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MAY 2016

SYSTEM OF SHIRT

By:

H E N R Y

H U


T

ABLE OF CONTENTS 28 Fabric 11 1920’s

// PAST

13 The Dress Shirt 15 1960’s 15 Shirt Collars 16 Victorian & Edwardian Collars 17 Turn Down Collars 18 Shirtsleeves

28 Fabric Ply 28 Fabric Yarn Count 28 Fabric Finish 29 Weave

31 Fit 33 Dress Shirt Collar Fit 34 Dress Shoulder Fit 35 Dress Shirt Torso Fit 36 Dress Shirt Sleeve Fit 37 Dress Shirt Sleeve Cuff 38 Dress Shirt Sleeve Length 39 Dress Shirt Bottom Hem Length

PART 1

41 Placket

02

PART 3

INTRODUCTION PART 2

02 The Archetypal Men’s White Dress Shirt

03

19

05

MODERN DAY

HISTORY

25

Collar 42 Button Down Collar 42 Button Down Collar Button Size 43 Unbuttoned Button Down

Key Elements that Define

Specific Elements and

42

Men’s White Shirt

Collar

44 Cuff

Fabric Cutting Instructions

07

for a Men’s Dress Shirt

The Early Evolution of

25 Off the Rack or Boxed

44 Interlining

Modern Men’s White Dress

26 Tailored Shirt or Bespoke

45 Shirt Cuff Types

27

46

Pocket Style

Construction Variations

Shirt 08 User & Key Influences

09 Styles Through the Ages 09 The Golden Days of Tailoring 10 Victorian & Edwardian

47 Dress Shirt Manufacturing, Distribution & Sales 48 Manufacturing 49 Cutting, Sewing, And Assembly


// FUTURE 49 Packaging 49 Production Waste 50 Distribution 53 Post-Transaction And Consumer Experience 53 Use Pattern 54 Returns 54 Markdowns / Resales & Distribution

66 The Importance of Cotton

70

Cleaning Men’s Dress Shirts

Production

59 Dry Cleaning Effects On The Environment

// PRESENT

New Technology Risks

The Plant

55 59 What Is Dry Cleaning?

101 Plenty of Potential but

67

101 Waterless Dyeing 102 Smart Textiles 102 Silk + Man Mades 103Medical Field + Leisure 103 Buying Experience

77 Processing The Crop

78 How Cotton is Spun and Woven

80 Classing

104 Conductive Ink

PART 5

105 Magnets 105 Unstainable Fabric

95 TEXTILE INNOVATIONS

106 Leaders 106 3M 107 Freudenberg

81

108 Carhartt + Mount

Cotton Seed

Vernon FR

82 Grades of U.S. Cotton

83 Yarn Production

84 Fabric Manufacturing

97

109 Outlast Technologies

Overall Major Trends

109 Schoeller

98

University

Overall Major Applications

110 Ultraflect

99

110 Teijin Aramid + Rice

111 Voormi 112 Fibervisions

Latest Trends + Applications

113

84 Woven Fabrics

99 Sweat-wicking,

Sourcing

64

86 Knitted Fabrics

Odor-neutiralizing

113Taiwan

COTTON

Fabrics

PART 4

87 88 Common Cotton Fabrics

65 History of Cotton

Technology 100 Laundy Care Begins to Get in on the Act 101 Plenty of Potential but New Technology Risks

115 East Africa 116 Ethiopia 117 Kenya 118 Cambodia


154 AIQ Smart Clothing 155 Ducere Technologies: Lechal Smart Shoe 156 R-Shirt 156 Cancerdetectingclothing. com

171

157 Exmobaby by Exmovere

Laser Cutting

158 Mimo

172

159 Owlet Baby Care 160 Conductive Circuits 160 British Army 161 Knitted Controls 162 Ultrasonic Sewing

PART 6

Magnets

173 Watre Repellant + Fabric Spray 173 Cookwear 175 Nanotex

122 NANOFIBER TECHNOLOGY

PART 7

177 Liquidoff 179Paraffin Repellent Chem-

142

istries 179 Silicone Repellent Chemistries

WEARABLE TECHNOLOGY

1779 Nano - Material Based Repellent Chemistries 178 Water and Flame Resis-

124 Innovations

tant Cotton

143

182 Non - Toxic Repellant

124 VF Corp.

Mainstream Apparel

183 XD Apparel

125 eSPIN

Companies

125 Xanofi + Hemcon 126 Medical Field 127 Magnetospinning 128 Armor Technology

143 Tommy Hilfiger 144 New Balance 145 Ralph Lauren

130 Colorado State University

147

131 Conductive Ink

New Wearable Tech

132 Oxide Flakes

Companies

133 Sports 134 Pet Textiles 135 Nanotubes in Clothing 136 Military Uniforms 137 Anti - Pollen Coats 138 Information Display 139 Nanowire Clothing 140 Kuraray Living 140 Textile Research Institute

PART 8

184 Environmental Impact

165

186 Ripstop Nylon Fabric

OTHER TECHNOLOGY INNOVATIONS

147 Heddoko 148 Hexoskin 149 Cityzen Sciences 150 Omsignal

167 3D Printing

152 Clothing+

167 3D Printed Accessories

153 Xsensio

168 3D Printed Footwear 170 Fashion Designers & 3-D Printing

185 Flourine - Free


// P A S T


The white

dress shirt is

designed to be tucked in (hence the curved hem) and may or may not be worn with a tie. It is referred to as a dress shirt, because it is typically worn within the formal end of social wear and within cosmopolitan, professional settings. It also can be worn for formal evening wear where the suit and tie may or may not be dominant.


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02

1 INTRODUCTION The Archetypal Men’s White Dress Shirt

T H E archetypal men’s white dress shirt has a nat-

the main scope for stylistic variations. Other functional

opening with tab, rigid collar and cuffs, yoke customari-

and a small band (called a placket) on the sleeve to allow

ly cut double, long set-in-sleeves and a curved hem line.

The fabric used is generally either 100% cotton or, more recently, a cotton-polyester blend. This icon of men’s fashion exists across the range of menswear outlets – from elite designer stores to low-cost clothing outlets.

The anatomical elements of a classic undecorated men’s dress shirt consist of several major pattern or block

shapes: two sides of the front, the back, the sleeve and the

yoke. These key components determine the form and fit of the garment. The main sub-elements consist of: the collar,

which is normally cut in two pieces with a stand and a

fall, and the cuff. The purpose of these elements is to for-

malize the garment through rigidity, as well as to provide

elements include: a front tab for buttons and buttonholes, for access to the arm. These major pattern pieces combine

to produce a basic dress shirt, although there are a range of extra pieces that play key supporting roles. Additional interfacing components provide rigidity to the front tab,

the cuffs, the collar fall and collar stand. Interfacing can

also be applied to the placket according to fabric density. Depending on construction methods, the collar fall and

the cuff may also have an under pattern that is cut smaller than the top pattern. The placket can also have a small

bind to facilitate a precise closure. Therefore, even though a basic shirt appears relatively simple in form, it can have,

in entirety, up to approximately a dozen fabric pattern pieces, half-a-dozen interfacing pattern pieces and, once the fabric is cut, over two dozen shapes.

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ural fit for the upper-body and has a centre front button


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SPECIFIC ELEMENTS AND FABRIC CUTTING INSTRUCTIONS FOR A MEN’S DRESS SHIRT

FRONT

COLLAR STAND

UNDER COLLAR

Fabric cut as a

Interfacing cut as

BACK

OUTER COLLAR

Fabric cut on the

Fabric cut single

FRONT TAB (Centre front panel for buttons)

Fabric cut as a

pair to provide a

left and right side

fold of the fabric YOKE

Fabric cut double SLEEVE Fabric cut as a

pair for left and right sides

OUTER CUFF Fabric cut as a pair

UNDER CUFF Fabric cut as a //// / // // // //

pair

pair

pair

UNDER COLLAR

Interfacing cut as

Fabric cut single

CUT INTERFACING

TAB FRONT Fabric cut as a pair

PLACKET (Sleeve Vent) Fabric cut as a pair

PLACKET BIND Fabric cut as a pair

UPPER COLLAR Interfacing cut single

a pair

Interfacing cut as a pair

PLACKET Interfacing cut as a pair (optional)

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05

2

HISTORY S I N C E before the Middle Ages the shirt has existed as a piece of clothing, but then only as underwear for men

or as a night gown. In the early days the shirt had neither collar nor cuffs, but a hem that could be tightened and buttoned, and was put it on by pulling it over your head. In the Middle Ages one could choose between fixed or detachable

collar. The garment was often made out of linen and sometimes silk. In the 18th century the shirt was no longer worn only as underwear, the collar grew into enormous proportions and was decorated with embroidery and lace. Later the

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collar grew back to smaller sizes again.


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T H E shirt (period

2.1

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T

term, ‘sherte’) is an enduring item in both name and in its principal design. Its provenance can be traced back to the Norman period, around the turn of the first millennium, with a loose, utilitarian garment referred to as a chemise or a smock. This unstructured form, which was considered as an undergarment, essentially remained consistent in silhouette up until the mid to late part of the nineteenth century. In the middle part of the nineteenth century the or-

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igins of the modern shirt, including the dress shirt, begin to emerge. During the period 1840s to 1870s the shirt shifted from a loose garment to a fitted garment which essentially resembled current notions of fit and style. The catalysts for change were threefold. Firstly, during the mid to late nineteenth century tailors adopted a scientific approach to drafting shirt patterns and this mathematical system enabled a better fitting garment. Many shirt drafting systems from that period were patented and

enterprising inventors created highly novel and intricate systems to enhance the fit of the shirt. Shirtmakers could now draft patterns to fit a multitude of sizes and the quality of individual fit significantly improved. Secondly, this transformation of cut was necessary as the vest and jacket were becoming more fitted and a bulky undershirt was uncomfortable to wear. Through waist shaping, a shoulder yoke and a curved armhole and sleeve head, the shirt was able to reduce its bulk, whilst still allowing for movement.

button opening) front, yoke, firm cuffs and collar and a curved hemline. The distinction between a dress shirt and a casual shirt was also becoming evident. Dress shirts had either pleated or plain bib fronts (on occasion, detachable bib fronts) or small frills on the front tab, depending on the fashion of the time. Collars, and sometimes cuffs, were also detachable on formal shirts, whereas casual shirts had attached, soft collars.

the white dress shirt. The basic form is consistent with current notions of fit and silhouette and the construction, apart from the detached collar is, on the whole, allied to contemporary practices. Hence, it can be argued that between 1870 and 1890, the white dress shirt was in a form that paralleled modern variants, notwithstanding inconsequential styling, decoration and construction differences. At this point in history, the white dress shirt as we know it today, was clearly in existence

HE EARLY EVOLUTION OF MODERN MEN’S WHITE DRESS SHIRT Also, as the vest and coat opening became higher it necessitated more formal and rigid collar and cuff shapes. Finally, due to improvements in sewing manufacture and the industrial revolution, the domestic sewing of men’s shirts was rapidly in decline. Readymade, affordable shirts were gaining popularity and this enabled a more refined style and cut to permeate the market. By 1890, the basic fitted shirt had evolved. It consisted of a fitted silhouette with coat style (full length

By the close of the 1890s, the bedrock had been laid for what we know today as


2.1.1 US E R S & K E Y IN F LUE N C E S

Upton Sinclair, first used the adjective ‘white collar’

Banker’s Collar White Shirt, first invented in 1827 in Troy NY, by Mrs. Hannah Montague

Button-down Collar, an adhoc remedy hastily cobbled together during a “chukka” in a heated polo match in Great Britain

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T H E adjective ‘white

collar’ was first used by Upton Sinclair in relation to modern clerical, administrative and management workers during the 1930s. Sinclair’s usage is related to the fact that, during most of the 19th and 20th centuries, male office workers in European and American countries almost always had to wear dress shirts, which had collars and were usually white. The “banker’s collar white shirt” had its origin in the 19th century detachable collar, first invented in 1827 in Troy NY, by Mrs. Hannah Montague, a housewife who was having difficulties with her husband’s “ring-aroundthe-collar.” Her husband showed off his wife’s invention to the guys around town, and soon all

the wives of Troy embraced this new invention. Soon after, merchants followed suit, and manufactured collars in mass quantities for sale to the outside world. By 1897, twenty-five manufacturers in Troy were producing a total of eight million dozen collars and cuffs a year. Linen collars were offered in a breathtaking variety of styles and had become the status-symbol of the growing office-worker class (i.e. “white collar” workers). Mail order catalogs like Sears-Roebuck, Montgomery-Ward, and Bloomingdale’s sent detachable collars to every part of America, along with the often colorful collarless shirts with which they were worn. The button-down collar is an ad-hoc remedy hastily cobbled together during a

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“chukka” in a heated polo match in Great Britain. A frustrated player realized that by ingeniously anchoring ends of his collar points with a button not only prevented their wild flailing about in his face but completely eliminated the bedeviling problem that tormented his concentration as he galloped full-speed, downfield. Oddly enough, the button-collared shirt was originally imported to the United States by Brooks Brothers. Ironically, it was intended for sale to blue collar workers. 2.1.1

Eprints: http://eprints.qut.edu. au/59300/2/59300.pdf

Suit Yourself: http://suityourself.com/History_Of_Dress_ Shirts.asp

EPrint: http://eprints.qut.edu. au/18355/1/Dean_Brough_ Thesis.pdf

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2.2

S

TYLES THROUGH THE AGES

2.2.1

the golden days of tailoring

D U R I N G this period of

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time no shirts were mass produced in factories. The well suited man bought his shirt from the tailor, just like many do today again, whilst the common man wore shirts made by his wife. For long the shirt was a garment of simple design, but in the middle of the 19th century the shirt was tailored more to the shape of the body, the fixed collar disappeared and the shirt started to show up in more colorful designs especially as sports shirts and labor shirts. The white shirt was, until the end of the 19th century, considered to be an important attribute of prosperity.

