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tusKd;aqmifolrsm;odkY : 13

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tusKd;aqmifolrsm;odkY : 15

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tusKd;aqmifolrsm;odkY : 17

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tusKd;aqmifolrsm;odkY : 19

wifc&H wJo h [ l m rdr&d UJ txifBu;D aewJph w d u f kd csK;d ESrd cf H vku d &f wJh twGuaf Mumifh tjypfwifwhJ yk*Kd¾ vu f kd wpfoufv;Hk rke;f wD;oGm; wwfygw,f/ tJ'v D kd rke;f wD;rIawG[m zm;atmufawm&w&m;&dyfomrSm zGJUpnf;xm;wJh tzGJUtpnf;awGxJrSm &SdaecJh&ifawmh yGiv hf if;pGm aqG;aEG;rIukd tajcjyKNy;D wpfyg;udw k pfyg; wpfO;D ud-k wpfOD; av;pm;aom pdwfxm;jzifh jyKrlqufqHay;Muyg/ rdrdudk,fudk rdrd txifBuD;av;pm;wJhpdwfxm; udk,fpD &SdMuwmudk oabmaygufMuNy;D awmh tjypfrwifMubJ cs;D rGr;f oifw h m cs;D rGr;f ? vspv f sL ½Ioifw h m vspv f sL½INy;D arwåmç u½kPmç rk'w d mç Oayu©m qdw k hJ jA[®p&kd w f &m;awGeYJ a&SUqufNy;D 'DtzGUJ tpnf;awGu atmifjrifatmif avQmufvrS ;f Mur,fq&kd if 'Dzm;atmufawm& w&m;&dyfomBuD;[m wifhwifhw,fw,fjzifh avmutv,frSm xGef;vif;aerSm jzpfygw,f/ 'grSom wufnv D ufneD YJ omoemawmf&JU tusKd;ç omoemawmfudk rSDcdkqnf;uyfaeMuwJh 'g,um 'g,dumrawG&UJ tusK;d ç urÇmt&yf&yfrS yg&rD&iS af wG&UJ tusK;d udk &Gufaqmifay;EkdifMurSm jzpfw,f/ tJ'Dawmh tm;vkH;tm;vkH;aom yk*¾dKvfwdkYonf jrwfpGm bk&m;&Sif xlaxmifxm;wJh omoemawmfvYkd ac:qdw k hJ tqk;H tr atmufrmS wpfO;D wpfa,muf wpfzUJG qdw k hJ t,ltpGaJ wG rxm;MubJ vlom;awGtm;vkH;? owå0gawG tm;vkH;twGufqdkwJh pdwfxm;rsKd;udk arG;jrLMuapcsifw,f/ owå0gwkdif;ç vlrsKd;wdkif;&JU tm;ud;k xdu k f qnf;uyfxu kd w f hJ bk&m;&Si&f UJ om;awmf orD;awmf awG jzpfEkdifatmifç jzpfvmatmifç nDñGwfpGmeJY jyKjyifoifhwm jyKjyifMuyg/ rdrd&JUtjypfudk ½Ioifhwm½I&if;eJY rdrd&JU tm;enf;csuçf olwpfyg;&JU tm;enf;csuçf rdr&d UJ tm;omcsuçf olwpfyg;&JU tm;omcsufawGukd jrifatmif BudK;pm;NyD;? cGifhvTwfoifhwJht&m


20 : "r®pmpOf

cGifhvTwfç csD;rGrf;oifhwJht&mrSm csD;rGrf;ç az;roifhwJht&mrSm az;rNy;D ? wpfO;D eJw Y pfO;D wpfzUJG eJw Y pfzUJG csw d q f ufNy;D oGm;vdu k Mf u r,fq&kd ifawmh vnfywfaeNy;D jzpfwhJ zm;atmufawm& w&m;&dyo f m&JU vkyif ef;pOfawG[m qxufxrf;yd;k vnfywfEidk rf mS jzpfw,f/ 'Dvkd vnfywfaeygrSvnf; rScD &kd m tm;xm;&m vJavsmif;&mtppf jzpfawmfrlwJh bk&m;tqkH;tr omoemawmfrSm oDv orm"d ynm odum© ok;H &yfwu Ykd kd usiMhf uBH uKd ;ukwf tm;xkwv f w kd hJ olawmfaumif;wdkYtwGuf y#da0"odkY qdkufonfxd wdkifatmif usiMhf ut H m;xkwEf idk w f hJ tcGit hf vrf; XmeBu;D wpfc[ k m avmu tv,frSm ESpfaygif;&SnfMum wnfwHhaerSm jzpfygw,f/ owå0gwd\ Yk tusK;d pD;yGm;tvdiYk mS omoemawmfBu;D t&Snf wnfwyhH gap/ wnfwahH tmif BuKd ;pm;Edik Mf uygap/ wnfwahH tmif BudK;pm;MuygpdkY.../

t&Sifa&0w pdwåvawmifausmif; - zm;atmufawm&? 1366-ck? e,kev f qkwf 8 - &uf? «10. 6.2. 004/»


"mwfobm0[lonf : 21

:

:

:

ow책0gwdo Yk nf "mwftm;jzifo h mvQif wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfuek \ f / ,kwn f aHh om ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfc&H MdS uukeaf om olwko dY nf ,kwn f aHh om ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfc&H dS Muukeaf om olwkEdY iS t hf wl wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfuek \ f / aumif;aom rGejf rwfaom ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfc&H dS Muukeaf om olwo Ykd nf aumif;aom rGejf rwfaom ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfcH &SMd uukeaf om olwEYkd iS t hf wl wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfuek \ f /


22 : "r®pmpOf

"mwfobm0[lonf wpfcsed f bke;f awmfajcmufyg;ocif bk&m;&Sio f nf om0w¬-d jynfrGef aZw0efausmif;wkdufawmfü oDwif;oHk; pHaeawmfrlqJ jzpf\/ xdktcg &[ef;awmfwdkYudk bk&m;&Sifu þodkY rdefYMum;awmfrl\/ --]]&[ef;wdkY ...owå0gwdkYonf "mwfobm0tm;jzifhomvQif wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfMuuke\ f / ,kwn f aHh om ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfc&H MdS uukeaf om olwo Ykd nf ,kwn f aHh om ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfcH&SdMuukefaom olwdkYESifhtwl wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfMuuke\ f / aumif;aom rGejf rwfaom ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfcH &SMd uukeaf om olwo Ykd nf aumif;aom rGejf rwfaom ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfcH&SdMuukefaom olwdkYESifhtwl wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfMuukef\/


"mwfobm0[lonf : 23

&[ef;wdYk ...vGeaf vNy;D aom twdwu f mvüvnf; owå0g wdo Yk nf "mwfobm0tm;jzifo h mvQif wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfcu hJ ek Nf y/D ,kwn f ahH om ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfc&H Sd Muukeaf om olwo Ykd nf ,kwn f ahH om ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfc&H dS Muukeaf om olwEYkd iS -hf twl wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfcu hJ ek Nf y?D aumif;aom rGejf rwfaom ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfc&H dS Muukeaf om olwkdo Y nf aumif;aom rGejf rwfaom ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfc&H dS Muukeaf om olwEYkd iS t hf wl wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfcu hJ ek Nf y/D &[ef;wdYk ...aemiftem*wfumvüvnf; owå0gwdo Yk nf "mwftm;jzifo h mvQif wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfuek -f vwåUH / ,kwn f ahH om ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfc&H Sd Muukeaf om olwo Ykd nf ,kwn f ahH om ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfc&H dSMuukeaf om olwEYkd iS t hf wl wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfuek v f wåUH ? aumif;aom rGejf rwf aom ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfc&H dS Muukeaf om olwo Ykd nf aumif;aom rGejf rwfaom ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfc&H dS Muukeaf om olwEYkd iS t hf wl wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfuek v f wåUH / &[ef;wdYk ...,ckypöKyeÜ u f mvüvnf; owå0gwdo Yk nf "mwf tm;jzifhomvQif wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfukef\/ ,kwn f aHh om ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfc&H MdS uukeaf om olwo Ykd nf ,kwn f -Hh aom ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfc&H dS Muukeaf om olwEYkd iS t hf wl wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfukef\/ aumif;aom rGefjrwfaom ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfc&H dS Muukeaf om olwo Ykd nf aumif;aom rGejf rwfaom ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfc&H Sd Muukeaf om olwEYkd iS t hf wl wpfaygif; wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfuek \ f }}[k rdeMYf um;awmfr\ l / ([Dem"drkwåduokwf? oH?1?368/)


24 : "r®pmpOf

,kwn f aHh om ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfc&H o dS l tcsi;f csi;f wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf;jzpfyu kH kd bk&m;&Siu f Oyrmaqmifum þodYk a[mMum;awmfrjl yef\/ --]]&[ef;wdkY ...Oyrmaomfum; rpifusifBuD;onf rpif usiBf u;D ESihf wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpf\? usiif ,fonf usiif ,fEiS hf wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpf\? wHawG;onf wHawG;ESifh wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpf\? jynfonf jynfEiS hf wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpf\? aoG;onf aoG;ESihf wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpf\/ &[ef;wdYk ...þOyrm twlomvQif owå0gwdo Yk nf "mwftm;jzifo h mvQif wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfuek \ f ? ,kwn f ahH om ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfcH &Su d ek af om olwo Ykd nf ,kwn f ahH om ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfc&H u dS ek af om olwkdEY iS t hf wl wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfuek \ f /}} (o*gxmokweå ?f oH?1?370/)

xdo k Ykd "mwf wl&m wl&m wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfyu kH kd twdwf tem*wf ypöKyeÜ f umvoH;k yg;vH;k ü yHpk w H yl if a[mMum;xm;awmfral yonf/ wpfzef aumif;aom "mwfc&H o dS l tcsi;f csi;f wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf;jzpfyu kH v kd nf; þodYk Oyrmaqmifum qufvuf a[mMum;xm;awmfrjl yef\/ --]]&[ef;wdYk ...Oyrmaomfum; Ed&Yk nfonf Ed&Yk nfEiS hf wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpf\? qDonf qDEiS hf wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpf\? axmywfonf axmywfEiS hf wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpf\? ysm;&nfonf ysm;&nfEiS hf wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpf\? wifvo J nf wifvEJ iS hf wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpf\? &[ef;wdYk...þOyrmtwlomvQif owå0g wdo Yk nf "mwftm;jzifo h mvQif wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf;


"mwfobm0[lonf : 25

jzpfuek \ f ? aumif;aom rGejf rwfaom ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfc&H u dS ek af om olwo Ykd nf aumif;aom rGejf rwfaom ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfc&H u dS ek af om olwEYkd iS t hf wl wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfuek \ f / (o*gxmokw?f oH?1?370/)

twdwf tem*wf ypöKyeÜ f umvoH;k yg;vH;k ü yHpk w H l a[mMum;xm;awmfral yonf/ wpfzef ,kwn f ahH om ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfcH &Srd EI iS hf qufpyfum yHpk t H csKUd udk bk&m;&Siu f (tó'¨oo H E´eokweå ?f oH?1?371-372/)ü qufvufum a[mMum;xm;awmfr\ l / ,if;okweå \ f qdv k &kd if;rSm þodjYk zpf\/ 1/ o'¨gw&m; r&Sdukefaom olwdkYonf o'¨gw&m; r&SdolwdkY tcsif;csif;ç 2/ (tukov kd w f &m; 'kp½du k w f &m;wdkrY S r&Suw f wfonf)h t&Suf r&SdolwdkYonf t&Sufr&SdolwdkY tcsif;csif;ç 3/ (tukodkvfw&m; 'kp½dkufw&m;wdkYrS raMumufwwfonfh) Mowåyw Ü &m; r&So d w l o Ykd nf Mowåyw Ü &m; r&So d w l Ykd tcsi;f csif;ç 4/ (½kyf emrfy&rwfw&m;ESifh taMumif;w&m;wdkYudk oifod usio hf jd zifh rodwwfonf)h A[ków k r&So d w l o Ykd nf A[kó-k w r&SdolwdkY tcsif;csif;ç 5/ ysif;&daom olwdkYonf ysif;&dolwdkY tcsif;csif;ç 6/ owdvGwfuif;olwdkYonf owdvGwfuif;olwdkYtcsif;csif;ç 7/ ynmrJhukefaom olwdkYonf ynmrJholwdkY tcsif;csif;ç --vGefavNyD;aom twdwfumvuvnf; wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfcu hJ ek \ f ? aemiftem*wfumvüvnf; wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfuek v f wåUH ? ,ck ypöKyeÜ u f mvü


