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GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM BILBAO Bilbao, Spain 1991–97 I would like to mention about Guggenheim Museum by Frank Gehry as it is new monument of abstract expressionism. It is one of the most significant initiatives undertaken in the city to meet the challenges of the European Union and the year 2000.The museum has succeeded in creating an iconic identity for Bilbao. The singular economic and cultural has sparked an increased awareness of the powerful force that architecture can wield. Gehry created unexpected, twisted forms that break conventions of building design. His work has been called radical, playful, organic, and sensual. His building has been conceived as a sculptural object, space with light and air, a response to context and appropriateness of feeling and spirit. Here are the two aspects of his design approaches which are advancing architectural discourse with integration into expression. 1. Material approach What I have understand about his advancing architectural discourse is through the material that he used really reflect the uniqueness of his form.What’s more, titanium material is also in corporation with the form which he created.It is responsive to changing light conditions through the use of titanium’s reflective qualities. The titanium panels—applied using a traditional locked seam—provide a softening pillow-like effect. A shimmering pile of sharply twisting, curving shapes surfaced in titanium also showcase that the espression of his design actually turns to be a witness of the technology rising up at that period of time.

Barcelona Pavilion Mies van der Rohe I would like to mention about Barcelona Pavilion building as It is an important building in the history of modern architecture, known for its simple form and its spectacular use of extravagant materials. It is pure poetry, simple honest planes of stone with slim, graceful polished steel cruciform columns. The integration of water through two shallow pools brings calmness and reflection. According to what Mies van der Rohe’s developing for this project is that the free flowing space which using walls as planes in isolation, joined by sliding elements or glass and wall expressed as a single element with space flowing around it which has been regarded as an aesthetic feature of his work. The majority of the building is constructed out of cream-coloured travertine which gives the building a luxurious feel and aids the perception of spaciousness. Material approach Glass, steel and four different kinds of marble (Roman travertine, green Alpine marble, ancient green marble from Greece and golden onyx from the Atlas Mountains) were used for the reconstruction, all of the same characteristics and provenance as the ones originally employed by Mies. Reference photos:

Photo, exterior, close view

Photo, exterior, eye view

Photo, exterior, main entry

2. Form and design approach The other part of his expression his design is the huge sculpture-like form is fashioned from a surprising array of materials and also the overlaying blocks.Under the apparent chaos caused by the juxtaposition of fragmented volumes with regular forms finished in stone, curved forms covered with titanium and huge glass walls, the building revolves around a central axis, the atrium, a monumentally empty space crowned by a metal dome. The wealth and variety of spaces makes the museum exceptionally versatile under the fancy sculpture-like form which has been a monument influencing architecture histroy tremendously. Reference: case-study-guggenheim-museum-bilbao.html

The eight-column grid is perceivable as peristyle, despite the asymmetrical freestanding planes.It also reiterated highlights on the profiles of the casings effect a reference to classical fluting modernity, thus while the essential quality of the form that it assumes in this instance also evokes a subtle traditional resonance. Architectural expression summerize Mies’ bacelona pavilion had created an influential twentieth century architectural style, stated with extreme clarity and simplicity. made use of modern materials such as industrial steel and plate glass to define interior spaces. An architecture with a minimal framework of structural order balanced against the implied freedom of free-flowing open space. From which we can feel the rational approach that guide us through his creative process of architectural design. Reference:

singapore art-science museum The welcoming hand of Singapore ArtScience Museum is one of the latetest iconic architecture in singapore with a form reminiscent of the lotus flower, designed by renowned architect Moshe Safdie has been called “The Welcoming Hand of Singapore” by Mr. Sheldon Adelson, the visionary chairman of Las Vegas Sands Corp. I choose this building as my personal project which advanced architectural discourse.Not only because of its unique form which attract visitors and also the technology that has integrated with sustainability in architecture.

General description The museum is entered through a free-standing glass pavilion. Large elevators and escalators convey the public to the lower and upper galleries. In total, there are three levels of galleries with a total Sustainabe design The museum’s envelope is composed of double-curved Fiber Reinforced Polymer [FRP] skin typically used at such a scale in the construction of boats and yachts. The vertical sides of each petal are sheathed in bead-blasted stainless steel panels. The unprecedented use of FRP has made possible the joint-less, continuous skin for each of the sail-like surfaces achieving a sense of lightness with their gleaming petals. As elsewhere in Marina Bay Sands, the building aims and achieves the highest levels of sustainability. The roof of ArtScience Museum allows rainwater to be harvested and channeled down a 35-meter water drop through the center of the structure to the reflecting pond at the lowest level of the building. Rainwater is recycled and redirected through the water feature to create a continuous cylindrical waterfall. The rainwater is also recycled for use in the Museum’s bathrooms as part of Singapore’s Green Mark program. Impact on the city This iconic building has huge impact on the city, with the concept of Regeneration which emphasizing importance of sustainablily in architecture revolution. City of Singapore functioned as magnets for investments, talent and capital, also harness all the resources to tackle the global challenges. Sustainablity in design and development has turned to be the critical accessment into architecture innovation. Reference

architectural discourse  

select one personal and two state of the art projects and explain how they are(could be) advancing architectural discourse.