m0Ho usrf; jyKq&mtaejzihf ]raumif;rIjyKonhf rif;onf avmuEÅ&du i&J 2 odkY usa&mufoGm;onf}[k ,kHMunfoGm;onftxd BuD;rm;onf / &[ef;awmfrsm;\ ykHrSefvkyfief;tjzpf usrf;pmoifMum;rI t awG;tjrifudk bmwdumb,rif; (at'D 38-66) vufxufwGif r[m0Housrf;ü yxrqkH;tBudrf azmfjyxm;onf/ rif;BuD;onf *E¦"k& (pmayoifMum;ydkYcsonhf) wm0efudk xrf;aqmifaeMuaom oHCmawmfrsm;\ tokH;taqmifrsm;udk axmufyHhcJhaMumif;txl; jyKazmfjyonf/ þae&mü pmayydckY sonhf pmcsoHCmrsm;ESifh pm oifoHCmrsm;udk txl;&nfñTef;zG,f&Sdonf/ bmwdumb,onf 'k|*grPdpwifcJhonhf tpOftvmudkvdkufNyD; ESpfusdyf&Spfqlbk&m; 3 wdkY\ a0omcyGJawmfrsm;udk usif;ycJhaMumif; od&onf /

wdk;wufrIESpfumvrsm; 1

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3

4 1

3

r[m0Ho? 34? 11-13/ r[m0Ho? 34? 69? 66/

2

,if;? 34? 14/

173

5

r[m0Ho? 28? 82/ r[m0Ho? 28? 95/ edum,o*F[? pm 10/ yAÁmZed,uHESihf ywfoufí 0d 4? 23 udk ½Iyg/ ,if;ykHpHjzihf r[mwdótay: qefYusifonhf vkyf&yf twGuf tcuftcJr&SdonfrSm aocsmonf/ taMumif;rl r[mwdó onf vlrIa&;uRrf;usifNyD; vlOyoumrsm;ESihf &if;ESD;uRrf;0ifonhf Oy"d ½kyf&SdNyD; ¤if;wdkYESihf cspfcifeD;pyfrI &SdykH&onf/ r[mwdóonf tawG; tjrif us,fjyefYNyD; avmuDa&; todynmrsm;pGm &Sdonf/ edum,o*F[? pm-10 ü r['gVd,mwdó (Mahadāļiyā-Tissa) [k azmfjyonf/ Oau©yeD,uHtaMumif;udk 0d 4? 49 wGif ½Iyg/ r[m0Ho? 28? 96/ edum,o*F[? 10/


174 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

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2

edum,o*F[? pm-10/ au ye yk*¾v0g'daem? omoae 0ZÆDykwåum ap0 ordwåd,m p A[d'¨g A[l tnwdw¬d,m (tbd-| 3? 112)/ ordwåd,m 0ZÆdykwåum oAÁw¬d 0g'daem {uapö p r[moHCdum t&[aEÅmyd y&d[með £päEÅd (,if;? 147)/ tb,*d&dausmif;wdkufü vufcHxm;aom "r®½kpdrax&f\ w ynhfrsm;vnf; ,if;0g'udk cH,lxm;Muoavm [lonfudk uREfkyfwdkY t aotcsm rod&acs/

wdk;wufrIESpfumvrsm; 1

175

wdóESihf ¤if;\wynhfrsm;onf a&mufopfp &[ef;rsm;ESihf ¤if;wdkY\ oifMum;csufrsm;udk ESpfoufMuNyD; ,if;udktaMumif;jyK í aemiftcg tdE´d,&Sd ¤if;wdkY\q&mBuD; trnfudk,lNyD; tb, 1 *d&d &[ef;rsm;udkvnf; "r®½pk d*dkPf;[k ac:a0:vmMuonf / bk &ifu ,if;tb,*d&doHCmzufwGif &SdaomaMumihf Ak'¨0g'*dkPf; opf odkYr[kwf ,if;wdkY\ 0g'tay: w&m;0if wm;jrpfrI r&Sdonf rSm xif&Sm;onf/ xdktcsdefrSpí tb,*d&d&[ef;awmfrsm;onf tdE´d,&Sd Ak'¨ 0g'*dkPf;uGJrsKd;pkHESihf vIyf&Sm;rItopfESihf tpOfrjywf qufoG,frI&Sd cJhNyD; ,if;wdkYrSwpfqihf pdwf"mwfwuf<urIESihf cGeftm;udk &&SdcJhykH& onf/ ¤if;wdkYonf ¤if;wdkY\ t,ltqü rjyif;xefbJ jynfyrS tawG;tjrifopfrsm;udk tNrJwrf;BudKqdkNyD; wdk;wufatmif BudK; pm;cJhMuonf/ ¤if;wdkYonf ax&0g'udka&m r[m,meudkyg avh 2 vmNyD; ]yd#uwfokH;ykHtm; us,fjyefYpGm jyefYESHYaponf} / a&S;rl r ysuf qufvufxdef;odrf;NyD; ax&0g'udkomvQif oiftHydkYcsaom r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkufum; r[m,me0g'udk qefYusifNyD; t jcm;rnfonhf qef;opfwDxGifrIudkrqdk tm;ray;acs/ r[m0d[m& onf ax&0g'DwdkY vufcHonhf wdusaomoifMum;csufrsm;ESihf tpOftvmudkom opöm&SdpGm apmihfxdef;cJhonf/ odkYjzpfí r[m 0d[m&ausmif;wdkuf&Sd oHCmawmfrsm;\ tjrifwGif tb,*d&d &[ef;awmfrsm;rSm ax&0g'r[kwfbJ rSm;,Gif;onhf t,ltq rsm;omjzpfonf/ r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkufonf t&Sifr[dE´udk,fwdkif txGwf tjrwfjyKcJhonfh Ak'¨0g'\ rlvblwESihf yxrOD;qkH; aoOf ajr jzpfonf/ r[m0d[m&&[ef;awmfrsm;onf ¤if;wdkY\ BuD;jrwf onhf tpOftvmtwGuf *kPf,lMuNyD; ¤if;wdkY ausmif;wdkuf\ 1

2

edum,o*F[usrf;? pmrsufESm 10 t& ,if;*dkPf;opfonf at'D 15 &mpkwGif ]0¥*grPdrif; eef;pH 5 ESpfajrmuf}wGif ay:aygufvmonf/ Hiuen Tsiang, II, p. 247.


180 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

rSmyif aexdkifonf? vlYavmuudk vkH;0qif;rvm? edr®dw½kyf oP²mefrQom awGU&jcif;jzpfNyD; vlom;wdkYtMum; Ak'¨bk&m;&Sif yGihf ay:rvm? ,if; edr®dwAk'¨a&m edr®dwAk'¨ "r®udkoif,lxm;ol t &SiftmeE´wdkYyg "r®udk a[mMum;Muonf? Ak'¨tppfrSm "r®udk 1 vkH;0ra[mMum;}[laom 0dnmP0g'udk ,lpGJxm;Muonf / xdkY tjyif ,if;t,ltqt& Ak'¨onf ,if;odkYjzpfojzifh rnfonhf t&mudkrQ rokH;aqmifbJ (e b*0g udÍöd y&dbkÍÆwd) avmuESifh vdkufavsmnDaxG&Sdap&ef vª'gef;onfrsm;udk vufcHouJhodkY jyKrl onf (avmumEk0wåew¬H)/ odkYjzpfí Ak'¨tm; jyKvkyfaomt&m onf taxmuftyHhrjyKojzihf (ed½kyum&wåm) rnfonhftusKd; 2 udkrQ rjzpfapEdkif / xdkenf;twdkif;yif a0wkv’0g'DwdkYonf a0g[m&\ t"dyÜm,f tppftrSeft& oHCm[lonf w&m;ukd,ftm;jzihf r*fw&m;zdkvf w&m;udkom qdkvdkonf (y&rw¬awm r*¾zvmae0 oHaCm)? r*f zdkvfrS wpfyg; oHCm[lonfr&Sd? r*fzdkvfwdkYonf rnfonhft&m udkrQ vufcHjcif;r&Sd? odkYjzpfí oHCmonf tvªypönf;rsm;udk vuf cHonf ('u©dPH y#d*PSmwd) odkYr[kwf tvªypönf;rsm;udk pif Mu,fatmifvkyfonf ('u©dPH 0daoma"wd) odkYr[kwf oHCm onf pm;zG,f aomufzG,fudk okH;aqmifonf[kqdkygu rSm;,Gif; onf/ odkYjzpfojzihf oHCmtm; rnfonhft&mudkrQ vª'gef;í r jzpfEdkifbJ oHCmtm; vª'gef;orQonf rnfonhftusKd;udkrQ &&Sd 3 rnfr[kwf / ¤if;wdkYonf tjyeftvSef ,kHMunfcsufjzihf rnfonhf 4 vlom;pkHwGJrqdk arxkefrSD0Jaumif;onf[kvnf; ,kHMunfMuonf / 1

2 ,if;? pm-193/ ,if;? pm-192/ ,if;? pm-190-192/ 4 ,if;? 209/ {um"dyÜma,m arxkaem "ar®m y#dao0dwaAÁm/ {um "dyÜm, odkYr[kwf wpfckaom &nf½G,fcsuf[lonf u½kPm odkYr[kwf rk'dwmaMumihf odkYr[kwf trsKd;orD;wpfa,mufESihf bk&m;ausmif;wpfck wGif &Sdcdk;0wfjyKNyD;aemuf twlwuG arG;zGm;&efjyKonhf av;eufonhf t"d|mefudk qdkvdkaMumif; t|uxmü &Sif;jyonf/ 3

wdk;wufrIESpfumvrsm; 1

177

bmwdumb,udkqufcHol bmomw&m; udkif;½Idif;NyD; rSm; 1 ,Gif;rIwpfckjzihf MunfñdkcJhNyD; "r®ESihf Ak'¨0g'a&;&mrsm; jyefYyGm;a&; twGuf rsm;pGm BudK;yrf;aqmif½GufcJhol r[m'gXdur[mem* 2 (at'D 67-69) wGif ausmfMum;vSonhf *d&db@ylZmyGJawmf udk pwifusif;ycJhonf/ ¤if;\om;awmf tmr@ *grPd (at'D 7989)onf taomu\pHerludk vdkufemzG,f&Sdonhf oD[dkVfwpf 3 uRef;vkH; rmCmw wd&pämefrsm;udk rowf&ef yxrqkH;xkwfjyef cJhol jzpfonf/ ¤if;udkqufcHol nDawmf uPd&ZmEkwdó (at'D 89-92) onf &[ef;qdk; ajcmufq,fcefYudk apwd,yAÁw (r[dE¦avh)&Sd ausmufaqmif acsmufurf;yg;jywfrS atmufodkYypfcs&ef trdefY ay;cJhonf/ xdk&[ef;awmfrsm;onf omoema&;tjiif;yGm;rIESihf ywfoufí rif;BuD;\ qkH;jzwfcsufudk vufrcHbJ Oykofaqmif 4 (odrf)twGif; rif;BuD;tm;owfjzwf&ef BuHpnfcJhMuonf / tqdkyg 1

2 4

rif;BuD;onf rdrdudk,fwdkifudka&m? rdzk&m;? om;awmfESpfa,muf? EdkifiH awmfqifESihf EdkifiHawmftdrfwdkYudk oHCmawmfu vufrcHaomfvnf; oHCmawmftm; vª'gef;cJhonf (r[m0Ho? 34? 6/ 3 r[m0Ho? 34? 81/ r[m0Ho? 35? 6/ r[m0Ho? 35? 10-11/ r[m0Ho#Dum? pm-640/ t'du&rf trnf&Sd yk*¾Kdvfu ,if;odkY jypf'Pfay;rIonf ]&[ef;awmftcsKdUudk EdkifiHa&;vIyf &Sm;rIwGif yg0ifvmaponf}[k qdkonf (EHBC. p. 89.)/ ,if;onf EdkifiHa&;vIyf&Sm;rIwpf&yf r[kwfbJ OykofaqmiftwGif; odkYr[kwf Oykof aqmifESifhywfoufonfh oHCmtwGif; tjiif;yGm;rIomjzpfonf (Oayg oxC&¥H)/ r[m0Ho#Dumü apwd,*d&d0d[ma& Oaygoxm *ga& bdu©Lok OyÜEéH t¥H ]apwd,*d&d ausmif;wdkuftwGif;&Sd Oykoftdrfü &[ef;awmfrsm;twGif; jzpfyGm;onhf tjiif;yGm;rI}[k &Sif;vif;pGm azmfjy onf/ bk&ifrif;u ,if;tjiif;yGm;rIwGif Mum;0if aqmif½GufNyD; ,if; tjiif;yGm;rIudk Nidrf;aponf/ odkYwap &[ef;tcsKdU rif;BuD;\ qkH;jzwf csufudk rESpfoufMuojzihf ,if;Oykofaqmif twGif;rSmyif rif;BuD;udk owfjzwf&ef BuHpnfMuonf/ bk&iftm; owfjzwf&ef vkyfMuHrI (&mZm y&m"ur®) twGuf xdkoHCmrsm;tm; jypf'Pfay;rIudk jzpfay:aponf/


178 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

&ufpufonhf vkyf&yfonf xdkacwf &[ef;awmftcsKdU\ b0wGif rawGUBuKHzl;aom tjzpftysufrsm;tjzpf azmfjyonf/ ,if;odkY aom a&Smifwcif jzpf&yfrsm;onf oHCmawmf\ *kPfodu©mudk xdcdkufapcJhonfrSm oHo,jzpfzG,rf vdkacs/ ,if;odkY jzpfjcif;rSm uREfkyfwdkY awGU&onhf bk&ifrsm;u rMumcP ausmif;wdkufwpf ckudk rsufESmomay; odkYr[kwf qefYusifonfh taMumif;w&m;rsm; aMumifh jzpfzG,f&Sdonf/ jrifhjrwfonhf &[ef;awmf wpfyg;onf ausmif;wdkufwpfcktwGuf bk&ifhtodkif;t0dkif;\ rsufESmomay;rI udk cyfMumMum &aepOfwGif raumif;rI jyKvkyfolvnf; xdktcsdef ESihftrQyif ,if;tcGifhta&;udk qkH;½IH;aernfjzpfonf/ txufazmfjyjyyg uHqdk;onhfjzpf&yfNyD;aemuf q,fpkESpf okH; ckESifh wpf0ufcefYumvtwGif; 0obrif; (at'D 127-171) u wdk;wufrItcsKdU aqmif½Gufay;onhf tcsdefwdkifatmif apwd,*d&d 1 ausmif;wdkuftm; rnfonhfrif;rS *½kpdkuf axmufyHhcJhykHr&acs / ¤if;\ aqmif½GufrIrSmvnf; ¤if; (rif;) touf&Snf&ef oHCm awmfrsm;\ tMuHay;rIaMumihfjzpfojzihf rdrdtusKd; twGufaMumihf om jzpfonf/ 0obrif;onf rsufESmrvdkufbJ ausmif;wdkuf tm;vkH;twGuf OD;aqmifvkyfay;ykH&NyD; rif;BuD;onf "r®uxdu rsm;tm; axmufyHhjcif;? apwDawmftopfESif Ak'¨qif;wkawmf topfrsm; wnfaqmufjcif;? bkef;BuD;ausmif;wkdufa[mif;rsm;udk jyefvnf jyKjyifjcif;rsm;jzihf Ak'¨omoemawmftwGuf rsm;pGm

2

*dkif*g (r[m0Hot*Fvdyfbmomjyef? pm-247? atmufajc rSwfcsuf? 1) onf apwd,0Sa, [laompum;vkH; (r[m0Ho 35;10) udk xlyg&mr (r[dEÅavh) udk &nfñTef;onf[k ,lqcJhonf/ odkYwap r[m0Ho#Dum pmrsufESm 640 ü ,if;onf apwd,*d&0d d[m& (r[dEÅavh) [k &Sif; vif;pGm jyqdkNyD;jzpfonf/ *dkif*gonf ]&[ef;awmfrsm;onf uPd&[k ac:aom *lodkY xGufajy;vGwfajrmufoGm;onf}[kvnf; ,lqcJhao; onf/ xdk&[ef;awmfrsm;udk r[dEÅavh&Sd awmifurf;yg; apmufrS ypfcs (NyD;uGyfrsuf) cJhonf/ r[m0Ho? 35? 80/

wdk;wufrIESpfumvrsm; 1

179

aqmif½GufcJhonf/ þrif;tkyfcsKyfpOftwGif; ajrmufydkif;&Sd em*'Dy (,aeY tac: *smzemuRef;qG,f) uRef;rSmyif 0d[m&rsm; wnf 1 aqmufcJhonf / a0omcyGJawmf av;q,fhav;ckudk þrif; usif; ycJhonf [kqdkonf/ þrif;onf EdkifiHawmf\ NrdKUjy? pD;yGm;a&;ESihf usef;rma&; tajctaersm; wdk;wufatmifvnf; aqmif½GufcJh onf/ 0obrif;ESihf a0g[m&duwdó (at'D 269-291) rif; rsm; vufxuftwGif; &mpkESpfwpfckcefYumvwGif Ak'¨0g'ordkif;ü ta&;ygonhf jzpf&yfrsm; &SdcJhykHr&acs/ bk&iftm;vkH;eD;yg; 0d[m& rsm;udk *dkPf;*Pra½G; axmufyHhcJhMuNyD; Ak'¨omoemwkd;wufa&; twGuf ¤if;wdkYwwfpGrf;orQ aqmif½GufcJhMuonf/ a0g[m&duwdórif; vufxufwGif oD[dkVfordkif;wGif yx rqkH; tBudrftjzpf a0wkv’0g' (Skt. Vaitulyavāda)[kac:aom 0g'a&;&m *dkPf;uGJwpfcktaMumif;udk od&onf/ r[m0d[m& 2 ausmif;wdkufudka&m tb,*d&dausmif;wdkuf udkyg ausmif;wdkuf ESpfckvkH;udk axmufyHhol 0obrif;onf Ak'¨0g'pnf;rsOf; pnf; 3 urf;ESihf EdkifiHawmf\ Oya'udkyg uRrf;usifonhf uydvtrwf \ tultnDjzihf pkHprf;ppfaq;NyD;aemuf t,lrSm;rsm;yg&Sdonhf a0 wkv’0g'tm; ESdyfuGyfcJhaMumif; od&onf/ tb,*d&dausmif;wdkuf\ "r®½kpdursm;xufydkíyif t,lrSm; ,Gif;onf[k ,lqcH&onhf ,if;a0wkv’0g'Drsm;rSm rnfolrsm;jzpf aMumif; &Sif;vif;rIr&Sdacs/ ygVdordkif;usrf;rsm;ü ,if;udpötwGuf vkH;0 azmfjyjcif;r&Sd/ t&Sifr[mAk'¨aCmotvdkt&rl a0wkv’ 4 0g'Drsm;udk r[mokn0g'Drsm;[kvnf; ac:onf / a0wkv’0g'DwdYk onf ]jrwfAk'¨onf wkodwmewfjynfwGif arG;zGm;NyD; wkodwm 1

E.Z. IB. Vallipuram Gold Plate, p. 237.

2

r[m0Ho? 36? 31-33/ *dkif*g t*Fvdyfbmomjyef? pm-258? atmuf ajcrSwfcsuf 4/ ,if;? 36? 41/ r[mokn0d'docFgwH a0wkv’umeH? tbd-| 3? 258/

3 4

udk½Iyg/


184 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

qGrf;pm;aqmif r[mygVdwGif &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; apmifha&Smuf 1 xm;cJhaMumif;qdkonf / odkY&mwGif tjcm;&[ef;awmfrsm;um; rnf odkY&SdcJhoenf;/ ,if;&[ef;awmfrsm;onf rnfodkY oDwif;okH;awmf rlcJhMuoenf;/ yd@ygw (tvªqGrf;) udk trDSjyKí oDwif;okH;jcif; rSm iwfrGwfacgif;yg;pOf umvtwGif; rvG,fulacs/ qGrf;udk r[mygVdrSjzpfap tjcm;ae&m&mrSjzpfap r&EdkifMuonhf &[ef; awmftcsKdUrSm a<u;wifoGm;onhfwdkifatmif udk,fhudk,fudk apmifh pnf;cJhMu&onf [laomtcsufrSm jzpfEdkiftHhavm/ odkYwnf;r [kwf iwfrGwfab;twGif; &[ef;awmftcsKdU ¤if;wdkY\ apmifh a&Smufol r&Sdjzpfaeonfh rdbrsm;udk odkYr[kwf eD;pyfonhf aqGrsKd; rsm;udk apmihfa&SmufcJh&oavm/ a0g[m&duwdóonf oD[dkVf uRef;twGif;&Sd t&d,0Hookwfawmfudk a[mMum;onhfae&mwdkif; 2 wGif qGrf;vª'ef;rIudk wnfaqmufaMumif;vnf; od&onf / ,ck tcg t&d,0Hokwfudk a[mMum;jcif;onf Ak'¨0g'taejzihf rESpf oufzG,f tajctae[laom trSwfoauFw jzpfonf/ a0g[m&duwdórif;onf udk,fcE¨mudk emusifatmif jypf 3 4 'Pfay;rIudk ½kyfodrf;cJhNyD; a0omcyGJawmfudk crf;em;pGm usif;y NyD; Ak'¨omoemawmf tusKd;twGuf rsm;pGm aqmif½GufcJhonf/ a0g[m&duwdórif; tkyfcsKyfpOfumvonf ordkif;wGif r jzpfzl;avmufatmif ESpfaygif; av;q,fcefY Mumanmif;cJhonf/ ,if;aemuf uREkfyfwdkYonf oD[dkVfAk'¨bmom\ ordkif;rSwfrsm;wGif jyóem trsm;qkH;umvtydkif;tjcm;wpfck jzpfzG,f&Sdonhf at'D av;&mpk\ yxrESpf0ufodkY 0ifa&mufvmNyD jzpfonf/ 1 2 3 4

r[m0Ho? 36? 20/ r[m0Ho? 36? 38/ r[m0Ho? 36? 28/ [ðomrkwåH a0g[m&H/ ,if;? 36? 40/ 00000000

wdk;wufrIESpfumvrsm; 1

181

at'D okH;&mpkwGif oD[dkVfodkY a&mufvmMuonhf a0wkv’rsm; tjzpf r[m0Housrf;wGif &nfñTef;cJholrsm;rSm ,if;t,ltqrsm; udk trSefwu,f,lqjcif;&Sd r&Sd taotcsm rod&acs/ rSwfwrf; rsm;ü ¤if;wdkY\ oifMum;csufrsm;ESihfywfoufí vkH;0 azmfjyjcif; r&Sd/ a&S;usonhf ygVdordkif;usrf;jzpfonfh 'Dy0Housrf;ü a0wkv’ 1 [laom a0g[m&tpm; 0dw@0g' [laom a0g[m&udk okH;EIef; xm;onf/ odkYwap ,if;a0g[m&\ t"dyÜm,fudk &Sif;jyjcif; twGuf rjzpfEdkifacs/ 2 ygVdt|uxmusrf;rsm; ü txl;ojzihf tbd"r®ma&;&m euf eJaom ,lqcsufrsm;ESihf ywfoufí ax&0g',lqcsuf r[kwf onfudk pGJudkifxm;Muonfh oabmxm;uGJvGJol Ak'¨0g'Drsm;udk &nfñTef;vsuf 0dw@0g'D[laom a0g[m&udk &Hzef&Hcg azmfjy Muonf/ 0dw@0g'DESifh ax&0g'DESpfOD;vkH; wlnDaom usrf;pm rsm;udk udk;um;MuNyD; ¤if;wdkY\ zGifhqdkcsufudk axmufcH&ef wdyd# urS wlnDaomokwåefrsm;udk azmfjyMu&mwGif ¤if;wdkY\ t"dyÜm,f aumuf,lrIykHpHom jcm;em;Muonf/ a0g[m&duwdórif;vufxuf oD[dkVfodkY a&muf&SdvmMu 3 onhf a0wkv’0g'Drsm;udk &nfñTef;&mü edum,o*F[usrf; wGif "r®½kpdu[kac:aom tb,*d&d0goD &[ef;awmfrsm;onf t aomuacwfu Ak'¨0g'udk ysufpD;ap&ef&nf½G,fí ouFef;0wfcJh Muaom a0wkv’[kac:onhf rdpäm'd|d0g'D ykPÖm;rsm; a&;om;cJh aom a0wkv’yd#uwfudk vufcHNyD; Ak'¨w&m;awmfrsm;tjzpf aMu nmvsuf? ax&d,edum,0if (ax&0g'D) &[ef;awmfrsm;onf ¤if;wdkY\ oifMum;csufudk "r®0de,ESihf ñSdEdIif;wdkufqdkifvsuf ,if; yd#uwfudk rSm;,Gif;onhf oifMum;csuftjzpf jiif;y,fMuonf/ 1 2 3

'Dy0Ho 22;41-42/ tbd-| 2? 4? 133? 285/ r-| 2? 282? 301/ edum,o*Fusrf;? pm-11/


182 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

þü jAm[®Prsm;udk &nfñTef;jcif;rSm oD[dkVfodkY ,laqmif vmonhf a0wkv’yd#uwfudk ouúwbmomjzihf a&;om;xm; aMumif; qdkvdk&ma&mufNyD; r[m,meokwåef tm;vkH;rSmvnf; ouúwbmomjzihfyif a&;om;xm;aMumif; uREkfyfwdkY od&onf/ wpfcgwpf&H a0wkv’okwåefrsm;[kvnf; ac:aom a0ykv’[l 1 aom a0g[m&udk r[m,meokwåefrsm; udk azmfjy&ef wGifwGif tokH;jyKonf/ to*Fa&;onfh tbd"r®morkpö,usrf;tvdkt& a0ykv’? a0'v’? a0wkv’[laom a0g[m&rsm;rSm wpfckwnf; aomt&mudk &nfñTef;onf/ a0ykv’[laom a0g[m&udk aAm"d owåyd#u[k ¤if;u t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkonf (Santiniketan rS 1950 jynfhwGif Pradhan wnf;jzwfonfh tbd"r®morkpö,usrf;? pm79)/ Kern a&m Pranavitana yg ESpfOD;vkH; a0wkv’0g'D [laom a0g[m&udk r[m,me0g'DESihf xyfwljyK (twlwl[kqdk) jcif; 2 twGuf apm'em&ef taMumif; r&Sd[k ,lqMuonf / r[m0Housrf;jyKq&monf a0wkv’[laom a0g[m&udk tokH;jyKaomtcg a,bk,stm;jzihf rnfonhf Ak'¨0g'*dkPf;uGJ wpfckrQ r&SdbJ r[m0d[m&0goDwdkY vufrcHEdkifonhf uGJvGJonhf ,lqcsufrsm;ESihf t"dyÜm,faumuf,lrI topfudkrqdk udk,fpm;jyK aom rnfonhf r[m,me*dkPf;uGJudkrqdk azmfjy&ef ,if; a0g[m 3 &udk tokH;jyKcJhjcif;jzpfonfrSm xif&Sm;onf / a0wkv’rsm; oD[dkVfwGif vIyf&Sm;cJhaom tcsdefonf tdE´d,&Sd r[m,me0g'wGif ta&;ygonhf wdk;wufrItcsKdU&Sdonhf tcsdef umvESihf wdkufqdkifaeaMumif; rSwfom;xdkufonf/ ,if;odkY jzpf 1

Kern : MIB. p. 4.

2

CJSe. G. Vol. II, p. 35-36.

3

oD[dkVfwGif ,aeYwkdifatmifyif vufcHxm;NyD;jzpfaom ,kHMunfrIESihf tm;xkwfrItopfrsm;udk qefYusifonfh tawG;tjrif opfudk pGJudkif xm;onhf rnfonhfAk'¨0g'Dudkrqdk a0wkv’rsm;[k uifyGef;wyfMuonf/ a0wkv’ odkYr[kwf a0ykv’[laom a0g[m&onf pmayt& ]qefYusif aom} ]jcm;em;aom}[k t"dyÜm,f&onf/

wdk;wufrIESpfumvrsm; 1

183

í a0g[m&duwdórif; vufxuftwGif; oD[dkVfwGif yxrqkH; tBudrftjzpf a0wkv’0g'Drsm;ay:vmjcif; at'DESpf&mpk\ 'kwd, ESpf0ufwGifcefYwGif tdE´d,wpfae&mü ay:xGef;cJhaom r[m,me ynm&Sif em*&ZÆKe\ t&Sdefjyif;onhf vIyf&Sm;rINyD;aemuf jzpfay: 1 vmjcif; jzpfonf / tkyfpkwpfck\ txnfuk, d ftaejzihf a0wkv’ rsm; odkYr[kwf r[m,mersm;rSm r[m0d[m&oHCmawmfrsm;\ oGefoifrI atmufüwnf&Sdonfh EdkifiHa&;tmPmydkifrsm;\ zdESdyf rIcH&aomfvnf; oD[dkVfwGif ,if;0g'opfrsm; vIyf&Sm;vmonfh tcgwdkif; ax&0g'tawG;tjrifESihf oifMum;rIrsm;tay: ¤if;wdkY \ MoZmvTrf;rdk;rIonf pGJNrJaeNyD; csKd;ESdrfí r&EdkifbJ&SdcJhonf/ t csdefumvvGefaomf r[m,met,ltqESihf usihfMuHtm;xkwfrI rsm;onf ax&0g'pepftwGif;odkY wjznf;jznf; 0ifa&mufvmNyD; ,if;wdkYudk vufcHvsuf ,if;wdkYrSm tppftrSef[kwfr[kwf ppf aMumjcif;r&SdbJ ax&0g'tjzpf yl;aygif;vdkufMuonf/ a0g[m&duwdórif;onf a0wkv’0g'Drsm;udk ESdrfeif;cJhonf omru a,bk,stm;jzihf oHCmudk pifMu,fatmif aqmif½Guf cJhonf/ Ak'¨0g'onf qdk;0g;onhf tajctaewGif&SdNyD; oHCm twGif; tusihfysufrIrsm; &SdykH&onf/ bk&ifonf oHCmtm; okH; odef;ay;NyD; ta<u;&Sdonhf &[ef;rsm;pGmwdkYtm; ta<u;rS vGwf 2 ajrmufaponf[k qdkonf / ,if;odkYaom jzpf&yfrsKd;udk a&S;acwf rsm;wGif rMum;zl;acs/ &[ef;rsm;onf bmaMumifh b,fvdk t a<u;wif&onf[lonfrSm ar;zG,fwpf&yf jzpfonf/ ,if;onf a0wkv’0g'DwdkY\ udk,fusihfw&m; ysufuGufrI MoZmvTrf;rdk;rI aMumihf jzpfjcif;ayavm/ q,fpkESpf ESpfckcefY tvGefu uk@em* vufxuf (at'D 248-249)twGif; {uemvdu[k xif&Sm; aom iwfrGwfacgif;yg;ab;jzpfchJNyD; uk@em*onf uyfab;qdkuf aepOftwGif; ausmfMum;vSonhf oHCmawmfrsm;\ trsm;okH; 1

HIL. II, p. 342.

2

r[m0Ho? 36? 39/


188 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

a*gXdumb,rif;onf pkHprf;ppfaq;rIjyKvkyfNyD; a0wkv†0g'D rsm;udk ESdrfeif;NyD; ¤if;wdkY\ usrf;pmrsm;udk rD;½IdUvsuf acgif;aqmif yk*¾Kdvf ajcmufq,fudk oD[dkVfuRef;rS ESifxkwfcJhonf/ ESifxkwcf &H onfhteuf tcsKdUrSm oD[dkVfrSxGufcGmNyD; tdE´d,awmifydkif; apmV 1 EdkifiH um0D&y¥eNrdKUü aexdkifMuonf / xdkumvonf tdE´d,ü to*FEiS hf 0okAE¨KwdkY\ a,m*gpm& 0g'vIyf&Sm;rI tm;aumif;aecsdefjzpfNyD; Ak'¨0g'twGif;odkY *E¨m&DESihf 2 rsufvSnfhtwwfrsm; 0ifa&mufvmcsdefjzpfonf / uma0wdkif;odkY xGufajy;cdkvIHMu&onhf oD[dkVf&[ef;awmfrsm; onf t&Sdeft0g&SdNyD; pGr;f &nfESihf jynfhpkHNyD; aemiftcg oD[dkVfwGif r[m,meAk'¨0g' acgif;aqmifjzpfvmrnfhf &[ef;i,f oHCrdMw ESihf &if;EDS;cifrifoGm;Muonf/ r[m0Housrf;wGif þ&[ef;i,f tm; xdktcsdefu tdE´d,wGif bmomw&m;wdk;wufrI ]arSmftwwf ponfudk oifMum;ay;jcif;ü uRrf;usifol (blw0dZÆm'daum0d3 a'g) } tjzpf azmfjyonf/ wdkif;jynfrS xGufajy;vmMuonhf &[ef;awmfrsm;\ oem; pzG,f yvdyfa&m*gtaMumif;udk oHCrdMwrax&f Mum;odaom tcg tvGefYtvGef pdwfvIyf&Sm;oGm;NyD; oD[dkVfuRef;wGif r[m ,meAk'¨bmomudk ysHUESHYap&ef cdkifrmonhf &nf½G,fcsufjzihf oD[dkVf odkY vmcJhonf/ a*gXmb,rif;onf ,if;wdkif;wpfyg;om; ynm wwf&[ef;awmftm; MunfñdkoGm;NyD; rdrd\ om;ESpfa,mufudk ynmoifay;&ef xdk&[ef;awmfxH tyfESHcJhonf/ oHCrdMwonf rif;om;i,f r[maoeu rdrdtay: opöm&SdNyD; Munfñdkav;pm; NyD; tBuD;jzpfol aZ|wdórSm ,if;odkY r[kwfaMumif; odvdkuf onf/ zcifuG,fvGefNyD;aemuf aZ|wdó (at'D 323-333) onf xD;eef;udk&aomtcg oHCrdMwonf aMumuf½HGUNyD; oD[dkVf 1 2 3

r[m0Ho? 36? 110-112/ edum,o*F[? pm- 11/ HIL. II, p. 352,354.

r[m0Ho? 36? 113/


tcef; 7 wkd;wufonhfESpfumvrsm; 2 a0wkv’0g'Drsm;onf a0g[m&duwdórif; ESdrfeif;vifhupm; xD; eef;udk tMurf;enf;jzihf &&Sdvmol a*gXmb,rif; (at'D 309322)vufxufwGif wpfzef tb,*d&dausmif;wdkufü wpfzef tm;xkwfMujyefonf/ a*gXmb,onf ¤if;rwkdifcif tkyfcsKyfcJh aom? tkyfcsKyfa&;ydkif;wGif ratmifjrifaomfvnf; Ak'¨0g'Daumif; wpfa,muftjzpf pHjyKxdkufaom od&doHCaAm"drif; (at'D 307-309)ESihf tvGef qefYusifpGm jyKrlaqmif½GufcJhonf/ a*gXm b,onf tiftm;awmihfwif;vsuf &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; tokH; taqmifypönf;rsm;udk aygrsm;pGm ay;urf;NyD; ausmif;wdkufrsm;udk jyKjyifjcif;? ausmif;wdkuftopfrsm; wnfaqmufjcif;? a0omc 1 ylZmuJhodkYaom xif&Sm;onhfyJGawmfrsm;usif;yjcif;rsm; jyKcJhonf / "r®½kpdu odkYr[kwf tb,*d&d0goD &[ef;awmfrsm;u a0 wkv†udk vufcHaomtcg Oóvd,m wdótrnf&Sdaom r ax&fwpfyg;onf tb,*d&dausmif;wdkufü rdrdudk,fwdkif acgif; aqmifjzpfvsuf a0g[m&duwdórif;vufxufü jzpfysufcJhouJh aom rESpfNrdKUzG,f&m tajctaetusKd;qufrsm;udk a&Smif&Sm;vdkcJh onf/ odkYjzpfí xdkrax&fonf aemufyg&[ef;awmf okH;&mcefYESihf ESifhtwl ausmif;wkdufrS xGufcGmoGm;cJhNyD; "r®½kpd*dkPf;ESihf tquf toG,frvkyfbJ 'u©dP*d&dt&yfwGif oDwif;okH;aexdkifcJhonf/ ,if;tkyfpk0if om*vtrnf&onhf rax&fBuDwpfyg;onf xdk t &yfü bmomw&m;udk a[mMum;csdefrS pí 'u©dP*d&dt&yfwGif 2 om*vd,trnf&Sd *kdPf;opfwpfck ay:vmcJhonf / 1 2

r[m0Ho? 36? 99-109/ edum,o*F[? pm-11/


192 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

qkH;jzwfcH&onf/ w&m;rQwrIjzihf vlxk\ av;pm;jcif; cH&onfh 1 w&m;olBuD;u bk&if\qE´udk qefYusifaomfvnf; wdó&[ef; 2 tm; vl0wfvJypfonf / bmomw&m;a&;&m vl0wfaMumifrsm;\ acgif;aqmifjzpfol r[maoerif;\ vkyfydkifcGifhtmPmonf ,if;rif;\ rqifrjcif tvsifpvdk vkyfaqmifrIrsm;aMumihf usqif;oGm;onfrSm xif&Sm; onf/ ,if;odkYjzpfí NyD;cJhaom jzpf&yfwGif ¤if;\trwfBuD;jzpfol arC0PÖtb,tm; tavQmhay;vdkuf&NyD; ,cktcg trwf onf bk&if\tvdkqE´udk vspfvsL½I&Jvmvsuf bk&iftvGefMunf

1

2

rsKd;jzihf qkH;jzwfcH&jcif;jzpfaMumif; owd&oifhonf/ r[m0d[m&ausmif; wdkuf\qE´udk qefYusifNyD; ausmif;wdkufwpfckudk vufcHol rnfolrqdk onf &[ef;,kwfjzpfNyD; tjypfwpfckjzihf pGyfpGJcH&onfrSm pdwf0ifpm;zG,f aumif;onf/ r[m0Housrf; 37?;32 wGif 'u©dPm&mrausmif;wdkufrS wdórax&ftm; ]oDvaMumif? r½dk;om;ol? rdwfaqG,kwf? apmihfpnf;rI r&Sdol (uk[ae ZdrSrmeao? ygyrdawå tonaw)}[k azmfjyonf/ edum,o*F[usrf;? pm-13 wGif xdkrax&ftm; ]aum[kH wdó} oDv aMumif wdó[k azmfjyonf/ odkY&mwGif tEk&m"yk&NrdKU&Sd aZw0e0d[m & ta&SUzuf (*dwf) apwDteD; awGU&Sd&onhf 'kwd, r[dE´rif; (at'D 772-792) eef;pH ckepfESpfajrmufwiG f a&;xdk;cJhaom ausmufpmü þ rax&ftm; ]om*kvd r[[drd ,H erð ygV0k tydóawmp wdó r[ ax&emxó} NcdK;NcHa&mifh&JNyD; om*vr[max&f[laom trnfjzihf ausmfMum;aom r[mwdórax&ftm;} (E.Z. III, p. 227.)[k &nfñTef; azmjfyxm;onf/ ,if;ausmufpmudk om*vd,*kdPf;udk axmufcHol wpfa,mufu a&;xdk;cJhzG,f&Sdonf/ r[m0Ho 37;39/ 0dedpä, r[mrapöm? w'g "r®duor®awm/ þonfrSm arC0PÖtb,trwfudkyif &nfñTef;jcif; jzpf Edkifonf/ bk&ifhqE´udk qefYusifonhf ,if;odkYaom udpörsKd;udk aqmif½GufEdkifavmufatmif t&Sdeft0g&Sdonhf tjcm;yk*¾Kdvf wpfa,muf r&SdEdkifonfrSm xif&Sm;onf/ edum,o*Fusrf;? pm- 14 ü ¤if;\ trnfudk "r®du[k azmfjyjcif;rSm rrSefacs/ "r®daumwd o"kZae[dorÇm0dawm = olawmfaumif;rsm;u rQw\[k csD;rGrf;cH&ol (r[m0Ho-#D? 884)/ r[m0Ho 37;38-39/

wdk;wufrIESpfumvrsm; 2

189

rS xGufcGmoGm;NyD; r[maoerif; (at'D 334-362) eef;wuf 1 onfESihf jyefvmonf / ,if;onf oHCrdMwtzdkY ESpfaygif; av; q,feD;yg;rQ ¤if;\pdwfxJü MumjrihfpGm wnf&SdaecJhonhf tpD tpOfudk aqmif½Guf&ef tcGifhta&;jzpfonf/ oD[dkVfordkif;wGif r[maoeonf EdkifiHtwGuf rsm;pGm t vkyfvkyfcJhonhf pGrf;&nfowådESifhjynhfpkHonhf bk&iftaejzihfa&m ,cifrnfonhfrif;rS rpGrf;aqmifEdkifcJhonhf r[m0d[m&ausmif; wdkuf\t&Sdeft0gudk qefYusifí rdrd\,kHMunfcsuftwdkif; aqmif ½Guf&ef owåd&SdcJholvnf;jzpfonf/ tb,*d&dausmif;wdkufü aexdkifol oHCrdMwonf r[m0d [m&ausmif;wdkuftm; r[m,meAk'¨bmomtjzpfodkY oGwfoGif; &ef BudK;yrf;rI ratmifjrifacs/ xdkYaemuf olonf r[m0d[m& ausmif;wdkufae oHCmawmfrsm;tm; iwfrGwfacgif;yg;apvdkojzihf jynfolrsm;tm; qGrf;ravmif;vªa&; trdefYxkwfjyef&ef wynhfjzpf ol r[maoerif;udk azsmif;zsonf/ ax&d,*kdPf;0if oHCm awmfrsm;onf tEk&m"yk&NrdKUrS xGufcGmNyD; r[m0d[m&ausmif; wdkufbufrS tNrJwrf; &yfwnfonhf a&m[eESihf rv,a'orsm; odkY xGufcGmMuonf/ udk;ESpfwdkifwdkif r[m0d[m&ausmif;wkdufü oHCmawmfrsm; qdwfokH;cJhonf/ oHCrdMwonf bk&ifESihfaomP trwf\ axmufcHcsufjzihf ckepfxyfjrihfonhf avm[ygom'ESihf r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkuf\ tjcm;rsm;pGmaom taqmufttkH rsm;udk zsufqD;NyD; xdkypön;f rsm;jzihf tb,*d&d ausmif;wdkufü ausmif;aqmifopfrsm; aqmufvkyf&ef tokH;jyKcJhonf/ r[m0d [m&ausmif;wkduf\ ajrae&mwGif v,fxGefNyD; yJyifrsm; pdkufysKd; cJhonf/ wpfcsdefwnf;wGif apwd,yAÁw(r[dE¦avh)udkvnf; t 2 b,*d&dausmif;wdkufrS "r®½kpdu*dkPf;0ifwdkY odrf;,lxm;cJhonf / 1 2

r[m0Ho? 36? 113-117/ 37? 1-2/ edum,o*F[? pm-11-12/ r[m0Ho 37;3-16/ 37;76/ edum,o*F[? pm-12-13/ *dkif*gonf r[m0Ho 37;75 *gxmudk atmufygtwkdif; bmomjyefxm;onf –


190 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

bk&ifrif;\ tMurf;zuf vkyfaqmifcsufaMumifh wpfEdkifiHvkH; wkefvIyfacsmufjcm;cJhMuonf/ r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkuf\ xif ay:ausmfMum;rIrSm jynfoltjrifonf ¤if;(rif;)udk qefYusifonfh bufodkY ajymif;vJoGm;onftxd tvGefBuD;rm;cJhonf/ bk&ifrif; ESihf teD;uyftquftoG,f&SdcJholrsm;yif rauscsrf;rIrsm;jzihf jynfh vsuf&SdMuonf/ r[maoeonf r[m0d[m& ausmif;wdkuf\ jynfvlxktay: MoZmoufa&mufrIudk rqdkpavmufom oabm oabmaygufcJhonf/ ¤if;\ teD;pyfqkH; rdwfaqG arC0PÖ t b,trwfonf rv,Zeyk'fodkY xGufajy;NyD; ppfwyftiftm; pkaqmif;vsuf bk&iftm; ppfaMunmcJhonf/ ,if;odkYjzihf r[m aoeonf owdjyKrdoGm;NyD; ,if;tajctae\ qGJaqmifrIudk o abmaygufoGm;cJhonf/ rdwfaqGa[mif;jzpfMuonfh bk&ifESihf trwfwdkYonf wdwfwqdwf awGUqkH aqG;aEG;MuNyD; bk&ifonf r[m0d[ma& ygaye? r[maoaee emodaw/ 0oðok "r®½kpdum? bdu©L apwd,yAÁaw/ ]"r®½kpdu &[ef;rsm;onf (xdt k csdefu) r[maoe rif;,kwf zsufqD; ypfvdkufonfh r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkufü aexdkifMu\}[k bmomjyefNyD; aemuf ]apwd,yAÁaw}[laom pum;vkH;udk a&SU*gxmyg ]trÁ|vH}yk'f ESifh qufpyf&ef ,laqmifoGm;onf/ atmufajc rSwfcsufwpfck (plV 0Ho? t*Fvdyfbmomjyef? pm- 37? atmufajcrSwfcsuf 5) wGif *dkifum u "r®½kpdu &[ef;rsm;onf r[m0d[m&ESihf trÁ|v 0d[m&rsm;udk ydkifqdkifoGm;aMumif; azmfjyonf/ odkY&mwGif "r®½kpduwdkYonf r[m0d[m &udk vkH;0 odrf;,ljcif;rjyKcJhacs/ ¤if;wdkYonf r[m0d[m&udk zsufqD;ypf vkdufaomtcgwGifrS r[dE¦avhudk odrf;ydkufcJhMuonf/ ,if;*gxm\ bmomjyeftrSefrSm þodkYjzpfoihfonf ]aumufuspf ,kwfrmol r[maoerif;u r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkufudk zsufqD;vdkuf aomtcg "r®½kpdu&[ef;wdkYonf apwd,yAÁw(r[dE¦avh)wGif aexdkif cJhMuonf}/ ,if;jyefvQif ]0d[m&blrd, om0g OE´0yk& 0gyd,/ {uV b*d&da0a[& 0god "r®½kpD[k a*gpf om*d&da,[d 0dol[ = r[m0d[m &ausmif;wdkuf ajrae&mudk xGef,ufNyD; yJrsm;pdkufysKd;Mu\/ ,if;aemuf tb,*d&dausmif;wdkufrS "r®½kpdu &[ef;rsm;onf apwd,*d&dodkY oGm; í aexdkifMu\} [kqdkaom edum,o*F[usrf;ESihf nDñGwfonf/

wdk;wufrIESpfumvrsm; 2

191

rdrd\trSm;udk 0efcHNyD; r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkufudk jyefvnfwnf aqmufay;&ef uwdjyKcJhonf/ tjyeftvSef awmif;yefrIrsm; 1 zvS,fMuNyD;aemuf aysmf½TifzG,f ajyNidrf;rI jzpfay:cJhonf / odkY&mwGif pdwfqdk;trsufxGufaeMuonfh vlxkonf ta&; ,l&ef awmif;qdkMuonf/ bk&ifhtcspfawmf rdzk&m;rsm;teuf 2 pma&;0efcsKyf\ orD;jzpfolonf pdwfwGif emusifcgoD;rIaMumihf vuform; wpfa,muftm; oHCrdBw&[ef;udk owfypfcdkif; onf/ oHCrdBw\ rdwfaqG aomPtrwfudkvnf; owfypf 3 vdkufonf/ arC0PÖtrwf\ aumif;rGefonhf pDrHtkyfcsKyfrIjzihf r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkufudk jyefvnf wnfaqmufcJhonf/ arC0PÖtb,trwf\ wdkufwGef;csufudk vufcHaomf vnf; bk&ifonf r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkuftm; rESpfoufbJ &Sd onf/ odkYjzpfí bk&ifonf r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkuf wm0efcH yk*¾Kdvfrsm;\ tjyif;txefuefYuGufrIudk vspfvsL&INyD; xdkausmif; wdkuf\ e,fedrdwftwGif; aZw0eausmif;wdkufudk wnfaqmuf vsuf 'u©dPm&mr odkYr[kwf 'u©dP*d&dausmif;wdkufae om*vd ,*dkPf;0if t&Sifwdórax&ftm; vª'gef;onf/ xdkudpöESihf ywf oufí r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkufonf aemufwpfzef udk;vMum oHCmawmfrsm; uif;qdwfoGm;jyefonf/ aZw0e0d[m&udk vuf 4 cHol wdórax&fonf &[ef;y&dowf tv,fü tEÅdr0w¬Kjzihf 1

r[m0Ho? 37? 17-35/ r[m0Ho 37;28 ü avcu"Dwm[k qdkonf/ odkY&mwGif edum, o*F[? pm- 13 ü xdkrdzk&m;onf rdzk&m;acgifjzpfNyD; vrÁuPÖ\ orD;[kqdkonf/ 3 r[m0Ho? 37? 26-30/ edum,o*F[? pm- 13/ 4 r[m0Ho? 37;38/ tEÅdr0w¬K/ (1) arxkefrI (2) cdk;rI (3) vlowfrI (4) psmefr*fzdkvfudk r&bJ &onf[k vdrfnmajymqdkrI[laom yg&mZdu av; rsKd;teuf wpfckckudk usL;vGefoltm; tEÅd0w¬K usL;vGefol[k ac:onf/ tb,*d&dausmif;wdkufudk vufcHol r[mwdórax&fonf tmywf wpfckjzihf qkH;jzwfcH&aomfvnf; (tEÅdr0w¬Kjzihf r[kwfbJ) tjcm;wpf 2


196 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

jyefqdkcJhonfrSm þrif;vufxufwGif jzpfonf1/ xdkrax&fonf zm[D,ef ñTef;qdkcJhonf ]r[moDv} [kt"dyÜm,f&onhf ]wmrdk 2 uDwd} (Ta-mo-kiu-ti)ESihf twlwl jzpfEdkifonf / xdktcsdefu t b,*d&dausmif;wdkufonf wdk;wufxGef;um;aeNyD; r[m0d[m& ausmif;wdkuf\ vIyf&Sm;rIrsm; aemufusefaeykH&onf/ zm[D,ef 3 rSwfwrf;t& tb,*d&dausmif;wdkufü &[ef; 5000 &SdNyD; 4 r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkufwGif &[ef; 3000 om&Sdonf / Ak'¨'gorif;\om;awmf yxr Oywdórif;vufxuf at'D ig;&mpk tpydkif;wGif jzpfay:cJhaom iwfrGwfacgif;yg;ab;udk ausmfvTm;&ef &[ef;awmfrsm;\ tBuHjyKcsufjzihf **Fga&m[P[k ac:aom yGJawmfwpfrsKd;udk crf;em;pGm usif;ycJhonf/ iwfrGwf acgif;yg;ab;BuKHwdkif; ,if;yGJawmfudk usif;y&rnf [kowfrSwfcJh 5 onf / Oywdórif;onf tvGefMuifemwwfNyD; tvGefbmom w&m;udkif;½Idif;onhfrif; jzpfNyD; ¤if;toufxif&Sm;&SdpOftwGif; ¤if;\ tpm;tpmudk oHCmawmfrsm;\ vlodrsm;onfh qGrf;pm; 6 aqmif r[mygVdrS &,lcJhaMumif; od&onf / &[ef;jyKaeol þrif;\nDawmf r[memrrif; (at'D 403431)onf aemifawmfudk rdzk&m;u owfjzwfvdkufaomtcg vl xGufNyD; xD;eef;wufonf/ r[memrrif;onf tb,*d&dausmif; 7 8 wdkufoHCm udk MunfñdkNyD; ¤if;\rdzk&m;rSm r[m0d[m&oHCm udk Munfñdkonf/ t|uxmq&mBuD; t&Sifr[mAk'¨aCmo tEk&m "yk&NrdKUodkY a&mufvmNyD; r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkufü oDwif;okH; 1 2

3 4

5 7 8

r[m0Ho? 37;276/ *dkif*g\ plV0Ho t*Fvdyfbmomjyef? yxrtkyf pm rsufESm 16 rS atmufajcrSwfcsuf 5 udk Munhfyg/

Fa Hien, p. 107; Fa Hien, p. 102. Fa Hien, p. 107.

