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ouFef;? ausmif; tp½SdwJh tm½kHawG? tukodkvfbufu "g;? vSH? av;? jr§m; tp½SdwJh tm½kHawGu ur®edrdwf? aemuf b0&JU tm½keH rd w d af wG? ewfjynfa&mufr,fq&kd if ewfom;? ewforD;? O,smOf? Adrmef? ya'omyifponf vmxif& ygonf/ vlUjynfa&mufr,fqdk&if trd0rf;a&eD&J&J? i&Jus rnfholqdk&if i&Jtdk;? i&Jxdef;? i&JrD;? acG;eufBuD;ponf? Nydwåmjzpf&if opfyif? awm? awmif? acsmif;? ajrmif;ponf xif v m&ygonf / 'guawmh *wd e d r d w f ac:ygw,f / aocgeD;rSm 'DuH ur®erd w d f *wderd w d o f ;kH rsKd ; wpfrsKd ;rsKd ;xifNy;D pkwpd w d \ f tjcm;rJrh mS b0opf&UJ axmuf&m wnf&mjzpfwhJ b0a[mif;eJU b0opfudk qufpyfay;wJh ½kyfopf emrfopf awGqufNyD; jzpfwmudk y#doaE¨aew,fvdkY ac:ygw,f/ b,ftoufaumif? vdyjf ymaumif? 0dnmOfaumif urS cE¨m opfxJ0ifNyD; vTrf;rdk; tkyfcsKyf jc,fvS,fwmrsdK; r&Sdyg/ avmufvrf;ozG,0f n d mOfw, G f

avmurSm ajymMuwm ½Sdygao;onf/ ]]avmuf vrf;ozG,f 0dnmOfwG,f}}wJh/ ydk;avmufrsm;[m a½SUrSm axmuf&m wnf&m rS&D m&rS aemufuvTwMf uovdk owå0g wdkY\ touf0dnmOfuvnf; rdrdjzpf&rnfh b0opfrSm y#doaE¨aeNy;D rS b0a[mif;u pkwo d nf/ 0dnmOfcsKyo f nf

jrwfA'k \ ¨ 'kw, d a'oem

22

[k ajymMuonf/ ]]wómeEÅ&ar0-y#doE¨docFgwH rmeoH OyÜyZÆrmear0 b0EÅa& ywd|mwd}}wJh/ b0opfrSm y#doaE¨ aeNyD;rS b0a[mif;u 0dnmOfcsKyfonf/ pkwdonf qdkonf rSmr[kwfyg/ pkwdNyD; aoNyD;wmeJY wNydKifeufb0opfrSm y#doaE¨aeygonf/]]avmufvrf;ozG,f 0dnmOf wG,}f }[l aom twå0g'D yk*¾dKvfwdkY\ t,ltq rrSef[k rSwf&ygrnf/ 0dnmOfw, G zf uf(7)&uf

wcsKd Uu ajymMuwm ½Syd gao;onf/ aoNy;D aemuf touf0dnmOfu (7)&uf tdrfrSmaeonf/ (7)&ufjynfhrS tdrfuae vGwfvGwfuRwfuRwf xGufoGm;onf[k t,l ½Sdojzifh (7)&ufjynfhrS &ufvnfqGrf;oGwfMuygonf/ 'Dt,luawmh jrefrmjynfrSm ,aeYtxd ,lqaeMuwkef; ygyJ/ ]]wómeEÅ&ar0}}[laom pum;udk axmufí Ak'0¨ g' ESihfrudkufnDyg/ t½SiftEk½k'¨g\ pum;ESihfvnf; qefYusif aewmaMumifh txl;owdxm;oifMh uygonf/ (7)&ufjynhrf S &ufvnfonf qGr;f oGyaf umif;onf[al om pum;uvnf; rrSefyg/ (o*F[t|uxm) twåpyJG kH enf;rsKd ;pHk

vlwpfa,mufao&if yg;pyfxJ ta<uwpfrwf xnfhMuygw,f/ oufqdkifol um,uH½Sifrsm;u arYae


t½SiZf eu (armfuRe;f )

23

awmifrS wwfodem;vnfonfh vlBuD;olrrsm;u ]][Jh [Jh yg;pyfxJ ta<u wpfrwfxnfhvdkuf}} eJY owday;Muw,f r[kwfvm;/ bmtwGufvJqdkawmh ]]twå}}u acsmif;wdkY jrpfwYkd ul;wJt h cg ul;wdcYk ay;bdw Yk /hJ aeUpOfEiS t hf rQ vlawG uvJ em&Dwkdif; aeYwdkif; &ufwkdif; vwdkif; ESpfwkdif; ae&m wdkif;rSm aoaeMuwmyg/ udk,fhwpfae&mxJ wpf&yfuGuf xJrS r[kwyf /J wpfEikd if v H ;kH twdik ;f twmeJU Munhv f u kd af wmh renf;vSaybl;/ jrefrmjynfrSm ta<uawG½Sm;oGm;wmvJ 'DtaMumif;wpfck ygvdrfhr,fxifw,f/ wcsKd U tzd;k tzGm;awGu aq;vdyo f yd Bf uKd uw f ,f av/½Sr;f zufukd refusn;f a&av;eJpY rd Nf y;D uk, d w f ikd v f yd ?f qdwf Nidrf&moGm;? rD;cdk;wvlvleJU ZdrfcHaewwfMuw,f/ Feeling wufaeMuw,fav/tJ'D tzdk; tzGm;awGaoawmh om; orD;awGubmvkyMf uovJ/ tacgif;ay: aq;vdyef UJ rD;jcpf av; wifay;xm;w,f/ 'gbm vkyw f mvJqakd wmh ]]tw}å }udk aq;vdyw f u kd w f myg/ wcsKd U rke[ Yf if;cg;BuKd uaf wmh rke[ Yf if;cg; yef;uef? vufbufBudKufawmh vufbufyef;uefav; tacgif;ay: wifxm;Muw,f/ 0dnmOfac:wJh twåukd tpm auR;Muwm r[kwyf gvm;/ aemuf½adS o;w,f/ uav;awG vefYNyD;idkwJhtcg ]]vdyfjym vGifhw,fwJh}} aoqHk; ol&JU vdyfjym

jrwfA'k \ ¨ 'kw, d a'oem

24

u ol\tcspq f ;kH yk*Kd¾ v&f UJ vdyjf ymudk vmac:aew,f/ 'Dtcg rSm wwfoed m;vnfwhJ yk*Kd¾ vrf sm;u ref;rIwf i,f xdyaf v; ykwfNyD; tyfcsnfBudK;av;eJY csnfay;um vdyfjym cGJay;wwf Muygao;w,f/ 'gudkawmh ]]vdyfyjcKyfBudK;}} odkYr[kwf ]]vdyfjymjcKyfBudK;}}vdkY ac:Muygw,f/ vdyfjym qdkwmvnf; twå&UJ y&d,m,fyif r[kwyf gvm;/ aemuf wpfcu k a&td;k cGw J t hJ ,ltq½Sad o;w,f/tavmif;udk tdrx f u J xkwo f mG ; wJhtcg ajrtdk;av;zifu tenf;i,fazmuf? aemufjyef vSnhfum a&wpfpufwpfpufcs tavmif; tdrfjyif wHpuf jrdwfa&mufoGm;awmhrS a&tdk;udk ]]AGrf;}}qdk cJGypfwm &Sdao; w,f/ 'guawmh tóurif;BuD;&JUxHk; ESvHk;rlNyD; touf 0dnmOf tdrfxJusefaerSmpdk;vdkY a&eJUaq;NyD; oefY½Sif;ypfwJh t"dyÜg,fygyJ/ (tóuZmwfawmf) aemuf'umrBuD;wpfa,muf Mum;zl;w,f/ olY a,musmf ;u naewdik ;f t&ufaomuf rl;vm&if ½ku d af wmh wmyJw/hJ tdref ;D csi;f awG tultnDawmif;vdYk ab;uvlawG uvnf; odyo f nf;rcHEikd Mf uawmhyJ t&uform;udk 0if½u dk f vdkY vJoGm;wJh tcg rdef;ruatmfowJh ]]u,fMuygtHk;½Sif? uRerf a,musmf ;udk 0dik ;f ½ku d af eMuv}Ykd }wJ/Y tJ'D 'umBu;D tonf; uRr;f Ny;D aoawmh rde;f rvkyo f u l okómefomG ;? ajryHak y:rSm


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t&ufyv k if;eJU ig;aMumfyef;uefav; wifxm;/ umvom; awGuawGUawmh ,lpm;Muw,f? aemufaeYwpfcg vm ]]armifu t&ufvJukefw,f? ig;aMumfvJajymifw,f}} ajymNyD; t&uf e J U Muuf o m;aMumf wif x m;cJ h j yef w ,f / umv om;awGu,lpm;ypfvu kd ?f tcsed u f sawmh a&mufvmjyefw,f armifu t&ufeJY Muufom;aMumfqdk odyfBudKufwm qdkNyD; tawmfMumMum 'DvdkvkyfaeowJh/ 'gtwå udk tpmauR; t&ufwdkufaejcif;yif jzpfygw,f/ twå tpGJu odyfBuD; ygw,f/ wcsdKUt&yfawGrSm tacgif;xJ apmif? jcifaxmif? acgif;tHk;? tuÐs? vHkcsnfrsm; xnfhay;vdkufMuao;w,f/ wcsdKU yk*¾dKvfrsm;Muawmh aoqHk;oltwGuf vdyfjymaezkdY tdrfaqmufay;Muao;onf/ qif;&JvQif qif;&Jovdk csrf;omvQif csrf;omovdk tdrfBuD;BuD; om;om;em;em; aqmufay;Muygonf/ twåac:wJh vdyjf ymaumifaezdYk tdrf wJ/h 'gawG tm;vH;k [m twåpeJG UJ jyKvyk af eMujcif;om jzpfyg w,f/ uav;awG ]][yfcsdK;}} vdkY csDvdkufwJhtcg a½S;wkef;u b,fvdkajymMuovJqdkawmh ]]ZD0wk}} touf ½Snfygap/ aemufawmh ]]w}k }jzKw?f ZD0=touf ½Snyf gap? aemuf ]]0eJAY }} ajymif;? ]]ZDA}} jzpfvm? ]]ZDAuqdA}} jzpfvm? ]]ArSzG}}ajymif;

jrwfA'k \ ¨ 'kw, d a'oem

26

]]qdz}G } jzpfvm? aemufMumvmawmh ]]qdwzf mG ;}} jzpfvmw,f/ ]][yfcsKd ;qd&k if qdwzf mG ;=toufwpf&m tem uif;ygap}} vdv Yk J ajymwwfMuygonf/ 'gawG[m twå&JU y&d,m,frsm; omjzpfygw,f/ tewåvu©Pokwu f kd jrwfpmG bk&m; a[mawmfrl wmu twå0g'udk wGef;vSefcsifvdkY a[m&wmyg/ a½S;OD;pGm twå&UJ yHo k @mef? twå&UJ wnfae&m?twå&UJ emrnf? twå &JUowå?d twå&UJ pGcJ suf þig;csuu f kd em;vnfatmif avhvm &ygrnf/ twå&JU wnfae&mudk ajymNyD;ygNyD/ twå&JU yHk o@mefu vHk;vHk;vm;? jym;jym;vm;? ½Snf½Snfvm;? cRefcRef vm;? av;axmifhvm;? Bwd*Hvm;qdkawmh r[kwfyg/ ajym NyD;NyDaemf/ arhrjypfvdkufeJUtHk;/ twåowåid g;yg;½Sd um&uowåd= jyKa&;jyK&m ay:aygufvmvQif

avsmfpGmwpfckckjzifh jyKpkvnf; jyKpkwwfay\/ Oyrmpum;ajymwJhtcg twåu pDrHay;vdkY yg;pyfvIyf? EIwfcrf; vIyfNyD; pum;vHk;av;awG wpfvHk;pD wpfvHk;pD pDNyD; xGuf vmwm twåu trdeaYf y;vdw Yk /hJ twåu vufukd auG;csif qefcY si&f ifvnf; vufu auG;ay; qefaY y;&w,f/ twåu vrf;oGm;csiv f nf; b,fwpfvrS ;f nmwpfvrS ;f vSr;f Ny;D oGm;


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ay;&ygw,f/0ga,m½kyu f wGe;f uef vIy½f mS ;aeonf r[kwf yg/ 'g-twå&JU um&uowåd jzpfygw,f/ a0'uowåd= aumif;aumif;qdk;qdk; trsdK;rsdK;udk tusdK;avsmfuef ay:vmjyefvQif cHpHvnf; cHpHwwfay\/ ½lyg½kHvSvSav;jrif&vdkY okcaomreó pdwfcsrf;omrIjzpf &ifvJ twåuyJ cHpm;onf/ raumif;aomtm½kHjzpfwJh acG;aoaumifyyk f jrif&vdYk pdwq f if;&Jvnf; twåuyJ cHpm; onf/ toHaumif;aumif;av; Mum;&vdkY om,mwyfruf vQifvnf; twåuyJcHpm;onf/ rdrdudk qJoH qdkoH Budrf; armif;oH twif;ajymoH uavmfwkwfoHponf Mum;&vdkY pdwrf csr;f romjzpfvnf; twåuyJcpH m;onf/ teHUaumif; aumif;? t&omaumif;aumif;? tawGUtxdaumif; aumif;ponf eH pm; awGUxd&vQifvnf; twåuyif cHpm; owJh/ 'g twå&JU a0'uowåd jzpfygw,f/ omrDowåd= cE¨mtdrfqdkiforQü ydkifotkyfpD; t½Sio f cifBu;D aywnf;/ cE¨m&JU ydik ½f iS u f twåyg/ 'gb,foYl cE¨mvJ/ 'g usKyfcE¨mav? usKyfrsufpd? usKyfvuf? usKyfajc ponf cE¨m&JU tpdwftydkif;rSeforQ twåu ydkifygonf/ ]]twåjyKorQ? Ekae&onfhcE¨myg}} twåckdif;ovdk rqdkif;rwG vkyfae&wmyg/

jrwfA'k \ ¨ 'kw, d a'oem

28

ed0goDowåd= a[mif;cE¨mtdrf ysufonfhcsdef0,f

cE¨mtdrfopf ajymif;umjzpfí pepfruGJ tjrpfwGJvQuf wuwJ rSD tNrw J nfwo hJ abmaywnf;/ cE¨mtdrt f a[mif; ysuo f mG ;ayr,fv h Ykd twåuawmh ysuo f mG ;onfr½Syd g/ ewf cE¨m ysufpD;oGm;awmh aemufewfcE¨mopf? vlYcE¨m ysufpD; oGm;awmh aemufvcYl E¨mopf? wd&pämefcE¨m ysupf ;D oGm;awmh aemuf wd&pämefcE¨mopfrSm ajymif;vQufwnfaeygonf/ ukov kd u f ?H tukov kd u f t H m;avQmpf mG BuKH ovdk yHpk t H rsKd ;rsKd ;eJU cE¨mtrsdK;rsdK;rSm ajymif;vQufwnfaeygw,f/ o,H0oDowåd= cE¨mtdrfrI tpkpkü wpfckrusef pDrHcGJa0 rdrdESpfNcdKuf pepfudkufatmif vdkufygapEdkifaom oabmaywnf;/twåu tm;vH;k pDraH y;aeygonf/ a&csKd ; csi&f if a&csKd ;ay;&? xrif;qm&if xrif;auR;ay;&? a&qm&if a&wdu k af y;&? tdycf siw f ,fqkd odyaf y;&? tayghtyg;oGm;csif oGm;ay;& ponfjzifh twåtvdkus? twåoabmus jyKpDrH ay;&wmyg/ twåpcJG suif g;rsKd ;xGuf

twå\ pGv J rf;&m|me ig;rsKd ;½Syd gonf/ azmufjyef wwfwJh ½kyfw&m;udkvnf; twåu pGJvrf;onf/ cHpm;rI a0'emudkvnf; twåu pGJvrf;onf/ rSwfom;rIonm


t½SiZf eu (armfuRe;f )

29

udkvnf; twåu pGJvrf;onf/ aphaqmfwdkufwGef;rI ocFg& w&m;udkvnf; twåu pGJvrf;onf/ BuHpnfawG;awmrI pdwf0dnmOfudkvnf; twåu pGJvrf;ygw,f/ tewåt"dygÜ ,f

tewå=e+twå=tewå? e-r[kwf? twå-ig? tvdkokdY vdkufygjcif;? tpdk;w& rdrdjzpfcsifovdk jzpfjcif;? tewå=ig r[kwf? rdrdtvdkokdY rvdkufygjcif;? tpdk;w& rdrd jzpfcsifovdk rjzpfjcif;[laom t"dyÜg,fjzpfygw,f/ tewåteufav;rsKd ;xGuf

tewåo'´gu (1) t0o,e|= tvdkodkYrvdkufygjcif;? rdrd jzpfcsifovdk rjzpfjcif;teufoabm? jzpfqJOyg'fcPü ½Sad om½kyo f nf wnfqXJ cD PodYk ra&mufygapeJU? wnfq½J yk f vnf;rtdyk gapeJ?Y tdak om½kyv f nf; rNyKd uJG rysupf ;D ygapeJUvdYk rdrdwdkY awmifhwwdkif;rjzpfjcif;? tvdkrvdkufjcif; teuf oabm/ (2) tomrdu|= ydkifqdkifol r½Sdjcif;teuf oabm? ½kyf a0'em onmpaom w&m;rsm;[m rdrdwdkY oabmtwdkif;om jzpfysufaeMuwmyg/ rnfodkYjzpfap? rnfodkY rjzpfapeJU ponfjzifh trdefYay;Edkifonfh ydkifqdkifol wpfpHk wpfa,muf r½Sdjcif; teufoabm/

jrwfA'k \ ¨ 'kw, d a'oem

30

(3) oknw|= jyKprD w H wf zefw;D wwfaom w&m; rS qdwo f Ok ;f jcif; teufoabm? ½kyf a0'em onm paom w&m;rsm;[m jyKvkyfwwf? cHpm;wwf? jyKjyif pD&if wwf? zefw;D wwfaom oabmrS qdwo f Ok ;f jcif; teuf oabm/ (4)twåy#dau©y|= wdw¬dwdkYu rysufrpD; tNrJ wnfwefYonf[k ,lqxm;aomtwåudk y,fjcif; teuf oabmtm;jzifh av;rsdK;½Sdygonf/ omoemy wdw¬d wdkYu rysuf rpD; tNrw J nfwhJ trmcHtESpo f m&udk twå[k Buq H pGv J rf;Muygw,f/ ½kyf a0'em onmpaom w&m;rsm; [m xdktrmcH twåoabm r½SdwJhtwGufaMumifh tewå rnf ygw,f/ (t*Fkwå&t|uxm? 'kwd,) jrwfpGmbk&m;onf tewåvu©Pokwfawmfudk 0denf; yd#u r[m0gygVdawmfwGifvnf;aumif;? oH,kwåedum,f 'kwd,tkyf cE¨0*¾oH,kwfwGif vnf;aumif;? a½S;OD;pGm a[mawmfrlNyD;aemuf xdkxdkokwfwdkYü xdkxdk taMumif;tm;avQmfpGm enf;trsdK;rsdK;jzifh a[mawmfrlcJhygonf/ tcsdKU okwfwdkYü cE¨mig;yg;udk tewå[k a[mawmfrlí tcsd K Uok w f w d k Y ü pu© K ponf u d k vnf ; aumif ; ? ½lyg½kHponfudkvnf;aumif;? Oyg'geu©E¨mig;yg;


t½SiZf eu (armfuRe;f )

