Page 1

Thesis

Master of Landscape Architecture Deyu Zhuang

Reconfiguring LA’s Freeway System To Improve Water Quality, Decrease Air Pollution And Add Green Space

School of Architecture Graduate Program in Landscape Architecture and Urbanism University of Southern California


PRINTED 2018 School of Architecture Department of Landscape and Urbanism University of Souther California Watt Hall, Suite 204 Los Angeles, California 90089-0291

Thesis Advisors

Rebecca Hill


Thesis

Master of Landscape Architecture

Deyu Zhuang

Reconfiguring LA’s Freeway System To Improve Water Quality, Decrease Air Pollution And Add Green Space

School of Architecture Graduate Program in Landscape Architecture and Urbanism University of Southern California


CLASS OF 2018 Deyu Zhuang

Instructor: Rebecca Hill


Thesis

Master of Landscape Architecture

School of Architecture Graduate Program in Landscape Architecture and Urbanism University of Southern California


1. Content

Thesis Introduction Thesis Abstract

Reconfiguring LA’s Freeway System To Improve Water Quality, Decrease Air Pollution And Add Green Space

Chapter One

How Los Angeles Currently Get Its Water

Chapter Two

Catastrophic Floods And Stromwater Management

Chapter Three

Stormwater Causes Greate Local Water Pollution

Chapter Four

Climate Change in Los Angeles

Chapter Five

How Freeway Can Be A Green Infreastructure Network?

Chapter Six

Case Studies

Chapter Seven

Site Analysis

Chapter Eight

Design Detail

Chapter Nine

Conclusion

Reference

Bibliography


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Thesis Introduction

Rebecca Hill Thesis Introduction

Centralized, decentralized and distributed network models Source: Baran, Paul “On Distributed Communications” Memorandum RM-3764-PR, Prepared for the United States Air Force Project Rand. The RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA. August 1964.)

Centralized, decentralized and distributed network models

Chain Reaction: Using Networks to Affect Change Driving through the city, drawing water from the tap, turning on the

Chain Reaction: Using Networks to Affect Change Source: Baran, Paul “On Distributed Communications” Memorandum RM-3764-PR, Prepared lights, catching friends onlights, Facebook, pumping blood through our Driving through the city, drawing water fromup the with tap, turning on the for the United States Air Force Project Rand. The RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA. August catching up with friends on Facebook, pumping blood through our bodies— bodies— these actions all depend on networks, the interrelated connections these actions all depend on networks, the interrelated connections either “A designer is an emerging synthesis of artist, inventor, mechanic, objective either physical or digital, technological or biological, localized or global, physical or digital, technological or biological, localized or global, that, taken economist, and evolutionary strategist.” that, taken together, produce an effect that is greater than the disparate together, produce an effect that is greater than the disparate parts would suggest. -R. Buckminster Fuller Connections form the heart of any network and extend beyond a defined site orthe heart of any network and parts would suggest. Connections form “A designer is an emerging synthesis of artist, inventor, mechanic, obsource. Like an internet meme or a signal malfunction on the New York City extend beyond a defined site or source. Like an internet meme or a signal subway— sometimes even the slightest alteration to an existing systems can jective and evolutionary strategist.” “We areeconomist, continually faced with great opportunities which are brilliantly malfunction on the New York City subway— sometimes even the slightest cascade to create real change or real chaos. disguised as unsolvable problems.” -R. Buckminster Fuller alteration to an existing systems can cascade to create real change or real -Margaret Mead Landscape architects are trained in systems thinking; how systems work chaos. within themselves and integrate with others to perform necessary functions is a fundamental service we provide. The challenge for this year’s thesis students “We are continually faced with great opportunities which are brilliantly Landscape are trainedand, in more systems thinking; how systems work is to develop this skill— to understandarchitects how the pieces fit together, disguised as unsolvable problems.” importantly, develop strategies improving those connections withwith they don’t within for themselves and integrate others to perform necessary functions quite fit. Our site is Los Angeles and the networks that most acutely influence -Margaret Mead is a fundamental service we provide. The challenge for this year’s thesis the way Angelenos live and how the city functions: water, transportation, waste, students is to develop thisresearch skill—extended to understand how the pieces fit together, trade, etc. In many cases, however, the purview of student far beyond city or county boundaries. and, more importantly, develop strategies for improving those connections with they don’t quite fit. Our site is Los Angeles and the networks that most

Your charge in reading this thesis is to, of course, evaluate the resolution of acutely influence the way the design, but, more importantly, assess the validity of theAngelenos idea. Consider live how and how the city functions: water, the student has framed transportation, the problem, developed a strategy, and expressed it in cases, however, the purview of waste, trade, etc. In many physical form. student research extended far beyond city or county boundaries.

Your charge in reading this thesis is to, of course, evaluate the resolution of the design, but, more importantly, assess the validity of the idea. Consider how the student has framed the problem, developed a strategy, and expressed it in physical form.

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1. Abstract

Reconfiguring LA’s Freeway System To Improve Water Quality, Decrease Air Pollution And Add Green Space Deyu Zhuang

Traditionally, stormwater management viewed urban runoff as a flood problem in which

04/20/2018

stormwater needed to be conveyed as quickly as possible from urban areas to waterways in order

School of Architecture

to protect public safety. However, this system does not have the function of cleaning the heavy

University of Southern California

polluted water. The disruption of the water cycle chain and water pollution has brought about

Los Angeles, CA

serious economic and ecological problems.

Advisor: Rebecca Hills

Climate change, mainly caused by air pollution, will bring an increase in extreme rainfall and temperature which presents new challenges for Los Angeles. Dying ecology and climate change warrant a rethinking of the role of freeway network in Los Angeles County. All these problems are mainly caused by the increasing urbanization and decreasing green areas. The scarce available space in urban area limits green space to be created. In Los Angeles, 42 to 45 percent of urban land is devoted to the storage and movement of automobiles, which causes the urban space to be separated, encompassed by vast open areas without social purpose. In addition, the automobile and modern movement are the biggest reasons for these lost spaces. It has resulted in an urban environment in which highways and parking lots are the predominant types of open space. The highway would have destroyed an established community and some urban green open spaces. It also created an impenetrable barrier through the city. Los Angeles has experienced major disruption caused by interstate freeway systems. However, the construction of freeway also left a lot of huge unused space along the freeway. Because Los Angeles needs more green spaces and parks to improve the ecological problems and to meet the recreation and public health needs of its local residents, especially children, freeway area appropriate place to solve these problems in the future, instead of the root of all problems . Therefore, I decided to use freeway space to collect and clean the heavy polluted water from freeway way runoff and use these water to create a sustainable urban forest network in Los Angeles.

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1. Chapter One - How Los Angeles Currently Get Its Water

Urbanization Creates Heavy Water Pressure 1. William J. Cosgrove, Daniel P. Loucks,

Now, the management of water resources, especially drinking water resources, is emerging as one

Water Management: Current and Future

of our most significant challenges. With the development of urbanization, worldwide population

Challenges and Research Directions, Water

growth, economic development, and expansion of irrigated agriculture led to dramatic increases

Resources Research, AGU Publications,

in water use during the 20th century, and the populations of most countries will continue to grow

June, 2015.

in coming decades. Between 2000 and 2050, the US population is projected to increase from 275 million to 403 million, while the global population is expected to increase from 6 billion to almost

2. Water Resource Challenges and

9 billion.1 This population growth has serious implications for food and energy production and

Opportunities for Water Technology

urban expansion, all of which will place increasing pressure on available fresh water supplies.2

Innovation, The White House, Wshington, December, 2015.

In 1900, Los Angeles obtained all of its water from the Los Angeles River. But population growth, much of it as in-migration from other parts of the country, caused the city’s needs to exceed this

3. Thomas W. Fitzhugh, Brian D. Richter,

local water supply early in the 20th century. The import of water from other river basins enabled

Quenching Urban Thirst: Growing

the Los Angeles area to grow at a phenomenal rate throughout much of the 20th century.3

Cities and Their Impacts on Freshwater Ecosystems, BioScience, August, 2004.

The city’s search for water led it first to the Owens Valley and then to the Mono Basin, each located a few hundred kilometers northeast of the city.4 An aqueduct from the Owens Valley to

4. Dana Bartholomew, 100 Years of Water:

the city was completed in 1913. This system was augmented in later years with a series of storage

Los Angeles Aqueduct, William Mulholland

reservoirs, an extension of the aqueduct northward to the Mono Basin in 1940, and an expansion

Helped Create Modern L.A., Los Angeles

of aqueduct capacity in 1970. During this same period, the southern California region also began

Daily News, August, 2017.

to import water through the Metropolitan Water District of California, whose main sources were the Colorado River and the rivers of the Central Valley.5 Water from these sources began to arrive

5. David Lewis Feldman, Cites and Water:

Dilemmas of Collaboration in Los Angeles and New York City, Current Issues of Water Management, December, 2011.

15

in 1941 and 1971, respectively.


Developed Density 6. Stephen, J. Smith, These Cool GIFs

High

Show How 8 U.S. Cities Have Sprawled, The Works, Next City, 2014. https://

Low

nextcity.org/daily/entry/city-gifs-uscity-sprawled-city-growth

16

Figure 1 Los Angeles Urban Growth.6


0

17

150000’

300000’


- Historic View of Water Pressure and Population Gowth: 7. Padma Nagappan, How Water Use

With the development of urbanization and population growth, Los Angeles is facing great water

Has Declined With Population Growth,

pressure. Los Angeles once was regarded, especially by residents of Northern California, as

News Depply Water Deeply, November

profigate water users, hosing down driveways and splashing in pools. There may have been

2016.

truth to that, but times are changing.

