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OPPORT UNITY

SUPER INFRASTRUCTURES SUPER CITIES SUPER DUTCH -DESIGN REPORT-

ZHU YANLUN


UNITY \ SUPER DUTCH | INTEGRATION

RISK I: THE REFUGEE CRISIS

Europe refugee crisis

TREND: NEW CHANCE

The new asylum seekers' center

RISK 2: PROBLEMATIC CITY

Urban development of Spijkenisse

RISKS AND TRENDS MAP The summary of research

URBAN PLANNING STRATEGY ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY I Plan formation

ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY II Garden and square

CIRCULATION AND TERRACE STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS The learning center

HOUSING UNITS

Concept of community design

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

Reinforced concrete structure

BIBLIOGRAPHY


CONTENTS SYNOPSIS OP \ SUPER INFRASTRUCTURES | INVESTIGATION

THE MACHINIC LANDSCAPE Human exclusion zone

THE PORT OF ROTTERDAM

Automation and hyper regulation

FREIGHTING NETWORK

Port management and operation

AN EXPANDING PORT

Urban development of Rotterdam

AN EXPANDING PORT

Urban development of Rotterdam

PORT \ SUPER CITIES | INTERVENTION

LIVING ON WATER

The natural infrastructure

FEYENOORD CITY Research model

BREAKTHROUGH

Hack and Intervention

A NEW NETWORK

Rdical technology & urban strategy

URBAN METABOLISM

Urban and spatial integration


SYNOPSIS

As the most critical economic structure pillar of Randstad, the port development has been influencing the urban strategy and expansion of the city in Randstad. The machinic landscape created by the hyper-rational infrastructures along the water is incessantly organized and operated by the strong cyber management network. As the most natural as well as the cheapest “infrastructure� and media, water has become the focus of exploring the future mobility method. Spijkenisse is the residential area founded from an agricultural and fishing community for facilitating the westward expansion of the port of Rotterdam and responding to the pressing housing crisis of Rotterdam. With the change of the economic structure of the port and industrial automation resulting in a decreasing demand for employees, the city is not only eager to develop to adapt the green and safe harbor but also explore a new urban strategy and transformation of socio-economic structure to confront the future hyper-connectivity and hyper-digitalization. By understanding the processes of port authority management, this project attempts to create a systematic and experimental waterborne transport network by introducing the radical technology of the driverless vessel in the Rotterdam region to prompt the urban metabolism and transformation of Spijkenisse, attaining balanced and sustainable suburbanization. The mixed-used community in the project connected with the radical technology is going to explore a new housingworking typology to promote engagement and collaboration within the local, new immigrants and visitors, achieving the urban integration.


OP

INVESTIGATION/ SUPER INFRASTRUCTURES


THE MACHINIC LANDSCAPE HUMAN EXCLUSION ZONE

The machinic landscape, such as warehouses, factories, distribution centers, drone hubs, ports and so on, as the backbone of cities, is unceasingly promoting the operation, development and renewal of cities. Although there are far from our sight in the city, each process of our everyday life is invisibly connected with them, from living, working and mobility to production and consumption. The automation and digitalization created by the machinic landscape network will continuously shape our material environment and immaterial ecologies. The machinic landscape is always ignored by the public. However, the vast physical infrastructure as the base of the pillar industry will always be needed in the future, and occupy more urban land. The studio project is attempting to explore Potential and possibilities of these ignored superscale and super-functionalized architecture within the boundaries of the Randstad region.


HUMAN EXCLUSION ZONE The human exclusion zones formed by Industrial zone and logistics zone are completely separated from civic life. The remote location and limited accessibility deter people from approaching them. the reduced demand of employee and human intervention resulted by the current automation and digitalization make it hard to find human beings in these places. The machine runs everything The way to the port of Rotterdam


THE PORT OF ROTTERDAM AUTOMATION AND HYPER REGULATION

The port of Rotterdam as the largest and busiest seaport in Europe have been operating by automation for a decade and excepted to host autonomous ships by 2030. The strongest and centralized port infrastructures and cyber network allow the port operation to work endlessly. The operation of the port is very organized and efficient from unload to distribution. The port worker can control the machine and crane easily in the office due to the remote operation technology, instead of operating on site. Therefore, you will hardly find people on the port of Rotterdam, this is why we call the human exclusion zone. In the investigation process, the project attempts to explore the hyper-efficient and automated workflow of the port authority and their regulation process and find out whether this kind of workflow could be applied to the urban development or architectural organization.


International trade as an important economic pillar of the Netherlands affects the development and expansion of the city. The port of Rotterdam as the largest and busiest seaport has been expanded and updated many times to meet the challenges. The diagrams show the importance of freighting and the development trend in recent years.


PORT REGULATION VESSEL TRAFFIC SERVICE SYSTEM

The port of Rotterdam has an advanced Traffic Control System: Vessel Traffic Services (VTS). The shipping traffic is supervised from two traffic centres: one in Hook of Holland and one in the Botlek. From these traffic centres VTS provides continuous information about the current situation of the shipping traffic. Any vessels in the nautical control area of the port of Rotterdam must listen to the correct VHF sector channel. Vessels can use the VHF channels to communicate by VHF radio with the two traffic centres in the port of Rotterdam. The traffic centres supervise seagoing vessels in the port. The Vessel Traffic Services accurately and efficiently organized the daily sea transportation by the advanced technology and release the worker from the dangerous and unpredictable environmentthe human exclusion zone by automation.

VFS HOOK OF HOLLAND

VFS HOOK OF


HOLLAND

PORT AUTHORITY VFS BOTLEK


ONBOARD CONTROL AND DETECTION SYSTEM IN A EUROPORT VESSEL


FREIGHTING NETWORK

PORT MANAGEMENT & OPERATING PROCEDURE

The mapping is simulating the procedure of port management and operation in the port of Rotterdam to show the complicated freighting network built up by various infrastructures and vessels. Different infrastructure and authorities are connected by the well-developed cyber and wireless network. The effective combination of airy and physical network allows transportation process more efficient and the division of labor clearer, avoiding a lot of waste of resources. The process of automation and digitalization never stops, Port authorities around the world are developing faster and more efficient transportation technologies to improve port competitiveness. In the near future, the autonomous vessels will be applied on the freighting process. In that time, the human being will be almost disappear on the machinic landscape, and gradually be isolated due to the limited mobility and accessibility. In order to increast the efficiency of the logisitic transportation, the authority decided to reduce the road transport to avoid traffic congestions, devloping more connective, stronger and geener port transportation in the future.