26 : "r®pmpOf

vnf; wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfuek \ f / (oH?1?371-372/ tó'¨oo H E´eokweå ?f )

wpfzef aumif;aom rGejf rwfaom ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfc&H rdS EI iS hf qufpyfum yHpk t H csKUd udv k nf; atmufygtwdik ;f a[mMum;xm;awmfrlcJh\/ 1/ o'¨gw&m; &Su d ek af om olwo Ykd nf o'¨gw&m;&So d w l Ykd tcsi;f csif;ç 2/ [d&Dw&m;&SdolwdkYonf [d&Dw&m;&SdolwdkY tcsif;csif;ç 3/ MowåyÜw&m;&SdolwdkYonf MowåyÜw&m;&SdolwdkY tcsif;csif;ç 4/ (½kyf + emrf + aMumif; + usKd; = ocFg&w&m;wdkYudk oifod usio hf jd zifh tMum;tjrif) A[ków k &So d w l o Ykd nf A[ków k &SdolwdkY tcsif;csif;ç 5/ (orx 0dyóem tpjzmonfh ukodkvfw&m;wkdYü) tjyif; txef BuKd ;pm;tm;xkwo f nfh vHv Yk 0D&, d &So d w l o Ykd nf tjyif; txef BuKd ;pm;tm;xkwo f nfh vHv Yk 0D&, d &So d w l Ykd tcsi;f csi;f ç 6/ (um,+a0'em+pdwå+"r®trnf&onfh ocFg&w&m;wdkYü) xifvif;aom owd&o dS w l o Ykd nf xifvif;aom owd&o dS w l Ykd tcsif;csif;ç 7/ (0dyóemynm + r*fynm[lonf)h ynm&do S w l o Ykd nf ynm &dSolwdkY tcsif;csif;ç vGefavNyD;aom twdwfumvuvnf; wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfcu hJ ek \ f ? aemiftem*wf umvüvnf; wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfuek v f wåUH / ,ckypöKyeÜ f umvü vnf; wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfuek \ f [k rdeMYf um;awmf rl\/ (oH?1?372/ tó'¨oHoE´eokwåef/)


"mwfobm0[lonf : 27

xdkuJhodkY "mwfobm0tm;jzifhomvQif owå0gwdkYonf wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfMuyHEk iS hf qufpyfí okweå f wpfcu k v kd nf; a[mMum;xm;awmfrcl \ hJ / wpfcsed f bk&m;&Sio f nf &mZN*Kd [Nf rKd U*dZÑu#k af wmifausmif;ü oDwif;oH;k pHaeawmfrq l J jzpf\/ xdt k csed w f iG f pBu<ø uaeawmf rlaom jrwfpmG bk&m;tm; t&Siaf '0'wfu ausmufarmif;qifum owfjzwf&ef BuKd ;pm;tm;xkwcf \ hJ / ,if;odYk BuKd ;pm;tm;xkwrf u I kd taMumif;cHum &[ef;oHCmawmfwu Ykd bk&m;&Sit f m; apmifha&Smuf&eftwGuf bk&m;&SifESifh rvSrf;rurf;wGif vrf;avQmufawmfral eMu\/ t&Sio f m&dyw k &å mç t&Sirf [marm*¾v’mefç t&Sirf [muóyç t&Sit f Ek½'k g¨ ç t&Siyf P k Ö (rEÅmPDyw k )å ç t&SiOf ygvdç t&Sit f meE´mç t&Siaf '0'wf tp&Sad om rax&fBu;D rax&fausmw f o Ykd nf rdrd rdrw d \ Ykd y&dowfwEYkd iS t hf wl tkypf t k vdu k f tkypf t k vdu k f bk&m;&Si\ f reD;ra0;aom t&yfü pBuaø vQmuf awmfral eMu\/ xdyk &dowfwu Ykd kd Munf½h aI wmfru l m bk&m;&Siu f &[ef;oHCmawmf taygif;udk þodYk rdeMYf um;awmfr\ l / --]]&[ef;wdYk ...rsm;pGmaom &[ef;wdEYk iS t hf wl pBuo ø mG ;aeaom om&dyw k &å mudk oifwYkd jrifMuuke\ f avm[k ar;jref;awmf rl\/ jrwfpmG bk&m; ...wynfah wmfwYdk jrifMuyguke\ f [k jyefvnf avQmufxm;Muuke\ f / &[ef;wdYk ...tvH;k pHu k ek af om xd&k [ef; wdo Yk nf Bu;D rm;aom ynm&SMd uuke\ f / (1) &[ef;wdYk ...rsm;pGmaom &[ef;wdEYk iS t hf wl pBuo ø mG ;aeaom arm*¾vm’ efukd oifwYkd jrifMuuke\ f avm[k ar;jref;awmf rljyef\/ jrwfpmG bk&m; ...wynfah wmfwYkd jrifMuyguke\ f [k jyefvnf avQmufxm;Muuke\ f / &[ef;wdYk ... tvH;k pHak om


28 : "r®pmpOf

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"mwfobm0[lonf : 29

aom tmeE´mudk oifwdkY jrifMuukef\avm[k ar;jref;awmf rljyef\/ jrwfpmG bk&m; ...wynfah wmfwYkd jrifMuyguke\ f [k jyefvnf avQmufxm;Muukef\/ &[ef;wdkY ...tvHk;pHkaom xd&k [ef;wdo Yk nf rsm;aom tMum; + tjrif = A[ków k &SMd uuke\ f / (7) &[ef;wdYk ...rsm;pGmaom &[ef;wdEYk iS t hf wl pBuo ø mG ;aeaom a'0'wfukd oifwYkd jrifMuuke\ f avm[k ar;jref;awmfrl jyef\/ jrwfpGmbk&m; ...wynfhawmfwdkY jrifMuygukef\[k jyefvnf avQmufxm;Muukef\/ &[ef;wdkY ...tvHk;pHkaom xd&k [ef;wdo Yk nf ,kwrf monfh tvdq k ;kd &SMd uuke\ f / (8) &[ef;wdYk ... owå0gwdo Yk nf "mwfobm0tm;jzifo h mvQif wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfMuuke\ f / ,kwn f aHh om ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfc&H dS Muukeaf om olwo Ykd nf ,kwn f aHh om ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfc&H MdS uukeaf om olwEYkd iS t hf wl wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfMuuke\ f / aumif;aom rGejf rwfaom ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfcH &SMd uukeaf om olwo Ykd nf aumif;aom rGejf rwfaom ESv;kH oGi;f "mwfc&H MdS uukeaf om olwEYkd iS t hf wl wpfaygif;wnf; wpfom;wnf; jzpfMuuke\ f / (oH?1?368-369/ puFrokwf/) t&Sio f m&dyw k &å m rax&fjrwfum; ynmt&mü {w'*f &awmfr\ l ? xdak Mumifh ]]cE¨mç tm,weç "mwfç opömç owdy|mef ponfh aAm"dyu©, d w&m;xl;wdu Yk v kd nf;aumif; ½kyf + emrf + aMumif; + usK;d = ocFg&w&m;wd\ Yk tedpt ö jcif;t&mç 'kut © jcif; t&mç tewåtjcif;t&m[laom vu©Pma&;oH;k wefEiS hf pyfaom eufeJaom jyóemt&yf&yfudkvnf;aumif; ar;jref; Muuket f }hH }[k ESv;kH ydu k u f m Bu;D rm;aom ynm&Sd &[ef;awmfwu Ykd


30 : "r®pmpOf

omvQif xdt k &Sio f m&dyw k &å m rax&fjrwfukd jc&H v H suf &SMd uukef \/ xdkrax&fjrwfuvnf; r[myx0DajrBuD;udk jzefYjyvdkuf ouJo h çYkd jrif;rd&k af wmifajcrS oJpu k kd xkwaf qmif,u l m jyvdu k b f d ouJo h çYkd pMu0Vmawmifukd cGjJ yvdu k b f o d uJo h çYkd jrif;rd&k af wmifukd ajrm§ ufcsjD yvdu k b f o d uJo h çYkd tmumoaumif;uifvmT udk jzefjY yvdu k b f o d uJo h çYkd v aewdu Yk kd xGuaf y:vmapouJo h Ykd ar;jref;wdik ;f ar;jref;wdik ;f aom ar;cGe;f t&yf&yfukd ajzMum;ay;awmfr\ l / xdkaMumifh xdk&[ef;wdkYtm;vHk; BuD;rm;aom ynm&SdawmfrlMu uke\ f / (1) t&Sirf [marm*¾vm’ ef uk, d af wmfjrwfuv kd nf; bk&m;&Siu f wefc;kd £'dy¨ g'f Bu;D rm;awmfrMl uonfh &[ef;awmfww Ykd iG f tomqH;k tjrwfq;kH {w'*fbUJG xl;udk cs;D jri§ x hf m;awmfr\ l / xdak Mumifh xdk rax&fjrwfukd ]]wefc;kd zefqif;yH\ k tajccHy&durfvyk if ef;&yfukd vnf;aumif;ç tusKd;tmedoifudkvnf;aumif;ç t"d|mefyHkudk vnf;aumif;ç wefc;kd zefqif;yHu k v kd nf;aumif; ar;jref;uket f }hH }[k ESvHk;ydkufum wefcdk;BuD;rm;Muonfh &[ef;awmfwdkYuomvQif jcH&Hvsuf &SdMuukef\/ xdkrax&fjrwfuvnf; xdk&[ef;wdkY\ ar;wdik ;f ar;wdik ;f aom ar;cGe;f udk wdwu d sus *CeP tajzay;um oifMum;ay;awmfr\ l / xdak Mumifh xd&k [ef;tm;vH;k wd-Yk vnf; wefc;kd £'dy¨ g'f Bu;D rm;awmfrMl uuke\ f / (2) t&Sirf [muóy rax&fjrwfuv dk nf; bk&m;&Siu f "kwif (13)yg;udk aqmifawmfrMl uonfh "kwifw&m;udk a[mMum;awmf rlMuonfh &[ef;wdkYwGif tomqHk; tjrwfqHk; {w'*f&mxl; XmeEÅ&ü xm;awmfr\ l / xdak Mumifh xdrk ax&fjrwfukd ]]"kwifaqmifyçkH "kwif\tusK;d tmedoifç "kwifaqmufwnf t"d|mefjyKyçkH "kwif pkaygif; aqmufwnfyçkH "kwif wpfcEk iS w hf pfck uGjJ ym;yHk


"mwfobm0[lonf : 31

wdkYudk ar;jref;avQmufxm;MuukeftHh}}[k ESvHk;ydkufum "kwifaqmif&[ef;awmfwdkYu jcH&HMuukef\/ xdkrax&fjrwfuvnf; xd&k [ef;wdu Yk kd "kwifEiS hf qufpyfonfh ar;cGe;f t&yf&yfukd ajzMum; ay;awmfr\ l / xdak Mumifh t&Sirf [muóy rax&fjrwfudk jc&H -H Muonfh &[ef;wdo Yk nf "kwifaqmif &[ef;wdcYk sn;f jzpfMuuke\ f / (3) t&Sit f Ek½'k g¨ rax&fjrwfuv kd nf; bk&m;&Siu f 'dApÁ u©KtbdnmPft&mü {w'*f xm;awmfr\ l / xdak Mumifh xdrk ax&fjrwfukd ]]ewfrsupf u d o hJ Ydk ta0;teD;&So d rQ tvH;k pHu k kd tukeo f jd rif Edik o f nfh 'dApÁ u©KtbdnmPf\ &atmifp;D jzef;yHk y&durfç tusK;d tmedoifç npfErG ;f yHk t&yf&yfukd ar;jref;avQmufxm; Muuket f }hH } [k ESv;kH ydu k u f m 'dApÁ u©KtbdnmPfukd avhvmvdMk uonfh &&SMd uonfh &[ef;wdkYom jcH&HaeMuukef\/ xdkrax&fjrwfuvnf; ar;wdik ;f ar;wdik ;f aom ar;cGe;f t&yf&yfukd rqdik ;f rwG ajzMum;awmfrl\? oifjyay;awmfrl\/ xdkaMumifh xdk&[ef;tm;vHk; wdo Yk nfvnf; 'dApÁ u©KtbdnmPfukd &&SMd uonfh &[ef;wdo Yk m jzpfMuuke\ f / (4) rEÅmPDyak PÖ;r\ om;jzpfaom t&Siyf P k rÖ ax&fuv kd nf; bk&m;&Siu f w&m;a[maaumif;onfh "r®uxdut&mü {w'*f xm;awmfr\ l / xdak Mumifh xdrk ax&fjrwfxo H v Ykd nf; ]]a[mMum;rnfh "r®uxm\ tusO;f csKyyf pkH epfç tus,cf sUJ yHpk epfç eufeaJ tmif a[mMum;yHpk epfç ay:vGiaf tmif a[mMum;yHpk epfç qef;Mu,fatmif a[mMum;yHpk epf ponfwüYkd xdx k t kd jcif;t&m tmum&udk ar;jref;Muuket f }hH }[k ESv;kH ydu k u f m "r®uxdu &[ef;awmfwu Ykd omvQif jcH&Hvsuf &SdMuukef\/ xdkrax&fjrwfuvnf; xdk&[ef;wdt Yk m; ]]igh&iS w f Ykd ... "r®uxduqdw k m w&m;pvQif pjcif;