6 r[m0Ho? 37? 189-198/ ,if;? 37? 203/ þrif;onf ,if;ausmif;wdkufü &[ef;jyKaecJhykH&onf/ r[m0Ho 37;212-213/

wdk;wufrIESpfumvrsm; 2

193

ñdkav;pm;onfh &[ef;wpfyg;udk vl0wfvJypfcJhonf/ ,if;odkY jzpf &onfrSm r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkufESihf jynfolYtjrifonf bk&if udk qefYusifaomaMumihf jzpfEdkifonf/ r[maoerif;onf acwfNydKif tdE´d,rSmyif xif&Sm;oljzpf onf/ taMumif;rl r[m,meAk'¨0g'tay: pdwfñGwfaom 1 aMumihf jzpfzG,f&Sdonf/ 'gXm0Housrf; wGif jrwfAk'¨pG,fawmftm; umuG,fapmifh a&Smuf&eftwGuf tdE´d,rS ¤if;xHodkY ydkYay;vdkuf aMumif;? odkYwap pG,fawmf"mwf oD[dkVfodkY qdkufa&mufoGm; aomtcg ¤if;uG,fvGefNyDjzpfaMumif; rSwfwrf;wifxm;onf/ aAm"dowåqif;wktm; &nfñTef;azmfjycsufudk yxrqkH;tae jzihf þacwfumvtwGif; awGU&Sd&onf/ ,if;onf xdktcsdefu r[m,meMoZmvTrf;rdk;rI\ oufaojzpfaMumif; xif&Sm;onf/ ,if; ]aAm"dowåudk,fpm;jyK oyÜm,fvSyNyD; qGJaqmiftm;aumif; aom qif;wk}udk qifpG,fyef;ykxGif;oltjzpf ausmfMum;aom 2 r[maoerif;\ om;i,f aZ|wdó u ¤if;\ crnf;awmf 3 (r[maoe) twGuf rSmMum;rIjzihf xGif;xkcJhonf/ at'D 362 wGif r[maoerif;\ t½kduft&mudk om;BuD; jzpfol od&darC0PÖrif; qufcHonf/ od&darC0PÖrif;onf crnf;awmf\ rSm;,Gif;aom tjyKtrltm;vkH;udk r[m0d[m& oHCmawmfrsm;xHwGif awmif;yef0efcsvsuf xdckdufysufpD;oGm;rI tm;vkH;udk txl;jyKjyifNyD; rdrd\t&Sdeft0g tmPmjzihf r[m0d[m &ausmif;wdkufESihf vlxk\arwåmudk jyefvnf&&Sdatmif t&mcyf odrf;udk aqmif½Gufonf/ vdr®myg;eyfvSonfh bk&ifonf t&Sif r[dE´\ a½Tqif;wkudk xkvkyfapNyD; t&Sifr[dE´ oD[dkVfodkY qdkuf a&mufrIudk txdrf;trSwfjyK&ef crf;em;vSonf yGJvrf;obifudk &ufaygif;rsm;pGm Mumatmif ESpfpOf usif;yonf/ rif;BuD;onf 1 2

'gXm0Ho? pm 301-302/ 'kwd, aZ|wdórif; (at'D 389-398)

3

r[m0Ho? 37? 102/


194 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

oD[dkVfuRef; ae&mtESHYtjym;&Sd vlOyoumrsm;ESihf &[ef;awmf rsm;udk yGJawmfodkY zdwfMum;vsuf qufcHrnfhbk&ifrsm;onf xdkyGJ awmfudk ESpfpOf OD;aqmifusif;yatmif `rSifhwifay;cJhonf/ xdkyGJ awmfBuD;onf qdk;½Gm;aom twdwfaeY&ufrsm;\ cg;oD;onhf t 1 rSwf&rIrsm; aysmufoGm;atmif aqmif½GufonfrSm xif&Sm;onf / þrif;eef;pH udk;ESpfajrmufwGif jrwfAk'¨\ vuf,mpG,fawmf 2 "mwfudk uvd*Fwdkif; 'EÅyk&NrdKUrS oD[dkVfodkY o,faqmifcJhonf/ ,if;"mwfawmfudk NrdKUawmf\ txl;taqmufttkHtwGif; odrf; qnf;xm;NyD; jynfolrsm; zl;ajrmfEdkif&ef ESpfpOf tb,*d&dausmif; 3 wdkufodkY yifhaqmifonf / oD[dkVfvlrsKd;wdkY\ trsKd;om;a&;vu©Pm wpf&yf jzpfvm onhf ,if;jrwfAk'¨pG,fawmf"mwftm; ylaZmfrIwGif r[m0d[m& ausmif;wdkuf\ yg0ifjcif;rjyKcJhonfrSm xl;jcm;onf/ tb,*d&d ausmif;wdkufonf txl;ojzihf r[maoerif;vufxuftwGif; oD[dkVf r[m,meA[dkXmetjzpf tdE´d,wGif vlodrsm;onf/ pG,f 1

r[m0Ho? 37? 53090/ r[m0Ho? 37? 92 *gxm/ 'gXm0Ho? pm- 340/ (Indian Architecture usrf;udk a&;om;jyKpkol) yga&;ba&mif; (Perey Brown)u ]pG,fawmfNrdKU ([kt"dyÜm,f&onhf) wpfcsdefwpfcgu tzdk; rjzwfEdkifonhf ykdifqdkifrIudk tyfEHx S m;&m þjrihfjrwfonfh 'EÅyk&NrdKUawmf onf txdrf;trSwf oauFwrsm;tm;vkH; ,cktcg aysmufqkH;oGm;NyDjzpf aomfvnf; yl&D (Pūri) odkYr[kwf bk0aeoGm& (Bhubanesvar) NrdKUrsm;\ teD;0ef;usif wpfae&m&mwGif wnf&Sdonf/ vufvSrf;rDonhf xdkae&m a'o\ a&S;a[mif;ypönf; txdrf;trSwfae&mrSm taomu rif;BuD;\ ausmufpmwpfck wnf&Sdonhf a'gvd, awmifukef; (Daulia Hill) jzpf onf (,if;? pm-35)/ ],if;jrifharmufaeonhf uZ*Eémx bk&m;ausmif; ae&monf ydkrdka&S;usNyD; tzdk;rjzwfEdkifaom þAk'¨"mwfawmf oD[dkVfodkY <uroGm;rD 'EÅyk&NrdKU&Sd Ak'¨pG,fawmf udef;0yfawmfrlcJhonhfae&m r[kwf[k rqdkEdkifonhf ae&mjzpfaMumif; wdkufwGef;vsuf&Sdonf (pm-123)/ 3 r[m0Ho 37;95-97/ 'gXm? pm-405-408/ Fa Hien rSwfwrf;? pm106-107/ 2

wdk;wufrIESpfumvrsm; 2

195

awmf"mwfudk yifhaqmifcJhMuonfh rif;om;ESihf rif;orD;rsm; udk,f wdkif r[m,meAk'¨0g'Drsm; jzpfzG,f&SdNyD; ,if;odkYjzpfíyif tb, 1 *d&d*dkPf;&[ef;awmfrsm;ESihf a&S;OD;pGm qufoG,frdykH&onf / xdk tcsdefrSpí pG,fawmf"mwftm; xdef;odrf;apmihfrIrSm tb,*d&d ausmif;wkduf\ wm0efjzpfvmNyD; r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkufESihf r ywfoufbJ&Sdvmonf/ od&darC0PÖrif;onf tdE´d,bk&if ork`'´*kwårif;xH oH tzGJUwpfck apvTwfNyD; Ak'¨*,mwGif oD[dkVfbk&m;zll;rsm;twGuf bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufwpfck wnfaqmuf&ef cGifhawmif;cJhaMumif; 2 vnf; od&onf / aq;ynmwwfuRrf;onfh bk&iftjzpf vlodrsm;NyD; vlrsm; twGufa&m wd&pämefrsm;twGufyg aq;buf0ifypönf;rsm; jzefY jzL;ay;cJol Ak'¨'gorif; (at'D ig;&mpk tpydkif;) vufxufü em rnfausmf w½kwfbk&m;zl;&[ef;awmf zm[D,efonf oD[dkVfodkY<u 3 vmcJhonf / þrif;onf ynm&Sifyk*¾Kdvfrsm;tm; csD;a`rSmufjcif;? w&m;a[m yk*¾Kdvfrsm;tm; qGrf;qefawmfrsm; axmufyHhjcif;rsm; 4 jzifh Ak'¨omoem jyefYyGm;a&;twGuf rsm;pGm aqmif½GufcJhonf / 5 r[m"r®uxD [k vlodxif&Sm;aom r[max&fu ordkif; wGif yxrqkH;tBudrftjzpf ygVdokwåeftcsKdUudk oD[dkVfbmomodkY 1

'gXm"mwk0HowGif rif;om;rif;orD;rsm;onf yxrwGif "mwfawmfudk t Ek&m"yk&NrdKU\ taemufajrmufbuf&Sd arC*d&dausmif;wdkufae &[ef; awmfwpfyg;tm; vQKdU0SufpGm ay;tyfcJhaMumif;? &[ef;awmfu bk&ifrif; tm; owif;pum; ydkYcJhaMumif; qdkonf/ 2 *dkif*g? r[m0Ho t*Fvdyfbmomjyefed'gef;? pm-39/ 3 Ak'¨'gorif;onf aq;tESpfcsKyfusrf;wpfapmif a&;om;cJhonf/ oaAÁoH a0ZÆow¬meH? uwGm om&w¬o*F[H (r[m 0Ho? 37? 146 *gxm)/ 4 "r®bmPu0wåH/ r[m0Ho? 37? 150 *gxm/ 5 þrax&f\ emrnf&if; tjcm;wpfck jzpfzG,f&Sdonf/ r[m"r®uxD[l onf ]w&m;a[m yk*¾KdvfBuD;}[k t"dymÜ ,f&onf/ a&S;acwf tcgwkef;u vltrsm;udk ¤if;wdkY\ trnfemrxuf ¤if;wdkY vkyfaqmifonhf xif&Sm; onfh ykHpHrsm;jzihf rMumcP todrsm;Muonf/


200 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

vsuf ausmif;wdkufxJudk 0ifoGm;onf/ oHCmawmfrsm;udk &Sdcdk; ylaZmfNyD;aemuf ylaZmfonfh txdrf;trSwfESihf aus;Zl;wifonhf taejzihf EdkifiHawmfudk oHCmawmfrsm;tm; vª'gef;onfudk oHCm 1 awmfrsm;u ¤if;tm; jyefvnfay;tyfonf / arm*¾v†merif;vufxuf jzpfay:cJhonfh ta&;BuD;jzpf&yf wpfckrSm tdE´d,rS Ak'¨qHawmf"mwf auo"mwkudk oD[dkVfodYk aqmif,lvmjcif;jzpfonf/ uóyrif;vufxuf qdk;½Gm;onhfaeY rsm;twGif; tdE´d,odkY xGufajy;oGm;onfh eef;awmfESifh eD;pyfol odvmumvtrnf&Sd vli,fonf Ak'¨*,mwGif &[ef;tjzpfcH,l 2 onf / jrwfAk'¨qHawmfudk oD[dkVfodkY yifhaqmifcJhonfrSm trÁ omraP&[k cspfpEdk; ac:a0:cH&ol tqdkyg oDvmumvyifjzpf onf/ odvmumvonf bk&if\ylaZmfcsD;a`rSmufrI rsm;pGmcH &NyD; tcrf;tem;rsm;twGuf oefvsufudkifaqmifol[k t"dyÜm,f& onfh tod*¾g[bJGUudk yxrqkH; vufcH&&Sdoljzpfonf/ ,if;bGJU onf aemiftcg EdkifiHawmf\ xif&Sm;onfh bGJUxl;*kPfxl; wpf ckjzpfvmonf/ odvmumvtm; bk&ifhESrawmfESihf xdrf;jrm;ay; vdkufonf/ qHawmf"mwftm; ½kyfyGm;awmfaqmifwGif &wem MuKwfjzihfxm;NyD; tcgtm;avsmfpGm yGJawmfBuD; qif,ifusif;y 3 onf / arm*¾v†merif;onf aemifawmfvufxufu tEÅ&m,f ESihfBuKH&pOftwGif; rnDrñGwjf zpfaeonhf Ak'¨omoemawmftm; pifMu,foefY&Sif;atmif aqmif½Gufonf/ arm*¾v†merif;udk ¤if;\om;jzpfol ukrm&"mwkaoe (at 'D 513-522)u qufcHonf/ þrif;onf "r®o*Ðwd (oH*g,em wif) wpfck jyKvkyfNyD; omoemawmfudk oefYpifapaMumif; tqdk&Sd 1

,if;? 39? 41-43/ ork'´&mZ*kwårif;\ cGifhjyKcsufjzihf od&darC0PÖrif; aqmufvkyfcJhonhf ausmif;wdkufwGif (&[ef;jyKonfrSm tjzpfEdkifqkH;jzpfonf)/ 3 r[m0Ho? 39? 44-56/ r[m0Housrf;wGif qHawmf"mwftaMumif;udk ,cktcg &SmazGrawGU&Sd&ao;onhf auo"mwk0Housrf;wGif tao;pdwf jyqdkxm;aMumif; azmfjyonf (r[m0Ho? 39? 49? 58)/ 2

wdk;wufrIESpfumvrsm; 2

197

vsuf oD[dkVfbmomjzihf&Sdonhf yd#uwfokH;ykH\tzGifh t|uxm usrf;rsm;udk ygVdbmomodkY jyefqdkonfrSm þ rif;vufxufwGif 1 jzpfonf / r[memrif; uG,fvGefNyD;aemuf oD[dkVfEdkifiHonf ESpf q,fhig;ESpfxufrenf; y&rf;ywmjzpfaecJhonf/ wrD;vf tmPm odrf; ajcmufa,mufu tEk&m"yk&NrdKUwGif tpOftquf tkyfcsKyf cJhMuonf/ oD[dkVfwpfuRef;vkH; zsufqD;cH&NyD; EdkifiHawmf\ bm oma&; ,Ofaus;rIESifh pD;yGm;a&;tm;vkH; ydwfyif wm;qD;jcif;cH& onf/ wrD;vfwdkY tvkyftauR;jyKaeaom t&Sdeft0g&Sdonhf oD[kdVfvlrsKd;rsm; &SdaepOftwGif; oD[dkVfrdom;pkrsm;pGmonf a&m 2 [PZeyk'fodkY xGufajy;Muonf / "mwkaoerif; (at'D 460-478) onf xdkacwfxdktcsdefu ol&Jaumif;jzpfNyD; EdkifiHawmftm; wdkif;wpfyg;wdkY tkyfcsKyfrI atmufrS vGwfajrmufapcJhonf/ þbk&ifonf rlvu &[ef; wpfyg;jzpfcJhNyD; ¤if;\ OD;av;jzpfol ynm&Sd&[ef;awmfwpfyg;u 3 arG;jrLapmihfa&SmufNyD; ynmoifay;cJhonf / "mwkaoerif;onf vlxGufNyD; wrD;vfrsm;udk owfjzwfvsuf oD[dkVfvlrsKd;wdkY\ tkyfcsKyfrIudk jyefvnf wnfaqmufcJhonf/ þrif;onf Ak'¨om oemawmf wdk;wufa&;twGufa&m EdkifiHawmf pnfyifa&; t wGufyg rsm;pGm aqmif½GufcJhonf/ ¤if;\ vkyfaqmifrIrsm;teuf 4 uvm0g0 (Kalāvāva) a&avSmifuefBuD;udk azmfjy&rnfjzpfonf / þrif;onf r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkuftm; tvGefMunfñdkol jzpfNyD; ausmif;aqmifBuD; 18 aqmifESihf a&uefrsm; wnfaqmuf vsuf ax&d,*kdPf;0if oHCmawmfrsm;tm; vª'gef;onf/ ¤if; wnfaqmufonhf tvm;wl ausmif;wdkufESihf a&uefrsm;pGmudk vnf; ,if;*kdPf;0if oHCmawmfrsm;tm; vTJajymif; vª'gef;cJh onf/ &[ef;tokH;taqmif ypönf;rsm; trsm;tjym;udk oHCm 1 3 4

,if;? 37? 243-244/ ,if;? 38? 14-17/ ,if;? 38? 42/

2

r[m0Ho? 38? 12-38/


198 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

awmfrsm;tm; vª'gef;NyD; yd#uwfokH;ykHoifMum;rI jyefYyGm;a&; 1 twGuf tvGef tm;ay;ulnDcJhonf / rdrdonf r[m0d[m&ausmif;wkduf\ xD;eef;ESihf ywfoufol rdwfaqGjzpfaomfvnf; tb,*d&dausmif;wkdufü vdktyfonhf wdk; 2 wufrIudk aqmif½Guf&ef arhaysmufrxm;ay / þrif;onf ax&d ,*dkPf;tm; vª'gef;rnf[laom tMuHjzihf apwd,yAÁw (r[dE¦ avh)&Sd trÁw¬v0d[m&udk jyefrGrf;rHcJhaomfvnf; r[maoerif; vufxufuwnf;u ,if;awmifukef;ukd odrf;ydkufxm;Muonfh "r®½kpdu*dkPf;0if &[ef;wdkY\ tEl;tñGwf awmif;yefjcif;aMumihf 3 ,if;*dkPf;0ifwdkYtm; vª'gef;cJhonf / "mwkaoerif;onf Ak'¨ESifh aAm"dowåqif;wkawmf trsm; tjym; wnfaqmufNyD; ,if;wdkYtwGuf taqmufttkHrsm;vnf; 4 aqmufvkyfcJhonf / þrif;onf t&Sifr[dE´qif;wkawmfwpfck wnfaqmufNyD; t&Sifr[dE´tm; rD;oN*ØK[fcJhonhf ajrae&mwGif yGJ awmfBuD;wpfck usif;yonf/ xdkae&mrSmyif ]'Dy0Housrf;}udk ½Gwf 5 qdk &Sif;jycJhonf[k qdkonf / zcifudk owfjzwfjcif;jzihf xif&Sm;aom om;jzpfol yxr uóyrif; (at'D 478-496)u zcif "mwkaoerif;\ xD;eef; udk qufcHonf/ uóyrif;\ nDjzpfol arm*¾v†merif;om;onf aemifawmf uóyrif; tkyfcsKyfpOftwGif; touftEÅ&m,f pdwf 6 rcs&ojzihf oD[dkVfrS a&SmifNyD; tdE´d,odkY xGufajy;cJhonf / yxr wGif ax&d,*kdPf;0if &[ef;awmfrsm;onf t"dutm;jzihf jynf olrsm; NidKjiifcH&rnfudk pdk;&drfojzihf uóyrif;tm; rESpfoufvdk bJ &SdMuonf/ &[ef;awmfrsm;onf uóyrif; wdk;csJUNyD; tokH;

wdk;wufrIESpfumvrsm; 2

taqmif ypönf;topfrsm;jzihf jynhfpkHatmif jyKjyifxm;aom £ó&d, orPm&mrausmif;wdkuftvªudk vufcH&ef jiif;qdkMu onf/ odkYwap aemiftcgwGif ax&d, oHCmawmfrsm;onf tavQmhay;NyD; ,if;ausmif;wkdufudk Ak'¨½kyfyGm;awmftm; vª'gef; 1 &efcGifhjyKvsuf oG,f0dkufí tvªcHvdkufMuonf / uóyrif; onf "r®½kpdu oHCmawmfrsm;tm;vnf; ausmif;wdkufwpfck 2 aqmufvkyf vª'gef;cJhonf / &[ef;awmfrsm;omru oD[dkVf&Sded*P²rsm;vnf; uóyrif; tm; rESpfoufMuacs/ ed*P²rsm;onf arm*¾v†merif;\ olvQLd rsm;tjzpf aqmif½GufcJhMuNyD; arm*¾v†merif; oD[dkVfodkY a&muf&Sd 3 &ef tcGifhtvrf; tcsdeftcgaumif;udk owif;ydkYcJhMuonf / yxr arm*¾v†merif; (at'D 496-513)onf tdE´d,rdwf 4 aqG tcsKdUESihftwl oD[dkVfodkY qdkufa&mufcJhNyD; ukXm&d trnf&Sd onhf bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufwpfckwGif ¤if;\ ppfwyftiftm;udk pkaqmif; NyD; uóyrif;udk atmifEdkifvsuf xD;eef;udk &onf/ þrif;onf *dkPf;*Ptm;vkH;rS oHCmawmfrsm; ESpfoufonhf rif;wpfyg;jzpfonf/ ¤if;\ atmifyGJNyD;aemuf oHCmawmfrsm; tm; ylaZmf&ef tb,*d&d ESihf r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkuf ESpfvkH;odkY 5 oGm;a&mufcJhonf / r[m0d[m&ausmif;wkduf &[ef;awmfrsm; onf ae&mudk oefY&Sif;NyD; ouFef;rsm;0wf½kHvsuf bk&ifopfudk awGUqkH&ef axpOf0gvdkuf &yfaeMuonf/ arm*¾v’merif;onf ppfwyfBuD;udk qifwHwkdif; ([w¬dygum&) tjyifbufwGif xm;cJh 1

r[m0Ho? 39? 10-13 *gxm/ ,if;? 39? 15/ 3 ,if;? 39? 20-21/ ,if;ed*P²wdkYudk arm*¾v’merif;udk,fwkdif tdE´d,rS txl;ojzihf ¤if; (rif;)\ &nf½G,fcsufjzihf vTwfvdkufjcif; jzpfEdkifonf/ bmoma&;qdkif&m &aoh&[ef;toGifjzihf olvQLdrsm;tvkyfudk vkyfjcif;rSm a&S;acwfrsm;wGif tjzpfrsm;onf/ 4 5 r[m0Ho? 39? 21/ ,if;? 39? 33/ 2

1

,if;? 38? 44-51/ ,if;? 38? 75-78/ 4 ,if;? 38? 82? 85-88? 78/ 5 ,if;? 38? 88-89/ 6 r[m0Ho? 39? 1-2/ 3

2

,if;? 38? 61/

199


204 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

&[ef;rsm;onf rmefrmeudk avQmhNyD; r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkufodkY 1 0ifa&mufcdkvIHvsuf aexdkifMuonf / tdE´d,wGif t&SifaZmwdygv BuD;jyif;cJh&onfh xdktcsdef umvonf xif&Sm;ausmfMum;vSonhf Ak'¨0g'D ,kwådaA' ynm &Sifrsm;jzpfMuonfh 'dEém*gESihf "r®uw d ådwdkY\ vIyf&Sm;rIBuD;NyD;aemuf bmomw&m; acgif;pOfrsm;ESihf ywfoufaom ,kwådESihf vlxk jiif;qdkrIrsm;udk avhvmrIrSm tvGefta&;ay;aMumif; owd&vQif 2 þjzpf&yfudk aumif;pGm em;vnfNyD; ESpfoufEdkifrnf jzpfonf / aemufqkH;ay: tdE´d,Ak'¨0g'tawG;tjrif oDtdk&Drsm;ESihf awGUxd cJhNyD;jzpfonfh t&SifaZmwdygvtzdkY tdE´d,wkdufi,fay:wGif jzpf ay:aeonhf rsufarSmuf wdk;wufrIudk em;vnfrnfh tcGifhtvrf; enf;yg;Muonhf oD[dkVf&[ef;awmfrsm;tm; ESdrfeif;&efrSm cufcJ aomt&m jzpfrnfr[kwfacs/ a0wkv†0g'Drsm;tm; ,if;odkY vlod&iS fMum; ESdrfeif;cJhaomf vnf; aemufwufvmonhf 'kwd,t*¾ aAm"drif; (at'D 601611)onf r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkufxuf tb,*d&dESihf aZw 0e0d[m&rsm;twGuf ydkrdkaqmif½GufcJhjyefonf/ ¤if;\ rdzk&m; 3 onfvnf; tb,*d&dausmif;wdkufudk ydkrdk Munfñdkonf / trSef pifppf 'kwd,t*¾aAm"drif;onf r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkufudk pdwf 0ifpm;ykHyifr&acs/ ykHpHtm;jzihf tcgwpfyg; aZmwdygv rax&f BuD;u rdrd xlyg&mrapwDawmfBuD;udk 0wfjyKaepOf apwDawmf\ tpdwftydkif;wpfck uGJtufNydKusonfudk rif;BuD;tm; jyaom t cg rif;BuD;onf pdk;&drfpum; ajymMum;NyD; Ak'¨ñSyf½dk;awmfudk avm [ygom'odkY a½TUajymif;cJhaomfvnf; jyefvnfjyKjyif&ef aESmihfaES; cJhonf/ ]wkefvIyfzG,f tdyfruf} jrifaomtcgwGifrS rif;BuD;onf apwDawmfjrwftm; jyefvnfjyKjyifru I dk NyD;qkH;atmif aqmif½GufcJh 1 2

edum,o*F[? pm-15/

3

r[m0d[m0Ho 42;63-66/

History of Indian Laterature by M. Winternitz, p.362. History of Buddhist

Tought by E.J. Thomas, p. 245.

wdk;wufrIESpfumvrsm; 2

201

1

onf / wlnDonhf vrf;pOfay:wGif&Sdonhf arm*¾v’merif;\ omomjyKaqmif½GufrIrsm; aemufydkif; tvsiftjref oH*g,em wif&efESihf omoemawmfudk oefY&Sif;pifMu,fap&ef rnfonhf t&monf ta&;wBuD; jzpfcJhoenf;/ ukrm&"mwkaoerif;\ oH*g,emESihf omoemoefY&Sif;a&; aqmif½GufrI\ oabm obm0udk rod&acs/ jrwfAk'¨\ "r®tppftrSefrsm;ukd qkH;jzwf&ef a&S;acwfrsm;u oH*g,em wpfckudk usif;ycJhNyD;jzpfonf/ odkYwap tu,fí at'Dig;&mpkwGif t|uxmusrf;rsm;u ygVdawmf rsm;udk zGJUpnf;xm;NyD;jzpfvQif at'D ajcmuf&mpkü usif;yonfh oH*g,emonf rnfonhf &nf½G,fcsuf &Sdygoenf;/ ,if;onf vlxktMum; "r®oif,lrIudk tm;ay;&ef crf;em;onhf "r®usrf;pm 2 ½Gwfzwfjcif; wpf&yfom jzpfavoavm / q,fESpfcefYrQ EkdifiHa&;y#dyu©rsm;ESihf tkyfcsKyfolrsm; wpf a,mufNyD;wpfa,muf vkyfBuHowfjzwfrIrsm; NyD;aemuf txuf wGif azmfjyNyD;jzpfonfh &[ef;vlxGufjzpfol odvmumVrif; (at 'D 524-537) tkyfcsKyfrI acwfodkY a&mufvmonf/ þrif;onf 3 rowfjzwf& rmCmwtrdefYudk oD[dkVfwpfuRef;vkH;odkY `rSihfwif 5 vdkufNyD; aq;½kHrsm;udk xdef;odrf;vsuf ykHrSef bmoma&;udpörsm; udk aqmif½Gufonf/ þrif;eef;pH q,fhESpfajrmufwGif umodwdkif; (Am&mPoD) NrdKUodkY pD;yGm;a&;udpöjzihf oGm;a&mufcJhol yl&Ptrnf&onhf ukef onf vkvifi,fwpfa,mufonf ]"r®"mwk} trnf&onhf usrf; 5 i,fudk oD[dkVfodkY ,laqmifvmcJhonf / ,cif tdE´d,EdkifiHodkY 1 2

3 5

r[m0Ho? 39? 57/ 'v’arm*¾v’merif;vnf; yd#uwfusrf;pm ½Gwfzwfo&ZÑm,fyGJ usif;ycJh aMumif; qdkonf (r[m0Ho? 44? 48)/ þ½GwfzwfrIonfvnf; ,if;odkY oabm&Sdonfh ½Gwfzwfjcif;rsKd; jzpfzG,f&Sdonf/ 4 r[m0Ho? 41? 30/ ,if;? 41? 28/ ,if;usrf;ü rnfonhf tcsufrsm; yg&Sdonf[lonfudk twdtus rod& acs/ odkY&mwGif y&e0dweyk*¾Kdvfu ]odvmumvrif; vufxuf Am&m


202 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

xGufajy; cdkvIHaepOftwGif; tdE´d,&Sd r[m,me0g'Drsm;ESihf quf oG,frI rsm;pGm&SdcJhykH&onhf odvmumvonf ,if;usrf;pmudk tvGef ½dkaoav;pm;pGm vufcHNyD; eef;awmfteD;wGif odrf;xm;NyD; ¤if; ESpfpOfykHrSefusif;yonhf yGJawmfwpfcktwGuf wpfESpfvQif wpfBudrf ,if;usrf;pmudk aZw0e0d[m&odkY ,laqmifoGm;onf/ xdktcsdefu aZw0e0d[m&ü aexdkifMuaom 'u©dP*d&dausmif; wdkufrS om*vd,*dkPf;0if &[ef;rsm;onf twdwfu bk&iftcsKdU a0wkv†0g'Drsm;tay: xm;&SdcJhonhf qufqHrIudk owd&Muaom aMumihf ,if;yGJawmf vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;ü yl;aygif;yg0if&ef ½GHrkef;Mu onf/ odkYwap tb,*d&d*kdPf; oHCmrsm;u ¤if;wdkYtm; "r® "mwkusrf;udk ylaZmf&ef qGJaqmifcJhMuonf/ r[m0d[m&oHCm ESihf tEk&m"NrdKUol NrdKUom;tcsKdUrSm ,if;tpDtOfrsm;rS twlwuG 1 yg0ifywfoufrIr&SdbJ aeMuonf / xif&Sm;ausmfMum;vSonhf uAsmq&m bk&if plVarm*¾vm† e rif; odkYr[kwf 'kwd, arm*¾v†merif; (at'D 537-556) vuf xuftwGif; "r®jyefYyGm;a&;ESihf "r®oifMum;rIwdk;`rSihfa&;wdkY twGuf vIyf&Sm;rI BuD;wpf&yfudk awGU&onf/ w&m;a[m yk*¾Kdvfrsm;tm; ylaZmfrIrsm;pGm jyKvkyfvsuf þrif;onf yd#uwfokH;ykHudk t| uxmusrf;rsm;ESihftwl a[majym ydkYcsaponf/ usrf;pma&;om; rIrsm;udkvnf; pDrHay;onf/ þrif;udk,fwdkif bmoma&;uAsm ("r®uAÁ) wpfck a&;zGJUvsuf ntcsdef NrdKUawmf&Sd w&m;yGJwpfck tNyD;wGif qifausmukef;ay:wGif xdkifvsuf ,if;uAsmudk ½Gwf qdkonf/ þrif;onf "r®usrf;pmoif,lrI ysHUESHYa&;ESifh ywfouf í "r®udk oif,l&ef uav;rsm;udk csKdcsOfoMum;vkH;rsm;jzihf qGJ

wdk;wufrIESpfumvrsm; 2

aqmifonf[k rSwfwrf;wifcH&onftxd tvGef *½kwpdkuf jyKcJh 1 onf / EdkifiHa&;ESihf tusKd;quf odyfr&Sdaom tjcm;tedrfhtjrihf jzpfrI ESpfumvtwefi,f MumNyD;aemuf yxrt*¾aAm"drif; (at'D 568-601)vufxufodkY a&mufvmonf/ þrif;tkyfcsKyf pOftwGif; uAsmq&mBuD; q,fhESpfa,mufonf oD[dkVfbmom 2 jzihf uAsmaygif;rsm;pGm a&;om;cJhMuonf / EdkifiHawmfESihf om 3 oemh&efolrsm;udk ESdrfeif;vsuf udk;ESpfcefY MumoGm;NyD;aemuf 'g Xmod0r[max&trnf&onfh tBuHay;q&mawmf\ ñTefMum; 4 csufrsm;jzihf aumif;rGefonhf tvkyfrsm;udk vkyfaqmifcJhonf / þrif;vufxufwGif tvGefta&;ygonfh jzpf&yfwpfck jzpf ay:vmaMumif; od&onf/ tdE´d,rS <uvmol aZmwdygvbGJU t rnf&Sd rax&fBuD;wpfyg;onf trsm;jynfolESihfqdkifaom tjiif; yGm;rI wpf&yfjzifh oD[dkVfüwnf&Sdonhf a0wkv†0g'udk ESdrfeif;cJh onf/ a0wkv†wdkYudk jyif;jyif;xefxef axmufcHol 'gXmybkwd [kac:aom tm'dyg'wpfa,mufonf ESdrfeif;cH&rIaMumihf raus rcsrf;jzpfNyD; pdwfqdk;NyD; rax&fudk½kduf&ef vufjzihf csdef½G,fvdkuf onf/ odkY&mwGif bk&ifonf aZmwdygvrax&ftm; tvGeYf tvGef MunfñdkoGm;NyD; ,if;ausmif;wdkufrSmyif qufvuf oD 5 wif;okH;&ef avQmufxm;onf / edum,o*F[usrf;ü þvlod &SifMum; ESdrfeif;NyD;aemuf a0wkv†0g'odkY 0ifa&mufolr&Sdawmh aMumif;ESihf tb,*d&dedum,ESihf aZw0eedum, ESpfckvkH;rS 1

r[m0Ho? 41? 58-60? 62/ r[m0Ho? 42? 13/ edum,o*F[? pm-15/ 3 r[m0Ho? 42? 14/ 4 ,if;? 42? 14-34/ 5 r[m0Ho? 42? 35-37/ edum,o*F[? pm-15/ edum,o*F[usrf;wGif þtjiif;yGm;rIudk odvmumvrif;vufxufwGif jzpfaMumif; azmfjy onfrSm rSm;,Gif;zG,f&Sdonf/ 2

PoDrS oD[dkVfodkY a&muf&Sdvmaom a0wkv’okwåefrSm Ak'¨\ Bwdum, "r®ESihfqdkifaom usrf;pmjzpfonf[laom tcsufudk wpfpkHwpf&m oHo ,jzpfzG,f rvdkacs (Ceylon Journal of Science, G. Vol. II, p. 38.) [k qdkonf/ 1 r[m0Ho? 41? 37-40/ edum,o*F[? pm- 14-15/

203


208 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

tbd"r®mü pdwf0ifpm;rItopfrSm xdkacwf\ ynmwwf vlwef;pm;\ xl;jcm;onhf oGijf yifjzpfvmcJhonf/ [l,ifqefu xdktcsdefü tdE´d,&Sd ynmwwf&[ef;rsm;rSm rsm;pGm ylaZmf*kPf 1 jyKjcif;cH&aMumif;ESihf oD[dkVf&[ef;rsm;onfvnf; ¤if;wdkY\ A[k okwESihf todynmpGrf;&nfrsm;twGuf xif&Sm;aMumif; rSwfwrf; 2 wifcJhonf / odkYjzpfí xdkacwfumv\ ,kHMunfrIqdkif&m pdwf "mwfESifhtnD wwd, aZ|wdórif;onf ¤if;aojcif;w&m;ESihf BuKHawGUcJhonfh ppfyGJodkY roGm;rD ¤if;\rdbk&m;tm; tbd"r®mudk oifMum;NyD; tbd"r®mudk a[mMum;vsuf &&Sdonhf ukodkvftzdkYudk 3 rdrdtm;rQa0&ef rSmMum;cJhonf / 'kwd, r[dE´rif;onfvnf; t 4 bd"r®mudk us,fus,fjyefYjyefY a[mMum;ydkYcs&ef wdkufwGef;cJhonf / 'kwd, 'ga|mywdórif; (at'd 650-658) vufxufwGif r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkufESihf bk&ifwdkYtMum; wpfzef tjiif;yGm;rI &SdcJhjyefonf/ 'ga|mywdórif;onf tb,*dausmif;wdkuf t wGuf ausmif;taqmufttkHwpfck aqmufvkyf&efvdkaomfvnf; r[m0d[m&oHCmu rdrdwdkY ausmif;wdkuf\ e,fedrdwftwGif; wnf&Sdojzihf jiif;qdkonf/ odkYwap bk&ifonf rdrd\ tpDtrH twdkif; tiftm;okH;í aqmif½Gufonf/ ax&d,*dkPf;0if oHCm awmfrsm;onf wpfzef bk&iftm; rkef;wD;qefYusifMuvsuf bk&if tm; vlOygoum wpfa,mufudk tquftoG,f jzwfawmuf 5 jcif;jzpfonhf ywåedukZÆeuH jyKMuonf/ odkYwap bk&ifonf r[m0d[m&oHCmtm; qefYusifrI wpfpkH&m rjyKvkyfcJhacs/ 1 2

Huen Tsiang I, p. 81.

,if;? twGJ 2? pm-247/ 3 r[m0Ho? 45? 109/ 4 ,if;? 44? 141/ 5 r[m0Ho? 45? 141/ &[ef;rsm;onf oydwfudk wnfhwnfhtay: vSef vsuf oGm;MuNyD; ¤if;wdkY rBuKdufonfh Oyoum tdrfa&SUwGif oydwfudk arSmufxm;Muonf/ ,if;odkY jyKvkyfcsufrSm oHCmtaejzihf xdkOygoum

wdk;wufrIESpfumvrsm; 2

205

1

onf / þrif;onf om*vd,*dkPf;0if &[ef;awmf rsm;twGuf 2 a0VK0e0d[m&ausmif;wdkufudk wnfaqmufcJhonf / ordki;f wGif 'kwd,tBudrftjzpf rdzk&m;\aqGrsKd; wpfa,muftm; þrif;u 3 tod*¾g[bGJU ay;tyfonfudk awGU&onf / 'kwd,t*¾aAm"drif; vufxuftwGif; uvd*Frif;onf EdkifiH a&;y#dyu©aMumihf oD[dkVfodkY a&mufvmNyD; t&SifaZmwdygv rax&fxHwGif &[ef;jyKonf/ þ&[ef; (uvd*Frif;)\ rdbk&m; ESihf trwfrsm; oD[dkVfodkY vdkufvmNyD; ¤if;wdkYvnf; &[ef;jyKMu onf/ t*¾aAm"drif;ESihf rdbk&m;wdkYonf oD[dkVfwGif aysmf½TifpGm aexkdifEdkif&ef twwfEdkifqkH; aqmif½Gufay;Muonf/ uvd*Frif; 4 (&[ef;awmf)onf oD[dkVfü ysHvGefawmfrlonf / ,if;aemuf &mpkESpf0uf wpfckrQavmufwGif oD[dkVfEdkifiH onf EdkifiHa&;ESihf bmoma&;jyóemrsm; tpOfrjywf &SdcJhonf/ xdktcsdefrSpí aESmif;acwfrsm;wGif bk&ifrif;rsm;onf rsm;aom tm;jzihf bmoma&;qdkif&m taqmufttkHa[mif;rsm;udk jyef vnfjyKjyifNyD; ausmif;wkdufrsm;tm; axmufyHhrIrsm; jyKvkyfNyD; xif&Sm;onhf yGJawmfrsm; usif;yNyD; Ak'¨omoemawmf pifMu,f&ef BudK;yrf;cJhonf/ xdktcsdefu Ak'¨omoemawmfudk okwfoifjcif;(aom"e)\ qdkvkd&if;t"dyÜm,frSm tawmftwef xif&Sm;onf/ tNrJwrf;yif omoemawmfokwfoifrIudk 0de,pnf;rsOf; pnf;urf;[laom 5 "r®uH ("r®ur®) ESihftnD aqmif½GufaMumif; azmfjyonf/ omo 1

r[m0Ho? 42? 51-56/ ,if;? 42? 43/ 0DvsH*dkif*gonf ,if;ausmif;wdkufae&monf tEk&m" yk&ESihf r[dE¦avhtMum; wpfae&m&mwGif &SdEdkifonf[k ,lqonf/ (plV0Ho? t*Fvdyfbmomjyef? twGJ 2? pm-77? atmufajcrSwfcsuf 2)/ 3 r[m0Ho? 42? 42/ 4 ,if;? 42? 44-50/ 5 r[m0Ho? 39? 57/ tcef; 45? 46? 76/ tcef; 51? 64/ 2


206 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

em okwfoifrIudk bk&if\trdefYjzihf oHCmawmfrsm;u aqmif ½Gufjcif;jzpfonf/ &[ef;awmftrsm;pkonf tcsdefumvrsm;ESifh twl ajymif;vJaezG,f&SdNyD; ,if;udk a&S;½dk;tpOftvmtwdkif; vdkufemvdkMuonhf oHCmawmfrsm;u pm&dwåysufjym;rI tjzpf ,lqonf/ uREkfyfwdkYtaejzihf ,if;obm0wdk;wufrItvsOf rjzpf ay:ap&ef pm&dwåysufjym;rI avQmhusa&;tjzpf ,lqonhf bk&if rif;rsm;ESihf MoZmwduúr BuD;rm;onfh bmoma&; acgif;aqmif &[ef;awmfrsm;\ ratmifjrifaom BudK;yrf;rIrsm;udk ordkif;wp avQmufwGif jrifawGUMu&onf/ 'v†arm*¾v†meac: wwd,arm*¾v†merif; (at'D 611617)onf crf;em;vSonhf yd#uwfokH;ykH ½GwfqdkrI (yd#umeÍö oZÑm,H) wpf&yf usif;yNyD; ynmwwfyk*¾Kdvfrsm;tm; ylaZmfouúm jyKvsuf bmomw&m;todynm jyefYyGm;a&;twGuf tm;ay; 1 aqmif½GufcJhonf / þrif;vufxufwGif uXde (Kaìhina 2 ceremo-ny) yGJtaMumif; azmfjycsufwpf&yf awGU&onf / 3 þrif;vnf; omoemawmf oefU&Sif;a&; aqmif½GufcJhonf / þrif;udk qufcHol odvmarC0PÖrif; (at'D 617-626) vufxuftwGif; tb,*d&dausmif;wdkufwGif BuD;rm;onhf qlyl rIwpf&yf jzpfyGm;onf/ tb,*d&dausmif;wdkufwGif aexdkifol aAm"dtrnf&onhf &[ef;wpfyg;onf ,if;ausmif;wdkufae oH Cmawmfrsm;pGmwdkY\ 0denf;ESifhrnDonhf tjyKtrludk qefYusif vsuf bk&ifxH apm'uwufNyD; "r®uHjzihf udkifwG,fajz&Sifay;&ef bk&iftm; awmif;qdkonf/ bk&ifu aAm"d&[ef;awmftm; om oemoefY&Sif;a&; aqmif½Guf&ef wm0efay;tyfonf/ 'kóDv &[ef;awmfrsm;tm;vkH; pk½kH;NyD; &[ef;awmf aAm"dtm; owfjzwf vdkufNyD; ,if;Oya'udk zsufodrf;vdkufMuonf/ bk&ifonf t vGefpdwfqdk;NyD; &mZ0wfjypfrI usL;vGefolrsm;\ vufrsm;udk jzwf

wdk;wufrIESpfumvrsm; 2

ypfNyD;? xl;cwfxm;vsuf a&csKd;uefrsm;udk apmihfMunfhcdkif;onf/ xdkYjyif &[ef;wpf&mudk jynfESif'Pfay;NyD; tqkH;pGef ]omoem awmfudk pifMu,fatmif} aqmif½Gufvdkufonf/ ,if;udpöjzpf ysufNyD;aemuf ausmif;wdkufBuD;ESpfck tnDtñGwf yl;aygif;rIjzpf ay:vmrnfudk pdk;&drfNyD; ax&d,*dkPf;0if oHCmawmfrsm;tm; t b,*d&d ausmif;wdkufoHCmESihftwl OykofjyKyGJusif;y&ef awmif; 1 yefonf/ odkYwap xdkawmif;yefrIudk vkdufavsm&ef jiif;qdkonf / aemufxyf q,fESpf odkYr[kwf q,fhig;ESpfceftwGif; oD[dkVf EdkifiHonf tkyfcsKyfoltcsif;csif; jzpfyGm;onhf jynfwGif;ppfyGJrsm; aMumifh vufawGUtm;jzihf NydKuGJysufpD;cJhonf/ r[m0d[m&ESihf tb,*d&duJhodkYaom csrf;omonhf ausmif;wkdufrsm;tm;vkH; vk ,ufcH&onf? xlyg&mruJhodkYaom apwDawmfrsm; zsufqD;cH&NyD; &wemrsm;udk ,laqmifoGm;Muonf/ ausmif;wdkufrsm;wGif &Sd onhf a½Tqif;wkawmfrsm;? wHcGefrsm;ESihf tjcm;tzdk;wef ypönf; rsm; vk,uf,laqmifoGm;MuNyD; olykeftrsKd;rsKd;wdkY\ ppfwyfudk 2 xdef;odrf;&ef a&mif;csMuonf / tqdkyg jyóemrsm;NyD;aemuf 'kwd, uóyrif; (at'D 641-650) eef;wufaomtcg þrif;onf ysufpD;oGm;onhf taqmufttkHrsm;udk jyefvnfjyKjyifNyD; twdwfwGif vkyfcJhonhf ¤if;\ raumif;rIrsm;udk ukpm;&ef bmoma&; vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;udk 3 aqmif½GufcJhonf / þrif;onf oHCmawmfrsm;tm; vSnfhvnf 4 oGm;vmNyD; w&m;"r®rsm; a[mMum;ap vsuf ygVdawmfvufoef; 5 usrf;rsm; a&;om;&ef wdkufwGef;cJhonf / t|uxmusrf;rsm;ESihf wuG tbd"r®mygVdawmfrsm;udk ½Gwfzwf o&ZÑm,f&efvnf; wdkuf 6 wGef;cJhonf / 1 3

1 3

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212 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

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210 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

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216 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

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214 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

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215

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2

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3

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(Ruvanvälisaya) odkY qufxm;aom yg'yDXdum q,fhajcmufck &SdaMumif; azmfjycsufrSm apwDawmftwGif; Ak'q ¨ if;wkawmf q,fhajcmufck Xmyem xm;aMumif;ESihf ,if; yg'yd|dumrsm;u bk&m;zl;rsm;tm; &yfoifhonfh ae&mudk azmfjyvsuf tjyifrSm &yfvsuf ykyæ'gejzihf ylaZmfonhfae&m udkazmjfyonf ("r®jy'Dydum? pm-312)/ ,if;azmfjycsufonf at'D 12 &mpkcefYu yg'yDXdumudk a0'dumblrdüomru apwDawmf0if;txd wGJ pyfxm;aMumif; azmfjyonf/ ajcawmf&mrsm; xGif;xkxm;onhf ausmufzsm rsm; ½k0ef0gvdqm,0if;wGif awGUEdkifao;onf/ ae&mXme q,fhajcmufckwdkYü apwDawmfwpfqltm; &Sdcdk;ylaZmfrIonf tenf;qkH; at'D 15 &mpkxd qif;oufcJhykH&onf/ awm#* rka0 od&d &m[kvyk*¾Kdvfu ¤if;a&;om;onhf qmVvd[ded oaE´ouxm (oD[dkVf bmom) wGif ]auved, (NrdKU) &Sd BuD;rm; cHhnm;vSaom apwDawmfwGif ae&mXme q,fhajcmufckwdkYü &yfem;vsuf zl;ajrmfylaZmfaMumif;} jyqdkonf (pm-65)/ odkYwap t|uxmusrf;rsm;ü apwDawmfwpfqltm; ylaZmfrIESihf ywfoufonhf vrf;ñTefrIrsm;onf wpfcgwpf&H jcm;em;onf/ aygvkEé½k0acwfodkY a&mufaomtcg ,if;yg'yd|dum t,ltqonf tao;pdwf wdk;wufcJhonf/ aygvkEé½k0NrdKUawmfwGif ud&da0a[& ESifh &ef a&mawGa[& uJhodkYaom a&S;a[mif;apwDawmfrsm; ywfvnf&Sd ykHrSef ta0;wpfae&mwGif Ak'¨qif;wkawmfrsm;udk xnhfoGif;xm;onhf bk&m;cef; i,f &Spfckudk awGUEdkifonf/ ,if; bk&m;cef;rsm;udk apwDawmfESihf tvGefeD; uyfpGm wnfaqmufxm;onf/ ayvkEé½0k acwf apwDawmfrsm;rSm tEk &m"yk&NrdKU&Sd apwDawmfrsm;xuf ao;i,faomaMumihf bk&m;cef; &Spfckxd avsmhoGm;onfrSm xif&Sm;onf/ Oygoumrsm;onf ¤if;wdkY vuf,m&pf vSnfhvnfpOftwGif; ,if;ae&mrsm;wGif 'l;axmuf &Sdcdk;ylaZmfMuonf/ rlvtm;jzihf yg'yd|dumonf Oyoumrsm;tm; apwDawmftwGif;&Sd Ak'¨ qif;wkawmfrsm;udk owd&aponf/ odkY&mwGif ayvkEé½k0 acwftwGif; qif;wkawmfrsm;udk yg'yd|dumtpm; &Sdckd;0wfjyKolrsm;tm; taxmuf tyHhjyK&ef xdkae&mrSmyif xm;onf/ yef;wifckH ae&mrS apwDawmfodkY wufa&mufNyD; vuf,m&pf vSnfh jcif; t,ltqrSm acwfopf Munfñdkol Ak'¨0g'D wpfa,muftzdkY tawmf twef tjrifrawmfEdkifzG,f&Sdonf/ odkYwap ,if;onf a&S;acwfrsm;u trsm;jyKvkyfonhf tavhtusihfyifjzpfonf/ a0'dumblrdodkY OD;wnfoGm; aom a&S;acwf avSum;qifh t<uif;tusefrsm;udk r&Dpd0g#d,ESihf uP³u apwDuJhodkYaom apwDrsm;ü awGUjrifEdkifao;onf/ tdE´d,tv,fydkif;&Sd

vHcefYrQ&Sdonhf opf½GufwJausmif;i,f (yPÖomvm) onfyif 2 pwk'domoHCmtwGuf aqmufvkyfaom 0d[m& jzpfonf / txufyg azmfjycsufrS ausmif;wdkufwpfcktwGuf cGJjcm;r& onhf t&mrsm;rSm apwD? aexdkifp&m ae&mESihf "r®udk a[mMum; jcif;wdkYjzpfaMumif; awGUEdkifonf/ odkYwap vkH;0 wdk;wufNyD;aom bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkuf wpfckü tjcm;rsm;pGmaom tydktaqmif ta,mifrsm; &SdMuonf/ ausmif;wkdufBuD;wpfckodkY t0if0wGif 9 &mpkESihf 10 &mpk tcsdefu ]a"m&#Kyger!d,}[kac:onhf ]*dwft0ifa&r@yf} t aqmifwpfck&Sdonf/ ,if;onf bk&m;zl;rsm;taejzihf yef;refrsm; udk a&aq;jcif; a&aomufjcif;rsm;jzihf tjrifhtjrwfxm;onhfae &mXmeodkY r0ifrD udk,fvufoefYpifrIrsm; jyKvkyfEdkif&ef trsm;qkH; jzpfEdkifzG,f&Sdonhf a&tdk;rsm;udk odr;f qnf;xm;onhf ae&mjzpf onf/ aZw0e0d[m& ausmif;wdkuftwGif;&Sd ]*dwft0ifa&r@yf} onf odomaom t½G,f&Sdonhf ESpfxyftaqmufttkH jzpfonf/ tjyifrSvmol rnfolrqdktm; tay:xyfrSmjzpfap? atmufxyf rSmjzpfap? odkYr[kwf a&tdk;rsm;xm;onhf ae&mwGifjzpfap aexdkif 1

2

rlvu yPÖomvm[lonfrSm yk'f&if; t"dyÜm,ft& ]opf½GufwJ}[k t"dyÜm,f&onf/ aemiftcgwGif ,if;a0g[m&onf rnfonhf bkef;BuD; ausmif;rsKd;udkrqdk t"dyÜm,f oufa&mufaponf/ ,aeY acwfwGif oD[dkVf&Sd Ak'¨bmom ausmif;wdkufrsm;twGif;&Sd acwfrD taqmufttkH BuD;rsm;udkvnf; yPÖomvm[laom ygVda0g[m&rS qif;oufcJhonhf ]yeqv}[k oD[dkVfbmompum;jzihf ac:onf/ at'D 9 &mpk ausmuf pmwpfckwGif ]ye[v} (pan-hala) [laom a0g[m&udk tokH;jyKxm; onf (EZ.IV, p. 178-179)/ ,w¬ apwd,H ywd|dwH a[mwd? "r®ó0eH u&D,wd? pwl[d 'dom[d bdu©L tm*EÉm tyÜ#dykpädwGm a,0 yga' a"m0dwGm ukÍödum, 'Gg&H 0d0&dwGm aoemoeH y#da,mZdwGm 0odwGm ,xmzmokuH *päEÅd? aom tEÅraom pwk&wed,m yPÖomvmyd a[mwk? pmwk'doH oHCH O'´dóuw0d[ma&mawG0 0kpöwd (tH-| 3? 271)/


226 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

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cGihfrjyKaMumif; pnf;urf; owfrSwfxm;onf / xdkr@yfonf t e,fe,ft&yf&yfrS vma&mufMuonhf bk&m;zl;y&dowftm; udk,f vufaq;aMum okwfoif&efESihf t0wftpm;vJ&ef tcef;ae&m 2 vGwf &SdEdkifavmufatmif tawmftwef BuD;rm;ykH&onf / tEk&m"yk&NrdKUawmf&Sd tcsKdUaom bk&m;rsm;\0if;twGif;odkY t0ifwGif avSum;xpfrsm;teD;wGif vufaq;ZvkH ykHoP²mef&Sd onfh wGif;acgif;rsm;ESihf ausmufwkH;rsm;udk awGU&onf/ tEk&m "yk&NrdKUteD;&Sd yHukvd,ausmif;wdkufwGifawGU&onhf ,if;odkYaom ausmufvufaq;cGufwGif awGU&onhf tvªaumif;rI pmwef; wpfckwGif ajcaq;a&[k t"dyÜm,f&onhf yga'g0ed (ygVd yg' a"m0eD) [laom ykHpHjy a0g[m&onhf ,if;udk &nfñTef;onf/ rdzk&m; uvsmP0wDa&;xdk;onhf ½k0ef0gvdqm, (Ruvanvälisāya) ausmufpmwGif ajcaq;cGuf[k t"dyÜm,f&onhf yga'ed (ygVd yg'a'gPd) [laom a0g[m&vnf; ,if;udkyif &nf½G,f onf/ ajcaq;cGuf[k ac:Edkifonhf ausmufwpfvkH; a&avSmif uefrsm;udk xlyg&mrapwDuJhodkYaom bk&m;rsm;wGif awGU&onf/ ,if; ajcaq;cGufrsm;onf 0wfjyK qkawmif;vmolrsm;taejzihf jrifhjrwfonhf ae&mawmfrsm;odkY r0ifrD ajcaq;&ef a&xnhfxm; 3 aom ausmufajcaq;uefrsm;jzpfaMumif; azmfjyonf / bkef;BuD;ausmif;0if;twGif; ta&;tygqkH;rSm Ak'¨"mwfawmf udk Xmyemxm;onfh apwDjzponf/ ½k0ef0gvdqm, rSmuJhodkY yifr apwD&ifjyifü tenf;qkH; 0if;ESpfck&Sdonf/ aemufwpfckudk 0gvdu*FP (oJcif;&ifjyif) [kac:onf/ ,if;udk tjzLa&mif oJ 1

EZ.III p. 227.

2

OykofaeYrsm;ü &Spfyg;oDvapmifhokH;&ef cyfvSrf;vSrf;wGif&Sdaom bkef;BuD; ausmif;rsm;odkY oGm;a&mufMuonfh aus;½Gmrsm;rS Munfñdkol Oyoum rsm;tzdkY ausmif;wdkuf0if;twGif;odkY r0ifrD ausmif;wdkuf twGif;&Sd a&uef rsm;wGif udk,fvufokwfoifvsuf t0wftpm; topfrsm;vJjcif;rSm ,aeY wdkifatmifyif xkH;pHwpfck jzpfonf/

3

ynm&Sif y&e0dwe\

The Satupa in Ceylon, p. 64

udk ½Iyg

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wnfaqmufykH

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r[m0Ho 33;31/ 34;70/ a&S;acwfrsm;wGif 0gvdu*FPom &SdcJhykH&onf/ aemifacwfrsm;wGif EdkifiHawmf csrf;om<u,f0vmNyD; ausmif;wdkufrsm;udk wdk;csJUaomtcg NcH0if;us,fvmNyD; cGJxm;cJhzG,f&Sdonf/ 2 r-| 3? 170/ r[m0Ho 38? 10/ 3 r-| 3? 170/ a0'dumblrd[lonf t0ifrkcfOD;udk qdkvdkonf/ 3 r[m0Ho 30;51? 58? 60/ 33;22/ *kdif*gonf ]ykyæm"me} yk'fudk ]yef;ylaZmf&ef avSum;xpfoP²mef tqihf[k bmomjyefonf/ 5 r-| 3? 170/ tbd-| 1? 114/ r[mapwd,H y'u©dPH uwGm aomVook yg'yd|dumok yÍöywd|dawe 0E´dwGm/ at'D 12 &mpk cefYwGif a0'dumblro d dkY wufNyD; vuf,m&pfvSnfhonhf xkH;pH jywfawmufoGm;cJhaMumif; awGU&onf/ *k½kVKa*grd trnf&Sdyk*¾Kdvfu ¤if; a&;om;onhf "r®jy'Dydum (at'D 12 &mpk) usrf;wGif ½k0ef0gvdqm,


232 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

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4

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1

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230 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

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odvm odkYr[kwf pdefeDrIeYfjzihf a½Ta&mifaq;okwfcJhonf / aemufxyf ta&;ygonhf t&mwpfckrSm aAm"dyif jzpfonf/ 2 tcsKdUaAm"dyifrsm;rSm 0¹rmeaAm"d uJhodkYaom txl;rnfemrrsm; jzihf xif&Sm;onf/ ,if;onf Ak'¨0g'Drsm; ,kHMunfxm;onhf jrifh jrwfaom opfyiftm; jrwfEdk;av;pm;rIESihf ywfoufonhf t axmuftxm; jzpfonf/ bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkuf wpfckwGif aAm"d yifonf Ak'¨"mwfawmfrsm; NyD;aemuf 'kwd, ae&mwGif &Sdonf/ apwD odkYr[kwf Ak'¨qif;wkawmf odkYr[kwf Ak'¨"mwfawmfrsm;udk 3 Xmyemxm;onhf tmoeC& zufudk xkd;aerSomvQif? odkYr[kwf aAm"dyif\ aumif;pGm BuD;xGm;rIudk aqG;ajrUaeaom odkYr[kwf xdk;xGufaeaom tudkif;udk z,f&Sm;rIonf taxmuftyHhjyKyg cJhvQif vlcE¨mudk,fwGif cGJpdwfukoouJhodkY aAm"dudkif;udk ckwf jzwfEdkifonf/ tu,fí iSufrsm;onf ,if; aAm"dudkif;ay:wGif em;aeí apwDawmftm; npfEGrf;apvQif aAm"dudkif;udk jzwf 4 awmuf z,f&Sm;aumif;onf / okdYwap tjcm;rnfonhf &nf½G,f 5 csufjzihfrQ aAm"dudkif;udk rjzwfaumif;acs / 1

2 &o0g[ded 2? pm- 10/ r[m0Ho? 34;124/ r[m0Ho? 48;5/ 3 tmoeC&[lonf yef;ylaZmf&ef ae&mrsm;yg&Sdonhf taqmufttkH jzpf onfrSm xif&Sm;NyD; wpfcgwpf&H ,if;ae&mrsm;wGif azmfjyNyD;jzpfonfh t wdkif; Ak'¨"mwfawmfrsm;udk Xmyemxm;onf/ tEk&m"yk&NrdKUESihf r[dE¦avh t&yfrsm;wGif&Sdonhf ,if;yef;ylaZmf&ef ae&mrsm;\ a&SUwGif ausmufjzihf wnfaqmufonhf ]tmoe}rsm;&SdNyD; C&[laom a0g[m&onf ,if;yef; ylaZmf&ef ae&mrsm;udk ac:jcif;jzpfonf/ rMumrDu ½k0ef0gvdqm, t&yf&Sd ,if;yef;ylaZmfonhf ae&mrsm;udk wpfppDjzKwfMunhfvkdufaotcg tjcm;ypönf;rsm;ESihftwl "mwfawmfrsm;yg&Sdonhf MuKwfrsm;udk awGU&SdcJh onfudk owdjyKoihfonf/ acwfopf apwDawmfrsm;\ ywfvnfwGif ae xdkifp&m trdk;tum&Sd odkYr[kwfr&SdbJ yef;ylaZmf&eftwGuf ae&mav;ck awGU&NyD; a&S;acwf crf;em;onhf tmoeC&\ ao;i,faom avSum; qif;rsm;taejzihf ,lqEdkifonf (0[mvu')/ 4 þazmfjycsufu aAm"dyifrsm;onf apwDawmfteD;wGif wnf&SdMuaMumif; 5 azmfjyonf/ tH-| 1? 356/ tbd-| 2? 408/


236 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; 1

ay:ü tjyma&mif rsufESmMuufudk vSL'gef;onf / þqif;wkawmf tm; trnfemr rsm;pGmjzihf &nfñTef;Muonf/ Oyrm O½kodvm y#drm? r[modvmy#dvm? odvmow¬K? odvmorÁK'¨? odvmr, Ak'¨? odvmr, rkedE´? odvmr,ra[oDwdkYjzpfonf/ þqif;wkawmftm; &nfñTef;onhf tcgwdkif;wGif odvm (ausmuf) [laom a0g[m&udk rcGJbJ wGJokH;xm;onfrSm pdwf0iff pm;zG,fjzpfonf/ tjcm;ausmufqif;wkawmfrsm; &SdMuaomfvnf; þqif;wkawmfudkomvQif ]ausmufom;qif;wkawmfBuD;}[k vl odrsm;onf/ pwkw¬r[dE´rif; (at'D 956-972) \ r[dE¦avh ausmufpmwGif ]r*Fvr[modvmy#drm} r*Fvausmufom;qif; 2 wkawmfBuD;[k &nfñTef;onfudk awGU&onf / þrif;\ aZw 0em&mrausmufzsmay:wGif a&;onhfpmü tqifhjrifh csD;rGrf; 3 onfh a0g[m&rsm;jzifh ]r[modvmy#drm}udk &nfñTef;xm;onf / &nfñTef;xm;csufrsm;u xl;jcm;pGm t½dktaojyKjcif;cH&NyD; tvGef wefzdk;BuD;rm;onhf "mwfawmfrsm;uJhodkYyif ylaZmfjcif;cH&onhf a&S; a[mif; ausmufqif;wkawmf wpfql&SdaMumif; azmfjyonf/ 0duúr odaCF (Wickremasinghe) trnf&Sd yk*¾Kdvfu pwkw¬ r[dE´rif; ausmufpmwGif azmfjyxm;onhf ausmufom;Ak'¨qif;awmfonf a'0geHyd,wdórif; xlyg&mrapwDawmfü wnfaqmufcJhaom 4 qif;wkawmf jzpfEdkifonf[k ,lqcJhNyD; at'D ig;&mpkwGif tb, *d&dausmif;wdkufü w½kwfbk&m;zl;&[ef;awmf zm[D,ef awGU&SdcJh onhf qif;wkawmfESihf twlwl jzpfEdkifonf[laom jzpfEkdifajcjzihf 5 aumufcsufcscJhonf / 1 2

,if; 40? 77/ EZ, I, p. 92.

4

EZ, I, p. 217.

5

EZ, I, p. 230.

3

EZ, I, p.p. 218,218,233.

a'0geHyd,wdórif;\ Ak'¨qif;wkawmfonf tEk&m"yk&NrdKU orm"d (t&yf)wGif awGU&onhf xif&Sm;ausmfMum;aom xdkifawmfrl Ak'¨qif;wk awmf jzpfovm;[k ar;vdkzG,f&Sdonf/ þqif;wkawmfonf vma&muf

bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm; 1

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233

awmfaqmifonf oD[dkVfbkef;BuD;ausmif;wpfckü rnfonfh tcsdef upwif ta&;ygvmcJhaMumif; pl;prf;&ef pdwf0ifpm;zG,f aumif; 1 onf / t&Sifr[dE´\ r[m0d[m&ausmif;wkduf yEéufwGif r[m xlyESihf r[maAm"dyifrsm;twGuf ae&m&SdcJhaomfvnf; qif;wk awmfaqmiftwGuf ae&mryg&SdaMumif; awGU&onf/ þae&mü bDpDokH;&mpk bk&iftaomuacwftwGif; Ak'¨qif;wkawmf wnf&Sd cJhaMumif; rod&onfudk owd&oifhonf/ Ak'¨qif;wkawmfrsm; onf qefcsDESihf bm&[kw&Sd a&S;a[mif; yef;ykvuf&mrsm;rS vGJí rawGU&acs/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf oufawmfxif&Sm;&SdrIudk jzpfEdkifpGm arQmfvihf&rnfjzpfaom pdwftm½kH udk,fpm;jyKrIrsm;rSmyif Ak'¨&Sif awmfjrwftm; ajcawmf&m? pufbD;ykH odkYr[kwf yef;ukH;yef;qdkif; rsm;ESihf xD;rdk;xm;onhf xdkifckHrsm;uJhodkYaom oauFwrsm;jzifhom ñTefjycJhonf/ bm&[kw yef;ykvuf&mrsm;ü awGU&onfh jrifuGif; wpfckonf ajcawmf&ma&SUü 'l;axmufaeonhf tZmwowåKrif; udk udk,fpm;jyKaMumif; ausmufpmwGif twdtus azmfjyonf ]tZmwowåKonf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwftm; 'l;axmufí &Sdckd;OD;ñGwf 2 onf} / tdE´d,wGif Ak'¨qif;wk xkvkyfjcif;ESihf ,if;tm; ylaZmf udk;uG,frIudk taomuaemufydkif;acwfrS pNyD;owfrSwfjcif;udk cdkifvkHaponhf taxmuftxm; rsm;pGm&Sdonf/ um&fef (Karn) 3 trnf&Sdyk*¾Kdvf u pkaqmif;xm;onhf taxmuftxm;rsm; tm; vkH;onf Ak'¨qif;wk xkvkyfudk;uG,frItprSm bDpDwpf&mpkxuf aemufrus[lonfudk azmfjy&ef tm;omaMumif; ,lqcJhonf/ odkY&mwGif tenf;qkH; at'D ig;&mpkxd wnf&SdcJhNyD; vkH;0 aysmufroGm;ao;onhf oD[dkVftpOftvm wpfckonf Ak'¨qif;wk 1

,aeYacwfwGif Ak'¨qif;wk xm;onfhae&m[k trsm;odMuonfhtwdkif; xdk qif;wkaqmifonf oD[dkVfbkef;BuD;ausmif; wpfck\ t"duae&mjzpfonf/ 2 tZmwowåK b*0awm 0E´aw/ bm&[kw ausmufpm (Barua and Sinha)? pm-36/ 3

MIB, p. 95.


