KING STREET STATION RENOVATION SEATTLE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
KING STREET STATION
Seattle Department of Transportation TENANTS
Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach Sounder Commuter Rail LOCATION
Pioneer Square—National Register of Historic Places district ADDRESS
303 S. Jackson Street Seattle, Washington ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION DATE
1906 NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES DESIGNATION
1973 REHABILITATION START DATE
PHASE I June 2008 PHASE 2 April 2010 DATE COMPLETE
May 2013 PROJECT FOCUS
Transit Historic Preservation Sustainable Design
ZGF Architects LLP
KPFF Consulting Engineers, Inc. ARUP | Coughlin Porter Lundeen MECHANICAL / ELECTRICAL / PLUMBING ARUP | Rushing GEOTECHNICAL / SOILS Hart Crowser & Associates, Inc. LIGHTING DESIGN Pivotal Lighting Design | Affiliated Engineers, Inc. | Eleek, Inc. ACOUSTICS Sparling PLASTER RESTORATION Performance Contracting, Inc. | EverGreen Architectural CIVIL ENGINEER
OWNER’S REPRESENTATIVE Shiels Obletz Johnsen
CONTRACTOR Sellen Construction
HISTORIC PRESERVATION CONSULTANT Artifacts Consulting, Inc.
SIZE 62,400 SF 6,400 SF | Height 242 FT 3.85 Acres
CLOCK TOWER LOT
CONSTRUCTION COST $55 million
PROJECT FUNDING SOURCES FEDERAL $33 million Federal Railroad Administration Federal Transit Administration Federal Highway Administration STATE $9 million Washington State Department of Transportation Washington State Historic Society
GREEN CERTIFICATION LEED Platinum
PRIVATE $0.2 million South Downtown Foundation 4Culture National Trust
OVERVIEW HISTORIC LANDMARK & ICONIC GATEWAY King Street Station first opened to the public in May 1906 to much fanfare having been designed by Reed and Stem, the architectural firm responsible for New York City’s Grand Central Terminal. The clock tower was modeled after the grand Campanile di San Marco in Venice, Italy. In 1973 the building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places. With the demise of train travel in the early to mid 20th century and lack of funding, the station fell into disrepair. In more recent years the station has seen commute ridership on the rise. In March 2008, the City of Seattle purchased the landmark building from Burlington Northern Railway Company for $10.00. In 2010, the design team began working with the Seattle Department of Transportation (SDOT), the community and its transportation partners to restore King Street Station to its former prominence and re-establish the station as an active transportation hub. The rehabilitation of King Street Station preserves and restores the original character of 62,400 SF station and strengthens its role as a regional transportation hub and important civic landmark at the nexus of several historic neighborhoods in the midst of an urban renaissance. Core elements of the project include the rehabilitation of the iconic 12-story, 6,400 SF clock tower and repair and restoration of the original 45-foot-high ornamental plaster ceilings and
halls, terrazzo and mosaic tile floors and operable windows. The project also included significant upgrades to all structural, electrical, mechanical, plumbing and fire protection systems. The rehabilitation creates 30,000 SF of mixed-use leasable space on the second and third floors prepared to a “core and shell” state. The previously closed-off space will appeal to tenants who want to be at the hub of a historic and sustainable transitoriented urban center. A sustainable investment in Seattle’s future, energy models predict the building will perform 56% better than ASHRAE baseline. The project achieved LEED Platinum certification.
REHABILITATION GOALS Restore the building’s historic character and grandeur Upgrade facilities to meet present and future needs of transit users Enhance passenger safety and security Promote sustainable design with LEED Silver certification (achieved Platinum) Transform the station into a modern transportation hub
Stationmaster J. A. McBean, 1907.
DIGNIFIED ENTRY TO THE CITY AND REGION REESTABLISHING A GRAND PORTAL Echoing the sense of arrival passengers felt when the station opened in 1906, the investment in restoring the station celebrates the importance of passengers, their experience to the railroad and their arrival in Seattle as a passage to the Northwest. The rehabilitation renews dignity and pride in the portal to Seattle and the Pacific region, which was diminished as the station was allowed to deteriorate. Today, the finishes have been restored to dazzle visitors with the charm of the original waiting hall.
ABOVE COURTESY OF University of Washington Libraries, Special
Collections, Lee 20011 RIGHT PHOTOGRAPHER Benjamin Benschneider Restored waiting hall.
RESTORING HISTORIC GRANDEUR When the station opened in 1906, the grand waiting hall had ornamental plaster ceilings. The plaster walls were interspersed with fluted Corinthian columns. The lower part of the walls and columns were clad in white marble accented with glass mosaic tiles in white, green, red and gold. A massive bronze chandelier hung in the center of the main waiting hall. Along with four smaller chandeliers and wall sconces, they provided illumination for the passengers inside the station. The original terrazzo floors were inlaid with square mosaic tiles, creating a compass shaped pattern at the station entrance and other rectangular patterns throughout the waiting hall.