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2.2.2

Edwardian Men’s Shirt. Shirt collars were detachable so they could easily be laundered or replaced.

10

Most modern Tuxedo shirts come with a wingtip collar. The modern Tuxedo pleated shirt is historically incorrect but may be your only option to find a wingtip collar locally.

VIC TOR IA N & E DW A R D IA N

A Victorian man on the Western frontier or living big city life as a Gentlemen is in need of a few good shirts. Plain white shirts were the most common for gentlemen while rustic folk found dark colors easier to keep clean. Button up, bib front, yoke, with or without collars. There are many styles of men’s Victorian shirts to choose from.

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Victorian Men’s Shirt. There are many styles of men’s Victorian shirts to choose from.

Edwardian men’s shirts are similar to today’s dress shirt with a few exceptions. Shirt collars were detachable so they could easily be laundered or replaced. You won’t find these easily today so a white collar shirt in either round, club collar, or classic wide points over a thin vertical striped shirt is ideal. Edwardian dress shirts could be all white or a light solid color too. Work shirts were usually dark blue heavy cotton. Formal shirts were button down with wingtip collars. Regardless of what jacket you choose the rest of the formal clothing remains the same. A white “bib” or button down starched skirt with tall wingtip collar was always worn for formal occasions.

The other collar style was a tall standing collar with rounded edges. These were dreadfully uncomfortable because the stiffness of the collar prevented the head from turning and often bruised a man’s neck. They were appropriately called “poke” collars. You can still by these as detachable collards and wear them on a collarless shirt. 2.2.2

Tailor Store: https://www.tailorstore.com/ history-of-bespoke-shirts

Vintage Dancer: http://vintagedancer.com/ victorian/victorian-mens-shirts

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2.2.3 1 920 ’ s

W H I T E collar shirts in

either straight point or round club collars attached to a stripes shirt was the most popular men’s dress shirt.

The 1920s war on women’s fashion was over the length of dresses and for the men it was on the softness of shirt collars. In previous decades, dress shirts and collars were starched stiff so that no wrinkle would ever make a man look sloppy. They contributed to the regal or stuffy air of a proper gentlemen in the Victorian age. 2.2.3

Vintage Dancer: http://vintagedancer.

com/1920s/roaring-1920s-mens-shirts Vintage Dancer: http://vintagedancer.

com/1920s/1920s-mens-shirts-and-collars-

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history

Detachable Collars saved on laundering since they were the part that needed frequent cleaning and replacement

When men were in World War 1 they were issued soft shirts with attached collars. For the most part white collars had been sold separately since the 1830’s. Detachable collars saved on laundering since they were the part that needed frequent cleaning and replacement. These new softer shirts and collars were a drastic change from pre-war life. Men became used to the comfort and ease of soft shirts and were reluctant to change back. The conservative men did not take the change well. They fought in the media, in club rooms, at social gatherings, in colleges to keep the stiff collar in man’s wardrobe. The war over stiff and soft collars was strongest in Britain who thought Americans were the cause of the soft collar craze and everything else casual about menswear. Both countries were divided over this hot fashion issue.

In the early 20’s, the stuffy detachable collar was still the norm. They were always white, always detached, and quite tall (up to 3 inches.) The round edge club collar was the most fashionable from the preceding decade. Fans of Boardwalk Empire will recognize Enoch ‘Nucky’ Thompson who is almost always wearing one. The pointed collar gained favor after 1923. The collar was still tall and the points longer than today’s dress shirt. Some soft point collars came in the button down style. The pointed collar shirt remained popular for the rest of the 1920’s although other versions such as the spread collar had their famous moments too. The popularity of the wide Windsor knot tie required collars to have wide openings hence the introduction of the spread collar in both round and point styles.

For evening wear the collar of choice was still the wingtip collar with bent over points opening up for the bow tie.


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BOYLSTON

CAMBROSE

MILTON

ELLIOTT

MURRAY HILL

MARLBOROUGH

HENLEY

HAMILTON

WILTON

MIDDLESEX

RUGBY

ASCOT

NEW MARKET

NEW CRANFORD

BROOK 1

RAQUETTE

GOLF

IMPD BERWICK

BEAUFORT SQUARE

BROOK 2

12

By the mid 1920’s men’s collars were now mostly attached and not all white. First, shirt cuffs started to be made of the same material as the shirt and later the collars matched too. The look of a striped shirt and white cuffs and collars was the most common throughout the twenties. The all one color shirt was seen in casual day shirts but too informal for mens dress shirts until the late 20s. The casualness of soft, colorful,

day shirts contributed to a popular working class look- the unbuttoned collar! A summer time style, shirts and collars were unbuttoned and worn without ties. The points flapped over the suit lapels, vest or a shirt alone. These wide collar shirts were called Danton or Byrons. The Americans loved this style. Collage kids copied it too- even the rich preppy kids- whose fathers strongly disproved.

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1920’s Men’s Stiff Collars


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2.2.4 T HE DR E SS S HI R T

C O L L A R type contro-

versies aside, men’s shirts experienced an explosion of color. Let’s start with dress shirts. Previously dress shirts were white, white and more white. White shirts went with every suit and tie. In the 1910’s the striped shirt such as blue and white vertical stripes were very popular in the summer months. The trend for stripes continued into the 1920’s where various thickness of stripes were mixed with not just one color but multiple colors of stripes. Blue, green and yellow could be seen on one shirt or pink, yellow and green on another. 2.2.4

Vintage Dancer: http://vintagedancer.

com/1920s/1920s-mens-shirts-and-collars-

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history

For dress shirts the stripes were nearly always against a white background so as to complement whatever suit men chose to wear. Besides stripes, Chevoit checks, light plaids, and even polka dots had their trendy moments. Solid color dress shirts were acceptable towards the late 20’s. Greens and blues were the favorites although pastel colors like peach, pink, purple, and orange were seen on trendy dressers. The shirt cuffs were almost always French cuffs, also called double cuffs. The cuff folded back onto itself and attached together with a snazzy cuff link. Very fashionable gentlemen also wore a collar bar or collar pin that coordinated with their cuff links. Collar bars held soft white collars in place by clipping to the collar on each side. Collar pins, common in the late 20’s, pinned the collar in place through the eyelet holes in the shirt collar. The tab collar, also common, did the same trick but without the need for bars and pins. The necktie was worn over the collar bar/pin/tab. Read this good article on collar pins for more information.

Fabrics were mostly cottons or linen in summer. Silk was very popular in the 1910’s until the cost of silk import drove the prices too high for the common man in 1920. Thicker, coarser weaves such as broadcloth were favored in the early years with the softer oxfords and mercerized cotton leading the later years. Soft material that was primarily used for men’s underwear and night shirts became a welcome fabric in men’s dress and casual shirts too.

Vintage Collar Bars

Gold Collar Bar Under The Necktie


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1927 Catalog of Men’s Shirts

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2.2.6 SHIR T CO LLARS

2.2.5 1 960 ’ s

A basic white button down shirt

with pointed collar. These haven’t changed much in many decades except for the cuffs. You may remember Don Draper taking on and off his cuff links a lot in the show. Cuff links were an everyday accessory with men’s shirts.

Cuff Links were an everyday accessory with men’s shirts.

2.2.5 Vintage Dancer: http://vintagedancer. com/1950s/madmen-don-draper-fashion-costumes/

A S with shirts, collars up until

1800 were very simple – a square cut band at the neck, around which a gentleman wrapped his cravat or stock. As the fashion for stocks got higher, so too did the collar, until both mounted all the way to the chin, the stock almost completely obscuring the collar underneath. By Jane Austen’s era the collar had reasserted itself, and a fashion developed for collar points that not only cleared the stock, but came right up level with the cheeks!

By the 1870s Prime Minister Gladstone popularized a more comfortable version of this collar, in which the points were turned out away from the chin. This style continued alongside the straight up, until by the end of the century, they had evolved separately into the ‘Pokel’ and the ‘Wing’ collars. Through this time an increasing middle class were struggling to keep to the high standards of the Victorian age while working day after day. In 1827, the story goes, a Mrs. Montague of Troy, New York, decided to cut down on the washing by snipping the collars off her husband’s otherwise clean shirts, washing them separately, and sewing them back on again. Very quickly this innovation spread

across the civilized world. In time the ease with which collars on their own could be starched to a high finish led to very sharp fashions which furthered the demise of the attached collar. So it was until put to death by the washing machine and the sudden growth of cheap working class fashions in the 50s. Separate wing collars for formal wear persisted into the 60s, and are relatively easy to find.

Initially separate collars were tied around the neck, but the standard soon became to use two studs. The collar is secured at the back before the shirt is donned, then a second stud is inserted at the front. The front stud has a longer shaft than the rear one as it has to pass through the overlapped ends of the collar. While some collars were soft and floppy, others, particularly the nonfolding rigid ones such as the Wing collar and the Imperial collar, were treated extensively with laundry starch to help them keep their shape (as well as making them easier to clean). 2.2.6

FaceBook: https://www.facebook.com/ empiresghosts/notes


// S Y S T E M O F S H I R T

2.2.7 VIC TOR IA N & E DW A R dIA N C O L L AR S Double Round Collar

A S the century wore on the tra-

ditional collar was still the poke. It was cut square, with a small splayed gap between the points. These varied in height, peaking at about 2¼ inches around 1900. (These are very hard to find, but can be faked by standing up a square cut collar – particularly if hidden by a wide cravat).

Gladstone Collar

The chin high Gladstone collar lowered and stiffened into the wing, which initially had small points and its height kept pace with that of the poke, the higher versions of each being referred to under the shared name of ‘Imperial’.

By 1880 a version of the wing collar seems to have appeared with rounded points, this had to wait until the ‘20s - ‘30s to achieve popularity. What did catch on, though, were the rounded points, and the Double Round was born, a turnover collar with rounded points to accommodate a tie with the small the-in-Hand knot.

Turnover Collar

Turnovers were initially worn as painfully high as the Imperial, and with barely any room for the necktie, which was worn at the base of the collar, with the stud showing above it. Early versions are starched mercilessly and quite flat, like two concentric cylinders of card. To allow access to the rear stud, these collars would often have to be cutaway at the back.

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About 1890 a version of the poke collar appeared known as the Lap collar, which had no gap between the points, but was carefully cut so that they would overlap with a straight vertical edge. This style, and the poke itself, do not seem to have outlived the Victorian age.

Lap Collar

As the poke collar disappeared the wing too was only seen for formal wear, replaced by turned down collars worn with neckties. An exception to this was the butterfly wing, which could be worn with a bow or neck-tie and even accommodated itself to boaters and blazers. However, there was a strong association between the wing collar and the bow tie. Some wings even had a flap at the back to secure the bow tie in its correct location at the base of the neck.

2.2.7

Vintage Dancer: https://m.facebook. com/notes/empires-ghosts/gentlemens-shirt-collars/66657789273

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2.2.8 T URN DOW N COLLARS

// S Y S T E M O F S H I R T

T H E Double Round continued

to be worn into the ‘10s, but was impractical for the larger tie-knots then becoming popular, and it gave way to turn down collars with points.

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In the ‘20s, the splayed collar went out of fashion temporarily and the Spearpoint became popular. This had long straight points and the tie was worn high. Sometimes the points were secured by a clip behind the tie, which also served to push the knot up and out. By now, turndown collars were more ‘rolled’ with a rounder top and far less starch than their predecessors.

Turn Down Collar

Square-cut turndown collars initially had almost vertical ends, but as the Duke of Windsor popularized his eponymous large knot, the collar points splayed out to accommodate it and the cutaway, or Windsor collar emerged in the Edwardian period. Current shirt collars are a direct descendant of the Windsor, though this example is from the early ‘40s.

Spearpoint Collar

By the ‘30s virtually the entire Victorian wardrobe had been relegated to formal wear. Wing collars settled as the most formal, though innovations still occurred – collars were gradually lowering, and their points shrank or grew as fashions changed. Textured Marcella weave, or piqué, which had become the standard for shirtfront, white tie and waistcoat, is sometimes also seen on collars.