234 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; 1

awmfordkif;udk bDpDokH;&mpktcsdefxd ajc&mcHxm;onf / aZ| wdórif; (at'D 323-333)\ vkyaf qmifrIrsm;ESihf ywfoufí r[m0Housrf;ü ]xlyg&mrapwDawmfwGif a'0geHyd, wdórif; u BuD;rm;NyD; oyÜm,fvSyonhf ausmufqif;wkawmfwpfql xnhf 2 oGif;cJhaMumif;} rSwfwrf; wifxm;onf / tu,fí ,if; azmfjy csufudk vufcHvQif oD[dkVfonf urÇmay:wGif yxrqkH;aom Ak'¨ qif;wkawmf wnf&SdcJhonhf EdkifiHjzpfonf/ a'0geHyd,wdórif; onf trSefyif ,if;qif;wkawmfudk jyKvkyfcJhovm; odkYwnf; r[kwf aESmif;acwf tpOftvmonf xlyg&mrapwDawmftwGif; awGU&SdcJhonhf rnfonhft&yfwGif jyKvkyfonf[k rod&aom a&S; acwf Ak'¨qif;wkawmfudk oD[dkVfEdkifiH\ yxrqkH;aom Ak'¨bmom bk&if (a'0geHyd,wdórif;) wnfaqmufcJhonf[k ,lqavo vm;[lonfudk twdtus rod&acs/ tdE´d,&Sd qefcsDESihf bm& [kwt&yfrsm;wGif&Sdonhf a&S;acwfyef;ykqif;wkawmf rsm;tMum; Ak'¨qif;wkawmfwpfql rawGU½kHrQjzihf bDpD okH;&mpkwGif tjcm;rnf onhf ae&mwGifrS Ak'¨qif;wkawmf wpfql jyKvkyfcJhjcif; r&Sd[k 1

w½kwf&[ef;awmf zm[D,efu ¤if;a&mufaepOftwGif; tdE´d,ü wnf&Sd aeonhf ajymqdkpOfwpfckudk &nfñTef;xm;onf/ ,if;ajymqdkpOf t& y&aoeZdw (Prasenajit) rif; (yaoe'Daumovrif;) u Ak'¨oufawmf xif&Sm;&SdpOftcgwGif pE´ul;eHYomom;jzihf Ak'¨qif;wkawmf wpfqljyKvkyfap aMumif; od&onf/ zm[D,efu ,if;qif;wkawmfonf aESmif;acwfwGif xkvkyfMuonfh qif;wkawmf tm;vkH;\ pHjyqif;wkawmf jzpfvmaMumif; qdkonf (Fa Hien, p. 56-57)/ oD[dkVfwGif yaoe'Daumovrif; wnf aqmufcJhonhf Ak'¨qif;wkawmf taMumif; azmfjycsufyg&Sdonhf aumov AdrÁ0PÖem usrf;pmwpfapmifvnf; &Sdonf/ ,if;usrf;udk at'D 13 odkYr [kwf 14 &mpkcefYwGif a&;om;cJhzG,f&Sdonf (DPPN, I, p. 698)/ r[m0Ho tcef; 30? *gxmtrSwf 72 wGif 'k|*grPdrif; (bDpD 101-77) onf ok0PÖrmvD r[mapwDwGif Ak'¨a½Tqif;wkawmf wpfql XmyemcJhaMumif; rSwfwrf;wifxm;onf/ 2 r[m0Ho 35? 128 *gxm/ a'0geHyd,wdaóe? aom ywd|mydwH yk&m/ xlyg&mar O½kodvm-y#drH pm½k'óeH/

bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm; 1

wnfaqmufykH

235

aumufcsufcsygu aMumif;usKd; rqDavsmfacs/ tdE´d,wdkufe,f\ wdk;wufrIjzihf oD[dkVfwGif tawG;tac:opfrsm; aygufyGm;vmrI udk wm;qD;&ef wpfckck &SdcJhovm;/ txufwGif azmfjycJhonfh ]ausmufqif;wkawmfBuD;} (O½k y#drm) onf trsm;tav;*½kjyK ½dkaojcif;cH&onhf xif&Sm;onhf qif;wkawmfjzpfonf/ aZ|wdórif; (at'D 323-333) onf ,if;qif;wkawmfudk xlyg&mrapwDrS a½TUajymif;NyD; ygpDewdó 1 yAÁw ausmif;wdkufwGif ylaZmfxm;cJhonf / wpfzef r[maoe rif; (at'D 334-362) onf ,if;qif;wkawmfudk xdkausmif; 2 wdkufrS a½TUajymif;NyD; tb,*d&ausmif;wdkufwGif xm;cJhonf/ Ak'¨'gorif; (at'D 4 &mpkukefcefY) onf þqif;wkawmf\ rsuf 3 vkH;awmfywfvnfwGif &wemrsm; pDjc,fcJhonf / "mwkaoerif; (at'D 460-478)onf þqif;wkawmftwGuf taqmufttkH wpfck wnfaqmufNyD; Ak'¨'gorif; vª'gef;cJhonhf &wemrsm; aysmufqkH;oGm;aomaMumihf rsufvkH;awmfwpfpkHwGif jyefvnfjyKjyif rnfh &wemrsm;udk vª'gef;cJhonf/ "mwkaoeonf a&mifvQH puf0ef;ESihf txGwf (em;uif;awmf) ESihf tjyma&mif &wemrsm; 4 jzihfpDjc,fxm;onhf qHawmfrsm;udkvnf; jyKvkyfapcJhonf / odvm arC0PÖrif; (at'D 617-626) onf qif;wkawmf\ taqmif a[mif;udk jyefvnfjyKjyifcJhNyD; &wemrsm;pGmjzihf wefqmqifvsuf 5 aumv0gyda&uefudk þqif;wkawmfBuD;tm; vª'gef;cJhonf / 'kwd,aoerif; (at'D 851-885) onf ysufpD;oGm;onfh qif; wkawmfaqmifudk jyefvnfjyKjyifNyD; ¤if;\ rdzk&m; ,if;taqmif 1

2 3 4

r[m0Ho 36? 129 *gxm/ ygpdewdóyAÁw[lonf tEk&m"yk&NrdKU? Ek0&0g0 (Nuvaraväva)teD; wl;azmfawGU&SdcJhonhf t<uif; tusefrsm; jzpfonf/ ,if; 37? 14/ ,if; 37? 123/ 38? 61-62/ 5 ,if; 38? 61-64/ ,if; 44? 68-69/


240 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

usKd;qDavsmfpGm azmfjyonfh tjcm;ae&mrsm;rSmyif apwDESihf aAm"d yifrsm;udkom ñTef;qkdNyD; qif;wkawmf odkYr[kwf qif;wkaqmifudk 1 vkH;0ñTef;qdkjcif;r&Sd / teEÅ&d,uHESihf ywfoufí &Sif;vif;csuf wpfckwGif Ak'¨y&dedAÁmefpHvGefNyD;aemuf wpfpkHwpfa,mufonf ap wDawmfudk NzKdzsufvQifjzpfap aAm"dyifudk jzwfvQifjzpfap Ak'¨ "mwfawmfrsm;udk yGef;yJhatmifvkyfvQifjzpfap xdkyk*¾Kdvfonf tm 2 eEÅ&d,uHudk usL;vGefolESihf tvm;wlaMumif; jyqdkonf / odkY&m wGif qif;wkawmfudk zsufqD;jcif; odkYr[kwf yGef;yJhatmifvkyfjcif; ESifh ywfoufonhf azmfjycsuf vkH;0r&Sdacs/ qif;wkawmfxJü Ak'¨ "mwfawmfrsm;udk xnfhoGif;xm;rSomvQif xdkqif;wkawmftm; t 3 a&;BuD;onf[k ,lqonf / "mwfawmfrsm; xnfhoGif;jcif;r&SdbJ qif;wkawmfonf bmoma&;wefzdk; tenf;i,frQom&Sdaom odkYr[kwf bmoma&;wefzdk;r&Sdaom ypönf;wpfckom jzpfonf/ 4 ,if;azmfjycsufrsm;xuf 0db*Ft|uxm wGifawGU&aom azmfjycsufwpf&yfrSm ydkí thHMozG,f aumif;onf/ ,if;azmfjy csufrSm ]wpfpkHwpfa,mufonf apwDawmfudkjzpfap aAm"dyif 5 udkjzpfap zl;ajrmfjcif;jzihf Ak'¨gvrÁPyDwd udk &&Sd\}[kjzpfonf/ odkY&mwGif Ak'¨qif;wkawmftm; ,if;odkYjyK&ef azmfjyjcif;r&Sdacs/ tu,fí tvm;wl azmfjycsufrsKd;udk ,aeYjyKvkyfrnfqdkvQif uREkfyfwdkYtaejzihf tvdktavsmufyif wpfpkHwpfa,mufonf Ak'¨g vrÁPyDwdudk Ak'¨½kyfymG ;awmftm; zl;ajrmfjcif;jzihf &&SdEdkifonf[k rqdkif;rwGyif ajymqdkrnfjzpfonf/ odkYwap t|uxmü qif; wkawmfwpfqltm; zl;ajrmfjcif;udk aemufxyfwpfck jzpfEdkifajc taejzihf azmfjyjcif; rjyKacs/ Ak'¨½kyfyGm;awmftm; zl;jrifjcif;rSm 1

Oyrm tbd-| 2? 332? 408/ r-| 1? 258/ tH-| 2? 377/ 0d-| 4? 152/ a&S;acwf oD[dkVf Oya't& ,if;jypfru I dk usL;vGefvQif ao'Pfay;onf/ 3 tH-| 1? 341/ tbd-| 2? 408/ 0d-| 3? 424/ 4 tbd-| 2? 332/ tbd-| 1? 115 udkvnf;½Iyg/ 5 Ak'¨gvrÁPyDwd[lonf Ak'¨udk zl;ajrmf&mrSjzpfap Ak'¨*P k fudk atmufarh&m rSjzpfap &&Sdvmonfh ESpfoufrIyDwdjzpfonf/ 2

bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm; 1

wnfaqmufykH

237

at'DESpf&mpktwGif; r[m0Housrf;ü wpfqlwnf;aom Ak'¨ qif;wkawmfESihf qif;wkawmfaqmifudk &nfñTef;xm;csufudkom uREkfyfwdkYawGU&onf/ 0obrif; (at'D 127-171)onf Ak'¨qif; wkawmf av;ql jyKvkyfNyD; ,if;qif;wkawmfrsm;twGuf taqmif wpfck aqmufvkyfcJhaMumif; od&onf1/ at'D okH;&mpkwGifvnf; qif;wkawmfESifh ywfoufonhf &nfñTef;csuf wpfckudkom &&Sd onf/ aMu;qif;wkawmf ESpq f ludk a0g[m&duwdórif; (at'D 269-291)u oGef;vkyfaMumif;od&NyD; tqdkyg qif;wkawmfrsm;udk zl;ajrmfolrsm;tzdkY urÇmay:&Sd rnfonhf ae&mrS Ak'¨qif;wkawmfxufrqdk ydkrdkBuD;jrwfaom qGJaqmifrI&Sdonf/ (tdE´d,0efBuD;csKyfa[mif;) *sm0g[m vm ae½l;onf þqif;wkawmfudk ESpfoufcJhNyD; ]a'[&m'ef tusOf; axmifwGif tusOf;cscH&pOfu tvGefwnfNidrfat;csrf;onhf þAk'¨qif;wk awmfjrwf\ ½kyfoGifawmfonf uREkfyftm; oufom&m&apNyD; cGeftm;udk ay;onfomru pdwf"mwfusqif;onhf tBudrfrsm;pGmudk ausmfvTm;&ef ul nDay;EdkifcJh\}[k qdkcJhonf (Jawaharlal Nehru's Autobiography, p. 271)/ þqif;wkawmfonf urÇmay:ü awGU&SdorQwGif toyÜm,fqkH; jzpfzG,f&Sd onf/ tD;bD [maA;vf (E.B. Havell) u ¤if;\usrf; (Handbook of Indian Art, p. 155) wGif qm&emx(rd*'g0kef) Ak'¨qif;wkawmfwGif ,if;ESifh wlnDonhf rsufESmawmf&SdaMumif;qdkonf/ odkYwap rlvqif;wkawmfrsm; \ rsufESmawmfESpfckudk avhvmol wpfa,muftzdkY qif;wkawmf ESpfck tMum;wGif rsm;pGm jcm;em;onfudk awGUEdkifonf/ tEk&m"yk&NrdKUawmfrS Ak'¨qif;wkawmf\ rsufESmawmfwGif awGU&onhf ½dk;pif;rI? wnfNidrfonhf cGeftm;ESihf cdkifusnfrIoGifjyifrsm;onf rd*'g0kefAk'¨qif;wkwGif awGU&onhf EkysKdNyD; rdrdudk,fudk auseyfaeonhf oGifjyifü aysmufqkH;aeonf/ tEk&m" yk& qif;wkawmf\ rsufESmawmf\ r[mqefonhf av;eufrIrsm;u tHhMorIESihf av;pm;rIudk awmif;qdkonf/ wpfcsdefwnf;wGif rd*'g0kef qif; wkawmf\ touf0ifonhf oyÜm,frIu arwåmESihf MunfndKrIudk awmif; qkdonf/ rd*'g0kef Ak'¨qif;wkawmfonf qufqHrIwGif ydkrdk ajcmufaoGUNyD; ynm&SifqefNyD; oD[dkVfqif;wkawmf\ oyÜm,fNyD; [efcsufnDonhf pD;qif; rI vdkaeNyD; opfom;jzihf jyKvkyfonhf jyKjyifxm;rIonf rlvoGifjyif\ pGrf; &nf uif;rJhonhf twkjyKvkyfxm;onhf vufawmfudk jyonf/ 1 r[m0Ho 35? 89/


238 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

r[maAm"dyif\ ta&SUzuf aAm"dC&(aAm"daqmif)wGif xm;&Sd aMumif;od&onf1/ odkYwap at'Dav;&mpkrSpí r[m0HoESifh t jcm;usrf;rsm;ü bk&ifrsm;pGmwdkY wnfaqmufcJhonhf qif;wkawmf rsm;ESifh qif;wkaqmifrsm;tm; azmfjyrI rsm;pGmudk awGU&onf/ t&Sifr[mAk'¨aCmo\ ygVdt|uxmusrf;rsm;ü ae&mXme ESpfckwGifom Ak'¨qif;wkawmfrsm;tm; &nfñTef;csufrsm; yg&Sdaomf vnf; qif;wkawmfaqmiftaMumif;udkrl vkH;0 azmfjyjcif;rjyKacs/ t|uxmusrf;rsm;t& Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ "mwfawmfrsm;udk Xm yem (xnhfoGif;)xm;rSomvQif qif;wkawmf wpfqltzdkY ta&;yg onf/ at'D 5 &mpk ygVdt|uxmusrf;rsm;udk a&;om;csdefu oHCmawmfrsm;tm; vSLzG,f0w¬Krsm; vSL'gef;csdefwGif ]ynm&Sd yk*¾Kdvfrsm;} (y@dwrEkóm) onf Ak'¨"mwfawmf yg&Sdonhf qif; wkawmf odkYr[kwf "mwfawmfMuKwf (o"mwkuH y#drH 0g apwd,H 0g) udk xm;avh&SdNyD; a&S;OD;pGm tpm;tpmESihf aomufawmfa& rsm;udk a&S;OD;pGm qif;wkawmf odkYr[kwf "mwfawmfMuKwftm; vª 2 'gef;Muonf / rnfonhftcsdefwGif r[maAm"dudkif;wpfckudk jzwf awmufEdkifonf[laom tcsufESifhywfoufí aqG;aEG;&mwGif ,if;aAm"dudkif;wpfckonf xlyudkjzpfap odkYr[kwf "mwfawmf yg &Sdonhf qif;wkawmf (o"mwkuH ye xlyH 0g y#drH 0g Am",rmeH) udkjzpfap aESmihf,SufrSomvQif ,if;aAm"dudkif;udk jzwf 3 awmufEdkifaMumif; jyqdkonf / at'D 5 &mpk rwkdifrD ordkif;rSwfwrf;ü azmfjyonhf qif;wk awmfaqmifonf aygvkEé½k0acwfESihf ,if;acwfaemufydkif; qif; wkawmfaqmif tao;pdwfESihf wlonfjzpfap odkYwnf;r[kwf xdk qif;wkawmfaqmifrsm;rSm qif;wkawmfwpfckay:rS aqmufvkyf xm;aom omreftrdk;(r@yf)rsm;jzpfovm; [lonfrSm tawmf 1

r[m0Ho 36? 31/ 0d-| 3? 424/ 3 tH-| 1? 341? tbd-| 2? 332/ 2

bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm; 1

wnfaqmufykH

239

twef &Sif;vif;rIr&Sdacs/ odkYwap tqdkyg qif;wkawmfaqmifrSm qif;wkawmftm; avESihf &moDOwk'PfrS umuG,frnhf trdk;rQ omjzpfonf[laom tcsufrSm ydkrdkjzpfEdkifzG,f&Sdonf/ ,if;taqmufttkHrsm;\ t½G,ftpm;ESihf ykHoP²mefrnf odkYjzpfap ygVdt|uxmusrf;rsm;ü ,if;y#drmC& odkYr[kwf qif; wkawmfaqmifudk vkH;0azmfjyjcif;r&SdonhftcsufrSm tvGefpdwf0if pm;zG,f aumif;aomtcsufjzpfonf/ &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; apwd ,*FP (apwD&ifjyif) ESihf aAm"d,*FP (aAm"d&ifjyif)? apwd, C&ESihf aAm"dC&? Oykoftdrf? ygeD,rmvu (aomufa&aqmif) ESihf y&da0P (aexdkif&mausmif;aqmif)udk wHjrufvSnf; oefY&Sif; 1 &efuJhodkYaom aeYpOfwm0eftcsKdUudk aqmif½Guf&rnf[k qdkonf / odkYwap y#drmC&taMumif;udk azmfjycsufr&Sdacs/ orEÅygom'd um (0de,t|uxm) wGif aoemoe (aexdkif&efae&m) ESihf taoemoe (aexdkif&ef roihfawmfonhfae&m) rsm;\ pm&if; 2 udk ay;xm;onf / odkYwap qif;wkawmfaqmifonf bkef;BuD; ausmif;wkduf&Sd taqmufttkH tm;vkH;\ ykHpH ESpfrsKd;jzpfonfh aoemoe pm&if;rSma&m taoemoe pm&if;rSmyg ryg0ifacs/ xkdtcsdefu wnf&SdqJjzpfaomfvnf; Ak'¨qif;wkawmftm; ygVdt|uxmusrf;rsm;ü &Sdckd;ylaZmfrnhf ae&mwGif ae&mray;cJh jcif;rSm tHhMozG,faumif;onf/ ur®|mef;bm0em pD;jzef;rnfh &[ef;rsm;onf apwDawmfESihf aAm"dyifrsm;udk ylaZmf&ef oGm;NyD; ,if;aemufrS qGrf;cH0if&ef ñTefMum;csufrsm;&Sdaomfvnf; Ak'¨qif; 3 wkawmfudkrl vkH;0 rodusKd;uRH jyKcJhonf / &Sdcdk;ylaZmfrIudk aMumif; 1

0dok'¨dr*¾ 1? 337/ r-| 2? 300/ tH-| 1? 375/ tbd-| 2? 334/ 0d-| 3? 70/ apwd,C&H aAm"dC&H tmoeC&H or®KZÆedt¥H 'g½kt¥H 0pöuk#D £|uomvm 0¹udomvm 'Gg&aum|aum ygeD,rmavm ra*¾g aygu©&PDwd {wmed [d taoemoemed/ 0d[ma&m t¹a,ma*g ygoma'g [r®d,H *k[m r@ayg ½ku©rlvH a0VK*karÁmwd £rmed aoemoemed/ 3 'D-| 1? 107/ r-| 1? 260/ tbd-| 2? 336/ 2


244 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

wpfaumif\ ½kyfykHESihf Ak'¨\ t*¾om0u ESpfyg;wdkY\ ½kyfykHrsm;ESihf &wempDjc,fonfh r@y (r@yf)wpfckudkvnf; ay;cJhaMumif; qdk 1 onf / azmfjyyg ypönf;rsm;twGuf ae&mvGwfvdkonfrSm xif &Sm;onf/ odkYjzpfí tenf;qkH; at'D 5 &mpkukef txd qif;wk awmfaqmiftcsKdUrSm txJwGif yef;ykypönf; trsKd;rsKd;&Sdonhf crf; em;us,f0ef;aom taqmufttkHrsm; &SdcJhonf[k ,kHMunhf&onfh tcsuf&Sdonf/ xdktcsdefrSpí aemiftcsdefrsm;wGif qif;wkawmf rsm;ESifh qif;wkawmfaqmifrsm;rSm ydkíydkí xif&Sm;acwfpm;vmykH &onf/ at'D 10 &mpkwGif ,aeYacwfü uREfkyfwdkY awGUjrif& 2 onfhtwdkif; qif;wkawmfaqmiftwGif; rD;tdrfrsm;xGef;ñSd&ef vª 'gef;rIrsm;awGU&onf/ odkYwap ordkif;rSwfwrf;rsm;udk a&S;a[mif; t<uif;tusefrsm;u taxmuftuljyKonhf aygvkEé½k0acwf txd qif;wkaqmifESihf ywfoufí &Sif;vif;onhf xifjrifcsuf wpf&yfudk r&EdkifbJ&Sdonf/ w&m;a[m w&m;emtwGuf ae&mxdkifcif;rSm bkef;BuD; 3 ausmif;wdkufwpfckrSm cJGjcrf;r&aomt&m wpfckjzpfonf / tEk &m"yk&NrdKU&Sd avm[ygom'\ ajrnDxyfudk ykHrSeftm;jzihf w&m; 4 a[mcef;tjzpf tokH;jyKcJhonf / tjcm;ae&mrsm;wGif a,bk,s tm;jzihf "r®r@y[kac:onhf cef;us,frsm; taqmifrsm;udk 5 txl;ojzihf w&m;em&ef &nf½G,fcsufjzihf wnfaqmufMuonf / tcsKdUae&mrsm;wGif w&m;a'oemrsm;udk y"meC&wGif a[m 6 Mum;onf / "r®r@yrsm;onf us,f0ef;jcif; &SdykHr& odkYr[kwf oufaomifhoufom jzpfykHr&acs/ w&m;emaewkef; a>rudkufcH& 1 2

r[m0Ho? 39;52-53/

3

tH-| 4? 246/ 0dok'¨dr*¾ 1? 88/ 0d-| 3? 240/ r-| 4? 246/ 5 0dok'¨dr*¾ 1? 92/ &o0g[deD 2? 3/ "r®omvm (w&m;a[m cef;r aqmif)[laom a0g[m&onf at'D 12 &mpk yxr y&uúr Am[krif; vufxufwkdifatmif rawGU&acs (r[m0Ho 78;42)/ 6 r-| 1? 92/ 4

EZ.III, p. 264.

bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm; 1

wnfaqmufykH

241

Ak'¨gvrÁPyDwdudk&&Sd&ef tvG,fulqkH;aom enf;vrf;wpfckjzpf aomaMumihf tu,fí t|uxm usrf;jyKq&mrsm;onf ½kyfyGm; qif;wk ylaZmfudk;uG,frIudk bmoma&;wefzdk;&Sdonhftaejzihf t odtrSwf jyKcJhovm;[lonfESihfywfoufí wdusonhf om"u wpf&yfudk &Smoifhonf/ ,if;odkY &SmazGjcif;onf uREfkyfwdkYxHodkY ta&;ygonhf jyó emwpf&yfudk ,laqmifvmonf/ ygVdt|uxmusrf;rsm;udk a&; om;pOfu Ak'¨qif;wkawmfrsm; wnf&SdaeNyDjzpfaMumif; uREfkyfwdYk od&NyD; t|uxmusrf;rsm;udk jyKpkonhfacwfrwdkifrDuyif Ak'¨ qif;wkawmfrsm;omru qif;wkawmfaqmifrsm;yg wnf&SdaeNyD jzpfaMumif; oufaojy&ef r[m0Housrf;t& xif&Sm;NyD;jzpf onf/ at'Dig;&mpk tapmydkif;tcsdefu w½kwfbk&m;zl; &[ef; awmf zm[D,efonfvnf; tEk&m"yk&NrdKUawmfü Ak'¨qif;wkawmf BuD; wpfqltaMumif;ESihf ,if;qif;wkawmf\ BuD;us,fcrf;em;ykH udk azmfjycJhonf/ zm[D,efonf ukefonfwpfa,muf þqif;wk awmftm; ,yfawmifwpfacsmif;udk vSL'gef;aeonfudk awGUjrif 1 cJhonf / ygVdt|uxmusrf;rsm;udk a&;om;csdefu Ak'¨qif;wk awmfrsm;ESihf qif;wkawmfaqmifrsm; wnf&SdNyD;jzpfonfudk tenf; i,frQyif oHo,jzpfzG,frvdkacs/ odkYjzpfrl t|uxmusrf;rsm;ü qif;wkawmfrsm;tm; tb,faMumifh bmoma&;qdkif&m udk;uG,f rI jyKtyfaomae&mudk ray;cJhygoenf;? xdkYjyif bkef;BuD;ausmif; wdkufwpfck\ ykHpHrsKd;pkH&Sdonhf qif;wkawmfaqmif taMumif;udk azmfjyjcif;rjyKcJhygoenf;/ ajz&Sif;csufESpfrsKd; jyKvkyfEdkifonf/ yxr? a&S;a[mif; oD[dkVf t|uxmusrf;rsm;udk a&;om;csdefu bkef;BuD;ausmif;rsm;ü qif; wkawmfaqmif &SdcJhykHr&jcif;ESihf xdktcsdefu wnf&SdqJ qif;wk awmfrsm;rSm tvGefenf;yg;NyD; ,if;(qif;wkawmfrsm;)rSm &Sdcdk; ylaZmfrI pepfa[mif;\ qef;opfwDxGifrI wpf&yfjzpfaomaMumifh ta&;rygao;jcif;jzpfonf/ ,if;qif;wkawmfrsm;udk twGif;wGif 1

Fa Hien, p. 102-103.


242 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

"mwfawmfrsm;&SdrSomvQif ylaZmfp&m t&m0w¬Ktjzpf ,lqonf/ tcsKdUaom qif;wkawmfrsm;rSm ao;i,fNyD; ajymif;a½TUí &onf/ taMumif;rl txufwGif azmjfycJhonhftwdkif; oHCmawmftm; tvªay;tcrf;tem;rsm;ü wpfae&mrS wpfae&modkY ,laqmif& aomaMumihf jzpfonf/ ,if;odkY ao;i,faom qif;wkawmfrsm; twGuf oD;jcm;qif;wkaqmifrvdkacs? bkef;BuD;ausmif;wkduf odkYr [kwf apwd,C& odkYr[kwf aAm"dC&wGif rnfonhfae&mürqdk xm;Edkifonf/ xdkqif;wkawmfrsm;twGuf txl;qif;wkawmf aqmif rvdkacs/ ,if;tajctaersm;aMumifh a&S;a[mif; oD[dkVf bmom t|uxmusrf;rsm;ü qif;wkawmfaqmifudk azmfjyrnfh tcGifhtvrf;r&Sdojzihf ,if;a&S;a[mif; rl&if;oD[dkVft|uxm usrf;rsm;udk opöm&SdpGm rSDjirf;jyK a&;om;cJhMuonhf ygVdbmom t|uxmusrf;jyKq&mrsm;onf ¤if;wdkYacwfwGif qif;wkaqmif rsm; wnf&SdNyD;jzpfaomfvnf; ,if;wdkYudk azmfjy&ef a&;om;pOfrS 1 tjyifodkYxGufoifhonf[k r,lqcJhMuacs / Ak'¨qif;wkawmfonf oD[dkVfü txl;ojzihf r[m,me0g'DwdkY tMum; a&yef;pm; vlodrsm;cJhaomaMumifhvnf; jzpfEdkifonf/ ygVdt|uxmusrf;rsm;udk r[m,me0g'udk tjyif;txef qefY usifcJhonhf r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkuf\ OD;aqmifrIjzihf a&;om; cJhNyD; ,kHMunfpdwfcs&onhf ax&0g'*dkPf;0ifESihf r[m0d[m&tpOf tvmrsm;udk pdwftm;xufoefpGm `rSifwifoljzpfonfh t&Sifr[m Ak'¨aCmoonf r[m,meESihf ywfoufonhf rnfonhf tcsuf udkrS &nfñTef;vdkjcif;r&Sdacs/ Ak'¨qif;wkawmfudk ESpfBudrfrQ &nf ñTef;cJh&mrSmyif qif;wktm; ta&;ygrIudk rjybJ qif;wkawmf wGif&Sdonhf "mwfawmfudkomvQif ta&;ygaMumif; azmfjycJhonf/ qif;wkaqmifudkvnf; rodusKd;uRH jyKcJhonf/ 1

odkYwap aemufwpfzufwGif t|uxmusrf;rsm;onf acwfNydKif tjzpf tysufrsm;ESihf taMumif;t&mrsm;udk udk;um;azmfjycsufrsm; jynfhESufae aMumif; uREkfyfwdkY od&onf/

bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm; 1

wnfaqmufykH

243

Ak'¨pG,fawmf"mwftm; xm;&Sdonhf oabmxm;ESihf ywfouf ívnf; azmfjyyg ,lqcsufudk taxmuftyHhjyKaponf/ Ak'¨pG,f awmf"mwftm; at'Dav;&mpk udwådod&d arC0PÖrif;vufxuf wGif oD[dkVfodkY aqmif,lcJhNyD; ,if;onf tvGefta&;ygonhf "mwfawmfjzpfaomfvnf; at'D 5 &mpk ygVdt|uxmusrf;rsm;ü ,if;pG,fawmf"mwfudk azmfjyjcif; r&Sdacs/ zm[D,efonf pG,f awmf"mwf taMumif; azmfjycJhNyD; rsufjrifoufaotjzpfjzihf ESpf ywfvnf jynfolrsm;tm;jyyGJtwGuf pDwef;vSnfhvnfNyD; tb, *d&dausmif;wdkufodkY pG,fawmf"mwfudk yifhaqmifonhf pG,fawmf 1 vSnfhyJGtaMumif; tao;pdwfudk azmfjycJhonf / þta&;tBuD; qkH; pG,fawmf"mwftm; ygVdt|uxmusrf;rsm;ü azmfjyjcif;r&Sd jcif;twGuf ay;Edkifonhf wpfckwnf;aom &Sif;vif;csufrSm ,if; pG,fawmf"mwfudk oD[dkVfodkY r[m,me0g'\ taxmuftyHhjzihf yihf,lcJhNyD; ,if;pG,fawmf"mwfonf tb,*d&dausmif;wkdufydkif taejzihf xif&Sm;cJhaomaMumihfjzpfonf/ Ak'¨qif;wkawmfrsm;ESihf ywfoufívnf; xdkenf;twlyif jzpfzG,f&Sdonf/ a&S;OD; qif;wkawmfaqmif\ t½G,ftpm;ESihf ykHoP²mefrnf odkYyifjzpfap tenf;qkH; at'D 5 &mpk ukefcgeD;xdtcsdefwGif xk xnftawmftwef BuD;rm;onhf taqmufttkHtjzpfodkY wdk; wufcJhNyD;jzpfaMumif; ,kHMunfEdkifonfh om"ursm;&Sdonf/ r[m0H 2 ousrf; ü yxrarm*¾v†merif; (at'D 496-513)vufxuf oD [dkVfodkY yifhaqmifcJhonhf qHawmf"mwf (auo"mwk)udk qif;wk awmfaqmifwGif ylaZmfxm;cJhonf/ þAk'¨qHawmf"mwfuJhodkYaom tzdk;wef&wemudk Ak'¨omoemudk Munfñdkonhf Ak'¨0g'DoD[dkVf bk&ifwpfyg;u ckdifcHhjcif; pnf;Muyfjcif;r&Sd "mwfawmf\ vkHjcKHrI vnf; raumif;onhf taqmufttkHwpfckwGif xm;cJhjcif;rSm qifjcifzG,f jzpfonf/ tqdkyg Ak'¨qif;wkawmfaqmifrSmyif arm*¾v†merif;u ¤if;rdcifbufu OD;av;ESihf¤if;\ZeD;½kyfykH? jrif; 1

Fa Hien, p. 105-107.

2

r[m0Ho 39? 50-51/


248 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

0!Kem (Sala-va¹unā)\ tvª'gejzpfonf/ ,if;ausmufpm t 1 a&;tom;onf at'D 12 &mpk jzpfzG,f&Sdonf / bwåomvm [laom a0g[m&ESifh wpfqufwnf;wGif ]ovmu*¾}[kac:aom opfom;jzihf jyKvkyfonhf vufrSwf odkYr[kwf wkHuifrsm;jzpfzG,f&Sd onfudk qGrf;a0pkudk &,l&ef qGrf;pm;aqmifodkY r0ifrD &[ef; 2 awmfrsm;tm; xkwfay;onhf taqmif&Sdonf / &[ef;oHCmawmfrsm; oDwif;okH;onhf ae&mrsm;udk a,bk ,stm;jzihf 0d[m&? tm0go odkYr[kwf y&da0P[laom t 3 rnfrsm;jzihf vlodrsm;onf / odkYwap a&S;acwfoD[dkVfwGif aemuf qkH;a0g[m& ( y&da0P) [laom a0g[m&rSm txif&Sm;qkH; jzpf 4 onf / bkef;BuD;ausmif;wkdufwpfckwGif &[ef;awmfrsm; aexdkif onhf taqmifrsm;tjzpf tokH;jyKonhf y&da0P rsm;pGm&Sdonf/ tEk&m"yk&NrdKU&Sd r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkufwGif ,if;odkYaom y&d 5 a0PESihf jymom'aygif; 364 ck &Sdonf[k qdkonf / xlyg&mr apwDwGif y&da0Pta&twGuf rsm;pGm&SdNyD; ,if;wdkYteuf plV em*rax&f oDwif;okH;cJhonfh tod*¾g[uy&da0Pudk xdktrnf jzihf uREfkyfwdkY odMuonf/ a&m[P(t&yf)&Sd wdór[m0d[m& wGif at'D 9 &mpkESifh 10 &mpk ESpfrsm;twGif; y&da0Paygif; 1

2

r[m0Ho 15? 205/ 36? 74/ 49? 32/ 0d 3? 61/ 96/ 0dok'¨dr*¾ 1? 87/ r[m0Ho 44? 31/ 4 ygVdpum;vkH; y&da0PrS qif;oufvmaom oD[dkVfpum;vkH; yd&da0e[l aom a0g[m&udk ,cktcg oD[dkVfwGif Ak'¨0g'ESifh ta&SUwdkif; bmom pum;rsm;udk oifMum;rI\ t"dubmom&yftjzpf ydkYcsay;onhf &[ef; oHCmESihfqdkifaom aumvdyfudkomvQif em; vnfMuonf/ 0d[m&[laom a0g[m&udk ½kyfwkawmfaqmifudkomvQif okH;EIef;onf/ tm0go[lonf &[ef;oHCmawmf tenf;i,fom oDwif;okH;NyD; bkef;BuD;ausmif;wkduf wpfck\ tjcm;oGifjyifrsm;r&Sdonhf ae&mjzpfonf/ 5 edu,mo*F[? 12/ ,if;jymom'rsm;rSm rnfodkYjzpfonfudk jyqdk&efcJ,Of; onf/ avm[ygom'ykHpH&Sdonhf pnf;a0;nDrlonhf cef;rjzpfEdkifonf/ 6 &o0g[deD 2? pm-122-123/ 3

E.Z. III, p. 133.

bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm; 1

wnfaqmufykH

245

1

onhf azmfjycsufrsm;pGmawGU&onf / xdkjzpf&yfrsm;u a,bk,s tm;jzihf w&m;a[mcef;rrsm;onf rsm;jym;onhf y&dowftwGuf vkHavmufpGm us,f0ef;jcif;r&SdbJ ywf0ef;usifrSm ajr½dkif;jzpf aMumif; azmfjyonf/ 0d[m&tm;vkH; eD;yg;rQwGif a,bk,stm;jzihf vjynhfvuG,f aeYrsm;ü &[ef;awmfrsm; OykofjyKuH aqmif&ef pnf;a0;onhf 2 Oaygoxaqmif wpfck &SdNrJjzpfonf / tEk&m"yk&NrdKU&Sd bkHudk;xyf &Sdonhf emrnfausmf avm[ygom'onf r[m0d[m&ausmif; 3 wdkuf\ Oykofaqmifjzpfonf / þcrf;em;vSonfh taqmuf ttkHodkY0if&ef 0ifaygufav;ckü 0ifaygufwHcg; ('Gg&aum|u) 4 rsm;&Sdonf / tEk&m"yk&NrdKUawmfrSmyif xlyg&mr? r&dp0¥d (Maricavaììi)ESihf 'u©dP0d[m&uJhodkYaom tjcm; ausmif;wdkufrsm;ü 5 vnf; oDjcm; Oykofaqmifrsm; &SdMuonf / a&m[P (t&yf&Sd) 1

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Hiuen Tsiang, XI,, p. 429.

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252 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

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oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; 1

ESihfywfoufNyD; tpyxrwGif jypfwif a0zefcJhMuonf / avmuDa&;ESifhqdkifonhf &mxl;rsm;r&Sdonhf a&S;acwfrsm;wGif bkef;BuD;ausmif;tkyfcsKyfa&;rSm tawmf &Sif;vif;onf/ em,u a½G;cs,frI pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm;udk xdef;odrf;jcif;ESihf ae&mudk oefY&Sif; oyf,yfpGm xm;&Sdjcif;rsm;uJhodkYaom wm0efrsm;om jzpf onf/ odkYwap aemiftcgwGif &[ef;oHCm OD;a&wdk;wufvm jcif;ESihf vloltrsm;tjym; vma&mufrIudk zdwfac:vsuf&Sdonhf bmoma&; oauFwrsm; trsm;tjym;wnfaqmufrIrsm;ESihftwl ausmif;wkdufwpfck\ pDrHcefYcGJa&;onfvnf; XmecGJrsm;pGm &Sdonhf NyD;jynhfpkHonhf Xmewpfck\ tpdwftydkif; jzpfvmykH&onf/ ausmufpmrsm;u a&S;acwfoD[dkVf bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm; tkyf csKyfa&;pepf\ pdwf0ifpm;zG,f ykHoP²mef wpf&yfudk uREkfyfwdkYtm; 2 ay;xm;onf / ,if;ausmufpma&; rSwfwrf;trsm;pkrSm at'D 9 &mpkESihf 10 &mpkacwfyif jzpfaomfvnf; &nfñTef;xm;onhf tkyf csKyfa&;pepfrSm ykHpHwl a&S;OD;pHepfrsm;ay:wGif tajccHxm;aMumif; onfudk aocsmpGm rod&acs/ ykHrSeftm;jzihfrl 0denf;usihf0wfrsm;ESihf tnD xl;cRefajymifajrmufaom Aswåy#dAvjzpfonfh oDv0EÅ &[ef; awmftm; ,if;odkYaom &mxl;udk cefYtyfcJhonf[laom tcsufudk aMumif;usKd;qDavsmfpGm ,kHrSm;rJh rSwfoifhonf/ ,aeYacwfrSmuJhodkY &[ef;wpfyg;taejzihf q&mwynhf qufcrH IaemufcHjzihf ausmif;wdkuf wpfck\ &mxl;udk awmifqdkcGifh r&Sdonf rSm xif&Sm;onf/ q&mwynfh qufcHrIt& (bkef;BuD;ausmif;tkyfcsKyfa&;) &mxl;qufcHrIESihf ywfouf onhf yxrqkH;aom taxmuftxm;udk yÍör uóyrif; (at'D 913-923) vufxuftwGif; a&;xdk;cJhonhf Ak'¨Haea[v (Buddhannehäla) ausmufpmwGif oJvGefpudk awGUEdkifonf (EZ. I pp. 194-196)/ 1 0d-| 2/ 68// 2 Oyrmtm;jzihf aZw0em&mr ausmif;wdkuf ouúw ausmufpm (EZ, I, p. 4) udk ½Iyg/ r[dE¦avh&Sd pwkw¬ r[dE´rif; ausmufpmESpfck (EZ, I, p. 84)? pwkw¬r[dE´rif;\ aZw0em&mrausmufpm (trSwf 2) (EZ, I, p. 323)? yÍöruóyrif;\ ausmufpm (EZ, I, p. 43)/


tcef; 9 bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm; 2 ausmif;wdkuftkyfcsKyfa&; bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufwpfck\ tkyfcsKyfa&;onf oHCm\vuf atmufwGif vkH;0&Sdonf/ bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkuf toD;oD;wGif ,if;\ pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;ESihf trdefYvkyfydkifcGifhudk wm0ef,lxm; 1 onhf ae0godu r[max& (Xmaer[max&f) wpfyg;&Sdonf/ em,ur[max&fonf ta&;ay: udpö&yfrsm;ESihf ywfoufí udk,fydkifqkH;jzwfcsufudk tokH;jyK&ef vkyfydkifcGifh&Sdonf/ ykHpHqdk&rl apwd,*d&d (r[dE¦avh) ausmif;wdkuf\ y"meem,ujzpfol tb,rax&fonf tcgwpfyg;ü vk,uf&ef ausmif;wdkuf t wGif;odkY 0ifa&mufcJhMuonfh olykefwpfa,mufESihf ¤if;\ aemuf vdkufaemufygrsm;tm; oHCduypönf;jzihf {nfhcHcJhzl;onf/ r[m ax&f\ vkyfaqmifrIonf 0denf;pnf;urf;rsm;ESifh nDñGwfrIr&Sd aomfvnf; rax&fonf wefzdk;BuD;rm;onhf oHCduypönf;udk umuG,fa&;twGuf ,if;odkYjyKoifhonf[k ,lqcJhonf/ aqG;aEG; rIjyKNyD;aemuf rax&f\t,ltqESihf ywfoufí &[ef;tcsKdU vufcHcJhaomfvnf; xdk&[ef;rsm;onf t&Sifjrwf\ vkyfaqmifrI 1

tH-| 1? 32/ tapmydkif;umvrsm;ü qufcHrIOya'ESihf Ak'¨0g'ESihfqdkifaom avmuD a&; &mxl;qdkif&m pnf;rsOf;rsm;ESihf ywfoufí &Sif;vif;pGm rod&acs/ t jzpfEdkifqkH;rSm ausmif;wdkufwpfck\ em,uyk*¾Kdvfukd oHCmawmfu cefYtyf zG,f&Sdonf/ þudpötwGuf rnfonhf tajccH pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm; &SdcJh


260 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

,if;odkYaom &[ef;awmfrsm;udk ausmif;wdkufrsm;wGif aexdkifcGifh 1 rjyKaom &[ef;awmfrsm;vnf; &SdcJhykH&onf / tjiif;yGm;rIudk jzpf ay:aponhf &[ef;rsm;vnf; &SdcJhonf/ ausmufpmwpfckwGif oabmuGJvGJrI&SdvQif tpm;tpmudk &[ef;rsm;tm; ray;awmhbJ 2 acG;rsm;? iSufrsm;udk ay;&rnf[k qdkxm;onf / &[ef;ESpfyg; tMum; tjiif;yGm;rIjzpfvQif rw&m;ajymqdkaom yk*¾Kdvftm; 3 ausmif;wkdufwGif aexdkifcGifh rjyKacs / ausmif;wdkufwpfckrS ESif xkwfcH&onhf &[ef;onf tjcm;ausmif;wdkufwpfckwGifvnf; ae 4 xdkifcGifhr&Sdawmhacs / aZw0efausmif;wdkuf ouúwausmufpm wGif tjcm;ausmif;wdkufrsm;udk ulnD odkYr[kwf ¤if;wdkYudk,fwdkif ,if;ausmif;wdkufrsm;ESihf qufqHolrsm;onf xdkausmif;wdkufwGif 5 rae&[laom pnf;rsOf;wpf&yf csrSwfxm;onf / ,if;pnf;rsOf; ESihf ywfoufí xdktcsdefu edum,trsKd;rsKd;tMum; t"du jcm; em;rIESihf remvdkjzpfrI\ oauFwwpfcktaejzihf t"dyÜm,faumuf 6 ,lEdkifzG,f&Sdonf / tay:xyfrSmjzpfap atmufxyfrSmjzpfap &Sdonhf txuf wGif azmfjycJhaom ]*dwft0ifa&tdrf} taqmifwGif rnfonhf wpdrf;yk*¾KdvfudkrS ae&mxkdifcif;twGuf ray;tyfay/ xdkae&m wGif tjyifolrsm; ydkifqdkifonhf rnfonhfypönf;udkrQvnf; odrf; qnf; rxm;ay/ tckdif;taprsm;\ ypönf;rsm;rSwpfyg; tjcm; ypönf;wpfckckudk tu,fí xdkae&mwGif odrf;qnf;xm;vQif wm 0ef&Sd tvkyform;rsm;tm; tvkyfjzKwfypfNyD; ¤if;wdkY ydkifqdkifonhf ajrrsm;udk xdef;odrf;apmihfa&SmifhrIrS z,f&Sm;ypfonf/ ¤if;wm;jrpf rIonf bkef;BuD;ausmif; taqmufttkHudk acwåcP aexdkif&m 1

EZ. I, p. 5-6, 86.

2

EZ. III, p. 358-359.

3

EZ. I, p. 5.

5

EZ. I, p. 4. anyavihāra-sahāyya½ kurvatā'pi na vastarya½.

6

EZ. III, p. 227.

4

bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm; 2

ausmif;wdkufcsKyfa&;

257

,lq&ef aMumif;usKd; cdkifvkHayonf/ trSefpifppf acwfopf pnf; rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm;udk a&;qGJ&mwGif r[dE¦avhESihf tb,*d&dt&yf wdkYü ,aeYwdkifawGU&onhf a&S;acwf pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm;udk rSD jirf;jyKcJhaMumif; r[dE¦avh (t&yf) &Sd pwkw¬ r[dE´rif; ausmuf 1 pmu &Sif;vif;pGm azmfjyonf / uREkfyfwdkY &Edkifonfh bkef;BuD;ausmif; pDrHcefYcGJa&;ESihf ywf oufaom ausmufpma&;rSwfwrf;rsm;rSm r[m,meqdkif&m Mo ZmvTrf;rdk;onhf ausmif;wdkurf sm;\ pnf;rsOf;rsm;jzpfMuonf/ ,if;odkYaom rSwfwrf;wpfckrSm tcsKdUaom ausmif;wdkufi,frsm; \ pDrHcefYcGJrItwGuf pnf;rsOf;rsm;udk rSwfwrf;wifxm;aom aZ w0em&mr ouúwausmufpmjzpfonf/ apmapmydkif;u awGUjrif &onfhtwdkif; r[dE¦avhonfvnf; "r®½kpduwdkY odrf;ydkufxm; onhf at'D 4 &mpktcsdef r[dE´rif;vufxuftwGif; r[m,me MoZm vTrf;rdk;rI atmufodkY a&mufcJhonf/ r[dE¦avht&yf&Sd trÁ|v (Ambasthala)rS aovapwd,teD; ausmufwkH;ay:wGif a&;xGif;xm;onhf Ak'¨\um,okH;ck (Bwdum,)udk csD;rGrf;xm; onfh at'D 8 &mpkcefY ouúwuAsmtydkif;tpwpfckrSm r[m,m e MoZmvTrf;rdk;rI\ aocsmaom taxmuftxm; jzpfonf/ odkY jzpfí r[dE¦avht&yf&Sd pwkw¬r[dE´rif;\ ausmufjym;ESpfckonf vnf; r[m,me MoZmvTrf;rdk;rIatmuf&Sd bkef;BuD;ausmif;wkduf wpfckudk tkyfcsKyfonhf pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm;udk t"du azmfjy xm;aMumif; ,kHMuonhf aMumif;usKd;qDavsmfrI &Sdygonf/ uHr aumif;onfrSm xdktcsdefxd r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkuf odkYr[kwf tjcm; ax&0g'bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkuf\ pDrHcefYcGJa&;ESihf ywfouf

EZ. III, p. 103. 1

...uRrf;usifvdrfrmaom yk*¾Kdvfrsm;udk a½G;cs,fxm;onhf tusKd;&SdrI aMumifh ¤if;ydkifaom tb,*d&d0d[m&ü zdtm;aMumihf ¤if;udk ESpfouf apaom pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm;ESihf (r[dE¦avh&Sd) apwd,*d&d0d[m&wGif ,cifuwnf&SdNyD;jzpfaom pnf;rsOf;rsm;rS (EZ, I, p. 91,11, 6-7)/ CJSc. G. Vol.II, p. 42.


258 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

onhf rnfonhftvm;wl rSwfwrf;udkrQ rawGU&acs/ odkYwap tkyfcsKyfrIpepfESpfcktMum; tenf;qkH; r&Sdrjzpfvdktyfonhf pnf; rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm;wGif wpfpkHwpf&m BuD;rm;onhf jcm;em;csuf&SdcJh aMumif; taxmuftuljyK&ef taMumif;w&m; r&Sdacs/ &[ef;oHCmawmfrsm;? tvkyform;rsm;ESihf aus;uRefrsm;ESihf avmuDqefqef tkyfcsKyfrIESihfqdkifonhf pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm; &SdcJh onf/ ,if;pnf;rsOf; pnf;urf;rsm;udk oHCmawmfrsm;\ tBuH ay;csufESihf twnfjyKcsufrsm;jzihf bk&ifu csrSwfay;onf/ wm 0ef0wå&m;rsm;udk cGJjcm;xm;NyD; ,if;wdkYESihf qufoG,fxm;onhf vpmaiGESihf tzdk;tcrsm;udk txl;azmfjyonf/ tkyfcsKyfa&;qdkif &m Xmeaygif;pkHESifh tvkyform;rsm;twGuf vkyfief;rsm;udk vuf rSwfxdk;jcif;uJhodkYaom vkyfief;tm;vkH;udk oHCmawmfESihf ñSdEIdif; Muonf/ tvkyftauR;rsm;udk oHCmawmfrsm;\ oabmwlnD csufjzihfomvQif jypf'Pfay;rIESihf tvkyfjzKwfrIrsm;udk jyKvkyfEdkif NyD; ,if;odkYaom udpörsm;ESihfywfoufí aqmif½Guf&ef &[ef; 1 yk*¾Kdvfwpfyg;csif;pDwGif tcGifhta&; r&Sdacs / &[ef;awmfrsm;onf bkef;BuD;ausmif;wkdufrsm;odkY vª'gef;xm;aom aus;½Gmrsm;ESihf v,fajrrsm;rS &&Sdonhf tcGefrsm;udk wm0ef,lonf/ pm&if;rsm;udk aeYpOfodrf;xm;NyD; wpfvukefwdkif; ,if;wdkYudk wpfzef vpOfpm &if;wGif oGif;onf/ ESpfukefwGif ESpfywfvnf pm&if;azmfjycsufudk oabmwlnDrItwGuf oHCmha&SU arSmufü wifoGif;NyD; tu,fí pm&if;rsm;ESihf ywfoufí uGm [csuf? tm;enf;csufrsm;&SdcJhvQif rSwfykHwif (yÍÆdum) udk odrf;qnf;xm;onhf rax&fwpfyg;u 2 pkHprf;ppfaq;rIrsm;udk jyKvkyfonf / ausmif;wdkuf (tm&mr)wpfck\ tvkyform;rsm; tm;vkH;udk ykHrSeftm;jzihf ,if;ausmif;wkduf\ tcGef tvªawmfaiGrS ay;urf; 1

EZ. I, p. 85.

2

EZ. I, p. 4,87.

bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm; 2 ausmif;wdkufcsKyfa&; 259 onf/ tm&mrwpfckudk jyKjyifxdef;odrf;&ef vkdtyfonhf vkyfief; tao;pdwfudk tvGef*½kwpdkuf pOf;pm;NyD; vkyfief;tao;pdwf wkdif;twGuf tzdk;tcudk vufrSwfxdk;onf/ yef;aumufolrsm; uJhodkYaom omreftvkyform;rsm;udkyif aiGaMu;twdtus yrm 1 Pudk ykHrSefay;onf / &[ef;awmfrsm;udk,fwdkifudkvnf; ¤if;wdkY\ tvkyftwGuf 0w¬KaiGrsm; vª'gef;onf/ ykHpHtm;jzihf vpmaiG t qifh trsKd;rsKd;udk 0de,? okwåESihf tbd"r®udk oifMum;ol &[ef; 2 rsm;ESihf ausmif;wdkufudk apmihfa&Smufolrsm;ESihf ñSdxm;onf / tpm;taomuf qGrf;uGrf;udk bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkuf 0if; 3 twGif;&Sd trsm;okH; rD;zdkwGif jyifqifonf / bdu©Krsm;onf rdrd wdkY\ qGrf;tzdkYudk&,l&ef jzefYjzL;onhfae&modkY oGm;&onf/ &[ef; 4 awmfrsm;tm; qefpdrf;rsm;udk vª'gef;rI rjyKacs / axmywfESihf aq;0g;uJhodkYaom tjcm;tvªypönf;rsm; jzefYa0rIudk ausmif;wdkuf twGif;rSmvnf; jyKvkyfNyD; &[ef;awmfrsm;onf ,if;ypönf;rsm;udk vufcH&,l&ef owfrSwfxm;onhf ae&modkY BuD;pOfi,fvdkuf <u 5 awmfrlMu&onf / rSm;,Gif;pGm oufarG;0rf;ausmif;jyKonhf &[ef;,kwfrsm;udk ausmif;wkduftwGif;ü aexkdifcGifh rjyKacs/ Oyrm pdkufysKd;arG;jrL a&;ESihf pD;yGm;a&;vkyfonfh &[ef;awmfrsm;? ajr,mydkifqdkifonhf &[ef;awmfrsm;? bmomw&m;udk qefYusifonfh jypfrIudk usL;vGef olrsm;? ¤if;wdkY\ wm0efudk raqmif½GufbJ aeolrsm;ESihf ¤if;wdkY \ jypfrIrsm;aMumifh ausmif;wdkufrS ESifxkwfcH&onhf &[ef;rsm;? 1

EZ. I, p. 87.

2

EZ. I, p. 85,87.

3

oD[dkVf&Sd acwfopf Ak'¨bmom ausmif;wdkufrsm;wGif ,if;udk 'efa* (dangē)[k ac:onf/ 4 EZ. I, p. 85. 0denf;Oya'awmfESihf okwåefa'oemawmfrsm;t& &[ef; awmfrsm;onf qGrf;qefawmf tpdrf;rsm;udk cH,ljcif; rjyKacs/ 5 0d-| 2? 72/


264 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

½GufrIrsm;tjyif em,u&[ef;awmfrsm;\ ta&;ygonhf yk*¾Kdvf 1 a&; tvkyftauR;rsm;vnf; yg0ifonf / bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkuf rsm;wGif tvkyfvkyfMuonfh tvkyo f rm;rsm;rSm taxGaxG &ydkif cGifh tcGifhta&;rsm;tjyif ,if;tvkyform;rsm;udk xdef;odrf;&ef txl;&nf½G,fcsufjzihf bk&ifrif;rsm;u aus;½Gmrsm;ESihf tcGef twkyfrsm; csrSwfxm;onfh om"ursm;&Sdonftxd tvGefBuD; 2 rm;us,fjyefYonf / ausmif;wdkufBuD;wpfckudk xdefodrf;jcif;ESihf qufvufapmihf a&SmufrIrsm;twGuf ykHrSefckdifNrJonhf 0ifaiGwpfck r&Sdrjzpf vkdtyf 3 onf/ ,if;ykHrSef0ifaiGtwGuf &if;jrpf trsm;tjym;rS &,lonf / MunfndKol Oygoumrsm;onf rdrdwdkY\ om;i,frsm;tm; oHCmawmfrsm;udk jyKpkvkyfauR;&ef vª'gef;avh&SdaMumif; trsm;od aomfvnf; ,if;rSm ykHrSefr[kwfbJ tNrJwrf;vnf; r[kwfacs/ xdkYjyif yk*¾KdvfwpfOD; wpfa,mufwnf; ausmif;wkdufBuD;wpfckudk xdef;odrf; apmihfa&Smuf&ef rjzpfEdkifbJ txl;ojzihf aexdkifol &[ef;rsm; t&mtaxmif &Sdvmaomtcg rjzpfEdkifacs/ odkYjzpfí ykHrSef 0ifaiGtwGuf tjcm;&if;jrpfrsm; wnf&Sd&rnfjzpfNyD; ,if;odkY aom tcGefaiGrsm;rSm vlxktm; rcufcJapoihf[k ,lqonf/ ykHrSef tNrJwrf; axmufyHhrIrsm;udk tMurf;zsif;tm;jzifh av;rsKd; cGJjcm;Edkifonf/ yxrrSm ajr½dkif;rsm;? v,f,majrrsm;ESihf aus;½Gm rsm;? 'kwd,rSm a&uefESihf qnfajrmif;rsm;? wwd,rSm qefpyg;? tjcm; oD;ESHrsm;ESifh bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufudk apmihfa&Smuf&ef tyf Oygoum[k ac:qdkonf/ odkYwap aemifwGif t"dyÜm,f usOf;ajrmif; oGm;NyD; ,if;a0g[m&udk oufBuD;½G,ftdk yk*¾Kdvf? txl;ojzihf qif;&Jol oufBuD;½G,ftdk? Ak'¨a0,sm0pörsm;udk aqmif½GufNyD; bkef;BuD; ausmif;rsm; udk rMumcP oGm;a&mufol[k qdkvdkonf/ 1 2 r[m0Ho 37? 173/ ,if; 37? 63/ 42? 23/ 3 0g&feol&d,\ Inscriptional Evidence bearing on the Nature of Religious Endourments in Ancient Ceylon aqmif;yg;udkvnf; zwf½Iyg/ UCR. Vol. I, Nos, I, 2; Vol. II, Nows, I, 2.

bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm; 2 ausmif;wdkufcsKyfa&; 261 taejzifh eef;awmft&m&Sdrsm; tokH;jyKaexdkif&ef &nfñTef;í jyK vkyfxm;ykH&onf[k ,lqzG,f&Sdonf/ bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrS ydkif qdkifonfh tvkyform;rsm;? EGm;rsm;? vSnf;rsm;ESihf uRJrsm;udk rnf olwpfa,mufrQ rydkifqkdifEdkifacs/ bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufu ydkif qdkifonhf aus;½Gmrsm;wGif oihfawmfonhf pkHprf;ppf aq;rIrsm; jyKNyD;aemuf aumufcHxm;onhf 'PfaiGrsm;udk bkef;BuD;ausmif; 1 wdkuftm; ay;tyfNyD; EdkifiHawmfu rydkifqdkif&acs / bkef;BuD;ausmif;ydkif ajrrsm;ay:&Sd opfyifrsm;udk rckwfvJS& 2 ay / wpfcgwpf&H vltrsm;onf ausmif;wdkufrsm;odkYoGm;NyD; opfyifrsm;udk awmif;,lMuonf/ &[ef;awmfrsm;u ,if;opfyif rsm;udk oHCmuydkifonf[laom taMumif;jycsufjzihf ¤if;wdkYtm; jiif;qdkMuonf/ odkYwap tu,fí vlyk*¾Kdvfonf ,if; (opfyif) wdkYudk &,l&ef twif;tMuyf avQmufxm;MuvQif? odkYwnf;r[kwf tMurf;zuf&ef Ncdrf;ajcmufMuvQif oihfavsmfonhf tcGefudk avsmf aMu;tjzpf ay;NyD;aemuf? odkYr[kwf ausmif;wdkuftwGuf tvkyf tudkifwpfck vkyfudkifNyD;aemuf ¤if;wdkYdtm; opfyifrsm;udk ,l&ef rdefYMum;Muonf/ ]tyf wpfacsmif;rQ&Sdaom opfyifwpfyifonf yif BuD;av;aom b@m(*½kbPf)jzpfonf}/ cGifhjyKcsuf r&SdbJESihf yif ,if;opfyifrsm;udk &[ef;rsm; aexkdkif&mtaqmif aqmuf vkyf&ef tokH;jyKEdkifonf/ opf½Gufrsm;? yef;rsm; odkYr[kwf opfoD; 3 rsm;udkyif vlyk*¾Kdvrf sm;tm; ay;cGifhr&Sdacs / ,if;odkYaom wm;jrpf csufrsm;rSm bkef;BuD;ausmif;rsm;tm; tjyifrS vk,ufolrsm;udk umuG,f&ef &nf½G,fcJhonfrSm xif&Sm;onf/ r[m0d[m&? tb,*d&d? aZw0e? r[dE¦avhESihf wdó r[m&mruJhodkYaom t"duusonhf ausmif;wkdufrsm;ü tvGef rsm jym;onhf &[ef;awmfrsm; oDwif;okH;awmfrlMuonf/ at'D 5 1

EZ. II, p. 10-13.

2

EZ. I, p. 87.