31

udv k nf;aumif;? yx0D"gwfponfukd vnf;aumif;? edAÁmeftygt0if tvHk;pHkaom w&m;wdkYudkvnf; aumif;tewå[ak [mawmfryl gonf/ ]]½lyH tewåm? a0'em tewåm(y)pu©K0dnmPH tewåm? oaAÁ "r®m tewåm? (oH,kwfygVdawmf)

jrwfA'k \ ¨ 'kw, d a'oem

32

Y ½kyt f ewåjzpfykH

¯¯¯¯¯

&[ef ; wd k Y ½k y f o nf twå r [k w f ? &[ef ; wd k Y þ½kyo f nf twåjzpfcv hJ Qif ½kyo f nf emusijf cif;iSm rjzpf&m? ]]ig\ ½kyfonf þodkY jzpfap? ig\½kyfonf þodkY rjzpf apvifh}} [lívnf; ½kyfü (pD&ifí) &&m\/ &[ef;wdYk ½kyo f nf twår[kwaf omaMumifh emusif jcif;jzpf\/ ]]ig\½kyo f nf þodjYk zpfap? ig\½kyo f nf þodYk rjzpfapvifh}} [lívnf; ½kyfü (pD&ifí) r&tyf/ ]]ep vAÇwd ½lay {0H ar ½lyH a[mwk? {0H ar ½lyH rm ta[moD}}wd (vwfbwd-[kzwf) ]]ig\½kyo f nf þokYd jzpfap? þodYk rjzpfygapeJ}Y }vdYk ½kyfw&m;ü awmifhwí r&paumif; paom pum;&yfjzifh tvd k o d k Y r vd k u f j cif ; ? rd r d j zpf c sif o vd k r jzpf j cif ; [l a om


t½SiZf eu (armfuRe;f )

33

]]t0o0e}} teufEiS hf ydik q f ikd o f l r½Sjd cif;[laom ]]tómrdu}} teuf ESpfyg;udk jyygonf/ ]],o®mpacg bdu©a0 ½lyH tewåm? wo®m ½lyH tmAm"m, oH0wåwd}} &[ef ; wk d Y þ½k y f o nf tewå j zpf a omaMumif h emusijf cif; jzpf&\paom pum;jzifh jyKprD rH I zefw;D rI oabm rSqw d o f Ok ;f jcif; ]]oknw}} teufEiS hf rysurf pD; tjrw J nfwhH jcif;teuf½Sd\[kwdw¬dwdkY pGJvrf;,lqxm;aom twåudk y,fjcif; ]]twåy#dau©y}} teufESpfyg;udk jyygonf/ bk&m;ryGichf if omoemyumvu t&m&mwdik ;f udk tvdkokdYvdkufygw,f/ tpdk;w&jzpfw,f/ rdrdjzpfcsifovdk jzpfw,fponfjzifh pGv J rf;,lqcJMh uwmyg/ 'Dtewåvu©P okwfrSmawmh jrwfAk'¨u --]]½lyH bdu©a0 tewåm= cspfom;wdkY ½kyfw&m;u oifwdkY tvdkokdYrvdkufyg/ tpdk;w& rdrd jzpfcsifovdk rjzpf aomaMumifh ]]tewå}}vdkY a[mawmfrlygw,f/ twå[lí pGJvrf;xm;aom½kyf[lonf --yom'½kyfig;yg;jzpfygonf/ (1) pu©Kyom'= pu©K+yom'? pu©K= rsufpd?

jrwfA'k \ ¨ 'kw, d a'oem

34

yom'= tMunf½kyf? pu©Kyom'= rsufpdtMunf½kyf? jrifjcif;udpöudk rsufvHk;u NyD;aponf r[kwfyg/ rsufvHk; twGif; rsufeuf0ef; tv,f oli,f&dyfxif&m t&yf0,f oef;OD;acgif;yrmP½Sad om ]]pu©Kyom'½ky}f }u jrifjcif;udpö udk NyD;apEdkifwmyg/ rsufvHk;aumif;apumrl xdkyom'½kyf ysufpD;aeygu jrifjcif;udpöudk rNyD;apEdkifyJ ]]aMumifawmif uef;}}jzpfaewwfygonf/ xdkpu©Kyom' ac:aom rsufpd tMunf½yk u f v kd nf; ]]tvdo k Ydk vdu k w f ,f? tpd;k w&jzpfw,f? rdrdjzpfcsifovdkjzpfw,f}} ponfjzifh ]]twå}}vdkY pGJvrf;xm; ygw,f/ (2) aomwyom'? aomw+yom'? aomw= em;? yom'= tMunf½kyf? Mum;jcif;udpöudk ]]em;}}u NyD;aponf r[kwfyg/ em;\twGif; vufpGyfuGif;o@mef½Sdaom t&yf0,f Eke,f eDjref;aom tarT;uav;rsm; aygufvQuf ½Sdygonf/ xdkt&yf0,fysHUESHYvQufwnfaom ]]aomwy om'½ky}f }u Mum;jcif;udpu ö kd Ny;D apwmyg/ xdak omw yom' ½kyf ysufpD;aeygu]]em;}}yif ½Sdjim;aomfvnf; ]]Mum;jcif;}} ud p ö u d k rNyD ; apEd k i f y g/ xd k a omwyom'[k a c:aom ]]em;tMunf½kyf}} udkvnf; ]]tvdkodkYvdkufw,f/ tpdk; w&jzpfw,f/ rdrdjzpfcsif ovdkjzpfw,f}} ponfjzifh ]]tw}å } vdkY pGJvrf;xm;ygw,f/


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(3) Cmeyom'? Cme+yom'? Cme= ESmacgif;? yom'= tMunf½kyf? Cmeyom'= ESmacgif;tMunf½kyf? erf;½SLjcif;udpu ö kd ]]ESmacgif;}} uNy;D aponf r[kwyf g/ ESmacgif; twGif; qdwfowå0g\ cGmESifhyHko@mefwlaom t&yf0,f ysUH ESv YH Quf wnf½adS om ]]Cmeyom'½ky}f }u erf;½SLjcif; udpu ö kd NyD;apwmyg/ xdkCmeyom'½kyf ysufpD;aeygu ]]ESmacgif;}} ½Sdjim;aomfvnf; ]]erf;½SLjcif;}} udpöudk rNyD;apEdkifyg/ xkdCmeyom'ac:aom]]ESmacgif;tMunf½kyf}}udkvnf; ]]tvdkodkYvdkufw,f/ tpdk;w&jzpfw,f/ rdrdjzpfcsifovdk jzpfw,f}} ponfjzifh ]]twå}} vdkY pGJvrf;xm;ygw,f/ (4) Zd0Smyom'? Zd0Sm+yom'? Zd0Sm= vQm? yom'= tMunf½kyf? Zd0Smyom'= vQmtMunf½kyf/ csdK csOf pyf ief zef cg;[laom t&omajcmufyg;udk cHpm;jcif;onf yg;pyf twGif;½Sd vQmu cHpm;onfr[kwf/ vQm\tv,f MumyGifh zwfrsm;ESifh tvm;wlaom t&yfü ]]Zd0Smyom'= vQm tMunf ½ k y f } }u t&omajcmuf y g; cH p m;jcif ; ud p ö u d k Ny;D apygonf/ xdZk 0d mS yom'½kyf ysupf ;D aeygu ]]vQm}} ½Sjd im; aomfvnf; t&omajcmufyg; cHpm;jcif;udpu ö kd rNy;D apEdik yf g/ xdZk 0d mS yom' ac:aom ]]vQmtMunf½yk }f }udv k nf; ]]tvdo k Ykd vdkufw,f/ tpdk;w&jzpfw,f/ rdrdjzpfcsifovdkjzpfw,f}}

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ponfjzifh ]]twå}} vdkY pGJvrf;xm;ygw,f/ (5) um,yom'? um,+yom'? um,= udk,f? yom'= tMunf½yk ?f um,yom'= ud, k t f Munf½yk ?f xdawGY jcif;? emusiu f u kd cf jJ cif; udpu ö kd cE¨mud, k u f odonfr[kw/f wpfu, kd v f ;kH ysUH ESUH vQuf wnfaeaom ]]um,yom'}} uk, d f tMunf½yk u f odjcif;omjzpfygonf/ um,yom'½kyo f nf tom;rm? ta&ajcmuf? ajconf;? vufonf;zsm;? qHyif? tarT;rsm;rSwyg; wud, k v f ;kH ysUH ESUH vQuf ½Syd gonf/ tpd"k gwf ½Sdaom ae&mwdkif;rSm um,yom'½kyfrsm; ysHUESHUvQuf ½Sdyg w,f/ xdkum,yom'ac:aom ]]udk,ftMunf½kyf}}udk vnf;]]tvdkodkY vdkufw,f/ tpdk;w&jzpfw,f/ rdrdjzpfcsif ovdk jzpfw,f}} ponfjzifh ]]twå}}vdkY pGJvrf;xm;ygw,f/ ½kyw f rk sm;udt k wå[rk pGv J rf;yHk opfom;ponfukd vl½yk x f x k m;aom t½kyBf u;D rsm; [m touf½SdwJh vlyHkpHtwkdif;ygyJ/ xdkt½kyfrsm;udkawmh ]]twåaumif? toufaumif}}&,fvdkY rpGJvrf;Muygbl;/ bmaMumifhrsm;vJqdkawmh xdkt½kyfrsm;[m vleJYyHko@mef wlaeayr,fvdkY tqif;ponfudk jrifEdkifwJh rsufpd½kyf? toHponfukd Mum;Edik w f hJ em;½ky?f teHUponfukd erf;½SLEdik w f hJ ESmacgif;½kyf? csOfiefrsdK;pHk &om½kHudk pm;odEdkifaom vQm½kyf?


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xd od paom tawGUudk cHpm;Edkifaom ukd,f½kyfrsm; r½SdwJh twGufaMumifh ]]twåaumif? toufaumif}}&,fvdkY rpGJ vrf;Muawmhygbl;/ tavmif;aumifukd twå[k pGv J rf;ygao;ovm;/

rsupf t d p½So d nfwjYkd zifh qufpyfwnf½adS eaom cE¨m udk,f½kyfw&m;BuD;udkom ]]twåaumif? toufaumif}} taeeJU xifrSwf pGJvrf;aeMuwmyg/ rsufpdponfwdkYjzifh qufpyfrI r½Sad om ½kyw f &m;udak wmh ]]twåaumif? touf aumif}}[lí rpGv J rf;Muawmhyg/ aoNy;D p tavmif;aumif rsm;rSm tqif;rsdK;pHk ½lyg½kHudkjrifEdkifaom pu©Kyom'? toH rsKd ;pHo k '´g½ku H kd Mum;Edik af om aomwyom'? teHUrsKd ;pHk *E¨m½kH udk erf;½SLEdkifaom Cmeyom'? csdK csOf pyf ief zef cg; rsdK; pHk &om½ku H kd pm;odEikd af om Zd0mS yom'? tawGU txd rsKd ;pHk aAm|AÁm½kHudk xdodEdkifaom um,yom'½kyfrsm; r½Sdawmh wJhtwGufaMumifh rdrdtvdkus rdrdjzpfcsifovdkjzpfw,f ponfhjzifh rpGJvrf;Muawmhygbl;/ ½lyÍö['d H bdua© 0 twåm tb0dó? e,d'H ½lyH tmAm"m, oH0awå,s? (oH0wfaw,[kzwf) cspf o m;wd k Y cE¨ m ig;yg;xJ u ½k y f c E¨ m BuD ; onf twå0g'D yk*¾dKvfrsm; BuHqxm;ovdk twåjzpfr,f? tpdk;&

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38

r,f? rdrdtvdkokdY vdkufr,fqdk&if þ½kyfcE¨mBuD;onf rdrdudk rESdyfpufoifh&m/ ½kyfw&m;u rdrdudk b,fvdk ESdyfpufaeygovJ qdkwm pDppfMunfh&atmif--- ½kyfu ig;rsdK;½Sdw,fvdkY ajymcJh wmudk arhrypfygeJU/ (1) pu©K= rsufpd½kyf? i,fi,f uav;b0wHk;uqdk rsufpdtvGeftm;aumif;w,f/ pmMunfhvdkY odyfaumif; w,f/ ta0;udk vSrf;Munfhvdkufvnf; oJoJuGJuGJ xifxif ½Sm;½Sm; jrif&w,f/ yDyDjyifjyif xifxif½Sm;½Sm; jrif&w,f/ toufuav; enf;enf;BuD;vmawmh pmMunfhvdkY odyfr& csifawmhbl;/ pmvHk;awGwGJvmw,f/ yl;uyfvmw,f/ ta0;udk vSr;f Munfv h u kd v f nf; rxifr½Sm; rIe0f g;0g; jzpfvm w,f/ MumMumMunfhawmh rsuf&nfylawG usvmw,f/ 'g rsufpd½kyfu rdrdudk ESdyfpufaewmyg/ (2) aomw=em;½kyf? cyfi,fi,f ausmif;om; b0uqdk em;odyyf g;wm/ cyfa0;a0;uajymvJ Mum;&wmyJ/ wdk;wdk;av;ajymvJ Mum;&wmyJ/ toufuav; enf;enf; &vmawmh odyrf Mum;csiaf wmhb;l / av;vmw,f/ xdik ;f vm w,f/ tem; em;uyfajymvJ rMum;wpfcsuf Mum;wpfcsu?f wcsKd Ursm;qdk em;rMum;awmhvYkd ajymvdw k phJ um;udk pmeJU a&;Ny;D


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awmif ajym&ygw,f/ 'g-em;½kyu f rdru d kd ESyd pf ufaewmyg/ (3) Cme= ESmacgif;½kyf? ESmacgif;uvJ arT;arT; BuKd iBf uKd iaf &m? rarT;rBuKd iyf g teHUrsKd ;pHk tukev f ;kH udk erf;½SL Edkifygw,f/ teHUudk erf;½SL&mrSm Cmeyom'tm;aumif;rS teHUtrsdK;rsdK;udk erf;½SLEdkifwmyg/ wcsdKUMuawmh ESmacgif; uaumif;w,f/ 'gayrJh ESmacgif;tMunf½yk yf suaf evdYk tarT; eHYESifh tykyfeHUponf bmudkrS teHUr&awmhyg/ 'guawmh ESmacgif;½kyfu rdrdudk ESdyfpufaewmyg/ (4) Zd0Sm=vQm½kyf?Zd+0SmvdkYrzwf&? Zdef0Sm-vdkY zwf&rnf/ (Oyrm- uwGm? [kwGm? wkarS[d) usef;rma&; aumif;aewJh tcgrSmawmh bmpm;pm;? xrif;jzLudq k q D rf;? qm;jzL;NyD;pm;vJ t&om½SdwmyJ/ usef;rma&;raumif; cHwiG ;f ysuw f t hJ cgrSmawmh 'Haygufxrif;? Muufom;[if;eJU pm;vnf; t&om r½Sdawmhyg/ bmaMumifhvJqdkawmh Zd0Sm ac:wJ=h vQm½kyyf suf aevdyYk g/ 'g-vQm½kyu f rdru d kd ESyd pf ufvYkd aewmyg/ (5) um,= cE¨mudk,f½kyf? i,fi,f½G,f½G,fuqdk tom;ta&awGu 0g0if;½Tef;td *Grf;qDxdouJhodkY El;nHh aysmah jymif;aeNy;D toufBu;D vmawmh rSUJ ajcmufawGpJG yg;a& awGuwGJvmNyD; txdkiftxvJ av;vHvmygw,f/ 'gawG

jrwfA'k \ ¨ 'kw, d a'oem

40

uawmh ud, k ½f yk u f rdru d kd ESyd pf ufaewmyg/ tu,fíom ½kyw f &m;u twåjzpfcrhJ ,fq&kd if tpd;k w&rdrt d vdo k Ykd vdu k f cJrh ,fq&kd if rsupf ½d yk ?f em;½ky?f ESmacgif;½ky?f vQm½ky?f ud, k ½f yk f rsm;u xdkuJhodkY rESdyfpufEdkifyg/ twåu rdrt d vdo k Ykd vdu k af pEdik yf govm;/

twå&JU owådig;rsdK;xJu o,H0oDowådqdkwmu ]]cE¨m tdrfrI tpkpkü wpfckrusef pDrHcGJa0 rdrd ESpfNcdKuf pepfudkufatmif vdkufygapEkdif\}} olwdkY,lpGJxm;ovdk twåu ½kyfcE¨mudk rdrd pDrH cefYcGJvdkY&w,f/ rdrd tvdkokdY vdu k w f ,fq&kd if bmhaMumifh ruse;f rrm zsm;em&ygoenf;/ ava&m*g? aoG;a&m*g? tpmtdraf &m*g? 'lvmyg'&ufa&m*g ponfjzifh (96)yg;aom a&m*g'Pf\ zdp;D ESyd pf ufru I kd cHae& ygoenf;/ xdak &m*g trsKd ;rsKd ; rjzpfatmif jyKjyif pDrH zefw;D ay;&rSmaygh/ xdu k o hJ Ydk jyKjyif pDrH zefw;D vdYk r&Edik af omaMumifh ]]tewå=tpdk;r&}} [krw S &f ygrnf/ omrDowådqdkwmu ]]cE¨mtdrfqdkiforQü ydkifo tkypf ;D t½Sio f cifBu;D aywnf;}} tdr&f UJ ydik ½f iS u f rdrd tdrBf u;D rysufrpD;atmif apmapmuwnf;u BudKwifNyD; umuG,f wm;qD; xde;f odr;f apmifah ½Smufxm;wJh tcgusawmh ysupf ;D roGm;awmhygbl;/ xdkYtwlyJ twåuvJ cE¨m&JUydkif½Sif? cE¨m


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udk,f&JU t½SifocifBuD;rdkY a&m*gtrdsK;rsdK; rjzpf&avatmif wm;qD;umuG,f apmifha½Smufay;&rSmaygh/ xdktwå0g'DwdkY ,lqxm;ovdk twåu cE¨m&JU ydkif½Sifr[kwfaomaMumifh ]]tewå=tpdk;r&}} [k rSwf&ygrnf/ vaAÇxp ½lay ]]{0H ar ½lyH a[mwk? {0H ar ½lyH rm ta[moD}} wd / (vwfabxp [kzwf) twåu rdrdtvdkokdY vdkufygapEdkifw,f/ cE¨mESifh pyforQ olUtvdkus pDrHEdkifw,fqdk&if ]]ig\½kyfcE¨monf þodYk þyHk vSvyS y use;f use;f rmrm csr;f csr;f omom jzpfyg ap/ tusn;f wef t½kyq f ;kd a&m*gtrsKd ;rsKd ; pGu J yfjcif; rjzpfyg apeJU}} vdYk awmifw h vdYk &rSmyg/ odaYk omf xdu k o hJ Ykd awmifw h í r&yg/½kycf E¨m&JU azmufjyefwwfwo hJ abmt& qHjzL cg;udik ;f em;xdik ;f oGm;a<u tom;ta&½IUH wG ,d, k iG ;f tdrk if;jcif;vnf; jzpf&ygw,f/ tdy, f m anmifapmif;rSm avsmif;Ny;D awmhvnf; 'kur© sKd ;pHk awGUBuKH &ygw,f/ aemufq;kH rSmawmh aojcif;w&m; eJUvnf; ed*Hk;csKyf b0udk tqHk;owf&ygw,f/ ]]ighcE¨mrtdk ygapeJU? tNrx J m0& ysKd jrpfEek ,f i,f&, G w f t hJ jzpfeUJ yJ aeyg &ap? remygapeJY? xm0& temuif;uGm usef;rm&ygvdk\? raoygapeJU? tNrw J rf; rdom;pkeUJ aysmaf ysm&f iT &f iT f aeyg&ap}} ponfjzifh awmifhwvdkY &EdkifrSmyg/ xdkokdY awmifhwr&