AN EXPANDING PORT

URBAN DEVELOPMENT OF ROTTERDAM REGION

The port of Rotterdam as the largest and busiest seaport in Europe have been operating by automation for a decade and excepted to host autonomous ships by 2030. The strongest and centralized port infrastructures and cyber network allow the port operation to work endlessly. The operation of the port is very organized and efficient from unload to distribution. The port worker can control the machine and crane easily in the office due to the remote operation technology, instead of operating on site. Therefore, you will hardly find people on the port of Rotterdam, this is why we call the human exclusion zone. In the investigation process, the project attempts to explore the hyper-efficient and automated workflow of the port authority and their regulation process and find out whether this kind of workflow could be applied to the urban development or architectural organization.


zz


PORT

INTERVENTION/ SUPER CITIES


LIVING ON WATER

THE ALTERNATIVE AND SUSTAINBALE MOBILITY

The Netherlands is a country surrounded by water. In order to build more urban land, cities are built up by reclamation. Mass transport networks are constructed for bringing cities closer. This artificial country often forgets its most important geographical resource and landscape. Water is a threat, but also an opportunity. As many port cities, like Amsterdam, Hong Kong, Rotterdam, as a city rich in water resources, should take advantage of its natural geography to establish a well-developed water transport network to increase the urban mobility and prompt the urban development. The project start from the analysis of the existing traffic problems in a certain region of Rotterdam, finding out the necessity and possibility of developing a more systematic waterborne public transport network. And then, the intervention of new mobility method will be introduced to improve the urban metabolism and citizens’ life.


THE OUT-OF-REACH LAND In order to activate certain human exclusion zone, develop a sustainable port and enhance the public participation, several public space, such as the education center related to the port, an artificial beach, the camping area and so on are established on the Massvlakete 2. However, the limited accessibility usually deter citizens from exploring it. The only choice of public transport is just the infrequent ferry service. The transfer ferry station in Massvlakte


FEYENOORD CITY

THE PREDICTABLE AND INEXTRICABLE TRAFFIC CONGESTION

The Feyenoord region is famous for its historical stadium and football team. The stadium was built 1937 and surrounded by the productive landscape and port infrastructures. After the Bombing of Rotterdam by Nazi in 1940, the Rotterdam central and most of 17 century port area were completely destroyed. The Feyenoord region was reconstructed as the region of housing stock for the Rotterdam centrum. However, the city's growth has stood still due to the single industrial structure and limited accessibility. Its public connection with other regions of Rotterdam is only by tram which results the server traffic congestion during every football match. Therefore, the most urgent task at hand is how to ease the traffic jam caused by the weekly football match and how to enhance the accessibility of the region thus promoting urban development.


RESEARCH MODEL

PATHY TRACKING AND ANALYSIS

The mapping is drawn by studying the fast public transport from different areas of the Rotterdam region to the Feyenoord stadium. According to the mapping and badges below, it show that the main flows of traffic firstly arrive to the centrum Rotterdam by bus or subway, and then transfer the tram to the stadium, which means if the audiences want to get to the stadium by the public transport, they must take a tram. The limited accessibility of the Feyenoord city causes the problematic traffic issue. Every football match have to takes many hours to clear the traffic. The capacity of the local public transport is insufficient. From the mapping, we can find that the breakthrough is to build up an alternative traffic system between Feyenoord and Centrum Rotterdam. Once the audience are released to the centrum, they can take any other public transport to their destination. Obviously, the easiest, cheap and fast way to establish a new traffic infrastructure is the ferry terminal.


BREAKTHROUGH

CAPACITY & NECESSITY OF A NEW INTERVENTION

There are many empty parking lots occupying a huge area around the Feyenoord stadium. The capacity of these area are still unable to satisfy the needs of weekly football match. The circle diagram calculate the regional traffic capacity of different modes of transportation in an hour. The conclusion is there need a new intervention for helping to ease the occasional traffic congestion. Therefore, at least 3 ferry terminals should be built up to enhance the traffic capacity. The traffic problem is the primary issue for the urban development of Feyenoord. The blueprint of the city in 2030 shows that a new stadium and new housing-working urban planning will be realized around the Feyenoord stadium. The ferry terminals are not only the temporary intervention, but also the persistent need in the future.


Water taxi terminal in Rotterdam


6 4 1

5

3

2

1.

Centralized piping system

2. 3.

Light-weight steel structure 5. Bicycle ramp 6.

4.

Radar receiver Circulation core Membrane canopy


INTERVENTION 7

6 5 4

2 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Buffered rubber Mooring post bollard Foldable window system Sightseeing platform Bike rack Light-weight steel structure Membrane canopy

THE MODULAR FERRY TERMINAL HACK

3


Radar receiver Circulation core Membrane canopy Connected platform Centralized piping system Bike rack Kiosk


x

EXISTING FERRY NETWORK The individual ferry system in the end of the port of Rotterdam is the only public transport to connect with the Maasvlakte port area. The system is indispensbable and necessary to make up for the shortage of urban transportation network, implementing sustainable urban mobility

WATER BUS NETWORK

Water bus not only provide the convienient route for communiting to the opposite bank of the port, but also benefit the residents who live in the surrounding town and suburban area to commute to work in Rotterdam. the welldevloped waterborne public transport allows the urban life to be more close and free.

WATER TAXI NETWORK

Water taxi is a more flexible and profit-oriented transport which is mainly operated in the centrum. Most of users are tourists or citizens who want to avoid the traffic jams during the peak hour. But it is not frequently used by the locals, cause the relative high fee and unallowble bike carry.