3

tbd-| 2? 322/


262 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

&mpkwGif oD[dkVfodkY tvnftywf<ua&mufcJhonhf w½kwf&[ef; awmf zm[D,eftqdkt& tb,*d&dausmif;wdkufü &[ef; 5000? r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkufü 3000? r[dE¦avhü 2000 &Sdonf/ EdkifiHwpf0ef;vkH;wGif trsm;okH; ae&mXmerS tpm;tpmudk &,l Muonfh &[ef;awmf 60000 &SdaMumif;vnf; zm[D,efu qdkNyD; xdkYtjyif bk&ifrif;onf aemufxyf &[ef; ig;axmif odYrk [kwf ajcmufaxmifpmtwGuf trsm;okH; tpm;tpmaxmufyHhrIudk NrdKU 1 awmf&Sd tjcm;ae&mrsm;ü jyifqifxm;aMumif;vnf; qdkonf / w½kwf&[ef;awmf [l,ifqef (at'D 7 &mpk)url xdktcsdefu oD[dkVfEdkifiHü &[ef;oHCm 20000 &Sdonf[k od&aMumif; 2 rSwfwrf;wifcJhonf / ,if;azmfjycsufrsm;rSm tawmftwef twd tus r[kwfvQifawmif ¤if;wdkY taejzihf oD[dkVfEdkifiHwGif &[ef;oHCm tvGefrsm;jym;aMumif; ñTefjyMuonf/ bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm;tm; xdef;odrf;jcif;ESihf jyKjyifjcif; rsm;twGuf rsm;jym; BuD;rm;onhf tvkyfrsm;twGuf vdktyfonhf twif;tMuyf ckdif;aprIyrmPudk pdwful;jzihf rSefMunhfEdkifonf/ wpfukd,fa& vdktyfcsufrsm;ESifh ¤if;wdkYaexdkifoDwif;okH;onhf ausmif;cef;rsm;ESihf ausmif;0if;udk oefY&Sif;jcif;uJhodkYaom vkyfief; tcsKdUudk &[ef;awmfrsm;udk,fwdkif vkyfudkifMuonf/ odkYwap usefvkyfief;rsm;ESihf ywfoufí tcdkif;taprsm;ESihf tvkyform; rsm;pGmvdktyfonfrSm xif&Sm;onf/ pwkw¬r[dE´rif; a&;xdk;cJh onhf r[dE¦avhausmufpmt& r[dE¦avhausmif;wdkufrSmyif ausmif;wdkufa&;&m wm0efESihf vIyf&Sm;trsKd;rsKd;udk aqmif½Gufae Muonfh tNrJwrf; tvkyform; 200 ausmf&SdaMumif; od&onf/ bk&ifrif;rsm;ESihf rdzk&m;rsm;pGmwdkY oHCmESifh bkef;BuD;ausmif; wkdufrsm;tm; tm&mrdursm;ESihf taptyg;rsm;udk vª'gef;Mu 1

Fa Hien, p. 102,105,107.

2

Hiuen Tsiang, Bk. XI, p. 247.

bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm; 2

ausmif;wdkufcsKyfa&;

263

1

aMumif; rSwfwrf;&Sdonf / odvmarC0PÖrif; (at'D 7 &mpk) zrf;,lcJhonhf tusOf;cH wrD;vfppfom;rsm;udk aus;uRefrsm;tjzpf 2 ausmif;wdkufrsm;odkY vª'gef;cJhonf / wpfcgwpf&HwGif tvkyfvuf rJh qif;&Jolrsm;onf &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; ulnDNyD; aexdkif&ef 3 bkef;BuD;ausmif;rsm;ü tvkyt f auR;rsm; jzpfoGm;Muonf / ,if; yk*¾Kdvfrsm;tm; bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufwGif vkdtyfonfrsm;udk vkyf aqmif tokH;jyKonf/ t*Fkwåedum, t|uxmwGif a&m[P t&yf&Sd bkef;BuD; ausmif;wdkufwpfckwGif aexdkifonhf qif;&Jom; vlzsif;wpfa,muf okH;pGJonhf tokH;p&dwftaMumif;udk &[ef; awmfrsm;u vufawGU usDp,fMuonfh taMumif;rSm pdwf0if 4 pm;zG,f jzpfonf / ausmif;wdkufrsm;wGif &[ef;awmfrsm;ESihftwl aexdkifMuonhf bdu©Kbwdu[kac:aom aemufvlwef;pm; wpf &yf&Sdonf/ ,if;a0g[m&\ t"dyÜm,ft& ,if;yk*¾Kdvfrsm;onf ¤if;wdkY\ oufarG;0rf;ausmif;twGuf &[ef;awmfrsm;udk rSDcdkae& 5 6 onfrSm xif&Sm;onf / at'D 10 &mpk ausmufpmwpfck t& Oygou[kac:onhf oHCmtvkyftauR;wpfcsKdUvnf; ausmif; 7 wdkufwGif aexdkifaMumif;od&onf / ,if;trsm;aumif;usKd;aqmif 1

Oyrm r[m0Ho 46? 10? 14? 28? 164/ ,if;? 44? 73/ 3 'k*¾wrEkóm oHCH edóm, ZD0dómrDwd 0d[ma& uyÜd,um&um a[mEÅd (0d-| 3? 283)/ 4 tH-| 2? 215/ 2

5 7

EZ. III, p. 227.

6

EZ. III, p. 227.

tdE´d,awmifydkif; wrD;vf ausmufrsm;ü Oygou[kac:onhf bkef;BuD; ausmif; tvkyftauR; vlwef;pm;wpf&yftaMumif; azmfjyonf (EZ. III, p. 228.)/ oD&dvuFm bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm;ü ,aeYwdkifatmifyif &[ef;awmfrsm;\ bkef;BuD;ausmif;qdkif&m tcrf;tem;rsm; vdktyfcsuf rsm;udk aqmif½GufaeMuonhf oufBuD;½G,t f dkrsm;&SdMuNyD; a,bk,stm; jzihf Oygou[k vlodrsm;aom uyÜd,rsm;vnf; &SdMuonf/ rlvtm;jzihf rnfonhf Ak'¨bmomudk udkif;½dIif;oludkrqdk vlrIb0tqifhudk rcGJjcm;bJ


268 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

1

arG;zGm;ygap} / ,if;odkYaom ausmufpmtcsKdU\ tqkH;wGif acG;ykH? usD;uef;ykHrsm;jzihf o½kyfazmf xGif;xkxm;onf/ aemufausmufpm wpfckwGif ]þ (vª'gef;rI) udk qufvufí rvkyfaqmifolonf arawå,sbk&m;&Sif ¤if;\tdrfa&SUodkY <u0ifjzwfavQmufvQifyiff (t½dktaojyK&ef) ¤if;\vufudk rí r&Edkifol jzpfygapownf;} [k azmfjyonf/ ,if;odkYaom owday;csuf rsm;onf ,kHMunf Muol aus;vufae yk*¾Kdvfrsm;tm; bkef;BuD;ausmif;ajrrsm;rS a0; &modkY xGufroGm;Edkifap&ef rsm;pGm taxmuftuljyKcJhjcif; jzpf onf/ wpfcgwpf&H txl;ojzihf qif;&J'ku©ESihf BuKH&csdefrsm;wGif ,if;odkYaom ajrrsm;udk a&mif;cs odkYr[kwf aygifESHMuonf/ ,if; odkYaom ajr,mrsm;udk jyefvnfa½G;,lonhf yxr O',rif;\ rdzk&m;ESihf ywfoufaom om"uwpf&yf &Sdonf/ bk&ifrif;rsm;? rdzk&m;rsm;ESihf yk*¾vdu tvª&Sifrsm; ay;tyf onhf a&uefrsm;ESihf wl;ajrmif;rsm;rSm ta&twGuftm;jzihf rsm; pGm&Sdonf/ þae&mwGif ax&d,*dkPf;odkY a&avSmifuef 18 ck vª'gef;cJhol "mwkaoerif;udk txl; azmfjyxdkufonf/ bkef;BuD; ausmif;wdkufrsm;odkY vª'gef;onfh a&avSmifuef trsm;pkrSm ,aeY acwfwGif aysmufqkH;NyD; &Smr&awmhonhf aus;½Gma&uef rsm; jzpfMuonfudk rSwfom;oihfonf/ oD[dkVfEdkifiHuJhodkYaom pdkufysKd; a&;EdkifiHwpfckwGif ,if;a&avSmifuefrsm;ESihf qnfajrmif;rsm;rSm 0ifaiG&&Sdonhf tzdk;wef &if;jrpfrsm;jzpfMuNyD; ,if;wdkYrS &&Sdonfh a&cGefuJhodkYaom 0ifaiGrSm ta&;ygcJh&rnfjzpfonf/ 1

EZ III, p. 198.

2

EZ III, p. 258.

3

r[m0Ho 49? 28/ r[m0Ho tcef; 35? *gxmtrSwf 48 ESihf tcef; 36? *gxmtrSwf 3/ EZ. I, pp. 211; 254-255 wdkYudk ½Iyg/ trsKd;orD; wpfa,mufonf ¤if;wdkY rdom;pkydkifonhf a&uefwpfckudk oHCmtm; vª'gef;cJhonf/ 5 r[m0Ho 38? 44-51/ 4

bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm; 2

ausmif;wdkufcsKyfa&;

265

ESHxm;onhf aiGaMu;rsm;? pwkw¬rSm tcGef pnf;Muyf aumufcHjcif; rsm;ESihf jypf'PfaiG rsm;jzpfMuonf/ ,if;axmufyHhaiGrsm;udk rnfonhftcsdefu pwifcJhaMumif; twdtusqdk&ef cufcJonf/ odkY&mwGif ,if;axmufyHhaiGwnf&SdrI rSm oD[dkVfuRef;odkY Ak'¨0g'a&muf&Sd vmcsdefxuf rsm;pGma&S;rus 1 onfrSm tvGef aocsmonf / odkY&mwGif bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufwpfcktm; axmufyHhay;tyf onhf yxrqkH; rSwfwrf;wifwifcJhonhf rSwfwrf;rSm bDpD wpf &mpkü 0¥*grPdrif;u r[mwdórax&f oDwif;okH;aexdkifonfh ukyduúv ausmif;wkduftm; ]oHCabm*}udk vª'gef;aom tcsdefü jzpfonf/ ,if; tvªtaMumif;udk auwutjym; (ketaka leaf) 2 ay:wGif a&;cJhonf / oHCabm*[laom a0g[m&[lonf rnf odkYaom axmufyHhrIrsKd; jzpfonf[k twdtus rqdkEdkifacs/ ,if; taxmuftyhH[lonf ajr½dkif;? v,f,m? a&uef odkYr[kwf aus; 3 ½GmrS&&Sdonhf 0ifaiGrsm;yif jzpfEdkifonf / xdktcsdefrSpí aESmif; acwf&mpkESpfrsm; wpfavQmufvkH;wGif ajr½dkif;rsm;? v,f,m ajr rsm;? xdef;odrf; apmihfa&Smufa&; aus;½Gmrsm;udk bk&ifrif;rsm;ESihf 1

0d 3? 300 wGif ydvdE´0pärax&ftm; AdrÁdom&rif;u aus;½Gmudk vª'gef; aMumif; azmfjyxm;onf/ xdkaus;½GmwGif aexdkifol 500 udk tm&mrdu ]ausmif;wdkuf\ tvkyform; uyÜd,rsm;} tjzpf azmfjyxm;onf/ ,if; aus;½Gmtm; rif;BuD;u rax&ftm; ay;tyfjcif;rSm rax&ftm; tm&m rduwpfa,mufudk rax&ftm; vª'gef;&rnf[k ajymxm;onhf uwd twdkif;aqmif½Guf&rnfudk ysufuGufaomaMumihf jypf'Pftaejzihf ay; tyfjcif; jzpfonf/ 2 r[m0Ho 33? 50/ 3 ygarmu©0DvsH *dkif*gonf oHCabm*[laom a0g[m&udk ]&[ef;awmf rsm; tokH;jyK&ef ajrrsm;}[k bmomjyefonf/ odkYwap ajrudk vª'gef; axmufyHhonf[k ,kHqjcif;twGuf rQwrIr&Sdacs/ oHCabm*[l onf pmayenf;t& oHCmawmfrsm;\ ]ydkifqidk frI} ]tcGefawmf} ]ypönf; Opöm}[k t"dyÜm,f&onf/


266 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

rdzk&m;rsm;u bmoma&;Xmersm;tm; vª'gef;rIESihfywfoufonfh 1 taxmuftxm;rsm;pGmudk awGU&Sdvm&onf / zm[D,efrSwfwrf; t& at'D ig;&mpkwGif ,if;ajr½dkif;ajrvGwfrsm;udk vª'gef;ykHudk od&onf/ ]ol (rif;BuD;)onf xdkYaemuf vlrsm;? v,fajrrsm;ESihf tdrfrsm;udk xdktcsdefrSpí om;pOfrsKd;quf ,if;vª'gef;rIudk rnfol rQ ESpfpOftcGef odkYr[kwf xkwfjyefrIudk rjyKjyif&Jap&ef owåKj 2 jym;rsm;ay:wGif pma&;vsuf &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; vª'gef;onf} / bkef;BuD;ausmif;ajrrsm;onf bkef;BuD;ausmif;rsm;twGufom ru bkef;BuD;ausmif;a0,sm0pö vkyfaqmifolrsm;tm;vnf; t ajccH 0ifaiGrsm;jzpfMuonf/ ajrpm&ifiSm;rsm;onf ¤if;wdkY\ wm0efudk aqmif½GuforQ aysmf½TifEdkifonf/ ,if;ajr½dkif;rsm;? v,f,majrrsm;ESihf aus;½Gmrsm;onf tpdk;&ajrcGefrsm;rS vGwf uif;NyD; w&m;0ifudpörsm;ESifyh wfoufí tpdk;&t&m&Sdrsm; ,if; 3 aus;½Gmrsm;odkY 0ifa&mufEdkifjcif;r&Sdacs / tu,fí wpfa,muf a,mufonf ,if;ajrrsm;ESihf ½Gmrsm;odkY tumtuG,f odkYr[kwf cdkvIHcGifhtwGuf 0ifa&mufcJhrl xdkajrESihfxdkaus;½Gmrsm;ü 0ifa&muf zrf;qD;cGifhr&Sdacs/ tu,fí wpfpkHwpfa,mufonf umuG,f wm;qD;rItwGuf rxdkufwefcJhrl bkef;BuD;ausmif;ajrrsm;rS ¤if; wdkYudk xGufapNyD;rSom zrf;qD;cGifh&SdEdkifonf/ xdkajre,fedrdwfrsm; 4 twGif; t&m&Sdrsm;onf xdkyk*¾Kdvfrsm;tm; rzrf;qD;Edkifacs / ,if;Oya'udk tvGefav;pm;NyD; *½kwpdkuf apmifhpnf;Mu onf/ ,if;Oya'udk oufOD;qHydkif tmPmydkifpdk;onhf bk&if wpfyg;yif azmufzsuf&ef tEÅ&m,fBuD;rm;ykHudk o½kyfazmfxm; onhf pdwf0ifpm;zG,f jzpf&yfwpfck&Sdonf/ wwd, O',rif; 1 3 4

r[m0Ho 34? 63/ 35? 83/

2

zm[D,efrSwfwrf;? pm – 109/

EZ. I, pp. 167-169; 173-174; II, pp. 3-4. EZ. I, pp. 203, 206; II, pp. 6-8, 23, 29. þae&mü AdrÁdom&rif;BuD;\ &[ef;oHCmtjzpfodkY 0ifa&mufNyD;olwpfa,muftm; rnfonhft&mudkrQ rjyK&[laom aMunmcsufudk trSwf&oihfonf/

bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm; 2

ausmif;wdkufcsKyfa&;

267

(at'D 934-937)vufxufwGif w&m;½kH;t&m&SdtcsKdU bk&ifudk aMumufNyD; wayg0eac:onhf a&S;acwfO,smOfodkY xGufajy;Mu 1 onf / bk&ifESifh tdrfa&SUrif;wdkYonf xdk (wayg0e)odkY oGm;MuNyD; ¤if;wdkY\ vufrsm;udk jzwfaponf/ ,if;tMurf;zufNyD; Oya'ESihf rnDnGwfaom ,if;vkyf&yftay: auseyfrIr&Sdojzihf ,if;awm tkyfwGif oDwif;okH;aexkdifMuonhf &[ef;awmfrsm;onf ,if;ae &mudk pGefYcGmNyD; a&m[PZyk'fodkY <uoGm;Muonf/ odkYjzpfojzihf vlxkESihf ppfom;rsm;onf qefYusifykefuefMuNyD; tb,*d&d ausmif;wdkuftwGif;&Sd &wejymom'fxufodkY wufNyD; bk&ifudk Ncdrf;ajcmufNyD; wayg0eü bmomw&m;udk rav;rpm;vkyf&ef ulnDcJhaom t&m&SdtcsKdU\ OD;acgif;udk jzwfNyD; jywif;aygufu ypfcs&ef awmif;qdkMuonf/ ,k0&mZrif;ESihf ¤if;\rdwfaqG tm'd yg'wdkYonf tkwfwHwdkif;ay:rS ckefcsNyD; aMumuf½GHUrIaMumifh a&m [PZeyk'fodkY xGufajy;Muonf/ ¤if;wdkYonf &[ef;awmfrsm; xHodkY oGm;a&mufzl;ajrmfNyD; ajcawmf&if;ü 0yfwGm;vsuf idk,dkNyD; ,if;odkYaom ½dkif;pdkif;onhf trItwGuf rdrdwdkYudk cGifhvTwfyg&ef wdk;vQKd;awmif;yefMuonf/ xdk&[ef;awmfrsm;ESihf tjcm; edum, okH;ckrS &[ef;awmfrsm;\ Mum;0ifjzefajzay;rIaMumifh bk&if? vlxk 2 ESihf ppfwyftMum; >cif;csufr&Sd &ifMum;aphrI jzpfoGm;onf / rnfolrQ ,if;bmoma&; axmufyHhrIrsm;udk rcsKd;azmuf odkYr[kwf qufvufíray;bJ rae0HhMuacs/ þae&mwGif tcsKdU ausmufpmrsm;ü ,if;bmoma&; taxmuftyHhrsm;udk csKd;azmuf Edkif odkYr[kwf aESmihf,SufEdkifolrsm;tm; wpfrlxl;jcm;onhf owd ay;csufrsm; yg&SdonfrSm pdwf0ifpm;zG,ftjzpf rSwfom;oihfonf/ ausmufpmwpfckü þodkYazmfjyonf ]tu,fí v,fajrrsm;tm; aESmihf,SufrIudk zefwD;Edkifol&SdcJhrl xdkyk*¾Kdvfrsm;onf tpm;tpm r&&SdygapESihf/ aemifb0wGif acG;rsm; usD;uef;rsm;tjzpf jyefvnf 1

EZ. I, 134, n. 3.

2

r[m0Ho 43? 14/


272 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

(u[myP) 100 vª'gef;aMumif; azmfjyonf/ þae&müvnf; NrdKUawmf\ ESpfpOf twdk;aiGudk t&d,0HoyGJawmftokH; p&dwf twGufom tokH;jyKonf/ xdkae&mwGif awGU&onhf aemufxyf 1 ausmufpm tydkif;tpwpfck wGif ed#v0d#d, od0trnf&Sd tjcm; yk*¾dKvfwpfa,mufonf a'0*d&ad usmif;wdkuf tokH;p&dwftwGuf aiG'*Fg; 20 vª'gef;aMumif;vnf; azmfjyonf/ ,if;ausmufpm\ ed*kH;ydkif;rSm tvGefpkwfjywfaeaomfvnf; txufyg tajccHjzihf twdk;aiGudk t&d,0HoyGJawmftwGuf okH;pGJ&efjzpfaMumif; tcdkif 2 trmqdkEdkifonf/ uvk'd,aygukP t&yfrS at'D 9 &mpk ausmufpmwGif 'Vemtrnf&Sdol trsKd;om;wpfa,mufonf 'u©d Pm*d&d ausmif;wkdufae oHCmawmfrsm;tm; qGrf;vª'gef;&ef &nf 3 ½G,fNyD; a½Tom;'*Fg; 23 jym; vª'gef;aMumif; yg&Sdonf/ tjcm; yk*¾Kdvftrsm;tjym;vnf; þudpöESihf ywfoufNyD; toD;oD; oHCm awmfrsm;tm; qGrf;vª'gef;Muonf/ tjcm;ykHrSef 0ifaiG&onhf &if;jrpfwpfck &Sdao;onf/ bkef; BuD;ausmif;rsm;ü aus;uRefrsm;udk xdef;odrf;&efESihf aus;uRef tjzpfrS vTwfay;&ef aiGaMu;tyfESHrI ykHpHjzihf &&Sdjcif;jzpfonf/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf uRefa,musfm;udkjzpfap uRefrdef;rudk 4 jzpfap vufcH&ef &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; wm;jrpfawmfrlcJhonf / odkY wap tNrJae&[ef;rsm;ESihf cPae&[ef; ta&twGuf rsm;jym; vmojzihf aus;uRefrsm;onf bkef;BuD;ausmif;rsm;ü tvkyf vkyf 5 vmcJhMuonf/ orEÅygom'dum (0de,) t|uxm usrf;wGif bk&ifrif;rsm;onf bkef;BuD;ausmif;rsm;odkY aus;uRefrsm; vª'gef; 1

,if;? III, p.251 ,if;? III, p.258. 3 wpfu[myPonf 70-72 x½GdKifcefY tav;ESihf nDrQonf/ 4 'D 1? 61/ 5 0d-| 3? 283/ 0d[ma&ok &mZl[d tm&mrdu'gom emr 'dEém a[mEÅd? awyd yAÁmaZwkH e 0¥wd/ bkZdaó uwGm ye yAÁaZwkH 0¥wd/ 2

bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm; 2

ausmif;wdkufcsKyfa&;

269

a,bk,stm;jzihf ausmif;wdkufBuD;rsm;udk xdef;odrf;apmihf a&Smufa&;twGuf ,if;odkYaom vª'gef;rIrsm;tjyif txl;&nf½G,f csufrsm;jzihf tjcm; vª'gef;axmufyHhrIrsm;vnf; &SdcJhonf/ jyKjyif olrJhaeonhf a&S;acwf taqmufttkHrsm;udk apmihfa&Smuf&efESihf ,if;wdkYudk aumif;pGmjyKjyifEdkif&ef &nf½G,fcsufí vª'gef;axmufyHh 1 jcif;trsm;pkudk jyKvkyfcJhMujcif; jzpfonf / oHCmawmfrsm;tm; taxGaxG qGrf;cJzG,frsm; vª'gef;a&;twGuf taxmuftyHhrsm; udkyif awGUEdkifonf/ ykHpHtm;jzihf &móa[ (Rāssahela) t&yf&Sd ausmufpmt& 'defcJrSwpfyg; tjcm;bmrSr&Sdonhf ajr,mwpfck\ 2 0ifaiGrS qDESihf (EGm;) EdkYrsm;udk vª'gef;aMumif; od&onf / vlxk\ pD;yGm;a&;b0 ajymif;vJrIrsm;ESihftwl bmoma&; taxmuftyHhrsm;vnf; ykHpHwpfrsKd; jzpfvmonf/ at'D 4 &mpk ESifh 5 &mpk ausmufpmtrsm;pkonf ,if;odkYaom ajymif;vJrIudk azmfjyMuonf/ a&S;OD; &mpkEpS frsm;twGif; bmoma&; taxmuf tyHhrsm;udk jcHajrrsm;? pdkufajrrsm;? aus;½Gmrsm;? a&avSmifuef rsm;ESihf qnfajrmif;rsm;taejzihf awGUjrifMu&onf/ odkYwap at'D 4 &mpkcefYrSpí a&S;acwf tjyKtrlrsm;wGif bmoma&; twGuf &if;ESD;vª'gef;rItcsKdUü ,if;ypönf;rsKd;ESihf aiGESpfrsKd;vkH;udk &if;ESD;`rIyfESHrIrsm; jzpfvmMuonf/ ,if;topf wdk;wuf ajymif; vJrIonf jynffyEdkifiHrsm; txl;ojzihf a&mrtifyg&mESihf ul; 1

EZ. I. pp. 89, 254-; EZ, II, p. 218

2

EZ. IV. p. 173-174 (Inscription III). dihi tei kir misa on va¼aj no karana koì.

tvª&Sifrsm;udk,fwdkif tESpfoufqkH;jzpfonhf ypönf;rsm;udk wrvGefb0 wGif ,if;odkYaom ypönf;rsm; jynfpkH<u,f0Edkifap&ef &[ef;awmfrsm;ESihf bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm;tm; vª'gef;vdkonhf Oygoumrsm; &SdMuonf/ xdk udpöESihfywfoufí azmfjyyg tvª&Sifrsm;wGif odomxif&Sm;onhf 'defcsOf? qDESihfEGm;EdkYrsm;udk ESpfoufrI &SdcJhjcif;jzpfEdkifonf/ rdrdtvªaiGudk tjcm;rSm; ,Gif;pGm tokH;jyKrIudk umuG,f&ef ,if;odkYaom owfrSwfcsufrsKd; vdktyf aomaMumihfvnf; jzpfEdkifonf/


270 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

oef;a&mif;0,frI wdk;wufvmjcif;aMumihf jzpfonf/ at'D 1 &mpk Mo*wfpwwfpf (Augustus) bk&if vufxufcefYrSpí at'D 7 &mpk tvufp`E´&D;,m; (Alexandria) usqkH;csdeftxd tdE´d,ESihf a&mrtifyg,mwdkY tMum; ykHrSefESihf us,fjyefYonhf i½kyfaumif;? [if;cwftarT;tBudKif? a&arT;? cgomydwfom;? ykvJESihf tzdk;wef ausmufrsufrsm; ukefoG,frI wdk;wufcJhonf/ ,if;ukefypönf; trsm;pk xGuf&Sdonhf oD[dkVfEdkifiHonfvnf; ,if;ukefoG,frI a&pD;aMumif;wGif arsmygcJhonf/ oD[dkVfqdyfurf;trsm;tjym;ESihf EkdifiHtwGif;ydkif;rSmyif a&mrEdkifiHokH; '*Fg;jym; tajrmuftjrm; awGU&Sdjcif;u oD[dkVfonf a&mrEdkifiHESihf ukefoG,frI&SdcJhaMumif; azmfjyvsuf&Sdonf/ wpfcsdefwnf;avmufwGif oD[dkVfonf tjcm; aom *&dESihf yg&Sm;EdkifiHrsm;ESihfvnf; ukefoG,frI&SdcJhonf/ azmjfyyg edkifiH&yfjcm;wdkif;jynfrsm;ESihf qufqHrItopfonf EdkifiHawmf\ pD;yGm;a&;b0ESihf ukefpnfjzefYa0rIESihf aiGaMu; vJ vS,frIrsm;tay: xl;jcm;onhf MoZmvTrf;rdk;rI &SdcJhonf/ ,if;odkY jzpfjcif;rSm ukefoG,frItopfjzihf ,cifwnf&SdNyD; ukefoG,frI t opfudk tpm;xdk;vdkufonf[k rqdkvdkacs/ ukefo, G frIpepfa[mif; ESihf ,SOfvsuf ukefoG,frIpepfopf tjrpfwG,fvmcJhjcif; jzpfonf/ EdkifiHjcm; wkdif;jynfrsm;ESihf qufqHrI\ tusKd;tjrwfrSm t"du tm;jzihf ESpfrsKd;jzpfonf/ yxrtaejzihf owåKj'yfpifudk aiGaMu; tjzpf tokH;jyKrI us,fjyefYxif&Sm;vmNyD; 'kwd,taejzihf NrdKUawmf rSma&m oD[dkVf&Sd tjcm;ukefoG,frI A[dkXmersm;rSmyg ukefpnf jzefYjzL;&efESihf zvS,f&ef &nf½G,fcsufrsm;jzihf ukefonftzGJU t pnf; rsm;pGm ay:vmonf/ ,if;onf acwfopf ukefoG,frIü ukyÜPDrsm;ESihf bPfrsm;\ a&SUajy;jzpfonf/ ,if;ukefoG,fa&; tzGJUtpnf;rsm;xHwGif ukefypönf;rsm;udkjzpfap aiGaMu;udkjzpfap tyfESHxm;EdkifNyD; &&Sdonhf tjrwfaiGudk rnfokdYtokH;jyK&rnfqdk onhf ñTefMum;csufrsm;udk ,if;tzGJUtm; ajymMum;xm;cJhEdkif onf/ ,if;odkY (ñTefMum;xm;cJh) aom bmoma&; aiGya'om

bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm; 2

ausmif;wdkufcsKyfa&;

271

rsm;udk at'D 4 &mpkcefYrSpí awGU&SdEdkifonf/ xif&Sm;onhf o½kyf azmf wifjyrItaejzihf at'D 4 &mpkwGif a&;xdk;cJhonfh awmPd 1 a*v (Tōºigala) ausmufpm udk udk;um;Edkifonf/ od&darC0PÖ (at'D 362-389)rif; eef;pH 3 ESpfajrmuf wGif a&;xkd;onfh ,if;ausmufpmonf yk*¾Kdvfa&; rSwfwrf;wpf ckjzpfNyD; tvª&SifESihf ukefoG,frItzGUJ tpnf;wdkYtMum; oabmwl nDcsufjzpfykH&onf/ ,if;rSwfwrf;t& EdkifiHawmf trwfBuD;wpf a,muf\om;jzpfonhf a'0trnf&Sdolonf NrdKUawmf ajrmufydkif; c½dkifwpfck&Sd uv[kre (Kalahumana) [kac:aom ukefoG,f a&; tzGJUtpnf;xHwGif pyg;vSnf;ESpfpD;wdkufESihf q,ftrkP (amuºa)? OE´K ([if;cwfarT;BuKdifwpfrsKd;) ajcmuftrkPESihf yJ q,ftrkPudk tyfESHxm;aMumif; od&onf/ t&if;aiGudk rokH;& odkYr[kwf ravQmhap&bJ ESpfpOf ,if;rS&&Sdonhf pyg;\ twdk;aiG 50 &mEIef;ESihf tjcm;toD;tEHSrsm;\ twdk;aiG 25 &mEIef;udk ,[doy0, (Yahisavaya) [kac:aom bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkuf topfwGif ESpfpOfusif;yonhf t&d,0HoyGJawmf tokH;p&dwf t wGuf vª'gef;&rnfjzpfonf/ ,m*k? eHeufpmESihf aeYv,fpm t Mum;wGif pm;&onhf tpm;tpmrsm;? 'defcsOf? ysm;&nf? xef;vsuf? qDOD;? axmywf? qm;? opf½Gufpdrf;rsm;ESihf rD;zdkacsmifwGif vdktyf onhf tjcm;ypönf;rsm;udk ,if;tvªaiGrS okH;pGJ&rnfjzpfonf/ ,if;onf pdwf0ifpm;zG,f bmoma&;tvªaiG tyfESHrIykHpH wpfrsKd;jzpfonf/ aiGaMu;ya'omyiftaejzihf bmoma&;twGuf tyfESHaiGrsm;ESihf ywfoufonhf om"ursm;vnf;&Sdonf/ v[ktm#Am@d*v (Lahuäìabāndigala) ausmufpmwGif EdkifiHawmf 0efBuD;wpfa,muf\ om;jzpfonhf od&deu trnf &olonf a'0*d&dtrnf&Sdausmif;wdkufBuD;wGif tokH;jyK&ef NrKdU awmf ta&SUzuf&Sd r[mwbu bk&m;qif;wk a½Tcs&ef aiG'*Fg; 1

EZ, III, p. 177.


276 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

1

jzihf ,lqcH&onf / ,if;onf vlY*kPfodu©mwefzdk;udk avhusihf&ef BudK;pm;rIwpf&yftjzpf ,lqonf/ Ak'¨'go (Ak'¨\aus;uRef)[k t"dyÜm,f&onhf vltrnfrsm;rSm a&S;acwf Ak'¨0g'Drsm;twGif; xif&Sm;jcif;rSm ,if;odkYjzpfvdkrIaMumihfjzpfonf/ a'0geHyd,wdó rif;BuD;onf r[maAm"dudkif;jrwfudk tdE´d,rS yifhaqmifvmNyD; aemuf rsm;rMumrD ,if;aAm"dudkif;udk ylaZmf&ef okH;&uf wdkifwdkif 2 aAm"dyifwHcg;apmifh tjzpfaqmif½GufcJhaMumif; od&onf / þ rif;udk,fwkdifyif oD&dvuFm EdkifiHawmfESihf tjcm;ydkifqdkifrIrsm;udk Ak'¨omoemawmftm; vª'gef;cJhonfrSmvnf; ,if;&nf½G,fcsuf jzihf aqmif½Gufjcif;rsKd;jzpfonf/ ,if;onf ½dkaoudkif;½Idif;rIESihf ylaZmfouúm&jyKrIudk xkwfazmfjyo&ef orkwdoabmjzihf aqmif ½Gufjcif;rQom jzpfonf/ r[m'gXdu r[mem*rif; (at'D 6779) onf oHCmawmfrsm;u wm;jrpfaomfvnf; rif;BuD;? rdzk&m;? om;awmf ESpfa,muf? pD;awmfqifESihf xD;eef;udk oHCmawmftm; vª'gef;NyD;aemuf tojymwpfodef; yrmP&Sdonhfwefzdk;udk oHCm awmfrsm;tm; vª'gef;vsuf ukd,fwdkifESihf vª'gef;NyD;t&mtm;vkH;udk 3 jyefvnf a½G;,lonf / t|rt*¾aAm"drif; (at'D 801-812) onf r,fawmftm; rdrdudk oHCmawmftm; vª'gef;apNyD;aemuf ]rdrdudk,fESifh nDrQ onfh yrmP} ("r®wå*¾[PH)udk ay;acsjcif;jzihf 4 vGwfajrmufol jyefjzpfoGm;onf / rif;BuD; ,if;odkYjyKjcif;rSm ¤if; \ trIxrf;rsm;tay: aus;uRefrsm;[k ac:rdjcif;twGuf 'Pf cwfonhf taejzihf jyKvkyfjcif;jzpfonf/ rif;BuD;udk r,fawmfjzpf 1

&wemokH;yg; (o&P*kHokH;yg;)udk qnf;uyfudk;uG,f&ef enf;vrf;okH;rsKd; &Sdonf/ wpfrsKd;rSm rdrdukd,fudk tyfESHjcif;[k t"dyÜm,f&onfh twå oHed,smwe o&P*kHjzpfonf (tH-| 1? 304)/ ,if;azmfjycsuft& &wemokH;yg;\ aus;uReftjzpf cH,ljcif;[laom t"dyÜm,fodkY ouf a&mufoGm;onf/ 2 r[m0Ho 19? 32 *gxm/ 3 ,if;? tcef; 34? 86-88 *gxm/ 4 ,if;? tcef; 49? 62-64 *gxm/

bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm; 2

ausmif;wdkufcsKyfa&;

273

1

MuaMumif;ESihf ¤if;wdkYudk &[ef;abmifodkY 0ifa&mufrjyKaomf vnf; ¤if;wdkUtaejzifh aus;uReftjzpfrS vGwfajrmufNyD;aemuf 0ifa&mufcGifhjyKaMumif; &Sif;vif;pGm azmfjyxm;onf/ aus;uRef rsm;udk vufcHjcif;onf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ tmPma'oemawmf 2 ESihf qefYusifaomaMumifh rZÑdredum,ft|uxm ü ,if;odkYaom aus;uRefrsm;udk vufcHjcif;rSm roihfavsmfaomaMumihf ,if;wdkYudk vufcHrnfjyKaomtcg tvª&Sifu ]uyÜd,um&udk vª'gef;yg\? tm&mrdu (t&rfapmihf)udk vª'gef;yg\}[k qdkívª'gef;&rnf[k 3 owfrSwfcJhonf / ,if;owfrSwfcsufonf tcuftcJwpf&yfudk a&Smif&Sm;&ef tESpfom&tm;jzihf jznfhqnf;ay;rI r[kwfbJ pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf; pmom;udk tokH;jyK&ef vdr®monhf tMuHay;rIwpf&yf jzpfzG,f&Sd onf/ odkYwap udk,fusihfodu©mt& rnfodkYyif oihfavsmfonhf trnfemrwpfckjzihf ac:a0:okH;EIef;apumrl trSefaomf bkef;BuD; 1

2

3

odvmarC0PÖrif;onf wrD;vf ppf½IH;okyHY ef;rsm;udk uReftjzpf bkef;BuD; ausmif;rsm;odkY vª'gef;aMumif; a&SUtcef;rsm;ü awGU&NyD;jzpfonf (r[m 0Ho 44? 73)/ r-| 2? 113? 'god'go0aoae0 awoH y#d*[ ¾ PH e 0¥wd? uyÜd,um&uH 'r®d? tm&mrduH 'r®Dwd {0H 0kawå ye 0¥wd/ uyÜd,um&u[lonf a,bk,stm;jzihfqrdk l &[ef;awmfrsm;\ vdktyf csufrsm;udk wm0ef,laqmif½Gufay;onhf vlOygoum wpfa,muf jzpf onf/ uyÜd,um&uonf tcrJh tvkyftauR;jyKNyD; ¤if;\aqmif½GufrI udk vufcHvQif &[ef;onf wpfpkHw&m ay;urf;&efrvdkbJ rdrd\ vdktyf csufrsm;twGuf uyÜd,um&utm; vGwv f yfpGm ajymMum;Edkifonf/ xdk rSwpfqifh &[ef;onf 0denf;pnf;urf;ESihf twdtus nDñGwfrItjyif vl trsm;\ ,kHMunfrIjzihf rnfonhf vufaqmifyPÖmrS ay;urf;zG,f rvdk bJ ,kHMunfpdwfcspGm aqmif½GufEdkifonf/ odkY&mwGif þü azmfjyonhf uyÜd,um&u[lonf bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkuftwGuf aqmif½Guf&ef t jcm;olrsm;u ay;tyfjcif;cH&olrsm;jzpfzG,f&Sdojzihf uRef[laom t"dyÜm,f oufa&mufzG,f &Sdonf/ tm&mrdu[lonf bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufü tvkyfvkyfolrsm; taptyg;rsm; jzpfMuonf/


274 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

ausmif;rsm;ü aus;uRefrsm; &SdcJhonf[laom tcsufrSm olYuRef tjzpfrS rvGwfrcsif; &[ef;abmifodkY 0ifcGifhrjyK&[k azmfjyonhf txufyg orEÅygom'dumusrf;t& oHo,rjzpfEdkifawmhacs/ &Edkifonhf taxmuftxm;rsm;u a&S;acwfwGif bkef;BuD; ausmif;rsm;ü a,musfm; rdef;r aus;uRefrsm;udk tvkyfcefYxm;NyD; ¤if;wdkYudk xdef;odrf;rItwGuf aiGaMu;trsm;tjym; `rIyfESHxm; 1 aMumif; azmfjyonf/ tEk&m"yk&&Sd at'D 6 &mpkrS 7 &mpka&; xdk;onhf ausmufpmwdk &Spfcw k Gif tEk&m"yk&NrdKU tb,*d&d ausmif;wdkuf&Sd aus;uRefrsm;udk xdef;odrf;apmihfa&Smuf&eftwGuf trnfemr azmfjyxm;onhf vltrsm;tjym;\ aiGaMu; vª'gef; rIrsm;udk rSwfwrf;wifxm;onf/ ,if;wdkYteufrS ajcmufa,muf onf toD;oD; 100 u[myPpD tyfESHMuNyD; ,if;wdkYteufrS 1

y&e0dweu ]uRef} ]tcdkif;tap}[k bmomjyefcJh onhf pum;vkH;rSm ]0[&v (vaharala)}jzpfonf/ ,if;ausmufpmESihf tjcm;ausmufpmrsm;ü pum;vkH;ESihf ykHpHrsm;pGm azmfjyonf/ ,if;wdkYrSm 0[&dv? 0a[&dv? 0da[&dv ponfwjdkY zpfonf/ þaqG;aEG;rIwGif y&e0dwe\ bmomjyefaemufodkY vdkufxm;ygonf/ odkYwap 'Da*s 0dZ,&wae (Interpretation of Vaharala ect., in Sinhalese Inscriptions UCR. Vol. Z, No. I, p. 103.) u y&e0dwe\ bmomjyefESihf ywfoufí ½Iaxmihf rsKd;pkHrS ar;cGef;xkwx f m;NyD; 0[&v[laomyk'fudk ]opfom; &ufr}[k bmomjyefonf/ (0dZ,&waeu 0[&vyk'fudk opfom; odkYr[kwf opfom;&ufr[k t"dyÜm,f&onhf ouúw 0doQ&+vrS qif; oufonf[k ,lqonf/) ausmufpmwGifygonhf 0[&vyk'fonf uRef[kt"dyÜm,f&onf jzpfap opfom;&ufr[k t"dyÜm,f&onfjzpfap oD[dkVf a&S;acwfu Ak'¨ bmombkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm;ü aus;uRefrsm;udk tvkyfcefYxm;onf [l aom ordkif;tcsuftvufrSm txufwGif awGjrif&onhf twdkif; t|uxmESihf ordkif;usrf;rsm; azmfjycsuftwGuf cGeftm;&SdqJ jzpfonf/ uRefudkñTef;onfjzpfap opfom;udk ñTef;onfjzpfap 0[&v twGuf ay;tyfonhfaiGaMu;rSm þaqG;aEG;rIESihfywfoufonhf tcsufjzpfaom bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufwpfck\ 0ifaiGjzpfonf/

EZ, IV, p. 139-140.

bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm; 2

ausmif;wdkufcsKyfa&;

275

wpfa,mufrSm 1000? aemufwpfa,mufrSm 2000 tyfESHonf/ ,if;vª'gef;rIrS &&dSonhf ukodkvfaumif;rIudk tjcm; owå0grsm; tm; trQay;a0xm;onf/ tu,fí bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm;ü aus;uRefrsm;udk xdef; odrf;&ef aiGaMu;tyfESHrIudk ukodkvf[k ,lqvQif ,if;aus;uRef wdkYukd uRefjzpfjcif;rS vGwfajrmufatmif jyKvkyfjcif;rSm ydkíyif ukodkvftjzpf ,lqrnfjzpfonf/ odkYjzihf uRefrsm;udk bkef;BuD; ausmif;rsm;odkY vª'gef;jcif;onf ukodkvf&&ef enf;vrf; ESpfrsKd;udk &&Sdaponf/ ,if;odkY vª'gef;jcif;onfyif ukodkvfjzpfNyD; ,if;tvª ypönf;udk a½G;Ekwfjcif;onfvnf; a½G;,loltm; ukodkvf&aponf/ ,if;vkyf&yfESpfrsKd;vkH;onf bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkuftm; tusKd;& aponf/ at'D 14 &mpktpydkif;wGif 0dv*r®Kv r[max&f a&; 1 om;onhf tem*w0Hoa'oemusrf; wGif raumif;rItukodkvf p½dkufqdk;rsm;rS vGwfajrmuf&ef aus;uRefrsm;udk vGwfatmif vkyf ay;&rnfjzpfaMumif; azmfjyxm;onf/ aus;uRefrsm;udk vª'gef;jcif;ESihf ,if;wdkYudk jyefvTwfay;jcif; rSm bmoma&; tpGef;a&mufrI\ wpfpdwfwpfa'ojzpfaMumif; ,lqEdkifzG,f&SdNyD; tcsdKUaom ,if;jzpfpOfudk ,lqrIenf;vrf;rsm; rSm þt,lonf;rIudk &SmazGjcif;jzihf wdk;wufoGm;cJhonf/ bkef; BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm;ESihf qufpyfaeonhf tppftrSef aus;uRef rsm;&SdaepOf vª'gef;jcif;cH&NyD; vGwfajrmufNyD;jzpfonfh tcsKdUaom aus;uRefrsm;rSm uRefrsm; vkH;0r[kwfMuawmhbJ vlrItqihf t wef;jrifh vGwfvyfolrsm; jzpfomG ;Muonf/ ,if;yk*¾Kdvfrsm;udk cP wmrQ udk,fhudk,fudk vª'gef;Mujcif;jzpfEdkifNyD; ukokdvf&&ef &nf ½G,fNyD; em&Dydkif; rdepfydkif;rQvnf; vª'gef;MuzG,f&Sdonf/ rdrdudk,fudk Ak'¨"r®oHCmhaus;uReftjzpf vª'gef;Mujcif;rSm t qihfjrifh bmoma&; vkyfaqmifrIESihf ukokdvfw&m;wdk;yGm;rI tae 1

tem*w0Hoa'oem? pm-42/


280 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; 1

ojzihf r[mygVd qGrf;pm;aqmifu ¤if;tm; auR;arG;xm;&onf / (w½kwfbk&m;zl; &[ef;awmf) zm[D,ef\ atmufygar;cGef;onf at'D ig;&mpk oD[dkVfbkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm; rnfrQ csrf;om <u,f0onfudk azmfjy&ef vkHavmufayvdrfhrnf? ]csrf;om<u,f0 onhf &[ef;oHCmqkdif&mrsm;wGif tzdk;wefausmufESihf rPd (ywåjrm;) trsm;tjym;&SdMu\/ bk&ifwpfa,mufonfyif tzdk; rjzwfEdkifonfh ykvJrsm;udk t"r®&,l&ef zrf;pm;jcif;cH&\/ xdk bk&ifonf aemiftcg &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; rdrd\ raumif; pdwftBuHtpnfudk zGihf[ 0efcHNyD;aemuf xdkbk&ifu xdkaeYrSpí bk&ifwpfyg;tm; bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkuf&Sd ypönf; Opömxm;onhf ae&modkY 0ifa&mufMunhf½IcGifhrjyK&efESihf &[ef;awmfwpfyg;onf &[ef;odu©m 0gav;q,f &NyD;aemufrSom 0ifa&mufcGifhjyK&ef 2 pnf;rsOf;csrSwf&ef oHCmawmfrsm;tm; avQmufxm;onf / ausmif;wdkufBuD;rsm; <u,f0csrf;omaomfvnf; aumif;pGm vª'gef;axmufyHhrIjyKjcif; rcH&onhf ausmif;wkdufi,frsm; &Sdao; onf/ e0rt*¾aAmrif;(at'D 828-831)vufxufwGif ausmif; wdkufi,frsm;rS oHCmawmfrsm;onf ¤if;wdkY\ ,m*kpm; aomuf zG,fudk &,l&ef r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkufodkY oGm;a&mufMu&onf/ odkY&mwGif xdktaMumif;udk bk&if Mum;odawmfrlaomtcg bk&if 3 onf xdkausmif;wdkufrsm;tm;vnf; axmufyHhvª'gef;rI jyKcJhonf / bdu©KeDausmif;wdkuf xdef;odrf;a&;ESihf tkyfcsKyfa&;taMumif; udkrl rod&acs/ odkY&mwGif bdu©KeD ausmif;wdkufrsm;onf Ak'¨0g' oD[dkVfuRef;odkY pwifa&muf&SdvmcsdefrSpí oD[dkVfü wnf&SdcJhonf/ a'0geHyd,wdórif;BuD;udk,fwdkif oD[dkVfü tEkvma'0D (bdu©KeD) ESihf tazmfbdu©KeDrsm;twGuf tEk&m"NrdKUawmf twGif; bdu©KeD 1 2 3

r[m0Ho 44? 11-12/

bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm; 2

277

olu aus;uReftjzpfjzifh oHCmawmftm; vª'gef;cJhonfrSm oH o,jzpfzG,frvdkacs/ uHraumif;onfrSm oD&dvuFmbk&iftm; vGwfvyfoljzpfap&ef bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkuftm; vª'gef;onhf ]cE¨mudk,fESihf nDrQonhfwefzdk;} yrmPESihf ywfoufí twdtus rod &jcif;jzpfonf/ tenf;i,frQawmh rjzpfEdkifacs/ udrwd ed&Sefu rv† (K²rti Niśśaªka Malla)rif; (at'D 1187-1196) onf om;awmforD;awmfwdkYudk Ak'¨jrwfpG,fawmfESihf Ak'¨oydwf awmftm; vª'gef;NyD;aemuf a½T"mwfawmfMuKwfwpfck tygt0if 1 ypönf;Opömudk vª'gef;jcif;jzihf ¤if;wdkYudk vGwfvyfaponf / azmfjy yg om"ursm;t& tcsKdUaom vGwfvyfonhf uRefrsm;rSm uRef tppfrsm; t[kwfaMumif; azmfjyonf/ ausmufpmrsm;wGif ,if;"avhxkH;pHonf at'D ig;&mpkrS &Spf&mpktxd tvGefxif&Sm;onhfbmoma&; t,lpGJvef;rIwpf&yf 2 jzpfcJhonf/ a0ó*d&d, (ausmif;wdkuft&yf)rS ausmufpm av; ckwGif rdrdwdkYudk,fwdkifESihf aqGrsKd;rsm;tm; aus;uReftjzpfrS vGwf ajrmufrIudk &&SdcJhMuolrsm;pGmwdkYudk rSwfwrf;wifxm;onf/ ,if; wdkYteuf wpfa,mufrSm rdrdZeD;r,m;udk uReftjzpfrS vGwfap onf? tjcm;ESpfa,mufrSm om;orD;rsm;udk vGwfaponf? tjcm; ESpfa,mufrSm rdrdudk,fwdkifudk vGwfajrmufaponf/ ,if;odkY jyK vkyfrIaMumifh &&Sdonhf ukodkvfaumif;rIudk owå0gtm; vkH;wdkYtm; trQay;a0xm;onf/ om;orD;rsm;udk vGwfajrmufaponhf trsKd; om;ESpfa,mufrSm ,if;ukodkvfrIaMumifh Ak'¨tjzpfudk &&Sdvdk aMumif; qkawmif;xm;onf/ rdru d dk,fudk vGwfajrmufapol ESpf a,mufonfyif ,if;wdkY&&Sdonfh ukodkvftzdkYudk owå0g tm;vkH; wdkYtm; trQa0xm;onf/ tqdkyg azmfjycsufrsm;onf bkef;BuD; ausmif;rsm;ü aus;uRefjzpf&jcif;ESihf udk,fwdkif aus;uReftjzpfrS vGwfajrmufrI&&Sdjcif;wdkYudk bmomw&m; udkif;½Idif;rIESihf ukodkvf

Fa Hien, p. 104.

r[m0Ho 44? 88-90/

ausmif;wdkufcsKyfa&;

1

EZ. II, p. 107.

2

EZ. II, p. 132-133.


278 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

w&m;tjzpf ,lqaMumif; xif&Sm;onf/ rdrdudk,fudk aus;uRef tjzpfrS vGwfajrmufatmif jyKolESpfa,mufwdkYonf ausmif;wdkuf tm; u[myP 100 pDvª'gef;Muonf/ odkY&mwGif tjcm;yk*¾Kdvf rsm;rSm rnfrQpD ay;vªMuaMumif; rod&acs/ uk½kPm*v (Kuruºāgala) c½dkif? wdqm0 aum&mavh (Tisāva Kōra¼e) t&yf&Sd Mädagama Vihāra ausmif;wdkufwGif awGU&onhf at'D 7 &mpkcefY ausmufpmt& trsKd;om;wpfOD; onf rdrd\orD;rsm;tm; aus;uReftjzpfrS vGwfajrmufaponf/ þrSwfwrf;ESihf ZeD;r,m;ukd aus;uReftjzpfrS vGwfaponhf azmf jyNyD; taxmuftxm;rsm;t& xdktcsdefu trsKd;orD; uRefrsm; onf bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm;ü tvkyf vkyfMuaMumif; azmfjy onf/ pwkw¬r[dE´rif; a&;xdk;onhf r[dE¦avht&yf&Sd ausmufpm t&vnf; at'D 10 &mpkü trsKd;orD; tvkyform;rsm;udk bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm;ü tvkyfcefYxm;aMumif; od&onf/ wpfcgwpf&HwGif vlrsm;pGmonf aus;uReftjzpf pkaygif;cH ,lMuNyD; twlwuG aus;uReftjzpfrS vGwfajrmufapMuonf/ rm wavh (Mātale)c½dkif? edv*r (Nilagama)t&yf&Sd 'v†arm*¾vm† e rif; (at'D 611-617) acwf ausmufpmt& emrnftwdtus azmfjyxm;onhf vl&Spfa,mufonf edv*rt&yf&Sd wdóm&mr ausmif;wdkufodkY u[myP 100 pDay;vªNyD; uqkefvjynhfaeYwGif rdrdudk,fudk aus;uReftjzpfrS vGwfajrmufapMuaMumif; qdkonf/ azmfjyyg om"ursm;onf tppftrSefa&m twkta,mif rsm;yg a&maxG;aeonhf ,if;odkY ]vltrsm;tjym;wdkY aus;uRef tjzpfcH,ljcif;}\ tusKd;tjrwfrsm;onf bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkuf rsm;\ 0ifaiG&&Sdonhf &if;jrpfwpfckjzpfonf/ aemufxyf 0ifaiG&&Sdonhf &if;jrpfwpfck &Sdao;onf/ at'D 10 &mpk ausmufpmwpfckwGif tokH;rsm;xif&Sm;onhf oHCmhqGrf; pm;aqmif r[mygVdudk xdef;odrf;&ef tEk&m"yk&NrdKUwGif;odkY o,f ,lvmonhf pyg;tdwfwdkif;rS wpfyw (one Pata) EIef;jzifh tcGef

bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm; 2

ausmif;wdkufcsKyfa&;

279

wpfck &SifoefcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ tjcm;e,fNrdKUrsm;vnf; ,if;odkYaom tcGefpnf;MuyfrI wnf&SdcJhoavm[laom tcsufESihfywfoufí taxmuftxm;rsm; r&&Sdacs/ aus;½Gmrsm;twGif;ESihf bkef;BuD; ausmif;ajrtwGif; pnf;urf;azmufzsufonfh jypfrItwGuf pk aqmif;&&Sdonhf 'PfaiGrsm;udkvnf; bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufodkY vª 1 'gef;onf / azmfjyyg 0ifaiG&&SdrI ykHpHrsm;pGmwGif ausmufwdkifpdkufxljcif; odkYr[kwf avSum;apmif;wef;aqmufvkyfjcif; odkYr[kwf ausmuf avS (stone-boat) jyKvkyfjcif;rsm;jzihf ausmif;wdkufudk xdef;odrf; apmihfa&Smuf&efESihf jyKjyif&ef vlOygoumrsm;ESihf bdu©Krsm; wpf oD;yk*¾v vª'gef;rIrsm;rS tvm;wl&&Sdonhf tvªaiGrsm;udkvnf; 2 xnfhoGif;oihfonf / xif&Sm;onhf &[ef;awmfrsm;onf bk&if 3 rif;rsm;xHrS txl;qGrf;qefawmf p&dwftvªaiGrsm; &&SdMuonf / ,if; (tvªaiG)onfvnf; oHCmawmfrsm;twGuf xif&Sm;onhf tcGefawmfaiGrsm; jzpfEdkifonf/ &if;jrpfrsm;pGmrS &&Sdonhf ,if;0ifaiGrsm;onf bkef;BuD; ausmif;wdkufrsm;udk csrf;omaponf/ 0db*Ft|uxmwGif pdwåv yAÁw0d[m&ESihf wdór[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkufrsm;onf oHCm awmf wpfaomif;ESpfaxmifudk okH;ESpfwdkifwdkif auR;arG;xm;Edkif avmufatmif aumufyJoD;ESHrsm;udk odkavSmifxm;aMumif; azmf 4 jyxm;onf / wpfcgwpf&H bk&ifrif;rsm; tcuftcJBuKHae&pOf bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm;onf ¤if;wdkYtm; axmufyHhxm;&onf/ odkYjzpfojzihf 'kwd,oHCwdórif; (at'D 611)onf ¤if;tkyfcsKyf pOf tcuftcJESihf BuKH&pOftwGif; tpm;tpm jywfawmufoGm; 1

Slab-inscription of Kassa V, EZ.I, p. 44.

2

See EZ.III, p. 122; IV, p. 145-149.

3

r[m0Ho 37? 150-=173 *gxm/ tbd-| 2? 426/

4


bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm; 2

ausmif;wdkufcsKyfa&;

281

1

ausmif;wdkufwpfck aqmufvkyfcJhonf / pwkw¬t*¾aAm"drif; (at'D 658-674)\ rdzk&m;BuD; aZ|mESihf yÍöruóyrif; (at'D 913-923)wdkY ESpfyg;vnf; bdu©KeDausmif;wdkufrsm; wnfaqmuf 2 MuaMumif;od&onf / tjcm;aom (bdu©K)ausmif;wdkuf rsm;uJh odkYyif bdu©KeDausmif;wdkuf xdef;odrf;a&;ESihf tkyfcsKyfa&; enf; pepfwpfck vdktyfcJhrnfrSm oHo,jzpfzG,frvdkacs/ ausmufpm taxmuftxm;rsm;t& ykHrSeftm;jzihf bdu©K ausmif;wdkufBuD;rsm;ESihf bdu©KeDausmif;wdkufBuD;rsm;ESihf wGJpyf vsuf aq;½kHrsm;wnf&SdcJhaMumif; od&onf/ ajrmufydkif; A[dka'o 3 wrefu!K0 (Tamanka¹uva)c½dkif&Sd ar!d&d*d&d, (Mä¹irigiriya) t&yfwGif awGU&Sd&onhf at'D 10 &mpk a&;xdk;onfh ausmufpm ESpfckwGif bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufESihf wGJpyfaeonhf aq;½kHwpfck taMumif;udk &nfñTef;xm;onf/ us,f0ef;vSonhf ,if;a'o wGif emrnfausmf a&S;acwf r@v*d&dausmif;wdkuf\ t<uif; 4 tusefrsm;&Sdonf / ausmufpmESpfckteuf wpfckwGif ]qdwf(ao) MuufiSuf (ao)rsm;udk ausmif;wdkufaq;½kHtwGuf owfrSwfay; &rnf}[k azmfjyxm;onf/ a[mif;EGrf;ysufpD;aeNyD; aumif;pGm zwfr&Edkifawmhonfh tjcm;ausmufpmwpfckwGif ]aq;½kH0efxrf; rsm;}? ]aq;½kH tvkyform;rsm;}? ]EdkifiHawmf orm;awmfBuD;}? ]aq;½kHESihfqufEG,fonhf aus;½Gmrsm; ajrrsm;}? ]aq;½kHESihf quf EG,faeonhf ajriSm;rsm;}paom a0g[m&rsm;yg0ifonf/ ,if;rSwf wrf;udk aumif;pGm xdef;odrf;xm;EdkifcJhvQif aq;½kHrsm;ESihfywf oufonhf tzdk;wefowif;tcsuftvufrsm; &Edkifrnfjzpfonf/ &Sif;vif;yDoonhf txufyg pum;vkH;rsm;onfyif owif;tcsKdU udk ay;onf/ tqdkygaq;½kHrsm;wGif ,if;wdkY\ tokH;jyKrItwGuf 1

0d-| 1? 67/

2

r[m0Ho 46? 27/

3

E.Z. II, p. 25.