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42

aomaMumifh ]]tewå=tpdk;r&}}vdkY rSwf&ygrnf/ tewåjzpfvo Ykd m½kyef m&

,o®mpacg bdu©a0 ½lyH tewåm? wo®m ½lyH tmAm"m, oH0wåwd? (,wform? wwform-[kzwf) cspfom;wdkY oifwdkY&JU ½kyfcE¨mBuD;u tvdkodkYrvdkuf tpdk;r& tewåjzpfaomaMumifh rusrf;rrm zsm;emjcif; jzpf&w,fvdkY a[mawmfrljcif;aMumifh a&m*gtrsdK;rsdK;eJUvJ &ifqdkif&ygw,f/ ½kyf\oabmu ]]oDwkPSm'd 0da&m"d ypöa,[d ½kyw Ü w D ½d yl }H } [laom 0pew¬t& tat;vGeu f J vQif ESmap; acsmif;qdk;wwfovdk tylvGefuJvQifvnf; zsm;emwwfygw,f/ twdwfu jyKcJhwJh ukodkvfuHaMumifh vlYcsrf;omav; vmjzpf&NyD; vSywifhw,f ½IcsifpzG,f ½kyf tqif;eJUvnf; jynfhpHk&ygw,f/ tukodkvfuHawGaMumifh tusnf;wef t½kyfqdk; bDvl; obufrsdK;uJhodkYvnf; jzpf wwfygw,f/ ]]pdwfaxmif;awmh udk,faMu? pdwfysdKawmh ud, k Ef }k } qdw k mvdk pdwq f if;&Jr?I pdwcf sr;f omrIaMumifv h J ½kyf cE¨mu ñ§Kd ;i,fr?I vef;qef;EkysKd rq I w kd m jzpf&ygw,f/ tyl tat;tp½SdwJh OwkaMumifhvnf; ½kyfw&m;u azmufjyef wwfygw,f/ aumif;wJhtpm;tpm? tm[m&jzpfaprJh tpm;tpmrsKd ;pm;&vQif use;f rm0NzKd ; tvSw;kd Ny;D ? raumif;


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wJt h pm;taomufEiS hf tm[m&rjzpfwhJ tpmrsKd ;pm; &vQif awmhydefcsHK; ñ§dK;us rvSryjzpf&ygw,f/ uH pdwf Owk tm[m& taMumif;av;yg;aMumifv h nf; azmufjyefygw,f/ 'gwifruao;yg/ Oyg'f XD bifoabmt&vnf; ysupf ;D vdYk aeygw,f/ wESpfukefoGm;rS ½kyfw&m;u ysufonfr[kwf? wpfEpS w f iG f (12)v ½S&d mwGif vwdik ;f vwdik ;f ysuv f Ykd aewm yg/ wpfvrSmvJ &uf(30)½S&d mwGif &ufwikd ;f &ufwidk ;f ysuv f Ykd aewmyg/ wpf&ufrSm (24)em&D½Sd&m em&Dwdkif; em&Dwdkif; ysuv f aYkd eygw,f/ wpfem&DrmS rdepf(60)½S&d mwGif rdepfwikd ;f rdepfwdkif;ysufvdkY aeygw,f/ wpfrdepfrSm puúefY (60)½Sd&m rSmvJ puúeUf wdik ;f puúew Yf ikd ;f azmufjyef ysupf ;D vdYk aewmyg/ tbd"r®wo ¬ *F[usr;f rSmawmh ]]e'Daomawm0d,= jrpfa&tvQiu f o hJ }Ykd } jzpfysuaf eygw,fvYkd Oyrm ay;xm;yg w,f/ jrpfurf;ezl;rS xdik Mf unfah eol[m apmapmu pD;oGm; wmvJ 'Da&yJ? ,ckvJ 'Da&yJvdkY xif&ayrJh apmapma&u atmufupkd ;D oGm;vdYk r½Sad wmhygbl;/ txufrS pD;qif;vmwJh a&u xdkae&modkY tpm;xdk;0ifvmum apmapmua&eJU ,cka& twlwlvdkY xif&wmyg/ odkYaomf rwlyg/ 'gaMumifh a½S;ynm½Sd Bu;D rsm;&JU ]]jrpfwpfcu k kd ESpcf gul;vdYk r&bl;}} qdw k hJ pum;yHkvnf; Mum;bl;ygw,f/ xkdYtwlyJ ½kyfw&m;BuD;

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uvnf; a½SU½kyfawG jzpfNyD; ysufoGm;? aemuf½kyftopfawG tpm;xdk;0ifvm? xkdjzpfwkdif; jzpfwkdif;aom topftopf ½kyfawGvnf; ysufysufoGm;Muwmyg/ ½kyfw&m;u twå r[kwfavawmh tjzpftysufu tNrJ ESdyfpufaeygw,f/ (aqmify'k )f ESr;f tk;d uif;xuf? ESr;f awGusuo f ?Ykd jzpfysuaf e&? tedpöonf? 'ku© tewåcsnf;omwnf;? (awmifNrKd Uq&mawmfBuD;)

tdk;uif;xJ ESrf;awGxnfhavSmfwJhtcg ta½SUem; uvnf;jzpfjzpf? taemufem;uvnf;jzpfjzpf? tv,f uvnf;jzpfjzpf? ab;uvJ jzpfjzpfeYJ jrnfovdk ½kyw f &m;Bu;D uvnf;cE¨mudk,fwpfckvHk; ae&mrvyf jzpfysufaewm aMumifh tpdk;r& tewåygyJ/ ep vAÇwd ½lay ]]{0H ar ½lyH a[mwk? {0H ar ½lyH rm ta[moD}} wd? (vwfbwd[kzwf) ig\ ½kyfcE¨mBuD;onf þodkY þyHk usef;usef;rmrm vSvyS y acsmacsmarmarm wifw h ifw h ,fw,f ajyajyjypfjypf jzpfygap/ þodYk þyHk rvSry tusn;f wef t½kyq f ;kd a&m*g trsdK;rsdK; pGJuyfjcif; rjzpfygapeJYvdkY awmifhwír&yg/ a½S; twdwb f 0u ig;yg;oDvvHck v hJ Qif 'Db0 touf½n S rf ,f/ use;f rmr,f/ temuif;r,f/ t*Fgajcvufjynfph rkH ,f/ ig;yg;


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&[ef;wdkY a0'emonf twår[kwf? &[ef;wdkY a0'emonf twåjzpfcv hJ Qif a0'emonf emusijf cif; rjzpf &m?]]ig\ a0'emonf þodjYk zpfap? ig\a0'emonf þodYk rjzpfapvif}h } [lívnf; a0'emü (pD&ifí) &&m\/ &[ef; wdYk a0'emonf twår[kwaf omaMumifh emusijf cif;jzpf\/ ]]ig\a0'emonf þodkYrjzpfapvifh}} [lí a0'emü (pD&ifí)r&tyf? (jrefrmjyef) &[ef;wkdY cHpm;rIa0'em tvdkodkYrvdkuf tpdk;r& tewåjzpf\vdkY a[mawmfrlygw,f/ a0'emuvnf;= tm½kHaumif;udk cHpm;wJh okca0'em?

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tm½kHqdk;udk cHpm;wJh 'ku©a0'em? rqdk;raumif; tv,ftvwftm½kHudk cHpm;wJh Oayu©ma0'emvdYk oH;k rsKd ; oH;k pm; oHk;yg;½Sdygw,f/ odyfyltdkufaewJhtcdsef yefumav; zGifhay;vdkuf awmhaeom xkdifom½SdoGm;w,f/ oufawmifhoufom jzpfomG ;w,f/ 'gudak wmh okca0'em ac:ygw,f/ okc=csr;f omwJhtm½kHudk? a0'em=cHpm;jcif;? 'Dvdk csrf;omwJhtm½kHudk awmhvlwdkif;vlwdkif; cHpm;csifMuwmyg/ tbdeE´wd= tJ'D tm½kHtay:rSm ESpfouf auseyfNyD;awmhvnf; aeygw,f/ tbd0'wd=ae&xkdif& tqifajyvdkufwmvdkYvnf; ajym wwfygw,f/ xdt k m½kt H ay:rSmouf0ifepfjrK§ yNf y;D awmhvnf; aewwfygw,f/ xdkyk*¾dKvf&JU oEÅmefrSm ]]okcg, a0'em, &m*gEkoa,m tEkaow}d } ygVdt& avmbudavom jzpfwm rdUk ? okca0'emjzpf&if avmbudavom ude;f ygw,f/ rdb armifbGm; aqGrsdK;om;csif;rsm; aoausysufpD;wJhtcg odyfqif;&J&NyD; 'ku©a0'em jzpf&ygw,f/ 'ku©=qif;&JwJh tm½ku H ?kd a0'em=cHpm;jcif;? 'Dvkd 'kua© 0'em jzpfaewJt h cg aompwd=pdk;&drfylaqG;&ygw,f/ udvrwd=yifyef;&ygw,f/ y&da'0wd=&ifbwfpnf;wD; [D;cs NyD;awmhvnf; idka<u;


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vnf;cHpm;w,f/ a0'emu tm½kHig;yg;ay:rSDNyD; cHpm;yg w,f/ tm½kHig;yg;u tqif;rsdK;pHk ½lyg½kH? toHrsdK;pHk o'´g½kH? teHUrsdK;pHk *E¨m½kH? t&om rsdK;pHk &om½kH? tawGUtxdrsdK;pHk azm|AÁm½kw H Ykd jzpfygw,f/ vSy wifw h ,f ½Icsiphf zG,t f qif; jrif&awmh om,mwJh okca0'em jzpfygw,f/ rvSry azmufjyef,dk,Gif; tqif;o@mefrsdK; jrif&awmh ESvHk; rom,mwJh 'kua© 0'em jzpf&ygw,f/ wpfcg wpf&rH mS awmh om,mwJhoabmvnf; rouf? qif;&JwJhoabmvnf; rzufyJ Mum;cHpm;rIvnf; jzpfwwfygao;w,f/ 'gudkawmh Oayu©ma0'emvdYk ac:ygw,f/ om,mNird ahf nmif; ESpo f uf zG,af umif;wJh toHav;Mum;&wJh tcgrSmawmh okca0'em jzpfNy;D ? qJoH qdo k H Burd ;f armif;oH pdeaf c:oH twif;ajymoH rsKd ;Mum;&wJt h cgrSmawmh 'kua© 0'emjzpf&um wpfcgwpf&H rSmawmh tv,ftvwf cHpm;wJh Oayu©ma0'em rsKd ;vnf; jzpfwwfygw,f/ teHUrsdK;pHk *E¨m½kH? t&omrsdK;pHk &om½kHeJU tawGUtxdrsKd ;pHk azm|AÁm½kw H u Ykd kd cHpm;&mrSmvnf; 'Doabm ygyJ? oHk;rsdK;pD jzpfwwfygw,f/ oifwef;wuf&if; a0'emjzpf

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csicf sif rSwrf w S f om;om;eJY tm½kjH yK em;pdu k af xmifaewJt h cg okca0'em jzpfygw,f/ ysif;bdkYaumif;vdkufwm/ 'D udk,fawmf uvnf; pum;aMumu½Snfygbd/ Akdufuvnf; qmvmNyDqdk&if 'ku©a0'em jzpfygw,f/ tif;-vvnf; ukecf geD;Ny/D tdrv f cvnf; ay;&awmhr,f/ ausmif;uvnf; tyf&tHk;r,f/ ADZm uvnf; ukefcgeD;jyD? tvkyfuvnf; r&ao;bl;eJUqdkNyD; [kdawG; 'DawG;? awG;ae&if Oayu©m a0'em jzpfaew,fvdkY rSwfyg/ ig bma0'em jzpfaevnf; qdkwmawmh udk,frSyJ odrSmaygh/ twåaumifav;u taumif;tqdk; ESpfrsdK;udk rQa0cHpm; aew,fvdkY ,lqxm; ygw,f/ 'gayr,fh cHpm;rIa0'emu twåaumifawmh r[kwfygbl;/ olUtaMumif;tm;avQmfpGm topftopf jzpfNyD;ysufoGm;wJh oabmw&m; oufoufrQom jzpfyg w,f/ þa0'emudk tb,fou l cHpm;oenf; ? cHpm;wwf oly*k Kd¾ vrf ½Syd g/ þa0'emudk tb,fou l tpd;k w& ydik q f ikd f oenf;? a0'emudk tpdk;&ol ydkifqdkifol r½Sdyg/ þ a0'em onf yk*¾dKvfowå0gwdkY tvdkaMumifhom jzpfygoavm? rjzpfyg/ "mwfav;yg; azmufjyefrIaMumifhom jzpf&wmyg/ cHpm;olr½S0d w¬K

oD[dkVfuRef; pdwåvawmifü oDwif;oHk;vQuf

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awm&aqmufwnfaeaom rax&fwpfyg; ½Sdygonf/ wpfaeYwGif avema&m*g tjyif;txef pGJuyfvmojzifh ckwifay:0,f vl;vdrNhf i;D jiLaeaomtcg tvkyt f auR;jzpf aom&[ef;i,fu ]]t½Sib f &k m; bmjzpfvYkd 'Davmuf Ni;D jiL ae&ygovJ}}vdYk avQmufygw,f/ 'Dtcg rax&fBu;D u ]]igh½iS f ighrmS avema&m*gjzpfaevdYk Ni;D jiLaew,f}}[k trde½Yf ydS gw,f/ avema&m*gudk pDppfMunfh vdu k af wmh avu-0ga,m"mw?f emwmu-'ku©? emrIoabmudk cHpm;wmu a0'em? emwJh oabmudk odwmu 0dnmO?f a0'em udck pH m;wwfwhJ yk*Kd¾ vf qdw k mr½Syd gbl;/ igcHpm;w,fq&kd if twåaumifvYkd pGv J rf;&m a&mufomG ;r,f/ þa0'emudk b,fol tpd;k &ovJqakd wmh tpdk;&ol ydkif½SifvJ r½Sdygbl;/ þa0'em yk*¾dKvfowå0gwdkY qE´aMumifh jzpfygovm;/ r[kwfygbl;/ "mwfBuD;av;yg; azmufjyefvdkY jzpf&wmyg/ "mwfBu;D av;yg;qdw k mu=

(1) yx0D"mwf= awmifhwif;ckdifrmwJhoabm/ (2) tmayg"mwf=,dkpD;zGJUpnf;wJhoabm/ (3) awaZm"mwf= ylwo hJ abm? aEG;wJo h abm? at;wJo h abm/ (4) 0ga,m"mwf= wGef;uefvIyf½Sm;wJhoabm/


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53

tJ'"D mwfBu;D av;yg; nDrQaewJt h cg Balance jzpfaewJt h cg ae&xdkif&wm oufouf omom½Sdw,f/ aeomxdkifom ½Sdw,f/ usef;rmw,f/ "mwfBuD; av;yg; azmufjyefvmNyD Out of balance jzpfvmjyDqdk&if roufrom aerxd xkdif rxd jzpfvmygw,f/ ,ck rax&fBuD; cHpm;ae&wJh avem a&m*gu 0ga,m"mwf azmufjyefvdkY jzpfvmwJh a0'emyg/ tvk y f t auR;&[ef ; i,f u quf N yD ; avQmuf y gw,f / ]]t½Sib f &k m;wdrYk sm; w&m;awG tm;xkwaf eNy;D 'Davmufav; emwmudk onf;cHzdkY aumif;ygw,f}} [kavQmufxm;aom tcg rax&fBu;D owd&vmNy;D a0'emudk MuUH MuUH cHí ½Irw S yf g w,f/ rMumcif 0rf;wGi;f avrsm;u ESv;kH om;udk azmufxiG ;f vQuf 0rf;Adu k u f kd cGx J u G u f m ckwifay:odYk tlrsm;tacGvu kd f usvmygawmhw,f/ 'DawmhrS rax&fBu;D u ]]igh½iS f 'Davmuf onf;cH&if awmfavmuf Nyv D m;}}vdYk ar;vdu k w f t hJ cg tvkyf tauR; &[ef;rSm tHt h m;oifh oGm;ygawmhw,f/ rax&fBu;D vnf; xdak e&mrSmyif y#dorÇ'd gywå ZD0dworoDoD &[EÅm jzpfum y&dedAÁmef0ifpHcsKyfNidrf; cE¨mZmwfodrf;awmfrlcJh ygw,f/ &[EÅmvnf;jzpf y&deAd mÁ efvnf; pHjcif;udk ZD0w d or oDoD&[EÅm[k ac:ygonf/ (rlvyPÖot|uxm 1? 274)

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y#dorÇ'd gav;yg;[lonfrmS ---

(1) tw¬y#dorÇ'd g=taMumif;aMumifh jzpfay:vm aom tusdK;w&m;pk? edAÁmef? ygVdteufoabm? 0dygufpdwf? Bud,mpdwf? þw&m;ig;yg;tpkü odaomOmPfonf tw¬ y#dorÇd'gOmPf rnfygonf/ (twfxywdorfbd'g[k-zwf) (2) "r® y #d o rÇ d ' g = tusd K ;ud k jzpf a pwwf a om taMumif;w&m;pk? t&d,mr*fav;yg;? ygVdtpOf? ukodkvf tukodkvf? þw&m;ig;yg;ü odaomOmPfonf "r®y#dorÇd'gOmPf rnfygonf/ ("rfrywdorfbd'g[k=zwf) (3) ed½w k ydå #dorÇ'd g= qdck NhJ y;D aom tw¬ig;rsKd ;? "r®ig;rsKd ; ESiq hf ikd &f m o'´g yk'f ygXfpaom q,fyg;üodaom OmPfonf ed½kwådy#dorÇd'g rnfygonf/ (ed½kwfwdywdorfbd'g[k-zwf) (4) y#dbmey#dorÇd'g= qdkcJhNyD;aom y#dorÇd'g oHk;yg; vHk;udk xl;axGuGJjym; ydkif;jcm;a0zefí odaomOmPfonf y#dbmey#dorÇ'd g rnfygonf/(ywdbmey#dorfb'd g[k-zwf) a0'emp [d'H bdu©a0 twåm tb0dó? e,d'H a0'em tmAm"m, oH0awå,s/ &[ef;wdYk cHpm;rIa0'em twåjzpfr,f/ tpd;k &r,fqkd &if emusifrIrjzpf&m? a0'emom twåjzpfr,f tpdk;&r,f


t½SiZf eu (armfuRe;f )