A NEW NETWORK

RADICAL TECHNOLOGY & URBAN STRATEGY

Existing water transport systems have not been popular, as in Amsterdam, because of inadequate coverage, low operating frequencies and lack of sufficient organisation and regulation. In the near future, a more comprehensive and efficient ferry system will be needed due to the expansion of the city, the rapid increase of population and the more complicated transportation. The new radicla technology and strategy will change the way people travel and prompt the sustainbale mobility, urban connection and integration.

World-scale water transit networks


The devices of communication and payment on board


RADICAL TECHNOLOGY

THE AUTONOMOUS AND DRIVERLESS VESSEL

The era of autonomous shipping has been approaching. With the rapid development of artificial intelligence, the full-automatic freight and transport is no longer a problem. The remote control system has been released workers from the unpredictable environment and human exclusion zone and make the operation procedure more accurate and efficient. Now, the autonomous vehicles are predicted to be realized in the next two decades. In that time, it will totally change our mode of life and communication. The problem of existing water transport system in Rotterdam can be solved by the advanced technology clusters and well-organized regulation system. In the future, the water transport will be widely used. Citizens will not be interrupted by the geographical limitation and the cross-river connection will be more frequent. The low-cost and sustainable mode of public transport will affect the urban development and strategy.


URBAN STRATEGY

THE COMPREHENSIVE FEERY NETWORK

The new ferry network is created and expanded based on existing water transport routes. By analyzing the characteristics and properties of the city, the network is divided into three lines. The blue line is the main route throughout the whole Rotterdam region, connecting with the port and suburban area. This line provide the huge convenience for people who commute from the suburban to the centrum Rotterdam or the port region. The orange mainly serve for the citizens who live in the south of Rotterdam and tourists who want to visit the south landscape and farm. The green line is aiming at the port area, such as the Europort and Maasvlakte. It also allow the citizens to explore these mysterious human exclusion zone and the new recreation facilities established in the port region. The Urban strategy is not only optimizing the urban public transport network, easing the traffic congestion problem in the centrum, but also repairing the urban crack between human exclusion zone and inclusion zone and creating the more coherent and sustainable urban mobility.


URBAN METABOLISM

URBAN AND SPATIAL INTEGRATION

The future of Rotterdam will still be industrial construction and urban life coexist, physical infrastructure and housing stock coexist, machinic and natural landscape coexist, human exclusion and inclusion zone coexist. The urban development and expansion never stop and the future is uncertain and changeable. However, the urban mobility as the vessel in human body maintains order and stability of the city, realizing urban metabolism. The super ferry network as urban intervention provide possibilities for the change and uncertainty in the future city. These potentials break down old boundaries, develop new rules and strategies, and create new scenarios and future cities. These interventions allow the cities to be more integration, and more unity.


UNITY

INTEGRATION/ SUPER DUTCH


RISK I: THE REFUGEE CRISIS

URBAN AND SPATIAL INTEGRATION

Europe has been challenged by the refugee crisis. Every year, millions of refugees and asylum seeker cross the Mediterranean Sea arriving the European countries to flee fear, war and persecution and look for a new life. The majority of migrants choose sea route and this trend will continue to rise, even thousands of them died on the way. The refugee crisis will not be solved in the short term. Different countries have different attitudes towards refugees. However, the existing refugee reception system does not provide effective opportunities and measures to help refugees integrate into society, but marginalizes and differentiates them. The refugee issue is often linked to negative messages about social conflict and crime. They are also considered worthless to the development of cities and societies and difficult to gain social acceptance and integration. In Act 2, we have discussed about the importance of mobility to enhance urban integration and metabolism. Similarly, as the fringe of the city, the refugee group also needs to be integrated into the community and society. Therefore, this project attempts to explore the existing asylum seeker reception processes to find out the potential problems and provide a new alternative to address these problems through the intervention of architecture and urban design.


CENTRALE ONTVANGSTLOCATIE

PROCESOPVAN -GLOCATIE

ASIE CE

(the central reception facility)

(the processing reception facility)

(asylum

Period

: Maximum 4 days

Period

: Maximum 12 days

Support : Basic meals, temporary shelter initial medical care

Support : Basic meals, temporary shelter initial medical care

Note

Note

:

Registration

Asylum seeker reports and registers at the Aliens Police, Identification and People Trafficking Department (AVIM) in Ter Apel. After identification and registration by AVIM, rest and preparation period starts. Asylum seeker will be taken care of in the central reception facility.

: Advices from lawyers and COA

Preparation

Asylum seekers are transferred to a so called ‘processing reception facility’ -procesopvanglocatie (POL) were the asylum seekers can prepare for his or her asylum application. Asylum seekers will receive proof of lawful residence through COA.

Period

: Average 6 months, po

Support : Weekly allowance for living roon, kitchen an Note

: integration courses. N

Wait

Pe

Guidance focused on orientation to the future.

Gui at p integ

acce faci parti lesso activ

Prepare for Extended Asylum Procedure

Selecting the procedure

Consultant

In some cases there is a faster procedure for assessing asylum applications. After the asylum seeker reports to AVIM, the Immigration and Naturalisation Service (IND) decides which procedure to use.

The main activities in the POL are meetings between asylum seekers and their lawyers, provision of information by the Dutch Council for Refugees, provision about the COA and medical advice.

Asylum application result from IND

Apply for asylum

General asylum procedure

JOB

After registration, asylum seekers apply for asylum at the centre run by the Central Agency for the Reception of Asylum Seekers (COA) in Ter Apel.

Asylum seekers follow the general asylum procedure at the IND. This takes a maximum of eight days. Asylum seeker will hear the answer to asylum application.

TRANSFER

TRANSFER

DECISION

temporary work for a maximum period of 24 weeks (within a total period of 52 weeks) could be allowed after the first 6 months asylum procedure. But few of them have been able to find paid employment.