As figure two shows that, since 1980, water use started to go up steadily with increasing local population, necessitating investments in infrastructure and boosts to capacity. But since then, there has been a dramatic decoupling across the United States, with water use declining even as the population and the economy continued to grow. 7

18


702,000 acre-feet

3.7 million

3.5 million

599,000 acre-feet

595,000 acre-feet

3.2 million

530,000 2.83 million gallons 514,000 acre-feet

1970

1980

1987 1990

2000

2010

2015

Water Use Population

19


Urbanization Creates Heavy Water Pressure 7. Amy Schellenbaum, How Does Los

Los Angeles exapanded its water supply network in order to get more drinking water. However,

Angeles Get Its Water? Technology,

the impact of it is very serious and widesperead, especially in terms of ecology. In the 1950s,

Popular Science, March, 2017.

people strated to channelized the rivershed to make it become concrete. The natural waterways ecosystem had become severely degraded by a combination of agricultural and municipal water

8. Water Management in Los Angeles

use, water pollution, and flood control structures. While Los Angeles is only one of many users of

Report, Institue of the Environment and

Metropolitan Water District (MWD) water, the sources of that water are also heavily impacted by

Sustainability, UCLA, November, 2015.

water supply infrastructure.8 The great decline in native fish populations that has occurred in the lower Colorado River is due in part to the altered flow conditions created by dams and reservoirs.9

9. Sarah Zielinski, The Colorado River Runs

Reduced freshwater inflows have seriously degraded the wetlands and once-productive fisheries

Dry, Dams, Iriigation and Now Climate

in the Colorado River delta and estuary. 10

Change Have Drastically Reduced the Once-mighty River, Is it a Sign of things to

The severe impacts of Los Angeles’s transbasin water diversions on freshwater ecosystems in

Come? Smithsonian Magazine, October,

the Owens Valley and Mono Basin are also well documented. The natural systems in both of

2010.

these areas were subjected to some impacts before the arrival of Los Angeles’s water supply infrastructure, including grazing, stocking of nonnative trout, diversions for irrigation, and small

10. Catherine, M., Pringle, Mary, C.,

hydroelectric power facilities. Dewatering of streams due to water use did occur in some areas

Freeman, and Byron, J., Freeman, Regional

during droughts. Before 1913, the impacts of dewatering were probably most severe in the lower

Effects of Hydrologic Alterations on

Owens River, where irrigation diversions reduced and altered the seasonal patterns of flow. But

Riverine Macrobiota in The New World:

despite these impacts, aquatic habitat and riparian vegetation throughout the Owens River and

Tronical- Temnerate Comparisons,

Mono Basin were generally intact and similar to natural conditions before the impact of Los

BioScience, September, 2000.

Angeles. The city’s water-supply system greatly exacerbated any existing ecological problems, to the point of devastating some areas. The historic Owens River was sustained by snowmelt from the Sierra Nevada, terminating in the saline Owens Lake.3 In 1913, the Los Angeles Aqueduct began pulling water from the river upstream of the lake. Below the aqueduct, all flow was eliminated except during extremely wet years. However, in the late 1920s, Owens Lake started to become dry. Native flora and fauna species have been severely affected in the Owens River. Some fish are federally listed endangered species. Flow alteration from water diversions and impoundments, in combination

20


CALIFORNIA 86,800 mGal

LA AQUEDUCT 52,000 mGal

COLORADO RIVER AQUEDUCT 4,500 mGal

IMPORTED WATER

88% EVAPORATION 31 mGal

STORAGE:

LOCAL WATER

GOUND WATER 21,536 mGal 11%

: TION

IBU

R DIST

WATER RECYCLE 3,600 mGal

LEAKS 6,900 mGal

1% WATER CYCLE WAT ER U

PRICIPITATION 136,000 mGal

GROUNDWATER RECHARGE 26,300 mGal

4% 26,00UNDWATER R 0 mG ECHAR GE al

IRRIGATION 81,000 mGal

TREATED WASTEWATER

OUTDOOR USE 42,840 mGal

GRO

UPSTREAM RUNNOFF 55,000 mGal

119,000 mGal

SE

T UEN Gal EFF,L100 m 89

A OCE TO Gal PIP,E000 m 93 N

IA SPR RAN l POT mGa EVA9,000 11 N TIO

11. Stormwater Capture, Treatment and

Recharge for Urban Water Supply, 2016.

21

Figure 2 Water Cycle in Los Angeles.11

12. Los Angeles Basin Stormwater

Los Angeles imports 88 percent of its drinking water from other cities. Everyone says that Los Angeles lacks of water,

Conservation Study. Task 2 Water Supply

but the truth is we are losing it. We let 93 billion gallons stormwater and 42 billion gallons outdoor use water flow

& Water Demand Projections.

into ocean through stormwater drainage system. Today we only capture 26 billion gallons urban runoff.12


22


1. Chapter Two - Catastrophic Floods and Stormwater Management

History of Major Flood in Los Angeles that Changed the Urban Landscape 13. Thirty Dead in Southland Floods, Los

“Southland skies opened yesterday and rained death and destruction over a wide area as Southern California’s heaviest

Angeles Times, 3 March 1938

rainstorm in a quarter of a century entered its fifth day. The storm’s death toll, which had mounted to ten during the day,

.

leaped to a possible thirty at dusk when bridges in Long Beach and Universal City toppled into the maelstroms...”

14. Simpson, Kelly, Los Angeles Flood of

--Los Angeles Times13

1938: The Destruction Begins, History & Society of LA, 27 February 2012.

Historically, Los Angeles has experienced several catastrophic flood events which have caused much damage. Hundreds of people died in these events and. Government spent lots of money

15. Cram, Justin, Los Angeles Flood of

on post disaster repair.14 The 1938 flood event was the worst one in decades, and changed the

1938: Cementing the River’s Future,

urban development and urban landscape in Los Angeles. In 1938, Los Angeles was inundated with

Departures. KCET, July 22 2013.

two storm systems delivering record breaking rainfalls. The storm started to occur on Februray 27th, 1938. By the second day, 14.43 inches of of rain had fallen equivalent to the average annual rainfall. In the end, the storm brought a total of 10 inches of rain in the lowlands and upwards of 32 inches of rain in the mountains.15

THE DESTROY OF FLOOD During that flood event, the soils of San Gabriels River gave way. Tons of massive debris and sedimentation flowed down dozens of steep and narrow canyons that poured their contents on to the Los Angeles basin. After this flood event, more than 6,000 homes and businesses were destroyed and 1,500 homes were damaged and uninhabitable. Hundreds of people lost their lives, thousands more were evacuated. About one third of Los Angeles was influenced by stormwater. The stormwater surged from sourth to north, especially the San Fernando Valley, Venice, Compton, and Long Beach area. The Los Angeles River reached a maximum flood stage of about 99,000 cubic feet per second. Because of the bridge washouts and flooded lines, the three transcontinental railroads servicing the Los Angeles area stopped operations, making the greater Los Angeles area was isolated from the outside world. In addition, schools and colleges were closed, and students could not go to school for weeks because of the flooded playgrounds, basins, and streets. The whole city was paralyzed.

23


16. Cram, Justin, Los Angeles Flood of

1938: Cementing the River’s Future, Departures. KCET, July 22 2013. 17. ArcGIS, http://www.arcgis. com/home/webmap/viewer.

Figure 3 Flood damage to a bridge in Studio City, 1938.16

Figure 4 A house that was washed a block away, 1934.16

24


Water Supply Reservoir Flood Control Channel Flood in 1938

0 Figure 5 Striking US Army Corps of Engineers Map of Los Angeles County.17

25

15

30 mile


18. Small Losses Prove Value of Dam

IT COULD HAVE BEEN WORSE

.System: Huge Amouts of Water Stored and Damage Held to Minimum, Los

In 1938, Los Angeles county already had its own drainage

Angeles Times, March 4 1938.

system with fourteen flood control basins and dams.

After the catastrophic floods in 1938, the local

There was enough stormwater being held into these

government started a comprehensive flood control

19. Davis, Mike, Ecology of Fear: Los

flood control basin to cover 105,336 acres a foot deep.

plan.19 This comprehensive plan created a three-prong

Angeles and The Imagination of

All that water flowed down into the basins along with

approach. First, it called for the construction of several

Disaster, Metropolitan Books, Page 70-

the runoff. These drainage areas worked well during that

large flood control dams,-Sepulveda, Hansen, and

71, 1988.

flood event, avoiding greater damage. There were two

Lopez-at the mouths of 17 tributary canyons. The plan

incomplete dams at that time, the Los Angeles Dam and

also included improvement of 49.07 miles of main

20. Report of The Chief of Engineers

the Hansen Dam. If not for the existing fourteen dams,

channel, and 53.42 miles of tributary channels and the

U. S. Army, Part 1, Volume 2, Corps of

the flood damage of Los Angeles watershed would have

reconstruction of 109 bridges.20 Santa Fe and Whittier

Engineers, January 1 1942.

been much worse than what it was.18 The flood engineers

Narrows flood control basins were also built in the San

kept working on the construction of Los Angeles Dam

Gabriel Basin. Second, debris basins were constructed

and Hansen Dam to solve the flood problems.

for collecting mud and rock during storms. Third, the

21. Kudler, Glick, Adrian, 9 Views of The

26

A MORE COMPLETE FLOOD CONTROL SYSTEM

LA River Today and Before It Was Paved

channels were reconstructed to be deeper, wider and

in 1938, Los Angeles Curbed, Augst 19

concrete to enable stormwater to transport to the ocean

2015.

as quickly as possible.


Figure 6 Los Angeles River in 1931.21

Figure 7 Los Angeles River After 1941 New Comprehensive Plan.21

27


The Development of Stormwater Drainage System 22. History of Los Angeles’s Stormwater

Drainage Management, LA’s Watershed

At the beginning of 20th century, with the rapid population increase and urban development, rain

Protection Program, LA Stormwater,

water that had been absorbed by unpaved land began to flow though the paved and developed

2017.

areas, leading to a decrease in groundwater storage and an increase of rainwater flowing into Los Angeles’ local waterways. These natural waterways could not capture the increasing rainwater

23. Los

Angeles County Storm Drain System, Los Angeles Department of

and the region experienced catastrophic and deadly floods in 1930s to 1940s. In response, the

Public Works.

River, San Gabriels River, and Ballona Creek and build an urban stormwater drainage system. The

local government established the 1941 new comprehensive plan to channelize the Los Angeles result was a complex 1,500-mile system comprised of more than 30,000 catch basins and 100 miles of open channels.22 After that, stormwater drainage system has gradually expanded.