32 : "r®pmpOf

y&dowfukd cs;D rGr;f zd&Yk ef oif\ h ? w&m;\ tv,fü ½kyf + emrf + aMumif; + usKd; = ocFg&w&m;wdkY\ edpöç okcç twåç okb obm0wdrYk S qdwo f Ok ;f aeonfh oknwur®|mef;udk = 0dyóem ur®|mef;udk xif&mS ; a[mjyzd&Yk ef oif\ h ? w&m;\ tqH;k ü opömav;yg;udk xif&Sm;jyonf\ tpGrf;jzifh a[mMum;xm;aom w&m;awmf\ txG#u f dk ,laqmifjyzd&Yk ef oif\ h }}[k þodv Yk Qif xdx k w kd &m;a[mMum;yHk enf;pepfukd oifMum; ydcYk say;awmfr\ l / xdak Mumifh t&Siyf P k rÖ ax&fjrwfukd jc&H aH eaom &[ef;tm;vH;k wko Yd nf w&m;a[maumif;onfh "r®uxdu &[ef;wdo Yk m jzpfMuuke\ f / (5) t&SifOygvd rax&fjrwfudkvnf; bk&m;&Sifu 0denf;udk aqmifuek af om 0de,"& &[ef;awmfww Ykd iG f tomqH;k tjrwfq;kH {w'*ft&mü xm;awmfrl\/ xdkaMumifh xdkrax&fjrwfxHodkY ]]Bu;D av;aom *½kutmywfç ayghyg;aom v[kutmywfç ukpm;í &Edik af o;aom tmywfç ukpm;í r&Edik af om tmywfç tmywfoifyh çkH tmywfroifyh kH t&yf&yfwu Ykd kd ar;jref;Muuket f }hH }[k ESv;kH ydu k u f m 0denf;udk aqmifMuonfh 0de,"& yk*Kd¾ vw f u Ykd omvQif jc&H aH eMuuke\ f / xkrd ax&fjrwfuvnf; xd&k [ef;wdt Yk m; ar;wdkif; ar;wdkif;aom ar;cGef;t&yf&yfudk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; ajzMum;jyoawmfr\ l / xdak Mumifh xdrk ax&fjrwfukd jc&H aH eMu aom &[ef;tm;vH;k wdo Yk nf 0denf;udk aqmifMuonfh 0de,"& &[ef;wdo Yk m jzpfMuuke\ f / (6) t&Sit f meE´m rax&fjrwfuv kd nf; bk&m;&Siu f bk&m;&Si\ f w&m;awmfü tMum;tjrif = A[kókwrsm;jym;Muukefaom &[ef;wdw Yk iG f tomqH;k tjrwfq;kH {w'*ft&mü xm;awmfr\ l / xdak Mumifh xdrk ax&fjrwfxo H Ykd ]]q,frsK;d aom AsÍeÆ Ak'çd¨ w&m;-


"mwfobm0[lonf : 33

awmf\ jzpfay:vmyHk tw¬Kyw Ü çf w&m;awmfEiS hf qufpyfaeonfh tEkoaE¨pum;&yfç w&m;awmf\ a&SUydik ;f aemufyikd ;f ponfh t&yf&yfaom w&m;wdu Yk kd ar;jref;Muuket f }hH }[k ESv;kH ydu k u f m bk&m;&Si\ f w&m;awmfü tMum; tjrif = A[ków k rsm;jym;Muonfh &[ef;wdo Yk nfomvQif jc&H MH uuke\ f / xdrk ax&fjrwfuvnf; xdk&[ef;wdkYtm; ]]þw&m;awmfudk þodkY ajymqdk&\? þw&m;awmfudk þodkY teuft"dyÜg,f ,lq&\}}ponfjzifh tvH;k pHu k kd tajzay;awmfr\ l / xdak Mumifh xdrk ax&fjrwfukd jc&H -H Muaom &[ef;tm;vH;k wdo Yk nf A[ków k rsm;jym;olwo Ykd m jzpfMu uke\ f / (7) t&Siaf '0'wfum; ,kwrf maom tvdq k ;kd &So d l jzpf\? ,kw-f rmaom tvdq k ;kd \ n§O;f yef;ESyd pf ufrI 'Pfcsuu f kd cHae&ol jzpf\/ xdak Mumifh xdt k &Siaf '0'wfukd ]]'g,um 'g,dumrwdu Yk kd cs;D ajrm§ ufykH taqmifta,mifuv kd nf;aumif;ç 'g,um 'g,dumr wd\ Yk oEÅmefü cs;D rGr;f tHMh orIjzpfatmif jyKvyk yf kH enf;vrf;trsK;d rsKd;udkvnf;aumif; ar;jref;oif,lMuukeftHh}}[k ESvHk;ydkufum t&Siaf '0'wfuo hJ Ykd ,kwrf monfh tvdq k ;kd &SMd uol &[ef;wdu Yk omvQif jc&H v H suf &SMd uuke\ f / t&Siaf '0'wfuvnf; xd&k [ef;wdt Yk m; xdx k kd enf;vrf;toG,o f , G u f kd oifMum;ay;jyef\/ xd-k aMumifh t&Sifa'0'wfudk jcH&HaeMuonfh xdk&[ef;tm;vHk;wdkY onfvnf; ,kwrf monfh tvdq k ;kd &SMd uonfh &[ef;wdo Yk m jzpfae Mu\/ (8) (oH?|?2?129-131/) þtxufyg tcsuftvufwdkYum; owå0gwdkY obm0 "mwfccH si;f wln&D m wln&D m aygif;pyfykH om"utcsKUd wdYk jzpfMu\/ txl;ojzifh þ ]]av;pm;jcif;}} [laom pmpOfwiG f ---


34 : "r®pmpOf

1/rdru d , kd u f kd rdrd em;vnfrI r&Sjd cif;ç 2/olwpfyg;wdu Yk kd em;vnfrI r&Sjd cif;ç 3/wpfO;D tay:wpfO;D £óm rpä&, d w&m;qd;k wdYk vTr;f rd;k zdp;D ESyd pf ufraI Mumifh csr;f omokcudk r&&Sjd cif; þtcsuw f u Ykd kd OD;pm;ay;um azmfjyxm;\/ wpfO;D wpfa,muf\ oEÅmefü jzpfay:aeaom £óm rpä&d,w&m;rS wpfqifh "mwf wl&m wl&m pkaygif;vdu k rf o d jzifh £óm rpä&, d xlajymol tcsi;f csi;f aygif;pyfum jzpfay:vmaom trsm;pk\ £óm rpä&, d w&m;um; ydí k ydí k t&Sdet f 0g jrifrh m;um csr;f om okc t00udk ysupf ;D atmif zsuq f ;D wwfayonf/ tqifjh rifrh m; vSaom psmefcsr;f om 0dyóemcsr;f om r*fcsr;f om zdv k cf sr;f om wdu Yk ykd if r&atmif wm;jrpf aESmih, f u S w f wfayonf/ t&Siaf '0'wfuo hJ Ykd &&Sd Ny;D psmeformywfrv S nf; avQmuswwfayonf/ xdu k o hJ Ykd £óm rpä&, d orm; tcsi;f csi;f "mwf wl&m wl&m pkaygif;um £óm rpä&, d xlajymonfh avmuopfwpfcu k kd wnfaxmif zefw;D vdo k w l o Ykd nf atmufyg bk&m;&Si\ f tqH;k trawmfukd owdjyKoifMh uayonf/ yk&o d ó [d Zmwó? ukXm&D Zm,aw rkac/ ,m, qdEw ´ d twåmeH? Amavm 'kAmÇ odwH bPH/ Zmwó = arG;zGm;vmaom/ yk&o d ó = a,musmf ;\/ rkac = yg;pyftwGi;f ü/ ukXm&D = "m;rBu;D onf/ Zm,aw = jzpfay:í ae\(= ygvm\)/ Amavm = vlru kd o f nf/ ,m, = ,if;"m;rBuD;jzifh/ 'kAÇmodwH = raumif;pum;udk/ bPH = ´ d = ydik ;f jzwfwwf\/ ajymqdv k su/f twåmeH = rdru d , kd u f /kd qdEw (oH?1?154/)


"mwfobm0[lonf : 35

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36 : "r®pmpOf

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av;pm;jcif; : 37

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38 : "r®pmpOf

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av;pm;jcif; : 39

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40 : "r®pmpOf

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av;pm;jcif; : 41

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42 : "r®pmpOf

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av;pm;jcif; : 43

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44 : "r®pmpOf

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av;pm;jcif; : 45

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46 : "r®pmpOf

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av;pm;jcif; : 47

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48 : "r®pmpOf

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av;pm;jcif; : 49

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50 : "r®pmpOf

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av;pm;jcif; : 51

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52 : "r®pmpOf

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av;pm;jcif; : 53

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av;pm;jcif; : 55

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av;pm;jcif; : 63

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av;pm;jcif; : 65

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av;pm;jcif; : 69

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70 : "r®pmpOf

rxGuaf pvdak y/ trsux f u G af pwwfaom tjyKtrl tajymtqdw k kd u Y kd wpfO;D ESiw hf pfO;D a&Smif&mS ;apvd\ k / rnfokdaY om udpüö aomfvnf; wpfpHkwpfa,mufudkrQ csKyfcs,faom tjyKtrl tajymtqdçk &efvakd om tjyKtrl tajymtqdçk rxDrjhJ rifjyKaom tjyKtrl tajymtqdw k kd u Y kd rjyKapvdak y/ qif;&Jru I kd a&Smifí csr;f omjcif;udk aqmifwwfaom jyKral exdik jf cif;udo k m tvd&k dS awmfr\ l / bk&m;&Si\ f arwåm"mwfwnf;/ wpfa,mufonf wpfa,mufukd trsux f u G af tmif jyKjcif; [lonf av;av;pm;pm; jyKrl ajymqdk qufqjH cif; r[kwaf y/ rav;rpm; jyKrl ajymqdk qufqjH cif;om jzpfonf/ csKycf s,jf cif;onf rav;pm;jcif;om jzpfNy;D &efvjkd cif;onfvnf; rav;pm;jcif;om jzpfonf/ rxDrjhJ rif jyKjcif;onf av;pm;jcif; r[kwaf y/ rav;pm;jcif;om jzpfayonf/ qif;&Jjcif;udk tvdrk &Syd grl csKycf s,jf cif;udk tvdrk &So d ifah y/ csr;f omjcif;udk tvd&k ydS grl &efvjkd cif;udk tvdrk &So d ifah y/ nDñw G jf cif;udk tvd&k ydS grl rxDrjhJ rifjyKjcif;udk tvdrk &So d ifah y/ av;pm;jcif;onf trsurf xGuaf paom aq;aumif; jzpf\? av;pm;pGm jyKrljcif;onf rcsKyfcs,faom tavhom jzpf\/ av;pm;jcif;aMumifh csr;f omjcif;udk jzpfay:ap\/ av;pm;jcif;wnf;[laom olawmfaumif;wdkY\ tavhç olawmfaumif;wd\ Yk vrf;pOfukd twk twlvu kd í f jyKral exdik f ajymqdMk ujcif; rnfonf Nird ;f csr;f aom aexdik rf çI tjypfuif;aom aexdik rf çI tusK;d Bu;D aom aexdik rf çI &ifu h suaf om aexdik rf yI if jzpfonf/ av;pm;jcif;[lonfh vrf;pOftm; oifESifhtuREkfyfwkdY\


av;pm;jcif; : 71

tm;xkwrf I vrf;pOftjzpf owfrw S Mf uygpd/Yk av;pm;aompdwf tav;xm;aom pdwjf zifh tcsi;f csi;f jyKrl qufqH ajymqdMk uygpd/Yk

tpOfav;pm;vsuf t&Siaf &0w pdwv å awmifausmif; - zm;atmufawm&? 1366-ck? 0gacgifvqkwf 2-&uf? «1. 9.2. 004/»


72 : "r®pmpOf

The Fool and the Wise Person His action marks the fool, his action marks the wise person, Bhikkhus. Wisdom shines forth in behaviour.