4

bk&ifrif;rsm;pGmwdkY þausmif;wdkufwGif taqmufttkHrsm; aqmufvkyf MuaMumif; od&onf/ r[m0Ho 36? 17/ 46? 29/ 41? 58 udk ½Iyg/


282 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

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,aeYacwf olemjyK ppöwmrsm;uJhodkY bdu©KeDrsm;udk,fwkdif vlemrsm;udk jyKpkapmihfa&Smufjcif; jzpfzG,f&Sdonf/ vlemrsm;tm; jyKpkapmihfa&Smufjcif; udk Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfu BuD;jrwfaom ukodkvftjzpf csD;rGrf;awmfrlonf/

00000000


288 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

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0d 3? 305? 313/

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0d 3? 397 ½Iyg/ 2 0d 2? 98/ (*PabmZeodu©my')/

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287

vdkufemusihfokH;vsuf&SdpOf t&Sifr[mupöm,e\ wynhf t&Sif 1 aomPonf t0EÅdwdkif; rS om0w¬dodkY Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwftm; zl; ajrmf&ef oGm;a&mufcdkufwGif q&mjzpfol t&Sifr[mupöm,e udk,fpm; Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwftm; þodkY avQmufxm;onf ]&Sifawmf jrwfbk&m;? t0EÅdwdkif;wGif &[ef;awmfrsm; tvGef&Sm;yg;ygonf/ odkYjzpfí &[ef;ta&twGuf tenf;i,frQjzihf OyorÜ'uHaqmif &ef cGifhjyKawmfrlyg/ t0EÅdwdkif;ü vrf;rsm;rSm tvGef Murf;wrf;vS ygonf/ odkYjzpfí xdkt&yfü wpfckxufydkaom om;a&pjzihf jyK vkyfonhfzdeyfudk pD;cGifhvnf; jyKawmfrlyg/ t0EÅd wdkif;om;wdkYonf rMumcP a&csKd;jcif;udk ESpfoufMuygonf/ odkYjzpfí rMumcP a&csKd;&ef cGifhjyKawmfrlyg/ EdkifiH tv,fydkif;rSm vltrsm; zsmMurf; udk tokH;jyKouJhodkY t0EÅdwdki;f rS vltrsm;onf om;a&rsm;udk xdkifp&mtjzpf tokH;jyKMuygonf/ odkYjzpfí xdkNrKdUwGif om;a& e,fudk xdkifp&mtjzpf tokH;jyK&ef cGifhjyKawmfrlyg}/ txufyg awmif;yefrIaMumifh Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf oHCm awmfrsm;tm; pk½kH;vdkufNyD; ,if;odu©myk'f tm;vkH;udk t0EÅdwdkif; wGifomru rZÑdra'otjyif&Sd EdkifiHtm;vkH;twGufyg ajymif;vJ ay;cJhonf/ xdktcsdefrSpí rZÑdra'o tjyifzuf&Sd &[ef;awmf rsm;onf 0denf;uRrf;usifonhf &[ef;awmf wpfyg;tygt0if &[ef;ig;yg;jzihf OyorÜ'uHaqmifvmEdkifonf? om;a&p wpfp xufydkí jyKvkyfxm;onfh zdeyfudk pD;vmEdkifonf? ESpfouforQ a&udk tBudrfBudrf csKd;vmEdkifonf? om;a&cif;udk xdkifp&m tjzpf 2 tokH;jyKvmEdkifonf / wpfcgwpf&HwGif iwfrGwfacgif;yg;rIonf &[ef;awmfrsm; oufaomihfoufom jzpfa&;twGuf tpm;taomufESihf ywf oufonhf 0denf;odu©myk'fwpfcsKdUudk jyKjyifajymif;vJ&ef vdktyf onf/ &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; tpm;taomufrsm;udk odrf;qnf; 1 2

OaZÆeDNrdKU? tdE´d, tv,fydkif; *Ggvd,m (Gwalior) jynfe,f/ 0d 3? 288/


292 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

wdk;wufpjyKvmonfh tajctaersm;aMumifh b0\ obm0rSef rsm;udk &ifqdkifvm&NyD; 0de,odu©myk'frsm;udk rlvykHpHtwdkif; vdkufemusihfokH;&ef cufcJaMumif; qifjcifrdvmMuonf/ &mZ N*dK[foH*g,em qkH;jzwfcsufonf 0denf;odu©myk'frsm;udk wpfpkH wpf&m ajymif;vJjyKjyifrIudk qefYusifcJhonf/ odkYjzpfí 0denf; odu©myk'f\ pmom;udk rajymif;vJ? t&Sifr[muóyrax&fBuD; xdkrQ tav;ay; csrSwfcJhonhf jynfolwdkY\ jypfwifa0zefrIudk roihfa&mufapbJ &[ef;awmfrsm;onf ¤if;wdkYudk,fwdkif tcsif; csif; oabmwlnDrIr&SdbJ 0denf;odu©myk'frsm;udk t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdk jcif;jzihf tcuftcJrsm;udk ausmfvTm;rnfh enf;vrf;rsm;udk azmf xkwfcJhMuonf/ ,if;t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsufrsm;ESihf aqG;aEG;csufrsm; udk ygVdrkwåu0dedpä, (ygVdawmfrsm;ü rawGU&onfh tqkH;tjzwf) 1 rsm;[kac:onf / xdkt&Sifjrwfrsm;onf ,if;odkY r,lqcJhaomf vnf; ,if;ygVdrkwåu0dedpä,rsm;onf jyifqifcsufrsm;ESihf pnf; rsOf;topfrsm;ESifh wlnDMuonf/ ygVdawmfrsm;ü awGU&Sd&onhf twdkif; rlva[mMum;csufrsm;\ tESpfom&ESihf nDñGwfrI r&Sd aomfvnf; oHCmu vufcHxm;onhf ,lqcsuftopfrsm;ESihf vdkufemusihfokH;rIrsm;vnf; &SdMuonf/ bDpD wpf&mpkonf oD[dkVfAk'¨bmomordkif;ü ta&;tBuD; qkH;aom tcsdefumvjzpfonf/ &[ef;awmfrsm;\ b0aeenf;ESihf a&m Ak'¨"r®ESifhyg oufqdkifonhf tvGefwmoGm;onfh tusKd;rsm; ESihf tajccH ajymif;vJrItcsKdU ,if;&mpkESpf ukefcgeD;wGif jzpfay:cJh onf/ xdktcsdefu wpfEdkifiHvkH; wpfjcrf;udk jynfy usL;ausmf0if a&mufolrsm;\ zsufqD;jcif;udkcH&NyD; tjcm;wpfjcrf;rSm rBuKHpzl; aom iwfrGwfacgif;yg;rI ab;aMumihf tBuD;tus,f ysufpD;ae 1

0d-| 2? 23/ at'D 13 &mpkwGif t&Sifom&dykMwm a&;om;onhf ygVd rkwåu0dedpä,[konhf usrf;pmtkyfwpfck &Sdonf/ ,if;usrf;ü 0de, yd#url&if;usrf;pmrsm;ü rawGU&onhf aqG;aEG;csufrsm;ESihf qkH;jzwf csufrsm; yg0ifonf/

&[ef;awmfrsm;\ vlrIb0 1

wdk;wufrIrsm;

289

azmfjyNyD; erlemtenf;i,frSm 0denf;odu©myk'frsm; ynwfrI ESihf ,if;odu©myk'frsm;udk jyefvnf jyKjyifjznfhpGufrIwdkYrSm tcsdef tcgESihf ae&ma'orsm;udk taMumif;jyK&NyD; vlrIa&;ESihf pD;yGm;a&; tajctaersm;\ vTrf;rdk;rI cH&aMumif; azmfjyMuonf/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ oHCmudk tkyfcsKyfrIonf ppfrSefonhf 'Drdku&ufwpfpepf wpfckESihfwlonf/ trSefpifppf Ak'¨onf oHCm awmfrsm;tm; trdefYay;Edkifaomfvnf; ,if;tmPmudk wpfBudrf wpfcg tokH;jyKcJhaMumif; rawGU&acs/ r[my&dedAÁmeokwfawmfü Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfu t&SiftmeE´m tm; ]rdrdtaejzihf oHCmudk pDrHcefYcGJol} odkYr[kwf ]oHCmonf rdrdtm; rSDckdaeonf}[k vkH;0 rawG;rdaMumif; rdefYMum;awmfrlonf 1 udk awGU&on / xdkYjyif Ak'¨onf &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; ]udk,fhudk,f udkESihf"r®udkom trDSo[JjyKMu&ef? tjcm;rnfonhft&m odkYr[kwf 2 rnfolwpfa,mufudkrQ rudk;uG,fMu&ef} ñTefMum;awmfrlonf / ]'Drdkua&pDenf;us wnfaqmufrIudk BudKufESpfoufonhf ousrsKd; 1

wxm*wó acg tmeE´ e {0H a[mwd ]t[H bdu©KoHCH y&d[&dómrDwd 0g rrka'´odaum bdu©KoHaCmwd 0g} ('D 2? 100)/ 2 twå'Dyg 0d[&x twåo&Pm teno&Pm? "r®'Dyg "r®o&Pm teno&Pm (,if;? 100)/ tcsdKUaom Oa&mywdkufom; ynm&Sifrsm; onf ,if;pmykd'fudk ]rdrdukd,fudk rD;tdrfrsm;uJhodkY (tvif;a&mifjzihf) ae xdkifMuavmh} (Rays Davids, D²gha Nikāya Translation, Vol. II,p. 108.) [k bmomjyefvdkMuonf/ odkY&mwGif þpmydk'fü ]'Dy}[laom a0g[m&onf uRef;udk a[mNyD; rD;tdrfudk rqdkvdkacs/ 'D-| 2? pm 138 wGif ,if;yk'fudk ]r[mork'´*wH 'DyH 0d, twåmeH 'DyH ywd|H uwGm 0d[&x = udk,fh udk,fudk r[mork'´&mxJü wnf&Sdonhf uRef;uJhodkY (aexdkif&m) jyKíae xdkifMuavmh}[k zGifhqdkonf/ oHo&mudk r[mork'´&m (oHom&om*&) ESihf EIdif;,SOfNyD; ork'´&mtv,fü ab;uif;onhft&mrSm uRef;jzpfonf? rD;tdrfr[kwfacs/ ]'DyH u,d&mx ar"m0D? ,H MoaCm embduD&wd = ynm&Sdonf a&tvsOf rvTrf;rdk;Edkifonfh uRef;udk zefwD;Muavmh} ("r®y'? 25 *gxm)/ rD;tdrf[laom tawG;udk c&pf,ef bdkifb,fvfusrf;rS &,l onfrSm aocsmonf/


290 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

0ifjzpfaomaMumihf Ak'¨onf 'Drdku&ufwpf tawG;tjrifrsm;udk ESpfoufcJhjcif;jzpfzG,f&Sdonf/ Ak'¨onf rdrd\ oHCmhy&dowfudk 'Drdkua&pDenf;us zGHUNzdK;apvdkojzihf 0de,pnf;rsOf;rsm;udk t 1 aMumif;wdkufqkdifrSom ynwfcJhonf} / 0de,onf y&rw¬opömr[kwfbJ oHCmhtzGJUtpnf;wpfck\ udk,fusihfw&m; aumif;rGefrItwGuf a0g[m&ynwfrQomjzpf onf/ ae&ma'otrsKd;rsKd; tcsdeftcgoD;oD;wGif vdktyfvmwdkif; 0de,odu©m yk'frsm;udk jyKjyifajymif;vJcJh&onf/ ,if;udk odjrif awmfrlaom Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfu t&SiftmeE´mtm; rdrd (Ak'¨) uG,fvGefNyD;aemuf vdktyfvQif oHCmonf ck'´uodu©myk'frsm;udk 2 ½kwfodrf; odkYr[kwf jyKjyifEdkifaMumif; rdefYMum;awmfrlonf / Ak'¨y&dedAÁmefpHvGefNyD;aemuf vtenf;i,ftMumwGif &mZ N*dK[fNrdKUü usif;yonhf yxroH*g,emwGif ]ck'´gEkck'´u odu©myk'f rsm;}ESihf ywfoufí ar;cGef;wpfck ay:aygufcJhonf/ ck'´gEkck'´u odu©myk'frsm;[lonf rnfonfwkYdjzpfaMumif;ESihf ywfoufí ,l qcsuftrsKd;rsKd; ay:xGufcJhonf/ Ak'¨taejzihf rnfonfudk ck'´g Ekck'´uodu©myk'frsm;[k qdkvdkaMumif; &Sif;vif;atmif rar;vdkuf Edkifjcif;twGuf t&SiftmeE´monf tpnf;ta0;\ jypfwifrIudk cH&onf/ azmfjyyg ar;cGef;ESifhywfoufí wlnDonhf twnf 3 jyKcsuf&&ef rjzpfEdkifcJhacs / odkYjzpfí oH*g,em\ tBuD;tuJjzpf 1 2

Nalimaksh Dutt in The Cultural Heritage of India, Vol, I, p. 290.

tmucFrmaem tmeE´ oHaCm rrpöa,e ck'´gEkck'´umed odu©my'ged orl[eEÅK ('D 2? 127)/ 3 odkY&mwGif t*Fkwå&t|uxmü aemufwpfokwfwGif (tH-| 2? 216) awGU&onhf ck'´gEkck'´umed[laomyk'fudk zGifhqdk&mwGif ]ck'´gEkck'´umeDwd pwåm&d yg&mZdumed XaywGm aooodu©my'ged = ck'´gEkck'´umed [lonf yg&mZdu av;yg;rS wpfyg;aom odu©myk'frsm;udk qdkvdk\}[k zGifhqdkonf/ t|uxmü ,if;t,ltqrSm t*Fkwå&edum,fudk tokH;jyKaomq&mwdkY\ t,ltqjzpfaMumif; azmfjyonf/ ]£rH ye t*Fkwå&edum,H 0vÍÆe ump&d,m pwåm&d yg&mZdumed XaywGm aoomed oAÁmedyd ck'´gEkck'´umeD

&[ef;awmfrsm;\ vlrIb0 1

wdk;wufrIrsm;

291

ol t&Sifr[muóyrax&fBuD; wifjyonhftwdkif; oHCmonf odu©myk'ftopfrsm; rcsrSwf&ef? wnf&Sdodu©myk'fwdkYudk rxkwfy,f &ef? Ak'¨ynwfNyD;odu©myk'frsm;udk vdkufemusihfokH;&ef wpfnDwpf ñGwfwnf; qkH;jzwfcJhMuonf/ ,if;odkY qkH;jzwfvdkufjcif;twGuf t&Sifr[muóy\ t"d uwifjycsufrSm rnfrQyif ck'´gEkck'´u odu©myk'frsm;jzpfapumrl wpfpkHwpfckaom odu©myk'frsm;udk xkwfy,fcJhvQif jynfolYtjrif onf rdrdwdkYudk qefYusifvdrfhrnf[líjzpfonf/ tcsKdUaom 0denf; odu©myk'frsm;udk vlOygoumrsm; odESihfNyD;jzpfonf[k t&Sifjrwf uqdkonf/ vlwdkYonf &[ef;awmfrsm;tzdkY tyfonf rtyfonf wdkYudk odESihfNyD;jzpfaeonf/ tu,fí oHCmonf ck'´uodu©m yk'ftcsKdUudk xkwfy,fcJhvQif ]Munfhprf;? &[ef;a*gwr\ wynhf rsm;twGuf csrSwfcJhaom pnf;rsOf;rsm;onf ol\tavmif;udk rD; ½IdU&mrSxGufonhf rD;cdk;rsm; rNidrf;rDtxdyif MumcJhonf/ ¤if;wdkY\ q&m toufxif&Sm;&SdpOf tcsdefwGifom ,if;pnf;rsOf;rsm;udk vdkufemcJhMuonf? ,cktcsdefwGif ¤if;wdkY\ q&mt&Sif uG,fvGef NyD? ¤if;wdkYonf ,if;odu©myk'frsm;udk rvdkufemMuawmhNyD}[k ajym qdkolrsm;&SdvmEdkifonf/ ,if;rSm t&Sifr[muóy\ qkH;jzwf csufudk vufcHcJhonfh taMumif;jycsufjzpfonf/ t&Sifjrwftae jzihf jynfolYjypfwifa0zefcH&jcif;[laom taMumif;jycsufrS wpf yg; odu©myk'frsm;udk jyKjyifajymif;vJrItwGuf rnfonhf w&m;0if 1 taMumif;jycsufudkrQ ray;cJhonfrSm tvGefta&;ygonf / xdkaeYrSpí rsufarSmufacwfwdkifatmif ax&0g'oHCm onf pkaqmif;xm;orQaom odu©myk'frsm;xJrS wpfckwavudkrQ yifjyKjyifajymif;vJrIvnf;rjyK? odu©myk'ftopfrsm;udkvnf; 0de, odu©myk'ftwGif;odkY xnfhoGif;jcif; vkH;0rjyKvkyfcJhacs/ odkYwap tcsdefumv Mumjrifhvmaomtcg ax&0g' oHCmawmfrsm;onf 1

wd 0'EÅd} (tH-| 2? 216)/ 0d 4? 480/ (yÍöowdu©E¨u)/


296 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

ESihf 0dyóem"k&[l aom a0g[m&rsm;udk rawGU&acs/ rlvblw ,lqcsuft& "r®ESihfywfoufonfh A[kokwa&m ur®|mef; bm0em ½IrSwfrIyg &[ef;b0\ tpdwftydkif;jzpfonf/ ,if;odkY cGJa0rIudk at'D ig;&mpkwGif a&;om;onhf t|uxmusrf;rsm;ESihf tjcm;ygVdawmfr[kwfonhf usrf;rsm;üom awGU&onf/ y&d,wåd oifMum;rIonf Ak'¨omoemawmf\ &if;jrpfjzpfonf[laom t awG;opfudk vufcHjcif;onf ,if; (*E¦"k& 0dyóem"k&) qef;opf wDxGifrIudk ay;cJhykH&onf/ ,if;vkyfief;wm0ef ESpfrsKd;teuf *E¦"k&udk 0dyóem"k& xuf ydkrdk ta&;BuD;onf[k ,lqcJhonf/ t|uxmwdkYü awGU& onfh erlemrsm;u Aswåy#dAvjzpf (pGrf;EdkifNyD; y&d,wådynm&Sd) onfh &[ef;rsm;onf rdrdudk,fudk *E¦"k&wm0efudk xrf;aqmifNyD; y&d,wådynm enf;yg;onhf oufBuD;½G,ftdk &[ef;rsm;? txl;o jzihf t½G,fvGefrS &[ef;jyKvmolrsm;onf 0dyóem"k& wm0efudk xrf;aqmifMuaMumif; awGU&onf/ odkYjzihf pu©Kygvrax&fu ]igonf toufBuD;NyD;rS &[ef; abmifodkY 0ifa&mufcJh\? ightaejzihf *E¦"k&wm0efukd xrf;aqmif &ef rpGrf;Edkifawmhyg? odkYjzpfí 0dyóem"k&wm0efudk xrf;NyD; 1 w&m;tm; xkwfygrnf}[k rdefYqdkonfudk awGU&onf / oD[dkVf uRef; a&m[Pt&yfü rkqdk;jzpfol rdvu©wdóonf toufBuD; aomf omoemhabmifodkY 0ifa&mufvsuf q&mtm; ]t&Sifjrwf bk&m;? pmayy&d,wåd oif,ljcif;rSm pGrf;Edkifol\ wm0efjzpfyg\/ wynhfawmf\ o'¨gw&m;onf 'ku©udk taMumif;jyKí jzpfcJhyg\/

&[ef;awmfrsm;\ vlrIb0 1

t[H r[v’uumav yAÁZdawm? *E¦"k&H yla&wkH e oud©ówd? 0dyóem"k&H ye oud©ómrd ("r®y'-| 1? 4)/ "r®y't|uxm usrf;jyK q&monf Ak'¨a&SUarSmufü ajymqdkbdouJhodkY ,if;pum;vkH;rsm;udk t&Sif pu©Kygvrax&fxHodkY ay;tyfcJhonf/ odkY&mwGif Ak'¨vufxuf awmf tcgu ,if;odkY wm0efcGJa0rIrsm; r&Sdacs/ ,if;cGJa0rIudk *E¦"k&ESifh 0dyóem"k&[laom pum;vkH;rsm; wdk;wufvmNyD;aemufrS a&;om;cJh onfrSm xif&Sm;onf/

293

onfudk awGUcJh&NyD/ oD[dkVfwpfuRef;vkH; z½dkz&Jjzpfaeonf/ yd# uwfokH;ykHudk EIwfwuftm*kHaqmifrI qufvufwnf&djS cif;udkyif 1 pdk;&drfzG,f Ncdrf;ajcmufcJhonf / ,if;odkYaom tajctaewGif t a0;udk BudKjrifawmfrlMuonhf rax&fBuD;rsm;onf aemufqkH;wGif Ak'¨"r®Mum&SnfpGm wnfwHhap&ef &nf½G,fí tvk0d[m&ausmif; wdkufü yd#uwfokH;ykHudk ayxuftu©&m wifcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ ,if;pdk;&drfzG,f uyfab;umvwGif oHCmawmfrsm;\ o abmxm;onf t"duajymif;vJoGm;cJhykH&onf/ iwfrGwfacgif;yg; ab;BuD;NyD;aemuf uv’*grZey't&yf&Sd r@vm&mrausmif; wdkufwGif usif;yonfh &maygif;rsm;pGmaom &[ef;awmfrsm;wuf a&mufonfh tpnf;ta0;wpfckwGif ,cifu wpfBudrfwpfcg ray:aygufzl;aom ar;cGef;opfwpfck ay:aygufvmjyefonf/ ,if;ar;cGef;rSm ]Ak'¨omoemawmf\ rlv&if;jrpfonf tb,f 2 enf;? y&d,wådavm odkYwnf;r[kwf y#dywådavm}[lí jzpfonf / jrwfAk'¨\ rlvw&m;awmft& "r®udk usihfokH;rI (y#dywåd)onf oif,ljcif;(y&d,wåd)xufydkí rsm;pGm ta&;BuD;aMumif; uREkfyfwdYk tm;vkH; odMuonf/ odkYwap ,if;tajccH ,lqcsufESifh ywf oufonhf tawG;tjrif jcm;em;csufonf rax&fjrwfrsm; tMum; ay:aygufcJhykH&onf/ ,if; taMumif;t&mESihfywfoufí ,lqcsuf tkyfpkESpfck&Sd onf/ yHhoulaqmif rax&frsm;u y#dywådonf omoemawmf\ &if;jrpfjzpf\[k qdkMuonf/ odkY&mwGif "r®uxdurax&frsm;url 1

1

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ykHpHtm;jzihf ,if;acwfwGif &[ef;awmfwpfyg;onfom r[meda'´o ygVdawmfudk tm*kHaqmifEdkifawmhonf/ xdk&[ef;rSm udk,fusihfw&m; ysufjym;rIjzihf ausmfMum;onf/ odkYjzpfvihfupm; oDv&SdMuonhf ynm wwfrax&fBuD;rsm;onf ,if;usrf;udk xdk&[ef;xHrS roifvdkaomf vnf; xdkrax&fuG,fvGefNyD;aemuf xdkusrf;*ef aysmufqkH;roGm;ap&ef xdkrax&fxHrSyif oif,lcJhMu&onf (0d-| 2? 274)/ y&d,wåd Ekacg omoeó rlvH O'g[k y#dywåDwd (tH-| 1? 71)/


294 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; 1

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300 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

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298 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

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ausmufpmwGif ,kwådaA'ESihf o'´gusrf;rsm;udk uRrf;usif onhf q&mrsm;udk &Edkifaomtcg ¤if;q&mwdkYtm; ]vpmaiG}ay;NyD; ,if;bmom&yfrsm;udk oifMum;ay;&rnf[k qdkxm;onf/ 2 'D 1? 62/ Päpi¼iyāna

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'D-| 1? 85/


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301

bkef;BuD;ausmif;ta&;ESihfqdkifonfh rIcif;wpfckwGif t&SifjrwfqkH; jzwfcsuftay: tvGefYtvGef ESpfoufoGm;ojzihf bk&ifonf aMunmarmif;cwfí ]ig touf&SifaeorQ &[ef;awmfrsm;? &[ef;rdef;rrsm; odkYr[kwf vlrsm;ESihfywfoufonhf rnfonhf trI wGifrqdk tmbd"r®du a*g'wårax&f\ qkH;jzwfcsufonf aemuf qkH; jzpf\/ t&Sifjrwf\ qkH;jzwfcsufudk rvdkufemoltm; ig t 1 jypfay;rnf}[laom trdefYjyefwrf;udk xkwfjyefonf / pmayomru tEkynmonfvnf; *E¦"k&0efaqmif &[ef; awmfrsm;\ pdwf0ifpm;rI e,fy,ftwGif; xnhfoGif;cJhonf/ tm eE´ au ukrm&qGmrD (¾nanada K. Coomaraswamy) trnf &Sd(yk*¾Kdvf)u okH;oyfonfrSm ]Ak'¨0g'onf tdE´d,rS awmifzuf wGif oD[dkVf? jrefrm? &Srf; (,dk;',m;)ESihf *smAm;ESihf ajrmufzuf wGif w½kwfESihf *syefEdifiHrsm;odkY jyefYESHUoGm;cJhonhf tEkynmNydKif zufudk ausmfvGefNyD; trSefyif t"duae&modkY a&mufvmcJhonf/ ,if;odkYjzifh &[ef;awmfrsm;onfyif tenf;qkH; vufrIynm t &nftaoG;\ oDtdk&Dydkif;qdkif&m A[kokwtcsKdU&Sd&ef ta&;w BuD;jzpfvmNyD; ,if;onf rMumcP ,if;odkYjzpfonf/ &[ef;awmf 1

r,d oaEÅ bdu©LerÜd bdu©LeDerÜd *d[DerÜd t"du&PH tmbd"r®du a*g'wåaw¬a&e 0dedpädwH ok0dedpädwH/ wó 0dedpäa, twdw¬rmeH &mZmPm, Xaywd (0d-| 1? 286)/ a*g'wårax&fonf avmuDa&;&m udpö rsm;wGif w&m;olBuD; wpfa,mufuJhodkY jyKrlcJhoavm[laom tcsuf udk taotcsm rod&acs/ bk&ifrif;w&m;\ aMunmcsufudk rax&f jrwf\ todynmESihf Oya'a&;&m wwfuRrf;rIESihf tqihfjrifh t&nf taoG;rsm;udk todtrSwfjyKonfhtaejzihf azmfjyjcif;jzpfEdkifonf/ ,if; onf rax&fjrwftay: jynfolwdkY xm;&Sdonhf tqihfjrifh ½kdaoav; pm;rIudk ñTefjyjcif;vnf;jzpfonf/ tu,fí rax&fjrwftaejzihf rnf onhf avmuDa&;&m rIcif;rsm;wGifrqdk BuD;rª;aqmif½GufvQifjzpfap BuD; av;onhf jypf'PfpD&ifrI odkYr[kwf udk,fcE¨mudk ñSOf;yef;rIESihf quf pyfaeonfh rnfonfh pD&ifrIudkrqdk aqmif½Gufrnf r[kwfacs/ BuD;av; onhf jypf'PfpD&ifrIESihf udk,fcE¨mñOf;yef;rIudk wm;jrpfonhf bk&ifrif; rsm;yif &SdcJhonf/


302 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

rsm;onf todynmenf;yg;ol tEkynmonf wpfa,muf\ om&dykMwmuJhodkYaom vuf&mrsm;udk ¤if;xHrSoif,l&efxuf &Sif; jy&ef ydkrdk arQmfhvifhcHMu&onf/ q,fh&Spf&mpkwGif &[ef;awmfrsm; 1 tMum; vufrIynmonfrsm;yif &SdcJhonf} / plV0*¾ygVdawmfü emrnfqdk;jzihf ausmfMum;onhf qAÁ*¾D&[ef; rsm;onf ¤if;wdkYaexdkif&m ausmif;rsm;wGif a,musfm; rdef;r ½kyfykHrsm; a&;qGJapaMumif; od&onf/ odkY&mwGif Ak'¨onf ,if; udpöudk wm;jrpfcJhNyD; EG,frsm;? yef;rsm;uJhodkYaom ykHpHrsm;udkom 2 a&;qGJ&ef cGifhjyKawmfrlonf / t|uxmwGif ,if; ,lqcsufudk tao;pdwfazmfjyNyD; &[ef;wpfyg;tzdkY tjcm;yk*¾Kdvf wpfa,muf tm; vla,musfm; vlrdef;rykHrsm;udkomru wd&dpämef txD;trykH rsm; (atmufxpfqkH;) wDaumif\ trykHudkyif rqGJckdif;aumif; acs/ &[ef;awmfwpfyg;onf rnfolYudkrqdk *dwfapmihf ('Gg&ygv) 3 ykHudkyif jyKvkyf&ef rawmif;qdk aumif;acs / odkY&mwGif t|uxm ü yom'(MunfnKdjcif;)ESihf oHa0*udk yGm;apEdkifaom Zmwfedygwf awmfrsm;ESihf qGrf;cH<uaeonhfykHrsm;uJhodkYaom ½kyfykHrsm;udk ykHoGef; jcif; yef;csDqGJjcif;rsm;udk cGifhvTwfjcif;jzihf wpfpkHwpfckaom vGwf 4 vyfrItwdkif;twmudk cGifhjyKonf / odkYjzifh &[ef;awmfrsm;onf MunfnKdolrsm;tm; yom'ESihf oHa0*udkjzpfyGm;ap&ef &nf½G,fvsuf Zmwfedygwfawmfrsm;ESifh Ak'¨ oufawmf xif&Sm;&SdpOfu jzpf&yfrsm;jzihf rdrdwdkY\ ausmif;wdkuf 1

Mediaeval Sinhalese Art, p. 47.

2

0d 4? 252/ bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm;twGif;odkY 0ifonhf *dwfapmifhykHrSm tvGefvlod rsm;onf/ a&;qGJxm;aom jzpf&yfrsm;ü trsKd;orD;trsKd;om; ½kyfykHrsm;ESihf wd&dpämef rsm;udk a&;qGJ odkYr[kwf ykHoGef;xm;onfrSm xif&Sm;onf/ odkYwap tu,fí ,if;½kyfykHrsm;onf yom'ESihf oHa0*udkjzpfyGm;apEdkifvQif ,if;wdkYudk cGifhvTwfEdkifonf/ odkYjzpfí r[m0Housrf;\ tcef;wdkif;udk txufygtwdkif; tqkH;owfxm;jcif;jzpfonf/

3

4

&[ef;awmfrsm;\ vlrIb0 1 wdk;wufrIrsm; 303 rsm;udk vª'gef;&ef tm;&SdvmMuonf/ wpfcsdefwnf;wGif &[ef; awmfrsm;onf vSyoyÜm,faom yef;csDrsm; qif;wkawmfrsm; &Sd onhf ausmif;wdkufrsm;u tzdk;wefypönf;rsm; vª'gef;Muonhf bk &m;zl;rsm;pGmudk qGJaqmifonhf tppftrSefobm0udk rodbJ &SdcJh Muonf/ þonfrSm &[ef;awmfrsm;tzdkY rdrdwdkYaexdkif&mausmif; wdkufudk tEkynmcHpm;rIESifh tEkynm vuf&majrmufrIwdkYjzifh qGJ aqmif&ef rufvkH;wpfckvnf;jzpfonf/ at'D ig;&mpkcefYwGif oD[dkVf &[ef;awmfonf yef;yktEk 1 ynmwGif wkEdIif;rnhfolr&Sdatmif jzpfcJhykH&onf / w½kwfrSwfwrf; wpfckt& eefaw (eE´)trnf&onhf oD[dkVf&[ef;awmf wpfyg; onf at'D 456 ckESpfwGif w½kwf{u&mZfxHodkY oHwref qufoG,frItwGuf apvTwfcH&ojzihf &[ef;awmfonf xdktcsdef u rdrdESihftwl rdrdudk,fwdkifjyKvkyfonhf qif;wkawmf okH;qludk w½kwf{&mZftm; vufaqmiftjzpfay;&ef ,laqmifcJhonf/ at'D 386-556 wGif xD;eef;pdkufcJhonhf a0wmwm (Wai Tartar) rif;quf ordkif;q&mtvdkt& tm&Stv,fydkif;EdkifiHrsm;rS vlrsm; ESihf bk&ifrsm;onf qif;wkawmfykHwlrsm; &&Sd&ef tEkynmonf rsm;udk apvTwfí tcsif;csif; twk,lMuaomfvnf; rnfolrQ eefaw\ vuf&mrsm;udk r,SOfNydKifEdkifacs/ q,fvSrf;rQtuGmwGif &yfjcif;ü ,if;wdkYonf trSefyif awmufajymifonf[k xif& aomfvnf; ydkrdkeD;uyfpGm csOf;uyfoGm;ygu udk,fcE¨monf w 2 jznf;jznf; aysmufuG,f oGm;onf / 1

2

urÇmausmf qd*d&d, (Sigiriya) yef;csDrsm;onfvnf; at'D 5 &mpk vuf &mrsm;jzpfMuonf/ Ceylon by Tennent, Vol. I. p. 615-620.

'DaCmva'g½k0 (Degaldoruva) ESihf &d'd0d[m&&Sd yef;csDum;rsm;udk at'D 18 &mpkaESmif;ydkif;wGif tausmfMum;qkH; yef;csD q&mjzpfonfh a'0&rayg v odv0awae trnf&Sd oD[dkVf&[ef;awmf a&;qGJcJhonf/ tEkynm a0zefa&; q&mrsm;pGmwdkY\ tm½kHpdkufrIudk &&Sdaponhf ,if;yef;csDrsm;udk rmvm0wåausmif;q&mawmf arm&awm# r[mem,urax&f\ BuD;


308 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

odkYwap wpfcsdefwnf;ü uyÜd,a0g[m&rygbJ vª'gef;aMumif; azmfjyonhf ausmufpmtcsKdUvnf; &SdMuonf/ tcsKdUaom ,if; a&avSmifuefESihf wl;ajrmif; vª'gef;rIrsm;udk txl;&nf½G,fcsuf 1 wpfpkHwpf&mudk azmfjyjcif;rjyKbJ xm;Muonf / vª'gef;pOfu EIwfjzihf uyÜd,a0g[m&rsm;udk tokH;jyKcJhNyD;jzpfí ausmufpmwGif ,if;wdkYudk xyfrH xnhfoGif;rxm;jcif;vnf; jzpfEdkifonf/ 0wåuajrudk Ak'¨omoemawmf wnfwHha&;twGuf vdktyf onhftaejzihf todtrSwfjyKNyD;onfESihf ,if;wdkYudk xdef;odrf; apmihfa&Smuf&efrSm oHCm\ wm0efjzpfonfrSm xif&Sm;onf/ odkY jzpfí ausmif;wdkufydkifypönf;udk umuG,f&ef vdktyfonf[k ,lq vQif oHCduypönf;jzihf olykefoluefrsm;? vk,ufolrsm;ESifh qlyl aomif;usef;olrsm;tm; {nhfcHauR;arG;&ef &[ef;tm; tBuHjyK xm;onf/ wpfae&mwGif r[dE¦avhrS em,uq&mawmf tb, rax&f ausmif;wdkufudk vk,uf&efvmonhf olykefwpfa,muf 2 tm; wnfcif;{nfhcHykHudk awGU&onf / tjcm; &[ef;rsm;onf rax&f\vkyfaqmifcsufESifh ywfoufNyD; jypfwif a0zefMuonf/ odkY&mwGif rax&fu xdk&[ef;awmfrsm;tm; ,if;okdY jyKjcif;jzihf rdrdonf ausmif;wdkufypönf;rsm;udk olykefvufrS u,fwifxm; vdkufNyD; olykefudkjyKpk&ef tokH;jyKvdkufaom yrmPrSm apwd, C&wGif cif;onhf ajcokwfzkH\ wefzdk;xufyif enf;ao;aMumif; &Sif;jyvdkufonf/ odkYjzihf a0zefolrsm; ,kHMunfoGm;Muonf/ ,if; azmfjyrItNyD;wGif orEÅygom'dumü xufjrufonfh &[ef;awmf 3 onf xdkodkYaom trlt,mjzihf jyKvkyfoifhaMumif; qdkonf / aq;ynmü uRrf;usifonhf &[ef;awmfrsm;&SdaMumif; uREfkyf wdkY awGU&NyD;jzpfonf/ eD;pyfonhf vlrsm;rSm aq;0g;ukorIqdkif&m tBuHÓPftwGuf xdkodkYaom &[ef;rsm;xH oGm;a&mufMurnf 1

e.g., EZ. III, p. 154. Ihscription of Bhātika Abhaya (38-67 A.D.) etc.

2

þusrf;? pm – 255 wGif ½Iyg/ 0d-| 2? 68/

3

&[ef;awmfrsm;\ vlrIb0 1

wdk;wufrIrsm;

305

1

rm[k ac:\}} / bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm;udk vª'gef;rIrsm; ay;tyfonfudk azmfjyonhf oD[dkVfa&S;acwf ausmufpmrsm;udk ,if;tavht usihfESihftnD wnfaqmufcJhMuykH&onf/ twåmPduPk (attāºi kaºu)[kac:onhf ,if;odkYaom ausmufpmrsm;udk wnfaqmuf onfh tcgor,wGif bk&ifrif;udk,fpm;jyK EdkifiHawmf\ tqihf jrihf t&m&Sdrsm;onf ,if;ay;tyfrIudk trdefYtmPmay;&ef ,if; ae&modkY vludk,fwdkif vma&mufMuonf/ odkY&mwGif vmboDrm [lonfudk bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm;tm; ajrvª'gef;onhf a&S; acwf ausmufpmrsm;pGmteuf wpfckwGifrQ ryg&Sdjcif;jzpfonfrSm pl;prf;zG,fjzpfonf/ odkY&mwGif e,fedrdwfrsm;udkydkif;jcm;onhf oDrm tmwkVK aum# (s²mā äµulu koµ) [laom pum;vkH;rsm;udk ,if; ausmufpma&; rSwfwrf;rsm;teuf tcsKdUwGif xnhfoGif;xm;NyD; ,if;pum;vkH;rsm;onf vmboDrm t,ltqudk aqmifonhf 2 taejzihf t"dyÜm,faumuf,lEdkifzG,f&Sdonf / ,cktcsdefwGif ydkif;jcm;xm;onhf ajrudk 0de,tpOftvm rsm;u todtrSwfjyKNyD; oabmwlvufcHojzihf &[ef;awmfrsm; onf bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkuf\ 0ifaiGESifh ukefusp&dwfudk pdwf0if pm;&ef tvGefaumif;aom taMumif;jycsufrsm; &SdcJhonf/ ,cif awGUcJhNyD;jzpfonfhtwkdif; ESpfywfvnf aiGpm&if; azmfjycsufudk t 3 wnfjyK&ef oHCmhtpnf;ta0;odkY wifjy&aMumif; awGU&onf / 1

2

3

0d-| 3? 418/ vmboDrm emr ae0 or®morÁKa'¨e tEknmwm? e "r®o*Fg[uaw¬a&[d Xydwm/ tyd p acg &mZ&mZr[mrwåm 0d[m&H uma&wGm *g0kwH 0g t¹a,mZeH 0g a,mZeH 0g orEÅawm y&dpädE´dwGm t,H trSmuH 0d[m&ó vmboDrmwd emrvdcdwau xarÇ edcPdwGm ,H {w¬EÅa& OyÜZdwd oAÁH wH trSmuH 0d[m&ó a'rmwd oDrH Xaywd? t,H vmboDrm emr/ See EZ. I, p. 167-168, Iripinniyava pillar Inscription, p. 173, Rambava Pillar Inscriiption ; III, p. 103-105, Mannar Kaoceri Pillar Inscription.

þusrf;? pm – 258 udk ½Iyg/


306 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

oHCmhpD;yGma&;b0 ajymif;vJrI\ ra&SmifvTJEdkifaom tusKd; quftaejzihf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ rlvoifMum;csuf tESpfom& ESihf qefYusifonhf ,if;odkYaom usihfBuHrIrsm;pGmudk ¤if;wdkY\ oDvodu©mwGif vdkufemvmMuonf/ trsKd;orD; trsKd;om; ESpf rsKd;vkH;udk bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkuf tvkyform; tcdkif;taprsm; 1 tjzpf vufcHcJhMuykHudk atmufu@rsm;ü awGUcJhMuNyD;jzpfonf / tajctaeopfu awmif;qdkonhf ,if;odkYaom avhusihf tm;xkwfrIrsm;pGmwdkYonf rlv 0de,pnf;rsOfrsm;ESihf qefYusifMu onf/ &[ef;awmfrsm;onf &mZN*dK[f yxroH*g,em qkH;jzwf csufrsm;ESihf qefYusifonhf 0de,odu©myk'frsm;udk ajymif;vJ&ef tcGifhtmPmESihf owådr&SdMuacs/ &[ef;awmfrsm;onf tajc t aeopfudk vspfvsL½Ixm;&efvnf; rpGrf;EdkifMuacs/ &[ef;awmf rsm;onf tcuftcJESifh BuKHMu&onf/ atmufwGif xkwfjyxm; onhf erlemtcsKdUrSm &[ef;awmfrsm;taejzihf trSefpifppf ¤if; wdkY\ ajz&Sif;rIrSm Ak'¨"r®\ tESpfom&ESihf tawmftwef qefY usifaomfvnf; 0de,pnf;rsOf; pmom;rsm;udk qefYusifjcif; r&SdbJ tcuftcJrsm;tm; vdr®myg;eyfpGm ausmfvTm;EdkifcJhMuykHudk azmfjy vdrfhrnfjzpfonf/ 0denf;awmft& &[ef;onf ajrBuD;udk udk,fwdkif rwl;& odkYr[kwf tjcm;wpfa,mufudk rwl;ckdif;aumif;acs/ tu,fí 2 wl;vQif wl;ckdif;vQif ygpdwftmywfoifhonf / odkY&mwGif bkef; BuD;ausmif;wdkufESihf qufpyfaeonhf ajr,mrsm;&Sdvmaomtcg ,if;odu©myk'fudk vdkufem&ef tvGefcufcJonf/ odkYjzpfí ,if; odu©myk'fudk zGifhqdk&mwGif orEÅygom'dumusrf;u ygVdrkwåu 0dedpä,taejzihf pdwf0ifpm;zG,f tqkH;tjzwf ay;xm;onf/ ,if;0dedpä, tqdkrSm ]þonfrmS ygVdawmfü rawGU&aom tqkH; tjzwfjzpf\/ tu,fí a&uefudk wl;avmhqdkvQif tyf\/ ae 1 2

þusrf;? pm – 273 udk ½Iyg/ 0d 2? 49/ a,m ye bdu©K yx0ð caP,s 0g cPmay,s 0g ygpdwåd,H/

&[ef;awmfrsm;\ vlrIb0 1

wdk;wufrIrsm;

307

&mwpfckudk wl;rSomvQif a&uef[kac:\/ odkYjzpfí ,if;onf oifhavsmfaom tokH;tEIef;jzpf\/ a&wGif;udk wl;avmh? a&tdkif udk wl;avmh? acsmufudk wl;avmh[k qdk&müvnf; þpnf;urf; twdkif;jzpf\/ odkY&mwGif þae&mudk wl;avmh? þae&mü a&uef udk wl;avmh[kqdkvQif rtyf/ opfOudk wl;avmh? opfjrpfudk wl; avmh[k ae&mrñTef;bJqdkvQif tyf\/ þEG,fyifudk wl;avmh? þae&mü&Sdaom þopfO odkYr[kwf þopfjrpfudk wl;avmh[k 1 qdkvQif rtyf / þonfrSm tcuftcJudk ausmfvTm;&ef pum;vkH; rsm;udk vSnfhpm;vdkufjcif;omjzpfonf/ a&avSmifuefrsm;onf bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm;twGuf t awmftwef aumif;rGefaom 0ifaiGtaejzihf axmufyHhrIwpf&yf 2 jzpfaMumif; awGU&onf/ odkY&mwGif t|uxm tvdkt& tvªY&Sif u uyÜd,a0g[m&jzihf vª'gef;rSom oHCmonf a&avSmifuefudk vufcHaumif;onf/ tu,fí ]wynhfawmfonf a&avSmifuef udk vªyg\}[komqdkvQif ,if;a&avSmifuefudk tvªrcHaumif; acs/ ypönf;av;yg;udk &&Sd&ef &nf½G,fcsufjzihf vª'gef;ygu oHCm onf a&avSmifuefudk tvªcHEdkifonf/ a&avSmifuefrsm;udk bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm;odkY vª'gef;aMumif; azmfjyonfh ausmuf pmtcsdKUwGif ,if;tpOftvmESihftnD ypönf;av;yg;twGuf &nf rSwfí oHCmawmftm; ,if;a&avSmifuefrsm;udk vª'gef;aMumif; 3 azmfjyonhf trSefwu,f vdktyfonhf pum;vkH;rsm; yg0ifonf / 1

0d-| 3? 21/ t,H ygVdrkwåu0dedpäa,m - aygu©&Pð cPmwd 0'wd? 0¥wd/ cPma,0 [d aygu©&PD emr a[mwd/ wo®m t,H uyÜd, a0g[ma&m/ {ao0 ea,m 0gyð wVmuH tm0g#H cPmwd tm'Dokyd/ £rH MomoH cP? £ro®ð Moumao aygu©&Pð cPmwd 0wåKH ye e 0¥wd/ uE´H cP? rlvH cPmwd ted,arwGm 0wåKH 0¥wd/ £rH 0v’ð cP? £ro®ð Moumao uE´H 0g rlvH 0g cPmwd 0wåKH e 0¥wd/ 2 0d-| 3? 20/ 3

e.g., EZ. I, p. 211, Pālumäkiccāva Inscription of Gajabāhu I (174-196 A.D.).


312 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

&[ef;awmfrsm;\ vlrIb0 1

wdk;wufrIrsm;

309

tm; udk;uG,f&mtjzpf cefYtyfxm;cJhovm;? Ak'¨y&dedAÁmefpHvGefNyD; aemuf oHCmonf aemufqkH;tjzpf rnfolYudk pOf;pm;oenf;[k ar;jref;onf/ t&SiftmeE´m\ tajzrSm y#dao"yifjzpfonf/ xdkYaemuf 0efBuD;csKyfu þodkY rSwfcsufjyKonf ]t&Sifbk&m; tmeE´m? udk;uG,f&mr&SdcJhvQif (tyÜ#do&aP) oHCmnDñGwf a&; twGuf tajccHum; tb,fygenf; (aum a[wk omr*¾d,m)}/ t&SiftmeE´mu ]ykPÖm;? igwdkYrSm udk;uG,f&mr&Sdonf r 1 [kwf/ igwdkYrSm udk;uG,f&m &Sd\/ ,if;rSm "r®jzpf\}[k ajzonf / EdkifiHawmf 0efBuD;csKyfu tzGJUtpnf;ESihf ywfoufonfh ,if; jrifhjrwfonhf oabmvu©Pmudk ESpfouf&ef pGrf;&nfr&SdaMumif; >ruf[aomtcg t&SiftmeE´mu &Sif;vif;csufay;onf ]&[ef; awmfrsm;twGuf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf csrSwfxm;onhf 0de,pnf; urf;rsm;&SdNyD; ygwdarmufudk jy|mef;xm;NyD;ygNyD (ygwdarmu©H O'´d|H)/ wpfpkHwpfckaom yx0D{&d,mtwGif; aexdkifMuonhf &[ef;awmfrsm;onf OaygoxaeYrsm;ü tm;vkH; pka0;MuNyD; tvSnhfusol &[ef;awmfwpfyg;udk ,if;0de,udk ½Gwfqdk&ef awmif;yef\/ xdk½GwfqdkrItwGuf rnfonhf&[ef;rqdk csKd;azmufrI udk aMunmvQif tjcm;&[ef;awmfrsm;onf xdk&[ef;awmftm; "r®ESihftnD aqmif½Guf\/ rnfolurQ xdk&[ef;tm; ,if;udk jyKvkyf&ef rwdkufwGef;bJ ,if;udk jyKvkyf&ef "r®uom jyK\}/ xdktcg 0efBuD;csKyfu aemufxyf ar;cGef;wpfck xyfar;onf ]t&Sifbk&m; tmeE´m? ,cktcg t&Sifbk&m; ½dkaoaom? ylaZmf aom? MunfnKdaom? av;pm;aom? NyD;vQif t&Sifbk&m; rSDckd tm;xm; aom &[ef;awmfwpfyg; &Sdygovm;}/ t&SiftmeE´mu ,if;ar;cGef;udk &SdygaMumif; ajzMum;aom tcg 0óum&onf a0cGJr&jzpfoGm;onf/ 0efBuD;csKyfu þodkY tHMopGmqdk\ ]t&Sifbk&m;udk wynhfawmfu Ak'¨ujzpfap odkY wnf;r[kwf oHCmujzpfap Ak'¨ y&dedAÁmefpHvGefNyD;aemuf rnf

rSm obm0yifjzpfonf/ odkYwap &[ef;awmfrsm;onf vlwdkif;udk wpfa,mufcsif;pD aq;uko&ef rarQmfvihfMuacs/ odkYwkdifatmif &[ef;awmfrsm;onf rdrdwdkYtaejzihf aq;ynmudk rwwfajrmuf aMumif; ajymMum;jcif;vnf;r&Sd? vltrsm;tm; vSnfhjyefoGm;&ef vnf; rjiif;qdkMuacs/ em;vnfrjI zihf vkyfaqmif&onhf tajc taeodkY qdkufvmonf/ tu,fí Oygoum wpfa,mufonf &[ef;awmfwpfyg; tm; vlemudk uko&ef awmif;yefygu ,if;awmif;yefcsufudk todtrSwfjyKrnf r[kwfacs/ &[ef;awmfwpfyg;xH aq;zuf tMuHjyKrI &,lvdkygu vlOygoumonf uyÜd,a0g[m&udk em; vnf&rnf/ tu,fí Oygoumwpfa,mufonf a&m*gwpfck twGuf rnfonhfaq;0g;udk ay;&rnfqdkonfudk &[ef;wpfyg;xH pkHprf;ar;jrefvQif ,if;Oygoumtm; ajymjyaumif;onf/ Oyg oumu ]t&Sifbk&m;? wynhfawmf\ rdcifonf emrusef; jzpf aeygí aq;ñTef;ay;ygbk&m;}[kqdkvQif xkdyk*¾Kdvftm; wpfpkH wpf&m jyefrajymaumif;acs/ odkY&mwGif &[ef;u &[ef;wpfyg; oifhrdcif\ a&m*grsKd; cHpm;ae&pOf þrnfaomaq;udk ay;zl; aMumif; &[ef;upwifí 'umtm; ajymMum;aumif;onf/ Oyg oumu &[ef;ajymjyonfudk em;axmif rSwfom;NyD; rdciftm; 1 xdkenf;twdkif; ukoygu tjypfr&Sd / orEÅygom'dumü azmfjyonhf pdwf0ifpm;zG,f jzpf&yfwpfck udk o½kyfazmfonhftaejzihf azmfjyEdkifzG,f&Sdonf/ 0obrif; (at'D 127-171)\ rdzk&m; aexdkifraumif; jzpfaomtcg trsKd; orD;wpfa,mufonf r[my'krax&fxH oGm;a&mufNyD; uko rnfhaq;udk ñTefMum;ay;&ef awmif;yefonf/ odkYwap 0de, uRrf;usifol t&Sifjrwfonf aq;ynmudk rwwfuRrf;[k rqdkbJ txufwGif azmfjyonhf enf;twdkif; tjcm;&[ef;awmfrsm;ESihf p um;pjrnf ajymonf/ trsKd;orD;onf xdkpum;pjrnf ajymqdkjcif;

1

1

þusrf;? pm- 311/

,if;? 67/


310 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

rS aq;enf;udk odoGm;NyD; ,if;aq;udk vlemtm; pDrHay;cJhonf/ rdzk&m;BuD; usef;rmoGm;aomtcg ¤if;wdkYonf u[myP 300 ESihftwl ouFef;okH;pkHudk aqmif,lcJhMuNyD; ,if;wdkYudk rax&f\a&SU wGif csxm;NyD; ]t&Sifbk&m;? þtvªaiGrsm;udk yef;tvªtwGuf tokH;jyKyg}[k avQmufxm;onf/ r[my'krax&fonf ,if;onf 1 q&mvkyfol\ tzdkYbm* (tmp&d,bm*) jzpff\ qifjcifvsuf ,if;0w¬KaiGudk vufcHapNyD; yef;ylaZmf&mü tokH;jyK&ef ñTefMum; 2 awmfrlonf / tay:wGif xkwfazmfjycJhonhf ,if;odkYaom ykHpHrsm;onf pD;yGm;a&; vlrIa&; ajymif;vJrI\ &vm'ftjzpf ykHpHopfjzihf bkef; BuD;ausmif;b0 wdk;wufcJhykHudk o½kyfazmfMuonf/ oD[dkVfEdkifiH\ EdkifiHawmf bmomjzpfvmonhf tusKd;qufaMumihf &[ef;awmf rsm;onf vlrIa&; EkdifiHa&;udpö&yfrsm;ü pdwf0ifpm;vmMuykHudk azmfjyNyD; tcef;rsm;ü awGUcJh&NyD;jzpfonf/ 1

tmp&d,bm* [lonfudk trIaqmifay;jcif;twGuf aus;Zl;txdrf; t rSwf taejzihf ,lqEdkifonf/ tcgwpfyg;ü ykPÖm;tdkwpfa,mufonf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ tBuHtpnf twdkif; aqmif½Gufjcif;ü udk,fa&;udk,fwm udpöwpfckwGif atmifjrifrI& oGm;NyD; &Sifawmfjrwf\ tBuHjyKrItwGuf tmp&d,bm*taejzihf Ak'¨ tm; ouFef;wpfpkH vª'gef;&mwGif Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfu ,if;ouFef;udk t vªcHonf/ xdkudpöESifhywfoufí oH,kwåedum,fü tokH;jyKxm;aom a0g[m&rSm tmp&d,bm* jzpfjcif;rSm xl;jcm;onf (oH 1? 179)/ 2 r[my'krrax&f\ ,if;0w¬KaiGudk vufcHjcif;rSm 0denf; ½lyd,odu©myk'f ESihf qefYusifonf/ ,if;odu©myk'ft& &[ef;onf a½Tudkjzpf ap aiGudkjzpfap tyfESHonfudk udk,fwdkifvnf; vufrcH&? olrsm;udkvnf; vufrcHap&/ a,m ye bdu©K Zmw½ly&ZwH O*aPS,s 0g O*PSmay,s 0g? Oyedu©dwåH 0g om'da,,s? ygpdwåd,H (0d 1? 345)/ ,if;xif&Sm;onhf 0denf;pnf;urf;udk azmufzsufrIudk r[my'kr rax&fonf Owå&&mZykwå ay;ydkYvdkufonfh a½TapwD (ok0PÖapwd,) udk vufcH&ef roifhavsmf ojzihf jiif;qdkonhf t,ltqjzihf pOf;pm;oihfonf (0d-| 2? 130)/ rax&fjrwfonf 0denf;wGif tvGefuRrf;usifoltjzpf xif&Sm;onf/

&[ef;awmfrsm;\ vlrIb0 1

wdk;wufrIrsm;

311

tkyfcsKyfa&;ydkif;ESihf ywfoufí oHCemu,q&mawmf odkY r[kwf oD[dkVfwpfuRef;vkH;&Sd oHCmawmfrsm;udk xdef;csKyfrnhf A[dkoHCmhtzGJUwpfck r&Sdacs/ Ak'y¨ &dedAÁmefpHNyD;aemuf oHCmawmf tm; trdefY odkYr[kwf ñTefMum;csufrsm;udk xkwfjyefrnfh tqifh jrifh tmPmydkiftzGJU r&Sdacs/ oHCmhacgif;aqmif odkYr[kwf oHCem,u xm;&Sdjcif;rSm Ak'w ¨ &m;awmf\ rlvtESpfom&udk qefYusifonf/ oHCmhtzGJUudk 'Drdkua&pDenf;us zGJUpnf;xm; aMumif; awGUcJh&NyD;jzpfonf/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf ysHvGefawmf r rlrD tcsdefuav;wGif teD;uyfjyKpk apmihfa&Smufoltm; ]tmeE´m? oifwdkYonf þodkY pOfpm;vdrfhrnf/ "r®onf q&mr&Sdawmhacs/ igwdkYrSm q&m r&Sdawmhacs/ odkYwap tmeE´m? oifwdkYonf xdkodkY rpOf;pm;oifh/ igbk&m;a[mMum;onhf "r®ESihf 0de,onf igbk&m; 1 y&dedAÁmefpHNyD;aemuf oifwdkY\ q&mjzpfvdrfhrnf / ,if;odkYjzihf Ak'¨ y&dedAÁmefpHvGefNyD;aemuf oHCmawmfonf "r®udk ,if;q&mtjzpf owfrSwfNyD; wpfoD;yk*¾v taejzihf r&SdcJhacs/ Ak'¨y&dedAÁmefpHvGefNyD;aemuf vtenf;i,ftMumwGif t&Sif tmeE´mESifh r*"EdkifiH 0efBuD;csKyf 0óum&wdkY ajymMum;cJhonhf ynmom;ygNyD; oHCmtzGJUtpnf;ESihf oHCmhtkyfcsKyfa&;ESihf ywf -========== oufí t&Sdeft0g&Sdonhf Ak'¨0g'oabmxm;udk &Sif;vif;azmfjy onfh aqG;aEG;ajymqdkrIwpf&yfudk awGU&onf/ 0óum&onf t&SiftmeE´mtm; Ak'¨onf rnfonhf & [ef;tm; udk;uG,f&m (y#do&P)tjzpf cefYtyfxm;cJhovm;? Ak'¨ y&dedAÁmefpHvGefNyD;aemuf oHCmonf rnfolYtm; ,cktcg aemuf qkH; taejzihf pOf;pm;oenf; ({w&[d y#d"ma0,smx)[k pkHprf; ar;jref;onf/ t&SiftmeE´mu ]xdkodkY vkyfjcif;r&Sdyg}[k ajzonf/ xdktcg 0óum&trwfu oHCmawmfonf rnfonhf &[ef; 1

od,m acg yemeE´ wkrSmuH {0H tó ]twDwow¬KuH yg0peH? ew¬d aem ow¬m}wd/ e acg yaewH emeE´ {0H '|AÁH/ a,m acg tmeE´ r,m "ar®m p 0dea,m a'odawm ynawåm? aom a0g rrpöa,e ow¬m ('D 2? 128)/


&[ef;awmfrsm;\ vlrIb0 1

wdk;wufrIrsm;

313

onhf &[ef;tm; udk;uG,f&m (y#do&P)tjzpf cefYtyfxm;cJh oenf;} ar;jref;aomtcg t&Sifbk&m;u ]xdkodkY vkyfjcif;r&Sdyg}[k ajzyg\/ ,ckwpfzef wynhfawmfu ]t&Sifbk&m; ½dkaoaom? ylaZmfaom? MunfnKdaom? av;pm;aom? NyD;vQif t&Sifbk&m; rSDckdtm;xm;aom &[ef;awmfwpfyg; &Sdygovm;}[k ar;jref;aom tcg t&Sifbk&m;u ]&Sdygonf}[k ajz\/ wynhfawmf t&Sif bk&m; ajzMum;onfudk rnfodkY em;vnf&ygrnfenf;/ t&SiftmeE´mu &SifyifAk'¨onf ,kHMunfrIudk &&Sdaponhf 1 t&nftaoG;q,frsKd; ('o yom'ed,m "r®m) udk a[mMum; awmfrlcJhNyD; &[ef;awmfwpfyg;ü ,if;q,frsKd;udk awGU&Sdrl oHCm awmfonf xdk&[ef;awmftm; ½dkao&rnf? ylaZmf&rnf? MunfnKd &rnf? av;pm;&rnf? NyD;vQif xdk&[ef;awmftm; rSDckdtm;xm; &rnf[k &Sif;jyawmfrlonf/ 0óum&onf t&SiftmeE´m &Sif;jyonfudk ESpfoufyg 2 aMumif; >rufqdkonf / 0óum&ar;onfudk t&SiftmeE´m\ ajzMum;csufrsm; onf oHCmzGJUpnf;tkyfcsKyfykHqdki&f m ckdifvkHaom &Sif;vif;csuf jzpfonf/ eHygwfwpf? oHCm\ acgif;aqmif odkYr[kwf em,u r&Sd/ odkYwap oHCmonf oDv ynmESihf Mum;jrifokwrsm;onhf rnhfonhf &[ef;udkrqdk tNrJwrf; ½dkaovdkufemvdrfhrnf/ eHygwf ESpf? vkyfydkifcGifhESifh tmPmudk A[dkrjyK/ &[ef;awmfrsm;onf ae&ma'otoD;oD;ü tkyfpki,frsm;zGUJ í pnf;vkH;rIESihf pnf;rsOf; pnf;urf;rsm;udk xdef;odrf;Muonf/ oHCm[lonf &[ef;awmf 1

2

t&nftaoG; q,frsKd;rSm 1/ oDv0g = oDvESihf jynfhpkHjcif; 2/ A[kók awm = Mum;jrifokwrsm;jcif; 3/ oEÅK|dawm = a&mihf&J vG,fjcif; 4/ psmevmbD = psmefav;yg;udk &jcif; 5/ £'¨drm = wefckd;ESihf jynhfpkHjcif; 6/ 'dAÁaomwH = 'dAÁaomw tbdnmPf&jcif; 7/ y&pdwå0dZmeem = olwpfyg;pdwfudk odjcif; 8/ ykaAÁed0gomEkówd = a&S;b0cE¨mudk owd &jcif; 9/ 'dAÁpu©K = 'dAÁpu©K tbdnmPfudk &jcif; 10/ &[EÅm jzpfjcif; r 3? 58 (a*gyu arm*¾v’meokwf)/


314 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

rsm;\ tpktaygif;[k t"dyÜm,f&NyD; tenf;qkH; &[ef;av;yg; tkyfpkwpfck zGJUrdvQif ,if;tkyfpkonf oHCmudk udk,fpm;jyK&ef tcGifhtmPm&SdNyD; tjcm;tkyfpkrsm;udk trSDtcdkrjyKbJ tcsKdUaom 0denf; udpörsm;udk aqmif½GufEdkifonf1/ odkY&mwGif ,if;tkyfpkrsm;ü udk,fydkifoGifjyif rl0g'r&Sd/ ¤if; wdkYaexkdif&m a'owdkif;wGif &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; vkdufemusihfokH; onfh wlnDaom 0de,pnf;rsOf;rsm;udk vdkufemMuonf/ ae&m a'o toD;oD;ü tkyfpktrsKd;rsKd;onf 0denf;awmfrSm vm&Sd onhftwdkif; ¤if;wdkY\ rIcif;rsm; tjiif;yGm;rIrsm;udk Mum;emMu onf/ Mum;jrifokw&Sd? oDvESihf jynhfpkHNyD; ynm&Sdonhf rax&f BuD;udk xdktpnf;ta0; odkYr[kwf tkyfpk odkYr[kwf tcrf;tem;\ tBuD;trª;tjzpf cefYtyfonf/ tu,fí ae&ma'o toD;oD;rS tkyfpkESpfck odkYr[kwf tkyfpktrsm;BuD; pnf;½kHMuvQifrl oHCmawmf rsm;tm;vkH;onf xdktcrf;tem;twGuf tBuD;trª;wpfa,muf \ (OD;aqmifrI)atmufü tvdktavsmuf pkpnf;Muonf/ rnf onhf twif;tMuyfwkdufwGef;rIrSr&SdbJ tm;vkH;rSm rdrdqE´ tavsmufomjzpfonf/ Ak'¨"r®a&;&m tawG;tjrifESihf avhusihf tm;xkwfrIwdkYü oHCmawmfrsm;tMum; oabmxm;uGJvGJrI ay: aygufvmrl tvGeftqifhjrifh wefzkd;xm;onhf oHCmawmfrsm;\ nDñGwfrIudk aESmihf,SufNyD; ,if;aemufwGif *dkPf;*P trsKd;rsKd; edum,trsKd;rsKd; ay:aygufvmrIrsm; jzpfay:vmonf/ tEk&m"yk&acwftwGif; oD[dkVf&[ef;awmfrsm;onf wpfpkH wpf&m t"duajymif;vJrIrsm;r&SdbJ wlnDonhf tpOftvm usihfpOfudk vdkufemusihfokH;cJhMuonfrSm xif&Sm;onf/ a&S;acwfoD[dkVfwGif A[dkXmeESpfckpDwdkYü wpfESpfvQif ESpfBudrf 0grqdkrDESihf 0gqdkNyD;aemuf oHCmpka0;rIBuD; ESpfBudrf&SdcJhonf/ A[dk Xme ESpfckteuf wpfckrSm tEk&m"yk&NrdKUawmf&Sd r[m0d[m& ausmif;wkdufjzpfNyD; aemufwpfckrSm a&m[Pt&yf&Sd wdór[m 1

oAÁEÅdare y&dapäa'e pwåma&m bdu©L yu#wåm (ygwdarmuf)/

&[ef;awmfrsm;\ vlrIb0 1

wdk;wufrIrsm;

315

0d[m& ausmif;wdkuf jzpfonf/ r[m0gvd**Fg (Mahaväli-gañga) jrpf\ ajrmufzufü oDwif;okH;Muaom &[ef;awmfrsm;onf r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkufü pnf;a0;MuNyD; ,if;jrpf awmifzufü oDwif;okH;Muaom &[ef;awmfrsm;onf wdór[m0d[m& ausmif;wkdufü pnf;a0;Muonf/ ,if;tpnf;ta0;\ &nf½G,f csufrSm rsm;pGm&Sdonf/ 0grqdkrD pnf;a0;Mujcif;rSm apwDawmf tm; oefY&Sif;&efESihf xkH;okwf&eftjyif ur®|mef;w&m;&,l&ef xif&Sm;onhf rax&fBuD;rsm;tm; awGUqkH&efjzpfonf/ oDwif; uRwfNyD;aemuf awGUqkHMujcif;rSm 0gwGif;umvtwGif; rdrdwdkY\ pdwfydkif;b0 avhusifhtm; xkwrf I tajctaeudk ajymqdk&eftjyif ¤if;wdkYoif,lxm;onfh "r®udk½Gwfqdk&efESihf jyefvnfwnf;jzwf ñSdEIdif;&efvnf; jzpfonf/ xdktcsdefumvrsm;ü rdrdwdkY\ oHo, rsm;udk uRrf;usifolrsm;ESihf cufcJonhf tpdwftydkif;rsm;udk aqG; aEG;jcif;jzihf oHo,uif;&Sif;aponhf tcGifhtvrf;&&SdMujcif; jzpf onf/ wpfESpfvQif ESpfBudrf tpnf;ta0;BuD; ESpf&yfudk usif;y onfhtavhrSm Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf oufawmfxif&Sm; &SdpOfuyif pwifcJhonfrSm xif&Sm;onf1 / 1

'D-| 2? 172/ 00000000


320 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

okH; (bkH) qGrf;pm;aqmifrsm; &SdMuonf/ axmifaygif; rsm;pGmaom &[ef;awmfrsm;onf xdkae&modkYqGrf;&,l&ef oGm;a&mufMuonf/ zm[D,ef\ rsufjrifrSwfwrf;wGif þodkYazmfjyonf ]&[ef; awmfrsm;onf ¤if;wdkY\ tpm;tpmudk trsm;okH;ae&mrsm;rS &&Sd Mu\/ xdkYjyif bk&ifrif;w&m;onf NrdKUawmftwGif; tjcm;ae&m rsm;wGif ig;axmifajcmufaxmifruaom &[ef;awmfrsm;twGuf trsm;okH; qGrf;taxmuftyHhudk jyifqifxm;\/ qGrf; tvd&k Sd aomtcg &[ef;awmfrsm;onf oydwfudk,lvsuf qGrf;avmif; vªonhfae&modkY oGm;NyD; o,f,lEdkifoavmuf &,lum tjyefwGif oydwfrsm; tjynhfjzpf\}/ &mpkESpf ESpfckvGefNyD;aemuf [l,ifqefu ¤if;Mum;cJh&onhf tcsufudk atmufygtwdkif; a&;om;onf ]bk&ifheef;awmf ab;wGif csufjyKwfaqmifBuD;aqmufxm;NyD; ,if;taqmifrS & [ef;&SpfaxmiftwGuf tpm;tpmudk a0iSavmif;vª\/ qGrf;pm; csdefa&mufvmaomtcg &[ef;awmfrsm;onf oydwfrsm;jzihf rdrd \ qGrf;a0pkudk&,l&ef <ua&mufvmMu\/ a0pk&NyD; qGrf;bkOf; ay;NyD;aemuf ¤if;wdkYtm;vkH; rdrdwdkY\ ae&mtoD;oD;odkY jyefoGm; Mu\/ xdkEdkifiHodkY Ak'¨omoemawmf a&muf&SdcsdefrSpNyD; bk&ifrif; onf ,if;odkY vª'gef;rIudkjyKNyD; aESmif;acwf bk&ifrif;rsm;onf 2 vnf; igwdkYacwfwdkifatmif qufvuf aqmif½GufcJhMuonf} / &o0g[deDusrf;ü ausmif;wdkufBuD;ig;ckrS &[ef;rsm;ESihf &[ef;rdef;rrsm;onf qGrf;twGuf r[mygVd (qGrf;pm;aqmif)ü pka0;MuaMumif;qdkojzifh w½kwfbk&m;zl;&[ef;awmfrsm;\ tqdk 3 udk axmufcHonf / &[ef;awmfrsm;taejzihf qGrf;pm;aqmifodkY vrf;avQmuf&ef ESihf qGrf;pm;aqmifrSjyef&ef? qGrf;avmif;vªonhfae&mü rdrdwdkY tvSnfhudk apmifhqdkif;&ef &[ef;awmfrsm; tokH;jyK&onfhtcsdefrSm 1

Fa Hien, p. 105.