28


0

Went Back to Ground 98% of Rainfall Figure 8-1 Los Angeles Stormwater Drainage System in 1910.23

29

7

14 mile


0

Went Back to Ground 95% of Rainfall Figure 8-2 Los Angeles Stormwater Drainage System in 1930.23

30

7

14 mile


0

Went Back to Ground 75% of Rainfall Figure 8-3 Los Angeles Stormwater Drainage System in 1950.23

31

7

14 mile


0

Went Back to Ground 50% of Rainfall Figure 8-4 Los Angeles Stormwater Drainage System in 1990.23

32

7

14 mile


0 More than 25 Billion Gallons Stormwater Drained into Ocean each Storm Month Went Back to Ground 40% of Rainfall

2000 Mile Stormwater Drain Pipe Figure 8-5 Los Angeles Stormwater Drainage System in 1910.23

33

7

14 mile


STORMWATER DRAINAGE SYSTEM SOLVE THE FLOOD ISSUE The Los Angeles’s stormwater drainage network views the storm as an urban development issue. 24. Davis, Mike, Ecology of Fear: Los

It carries excess water from rainfall, sprinklers or outdoor use sewer water away from city streets

Angeles and The Imagination of

and straight to the ocean in order to leave more space for urban development and protect

Disaster, Metropolitan Books, Page 70-

urban safety and property. Every day, tens of millions of gallons of urban runoff flows into local

71, 1988.

waterways through the stormwater drainage network. On a rainy day, the flow can be as much as 10 billion gallons. Because of the construction of stormwater drainage system, the flood issue is

25. Report

of The Chief of Engineers

U. S. Army, Part 1, Volume 2, Corps of Engineers, January 1 1942.

34

almost solved and the flood zone is decreased greatly. 24


Stormwater Drainage Pipe Natural Drainage Flood in 1938 100-year Flood now

0

Figure 9 Los Angeles Stormwater Drainage System.25

35

15

30 mile


The Decrease of Groundwater Storage 26. Geohydrologic Study of The Central

“Situated on a semiarid coastal plain, the greater Los Angeles area relies significantly on groundwater for its water supply.

and West Coast Basins of LA County,

Historical groundwater development of the Central and West Coast Basins caused a large decline in groundwater levels

California Water Science Center, USGS.

and seawater intrusion. These effects led to the adjudication of the basins in the early 1960s and initiation of a series of groundwater management activities, including construction and operation of injection barriers, recharge of groundwater

27. Water

Management in Los Angeles, Institute of The Environment, UCLA, 2015.

basins through spreading grounds, restriction of groundwater withdrawal in certain periods, and use of imported and reclaimed water in lieu of some pumping.” --USGS26

Groundwater is an essential water source in dry areas, especially in Southern California. Many cities in this region pump groundwater to meet significant total demands for drinking water, irrigating, industrial use and so on. Recognizing the threats of depleted basins and sea water intrusion, groundwater pumpers in the several ground water basins organized to regulate pumping and develop long-term resource preservation plans for the aquifers as early as 1949.2 They codified the details of these plans in court-approved “adjudications.” Imported water from the Metropolitan Water District was essential in helping users agree to curtail pumping regimes, albeit with pumping levels that still exceeded the natural volume of groundwater recharge.27 Today, the water scarcity, climate change, and population increase strain the availability of water imports to supplant or recharge Los Angeles groundwater basins.27 As chapter one mentioned, today Los Angeles imports 88 percent of its drinking water from other cities though three main aqueducts, Los Angeles Aqueduct, California Aqueduct and Colorado River Aqueduct. Only 12 percent of drinking water is from local water resources. The annual rainfall in Los angeles is 12.5 inches on average.(Fig. 11) However, there are just 3 square miles of spreading grounds in the entire 1540 square miles watershed of Los Angeles and San Gabriel Rivers. This is less than two tenth of one percent of this whole area.(Fig. 12) For the lack of water infiltration, the groundwater 80

200

70

0 -200 -400 -600 -800 -1000 -1200

1930

60 50 40 30 20 10 1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

Figure 10 Los Angeles Historic Annual Rainfall and Groundwater Storage26

36

50% 40%

2010

0

(inches) Annual Precipitation

400

Catastrophic Floods

Groundwater Storage (1000'S of AF)

storage is much lower than before.(Fig. 10)


Freeway Precipitation 40 in

0

5 in Figure 11 Los Angeles Annual Rainfall12

37

15

30 mile


Stormwater Drainage Pipe Natural Drainage Lake Existing Spreading Ground Watershed Abover Spreading Ground

0

Figure 12 Water Infiltrated Area23

38

15

30 mile


1. Chapter Three - Stormwater Causes Great Local Water Pollution

Water Pollution in Los Angeles 28. The Facts about Infections of the Eye,

In the 1970 Oscar winning song, Raindrops Keep Fallin’ on My Head, Burt Bacharach and Hal David got it all wrong to

Keck Medicine of USC, USC Roski Eye

describe the water condition in Los Angeles, even in the whole U.S.:

Institute.

Raindrops keep fallin’ on my head But that doesn’t mean my eyes will soon be turnin’ red

29. Fleischli, Steve, Los Angeles County

Cryin’s not for me

Water Pollution and the U.S. Supreme

Cause I’m never gonna stop the rain by complainin’

Court, NRDC, November 20, 2012.

Because I’m free… Nothin’s worryin’ me..

Viral infections like adenoviral conjunctivitis, commonly known as “pink eye” is one of the most common eye infections in Los Angeles.28 Red eyes, known as pinkeye, are among the many health problems those raindrops can cause when they fall on urban environments and pick up pollution, turning into a toxic brew. Polluted water resources also can cause more serious health consequences, such as gastrointestinal, respiratory and neurological illnesses.29 In Los Angeles, drought has a choking grip on the 10.2 million people who live in here. There are some of more visible of the current changing this song to be:

Parched brown stamp lawns and freeway signs Extolling water conservation and scorched, tinder Dry hillsides in LA Cause we’re never gonna love our water by actions Because We’re not free... Nothin’s I care... There are more and more large cities and small towns paying attention to the harm caused by water shortage and water pollution. Unfortunately, Los Angeles ( with more than 70 miles of spectacular beaches), as one of our most populous regions is lagging behind. The rapid urban development and population growth brings a huge water pressure to Los Angeles, although Los Angeles has decrease 21 percent of city water use over the last two years. The summer temperatures already hover around triple digits. If the high temperature and drought condition continue, how could people who live in Los Angeles get their drinking water?

39


- POLLUTED UNDERGROUND WATER 30. Daniel Ross, Truthout, Industrial

Pollution Is Threatening Our Drinking

As chapter one mentioned, currently, Los Angeles relies on getting drinking water from three

Water: A Dispatch From Los Angeles

main sources: northern California, the Colorado River and groundwater beneath the county’s

County, TRUTHOUT, July 23, 2015.

surface. However, chronically taking water from other cities has destroyed their local ecological environment. While groundwater is the most accessible of the three, it’s far from the cleanest. Indeed, no other county in the state is more reliant than LA County on groundwater that has been deemed contaminated at one time or another.30 But that does not mean that Los Angeles ignores this problem. Since the 1980s, billions of dollars have been pumped into cleaning the county’s four main water basins: the San Fernando, San Gabriel, Central and West Coast Water Basins. But all these years later, a losing battle is still being waged in some areas against the continued migration of contamination into clean aquifers, a toxic legacy from decades of heavy industrial pollution in the region.3 There are 452 miles of rivers or channels and 57 miles of costal lines being polluted. (Fig. 13)

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Figure 13(a) Eutrophication Water Pollution.

Figure 13(b) Dead Fish in Waterways.

Figure 13(c) Trash in Costal Line.

Figure 13(d) Waste Water Discharge. Figure 13 Los Angeles Water Pollution.

41


TOP 10 SOUCRES OF WATER QUALITY IMPACT 31. Kessler, Rebecca, Stormwater

Water pollution exacerbates the water pressure issue even more. Unless we take some actions to solve this probelm,

Strategies: Cities Prepare Aging Infrascture

contaminated plumes will become so dense and permanent that the rest of the wells in Los Angles will need to be

for Climate Change, Environmental Health

shut down.30 Before coming up with the solution to solve the local water problems, the main water pollution impact

Perspectives, December 2011.

sources should be understood. (Fig. 34)

32. Morgan, J. J., Liijestrand, H. M.,

#1: URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF

our streams. This waste can cause pollution problems

Measurement and interpretation of acid

The traditional stormwater drainage system does not

where it is discharged by using up oxygen in the water,

rainfall in the Los Angeles Basin, W. M.

have the function of cleaning water. When it rains,

killing fish and other plants.

Keck Laboratory of Hydraulics and Water

water runs into L.A.’s storm drains. Stormwater flows

Resources, December 10, 2009.

directly into our local waterways and then to the ocean

#4: ACID RAIN

untreated. Compared with sewer water, the stormwater

Acid rain, originates from the combustion of fossil fuels.

is not connected to a treatment facility before entering

As an industrial city, Los Angeles uses many fossil fuels

our ocean. Thus, the pollutants in urban neighborhoods ,

to produce energy. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur

such as flow with the rain water into local water resources,

dioxide (SO2) are emitted into the atmosphere while

causing water pollution.

burning. When it enters the atmosphere, NOx and SO2 are transformed into nitric acid and sulfuric acid and

#2: AGING STORMWATER INFRASTRUCTURE

fall back to the ground through wet deposition, like

Aging stormwater infrastructure poses another water

rainfalland snow. Due to the heavy traffic condition, tons

quality problem: The percentage of U.S. stormwater

of carbon dioxide is released, making the rain naturally

pipe that will be in “poor,” “very poor,” or “life elapsed”

acidic. Increased acidity has a negative effect on water

(older than its predicted life span) condition rose from

quality and aquatic life. Various insects that constitute

23% in 2000 to 45% in 2020. All this aging stormwater

an important food source for fish-such as mayflies-

infrastructure could not guarantee that the wast water

are sensitive to low pH. Low pH also increases the

will not leak in the course of transportation.

concentration of heavy metals-such as aluminum and

31

mercury-in the water and can result in increased toxicity #3: NUTRIENT ETROPHICATION

for aquatic life.32

Nutrient etrophication is also a big concern. Small amounts

42

of

contaminants

like pesticides

and

#5: LEGACY POLLUTANTS

herbicides on our grasses and in our gardens and huge

The historic legacy of industrial pollution persists, and

amounts of contaminants used in argiculture can end

new inputs of industrial elements are increasing in the

up causing water pollution. When it rains, or when it

region. During the industrial activities, oil and antifreeze

infiltrates, the water can carry these pollutants into the

leaks. When water runs over the ground it can pick up

street where it enters the stormwater system or directly

these substances where they then enter the storm drain.

into the groundwater. Excess lawn grass and yard waste

Every little bit this water picks up can have a cumulative

after mowing or trimming can put unwanted fertilizer in

impact on water quality at our local beaches.