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Square-cut Turn Down Collar

2.2.8 FaceBook: http://www.throughouthistory. com/?m=20111125

Wing Collar


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2.2.9 S HIR TS LE E VE S

A P A R T from early shirts

having removable and adjustable collars and cuffs, they also had adjustable shirtsleeves. Early shirts came in one size, extra-large. The shirt was considered an undergarment, no thought was given to its fit on a man’s body, since nobody was ever likely to see it. Shirts were sized roughly according to neck circumference and shoulder-width, but everything else was measured and made to be as accommodating as possible. This included shirtsleeves. Prior to the arrival of the modern shirt that we know today, shirtsleeves were all made and measured to be extra-long. This way, they would fit the largest man in comfort. If you weren’t able to find a shirt maker to customize the sleeves, or as was more likely the case, weren’t rich enough to get a shirt maker to custom-measure your sleeves, then what did you do? Most men utilized these things: Forever associated with bartenders, writers, banker-tellers and barbershop quartets, there was a time where almost every welldressed man owned at least one pair of these things and kept them

on his dressing-table. They’re called sleeve-garters. Made of elastic material (or in this case, springy steel), sleeve-garters were worn on a man’s shirtsleeves, just above the elbow. They worked by holding back the extra sleeve-material that would otherwise cascade down a man’s arms and prevent his hands from doing any useful work. They were also handy for holding a man’s shirtsleeves back if he was doing heavy work and didn’t want to get his sleeves and cuffs dirty.

Sleeve-Garters. Made of elastic material (in this case, springy steel); worn on a man’s shirt sleeves, just above the elbow

Thanks to the modern, madeto-measure, off-the-rack shirt, sleeve-garters aren’t as often used as once they were. However, you can still buy them (they’re usually very cheap) and if ever you have a shirt you like but which you can’t wear on account of the sleeves being too long, you might want to break out grandpa’s sleeve-garters and slap them on. They can still come in handy. 2.2.9

Through Out History: http://www.throughouthistory.com/?m=20111125

Sleeve-Garters. Work by holding back the extra-sleeve material that would cascade down a man’s arms and prevent his hands from doing any useful work

18


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3 MODERN DAY The Modern Era of the Men’s White Dress Shirt

I N the last decade of the nineteenth century shirt

styles were relatively fixed by societal codes of dress, heightened through the popularity of men’s journals. In this period, uniformity of shirt styles was widespread, except for discreet style and manufacturing innovations. At this time, the white dress shirt was plain; however, some detailing around the neck and front chest area, known as the bib, was in use.

Whether such shirts were figured, braided, pleated, or adorned with embroidery or open-work, they all obeyed one basic principle: the wider the pleats, the easier they were to make and maintain, and therefore the more common they were. In contrast, the narrower the pleats, the more elegant they were. Unlike prior periods the shirt���s role as a display medium

was diminishing, except for very formal evening wear, as the waistcoat now formed the avenue for decorative display. Consequently, the collar was the principal visible element of the shirt. The button-on collar was standard dress and the shirt was now becoming a fixed item to connect varying neckline and cuff variations. The collar was also used as a symbol of social rank, with high standing collars preventing a downward gaze “to look downward, high-status men had to literally look down their noses”. Consequently, high rigid collars distinguished the elite from clerks who necessitated low collars for ease of movement. The detachable collar could also be readily starched, thereby allowing a rigidity and armor like appearance for the wearer. This rigidity was considered a crucial aspect for correct and sober dress during this period. In fact, these areas of upper chest and neck region, match the armory of old with its rigid torso plates. 3

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EPrints: http://eprints.qut.edu.au/18355/1/Dean_Brough_Thesis.pdf


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Even though the white dress shirt was comparatively unchanging in form, and for the most part hidden by outer garments, it still formed one of the keystone elements for understanding classical male dress until the first decade of the twentieth century. The white shirt, until the end of the nineteenth century, was a significant historical symbol of wealth and class distinction, as only a person of substantial wealth could afford to have their shirts washed frequently and to own enough of them to wear. The link between social distinction and the whiteness of the shirting cloth was used as a marker for affluence, as an unclean white shirt was connected with ‘dirty’, poorly paid laboring work. Even an unclean collar implied that not only was the garment unclean, but the inner body – including the mind – was as well. The white dress shirt was also a powerful emblem of sobriety and uniformity in the Victorian era. The white shirt, with its ‘virgin’ and pristine appearance sent a message of being authoritative, steadfast and trustworthy. The relationship between responsibility, sobriety and uniformity allowed the white shirt to become a customary vehicle for masculine dress. The pure white color fulfilled masculine ideals of unwavering somberness and the shirt, through its embodied consistency and rigid appearance with high collars and stiff bibs and cuffs, epito-

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mized conformity and dependability. By the nineteenth century, men who concerned themselves with decorative versus utilitarian needs were reviled for being non-masculine. The unadorned white dress shirt was intrinsically correlated to appropriate moral masculine behavior and it was believed that any deviation from that norm would result in a collapse of society’s established conservative values. This austerity of dress “indicated that a man could be trusted, that he was serious and that he meant business. It also meant that he was unlike a woman”. Hence, in the Victorian era, the white shirt underpinned attitudes to manliness and it formed a foundation stone for visual and moral assumptions about masculine ideals.

Furthermore, when patterned shirts were worn in that period, suspicions were raised as the patterned fabric was perceived to mask a lack of personal cleanliness. The potent historical message a white shirt can convey is noted by Mark Twain in his autobiographical account of his life, “if a man wanted a fight on his hands without any annoying delay, all he had to do was to appear in public in a white shirt and he would be accommodated. For those people hated aristocrats”. In essence, the white shirt was used as an emblem of business success and power and as a distinguishing marker for social rank.


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This association with formality is evident in the 1880s and onwards with the adoption of the terms ‘white collar’ and ‘blue collar’ workers – white collar denoting a clerical or managerial level, and blue collar denoting manual work. Traditionally, shirts for manual workers were dyed a shade of indigo to conceal laboring stains and many working class men resented clerical workers for wearing white shirts, referring to them as ‘white collar stiffs’ as they dressed above their station, as an employer not an employee. Hence, the white shirt was essentially viewed as a symbolic icon inferring social status.

By the close of the nineteenth century the use of the white dress shirt as an insignia to define status had diminished and it had become ubiquitous male apparel. The reasons are threefold. Firstly, with the rise of the industrial revolution, manufacturing costs for shirts decreased and availability increased. As a result, men were able to afford to own at least one white shirt and they were readily available. Secondly, the rise of the middle class enabled an increased affluence brought about by a new ethos, which combined consumption, cleanliness and European gentility. This penchant for cleanliness acted as fuel for a public desire for immaculate white shirts, thereby escalating their popularity. The rise of consumption patterns allowed a new, restrained style of dress to thrive and the correct external appearance of a man became fused to his social mobility and possible business success.

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Finally, the average man could now afford to launder at least one white shirt with multiple detachable collars, cuffs and bibs. This shirt was then able to equip a man for church, the ‘high street’ and for employment within clerical roles. Detachable collars and cuffs, which could be reversed when one edge was soiled, allowed the shirt to circumvent laundry amenities. The white shirt was now able to bridge societal divides and the defining factor for class separation was no longer the color but the fit, quality of the cloth and very discreet style variations. By the beginning of the twentieth century, with the rise of commercial laundries and inside plumbing, the whiteness of a dress shirt could easily be maintained. It was now common place to own a number of white shirts and the increased quality of manufacture ensured robustness during the laundering process and improved garment longevity. In this period the wearing of colored shirts for business wear was gaining popularity; however, white shirts were still regarded as appropriate for eveningwear and ‘Sunday best’ attire. This period continued with detailing that was relatively plain. At times, bib fronts were pleated but, generally, detailing was discreet or non-existent. As Burtis stated in a 1911 ladies’ journal, Making a Shirt for a Man, “many men believe that it is unbecoming for any one, save perhaps a college boy, to affect anything bordering on decoration or fad stunts as they call them”.


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In the early twentieth century, the white dress shirt continued to have an undergarment association and, if a man was wearing only trousers and a shirt, he was considered to be ‘undressed.’ A shirt was considered as an undergarment up until the First World War and the notion of an outer garment touching the skin was simply abhorrent. Even in contemporary times, this customary hangover can be evidenced where it can still be considered poor taste, in certain social contexts, for a man to take off his jacket in public and expose his shirt.

After the end of the First World War, a societal shift was occurring with a consequent rejection of Victorian rigid and ‘starched’ ideals and a desire to adopt new, post war conventions. The white dress shirt was still commonly worn; however rigid collars, cuffs and bibs became fundamentally aligned to formal wear. A new, softer and more fluid look was developing for less formal clothing. One of the key influences was the Prince of Wales (later Edward VIII for only one year in 1936), who was a popular leader of fashion at the time. His rejection of the white shirt, with its severe lines, in favor of soft, floppy, colored shirts created a major shift in menswear. Alongside this shift to a ‘softer’ style of dress, casual shirts were becoming popular, including tennis and sports shirts. This period also aligned to the start of the demise of the detachable collar on the dress shirt, due to reduced laundering and manufacturing costs. In the first part of the 1920s, the

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white dress shirt was still associated with moral respectability. Hence, in 1924 the founding father of IBM, Thomas J. Watson, was insistent on a dress code and demanded all his office employees wear a classic white shirt as part of their mandatory attire. A white shirt possesses sterling qualities of reliability, respectability and responsibility. The starkness of a white shirt juxtaposed against a darkly colored suit coat or trousers, has been an enduring code of dress for decorum and propriety and this visual expectation is still manifested within many professional roles in the modern era.

By the start of the Second World War detachable collars were used for only the most formal of occasions, the white tie dress code. The white dress shirt was plain, except for minor frontal bib treatment and, in essence, had not changed in form apart from construction details. In this period the shirt was no longer considered as an undergarment, as the white tee-shirt now fulfilled that role. The next major change for the white dress shirt was the introduction of synthetic fabrics in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Even though the adoption of synthetic fibers did not alter the garments appearance, it transformed the wearability and serviceability of the shirt. With the introduction of nylon blends, and subsequently polyester, shirts were drip dry and required minimal ironing. However, synthetic fibers had questionable ability for comfort, particularly in hot, humid climates.

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Another significant shift for the white dress shirt was in the late 1960s and early 1970s. This period witnessed an escalation in detailing, in particular frontal flounces and ruffles, as well as increased collar widths. Also, for some, the necktie was being rejected in favor of open neck shirts. The white dress shirt was still seen as a formal garment as a vast array of highly colored and printed shirts popularized the market place for ca-

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sual clothing. In the early 1980s, for a brief period, an innovative, romantic style of dressing with loosely styled foppish and frilled white shirts was the height of fashion.

Through the 1980s ‘power dressing’ was adopted and the white dress shirt, once again, regained its hold on social status. The formal shirt styles were austere and rigid and the tie regained a strong foothold. By the

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1990s, however, the casualization of clothing was occurring and the tie, which was the principle place for floridity, was being rejected in many formal settings. It is also noteworthy, that similar to prior periods, shirts significantly varied in quality during this period and a segment of the market did not follow fashionable changes. 3

EPrints: http://eprints.qut.edu.au/18355/1/ Dean_Brough_Thesis.pdf

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3.1.1 OFF T HE RACK OR BOXED

T H E white dress shirt has

3.1

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K

come to be available in two distinct presentation methods: folded and boxed, or, on a hanger. The boxed version is significant for the following reasons. Firstly, this approach to presentation is emblematic of the shirt’s level of historical garment engineering.

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As a result of scientific approaches, particularly through pattern drafting systems, the relationship to body fit has been exceedingly honed and the wearer can ‘trust’ size and fit designations. Through standardized measurements, exacting tolerances, industrialized fabrication and a comparatively universal appearance, the boxed shirt highlights the historical ‘fine-tuning’ that has occurred. Secondly, the boxing is symbolic of the archetypal status aligned to the white dress shirt. Boxed shirts appear void of human contact and, in this form, they are escalated to an eminent position in comparison to racked shirts.

EY ELEMENTS THAT DEFINE MEN’S WHITE SHIRT Furthermore, in an odd contradiction to this position of status, the boxing of shirts also contrasts with the ubiquitous nature of the garment. The boxed shirt materializes as a generic item that dilutes its associations with the high status that may be attributed to fashion. Finally, this method of packaging also parallels issues relating to consumption practices for men, particularly the fact that, in this form, the garment cannot be tried on and the consumer cannot experience the comfort, fit and feel of the shirt prior to purchase. Male consumers

(generally speaking) are reluctant to try on clothing at retail outlets and the boxed shirt, with its intricate presentation, epitomizes this consumption practice. Hence, even though the boxing of the shirt is, in essence, a means of merchandising a product, it is still highly symbolic of aspects relating to men’s clothing. Many companies merchandise their shirts boxed and these range in quality and price, from designer labels such as Dior Homme to shirts bought in low-priced clothing stores. 3.1

FaceBook: https://www.facebook.com/

permalink.php?story_fbid=16534003116064 62&id=1583915571888270


3.1.2

T A ILO R ED SHIR T OR B E S P OK E

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A tailor-made shirt is a valuable garment that you treat with dignity and care and you are quick to put it on as soon as you get it in your hands. And then you long for wearing it again and again. Accompanied by a suit and a tie of superb taste or casually unbuttoned together with your favorite jeans the tailor-made shirt makes your outfit complete. You are quite simply very comfortably well dressed.

Dress shirts are also produced in bespoke form, crafted to fit individual body measurements. This approach to producing white dress shirts is in sharp contrast to the mass produced nature of many boxed variants. Henry Poole & Co, a bespoke tailor in Savile Row in London, is exemplary of this practice. The company crafts the classic conservative white dress shirt and, in the main, does not deviate from time honored assembly

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practices. Clients can request the traditional practice of handmade buttonholes and the company has a reputation for fine classic hand tailoring. They are acknowledged as the founders of Savile Row, a street in central London famous for its traditional men’s bespoke tailoring. The shirt designs produced by this company align to classic conventions, including the use of archetypal collar styles such as the Ascot, the British Spread, the Prince of Wales, the Windsor, and the button-down collar.