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qd&k if raumif;a0'emac:wJh emusirf I rjzpfoifb h ;l ? wpfcg wpf&H rdrcd spjf rwfE;kd tyfwhJ yk*Kd¾ vrf sm;eJY aemufq;kH cGcJ mG jcif;eJY cGcJ mG oGm;&wJt h cgrSmawmh pd;k &dryf al qG;jcif;? idak <u;jrnfwrf; jcif;? udk,fqif;&J pdwfqif;&Jjzpf&jcif;? oufBuD;½Idufiif jyif;pGmylyef&jcif;rsm; jzpf&ygw,f/ 'gawGukd twåu jzpfcsif wm r[kwyf gbl;/ rjzpfcsiw f mawG avQmufNy;D jzpfae&w,f/ a0'emom twåq&dk if bmjzpfvYkd raumif;a0'em emusirf I jzpf&rvJ/ taumif;a0'emcsnf;om jzpf&rSmaygh/ vaAÇxp a0'em, ]]{0H ar a0'em a[mwk? {0H ar a0'em rm ta[moD}} wd? ig\a0'emonf csr;f omwJh oufawmifo h ufom jzpfwJh taumif;a0'emcsnf; jzpfygap/ emusifcHcufwJh raumif;a0'em rjzpfygapeJY-vdkY awmifhwvdkY &ç&rSmyg/ a0'em-u um,dua0'emeJU apwodua0'em[lí ESprf sKd ; ½Syd gonf/ rsupf ?d em;? ESm? vQm? ud, fk [ f al omig;'Gg&ig;Xme ud k r S D í jzpf w mud k u m,d u a0'emvd k U ac:&jyD ; pd w f u d k rDí S jzpfwmudak wmh apwodua0'emvdYk ac:ygw,f/rsupf d uvnf; tvdu k o f ifu h av; jyKjyifay;ae&wmyg/ tjrw J rf; rSdwfxm;vdkY r&ovdk tjrJwrf;zGifhxm;vdkYvnf; r&yg/ rSdwf vdkuf zGifhvdkufeJY vkyfay;&ygw,f/ 'Dvdktvdkufoifhav;

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vkyfay;ae&if;uyJ atmifhwmwdkY pl;wmwdkY udkufwmwdkY jzpfvmygw,f/ 'gu 'ku©a0'emyg/ 'Dvkd emusifudkufcJ wmrsdK; rvdkvm;ygbl;/ tu,fíom twåu tpdk;&r,f udk,fhtvdkwdkif; vdu k rf ,fq&kd if qif;&JwhJ 'kua© 0'em rjzpfygapeJv Y Ykd awmifh wvdkY &ç&rSmyg/ twåaumifr[kwfwJh twGufaMumifh (0g) tewåjzpfaomaMumifh awmifhwvdkY r&yg/ em;? ESmacgif;? vQm? ud, k w f u Ykd v kd nf; tjrw J rf; jyKjyif ay;ae&wmyg/ ,ck xdik &f if;yJ uk, d cf E¨mBu;D u anmif;nm udu k cf J xHu k sirf aI wG jzpfvmygw,f/ tcHcufvYkd 'kua© 0'em ac:ygw,f/ ighcE¨m BuD; csrf;csrf;omom oufawmifh oufomav; jzpfygap/ roufrom 'kua© 0'em rjzpfygapeJv Y Ykd awmifw h vdYk r&wm aMumifv h nf; ]]tew}å }vdYk rSwyf g/ rdrd cspo f el YJ cGcJ mG auGuiG ;f ae&jcif;aMumifh qif;&JwJh'ku©? rcspfrESpfoufoleJU aygif; oif;&wJh'ku©? &wmrvdk vdkwmr&wJh 'ku©? rdbarmifbGm; awGqHk;½IH;ysufpD;vdkY pdk;&drfylaqG; idka<ujrnfwrf;&wJh'ku©? pdwq f if;&J&wJ'h u k ?© oufBu;D ½Iu d if if jyif;pGmylyefae&wJh 'ku© awGudkawmh ]]apwodu'ku©}}vdkY ac:ygw,f/ 'D u m,d u 'k u © ? apwod u 'k u © E S p f r sd K ;pvH k ; ud k b,folrS rcHpm;csifygbl;/ twåaumifom jzpfr,fqdk&if


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'grsdK;'ku©rjzpfygapeJYvdkY awmifhwvdkY &ç&rSmyg/ xdkokdY r& wmaMumifh a0'em ]]tewå}} vdkYrSwfyg/ ,o®mpacg bdu©a0 a0'em tewåm? wo®m a0'em tmAm"m, oH0wåwd? cspfom;wdkY cHpm;rIa0'em tpdk;r& tewåaMumifh emusifcHcuf ESdyfpufrI jzpf&w,f/ a0'em tvdt k wdik ;f rjzpf

cHpm;rI a0'em tpdk;r&yg/ rdrdtvdkodkY rvdkufyg/ tjrifaumif;? tMum;aumif;? teHaY umif;? t&omaumif;? tawGUtxdaumif;awGcsnf; jrif&? Mum;&? erf;½I&? pm;&? xdawGU&atmif awmifhwvdkY r&Edkifyg/ tjrifaumif;? tMum;aumif;awG jrif& Mum;&atmif wrifBudK;pm;NyD; ½SmaeMuwmyg/ &jyefawmhvnf; wm½Snw f nfaeygvm;qdk awmhrwnfyg/ rMumcifrmS yJ tjrifq;kd ? tMum;qd;k ? teHUqd;k ? t&omqdk;awG jzpfay:vdkY vmygw,f/ tqdk;qHk;uawmh tawGUtxdygyJ/ jrefrmpum;yH½k w dS ,fr[kwv f m;/ ]]oGm;Mum; ½d;k nyf? qHwpfyifwif;? cspjf cif;r,m;? &nf;pm; vlv?k tlEu k RcJ wf? taeuyf\}} qdkwJh pum;t& oGm;Mum; nyfjcif;? OD;acgif;

ay:u qHwpfyifwif;aejcif;? cspfZeD;ESifhcGJcGmae&jcif;? ukd,fh&nf;pm;olrsm;aemufygoGm;jcif;pwJh 'ku©awG[m

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a0'emrSeforQudk ]]tewå}} tpdk;r&vdkYrSwfyg/ oaAÁ ocFg&m tedpöm? oaAÁ ocFg&m 'ku©m? oaAÁ "r®m tewåm}}vdkY ("r®y'ygVdawmf)rSm a[mawmfrlxm; ygw,f/ ocFg&w&m;rSeforQ tedpö? 'ku©vdkYrSwfyg/ ocFg& qdkwm uH? pdwf? Owk? tm[m& taMumif;av;yg; jyKjyKif vdkYjzpfvm&wJh w&m;awGudk ac:ygw,f/ pdwf? apwoduf? ½kyfw&m;rsm; jzpfygw,f/ ]]oaAÁ "r®m tewåm}} ygVdt& ocFg& tocFg&w&m; tm;vHk;udk ]]tewå}}vdkY rSwf&ygrnf/ edAÁmefum; taMumif;av;yg;uif;íjzpfaom tocFg& w&m;jzpfaomaMumifh edpö okc jzpfygw,f/ ]]oaAÁ "r®mwd =yÍöu©E¨m{0 t"dayÜwm[k ("r®y't|uxm) zGifhaom aMumifhcE¨mig;yg;udk,l&rnf/ edAÁmefonf cE¨mig;yg;rS vGwaf eaomaMumifh cE¨0rd w k w f &m; jzpfygonf/ xdaYk Mumifh þtzGifhtvdk ]]tewå}}[krqdkEdkifovkd ]]twå}}[kvnf; r,lvdkufygeJU/ tedpöm oaAÁ ocFg&m? 'ku©mewåmp ocFwm? edAÁmeaÍö0 ynwåd? tewåm £wd edpä,m? (y&d0gygVdawmf - 157)

ocFg&w&m;tm;vHk;wdkYonf tjrJr½Sdukef/ ocFg& w&m;tm;vH;k wdo Yk nf qif;vnf;qif;&Juek \ f / uk, d v f nf;

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a0'emu tm½kHudk cHpm;wJhoabm? oufawmifh oufomjzpfaewmu-tm½kH? oufomwJhoabmudk cHpm; wmu-a0'em? roufromjzpfwmu-tm½k?H roufomwJh oabmudk cHpm;wmu-a0'em? oufomonfvnf;r[kw?f roufomonfvnf;r[kwfwmu-tm½kH? cHpm;wJhoabm u-a0'em? oufomwJo h abmudk cHpm;wmu okca0'em? roufomwJhoabmudk cHpm;wmu 'ku©a0'em? tv,f tvwfoabmudk cHpm;wmu Oayu©ma0'emjzpfyg w,f/ anmif;nm udkufcJ xHkusifqdkwJh tm½kHu ynwf? cHpm;rI a0'emu y&rwf? 0dyóem½I&m0,f ynwfurkd ½I&? y&rwf udo k m½I&rnf/]]tedpmö 'dtmuma&[d yówDwd 0dyóem}} rjrJ


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(3) ocFg&'ku©=½kyfw&m; emrfw&m;awG jzpfvdkuf ysufvdkufeJY rjywfqif;&Jaewmu ocFg&'ku©yg/ xdo k ;kH rsKd ;wdw Yk iG f 'ku'© u k E© iS hf 0dy&dPmr'kuE© pS yf g;u ynwf jzpfí 0dyóemr½Iaumif;? ocFg&'ku©onf y&rw¬w&m; jzpfí 0dyóem½I&ygrnf/ xdkuJhodkY ½I&mü xHkusif udkufcJ anmif;nmrIu ynwfjzpfí 0dyóemr½Iaumif;? cHpm;rI a0'em\ tjzpftysuo f abmudo k m 0dyóem½I&ygrnf/ 'ku© 'kuE© iS hf 0dy&dPmr'kuu © m; wu,f'u k t © ppfr[kwyf g/ 'kut © wkomjzpfygonf/ tb,fah Mumifeh nf;/ txdik rf sm;vdYk xHkusifvmwJhtcg ESdyfay;vdkuf? odkYr[kwf vrf;avQmuf ay;vdu k &f if xHu k siaf &m*g aysmufomG ;ygw,f/ anmif;nm vm&if vrf;avQmufay;vdu k f aysmufomG ;ygw,f/ ukpm;vdYk &wJ'h u k © jzpfwmrdYk 'kut © ppfr[kwyf g/ OD;acgif;ay:u qHyif awGjzLvm&if qHyifeufaq;qdk;ay;vdkuf jyefeufvm ygw,f/rsufpdrIefvm&if aq;½kHoGm; cJGpdwfuko rsufMunf vTmxnfhay;vdkuf&if jyefjrifvmygw,f/ yg;awGcsdKifh ta&awGwGefYaevnf; aygif;wifay;vdkufu EkysdKvm ygw,f/ 'Dvjkd yKjyifv&Ykd wmaMumifh 'kut © wkomjzpfygonf/ (wenf;) orkwdynwfomjzpfygonf/ y&rw¬r[kwfyg/ ocFg&'kuq © w kd mu ½kyw f &m; emrfw&m;awG rjywfjzpfysuf


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aewJhqif;&Jyg/ a½SU½kyfemrfawG jzpfNyD;ysufoGm;? xdkysuf oGm;wJhae&mtpm;xdk;NyD; ½kyfopfemrfopfawGjzpfvmyg w,f/ xdk½kyfopfemrfopfrsm;vnf; ocFg&oabmt& wnfraeyJ ysuv f o Ykd mG ;ygw,f/ tJ'v D dk ½kyf emrfawG jzpfysuf aewmudak wmh bk&m;vnf; ukr&? odMum;vnf;rwwfEikd ?f e*g;vnf; vufridI cf sum ae&wmaMumifh qif;&Jtppf trSef omjzpfwmrdYk y&rw¬w&m;jzpfojzifh 0dyóem½Iaumif;aom 'ku©[krSwfyg/ 'gaMumifh ocFg&'ku©udkom 0dyóem ½Iaumif;onf 0dyóem½I&rnf jzpfygonf/ 'kuo © ;kH rsKd ;

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rvSr;f rurf;u rD;vINH y;D apmifMh unfh tuJcwfaeMuygw,f/ OD;wdó-u ]igav udavomwef;vef;eJYawmh taorcH Edkifbl;/ wpfoHo&mvHk;u ighudkESdyfpufvmcJhwm? 'Db0rSm udavomudk igtEdkifwkdufr,f}vdkU MuHK;0g;um emusifNyD; aygifusKd ;wJh a0'emudyk ,fcmG vdYk a0'em&JU tjzpftysuu f kd ½Iaeygw,f/ a0'emu ocFg&? apwodufu emrfw&m;? ]]oaAÁ ocFg&m tedpöm? 'ku©m? tewåm}} ygVdt& ocFg&w&m; rSe&f if tjrrJ jywf'vpyf jzpfysuv f aYkd ewmyg/ jzpf ysuaf evdYk tedpö? jzpfysuf'PfudkcHae&vdkY 'ku©? a0'em igr[kwf? twåaumifr[kwf? tpdk;r&vdkY tewå? tu,fí a0'em onf twåjzpfr,f/ tpdk;&r,f/ ukd,fhtvdkvdkufr,fqdk&if remap&bl;/ ukdufcJrIrjzpfap&bl;[k awmifhwvdkY&rSmyg/ xdkuJhodkY awmifhwr&jcif;aMumifh a0'emtwår[kwf/ tewå o mjzpf y gw,f / twå a umif r [k w f j cif ; aMumif h olYoabmtwdkif; jzpfysufvdkYaewmyg/ OD;wdó&[ef; aygifusKd ;Ny;D emaewJh a0'emudk r½IyJ a0'em&JU jzpf ysuu f kd om wpfnvHk;½Iaeygw,f/ tm½kPfwufcsdefa&mufawmh tmoa0gukefcrf; &[EÅmjzpfNyD; y&dedAÁmef0ifpHcsKyfNidrf; cE¨mZmwfodrf;awmfrlcJhygw,f/ (okwfr[mt|uxm - 339)

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T onmtewåjzpfykH

&[ef;wdYk onmonf twår[kw?f &[ef;wkYd onm onf twåjzpfcJhvQif onmonf emusifjcif;rjzpf&m? ig\onmonf þodkYjzpfap? ig\ onmonf þodkYrjzpf apvif[ h í l vnf; onmü pD&ifí&&m\/ &[ef;wdYk onm onf twår[kwfaomaMumifh emusifjcif;jzpf\/ ig\ onmonf þodkYjzpfap? ig\onmonf þodkY rjzpf apvifh[lívnf; onmü pD&ifír&tyf?


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ta&mifvnf;odw,f/ ta&mif&JU rjrJ qif;&J tpdk;r&wJh oabmudv k nf; odygw,f/ ynmuawmh a&Tyef;wdro f nf &JUtojymodyHkeJY wlygw,f/ a&Tyef;wdrfonfu ta&mif vnf;odw,f/ tojymrSef;vnf;odw,f/ tojym&JU wefz;kd udv k nf; odw,f/ tqif;toHponfukd jrif& Mum;& wJhtcgrSmawmh ta&miftqif; ponfudkvnf; odw,f/ rjrJ qif;&J tpd;k r&wJo h abmudv k nf; odw,f/ wqifw h uf vdkY r*fzdkvfedAÁmefudkvnf; xdk;xGif;vdkY odEdkifygw,f/ 'gonm 0dnmPf ynm-wdkY&JU odyHkjcif;rwl uGJjym;jcm;em; csufygyJ/ (oN*øK[fbmom#Dum=0dnmPfudk-0defnif-[kzwf) onmp [d'H bdu©a0 twåm tb0dó? e,d'H onm tmAm"m, oH0awå,s/ cspo f m;wd?Yk rSwo f m;rIonm twåaumifjzpfcrhJ ,f qdk&if þonmonf rESdyfpufEdkif&m? onmom twåjzpf cJrh ,fq&kd if aumif;wJh um,uH? 0pDu?H tjypfuif;wJh raem uHawG awG;NyD; csrf;omae&rSmaygh/ raumif;wJhtm½kHawG tjzpf tysuaf wG trSw&f Ny;D pdwq f if;&JrI rjzpfoifyh gbl;/ twåaumifr[kwfaomaMumifhom ylyefrI? qif;&JrIawG jzpfae&wmyg/ rSwfom;rIonm-u aumif;wma&m? raumif;wmyg rSwfxifygw,f/ Oyrm-rpifudk vlom;

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awGu pufqkyf½GH½SmbG,f tjzpfeJY rSwfxifayrJh acG;? 0uf pwJhowå0gawGuawmh ewfok'¨guJhodkY rSwfxifygw,f/ xdt Yk wl onm&JU oabmuvnf; aumif;wma&m raumif; wmyg rSwfom;ygw,f/ tm½kHig;yg; umr*kPf w&m;udk ykxkZOfvlom;rsm;u tjrwfwEdk; wefzdk; xm;NyD; toHk; jyKMuaomfvnf; bk&m;? &[EÅm? t&d,myk*Kd¾ vf rsm;uawmh pufqyk ½f ½HG mS rowDp&mtjzpfeYJ rSwx f ifawmfrl Muygw,f/ onm&JU oabmuvnf; xdt Yk wl aumif;? raumif; tm½kH ESpfrsdK;vHk;udk rSwfxifwwfygw,f/ 'g-onm twåaumif r[kwfvdkYom raumif;wJhtm½Hk ted|tm½kHudkvnf; rSwf om;jcif;jzpfygw,f/ vaAÇxp onm, {0H ar onm a[mwk? {0H ar onm rm a[moDwd? rSwfom;rIonm twåjzpfr,fqdk&if ig\onm onf taumif;tm½kaH wGcsn;f rSwrf yd gap/ raumif;tm½kH awG rrSwf rdygapeJYvdkY awmifhwvkdY&&m\/ onm\ trSwrf mS ;yHu k v kd nf; þodYk odoifyh gao; onf/ a½S;wkef;u rsufrjrif ykPÖm;ajcmufa,muf½SdowJh/ wpfcgrSmawmh qifajymifBu;D wpfaumifukd prf;rdMu&m0,f wpfa,mufaomolu ESmarmif;udk prf;rdwJhtcg? xkdolu


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]]qif qdw k m igwdrYk supf rd uG,cf ifu jrifc&hJ wJh a>reJw Y w l ,f}} vdYk ajymygw,f/ tpG,u f kd prf;rdou l ]]qifqw kd m usnaf yGU eJY wlw,f}} vdkYajymygw,f/ em;&Gufudk prf;rdolu ]]qifqdk wm oifzsL;zsmeJw Y w l ,f}}/ cE¨mud, k u f kd prf;rdou l ]]qifqkd wm tdref &H eH w YJ l w,f}}/ tNr;D udpk rf;rdou l awmh ]]qifqw dk m wHjrufpnf;eJw Y w l ,f}}/ ajcaxmufupkd rf;rdou l ]]qifqw kd m tdrw f ikd ef w YJ w l ,f}} vdrYk eS ;f Ny;D ajymMuygw,f/ rsupf jd rifpOfu rdrw d Ykd rSwo f m;cJb h ;l onft h wdik ;f ajymMujcif;omjzpfygonf/ (O'get|uxm?307)

'g-onm&JU trSwrf mS ;rIom jzpfygw,f/ onmom twåjzpfcJhr,fqdk&if trSwfrrSm;ygapeJYvdkY awmifhwvdkY &rSmyg/ r&EkdifaomaMumifh ]]tewå}}vdkYom rSwf&ygrnf/ þae&mü onmESiyhf wfoufí v,fwD q&mawmf bk&m;Bu;D \ y&rw¬o½lyab'eDusr;f vm aqmify'k rf sm;jzifh A[kokwtvdkYiSm wifjyygr,f/ (aqmifyk'f) xkdY- jyifonm? cE¨mrSmum;? vdr®mwwfod? ac:Mubd½iS /hf onmqkw d m avmuDa&;&mrSm vdrm® jcif;? yg;eyfjcif;? odjcif;? wwfjcif;udk ac:ygw,f/ avmu"gwftwef; pmay

jrwfA'k \ ¨ 'kw, d a'oem

74

rsm; wwfodvdr®mjcif; uRrf;usifjcif;? odjcif;? odyÜHynm qdkif&mwwfodem;vnf vdr®muRrf;usifrI rSeforQawGudk onmvdkY ac:ygw,f/ (aqmify'k )f vl\abmifrmS ? vlwumeJ? vdrm® jrrJ ?l rSwpf JG jzmjzm? þonmyif/ vlYabmifavmuwGif olrsm;enf;wl vdr®mwmrsdK;? ukeu f ;l oef;a&mif;0,frw I iG f vdrm® yg;eyfjcif;rsKd ;? tcsi;f csi;f aygif;oif;qufqH&mwGif q&meJUwynfh? rdbeJYom;orD;? vlBuD;eJYvli,f ponfajymqdk qufqH&mü csdKom,Ofaus; vdrm® pGm ajymqkq d ufqw H mrsKd ;onf onmyif jzpfygonf/ (aqmify'k )f ewfrSmewfavsmuf? vdr®majrmuf\? atmuf tyg,fom;? uREJ mG ;jrif;qif? jrifjriforQ? teEÅvnf;? bm0g bm0 odwwfMu\/ txku d t f avQmuf olUtwdik ;f twmESio hf l vdrm® Mu? odwwfMuygw,f/ vlMuawmh vlvrd m® aygh/ ewfrsm;rSmawmh ewfvdr®m? wd&pämefrsm;Muawmh qifvdr®m? jrif;vdr®m? uRJ vdrm® ? acG;vdrm® ? arsmufvrd m® ponf ajymMuygw,f/ tJ'v D kd avmuD a&;&mrSm odw,fqw kd hJ obm0[m onmawGygyJ/ (aqmify'k )f avmutvHk;? arQmfrqHk;atmif? toHk;xifpGm?