#6: MERCURY

#8: AQUATIC WEED INVASIVES

33. Smith, Emerson, Joshua, Mercury, DDT

Mercury is a toxic metal that poses risks to human health

Non-native aquatic invasive weeds are increasingly being

and other contaminants in fish are at a

when released to the environment. At high enough

recognized as some of the most destructive and rapidly

four-decade low, LA Times, Februray 08,

concentrations in the local water resources, the toxic

spreading of the invasive species. Some are poisonous,

2016.

substance can cause cancer, neurological disorders, birth

others interfere with agriculture, and waterways.34 In

defects, thyroid problems and other ailments in people

Southern California this includes Eichhornia Crassipes

34. Invasive Weeds in Los Angeles County,

who consume tainted fish.33 Although fish in today’s

and Hydrilla Verticillata, causing millions of dollars of

Agricultural Commissioner/ Weights &

oceans contain far lower levels of mercury, DDT and other

damages.35

Measures, County of Los Angeles.

toxic substances than at any time in the last four decades, #9: PATHOGENS SELFISH

mercury still is a main water quality impact source.

In Los Angeles, some water impurities cause significant

35. Water Quality, Public Health, County of

#7: HYDROLOGIC MODIFICATION

health problems. High levels of the bacteria E. coli have

Hydrologic modifications include channlizing the natural

been linked to gastrointestinal illness; high levels of

36. Status Report: Onstie Wastewater

stream channel and its associated corridor. Common

arsenic have been tied to cancer.36 Many local people

Treatment Systems in California, California

examples of such modifications to habitat or hydrology

died because of it.

Wastewater Training & Research Center,

include the widening, deepening and channelization of

August 2003.

400hardening of streambanks, dam and reservoir streams,

80 #10: INADEQUATE WASTEWATER TREATMENT

operations, and construction in and along stream riparian

Although there are some onsite wastewater treatment

buffers and wetlands. The effect on the hydrology is that -200

construction

the waterways not only lose their own ability to infilter -400

maintenance, increased density of homes, undersized 40

-600 the polluted water, but alos lose the habitat. and treat

30 and overused systems and the installation of systems on

Los Angeles.

200 0

-800

This has a great effects on neighboring flora and faura. -1000

70

in

Los

Angeles,

the

sites with unacceptable conditions can all lead20to onsite system failure and water quality impacts.36

-1200

60

poor50 routine

10 0

50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0

Urban Aging WW Nutrient Stormwater Infrastructure Etrophication Runoff Impaired

Impacted

43

50% 40% 30%

Acid Rain

Legacy Pollutants

Mercury

Hydro Modification

Figure 14 Top 10 Sources of Water Quality Impact.35

Aquatic Weed Invasives

Pathogens Inadequate Shelifish Onsite Septics


STORMWATER DRAINAGE NETWORK WITH WATER HARVESTING AREA

0'

Freeway Polluted River River/ Channel High Pollution Burden Low Pollution Burden

44

50000'

0

Figure 15 Los Angeles Water Pollution.35

15

100000'

30 mile


Stormwater Water Pollution Polluted runoff is the number one source of contamination to Los Angeles’s waters. A large portion 37. Stormwater Pollution Basics,

of contaminants found in Los Angeles County waters are due to pollution from the thousands of

Department of public works, Los Angeles

industrial facilities located throughout the County including factories, oil fields, scrap metal yards,

County.

and waste processing facilities. Polluted runoff also comes from human activities, which includes the use of detergents, fertilizers, oil and trash.37

38. Alamillo James, As a Large Storm Rolls

into L.A., Runoff Issues Flood My Mind,

The County of Los Angeles estimates that during a typical storm event upwards of 10 billion

Heal the Bay, December 16, 2016.

gallons of storm water flushes into the local waterways and ocean. (Fig. 15) That’s enough to fill nearly 120 Rose Bowls. In another words, 10 billion gallons would provide enough water for a city the size of Santa Monica for more than three months.38 However, the worse thing is the stormwater drainage system brings a lot of pollution. After a storm event, detritus is littered over the coast and beaches in Los Angeles. Almost every storm event brings physical debris, mostly plastics, to our waterways and oceans. In addition, after the storm event, polluted water can make the local water resources unhealthy for aquatic organisms and recreational users. In Los Angeles County alone, there are more than 70 major outfalls that spew trash, animal waste, pesticides, used motor oil, and human-gastrointestinal viruses into our county’s water bodie. This urban micro-brew of pollution can accumulate in just a couple days on sidewalks and roadways, 12 million people in a highly urbanized landscape, before being washed into the storm drains after a rain event.37

Figure 16 Los Angeles Water Flow Diagram.

45


Figure 17 Los Angeles Stormwater Pollution Diagram.37 Main Stormwater Pollutants: - Oil, grease, and toxic chemicals from urban runoff and energy production. - Urban neighborhood waste - Sediment from improperly managed construction sites, crop and forest lands, and eroding streambanks. - Salt from irrigation practices and acid drainage from abandoned mines. - Bacteria and nutrients from livestock, pet wastes, and faulty septic systems.10

46


1. Chapter Four - Climate Change in Los Angeles

Heat Island in Los Angeles 39. Barragan, Bianca, LA Gets More

“We must take action now. Each year, more Americans die as a result of heat than all other natural disasters combined.

Added Warmth from Urban Heat Islands

And the L.A. neighborhoods that have the least tree canopy — the northeast Valley and southeast L.A. — are at greatest

Than Anywhere in the State, CURBED Los

risk for heat-related hospitalizations and deaths.”

Angeles, September 21, 2015.

--Eric Garcetti

40.Urban Heat Island Index for California,

Los Angeles’s temperatures has been higher and higher. According to a new index out from the

California Environmental Protection

state’s Environmental Protection Agency, Los Angeles has an increase temperature from its highly

Agency.

urbanized state. This “Heat island effect” means that an urban area is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas due to more paved area with low albedo. In fact, the great Los Angeles

41. Understanding the Urban Heat Island

area gets more heat than other nearby region, in part because of how urbanized it is.39 Compared

Index, California Environmental Protection

with other cities, due to the highly urbanization and paved urban surface, Los Angeles area

Agency.

makes itself more of “an urban heat archipelago” rather than a single heat island. Several small urban centers area connected with each other by the heat island chain network, Los Angeles’s

42. Totten, Sanden, LA area has highest

freeways. The concrete and asphalt surface absorb and store heat from sunshine which makes

urban heat island effect in California,

the surrounding area 19 degree hotter in summer. The highest temperatures were found east of

Environment & Science, September 21,

Downtown, then blow inland to the valleys and contained near the base of the San Bernardino

2015.

Mountains.42 (Fig. 18) The heat generated by the urban heat islands in one area tends to move inland to blanket other areas with the overheated air. Heat islands are created by a combination of heat-absorptive surfaces, such as dark pavement and roofing, heat-generating activities, such as engines and generators, and the absence of vegetation, which provides evaporative cooling.40

47


WHY URBAN HEAT ISLANDS MATTER 43. Barragan, Bianca, LA Gets More

During heat waves, hospitalizations and deaths increase. Heat exposure, poor air pollution, and

Added Warmth from Urban Heat Islands

the concentration of heat in urban areas creates health risks. The strong influence of the urban

Than Anywhere in the State, CURBED Los

heat island on nighttime temperatures limits the ability of people to cool down and recover

Angeles, September 21, 2015.

before the heat of the next day. This adds to the risk of illness and fatalities.41 According to the California emergency record documents, during heat waves, respiratory disease, emphysema, heart disease, heart attacks, stroke, diabetes, renal failure, intestinal infections, heat stroke, dehydration, hypertension, and asthma happens more times.42 Because urban heat islands result in locally higher temperatures, there are other bad impacts on the economy and energy consumption. For example, during hotter summers, people use more air conditioning. However, this action increases greenhouse gas emissions. More greenhouse gas will increase the air temperature. Therefore, this problem is especially serious because, within the urban heat island cycle, heat intensity is projected to increase significantly. Heat islands will become even more prevalent in the future. With climate change, heat waves are becoming more frequent, more intense, and longer lasting.43

48


Freeway High Heate Island Effect Area Moderate to High Heate Island Effect Area Moderate Heate Island Effect Area Figure 18 Los Angeles Urban Heat Island.42

49

0

15

30 mile


Future Climate Change in Los Angeles 44. Netburn, Deborah, L.A.’s mayor wants

The latest research projects the Los Angeles region to be 3°F to 4°F warmer by mid-century, creating more frequent

to lower the city’s temperature. These

and intense heat waves that pose particular risk to Los Angeles’s most vulnerable communities.6

scientists are figuring out how to do it, LA Times, February 9, 2017.