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3.2

P

ocket STYLE

Rounded Chest Pocket

T H E rounded chest pocket is standard dress shirt pocket. It is on the left side of the chest. The pocket is positioned such that the top of the pocket is slightly above the third button hole. The pocket measures 4 3/8″ x 4 7/8″ for most shirts, but will be slightly smaller (3 7/8″ x 4 1/2″) for very small shirts and slightly larger (4 5/8″ x 5 1/8″) for very large shirts. Pockets are placed such that the inside edge of the pocket is 2 1/4″ from the center of the shirt.

Double Flap Pockets

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This style had pockets on both sides of the chest. These pockets are the same shape and size as the angled pocket, but with buttons and a flap over them. The pockets are relatively small and measure 4″ x 5 1/4″ including the flap. Buttons will match the other buttons on the shirt. Flaps contain a lightweight, unfused interlining. Pockets are placed such that the inside edge of the pocket is 2 1/4″ from the center of the shirt.

Angled Chest Pocket

The angled chest pocket is a more casual pocket option. The pocket is slightly smaller than the rounded pocket and measures 3 15/16″ x 4 7/8″. Pockets are placed such that the inside edge of the pocket is 2 1/4″ from the center of the shirt.


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fabric finish

ABRIC F A B R I C S , especially 100% cotton, are the primary material for dress shirts.

3.3.1 FA BR IC PLY

Fabrics are either 1-ply or 2-ply. This is the number of yarns twisted together to make a single thread. 2-ply fabrics are generally finer with a tighter weave than 1-ply fabrics. 2-ply fabrics lend a smoother, more crisp hand feel. Single-ply fabrics create a lighter, more breathable fabric.

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3.3.3

3.3 F

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3.3.2 fabric yarn count

The number you see on shirt fabrics (80s, 120s etc.) indicates the size of the thread in the fabric and therefore how many threads per square inch. Higher numbers mean that the threads are finer which results in a softer, smoother and lighter fabric. Shirts run a wide range of thread counts. We prefer 100s, 120s and 140s for our classic dress shirts because of the silky texture and lightweight. Lower counts are used for weightier fabrics.

Often overlooked, the finish of the fabric is the production process used to actually mill the fabric. A 2-ply 200s fabric sounds impressive but if it’s made with low quality cotton by a dubious manufacturer then it is no better and probably worse than a 1-ply 50s fabric made by a reputable mill. 3.3

Hug Hand Crye: https://www.

hughandcrye.com/pages/dressshirt-fabrics

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3.3.4 weave

T H E weave is the way in which the threads of

cotton (called warp and weft) are actually put together to make a fabric. Different techniques create different properties in the fabric. Here are a few:

Twill Weave

Twill fabrics have a weft thread that runs over and under multiple warp threads (as opposed to a plain weave where the weft crosses a single warp thread at a time). This can create interesting patterns like a herringbone, houndstooth or a simple, diagonal rib. Twills are very durable fabrics that have a softer hand feel than poplins and a bit more sheen.

Poplin Weave

Poplin, sometimes called broadcloth, is a plain weave which means the threads alternately cross over and then under each other. This results in a very smooth and durable fabric that has an almost silky hand feel, particularly with higher thread counts. Also, poplins look very crisp when ironed. 3.3

Lanieri: https://www.lanieri.com/blog/en/its-all-in-8-details-shirt-

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fabric-weaves/

Oxford Weave

The traditional oxford is a type of basket weave where multiple weft threads are crossed over an equal number of warp threads. The threads are usually of a single color crossed with a white to give oxford its unique, checkerboard appearance. It’s a versatile fabric that can be worn casually or professionally depending on the thread count and finish. Check out our selection of woven oxford cloth shirts.


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Herringbone Weave

Dobby Weave

The dobby weave is considered a “fancy” weave because dobby weaves generally have unique geometric patterns in the fabric. This is accomplished using a special loom that raises and lowers the warp threads individually, allowing the weaver to create the dobby weave’s distinctive patterns. Dobby fabrics can come in all kinds of patterns, colors, weights and hand feels.

Herringbone weaves are most often found in wool fabrics and suiting, but it is also found in dress shirting as well. Herringbone weave is a type of twill, and has a distinctive v shaped pattern, named after the herring fish. Herringbone weaves tend to be slightly heavier in weight, and are more often found in seasonal shirting fabrics for cold weather.

Print (Hand-Blocked) Weave

End - On - End Weave

End-on-end fabrics are essentially poplins but with one colored and one white (or other color) thread. This gives the fabric a heathered appearance up close but looks like a solid color from a distance. End-on-ends are sometimes called fil-a-fil from the French for “thread-to-thread” or Chambray.

While yarn-dyed fabrics are the most common sort of weave for dress shirting, prints are becoming more and more popular. Print fabrics are as they might sound - the pattern is printed onto the fabric, instead of woven by colored thread. Print fabric might be pieced dyed after being woven, and then printed on again. When done by hand, this is known as block printing. Block printed fabrics are most often created by cutting out patterns from wood blocks, which are then dipped in dyes that are pressed in repeated patterns onto fabric. Given the process is done by hand, it is natural to see deviations and slight aberrations in the pattern - which results in a desirable imperfection.


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Print (Screen) Weave

Screen printing is the most common form of fabric printing, as it allows for a fast transfer of pattern to the fabric. Screens usually produce a much more detailed pattern than hand blocked methods.

3.4

F

Pin dot fabrics is short hand for jacquard fabrics that have a raised weave, in consistent patterns. The pattern might be dots, or other geometric shapes.

IT

T H E fit of a shirt is

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Pin Dot Weave

of particular importance due to its centrality in the body and its proximity to the face. When a shirt is the foreground of an outfit, such as when a person isn’t wearing outerwear or layers, the fit in the torso is focal. A well-fitting shirt will emphasize the positives of a physique without drawing unnecessary attention to the nega-

tives. The shirt will outline the body without telling too many secrets, offering a flattering figure without emphasizing every curve and crevice. When a shirt is in the background, such as with layers, the placket and the collar is of greater importance. In both cases, the shirt serves to draw the eye towards the face. With layers this effect may be pronounced by the

V-shape created by lapels or a half-zipped jacket. Without layers, this can be achieved by unfastening a button or wearing a v-neck. The collar is also of great importance because it frames the face.


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COLLAR

SHOULDER

Should be able to slide in 2

Seam should meet at the

fingers when closed

corner of your shoulder bone

SLEEVE Neither tight or billowy, should allow natural

ARMHOLES

motion

High enough without causing restricted motion

SLEEVE Should end where your palm meets your wris, about

TORSO

1” beyond your wrist bone

Should not give more than 3-4” of fabric when pulled tightly away from the body

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How A Shirt Should Fit


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3.4.1 DR E SS S HIR T C O L L A R F IT

JUST RIGHT

TOO TIGHT

TOO LOOSE

The perfect collar fit

The collar is close enough

The collar does not touch

way around the neck, but

the skin underneath it.

off the body. You could slip

touches the skin all the

does not press against it.

You should be able to slip a finger in between your

neck and the shirt at any

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point without struggling or forcing.

to actually press against There’s a discernible

sensation of constriction.

It would be impossible to put a finger between the neck and collar without stretching, tugging, or forcing.

the neck, but rather rests

a finger in next to the neck without moving the cloth at all.


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3.4.2 DRESS SHO UL D E R F I T

JUST RIGHT

TOO TIGHT

TOO LOOSE

The vertical shoulder

The seam will be shifted

The shoulder seam

the shoulder, where the

the neck. Some of the

down onto the outside of

seam sits at the edge of plane of the shoulder

meets the plane of the

outer arm. The armscye

(the hole where the sleeve joins the shirt body) is

large enough that there’s

no tugging or twisting on

up the shoulder toward

sleeve rests on top of the shoulder. If the tightness is in the armscye, there

may also be twisting that

causes wrinkles or distor-

slumps off the shoulder, the bicep. There may be

billowing under the arm as well, if the armscye is too big.

tion along the seam.

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the shoulder seam.


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3.4.3 DR E SS S HIR T TOR S O F IT

JUST RIGHT

TOO TIGHT

TOO LOOSE

The buttons close com-

The buttons strain to

Excess fabric hangs slack

side of the placket (the

wrinkles around the

chest, causing visible bil-

fortable and the understrip where the buttons

and buttonholes are located) rests lightly against

the sternum (the central bone of your ribcage).

The shirt tucks in with no

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billowing at the sides.

close, causing radiating buttonholes. Tightness may also cause pulling

on the sleeves, distorting

the armscye and shoulder seams.

around the stomach or

lowing. The shirt placket

moves about and does not rest against the sternum.

Tucking the shirt in causes billowing, ballooning,

or “muffin-topping� near the trouser waist.


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3.4.4 DRESS S H I RT SLEEVE FI T

JUST RIGHT

TOO TIGHT

TOO LOOSE

The sleeve is slightly wid-

The fit is snug when the

Too much slack that

the cuff, with a smooth,

ing pinching when the

and creates hanging folds

even taper. There should

be some looseness when the arm hangs straight

(so that the elbow isn’t

constricted when the arm bends). Looseness should be evenly distributed, not bunched up at the shoulder or cuff.

arm hangs straight, causelbow or shoulder moves. Tautness may cause

radiating wrinkles at the shoulder seam or elbow.

gravity pulls it downward of cloth, especially around the cuff. Loose sleeve

fabric can also flap and

sway around the elbow and bicep.

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er at the upper arm than


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3.4.5 DR E SS S HIR T S L EE VE C U F F

JUST RIGHT

TOO TIGHT

TOO LOOSE

The cuff is close to the

It is impossible to pull the

The cuff is wide enough

space between the cuff

toning the cuffs (or pop-

over a wristwatch and

body but allows a bit of and the skin. It should be possible to put the shirt on or take it off without unbuttoning the cuffs.

Enough room for a pair of fingers (or for a nor//// / // // // // // /

mal-sized dress watch) is a good amount of slack.

shirt off without unbutping a button). The cuff

presses against the skin all the way around the

wrist. Wrist watches can only be worn below the hem of the cuff, and the

cuff bunches up if it meets them rather than sliding over the watch.

that it can slide loosely

still have room for several fingers to be inserted between the cloth and skin. Folds or wrinkles form in the fabric of the cuff

when the arms are rested against a surface like a tabletop.


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3.4.6 dress shirt sleeve length

JUST RIGHT

TOO SHORT

TOO LONG

The sleeve comes all the

The cuff leaves the wrist

The cuff falls all the way

wrist bone at the base of

den completely beneath

hand begins to widen out-

the pinky/ring fingers.

If a jacket is worn, about a half-inch of shirt cuff

should show beyond the end of the jacket sleeve. The cuff should at least

touch (and in some postures cover) the wristwatch, if one is worn.

bones exposed, or is hidjacket sleeves.

to the point where the

ward from the wrist. This can cause bunching if the sleeves are so long that

slack piles up behind the

point where the cuff stops. If a wristwatch is worn, it is completely covered by the sleeve at all times.

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way down to the large


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3.4.7 DR E SS S HIR T B OT TOM H E M L ENGT H

JUST RIGHT

TOO SHORT

TOO LONG

When untucked, the hem

The untucked shirt does

The shirttails fall all the

er the belt. It should be

the belt or waist of the

front or bottom in back.

falls far enough to cov-

long enough at all points (including the sides, if

the hems are scalloped)

to tuck at least an inch or

so into comfortably-worn

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trousers.

not completely cover

trousers. When tucked in, points of the hem remain exposed, or have so little cloth tucked in that they

are likely to pop out when the body moves and bends.

way to cover the crotch in When tucked in, excess fabric has to be shoved

down between the legs to hide bunching up.


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SIZE # 9

SIZE # 10

SIZE # 11

SIZE # 12

TALL / SKINNY

TALL / SLIM

TALL / ATHLETIC

TALL / BROAD

Neck 15 - 16” Chest 39”

Neck 15.5 - 16.5” Chest 40 - 42”

Neck 16.5 - 17.5” Chest 42 - 44”

Neck 17 -17.5” Chest 44 - 45”

SIZE # 5

SIZE # 6

SIZE # 7

SIZE # 8

AVERAGE / SKINNY

AVERAGE / SLIM

TALL / ATHLETIC

TALL / BROAD

Neck 14.5 - 15.5” Chest 37”

Neck 15 - 16” Chest 38 - 39”

Neck 16 - 17” Chest 40 - 42”

Neck 16.5 -17.5” Chest 42 - 44”

SIZE # 1

SIZE # 2

SIZE # 3

SIZE # 4

SHORT / SKINNY

SHORT / SLIM

SHORT / ATHLETIC

SHORT / BROAD

Neck 14 - 15” Chest 36”

Neck 14.5 - 15.5” Chest 38”

Neck 16 - 17” Chest 39 - 41”

Neck 16.5 -17.5” Chest 42 - 44”

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3.5

P

LACKET

D R E S S shirts generally

come with a few different options for the front placket

No Front Placket (French Front)

The French front is a popular placket style that features no fold back placket. It has a “cleaner” more “downtown” appeal to it. It can be slightly more difficult to iron than the standard front placket, but works well on both business and casual shirts.

