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R E P O R T O N E N V I R O N M E N TA L I M PA C T O F R O H I N G YA I N F L U X

4.4 AIR QUALIT Y Baseline data on air quality is currently not available. However, the area of influx is hilly and close to the sea, and this geographical location, coupled with the limited amount of industry in the area, means that air quality remains within acceptable limits. Pollution from cars may be a factor in the future; there is relatively heavy tourist traffic from Cox’s Bazar to Teknaf.

4 . 5 S U R FA C E A N D G R O U N D WAT E R Surface water The Moheshkhali Channel, Baak Khali and Naf rivers and Bay of Bengal are the main waterways of the region. The Moheshkhali Channel flows into the Bay of Bengal near Cox’s Bazar and passes the north western boundary of the AoI. The Bakkhali River originates from the Chittagong Hill Tracts and flows into the Bay near Cox’s Bazar. Five other canals run through the hilly hinterland. They are: the Reju, Inani, Mankhali, Rajachora and Mathabanga canals. During winter, the canals become almost dry. Because of the scarcity of fresh water, the region is dependent on ground water sources for its crops and horticulture. Watersheds are presented in Figure 4-1.

Ground water systems Bangladesh is considered rich in ground water resources. Ground water resources are determined by properties of ground water storage reservoirs and volumes of annual recharge. Figure 4-2 below is the ground water zoning map of Bangladesh, 2010. From the map, it can be seen that the ground water level in and around the influx area is shallow. Ground water storage reservoirs are composed of three aquifers in Bangladesh. They are: the upper aquifer or composite aquifer, the main aquifer (at a depth of 6 m to 100 m) and the deep aquifer. With the increased trend of urbanisation and irregular rainfall patterns, surface run-off

has increased in recent times and this is likely to further reduce ground water recharge in all aquifers in the influx area. It is evident from the map that the transmission of the main aquifer is good to excellent over most of the country but it is deteriorating towards the south and the east. In the areas near the coast the water table is descending due to over exploitation.

4.6 SOILS AND TERRAIN Soils The major soil types are red, alluvial, muddy and sandy soil. The soils of the Dupitila formations were formed on unconsolidated and compact rocks, moderately well to excessively drained and probably the oldest of the area28. The soils range from clay to clayey loam on level ground and from sandy loam to coarse sand on hilly land. In the forest areas, the clayey and sandy loams are fertile, and the sandy soil is often infused with iron, resulting in a red or yellowish tinge. The hilly soils developed from un-consolidated rocks are moderately well to excessively well drained, generally deep, and probably the oldest soils in this region, while those occurring on hills from consolidated rocks tend to be formed in weathered sandstones, shales, and siltstones29. The soils developing from the weathered sandstones tend to be sandy loams to clay loams, and those in shales silty clay loams. Generally, the soils of Tipam Surma formations are less acidic in reaction relative to the soils of Dupitila formations30.

Geomorphology Bangladesh is relatively young and situated in a low-lying area with three main geomorphological regions, plain terraces and hills. Most of the area of Bangladesh is a vast low lying alluvial plain, sloping gently to the south and southeast. According to the Ecological Zoning Map of Bangladesh, the influx area falls under the Chittagong Coastal Plain and in terms of physiological formation, the area has lower

28

http://www.sacep.org/pdf/Reports-Technical/2001-State-of-Environment-Report-Bangladesh.pdf

29

Canonizado, J.A. 1999. Integrated forest management plan, Noakhali C/A Division (1999-2008), FRMP TA Component. Mandala Agril. Dev. Crop/FD/MOEF, 1999.

30

Arannayk Foundation. 2013. Biodiversity of Protected Areas of Bangladesh, First edition. The Arannayk Foundation, Dhaka.

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Profile for Zilla Haider

Report on ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF ROHINGYA INFLUX  

This study was initiated by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), the Government of Bangladesh (GoB), and UNDP and UN Women, with...

Report on ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF ROHINGYA INFLUX  

This study was initiated by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), the Government of Bangladesh (GoB), and UNDP and UN Women, with...

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