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tvdr®m[k? tjcmtcsKyf? ac:orkwf\/ avmuD e ,f r S m awmh ol u tcsKyf t jcmygyJ w J h / t&m&mrSm wwfodem;vnf vdr®myg;eyfrI rSeforQawGudk onmvdkY ac:ygw,f/ (aqmify'k )f rkqdk;wHig? olYt&mü? vdr®muRrf;usif? onmyif wnf;? odkYpOfenf;jy? odukefMuavmh/ awmvdkufrkqdk;ESifh wHig? yifv,f c&D;oGm;ol? awmifol v,form;rsm;? aps;onfpolwkdYvnf; olYae&m eJUol vdr®mMuygw,f/ awmifolv,form;rsm;u pyg; pdu k yf pkH u kd ef nf;ü vdrm® Muygw,f/ 'Dv,fajru b,frsKd ;aph? b,ftyifpdkufrS&w,f/ b,frsdK;aphpdkuf&ifoD;ESH txGuf raumif;bl;/ tyifroefb;l qdw k m vdrm® uRr;f usipf mG odMu ygw,f/aps;onfrsm;vnf; 'Dtcsed rf mS "gwfqeD aYJ &T ta&mif; t0,fvyk &f iftusKd ;tjrwfrsm;rsm; &Edik w f ,f/ tdrt f a&mif; t0,fvkyf&if tusdK;tjrwf odyfr&Edkifbl;? um;ta&mif; t0,fvkyf&if½HI;Edkifw,f ponfjzifh vdr®muRrf; usifMuyg w,f/ yifv,fwGif;oGm;vmaeolrsm;vnf; a&ul;&mrSm vdr®mMuygw,f/ wpfcgu wuúodkvfygarmu©BuD; wpf a,muf eJY yifv,fvyk o f m;wpfa,mufwYkd oabFm wpfp;D eJY yifv,fjyifomG ;aepOf avrkew f ikd ;f rdvYkd oabFm ysuw f t hJ cg

jrwfA'k \ ¨ 'kw, d a'oem

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ygarmu©Bu;D u ynmwwf? odyt HÜ &mrSm yg&*l ajrmufwwf ajrmufwJhol/ a&vkyfom;uawmh bm-ynmrS rwwf½Sm bl;/ odaYk omf yifv,fc&D;awmh uRr;f usiw f ,f/ ygarmu©Bu;D u a&rul;wwf½Smbl;/ a&vkyfom;uawmh yifv,fxJrSm ajcuuef? vufu,uf? acgif;av;armh? ud, k v f ;kH av;azmh xm;Ny;D ig;av;wpfaumifvkd ayghyg;pGm ul;oGm;vdu k yf gowJ/h 'gu bmvJqakd wmh olaY e&meJo Y l vdrm® uRr;f usiw f hJ onm ygyJ/ (aqmifyk'f) ½lyonm? ponfjzmom;? onmtjym;? tusOf;tm;jzifh? ajcmufyg;vm½Sd/ bk&m;a[mygVdawmfrSm ½lyonm? o'´onm? *E¨ onm? &oonm? azm|AÁonm? "r®onmvdkY tm½kH tvdkuf ajcmufyg;½Sdygw,f/ tqif;rsdK;pHkeJYywfoufNyD; vdr®muRrf;usifwmu ½lyonm? toHrsdK;pHkeJYywfoufNyD; vdr®muRrf;usifwmu o'´onm? teHYrsdK;pHkeJYywfoufNyD; vdrm® uRr;f usiw f mu *E¨onm? t&omrsKd ;pHek yYJ wfoufNy;D vdr®muRrf;usifwmu &oonm? tawGUtxdrsdK;pHkeJY ywf oufvdkY vdr®muRrf;usifwmu azm|AÁonm? "r®m½kHeJY ywfoufvdkY vdr®muRrf;usifwmu "r®onm ac:ygw,f/ (aqmifyk'f) ajroda&od? aevodu? ponfoG,foG,f?


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rqHk; zG,fonf? tus,fonmu©E¨mwnf;/ onmu tusOf;csHK;vdkuf&if (6)yg;? csJUvdkufyGm; vdkuf&if ajr[líodwm? a&? av? rD;? ae? v? eu©wf? wm&m? Mu,f awGyJ[kodwm[m ynmr[kwfyg/ onm todrsm;om jzpfygw,f/ avmuBuD;rSm onmu t&m tus,fqHk;ygyJ/ t&m&m vdr®myg;eyf uRrf;usifrIawG[m onmrsm;om jzpfygw,f/ (wdyd#uq&mawmfBuD;) ,o®mpacg bdua© 0 onm tewåm? wo®m onm tmAm"m, oH0wåw?d ep vAÇwd onm, {0H ar onm a[mwk? {0H ar onm rm ta[moDwd/ &[ef;wdkY rSwfom;rIonm tewåjzpfjcif;aMumifh pdwfqif;&JylyefNyD; ESdyfpufygw,f/ ig\ rSwfom;rIonm taumif;csn;f jzpfygap/ raumif;wmawG 0rf;enf;p&mawG rrSwfrdygapeJYvdkY awmifhwvdkY r&yg/ twå&JUowådu omrD=cE¨mtdrfqdkiforQü ykdifo tkyfpD; t½SifocifBuD;aywnf;/ rSwfom;rIonmudk twå uydik w f ,f/ tpd;k &w,fq&dk if pdwEf v S ;kH &Tijf yKH ;p&m? pdwcf sr;f omp&mawG c snf ; trS w f & -&rS m yg/ ig&J U onmonf taumif; awGcsnf; trSwf&ygap/ raumif;wmawG pdwf rcsrf;omp&mawG? pdwfqif;&Jp&mawG trSwfr&ygapeJYvdkY

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awmifw h vdrYk &yg/ bmaMumifv h nf; qdak wmh tpd;k r&tewå jzpfvyYdk gyJ/ o,H0oD=cE¨mtdrrf I tpkpk ü wpfcrk usef pDrcH aJG 0 rdrdESpfNcdKuf pepfudkufatmif vkdufygapEdkifwJh oabmay wnf;/ twå-u rdrd&JU tvdkusjzpfap&w,f/ rdrdtvdkokdY vkdufygap&w,fqdk&if rSwfom;rIonmudk bmaMumifh raumif;wJt h aMumif;t&m? raumif;wJh tjzpf tysu?f 0rf; enf;p&m pdwfESvHk;rcsrf;ajrUp&mawGudk jyefajymif; atmifh arhowd&NyD; pdk;&drfylaqG; ikda<u;jrnfwrf;jcif;? udk,fqif; &Jjcif;? pdwfqif;&Jjzpf&jcif;? oufBuD;½Idufiif jyif;pGm ylyef &jcif;rsdK;awG jzpfygoenf;/ twår[kwfaomaMumifh? rdr dtvdkodkY rvdkufapEdkifaomaMumifhom taumif;awGcsnf; trSw&f ygap/ raumif;wmawG pdwq f if;&Jp&mawG trSwf r&ygapeJYvdkY awmifhwvdkYr&wmyg/ Ak'o ¨ nf tewå0g'udk vufrcH-wJh

wcsdKUyk*¾dKvfrsm;u Ak'¨onf tewå0g'udkvufrcH? twåuo kd m ajymqdak vh½o dS ?l twåuo kd m trTe;f wif cs;D rGr;f avh½Sdolyg[k ajymqdkMuao;onf/ tb,fhaMumifhygenf;? twå'Dyg bdu©a0 0d[&x twåo&Pm ten o&Pm? (cE¨0*¾o, H w k yf gVdawmf)

xdkyk*¾dKvfwdkYtvdk ]]cspfom;wdkY twåudk udkif;uRef;


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ozG,f rDcS &kd m½So d nfjzpfí aeMuukeaf vmh/ twåukd ud;k uG,f vJavsmif;? yke;f atmif; rScD &kd m½So d nfjzpfí aeMuukeaf vmh/ twårSwyg; tjcm;udk;uG,f&mr½Sdonfjzpfí aeMuukef avmh}}[k olwv Ykd cdk sio f vdk t"dygÜ ,f,Nl y;D jrefrmjyefMuonf/ odkYaomf xdkuJhodkY rdefYawmfrl&if;r[kwfyg/ "r®'Dyg bdu©a0 0d[&x "r®o&Pm ten o&Pm? (cE¨0*¾oH,kwfygVdawmf) Ak'¨rdefYawmfrlvdkwmu ]]cspfom;wkYd w&m;awmfudk ukid ;f uRe;f ozG,f rDcS &kd m&So d nfjzpfí aeMuukeaf vmh/ w&m; awmfukd ud;k uG,v f aJ vsmif; yke;f atmif;rScD &dk m½So d nf jzpfí aeMuukefavmh? w&m;rSwyg; tjcm;udk;uG,f&mr½Sdonf jzpfí aeMuukefavmh}} [k rdefYawmfrlvdkwmyg/ 'Dae&mrSm twåt& ]]"r®}} udk,l&ygrnf/ twåmeH ap yd,H Znm? twåm[d twåaem emaxm? ("r®y't|uxm-'kwd,) xdyk *k Kd¾ vw f t Ykd vdk ]]twåukd cspt f yf\[lí tu,fí odjim;tHh/ twåonfom rdrd\ ukd;uG,f&mwnf;}} [lí Translate vkyu f m jrefrmjyefMuao;onf/ odaYk omf xdu k o hJ Ykd jrefrmjyef&rnfr[kwf/ jrwfpGmbk&m; rdefYawmfrlvdk&if;u ]]rdrdudk,fudk cspftyf\ [lí tu,fí odjim;tHh/ rdrd

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onfom rdr\ d ud;k uG,&f mwnf;}}[k jrefrmjyef&rnf jzpfyg onf/ xdkYaMumifh jrwfAk'¨ onf ]twå} 0g'udk vufrcH/ ]]tewå}} udkomajyma[mavh½dSaMumif; odaptyfygonf/ r&Dpdulyrm onm (cE¨0*¾oH,kwfygVdawmf) onm=rSwfom;rIonmonf? r&Dpdulyrm=wHvQyfESifh rjcm; wrl tvm;wlygay\/ *drSmeH ypädar rmao Xdaw rZösESdau umav r&Dpdum zE´wd (oH,kwfygVdawmf 'kwd,) wHvQyfqdkwm aEGvwdkY&JU aemufqHk;wpfvjzpfwJh uqkev f jynfah usm(f 1)&ufaeYrS e,kev f jynfah eYtxd wpfv onf tvGefyljyif;aomv jzpfygonf/ ajrxJ oJxJwGif atmif;aeaom tylaiGUESihf tay:uaeyl? xdt k ylEpS cf k aygif; pyfxcd u kd Nf y;D ta0;u vSr;f Munfv h u kd v f Qif wvIyv f yI f w½G ½GeYJ a&jyifBu;D vdk pdwx f rJ mS xifaeygw,f/ qmavmif rGwf odyfaeaom uEÅm&wGif c&D;oGm;Muolrsm;u wHvQyfudk a&jyifxifum vdkufMuaomfvnf; bmwpfckrS rawGU&yg/ a&uefvnf;rawGU&? a&tdkifvnf;rawGU&yJ? vdkufav a0;av qdw k mvdk jzpf&ygonf/ xdw k v H Qyu f kd a&jyif? a&uef [lí xifwmu onm\ trSwfrSm;rI jzpfygw,f/ umr ½ly t½ly bHo k ;kH yg;wGif ig;yg;tm½ku H mr*kPu f kd csr;f omawGU


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jrwfA'k \ ¨ 'kw, d a'oem

82

onm0dyv’moav;yg;

Edk;jzifh vdkufaeMuol OD;Zif;wdkYwpfawGvnf; vdkufava0; avygyJ/ csr;f omtwkom awGU&rnf/ csr;f omtppfuakd wmh r&Edik rf awGUEdik yf g/ awmxJrmS usupf m;aeMuwJh orifrsm; [m a&qmvdYk wHvQyu f akd &jyifxifum vku d af e aomfvnf; a&jyifqdkwm rawGU&? vdkufava0;avom jzpf&ygonf/ ]]wHvQyfudka&xif a½ToriftvdkufrSm;}}ovdk jzpfwwf ygonf / 'gawG [ m rS w f o m;rI o nm&J U azmuf j yef r I oabmawGygyJ/ tepöjzpfaewJh bHo k ;kH yg;rSm edpv ö x Ykd ifwm onm0dyv’mo? 'ku©jzpfaewJh bHkoHk;yg;rSm okcvdkYxifwm onm0dyv’mo? tewåjzpfaewJh bHo k ;kH yg;rSm twåvYkd xif wmonm0dyv’mo? tokbjzpfaewJh bHkoHk;yg;rSm okb vdkYxifwm onm0dyv’mo jzpfygw,f/ (aqmify'k )f tedpöudkyif? edpöxif? aeYpOfvdrfMuwm? 'ku©udkyif? okcxif? aeYpOfvdrfMuwm? tewåudkyif? twåxif? aeYpOfvdrfMuwm? tokbudkyif? okbxif? aeYpOfvdrfMuwm? (q&mawmfOD;uk@vmbd0Ho)

onm=rS w f o m;rI ? 0d y v’ m o=azmuf j yef j cif ; ? azmufjyefaomtm;jzifh rSwfxifrIudk ]]onm0dyv’mo}}[k ac:ygonf/ jrif;udk rsufrSefpdrf;wyfNyD; jrufajcmufauR; wJhtcg tpdkxifNyD; tm;&yg;& pm;ygw,f/ 'g-onm&JU rSm;,Gi;f aom azmufjyefjcif;om jzpfygw,f/ t0dZmÆ ac:wJh arm[OD;pD;aom onmu tvGv J t JG rSm;rSm;udk rSwo f m;yg w,f/ rjrw J mudk jrw J ,f/ qif;&Jwmudk csr;f omw,f/ tpd;k r&wmudk tpd;k & w,f/ rwifw h ,fwmudk wifw h ,fw,fvYkd xifwmawGu arm[OD;pD;wJh onm&JU rSwfxifrIawGygyJ/ 0dZÆmac:wJhynm OD;pD;wJh onmusawmh obm0trSef twdik ;f rSwx f ifygw,f/ rjrw J chJ E¨mudk rjrw J o hJ abm tae eJh qif;&JwJhcE¨mudk rwifhw,fwJhoabmtaeeJY rSwfxif ygw,f/ rwifw h ,fwhJ (32)aum|moudk wifw h ,fw,fvYkd rSwfxifygw,f/ OD;acgif;ay:u rwifhw,fwJh qHyifudk wifhw,fonf[k xifaeMuwmyg/ qHyifudk ppfMunhf vdu k af wmh 0PÖawm= ta&miftqif;tm;jzifv h nf; rwifh w,f/ jzL eD ndK jym pdrf; 0g aMumif Mum;rdkY rwifhw,fyg/ *E¨awm=teHUtm;jzifhvnf; ykyftuftuf nD§pdkYpdkYrdkY rwifh w,fyg/ o@meawm=yHko@mef tm;jzifhvnf; pmaygif;


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odu k v f dk oyGwt f v l kd ½Iyaf xG;ayGvv D Ykd aewmaMumifh rwifh w,fyg/ Moumoawm=wnf&mtm;jzifhvnf; rwifhw,f yg/ ta&yg;? ta&xl? tajr§;? taMum? t½kd;? OD;aESmuf? aoG; þckESpfrsdK; pkaygif;xm;wJh orl[ynwfeJU vHk;vHk; o@mef o@meynwfjzpfwhJ OD;acgif;ay:rSm wnfaejcif; aMumifhvnf; rwifhw,fyg/ rwifhw,fwJh 'D-qHyifudk wifhw,fw,fxifNyD; aeYpOf zD;vdrf; jyKjyif wefqmqifae Muwmyg/ umvmtrsKd ;rsKd ;qd;k ? yHpk t H rsKd ;rsKd ;eJY jyKjyifNy;D wefqm qifaeMuwmyg/ tJ'D rjrJ qif;&J tpdk;r& rwifhw,fwJh qHyifudk jrJw,f? csrf;omw,f? tpdk;&w,f? wifhw,fw,fvdkYrSwfxifaewm onm0dyv’moyif jzpfygw,f/ (0dyv’moudk 0dyefvmo[kzwf) (aqmify'k )f tedpöqHyif? edpöjrif? rSwfxifonm 0dyv’m?