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Similar to the French front in look and construction, but the top four buttons are removable so that one can put in tuxedo studs. We suggest only going with this option when buying a tuxedo shirt. 3.5

Front Placket (Fused or Soft)

A dress shirt front placket is the most common dress shirt front style. The fabric is folded back over and sewn with a fused interlining to give it that crisp, dressy appeal. You’ll rarely, if ever, go wrong with this on a business shirt. The soft front placket is very similar in style to the classic fused front placket, but with a soft, unfused construction. It’s ideal for casual shirts and pairs really nicely with a soft collar.

Tuxedo Front (Plain)

Paper Cloth: http://propercloth.com/reference/dress-shirt-front-placket-types

Covered Placket (Fly Front)

Commonly known as the Fly Front, the Covered Placket is a more formal style placket with an extra piece that covers up the buttons on the front of the shirt. Commonly used for tuxedo shirts, this certainly will give your shirt a very dressed-up look.


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3.6

C

OLLAR

3.6.2

BUTTO N DOWN CO LLAR BUTTO N SI Z E

T H E buttons which

Button Down Collar

3.6.1 B UT TON DOW N C O L L AR

T H O U G H all

dress shirt collars should be ironed, button down collars are actually quite soft. Some starch may be used to get the collar points to lay flat, but the roll of the collar should be soft and it shouldn’t remind you of wearing a stiff formal shirt collar. Make sure the buttons which will hold the collar points down are of good

quality because they will be very visible – if you wear a tie and custom suit, they will be the only shirt buttons visible on the front of the shirt, and being so near your face, they will be noticed.

Be sure that the only time they are unbuttoned is when you are putting on your necktie. This collar, particularly on an oxford shirt, can be worn equally well without a tie. That’s the great thing about this men’s shirt collar – it can go up or down in dressiness.

hold down a button down collar are smaller than shirt front and cuff buttons. They should be about the same size as sleeve gauntlet buttons and the shirt should have come with a spare. Do not try to replace one of them with a spare shirt front button because the eyelet will be too small and you will have two different size buttons holding down the collar (if you can get the first one through the eyelet).

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Also do not try to get by with replacing both buttons with larger ones. Even if you can fit them through the eyelets they will look way too big to belong right under your face. If you lose more than one, you can use the gauntlet buttons if you absolutely have to as long as you wear a jacket and cover up those missing gauntlet buttons.

3.6

Real Men Real Style: http:// www.realmenrealstyle.com/ understanding-mens-button-down-collar

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3.6.3 UN BUT TON ED BUT TON DOWN C OL LA R Unbuttoned Button Down Collar

I T is worth noting that while the rule

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is to button down the collar points with this shirt collar, a man may wear them unbuttoned to make a fashion statement. This statement is not for everyone and a man who doesn’t button down his collar points out of laziness will not look like a fashion-forward man, he will still look simply lazy. If you think this would work for you, give it a try and wear it with confidence. If you like the idea of a button down collar and don’t want to have to fret about buttoning or not buttoning down the collar points then you should look for a

hidden button down collar. The hidden button down functions the same way except that behind the shirt point there is a small loop sewn on for buttoning. This collar is still soft and it can even be rumpled if the look suits the man while the collar points stay put. 3.6.3

Real Men Real Style: http://www.realmenrealstyle. com/understanding-mens-button-down-collar/


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3.7 D R E S S shirt

cuffs remind us of what makes menswear so unique: it’s all in the details. Most dress shirt cuffs are pretty classic: a barrel cuff with a squared edge and two buttons which helps determine the snugness you want in around your wrist. Otherwise, a dress shirt cuff is usually defined by the shape of the cuff enclosure.

3.7.1 I NTERLI NI NG

Interlining is an extra piece of material sewn in that gives a shirt cuff extra structure for a crisper look. Much like the collars, interlining is always used, but the weight and texture varies from style to style. A more casual shirt will naturally have a lighter interlining, while a more professional style like the two-button scalloped cuff above, will have a heavier weight interlining to give

the cuff a crisp finish that maintains its look over time. Most brands don’t bother using quality interlining in the cuff because it’s expensive, but we feel that it’s what separates the shirts from sloppy ones. 3.7

Hug Hand Crye: https://www. hughandcrye.com/pages/ dress-shirt-cuffs

ExclusiveMale Wordpress: https://exclusivemale.word-

press.com/2016/02/10/theshirt-details

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UFF


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3.7.2 S HI R T C U F F T YP ES Mitered Cuff

Convertible Cuff

The standard shirt cuff. It’s a traditional barrel cuff (rectangular piece of fabric with square corners that’s closed with a button). However, we put a second button-hole on the other side of the cuff that is unseen when worn normally buttoned, but can be opened up and worn with cufflinks. This makes the shirt much more versatile.

Rounded Cuff

The rounded cuff is simply a barrel cuff but we’ve sanded the sharp corners off. Rounded cuffs give off a slightly more casual and relaxed feel so we generally pair them with the button-down collars and, appropriately, the rounded collars.

The mitered cuff is a barrel cuff that has had the corners “mitered” or cut at an angle. It’s an interesting detail that creates a sharp look fitting for more professional or formal occasions. Like the standard convertible cuff, the mitered cuff features the extra button hole, allowing them to be worn with or without links.

French Cuff

The French cuff is the most formal cuff. French cuffs are twice as long as regular cuffs and then folded back on themselves and closed with cuff links. They have a very pronounced look and we usually pair them with the more debonair collar styles or formal shirts.

Two-Button Scalloped Cuff

Two-buttoned scalloped cuff is one of the most unique styles. It features a two-button closure and a curved or “scalloped” cuff edge. It provides a distinctive look, particularly when seen poking out under a jacket sleeve. 3.7.2

Hug Hand Crye: https://www.hughandcrye.com/pages/dress-shirt-cuffs


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3.8 Interlining

Gussets

The gusset is the little piece of triangular fabric sewn in where the side seam meets the hem of the shirt. It adds extra strength to this highstress area. Most brands don’t use a gusset because it’s a difficult and time-consuming sewing technique.

Darts

An essential element to fit, darts are the two curved seams in the back of the shirt. They take in some of the extra fabric in the back and give a shirt a tapered shape.

Single-Needle Stitching

Also known as a lockstitch, this seam has two pieces of thread that lock the pieces of fabric together from both sides. Single-needle stitching is where a single seam is sewn, then folded over itself and sewn again. It results in a much stronger seam that is difficult to rip and also gives a cleaner look to the shirt. Most mass brands will use a double needle seam that is less labor intensive but more prone to puckering and tearing.

Interlining is an extra piece of material sewn in that gives our collars, cuffs and plackets extra structure and a stiffer feel that looks crisp holds up to repeated washings and ironings.

Most mass-brand dress shirts are only lightly interlined if at all because it is an expensive and time-consuming production process. 3.8

Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/p/ BAoNm8bQHSV/

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ONSTRUCTION VARIATIONS


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3.9

D

RESS SHIRT MANUFACTURING, DISTRIBUTION & SALES T H E apparel maker might manufacture

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the garment in house. Some do have modest manufacturing capacity. Usually, though, it will approach independent factories for production on an as-needed basis (50,890 establishments, 566,700 workers). It will keep almost no fabric or thread in stock, but buy it instead through brokers.

Upon receiving an apparel maker’s order, a factory will buy printed cloth from a wholesaler and construct the garment. The apparel maker will take delivery, and ship it either to a retailer directly or to a garment wholesaler (23,200 establishments, 286,800 workers). In 1997, these wholesalers handled domestic garments worth 16,102 billion yen. Additionally, they imported garments worth another 2,298 billion, and exported 223 billion. Of the retailers, department stores (2,364 establishments, 156,800 workers) handled 6,616 billion yen’s worth of merchandise. The other outlets (183,633 establishments, 644,524 workers; as noted later, this excludes convenience stores) handled 11,795 billion yen’s worth.

That wholesalers (or brokers) play such a large part in the apparel industry reflects the division of labor into very small operations. For these small firms, the wholesalers provide information about the market, economize on search costs for trading partners, bear risk, and sometimes provide finance (Itoh, 1994: 22-23). When one of the parties are large (a spinning firm, for example) that firm will often by-pass the wholesaler. Indeed, the largest spinning firms had already integrated forward into weaving before the Second World War. As all of this should make clear, however, in most cases the apparel maker is just another wholesaler. In effect, it is simply a hub that coordinates the final half of the production process. 3.9

Google Book: https://books.google.

com.ph/books?id=kjsHoVKKulgC&p-

g=PA63&lpg=PA63&dq=THE+apparel+maker+might+manufacture+the+gar-

ment+in+house.+Some+do+have+modest&-

source=bl&ots=K1qZ0sc2hL&sig=NlZMI90hig0c77opq_E_VA7MPS8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0a-

hUKEwij_MX618bLAhVnIqYKHRhgBWUQ6A-

EIHTAA#v=onepage&q=THE%20apparel%20

maker%20might%20manufacture%20the%20 garment%20in%20house.%20Some%20 do%20have%20modest&f=false


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3.9.1 M AN UF A C T URIN G

manufacturing and distribution out perform mass production (MP) processes in terms of energy efficiency and material use. The major areas of focus in the manufacturing component are the waste and energy required for the following processes: 1. Inventory (raw materials) 2. Cutting, Sewing, and Assembly (fabric utilization) 3. Packaging

■ Inventory (raw materials) MP processes in the apparel industry are inherently dependent of large quantities of a limited variety of fabrics, whereas MC processes depend more on having much less quantity, but a larger array of fabric choices. One of the largest European mass customizers of men’s dress shirts, Bivolino, utilizes over 55,000 meters of inventory over a 1-2 month period; however, these quantities pale in comparison to the 15,000,000 meters of fabric required by the average MP manufacturer. In MC, inventory levels can range from as little as 2.5-3 meters for highly specialized fabrics to 250 meter rolls. Some MC practitioners have reduced the number of fabric choices in order to further maximize this inventory benefit: For example, Proper Cloth allows just 34 types of fabrics as opposed to Bivolino who offers over 200 types of fabrics.

The management of inventory directly contributes to the challenge of appropriate variety in MC. Larger MC manufacturers can offer more choice and must accommodate the larger quantities of fabric types, whereas smaller MC manufacturers can essentially bring their inventory to near zero. This points to a shift in inventory management by MC factories upstream to the fabric distributor. Increasing use of MC practices that include one-on-one interactions between MC producers and customers have yielded better real time market data, thus enabling fabric mills to produce materials more efficiently.

In cases where manufacturers produce both MP and MC shirts inventory lines are blurred depending on the level of dual-use of fabrics for each line. In the case of Brooks Brothers, the addition of MC production increases the level of in-store inventory, as they have utilized retail locations to promote the MC business. //// / // // // // // /

M A S S customization (MC)


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3.9.3

C U T T IN G, S EW ING, & A SS E M B LY

PACKAGI NG

I N general, both MP and MC manufac-

M P processes employ mul-

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tiple ply cutting machines that can cut up to 20-30 layers of fabric at one time. The advantage over MC is that total cutting time is reduced, however, as the number of layers increase cutting accuracy decreases. In MC, however, while single or double ply cutting yields a very accurate cut, it also produces much more paper waste (paper underlayment is required for stabilizing the fabric during cutting). The characteristic of wastage for MP and MC varies greatly. For example, in MC, manufacturers often will wait for orders to accumulate before cutting a particular color in order to maximize usage. In MP, others are very large and require the largest width available, thus creating larger swaths of unused material. The

range of fabric utilization advantage of MP over MC is large. Bivolino reported fabric usage of 12% higher for MC, whereas Brook Brothers was 2-3%.

Total time for cutting, sewing, and assembly for MC reported by Bivolino was 10 minutes (cutting) and 60 minutes (sewing and assembly). This is 3 times the amount of time for traditional MP processes. An investigation of total production levels as reported by Brooks Brothers at one factory location of 4800 MP shirts/week with 180 operators and 500 MC shirts/week with 20 operators, yields identical shirts per worker per week ratios of 26.7 and 25.

turers will package each shirt, with MC often personalizing the packaging for their product. Many MP manufacturers will ship shirts in bundles of 20-24 shirts, thus greatly reducing the need for outer packaging like cardboard and plastic packaging for shipping. Both MC and MP producers can greatly reduce environmental impacts by using recycled paper and plastics in packaging. MC reduces the necessary packaging since the retailer does not display the final product, as is the case for Brooks Brothers.

3.9.4 PRO DUCTI O N WASTE

T H E production of MC products will

yield varying levels of waste in fabric and stabilization paper (as described in the manufacturing section) during the production process. The continued optimization of this process through better cutting techniques, utilization of recyclable materials will minimize this impact. These same techniques can be applied to MP processes to achieve similar benefit, however, recycling in the MC process is less of a general problem given the very low number of returns than MP processes.