Star

Asyl be t AZC or is acco mun

S H


LIVING

ELZOEKERS ENTRUM

m seekers center)

ossible extended to 18 months

r food and clothing, a housing with shared nd bathroom. a health care insurance

Not allowed to work in the first 6 months

ermission

rt For integration

Rejection Ready to return

WORKING

idance aimed preparation on gration.

Ask for return and have to move from AZC within 28 days.

ess to computer ilities and can icipate in language ons and voluntary vities at the centre.

Asylum seekers who refuse to return will be forcibly sent to the vrijheidsbeperkende locatie (VBL)

lum seekers will taken care of in C until they finds s offered suitable ommodation in a nicipality.

SOCIAL HOUSING

The asylum seeker reception process can take a long time. Once they have a chance to get an immigration permit, they usually need to stay in the reception center about 6 months. The large scale receptions which have average 400 beds are constructed by COA government for the reasons of easier management and control of these locations. The housing units ate designed for five to eight people, with shared kitchen and bathing facilities. The only 5 square meters of personal space cannot provide enough privacy and autonomy. Studies have shown that large scale reception centers not only can have a negative impact on public support, but also are not conducive to encouraging self-help and self-reliance of asylum seekers.

Asylum seekers are not entitled to work in the Netherlands during the first 6 months of their asylum procedure. During this period, they are provided weekly allowance for food and clothing. After that period they can look for temporary work for a maximum period of 24 weeks. These measures have resulted refugees’ high levels of dependency on social assistance and low participation rates. Even if they are granted residency, the lack of Knowledge of the local labor market and language barrier make them difficult to find a suitable and full time job. The long period of unemployment discourage them, leading them to work illegally and commit crimes. However, asylum seekers can create value for the local labor market and society, not burden, if they have received well vocational and language training.

INTEGRATION Deported asylum seekers will receive support for 12 weeks in free-limiting shelter untill their return to their original country

RETURN

The reception centers provide so-called pre-integration courses (language training, a training providing information on Dutch society and individual counselling.) to asylum seekers. However, these knowledge, which remains in the textbooks, is not very effective for actual civic integration. They have no access to local communities, and the locals are unable to meet and get to know them. Government’s measures fundamentally affects the integration of refugees, they are more focusing on management and ignoring the following social integration processes. Compared to the political isolation, the geographical isolation completely separated asylum seekers from the local communities and block the social integration.


SURROUNDED BY INFRASTRUCTURES AZC ALMERE

LOGISTICS CENTER AZC GOES

EDGE OF CITY AZC MIDDELBURG

IN FIELD AZC GILZE EN RIJEN

BETWEEN FARM AND LOGISTICS ZO AZC HEERLEN

IN FOREST AZC BOSRANDWEG


ONE

HUMAN EXCLUSION ZONE The geographic typologies of exiting asylum seeker centers show how the refugees are separated from the local communities and outside world. The planning of these centers is often interpreted by the government as a way to better centralize management but aim at marginalizing and deterring the new immigrants. Most of centers are located nearby logistics zones, forest, or industrial regions. The careful selected sites as islands are cut off from residential areas by highway, river and mountains and created as human exclusion zone. The limited accessibility also discourages them from trying to integrate into societyďźŒnot to mention accessing the labor market. Therefore, the political and geographic strategy totally marginalize asylum seekers and block the pre-integration process.

SOCIAL EXCLUSION ZONE Social exclusion resulted by the geographic isolation is the main problem prevents the mutual understanding and communication between local residents and refugees. Medias and politicians’ attitude intensify hate and fear in societies. However, asylum seekers as the future citizens should be fully taken into account and being assisted to integrate into society. From the investigation about Dutch attitudes towards refugees, it shows Dutch are willing to help familiarize refugees with the neighbourhood in which they come to live. And some of them are volunteering to offer language teaching, but fail due to the location limitation. Many studies show how the pre-integration process are tremendously important for refugees to integrate in the new environment and society after receiving residential permit. DUTCH ATTITUDES TOWARDS REFUGEES I think it is good that the Netherlands take in people who have fled their country because of war and violence Fully disagree

1.5%

Disagree Neutral

4.5%

15%

I want to do something to help refugees in the Netherlands

Agree

Full agree

47.2%

31.3%

Don't Know

0.6%

Fully disagree

Disagree

6.4% 20.2%

Neutral

Agree

43.6%

23.5%

Disagree

6.2% 18.4%

Neutral

Agree

46.1%

23.5%

Full agree

3.9%

Don't Know

2%

4.5%

Don't Know

1.9%

If a refugee comes to live in my street, I am prepared to help him or her to familiarize with our country and neighbourhood

I think it would be nice to get into contact with refugees in the Netherlands. Fully disagree

Full agree

Fully disagree

3.8%

Disagree

9.7%

Neutral

Agree

25.1%

49.5%

Full agree

9.6%

Don't Know

2.5%


TREND: NEW CHANCE URBAN AND SPATIAL INTEGRATION

As the number of asylum applications continues to rise, there is a serious shortage of reception places for asylum seekers in the Netherlands. The existing asylum centers are currently at full capacity, sheltering 27 thousand people. The new asylum seeker centers are planned to provide more reception capacity and housing for permit holders. This is a good time and opportunity to consider how to appropriately select locations to help the new immigrants integrate in the new environment, and invest in dialogue with local population about plans on the opening of new reception centers to gain public support and intervention of communities. “Unknown makes unloved�, the architectural intervention and spatial strategies could be a way to promote the mutual understanding and connection between the locals and the new immigrants and sequentially realize social integration. Spijkenisse is one of the selected sites for constructing a new center. The city was develop from a small fish village, expanding for releasing the housing pressure of Rotterdam. Despite some opposition, the locals from diverse backgrounds remain positive about the refugee issue. The project based on this trend attempts to find out an appropriate urban planning and architectural proposal to improve the social integration among the locals and the new immigrant, and also enhance urban integration and metabolism with surrounding cities in the Rotterdam region.