The climate of Los Angeles is temperate, with very mild and relatively rainy winters, and warm and sunny summers. However, the climate is changing, which brings negative effects to all over

45. Preparing for Climate Change Impacts

California, especially in Los Angeles. The increasing temperatures, more extreme weather, such as

in Los Angeles, Strategies and Solutions for

floods and wildfires, and rising sea levels are some of the most significant impacts already affecting

Protecting Local Communities, Union of

Los Angeles. All these climate changes could have devastating effects on the regional economy,

Concerned Scientists.

urban infrastructure, public health, recreation, tourism, agriculture, and the environment.44 California historically has been a pioneer in addressing global warming, with leading researchers from the state’s universities and research labs providing the science on climate change and state officials taking policy action to reduce carbon emissions. The state’s successes over the years have set an example for other states and the federal government to follow. With the effects of global warming already starting to be felt, however, Los Angeles and other California communities must now make an additional choice: how to best prepare for, and protect against, the changes that cannot be avoided. 45 The climate of Los Angeles may change dramatically in the future. Climate change is primarily responsible for the warming trend, but it’s not the only force at work. Los Angeles is contending with an additional layer of misery caused by what’s known as the “urban heat island effect.” It means that cities — with their asphalt streets, dark roofs, sparse vegetation and car-clogged roads — are almost always a few degrees warmer than the more rural areas that surround them.44 Climate models (Fig. 19) suggest that by 2050, the temperature in downtown L.A. will exceed 95 degrees 22 days per year. In 1990, only six days were that warm. The Long Beach area is expected to see 37 days of this extreme heat per year, compared with 4 in 1990.44

50


- EXTREME HEAT 46. Barragan, Blanca, LA’S Fog is

Temperatures that hover 10 degrees or more above the average high temperature for the region

Disappearing and It Could Make Summers

and last for several weeks are defined as extreme heat. During the day time, concrete traps heat;

Very Hot, CURBED Los Angeles, March 4,

during night time, all the heat is released. Therefore, the nighttime temperature is increased.

2015.

The high surface temperatures make it hard for water droplets to condense during nighttime.46 Therefore, in Los Angeles, it is harder than anywhere else to form clouds. The low vegetation

47. Misra, Tanvi, A New Study Says

cover and high paved surface make it too warm for fog to form. In other words, there will be no

Warming Caused by Urbanizatioin is to

fog in the future in Los Angeles area. From the perspective of everyday life in Los Angeles, fog

Blame, Why L.A.’s Fog is Disappering,

isn’t much fun. The poor visibility that comes from low clouds can cause flight delays and lead

CITYLAB, March 4, 2015.

to freeway traffic accidents. But from an ecological perspective, this isn’t great news. Fog actually is really important for the biologically diverse, drought-sensitive, and flammable ecosystem along the Southern California mountain ranges. Fog deposits water directly onto this ecosystem, nourishing it and buffering it from wildfires that are common in L.A. during the summers.47 Lack of fog and clouds will make Los Angeles even hotter.

Figure 19 Days of Extreme Heat in Southern California.45

240 180 120 60 0 1950

1965

1980

1995

2010

Figure 20 Foggy Days per Year in Los Angeles.

46

51


- AIR POLLUTION 48. Maines, Alexa, The Tie Between

Although Los Angeles has already improved its air quality, Los Angeles still is the worst air condition

Wildfires and Air Quality, WeatherBug,

city in the nation. With the changing of local climate, it is harder than before to improve air

December 30, 2017.

quality in Los Angeles. For example, warming temperatures increase concentrations of groundlevel ozone, an ingredient in smog, which is formed when nitrogen oxides and volatile organic

49. Molina, Genaro, Bel-Air Wildfire Joins

compounds react in the presence of heat and sunlight.45 The biggest wildfire occured in Los

the Siege Across Southern California, LA

Angeles in the end of 2017.(Fig. 20) Smoke from wildfires wreaks havoc on air quality and can

Times, Los Angeles Times, December 6,

pose serious health risks for local people. Smoke is composed of gases and fine particles, which

2017.

go deep into your lungs when you breathe it in. Not only will it make your eyes itch, but it can also cause severe health complications for those with heart and lung diseases.48

50. Ekstrom, J.A., and S.C. Moser, Sea-

level rise impacts and flooding risks in the context of social vulnerability: An assessment for the city of Los Angeles. Prepared for the Mayor’s Office, City of Los Angeles, 2012.

Figure 20 Wildfire in Los Angeles.49

52


- WATER RESOURCES 50. Ekstrom, J.A., and S.C. Moser, Sea-

Most of the precipitation falls to the north of the Los Angeles region during the winter.(Fig. 4)

level rise impacts and flooding risks in

However, the largest demand for the water use is the southern park of Los Angeles through the

the context of social vulnerability: An

whole year. Because of rising temperature, there will be more rain fall instead of snow at the

assessment for the city of Los Angeles.

water supply upstream of Los Angeles. More and more water sources cannot be stored as snow

Prepared for the Mayor’s Office, City of Los

in land area. The increasing amount of water flowing into ocean threatens the impact of sea

Angeles, 2012.

level rise. Therefore, strengthening water conservation measures—such as climate-appropriate landscaping, rain gardens, improving water use efficiency in households and agriculture, and improving water infiltration into the soil through permeable surfaces—also helps.50

- ELECTRICITY CHALLENGE Los Angeles’s electricity system is facing many challenges in this warming world. Higher temperatures and extreme weather are projected to the increase of electricity use, such as air condition. Meanwhile, transmission lines bringing power to metropolitan Los Angeles is located in areas that are projected to be more vulnerable to damage from wildfires, which means more wildfires may occur in the future. Given these chanllenges, I propose Los Angeles finding the lost space in the urban area in order to create a urban forest network, decreasing the air pollution and solving the heat island issues.

53


54


1. Chapter Five - How Freeway Can Be A Green Infrastructure Network?

Lack of Green Spaces in Los Angeles 51. Barragan, Blanca, Just How Park Poor

“The Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors will consider putting a parcel tax on the ballot that could be used to raise

is Los Angeles County? Half of Residents

funds for open, green spaces—important considering that a recent parks-needs assessment conducted at the behest of

Don’t Live within 10 Minutes of A Park, and

the board found that 51 percent of county residents don’t live within a 10-minute walk (half a mile) of a park.”51

Other Sad Park Facts About LA County,

--Blanca Barragan

CURBED Los Angeles, May 23, 2016.

Los Angeles County is “green space poor” compared to other urban areas throughout the United 52. Gordon, Billi, Why L.A. Needs More

States. Because of the development of technology, we do not need to live in caves like animals.

Green Space, Now, Los Angeles Times,

We build buildings and developed our cities, which is a good process, except that it comes with

November 13, 2015.

various damages and hidden costs. Los Angeles is becoming a much denser, urban city. With the increasing urban area, Los Angeles has run out of spaces to grow out. The urbanization has

53. Lane Ashley, Green Spaces: Remapping

left little green space for people. In Los Angeles, the tree canopy covers 21 percent of the city,

Los Angeles, Art&Culture, The National,

compared with the national average of 27 percent.52

April 6, 2016.

Although Los Angeles has many big urban parks, such as Griffith Park, the biggest urban park in the nation is Topanga State Park which spans 265,226 hectares. Beyond these specific areas, Los Angeles has one of the lowest percentage of green urban spaces in the nations. In Los Angeles, almost 50 percent of local residents do not live wthin a ten-minute walking distance of a green space or public park, compared with New York’s 4 percent. 53 Lack of green spaces means there is less opportunity for rainwater to permeate into the the soil recharging ground water, growing vegetations, improving air and water quality, and providing habitat for wildlife. In addition, for local residents, especailly for children, a lack of access to green space results in poor health, crime and even domestic violence. Green space is not only a play ground for children to play and get knowledge about nature but also a best place for adults to reduce stress and get exercise. As Los Angeles continues to grow, people are creating a human-centric city. Building more green spaces could decrease the psychological elements that lead to violent behavior, in addition to many ecological benefits.52

55


Freeway Moderate Park Need High Park Need Very High Park Need

0

Figure 22 Los Angeles Water Pollution.51

56

15

30 mile


54. Sivasubramanian, Ramya, Measure

A to Improve Park Equity in Los Angeles County, NRDC, September 28, 2016. 55. So, Wai, Shuk, Urban Green Space

Accessibility and Environmental Justice: A GIS-Based Analysis, August 2016.

Green Space in Los Angeles

Avilable Green Space to Residents

56. 2016 NRPA Field Report Park

and Recreation Agency Performance Benchmarks, National Recreation and Park Association, 2016.

Park Amenities Condition

Park Infrastructure Condition

Figue 23 Park Condition in Los Angeles.51 LACK OF GREEN SPACE The average green space per thousand people in Los

residents, or “High Need,” averaging 1.6 acres per 1,000

Angeles is 3.3 acres, which is lower than the average

residents.54 Access to urban green space can have a great

condition in the nations. The average natioanl green

influence on human health. Urban green spaces promote

space per thousand people is 9.7. In addition, all these

physical activity, improve the general public health of

green spaces are disproportionately distributed. The

urban residents, and enhance psychological well-being.55

Countywide Comprehensive Parks and Recreation Needs

Additionally because parks clean water and air, the lack

Assessment—which analyzed the physical condition of

of green space has environmental implication. Therefore,

parks, community access to green spaces, neighborhood

finding more space and transforming them into green

demographics, and population density—found that

spaces is very important in Los Angeles.

56

more than half of County residents live in areas classified either “Very High Need,” averaging 0.7 acres per 1,000

57


Finding Lost Space - Freeway 57. Trancik, Roger, Finding Los Space:

“Lost spaces are the undesirable urban area that is in need of redesign—antispaces, making no positive contribution

Theories of Urban Design, New York: Van

to the surroundings or users. They are ill-defined, without measurable boundaries, and fail to connect elements in a

Nostrand Reinhold, 1986.

coherent way.” 57 --Roger Trancik

58. Mobility Plan 2035, General Plan Mobility Element, Los Angeles Department

During urbanization, there are five factors that cause lost spaces in a highly developed city: the

of City Planning

highway, the Modern Movement in architecture, urban renewal and zoning, competition for image on the part of private enterprise, and changing patterns of land use in the inner city. All these five factors have together created the dilemma of modern urban space. The street network, zoning system make the urban space lost its social meaning as a multipurpose space. With the loss of a collective sense of the meaning of public space, we also lose the sense that there are rules for connecting parts through the design of outdoor space. Therefore, Neighborhoods and district no longer interacted, but became isolated, homogeneous enclaves. In Los Angeles, 42 to 45 percent of urban land is devoted to the storage and movement of automobiles58, which causes the urban space to be separated, encompassed by vast open areas without social purpose. However, lost spaces offer tremendous opportunities to the designer for urban redevelopment and creative infill and for rediscovering the many hidden resources in our cities. “There are five major factors that have contributed to lost space in our cities: (1) an increased dependence on automobile; (2) the attitude of architects; (3) zoning and land-use policies of the urban-renewal period that divided the city; (4) an unwillingness on the part of contemporary institutions-public and private-to assume responsibility for the public urban environment; and (5) an abandonment of industrial, military, or transportation sites in the inner core of the city.”57

The automobile and modern movement methods, such as rail roads and freeways, are the biggest reasons for these lost spaces. It has resulted in an urban environment in which highways and parking lots are the predominant types of open space. In the 1940s, the highway system was motivated both by the needs of military defense and by the desire to foster economic growth. All these highways and freeways cut through Los Angeles. By creating a complex pattern of connected roads within the city, huge areas of lost space are left.