3.9.5

DIST R IBUT ION

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O N E of the clearer

distinctions in the product life-cycle between the MC and the MP of a men’s dress shirt is the process of distribution that each method utilizes after the manufacturing has concluded. At first glance, it seems obvious that MC, which typically allows for direct-to-customer shipping, and without its need for an infrastructure of distribution centers, greatly saves on energy and material use. Our research has confirmed this assumption; however, it turned up evidence that suggests a less obvious and subtler structure of such savings. In this section we will compare the typical distribution processes of each and outline the sources of energy and material savings (and waste) after the product has left the factory up until it is in the hands of the customer. As discussed above, while the energy

efficiency gained during the MP manufacturing process exceeds that of the current practice of MC, those gains are primarily offset by its dependency on large distribution infrastructure such as offsite product storage facilities (warehousing) and regional shipping centers. Since MC utilizes direct-to-customer shipping, it can function almost entirely without this infrastructure providing tremendous energy savings because it does not need to heat & cool or supply electricity to such buildings, nor provide fuel for and maintain a transportation fleet. Increasing the energy utilized and time spent while circulating through the distribution infrastructure, we found that, with the exception of only a few manufacturers, most MP manufacturing of men’s dress shirts occurred overseas and far from the final distribution point – the customer transaction.

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The energy savings found in the distribution of MC shirts are not without their own offsets and balances, however. For instance, where MP shirts can be packaged and shipped in bulk, with one manufacturer reporting a weekly shipment of 4,800 - 6,000 units, MC shirts are individually packaged and sometimes individually shipped. In order to offset the increase of energy needed for more packaging materials per product as well as less efficient deliveries, we found that the common practice in MC was to batch single orders together over a period of time. Typically, this means aggregating orders over one-week period whose destinations are similar and shipping those together. //// / // // // // // /

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However, implementing this strategy returns MC to the problems found in distribution infrastructure. In addition, similar to the long range found in MP distribution, in talking with apparel industry executives we found that it is common in MC for the manufacturing facility to be at a great distance from the point of customer transaction. In fact, in some cases this is one of the marketing strategies of MC: With an internet connection, the consumer can be anywhere in the world and he can have his custom apparel delivered to his house.

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This is possibly one of the most energy intensive and wasteful aspects of MC, however. In MP transcontinental distribution can be shipped in very large bulk, sometimes filling entire shipping containers, which is, according to the US Department of Energy,

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the most energy efficient method of large-scale transportation. In addition, because the shipment is not directed at individual consumers, there is not a need for expedited delivery. In MC, however, even with weekly aggregated orders, bulk of this quantity is not yet commonly achieved, not to mention that there is the need for expedited delivery which thus requires air shipment, which is the most energy intensive method of transcontinental distribution.

We did find one case where a MC manufacturer was very aware of and avoided the energy intensities of a long range distribution infrastructure. For example, Bivolino, who operates two manufacturing facilities in Eastern Europe, has intentionally limited its distribution range to less than 2,000 km and will not ship to

overseas customers. Perhaps the clearest point of energy savings found in MC distribution of men’s dress shirts over MP is at the point of sale. In our documented examples in the first section and for the general analysis of this paper, we distinguished MC from MP in terms of online retail and bricks-and-mortar retail, respectively. While this is not always the case, as mass produced shirts can be purchased online and MC shirts can be purchased offline, we found our distinctions and definitions to be most commonplace in practice and thus relevant for drawing conclusions.

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For MP, where the final product is displayed and ready for purchase at a retail store, there are numerous sources of embodied energy and material use in action. First, and most apparent, is the energy needed to operate the building, such as lighting, heating, cooling and electricity. While these costs are absorbed by and spread out across many other products that the store might sell, we found in some cases that products can sit on the shelves for months, if not entire seasons at a time, before it is sold. Another, more subtle, source of energy utilization found in retail stores is the embodied energy of the display fixtures and other physical materials needed to market and present the product. While there are many strategies available to lower and offset the costs of building operation and product marketing, this source energy is never

consumed during the online MC process.

Lastly, perhaps the least understood, and yet possibly the most energy wasteful component in the product life-cycle of MP, is the energy utilized by the consumer in his travel to and from the retail store to purchase the dress shirt. Building from our assumption that the average American male consumer will drive his own automobile three to five miles to the nearest retail location to purchase a dress shirt, we believe this is one of the key factors that make MP significantly more energy intensive than MC. According to a recent study by the Logistics Research Center comparing the environmental impacts of conventional vs. online shopping, “when a customer shops by car and buys fewer than 24 items per trip‌the home delivery will emit less CO2 per item purchasedâ€?.

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They found that on average, conventional shopping trips emitted 4,274gCO2; whereas delivery from online shopping only emitted 181gCO2. There are many other factors that contribute to this assumption and should be carefully considered in further research, including these questions: Is the consumer making a single and special trip to purchase the dress shirt? Are there other passengers during the trip who might help absorb the total energy costs? 3.9.5

Smart Customization: http:// smartcustomization.mit.edu/

images/SCG_Publications/envi-

ronmental%20impacts%20of%20 utlizing%20mass%20customization.pdf

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3.9.6 POST-T R A N S AC T ION & C ON S UM ER EX PE R IE N C E

T H E final stage in the product

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life-cycle of a men’s dress shirt that we examined was for the period after which the consumer had decided the purchase (or not purchase) the shirt. Within this life-cycle stage we outlined 3 post-transaction scenarios for both mass customized and mass produced shirts, include: use pattern, returns, and resale/ redistribution. While some of these scenarios are very intangible, we discovered evidence that strongly supported our hypothesis and made it clear that mass customization is indeed less energy intensive.

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3.9.7 USE P ATTERN

F I T , function and personal-

ized style are the key tenets of MC that distinguish it from MP particularly after the customer starts utilizing the product. Combining these characteristics of MC translates to better clothing ergonomics, greater comfort, and a reduced need for additional tailoring (i.e., more traveling). We also expect this to translate into more frequent utilization and a higher level of customer care for MC products, thus reducing the customer’s need for purchasing more shirts and subsequently decreasing the overall negative environmental impacts found in manufacturing and distribution. For example, Spreadshirt.com, a MC web platform for making consumer products such as casual apparel, bags, and cups, conducted a survey on its t-shirt customers and found that 36% said they would wear their custom T-shirt every time that it was cleaned.

3.9.7 Smart Customization: http://smartcustomization.mit.edu/images/SCG_Publications/

environmental%20impacts%20of%20utlizing%20mass%20customization.pdf MCKN: http://www.mckn.eu/

wp-content/uploads/group-docu-

ments/1/1334928578-Paper2.1.pdf


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MARKDOWNS / RESALES & REDI STRI BUT I O N

R E T UR NS

material use advantages of MC over MP is in product returns. According to a 1999 survey of apparel manufacturers conducted by the Reverse Logistics Executive Council (RLEC), the average return rate for MP apparel was 20%, and in some cases, where MP shirts were sold online, the return rates were as high as 40%. In stark contrast to these rates, in our industry interviews we found that MC apparel returns ranged from 1% - 4%. This reduction has dramatic implications for reduced energy use because product returns create additional customer travel to and from the original retailer. From the RLEC survey, it was reported that over one-half of the MP shirt returns were caused by defective or damaged goods, and of those, nearly 30% were thrown out and destroyed. On the other hand, MC manufacturer, Bivolino, reports approximately 4% returns, where 50% of the total returns can be repaired and returned back to the user and 25% are remade, leaving 1% that are discarded.

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3.9.9

3.9.8 O N E of the largest energy and

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From our interviews, we found that some MC manufacturers require customers to first send the shirt back for analysis and verification, before any additional action is taken. This requires additional energy for transportation and shipping, however, it can eliminate the possibility of over-production by pin-pointing small manufacturing errors that can easily be repaired, instead of replaced. MC manufacturers can further reduce the transportation and shipping energy costs by co-locating analysis with production. After the initial purchase and the associated first purchase time costs, MC producers should expect even lower returns with better customer databases, adjustments made by the customer and MC provider, and better body scanning technologies.

I N addition to the high level of

MP apparel returns and its energy utilized, an equally large amount of energy and materials is utilized for MP products that are re-sold and re-distributed in secondary markets. In fact, according to Sander’s 1996 MP apparel retailer interviews, 42% of the product value is lost due to end of the season mark-downs and discounts on apparel that was not initially sold. Comparatively, in MC, there is no need for mark-downs and discounts as there are no extra products manufactured. In MP, when product still remains on the retail shelves even after significant markdowns, an additional distribution cycle is set in place for secondary markets such as retail outlet stores. While this can effectively recover a portion of the lost value, we see this as a large and redundant source of energy and material use. Clearly, MC has distinct advantages over MP in this stage of the product life-cycle due to more integrated customer involvement and interaction, more precise return and repair capabilities, and the absence of redundant distribution cycles.

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3.10

C

LEANING MEN’S DRESS SHIRTS

S H I R T S are made to be worn, not worshiped. This means they get dirty. However, with

proper care, a high quality dress shirt can last for several years and continue to look great. In this post, we’re going to break down three of the most popular washing methods and detail how you can keep your dress shirts, looking great for years to come. We’ll also outline how to deal with special emergencies as well as provide some other cleaning tips.

■ METHOD 1: “Wash and Press” at the Cleaners

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Wash and press is the “normal” way to clean dress shirts when you take them to the cleaners. (Don’t be too confused by this. Even though you take your shirt to the “dry-cleaners”, they are most likely doing wash and press unless you are expressly asking them to dry clean). This is our first choice. At around $1.50/shirt, this cleaning method is relatively cheap and easy and it keeps the shirts looking great. At most cleaners, here’s what the process involves:

1. They wash your shirt in a normal washing machine using water and detergent. 2. They remove most of the water from the shirt with the spin cycle in the washing machine. 3. They pull the damp shirt onto an industrial shirt press that closes over the shirt and simultaneously irons the garment while removing all of the moisture.

Pros: Convenient, (relatively) inexpensive.

Cons: Some cleaners will be too hard on the shirts. The slamming of the press over the front of the shirt can cause buttons to chip or shatter. If the shirt torso or sleeve is stretched over the press when it is steamed dry it can cause this part of the shirt to become wider in these areas. Finally, in the process of bringing the shirts from the cleaners to your closet collars will often be smashed in some way, requiring additional ironing for optimal appearance.


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■ METHOD 2: Wash the Shirt Yourself at Home If you don’t trust your dry cleaner, or if you’d just like a little more control over how your shirts are washed, you may want to wash your dress shirts at home. We really like this option, but to do so properly requires a bit of time and care on your part. Follow these steps for optimal results:

6. The shirts will be tightly crumpled in the washing machine so you’ll want to remove them promptly before these intense wrinkles will dry into the shirt. Hang the shirts up or lay them out so that they can air dry. Be careful about hanging the shirts on a sharp hanger or with tight clothespins as this can distort the fabric or leave a mark on the shirt. 7. Next you’ll want to iron the shirts. You don’t need to wait for the shirts to be completely dry to begin this step, but they should be mostly dry. Pros: Gives you the most control to treat stains, protect buttons, and iron collars carefully. Cons: Takes time and attention.

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1. Start by preparing the dress shirt. Unbutton all of the buttons, including cuff buttons and any collar buttons. Remove any collar stays if it has them and put them in a safe place. 2. Pre-treat any stains by carefully working a little detergent into them, or better yet spot-cleaning them with a stain remover pen. 3. Set up your washing machine: To minimize wear on a fine or lightweight dress shirt, use the Delicate cycle. If the shirt is made from a heavier duty fabric, or is particularly dirty you may opt for the Normal cycle. Whites and light colors can use hot water. Dark colored shirts that you don’t want to fade should be washed with cold water. Take care not to include other laundry items with bold colors that may bleed into your shirts. 4. Use a high quality detergent, like Woolite Complete, that is appropriate to the color of the shirt. Be sure not to use any detergents or cleaners that are chlorine based as these will cause discoloration to many shirt fabrics. 5. Wash the shirts in the washing machine, and then let the spin cycle wring most of the water out of the garment.


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■ METHOD 3: “Dry CLean” at the Cleaners While we don’t really recommend dry cleaning cotton dress shirts, some folks like to take their shirts to the cleaners and have them dry cleaned. While this cleaning method will certainly not damage the shirt and minimize shrinkage, it does have some downsides. The first is that it can be expensive – usually over $5/shirt. Another is that water soluble stains such as perspiration are not removed. Dry cleaning solvents contain very little to no water so perspiration based dirt can be left untouched. Washing dress shirts in water is better for removing water soluble dirt and stains from sweat. That said, if your dress shirt has an oil based stain on it you may have better luck getting it cleaned by a dry cleaner than in a washing machine. Pros: Convenient. Minimizes wear of the shirts. Removes oil-based stains.

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Cons: Won’t always remove water soluble dirt or stains. Expensive. Your shirts are at the mercy of a potentially abusive shirt cleaner.

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How to remove a stain from a white shirt?

It is recommended avoiding the dryer and letting the shirt air dry on a hanger, although (depending on the size of your house) this is not always practical. If you must put the shirt in a dryer, avoid high heat or over-drying the shirt. Use the dryer to get most of the moisture out of the shirt, and then iron the shirt immediately to remove the rest of the moisture and any wrinkles at the same time. If you dry your shirts completely in the dryer, you’ll find the shirt a bit harder to iron perfectly. One exception to this recommendation is heavy duty casual shirts. For example, if you’re washing a heavy oxford cloth or chambray shirt, the fabric is going to be hearty and will easily handle any wear from the washer and dryer so drying it in the dryer is no problem.