Spijkenisse Rotterdam


SPIJKENISSE CITY Spijkenisse is situated southwest of Rotterdam in the Rhine-Meuse delta. The metro station in Spijkenisse centrum is the most important public traffic node connecting the southwest town of the port of Rotterdam and the Rotterdam centrum. Spijkenisse is developing as a city from a fish village with the continuous expansion of the port of rotterdam and political effect. As a livable city, Spijkenisse has a huge housing stock. the affordable housing price and rent attracts families who work from the port area and Rotterdam centrum live in there. However, the city is also facing the urban development problems with the port transition and increasing housing demand effected by the development of Rotterdam.

ROTTERDAM CENTRUM

SPIJKENISSE

HOUSING BEFORE 1950 HOUSING 1960S HOUSING 1980S

2000S 2020S METRO LINE

MAIN ROAD INDUSTRY BOUNDARY


Port of Spijkenisse


Founded as an agricultural and fishing community along an inlet of the Old Meuse (OudeMaas), after the second World War the village had a modest scale of about 3.000 inhabitants.

1950

1960S

Spijkenisse’s urban growth to respond to the instant housing crisis of Rotterdam and the westward expansion of the city harbour. parallel rows of flats (mix of affordable single-family units and low-rise blocks of flats), centralised neighbourhood facilities.

1980S

Several New Towns were designated to rehouse the excess population of the central cities, such as Rotterdam. In order to accommodate more inhabitants. denser and higher housing blocks were constructed. And by the time Spijkenisse’s three new subway stations opened connecting with the central cities.


2000S

The Policy of Rotterdam Act forbids certain groups of poor residents from moving into particular neighborhoods. new target of housing stratergy in Spijkenisse is to realise a varied mix of homes – social rentals for low-income households. The high rise housing buildings were built along the harbour keeping away from the traditional housing blocks and flats.

2020S

The new urban housing project "de haven" was launched by land reclamation on the port of spijkenisse continuing to address the increasing housing demand and develop a forgotten and ignored harbour area and landscape.


RISK II: PROBLEMATIC CITY THE IMBALANCE SOCIO-ECONOMIC STRUCTURE

TOP 10 Shortage of workforce

WORKING IN THE NETHERLANDS live in work in balance x 1000

x 1000

x 1000

1. Almere 2. nissewaard

95.4 40

64.6 20.1

-30.8 -19.9

3. zaanstad 4. purmerend

69.9 38.1

52.7 25.4

-17.2 -12.7

5. leldschendam-voorburg 6. alphen aan den pijn

31.1 52.3

18.7 39.9

-12.4 -12.4

7. stichtse vecht 8. lingewaard

29.9 21.7

18.6 10.8

-11.3 -10.9

9. Vlaardingen

31.4

20.5

-10.9

10. katwijk

31.6

20.8

-10.8

TOP 10 surplus of workforce

WORKING IN THE NETHERLANDS live in work in balance x 1000

x 1000

x 1000

1. Amsterdam 2. rotterdam

382.5 262.4

580.5 366.8

198 104.4

3. utrecht 4. haarlemmermeer

169.8 71.4

255.3 149.5

85.5 78.1

5. elndhoven 6. den haag

104 210.3

163.4 261.9

59.4 51.6

7. gronlngen 8. zwolle

95.9 61.5

132.8 93.8

36.9 32.3

9. den bosch

72.2

101.7

-29.5

10. arnhem

68.7

96.7

28

DEMAND OF NEW MOBILITY SHORTAGE OF EMPLOYMENT

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PORT

NEW INDUSTRIAL & HARBOR STUDY PROGRAM

NEW HOUSING -WORKING TYPOLOGIES

IMBALANCE DEMOGRAPHIC


CS


RISKS AND TREND MAP THE SUMMARY OF RESEARCH


DE HAVEN PORT OF SPIJKENISSE

SPIJKENISSE CENTRUM De Elementen Housing tower 2011 Height: 110 m METRO STATION Spijkenisse Public Library 2012 Height: 25 m

Spijkenisse Theater 2014 Height: 27 m

Shopping Center 1987 Height: 17 m

Nooitgedacht Windmill 1861 Height:30 m

Distribution center 2020 Height: 11 m

De Ha Housi 2020 Heigh


aven ing

ht: 15 m

DE HAVEN 2030

THE FORGOTTEN HARBOUR AND LANDSCAPE Due to the transition of the city and the port, most of the port infrastructure has been dismantled, except for a functioning logistics center. However, the untreated harbour landscape doesen't attract residents and visitors. The city trunk road seems like the city wall stops urban integration and spatial continuity.

DE HAVEN

De haven is the new housing region project in order to reconstruct the port area. Even if the city is urgent to develop new housing typologies to attract different types of residents and attempt to change the current imbalance demographics, the new housing region still remains monotone nineteen eighties and nineteen nineties neighbourhoods.

MOBILITY

The existing main road and metro network basically enable to meet the needs of people's life. However, it is insufficient for the future urban development. The potential of cross-river connection and new public transport system are critical for introducing new enterprise and employment


RANDSTAD

SURROUNDING RESIDENTIAL AREAS

DE HAVEN SPIJKENISSE CENTRUM

SPIJKENISSE FUTURE

URBAN INTEGRATION

WORKING

MOBILITY

SOCIAL INTEGRATION

LIVING

REFUGEE CRISIS


OPPORTUNITY

URBAN AND SPATIAL INTEGRATION The crisis of urban development in Spijkenisse has some similar problems and characteristics with the refugee crisis. The project is attempting to explore a new housing-working typology to promote engagement and collaboration within the local, new immigrants and visitors, achieving the urban integration.

MOBILITY

The geographic and urban planning isolation is not conductive to the urban and social integration. Mobility as the crucial part in urban growth and communication should be reinforced. Spijkenisse need exploit different types of public transport to enhance accessibility stimulating the spatial connection the urban metabolism.

WORKING

The limited working place in Spijkenisse could not provide a good working environment and attract the young generation. The imbalance between working and living has results a greater shortage of employment in Spijkenisse. Therefore, it is urgent to develop employment, education and opportunities for entrepreneurship. Relaying on the port are, it is an opportunity to establish harbour and industry-related work and new study programmes in the municipality.