3

&o0g[deD 2? 51/

2

Hiuen Tsiang Bk, XI, p. 250.

tcef; 11 &[ef;awmfrsm;\ vl rIb0 2 vIyf&Sm;rIrsm; t&yfa'otrsKd;rsKd;wGif jyefYusJaeonhf &nfñTef;csuf tydkif;tp rsm;t& a&S;acwfoD[dkVfü &[ef;awmfrsm; aexdkifcJhonhf aumif; rGefonhf b0½kyfykHvTmudk &Edkifonf/ 1

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r[dE¦avh&Sd pwkw¬r[dE´rif;\ ausmufpmrsm;/ tH-| 2? 86/ r-| 1? 128/


318 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

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0duúroaCF (yk*¾Kdvf)\ met pirit koµ [laom pum;vkH;rsm;ukd ]arwåm pdwf"mwfudk avhusihfjcif;ESihf y&dwfawmfrsm;udk ½Gwfzwfjcif;}[k bmom jyefjcif;onf Ak'¨0g'qdkif a0g[m&rsm;ESihf &if;ESD;uRrf;0ifrI vdktyfaom aMumihfjzpfonfrSm xif&Sm;onf/ Met- Pirit rSm okwåedygwfvm arwå okwå\ tjcm;trnfwpfrsKd;om jzpfonf/ ,if;okwfudk y&dwfBuD;üvnf; xnhfoGif;xm;onf/ Met-Pirit [laom a0g[m&udk ,if;okwfudk y&dwfBuD;ü xnhfoGif;aomtcg tokH;jyKonf/ 2 þausmufpmü 'kwd,tBudrf odkYr[kwf aeYv,fpmESihf ywfoufí þ ausmufpmü azmfjyjcif;r&Sd/ 3 tH-| 2? 86/

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r-| 1? 128/


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r-| 1? 189/

2

tH-| 2? 215/


326 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

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'D-| 2? 288/ r-| 2? 276/ r-| 1? 236/ 'D-| 2? 337/ tH-| 1? 32/ tH-| 2? 134/

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327

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2 3

tmp&da,m bdu©a0 taEÅ0godurSd ykwåpdwåH Oy|ayówd? taEÅ0godaum tmp&d,rdS ydwkpdwåH Oy|ayówd (0d 3? 60)/ OyZÑm a,m bdu©a0 o'¨d0d[m&durSd Oy|ayówd? o'¨d0d[m&daum OyZÑm,rSd ydwkpdwåH Oy|ayówd (0d 3? 57)/ 0d 3? 57/ &[ef;i,fwpfyg;onf omraPi,fwpfyg;ESit fh wl 'efyl&,l&ef oGm;Mu onf/ vrf;rS twefi,fa0;pGm oGm;onhf omraPi,fonf tokb bmom0emur®|mef;udk ½IrSwfNyD; r*fzdkvfokH;qifhudk &oGm;onf/ rdrdpdwf pwkw¬r*fzdkvf (&[EÅm)tqihfudk a&mufvkwGif &[ef;i,fu omraP i,ftm; vSrf;ac:onf/ omraPonf ]igonf omraPjyKonfhaeYrS pí &[ef;awmfwpfyg;u ighudk ESpfBurd fac:&onhf tjzpfrsKd;udk rjyKrlcJh zl;/ wpfaeYwGif pwkw¬r*fzdkvftqifhudk &ygvdrfhrnf}[k qifjcifonf/ odkYjzihf omraPonf ]rSefyg t&Sifbk&m;}[k csufjcif;yif jyefMum;vdkuf onf ('D-| 1? 166/ tbd-| 2? 333)/


332 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

aumif; wpfa,muftjzpf xifjrifap&ef apwDawmf&ifjyifudk wHjrufvSnf;Edkifonf? aexdkif&mtcef;udk oefY&Sif;Edkifonf? yef; wifckHrsm;udk oefY&Sif;Edkifonf? aAm"dyifudk a&avmif;Edkifonf/ vl'g,umrsm; a&SUarSmufwGif &[ef;wpfyg;onf rax&fBuD;rsm; tm; ]t&Sifbk&m;? wynfhawmf apwD&ifjyifudk wHjrufvSnf;ae ckduf jrufyifwpfcsKdU ysufpD;ukefygonf? wynhfawmftm; rnf 1 onhf tjypf&Sdygoenf;} ponhf ar;cGef;rsm;udk ar;wwfonf / rax&fBuD;u apwemrygí rnfonhf tmywfrSroifh[k ajz onf/ ]t&Sifbk&m;? odkY&mwGif wynhfawmfonf tmywfoihf onfxifrdygonf/ wynhfawmftrIEiS hf ywfoufí *½kwpdkuf ppf aq;ay;ygbk&m;}[k oDvaMumifyk*¾Kdvfu avQmufonf/ ,if;odkYaom tjyeftvSefajymqdkrIrsm;udk em;axmifrdol todynmenf;onhf 'um'umrrsm;onf ]Mo? tu,fí þ &[ef;onf þuJhodkYaom ao;i,fonhf tmywfudkyif pdk;&drf pdwfjzpfbdrl ydkrdk BuD;av;onhf tmywfudkrl rnfrQ pdk;&drfpdwf jyif; avrnfenf;}[k ,lqaumif; ,lqEdkifonf/ &[ef;onf bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufodkY a&mufvmaom vlt rsm;udk jrifygu ur®|mef;xkdifaebdouJhodkY [efaqmifEdkifonf/ ynmrwwfonhf tcsKdU&[ef;rSmrl tjcm;yk*¾Kdvfrsm;\ a&SUarSmufü {&mrynm&SifBuD;uJhodkY [efaqmifwwfonf/ oDvaMumifyk*¾Kdvf rsm;onf trSefwu,f xif&Sm;r&Sdonhf oDvorm"dynmjzihf tjcm;yk*¾Kdvfrsm;udk qGJaqmif&ef BudK;pm;cJhMuykHudkazmfjyonhf &Snf vsm;NyD; pdwf0ifpm;zG,faumif;onhf rSwfwrf;rsm;udk t|uxm 2 usrf;rsm; ü azmfjyMuonf/ ,if;rSwfwrf;rsm;u &[ef;rsm;tm; ½dk;om;jzLpifonhfb0jzihf aexdkifa&;udk ñTefMum;&ef oHCmawmf rsm;\todü rnfrQ pdk;&drfcJhMuonfudk uREkfyfwdkYtm; azmfjyonf/ 1

pdrf;pdkonhf jrufopfyifrsm;udk zsufqD;jcif;onf 0denf;odu©myk'frsm;t& ygpdwftmywfoifhonf (0d 2? 51)/ 2 tbd-| 2? 457

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tH-| 3? 160/


330 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; 1

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2

tH-| 2? 215/ tvkyfu jyefvmonfh trsKd;om;wpfa,muftm; wpf ywf½dkufoGm;onhf omraPi,frsm;taMumif; aemufjzpf &yfwpfck &Sd ao;onf/ (r-| 3? 191/ tbd-| 2? 338 udk ½Iyg/) 0dok'¨r*¾ 1? 98/

&[ef;awmfrsm;\ vlrIb0 2

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r-| 1? 82/ 'D-| 3? 210/


336 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

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&[ef;awmfrsm;\ vlrIb0 2

vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;

333

rdrdwdkY\ wynhfrsm;ESihf ydkifqdkifypönf;rsm;udk tvGef pGJvrf; onhf &[ef; (owåocFg& auVm,e yk*¾v) tcsdKUvnf; &SdcJh onf/ xdk&[ef;rsm;onf rdrdwdkY\ wynhfrsm;tm; tjcm;yk*¾Kdvf rsm;twGuf rnfonhfudpöudkrQ aqmif½GufcGifhray;? tjcm; yk*¾Kdvf 1 rsm;tm; rdrdydkifypönf;rsm;udk okH;pGJcGifhvnf; rjyKacs / aZw0em&mr ouúwausmufpmESihf r[dE¦avh&Sd pwkw¬ r[dE´rif; ausmufjym;rsm;t& at'D 9 &mpkESifh 10 &mpk &[ef; awmfrsm;\ pdwfydkif;b0tqifhtwef;vnf; edrfhykH&onf/ pdkufysKd; a&;ESihf pD;yGm;a&;udk pdwf0ifpm;ol? v,f,majrrsm; ydkifqdkifol? &[ef;usihf0wf vlYusihf0wfESpfrsKd;vkH;udk azmufzsufol? tajym tqdk Murf;wrf;NyD trSefudk rajymqdkol &[ef;tcsKdU &SdcJhonf/ ,if;odkYaom &[ef;rsm;udk ¤if;wdkYaexkdif&m bkef;BuD;ausmif;rsm;ü 2 aexdkifcGifhray;? odkYr[kwf qGrf;ouFef;wdkYudk &,lcGifh rjyKacs / bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm;ü aqG;aEG;rIrsm;ESihf ao;odrfaom tjiif;yGm;rIrsm;udk rawGU&acs/ tcsKdUaomae&mrsm;wGif ,if; aqG;aEG;jiif;ckefrIrsm;rSm ausmif;wkdufwpfcktm; tvªaiG ay;tyf rIudk azmfjyonhf at'D 9 &mpkausmufpmwpfcku ]tu,fí ausmif; wdkufwpfcktwGif; tpmtpm;rsm;udk usD;pmacG;pmtjzpf vTifhypf &rnf}[laom tajctaewpf&yfudk csrSwfxm;onfxd 3 tvGef vlodrsm; xif&Sm;cJhzG,f&Sdonf / taqmufttkHrsm;ESihf jyKjyifxdef;odrf;a&; plV0*¾ygVdawmfü aqGaEG;ajrUysufpD;aeonhf bkef;BuD;ausmif;rsm; udk jyefvnfjyKjyif&efa&m bkef;BuD;ausmif;opfrsm; wnfaqmuf 1

'D-| 3? 210/ r-| 1? 303? tbd-| 2? 272/

2

EZ. I, p. 4-5,86.

3

aumvk'd,aygukP*l ausmufpm (Kaludiyapokuºa)

EZ.III,. 258.


334 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; 1

&efyg Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf cGifhjyKawmfrlaMumif; qdkonf / Ak'¨&Sifawmf jrwf y&dedAÁmef pHveG fawmfrlNyD;aemuf &Sifawmfjrwf\ w&m;awmf rsm;udk oH*g,emwif&ef &mZN*dK[fNrdKUü &[ef;awmfrsm; pnf;a0; 2 Muaomtcg Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf rdefYrSmawmfrlonhftwdkif; yxr wpfv tcsdeftcgudk ysufpD;aqG;ajrUaeonhf bkef;BuD;ausmif; rsm;udkjyKjyif&ef qkH;jzwfcJhMuonf/ odkYjzihf a&S;OD; &[ef;awmfrsm; onf rdrdwdkY oDwif;okH;&m ausmif;wdkufrsm;udk jyKjyifrIudk rdrdwdkY\ wm0ef 0wå&m;tjzpf ,lqcJhMuonf/ odkYjzpfívnf; aZw0em&mr ouúwausmufpmü &[ef; awmfrsm;ESifh oufqdkifonhf ae&mrSeforQudk rysufpD;raqG;ajrU atmif apmihfa&Smmuf&rnf[k csrSwfxm;onf/ bkef;BuD;ausmif; wdkufwpfckü aexkdifonfh &[ef;awmfwpfyg;onf taqmuf ttkHopfrsm; aqmufvkyf&ef odkYr[kwf taqmufttkHa[mif; rsm; jyefjyif&ef tvkyfudkrvkyfcJhvQif rdrdwm0efudk Oayu©mjyKae 3 vQif tjcm;yk*¾Kdvfrsm;\ uJh&JUjcif;udkcH&onf / odkYjzpfí bkef;BuD; ausmif;wdkufwpfckü oDwif;okH;aexdkifonhf &[ef;awmfwpfyg; onf xdkae&m wdk;wufrIESihf ywfoufonfh tcsKdUaom vkyfief; rsKd;udk ykHrSeftm;jzihf aqmif½Guf&onf/ odkY&mwGif &[ef;onf wpfcgwpf&H ur®|mef;bm0em tm;xkwfjcif;ESifh pmayoifMum; jcif;wdkYü tcsdefjynhf `rIyfESHxm;edkif&ef ,if;odkYaom yvdaAm" 4 vkyf&yfrsm;udk wm;jrpf Oyrmrsm;vnf; &SdMuonf / 1

2

3

4

tEkZmemrd bdu©a0 e0ur®H 'gwkH? e0ur®daum bdu©a0 bdu©K OokuúH tmyZÆdówd udEÅd Ekacg 0d[ma&m cdyÜH y&da,momeH *apä,smwd c@zkv’H y#docF&dówd (0d 3? 308)/ b*0wm acg tm0kaom c@zkv’y#docF&PH 0PÖdwH/ [E´ r,H c@zkv’H y#docF&dómr (0d 4? 482)/ e00d[ma& A[kH e0ur®H a[mwd/ tua&mEÅH OZÑm,EÅd (0dok'¨dr*¾ 1? 118)/ ZdPÖ0d[ma& ye A[kH y#dZ*¾wAÁH a[mwd/ tEÅraom twåaem aoemoerwårÜd ty#dZ*¾EÅH OZÑm,EÅd (0dok'¨dr*¾ 1? 118)/ ,if;? 118/

&[ef;awmfrsm;\ vlrIb0 2

vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;

335

a,bk,stm;jzihfqdkrl &[ef;awmfrsm;tm;vkH;onf aexdkif &mausmif;rsm;udk wnfaqmuf jyKjyifxdef;odrf;rIrsm;ESihf ywfouf onf/ apwDawmfudk jyKjyifjcif;? aAm"daqmif odkYr[kwf Oayg oxaqmifudk rdk;jcif;ponhf &nf½G,fcsufrsm;jzihf tcgtm;avsmf pGm pnf(ab&D) odkYr[kwf armif;(*@d)rsm;udk wD;cwfjcif;wdkY 1 twGuf xkH;pHrsm;&SdcJhonf / &[ef;awmfrsm;onf tvGefa&S;us onhfacwfrsm; tcsdefuyif tEkynmonfrsm;tjzpf jyKrlcJhMu onf/ r[m0Hoonf udk;xyf&Sdonhf avm[ygom' (aMu; jymo'f) tkwfjrpf (Plan)udk 'k|*grPdrif;BuD; awmif;yefcsuft& 2 &[EÅmrax&fBuD; &Spfyg;ua&;qGJcJhonf / ½k0ef0gvdqm, (Ruvanvälisäya) t&yf&Sd "mwfawmfwdkuf wnfaqmufa&;vkyfief; £E´*kwåtrnf&Sd &[EÅmrax&fBuD;\ BuD;MuyfuGyfuJrIjzihf wnf 3 aqmufcJhonf / &[ef;awmfrsm;onf r[mapwDawmfudk wnf aqmuf&ef tkwfrsm; o,faqmifjcif;uJhodkYaom enf;rsm;jzihf t 4 vkyfMurf;rsm;udkyif aqmif½GufcJhaMumif; od&onf / rZÑdredum,f t|uxmü &Sif;vif;csufrsm;t& r[mapwDawmfudk xkH;okwf onfh aomwmyefjzpfoGm;onhf &[ef;awmfwpfyg; taMumif;udk 5 rSwfwrf;wifxm;onf / uw&*gr (at'D 1 ESihf 2 &mpk) ausmufjym;a&;pm wpfck wGif eE´trnf&onhf rax&fwpfyg;onf xdkaus;½Gm&Sd apwDtm; t½G,fBuD;atmif wdk;csJUrGr;f cJhNyD; 0ifaygufav;ckü em,uq&m 6 awmfrsm;\ oabmwlcsufjzihf ausmufjym;rsm;cscJhonf / bmom 1 3 4 5 6

tH-| 1? 397/ ,if; 3? 89/ ,if; 3? 19-41/ r-| 2? 300/

2

r[m0Ho 27? 9-20/

EZ. III, p. 215. eE´rax&fonf ,if;udk jyKvkyfcJhykH&onf/ o&PF& oHC&mZm\ wynhfrsm;onf at'D 18 &mpkwGif ysufpD;,dk,Gif; aeonhf ausmif;rsm;udk jyefvnfjyKjyif wnfaqmufouJhodkY odkYr[kwf em&ef0dw okreom&rax&fonf at'D 19 &mpk\ aemufqkH;ESpf0ufwGif ½k0ef0gvd


340 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

wpfcgwpf&H &[ef;awmfrsm;\ pdwftm½kHonf aus;½Gm tvS r,frsm;udkomru eef;wGif;ol tvStyrsm;odkYyif a&mufoGm; onf/ avm[ygom'rS &[ef;ysKdwpfyg;ESihf o'¨gwdórif;\ ta>ct&H trsKd;orD; wpfa,mufonf tcspftwGuf touf 1 pGefYMuaMumif; od&onf / apwd,*d&dausmif;wdkufrS toufBuD; NyD;rS &[ef;jyKvmol pdwåtrnf&onhf tjcm;&[ef;awmf wpfyg; onf r[m'gXdu r[mem*rif; (at'D 67-79) \ acsmarmvSy onhf wrD;vfrdzk&m;ysKdtm; cspfonhfpdwfjzihf ½l;oGyfoGm;NyD; r[dE¦ 2 avh&Sd &[ef;i,frsm;\ ajymifavSmifp&m yk*¾KdvfjzpfoGm;onf / &[ef;awmfrsm;onf bdu©KeDrsm;ESihf cspfBudKufonhf om"u rsm;vnf; &Sdonf/ wpfcgaomf &[ef;i,frsm;onf r[mapwD awmfü okwåefrsm;udk ½Gwfzwf o&ZÑm,fMuonf/ naeydkif;wGif jzpfzG,f&Sdonf/ i,f½G,fonhf bdu©KeDrrsm;onf &[ef;awmfrsm; teD;üuyfvsuf ½GwfzwfoHudk em,l&if; xdkifMuonf/ &[ef;ysKd wpfyg;onf rdrdvufudk aemufzufodkY qefYwef;vdkufpOf bdu©KeDr i,f\udk,fudk xdrdonf/ bdu©KeDri,fonf &[ef;ysKd\ vufudk udkifNyD; &ifbwfay:ü wifxm;onf/ ¤if;wdkY ESpfOD;onf t 3 csif;csif; arwåmydkoGm;NyD; aemifwGif vlxGufoGm;Muonf / rZÑdredum,f t|uxmü ESpfoufzG,f jzpf&yfwpfck azmfjy 4 onf / r&dp0¥d0d[m& (bDpD 1 &mpk) vª'gef;yGJ tcrf;tem;wGif rsm;pGmaom bdu©K bdu©KeDrsm;onf tEk&m"yk&NrdKUawmfü pka0;Mu 1 2

3 4

tH-| 1? 17/ ynm&Sif t'du&rf u ,if;rSm oifwef;wpfck[k ,lqonf (EHBC, p. 127.)/ odkY&mwGif ,if;onf &[ef;awmfrsm; apwDawmfü &Sdcdk;0wfjyKMu NyD;aemuf &[ef;awmfrsm;\ naeydkif;wGif okwåefrsm; ½Gwfzwfjcif;om jzpfonf/ ,if;tavhtusihfonf ,aeYacwf Ak'¨0g'D&[ef;awmfrsm; wkdif &Sdao;onf/ wpfcgwpf&HwGif trsKd;om; trsKd;orD;rsm;onfvnf; "r®½GwfzwfoHudk em,l&ef xdkifMuonf/ r-| 1? 288/ 269/ 'D-| 1? 176/ tbd-| 2? 343/ tH-| 1? 20/ r-| 2? 51/

&[ef;awmfrsm;\ vlrIb0 2

vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;

337

pdwåvyAÁwausmif;ae wdó&[ef;onf &[ef;b0udk pdwf ysufNyD; vlxGuf&ef qkH;jzwfvsuf q&mrax&ftm; xdkudpöudk avQmufxm;onf/ q&mrax&fum; t&nftcsif; jynfh0onhf yk*¾Kdvfjzpfonf/ wdó? ,ck ig tdkrif;NyD/ ightwGuf aexdkifp&m ausmif;wpfck wnfaqmufOD;avmh}[k wynfh&[ef;i,ftm; rdeYf Mum;onf/ &[ef;i,f xdkudpöudk csufjcif;yif oabmwlvdkuf onf/ ,if;aemuf rax&fu ]ausmif;aqmufaepOftwGif; oif \ ur®|mef;tm½kHudk rarhESihf/ tcgtm;avsmfpGm uodkPf;wpf ckckudk yGm;rsm;avmh}[k qdkonf/ wdóuvnf; oabmwlonf/ &[ef;awmf wdóonf *lwpfckudk &Sif;vif;NyD; eH&Hrsm;udk wnf aqmufonf? 0ifaygufwHcg;ESihf jywif;aygufrsm;udk wyfqif onf? vdktyfonfrsm; tm;vkH;udk jyifqifNyD;aemuf q&mrax&f tm; taMumif;Mum;onf/ ]wdó? oifonf þausmif;udk cuf yifyef;pGm aqmufvkyf&onf? tb,faMumihf wpfnavmuf þ ausmif;üraebJ aebdoenf;}[k q&mrax&fu rdefYqdkonf/ wynhf&[ef;u em;axmifonf/ &[ef;i,fonf ajcaxmufudk aq;aMumNyD; *lxJudk0ifvsuf wifyv†ifacGxkdifum pwif w&m; ½IrSwfonf/ &[ef;i,fonf rdrb d 0ESihf tvkyftaMumif;udk qif jcifESvkH;oGif;vsuf pdwfudk 0dyóemur®|mef; tm½kHodkY pl;pdkuf xm;vdkufojzihf &[EÅm jzpfoGm;onf/ odkYjzpfí taqmufttkH wpfckudk aqmufvkyfjcif;jzihf tvkyfrsm;jcif;onf udavmomudk 1 t<uif;rJh y,f&Sm;&ef taxmuftyHhjyKaMumif; ,lqonf / udavomudk y,f&Sm;&ef enf;vrf; wpfckjzpfonhf ,if;odkY aom wnfaqmufjyKjyif tvkyfrsKd;udk pdwfykdif;b0 avhusihfrIwGif raysmfydkufbJ qkwfepfaeonhf &[ef;awmfrsm; twGufom azmf jyjcif;jzpfonf/ rdrd\ pdwfydkif;b0 wdk;wufrItwGuf BudK;yrf; tm;xkwf&ef ESpfESpfumum vdkvm;onhf yk*¾Kdvfwpfa,muf tzdkYrl 1

tH-| 1? 34/


338 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

,if;odkYaom vkyfief;rsm;udk a&Smif&Sm;&rnfh yvdaAm" (t 1 aESmifht,Suf) tjzpf ,lqonf / ESvkH;om;a&;&m udpörsm; &[ef;awmfrsm;\ b0onf wif;MuyfpGm xdef;csKyfxm;aomfvnf; tcgtm;avsmfpGm ESvkH;om;a&;&m uJhodkYaom Mum;0ifudpörsm;rS rvGwfajrmufEdkifbJ &SdMuonf/ &[ef;i,frsm;udk apmihfa&SmufMu onfh rax&fBuD;rsm;onf jzm;a,mif;rIESifh tEÅ&m,frsm;\ om;aumifrsm; jzpfoGm;jcif;rS rdrdwdkY\ wynfhrsm;udk umuG,f&ef 2 twwfEdkifqkH; BudK;pm;Muonf / umV'DC0gyd'Gg&0d[m&\ em,uq&mawmfonf ½GmwGif; odkY t0iftxGuf rjyKrSom i,f½G,fol pmoifom; &[ef;awmf rsm;tm; oifMum;ay;&ef oabmwlonf/ q&mrax&fonf wynhf&[ef; taejzihf ½GmwGif;ü jzm;a,mif;rI tcsKdUudk t½IH;ay; &rnfudk pdk;&drfaomaMumihf jzpfonf/ ,if;aus;½GmrSm raumif; owif; xGufcJhzG,f&Sdonf/ xdk&[ef;i,fonf tb,faMumifh rdrdq&monf rdrdtm; ½GmwGif;odkY 0ifa&mufjcif;udk wm;jrpf xm;&oenf;[lonfudk od atmif pkHprf;vdkpdwf tvdktavsmuf wdk;yGm;cJhonf/ odkYjzpfí pmayavh vmoifMum;rINyD;aemuf rdrdae&yfodkY tjyefwGif &[ef; i,fonf xdkaus;½Gmvrf;twdkif; jzwfavQmufonf/ t0ga&mif t0wftpm;udk 0wfqifxm;onhf vkHrysKdwpfa,mufonf tdrfrS 1 2

0dok'¨r*¾ 1? 87/ iwfrGwfacgif;yg;pOf umvtwGif;rSmyif r[max&fwpfyg;onf pdwfxJü oHo,jzpfaprItwGuf omraPi,f wpfyg;tm; jypf'Pf ay;awmh rnfhqJqJ jzpfcJhonf/ aemiftcg yd#uwfokH;ykHudk uRrf;usifonhf 0wåAÁu edaj*m"&[ef;tjzpf xif&Sm;vmonhf omraP i,fonf tm½kHrwufrD tm&nu ("kwif)udk aqmufwnf&ef awmodkY xGufoGm;cJhonf/ odkY&mwGif q&mrax&fonf rdrdwynhfomraP rnfodkYjzpfoGm;cJhonf udk rodacs (tbd-| 2? 432)/

&[ef;awmfrsm;\ vlrIb0 2

vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;

339

xGufvmNyD; &[ef;awmf\ oydwfxJodkY ,m*kqGrf; avmif;vª onf/ vkHri,fonf &[ef;awmftm; jrifvQifjrifcsif; cspfBudKuf oGm;vsuf tdrfxJjyef0ifNyD; tdyf&may:wGif vJavsmif;aeonf/ tb,faMumifh ,if;odkYjzpf&onfudk rdef;rysKd\ rdbrsm;u pkHprf;ar;jrefaomtcg &[ef;ysKd\ arwåmudk r&vQif rdrdtouf &Sifawmhrnf r[kwf[k ajymMum;onf/ rdbrsm;onf &[ef;awmf\ aemufodkY ajy;vdkufoGm;NyD; &Sd cdk;OD;ñGwfNyD; &[ef;ysKdtm; qGrf;udk rdrdwdkYtdrfwGif bkOf;ay;&ef yihf avQmufonf/ odkY&mwGif &[ef;i,fu jyefvm&ef jiif;qdkonf/ ,if;aemuf rdbESpfyg;onf &[ef;i,ftm; vQKdU0Sufcsufudk zGifh [ajymqdkonf ]t&Sifbk&m;? wynhfawmfwdkYonf jynfhpkH<u,f0NyD; orD;unm wpfOD;om&Sdyg\/ t&Sifbk&m;onf wynhfawmfwdkY\ om;tjzpf aysmf½TifpGm aexdkifygavmh}[k avQmufMuonf/ odkYwap &[ef;i,fonf csufjcif;yif q&mt&Sif\ tMuHjyK csufudkawG;rdNyD; ,if;onf BuD;pGmaom tEÅ&m,fjzpfaMumif; od jrifNyD; xGufajy;cJhonf/ trsKd;orD;i,fonf tpm;tpmrpm;bJ vGrf;aqG;NyD; aoqkH;oGm;onf/ tokbtcrf;tem;NyD;aemuf rdbrsm;onf trsKd;orD;i,f 0wfqifonhf t0ga&mift0wfudk teD;tem;&Sd ausmif;wdkufwpf ckodkY vª'gef;vdkufonf/ ,if;t0ga&mift0wfrS tydkif;tpwpfck udk tvªa0pk&&Sdonhf &[ef;awmfwpfyg;onf auvPd,odkY bk&m;zl;c&D;oGm;pOf xdkae&mwGiaf exdkifcJhol &[ef;i,ftm; ,if; jzpf&yfukefpifudk taMumif;wdkufqdkif&if; ajymjyvdkufonf/ & [ef;i,fonf opömwnfwHhNyD; cspfjrwfEdk;wwfonfh b0Muif azmfudk &&Sdonhf tcGifhta&; qkH;½IH;rItwGuf rsm;pGm aemifw& 1 NyD; &[ef;i,fonfvnf; aomujzihf ysHvGefawmfrlonf / 1

r-| 1? 288/ tH-| 1? 17/ &ufuef;onfrudk BudKufNyD; tdrfaxmif jyK oGm;onhf omraPi,fwpfyg; taMumif;vnf; &Sdonf (tbd-| 2? 281/ r-| 3? 189)/


344 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

usihfBuHMuonhf &[ef;awmfrsm;rSm rsm;aomtm;jzihf tazmfryg 1 bJ wpfyg;wnf; oGm;Muonf / tEÅ&m,frsm;NyD; cufcJvSonhf tdE´d,&Sd Ak'¨*,m r[maAm"d odkY bk&m;zl;c&D;udkrl wpfcgwpf&H Oygoum Oygodumrsm; yg 0ifNyD;ykHrSeftm;jzihf tkyfpkvdkuf oGm;Muonf/ tEk&m"yk&NrdKUrS Ak'¨ *,mtxd c&D;pOfwpfckvkH;twGuf q,fv odkYr[kwf q,fhESpfv 2 txd Mumonf / oD[dkVfwGif bk&m;zl;c&D;oGm;rnfh xif&Sm;onhfae&m rsm;pGm &Sdonf/ tEk&m"yk&NrdKU&Sd r[maAm"dESihf r[mapwd, (½k0ef 3 a0vdqm,) t&yfwdkYrSm tvGefxif&Sm;onf / em*'Dy (,aeY 4 acwf *smzemuRef;qG,f)vnf; xyfwlyif vlodrsm;onf / awmif 5 zufwGif wdóm&mr0d[m& ESihf taemufzufwGif uvsmPD 6 apwD wdkYrSm tjcm;xif&Sm;onhf ae&mrsm;jzpfMuonf/ wpfcgwpf 7 &H orEÅul# (od&dyg')udkvnf; azmfjyonf / azmfjyyg xif&Sm; onhf ae&mrsm;odkY oGm;a&mufonhf c&D;pOfwGif bk&m;zl;rsm;onf rdrdwdkY jzwfausmf&onhf tjcm;bmoma&;qdkif&m ae&mrsm;udk vnf; ylaZmf0wfjyKMuonf/ bk&m;zl;wpfa,muf\ xdktcsdefu tusKd;w&m;rsm;rSm rsm; pGm&Sdonf/ ,if;onf tajccHtm;jzihf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfudk,fwdkif a[mMum;csufESihftnD a&S;acwf tpOftvmt& apwd,pm&d umjzpfonf/ EdkifiHwpf0ef;vkH;odkY c&D;oGm;jcif;onf opfqef;onhf 1

tH-| 2? 279/ &o0g[deD 2? 124-125/ tEk&m"yk&NrdKUrS aum¥y¥e (o'¨r®mvuFm& usrf;ü ,if;udk rm0#Ky#KH*r[kac:onf)odkY 4 vMumonf/ aum¥y¥e rS tjcm;urf; (y&wD&)odkY yifv,fc&D;jzihf 2 vMuonf/ xdkae&mrS Ak'¨*,m r[maAm"dodkY 4 vMumonf/ 3 tbd-| 2? 332/ 0dok'¨dr*¾ 1? 139/ 4 5 'D-| 2? 125/ r-| 2? 295/ tH-| 3? 92/ tH-| 1? 396/ 6 &o0g[deD 2? 17/ tbd-| 2? 338/ 7 &o0g[deD 2? 17/ 2

&[ef;awmfrsm;\ vlrIb0 2

vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;

341

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349

tvªypönf;rsm;udkyif xdkufwefoljzpf&rnf[k xufoefpGm cH,lMu onf/ odkYwap vdktyfcsdefürl rdbrsm;udk tmrdo'ge (ypönf;0w¬K vª'gef;rI) jzihf ulnDNyD; jyKpkapmihfa&Smihf&ef &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; 1 ñTefMum;onf / *kdPf;uGJ odkYr[kwf edum,rsm; oHCmawmfrsm;twGif; oabmxm;uGJvGJrIrsm; jzpfay:cJhykHESihf oD [dkVfü edum,rsm; odkYr[kwf *dkPf;uGJrsm; pwifcJhykHudk a&S;tcef; rsm;ü azmfjyNyD;jzpfonf/ ordkif;usrf;rsm;ü edum,okH;rsKd; (edum 2 ,wå,)udk rMumcP &nfñTef;Muonf / r[mem*bk&if (at'D 556-568)onf apwDBuD;okH;ql (r[mapwd,wå,)udk jyKjyifcJh aMumif;ESifh edum,okH;ckrS &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; ouFef;rsm; vª 3 'gef;cJhaMumif;od&onf / þae&mü azmfjyonfh apwDBuD;okH;ql [lonf tEk&m"yk&NrdKU&Sd ok0PÖrmvD (Ruvanväli-säya)? tb, *d&dESihf aZw0eapwDwdkYjzpfonfrSm aocsmNyD; ,if;apwDBuD; okH;qlwdkYonf t"duausmif;wdkufBuD;okH;ckudk toD;toD; udk,f pm;jyKonf/ a,bk,stm;jzihf edum,wpfckonf ausmif;wdkuf BuD;wpfck\ trnfemrjzihf xif&Sm;onf/ odkYjzpfí r[m0HoygVd ordkif;ü azmfjyonfh edum,okH;ck[lonf r[m0d[m&? tb, *d&dESihf aZw0ewdkYjzpfaMumif; oHo,jzpf&ef taMumif;r&Sdacs/ "r®½kpdESihf om*vd,[kac:onhf tjcm;*kdPf;uGJESpfck &Sdao; onf/ odkY&mwGif txufwGif awGU&NyD;onfhtwdkif; wpfcgwpf&H ,if;wdkYudk ,cifemrnfa[mif;rsm;jzihf &nfñTef;aomfvnf; ,if; 4 wdkYudk tb,*d&dESifh aZw0ewdkYü toD;oD; xnhfoGif;onf / 1 2 3 4

0d-| 2? 68/ r[m0Ho 41? 97/ 44? 131/ 45? 16/ 48? 73/ ponf/ ,if; 41? 95? 97/ r[m0Ho 5? 13/ 39? 41/ 42? 43/ 47? 1-2/ 52? 17/


5/ tEk&m"yk&NrdKU? a'0geHyd,wdórif; (bDpD 3 &mpk) pdkufysKd;cJhaom Ak'¨*,m r[maAm"d yifyGm;awmf urÇmay:wGif oufwrf; t&SnfqkH; aAm"danmifyif jzpfonf/

1/ t&Sifr[mAk'¨aCmo (at'D ig;&mpk) onf rdrda&;om;aom 0dok'¨dr*¾t|uxmusrf;udk tEk&m"yk&NrdKU? r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkuf oHCmawmftm; tyfESif;pOf (auvPd0d[m& ausmif;wdkufrS yef;csDum;)


2/ uE´DNrdKU? jrwfAk'¨ pG,fawmfwdkuf (at'D 4 &mpkwGif tdE´d,awmifykdif;rS yifhaqmifcJhonf)

4/ tEk&m"yk&NrdKU? r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkufteD; a'0geHyd,wdórif;BuD; wnf;cJhaom xlyg&mrapwD (bDpD 3 &mpk)

3/ bDpD 3 &mpkwGif t&Sifr[dE´ESihf tdE´d,oHCmig;yg; yxqkH; <ua&mufoDwif;okH;cJhonhf rdóuawmif (,ck r[DE¦avh)


12/ a0ó*d&d,rS &[EÅm*lrsm;

6/ tEk&m"yk&NrdKU? r[mapwD (bDpD 1 &mpk)

13/ a&S;acwf bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkuf 7/ tEk&m"yk&NrdKU? r[m0d[m&ausmif;wdkufteD; emrnfausmf avm[ygom' (aMu;jymo'f) ausmif;awmf&m


8/ r&Dpd0#³d,apwDawmf (bDpD 1 &mpk)

10/ tb,*d&dapwD (bdpD 1 &mpk)

9/ r[dE¦avhrS a&S;acwf qGrf;pm;ausmif;

11/ aZw0eapwD (at'D 4 &mpk)


350 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

edum,okH;ckwdkYESihf ,SOfvsuf &nfñTef;cH&onfh tjcm;edum ,ESpfckvnf; &Sdonf/ r[m0Housrf;1ü pwkw¬t*¾aAm"drif; (at'D 658-674)onf ,if;edum,ESpfckrS ausmif;wkdufrsm;tm; xdef;odrf;&ef aus;½Gmrsm;pGm vª'gef;NyD; tjcm;edum,okH;cktm; 2 aus;½Gmwpfaxmif vª'gef;aMumif; jyqdkonf / ,if;edum,ESpfck rSm edum,BuD;okH;ckwGif ygryg odkYr[kwf "r®½kpdESihf om*vd, odkYr[kwf tjcm;edum,ESpfrsKd;avm[lonfudkrl &Sif;vif;pGm rod &acs/ 0DvsH *dkif*g u þae&mü xlyg&mrESihf r&Dp0¥d0d[m& 3 rsm;udk qdkvdkzG,f&SdaMumif; ,lqonf / odkY&mwGif ,if;wdkYudk oD;jcm;edum,ESpfcktjzpf &nfñTef;xm;onfrSm rxif&Sm;ay/ ,if;odkYaom edum, odkYr[kwf *dkPf;uGJrsm;taMumif;udk rMum;&rDwGif bDpD wpf&mpk aemufqkH; ESpf0ufcefY rSwfwrf;rsm; wGif "r®uxduESihf yHokulvdu[k oHCmtkyfpk ESpfckudk awGU& 4 onf / ,if; wdkYonf oD;jcm;*dkPf;uGJrsm;r[kwfbJ aexdkifenf; ESpfrsKd;jzihf aexdkifMuonfh tkyfpkESpfckom jzpfonf/ "r®uxdu[l 1

,if; 45? 15-16/ wxm 'GdEéH edum,meH? 0d[ma& rE´ypöa,/ 'doGm 0gydp okwGm 0g? abm**gar A[l t'g/ A[kem udEÅK 0kawåe? eduma,okyd wDokyd/ t'g *gro[óH aom? o[kyÜg'H e&mukvH/ 2 plV0Ho? t*Fvdyfbmomjyef 1? pm – 99? rSwfcsuf 2/ 3 tu,fí txufwGif udk;um;azmfjyxm;onhf r[m0Ho (tcef; 45? 15-16) *gxmESpfyk'fudk wpfqufwnf;,lvQif ]A[kem udEÅK 0kawåe = rsm;rsm;qdkí tb,ftusKd;&SdtHhenf;}[laom pmaMumif;rSm pOf;pm;zG,f jzpfvmonf/ ,if;onf *gxmtrSwf 5 wGif azmfjyNyD; edum,ESpfckonf *gxmtrSwf 16 ü azmfjyonhf edum,ESpfckwGif yg0ifonf/ 0d-| 1? 266 ü ausmif;wdkufBuD; ig;wkduf (yÍör[m0d[m&) udk azmfjyonf/ &o0g[deD 2? pm – 51 üvnf; ausmif;wdkufBuD; ig;wdkuf (yÍör[m0go) taMumif;udk qdkonf/ ,if;wdkYrSm rnfonfht&mrsm; jzpf onfudk twdtus rqdkEdkifacs/ odkY&mwGif edum, odkYr[kwf *dkPf;uGJrsm; r[kwfonfrSm aocsmonf/ 4 tH-| 1? 71/

&[ef;awmfrsm;\ vlrIb0 2

vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;

351

onf pmaya0g[m&tm;jzihf w&m;a[mq&m[k t"dyÜm,f& onf/ ,if;tkyfpkü pmaywwfuRrf;onhf q&mrax&frsm; yg0if Mujcif;rSm xif&Sm;onf/ yHou k lvdu[lonf yHoulouFef;rsm; udkom 0wf½kHonfh tkyfpkjzpfonf/ xdkrax&frsm;ü tqihf okH;rsKd; &Sdonf/ yxrtqihfrSm xdkokomefrsm;wGif pGefYypfxm;onhf ydwf prsm;udk aumuf,lNyD; csKyfpyfxm;onhf ouFef;rsm;udkom 0wf ½kHMujcif;jzpfonf/ 'kwd,tqihfrSm &[ef;awmfrsm; tokH;jyK&ef Oygoumrsm;u [dkae&m onfae&mwGif pGefYypfxm;onhf ydwfp rsKd;pkHudk aumuf,lNyD; ouFef;csKyfjcif;jzpfonf/ wwd, tqihf rSm &[ef;awmfrsm;\ ajc&if;wGif Oygoumrsm; ypfcsxm;onhf ouFef;udkyif vufcHMujcif;jzpfonf/ odkY&mwGif ,if;wdkY tm;vkH; onf rdrdwdkY\qE´ESihf ESpfoufrIrsm;t& OygoumwdkY vª'gef; onhf ouFef;udk vufcH,ljcif; r&SdMuacs1/ r[m0HorSwfwrf; tcsKdUt& at'D 8 &mpkESihf 10 &mpkrsm;ü bk&ifrif;rsm; vª'gef; onhf ouFef;udk vufcHonhf yHoulaqmifrax&frsm;rSm wwd, 2 qifh yk*¾Kdvfrsm;jzpfonf / odkYwap *dkPf;uGJtrsKd;rsKd; ay:aygufvmaomtcg xdk*kdPf; uGJrsm; twGif;rSmyif yHhoulaqmifrsm; &SdvmMuonf/ odkYjzpfí r[m0d[m&*dkPf;0if yHhoulaqmif rax&frsm;ESihf&SdouJhodkY tb 3 ,*d&d*dkPf;0if rsm;vnf;&SdMuonf / odkYwap 'kwd,aoerif; (at'D 851-885)eef;pH 22 ESpfajrmufwGif tb,*d&d*dkPf;0if yHhoulaqmif rax&frsm;onf uGJjym;oGm;NyD; oD;jcm;*dkPf;tjzpf 4 wnfaxmifMuonf / ,if;tkyfpkonf oD;jcm;*dkPf;tjzpf quf 1

0dok'¨dr*¾ 1? 61/ r[m0Ho 48? 16/ 52? 27/ 53? 48/ 54? 25/ *dkif*gonf tcef; 52? *gxmtrSwf 27 \ 'kwd,pmaMumif;udk ]yHok ulvdurmwleH}[k zwfonf/ udkvrÁKdrlü ]yHokulvdubdu©LeH} [k qdkonf/ þae&mü ]rmwleH}[k zwfNyD; ]bdu©LeH}[k rzwf&ef taMumif;r&Sdacs/ 3 tH-| 2? 279/ r[m0Ho 47? 66/ 50? 52/ 4 r[m0Ho 51? 52/ 2


&[ef;awmfrsm;\ vlrIb0 2

vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;

353

yHokulvduESihf tm&nuwdkYrSm "kwif 13 yg;teuf ESpfrsKd; omjzpfonf/ yd@ygwduuJhodkYaom tjcm;"kwifrsm;udk aqmuf wnfonhf &[ef;awmfrsm;vnf; &SdMuonf/ odkYwap ,if;wdkYudk oD;jcm;*dkPf;rsm;tjzpf r,lqMuacs/ yHokulvduESihf tm&nu rsm;udkomvQif oD;jcm;*dkPf;tjzpf ,lqjcif;ESihf ywfoufí pkHprf; zG,f&SdNyD; ,if;udpötwGuf ESpfoufavmufonhf &Sif;vif;csuf& &ef rjzpfEdkifacs/ bdu©KeDrsm; bdu©KeDrsm;\ vIyf&Sm;rItaMumif;udk tenf;i,frQom od&onf/ at'D 10 &mpkwGif a&;xdk;onhf ukuk½kr[E´reausmufpmwGif (tEk&m"yk&) NrdKUawmf twGif;&Sd Hight Street ay:&Sd r[dE´m&mr [kxif&Sm;onhf bdu©KeDausmif;wdkuf\ a&SUwGif aq;½kHwpfck&SdcJh 1 aMumif; jyqdkonf / bdu©KeDrsm;onf aq;½kHrsm;wGif olemjyKrsm; uJhodkY tvkyftauR;jyKEdkifoavm [lonfudk ar;jref;vdkayonf/

1

onf/ aESmif;acwfrsm;wGif tm&nursm;vnf; *gr0goDrsm;uJhodkY tod ynmqdkif&m &,lvdkrIwGif rsm;pGmpdwf0ifpm;NyD; bmomw&m;ESihf rywf oufavmufaom usrf;pmrsm;a&;om;rIudkyif aqmif½GufMuonf/ tm &nu0goD 'drÁKvm*v r[muóyrax&f a&;om;onhf Amvm0 aAm"e ouúwo'´gusrf;rSm erlemaumif;wpfck jzpfonf/ xdktcsdefrSpí t&n0goDESihf *gr0goDwdkYtMum; jcm;em;csufrSm trnfemrrQom &SdykH &NyD; avhusihftm;xkwfrItaejzihf jcm;em;csuf &SdykHr&acs/ t&nursm; vnf; *gr0goDrsm;\ b0aeenf;udk ESpfoufykH&onf/ ,if;ESpfrsKd;vkH;udk aemifwGif *gr0goD t&n0goDESpfrsKd;vkH;aeonhf Ob,0goDrsm;[k ac: Muonf (edum,o*F[? pm – 20? 22? 24)/ uE´dNrdKU&Sd ,aeYacwf rv 0wåESihf tó*d&d,[laom t"duausmif;wdkufESpfckrSm ,cifu *gr 0goDESihf t&n0goD jzpfcJhonhf Ob,0goDrsm;rS qif;oufcJhykH&onf/ vmb0goD[k xif&Sm;aom aemuf&[ef;tkyfpkwpfpkudk at'D 10 &mpkESihf aESmif;ydkif;wGif jzpfonf (r[m0Ho 54? 27/ 60? 68? 72)/ odkY&mwGif ,if;taMumif; tenf;i,frQom od&onf/ EZ. II, p. 22.