In the unfortunate event that you get spill some wine or spaghetti sauce on your shirt, some quick action could minimize any stains that result. 1. With a brush or comb, carefully swipe or lift away any large pieces such that you don’t smear them worse into the garment. 2. Immediately treat the stain with water or stain remover solvent. The sooner the better. If you can’t get your hands on a stain remover pen, we recommend a Tide Pen, try dishwashing detergent, lemon juice, vinegar, or seltzer water. 3. Dab solvents on the stain with a light touch. Pressure can force the stain deeper into the fibers of the garment. 4. Rinse and repeat. Should I use starch when the shirt is pressed?

Three tips to maximize dress shirt life:

1. Don’t leave dirty white shirts in the hamper for too long before washing. This can lead to premature yellowing of the collar band as any sweat and oils will have more time to set into the fabric of the shirt. 2. Always remove the collar stays from the collar before washing and ironing. If you don’t they will become warped causing the dress shirt collar points to curve awkwardly. 3. Don’t count on your cleaner to find and remove stains. If you know there’s a spot on your placket or sleeve, point it out so that they know to spot clean it. 3.10

PaperCloth: http://propercloth.com/reference/how-to-wash-a-dress-shirt/

While many people do like to have their shirts starched, our suggestion is to avoid starch completely. While starch can help a broadcloth or oxford shirt appear more crisp it can also cause shirts to wear out prematurely. When the starch material gets embedded in the shirt fibers it acts like a million little knives that break down the fibers over time.

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Is it okay to dry shirts in the dryer?


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3.10.1 W HA T IS D RY C L E A N IN G?

D R Y cleaning is a cleansing process that uses a solvent called perchlorethylene or DF2000 to clean clothing. The perc (as it’s called in the industry) is run through the garment and then extracted along with dislodged oils, food, dust, and other unwanted dirt particles. Since soap & water are not used in the process, it’s called “dry” cleaning. The dry cleaning process starts when you drop your clothing off; first it’s tagged and then sorted by whether it needs to be dry cleaned, laundered, pressed, or altered. At this point the clothing is often moved to another location; in fact, it’s not uncommon for all the dry cleaners in an area to use the same contractor or be owned by a few companies. This is why many cannot offer same day service or when “they” lose a garment you’re out of luck because the garment is lost in a much larger system than just the facility you dropped it off at. 3.10.1

Art Of Man Liness: http://www.artofmanli-

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ness.com/2009/11/05/dry_cleaning_guide

Also, despite two cleaners charging different prices for the same service, if they use the same master cleaning facility, you are receiving no added benefit despite paying more. Back to the process – after the dropoff stains are pre-treated (note – it’s very important you point out stains and label what the stain is so that it is treated properly) and the clothing is loaded into large machines where they sit in baskets and rotate in perchlorethylene – the perc is then drained using centrifugal force (shirts and other cotton garments are more often simply laundered with water and soap – it’s less expensive and does the job without damaging the fabric). A good cleaning facility will then inspect clothing for any remaining soiled spots and post-treat if necessary. Next the clothing is lightly steamed, pressed, and ironed where applicable. Finally, garments are sorted out, shipped if necessary, and then stored for pick-up.

3.10.2 DRY CLEANI NG EFFECTS O N THE ENVI RO NMENT

D R Y cleaning is the use of solvents instead of water to clean fabrics. It is believed to have originated in France in 1828 when a factory worker spilled lamp oil, a flammable petroleum-based solvent, on a soiled tablecloth. When the tablecloth dried, the spots had disappeared. The original solvents used in the dry cleaning industry included turpentine, kerosene, benzene, and gasoline. These are extremely flammable, often resulting in fires and explosions. Around 1900, scientists developed chlorinated hydrocarbons, which are nonflammable solvents. Initially, carbon tetra chloride was the preferred solvent, but because of its toxicity, it was eventually replaced by tetrachloroethylene, also known as perchloroethylene (PERC).


PERC is a colorless, clear, heavy liquid used by 90 percent of dry cleaners in the United States. Because of its significant adverse health effects, the government has imposed regulations for the control of PERC exposures and emissions. In addition to PERC, other compounds are used in dry cleaning, particularly during removal of stains. These include other chlorinated solvents, petroleum naptha, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, ammonia, and mineral spirits.

PERC enters the human body through both inhalation and skin exposure. Symptoms associated with overexposure include central nervous system depression, damage to liver and kidneys, and irritation of the respiratory system and skin. Those exposed may experience confusion, impaired memory, dizziness, headache, drowsiness, and eye, nose, and throat irritation. Repeated skin exposure often results in dermatitis. PERC is a known animal carcinogen and a suspected human carcinogen. The other solvents used in dry cleaning may also cause central nervous system depression and irritation of the mucous membranes, nasal passages, and skin. The dry cleaning process begins when soiled garments are brought

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to dry cleaning stores. Garments with visible stains are treated at spotting stations. Spotting chemicals, contained in squeeze bottles, are applied to the stain. The next step in the process involves washing, extracting, and drying. Clothes are manually loaded into washing machines. Detergent and solvents are poured over the garments. Water is also added to the system to aid in the removal of water-soluble soils. The contents of the machine are agitated, allowing the solution to remove the soils. Next, the clothes are spun at high speed to extract solvents. After extraction, the fabric is spun dry. Warm air vaporizes the residual solvent and unheated air is passed through to reduce wrinkles. Fresh air is added to freshen and deodorize clothing. Garments are removed and placed on the pressing machine, where they are heated to temperatures around 150°C (300°F). There are many steps during the dry cleaning process in which PERC and other solvents have the potential to become airborne. Filtration and distillation are the main methods used to recover solvents. Distillation removes soluble oils and greases not recovered by filtration. These processes convert PERC into a solid form that then renders it disposable as hazardous waste. The govern-

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ment regulates dry cleaning stores to levels of less than one hundred parts per million (ppm), but encourages them to operate at levels below twenty-five ppm. The main danger outside a dry cleaning store is to residences in the same building. Inexpensive technology, such as exhaust fans, can safely remove these potentially dangerous substances. Despite such measures, residents who live in buildings housing dry cleaning establishments, as well as workers, may be exposed to concentrations of PERC that are of public health concern. The potential continues to exist for environmental contamination of water and soil due to improper disposal of PERC. In Katonah, New York, well water was polluted because PERC was poured down the drain in dry cleaning establishments. Proper disposal and collection of this material as a hazardous substance should be performed in order to minimize the environmental impact. 3.10.2

Pollution Issues: http://www.pollutionissues.com/Co-Ea/Dry-Cleaning.html

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T] [ // PREP S ER N TESS E CET N ION


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4 COTTON Definition

C O T T O N is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that

cotton fabric dated from 5000 BC have been excavated in

cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the family of Mal-

(modern-day Pakistan and some parts of India). Although

grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of vaceae. The fibre is almost pure cellulose. Under natural

conditions, the cotton bolls will tend to increase the dispersal of the seeds.

The plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical re-

Mexico and the Indus Valley Civilization in Ancient India cultivated since antiquity, it was the invention of the cot-

ton gin that lowered the cost of production that led to its

widespread use, and it is the most widely used natural fiber cloth in clothing today.

gions around the world, including the Americas, Africa,

Current estimates for world production are about 25 mil-

is found in Mexico, followed by Australia and Africa. Cot-

2.5% of the world’s arable land. China is the world’s larg-

and India. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species ton was independently domesticated in the Old and New Worlds.

The fiber is most often spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. The use of cotton for fabric is known to date to prehistoric times; fragments of

lion tonnes or 110 million bales annually, accounting for est producer of cotton, but most of this is used domesti-

cally. The United States has been the largest exporter for many years. In the United States, cotton is usually mea-

sured in bales, which measure approximately 0.48 cubic

metres (17 cubic feet) and weigh 226.8 kilograms (500 pounds). 4

What is Cotton? : http://www.peruvianfashions.com/category/cotton


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4.1 H

ISTORY OF COTTON

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N O

O N E knows

exactly how old cotton is. Scientists searching caves in Mexico found bits of cotton bolls and pieces of cotton cloth that proved to be at least 7,000 years old. They also found that the cotton itself was much like that grown in America today. In the Indus River Valley in Pakistan, cotton was being grown, spun and woven into cloth 3,000 years BC. At about the same time, natives of Egypt’s Nile valley were making and wearing cotton clothing. Arab merchants brought cotton cloth to Europe about 800 A.D. When Columbus discovered America in 1492, he found cotton growing in the Bahama

Islands. By 1500, cotton was known generally throughout the world. Cotton seed are believed to have been planted in Florida in 1556 and in Virginia in 1607. By 1616, colonists were growing cotton along the James River in Virginia. Cotton was first spun by machinery in England in 1730. The industrial revolution in England and the invention of the cotton gin in the U.S. paved the way for the important place cotton holds in the world today. Eli Whitney, a native of Massachusetts, secured a patent on the cotton gin in 1793, though patent office records indicate that the first cotton gin may have been built by a machinist named

Noah Homes two years before Whitney’s patent was filed. The gin, short for engine, could do the work 10 times faster than by hand. The gin made it possible to supply large quantities of cotton fiber to the fastgrowing textile industry. Within 10 years, the value of the U.S. cotton crop rose from $150,000 to more than $8 million. 4.1

History of Cotton: https://www. cotton.org/pubs/cottoncounts/ story


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4.2 T

HE IMPORTANCE OF COTTON T O D A Y , the world

uses more cotton than any other fiber, and cotton is a leading cash crop in the U.S. At the farm level alone, the production of each year’s crop involves the purchase of more than $5.3 billion worth of supplies and services. This stimulates business activities for factories and enterprises throughout the country. Processing and handling of cotton after it leaves the farm generates even more business activity. Annual business revenue stimulated by cotton in the U.S. economy exceeds $120 billion, making cotton America’s number one value-added crop. Cotton is a part of our daily lives from the time we dry our faces on a soft cotton towel in the morning until we slide between fresh cotton sheets at night. It has hundreds of uses, from blue jeans to shoe strings. Clothing and household items are the largest uses, but industrial products account from many thousands of bales. All parts of the cotton plant are useful.

The most important is the fiber or lint, which is used in making cotton cloth. Linters – the short fuzz on the seed – provide cellulose for making plastics, explosives and other products. Linters also are incorporated into high quality paper products and processed into batting for padding mattresses, furniture and automobile cushions. The cottonseed is crushed in order to separate its three products – oil, meal and hulls. Cottonseed oil is used primarily for shortening, cooking oil and salad dressing. The meal and hulls that remain are used either separately or in combination as livestock, poultry and fish feed and as fertilizer. The stalks and leaves of the cotton plant are plowed under to enrich the soil. Some cottonseed also is used as high-protein concentrate in baked goods and other food products. 4.2

The Importance of Cotton: https://www.cotton.org/pubs/cottoncounts/story/importance.cfm

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4.3 T

HE plant T H E R E are several species of “wild

cotton” ( cotton that grows uncultivated ) in the world. They have been found in Australia, Africa, Arizona, Central America, Lower California, Brazil, Mexico and other tropical countries and islands. Because of problems related to their refinement, they are not economically feasible to use. Through genetic assistance and breeding, today’s cottons have evolved from these “wild” sources and are more processing friendly.

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Currently, there are five prominent types of cotton being grown commercially around the world.

They are Egyptian, Sea Island, American Pima, Asiatic and Upland. Because of their need for a long, sunny growing period with at least 160 frost free days they are grown between latitudes 45 degrees north and 30 degrees south. The major producing countries within this region are the United States, Peoples Republic of China, India, Pakistan and Republic of Uzbekistan. Also, Brazil, Australia, Egypt, Argentina, Turkey, Greece, Syria and others produce significant, but lesser amount.


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In the U.S. there are fourteen major cotton growing states that produce Upland cotton. They are Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia. Some cotton is also grown in Florida, Kansas and New Mexico. American Pima cotton is grown in Arizona, California, New Mexico and Texas. All of these states form a region in the United States known as the Cotton Belt and have three things in common, lots of sunshine, water and fertile soil, very important to growing a good cotton crop.

4.3

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Cotton Belt, the term called for the 14 major cotton growing states that produce upland cotton: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia — they all have 3 things in common: lots of sunshine, water, and fertile soil.

com/storyofcotton/page3.asp

Upland cotton being the most common type in the U.S. has a staple length (length of fiber) of 13/16 to 1 ¼ inches. The American Pima has a staple length of 1 5/16 to 1 ½ inches. These plant types grow and mature at different rates and lengths of time, but basically mature within a 30 day period of each other. //// / // // // // // /

The Plant: http://www.cottonsjourney.


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to true leaves (leaves produced subsequent to the cotyledons) which continue the feeding process for the duration of the plants life. The plant continues to grow, adding leaves and height, and in approximately five to seven weeks, small flower buds called squares (a small flower bud covered with fringed leaf-like parts called ‘bracts’) will appear on the cotton plant. As this square develops, the bud swells and begins to push through the bracts until it opens into an attractive flower. Within three days, the flower will pollinate (the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of the same or another flower) itself, change from a creamy white or yellow color

Cotton plants have a general time frame in which they grow and produce after planting (introducing the seed to moist soil). With ideal conditions, the planted cotton seed will germinate (to begin to grow) or sprout and emerge in about five to ten days. The first 2 leaves that are visible on the young cotton plant are seedling leaves called cotyledons (cot-a-lee-dons). They are useful for absorbing sunlight into the plant. The sunlight is then converted through a process known as photosynthesis, into nourishing carbohydrates that will help the plant grow. In about two to four weeks they turn over the photosynthetic task PLANT SEED

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BLOSSOM

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to a pinkish red, and then wither and fall, exposing a small, green, immature cotton boll (a segmented pod containing 32 immature seeds from which the cotton fibers will grow). This boll is considered a fruit because it contains seeds. As the fibers continue to grow and thicken within the segmented boll, it enlarges until it becomes approximately the size of a small fig. Now, the cotton fibers have become mature and thickened with their primary growth substance, cellulose (a carbohydrate, the chief component of the cell wall in most plants). An average boll will contain nearly 500,000 fibers of cotton and each plant may bear up to 100 bolls.