'ku©qHyif? okcjrif? rSwfxifonm 0dyv’m? tewåqyH if? twåjrif? rSwx f ifonm 0dyv’m? tokbqHyif? okbjrif? rSwx f ifonm 0dyv’m? a½S;wke;f u rEl;reyf vlwpfa,muf½o dS wJ/h wpfaeYrmS awmbJawG a&uefxJvmNyD; a&ul;um jrL;wl;aysmfyg;vdkY aepOf xkdrEl;reyf 0rf;wGif;½l;u ]]'DbJawG b,folUbJawG vnf;}}vdkY ar;wJhtcg vlvnfwpfa,mufu ]]'gusKyfbJ

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ocFg&oHk;yg; þodkYjym;

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t½SiZf eu (armfuRe;f )

93

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102

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108

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116

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jrwfA'k \ ¨ 'kw, d a'oem

118

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jzpfygw,f/ ½IymG ;ay;vdu k af wmh udavom rjzpfyJ csr;f om oGm;ygw,f/ usefpdwfawGrSmvnf; enf;rSDum ½I&rnf jzpf ygonf/ (rZösrd yPÖot|uxm? 170) ½kyfemrfESpfyg;jzpfysufu 'ku©opöm? tqufrjywf 'vpyf jzpfysuaf ewmudk odwOhJ mPfu r*¾opöm? jzpfysuu f kd jrifawmh ½kyf emrf&JUtay:rSm wG,fwm wyfrufrI r&Sduif; oGm;ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh ork',opöm aoygw,f/ wPSm avmb aoawmh aemufb0 y#doaE¨ rae&awmhyg/ 'guawmh eda&m"opöm jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh jzpfysuf u 'ku©opöm? odwJhOmPfu r*¾opöm? aowmu ork', opöm? aemifcE¨m rvmwmu eda&m"opöm jzpfygw,f/ ½Irw S yf mG ;rsm; usiBhf uH vdu k ef mp&mawGrsm;vGe;f vdYk pdwyf suf aewJh &[ef;awmf uav;vnf; jrwfpmG bk&m; rdeaYf wmfrw l hJ wpfckwnf;aom pdwfudk pl;pdkufNyD; ½IrSwfyGm;rsm; tm;xkwf vdkufwJhtcgrSmawmh r*fqdkuf zdkvf0if edAÁmefjrifoGm; yg awmhw,f/ ("r®y't|uxm? yxr? 189) (aqmify'k )f

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rjzpfyg[k ajzygw,f/ opöu oif[ma½SU pum;eJY aemuf pum; rnDyJ jzpfaew,f owdxm;NyD; ajzyg/oif[m tp u igbk&m;udk 0g'eJw Y ifNy;D qG, J rf;ypfvu kd rf ,f qdNk y;D vmcJh wmr[kwv f m;/ OyrmeJY ajym&vQif opfom; tESpu f kd tvdk ½Sdol[m iSufaysmyifudk t&if;tzsm;jzwfNyD; tzwfudk cGmMunfhwJhtcg tESpfrqdkxm;eJY tumawmifrS rawGU&yJ jzpfygw,f/ oif&UJ twå0g'uvnf; iSuaf ysm wH;k vdk tESpf ryg Avmudk,fwnf; tcsnf;ESD;om jzpfae ayonf[k rdefY awmfrlvdkufygw,f/ (yPÖmot|uxm? 'k) wH uð rnx bdu©a0 ½lyH edpöH0g tedpöH0gwd? &[ef;wdYk ,ckigar;r,fh taMumif;t&mudk b,fvrkd w S x f if Muoenf;/ ½kyfw&m; jrJovm;/ rjrJbl;vm;vdkY bk&m;u ar;awmf rlygw,f/ tedpöHbaEÅ=½kyfw&m;rjrJygbk&m;vdkY yÍö0*¾D&[ef; rsm;u ajzygw,f/ tedprö nfykH

tedpöH c,a|e-ukefqHk;ysufpD;oGm;wJh teuf oabmaMumifh tjrrJ ½Sd tedpyö g/ ½kyf a0'em onm ocFg& 0dnmPf ac:wJh cE¨mig;yg;[m jzpfNy;D wnfraeyJ ukeaf ysmuf ysufpD;oGm;wJh teufoabmaMumifh tedpörnfygw,f/ wenf;tm;jzifh [kwmG tbm0awm tedpmö =jzpfay:vmNy;D

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aemuf r½SdawmhyJ ysufpD;oGm;jcif;? ukefaysmufoGm;jcif; aMumifv h nf;yJ tedprö nf ygw,f/ cE¨mig;yg;½kyef mrf w&m; rsm;[m jzpfNy;D wnfraeyg/ rsupf w d rSw d ?f vQyw f jyuf? vuf jypfwwGut f wGi;f rSmyJ tBurd af ygif;rsm;pGm rjzpfawmhyJ ukef aysmufysufpD;oGm;wJh twGufaMumifh tedpörnfygw,f/ 'kur© nfykH

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N tewårnfykH

t0o0ea|etewåm=tvdkodkYrvdkufjcif; rdrd oabmtwd k i f ; rjzpf j cif ; aMumif h tewå r nf y gw,f / tomrdua|e tewåm=ydkifqdkifol r½SdwJhtwGufaMumifh vnf;yJ tewårnfygw,f/ oknwa|etewåm=jyKvyk f pDrH zefwD;wwfaom teuf oabmrS uif;qdwfaomaMumifh vnf; tewårnfygw,f/ twå y#dau©ya|e=wdw¬dwdkYu rysufrpD; tjrJxm0& wnfwHhw,fvdkY pGJ,lxm;aom twåudk y,fjcif;teufoabmaMumifhvnf;yJ tewå rnfygw,f/ jrwfpGmbk&m;u yÍö0*¾D&[ef;awmfrsm;udk

jrwfA'k \ ¨ 'kw, d a'oem

144

]]cspo f m;wdYk ½kyw f &m;jro J vm;? rjrb J ;l vm;}}vdYk ar;wJt h cgrSm &[ef;awmfrsm;u ]]rjrJygbk&m;}}vdkY wnDwñGwfwnf; ajzMuygw,f/ 'Dvdkajzwmuawmh okwr,nmPfeJY ajzvnf; &ygw,f/ rcufygbl;/ ,ck OD;Zif;wdYk oifwef;om; awGvnf; ]]jrJygw,f}}vdkY b,folrS ajzr,fr[kwfbl;/ a½SUydik ;f u tawmfav; oabmaygufvmNyrD Ykd ]]rjryJ g}}vkyYd J ajzMurSmyJ/ 'guawmh Mum;zl;xm;wJh okwr,eJYajzwm jzpfygw,f/ yÍö0*¾D&[ef;awmfrsm;u OD;Zif;wdkYwawGvdk Mum;okweJYajzwm r[kwfyg/ ig;&ufywfvHk;yGm;rsm; tm; xkwx f m;vdYk jzpfay:vmwJh bm0emr,nmPfjzifh wu,f jzpfysufaewJhoabmudk xdk;xGif;odNyD; ]]tedpöm baEÅ= rjrJygbk&m;}}vdkY ajzMum;avQmufxm;jcif; jzpfygw,f/ ,H yem edpöH 'ku©H 0g wH okcH 0gwd

cspo f m;wdYk rjrw J hJ ½kyw f &m; qif;&Jovm;/ csr;f om ovm;vdkY ar;awmfrlwJhtcg ]]'ku©HbaEÅ=qif;&Jygw,f bk&m;}}vdYk ajzMuygw,f/ jzpfNy;D ysuu f m rjrw J ½hJ yk w f &m;Bu;D rdYk csrf;omw,fqdkwm rjzpfEdkifyg/ 'DygVduawmh cE¨mig;yg; ½kyfemrfw&m;awG wpfcsufuav;rS rcsrf;om? qif;&Jtpk om jzpfonf[laom t"dyÜg,fudk jyygw,f/


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,H yemedpöH 'ku©H 0dy&dPmr"r®H? uv’H Ek wH orEkyódwHk {wH rr? {aom[ro®d? {aom ar twåmwd xdk rjrJ qif;&J azmufjyef ysupf ;D aewJh ½kyw f &m;Bu;D udk ighOpöm igjzpfw,f ig&JUtwåyJvdkY ½IjrifoHk;oyfjcif;iSm oifhyg tHk;rvm;/ ]]aem a[ wH baEÅ=roifhygbk&m;}} vdkY ajzygw,f/ ]]{wH rr}} 'D½kyfw&m;BuD;[m ighOpömyJvdkY xif wmu wPSmeYJ pGJxifwm jzpfygw,f/ udk,fhypönf; r[kwf ayrJh ud, k Ohf pömtaeeJY odr;f ydu k Nf y;D om,mESpo f uf ygw,f/ Shopping xGuw f t hJ cg Design vSvaS v; awGUawmh uk, d hf [mtaeeJY pGJvrf;NyD; wPSmeJY odrf;ydkuf ygw,f/ 'DtusÐ eJaY bmif;bDu igeJq Y o kd yd v f u kd rf mS ? ESpOf ;D rSm ½Tijf rL;rdYk tqif xl;av;eJYqdk odyfprwf usrSmyJponfjzifh pGJvrf;NyD; wPSm eJYodrf;ydkufygw,f/ a[m'D qGJBudK;av;u igeJYqdk b,fvdk vdu k rf eS ;f rodb;l qdw k mawG[mvnf; uk, d yhf pön;f r[kwaf yrJh pGJvrf;NyD; wPSmeJY odrf;ydkufaeMu wmygyJ/ (uvH[rk zwf&? uefvef[zk wfyg)

vuf½dS rdrw d Ydk &½Sx d m;wJh ½kyw f &m;Bu;D u tjrrJ jywf jzpfysuaf ewmudk obm0trSet f wdik ;f bm0emr, nmPf jzifhodwJh a,m*Dyk*¾dKvf[m wkduftdrftdkBuD;xJrSm ae&wJh olvdkygyJ/ b,fawmhrsm; NydKusrvJ NydKusrvJeJY wxdwf

jrwfA'k \ ¨ 'kw, d a'oem

146

xdwf wvefYvefY jzifhae&ovdk rdrdwdkY ½kyfw&m;tay:rSm vnf; om,mwyfrufwJhpdwfawG uif;aeygw,f/ jrL;wl; aysmfyg; zD;vdrf; jyKjyif wefqmqifcsifwJh pdwfawGuif;? Holiday xGuc f siw f phJ w d af wG ukecf rf;vmum cE¨m&JUtay: wG,fwmwJhpdwfawG crf;ajcmuf vmNyD; &ufydkif; aeYydkif; em&Dydkif; rdepfydkif;twGif;rSmyJ tedpö oabmeJY udpöacsm awmhrJhvlemudk awGU&jrif&wJhtcg tdrfaxmifzuftjzpfeJY om,mrIr½Sdawmhovdk ½kyfemrfw&m;&JU tay:rSmvnf; om,mrI r½Sdawmhygbl;/ 'g-wu,f tvkyfvkyf Munhf&if cE¨m&JUtay:rSm Ni;D aiGU ½GrH ek ;f pdwyf suv f mrSmuawmh vlwikd ;f jzpfygvdrfhr,f/ w&m;xl;&wm r[kwfao;ygbl;/ yÍö0*¾D &[ef;awmfrsm;uawmh wu,ftm;xkwf t[kwf Ni;D aiGu Y m yg;pyfzsm;uwif avQmufwmr[kwyf eJ YJ &ifxEJ v S ;kH om;xJu xGufvmwJh NiD;aiGUoHjzifh ]]aem a[wH baEÅ=rjrJ qif;&J azmufjyef ysupf ;D aewJh ½kyw f &m;udk ighOpömyJ[í l rodr;f ydu k f oifhyg bk&m;}} vdkYavQmufvdkufygw,f/ {aom [ ro®d = þ½kyfw&m;onf igyJvdkYvnf; rmeeJY pGv J rf;ygw,f/ rsupf ½d yk f em;½kypf onftay:rSmrSND y;D rmefwufygw,f/ighrsupf ad umif;w,f/ ighrsupf Md unhv f u kd f &if bmrqdk oJou J u GJ ½JG w dS ,fqNkd y;D vnf; rmefwufygw,f/


t½SiZf eu (armfuRe;f )

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ighem;-uaumif;w,f/ tm;vHk;i,fi,fuvdkyJ yDyDjyifjyif Mum;ae& w,fponfjzifh em;udkpGJNyD;vnf; rmefwuf yg w,f/ ESmacgif; uvnf; teHYrsdK;pHk tukeferf;½SLvdkY&w,f/ vQmuvnf; bmpm;pm;tukeaf umif;w,f/ t&om½Sw d ,f qdkNyD; rmefwufygw,f/ ighcE¨mu usef;rmw,f/ tem uif;w,f/ bma&m*grSr½Sb d ;l qdNk y;D vnf; rmefwufygw,f/ raemuvnf; twdwu f taMumif;t&mawG tukerf w S rf d w,f/ rSwn f mPfaumif;w,f/ pOf;pm;nmPfaumif;w,f ponfjzifh rmefwufygw,f/ odaYk omf ½kyef mrfw&Ykd UJ oabm twdkif; jzpfysufrdkY MumMumwnf raeyg/ ighrsufpdaumif; w,f/ Munfw,feaYJ jymaewke;f [ku d ysuaf eNy/D tjzpf½&dS if tysufqdkwm aemufuuyfvdkuf aewmyg/ tjrJwrf; jzpf aeonf r[kwfyg/ 0dyóemnmPf &ifhoefvmwJh a,m*D yk*¾dKvfrSmawmh igh-rsufpdaumif;w,f? em;aumif;w,f ponfjzihf ajymaewkef;yJ ysufpD;oGm;wJh oabmudk jrifjrif ae&vdYk rsupf ?d em;ponf tay:rSm rmewufp&m r½Sd awmh yg/ 'gaMumifh ½kyf[m igjzpfw,fvdkY pGJvrf;&ef oifhygrvm; qdw k hJ tar;udk yÍö0*¾&D [ef;awmfrsm;u ]]roifyh gbk&m;}}vdYk bm0emr,nmPfjzifh avQmufMuygw,f/

jrwfA'k \ ¨ 'kw, d a'oem

148

{aom ar twåm = 'D½kyfw&m;udk igh&JUtwåyJvdkY pGv J rf;wmu 'd|pd jJG zpfygw,f/ rsupf ½d yk ?f em;½kyf ponfw[ Ykd m rdrdoEÅmeftjrJwnfaew,f/ tvdktwdkif;jzpfw,f ponf jzifh pGJvrf;ygw,f/ odkYaomf tqif;½kyf toH½kyf ponf wdkY[m cPrpJ jzpfysufaeMuwmyg/ tjrJwnf aew,f qdw k m r½Syd g/ tvdt k wdik ;f vnf;rjzpfyg/ rdrd tvdk twkid ;f om jzpfr,fqdk&if ig\ rsufpdonf tjrJwrf; Munf vif aeygap/ rrIefygapeJYvdkY awmifhwvdkY&ç&rSmyg/ awmifhw r&vdkY t½Sifbk&m;pmvHk;awGu ao;w,f/ rjrif&bl;/ yGdKifh BuD;MuD;½kdufay;ygponfjzifh ajymae &wmyg/ awmifhw r&vkyYd J Power rsurf eS af wGwyfay;Ny;D tultnD awmif;ae &wmyg/ cE¨mudk,fBuD;uvnf; rdrdtvdkrvdkufvdkY wjznf; jznf; ttdpk m&if;oGi;f um acgif;ay:u qHyifawG rMumcP aq;qd;k ay;ae&wm r[kwv f m;/rsuEf mS aygif;wifay;& eJY trsdK;rsdK; jyKjyifay;ae&wmyg/ ½kyfw&m;udk twåaumif igaumiftaeeJY pGv J rf;zdrYk ½Syd g/ 'gaMumifh ]]aem a[wH baEÅ = rjrJ qif;&J azmufjyefaewJh ½kyw f &m;Bu;D udk ig\twå[í l 'd|jd zifh pGv J rf;&ef roifyh gbk&m;}}vdYk yÍö0*¾D &[ef;awmfrsm;u avQmufxm;Muygw,f/


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]]a0'em edpmö 0g tedpmö 0gwd=cHpm;rIa0'em edpv ö m; tedpv ö m;}} vdYk jrwfpmG bk&m;u ar;vdu k yf gw,f/ a0'emu okc 'ku© Oayu©moHk;rsdK; ½Sdygw,f/ b,fa0'emrS tjrJ xm0& wnfaew,f&,fvdkY r½Sdyg/ jzpfNyD;ysuf ay:NyD; aysmufwmrdYk ]]tedpmö baEÅ = rjryJ gbk&m;}} vdaYk vQmufxm; ygw,f/ ]],H yemepöH 'ku©H 0gwH okcH0gwd = rjrJwJh a0'em csrf;omovm; qif;&Jovm;}}vdkY jrwfpGmbk&m;u ar;wJh tcgrSmawmh ]]'ku©H baEÅ = qif;&Jygw,fbk&m;}}vdkY ajzyg w,f/ ]],H yemedpöH 'ku©H 0dy&dPmr"r®H uv’H EkwH orEkyódwHk {wH rr? {aom [ro®d? {aom ar twåmwd= rjrJ qif;&J azmufjyef ysufpD; aewJh a0'emudk ighOpöm ig jzpfw,f ig&JUtwåy}J } vdYk ½Ijrifjcif;iSm oifjh rwfygtH;k rvm; vdYk ar;awmfrw l hJ tcgrSmawmh ]]aema[wH baEÅ= a0'emudk igha0'emyJ? a0'em igjzpfw,f/ a0'em ig&JU twåyJvdkY r½Ijrifoifhygbk&m;}} vdkY avQmufxm;ygw,f/ onmrjryJ pkH onfudk jyqkcd suf

]]onmedpmö 0g tedpmö 0gwd = rSwo f m;rIonm jro J vm; rjrJbl;vm;}}wJh/ onm-u tm½kHajcmufyg;udk rSDNyD; jzpfwmrdkY (6)rsdK;½Sdygw,f/ tqif;rsdK;pHk ½lyg½kHudk rSwfrdwJh onm? toHrsKd ;pHk o'´g½k?H teHrsKd ;pH*k E¨m½k?H t&omrsKd ;pH&k om½k?H

jrwfA'k \ ¨ 'kw, d a'oem

150

tawGUtxdrsdK;pHk azm|AÁm½kH? MuHodwJh"r®m½kH[lí trsdK;rsdK; tpm;tpm;½Sd&m tqif;udkrSwfom;wJh onmvnf; tjrJ wnfraeyg/ ysufoGm;NyD; aemufonmu qufrSwfom; aeygw,f/ jzpfNy;D ysuaf evdYk ]]tedpmö baEÅ = rjryJ gbk&m;}}vdYk avQmufygw,f/ ]],H yemedpHö 'ku0H© gwH okc0H gwd = xkrd jrw J hJ onm qif;&Jovm; csr;f omovm;}}ar;awmh ]]'kuH© baEÅ =qif;&Jygw,fbk&m;}}vdkY ajzygw,f/ ]],HyemedpöH 'ku©H 0dy&dPmr "r®H uv’HEk wH orEkyódwk {wHrr? {aom[ ro®?d {aom ar twåmwd= xdrk jrJ qif;&J azmufjyef ysupf ;D aewJh onmudk ighOpöm igjzpfw,f ig&JUtwåyJ [lí pGv J rf; jcif;iSm oifhjrwfygtHk;rvm;}}vdkY jrwfpGmbk&m;u ar;awmh yÍö0*¾&D [ef;awmfrsm;u ]]aem a[wH baEÅ= roifh jrwfyg bk&m;}}vdkY jyefMum;avQmufxm;ygw,f/ ocFg&rjryJ pkH onfukd jyqkcd suf

]]ocFg&m edpmö 0g tedpmö 0gwd = aphaqmftm;xkwrf I ocFg&w&m;rsm; jro J vm; rjrb J ;l vm;}}vdYk ar;awmfryl gw,f/ ukd,ftrlt,mjzpfatmif EIwftrlt,mjzpfatmif pdwf trlt,mjzpfatmif apwemOD;aqmifwhJ ocFg&w&m;awG u aphaqmfwdkufwGef;ay;aewmyg/ 'Dvkdvkyfvdkuf? 'Dpum; ajymvdu k ?f 'DvMkd uv H u kd ef YJ wku d w f eG ;f ay;aevdYk jyKvyk f ajymqdk


t½SiZf eu (armfuRe;f )