&[ef;wdkY ... olrdkufonf rdrdjyKtyfaom uHvQif rSwfaMumif; ]vu©Pm} &Sd\/ ynm&Sdonfvnf; rdrdjyKtyfaom uHvQif rSwfaMumif; ]vu©Pm} &Sd\/ ynmrnfonf owå0gwdkY\ tjyKtrl tm;avsmfpGm xif&Sm;\/ By three things the fool can be known: by bad conduct of body, speech and mind.

ud, k jf zifh jyKtyfaom raumif;aomtusihf um,'kp½du k çf EIwjf zifh jyKtyfaom raumif;aomtusihf 0pD'pk ½du k çf pdwjf zifh jyKtyfaom raumif;aomtusifh raem'kp½dkuf[laom w&m;oHk;rsKd;wdkYESifh jynfhpHkoludk olrdkuf[k odtyf\/ By three things the wise can be known: by good conduct of body, speech and mind.

ud, k jf zifh jyKtyfaom aumif;aomtusihf um,okp½du k çf EIwjf zifh jyKtyfaom aumif;aomtusihf 0pDopk ½du k çf pdwjf zifh jyKtyfaom aumif;aomtusifh raemokp½dkuf[laom w&m;oHk;rsKd;wdkYESifh jynfhpHkoludk olvdr®mynm&Sd[k odtyf\/ ~Buddha [jrwfAk'¨]

rdrdudk,fudk rdrd rqkH;rEdkifao;orQ onm&Sd[kom ac:&\? ynm&Sd[k rac:Edkifao;ay/


apwem\pGrf;tm; : 73

:

rnf;npfaom uHwu Ydk owå0gwku Yd dk ,kwn f o hH jl zpfatmifç jzLpifaom uHwu Ydk owå0gwku Yd dk jrifjh rwfojl zpfatmif cGjJ cm; a0zefay;\/ okaYd omf rrnf; rjzLonfh t&d,r*fuw H u Ydk ,if;jrifjh rwfol owå0gwku Yd dk edAmÁ efoYdk wpfqifh a&mufatmif ykaYd qmifay;Mu\/ (ESm-25/)


74 : "r®pmpOf

apwem\ pGr;f tm; apwem[H bdua© 0 ur®H 0'grd? apw,dwmG ur®H ua&mwd uma,e 0gpm, reom/ (tH?2?363/) &[ef;wdYk .. .aphaqmfwu kd w f eG ;f í ud, k jf zifjh zpfap EIwjf zifh ... jzpfap pdwjf zifjh zpfap ukov kd u f H tukov kd u f u H kd jyK&um; apwemudk uH[í l igbk&m; a[mMum;awmfr\ l / (tH?2 ? 363) tEko,"gwf ruif;ao;olwdkY\ jyKjyKorQ um,uH ajymajymorQ 0pDuEH iS hf MuMH uo H rQ raemuH[o l rQonf uHt&mü wnfvsuyf if &S\ d / jyKjyKorQ ajymajymorQ MuMH uo H rQ um,uHrI 0pDurH I raemuHrI rSeo f rQonf &ifu h suv f maom wpfaeYwiG f oHo&mc&D; rqH;k ao;olw\ Ykd ½kyef mrfoEÅmeftpOfü xdu k o f if-h aomtusKd ;udk jzpfapEdik af om pGr;f tm;um; wnf&v dS suyf if &S\ d / xdak Mumifh ,if;um,uHrI 0pDurH I raemuHrw I u Ykd kd jyKvyk af ejcif;udyk if uHukd jyKpyk sKd ;axmifaejcif;[k qd&k \/ xdu k u H kd jyKpyk sKd ;axmif &mü apwemum; jy"mef;vsuf &S\ d / apwem\ tEHt Yk xufay:


apwem\pGrf;tm; : 75

rlwnfí tusKd ;w&m;\ tEHkt Y xufonf xif&mS ; jzpfay:vm &\/ xdak Mumifh apwemudk uH[í l bk&m;&Siu f a[mMum;xm;awmfrjl cif; jzpf\/ xdu k o H nf ukov kd u f H tukov kd u f [ H í l ESprf sKd ; &S\ d / ukov kd -f uHu aumif;aom csr;f omaom tusKd ;udk ay;í tukov kd u f u H raumif;aom qif;&Jaom tusKd ;udk ay;wwf\/ (r?3?251/) ,if;uHu tusKd ;ay;yHu k kd oabmaygufEikd &f ef atmufygokweå rf sm;udk zwf½MI unfyh g/ tarSmifESifhtvif; bk&m;&Sio f nf t*Fw k &å edum,f pwkueú yd gwf warmwr okweå fwiG f ,if;uHwu Ykd dk atmufygtwdik ;f av;rsKd ;cGu J m a[mMum;xm;awmfrl\/ &[ef;wdYk ...avmuü þyk*Kd¾ vaf v;rsKd ;wdo Yk nf xif&mS ;&Sd Muuke\ f / tb,fav;rsKd ;wdeYk nf;[lrl --1/tarSmifxüJ vljzpfvm&í tarSmifvQif vJavsmif;&m &Sad om yk*Kd¾ v?f 2/tarSmifxüJ vljzpfvm&í tvif;vQif vJavsmif;&m &Sad om yk*Kd¾ v?f 3/tvif;xJü vljzpfvm&í tarSmifvQif vJavsmif;&m &Sad om yk*Kd¾ v?f 4/tvif;xJü vljzpfvm&í tvif;vQif vJavsmif;&m &Sad om yk*Kd¾ vw f w Ykd nf;/ 1/ tarSmifxJrS tarSmifxJodkY &[ef;wdkY ...tb,fodkYvQif yk*¾dKvfwpfa,mufonf


76 : "r®pmpOf

tarSmifxüJ vljzpfvm&í tarSmifvQif vJavsmif;&m &Sad omyk*Kd¾ vf jzpfavoenf;/ &[ef;wkYd ... þavmuü tcsKd Uaom yk*Kd¾ vo f nf ,kwef rd hf aom trsKd ;[k qdt k yfaom 'Ge;f p@m;rsKd ;üaomfvnf;aumif;ç ES;D orm;rsKd ;üaomfvnf;aumif;ç wHigrkq;kd rsKd ;üaomfvnf;aumif;ç om;a&vkyform;rsdK;üaomfvnf;aumif;ç yef;rdIufoGef (rpifbifusKH ;orm;)rsKd ;üaomfvnf;aumif; vljzpfvm&\? qif;&J\? xrif;tazsmf pm;aomufz, G f enf;yg;\(=r0w0pm;&\?)? NiKd NiKd jiifjiif yifyifyef;yef; qif;qif;&J&J cufcufccJ J toufarG;&\/ ,if;trsK;d tEG,f b0ü tpm;ukd NiKd jiifpmG t0wfudk NiKd jiifpmG &&S&d \/ xko d o l nf ½kyt f qif;vnf; rvS? ½Icsizf , G v f nf; r&S?d ykuv G nf; yku\ G / ( tom;u oydwaf &mifç vnfyif;u zm;vnfyif;ç cg;uvnf; vdycf g;rsK;d wnf;/) tema&m*gvnf; rsm;jym;\/ uef;olaomfvnf;aumif;ç aumufoal omfvnf;aumif;ç cGifolaomfvnf;aumif;ç qGHUolaomfvnf;aumif; jzpf&\/ xrif;ç tazsmçf t0wfç ,mOfç yef;ç eHo Y mç eHo YH maysmif;ç tdy&f mç ae&mç qDrD; tokH;taqmifudk (jynfhjynfhpkHpkH) &avh&Sdolum; r[kw/f «þum; tarSmifxüJ vljzpfvm&ykw H nf;/» xkdolonf ukd,fEIwfpdwfjzifh raumif;aom tusifhukd usi\ hf / «olt Y oufudk vuf&ZJ uf&J owfjzwf\/ olUypön;f udk vufoGufoGufjzihf rw&m;,l\/ olUom;r,m;ukd r&SufraMumuf zsufqD;\/ rkom;pum;udk a&vkd aygaygrsm;rsm; tok;H jyK\/ uke;f pum;ukd &J&0J 0hH hH ajymwwf\/ Murf;wrf;onfh pum;ukd tm&JvQm&J ajymwwf\/ Nyed zf si;f onfh pum;ukd ykBH u;D csUJ wwf\/ rw&m;aom enf;vrf;jzihf olwpfyg;\ pnf;pdru f kd &,lzdkY MupH nf\/ olwpfyg;wkYd qif;&J'u k a© &mufatmif aoaMu-


apwem\pGrf;tm; : 77

ysupf ;D atmif MupH nf\/ ]]b0[lonf ykcufEiS hf acgif;tMum;rSmom &S\ d / acgif;[kb d uf bmrQr&S}d } ponfjzifh uHç uH\tusK;d ukd ypfy,fonfh t,lrmS ;udk pGv J rf; qkyu f idk x f m;\/ (= 'kp½ku d -f q,fyg;ukd jznfu h si\ hf )[k qkv d \ dk /» xko d o l nf uk, d Ef w I pf w d jf zifh raumif;aom tusiu hf dk usijhf cif;aMumifh uk, d cf E¨m ysupf ;D Ny;D í aoNyD;onfrS aemufumvü csrf;om[lí jrLaiGUrQr&Sdaomç raumif;rIjyKol 'kp½ku d o f rm;wk\ Yd vm;a&muf&mjzpfaomç oGm;vko d nfh tvkt d momqE´ uif;vsuf z½kzd &J NyKd uyJG supf ;D vsuf usa&muf&mjzpfaom i&Jü jzpf& jyef\/ &[ef;wk.Yd ..þokv Yd Qif yk*Kd¾ vw f pfa,mufonf tarSmifxJü vljzpfvm&í tarSmifvQif vJavsmif;&m &Sdaomyk*¾dKvf jzpfay\/ 2/ tarSmifxJrS tvif;xJokdY &[ef;wkdY ...tb,fodkYvQif yk*¾dKvfwpfa,mufonf tarSmifxJü vljzpfvm&í tvif;vQif vJavsmif;&m&Sdaom yk*¾ Kd vf jzpfavoenf;/ &[ef;wkYd ...þavmuü tcsKd Uaom yk*Kd¾ vo f nf ,kwef rd hf aom trsKd ;[k qdt k yfaom 'Ge;f p@m;rsKd ;üaomfvnf;aumif;ç ES;D orm;rsKd ;üaomfvnf;aumif;ç wHigrkq;kd rsKd ;üaomfvnf;aumif;ç om;a&vkyform;rsdK;üaomfvnf;aumif;ç yef;rdIufoGef (rpifbifusKH ;orm;)rsKd ;üaomfvnf;aumif; vljzpfvm&\? qif;&J\? xrif;tazsmf pm;aomufzG,f enf;yg;\ (=r0w0pm;&\?)? NiKd NiKd jiifjiif yifyifyef;yef; qif;qif;&J&J cufcufccJ J toufarG; &\/ ,if;trsK;d tEG,f b0ü tpm;ukd NiKd jiifpmG t0wfudk NiKd jiifpGm &&S&d \/ xko d o l nf ½kyt f qif;vnf; rvS? ½Icsizf , G v f nf;


78 : "r®pmpOf

r&Sd ? ykuv G nf; yku\ G ? tema&m*gvnf; rsm;jym;\/ uef;olaomfvnf;aumif;ç aumufolaomfvnf;aumif;ç cGifolaomf vnf;aumif;ç qGUH olaomfvnf;aumif; jzpf\/ xrif;ç tazsmçf t0wfç ,mOfç yef;ç eHo Y mç eHo YH maysmif;ç tdy&f mç ae&mç qDr;D tok;H taqmifukd (jynfjh ynfph pHk )Hk &avh&o dS u l m; r[kw/f xko d o l nf uk, d Ef w I pf w d jf zifh aumif;aomtusiu hf dk usi\ hf / (olUtoufukd rnfonft h cgrQ rowf? olyY pön;f udk rnfonfh enf;y&d,m,fEiS rhf Q rw&m; r,l? olo Y m;r,m;ukd rnfonft h cgrQ rzsuq f ;D / rkom;pum;ç uke;f pum;ç Murf;wrf;onfph um;ç Nyed zf si;f onfph um;wku Yd dk rajymqk?d olyY pön;f ukd rw&m;,lzYdk rMupH nf? olwpfyg; ysupf ;D aMumif;ukd rMupH nf/ ½ky+f emrf y&rwf = 'ku-© opömw&m;wku Yd dk [kww f idk ;f rSepf mG odonfh or®m'd|çd uH uH\tusK;d w&m; = ork',opömudk [kww f ikd ;f rSepf mG odonfh or®m'd|çd ocFg&w&m;wk\ Yd tedpt ö jcif;t&m 'kut © jcif;t&m tewåtjcif;t&mukd [kww f idk ;f rSepf mG odonfh 0dyóemor®m'd|çd edAmÁ ef = eda&m"opömudk [kww f ikd ;f rSepf mG odonfh r*¾or®m'd|d zvor®m'd|d ponfh or®m'd|Ó d PftjrifEiS hf jynfph aHk tmif usi\ hf / atmufxpfq;Hk tm;jzifh y&rwf ½ky+f emrf = 'kuo © pömukd odonfh or®m'd|çd aMumif;+usK;d = qufE, G rf I = y#dpo ö rkygÜ 'foabmw&m; = ork',opömudk odonfh or®m'd|Ed iS hf jynfph aHk tmif usi\ hf / (= okp½ku d f q,fyg;ukd jynfjh ynfph pHk Hk jznfu h si\ hf [k qkv d \ dk ) þokd Y aumif;aomtusiu hf kd usijhf cif;aMumifh uk, d cf E¨m ysupf ;D í aoNy;D onfrS aemufumvü aumif;rIjyKol okp½ku d f orm;wk\ Yd vm;a&muf&mjzpfaom ewfjynf ewfavmuü jzpf&\/ &[ef;wkYd ... þodkv Y Qif yk*d¾ Kvw f pfa,mufonf tarSmifxüJ vljzpfvm&í tvif;vQif vJavsmif;&m&Sad omyk*Kd¾ vf jzpfay\/