LIVING

The monotone existing housing stock is very hard to attract new residents, especially the workforce. The 1980s style of communities, infrastructure and urban atmosphere couldn’t meet the needs of different groups. Therefore, offering a range of housing-career perspectives in the local neighbourhoods is the aim to develop new typologies in Spijkenisse.


THE HUMAN EXCLUSION ZONE POTENTIAL FUTURE Due to the untreated landscape and surrounding logistic center, the potential site with the significant city location have become a human exclusion zone. The advanced distribution technologies have largely reduced the noise and other negative effects. Plus the municipality decided to develop new housing zone “De haven� just in front of the site. Therefore, the potential site is the first step to stimulate the region, fix the disconnection between the harbor area and city center attempting to unity the city and realize urban integration.

STEP 1: INTERVENTION OF RADICAL TECHNOLOGY

The driverless ferry terminals is the functional intervention for exploring an extra cross-river connection with other cities and increasing the urban mobility and accessibility. The intervention is attempting to help the locals raise the awareness of the harbor. The terminal hub will replace the rough dock of party ships which temporary use about once a week.

STEP 2: INTERVENTION OF LANDSCAPE

The original geographic landscape was separated by the city truck road and former harbor area. The step two is aiming at renovating the water front landscape in the harbor area, and creating collective space for staying rather than just for function. The hub with a sightseeing platform allow different activities to take place, like Sunday market.


URBAN PLANNING STRATEGY PHYSICAL INTERVENTION

RADICAL TECHNOLOGY

+

SPATIAL CONNECTION HACK STRATEGY

=

CITY LOUNGE OCEAN TERMINALS

COLLECTIV E SPACE

FUTURE SCENARIO

Spijkenisse need new programs, new opportunities and new types of space. The monotone neighborhoods and housing types are unable to meet the demands of urban development and keep the younger generation. In order to attract new residents and workforce to balance the employment and demographics, new housingworking typologies and urban strategy are needed. The projects as a new architectural typology is attempting to combine the radical technology and spatial strategy to create a urban complex to prompt the urban development and integration.

NEW LIFE! URBAN METABOLISM

URBAN INTEGRATION

NEW TYPE HOUSING NEW HARBORGY LO TECHNO

LEARNING CENTER

WORK IN ISSE SPIJKEN

CO-WORK CENTER


IN FRONT OF COMMUNITY


THE FERRY TERMINAL


Elements

Axonometrics


ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY I Plan Formation ORIENTATION AND VIEWS

From the orientation of local housings, it is easy to see how the locals value water landscape and sunshine. The water front housing is completely facing the river which also allow the long span face north and south. By contrast, the other housing direct west is aiming at receiving more sunlight, because of the short sunshine duration in the Netherlands.

CONTINUITY OF LANDSCAPE

The river in the old town is the precious and iconic landscape throughout the city approaching the harbor. In order respect the original landscape, the building is separated into four units forming a block and opening the south-north and east- west view. Besides, it also allows more valuable sunshine into the buildings.

HEIGHT COHERENCE

The historical windmill was the highest building in the region before the construction of the new social center. For respecting the old town skyline, the buildings lower down to the height of the windmill creating a natural transition. The units close the windmill are taken a step back, forming a transitional plaza.

Perspectives


FUCTION ALLOCATION

THE FERRY TERMINAL

SPIJKENISSE CENTRUM as one of the ferry station in the establised water-borne public transport network is fluently and systematically connecting with other cities. The Five dock hubs allow more ferries in shore during the peak hours

PARKING AND SERVICE SPACE

Due to the complicated traffic conditions on the ground floor, the parking and service space as the edge of the block are placed in front of logistic centers, protecting the central area. And the bike parking and the shared bike service beside the main street provide convenience for the visitors and residents.

THE CITY LOUNGE

The city lounge connected with the terminal provides and collective space for the locals, visitors and resid transparent water-front design allow more sunshine a into the building providing space for stay and gather

THE CO-WORK CENTER

The co-work center is aiming to create new workin for attracting enterprises and new industrials to pro existing socio-economic structure, getting rid of th housing stock positioning. The lab space on the gro first floor welcome technicians to develop new log harbor technologies.


THE LEARNING CENTER

s services dents. The and views ring.

The learning center is opening to all groups in the region. The asylum seeker service center is placed on the ground floor include basic health care, child care center and playground. The upper floors provide not only the pre-integration courses for refugees and new immigrants.

ng space ompt the he mono ound and gistic and

The housing area is allocated on the upper levels, guaranteeing residents’ privacy and living environment. The housing is created for the local-income group or asylum seekers with standard housing facilities. Different housing units are provided for different Numbers of family members.

THE SOCIAL HOUSING


MY NEIGHBOR IS

A GIANT

WHERE IS

SPIJKENISSE

I CANNOT BREATHE

TERR UP!!!!


RACE !!!!!!!!

MY NEIGHBOR IS

A GIANT

WHERE IS

SPIJKENISSE

I CANNOT BREATHE

I’M GONNA VISIT MY NEW NEIGHBOR

I

SPIJKENISSE


ENVIRONMENTAL ST

7

4

6 3

5 2

1

1. MAIN ENTRANCE 2.GARDEN 3.RECEPTIO


TRATEGY II: GARDEN AND SQUARE

WALL

8

ON 4.BIKE PARK 5.SQUARE 6. CAFE 7.CAR PARK 8.LOGISITCS SPACE

The thick walsl are placed on the edge between service rooms and parking area and the logistic center to provide a protected and steady environment for interior function rooms on the ground floor. The separated entrance for bike and car parking allows the traffic flow to be more organized and clear.

PORTICO

Portico as the transitional space combined with the green belt shift the complex traffic environment into an interior garden. The garden embraced by the pavilion space in proper scale offering a comfortable green space for children and neighbourhood. The reception of asylum seeker center in the garden make new immigrants feel welcome.