ABOVE COURTESY OF PEMCO Webster & Stevens Collection, MOHAI RIGHT PHOTOGRAPHER Doug Scott
Restored waiting hall.
Vertical Plaster Work The design team located carrara marble that was a near match to the originalâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;believed to come from Alaska, but no longer available. The mosaic band of green, gold and red tiles was restored using glass tile sourced from Murano, Italy.
ABOVE/OPPOSITE PAGE ABOVE PHOTOGRAPHER Doug Scott
Mosaic tile band detail.
Plaster Cast On-Site Using the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s original ornate pieces and historic methods, craftsmen created matching molds to cast new and repair original sections of the ornamental plaster. Using the first generation mold, the mold was filled with casting plaster and inlaid with hemp and burlap during the casting process to crease the final piece. The casting was then stripped out of the mold, reinstalled and attached to the structure. Extensive as-builting, layout and coordination ensured that all plaster elements were returned to the exact historic location as upgrades were completed.
Craftsman at work restoring the original plaster.
Ornate Plaster Ceilings â&#x20AC;&#x153;Modernizationâ&#x20AC;? efforts in the 1940s, 50s and 60s removed the plaster and marble walls, glass mosaic tiles and covered the plaster ceiling with acoustical tiles. After being hidden for decades behind the suspended tiles, the ornate plaster ceiling in the 8,000 SF main waiting hall was repaired and restored to prominence.
ABOVE/OPPOSITE PAGE ABOVE PHOTOGRAPHER Benjamin Benschneider
Condition prior to restoration.
SEISMIC AND STRUCTURAL UPGRADES Half of the budget for the project went toward significant seismic and structural updates to improve the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s safety, durability and longevity. Structural support elements required careful insertion behind existing historic finishes. 1,345 tons of steel was installed to support the interior spaces. Located in a liquefaction zone, the station was originally constructed as a steel-framed unreinforced masonry structure. The seismic retrofit required a new steel structure to be constructed inside the old to anchor the existing unreinforced masonry of the new structure. Using performance-based building design, the team analyzed seismic upgrades to ensure the new structural steel fit behind the existing finishes. In order to keep all of the historic elements in the main waiting hall in their historical plane, 35-foot high slots were cut within the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s brick perimeter for steel to be inserted and high-strength grouted for seismic reinforcing. Strategically designing the steel allowed the team to increase structural capacity of the building while maintaining the historic fabric required by the project goals and preservation guidelines.
Ironworkers built steel plate boxes to reinforce historic columns in the main waiting hall.
Interior stairway connection from Jackson Street plaza level to first floor.
ENHANCING PUBLIC SPACES & COMMUNITY CONNECTIONS Positioned at the nexus of two historic neighborhoods —Pioneer Square and the International District—and sited at the gateway to Seattle’s Stadium Entertainment District, the rehabilitation strengthens the station’s role as a regional transportation hub and neighborhood link. The project improves pedestrian and multi-modal connections in and around the station and has served as a catalyst for additional redevelopment within the neighborhood. Future phases of the project will accommodate the addition of a streetcar, light rail transit and high speed rail.
PHOTOGRAPHER Benjamin Benschneider
Pre-rehabilitation, plaza used as parking lot.
During construction, sustainable improvements.
Post rehabilitation, plaza provides open green space.
JACKSON STREET PLAZA Formerly a parking lot, Jackson Street Plaza was restored and transformed into a new public amenity. The pedestrian plaza enhances the front door to the station, creates new public space and re-establishes community connections.
RIGHT PHOTOGRAPHER Doug Scott
Post rehabilitation, 2013.
IMPROVING ACCESS King Street Station is part of the largest transportation hub west of Chicago and north of San Francisco. With over 40 percent of commuters arriving in Seattle using public transportation, the rehabilitation has improved wayfinding and access to the Amtrak ticketing area.
ABOVE/OPPOSITE PAGE ABOVE PHOTOGRAPHER Benjamin Benschneider
Grand Stairway Restored In the 1960s, the exterior stairway connecting Jackson Street with the lower level of the station was boarded up and an escalator was installed. The rehabilitation reopens the stairway to provide a new pedestrian link.
During rehabilitation, 2010. Escalator addition removed.
Historic Plaza Lighting Twenty-three globe lamp fixtures are replicas of historic fixtures with cast iron bases and frosted glass globes. The historic fixtures are paired with modern efficient LED lighting technology to illuminate the plaza at night and improve safety.