apwem\pGrf;tm; : 79

3/ tvif;xJrS tarSmifxJokdY &[ef;wkdY ...tb,fokdYvQif yk*¾d Kvfwpfa,mufonf tvif;xJü vljzpfvm&onf jzpfí tarSmifvQif vJavsmif;&m&Sad omyk*Kd¾ vf jzpfavoenf;/ &[ef;wkdY ...þavmuü tcsKUd aomyk*Kd¾ vo f nf jrifjh rwfaom trsK;d [kqt dk yfaom cwå, d r[momvrsK;d (= rif;ola|; ol<u,frsKd;)üaomfvnf;aumif;ç jAm[®Pr[momvrsKd; (= ykPÖm;ola|;ol<u,frsKd;)üaomfvnf;aumif;ç *[ywdr[momvrsK;d (= tdr&f iS o f al |;ol<u,frsK;d )üaomfvnf;aumif; vljzpfvm&\? <u,f0csr;f om\? rsm;aomOpömESpf &S\ d ? rsm;aoma&TaiG &S\ d ? rsm;aomESpo f ufz, G f tok;H taqmif &S\ d ? rsm;aomOpömpyg; &S\ d / xko d o l nf ½kyt f qif;vnf; vS\? ½Icsizf , G v f nf; &S\ d ? MunfnKd z, G v f nf; &S\ d ? aumif;jrwfaom ½kyt f qif;oP²mef = vk;H &yfoP²mefEiS hf jynfph \ Hk / xrif;ç tazsmçf t0wfç ,mOfç yef;ç eHYomç eHYomaysmif;ç tdyf&mç ae&mç qDrD; tokH;taqmifukd (jynfjh ynfph pHk )Hk &avh&o dS l jzpf\/ xko d o l nf uk, d Ef w I pf w d jf zifh raumif;aom tusiu hf dk usi-hf \/ (txufwiG f azmfjyxm;aom 'kp½ku d t f rsK;d rsK;d wdu Yk dk vGe-f usL;\/) raumif;aomtusiu hf dk usijhf cif;aMumifh uk, d cf E¨m ysu-f pD;í aoNy;D onfrS aemufumvü csr;f omuif;aom raumif;rIjyKol 'kp½ku d o f rm;wk\ Yd vm;a&muf&mjzpfaom oGm;vkd a&mufvdk jzpfvo dk nfh tvkq d E´r&Sb d J z½kzd &J NyKd uyJG supf ;D vsuf usa&muf&m jzpfaom i&Jü jzpf&\/ &[ef;wkd Y ...þokdv Y Qif yk*¾d Kvw f pfa,mufonf tvif;xJü vljzpfvm&í tarSmifvQif vJavsmif;&m&Sad omyk*Kd¾ vf jzpf&ay\/


80 : "r®pmpOf

4/ tvif;xJrS tvif;xJokdY &[ef;wkdY ...tb,fokdYvQif yk*¾d Kvfwpfa,mufonf tvif;xJü vljzpfvm&í tvif;vQif vJavsmif;&m&Sdaom yk*K¾ v d f jzpfavoenf;/ &[ef;wkYd ...þavmuü tcsKUd aomyk*d¾ Kvo f nf jrifjh rwfaom trsK;d [kqt dk yfaom cwå, d r[momvrsK;d (= rif;ola|; ol<u,frsKd;)üaomfvnf;aumif;ç jAm[®Pr[momvrsKd; (= ykPÖm;ola|;ol<u,frsKd;)üaomfvnf;aumif;ç *[ywdr[momvrsK;d (= tdr&f iS o f al |;ol<u,frsK;d )üaomfvnf;aumif; vljzpfvm&\? <u,f0csrf;om\? rsm;aomOpömESpf &Sd\? rsm;aom pnf;pdrf &S\ d ? rsm;aoma&TaiG &S\ d ? rsm;aomESpo f ufz, G f tok;H taqmif &S\ d ? rsm;aomOpömpyg; &S\ d / xko d o l nf ½kyt f qif;vnf; vS\? ½Icsizf , G v f nf; &S\ d ? MunfnKd z, G v f nf; &S\ d ? aumif;jrwfaom ½kyt f qif;oP²mef = vk;H &yfoP²mefEiS hf jynfph \ Hk / xrif;ç tazsmçf t0wfç ,mOfç yef;ç eHo Y mç eHo Y maysmif;ç tdy&f mç ae&mç qDr;D tok;H taqmifudk (jynfjh ynfph pHk )Hk &avh&o dS l jzpf\/ xdo k o l nf ud, k Ef w I pf w d jf zifh aumif;aomtusiu hf kd usi\ hf / (pifMu,faom um,okp½ku d w f &m;ç pifMu,faom 0pDopk ½ku d w f &m;ç pifMu,faom raemokp½ku d w f &m;ESihf jynfph \ Hk /) aumif;aomtusiu hf dk usijhf cif;aMumifh xko d o l nf uk, d cf E¨m ysupf ;D í aoNy;D onfrS aemufumvü aumif;rIjyKol okp½kd uf orm;wk\ Yd vm;a&muf&mjzpfaom ewfjynfewfavmuü jzpf&\/ &[ef;wkYd ...þokv Yd Qif yk*Kd¾ vw f pfa,mufonf tvif;xJü vljzpfvm&í tvif;vQif vJavsmif;&m&Sad omyk*Kd¾ vf jzpfay\/


apwem\pGrf;tm; : 81

&[ef;wdk Y ...avmuü þyk*¾dKvf av;rsKd;wkdYonf xif&Sm; &Su d ek \ f [k rdeMYf um;awmfr\ l / (tH? 1? 397-398/) pifMu,faom okp½kdufw&m;ESifh jynfhpkH&ef pifMu,faom um,okp½ku d w f &m; 0pDopk ½ku d w f &m;ESihf jynfph &Hk eftwGuf oDvusiphf Ofyidk ;f ukd jzLjzLpifpif jznfu h si&hf rnf jzpf\/ pifMu,faom raemokp½ku d w f &m;ESihf jynfph aHk &;twGuf orm"dusiphf Of ynmusiphf Ofwu Ydk dk jynfph aHk tmif jznfu h si&hf rnf jzpf\/ xdo k Ykd jznfu h si&hf mü rnfoYdk pdwx f m;&rnfenf;/ rnfoaYdk om pdw"f mwfjzifh oDvç orm"dç ynm odum© ok;H &yf aomrZmwff awmfü tusijhf rwfudk jznfu h si&hf rnfenf;/ r[mokwaomrZmw vm&Sad om atmufyg bk&m;a[m a'oemawmfudk zwf½MI unfyh g/ paZ "eH t*F0&ó a[wk? t*ø paZ ZD0w d H &u©rmaem/ t*ø "eH ZD0w d Íömyd oAÁ?H paZ ea&m "r®} rEkó&aEÅm/ (Zmwu? |? 5? 542/)

y@dawm yk&ad om om= ynm&So d nfh a,mufsm;onf/ t*F0&ó = rGejf rwfaom uk, d t f *Fg\/ a[wk = taMumif;aMumifh (= tjzwfc&H rnfh taMumif;aMumif)h / "eH = pnf;pdrOf pömuk/d paZ = pGev Yf w T &f m\/ ZD0w d H = toufu/dk &u©rmaem = apmifah &Smufvadk omolonf/


82 : "r®pmpOf

t*ø = uk, d t f *Fguk/d paZ = pGev Yf w T &f m\/ "r®H = olawmfaumif;w&m;uk/d tEkó&aEÅm = tpOfatmufarhvsu&f adS om/ ea&m = vlom;onf/ t*FÍmö yd = uk, d t f *Fgukv d nf;aumif;/ "eÍömyd = pnf;pdrOf pömukv d nf;aumif;/ ZD0w d Íömyd = toufuv dk nf;aumif;/ oAÁH = tvk;H pku H /dk paZ = pGev Yf w T &f m\/ (Zmwu? |? 5? 542/) ynm&Sad ,mufsm;um; --- pnf;pdrOf pömESihf uk, d t f *Fgtpdw-f tykid ;f ESpcf w k kd w Y iG f wpfcck u k dk pGefv Y w T zf dk&Y ef taMumif;ay:cJah omf pnf;pdrOf pömuko d m pGefv Y w T \ f / uk, d t f *Fgudu k m; rpGev Yf w T af y/ wpfzef toufEiS hf uk, d t f *FgESpcf w k w Ykd iG f wpfcck u k dk pGe-Yf vTwzf &Ydk ef taMumif;ay:cJah omf uk, d t f *Fguko d m pGev Yf w T \ f / toufuu dk m; rpGev Yf w T af y/ wpfzef olawmfaumif;w&m;ESihf uk, d t f *Fgç pnf;pdrOf pömç toufww dYk iG f wpfbufbufudk pGev Yf w T zf &Ydk ef taMumif;ay:cJah omf uk, d t f *Fgukv d nf;aumif;ç pnf;pdrOf pömukv d nf;aumif;ç toufuv dk nf;aumif; tm;vk;H ukd pGev Yf w T \ f / olawmfaumif; w&m;uku d m; rpGev Yf w T af y/ toufuo dk m pGet Yf ?hH oDvukd rpGet Yf ?hH toufuo dk m pGet Yf ?hH olawmfaumif;w&m;ukd rpGet Yf /hH þuJhokdYaom pdwfxm;rsKd;um; olawmfaumif;w&m;ESifh


apwem\pGrf;tm; : 83

jynfph aHk tmif BuKd ;yrf;&mü r&Sd rjzpf vkt d yfonfh pdwaf epdwx f m;rsK;d yif jzpfonf/ tarSmifrS tarSmifoaYdk &mufatmifç tarSmifrS tvif;ok-Yd a&mufatmifç tvif;rS tarSmifokdYa&mufatmifç tvif;rS tvif;okaYd &mufatmif ykaYd qmifay;aeaom w&m;rSm apwemuHw&m;yif jzpf\/ ,if;okjYd zpfvQif apwemESihf pdwu å P © wpfck twGif;0,f twl,SOfwGJ jzpfMuonfh &m*ç a'goç arm[ (okrYd [kw)f tavmbç ta'goç tarm[ ponf ,SOzf uforÜ,kwfw&m;pkwkdYonfvnf; uHrrnfavoavm[k ar;&ef &S\ d / apwemESihf ,SOzf uforÜ,w k w f &m;wko Yd nfvnf; uHrnfMuonfom jzpfayonf/ ,if;,SOfzuforÜ,kwfw&m;wkdYu uHwpfcu k dk jzLatmif (okUd r[kw)f rnf;atmif ta&mifcs,af y;aeaom w&m;pkwYdk jzpfMu\/ ,if;oabmw&m;ukd oabmayguf Ekid &f ef atmufyg t*Fw k &å edum,f pwkueú yd gwf ur®0*fü vm&S-d aom aomPum,eokweå f udk qufvufum zwf½MI unfyh g/ aomPum,eokweå f xkt d cg (OD;xdyt f v,fü qHx;Hk xk;H xm;aom) odcgarm*¾v’mefyP k mÖ ;onf jrwfpmG bk&m;&Si\ f xHawmfarSmufodk Y csO;f uyfí jrwfpmG bk&m;&SiEf iS t hf wl 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om EIwq f ufpum; ajymqk\ d / 0rf;ajrmufz, G f trSw&f zG,pf um;ukd ajymqkNd y;D qk;H apNy;D í wpfcak om ae&mü xkid v f suf jrwfpmG bk&m;&Sit f m; --toQiaf *gwr ,cifh ,cifaeYwüYdk aomPum,evkvifonf wynfhawmfxHokdY csOf;uyfum --- ]]&[ef;a*gwronf uHtm;vk;H ukd rjyK&[k ynwf\? uHtm;vk;H wku Yd dk rjyK&[k ynwfolonf owåavmu\ jywfpjJ cif; = Oapä't,l0g'ukd ajymqk&d m