SQUARE

The opening middle space is not only allowing light and views into the community, but also as the main entrance for visitors from the ferry terminal. Shops and cafĂŠs along the square provide a dynamic and cozy environment attracting surrounding residents gathering. The opening entrance and terrace create a big screen for capturing the waterfront landscape.


PORTICO


GARDEN


SQUARE


THE INTERIOR SPACE OF CITY LONGUE


THE INTERIOR SPACE OF CITY LONGUE


5F

7F

8F

3F 3F

4F

CONVENTIONAL CORE

Each building units have individual circulation core.

INTERIOR SPACE

The forms of different functional blocks are created by responding to their space needs. City longue: leisure and sightseeing. Housing: sun and life. Co-work center: inspired and dynamic. Learning center: quiet and comfortable interior space. Each has its own characteristics, but similar materials and spatial logic.

OUTSIDE CIRCULATION

The outside circulation is the main concert of the block design. Like the radical technology, it is not only enhancing the accessibility and architectural mobility in the community, but also stimulating the spatial coherency and social integration.

OUTDOOR TERRACES

The plenty of outdoor terraces are aiming to prompt the integration progress among different user groups for various activities. The complex terrace system looks very complicated, but well organizing by the flexible and accessible outside circulation. The allocation of theses circulation are designed to responding different crowd flows.


CIRCULATION & TERRACE PUBLIC ROUTE The visitor route is mainly around the city lounge from the terminal platform, across the square to the interior garden and then return to the main entrance of the building and windmill area. The walking pathway is running through the spatial order of the entire building and experiencing the change of urban landscape.

WORK FLOW The worker pathway is starting from the ferry terminal where commuters come from, and then crossing the square where offer coffee and food. The rest of circle circulation throughout the whole center, creating different interior and outdoor space. The social staircases are also the nice place for relaxation.

RESIDENTIAL PATHWAY The housing area is not the isolation zone. The upper residents can easily arrive each building in the community through the connected outside circulation. The west side liner route is going to the city longue and the southern is the co-work center. The separated buildings are fully integrated by the outside circulation realizing the spatial and urban integration.


THE PERSPECTIVE FROM THE TERRACE


THE PERSPECTIVE FROM THE TERMINAL


THE INTERIOR SPACE CITY LONGUE WITH THE VIEW OF OUTDOOR TERRACE


SECTION


SQUARE & CIRCULATION


CO-WORK CENTER OF CORRIDOR


SECTION


THE COMMUNITY CENTRE


THE CO-WORK CENTER


ROOF GARDEN

The concrete fence of roof garden fix the faรงade with hardware and transmit structural load to the concrete frame structure as the associated structure . The roof garden as the extension of the co-work center connects with the outdoor circulation. Visitors can easily arrive the roof area and appreciate the urban landscape.

CONCRETE FACADE

The faรงade is designed to combine with the primary structure as a whole. Most of the first floor faรงade is covered by the logistic center, but the tall windows are still installed for providing air exchange and decorated light. The faรงade of classroom has the 1 meter height concrete wall and the public space would be more transparent. The continuous and harmonious concrete faรงade strengthen the spatial characteristic and order.


THE LEARNING CENTER STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS SECONDARY STRUCTURE : STEEL STRUCTURE CURTAIN WALL

The threes floor height facade is supported by the steel structure which transfer load on the concrete frame structure and foundation. The transparent facade allows more light and outdoor views into the building blurring the spatial relationship between interior and exterior.

GLASS CURTAIN WALL

PRIMARY STRUCTURE : REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURE


THE LEARNING CENTER


SECTION


THE LEARNING CENTER


THE LEARNING CENTER


LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION HALL EMERGENCY PROGRAM, MUNICH number of residents: 230 modular units: 3 tens and living space Average personal space (m2) : 4 APARTMENTS FOR REFUGEES AND THE HOMELESS, OSTFILDERN number of residents: 39 modular units: 15 living units and living space Average personal space (m2) : 21

UNIT FOR COUPLE 40 M2

ASYLUM SEEKER CENTER TEA APEL (NL) number of residents: 2000 modular units: 258 living units and living space Average personal space (m2) : 5

HOUSING FOR ASYLUM SEEKERS, TÜBINGEN number of residents: 96 modular units: 21 living units and living space Average personal space (m2) : 14.5

HOUSING FOR ASYLUM SEEKERS, TÜBINGEN number of residents: 162 modular units: 28 living units and living space Average personal space (m2):19.3

UNIT FOR NUCLEAR FAMILY 60 M2


HOUSING UNITS EXISTING TYPOLOGIES OF ASYLUM SEEKERS CENTER IN EUROPE

UNIT FOR BIG FAMILY 100 M2

From the existing typologies of asylum seekers center in Europe, it shows the various reception policies and attitude toward new immigrants. In the Netherlands, the government is more inclined to construct large scale reception centers which is conducive for them to centralized management and control. However, as many studies have shown, it is negative to the self-help and self-reliance of asylum seekers. The limited living space with no privacy and depressed and isolated environment may make it difficult for them to integrate into the local community and society in the future.

THE DESIGN PRINCIPLE OF THE NEW HOUSING UNIT IN SPIJKENISSE Home is the place where people spend most of the day. The asylum seekers as the potential citizens in the future should enjoy the basic rights, rather than being overly discriminating. Even if it seems utopian, municipality should more consider the quality and capacity of the reception center, instead of quantity.

stair case to upper level centralized pipeline system

The average 20m2is the idealized personal living space. And based on this number, the three types of housing units are designed for couples, nuclear families and big families. The single row layout and the window system on the northern and southern side provide sufficient sunshine and natural ventilation. The open windows allow views of harbor and mountain into the house, and the solid concrete wall is offering a safe and steady living environment. Besides, the most important concept of the housing is how to help the new immigrants integrate into the city and how the locals touch and understand their new neighbors.


ALLOCATION The housing units allocation is based on the characteristics of different housing groups. The units for big family in the upper levels is aiming to provide a relative quiet environment for the elderly and the rest in the lower floor is encouraging them to access the surrounding facilities, such as the learning center, the co-work center, sport facilities and so on.