151

MuHpnfrI jzpf&wmyg/ xdkocFg&w&m;rsm;jzpfNyD; ysufoGm; wmrdkY ]]tedpöm baEÅ = rjrJygbk&m;}}vdkY avQmuf ygw,f/ ]],H yemedpöH 'ku©H 0g wH okcH 0gwd= xdkrjrJwJh ocFg&w&m; qif;&Jovm; csrf;omovm;}}vdkY jrwfpGm bk&m;u ar;wJh tcgrSm ]]'kuH© baEÅ=qif;&Jygw,fb&k m;}} vdUk ajzMuyg w,f/ ]],H yemedpöH 'ku©H 0dy&dPmr "r®H? uv’HEkwH orEkyódwHk {wH rr? {aom[ ro®d? {aom ar twåm wd=xdkrjrJ qif;&J azmufjyef ysupf ;D aewJh ocFg&w&m;udk ighOpöm? igjzpf w,f? ig&JUtwåy[ J í l pGv J rf;jcif;iSm oifjh rwf ygtH;k rvm;}} vdkY ar;awmfrlwJhtcgrSm &[ef;awmfrsm;u ]]aem a[wH baEÅ=roifhjrwfygbk&m;}}vdkY ajzMum; avQmufxm;Mu ygw,f/ 0dnmPfrjryJ pkH onfukd jyqdck suf

]]0dnmPH edp0Hö g tedp0Hö gwd = pdw0f n d mPf jro J vm; rjrb J ;l vm;}}vdYk jrwfpmG bk&m;u ar;ygw,f/ pdwu f kd 0dnmPf vdYk oH;k ygw,f/ wcsKd Uae&mawGrmS ]re}vdYk oH;k wm½Syd gw,f/ avmb a'gopwJw h &m;qd;k awGuv kd nf; jrefrm-u avmb pdwf a'gopdwfponfjzifh pdwfvdkYyJ oHk;avh½Sdygw,f/ tJ'D pdwu f kd tjrx J m0& wnfaew,fvx Ykd ifygw,f/ Television Munfh&if; xrif;pm;&mrSm rsufpduvnf; t½kyfMunfh? em;

jrwfA'k \ ¨ 'kw, d a'oem

152

uvnf; toHudk em;axmif? ESmacgif; uvnf; teHYudk erf;½SL? yg;pyfuvnf;pm;? cE¨mudk,fuvnf; xdkifcHkeJYxd? pdwu f vnf; [kad wG; 'DawG;qkad wmh jrifpw d f Mum;pdwf eHpw d f pm;pdwf xdopd w d f awG;awmMupH nfpw d q f Nkd y;D ajcmufcjk zpfvYkd aeygw,f/ 'Dpw d (f 6)yg; wNyKd ief uf jzpfovm;qdak wmh rjzpf Edkifyg/wpfckNyD;rS wpfckjzpf&ygw,f/ jrifpdwfwpfckwnf; rSmudyk J tjrrJ jywf qufum qufum jzpfaew,fvYkd xif& ayrJh qufwu kd rf jzpfyg/ a½SUpdwjf zpfNy;D ysuo f mG ; aemufpw d f topfjzpfvm? xd-k aemuf pdwv f nf; MumMumrwnf ysuv f Ykd oGm;ygw,f/ jzpfysufrdkY ]]tedpöH baEÅ=rjrJygbk&m;}}vdkY ajz ygw,f/ ]],H yemedpöH 'ku©H 0g wH okcH0gwd=xdkrjrJwJh pdwf onf qif;&Jovm; csrf;omovm;}}vdkY ar;ygw,f/ 'gudk awmh ]]'ku©H baEÅ=qif;&Jygw,fbk&m;}}vdkY ajzygw,f/ ]],HyemedpöH 'ku©H 0dy&dPmr"r®H? uv’H Ek wH orEkyódwHk {wH rr? {aom[ ro®d? {aom ar twåm wd=xkdrjrJ qif;&J azmufjyef ysufpD;aewJhpdwfudk ighOpöm? igjzpfw,f? igh&UJ twåyv J Ykd pGv J rf;jcif;iSm oifjh rwfygtH;k rvm;}}vdYk bk&m; uar;awmh ]]aema[wH baEÅ=roifjh rwfygbk&m;}}vdYk yÍö0*¾D &[ef;awmfrsm;u ajzMuygw,f/ 'guawmh cE¨mig;yg; pDppf yHkjzpfygw,f/


153

t½SiZf eu (armfuRe;f ) ouúm,'d|ad c:yHk

ouúm,+'d|d? cE¨mig;yg;[m y&rw¦tm;jzifh txift½Sm; wu,ftppftrSef½SdvdkY ]]ouúm,}}ac: ygw,f/ xif½Sm; ½SdwJh cE¨mig;yg; tppftrSefudk rppfrrSef vGJvGJrSm;rSm; ig olwpfyg; a,musfm; rdef;r yk*¾dKvf owå0g [lí ½Ijrif oHk;oyfjcif;udk ]]'d|d}} ac:ygw,f/ 'Dawmh ]]ouúm,}}qdkwm tppftrSef½Sdwm? ]]'d|d}}qdkwmu rppf rrS e f ½ I j rif w m? tppf t rS e f vG J v G J r S m ;rS m ;½I j rif j cif ; ud k ]]ouúm,'d|d}}ac:ygw,f/ cE¨mig;yg;xJu ½lyu©E¨mudk --(u) {wH rr= þ½kyo f nf ig\Opömwnf;/

jrwfA'k \ ¨ 'kw, d a'oem

pGJvrf;oHk;oyfovdk usefwJh a0'em onm ocFg& 0dnmPf w&m;rsm;rSmvnf; xdkenf;wl oHk;oyfajymqdkygw,f/ cE¨m ig;yg;udk tusOf;csKyfvdkufawmh ½kyf emrf ESpfyg;jzpfygw,f/ ½kyfemrfawGuvnf; jzpfNyD; ysufaewmyg/ tjrJwnfae w,f&,fvdkYr½Sdyg/ ]]ighOpöm}}vdkY wPSmeJY pGJvrf;aewkef; oluysufoGm; ygNyD/ ]]igyJuG}}vdkY rmeeJY pGJvrf;aewkef; olur½Sdawmhygbl;/ ]]ig\ukd,fydkiftwå}}vdkY 'd|deJYpGJvrf; aewkef; oluaysmufoGm;ygNyD/ tb,fodkYvQif pGJvrf;zdkY aumif;EdkifawmhrSmvJ/ rpGJvrf;oifhawmh onfomwnf;/

(wPSmjzifph v J G rf;jcif;)

(c) {aom[ ro®=d þ½kyo f nf igyifjzpfonf/ (rmejzifh pJv G rf;jcif;)

(*) {aom ar twåm= þ½kyfonf ig\twåjzpfonf/ ('d|djzifhpGJvrf;jcif;)

wPSm rme 'd|o d ;kH rsKd ;jzifh aeYpOf½jI rifo;kH oyfajymqdk aeMuwmyg/ 'Dw&m;oH;k yg;udak wmh ]]yyÍö}}oHo&mudk csUJ xGif wwfww hJ &m;vdYk ac:ygw,f/ ½kyw f &m;tay:rSm 'Do;kH yg;eJY

154

VVVVV


t½SiZf eu (armfuRe;f )

155

R ouúm,'d|dESpfq,f

½lyH twåawm orEkyówd? ½ly0EÅH0g twåmeH orEkyówd? twåe0d g ½lyH orEkyówd? ½lyo®0ð g twåmeH orEkyówd? (cE¨0*¾oH,kwf? AE¨eokwf) (1) ½kyfudktwå[lí½Ijcif;/ (2) ½ky½f adS omtwå[í l ½Ijcif;/ (3) twåü½ky[ f í l ½Ijcif;/ (4) ½kyüf twå[í l ½Ijcif;/ ½lyu©Em¨ ü ½Iy½kH eI nf;av;rsKd ;jym;ygw,f/ tJ'aD v;rsKd ;udk pDppf Munhfvdkufawmh --(1) ½kyu f t kd wå[í l ½Ijcif; = ½kyEf iS t hf wå ruGrJ jym; wom;wnf;[k,lqjcif; jzpfygw,f/

jrwfA'k \ ¨ 'kw, d a'oem

156

(2) ½ky½f adS omtwå[í l ½Ijcif;=½kyEf iS t hf wå cJjJG cm;í ,lqjcif; jzpfygw,f/ (3) twåü½kyf[lí½Ijcif;=twåudk trSDcHtjzpf ,lqjcif; jzpfygw,f/ (4) ½kyüf twå[í l ½Ijcif;=½kyu f t kd rScD t H jzpf ,lq jcif;jzpfygw,f/ þuJhodkY ½lyu©E¨mwpfyg;tay:rSm av;rsdK;uGJjym; ovdk a0'emu©Em¨ ? onmu©Em¨ ? ocFg&u©Em¨ ? 0dnmPu©Em¨ wdkYtay:rSmvnf;av;rsdK;pD uGJjym;ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh (5 »4=20) ouúm,'d|d ESpq f ,fjzpfvm ygw,f/ þum; ouúm,'d|d ESpq f ,fjzpfykH tusO;f wnf;/ ed,wrdpmä 'd|o d ;kH yg;

ed,wrdpmä 'd|o d ;kH yg;rSm-ew¬u d 'd|?d ta[wku'd|?d tud&d,'d|dwdkY jzpfygonf/ ed,w=pGJpGJjrJjrJ? rdpäm'd|d=rSm;,Gif;aomt,l? (1) ew¬du'd|d=qdkonfrSm owå0gwdkYtm; aumif; usdK; raumif;usdK;udkay;wwfaom ukodkvfuH tukodkvf uH[o l nfr½S?d aumif;wmvkyv f nf; aumif;usKd ;r&? raumif; wmvkyfvnf; raumif;usdK;rcHpm;&[k ,ljcif;jzpfygonf/


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(2) ta[wku'd|d=owå0gwdkYrSm a½S;taMumif; [lí r½Sd? taMumif;rJhjzpfvm&onf[k ,ljcif;jzpfonf/ (3) tud&d,'d|d= 'ge oDv bm0emukokdvf aumif;rI jyKvyk af omfvnf; aumif;rIrjzpf? olUtoufowf? olUom;r,m; jypfrSm;vnf; raumif;usdK;rjzpf[lí ,ljcif; jzpfonf/ uHEiS hf uH\tudsK;udk vH;k vH;k y,faom 'd|Bd u;D oH;k yg; jzpfygonf/ xdk'd|d oHk;rsdK; pGJpGJjrJjrJ ,lxm; aomyk*¾dKvf[m wrvGefavmu aemuf b00,f i&JodkYom usa&muf&yg onf/ þ'd|dudk rpGefYorQ umvywfvHk; i&Jüom b0 tqufqufjzpf&Ny;D urÇmysuo f mG ;onftxd i&JrS rvGwf Edik yf g/ uHEiS hf uH\tusKd ; vufc, H MkH unfaom yk*Kdv ¾ rf sm;um; þ'd|o d ;k H yg;rS vGwyf gonf/ (y#dpo ö rkygÜ ''DyeD) rdpmä 'd|ad jcmufq,fEh pS yf g;

(62)yg;aom rdpmä 'd|t d ,lwo Ykd nfvnf; vlomref wdUk üjzpfaom 'd|rd sKd ;r[kwyf g/ ty,fy#doaE¨ udv k nf; rjzpf apEkdifyg/ xkdt,ludk rpGefYorQ oHo&m0#fxJrS rvGwfEdkif ½kHom ½Sdygonf/ oów'd|d(44)yg;ESifh Oapä' 'd|d(18)yg; aygif; rdpäm'd|d ajcmufq,fEh pS yf g; jzpfygonf/ (oDvu©E0¨ *¾? jA[®pmvokw)f

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ouúm,'d|Ed pS q f ,f a&wGuyf t kH us,f

y&rw¬tm;jzifh xif½Sm;½Sdaom cE¨mig;yg;taygif; onf ]]oaEÅm uma,m ouúma,m}}[lonfESifhtnD ouúm,rnf\/ xdo k uúm,rnfaom cE¨mig;yg; taygif;ü jzpfaom t,lrSm;rIonf ]]ouúm,'d|d}} rnfygonf/ ½lyu©Em¨ ü ouúm,'d|ad v;rsKd ;

(1) ½lyH twåawm orEkyówd = ½kyfudktwå[l í½Ijcif; (0g) ½kyEf iS t hf wå ruGrJ jym; wom;wnf;[k,q l jcif; jzpfygw,f/ ]],H ½lyH? aom t[H? a,m t[H? wH ½lyH= tMuif½kyfonf xdkigwnf;? tMuifigonf xdk½kyfwnf;}}[k ½kyEf iS t hf wåukd ESprf sKd ;rjym; wpfyg;wnf;om ½Ijrifjcif; jzpfyg onf/ Oyrm-za,mif;wdkifrD;udkMunfhí qDrD;vQHonfyif qDr;D a&mifjzpfonf/ qDr;D a&mifonfyif qDr;D vQjH zpfonf[k qDrD;a&mifESihf qDrD;vQHudk ESpfrsdK;ruGJ wpfrsdK;xJ ½IovdkrSwf &ygrnf/ (2) ½ly0EÅH 0g twåmeH orEkyówd=½kyf½Sdaom twå[lí½Ijcif; (0g) ½kyfESifhtwå cJGJjcm;í ,lqjcif; jzpfyg w,f/ pdwf apwoduf emrfw&m;udk twå[k pGJ,lxm;NyD; opfyifrmS t&dy½f o dS vdk xdt k wåuv kd nf; ½ky½f o dS nf[k ,lq jcif;jzpfygonf/


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(3) twåed 0g ½lyH orEkyówd = twåü ½kyf½Sd\ [lí½Ijcif;(0g)twåudk trSDcHtjzpf ,lqjcif; jzpfygw,f/ pdwf apwoduf emrfw&m;udyk if twå[í l ,lqNy;D ]]yef;ü &eHYwnf½SdouJhodkY}} twåü ½kyfwnf½Sdonf/ rSDaeonf [k ,lqum twåü ½kyfudktzefzef txyfxyf ½Ijrifjcif; jzpf ygonf/ (4) ½lyo®ð 0g twåmeH orEkyówd= ½kyfü twå ½S\ d [lí ½Ijcif;(0g)½kyu f t kd rScD t H jzpf ,lqjcif; jzpfygw,f/ ywåjrm; MuKwfü ywåjrm;wnf½SdouJhodkY emrfw&m;udkyif twå[k pGJ,lNyD; ½kyfü twåudk tzefzef txyfxyf½Ijcif;? ½kyfütwåwnf½Sdonf/ ½kyfütwårSDaeonf[k ,lqjcif; jzpfygonf/ {wHrr=½kyfonf ig\Opömjzpf\/ ½kyfESifhtwåudk wuGJwjym; wjcm;pDxm;í rSwfxifjcif; jzpfonf/ {aom [ ro®d= ½kyfonf igjzpf\/ ½kyfESifhtwåudk ESpfrsdK;rcGJ wwGJ wnf;rSwfxifjcif;onf/ {aom ar twåm= ½kyfonfig\ twåwnf;/ ½kyfESifhtwå wjcm;pDcGJ rSwfxifjcif; jzpfonf/ a0'emu©Em¨ ü ouúm,'d|ad v;rsKd ;

(1) a0'eH twåawm orEkyówd= a0'emudk twå [lí½I\/

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(2) a0'em0EÅH0g twåmeH orEkyówd = a0'em½Sdaom twå[í l ½I\/ (3) twåed 0g a0'eH orEkyówd = twåü a0'em½S\ d [l í½I\/ (4) a0'em,0g twåmeH orEkyówd=a0'emü twå ½S\ d [lí½I\/ eHygwf (1)tvdk a0'emudk twå[í l rSwx f ifjcif; onf a0'emonfyiftwå? twåonfyif a0'em[k a0'em ESihf twåuEkd pS rf sKd ;rcGJ wpfrsKd ;wnf;om jzpfonf[k rSwx f if jcif; jzpfonf/ eHygwf (2? 3? 4)wdkYum; ½kyf onm ocFg& 0dnmPf wdu Yk kd twå[í l pG, J Nl y;D a0'emwjcm; twåwjcm; jzpfonf[k rSwfxifjcif;jzpfonf/ (1) igMunfah umif;w,f/ igpm;aumif;w,f [k rSwx f ifjcif; um; okca0'emürSwfxifyHkwnf;/ (2) igMunhfraumif; igpm;raumif;[k rSwfxifjcif;um; 'ku© a0'emürSwfxifyHkwnf;/ (3)igpm;aumif;wmvnf;r[kwf pm;raumif;wmvnf; r[kwf[k rSwfxifjcif;um; Oayu©ma0'emü rSwfxif yHk wnf;/a0'em igjzpfonf[k rSwx f ifjcif;onfum; a0'em


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ESifh twåudk wpfckwnf; rSwfxifjcif;wnf;/ a0'emonf ig\Opömjzpfonf/ cHpm;rIonf ig\cHpm;rI jzpfonf/ ig\ cH p m;rI o nf aumif ; \/ ig\cH p m;rI o nf raumif ; / ig\cHpm;rIonf taeawmfjzpf\[k rSwfxifjcif;um; a0'emESifhtwåudk wjcm;pD cGJxm;jcif; jzpfonf/ onmu©E¨mü ouúm,'d|dav;rsdK;

(1)onH twåawm orEkyówd = onmudk twå[k ½I\/ (2) onm0EÅ0H g twåmeH orEkyówd = onm½Sad om twå[k½I\/ (3) twåed 0g onH orEkyówd = twåüonm½Sd\ [k ½I\/ (4) onm,0g twåmeH orEkyówd = onmütwå ½Sd\ [k½I\/ onmudk twå[lí½Ijcif;um; onmESifhtwåudk wpfcw k nf;,lí onmonfyiftwå? twåonfyif onm [k rSwfxifjcif;wnf;/ (2? 3? 4)wdkYum; ½kyf a0'em ocFg& 0dnmPfwu Ykd kd twå[pk , JG í l onmuwjcm; twåu wjcm; [k rSwfxifjcif; jzpfonf/ (1) onmigjzpf w ,f igrS w f o m;wwf w ,f /

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igrSwfrdw,f igrSwfnmPfaumif;w,f ponfxifrSwfyHk wnf;/ onmonf ig\Opömjzpf\/ onmwjcm; twå wjcm;xifrw S yf w kH nf;/ ]]'DvUl udk igodw,f/ igrSwrf d w,f/ 'DtaMumif;t&mudk igaumif;aumif;rSwfrdwmaygh}}[k pdwfjzpfjcif;onf ½lyonmü jzpfaom 'd|djzpfygonf/ ]]'DtoHuq&mawmfO;D 0dpw d t å oHy?J igaumif;aumif;rSwrf d wmaygh}}[k jzpfjcif;um; o'´onmü jzpfaom'd|dwnf;/ ocFg&u©Em¨ ü ouúm,'d|ad v;rsKd ;

(1) ocFga& twåawm orEkyówd=ocFg&wdkYudk twå[k ½I\/ (2) ocFg&0EÅH 0g twåmeH orEkyówd=ocFg&½Sdaom twå[k½I\/ (3) twåed 0g ocFga& orEkyówd=twåü ocFg& ½Sd\[k ½I\/ (4) ocFga&ok 0g twåmeH orEkyówd=ocFg&wdkYü twå½\ dS [k½\ I / trSwf(1)ü ocFg&ESifh twåudk wpfckwnf;jyKí ocFg&wdo Yk nfyiftwå? twåonfyif ocFg&wd[ Yk í l ocFg& ESihf twåukd ESprf sKd ;rcGyJ J wpfrsKd ;wnf;om[k pG, J \ l / trSwf