84 : "r®pmpOf

a&muf\/ toQiaf *gwr þowåavmuonf uHoabm &S\ d / uHudk tm;xkwjf cif;aMumifh wnf\}}[k wynfah wmfonf þpum;ukd qkdygonf[k avQmufxm;\/ (uHukd tm;xkwfygrS omvQif owå0gonf wnfwEhH idk \ f / uHudk tm;rxkwcf ahJ omf rwnfwEhH idk ?f jywfp\ J [k qkv d \ dk /) (tH? |? 2? 392/) xkt d cg jrwfpmG bk&m;&Siu f atmufygtwkid ;f rdefMY um;awmfrl ayonf/ --'g,umawmfyP k mÖ ; ...aomPum,evkvifudk jrifz;l onfrQuv dk nf; igbk&m;&Sio f nf rodpzl;yg/ þoko Yd abm&Sad om pum;ukd ajyma[monf[laom taMumif;t&monfum; tb,frmS vQif jzpfEidk yf gtHeh nf;/ 'g,umawmfyP k mÖ ;...igbk&m;&Siu f , dk af wmfwidk f xl;aom ÓPfawmfjrwfjzifh rsuaf rSmufjyKí igbk&m;a[mMum;tyfaom uHwdko Y nf þav;rsK;d wkw Yd nf;/ tb,fav;rsK;d wdeYk nf;[lrl --1/'g,umawmfyP k mÖ ; ... rnf;npfí rnf;npfaom tusK;d &So d nfh uHonf &S\ d / 2/'g,umawmfyP k mÖ ; ...jzLpifí jzLpifaom tusK;d &Sd onfh uHonf &S\ d / 3/'g,umawmfyP k mÖ ; ...rnf;npf + jzLpifí rnf;npf + jzLpifaom tusK;d &So d nfh uHonf &S\ d / 4/'g,umawmfyP k mÖ ; ...rrnf;npf + rjzLpifí rrnf; npf rjzLpifaom tusK;d &So d nfh uHonf &S\ d / 1/ trnf;uH (uPSur®) 'g,umawmfyP k mÖ ; ...rnf;npfí rnf;npfaom tusK;d -


apwem\pGrf;tm; : 85

&Sdonfh uH[lonf tb,fenf;/ 'g,umawmfykPÖm; ... þavmuü tcsKUd aY omolonf tjypf&adS om um,ocFg& (= um,'Gg&üjzpfaom tukokdvfapwemukd) jyKpkysKd;axmif\? tjypf&adS om 0pDocFg& (= 0pD'gG &ü jzpfaom tukov dk af pwemuk)d jyKpyk sK;d axmif\? tjypf&adS om raemocFg& (= raem'Gg&üjzpfaom tukov dk af pwemuk)d jyKpyk sK;d axmif\/ (um,'kp½ku d f okH;yg;ç 0pD'kp½kdufav;yg;ç raem'kp½kdufokH;yg;[laom 'kp½kduf q,fyg;wku Yd dk jyKpyk sK;d axmif\/) xko d o l nf tjypf&adS om um,ocFg&ukd jyKpyk sK;d axmifaom aMumifçh tjypf&adS om 0pDocFg&ukd jyKpyk sK;d axmifaomaMumifçh tjypf&Sd aom raemocFg&ukd jyKpyk sK;d axmifaomaMumifçh tjypf&Sad om avmuü (= qif;&J twdjzpfaom avmuü) jzpf&\/ tjypf&adS om avmuü jzpfvwfaomf xko d u l dk tjypf&adS om awGUxdjcif; ]]zó}}wkdo Y nf ('kut © wdjzpfaom awGUxdjcif; = zówkd-Y onf) awGUxduek \ f / tjypf&adS om awGUxdjcif; ]]zó}}jzifh awGUxdvwfaomf xko d o l nf i&Jüjzpfaom owå0gwku Yd o hJ dkY tjypf&adS om pifppfqif;&Jonfh a0'emukd cHpm;&\/ 'g,umawmfykPÖm; ...þuHrsK;d udk rnf;npfí rnf;npfaom tusK;d &Sad om uH[k qkdtyf\/ 2/ tjzLuH (okuúur®) 'g,umawmfyP k mÖ ; ...jzLpifí jzLpifaom tusK;d &So d nfh uH[o l nf tb,fenf;/ 'g,umawmfyP k mÖ ; ...þavmuü tcsKUd aomolonf tjypfr&Sad om um,ocFg&ukd (= um,'Gg&ü jzpfaom ukov dk af pwemuk)d jyKpyk sK;d axmif\? tjypfr&Sad om 0pDocFg&ukd (= 0pD'gG &ü jzpfaom ukov dk af pwemuk)d jyKpyk sK;d -


86 : "r®pmpOf

axmif\? tjypfr&Sad om raemocFg&ukd (= raem'Gg&üjzpfaom ukov dk af pwemuk)d jyKpyk sK;d axmif\/ (okp½ku d q f ,fyg;ukd jznf-h usifh\/) xko d o l nf tjypfr&Sad om um,ocFg&ukd jyKpyk sK;d axmifaomaMumifhç tjypfr&Sdaom 0pDocFg&ukd jyKpkysKd;axmifaom aMumifçh tjypfr&Sad om raemocFg&ukd jyKpyk sK;d axmifaomaMumifçh tjypfr&Sdaom avmuü jzpf&\/ tjypfr&Sdaom avmuü jzpfvwfaomf xko d u l dk tjypfr&Sad om (= csr;f omaom) awGUxdjcif; ]]zó}}wko Yd nf awGUxduek \ f / tjypfr&Sad om awGUxdjcif; ]]zó}}wkYdjzifh awGUxdvwfaomf xko d o l nf okbudPmS jA[®mwdk-Y uJo h dk Y tjypfr&Sad om pifppfcsr;f omonfh a0'emukd cHpm;&\/ 'g,umawmfyP k mÖ ; ...þuHudk jzLpifí jzLpifaom tusK;d &S-d onfh uH[k qkt d yf\/ (a&Tw;Hk a&Tcu J o hJ Ydk NyKd ;NyKd ;jyufjyuf ta&mif wvufvuf awmufyaom uk, d af &mifu, dk 0f gwdjYk zifh a&m>yrf;vsuf awmufyvsu&f adS om wwd,psmefo;Hk bkw H w Ykd iG f tjrifq h ;Hk jA[®mukd okbudPmS jA[®m[k qko d nf/) (tbd? |? 2? 503/) 3/ trnf; + tjzLuH (= uPSokuúuH) 'g,umawmfyP k mÖ ; ...rnf;npf + jzLpifí rnf;npf + jzLpifaom tusK;d &So d nfh uH[o l nf tb,fenf;/ 'g,umawmfyP k mÖ ; ...þavmuü tcsKUd aomolonf tjypf&dS + r&Sd a&maESmaom um,ocFg&ukd (= um,'Gg&ü jzpfaom tjypf&Sdaom tukokdvfapwem + tjypfr&Sdaom ukov dk af pwemuk)d jyKpyk sK;d axmif\? tjypf&dS + r&Sd a&maESmaom 0pDocFg&ukd jyKpyk sK;d axmif\? tjypf&dS + r&Sd a&maESmaom raemocFg&ukd jyKpyk sK;d axmif\? xko d o l nf tjypf&dS + r&Sd a&maESm-


apwem\pGrf;tm; : 87

aom um,ocFg&ukd jyKpyk sK;d axmifaomaMumifçh tjypf&dS + r&Sd a&maESmaom 0pDocFg&ukd jyKpyk sK;d axmifaomaMumifçh tjypf&dS + r&Sd a&maESmaom raemocFg&ukd jyKpyk sK;d axmifaomaMumifh tjypf&dS + r&Sd a&maESmaom avmuü jzpf&\/ tjypf&dS + r&Sd a&maESmaom avmuü jzpfvwfaomf xko d u l dk tjypf&dS + r&Sd a&maESmaom awGUxdjcif; ]]zó}} wkdo Y nf awGUxduek \ f / tjypf&dS + r&Sd a&maESmaom awGUxdjcif; ]]zó}} wkd Yjzifh awGUxdvwfaomf xko d o l nf vlEiS hf tcsKUd aomewf tcsKUd aom a0rmeduNyw d må wk-Yd uJo h dkY csr;f om + qif;&J NyKd ;>yrf;aom a0'emukd cHpm;&\/ 'g,um awmfyP k mÖ ; ...þuHudk rnf;npf + jzLpifí rnf;npf + jzLpifaom tusK;d &Sad om uH[k qkt d yf\/ 4/ rrnf; + rjzLonfhuH (= tuPS + tokuúuH) (= ur®u©,uH = uHukdukefaponfhuH) 'g,umawmfyP k mÖ ; ...rrnf;npf + rjzLpifí rrnf;npf + rjzLpifaom tusK;d &So d nfh uHuek q f ;Hk &efjzpfaom uH[o l nf tb,fenf;/ 'g,umawmfyP k mÖ ; ...xku d w H w Ydk iG f rnf;npfí rnf;npf aom tusKd;&Sdaom uHukd y,f&Sm;&ef aphaqmfwwfonfh = 0#fuif;&medAmÁ efoYdk a&mufapwwfonfh + jzLpifí jzLpifaom tusK;d &Sad om uHudk y,f&mS ;&ef aphaqmfwwfonfh = 0#fuif;&m edAÁmefokd Y a&mufapwwfonfh t&d,r*f ukokdvfapwemukd rrnf;npf + rjzLpifí rrnf;npf + rjzLpifaom tusK;d &So d nfh uHuek q f ;Hk &efjzpfaom uH[k qkt d yf\/ 'g,umawmfyP k mÖ ; ...uk, d w f idk x f ;l aom ÓPfjzifh rsu-f arSmufjyKí igbk&m;&Sif a[mMum;awmfrt l yfaom uHwo Ydk nf


88 : "r®pmpOf

þav;rsK;d wkw Yd nf;[k rdeMYf um;awmfr\ l /

(aomPum,eokwf? tH?

1? 555-556/)

uHukdukefapwwfonfh = ur®u©,uH 1/ aomwmywård *f ukov dk af pwemonf tyg,foYdk a&muf apwwfonfh tukov dk u f rH eS o f rQudk ukeaf p\/ 2/ou'g*grdr*f ukov dk af pwemonf vlbüHk wpfBurd -f xuf ykí d jzpfapEkid o f nfh ukov dk u f rH eS o f rQudk ukeaf p\/ 3/tem*grdr*fÓPfonf umrok*wdbüHk jzpfapwwf onfh ukov dk u f rH eS o f rQudk ukeaf p\/ 4/t&[wår*fÓPfonf ok*wdbw Hk üYdk jzpfapwwfonfh uHtm;vk;H wku Yd dk ukeaf p\/ xkad Mumifh t&d,r*fapwemwku Yd dk ur®u, © uH = ukov dk u f H + tukokdvfuHwkdYukd ukefapwwfonfh uH[lí ac:qkd\/ okp½ku d f (10)yg;wkw Yd iG f yg0ifaom or®m'd|d pm&if;wGif þt&d,r*¾ or®m'd|w d u Ydk m; txGwt f xdyo f Ydk a&muf&adS eaom or®m'd|w d Ydk jzpfMu\/ udavom tnpftaMu;wkrYd S uif;a0;pify jzLpifvSaom or®m'd|w d Ykd jzpfMu\/ ,kwfnHhol + jrifhjrwfoljzpfatmif ur®óum rmP0 owåm ur®'g,m'g ur®a,meD ur®AE¨L ur®y#Ü o d &Pm ur®H oawå 0dbZwd ,'d'H [DeyÜPw D wm,/ (r? 3? 244/)

= 'g,umawmf okbvkvif ...owå0gwko Yd nf uHomvQif rdr\ d uk, d yf idk Of pöm &SMd uuke\ f ? uH\tarGcw H o Ydk m jzpfMu uke\ f ? uHomvQif taMumif;&if; &Sd Muuke\ f ? uHomvQif taqG-


apwem\pGrf;tm; : 89

cifyGef; &Sd Muukef\? uHomvQif rSDckdtm;xm;&m &SdMuukef\? owå0gwdu Yk kd ,kwn f o hH jl zpfatmifç jrifjh rwfojl zpfatmif uHuomvQif cGjJ cm;a0zefay;\/ (r? 3? 244/) rnf;npfaom uHwu Ydk owå0gwku Yd dk ,kwn f o hH jl zpfatmifç jzLpifaom uHwu Ydk owå0gwku Yd dk jrifjh rwfojl zpfatmif cGjJ cm;a0zefay;\/ okdYaomf rrnf; + rjzLonfh t&d,r*fuHwkdYu ,if;jrifhjrwfol owå0gwkdYukd edAÁmefokdY wpfqifha&mufatmif ykdaY qmifay;Mu\/ tkad b;qk;d Bu;D rS vGwaf tmifç emab;qk;d Bu;D rS vGwaf tmifç aoab;qk;d Bu;D rS vGwaf tmif aemufxyfwpfzef y#doaE¨wnfae&rnfh ab;qkd;BuD;rS vGwfatmif ab;'ku© t00wk\ Yd uif;&m uke&f m csKy&f m Nird ;f &mjzpfaom tNird ;f Bu;D Nird ;f tat;Bu;D at;&mjzpfonfh rao&m tNrKd uef Ad mÁ efoYdk a&mufatmif ykaYd qmifay;Mu\/ toifa,m*g0p& yk*Kd¾ vo f jl rwfonf tb,fvrf;okYd vku d -f rnfenf;¿ a&G;cs,&f ef tcsed o f u Ydk m; a&muf&adS eayNyD r[kwyf g avm¿ BuKd ;pm;u bk&m;jzpfEidk \ f .../

zm;atmufawm&q&mawmf pdwåvawmifausmif; - zm;atmufawm&? 1366-ck? jymodkvqef; 1-&uf? «10 . 1 . 2005/»