58


Figure 25 Before (Left) and After (Right) Freeway Construction LINEAR SPACE - POTENTIAL GREEN FIELD 59. Lau, Clement, Candidate, Urban

Highways and freeways cut through urban areas. Above

more green spaces and parks to improve the ecological

Freeway Cap Parks Policy Briefing Parper,

is an image showing how many lost spaces after a

problems and to meet the recreation and public health

Considering the Barriers and Opportunities

freeway proposed on site. (See Figure 25). The highway

needs of its local residents, especially children.59 Because

for More Park Space in Los Angeles, Los

destroyed an established community and some urban

of the huge unused space along the freeway, redesigning

Angeles Sustainability Collaborative.

green open spaces. It also created an impenetrable

all these spaces (Fig. 26) to create park space is one way

barrier through the city. Los Angeles has experienced

to address the shortage of green spaces and parks.

major disruptions caused by the interstate highway systems. The lack of public parks in Los Angeles is an issue that demands urgent attention. Los Angeles needs

59


Design Strategy There are many lost space in Los Angeles. I decided to uses all these unused space to break the traditional stormwater drainage system. Based on the existing freeway stormwater drainage, by inserting water treatment units, the heavy polluted freeway stormwater runoff would be treated. On the unused spaces surrounding freeway, using effluent creates an urban forest, where the neighborhood stormwater runoff could be cleaned and infiltrated into ground water.

FREEWAY AND SURROUNDING AREA

RESIDENTIAL, COMMERCIAL,INDUSTRIAL AREA OUTDOOR USE SEWAGE AND RUNOFF

FREEWAY STORMWATER RUNOFF

WATER TREATMENT

FREEWAY WATER TREATMENT

EFFLUENT

URBAN FORESTRY URBAN FOREST

ECOSYSTEM SERVICES PRODUCTION

ECONOMIC PRODUCTION

DUST ABSORPTION AIR PURIFICATION WATER PURIFICATION PUBLIC SPACE BIOHABITAT

POLLUTION ABSORPTION BIOMASS PRODUCTION: FUEL TIMBER, FIBER

60


Freeway Stormwater Runoff Treatment Freeway stormwater runoff treatment includes three parts: water collection structure, gravel basin, and bioretention basin in order to preliminarily purify the polluted water. Water Collection Structures Adding water collection and storage structures could

Water Tank

Chamber Systerm

Land Cut

Rainwater Hog

slow down the rate of the rainwater flowing through bioretention basin. During the rainy day, some of the rainwater could be stored in these structures. And the water could be released gradually. Thus, the bioretention basin could clean the freeway runoff by stages in order to improve purification efficiency. Depending on the type of freeway and the size of the available space, the four types of water storage shown on the right can be choosed. Water tank could be installed on ground or under ground. It ccan store large quantities of water. Chamber system is used under ground. As the blow diagram shows that it has the function of storage and irrigation. Rainwater hog can be used on ground or on freeway. Land cut methond can create topography change.

Trees Engineered Soils Sand Layer Water Chamber Gravel Layer Inflow Pipe

61

Trees Engineered Soils Sand Layer Water Chamber Gravel Layer Inflow Pipe

Trees Engineered Soils Sand Layer Water Chamber Gravel Layer Inflow Pipe


Gravel Basin Gravel basin can filter out solid impurities, such as cigarette butts, garbage,

Gravel Basin

plastics, etc. It can make sure that all the solid pollutants will not flow into planted basin or waterways with stormwater. Bioretention Basin Because of the freeway stormwater runoff is heavy polluted by N, P, metal, and toxic elements. Stormwater is collected into basin which consists of a remediative plants, engineered soil, sand bed, ponding area, gravel layer, and

Bioretention Basin

concrete basin. Each of the components of the bioretention area is designed to perform a specific function. The sand bed also reduces the velocity, filters particulates, and spreads flow over the length of the bioretention area. Aeration and drainage of the planting soil are provided by the deep sand bed. The ponding area provides a temporary storage location for runoff prior to its evaporation or infiltration. Some particulates not filtered out by the grass filter strip or the sand bed settle within the ponding area. The engineered soil also filters pollutants and provides an environment conducive to the growth of microorganisms, which degrade petroleum-based products and other organic material. The clay in the engineered soil provides adsorption sites for hydrocarbons, heavy metals, nutrients and other pollutants. Stormwater storage is also provided by the voids in the planting soil. The stored water and nutrients in the water and soil are then available to the plants for uptake.

Gravel Layer Precaset Concrete Basin

62

Remediative Plants Engineered Soils Sand Layer Gravel Layer Outflow Pipe Pre-cast Concrete Basin

Gravel Layer Precaset Concrete Basin

Remediative Plants Engineered Soils Sand Layer Gravel Layer Outflow Pipe Pre-cast Concrete Basin


Above diagrams shows the existing five types of freeway drainage infrastructure. According to the freeway drainage typology and available space size, I choose specific water collection and storage method combined gravel basin and bioretention basin to form the stormwater treatment units.

63


Define The Text Site As the analysis map on next page shows that, by overlying the water quality analysis, heat island analysis, soil infiltration ability analysis, and truck freeway traffic volume analysis. I defined part of freeway I-10 and freeway 710 as my strategy text site for the following reason. First, it is located on the high water polluted area. As the greatest pollution source, if the stormwater pollution issue could be solved or alleviated, the water quality of the this area will be greatly improved. Second, this freeway go through a large heat island zone, where a new green space network is needed to reduce the increasing temperature. Third, this freeway go through a good soil infiltration quality area, which provide a good opportunity for the urban stormwater runoff infiltrate into soil and recharge ground water. Fourth, there are many trucks drive through this freeway for goods moving. Truck emission causes air pollution, water pollution and dust. If transform this freeway into urban forest network, all these issue could be solved. In addition, according to the existing freeway section, we can see that there are many unused space on the two side of the freeway. Therefore, I choosed this freeway as my strategy test site to test my thesis theory.

64


Freeway Test Freeway Good Infiltration Soil

High Heat Island Effect Area Moderate to High Heat Island Effect Area Moderate Heat Island Effect Area Poor Water Quality Area

65

0

15

30 mile


EXISTING SECTIOING A

A

BC D EXISTING SECTIOING B

EXISTING SECTIOING C

EXISTING SECTIOING D

66


0

67

60

120'


12.5 inches RAINFALL

30 mile FREEWAY

17,000 metric tons CARBON DIOXIDE

30 mile FREEWAY

INNOVATIVE URBAN FOREST

169,000 URBAN TREES

24,500,000 sq ft FREEWAY SURFACE

49,000,000 sq ft URBAN SURFACE

203,000,000 gallons WATER

200,000,000 gallons Runoff

782 gallons water per year per tree

132,158,000 gallons WATER

<

In order to plant enough trees to offset the car emission from freeway. I calculated the tree number that I need. If all the freeway stormwater runoff could be collected and flow into the urban forest area, trees do not to be extra irrigated.

68


Strategy Phases

Phase One 90,000 TREES TOTAL Foresting the Intherchanges of Freeway

Phase Two

169,000 TREES TOTAL Conecting All the Forested Interchanges of Freeway

Phase Three 200,000 TREES TOTAL

Extend Urban Froest into Neigborhood

0

69

5

10 mile


Plant Pallette Urban wild forest and seasonal wetland designed to catch rainwater and reduce or prevent its flow off the site. They promote infiltration of rainwater into the soil and help filter and breakdown pollutants in the stormwater runoff. Urban wild forest can also add beauty and value to the landscape. This plant pallette features mostly California native species that are suitable for many vegetated areas. Tree Species

100'

MAX 50' HEIGHT

CROWN DIAMETER SPECIES AVERAGE LIFESPAN FUNCTION WATER NEED

70

60'

20'

35'

50'

40'

50'

Robinia pseudoacacia

Platanus racemosa

Pinus radiata

Platanus acerifolia

Liriodendron tulipifera

Acer negundo californicum

25-50 yr

100-200 yr

80-90 yr

250-400 yr

250-300 yr

500-700 yr

Nitrogen-fixer Large root

Ozoner remover Pollutant remover

CO2 remover

Smog, soot, dust reflected heat

Pollutant remover

Pollutant remover

Dry

Moisture-retentive

Dry to Medium

Dry

Dry to Medium

Moderate


Plant Species in Bioretention Basin

Rosa californica

Leymus triticoides

Baccharis salicifolia

Festuca californica

Cercocarpus betuloides

Nassella lepida

Arctostaphylos spp.

Carex subfusca

Plant Species in Urban Forest

71

Muhlenbergia rigens

Carex pansa

Juncus patens

Eschscholzia californica

Physocarpus capitatus

Ribes malvaceum

Adenostema fasciculatum

Eriogonum fasciculatum


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1. Chapter Six - Case Studies

Highway Overpass Landscape Detention System -DLANDstudio 60. HOLD System Study, DLANDstudio

Site: Long Island Sound, NY, CT

Architecture + landscape Architecture

Firm: DLANDstudio

pllc, 2015.