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(2? 3? 4) wdkYüum; ocFg&wdkYESifh twåudk wjcm;pD,lí trSw(f 1)um; ocFg&udyk if twå[k rSwx f ifygonf/trSwf (2? 3? 4)wdkYum; ½kyf a0'em onm 0dnmPfwdkYudk twå[k pGJ,lí twåuwjcm; ocFg&uwjcm; pGJ,lrSwfxif jcif; jzpfonf/ ocFg&w&m;wdkYudk igjzpf\[k pGJ,l&mü ocFg&ESifh twåudk wpfrsdK;wnf;xm;í pGJ,ljcif;jzpfonf/ ocFg&wdkY onf ig\ Opömjzpfukef\[k pGJ,l&mü ocFg&ESifhtwåudk wjcm;pDxm;í pGJ,ljcif;jzpfonf/ iguHaumif;w,f/ igapwemaumif;w,f/ igh apwemu olrsm;apwemeJY rwlbl;[k qdk&mü apwemü jzpfaom 'd|djzpfygonf/ &wemoHk;wef uH uH\tusdK;udk ig r,HkMunf? igoHo,jzpfonf[k pGJ,l&mü 0dpdudpämü jzpfaom ouúm,'d|w d nf;/ &wemoH;k yg; uH uH\ tusKd ; udk ig,HkMunfonf/ igMunfndKonf[k qdk&mü o'¨gü pG, J al om ouúm,'d|jd zpfygonf? apwemonf igjzpfonf? apwem½Sdaomig? igü½Sdaomapwem? apwemwdkYü wnf aomig[k toD;oD; pGJ,ljcif; jzpfonf/ ocFg&u©E¨m (50) wdkYü xdkenf;wlyif pGJ,l rSwfxifygonf/

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0dnmPu©E¨mü ouúm,'d|dav;rsdK;

(1) 0dnmPH twåawm orEkyówd= 0dnmPfudk twå[k ½I\/ (2) 0dnmP0EÅH 0g twåmeH orEkyówd = 0dnmPf ½Sdaom twå[k½I\/ (3) twåed 0g 0dnmPH orEkyówd = twåü0dnmPf ½Sd\ [k½I\/ (4) 0dnmPo®ð 0g twåmeH orEkyówd = 0dnmPfü twå½\ dS [k½\ I / trSwf(1)um; 0dnmPfESifhtwåudk wpfckwnf;jyKí 0dnmPfonfyiftwå? twåonfyif 0dnmPf[k pGJ,l\/ trSwf (2? 3? 4)wdkYum; 0dnmPfESifh twåudk wjcm;pDjyKí pGJ,lrSwfxif jcif;jzpfygonf/ (edAÁme*grdeD y#dy'g) þuJo h Ykd cE¨mig;yg;wGif wpfyg;vQif av;rsKd ;pDjym;aom aMumifh (4 »5=20) ouúm,'d|d ESpfq,f jzpfygonf/ t&d,myk*Kd¾ vfEiS hf ouúm,'d|d

cE¨mig;yg;wpfyg;yg;tay:üjzpfap? ig;yg;vH;k tay: üjzpfap jcHKí ig-[lívnf;aumif;? ig-oGm;onf? ig-vm onf? ig-pm;onf? ig-tdyfonfponfjzifhvnf;aumif;?


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pGJvrf; ajymqdk jcif;onf ]]ouúm,'d|d}} jzpfygonf/ ig olwpfyg; a,musmf ; rde;f r yk*Kd¾ vo f wå0gtrSew f u,f½\ dS [k rSwfxif jcif;½SdMuukefaom ykxkZefwdkYonf ig-[laom pum;? ol-[laompum;? a,musfm; rdef;r yk*¾dKvf owå0g [laom pum;udk wpfavmuvH;k tke;f tke;f <uuf<uuf ajym qdk aeMuygw,f/ ajymwdik ;f ajymwdik ;f vnf; a,musmf ; rde;f r yk*¾dKvf owå0g½Sdw,f/ ig-½Sdw,f ol-½Sdw,fvdkY pdwfxJrSm rSwfxifaeMuwmyg/ ouúm,'d|dt<uif;rJY y,fNyD;aom bk&m; &[EÅmpaom t&d,molawmfaumif;Bu;D rsm;vnf; ighoydwf? ighouFef;? ighausmif;ponfjzifh orkwdopöm a0g [m&taejzifh avmuvlom;rsm; rSnahf c:owfrw S f orkwf xm;tyfaom toH;k tEIe;f odv Yk u dk í f ykxZk Ofrsm;ajym ouJh odkY ig-[lí ac:a0:oHk;EIef; ajymqdkMuaomfvnf; pdwfxJ wGirf l ig olwpfyg; a,musmf ; rde;f r yk*Kd¾ vf owå0g wu,f t[kw½f o dS nf[k rSwx f ifawmfrrlMuyg/ xdaYk Mumifh t&d,m olawmfaumif;BuD;rsm; ac:a0:oHk;EIef;aom ]]ighouFef; ighoydwf ighausmif;}}[laom toH;k tEIe;f onf orkwo d pöm a0g[m&rQomjzpfNyD; ]]ouúm,'d|d}} rjzpf[k rSwf&ygrnf/

UUUUU

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X tpJo G ;kH yg;uif;atmif ½kyu f ½kd yI kH

wo®m wd[ bdua© 0 ,HuÍd dö ½lyH twDwm em*w ypöKyÜEéH tZöswåH0g A[d'¨g0g MoVm&duH0g okckrH0g [DeH0g yPDwH0g ,H 'la& oEÅdau0g? oAÁH ½lyH ]]aewH rr? aeaom[ro®d? e ar aom twåm}} wd {0 arwH ,xmblwH or®yÜnm, '|AÁH?


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&[ef;wdkY ,ckjycJhonfhtwdkif; igh[myJ? igyJ? ightwåyJ[k ½IjrifxifrSwf&ef roifhaomaMumifh twdwf jzpfap? tem*wfjzpfap? ypöKyeÜ jf zpfap? ud, k w f iG ;f ujzpfap? ukd,fy ujzpfap? tMurf;jzpfap? tEkjzpfap? t,kwftnHh jzpfap? taumif;tjrwfjzpfap? ta0;jzpfap? teD;jzpfap ½kyf[lorQ udk ]]igh[mr[kwf igr[kwf ightwår[kwf}}[k udk,fydkifOmPfjzifh trSeftwdkif; odjrifatmif ½IrSwf tm;xkwf&rnf/ r[mpnfq&mawmfBuD;\ tmabmfudk tajccHí ½kyfw&m;½IyHkudk 'DaeYajymoGm;rSm jzpfygw,f/ twdwf tem*wf ypö K yÜ e f p onf j zif h (11)rsd K ; jyxm;ygw,f / umvoH;k yg;jzifh a0zefxm;jcif; jzpfygw,f/ twdwq f w kd m vGefcJhaom b0rsm;ujzpfap? ,ckb0rSmvnf; a½S;a½S; umvrsm;ujzpfap jzpfcJhNyD; csKyfcJhNyD;aomw&m;rsm;udk twdw½f yk [ f k ½Irw S &f ygrnf/ ,ckrjzpfao;yJ aemufumv aemufb0rsm;rSjzpfrnhf ½kyfw&m;rsm;udk tem*wfac: ygw,f/ ypöKyeÜ q f w kd muawmh ,ckavmavmq,f jzpfaeqJ ½kyw f &m;rsm;jzpfygw,f/ jzpfpOftaeeJY ajym&&ifawmh jzpfNy;D jzpfqJ jzpfvwåHU twdwf tem*wf ypöKyÜefjzpfygw,f/ umvoHk;yg;jzifhcJGvdkuf&if rdrdoEÅmef olwpfyg;oEÅmefrSm

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jzpfaewJw h &m;tm;vH;k ,l&ygrnf/ odaYk omf 0dyóem½I&mrSm rdro d EÅmefuw&m;om y"mejzpfNy;D jyifyw&m;rsm; ½kyrf sm;udk tEkrmetm;jzifh rSef;qNyD; qifjcif&rSm jzpfygw,f/ rdrdoEÅmefuw&m;qdk&mrSmvnf; tem*wfw&m; awG[m ,ckr½Sad o;onft h wGuf rSe;f q½Iz&Ykd m trSet f wdik ;f rjzpfEdkifyg/ twdwfw&m;rsm;rSmvnf; a½S;b0u w&m; awGudkawmh rSef;qNyD;½IvdkY rodEdkifyg/ ,ckb0rSmawmif vGefcJhaom ESpf v &uf em&Dydkif;twGif;avmufu w&m; awGawmif y&rw¬oabmw&m;taeeJY jzpfNy;D ysuo f mG ;wmrdYk trSeftwdkif; odzdkY cufcJvSygonf/ ]]*päaEÅm 0g *pämrDwd yZmemwd? edodaEém 0g edodaEémrSDwd yZmemwd}} ponfjzifh r[mowdy|meokwfrSm a[mawmfrlxm;onfhtwdkif; oGm;aeqJ &yfaeqJ xdik af eqJ avsmif;aeqJ tcdu k t f wefY ypöKyeÜ u f mvudo k m 0dyóem½I &rnf[k ñTejf yxm;onfukd axmufíaomfvnf;aumif;? ]]ypöK yÜEÍé ö ,H"r®?H ww¬ ww¬ 0dyówd}} jzpfqJypöKyÜefumvü ½kyf emrfw&m;rsm;udk 0dyóem½I&rnf[k a[mawmfral omaMumifh vnf;aumif;? rdrdoEÅmefü ypöKyÜefjzpfqJ ½kyfemrfw&m;rsm;udkom pwifí 0dyóem ½I&rnfjzpfygonf/ oGm;qJtcdu k t f wefu Y kd ½I&mrSmawmh b,fwpfvrS ;f


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nmwpfvrS ;f vSr;f Ny;D oGm;&m0,f b,fajcvSr;f tcdu k t f wefY rSmyif jzpfNy;D ysuo f mG ;ygNy/D wpfvrS ;f twGi;f rSmvnf; tpdwf pdwaf jcmufyg;½dyS gw,f/ <ujcif; ajrm§ ufjcif; vSr;f jcif; csjcif; xdjcif; zdjcif;[lí jzpfygw,f/ <uqJtcdkuftwefYrSm jzpfaewJh ½kyfawG[m ajr§mufqJtcdkuftwefY ra&mufcif <uqJtcdu k rf mS yJ jzpfNy;D ysuo f mG ;ygw,f/ ajrm§ ufqt J cdu k f twefrY mS jzpfwhJ ½kyaf wG[mvnf; vSr;f qJtcdu k rf a&mufcif ajrm§ ufqt J cdu k f twefrY mS yJ jzpfNy;D ysuo f mG ;ygw,f/ vSr;f qJ tcdkuftwefY csqJ tcdkuftwefY xdqJtcdkuftwefY zdqJ tcdkuftwefYrSm jzpfaewJh 0ga,m½kyfwdkY[mvnf; jzpfqJ tcdkuftwefYrSmyJ jzpfNyD;awmh ysufoGm;Muwmyg/ twdwfumvu jzpfcJhwJh½kyfawG[mvnf; ypöKyÜef umvra&mufcif twdwfumvrSmyJ ysufoGm;cJhygNyD/ ypöKyÜefrSm jzpfqJ½kyfawG[mvnf; tem*wfra&mufcif ypöKyÜef umvrSmyJ jzpfNyD;ysufoGm;ygw,f/ aemiftem*wf umvrSm jzpfvwHU½kyfrsm;[mvnf; olYumvrSmyJ jzpfNyD; ysuo f mG ;rSm jzpfygw,f/'gaMumifh ½ky[ f o l rQ[m tedpö csn;f ygyJ/ tjzpf tysuu f tjrrJ jywf ESyd pf ufaevdYk 'ku?© tpk;d r& udk,fhtvdk rvdkuf ukd,fhoabmtwdkif; rjzpfyJ olUoabm twdkif; jzpfysufaevdkY twåaumifr[kwf[k ½IjrifEdkifzdkY &m

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qif;&Jwmu t,kwaf 0'em? oufawmihf oufomjzpfwm u tjrwfa0'em? ESvHk;rom,mjzpf pdwfqif;&J pdwfnpf &wmu t,kwfa0'em? bk&m;tm½kHjyK ESvHk;½Tifvef; at; csrf;rIjzpf&wmu tjrwfa0'em jzpfygw,f/ teD;ta0; a0'em qdkwmuawmh tm½kHjyKyHkudk &nf½G,fvsuf teD;udk tm½kHjyK jzpfay:vmwJh cHpm;rI a0'emeJY ta0;udk tm½kHjyK jzpfay:vmwJh cHpm;rI a0'em[lí (11)rsdK; ½Sdygw,f/ xdk a0'emrsm;[m jzpfysufay:aysmuf oabmyg/ wnfae w,f jrJaew,f&,fvdkY r½Sdyg/ jrJwJh oabmr½SdwmaMumifh a0'em igh[mr[kwf? igr[kwf? ightwår[kwf[k udk,fydkif OmPfjzifh trSet f wdik ;f odjrifatmif ½Irw S yf mG ;rsm; tm;xkwf &rnfvdkY a[mawmfrlygw,f/ onmud(k 11)yg;jzifh a0zefí½IykH

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jzpfap? t,kwt f nHjh zpfap? taumif;tjrwfjzpfap? ta0; jzpfap? teD;jzpfap onm[lorQudk ]]igh[mr[kwf? ig r[kwf? ightwå r[kwf}} [kudk,fydkifOmPfjzifh trSeftwdkif; odatmif ½I& tm;xkwf&rnf/ twdwb f 0u rSwo f m;rIonmudyk J igaumiftaeeJY xifrSwfaewmyg/ igrSwfom;w,f/ rSwfom;wm igyJvdkY xifrSwfaeygw,f/ ,ckb0rSmvnf; vGefcJhaom ESpf v &ufem&Dydkif;u rSwfom;cJhwmawGu twdwfonm? ,ck rSwfom;qJu ypöKyÜefonm? aemifrSwfom;rJhonmu tem*wfonm? 'DonmtrsdK;rsdK;udkvnf; twåpGJBuD;vGef; olawGu igaumif taeeJY xifaewmyg/ twGif;tyudk tm½kjH yK rSwo f m;wJo h nm? tjypfruif;wJh rSwo f m;rIonm awGu tMurf;pm;jzpfNy;D bk&m;tm½kjH yK rSwo f m;wmuawmh odraf rGUwJo h nm jzpfygw,f/ Murf;wrf;wJh tm½kaH wGukd rSwf om;wmu [Deonm?odraf rGUEl;nHw h hJ tm½kaH wGukd rSwo f m; wmu yPDwonm? xdkonmtrsdK;rsdK;wGifvnf; ta0; onmonf teD;onmodYk ra&mufcif csKyaf ysmufomG ;ovdk Murf;wrf;wJo h nmuvnf; odraf rGUwJo h nmtjzpf ra&muf cifcsKyfaysmufoGm;wmaMumifh rjrJ qif;&J tpdk;r& tedpö 'ku© tewåygyJ/ ighonmr[kwf? igr[kwf? igh&JUtwå


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r[kwf[k [kwfwdkif;rSefpGm ½Iqifjcif &rSmyg/ ocFg&u©Em¨ ud(k 11)yg;jzifah 0zefí½IykH

a,aupd ocFg&m twDwmem*wypöKyEÜ mé tZösw0Hå g A[d'¨g0g MoVm&dum0g okckrm0g [Dem0g yPDwm0g a, 'la& oEÅad u0g? oAÁm ocFg&m ]]aewH rr? aeaom[ro®?d e ar aom twåm}} wd {0 arwH ,xmblwH or®yn Ü m, '|AÁH? twdwjf zpfap? tem*wfjzpfap? ypöKyeÜ jf zpfap? uk, d f wGi;f ujzpfap? uk, d yf ujzpfap? tMurf;jzpfap? tEkjzpfap? t,kwt f nHjh zpfap? taumif;tjrwfjzpfap? ta0;jzpfap? teD;jzpfap ocFg&[lorQudk ]]igh[mr[kwf? igr[kwf? igh twår[kwf}} [kudk,fydkifOmPfjzifh trSeftwdkif; odatmif ½I& tm;xkwf&rnf/ ocFg&t& apwemacgif;aqmifwJh apwoduu f kd aumuf&ygw,ftwdwu f jyKvyk f tm;xkwf rIrsm;vnf; ypöKyeÜ rf a&mufcif twdwrf mS yJ csKyf aysmufcyhJ gNy/D ypöKyeÜ jf yKvyk f tm;xkwrf rI sm;vnf; tem*wf ra&mufcifyJ csKyfaysmufoGm;ygw,f/ tem*wfrSm MuHpnftm;xkwfrI rsm;vnf; olUtcdkuf twefYrSm csKyfaysmufvdkY oGm;wmyg/ ukd,fwGif;u w&m;udk taMumif;jyKí MuHpnftm;xkwfrI ocFg&? udk,fyw&m;udk taMumif;jyKí MuHpnftm;xkwfrI

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vnf; jzpfNyD; csKyfoGm; Muwmyg/ b0wpfck wpfckü pkwd cgeD;umv0,f uH ur®erd w d f *wderd w d u f kd tm½kjH yKNy;D jzpfwhJ r&PmoEé0Dxd jzpfygw,f/ b0ifpdwftpOfrSm qifjcifwJh tm0ZÆef;pdwfqdkwm jzpfygw,f/ tm0ZÆef;pdwfu bmudk qifjcifovJqdk&if twdwfuudk,fjyKcJhwJh ukodkvfuH tuk odv k u f u H jkd zpfap? xdu k &H UJ tm½ku H jkd zpfap? aemuf b0opf&UJ tm½kHedrdwfudkjzpfap wpfrsdK;rsdK;udk qifjcifygw,f/ xdkpdwf csKyfoGm;NyD; b0ifpdwfjzpfum pdwftpOfjywfqJoGm;NyD; pkwd ygawmhw,f/ 'gudk pkwdpdwfac:ygw,f/ xdkpdwfrsm;vnf; olUtcdkuftwefYwGifyJ jzpfNyD; csKyfoGm;Muwmyg/ a½S;ujzpfNyD;wJhpdwf? ,ckjzpfqJpdwf? aemifjzpfvmwJh pdwrf sm;vnf; jzpfNy;D csKyo f mG ;ygw,f/ ud, k x f u J tm½kjH yKNy;D jzpfwJh pdwf[mvnf; tjyiftm½kHodkYra&muf? jyifytm½kHjyK jzpfwJh pdwfuvnf; udk,fwGif;tm½kHodkY ra&mufyJ csKyfysuf oGm;ygw,f/ Murf;wrf;wJh a'gopdwf? odrfarGUEl;nHhwJh arwåmpdwf? ,kwfnHh atmufuswJh tukodkvfpdwf? rGefjrwf jzLpifwJh ukodkvfpdwf? ta0;udkvSrf;tm½kHjyKwJhpdwf? teD; udktm½kHjyKjzpfwJhpdwfrsm;vnf; olUtcdkufwGifyJ csKyfaysmuf oGm;MuwmrdkY rjrJ qif;&J tpdk;r&[k rSwf&ygrnf/ pdwf 0dnmPf ighOpömr[kw?f igr[kw?f ightwår[kw[ f k [kww f ikd ;f


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usyEf pS o f ed ;f tvSL½Sif

usyw f pfoed ;f tvSL½Sif

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usycf Ek pS af omif;cGt J vSL½Sif

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usyif g;aomif;ESpaf xmiftvSL½Sif

(30)

Mrs Claudie (Germany)

usyaf v;aomif;ig;axmiftvSL½Sif

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254

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256

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jrwfA'k \ ¨ 'kw, d a'oem

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2nd_tayar_of_myat_buddha