90 : "r®pmpOf

Why? How can you find delight and mirth Where there is burning without end? In deepest darkness you are wrapped! Why do you not seek for the light? ~ Buddha

tjrrJ jywf udavomrD; wnD;nD; awmufavmifae ygvsuf tb,faMumifh oifwYkd aysmjf rL;&,f&iT af ebd oenf;? tb,faMumifh ESpv f 0kd rf;omjcif; jzpfaebdoenf;? trSeu f kd rodjcif;wnf;[laom t0dZmÆ trdu k af rSmifBu;D ydwfqD;aeygvsuf tb,faMumifh ynmwnf;[laom qDr;D a&mifukd oifwYkd r&SmbJ aeMuygukeo f enf;/ ~ jrwfA'k ¨


qefYusifbufw&m;rsm; : 91

:

vlaMumifh vlaumif;jzpfonf r[kwo f vdk vlaMumifh vlru kd jf zpfonfvnf; r[kwaf y/ udavomw&m;qd;k wdu Yk kd ESyd u f yG q f ;kH rEdik jf cif;aMumifh vlaumif;tjzpf jrif&jcif;om jzpfNy;D ? udavomw&m;qd;k wdu Yk kd rESyd u f yG f rqH;k rEdik jf cif;aMumifh vlru kd t f jzpf jrif&jcif;om jzpfonf/ (ESm- /)


92 : "r®pmpOf

qefu Y sib f ufw&m;rsm; rodolwdkY\ aysmfcGifh aeYEiS n hf ç tvif;ESit hf arSmifç tjzLESit hf rnf;ç taumif;ESihf tqd;k ç trSeEf iS t hf rSm;ç ukov kd Ef iS t hf ukov kd pf onfh toH;k tEIe;f wdo Yk nf qefu Y sib f uf jzpfpOfwu Ykd kd azmfjyaeMu\/ aeYEiS n hf ç tvif;ESit hf arSmifç tjzLESit hf rnf; cGzJ Ykd rcufay/ aeYEiS n f ç tvif;ESit hf arSmif uGjJ ym;ouJo h Ykd taumif;ESihf tqd;k ç trSeEf iS t hf rSm;wdu Yk kd tjrcJ EJG ikd Mf uonfawmh r[kwaf y/ todÓPf&o dS l vlom;wdo Yk nfyif ukov kd Ef iS t hf ukov kd u f kd uGu J JG jym;jym; rodEikd f jzpfwwfMu\/ xdaYk Mumifyh if w&m;aom trI rw&m;aomtrIwu Ykd kd xdo k w l Ykd jyKaeMuonf r[kwaf vm/ trSef rodrIaMumifh ukodkvfudk tukodkvf[lí tukodkvfudk


qefYusifbufw&m;rsm; : 93

ukov kd [ f í l ,lqvkyu f ikd cf iG hf &aeMu\/ rodonft h wGuf rodolwkdY avmuü aysmcf iG &hf Mujcif; jzpfonf/ Oyrmaqmifí qd&k ygrl --txifBu;D jcif;udk ]rme}[k qd\ k / txifBu;D jcif; ]rme}ESihf ,HMk unfjcif; ]o'¨g}udk ruGMJ u/ xdak Mumifyh if rdru d , kd u f kd txifBu;D jcif;udk rdrdudk,fudk ,HkMunfjcif;[k rSwf,lusifhoHk;aeolrsm; avmuü &Sad e&jcif; jzpfonf/ xdo k Ykd usio hf ;kH aejcif;onf rodí jzpfonf/ rodow l \ Ykd trSm;jzifh aysmcf iG w hf pfrsK;d [kvnf; qd&k \/ qHkEdkifcGifhr&Sdaom w&m;rsm; ,HMk unfjcif;onf ukov kd af pwoduf jzpfNy;D rmeonfum; tukov kd af pwoduo f m jzpfonf/ rdru d , kd u f kd txifBu;D jcif; rmeudk rdru d , kd u f kd ,HMk unfjcif;o'¨g[k rSw, f jl cif;onf tukov kd -f ESihf ukov kd f ruGjJ cif; jzpfonf/ tukov kd u f kd ukov kd [ f í l rSw, f -l jcif;ESiv hf nf; wl\/ tukov kd o f nf ukov kd f rjzpfEikd o f uJo h Ykd ukov kd o f nfvnf; tukov kd f rjzpfEikd af y/ rsO;f Nyd Kio f mG ;aeonfh w&m;rsm; jzpfMuí qHEk ikd cf iG rhf &Sad om w&m;rsm;om jzpfMuonf/ ukov kd w f &m;[lorQonf yGm;rsm;&rnfw h &m; wd;k yGm;atmif usi&hf rnfh w&m;rsm;om jzpfMuNy;D tukov kd w f &m;wdo Yk nfum; ESdyfuGyf&rnfhw&m; ,kwfavsmhatmif jyK&rnfh w&m;rsm;om jzpfMuayonf/ rdru d , kd u f kd txifBu;D jcif;udk rdru d , kd u f kd ,HMk unfjcif;[k rSw, f al ejcif;onf ,kwaf vsmah tmif jyK&rnfw h &m;udk wd;k yGm;atmif jyK&rnfw h &m;tjzpf rSw, f al ejcif;ESihf wl\/ ESyd u f yG f &rnfw h &m;udk yGm;rsm;aejcif;ESiv hf nf; wl\/ trSeu f dk trSm;ç trSm;udk trSe[ f k jrifatmif jyKwwfonfh t0dZmÆ \ vufcsuyf if jzpfonf/ 0dZÆmÓPftvif; r&ao;orQ t0dZÆm tarSmifxk


94 : "r®pmpOf

twGi;f ü prf;w0g;0g; avQmufvrS ;f aeMu&rnf jzpfonf/ r*¾i&f pS yf g; tusijhf rwfw&m;udk pepfwus usiMhf uEH ikd í f r*fÓPf zdv k Ó f Pf qdu k yf grlum; 0dZmÆ ÓPf tvif;"mwfukd &í t0dZmÆ tarSmifxt k wGi;f prf;w0g;0g; avQmufvrS ;f cGiv hf nf; tNy;D wdik f &yfwefrY nf jzpfonf/ aMumufrufzG,ftaumif;qHk; tarSmif tarSmifxt k wGi;f ü avQmufvrS ;f vdo k l r&Sad y? xdkaY Mumifyh if tvif;a&mifukd n§x d eG ;f vsuf avQmufvrS ;f zdk&Y ef tm;xkwMf u\/ tarSmifudk aMumufaomaMumifh tvif;udk n§x d eG ;f zdYk tod owd0ifMujcif; jzpfonf/ t0dZmÆ tarSmifxt k wGi;f avQmufvrS ;f ae&onfuu kd m; aMumuf&HG UolwYkd r&Sv d /S obm0tarSmifxuf tvGeaf Mumufrufz, G af umif;aom tarSmifxt k wGi;f avQmufvrS ;f ae&onfh rdrw d \ Ykd b0rSeu f v kd nf; rodMu/ xdaYk Mumifyh if obm0tarSmifukd aMumufouJo h Ykd aMumuf&aumif;rSe;f rodEikd f jzpf&jcif; jzpfonf/ t0dZmÆ tarSmifx\ k aMumufrufz, G t f wd jzpfyu kH kd odzv Ydk \ kd / owå0gwdkY rcsdnd§K;EGrf; yifyef;aeMu&jcif;onf owå0gwdYk rcsn d K§d ;EGr;f yifyef;aeMu&jcif;onf trSerf odrI t0dZmÆ aMumifh jzpfNy;D ç trdu k Bf u;D rdu k f trSm;Bu;D rSm;aeMu&jcif;onfvnf; trSefrodrI t0dZÆmaMumifhyif jzpfonf/ t0dZÆm tarSmifxktwGif; avQmufvSrf;aeolwdkY\ b0rS 0dZÆmÓPf tvif;"mwfukd &í xm0&tvif;udk aqmifEikd o f l jzpfatmif BuKd ;pm;zdYk vd\ k / 0dZmÆ ÓPf tvif;"mwfukd n§x d eG ;f zdYk tod owd0ifMuapvdjk cif; jzpfonf/


qefYusifbufw&m;rsm; : 95

aerif; yGix hf eG ;f vmonft h cg ntarSmif aysmufí aea&mif qdwfokOf;oGm;onfhtcg ntarSmif a&mufonfyif/ þjzpfpOfonf aeYEiS n hf tvif;ESit hf arSmifukd cGjJ cm;jyaeaom jzpfpOfwpfck jzpfonf/ obm0w&m;onfyif tjrJ arSmifciG rhf &? vif;&\/ tjrJ vif;cGirhf &? arSmif&jyef\/ þjzpfpOfukd obm0w&m;\ obm0twdik ;f jzpfaom obm0twdik ;f usio hf ;kH aom jzpfpOf[k em;vnfEikd af yonf/ ukov kd jf zpfu tukov kd rf jzpf? tukov kd jf zpfuvnf; ukodv k f rjzpfay/ þodYk jzpfjcif;onfvnf; obm0jzpfpOf wpfcyk if jzpfonf/ aeYEiS n hf tvif;ESit hf arSmifuo hJ Ykd ajymif;vJjzpfaejcif; jzpfNy;D þjzpfpOfukd vufcu H sio hf ;kH aeorQ þjzpfpOf twGi;f üyif usiv f nfMu&ayrnf/ ukov kd t f usK;d ay;u ok*wdbo Hk Ykd OD;vSní hf tukov kd t f usK;d ay;rlum; 'k*w ¾ b d o kH Ykd OD;vSn&hf ayrnf/ aeYEiS n hf ajymif;ouJo h Ykd ajymif;vJaeonfh ajymif;vJrjI zpfpOfxuf rvGe-f aom jzpfpOfom jzpfNy;D ukov kd t f usK;d ay;ESihf tukov kd t f usK;d ay;rIxuf rvGeaf om jzpfpOf[í l vnf; qdEk ikd \ f / 0dZmÆ ÓPf tvif;"mwfukd &&Sjd cif;um; r[kwaf o;ay/ t0dZmÆ tarSmifxk twGi;f ü prf;w0g;0g; avQmufvrS ;f cGihu f kd &&Sq d o J m jzpf\/ t0dZmÆ tarSmifxt k wGi;f ü avQmufvrS ;f aeorQ ukov dk Ef iS t hf ukov kd u f kd jyKjzpfaeMuOD;rnf jzpfayonf/ wPSm\tvdkEkdifiHodkY vdkufygae&olrsm; 0dZmÆ ÓPf tvif;"mwf r&ao;onfh ywåjrm;xGi;f orm;Bu;D \ t&Siw f ó d rax&f tay: trSm;Bu;D rSm;cJyh u kH kd owdr-l oifah yonf/ ywåjrm;&wemudk taMumif;jyKí oHCm&wemudk wefz;kd rxm;Edik cf ahJ om jzpf&yfwpfck jzpfonf/ wefz;kd rxm;jcif;ESihf