Date: Designed 2011-2012 and Constructed 2013-2014

SUMMARY DLANDstudio has developed four prototypical Highway Outfall Landscape Detention Systems (HOLDS) to collect and treat stormwater flowing down from elevated highways. There are over 7200 miles of elevated highways that traverse cities across the county. By combining the existing highway stormwater drain with a bioretention basin, this system creates planted, modular green infrastructure units that absorb and treat the pollutants from highway runoff, like used motor oil, heavy metal elements and grease from contaminated outfalls, rendering runoff much cleaner as it is released a grant to study the potential locations of additional sites for HOLDS within the Long Island Sound watershed.60

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BACKGROUND 61. Long Island Sound HOLD System

There are more than 7,200 miles of elevated highways

Study, DLANDstudio Architecture +

in U.S. The majority of these structures are constructed

landscape Architecture pllc, 2015.

with downspouts that connect to adjacent waterways. All the highway drains convey toxins and debris into the waterways, polluting the local water resouces. The Highway Outfall Landscape Detention System, or HOLD System, redefines this relationship between the highway drainage system and waterways. The HOLD System redirects the water into a modular treatment area and using two clean units to treat the highway runoff before it directly flow into the waterways. This system uses gravel and planted, modular green infrastructure that absorb and filter pollutants. The HOLD System catches unsavory elements such as cigarette butts and other detritus that are left on the highways before the rain event and prevents them from entering larger bodies of water or

Traditional System

the drinking water system.

60

GREEN STORMWATER INFRASTRUCTURE

Downspout or Scurpers

The traditional stormwater treatment methods are gray

Sedimentation Basin

infrastructure systems including pipes, storage tanks, and

Outflow Pipe

other physical â&#x20AC;&#x153;hardâ&#x20AC;? structures that collect, direct, and retain runoff. Such structures rely on centralized, largescale systems that prevent groundwater recharge and can further fragment the landscape.61

Gravel Drainage Channels

In Los Angeles, adding more new gray infrastructure is

Planted Basin

hard to solve the water pollution issue because of high costs and site constraints. However, by restoring natural functions, municipalities can enhance the capacity and effectiveness of existing infrastructure and improve stormwater outcomes.2 Thinking about, based on the

Outflow Pipe

freeway topologies, how to put the natural treatment unit in to the drainage system.

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HOLD System


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1. Chapter Six - Case Studies

Manchaca Greenway 62. Central Texas Regional Mobility

Site: Manchaca, TX

Authority’s Green Mobility Challenge,

Firm: AECOM

American Planning Association, September

Date: 2011

-AECOM

12 2012.

SUMMARY 63. Manchaca Greenway, Green Mobility

The “Green Mobility Challenge”, sponsored by the Central Texas Roadway and Mobility

Challenge, AECOM, November 29 2011.

Association, was a sustainable design competition that challenged Texas’ most creative landscape architects, planners and engineers to propose “greener” ways of constructing, operating, and maintaining future transportation projects.62 By holding the idea that a road is more than just a road, AECOM designed the Manchaca Greenway. This project combines many design elements, such as stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs), recreation linear park, wildlife movement corridors. The new green infrastructure aims to manage stormwater runoff, improve water quality, reduce total suspended solids, enhance natural resources, and provide space for trails.63

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BACKGROUND Central Texas Regional Mobility Authoority Raises Awareness of Its Traffic-Calming Efforts, Downtown Austin Patch,

In a 2016 study by the Central Texas Regional Mobility

by using the linear spaces along the freeway. There are

Authority, 81% of people in the region said they love

two lines in the middle of the freeway being removed

living in the area. But with that love comes frustration

to transform it from paved surface into green spaces.

over ever-congested traffic in a part of the country to

Some native plants with pollution-remove function

Augst 9 2017.

which many are moving. The local government does not

were planted in swales. When it is rainy, rainwater flows

sugarcoast the issue of traffic. They worked with AECOM

through the freeway surface into the bioretention basin.

to provide real transportation and mobility solutions by

Water will be treated on site by the roots. By using the

changing the existing grey infrastructure into a multi-

specific planting pattern, all kinds of pollutants would

functional green infrastructure.

be absorbed. Finally, the cleaned water will flow into the

64. Cantu, Tony,

64

pipe inlet that is on the bottom of the bioretention basin,

STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

and flow into the urban forest area on the two sides of

Heavy traffic brings many problems that makes an

freeway for tree irrgation.

increasing number of local people unable to live in this environment. Air pollution makes people sick, especially

However, there is no water storage structure being

for children and the seniors. Noise bother peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

designed. For Los Angeles, thinking about how to store

lives. The most important thing is the water pollution.

the treated water during dry season and make it irrigate

Rainwater was polluted when it flow through the freeway

the created landscape, urban forest, will be the most

suface.

significant question.

In order to solve all these problems, AECOM designed a freeway urban forest with stormwater treatment structure Pedestrian Path

Freeway

Vegetated Swale

Bio slope

with Modular Bio-filter

Bioretention Swales

77 Figure 4 Cross Section of Greenway for Stormwater Management


1. Chapter Six - Case Studies

Akron Ohio Freeway Forest 65. Central Texas Regional Mobility

Site: Akron Ohio, CA

Authority’s Green Mobility Challenge,

Firm: AECOM

American Planning Association, September

Date: 2017

-AECOM

12 2012.

SUMMARY 66. Manchaca Greenway, Green Mobility

The city of Akron Ohio, is the latest to reclaim its vehicular infrastructure for its citizens, and it’s

Challenge, AECOM, November 29 2011.

doing it in a revolutionary way: For three months next summer, a decommissioned freeway will be transformed into a 35-acre park filled with trees. This freeway was built in 1963 for 120,000 vehicles per day, but only 18,000 vehicles use it daily now.65 This project could be a very cool solution for sovling the climate change issue and air pollution issue, which opens people’s eyes to what we could do for the freeways.66 For Los Angeles, according to pLAn 2050, there will be a more complete public transportation system, such as metro and bus. In additioin, the use of some freeways is declining in Los Angeles. Thus, there will be an opportunity to remove some freeways and transform them into urban forest in the future.

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67. Emily Matchar, An Ohio City is

Turning a Freeway into a Pop-Up Forest, SMITHSONIAN.COM, Jun 2017. 68. Alissa Walker, An Ohio City is Turning

a Freeway into a Forest, Akron Plans To Convert a Deconmmissioned Highway into a 35-acre Park, CURBED, Jun 2017.

The highway used to be key to economic development. However, now, removing the highway or making it a place for people is key to economic development.67 As above image showing the freeway will be demolished in 2018. All the traffic will be guided to the nearby two streets. An urban forest will be built on the original freeway area, which could give neighborhoods the chance to physically reconnect, help emissions and air pollution to drop, and provide citizens with a vision for how much better urban life can be without a freeway running through it.68

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1. Chapter Seven - Site Analysis

Freeway I-10 in Downtown Los Angeles 69. Adderly, Kevin, Main Routes of the

Dwight D. Eisenhower National System, Interstate and Defense Highways, December 31, 2014. 70. Downtown LA Demographic Study

2013, DowntownLA.com, 2013.;

The design site is the part of Freeway I-10. The whole freeway opened in 1965, with a formal dedication held in 1966. This part of freeway is 10 lanes wide. Most of these lanes are full and crowded at peak travel times.69 However, in the past 5 years, the traffic volume of this parts was keeping decreasing. This freeway is located in Downtown Los Angeles area, which is the central business district of Los Angeles, as well as a diverse residential neighborhood of some 58,000 people.70

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History of Downtown Los Angeles 71. Downtown History, Downtown Center

At the beginning, settlements in this central Los Angeles area was by the Tongva, a Native

Business Improvement District Archived,

Americanpeople. This was a very rich place with all the requisites for a large settlement. The city

Wayback Machine, August 4, 2009.

was founded by the settlers from Mexico in 1781. In the 1880s, this area started to be developed very fast. With the rapid development of infrastructure enhancements and the street construction,

72. Downtown History, Downtowan

this area eventually became the present-day Civic Center and Historic Core neighborhoods.71

LA, https://www.downtownla.com/ explore.

By 1920, the development of private and municipal rail lines were the mos comprehensive in the world in mileage at that time. It brought a lot of opportunities to Los Angeles. A large influx of residents, business development and land development not only made this area became the central area of the whole city, but also transformed LA into a large metropolitan area.72 After World War II, as the figure 26 shows that, the development of the Los Angeles freeway network, and subsequently, increased automobile ownership led to decreased investment downtown. Los Angeles entered the stage of suburbanization development. Many business activities moved to new suburbs. Since 1930s, numerous historic buildings in the Plaza area were demolished and transformed into street-level parking lots. At the same time, due to the decline of commercial trade in the number of residents in Downtown LA dramatically reduced.72 in 1955, Los Angeles government undertook the Bunker Hill Redevelopment Project, a massive clearance project that recognized land use and leveled homes, in order to left enough spaces for the future commercial skyscraper development. During this period the entire neighborhood was cleared and updated.72 For now, Downtown LA is a higly developed area, with lots of skscrapers. However, many old basic infrastructures have not been updated, such as freeways. They all has single function and poor physical state.

82


73. Historical Map: Los Angeles Pacific

Electric Network, 1925, Transit Map, http:// transitmap.net/post/41981852277/pacificelectric-1925

Figure 26 Historical Map: Los Angeles Pacific Electric Network, 1925.73

83


74. Los Angeles State Highway in 1963, 1960 to 1969, California, Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/maps/?fa= location%3Acalifornia&all=true&c=50&dat es=1960-1969&st=list

Historical Map: Los Angeles State Highway in 1963.74

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Tree Canopy Analysis From this diagram we can see that the coverage of the tree canopy is very low surrounding the test freeway. High building and street density left many paved surface. The existing condition of tree canopy is very poor, but it also bring an opportunity for me to change the conditon and bring a urban forest into this area.

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Stormwater Drainage Analysis From this diagram we can see that the density of the stormwater drainage pipes is very high. Highly paved surface depends on these pipes to convey stormwater into waterways in order to keep safty. Most of the stormwater pipes were constructed in the 1940s. And they were installed along the streets, which biring an opportunity for me to expand the freeway urban forest net work into the neighborhood by transform some streets into green streets.