CORE AND CORRDIOR The cores are designed to meet the requirement of the standard building code. The corridor as the barrier and transitional space between the outside community and the housing area provide sufficient privacy and connection with outdoor environment, but it does not facilitate communication between neighbors

TERRACE! The pop-up platforms, just like the terrace space used in the design of the community are offering the opportunity for neighbors’ small talk, rest and other outdoor activities. The terraces transfer the dull corridor into the dynamic space to respond the nearby public space creating cozy and harmonious community atmosphere together.


CONCEPT OF HOUSING DESIGN

ROOF GARDEN

INTEGRATION! The outside circulation system as the concept of architectural mobility realizes the spatial integration among the buildings, thus stimulating the social integration. Besides providing public circulation system to encourage the new immigrants to participate in the community, the circulation also lead the locals and visitors into the community and repair the social relationship by the architectural intervention.

CO

-WO

T

CI

UE

NG

O YL

RK C

ENT

ER


SECTION


OUTDOOR CIRCULATION


THE COMMUNITY


OUTDOOR CIRCULATION


AXONOMETRIC


OUTDOOR CIRCULATION


HOUSING


AXONOMETRIC


STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURE It is unrealistic to use a complicated and expensive materials and structural technology to build a community for asylum seekers. In order to control the cost and difficulty of construction, the reinforced concrete structure with the lower maintenance cost and economical construction material would be the primary choice. Compared to the use of steel in structure, reinforced concrete requires less skilled labor for the erection of the structure.


“ IF THERE IS TO BE A "NEW URBANISM" IT WOULD NOT BE BASED ON THE TWIN FANTASIES OF ORDER AND OMNIPOTENCE; IT WILL BE THE STAGING OF UNCERTAINTY: IT WILL NO LONGER BE CONCERNED WITH THE ARRANGEMENT OF MORE OR LESS PERMANENT OBJECTS BUT WITH THE IRRIGATION OF TERRITORIES WITH POTENTIAL."

Belanger, Pierre, Gareth Doherty, and Charles Waldheim. " Is Landscape infrastructure?" In is Landscape...?:Easy on the identity of Landscape, 190-227. 1st ed. Routledge, 2015.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

/ Belanger, Pierre: Is Landscape Infrastructure? In: Doherty, Gareth, Charles Waldheim, and Pierre Belanger. Is Landscape ...? : Essays on the Identity of Landscape. London, [England] ;: Routledge, 2016. / Hajer, Maarten A., and Ton Dassen. Smart about Cities: Visualising the Challenge for 21st Century Urbanism : "We Need a Globally Networked Urbanism". Rotterdam : [Den Haag]: Nai010 Publishers ; PBL Publishers, 2014. / Ibelings, Hans. The Artificial Landscape: Contemporary Architecture, Urbanism, and Landscape Architecture in the Netherlands. Rotterdam]: [NAi Publishers], 2000. / Stoll, Katrina., Scott. Lloyd, and Stan. Allen. Infrastructure as Architecture : Designing Composite Networks. Berlin: Jovis, 2010. / Young, Liam, and Jesse Lecavalier. "Human Exclusion Zones: Logistics and New Machine Landscapes." Architectural Design 89, no. 1 (2019):48-55. / "Port Of Rotterdam". 2020. Port Of Rotterdam. https://www.portofrotterdam. com/en. / Yuen, Chi-lok Andrew, Anming Zhang, and Waiman Cheung. 2012. "Port Competitiveness From The Users' Perspective: An Analysis Of Major Container Ports In China And Its Neighboring Countries". Research In Transportation Economics 35 (1): 34-40. doi:10.1016/j.retrec.2011.11.005. / "Rotterdam - Procedures VHF Communication VTS And HCC (001/2017) | Port Information Notices". 2020. Pin.Portofrotterdam.Com. https://pin. portofrotterdam.com/node/2601.


/ "Autonomous Future". 2020. Kongsberg.Com. https://www.kongsberg.com/ maritime/about-us/news-and-media/our-stories/autonomous-future/. / "Physical Internet and Self-organisation". 2016. SMART PORT. https://smartport.nl/en/. / Refugees, United. 2020. "The Sea Route To Europe: The Mediterranean Passage In The Age Of Refugees". UNHCR. https://www.unhcr.org/ protection/operations/5592bd059/sea-route-europe-mediterraneanpassage-age-refugees.html. / Bakker, Linda, Sin Yi Cheung, and Jenny Phillimore. 2016. "The AsylumIntegration Paradox: Comparing Asylum Support Systems And Refugee Integration In The Netherlands And The UK". International Migration 54 (4): 118-132. doi:10.1111/imig.12251. /Mullins, David, and Pat A. Jones. 2009. "Refugee Integration And Access To Housing: A Network Management Perspective". Journal Of Housing And The / Local Responses To The Refugee Crisis In The Netherlands Reception And Integration. 2016. Ebook. 1st ed. Warsaw: the Institute of Public Affairs. / 2020. Newtowninstitute.Org. http://www.newtowninstitute.org/pdf/NTAC_ Spijkenisse_final.pdf. / "De Zwarte Hond - Nissewaard After 2040". 2020. Dezwartehond.Nl. https:// www.dezwartehond.nl/en/projecten/nissewaard-naar-2040.


CONTACT ZHU YANLUN Master of Architecture RIBA Part II The Univeristy of Edinburgh Email: zhuyanlunwork@outlook.com Phone: +44 7927382576


Profile for zhuyanlunwork

STUDIO RANDSTAD-ZHU YANLUN DESIGN REPORT  

ZHU YANLUN Master of Architecture RIBA Part II The Univeristy of Edinburgh Email: zhuyanlunwork@outlook.com Phone: +44 7927382576

STUDIO RANDSTAD-ZHU YANLUN DESIGN REPORT  

ZHU YANLUN Master of Architecture RIBA Part II The Univeristy of Edinburgh Email: zhuyanlunwork@outlook.com Phone: +44 7927382576

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