96 : "r®pmpOf

wefzdk;xm;jcif;[laom qefYusifbufw&m;wdkYonf t0dZÆm tarSmifxt k wGi;f avQmufvrS ;f aeolwYkd ajymif;vJusio hf ;kH wwfonfh ajymif;vJrjI zpfpOf wpfck jzpfonf/ t0dZmÆ tarSmifxk twGif;ü avQmufvSrf;aeolwdkY\ tBudKufobm0onfum; wPSmusufpm;&m tm½HkxdkxdkwdkYom jzpfMuNyD; t0dZÆmaMumifh wPSmBud Ku&f m tm½Hu k kd wefz;kd xm;wwfí t0dZmÆ aMumifyh if wPSmrBud Ku&f m tm½Hu k kd wefz;kd rxm; jzpfwwfMuayonf/ b0udk wG,w f mwyfrufonfh b0eduEÅw d PSmjzifh b0&vmolrsm;yDyD wPSm\tvdo k Ykd tjrv J u kd yf gaeMu&\/ EGm;wd-Yk onf armif;ESifonfh ESifwH\tvdkodkY vdkufygaeMu&ouJhodkY tvH;k pHak omowå0gwdo Yk nf rdrw d u Ykd kd armif;ESiaf eonfh wPSm\ tvdEk idk if o H Ykd vdu k yf gaeMu&\/ t&Siw f ó d rax&f[o l nf ywåjrm;xGi;f orm; ZeD;armifEHS wYkd MunfnKd í qGr;f qufuyfvLS 'gef; qnf;uyfaeaom oHCmawmfwpfyg;om jzpfonf/ wpfq,fEh pS Ef pS w f ikd w f ikd f rdrw d \ Ykd tdrüf yif qGr;f qufuyf vSL'gef;vsuf xdrk ax&f\ cs;D ajrm§ ufru I kd ESpaf xmif; tm;& cH,al eMuolrsm; jzpfMuonf/ oHCm&wemtjzpf qnf;uyf vkyaf uR;aeMujcif; jzpfonf/ ywåjrm;xGi;f jcif;onf ywåjrm;xGi;f ol\ toufarG;0rf;aMumif;ynm jzpfonf/ xdaYk Mumifh ywåjrm;xGi;f olxo H Ykd ywåjrm; xGi;f vdo k w l Ykd vmMu\/ b0&yfwnfa&;twGuf tvkyv f yk u f ikd Mf u&aom owå0gwdüYk vlvnf; yg\/ vlom;wdo Yk nf pm;csed pf m;Muí tdycf sed f tdyMf u\? pm;csed f pm;Edik zf kdY tvkyv f yk cf sed üf tvkyv f yk Mf u&ouJo h Ukd pm;csed pf m;Edik zf Ykd csujf yKwcf sed üf csujf yKwMf u&\/ ywåjrm;xGi;f ol


qefYusifbufw&m;rsm; : 97

'g,umBu;D onfvnf; pm;csed pf m;Edik zf Ykd csujf yKwzf &Ykd ef jyifqifae\/ tom;wdu Yk kd ckwv f ;DS aejcif; jzpfonf/ xdt k csed üf rax&fBu;D vnf; a&mufEiS ahf eNy;D rax&fBu;D \ ta&SUüyif ckwv f ;DS aejcif; jzpfonf/ 'g,um\ þtm;xkwfrIonf pm;zdkYESifh vSL'gef;zdkY [laom tzdEYk pS cf t k wGuf jyifqifaejcif; jzpfonf/ avmbESihf tavmb[laom qefu Y sib f ufw&m;ESpcf t k wGuf jyifqifaejcif;[kvnf; qdEk ikd \ f / xdt k csed üf yif om0w¬jd ynf&h iS f yaoe'Daumovrif;Bu;D xHrS yGwx f iG ;f zd&Yk ef ywåjrm;udk ydv Yk m\/ tom;udk ckwv f ;DS aeonfh 'g,um\ vufwo Ykd nf aoG;wdjYk zifh ayusaH eNy;D xdv k ufjzifyh if ywåjrm;udk ,lvsuf yjcKyw f pfv;kH ay:odYk wifvu kd \ f / ayusaH eonfh aoG;wdu Yk kd aq;aMumrnfqo kd nfh &nf&, G cf sujf zifh tdr-f twGi;f odYk 0ifomG ;pOfcPü ¤if;arG;jrLxm;onfh BuKd ;MumiSuo f nf aoG;ayusaH eonfh ywåjrm;vH;k udk tom;wH;k [k rSwx f ifvsuf aumufNrKd awmhonf/ rdr\ d a&S UarSmufü jzpfysuo f mG ;aom xd-k tjcif;t&m tm;vH;k udk rax&fBu;D onf awGUae&\/ teHo Y nm aMumifh BudK;MumiSuf trSm;jyKrdjcif; jzpfonf/ onmrSm;jcif; aMumifh uHMur®mwpfrsK;d zefvmwwfonfyif/ tjypf&Smwwfaom rsufvHk; vufaq;aMumNy;D í jyefxu G v f maom 'g,um\ rsuv f ;kH wdu Yk ywåjrm;wifc&hJ m yjcKyq f o D Ykd OD;vSnv fh u kd Mf u\/ yjcKyaf y:ü ywåjrm;udk rawGU&awmh? b,frsm; a&mufomG ;oenf;? b,fo-l rsm; ,lomG ;oenf;ponfh tawG;rsm; 0ifa&mufvm\/ ZeD;onfudk ar;jref;Munf\ h ? r,laMumif; tajzudk &\/ om;orD;wdu Yk kd vnf; ar;jref;jyef\? rdrw d kdY r,lrí d r,lryd g[líom ajzqdMk u\/


98 : "r®pmpOf

olwdkY r,lvQif ,lolwpfOD;awmh &Sd&ayrnfaygh ? ar;zdkY oHo,jzpfzYkd rnfol useaf o;oenf;/ aMomf ...olwYkd r,lr-S awmh useo f l wpfO;D om &S\ d / qGr;f bkO;f <u rax&f ...'Drax&f ,lonf jzpfrnf[k pdwt f MuH jzpfay:vm\/ xdpk w d jf zifh ZeD;onf\ oabmwlnDrIudk ,lMunfh\? ]]cspfZeD; ...ywåjrm;udk 'Drax&f,w l m jzpf&rnf}}[k rdr\ d txifukd ajym\/ xdt k cg ZeD;onfu ]]t&Si.f ..wpfq,fEh pS Ef pS w f m umvywfv;kH rax&fBu;D \ tjypfwpfpw kH &mudk a&S;ü rawGUcJph zl;yg? þodYk rawG; rMuyH gvif}h }[k taMumif;tusK;d jyvsuf ajzmif;jz ajymqdo k nfyif/ a'goaMumifh qdkxGuf qdk&ufonfom ywåjrm;xGi;f orm; 'g,umtzdYk rnfol ,lonfukd odz-Ykd onfom y"me jzpfonf/ ZeD;onf\ ajzmif;jzpum;onfvnf; em;xJ r0ifawmh/ pGyfpGJaom tar;pum;jzifh rax&fjrwfudk ar;rd\? ]]t&Sib f &k m; ...þae&mü xm;aom ywåjrm;udk ,lygoavm?}} ]]bke;f Bu;D r,lyg 'g,um}} þonf rax&fBu;D \ tajzpum; jzpfonf/ ywåjrm;xGi;f orm; 'g,um\ pdww f Ykd Aavmifqal eayNy?D om0w¬jd ynf&h iS f yaoe'Daumovrif;Bu;D \ ywåjrm;&wemvnf; jzpfaeonf r[kwaf vm/ rif;jypfrif;'Pfuv kd nf; aMumuf &GHUayrnfaygh/ xdaYk Mumifyh if pdwu f kd xde;f csKyí f r&awmh? oHo,a'gowdYk 0ifvm\? ]]t&Sib f &k m;...þae&mü t&Sib f &k m;rS vGí J wpfjcm;wpfyg;aomolrnfonf r&Syd g? ywåjrm;udk ,loo l nf t&Sifbk&m;onfom jzpf&ayrnf? ywåjrm;udk jyefay;yg}}[k a'goaMumifh qdx k u G f qd&k ufav\/ 0dZmÆ ÓPftvif; ruGeYfjrL;ao;olw\ Ykd wPSmwkev f yI jf cif;onf tvGef aMumufrufz, G f


qefYusifbufw&m;rsm; : 99

aumif;aom tjcif;t&mwdu Yk kd jzpfay:apwwfonfyif/ oufrJhypönf;atmuf ra&mufoifhaom vlYwefzdk; ZeD;onf &S&d modYk vSní hf ]]'D&[ef;Bu;D onfom ywåjrm;udk ,lwm? olu Y kd n§O;f yef;ESyd pf ufNy;D ar;rS jzpfawmhrnf}}[k a'goaMumifh qdjk yef\/ xdt k cg ZeD;onfrS ]]t&Si.f ..tuREykf w f t Ykd m; rzsuq f ;D ygvif?h ywåjrm; aysmufq;kH oGm;Nyq D u kd bk&ifrif;Bu;D xH uRet f jzpfjzifh tuREyfk w f Ykd uyfa&muf cH,jl cif;om jrwfyg\? rax&fjrwftm; xdo k Ykd jyKvjkd cif;onf roifyh g}}[k awmif;yef ajymqd\ k / oHo,a'go ESyd pf ufcaH e&onfh cifyeG ;f onfjzpfo-l url ]]igwdt Yk m;vH;k uRet f jzpf uyfa&mufaomfvnf; ywåjrm;\ wefz;kd udk rDonfr[kw}f }[k qdv k suf rax&f Bu;D \ OD;acgif;udk BuKd ;jzifh csnw f yk Nf y;D wkwv f w SH jH zifh OD;acgif;udk ½du k Ef u S af wmhonf/ rax&f\ OD;acgif; em; ESmacgif;wdrYk S aoG;wdYk ,dpk ;D usvmMu\? rsuv f ;kH wdo Yk nfvnf; tjyifox Ykd u G t f ahH om toGio f Ykd a&mufawmh onf/ xdo k aYkd om 'Pf&m'Pfcsuaf Mumifh qif;&Jaom a0'emjzifh xdak e&müyif rax&fjrwfBu;D onf arharsmvsuf ajrBu;D ü Ake;f Ake;f vJcJhavonf/ todÓPfr&Sad om Bud K;MumiSut f zdYk rax&fxrH S ,kpd ;D usvmMuaom aoG;eHaY Mumifh teD;odYk uyfí aoG;udk aomuf\/ rax&fjrwftay: jzpfay:aeonfh a'gotrsuaf Mumifh qifjcifÓPfr&Sí d rod rvdrm® onfh BuKd ;MumiSuu f kd ]]oif tb,fukd jyKavoenf;}}[k ajcjzifh uefxw k v f u kd o f nfyif/ xdw k pfcsu-f wnf;aom uefausmufrjI zifh Bud K;MumiSuv f nf; xdak e&müyif aoyG0J ifcahJ wmhonf/


100 : "r®pmpOf

pGefY&rnfqdku xdt k jcif;t&mudk jrifonfh rax&fjrwfBu;D onf xdBk uKd ;MumiSu\ f ZD0w d ad `E´ jywfprJ I rjywfprJ u I kd odvadk ompdwjf zifh 'g,um tm; ar;jref;\/ ZD0dwda`E´ jywfpJNyDjzpfonfh BudK;MumiSuf\ tjzpfukd odaom 'g,umonf ]]þowå0g aoausysupf ;D ouJo h Ykd oifvnf; aoap&rnf}}[k rdrd olwpfyg; ESpOf ;D om;vH;k udk ysupf ;D apwwfonfh cufxefonfh a'gojzifh rax&ftm; qdck -hJ onfom/ xdktcgrSom xdkBud K;MumiSuf\ ywåjrm;vHk; rsKdxm;onfh tjzpfukd today;awmhonf/ ]]tu,fí BuKd ;MumiSu\ f ZD0-d wda`E´ rjywfpyJ grl oif½u kd Ef u S af om 'Pfcsujf zifh aojcif;udo k m ig ,lrnf jzpfonf? ywåjrm;vH;k udk rsKx d m;onfh BuKd ;MumiSu\ f tjzpfukd today;rnf r[kwyf g...'g,um}}[k rax&fjrwfBu;D qdak wmfrcl o hJ nfyif/ þtjyKtrlwo Ykd nf jrwfpmG bk&m;\ tqH;k trawmfudk OD;xdyf&Gufyefqifvsuf oDvudk jznfhusifhonfh olawmfaumif;wd\ Yk tavhom jzpfonf/ ]]bk&m;&Sit f aejzifh pnf;pdrOf pömESihf ud, k t f *Fgtpdwt f ydik ;f wpfcck u k kd pGe&Yf rnfqu kd pnf;pdrOf pömudo k m pGeaYf pvd\ k / ud, k t f *Fg tpdwt f ydik ;f ESihf oDv wpfcck u k kd pGe&Yf rnfqu kd vnf; ud, k t f *Fgtpdwt f ydik ;f udo k m pGeaYf pvd\ k / toufEiS hf oDv wpfcck u k kd pGe&Yf rnfqu kd toufuo kd m pGeaYf pvd\ k /}} rax&fjrwfBuD;onf jrwfpGmbk&m;\ tqHk;trawmfodkY tpOfvu kd af om olawmfaumif;wd\ Yk tusiu hf kd vufawGUusi-hf vsuf twk,cl iG hf ay;cJo h l jzpfonf/


qefYusifbufw&m;rsm; : 101

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102 : "r®pmpOf

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qefYusifbufw&m;rsm; : 103

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104 : "r®pmpOf

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qefYusifbufw&m;rsm; : 105

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106 : "r®pmpOf

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qefYusifbufw&m;rsm; : 107

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108 : "r®pmpOf

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qefYusifbufw&m;rsm; : 109

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qefYusifbufw&m;rsm; : 111

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qefYusifbufw&m;rsm; : 113

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qefYusifbufw&m;rsm; : 115

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116 : "r®pmpOf

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qefYusifbufw&m;rsm; : 117

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qefYusifbufw&m;rsm; : 119

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qefYusifbufw&m;rsm; : 121

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qefYusifbufw&m;rsm; : 123

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