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75. Times staff, Older concrete buildings in

Tree Canopy Analysis

Los Angeles, LA Times, 2014.

Scientists used public records, maps and street surveys to compile a list of nearly 1,500 concrete buildings constructed before 1976 in Los Angeles.75 Downtown Los Angeles is in this high old concrete builidngs area. All these building is old, and dangrous. They have to be demolished in the future. Considering the design phases, I decided to demolished the old concrete builings along the freeway and in the neighborhood in the future, in order to create more spaces for urban forest.

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Node One

Node Node Two

88


1. Chapter Eight - Design Details

Three Nodes Based on the design strategy, the freeway interchange will be forested first, then plant trees along the freeway, finally, expand the freeway urbanforest network into neighborhood by using streat to create green space, and transforming some old concrete building into green space. According to the freeway topology, I defined three main nodes for this freeway. Node ons has a planting phases. Node two and three all have construction phases. They will be built step by step. Node one: Freeway interchange Node two: Freeway demolish Node three: Reuse Old concrete building space

0

89

1500

3000'


Node One Because there are many space that I can use, not only freeway stormwater B

runoff should be collected and treated, but also the neighborhood stormwater

runoff.

By

studying

the existing city stormwater pipes, I choosed some areas used as a stormwater capture and treat wetland A

in the urban forest area. I devided the whole space into several planting zone based on how much water it

Oa

kS

t

SF

igu

roa

St

can get.

0 Proposed Green Space

More Water Less Water

90

Water Circulation

Stromwater Drainage Water Flow Water Infiltration Area

500

1000' Circulation

Existing Circulation Proposed Circulation


Nourish The Soil - 0 year

Planting Trees - 4 year

Trees Variation - 10 year

Wildness Freeway Forest - 16 year

40 m

40 m

40 m

40 m

40 m

40 m

30 m

30 m

30 m

30 m

30 m

30 m

20 m

20 m

20 m

20 m

20 m

20 m

10 m

10 m

10 m

10 m

10 m

10 m

0m

0m

0m

0m

0m

0m

In order to improve the tree ability of offsetting the green house gas, and removing the pollutants in stormwater, I plant trees 12 ft away from each other; and use a six-yearing cycling method.

91


Dry Period Section A

Wet Period Section A

92


93


Dry Period Section B

Wet Period Section B

94


95


96


97


which left a huge shaded space under

dro

ple

Pe

the freeway surface. By studying the

an

Ma

On this part, the freeway is very wide,

St

Av

e

Node Two

SS

traffic volume of this area, I found the t

traffic volume of this area has kept tra lS

decreasing. Thus, I tried to remove

en

some freeway surface to active the

SC

EW

ash

ing

ton

shaded space. In addition, by doing land fill and land cut, I changed the

Blv

d

C

topography of this site. Some dry slope land and some low wetland were defined.

Vegetation Analysis

0

Proposed Green Space

More Water Less Water

98

Water Circulation

Stromwater Drainage Water Flow Water Infiltration Area

500

1000'

Circulation

Existing Circulation Proposed Circulation


Existing Condition

Remove the Freeway Surface

The traffic volume of this freeway has kept decreasing since

As the red color marked, the freeway surface will be removed, but

2012. According to the pLAn 2035 and 2050, there will be a more

the concrete poles will be kept as the historical meaning. Freeway

complete public transportation system in Los Angeles, Thus, I

is a kind of history and culture of Los Angeles. Thus I decided to

decided to domolised part of the elevated freeway, by using the

keep the concrete poles of freeway.

third case study as a reference. Guide Traffice Flow

Build urban forest

There are two streets on the sides of freeway, but there is no car

Using the vacant spaces to create urban forest.

driving through it. Therefore I decided to guide the traffice flow into the two streets, and make it become one-way street.

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Dry Period Section C

Wet Period Section C

100


101


Mateo St

S Santa Fe Ave

Node Three Due to the increasing land value, people build house closer and closer to freeay because it is affordable. There area just some very linear

D

space long the freeway. In order to get more space for building urban forest, I plan to demolish the old concrete building along the freeway.

0

Proposed Green Space

More Water Less Water

102

Water Circulation

Stromwater Drainage Water Flow Water Infiltration Area

450

900'

Circulation

Existing Circulation Proposed Circulation


Existing Section D

Step One Section D

Step Two Section D

103


104


105


106


107


108


1. Chapter Nine - Conclusion

Conclusion Los Angeles has three main problems: lacking of water, water pollution and air pollution. The climate of Los Angeles is very dry. But people donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t cherish water. Billions gallons of rainwater has been conveyed into ocean every year. But, the worst thing is that we let the heavy polluted water flow into waterways, which caused huge ecological and economic losses, rather than just loosing the rainwater. Green space is the best way to solve these two problems. However, in our urban area, it is very hard to find enough space to create green area. By doing researches, I found that although freeway is the most notorious infrastructure, which is the greatest pollution source of stormwater pollution and air pollution, it still left an opportunity for us to redefine the role of freeway. After investigation and study, LAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s freeway system could be reconfigured to improve water quality, decrease air pollution and add more green space by reusing the lost space. According to the freeway and freeway stormwater drainage typology, create different freeway stormwater treatment units. Using these effluent to maintain the urban forest. My thesis rethinks the role of freeway in order to make it not only a transportation method, but a multifunctional infrastructure.

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1. Reference

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29. Fleischli, Steve, Los Angeles County Water Pollution and the U.S. Supreme Court, NRDC, November 20, 2012. 30. Daniel Ross, Truthout, Industrial Pollution Is Threatening Our Drinking Water: A Dispatch From Los Angeles County, TRUTHOUT, July 23, 2015. 31. Kessler, Rebecca, Stormwater Strategies: Cities Prepare Aging Infrascture for Climate Change, Environmental Health Perspectives, December 2011. 32. Morgan, J. J., Liijestrand, H. M., Measurement and interpretation of acid rainfall in the Los Angeles Basin, W. M. Keck Laboratory of Hydraulics and Water Resources, December 10, 2009. 33. Smith, Emerson, Joshua, Mercury, DDT and other contaminants in fish are at a four-decade low, LA Times, Februray 08, 2016. 34. Invasive Weeds in Los Angeles County, Agricultural Commissioner/ Weights & Measures, County of Los Angeles. 35. Water Quality, Public Health, County of Los Angeles. 36. Status Report: Onstie Wastewater Treatment Systems in California, California Wastewater Training & Research Center, August 2003. 37. Stormwater Pollution Basics, Department of public works, Los Angeles County. 37. Alamillo James, As a Large Storm Rolls into L.A., Runoff Issues Flood My Mind, Heal the Bay, December 16, 2016. 39. Barragan, Bianca, LA Gets More Added Warmth from Urban Heat Islands Than Anywhere in the State, CURBED Los Angeles, September 21, 2015. 40. Urban Heat Island Index for California, California Environmental Protection Agency. 41. Understanding the Urban Heat Island Index, California Environmental Protection Agency. 42. Totten, Sanden, LA area has highest urban heat island effect in California, Environment & Science, September 21, 2015.

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43. Barragan, Bianca, LA Gets More Added Warmth from Urban Heat Islands Than Anywhere in the State, CURBED Los Angeles, September 21, 2015. 44. Netburn, Deborah, L.A.’s mayor wants to lower the city’s temperature. These scientists are figuring out how to do it, LA Times, February 9, 2017. 45. Preparing for Climate Change Impacts in Los Angeles, Strategies and Solutions for Protecting Local Communities, Union of Concerned Scientists. 46. Barragan, Blanca, LA’S Fog is Disappearing and It Could Make Summers Very Hot, CURBED Los Angeles, March 4, 2015. 46.Misra, Tanvi, A New Study Says Warming Caused by Urbanizatioin is to Blame, Why L.A.’s Fog is Disappering, CITYLAB, March 4, 2015. 46. Barragan, Blanca, LA’S Fog is Disappearing and It Could Make Summers Very Hot, CURBED Los Angeles, March 4, 2015. 47. Misra, Tanvi, A New Study Says Warming Caused by Urbanizatioin is to Blame, Why L.A.’s Fog is Disappering, CITYLAB, March 4, 2015. 48. Maines, Alexa, The Tie Between Wildfires and Air Quality, WeatherBug, December 30, 2017. 49. Molina, Genaro, Bel-Air Wildfire Joins the Siege Across Southern California, LA Times, Los Angeles Times, December 6, 2017. 50.Ekstrom, J.A., and S.C. Moser, Sea-level rise impacts and flooding risks in the context of social vulnerability: An assessment for the city of Los Angeles. Prepared for the Mayor’s Office, City of Los Angeles, 2012. 51. Barragan, Blanca, Just How Park Poor is Los Angeles County? Half of Residents Don’t Live within 10 Minutes of A Park, and Other Sad Park Facts About LA County, CURBED Los Angeles, May 23, 2016. 52. Gordon, Billi, Why L.A. Needs More Green Space, Now, Los Angeles Times, November 13, 2015. 53. Lane Ashley, Green Spaces: Remapping Los Angeles, Art&Culture, The National, April 6, 2016.

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69. Adderly, Kevin, Main Routes of the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System, Interstate and Defense Highways, December 31, 2014. 69. Downtown LA Demographic Study 2013, DowntownLA.com, 2013.; 71. Downtown History, Downtown Center Business Improvement District Archived, Wayback Machine, August 4, 2009. 72. Downtown History, Downtowan LA. https://www.downtownla.com/explore. 73. Historical Map: Los Angeles Pacific Electric Network, 1925, Transit Map. http://transitmap.net/post/41981852277/pacific-electric-1925 74. Los Angeles State Highway in 1963, 1960 to 1969, California, Library of Congres. https://www.loc.gov/maps/?fa=location%3Acalifornia&all=true&c=50&dates=1960-1969&st=list 75. Times staff, Older concrete buildings in Los Angeles, LA Times, 2014.

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Profile for Zhuang Deyu

USC Master of Landscape Architecture Thesis Deyu Zhuang 2018  

USC Master of Landscape Architecture Thesis Deyu Zhuang 2018  

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