Reclaimed Granite While installing new utilities and geothermal wells, the team came across granite boulders from an adjacent buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s old foundation. The foundation granite was a perfect match for the exterior granite originally used for the balustrade and removed during previous installation of the escalator. Using the same means and methods used to create the original granite blocks one hundred years ago, the reclaimed granite boulders were cut and fabricated into new wall panels for exterior finishes.
ABOVE PHOTOGRAPHER Doug Scott BOTTOM COURTESY OF
Seattle Department of Transportation OPPOSITE PAGE ABOVE PHOTOGRAPHER Benjamin Benschneider
Iconic Roof Tiles As part of phase 1, the same green-glazed terra cotta tile roofing was installed. The tile was sourced from the same company that had supplied the original tile.
Composite roof replaced with green ceramic tiles.
Simplifying Arrival and Departure The central access to and from the station is a combined entry for buses, cars, pedestrians and cyclists. Pedestrians walking to the station represent the highest mode of access for patrons. The rehabilitation separates pedestrians and cyclists from vehicular traffic to the greatest extent possible given the constraints of the site. Improvements along the west-side of the building include a larger sidewalk as well as a canopy, improving the arrival and departure experience for visitors.
ABOVE/OPPOSITE PAGE PHOTOGRAPHER Benjamin Benschneider
Pre-rehabilitation arrival and departure congestion.
SECURING THE STATION FOR THE FUTURE The rehabilitation brings the facility up to modern codes and standards with significant seismic and structural updates to improve the building’s safety and durability— complying with the City of Seattle’s sustainable building standards and the Secretary of the Interior’s Standard and Guidelines for Historic Preservation. Reinforcing the presence and long-term viability of an established historic landmark and transportation pioneer not only ensures the mobility of the region for future generations, but also underscores the importance of preserving history and greening existing building stock. Efforts to stabilize and prepare the station for another one hundred years celebrates the City of Seattle’s commitment to sustainable infrastructure.
ABOVE PHOTOGRAPHER Benjamin Benschneider RIGHT PHOTOGRAPHER Doug Scott
Photovoltaics installation on south canopy.
New Public Open Space Future Canopy with Photovoltaics Natural ventilation strategy returned to the main waiting hall using energy efficient, cost effective and easy to replace motors.
Water Harvesting for Toilet Flushing Electrical Transformers for Streetcar
SUSTAINABLE PRESERVATION The project links historic preservation and sustainable strategies by capitalizing on materials and energy invested a century ago. Sustainable features of the LEED Platinum certified station include installation of natural ventilation; replacing all mechanical systems with a ground-source heat pump to cover 100% of the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s heating and cooling needs and using energyand water-efficient fixtures. Energy models predict that the building can perform 56.4% better than ASHRAE 2007 and meet benchmarks of the Architecture 2030 Challenge.
ENERGY USE INTENSITY EUI Original Energy Consumption 118 KBTU/sf/yr Completed Building 38 KBTU/sf/year
Historical Lavender Glass Tiles Salvaged for Re-Use on Clocktower
68% ENERGY USE REDUCTION
Original Structure and Materials Restored/Maintained Performance-based Seismic Upgrade for 500 and 2500 year Events
Glass Canopy to Improve Daylighting
Original Clay Ceramic Roof Tiles Restored Providing Extended Roof Life of 75 Years
Original Windows Preserved and Repaired
Roof Insulation with R-30 Value
Operable Windows Restored Throughout
Wall Insulation with R-25.6 Value
Photovoltaics on Restored Canopy
Ground-Source Heat Pumps for Heating and Cooling Geothermal Well Field
High-Efficiency Unit Ventilators Natural Ventilation in Main Waiting Area
GEOTHERMAL WELL FIELD The Jackson Street Plaza area was removed, though perimeter walls were left in place due to preservation requirements, while the plaza structure was re-built to seismic codes. The design team took advantage of the work on Jackson Street Plaza to install 68 wells under the plaza and building which are anticipated to meet 100% of the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s heating and cooling requirements.
ABOVE PHOTOGRAPHER Benjamin Benschneider
Geothermal well-field work beneath the plaza, 2010.
View of the station from the southeast.
All four clock faces repaired to working order.
Escalator add-on removed, stairway restored and congestion eased.
Baggage area access was opened and improved.
Amtrak Baggage/Ticketing/Waiting Amtrak Back of House Mechanical Lease Space Circulation
N 0' 8' 16'
S. JACKSON ST
2N D E AV NU EE XT EN SI ON S.
4TH AVENUE S.
Mechanical Lease Space Circulation N 0' 8' 16'
Mechanical Lease Space Circulation N 0' 8' 16'
PHOTOGRAPHER Benjamin Benschneider
CONTACT Leslie Morison 925 Fourth Avenue, Suite 2400 Seattle, Washington 98104 206 521 3481 email@example.com WEBSITE www.zgf.com
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