354 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

om"ursm;pGmonf jynhfpkH<u,f0onhf bdu©KeDausmif;wdkufrsm;udk 1 bk&ifrif;rsm;ESihf rdzk&m;rsm;u wnfaqmufcJhMuonf / 'Dy0Ho usrf;ü xif&Sm;onhf bdu©KeDrsm;pm&if;udk azmfjyaomfvnf; 0denf;udk oifMum;ay;Muonf[laom tcsufrSwpfyg; ¤if;wdkY\ tvkyftudkif taMumif;udk wpfpGef;wpfprQ rod&acs/ bdu©KeDr rsm;vnf; &[ef;awmfrsm;uJhodkY wlnDaom b0wpfckudkyif ae xdkifcJhrnfrSm oHo,jzpfzG,f taMumif;r&Sdacs/ 1

r[m0Ho 39? 43/ 66? 27/ 00000000


360 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

1

pm;csufrsKd; &rdonf / bDpD 1 &mpk 'k|*grPdrif;ESihf ¤if;\nDawmf o'¨gwdórif; 2 vufxufwGif &[EÅmrax&frsm;pGmwdkY &SdcJhaMumif;qdkonf / odkY&m wGif tvGefxl;jcm;pGmyif o'¨gwdórif;u &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; rdrd\ av;pm;rIudk xdkufwefonhf yk*¾Kdvfrsm;udkomvQif t,s 3 (t&Sif)[k ac:rnfjzpfaMumif; awmif;yefrIudk awGU&onf / ,if; awmif;yefrIonf bDpDwpf&mpk oHCmawmfrsm;tay: a&mifjyef [yfcsufwpf&yf jzpfonfrSm oHo,jzpfzG,frvdkacs/ o'¨gwdó rif;onf rdrdvufxufü &[ef;ta&twGuf rsm;jcif;udk ESpfouf ykHr&bJ rdrdtaejzihf rwkefvIyfaom o'¨gw&m;jzifh MunfndKEdkif 4 rnfholudk rawGUEdkifbJ jzpfaeykH&onf / azmfjyyg rsufarSmufypöu© vlYtzGJUtpnf;tay: a,bk,s tm;jzihf rESpfoufbJ twdwfudk csD;rGrf;jcif;rsKd;udk Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf vufxufawmftxd jyefí ajc&mcHEdkifonf/ wpfaeYwGif t&Sifr[muóyonf &mZN*dK[fNrdKU a0VK0ef ausmif;awmfü oDwif;okH;aeaom Ak'¨&Sifjrwftm; <ua&mufzl; ajrmfonf/ wpfudk,fwpfum,wnf; oDwif;okH;&mwGif NydKifzuf uif;atmif ausmfapmvSonhf t&Sifjrwfonf vloluif;qdwf &mü taersm;NyD; tcgtm;avsmfpGmomvQif Ak'¨xHodkY tzl;tajrmf <ua&mufonf/ Ak'¨udk,fwkdif t&Sifjrwftm; rsm;pGm av;pm; awmfrlNyD; &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; tav;teuf wdkufwGef;vsuf t&Sifjrwftm; rdrdudk,fwdkifESihf xyfwljyKawmfrlonf/ odkYjzpfí 1

rdrdwdkYwynfhrsm;udk pGJvrf;NyD; tjcm;yk*¾Kdvfrsm;tm; tvkyftauR; jyKcGifh ray;onhf &[ef;rsm;taMumif; ,cifu azmfjycJhonfudk owd&oifh onf (þusrf;? pm – 333)/ 2 oD[dkVf &[EÅmrsm;taMumif;udk a&SUtcef;wGif ½Iyg/ 3 baEÅ r,H 0E´dwAÁ,kwåuH {uH t,sH tmpdu©dóx (tH-| 2/ 132)/ 4 o'¨gwdórif;onf rdrd\eef;wGif;ol trsKd;orD;wpfa,mufESihf arwåmrQ onhf avm[ygom'ausmif;wdkufrS &[ef;ysKd wpfyg;aMumifh ,if;odkY BudK wifqkH;jzwfcJhjcif;jzpfzG,f&Sdoavm/ þusrf;? pm – 338 udk½Iyg/

tcef; 12 &[ef;awmfrsm;\ vl rIb0 3 NcKd;NcHpGm usihfokH;jcif; txufrSm azmfjycJhonhf ,ciftcef;ESpfckwGif &[ef;awmfrsm; onf ,if;wdkY\ xdef;csKyfrI tvGef&Sd tajctae rsm;pGmwdkYaMumihf wjznf;jznf; b0aeenf; ajymif;vJoGm;&ef zdtm;ay;cJhykHudk awGU cJh&NyD;jzpfonf/ ,if;tajymif;tvJudk a&S;½kd;pGJoHCmrsm;u owd jyKrdaomfvnf; a&SmifvTJr&onhf wdk;wufrI? jzpfNrJobm0ESihf ykHrSeftjzpf todtrSwf rjyKcJhacs/ xdkoHCmawmfrsm;onf ,if; tajymif;tvJudk ysufpD;,kd,Gif;rIwpf&yftjzpf pdk;&drfBuD;pGm ½Ijrif cJhMuonf/ &[ef;awmfrsm;\ omoemawmf oefY&Sif; pifMu,f&ef pdwftm;txufoefqkH;ESihf xyfjyefwvJvJ BudK;yrf;rItpm; ,if; ajymif;vJwdk;wufrI 'Da&vTrf;rdk;rIudk qefYusif&ef rjzpfEdkifaMumif; em;vnfcJhMuonfrSm xif&Sm;onf/ odkYjzpfí acwfNydKif udpö&yf rsm;\ tajctaeudk pdwfroufrom jzpfMuojzifh xdkoHCm awmfrsm;onf jynhfpkHaumif;rGefNyD; pHjytjzpf ,lqcJhonhf twdwf udk vrf;ñTef ajymjyp&mtjzpf jyefvnf ½IjrifcJhMuonf/ twdwfjzpf&yfrsm;u tm;vkH;wGif taumif;qkH;jzpfNyD; ypöu© jzpf&yfrsm;rSm qdk;½Gm;vsuf tem*wfjzpf&yfrsm;um; ydkrdkqdk;vdrfh rnf[k tNrJvdkvdkyif vlom;wdkY ,kHMunfjcif;rSm qifjcifzG,f jzpf ouJhodkY trsm;jzpfcsifonhf oabmxm;vnf; jzpfonf/ &[EÅm olawmfpifrsm;tjzpf ,lqxm;onhf aumif;rGef jrifhjrwfaom yk*¾Kdvftm;vkH;onf twdwfumvwGif &SdcJhonf/ ,aeYacwf yk*¾Kdvfrsm;um; pm&dwåysufjym;NyD; edrfYusonf/ uREkfyfwdkY NyD;aemuf tem*wfonf ydkrdk qdk;½Gm;oGm;rnf/ trSefpifppf wpfcsdefu vkH;0 r&SdcJhaom ,if;pHjy twdwfumvonf teD;odkY a&mufoGm;aom


358 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

tcg a0;ía0;í vGifharsmoGm;aom wHvQyfuJhodkY jzpfonf/ tu,fí pHjytwdwfumvudk eufeuf½Idif;½Idif; oGm;MunhfNyD; ,if;umvwGif &SdcJhonhf yk*¾Kdvfrsm;\ tawGUtBuKHrsm;udk avh vmppfaq;MunhfvQif ypöKyÜeftajctaersm;uJhodkYyif ESpfoufzG,f r&SdEdkifonfudk awGU&rnfjzpfvsuf twdwfuyk*¾Kdvfrsm; udk,fwdkif vnf; pHjytwdwfumv wpf&yftay: jyefvnfpOf;pm;rIudk tNrJ wrf; tm½kHpdkufxm;Muonf/ odkYjzpfí ygVdt|uxmusrf;rsm;ü twdwfwGif &SdcJhMuonhf rax&fausmfrsm;udk csD;rGrf;NyD; ypöu© &[ef;avmu tenf;qkH; at'D 5 &mpkacwftcsdef\ rESpfoufzG,f obm0tay: oG,f 1 0dkufNyD; rSwfcsufjyKMuonfudk awGU&onf / ykHpHtm;jzihf rdrd\ wynhfjzpfol wdyd#uplVem*rax&f\ w&m;yGJodkY wufa&mufonhf wdyd#u plVmb,rax&ftaMumif; jzpf&yfwGif t|uxmusrf;rsm;ü a&S;acwfax&frsm;onf "r®udk Mum;emjcif;udk ESpfoufMuaMumif;ESihf (w&m;yGJudk) aMunmarmif; cwfonfudk Mum;od&onfESihf tNydKiftqdkif w&m;emoGm;a&muf 2 MuaMumif; azmfjyonf / ,if;t|uxmpum;&yftm; tqdkyg azmfjycsufudk a&;om;csdefu &[ef;tcsKdUonf "r®Mum;emrIudk aumif;pGm *½kpdkufrIr&SdaMumif; oG,f0dkufazmfjyonhf t&dyft>ruf tjzpf ,lqEdkifonf/ euf½Idif;onhf "r®a&;&m t"dutcsufrsm;ESihf ywfoufí q&mESihfwynhftMum; jcm;em;onhf ,lqcsufrsm;&SdNyD; aemufqkH; 1

þae&mü ,aeYacwf t|uxmusrf;rsm;ü awGU&onhf azmfjycsufrsm; rSm ,cif &mpkESpfaygif;rsm;pGm uwnf;u a&;om;xm;cJhonhf rl&if; oD [dkVfbmom t|uxmusrf;rsm;udk ygVdbmomjyefqdkxm;jcif;jzpfaMumif; owd&oihfonf/ odkYjzpfí ,if;azmfjycsufrsm;onf at'D 5 &mpkrwdkif rDuyif wnf&SdcJhonhf &[ef;oHCmrsm;udk &nfñTef;onf/ 2 ayg&mPuaw¬&m ud& yd,"r®ó0em a[mEÅd/ o'´H okwGm0 t[H yXrH t[H yXrEÅd {uyÜ[ma&ae0 Moo&EÅd ('D-| 2? 337/ r-| 1? 236/

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wGif q&monf rdrdwynhf\ t,ltqudk yGifhvif;pGm vufcH aMumif; od&onf/ þae&mwGif wpfzef t|uxmü plVokre rax&f\ pdwfxm;BuD;jrwfrIudk csD;usL;vsuf ]a&S;acwf rax&f rsm;onf remvdk0efwdkjcif; r&SdMu/ xdkt&SifwdkYonf MuHyif\ tpnf;uJhodkY rdrdESpfoufonfudkom r,lMu/ xdkt&SifwdkYonf aMumif;usKd; qDavsmfonfudkom vufcHNyD; rnDñGwfonfudk 1 vufrcHMu}[k azmfjyonf / þazmfjycsufonf a,bk,stm;jzihf xdkacwfu &[ef;rsm;onf taMumif;,kwådudk vufcHvdkpdwf r&Sd MubJ rSm;onfjzpfap rSefonfjzpfap rdrdwdkY\ ,lqcsufrsm;udk 2 wif;Muyf acgif;rmpGm pGJudkifcJhMuaMumif; vSpfjyjcif;jzpfonf / rax&fBuD;rsm;tm; jyKpkvkyfauR;jcif;ESihf ywfoufí azmfjy &mwGif t|uxmusrf;rsm;ü ],cktcgwGif a&S;acwf &[ef; awmfrsm;onf þum; ig\OyZÑm,fq&mwnf;? "r®mp&d,q&m wnf;[k pOf;pm; qifjcifvsuf rsufESmvdkufNyD; ½dkaorIudk rjyMu/ xdk&[ef;rsm;onf a&mufvmonhf ({nfhonfrsm;) uJhodkY jyKpkMu 3 \}[k qdkonf / þpmydk'fudk zwf&aomtcg ,if;udk a&;om; pOfu &[ef;awmfrsm;onf rdrw d dkY\ q&m? OyZÑm,fq&mESihf ,if;odkYaom yk*¾Kdvfrsm;udkom 0wfBuD;0wfi,fjyKNyD; rdrdwdkY&if;ESD; uRrf;0ifjcif; r&Sdonhf tjcm; rax&frsm;tay: rjyKMu[laom cH 1

ayg&mPduaw¬&m [d tEkok,sum a[mEÅd/ e twåaem ½kpð {0 OpäK bm&H 0d, Ou©dydwGm 0dp&EÅd/ um&PH {0 *PSEÅd? tum&PH 0dóaZÆEÅd ('D-| 2? 337/ r-| 1? 236)/ 2 odkY&mwGif a&S;acwf&[ef;vnf; ydkrdk aumif;rGefMuonfr[kwfacs/ aum orÁDrS tjiif;oefonhf &[ef;rsm;onf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ qkH;r Mo0g' udkyif vufrcHbJ rajymyavmufonfh udpötay: rdrdwdkY\ tkyfpkuGJ tjrifrsm;udk acgif;rmcH,lNyD; aMumif;usKd;rJhpGm pGJudkifcJhMuojzihf Ak'¨&Sif awmfjrwfudk,fwdkif ausmif;wdkufrS xGufcGmNyD; awmxJwGif oDwif;okH;cJh &ykHudk uREkfyfwdkY odMuonf/ 3 ayg&mPubdu©L ud& e trSmuH OyZÑma,m trSm tmp&da,mwd rkcH MoavmauwGm 0wåH ua&mEÅd/ orÜwåy&dapäa'ae0 ua&mEÅd ('D-| 1? 168/ oH-| 3? 220/ r-| 1? 260/ tbd-| 2? 334)/


364 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

azmfjyNyD;om"ursm;onf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf vufxufawmf ESihf Ak'¨y&dedAÁmefpHvGefNyD;aemuf rsm;rMumrDtcsdefuyif vlaumif; rsm;onf twdwfwGif&SdNyD; ypöu©vltrsm;rSm ESpfoufavmuf zG,fr&SdbJ tem*wfrsKd;qufrsm;rSm arQmfvihfzG,f vkH;0raumif; avmufatmif tusihfodu©m ysuf,Gif;rnf[laom tawG;tjrif \ jyif;jyonhf tajccHwpfck&SdcJhaMumif; &Sif;vif;pGm azmfjyonf/ Ak'¨udk,fwdkifvnf; rsufarSmufacwfxd qif;oufcJhaom ,if; tawG;tjrifudk ay;cJhaMumif; od&onf/ ,if;t,ltq vTrf;rdk;cH&onhf a&S;acwf oD[dkVf&[ef;awmf rsm;onfvnf; obm0tm;jzihf ypöu©tajctaersm;udk rauseyf rESpfoufbJ &SdMuonf/ xdk&[ef;awmfrsm; taejzihf ajymif;vJrI rsm;[lonf ra&SmifvTJEdkifbJ ordkif; jzpf&yfrSefrsm; jzpfaMumif; oabmrwlMuacs/ ,if;wdkY\ tjrift& ajymif;vJrIrsm;onf qkwf,kwfrI\ vu©Pmrsm; jzpfonf/ odkYjzpfí ydkrdkí avmukwå&m w&m;zufudk pdwfoefonhf &[ef;awmfrsm;onf xkH;pHtwdkif; pHjyjrifhjrwfonfh b0ESifh ywf oufí twdwfudk jyefajymif; ajymjyMuonf/ ,if;odkYjyKjcif;jzihf &[ef;awmfrsm;onf Ak'¨"r®\ tESpfom&udk em;vnfjcif;r&SdbJ pmom;rQudk twdtus vdkufemcJhykH&vsuf tusKd;rSm arQmfvihf xm;onhf twdkif;yif jzpfonf/ cdkifvkHonhf om"ursm;t& Ak'¨vufxufawmfu &[ef; awmfrsm;onf a,bk,stm;jzihf aysmf½TifNyD; a&mifh&JMuaMumif; od&onf/ wpfaeYwGif aumovbk&if yaoe'Donf ousEdkifiH twGif;&Sd NrdKUwpfNrdKUü oDwif;okH;aeaom Ak'¨udk oGm;a&mufzl; ajrmfNyD; rdrdtaejzihf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwftm; MunfnKd&jcif;\ t aMumif;rsm;udk avQmufxm;onf/ aumov avQmufxm;onhf taMumif;w&m;rsm;teuf wpfckrSm rif;BuD;onf tjcm;ausmif; rsm;rS orPjA[®Prsm;rSm ydefvSD? Murf;MuKwf? ½kyfqdk;NyD; jzLyyfjzL a&mf&SdMuvsuf cE¨mwpfudk,fvkH; taMumNydKif;NydKif; xaeMuonf udk awGU&jcif;jzpfonf/

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Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf t&Sifr[muóytm; &[ef;awmf rsm;udk tMuHÓPf ay;&efESihf xdkudpöESihf ywfoufí w&m;a[m Mum;&ef wdkufwGef;awmfrlonf/ odkYwap t&Sifr[muóyonf ,if;odkYjyK&ef rsm;pGm pdwf xufoefjcif;r&Sdojzihf Ak'¨tm; þodkY jyefavQmuf\ ]t&Sifjrwf bk&m;? ,cktcgü &[ef;awmfrsm;onf ajymvG,fqdkvG,f r&Sdyg ukef/ emcHvdkpdwf r&Sdygukef/ tMuH ÓPfay;onfudk vufcHvdk jcif; r&Sdygukef/ tmeE´m\ teD;aewynhf b@KESihf tEk½k'¨g\ teD;aewynhf tmbdÍÆduwdkYonf ]]vmprf;? rnfol ydk½GwfEdkifrnf enf;? rnfol ydkNyD;aumif;aumif; ½GwfEdkifrnfenf;? rnfol ydkNyD; MumMum ½GwfEdkifrnfenf;}}[k rdrd\todynmESihf ywfoufí 1 tcsif;csif; ESdrfhcs ajymqdkaeMuonfudk wynhfawmf awGUrdyg\} / xdktwl om0w¬dNrdKU&Sd aemufjzpf&yfESpfckwGif Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf u t&Sifr[muóytm; &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; Mo0g'ay;&ef rdefYMum;aomtcg t&Sifjrwfu &[ef;awmfrsm;onf qdk;½Gm;onf [laom taMumif;jycsufjzihf aemufqHwif;aeNyD; jA[®p&d,udk usihfokH;olwpfa,muftzdkY vdktyfonhf t&nftcsif;r&SdaMumif; 2 oG,f0dkufí avQmufxm;onf / 1 2

oH 2? 204/ oH 2? 204/ tcgwpfyg;ü t&Sifr[muóy\ wynhfwpfyg;u &mZN*dK[fteD;u t&SifjrwfoDwif;okH;onhf ausmif;ocFrf;udk rD;½IdUcJhonf udk tu,fí owd&cJhygu t&Sifjrwf\ pdwfraumif;jzpfrIudk ydkí ESpf oufEdkifrnfjzpfonf/ xdktcsdefu t&Sijf rwfESihftwl wynhfESpfyg; oDwif; okH;vsuf&SdNyD; wpfyg;rSm pdwfxm;aumif;rGefNyD; usefwpfyg;rSm qdk;onf/ tcgaygif;rsm;pGmyif t&Sifjrwfonf xdkwynhfqdk;tm; rdrd\ tjyKtrlrsm; udk jyKjyif&ef Mo0g'ay;ojzihf ,if;&[ef;i,fonf rax&fjrwftay: qefYusifonhf a'gocHpm;rIudk wnf;xm;onf/ wpfaeY t&Sifjrwf tjyif odkY<uoGm;pOf aumufuspfol &[ef;i,fonf rax&f\ tokH;taqmif ypönf;rsm;udk zsufqD;NyD; ocFrf;ausmif;udk rD;½IdUNyD; xGufajy;onf/ odkYjzpfí t&Sifr[muóy rax&fBuD; &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; Mo0g'ray;vdkonfudk tHhMozG,fr&Sdacs ("r®y'-| 1? 293)/ uk#d'loeZmwfawmfudkvnf; ½Iyg/


362 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

]uóy? xdktwdkif;yif jzpfay\} Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf oabmwl awmfrlNyD; vuf&Sdypöu©tajctaeudk þodkY&Sif;jyonf ]a&S;tcg wkef;u &[ef;awmfrsm;onf awmawmifrsm;ü aexdkifMu\/ qGrf;cHí toufarG; 0rf;ausmif;jyKMu\/ yHhoulouFef;rsm;udk okH;aqmifMu\/ ouFef;okH;xnfom &SdMu\/ rnfonfht&mudkrQ rwyfrufMuacs/ a&mifh&JvG,fMu\/ vltrsm;ESihf a&maESm,Suf wif r&SdMubJ wpfudk,fwnf; aexdkifMu\/ vkHYv0D&d, &SdMu\/ odu©mokH;&yfudk jrwffEdk;Mu\}/ ,if;a[mawmfrlcsufonf odu©m okH;&yfudk vdkufemusihfokH;&ef &[ef;i,frsm;tzdkY pdwf"mwfcGeftm; udk `rSihfwifay;onf/ odkYwap ,cktcgü &[ef;awmfrsm;onf odu©mokH;&yfudk r avhusihfMuacs/ ,cktcgü &[ef;wpfyg;onf tu,fí atmif jrifausmfMum; vlodrsm;vmvQif? tu,fí ypönf;av;yg;udk aygrsm;pGm &&SdvQif t&Sifjrwfrsm;onf ¤if;tm; vufcH½dkaoMu vdrfhrnf/ &[ef;i,frsm;onfvnf; xdk&[ef;awmfrsm;\ pHerludk vdkufemMuonf/ xif&Sm;ausmfMum;olrsm;onf jA[®p&d,tusihf 1 jrwf\ tEÅ&m,frsm; vTrf;rdk;cH&onf[k ajymEdkifMuonf / aemufwpfBudrfwGif r[muóyrax&fonf jrwfAk'¨tm; tb,faMumihf a&S;tcgwkef;u oDv odu©myk'fenf;NyD; &[EÅm rsm; ydkrdkrsm;jym;NyD; ,cktcgü oDvodu©myk'frsm;NyD; &[EÅmyk*¾Kdvf tenf;i,f om&SdMuygoenf;[k avQmufxm;onf/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfu ]uóy? xdktwdkif; rSefay\/ vltrsm; tusihfysufjym;NyD; "r®aumif;rsm; aysmufuG,foGm;aomtcg oDvodu©myk'frsm; rsm;jym;vmNyD; &[ef;tenf;i,fom &[EÅm 2 tjzpfudk &&SdMu\} a[mawmfrlonf / 1 2

oH 1? 205/ ,if;? 205/ b'´gvd&[ef;u Ak'&¨ Sifawmfjrwftm; tvm;wl ar;cGef; rsKd; ar;avQmufcJhNyD; tvm;wl tajzay;cJhonf/ Ak'¨&Sifawmf jrwfu odu©myk'fynwf&ef taMumif;w&m; rjzpfay:rcsif; ynwfawmfrrl aMumif; rdefYMum;awmfrlonf (r 2? 101)/

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Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf y&dedAÁmefpHvGefawmfrlNyD;aemuf tcgwpfyg; ü t&Sifr[muóyrax&fu t&SiftmeE´mtm; vlxGufNyD; rdrdudk,fudk rapmihfpnf;Muaom &[ef;i,frsm;ESihftwl oGm;vm aejcif;ESihf ywfoufí jypfwif ½Iwfcsawmfrlonf/ t&Sifr[m uóyonf t&SiftmeE´mtm; twdkif;twm yrmPudk rod onhf uav; (ukrm&u) [k ac:awmfrlonf/ t&SiftmeE´monf rdrdOD;acgif;ay:ü qHjzLrsm;&Sdaom tcsdef rSmyif t&Sifr[muóyrax&fu rdrdtm; ukrm&u (uav; i,f) [k ac:yg[k awmif;yefonf/ t&Sifr[muóyrax&fu ,if;odkY jzpfjcif;rSm pdwfudk rxdef;csKyfbJ wm0efrodwwfaom 1 &[ef;i,frsm;aMumifh jzpfaMumif; qufvufrdefY Mum;onf / Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf y&dedAÁmefpHvGefNyD;aemuf yg&my&d,trnf&Sd onhf rax&fwpfyg;onf &[ef;awmfrsm;\ *kPfodu©m edrfhus rIESihf ukd,fusihfw&m; ysuf,Gif;rIESihf ywfoufNyD; &Snfvsm;pGm awG;onf/ xdk&[ef;u Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf oufawmfxif&Sm;&SdpOf u &[ef; awmfrsm;onf jA[®p&d,udk usifhMuHcJhMuaomfvnf; ,cktcgürl pdwfrcsrf;ajrUzG,f&m udk,fusihfodu©medrfhus ysuf ,Gif;aeMuNyD; raumif;rIrsm;ESifh jynfhESufaeMuonf/ xdkBuD;jrwf onhf &[EÅmBuD;rsm;onf ,cktcgü y&dedAÁmefpHvGefawmfrlMuNyD/ ,if;odkYaom yk*¾Kdvfrsm;um; ,cktcg &Sm;yg;vSay\}[k pdwfr 2 csrf;omjzpfonf / zkótrnf&onhf aemufrax&fwpfyg;u tem*wfwpfcsdef ü &[ef;awmfrsm;onf pdwfysufz, G f tusihfysufNyD; udk,fusihf w&m;edrhfusrnfjzpfNyD; Ak'¨bk&m;&Sif wm;jrpfonhf tvkyfrsm; aMumihf tjypf&SdMuvsuf avmuDvlom;wdkY\ b0aeenf;jzihf ae 3 xdkifMuvdrfhrnf / 1 2 3

oH 1? 418/ ax&*gxm? 254/ ,if;? 340/


368 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

odkYwap þae&mü rax&fonf rSm;,Gif;pGm em;vnf odkYr[kwf oHo,vGefuJjcif; jzpfonf/ 0denf;odu©myk'frsm;t& aqGrsKd;rawmfonhf bdu©KeDrxHrS qGrf;udkvufcHrIudkom wm;jrpf onf/ tu,fí &[ef;onf aqGrsKd;awmfpyfonhf bdu©KeDrxHrS 1 qGrf;udk tvªcH,lvQif 0dodu©myk'ft& tjypf r&Sdacs / odkY&mwGif em*rax&fonf pdk;&drfvGefuJNyD; ]aqGrsKd;rawmf onhf bdu©KeDrxHrS qGrf;udkyif vufrcH&vQif udk,fhESrt&if;jzpf onhf bdu©KeDryifjzpfap bdu©KeDrtm;vkH;xHrS qGrf;udk tb,f aMumihf vufcHrnfenf;/ odkYjzpfrl tjypf&Sd&ef tcGifhtvrf; tenf;i,frQyif &Sdawmhrnfr[kwf}[k pOf;pm;cJhonf/ o'¨gw&m;aumif;onhf &[ef;awmfrsm;onf pdwfydkif;b0 wdk;wufrIESihf todÓPfxl;udk &&Sdjcif;twGuf 0de,odu©myk'frsm; udkom ,EÅ&m;qefpGm wnfrSDcJhMuykHudk azmfusL;&ef pHjyykHpHtjzpf udk;um;Edkifonhf pdwf0ifpm;zG,f jzpf&yfwpfckudk 0dok'¨dr*f ü azmfjyonf/ pdwå*kwårax&fonf a&m[Pe,f? r[m*gr½GmteD; uk&@u r[mavPtwGif; ESpf 60 xufrenf; oDwif;okH;cJh onf/ ,if;vkdPf*lxJwGif bk&m;&SifckepfqlwdkY\ awmxGufcef; o½kyfazmf vSyonhf yef;csDaq;a&;rsm; &Sdonf/ ,if;vkdPf*lodkY tvnftywf <ua&mufvmMuonfh &[ef;awmfrsm;onf Xmae rax&fBuD;tm; xkdyef;csDum;wdkY\ tvSudk ESpfoufaMumif; avQmufxm;Muonf/ ]t&Sifbk&m;wdkY? wynhfawmfonf þvkdPf *lü tESpf 60 ausmfaexdkifcJhyg\/ odkY&mwGif wynhfawmfonf yef;csDaq;a&;rsm; &Sdonfudkyif rod&SdcJhyg/ ,aeYwGifusrSomvQif rsufvkH;&SdMuonhf þ&[ef;awmfrsm;aMumihf xdkyef;csDaq;a&;rsm; udk wynhfawmf od&ygonf}/ 1 2

0d 2? 222/ 0dok'¨dr*¾ 1? 38/ þjzpf&yfudk tjcm;t"dyÜm,fjzihf a&SUydkif;wGif azmfjycJhNyD; jzpfonf/

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379

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&[ef;awmfrsm;\vlrIb0 3 NcKd;NcHpGmusihfokH;jcif; 381 ,if;aemuf Oygodumronf om;armif&[ef;\ csD;rGrf;tHh MozG,f udk,fusihfw&m;udk ESpo f ufMunfndKvGef;ojzihf om;armif <uoGm;onhf ae&mzufodkY vuftkyfcsDvsuf ajrBuD;ay:odkY xdkif csvdkufNyD; aysmf½TifNyD; rdcifarwåmpdwfjzihf ]igom;awmfum; csD;rGrf; tHhMozG,faumif;onhf yk*¾Kdvfaywum;/ Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf þ uJhodkYaom a,musfm;rsm;twGuf jA[®p&d,tusifhjrwfudk a[m Mum;awmfrlcJhay\}[k O'gef;usKL;vdkufonf/ "kwif[kac:onhf tusihfrsm;udk apmihfcJhMuonhf &[ef;awmf rsm;\ tao;pdwfrsm;udk azmfjy&efrvdkay/ yd@ygwdu? yHok ulvduESihf tm&nu"kwifrsm;udk aqmufwnfMuonhf &[ef; awmfrsm;udk ydkí rMumcPawGU&onf/ xdkyk*¾Kdvfrsm;tm; &nf 1 ñTef;udk;um;csufrsm;udk azmfjyxm;onf / &[ef;awmfrsm; wduspGm vdkufemusihfokH;NyD; NcdK;jcHonhf pdwf ydkif;b0udk vdkufemusihfokH;onhf &[ef;awmfrsm; oDwif;okH;ae xdkifcJhonhf bmomw&m;e,fajrtjzpf oD[dkVfEdkifiH\ ausmfMum; rIonf tjcm;EdkifiHrsm;odkY jyefYESHYoGm;cJhykH&onf/ Oyrmqdkrl tdE´d,EdkifiH yg#vdykwf(ywåem;)NrdKUom; ykPÖm;ESpf a,mufonf txufwGifazmfjycJhonhf umv0v†dr@y aus;½GmrS r[mem*ax&f\ ausmfMum;rIowif;udk Mum;odcJhonf[k qdk onf/ ¤if;wdkY ESpfa,mufvkH; oD[dkVfodkY xGufcGmcJhMuaomfvnf; wpfa,mufrSm vrf;c&D;wGif uG,v f GefcJhvsuf tjcm;wpfa,muf rSmrl oGm;vdk&modkY qdkufa&mufoGm;NyD; xdkrax&fxHwGif &[ef;jyKchJ 1

tm&nu"kwif odkYr[kwf awmausmif;wGif aexdkifjcif;onf wpfcgwpf &H tEÅ&m,frsm;onf/ wpfcgwpf&HwGif tEÅ&m,fjyKwwfonhf vk,ufol rsm;onf ,if;tjypfrJhonhf &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; csnfaESmifxm;cJhMu aMumif; od&onf/ xdktwGuf taMumif;&if;udk rod&acs/ ,if;odkYaom &[ef;awmfESpfyg; csnfaESmifcH&í aoqkH;aMumif; od&onf (0dok'¨dr*¾ 1? 34)/ *0&0gvd, t*FPaus;½GmwGif ur®|mef;xdkifaeonhf aemufxyf &[ef;awmfwpfyg;rSm orif[kxifojzihf rkqdk;wpfa,mufu nwGif jrm;jzihf ypfcH&onf (r-| 1? 242)/


382 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef

oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

1

onf / ywåem;NrdKUrS 0domctrnf&onhf ol<u,fwpfa,muf onfvnf; wrÁyPÖd'Dyonf bmomw&m; vdkufemusihfokH;&ef pHjyae&mwpfckjzpfonf[k Mum;od&jzihf oD[dkVfodkY a&mufvmcJhNyD; r[m0d[m& ausmif;wdkufü &[ef;jyKcJhonf/ xdkrax&fonf &[EÅmtjzpfudk a&mufNyD; pdwåvyAÁwü toufxufqkH; oDwif; 2 okH;cJhonf / at'D 5 &mpkwGif oD[dkVfü ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm aexdkifcJhol w½kwfr[mc&D;onf zm[D,efonf t&d,moHCmawmfrsm;&Sd&m ajrtjzpf oD[dkVf\ausmfMum;rIudk rsufjrifudk,fawGU azmfjycJh onf/ zm[D,efonf r[dE¦avhü oDwif;okH;awmfrlonfh "r®*kwå trnf&Sd udk,fusihfoDv BuD;jrwfrIukd azmfjyonf/ zm[D,efonf 0denf;odu©myk'frsm;udk apmihfxdef;&mwGif vltrsm;u &[EÅm[k ,kHMunf&onftxd rusKd;aygufonhf oDvESihf jrifhjrwfpifMu,f 3 onhf rax&fwpfyg;udkvnf; &nfñTef;onf / at'D 7 &mpk oD[dkVf&[ef;awmfrsm;\ bmoma&;b0 taMumif;ESihf ywfoufí [l,ifqefxHrS tjcm;aom cdkifrmonhf owif;tcsuf&&Sdonf/ [l,ifqefonf oD[dkVfodkY vnfywfcGifh r&cJhaomfvnf; xdktcsdefu tdE´d,odkY <ua&mufMuonfh oD[dkVf &[ef;awmfrsm;ESihf qkHawGUcGifh&cJhonf/ w½kwf&[ef;awmfonf atmufyg pum;vkH;rsm;jzihf oD[dkVf&[ef;awmftm; rdrd MunfnKd rdykHtaMumif;udk rSwfwrf;wifxm;onf ]&[ef;awmfrsm;onf ukd,fusihfoDvudk apmifhxdef;Muvsuf pdwfydkif;b0ESifh todynm pGrf;&nfrsm;aMumif; xif&Sm;Mu\/ ¤if;wdkY\ rSefuefonhf udk,f usihfw&m;onf aemifvmaemifom;rsm;twGuf pHerljzpf\/ ¤if; 4 wdkY\ trlt&mrSm tvGef av;eufwnfNidrf\} / 1 3 4

tH-| 2? 132/

2

0dok'¨dr*¾ 1? 305/

Fa Hien, p. 107. Hiuen Tsiang, Bk. XI, P. 247. 00000000


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tbd-| 2? 426/

tcef; 13 oD[dkVf&[EÅmrsm; t&[yk'frS qif;oufvmonhf t&[EÅ[laoma0g[m&\ rlv t"dyÜm,frSm ]xdkufwefjcif;} jzpfonf/ Ak'¨0g'rwkdifrDtcsdefu þ a0g[m&udk tqihfjrifht&m&Sdrsm;tm; *kPfjyKbGJUtjzpfyif tokH; 1 jyKcJhykH&onf / odkYwap Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf edAÁmefudk xdk;xGif; odjrifrIwGif tqihftjrifhqkH;udk&&Sdoltm; tokH;jyK&ef ,if;a0g 2 [m&udk ,lcJhonf / t&[EÅ[laomyk'fudk rMumcP tpm;xdk; okH;onhf tvGef tokH;rsm;xif&Sm;onfh a0g[m&rSm cDPmo0 = 3 tmoa0gukefNyD;ol jzpfonf / wdyd#uygVdawmfrsm;ü &[EÅmrsm;tm; pdwfydkif;avhusihfrI\ tqifhjrifh&&SdrIudk azmfusL;vsuf ]cDPm Zmwd? 0kodwH jA[®p&d,H? emy&H £w¬wåm, (y#doaE¨aerI ukefNyD? tusihfjrwfukd usihfokH; NyD;NyD? aemifb0wpfzef jzpfjyefjcif; r&SdawmhNyD)}[laom azmjfyNrJ ykHpHjzihf rMumcP zGifhqdkxm;onfudk awGU&onf/ rZÑdredum,f qAÁdaom"eokwfwGif Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfu wynhfom0ursm;tm; tu,fí &[ef;wpfyg;onf ,if;azmfjycsufrsKd;udk jyKvkyfrl vuf 1 2

See e.g. Sat, Br.III, 4,1,3,4,1,6;4,1,6; S.B.E. XXVI

xdktwlyif Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf raumif;rIrS vGwfajrmufNyD;oltm; t okH;jyK&ef jA[®P[laom a0g[m&udk&,lNyD; jA[®P Zmwf&Sdoludk rqdk vdkacs/ 3 umrmo0 = umr*kPfudk wyfrufrI? b0go0 = b0udk wyfrufrI? t0dZÆmo0 = arm[ [k tmo0w&m; okH;rsKd;&Sdonf/ wpfcgwpf&H 'd|mo0 = t,lrSm; udkygxnhfí tmo0w&m; av;rsKd;jzpfonf/


386 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; vnf;rcH&? jiif;vnf; rjiif;qkd&/ odkYwap xdk&[ef;tm; tcsKdU aom tcsufrsm;ESihf ywfoufí ar;jref;&rnf[k owday;zl; 1 onf / tu,fí xdk&[ef;\ tajzrSm auseyfzG,f&SdvQif xdk& [ef;tm; &[EÅm[k vufcH&rnf/ xdkokwåefü Ak'¨&Sifawmf jrwfu 2 ar;cGef;rsm;twGuf tajzrSefrsm;udk ay;xm;NyD;jzpfonf / edum,fig;&yfvm okwåefrsm;pGmwdkYrS &[EÅm[lonf owd "r®0dp, 0D&d, yDwd yó'¨d orm"dESihf Oayu©m[laom aAmZÑif ckepfyg;? umrpäE´ Asmyg' xderd'¨ O'¨pöukuúKpö 0Dpdudpäm[laom eD0&P ig;yg;udk y,fNyD;ol? avmb a'go arm[[laom tukodkvfrlv okH;rsKd;udk tjrpfjzwfNyD;ol? oDv orm"d ynm odu©mokH;yg;udk jznhfusihfNyD;ol? vlb0jyefjzpfapEdkifaom cE¨mig; yg;udk wyfrufrI b0wPSm ukefNyD;ol? ouúm,'d|d 0Dpdudpäm oDvAÁy&mrmo umr&m* Asmyg' ½ly&m* t½ly&m* rme O'¨pö t0dZÆm [laomoHa,mZOf q,fyg;udk jzwfawmufNyD;ol? um, 0pD reokH;rsKd; pifMu,fol? umrwPSm b0wPSm 0db0wPSm okH;rsKd;rS vGwfajrmufNyD;ol ... tcsKyftm;jzihf udavom (pdwf 3 tnpftaMu;) tm;vkH;rS vGwfajrmufNyD;oljzpfonf / 1

'd| (udk,fwdkifjrifjcif;)?okw (olwpfyg;xHrSm Mum;&jcif;) rkw (jrifod jcif;)ESihf 0dnmw (pdwfjzihfodjcif;) [laom a0g[m&av;rsKd;jzihf xdk&[ef; \pdwf vGwfajrmufoGm;ykHudk ar;jref;jcif;jzpfonf/ a0g[m&av;rsKd;rSm ½kyf a0'em onm ocFg& 0dnmP[laom Oyg'gemu©E¨m ig;yg;? yx0D tmayg awaZm 0ga,m tmumo 0dnmP [laom "mwf ajcmufyg;? pu©K aomw Cme Zd0Sm um, re ESihf ½ly o'´ *E¨ &o azm|AÁ "r®[laom twGif;tjyif tm,we ajcmufyg;? þcE¨mudk,fESihf tjyif tm½kHw&m;rsm; jzpfMuonf/ 2 qAÁdaom"eokwfonf Ak'¨oufawmfxif&Sm;&SdpOfu rdrdudk,fudk &[EÅm jzpfNyD[k rSm;,Gif;pGm odkYr[kwf pdwfazmufjcif;jzihf ajymqdkonfh &[ef; awmfrsm; &SdcJhaMumif;udk azmfjyrIwpf&yfjzpfonf/ 3 tao;pdwfudk 'DCedum,f omrnzvokwf? rZÑdredum,f oAÁmo0 okwf? r[moukvk'g,dokwf? apawmcdvokwEf Sihf qAÁdaom"eokwfESihf okwåedygwygVd? 0gao|okwfrsm;udk ½Iyg/

oD[dkVf&[EÅmrsm;

387

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r-| 4? 81/ 'D-| 3? 82/ £roða,0 'Day {u0ga& ykxkZÆebdu©K emr ema[mod// 2 {uoð® [d umav y#da0"u&m bdu©L A[l a[mEÅd? {o bdu©K ykxkZÆaem wd t*Dkvð yoma&wGm 'aówaAÁm a[mwd/ r-| 4? 81/ 'D-| 3? 82/ 3 4 'D-| 1? 169/ r-| 1? 255/ oH-| 3? 218/


392 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

oD[dkVf&[EÅmrsm;

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390 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

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1 2

0dok'¨dr*¾ 2? 270/ r-| ? 189//

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391


396 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

oD[dkVf&[EÅmrsm;

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r-| 4? 19/ 0dok'¨dr*¾ 1? 284/

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394 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

oD[dkVf&[EÅmrsm;

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401


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403

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r[m0Ho 32? 140/ &o0g[deD 2? 117? 119/


tcef; 14 vl0wfaMumifrsm;\b0 1 vlrIa&; a&S;acwfoD[dkVfwGif vlOygoumrsm; aexdkifcJhonf bmoma&; b0rsKd;udk em;vnf oabmusEdkif&ef ¤if;wdkY\ vlrIa&;ESihf pD;yGm; a&;aemufcHESihfqdkifonhf tawG;tjrifwpfcsKdU &&Sd&ef vdkay onf/ tcef; 2 wGif Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVf vlYtzGJUtpnf;ü tdE´d ,EdkifiHrSmuJhodkYyif ZmwfpepfESihf vlrItqihftwef; cGJjcm;rI awGUcJh &NyD;jzpfonf/ odkYwap Ak'¨0g'xGef;um;NyD;aemuf oD[dkVfwGif ,if;ykHpHrsm;onf Ak'¨0g' MoZmoufa&mufrIrS wpfqifhf tcsKdU jyK jyifajymif;vJrIrsm; qufvufwnf&SdcJhonf/ bk&ifonf wpfEdkifiH vkH;udk tcsKyftjcmtmPm ydkifpdk;oljzpfNyD; 0efBuD;rsm;? AkdvfcsKyfrsm; ESihf tjcm;t&m&Sdrsm;rSm txufwef;vTm vlwef;pm;rS qif;ouf olrsm;jzpfMuonf/ Ak'¨0g'rwdkifrD oD[dkVfEdkifiHwGif jA[®Prsm;&SdcJhaMumif; a&SUt cef;rsm;wGif awGUcJh&NyD;jzpfonf/ odkYjzpfí Ak'¨0g'xGefum;;NyD;jzpf onhf oD[dkVfwGifvnf; jA[®Prsm;udk tcgtm;avsmfpGm azmfjy 1 onf / odkYwap jAm[®Prsm;onf wnf&SdNyD;tcGifhta&;ESihf pdwf 0ifpm;rIrsm;&Sdonhf oD[dkVfZmwfpepftaejzihf ckdifrmonhf tkyfpk wpfckudk wnfaqmufEdkifpGrf; r&SdMuacs/ jAm[®PwdkYonf Ak'¨0g' 1

r[m0Ho 19? 2/ 33? 37/ 32? 41/ 48? 23/


412 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

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416 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

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vlrIa&;

413

0d 3? 106 ponfudk ½Iyg/ odkY&mwGif ,aeYacwf oD[dkVfoHCmhtzGJUtpnf;twGif; w&m;0ifr[kwfbJ (twGif;pdwfu) ZmwfcGJjcm;rIrsm;udk awGUjrif&onf/ 3 tao;pdwfrsm;udk Manu. iv 80, 81; viii 413, 414, xi 73087, xii, 43 wGif ½Iyg/ 4 'D 3? 68 (t*¾nokwf)? r 2? 355 (tóvm,eokwf)/ 2


414 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

vl0wfaMumifrsm;\b0 1

Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf ,if;twåA[dkjyK ukd,fusKd;qefonhf jAm[®P0g' oabmxm;\ awmfvSef&ef cufcJaom qefYusifol yk*¾Kdvf jzpfonf/ onf;rcHEdkifaom ,if; vlrIa&; azmufjyefrI oabmxm;udk qefYusif&mwGif Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ ta&;w,l pdwf0ifpm;rIrSm ZmwfcGJjcm;rIpepfudk vlrItaqmufttkHwpfckt jzpf uJh&JU½Iwfcs&ef? jAm[®Prsm;udk uJh&JU½Iwfcs&efESihf jAm[®Prsm; rSm tjrifhqkH;r[kwf[lonfudk oufaojy&efcsnf; r[kwfacs/ odkY jzpfí tcsKdUae&mrsm;ü Ak'¨&Siaf wmfjrwfu cwåd,rsm;onf jAm[® Prsm;xuf ydkrdk jrifhjrwfaMumif; (cwåd,m0 ao|m? [Dem 1 jAm[®Pm) oufaojy&ef rdefYqdkcJhonf/ odkYwap ,if;onf ]igh trsKd;onf oifhtrsKd;xuf jrwfonf}[k cGJjcm;jcif;jzpfonhf Zmwf cGJjcm;rIudk vufcHaejcif;yif jzpfonf/ odkYwap jAm[®PwdkYonhf ZmwfcGJjcm;rIpepf\ taMumif;&if;jzpfojzihf tu,fí jAm[®P wdkYudk wdkufckdufjcif;rSm Zmwfpepfwnfaqmufxm;ykH wpfckvkH;udk wdkufckdufjcif;yif jzpfaMumif; em;vnfvQif Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ oabmxm;udk ESpfoufEdkifrnfjzpfonf/ vufawGU jzpfEdkifzG,fr&Sdonhf vkH;0ajymifajymifwif;wif; uJh&JUjypfrnfhtpm; Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf jAm[®PwdkYtm; arG;&myg wGif tajccHonhf vlrsKd;Zmwfpepf wnf&SdrIESifhywfoufonhf udk,fusifhw&m;a&;&m t"dyÜm,faumuf,lrIwpf&yfudk ay;&ef BuKd;pm;cJhonf/ jAm[®PwdkYonf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ trsKd;av;yg; vkH;onf pifMu,frIwGif wlnD\ (oraPm a*gwarm pwk0PÖH ok'¨ð ynaywd) [k aMunmvdkufrIudk jyif;jyif;xefxef uefYuGuf Muonf/ jAm[®P0g'tjrifwGif ,if;tqdkrSm tjypf&Sdaom azmf jycsufjzpfonf/ odkYwap Ak'¨&iS fawmfjrwfu arG;zGm;jcif;onf jAm[®P odkYr[kwf 0ovudkvnf; rjzpfap? ,if;odkYjzpfjcif;onf tjrifhqkH;jzpfonhf pdwfydkif;b0wdk;wufrIvnf; rwm;qD;aMumif; Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfu rdefYawmfrlonf/ oDvESifhjynhfpkHonhf Zmwfedrfh

wpfa,mufonf oDvr&Sdonfh jAm[®Pwpfa,mufxuf ydkrdkjrihf 1 jrwfonf / ,if;onf jA[®Prsm;tm; Zmwfjrifhol 0ovrsm; tm; Zmwfedrfhrsm;tjzpf ,lqxm;NyD;jzpfojzihf tvGefjyif;xef onhf udk,fusihfw&m;a&;&m tjiif;yGm;rIwpf&yf jzpfaomfvnf; a0g[m&wpfrsKd;jzihf Zmwfpepfudk vufcHjcif;jzpfonf/ ,if;onf Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf\ &nf½G,fcsuftwGuf vkHavmufrIr&Sdacs/ rZÑdredum,fESihf okwåedygwfygVdawmfrsm;ü yg&Sdonhf 0gao| okwfawmfü ZmwfcGJjcm;rIESihf vlom;rsKd;EG,f\ vlrIa&;wnf aqmufykHESihf ywfoufí ydkrdk*½kwpdkuf odyÜHenf;us cGJjcrf;pdwf 2 jzmrIwpf&yfudk ay;xm;onf / Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf ,if;okwfawmfü opfyiftrsKd;rsKd;wGif arG;&mygtm;jzihf uGJjym;jcm;em;rIudk awGUEdkifaMumif;? tajcav; acsmif;&Sdaom owå0gonf a>rESihf rwljcif;? iSufonf ig;ESifhrwl jcif;wdkYaMumihf xdkUtwl wd&pämefrsm;wGif arG;&mygtm;jzihf jcm;em; rIrsm;udk awGUEkdifaMumif;? odkY&mwGif vlom;owå0grsm;rSmrl rsufpd? em;? yg;pyf? vuf? ajc odkYr[kwf tjcm;rnfonhf udk,fcE¨mtpdwf tydkif;rQ ,if;odkYaom arG;&myg jcm;em;rIrsKd;udk rawGU&aMumif; jiif;qdkxm;onf/ rnfolrQ arG;&mygtm;jzihf jAm[®P odkYr[kwf jAm[®Pr[kwfol jzpfvmMuonfr[kwf/ pdkufysKd;a&;vkyfief; aqmif½Gufolonf v,form;jzpfNyD; jAm[®P r[kwf? ukefoG,frI jyKolonf ukefonfjzpfNyD; jAm[®P r[kwf? ckd;olonf olcdk;jzpf NyD; jAm[®Pr[kwfacs/ Zmwf[o l nf xkH;"avh rQomjzpfonf/

1

'D 1? 92 (trÁ|okwf)/

1 2

vlrIa&;

415

okwåed? 298 (0ovokwf)/ r 2? 407/ okwåed ? 374/ 0gao|okwfonf þtaMumif;t&mESihf ywf oufí a&S;tusqkH;aom okwåefrsm;teuf wpfckjzpfaMumif; awGU&onf/ a&S;tusqkH;ygVdrsm;teuf wpfckjzpfonfh okwåedygwfygVdawmfü azmfjy aomtcsufonf ,if;ygVdawmftm; oufwrf; MumjrihfaMumif; azmfjy onf/ þokwfü yg&Sdonhf *gxmyk'fa& 28 yk'fudk a&S;tusqkH; ygVdawmf wpfckjzpf onhf "r®y'ygVdawmf jAm[®P0*füvnf; awGU&onf/


420 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

vl0wfaMumifrsm;\b0 1

wm;jrpfvsuf Oya'ESihftnD aqmif½Gufay;onf/ wpfcgwpf&HwGif bk&ifrif;w&m;udk,fwdkif vlwpfa,mufudk EkdifxufpD;eif; vkyfEdkifonf/ ,if;odkYaom tajctaewGif xdkol rSm ulnDEdkifolr&SdbJ rnfonhf tqifhjrifh t&m&SdrS ay:vmjcif;r &Sdacs/ o'¨gwdóuJhodkYaom rif;aumif;wpfyg;onfyif rk@*kwå trnf&Sdol qif;&Jom; wpfa,mufydkifonhf EGm;rudk EdkYxGuf tvGefaumif;onf[k owif;Mum;aomaMumihf t"r®&,l&ef ESpf oufcJhaMumif; od&onf/ qif;&Jom;a,musfm;u a'ocHtmPm &Sdol\ rdom;pkudk EdkYcsOfykHrSef tcrJh ay;&ef ysufuGufaomaMumihf xdkqif;&Jom;tm; pdwfqdk;a'goxGufNyD; ,if;a'ocH tmPmydkif 2 u bk&ifrif;tm; em;0ifatmif ajymqdkcJhaomaMumihfjzpfonf / o'¨gwdóuJhodkYaom bmomw&m;MunfnKdonf[k xif&Sm;aom bk&ifwpfyg;\ ,if;odkYaom a&Smifwcifjzpf&yfudk jzefYjzL;ay;&ef tu,fí usrf;pmrsm;u wGefYqkwfjcif;r&SdvQif xdkqif;&Jom; awmom;wpfa,muf\ uHMur®monf tMuifemrJhonhf tpdk;& t&m&Sdrsm;\ vufü rnfodkY&Sdrnfudk pOf;pm;Munhf&ef rcufacs/ xif&Sm;pGm a½G;cs,fxm;onhf ygvDref\ vkyfaqmifrI\ rnfonhf ysufuGufrIwGifrqdk jynfolvlxkrSm EdkifiHa&; tajct aeodkY vlxktcGifhta&; oabmw&m;wpfck wdk;wuf&ef tcGihf tvrf;rsKd; r&Sdacs/ vlxk\ oufarG;0rf;ausmif; vkyfudkifaqmif½GufrIrsm;wGif tcef; 2 wGif awGUjrifcJhMu&onftwdkif; pdkufysKd;a&;onf yxr jzpfonf/ ta&;ay:umvrsm;wGif tpm;tpm xkwfvkyf&ef tm;ay;onhf taejzihf a&ajrUt&Sif bk&ifrif;udk,fwkdif v,fajr odkY uGif;qif;NyD; tjcm;olrsm;ESihftwl yg0ifaqmif½Gufonftxd *kPfjyK ta&;ygaom vkyfief;tjzpf pdkufysKd;a&;vkyfief;udk ,lqcJh

(1) Ak'¨0g'onf ZmwfcGJjcm;rI pepfudk w&m;rQw odkYr[kwf aumif;onf[k vufrcHacs (2) odkY wap ZmwfcGJjcm;rIonf vltzGJUtpnf;wGif tppftrSef w&m;wpf cktjzpf wnf&SdNyD;jzpfaomaMumihf ,if;pepfudk ur® oDtkd&Djzihf &Sif;vif;cJhonf (3) odkYwap udk,fusihfw&m; pdwfydkif;b0 tm;xkwfrI\ & vm'frSm rnfonhf trsKd;Zmwfxufrqdk tqihfydkjrihfonf/ tcsKdUaom vlYtzGJUtpnf;rsKd;wGif tawG;tjriftcsKdUrSm t jcm;wpfrsKd;xuf ydkrdkvlodrsm;vmonfrSm obm0w&m;jzpfonf/ odkYjzpfí ya'o&mZfpepf vlYtzGJUtpnf;wGif 'kwd,t&mudk yx rt&mxuf ydkí vufcHEdkifonf/ wwd,t,ltqtm; t,lpGJ oefol jA[®PrSwpfyg; tjcm;rnfonhf aMumif;usKd; qDavsmf olrS ry,fpGefYEdkifacs/ odkYjzpfí yk*¾Kdvfwpfa,muf\ twdwfuH t& Zmwfedrfh ZmwfjrihfwGif arG;zGm;onf[laom plVur®0db*F okwfawmfwGif >rufqdkonhf ,lqcsufonf ya'o&mZfacwf oD [dkVfwGif vlom;rsKd;EG,frsm;tMum; tppftrSeftm;jzihf arG;&myg jcm;em;csufr&Sd[laom 0gao|okwfvm tawG;tjrifxuf ydkí 1 vlBudKufESpfoufoGm;ykH&onf / a&S;acwfoD[dkVfEdkifiHwGif oD[dkVfAk'¨0g'Drsm;tm; xdktawG;t jrifrsm; vTrf;rdk;cJhonfrSm xif&Sm;onf/ odkY&mwGif tdE´d,rSmuJhodkY 2 wif;usyfaom Zmwfpepfr[kwfacs / ,if;onf vlUavmutvTm wGifomjzpfNyD; jA[®P0g' ZmwfpepfuJhodkY bmoma&;t& r[kwf acs/ vlwpfa,muf\ Zmwfonf edrfhusaomfvnf; avmukwå&m

1

See Badulla Pilla Inscription.

2

&o0g[deD 2? 33/

1

vlrIa&;

417

vlom;tm;vkH; arG;&mygtm;jzihf wlnDonf[laom yxr,lqcsufonf acwfopf vlrI pD;yGm;ESihf EdkifiHa&; wdk;wufrIrsm;atmufwGif acwfopf 'Drdk u&ufwpf oD[dkVfEdkifiHwGif ydkí vlBudKufrsm;aeonf/ 2 odkY&mwGif cwåd,ESihf jA[®PwdkrY S wpfyg; Zmwfrwlolrsm;ESihf tdrfaxmifjyK jcif;udpör&Sd[k qdkonf/ uk@em*rif; (248-249 at'D)onf jA[®P t rsKd;orD;jzpfonf (r[m0Ho 36? 23/ &o0g[ddeD 2? 7)/ oD[dkVfESifh wrd;vf rsm; vufxyfjcif; &SdaMumif;vnf; od&onf/ r[m'gXdu r[mem*rif;


418 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

vl0wfaMumifrsm;\b0 1

pdwfydkif;b0 xdk;xGif;odjrifrI tcGifhta&;½IaxmihfrSrl rnfolYudkrQ 1 cGJjcm;rIr&Sdacs / Oyrmqdkrl qif;&Jom;tm; qif;&Jjcif;[laom t aMumif;aMumihf tqdkyg tcGifhta&;rSm jcm;em;jcif; r&Sd/ Zmwfedrfh olonf qif;&Jom;uJhodkYyif twdwfb0 tukodkvfuHaMumihfom jzpfonf/ ,if;onf Ak'¨0g'½Iaxmifht& u½kPma&SUxm;í Muif empGm qufqH&efom jzpfonf/ ,if;trsKd;Zmwf trsKd;rsKd;onf rcsKd;azmuf odkYr[kwf rvGefusL;ap&aom 'kr*Fv okr*Fvudpö 2 rsm;ESihfywfoufonhf "avhxkH;pHtcsKdUudk vdkufem&onf / bk&ifonf EdkifiHawmfwpfckvkH;\ tcsKyftjcm tmPmydkifpdk; oljzpfaomfvnf; a'ocHvlxk\ axmufcHrIjzihf bk&ifht&m&Sdrsm; tkyfcsKyfonhf a'oqdkif&m udp&ö yfrsm;wGif vlxkonf tawmf 3 twef 'Drdkua&pDenf;us vGwfvyfcGifh&SdykH&onf / oD[dkVfuRef; udk e,fy,f odkYr[kwf &| rsm; ydkif;jcm;xm;NyD; ,if;&|rsm;udk wpfzef tkyfcsKyfa&;vG,fulap&ef aus;½Gmq,fckygonhf tkyfpk rsm; cGJjcm;xm;jyefonf/ Vevalkariy ausmufpmt& ,if;aus;½Gmtkyfpkrsm;twGif; ]rIcif;a&;&m tqkH;tjzwfrsm;udk bk&ifhaumifpD t&m&Sdrsm;\ vufatmufcH aus;½Gmacgif;aqmifrsm;ESihf wm0ef&Sd tdrfaxmifOD;

pD;rsm;jzihf zGJUpnf;xm;onhf a'oqdkif&m w&m;½kH;u qkH;jzwf onf/ ,if;aus;½Gm w&m;½kH;udk bk&ihfaumifpDESihf trwfrsm;u csrSwfxm;onhf Oya'rsm; oufa&mufap&ef tqdkyg aus;½Gm w &m;½kH;udk trdefYtmPm ay;xm;onf/ ykHpHtm;jzihf ,if;aus;½Gm ½kH;awmfonf Oay'csKd;azmufolrsm;xHrS &&Sdonhf owfrSwf 'Pf aiG rsm;rSwpfyg; vlowfrIESifh vk,ufrIrsm;udk ppfaq;EdkifNyD; 1 tcsKdUtrIrsm;wGif ao'Pfudkyif ay;Edkifonf} / xdktwlyif ]a'oqdkif&m ukeo f G,frIESihf tjcm; aumfydka&; &Sif;rsm;tm; 'PfaiGrsm;pnf;MuyfaumufcH&ef? vlolowf&mZ0wf om;rsm;tm; zrf;qD;&efESihf w&m;Oya'a&;&m pDrHaqmif½GufrI 2 wGif bk&ihft&m&Sdrsm;tm; ulnD&ef vkyfydkifcGifh ay;xm;onf / uefYowftcsdefwpfcktwGif; ¤if;wdkY\ ydkifeuftwGif; ½Gmom;wdYk udk zrf;csKyfjcif; &mZ0wfrIusL;vGefolrsm;tm; jypf'Pfay;jcif;rsm; twGufrSm pkaygif;tkyfcsKyfolrsm;\ wm0efjzpfNyD; wm0efudk csKd; 3 azmufolrsm;&SdcJhvQif vlxkudk jypf'Pfrsm;udk csrSwfonf / jypfrItrsKd;rsKd;twGuf jypf'Pfrsm;rSm tvGefyif &ufpuf Murf;MuKwfonf/ ao'Pf? udk,fcE¨mtpdwftydkif;rsm;udk jzwf awmufjcif;? oHyluyfí udk,fcE¨mrSm trSwfwHqdyfjyKjcif;? jypf 'PfusL;vGefolrsm;tm; &J&JeDatmif zkwfxm;onhf oHylay:wGif zdeyfrygonhf ajcjzihf twif;tMuyf jzwfavQmufckdif;jcif;ponf wdkYrSm ,if;jypf'Pfrsm;rS tcsKdUjzpfonf/ vltcsKdUrSm a'oqdkif&m tmPm&Sdolrsm;\ tEdkifusihfjcif; vkyfMuHjcif; cHMu&onf/ xdkodkYaom tajctaersm;wGif ½Gmol½Gm om;rsm;onf wpfcgwpf&H bk&ifrif; Xmersm;pGmodkY tcgtm; avsmfpGm wdkif;cef;vSnfhvnfpOf wifjyMuvsuf bk&ifu ,if;odkY aom w&m;Oya'ESihf rnDnGwf w&m;rrQwaom tjyKtrlrsm;udk

(at'D 67-79) wGif 'rdVa'0Dtrnf&Sdonhf rdzk&m;wpfyg;&Sdonf (tH-| 1? 13)/ pE´rkcod0rif; (at'D 103-112)\ rdzk&m;onfvnf; wrD;vf trsKd;orD;jzpfonf ('Dy0Ho 21? 45)/ 1 odkY&mwGif trÁ*rk0 ausmufpm (E.Z. II, p. 210 ff. lines 34-35) wGif yxr 0dZ,Am[k (at'D 1059-1114)onf od&dyg' (Ak'¨ajcawmf&m) wnf&Sd onhf txufqihf oraemvawmif (Adam's Peak) \ atmufwGif Zmwfedrfholrsm; xdkapwDudk zl;ajrmfEdkif&ef apmif;wef;wpfck wnfaqmuf aMumif; qdkonf/ Ak'¨bmom 0wfjyKqkawmif;jcif;ü ,if;cGJjcm;rIonf xkH; pH r[kwfbJ awGUawmihfawGUcJ aqmif½GufrIom jzpfonf/ 2 3

E.Z. I, p. 246 or 247; Vevalkariya Inscription, lones 32-34.

a'ocHvlxk[lonf ,aeYacwf oD&dvuFmEdkifiH&Sd aus;½GmaumfrwD\ a&SU ajy;ykHpHjzpfonf/

1

vlrIa&;

W Wickremasinghe : E.Z. I, p. 244.

2

Paranavitana : E.Z. III, p. 74.

3

Vevalkariya Inscription, E.Z. III, p. 245.

419


424 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

vl0wfaMumifrsm;\b0 1

½GufvTifhvsuf ukefonfrsm; c&D;oGm;MuNyD; tcsKdUrSm ,if;wdkif; 1 jynfrsm;ü ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm Mumonf / at'D 7 &mpk\ aemufqkH; ESpf0uf odkYr[kwf 8 &mpk tpydkif; ouúwbmoma&; wd&d,m, 2 ausmufpm (Tiriyāy Rock Inscription)wGif ]a&mif;0,frIudk aqmif ½GufNyD; oabFmay:wGif wifaqmifxm;onhf ukefypönf; trsKd;rsKd; udk jyoonfh yifv,fa&aMumif; uRrf;usifol ukefonf tkyfpk rsm;taMumif;} azmfjyxm;onf/ ,if;ukrÜPDrsm;udk Ak'¨&Sifawmf jrwf aAm"dÓPfudk &NyD;aemuf yxrqkH; qGrf;qufuyfNyD; urÇm ay:wGif yxrqkH;aom Ak'¨0g'D Oygoumrsm;tjzpf ,lqcH& onhf xif&Sm;onhf Ak'¨0g'D wykóESihf bv†du emrnfrsm;jzihf 3 rSnfhac:Muonf /

onf/ 'k|*grPDonf {Vm&aus;rif;udk wdkufckdufrnfh ppfqif a&;rpwifrDwGif 'DC0gydt&yf (r[m0gvd**Fgjrpf awmifzuf&Sd ta&SUzsm; a'o)&Sd us,fajymonhf e,fajrrsm;ü xGef,ufpdkufysKd; 2 a&;aqmif½Guf&ef nDawmfwdótm; vTJtyfcJhaMumif; qdkonf / csrf;omonhf v,form;rsm;onf vl&maygif;rsm;pGmudk zdwf Mum;auR;arG;vsuf pyg;pdkufysKd;jcif;ESihfqdkifonhf crf;em;aom 3 v,fxGefr*Fvmudk usif;yMuonf / tjcm;olrsm;\ v,fajr rsm;wGif pyg;vSnfhctaejzihf rdrd&&Sdonfh pyg;tenf;i,fudk tjrwfjzihfacs;iSm;&mrS csrf;omoGm;aom tvGefYtvGef qif;&Jol wpfa,muftaMumif; Mum;&avmufatmifyif pyg;rSm tusKd;jzpf 4 xGef;onhf ukefoG,fpD;yGm;jzpfonf / awmPd*vausmufpmt& pyg;omru tjcm;pdkufysKd;oD;ESH rsm;udkvnf; tjrwftpGrf;rsm;ay;aMumif;ESihf trSefaomf oD;ESH rsKd;pkHudk tjrwf aumif;aumif;jzihf tyfESHEdkifrnfjzpfaom oD;ESHodk avSmifbPfrsm;yif&SdaMumif; od&onf/ ,if;ausmufpmt&yif pyg;tjyif tjcm;oD;ESHrsm;udkvnf; us,fjyefYpGm pdkufysKd;aMumif; em;vnf&onf/ a,bk,stm;jzihf vlcsrf;omwpfa,muf[lonf 5 udk pyg;? yJESihf tjcm;oD;ESHrsm;ydkifqdkifoltjzpf azmfjyonf / r[m0Housrf;ü emrnfausmf a*gXdrÁ&wdkY nDtpfudk pdkufysKd;onhf 6 yJcif;taMumif;udk azmfjyxm;onf / þacwftydkif;tjcm;wGif tkef;yifpdkufysKd;jcif; taMumif;ESihf tvkHtavmuf rMum;&jcif;rSm qef;aomfvnf; tkef;yifpdkufysKd; 7 jcif;rSm tvGef xif&Sm;onf/ &o0g[deDusrf; ü a&m[P t&yf

1

2 3

&o0g[deD 2? 139/ 171/ 192/ ok0PÖblrdEdkifiHonf ,if;wdkYteuf wpfEdkifiHjzpfaMumif; azmfjyonf/ E. Z. IV, p. 158 and 314.

þausmufpmonf at'D 7 odkYr[kwf 8 &mpkwGif wnf&SdcJhonfh ukef onftkyfpkrsm;udk &nfñTef;oavm? odkYwnf;r[kwf ausmufpmyg Trapussakairv Vallikakairv Vanigganaih ]MwykóuESihf bv’duu trnf&onhf ukefonftkyfpk}[laom pum;vkH;rsm;rSm rnfonfudk twdtus t"dyÜm,f qdkvdkonfESihf ywfoufí t,ltq jcm;em;csufrsm; &SdcJhykH&onf/ y&e0d weyk*¾Kdvfu ,if;pum;vkH;rsm;rSm Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf aAm"dÓPfudk &NyD; aemuf rsm;rMumrD Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwftm; qGrf;qufuyfcJhonhf wykó bv’duESihf ¤if;wdkY\ aemufvdkufaemufyg ukefonfrsm;udk &nfñTef;onf [k ,lqcJhonf/ Rao Bahadur K.N. Dikshit yk*¾Kdvfu ,if;onf ]wykó ESihf bv’duwdkY\ wynhfaemufygrsm; jzpfonf}[k ,lqonf/ B. Ch. Chhabra url wykóESihf bv’dutrnf&Sd ukefonftkyfpkESpfckrSm Ak'¨&Sif awmfjrwftm; yxrqkH; qGrf;udk qufuyfcJhMuonhf wykó bv’duESifh ¤if;wdkY\ aemufygrsm;udk &nf½G,faomfvnf; þausmufpmudk ra&;xkd;rD wd&d,m, t&yfü bk&m;ausmif; wnfaqmufcJhMuonhf ukefonfrsm; tjzpf ,l&rnf[k wdkufwGef;xm;onf/ pD;yGm;a&; tajccHwpfckudk enf; vrf; trsKd;rsKd;jzihf rSnhfac:Edkifonf/ ,if;trnfudk ydkifqdkifol\ trnf odkYr[kwf xif&Sm;ausmfMum;ol wpfa,muf\ trnfrsm;jzihf rSnfhac:Edkif

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

&o0g[deD 2? 113/ ,if;? 69/ ,if;? 116/ ,if;? 125/ &o0g[deD 2? 131/ r[m0Ho 28? 51/ &o0g[deD 2? 94/

vlrIa&;

421


422 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

vl0wfaMumifrsm;\b0 1

&Sd uyÜuE´&0d[m&wGif BuD;rm;onhf tkef;cif;&SdaMumif; azmfjy 1 onf/ r[m0Housrf; üvnf; yxrt*¾aAm"drif; (at'D 568601) wnfaqmufonhf uk½kE´ausmif;wdkuftm; okH;,lZem us,f 0ef;onhf tkef;jcH (emvdau&m&mrH wda,mZeH) wpfck taMumif; azmfjyonf/ BuHpdkufysKd;a&;rSmvnf; xif&Sm;NyD; oMum;puf½kH t 2 aMumif;udkyif od&onf / at'D 7 &mpkwGif [l,ifqefu oD[dkVfEdkifiH\ pdkufysKd;a&; csrf;om<u,f0ykHtaMumif;udk þodkYa&;cJhonf ]ajronf csrf;om NyD; ajrMoZmaumif;\/ &moDOwkrSm yl\/ ajrudk ykHrSef xGef,uf 3 pdkufysKd;Mu\/ yef;refopfoD;rsm; aygrsm;\} / uJREGm;arG;jrLa&;rSmvnf; pdkufysKd;a&;uJhodkYyif tusKd;jzpf xGef;onf/ EdkYxGufEGm;rwpfaumif\ wefzdk;rSm 8 u[myPESihf 4 12 u[myPtMum; wefzdk;&Sdonf / ykHrSeftm;jzihf EGm;r 5 wpfaumifudk eHeufwpfBudrf naewpfBudrf EdkYñSpfonf / csrf; omonhf v,form;wpfa,mufonf uRJEGm;rsm;pGmESihf v,fajr rsm;udk ydkifqkdif&ef arQmfvifhonf/ taMumif;rSm ,if;wd&dpämefrsm; rSm pdkufysKd;a&;twGuf r&Sdrjzpf vdktyfaomaMumifh jzpfonf/ EGm;tkyfrsm;ESihf oD;jcm;aus;½Gmrsm;ESihf tcef;ESpfwGif azmfjyNyD; 6 onhftwdkif; eHeufwGif uRJEGm;ausmif;&ef xGufoGm;NyD; naewGif tdrfjyefonfh uRJEGm;ausmif;olrsm; Mum;od&onftxd us,fjyefY aomtwdkif;twmjzihf a&S;acwf oD[dkVfwGif uRJEGm;arG;jrLa&;vkyf

ief;rsm;udk aqmif½GufMuonf/ a&SUtcef;rsm;wGif awGUcJh&onhf twdkif; EGm;om;udk pm;okH;jcif;rSm vlrIa&;t& a&SmifMuOfrIwpf&yf jzpfojzihf uRJEGm;rsm;udk EdkYESihf pdkufysKd;a&;twGuf trsm;qkH; arG; jrLNyD; tom;twGuf r[kwfonfrSm aocsmonf/ jynfwGif; jynfyukefoG,frIrSm BuD;rm;onhf vkyfief;jzpf onf/ ukefonfrsm;onf pD;yGm;a&;tvkyfjzihf EdkifiHwpf0ef;vkH;odkY 1 vSnfhvnf oGm;vmMuaMumif; od&NyD; tcsKdUrSm *sif;uJhodkYaom ukefypönf;rsm;udk pkaqmif;vsuf rv,uJhodkYaom ae&mrsm;odYk 2 vSnf;rsm;jzihf oGm;Muonf / A'kv†ausmufpmwGif r[d,*FPt eD;&Sd a[m#dyd*grü 10 &mpk aps;ae&mwpfck\ ½kyfykHvTmudk &Sif; 3 vif;pGm azmfjyxm;onf / xdkae&mwGif qdkifae&mrsm;udk tcGefaqmif&rnfh ukefypönf; trsKd;rsKd;udk a&mif;csjcif;ESihf oD;jcm;cGJxm;onf/ i½kyfaumif;ESihf ZmwdyæKdvfoD;rsm;udkyif ,if;udk 0,f&efvmolrsm;tm; xkdqdkifrsm; ü a&mif;cs&NyD; tu,fí ,if;wdkYudk tjcm;ae&mrsm;ü a&mif;cs vQif aps;wm0efcH tmPmydkifrsm;u a&mif;csolrsm;tm; z,f&Sm; Edkifonf/ cGifhjyKtav;csdefESihf twdkif;twmtm;vkH;udk tpdk;&wH qdyf ½dkufESdyfxm;onf/ ]arSmifckdaps;}udk awGU&NyD; ,if;rSm w&m; r0ifacs/ ukefypönf;tm;vkH;udk aMunm&rnfjzpfNyD; raMunm onhf ukefypönf;udk awGU&vQif xdkukefypönf;rsm;rS tcGefESpfqudk aumufcHonf/ a&mif;cs&ef r&nf½G,fonhf ae&mrsm;ü ukef ypönf;rsm;udk csdefwG,f wdkif;wmrnfr[kwfacs/ ukefoG,frItm;vkH; udk OykofaeYrsm;ü &yfqdkif;xm;&rnfjzpfonf/ EdkifiHjcm;wdkif;jynfrsm;ESihf ukefa&mif;ukef0,frI trsm;tjym; &SdcJhonf/ pD;yGm;a&;udpöjzihf EdkifiHjcm; wkdif;jynfrsm;odkY oabFmrsm;

1 2

3 4

r[m0Ho 42? 16/ tH-| 1? 395/ &o0g[deD 2? 143/ (&o0g[deDü ,EÅbwð [laom a0g[m&udk okH;xm; NyD; ,if;udk o'¨r®mvuFm&usrf;ü oMum;puf½kHwGif tvkyfvkyfjcif;[k t"dyÜm,fjyefxm;onf/ Hiuen Tsiang : Bk. XI, p. 235.

&o0g[deD 2? 32/ tH-| 1? 277/ 5 tH-| 1? 395/ 6 &o0g[deD 2? 22/

1 2 3

,if;? 136/ r[m0Ho 38? 21/ E. Z. III, p. 74.

vlrIa&;

423


428 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; 1

tcsKdUrSm tjcm;yk*¾Kdvfrsm;\ v,fwGif pyg;tiSm;&dwfjcif; ? 2 vlcsrf;omtdrfrsm;ü tvkyfvkyfjcif; uJhodkYaom qef;jym;onhf t vkyfrsm;ESihf pyg;vSnhfjcif;ESihf csrf;omonhf v,form;rsm; pGeYf ypfNyD;jzpfonfh weif;e,fonhfuGif;rS aumuf½dk;rsm;udk cg,lvsuf 3 &onhf pyg;tenf;i,fudk pkaqmif;íyif toufarG;Muonf / tvkyftudkif &SmazGMuonhf qif;&Jom;rsm;udk awGU&aomf vnf; rnfonhfacwfwGifrS ppfrSefonhf tvkyfvufrJhjyóem &SdcJh ykHr&acs/ ajr&Sifya'o&mZfpepfwiG f tvkyfvufrJhjyóem vkH;0 r&Sdacs/ tjcm;wpfbufwGif csrf;om<u,f0rIudk ajr&Sifrsm;ESihf ukef onfrsm;u csKyfudkifxm;NyD; tjcm;wpfbufwGifrl qif;&JpkwfcsmrI onf qif;&Jom;rsm;tm; tBuD;tus,f ysufpD;apykH&onf/ qif; &Jom;vlwef;pm;rsm;ü qif;&JrGJawrIonf wpfcgwpf&HwGif rdb rsm;tm; rdrdwdkY\ om;orD;rsm;udk u[myPtenf;i,frQjzihf aus;uReftjzpf a&mif;cs&ef odkYr[kwf aygifESH&ef wGef;ydkY ay;onf txdyif vGefuJcJhonf/ ,if;odkYaom qif;&Jom;wpfa,muf onf rdrd\ orD;tm; 12 u[myPjzihfcsrf;omonhf rdom; pkwpfpkodkY aygifESHcJhNyD; om;wpfa,mufrSmrl 8 u[myPjzihf 4 vlcsrf;omtdrfodkY rdbrsm;\ aygifESHjcif;udk cHcJh&onf / tcsKdU rdbrsm;rSm ¤if;wdkY\ om;orD;rsm;udk ta&;ay: aiGaMu;vdktyfyg u &Edkifonhf ukefypönf;tjzpfyif ,lqcJhykH&onf/ txufwGif azmfjycJhonhf taygifcH trsKd;orD;i,f\ rdcifonf cifyGef;onf tm; ]om;orD;&Sdolrsm;onf qif;&Jygrnfavm? oif\ orD;&Sdyg 1

o[ó0w¬K? t&d,*gv r[mwdóó 0w¬K/ &o0g[deD 2? 125/ 3 ,if;? 125? 149/ 4 tH-| 1? 395/ &o0g[deD 2? 143/ 2

vl0wfaMumifrsm;\b0 1

vlrIa&;

425

tEk&m"yk&NrdKUonf ukefonftkyfpk trsKd;rsKd;wdkY\ A[dkXme jzpf cJhonf/ vdvm0wDrdzk&m;a&;xdk;aom ausmufpmwpfckt& at'D onf/ ,aeYacwf oD[dkVfwGif Ak'¨acwfu xif&Sm;ausmfMum;onhf ZD0u aq;q&mBuD;\ trnfudk,lNyD; rSnfhac:xm;aom ZD0uMoo"mv, (ZD0uaq;ay;cef;)rsm;udk awGUEdkifonf/ xdktwlyif tqdkyg ukefonf tkyfpkrsm;onf tvGefoihfawmf aumif;rGefonhf trnfjzpfonfh Ak'¨&Sif awmfjrwftm; yxrqkH; qGrf;uyfvªNyD; urÇmay:wGif yxrqkH; Ak'¨bmom Oyoumrsm; jzpfvmMuonhf wykóESihf bv’duwdkY\ emrnfudk,lí rSnhf ac:cJhzG,f&Sdonf/ wykóESihf bv’duemrnfwdkY\a&SUwGif awGU&onhf utu©&m tydk rSm trsm; ,lqxm;Muonhftwdkif; jyóemwpfck r[kwfacs/ þusrf;jyK ol (0gvfydkvm &m[kvm)taejzihfrl ,if; utu©&mudk ykHrSeftm;jzihf tjcm;trnfrsm;uJhodkYyif yk*¾Kdvfa&;trnfudk tzGJU odkYr[kwf tkyfpktrnf jzihf okH;onhftcg wGJpyfonhf aemufqufyk'ftjzpf ,lqonf/ awmPd *Vausmufpm (E.Z. II,p. 177) yg uV[kreu (ka¼ahumanaka) ed,r we[d [laom pum;&yfudk y&e0dweyk*¾Kdvfu ]uVm[kret&yfü pD;yGm; a&;tkyfpkwpfck\ nDvmcH}[k bmomjyefonf/ odkY&mwGif uV[kre (um Vokre)[lonf ,if;pD;yGm;a&; tkyfpku emrnfay;xm;onhf vlwpf a,muf\ emrnfjzpfojzihf ,if;udk ]uVm[kre trnf&Sdonhf pD;yGm;a&; tkyfpk\ nDvmcH}bmomjyefvQif ydkí oihfjrwfonf/ r[mwkAu e, rwe[d [lonfvnf; twlwljzpfonf/ ,if;onf ]r[wkAu (r[m xly)[kac:onhf pD;yGm;a&;tkyfpk}udk qdkvdkonf/ xl;jcm;onhf oD[dkVf tokH;tEIef;ESifhtnD ,if;odkYaom yk*¾Kdvfa&; trnfrsm;wGif qufxm; onhf ,if;utu©&mudk ouúwbmomjzihf a&;xm;aomfvnf; wykó bv’du trnfrsm;ü xnfhoGif; okH;EIef;xm;jcif;jzpfonf/ ,if;wdkYtm; vkH;rSm yk*¾vduemrfyk'frsm; jzpfMuonf/ a'oqdkif&m ygVdESihf ouúw ta&;tom;rsm;wGif rMumcP oD[dkVfbmompum; vTrf;rdk;rIudk awGU& onf/ Oyrmtm;jzihf txufwGif azmfjyxm;onhf aZw0em&mr ausmuf pm (E.Z. I, p. 4) udk Munhfyg/ ouúwbmompum;wGifvnf; aemuf quf utu©&mudk &nf½G,fcsuf trsKd;rsKd;jzihf okH;EIef;onfrSm xif&Sm; onf/ a&S;acwf oD[dkVfü ,if; aemufquf utu©&m tokH;jyKrI ,u© 'ka0 od&dynm&mrrax&f a&;om;onhf rZÑdredum,f\ oD[dkVfbmom ed'gef;ü a0zefcsufudk avhvmzwf½Iyg/


426 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

vl0wfaMumifrsm;\b0 1

12 &mpkrSmyif ,if;NrdKUü EdkifiHaygif;pkHrS pD;yGm;a&;tkyfpkrsm; (em ema'oD Asmyg&,H) &SdcJhaMumif;ESihf a'otoD;oD;rS NrdKUawmf odkY vmMuonhf qif;&Jom;rsm; tokH;jyK&ef tcrJhwnf;cdkaqmifudk wnfaqmuf xdef;odrf;a&;twGuf taxmuftyHhudk &&SdaMumif; 1 od&onf / w½kwfbk&m;zl;&[ef;awmf zm[D,efu at'D ig;&m pktcsdefu taMumif;t&mudk ]NrdKUawmfü a0ó (ukefonf)rsm; ESihf wdkif;wpfyg; ukefonfrsm; &SdMuNyD; ¤if;wdkY\ tdrfrsm;rSm crf;em; vSyMu\/ vlaevrf;rsm;ESihf vrf;usOf;rsm;udk pepfwus 2 xdef;odrf;xm;\} / pD;yGm;a&; vTJajymif;rIESifh oabmwlnDrIrsm;udk ykHrSeftm;jzihf a&;rSwfxm;NyD; oabmwlnDcsuf NyD;qkH;aomtcg ,if;pm½Gufpm 3 wrf;rsm;udk zsufqD;ypfMuonf / tcef; 2 wGif Ak'¨0g' rwdkifrD oD[dkVfü trJvdkufjcif;rSm xif&Sm;aMumif; od&onf/ toufudk owfjzwfjcif;rSm Ak'¨"r®ESihf qefYusifaomfvnf; Ak'¨0g'xGef;um;NyD;aeufrSmyif ydkrdk qif;&J onhf vltcsKdUonf trJvdkufjcif;ESifh ig;rQm;jcif;udk toufarG; 0rf;ausmif;rItjzpf rjzpfrae vkyfMu&onf/ ,if;wdkYteuf t 4 csKdUrSm trJvdkuf&ef trJvdkufacG;rsm;&SdMuonf / wpfcgwpf&HwGif 5 rkqdk;rsm;onf oD;jcm;aexkdkifMuonf (aeom'*gr) / ¤if;wdkYonf teD;tem;&Sd aps;ae&mrsm;wGif tom;rsm;udk a&mif;csNyD; 0ifaiG& 6 &SdMuonfrSm xif&Sm;onf / wpfcgwpf&HwGif rkqdk; wpfa,mufonf ausmfMum;onhf "r® uxduq&mawmf t&SifaomPuJhodkYaom rax&fBuD;rsm;\zcif

cif jzpfaewwfonf/ aemufqkH;ü aomPrax&fonf zcif rkqdk;rSm omoemhabmifodkY 0ifa&mufvdkonhf qE´r&SdbJvsuf 1 &[ef;jyKay;vdkufonf / usrf;*efpmayü azmfjyonfh rkqdk;trsm; pkrSm aemufqkH;wGif &[ef;jyKvmNyD; tcsKdUrSm &[EÅmtjzpfudkyif 2 &&SdoGm;aMumif; jyqdkMuonf / rkqdk;wpfa,muf\ ZeD;onf vnf; ¤if;\ cif;yGef;rkqdk; &[ef;rjyKcifrSmyif omoemhabmifodYk 3 0if a&mufcJhaMumif; od&onf / wHigonftvkyfjzihf ig;udk a&mif;í oufarG;0rf;ausmif;jyK 4 5 olrsm; vnf; &SdMuNyD; wHigonf ½Gmrsm;udk azmfjyonf / w½kwf &[ef;awmf [l,ifqefu at'D 7 &mpk oD[dkVfwGif ykvJikyf vkyf 6 7 ief;taMumif;udk azmfjyonf / Muufwdkufjcif; &Sdaomfvnf; ,if; onf avmif;upm;rI [kwfr[kwf[lonfudkrl rod&acs/ oMum;puf½kH (OpäK,EÅ)uJhodkYaom ae&mrsm;ü tvkyform; rsm;onf tvkyftudkif &&SdEdkifMuonf/ qif;&Jom;wpfa,muf onf oMum;puf½kHwGif ajcmufvMum tvkyfvkyfNyD;aemuf 12 8 u[myPpkrdaMumif; od&onf / tqdkygqif;&Jom;onf oMum; puf½kHwGif tvkyfr&rDu r[m*grü xif;a&mif;NyD; toufarG; 0rf;ausmif; jyKcJhonf/ 1 2 3 4 5

1 2

E.Z. I, p. 179. Fa Hien, p. 104.

6 7

3

&o0g[deD 2? 18/ 187/ 4 r-| 4? 87/ tH-| 1? 364/ tbd-| 2? 420/ r[m0Ho 38? 9/ 5 &o0g[deD 2? 147/ &o0g[deD 2? 132/ rHao 0duúdPdwGm ykwå'ga& aygaoaEÅm ]tom;wdkY udk a&mif;csvsuf ZeD;r,m;ESihf om;orD;wdkYudk arG;jrLvsuf}/

8

vlrIa&;

427

r-| 4? 87/ tH-| 1? 364/ tbd-| 2? 420/ tH-| 1? 27/ &o0g[deD 2? 132/ 147/ &o0g[deD 2? 147/ tH-| 2? 107/ r-| 4? 229/ &o0g[deD 2? 147/ Hiuen Tsiang : Bk. XI, p. 251.

tbd-| 2? 425/ ukuúKa# ,kZÑmayod// tH-| 1? 395/ &o0g[deD 2? 143/ wpfcgwpf&H oMum;cJrsm;udk vkyftm;ctjzpf ay;onf/ oMum;puf ½kHwGif [efaqmif tvkyfvkyfcJhaom r[mpkvd r[mwdó rif;onf oMum;cJrsm;udk vkyfctjzpf &&SdcJhaMumif; od&onf (r[m0Ho 34? 4)/


432 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; ewforD; (a'0unm) rsm;uJhodkY 0wfpm;xm;onf[laom tcsufrSvGJí trsKd;orD;rsm; 0wfpm;qif,ifrItaMumif;udk t 1 enf;i,frQom od&onf / trsKd;orD;rsm; 0wfpm;qif,ifrIESihf ywfoufí qD*d&d, (S²griya)ESihf tjcm;ae&mrsm;&Sd trsKd;orD; rsm;\ ykHoP²mefrsm;rSm tppftrSefudk udk,fpm;jyKjcif;xuf ydkrdk í xkH;wrf;pOfvmtwdkif; 0wfpm;qif,ifrI jzpfojzihf ,if; ½kyfykH rsm;rS rnfodkY aumufcsufqGJrnfudk qkH;jzwf&ef cufonf/ rnfodkY jzpfap a,musfm; rdef;rrsm;onf wwfEdkiforQ yef;csDaq;&kyfrsm; uJhodkY vSypGm 0wfqifvsuf yGJawmfBuD;rsm;odkY vma&mufMu aMumif;od&ojzihf vltrsm;onf tcgtm;avsmfpGm tEkynm 2 ajrmufpGm 0wfpm;qif,ifMuonf / vltrsm;rSm rdrdudk,fudk tvGefvSyonf[k txif&SdcJhMu[ef &Sdonf/ (,if;odkY xifrSwf&mü) &[ef;awmfrsm;yif >cif;csufr&Sd acs// wpfcgaomf tEk&m"yk&NrdKUawmfü &[ef;awmfwpfyg;ESihf trwfwpfa,muf\om;wdkY tvSNydKifyGJESihf qifonhf jzpf&yfwpfck &SdykH&onf/ tb,rax&fESifh trwf\om;onf wlnDpGmyif vSy Muojzihf NrdKUxJwGif rnfoluydk vSoenf;[k ajymqdkMuonf/ ¤if;wdkY ESpfa,mufvkH;udk jrifawGU&ef trwf\aqGrsKd;rsm;onf vli,ftm; vSypGm 0wfqifvsuf r[mapwDudk zl;ajrmf&ef ,laqmifvmMuonf/ rax&f\ rdcifonfvnf; om;awmfxH ouFef;topf wpfpkHydkYvsuf OD;acgif;rS qHyifudk &dwfjzwfNyD; ouFef;opfudk 0wf½kHvsuf aemufyg &[ef;awmfrsm;ESihf twl r[mapwDodkY <uvm&ef rSmMum;vdkufonf/ trwf\ om;a&m tb,rax&fyg ESpfOD;vkH;onf r[mapwDawmf&ifjyifü qkHawGU 1 2

0dok'¨dr*¾ 1? 20/ 'D-| ? 166/ r-| 1? 269/ ]yef;csDaq;½kyfrsm;uJodkY (pdwåur®½lyged 0d,)[laom pum;vkH;rSm yef;csDaq;½kyrf sm;[efjzihf 0wfqifxm;Muonf [k rqdkvdkacs/ ,if;odkY qdkjcif;rSm Oyrmpum;rQom jzpfNyD; ¤if;wdkYrSm ]t vGef vSyonf}[k qdkvdkjcif;jzpfonf/

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430 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; 1

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1 2

0dok'¨dr*¾ 1? 337/ &o0g[deD 2? 63/

3 4

r[m0Ho 34? 84/ &o0g[deD 2? 175/ r[m0Ho 34? 84/ o[ó0w¬K? oCFmrpöó 0w¬K/


436 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

vl0wfaMumifrsm;\b0 1

0obrif;\ om;awmftm; 0uFemoduwdó (at'D 171174)[k ac:onf/ t"dyÜm,f ]ESmacgif;aumufonhf wdó}[k 1 jzpfonf/ trSefaomf þrif;\ emrnf&if;rSm wdójzpfNyD; ¤if; \ om;awmf yrx *ZAm[krif; pdkufxlonfh ausmufpmwGif ]ESm acgif;aumuf}[lonfudk azmfjyjcif; r&Sdacs/ odkY&mwGif r[m0Ho usrf;jyKq&monf at'D 5 &mpkü xdkdbk&iftm; 0uFemodu wdó[k ac:a0:cJhonf/ taMumif;rl xdktcsdefu xdkrif;tm; vltrsm;u xif&Sm;pGm xdkemrnfjzifh odaeMuaom aMumihfjzpf onf/ wdóemrnf rsm;pGm&SdNyD; omrefvlrsm;onf xdkemrnfudk aumif;pGm cGJjcm;í rodEdkifacs/ odkYjzpfí r[m0Ho usrf;jyKq&m onf tjcm;wdórsm;ESihf uGJjym;ap&efom ]ESmacgif;aumuf wdó}[k ac:a0:cJhjcif;jzpfojzihf r[m0Ho\ tac:ta0:rSm oifhjrwfonf/ uk#uPÖwdó ]em;½GufcRefonhf wdó} (at'D 16-38)? xkv†xe ]BuD;aom EdkY&Sdol} (bDpD 59)? cv†m# em* ]xdyfajymif em*} (bDpD 50- 43)? r[m'gXdu r[mem* ]EIwfcrf; arT;xlonhf r[mem*} (at'D 67-79)? rdwåaoe 0D[dapm& ]pyg;olcdk; rdwåaoe} (at'D 432) rsm;rSm tcsKdUbk&ifrsm;\ emrnfajymifrsm; jzpfMuonf/ 0efBuD;rsm;ESihf AkdvfcsKyfrsm;vnf; ,if;odkYaom emrnfajymif rsm;jzihf xif&Sm;Muonf/ 0¥*grPdrif;\ trwfwpfa,mufrSm 2 uydoDo ]arsmufacgif;} emrnfjzihf xif&Sm;onf / xdktrwf\ emrnf&if;udk rod&acs/ &o0g[deDusrf;ü a&m[Pt&yf&Sd aus; ½Gmwpf½GmrS trsKd;om;wpfa,mufrSm twefi,f ykuGaomaMumihf (þouH yeó 0grewåm) ½Gmol½Gmom;rsm;u a*gV ]a*:vkH;}[k 3 ac:aMumif; jyqdkonf /

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1 2 3

E.Z. I, p. 221, III, p, 116 udk½Iyg

r[m0Ho 33? 70-71/ &00g[deD 2? 170/

1

vlrIa&;

433

0d-| 4? 174/ twdwfb0wpfckwGif tb,rax&fonf apwDwpfql\ &ifjyifudk wHjrufvSnf;NyD; trwf\om;onf trIdufrsm;udk ta0;odkY ypf vTifhonf/ ]igvSnf;ypfonhf trIdufudk ta0;odkYvTifhypfNyD;aemuf oifonf ,ckighudk ,SOfNydKif&ef vmbdonf}[k rax&fu rSwfcsufjyKonf/ Oy"d orÜwådESihf jynfhpkHrIrSm apwD&ifjyifawmfudk oefY&Sif;zl;cJhonhf ukodkvf\ tusKd;qufjzpfonf/ 2 o[ó0w¬K? ol&edr®v0w¬K/ 3 &o0g[deD 2? 24? 180?/ 4 &o0g[deD 2? 10? 91? 128? 181?/ 5 6 ,if;? 180/ ,if;? 147/


434 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

vl0wfaMumifrsm;\b0 1

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1

1

2

2

,if;? 45/ ,if;? 32? 34/ 3 ,if;? 84/ 4 ,if;? 89/ 5 ,if;? 181/ E.Z. III, p. 76.

vlrIa&;

435

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3

E.Z. III, p. 77.

4

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440 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif;

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448 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; aumif;rIudk ukpm;&eftwGuf tcGefb@mrsm; ay;tyfNyD; omu 1 0w¬K0d[m&udk wnfaqmufcJhonf / ppfwyfudk xdef;odrf;&ef 'kwd,uóyrif;onf toufi,f onhfrif; jzpfonhftwdkif; xlyg&mrESifh 'u©dP0d[m&&Sd apwD awmfrsm;ESihf tjcm;rsm;pGmaom jrifhjrwfaom ae&mrsm;udk azmuf NyD; ,cifbk&ifrif;rsm; vª'gef;cJhonhf tzdk;wef &wemodkufrsm;udk vk,lonf/ odkYwap ¤if;bk&ifjzpfvmaomtcg ]¤if;\ raumif; rItukodkvfudk zsufqD;&ef}[laom tawG;jzihf (emoH ygyó ur®ó ygeH twåaem) xdkrif;onf bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrsm; wnfaqmufjyKjyifjcif;? &HykHaiGrsm; ay;tyfjcif;? bmoma&;yGJawmf rsm;ESihf tcrf;tem;rsm; usif;yjcif;rsm;jzihf rSefuefpGm tokH;jyK 2 ukodkvfaumif;rI rsm;pGmudk jyKvkyfcJhonf / Ak'¨bmomw&m;onf aemifb0twGufomru ,ckb0t wGufyg udk;uG,f&m tumtuG,fw&m; jzpfonf/ EdkifiHa&;t& tEÅ&m,f&Sdaomumvrsm;wGif rif;nDrif;om;rsm;onf ¤if;wdkY\ toufcsrf;oma&;twGuf omoemhabmifodkY 0ifa&mufMuonf/ Oyrmqdk&rl tEkvmrdzk&m;\&efudk aMumufvefYonhf ued|wdó (at'D 16-36) rif;om;onf omoemhabmifodkY 0ifa&mufaeNyD; tcGifhomonhf tcsdefwGif vlxGufNyD; tEkvmrdzk&m;udk owf 3 vsuf rif;jyKonf / xdkYtwl odvmumvrif; (at'D 524-537) tdE´d,odkY xGufajy;NyD; yxruóyrif;udk aMumufvefYojzihf &[ef;jyKonf/ uóyrif; uG,fvGefNyD;aemuf vl0wfaMumif t 4 jzpfjzihf EdkifiHawmfodkY jyefvmcJhonf / odkY&mwGif oD[dkVfbk&ifrsm;teuf trSefwu,f oem;Muif emwwfNyD; bmomw&m; udkif;½Idif;onhf pwkw¬ t*¾aAm"drif; 1 2 3 4

,if;? 131-135/ ,if;? 46? 137-151/ ,if;? 36? 29/ ,if; 34? 45-55/

vl0wfaMumifrsm;\b0 2 bomoma&; 445 wpfckudk vkyfcJhonf/ rif;BuD;onf w&m;a[m "r®uxduyk*¾Kdvf rsm;tm; qkawmf vmbfawmfrsm; ay;vsuf oD[dkVfwpfuRef;vkH; 1 "r®a[mMum;jcif;twGuf jyifqifrIrsm;udk jyKvkyfcJhonf / r[mplvd r[mwdó (bDpD 17-3)onf ezl;rSacR; ajcrus onfxd vkyftm;rS &&Sdonhf ypönf;rsm;jzihf vª'gef;rIrSm tvGef uk odkvf&aMumif; od&ojzihf pyg;cif;wpfckwGif [efaqmifí tvkyf vkyfNyD; vkyfctjzpf &&Sdonfhqefjzihf r[mokrerax&ftm; vª 'gef;onf/ rif;BuD;onf oMum;puf½kHwGif tvkyform;tjzpf [efaqmif tvkyfvkyfNyD; vkyfc&onhf oMum;cJrsm;udk &[ef; 2 awmfrsm;tm; vª'gef;onf / r[mplvd, r[mwdórif;\ t"d u &nf½G,fcsufr[kwfaomfvnf; EdkifiHwpfEdkifiH\ tcsKyftjcm tmPmydkifpdk;olwpfa,mufonf v,form; tvkyform;rsm;ESihf twl vkyfcpm;tjzpf vkyfonhf pdw0f ifpm;zG,fESihf rSwfom;zG,f A[kokwwpf&yfjzpfonfrSm oHo,jzpfzG,frvdkacs/ odkYwap rif;BuD;onf qif;&Joltrsm;pkESihf ywfoufí tokH;0ifonhf A[k okwaumif;wpf&yfudk OD;pGm &&SdcJhonf/ yxr oHCwdórif; (at'D 303-307)onf 'gr*v†u r[ma'0rax&f a[mMum;onhf w&m;wpfckwGif ,m*kxrif; vª 'gef;rI\ tusKd;udk Mum;od&NyD; rif;BuD;onf &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; ,m*kqGrf; vª'gef;Edkif&ef NrdKUawmf*dwfav;ckwGif oihfwifhavsmuf 3 ywfonhf jyifqifrIrsm; jyKonf / ,if;odkYaom ukodkvfrsKd;udk aemifb0wGif tvdk&Sdaom t usKd;w&m;udk &&Sdap&efomru þb0ü tEÅ&m,fuif;rIaocsm ap&efvnf; jyKvkyfMujcif;jzpfonf/ þtcsufESifh ywfoufonhf &Sif;vif;aom erlemwpf&yfudk 0obrif; (at'D 127-171) jzpf &yfwGif yg&Sdonf/ 0obrif;onf ¤if;oGm;a&muf pkHprf;cJhol aA 1 2 3

r[m0Ho 32? 44/ r[m0Ho 34? 2-6/ ,if;? 36? 66-69/


446 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; 'ifq&m (a[m&mygXu) u ¤if;\rdzk&m;rSm touf 12 ESpfom touf&Snfrnf[laom a[mMum;csufudk ,kHMunfvsuf&Sdonf[k qdkonf/ ,if;a[mMum;csufudk rnfolYudkrQ rajymMum;bJ t oufudk &SnfapEdkifaom enf;vrf;&Sdr&dS oHCmawmfrsm;xHrS pkHprf; ar;jref;onf/ oHCmawmfrsm;u &SdaMumif; rdefYMum;NyD; enf;vrf; 1 udk ajymjyonf/ a&ppf vª'gef;yg? ae&mxkdifcif;rsm; vª'gef;yg? ae xdkifraumif;olrsm;udk apmihfa&Smufyg? ysufpD;aeonhf taquf 2 ttkHrsm;udk jyifqifyg? ig;yg;oDv udk apmihfxdef;yg? xdkYjyif 3 OykofaeYrsm;ü &Spfyg;oDv udkvnf; apmihfa&Smihfyg? ,if;t&m rsm;onf touf&Snfapaom w&m;jzpfrsm; jzpfMuonf/ 0ob rif;onf ,if;t&mrsm;tm;vkH;xuf ydkíyif jyKvkyfcJhNyD; rif;BuD; 4 onf 44 ESpf tkyfcsKyfcJhaMumif; od&onf / bk&ifrif;rsm;ESifh jynfoltrsm;onf rdrdwdkYudk,fwdkifudk bkef; awmfBuD;ausmif;rsm;tm; vª'gef;NyD; ,if;wdkYudk jyefvnfa½G;,lMu ykHudk a&SUtcef;rsm;wGif odcJhMuNyD;jzpfonf/ ,if;wdkYtm;vkH;udk tjyKtrlwpfckjzifh ukodkvfESpfrsKd;udk &&Sd&ef jyKcJhonf/ yxr ,if;wdkYudk aus;uRefrsm;tjzpf vª'gef;jcif;? ,if;aemuf vª'gef; xm;olwdkYudk aus;uReftjzpfrS vGwfajrmufap&ef ausmif;wdkuf rsm;tm; aiGaMu;vª'gef;jcif;jzpfonf/ txufwGif azmfjyNyD;onf twdkif; bk&ifrsm;pGmwdkYonf omoemawmftm; ]EdkifiHawmfudk vª'gef;jcif;}rSm þenf;twdkif; jzpfonf/ &[ef;awmfrsm;rSm vdr®m 1

y&dó0e ]a&ppf}onf &[ef;wdkY\ y&du©&m &Spfyg;ü yg0ifonf/ a&ppf udk a&xJrSm&SdzG,f&Sdonhf owå0gi,frsm;\ b0udk rysufpD;ap&ef a& raomufcif a&udkppf&ef tokH;jyKonf/ 2 olYtouf rowfjcif;? olYOpömudk rw&m; r,ljcif;? olwpfyg; om;r,m; udk rusL;vGef&? rvdrfnm&? t&ufaopm raomufpm;&/ 3 olYtouf rowfjcif;? olYOpömudk rw&m; r,ljcif;? arxkefrrSD0J&? rvdrf nm&? t&ufaopm raomufpm;&? aevGJnpm rpm;&? oDqdk uckefjcif;? yef;eHYom vdrf;usHjcif; rjyK&? ZdrfcHarGU,mrsm;ESifh rtdyf&/ 4 r[m0Ho 35? 71-100/

vl0wfaMumifrsm;\b0 2 bomoma&; 447 yg;eyfMuojzihf w&m;ESihftnD rQwpGm tkyfcsKyf&ef tBuHay;NyD; 1 bk&ifrif;udkomvQif tNrJwrf; jyefvnf ay;tyfMuonf / wpfcgwpf&HwGifrl bk&ifrif;rsm;onf EdkifiHa&;tmPmudk tEÅ&m,f&Sdaomtcg bmoma&;onf jcm;em;csuf r&Sdacs/ bk&if rif;rsm;onf bmoma&;udk arhaysmufoGm;NyD; tcsif;csif; owf jzwfMuonf/ xD;eef;udk&&Sd&ef &nf½G,fxm;oa½GU bkef;BuD; ausmif;wdkufrsm;udkyif vk,ufMuonf/ odkYwap xD;eef;udk & onfESihf wpfNydKifeuf ¤if;wdkYonf omoemudk MunfnKdvmMuNyD; bmomw&m; vdkufpm;vmMuvsuf ukkodkvfaumif;rIrsm; jyKvkyf Muonf/ þonfrSm t"dutm;jzihf ,cifvkyfcJhMuonhf tuk odkvftusKd;qufrsm;udk a&Smif&Sm;&ef jzpfonf/ ,if;twGuf erl em ykHpH rsm;pGm ordkif;wGif xif&Sm;&Sdonf/ tazudkowfonhf uóyrif;\ bmoma&;vkyfaqmif csuf rsm;pGmESihf ywfoufonfudk jyqdkNyD;aemuf r[m0Housrf;u 2 rif;BuD;onf ]wrvGefavmuudk aMumuf½GHU\} [k qdkonf/ yxr 'gaXmywdórif;onf ausmif;wdkufokH;ESifh "mwfawmfwkdufcef;rS tzdk;wef ypönf;rsm;? a½Tqif;wkrsm;udk ,lNyD; xlyg&mrapwD awmf\ xD;awmfudk csKd;NyD; a½Ttqifwefqmrsm;ESihf &wem ypönf;rsm;udk ,lonf/ aemifwGif oHa0*&NyD; ¤if;\ ukodkvf 1

ykHpHtm;jzihf o'¨gwdórif;onf umvAk'¨&u©dwrax&ftm; EdkifiHawmf udk vª'gef;onf/ rax&fu ]wkar§[d r[m&mZ yoEémuma&m uawm? tarS ye trSmuH 'dEéH &ZÆH wkrmS uHa,0 a'r? "ar®e oare &ZÆH um-a&[d r[m&mZ}/ ]rif;BuD;? oifonf MunfnKdESpfoufzG,fudk jyKay\/ igwdkYtzdkYrl igwdkYtm; vª'gef;onhf rif;tjzpfudk oifwkdYtm;omvQif jyef ay;tyfyg\/ w&m;ojzihf EdkifiHawmfudk tkyfygavm} (r-| 2? 196)/ arm*¾v’merif;onf xD;jzLawmfudk oHCmawmftm; vª'gef;aomfvnf; ,if;udk oHCmawmftm; jyefvnfay;tyfonf/ qawåe oHCH ylaZrd? oHaCm taó0 eH t'g (r[m0Ho 39? 31)/ 2 r[m0Ho 39? 19/ bDawm aom y&avmurSm/


452 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; &nf½G,fcsuftppftrSefudk rodMuaomfvnf; vltrsm;onf bm omw&m;trnfjzihf toufudkyif ay;vdrfhrnfjzpfonf/ odkYjzpf í vltrsm;onf ¤if;wdkY\ þb0wGifa&m aemifb0wGifyg b0ESihf pdwf"mwfa&;&m vrf;ñTefrsm;jzpfMuonhf &[ef;awmfrsm; tm; bmomw&m; avhusihftm;xkwfrItwGuf arQmfvihfMu onf/ vltrsm;onf jrihfjrwfonhf udpöwGif yg0ifMuNyD; pdwfjzL pifonhf oHCmawmfwpfyg;tm; ulnDaxmufyHhjcif;jzihf ukodkvf aumif;rIudk oG,f0dkufí &&SdMuonf/ Oyrmtm;jzihf 'k|*grPDrif; onf ukd,fwdkif w&m;a[m&ef rpGrf;EdkifaomaMumifh "r®'geuk odkvfudk &&Sd&eftwGuf w&m;a[myk*¾Kdvfrsm;tm; axmufyHhylaZmf ouJhodkYjzpfonf/ omrefvl0wfaMumif wpfa,muftzdkY bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkuf onf Ak'¨omoemawmfudk xdef;odrf;xm;onhf ae&mjzpfNyD; &[ef;awmfrsm;r&SdbJ bkef;BuD;ausmif;wkduf rwnf&SdEdkif/ odkYjzihf aemufqkH;wGif &[ef;awmfrsm;onf vl0wfaMumifrsm;\ bmom w&m; cH,lcsufrsm;ESihf MunfnKdrIrsm;tm;vkH;udk xkwfazmfrIay; Edkifonhf t&m0w¬Kjzpfvmonf/ xdktwlyif trSwf&tHhMozG,faumif;onhf vl0wfaMumifrsm; \ oHCmawmfrsm;tay: MunfnKdESpfoufrIudk azmfjyrIwpf&yfudk awGU&onf/ bDpDESpf&mpkwGif r[mavh 0d'k&def'kem½dk (Mahalē Viduriňdunāvō)trnf&Sd EdkifiHawmf\ twGif;0efcsKyfonf tEk&m" yk&NrdKU&Sd yef;jcHwpfckwGif aexkdifonfh ]ouFef;0wfxm;onhf trsKd; om;ESihf trsKd;orD;wpfa,muf} udk trSwfrxif awGUcJhaMumif; apmapmydkif;u odcJh&NyD;jzpfonf/ xdktwGif;0efonf rdrdrsufvkH; udk tjypfwifvsuf oHCm\trSm;udk aemufwpfBudrf vkH;0rjrif Edkifap&ef rsufvkH;xJudk oJrsm;xnfhoGif;vsuf rsufvkH;udk uef; atmifvkyfcJhaMumif; od&onftxd ]uREfkyfwdkY vlrsKd;\ tapmihf ewfrsm;}jzpfonfh oHCmESpfyg; usL;vGefonhf ,if;odkYaom vkyf&yf udk awGUjrif&jcif;twGuf pdwfrcsrf;om raysmf½TifjzpfcJhonf/ t wGif;0efonf xdkudpöudk rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,mufrQ rodEdkifatmif

vl0wfaMumifrsm;\b0 2 bomoma&; 449 (at'D 658-674) uJhodkYaom bk&ifrif;tcsKdU&SdcJhonf/ xdkrif; uG,fvGefNyD;aemuf ¤if;\ jymrsm;udk vltrsm;u aq;tjzpftokH; jyKMuonftxd wdkif;oljynfom; tvGefcspfjrwfEdk;jcif; cH&avmuf 1 atmif oem;MuifemNyD; w&m;rQwonhfrif; jzpfonf / avmuDa&;udpörsm;wGif tvTmrsKd;pkHonhf vltzGJUtpnf;t Mum; rnfodkYyif jcm;em;uGma0;Edkifapumrl Ak'¨0g'onf &Sdcdk;ylaZmf 2 onhf ae&mwGif vkH;0eD;yg; wlnDonhftqifh &SdMuonf / &Sifbk &iftm; tBuD;us,fqkH;olESihf vltm;vkH;wkdY\ tay:wGif xm; aomfvnf; bmoma&;qdkif&mudk aqmif½Gufonhf tcsdeftcgrsm; wGif bk&ifonf omrefjynforl sm;uJhodkY Oygoumwpfa,muft aejzihf vGwfvyfpGm oGm;vmvIyf&Sm;onf/ bk&ifrif;tcsKdUonf OykofoDvrsm;udk aqmufwnfvsuf bkef;BuD;ausmif;rsm;wGif wpfaeukef aexkdifavh&Sdonf/ Oyrmtm;jzihf o'¨gwdórif;onf apwd,yAÁw&Sd &mZavPwGif OykofaeYudk ukefvGef (Oayg 3 oxur®H ua&maEÅm)aMumif; od&onf / &mZavP rif;\ vdkPf*l[laom trnfyif OykofaeYwGif þvkdPf*lü rif;BuD; w&m;bm0emtm;xkwfonhf ae&m[k t"dyÜm,foufa&mufap onf/ ylZmaeYrsm;wGif t|oDv (&Spfyg;oDv) aqmufwnfonhf Oygoumrsm;vnf; bkef;BuD;ausmif;wGif wpfaeukefaexkdifvdkMu 4 onf / ,if;tcrf;tem;rsm;teuf wpfckrSm o'¨gwdórif;onf r[dE¦avh&Sd umvwdrÁ½kyifatmufwGif oDwif;okH;onhf umvAk'¨ 1

,if; 46? 37/ rnfodkYaom ykHpHjzihf ¤if;\jymrsm;udk aq;tjzpf tokH;jyKcJh onfudkrl rod&acs/ 2 odkY&mwGif (þusrf; pm? 418 rSwcf suf 1)wGif yxr0dZ,Am[konf or aemV (t'rf awmifxGwf)wGif Zmwfedrfhrsm;twGuf wef;vsm; aqmifwpf ckwnfaqmufcJhaMumif; od&onf/ ,if;onf vkyf½dk;xkHpHwpfck r[kwfacs/ 3 r[dE¦avht&yfwGif ,aeYacwfü &mZ*d&davP[kac:onhf *lwpfck&Sd onf/ ,if;onf a&S;acwf &mZavP jzpfzG,f&Sdonf/ 4 OykofoDvaqmufwnfolrsm;onf ,aeYwkdifyif wpfaeukef bkef;BuD; ausmif;rsm;ü aexdkifavh&SdMuonf/


450 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; &u©dw rax&fa[mMum;onhf umvumvm&mrokwfudk rxifr 1 2 &Sm;toGifjzihf rwfwwf&yfNyD; wpfnvkH; em,lonf[kqdkonf / 'kwd, 'gaXmywdórif; (at'D 650-658) onf Oykof 3 oDvapmihfokH;jcif;ESihf w&m;em,ljcif; tavh&SdaMumif;od&onf / odkYwap yÍört*¾aAm"drif; (at'D 711-717)onf azmfjyNyD; rif;rsm; tm;vkH;xuf ydkí'Drdkua&pD oabmrsKd;&Sdonf/ rif;BuD; onf OykofaeYrsm;wGif uRef;oluRef;om;rsm;ESihftwl Oykofapmihf NyD; ¤if;wdkYtm; avmukukwå&maysmf½TifrIudk ay;Edkif&ef w&m;"r® 4 a[m Mum;onf[k qdkonf / ,if;odkYaom tcsdeftcgrsm;wGif bk&ifrif;onf wdkif;oljynf ol jynfom;rsm;\ pdwfydkif;b0a&;&m q&mjzpfNyD; vlxkxJrS wpf a,mufomomyif jzpfonf/ odkY&mwGif bkef;BuD;ausmif;wdkufrSm yif wdkif;jynftkyfcsKyfoljzpfaomaMumihf av;pm;rI avsmhroGm; onfrSm oHo,jzpfzG,f rvdkacs/ bmomw&m;MunfnKdrIESifh ywf oufí tvkyform;wpfa,mufuJhodkY vkyfudkifcJhonhf r[mplvd r[mwdórif;uJhodkYaom rif;taMumif;udk pOf;pm;Munhfygu Ak'¨ 0g'onf oD[dkVfvlrsKd;ESihf oD[dkVfbk&ifrif;rsm;tm; rnfrQ vTrf;rdk; cJhaMumif; cefYrSef;Ekdifonf/ vl0wfaMumifrsm; bmoma&;b0\ t&Sif;vif;qkH;ESihf t xl;jcm;qkH; oGifjyifrSm oHCmawmfrsm;tm; tvGefYtvGef MunfnKd jcif;jzpfonf/ ,if;odkYjzpfjcif;rSm taMumif;ESpfcsufaMumihf jzpf onf/ yxr vltrsm;onf vltrsm;\ t,kHMunf&qkH; q&mESihf vrf;ñTefjzpfonf/ &[ef;onf ta&;BuD;udpörsm;tm;vkH;wGif Mum;0if aqmif½Gufay;NyD; EdkifiHawmfa&;&m udpörsm;rSmyif tjiif; 1 2 3 4

y&dowfudk raESmihf,SufvdkaomaMumifh jzpfEdkifonf/ r-| 2? 469? 470/ r[m0Ho 45? 25/ ,if; 43? 10/ OaygoxH Oy0od? o'¨ð 'DyZae[d aom/ "r®Íö awoH a'aood? 'gwkH avmukwå&H okcH/

vl0wfaMumifrsm;\b0 2 bomoma&; 451 yGm;rIrsm;udk ajyNidrf;aponf/ udpöBuD;i,fr[l ta&;tcif;tm; vkH;wGif tBuHÓPfESihf vrf;ñTefrI &,l&ef &[ef;awmfrsm;xHodkY oGm;MuNyD; ,kHMunfcsufBuD;pGmjzihf wdkifyifMuonf/ 'kwd, &[ef; onf aemifb0twGuf ¤if;wdkYtm; ydkíyif tm;xm;&mjzpfonf/ a,bk,stm;jzihf a,musfm;rdef;rrsm;onf þb0xuf aemifb 0 csrf;omrIudk ydkrdk pdk;&dfrfMuonf/ aemifb0twGuf ulnDay;Edkif olrSm &[ef;awmfrsm;rSwpfyg; tjcm;ol r&Sdacs/ ukodkvf[lonf aemifb0twGuf vkHNcKHpGm `rIyfESHxm;aom t&if;tESD;jzpfonf/ oHCmawmftm; aumif;rIrsKd;aphudk BuJcsNyD; aemifb0wGif ,if;udk jyefvnf&dwfodrf;&m ukodkvfv,fajr yknacwå [k ac:onf/ v,fajrraumif;vQif toD;tESH enf; yg;rnfjzpfNyD; v,form;onf obm0tm;jzihf ,if;twGuf pdwf rcsrf;romjzpf&onf/ tu,fí oHCmrpifMu,fvQif `rIyfESHonfh ukodkvf'geonf tusKd;ay;enf;rnfjzpfNyD; tvª&Sifrsm;rSm ,if; twGuf pdwfrcsrf;ajrUjzpf&onf/ ,if;onf bk&ifESihf jynfol jynfom;rsm; tb,faMumihf tjypfuif;NyD; pifMu,fonhf oHCm ESihf ywfoufí pdk;&drf&jcif;\ taMumif;jzpfonf/ rSefonf? ,if; odkY pdk;&drfrIESihf ywfoufí tjcm;xif&Sm;onhf taMumif; wpf csuf &Sdao;onf/ &[ef;awmfrsm;onf EdkifiHawmf\ q&mESihf vrf;ñTefoljzpfMuNyD; tu,fí ¤if;wdkY ukd,fusihfw&m; raumif; vQif wpfEdkifiHvkH; vrf;rSm;odkY oGm;Muvdrfhrnf/ tu,fí &[ef; awmfrsm;qdk;oGrf;aevQif &[ef;awmfrsm;udk,fwdkifrSm tEÅ&m,f&Sd onfomru wpfEdkifiHvkH; þb0wGifa&m aemifb0wGifyg ab; 'ku©BuKH&vdrfhjzpfonf/ vlxktrsm;pkonf jrwfAk'¨\ tqifhjrifhw&m;awmfrsm;udk avhusihftm;xkwfjcif;twGuf vdktyfaom pdwftm;xufoefrI ESifh pdwfNidrf;csrf;rI r&SdcJhacs/ vltrsm;onf ,if;vdktyfcsuf\ t a&;ygrIudk em;vnfEdkifonhf todÓPfvnf; r&SdcJhMuacs/ odkY&m wGif vltrsm;onf bmomw&m;tay: tBuD;jrwfqkH;aom ½dk ao av;pm;jcif;ESihf ESpfoufjcif; &SdcJhMuonf/ bmomw&m;\


456 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; rusef;jzpfojzihf rif;BuD;onf idka<u;½dIufzdkvsuf rax&ftm; jyKpk 1 apmihfa&SmufcJhonf / r[mcD&*grt&yfrS rxif&Sm;onhf OygodumrwpfOD;onf avP*d&dt&yfrS rax&fwpfyg;tm; cifrifonf/ xdkOygodumr onf xdkrax&ftwGuf EdkYxrif;udk jyifqifxm;pOf &[ef;awmf rsm;pGm tdrfudk qGrf;cH <uMuaomfvnf; xdk&[ef;awmfrsm;tm; EdYk xrif;udk ravmif;vªbJ aeonf/ aemufqkH; rax&fjrwf tdrfodkY 2 <uvmrSomvQif wdórax&ftm; avmif;vªvdkufonf / jAm[® Pwdóolykefab;twGif; oHC'wåmESihf armifESrrsm;onf ab; uif;&mt&yfodkY oGm;MupOf ¤if;wdkYrdom;pk\ rdwfaqGjzpfonhf plV em*rax&ftm; rdrdwdkYESihftwl yifhoGm;NyD; rax&ftm; apmihf 3 a&Smufxm;Muonf / crf;em;onhf yGJawmfrsm;odkY oGm;a&mufjcif;ESihf bk&m;zl;c&D; oGm;jcif;rsm;rSm bmoma&;wnfwHhrIESifh qufEG,faeonhf oGif jyifESpfrsKd;jzpfonf/ vltrsm;onf yGJawmfrsm;udk yg0ifqifETJ&ef tvGef a0;uGmaomt&yfrsm;odkY wwfpGrf;orQ vSypGm 0wfpm; 4 qif,ifvsuf c&D;oGm;cJhMuonf[k qdkonf / tcsKdUrSm oD[dkV&f Sd bk&m;zl;ae&mrsm;udkomru tdE´d,&Sd ae&mrsm;odkYyg bk&m;zl; 5 oGm;Muonf / wpfcgwpf&H bk&m;zl;c&D;tm; eef;awmfrS BuD;Muyf 6 ay;rIudkyif&&Sdonf / at'D 12 &mpkwGif tEk&m"yk&NrdKUodkY ae&yf toD;oD;rS a&muf&&SdvmMuonhf qif;&Jom;rsm; vª'gef;&ef vdvm0wD rdzk&m; wnfaqmufcJhonhf tcrJh tvªay;Z&yfwpfck 7 &SdcJhonf / qif;&Jolrsm;tm; ay;urf;vª'gef;&ef tNrJwrf;ae&m 1 3 4 5 6 7

tbd-| 2? 433/ &o0g[deD 2? 178/ 'D-| 1? 166/ r-| 1? 269/ &o0g[deD 2? 30/ ,if; 2? 38/ E,Z. I, p. 179.

2

r-| 2? 295? tH-| 3? 92/

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"r®jy'Dydum? 322/ tH-| 2? 105/ r[m0Ho 26? 16-17/


454 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; 1

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,m0ZD0Íö aom bkÍÆd? r[mygVdrSd abmZeH/ r[m0Ho 37? 202-2-3/ 'D-| 3? 380/ r-| 1? 298/ tH-| 1? 393/ tbd-| 2? 266/ &o0g[deD 2? 33/

vl0wfaMumifrsm;\b0 2 bomoma&; 455 u[myPjzihf orD;udk aygifESHNyD; oHCmjyKpk&ef &nf½G,fcsufjzihf 1 yif EGm;wpfaumif 0,fonf / xdkyk*¾Kdvfonf ydkítHhMozG,fukdyif jyKcJhao;onf/ orD;tm; a½G;&efarQmfvihfí oMum;puf½kHwGif tvkyfvkyfí &onfh 12 u[myPjzihf aeYqGrf; vGwfawmhrnfh 2 &[ef;awmftwGuf qGr;f wpfeyfpm 0,fvkdufonf / &o0g[d usrf;ü rdrdwdkY 0wf½kHxm;onhf ydwfpudk oHCmawmfESpfyg;tm; vª'gef;onhf udÍödoHCmESihf o'¨gokrem[laom trsKd;orD; ESpf 3 a,muftaMumif; azmfjyonf / a,bk,stm;jzihf oHCmudk MunfnKdonfomru tcsKdUrSm yk*¾Kdvfa&;t& tjcm;&[ef;awmfrsm;xuf ydkrdk pGJvef;rI&Sdvsuf rdrdwdkYESihf &if;ESD;eD;pyfNyD; MunfnKdESpfoufonhf &[ef;awmfrsm;&Sd Muonf/ Oyrmtm;jzihf uk#uPÖwdórif; (at'D 16-38) wGif ,if;odkYaom &[ef;awmf ESpfyg;&Sdonf/ wpfyg;rSm *d&d*gru@t &yfrS plVok"r®rax&fjzpfonf/ rif;BuD;onf rax&f\ rdcifxHrS rax&fBudKufaom tpm;tpmrsKd;udk od&NyD; txl;ojzifh xdktpm; tpmrsKd;udk jyifqifay;onf/ odkY&mwGif rif;BuD;onf rax&f\ rsufEmS udk wnhfwnhfMunfhEdkifjcif;r&Sd[k qdkonf/ þonfrSm rax&f\ ½kyf&nfoyÜ,frIESihf rif;BuD;\ rax&ftay: av;pm;rI ESpfrsKd;vkH;aMumifhjzpfEdkifonf/ rif;BuD;\ wdyd#uplVem*rax&f tm; MunfnKdpGJvef;rIrSm ydkíyif jyif;jyonf/ wpfcgaomf rax&f ü vufñId;wGif tempdrf;aygufojzihf rif;BuD;onf rax&ftay: tvGef cspfcif jrwfEdk;onhfpdwfjzihf rax&f\ vufacsmif;udk EIwf jzihf ikHxm;vdkufpOf temonf rif;BuD;\ yg;pyfxnf;ü jynf aygufoGm;onf/ rif;BuD;onf aygufxGufvmonhf jynfudk axG; xkwfvdkufygu rax&ftm; r½dkao&musrnfpdk;&drfojzihf rsKdcs vdkufonftxd rif;BuD;\ þrax&ftay: cspfcifrIrSm rsufuef; qefonf[k qdkonf/ aemiftcgwGif rax&fjrwf aovkeD;yg; em 1 3

tH-| 1? 395/ &o0g[deD 2? 47-50/

2

,if;? 395/


460 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; jrwfrsm;tjzpf rSwf,lMuaMumif; od&onf/ zm[D,efu ]t"du vrf;rBuD;av;ck\ xdyfrsm;tm;vkH;wGif w&m;a[m"r®m½kHrsm; aqmufvkyfxm;\/ xdkae&mwGif vwpfv\ &Spf&ufajrmuf? q,fhav;&ufajrmufESihf q,fhig;&ufajrmuf aeYrsm;wGif vltrsm; onf aumaZmrsm;udk cif;NyD; "r®moeyv†ifrsm;udk csvsuf &[ef; awmfrsm;ESihf t&yfav;rsufESmrS vltrsm;"r®udk em,l&ef pka0; 1 a&muf&SdvmMu\} [k qdkonf/ "r®udk em,l&ef a&mufMuolrsm; wGif vltrsm;pkrSm &Spfyg;oDvudk aqmufwnfxm;MuonfrSm t awmf jzpfEdkifzG,f&Sdonf/ bmomw&m;vdkufpm;onhf EdkifiHtjzpf oD[kdVf\ ausmfMum; rIonf uRef;\urf;ajcrS tjyifzufodkYwkdif ysHUESHYoGm;NyD; ,if;o wif;udk Mum;odcJhol [l,ifqefu ]oD[kdVfvlrsKd;rsm;onf ynm oifMum;rIudk cspfjrwfEkd;NyD; udk,fusifhw&m;udk tav;*½kjyKMu\/ bmomw&m;qdkif&m xl;cRefrIudk tvGef av;pm;MuNyD; bmom 2 w&m;ESihfqdkifonhf ukodkvf&&Sda&;twGuf tvkyfvkyfMu\} [k rSwfwrf;a&;cJhonf/ 1

Fa Hien, p. 104.

2

Hiuen 'Tsiang : Bk. XI, p. 235.

00000000

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458 t&Sifauvmo jrefrmjyef oD&dvuFmAk'¨bmomordkif; vnf; ,kHMunfMuNyD;