BOLL

8 - 10 weeks

20 weeks

Carpel Locks

Bur Bracts

SEEDLING 1 week

SQUARE BUD 5 -7 weeks

In about 140 days after planting or 45 days after bolls appear, the cotton boll will begin to naturally split open along the bolls segments or carpels and dry out, exposing the underlying cotton segments called locks. These dried carpels are known as the bur,

BOLL OPENS

HARVEST

18 - 20 weeks

25 weeks

and it’s the bur that will hold the locks of cotton in place when fully dried and fluffed, ready for picking.

The growth cycle of the various cotton species vary in length, but the sequence of fruit production remain

the same. Weather, insects and moisture can adversely affect optimum conditions for plant growth and it is the farmer’s responsibility to adjust to these conditions to optimize yield.


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4.4

P

RODUCTION B E F O R E cotton can be processed into

many products it becomes, it must be planted, irrigated, nurtured with fertilizer, protected from unwanted weeds, grasses and insects and harvested. This usually means loosening the soil to the depth of 1 to 2 ½ feet with tillage equipment. This will allow water and cotton roots to penetrate the soil and support the plant. A seedbed (the row in which the cotton seed will be planted) is prepared by listing (forming land into ridges and furrow) the soil. This allows for faster warming of the soil in the spring and directs irrigation water across the field. Small amounts of soil enriching nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, may be added to the soil at this time.

Planting may be done by hand, but in the more advanced regions of the world, mechanical planters are used. When the soil reaches optimum temperature, about 65 degrees, these implements will place the seeds in the soil, usually 1 to 2 inches deep, depending on soil type. The mechanical planters can cover as many as 12 rows at a time.

In some cotton production regions, where soil erosion is a problem, conservation tillage is used. In this system, crop residue from the previous crop or a cover crop is left on the soil surface to protect the soil from heavy rains and winds. A special planter is used to open the soil and place the seed without disturbing the protective cover.

Seedbed or Seedling Bed is the local soil environment in which cotton seeds are planted. Often it comprises not only the soil but also a specially prepared cold frame, hotbed or raised bed used to grow the seedlings in a controlled environment into larger young plants before transplanting them into a garden or field.


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As the plants demand it, when available, additional water is delivered to the fields. Sometimes only from natural rainfall, called rainfeed farming, or through irrigation (water application through artificial means), called irrigated farming. This can be accomplished in 3 different ways: 1) furrow irrigation takes place by simply running water down a seedbed furrow; 2) sprinkler irrigation is much like lawn sprinklers where pressurized water is sprayed out over an area; and 3) drip tape irrigation, this is a relatively new method of irrigation using buried tubing that releases water into the soil beneath the plant.

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Sprinkler Irrigation, a method of applying irrigation water which is similar to natural rainfall. Water is distributed through a system of pipes usually by pumping. It is then sprayed into the air through sprinklers so that it breaks up into small water drops which fall to the ground.

Furrow Irrigation, conducted by creating small parallel channels along the field length

Drip Irrigation, defined as any watering

in the direction of predominant slope. Water

system that delivers a slow moving supply of

is applied to the top end of each furrow and

water at a gradual rate directly to the soil. It

flows down the field under the influence of

is also sometimes referred to as micro-irriga-

gravity. Water may be supplied using gated

tion or trickle irrigation, consists of a network

pipe, siphon and head ditch or bankless

of pipes, tubing valves, and emitters.

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Most of today’s commercial cotton farms use a combination of weed control methods such as cultivation which is done mechanically by machines called cultivators, hand rogueing or weed removal by people with the use of weed hoes and the application of chemical herbicides (chemicals used to control weeds). Chemical herbicides can be applied before or after the cotton is planted. Once the cotton plant has emerged, cultivation and hand rogueing must be done very carefully in order to kill the weeds but not harm the growing cotton plant. If the weeds were allowed to grow, they would compete for nutrients in the soil that are necessary for a healthy and productive cotton plant. When the cotton plant is in its seedling stage, it is very susceptible to soil borne fungal disease. There are

several diseases that can stunt the growth of the plant, cause leaves to fall off, attack the roots and make the plant wither and die. If the effects of disease don’t kill the plant, low yields and a poor quality cotton will result. Development of disease resistant cotton seed has become a priority in the industry. Cotton varieties resistant to some fungi and other destructive organisms have been developed and are being used in certain areas. There is still more research to be done before fungal disease is no longer a factor in producing cotton.

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small quantities for optimum plant growth) also. These include copper, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, boron, chlorine and cobalt. Starter fertilizer is usually added to the soil before the seed is planted to provide nutrients to feed a healthy seedling. As the cotton plant grows, its nutrient requirement is monitored and any additions needed are applied.

4.4

Cottons Journey: http://www.

cottonsjourney.com/storyofcotton/ page3.asp

The plant’s food, or nutrients, are referred to in agriculture as fertilizer. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, calcium and magnesium are the primary fertilizer elements (macronutrients) but there are several trace elements (micronutrients required in

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Aphid

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Insect pests have plagued the cotton growing industry over the years and they are a source of constant concern to growers. Insects such as aphid, mite, bollworms, boll weevil, lygus, thrip, whitefly, and pink bollworms cause serious destruction to the cotton plants’ squares, bolls, leaves, and fiber resulting in a monetary loss to the cotton grower. The pink bollworm is responsible for the most cotton damage and has been found in all of the cotton producing countries, including the United States. The spread of this pest is being held in check by plowing cotton stalks under more than 6

Mite

inches deep immediately after harvest to remove over-wintering habitat. There are also beneficial insects or predator insects that feed on various insect pests. Most growers use the services of a crop consultant to monitor their fields for insect pest populations and advise them on treatment. If the insect pest population increases to a level that may severely affect the field’s production potential, the grower may then be advised to use an insecticide (a chemical product used to suppress or eliminate an insect pest). These products may be applied by a ground application vehicle specially designed

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Bollworm

to avoid damaging the cotton plants. Airplanes and/or helicopters are used for air applications, flown low over the field by trained pilots to deliver their load.

Boll Weevil

Lygus

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A method of insect pest control being practiced on a limited basis is called integrated pest management (I.P.M.). This method coordinates the use of insecticides and the dispersal of beneficial insects purchased to aid in suppressing unwanted insects. Research is being done to find insects to control a wider spectrum of insect pests, a limiting factor of effectiveness in today’s I.P.M. practices. Pest management in cotton production today contributes a substantial share of the costs involved in raising a crop. The cotton farmer is reluctant to treat weed and insect pests unless absolutely necessary to protect crop yield potential. The correct decisions and timing of both irrigations and pest control measures is an ally to a grower’s success as

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he/she guides their crop to maturity. When enough bolls have opened naturally, harvest aids are applied to the plant to help speed up the maturation process. This, also, is done either by ground or air application. Defoliation helps the leaves to dry and fall off and to help any of the remaining unopened cotton bolls to open. This practice enables the grower to hasten the opening of the cotton bolls which can then be gathered quickly, in a short period of time. It is essential that the crop is harvested before weather and rain can damage or ruin its quality and reduce yield. Frost also causes the plant to shed its leaves naturally and assists in splitting bolls, but may occur too late in the season to benefit harvest. Now the cotton crop is ready to be harvested.

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Thrip

Whitefly

Pink Bollworm

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For centuries cotton has been picked by hand. Hand picking is done in the less progressive cotton growing regions of the world. It is very inefficient and no longer practiced in modernized countries.

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As the mechanical cotton picker moves through the field, the cotton plants are guided through the picker head (a unit that contains the picking components). The seed cotton, or locks, in the bur encounter revolving barbed spindles attached to a picking bar (a vertical bar that contains 18 to 20 spindles) attached to a rotating drum. The locks are grabbed by the barbed spindle and pulled from its bur. The rotating drum then moves the picking bar toward the doffer. A doffer is a series of curricular, rubber lined pads, stacked 18 to 20 high, that remove cotton from the spindle. The seed cotton and spindles pass through the doffer where the cotton is removed or doffed from the spindle to fall to the picker door (a side component of the picker with channeling to facilitate the movement of cotton). An air vacuum created by a fan then sucks the cotton away from the door and blows it into the basket. The spindle now continues on its rotation passing through the moistener pads (small finned pads stacked 18 to 20 high, which add water and/ or moistening agent to the spindles) where they are lubricated to assist in cleaning them. This sequence repeats itself continually while the cotton is being picked. Spindle type cotton pickers harvest most of the cotton grown in the United States.

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In some areas of the Cotton Belt, brush strippers are used to harvest seed cotton. These machines remove bolls and burs from the plant with rotating brushes and bats. Material is fed into a field cleaner where much of the burs and sticks are removed and blown into a large basket. They are used primarily in dryland farming cotton areas in Texas where the cotton plant varieties are more compact in stature. Small plant size is important when using a stripper because they tend to accumulate more trash (leaves, bolls, stems and branches) in their harvested product.

Mechanical Cotton Picker, a machine that automates cotton harvesting in a way that reduces harvest time and maximizes efficiency.


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Today’s modern cotton harvesters can cover up to 6 to 8 rows at a time and can harvest up to 190,000 pounds of seed cotton a day. These new cotton harvesters are a major improvement over the hand methods of the past.

Prior to the development of the module builder, most cotton picked by machines was dumped into cotton trailers and hauled to a cotton gin (a place where seed and fiber are mechanically separated). This system became inefficient when the trailers were filled faster than the gin could process the cotton and the cotton pickers had to cease harvesting while waiting for trailers to empty. This challenge was met with the invention of the module builder in 1972. This implement allows cotton to be dumped from the picker onto the ground and be compressed hydraulically to form a module (tightly pressed stack) of cotton. Each module holds 12-14 bales. This module can be left in the field for storage and later be hauled directly to the gin or transported by a module mover to the gin’s storage yard. The use of these builders allow the pickers to continue harvesting, unimpeded by ginning problems or delays.

Cotton Trailers were the primary method of moving harvested cotton from the field to the cotton gin. Until the mid-1940s, cotton was primarily hand harvested and there was a limited effect of trailer capacity on timeliness of harvesting. The advent of mechanical harvesting significantly increased the harvesting capacity and made trailers the limiting factor in the harvesting-ginning system.

Cotton Module Builder, a machine used in the harvest and processing of cotton. The module builder has helped to solve a logistical bottleneck by allowing Cotton Gin, a machine that quickly and easily sepa-

cotton to be harvested quickly and compressed into

rates cotton fibers from their seeds, allowing for much

large modules which are then covered and temporarily

greater productivity than manual cotton separation.

stored at the edge of the field. The modules are later

The fibers are processed into clothing or other cotton

loaded onto trucks and transported to a cotton gin for

goods, and any undamaged cotton was used for

processing.

produce cottonseed oil and meal.

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clothes. Seeds may be used to grow more cotton or to


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4.5 P

rocessing the crop T H E cotton gin is where cotton fiber is separated from the cotton seed. The first step in the ginning process is when the cotton is vacuumed into tubes that carry it to a dryer to reduce moisture and improve the fiber quality. Then it runs through cleaning equipment to remove leaf trash, sticks and other foreign matter.

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Ginning is accomplished by one of two methods. Cotton varieties with shorter staple or fiber length are ginned with saw gins. This process involves the use of circular saws that grip the fibers and pull them through narrow slots. The seeds are too large to pass through these openings, resulting in the fibers being pulled away from the seed. Long fiber cottons must be ginned in a roller gin because saw gins can damage their delicate fibers. The roller gin was invented in India centuries ago and this concept is still used in modern gins. Long staple cottons, like Pima, separate from the seed more easily than Upland varieties. A roller gin uses a rough roller to grab the fiber and pull it under a rotating bar with gaps too small for the seed to pass. The raw fiber, now called lint, makes its way through another series of pipes to a press where it is compressed into bales (lint packaged for market), banded with eight steel straps, sampled for classing, wrapped for protection then loaded onto trucks for shipment to storage yards, textile mills and foreign countries. The cotton industry has

adopted a standard for a bale of cotton: 55 inches tall, 28 inches wide, and 21 inches thick, weighing approximately 500 pounds. A bale meeting these requirements is called a universal density bale. This is enough cotton to make 325 pairs of denim jeans.

Every bale of cotton is classed from a sample taken after its formation. The classing of cotton lint is the process of measuring fiber characteristics against a set of standards (grades). Classing is done by experts, called classers, who use scientific instruments to judge the samples of lint. All standards are established by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Once the quality of the cotton bale is determined, pricing parameters are set and the lint may be taken to market. Cotton marketing is the selling and buying of cotton lint. Cotton is priced in cents per pound when sold and the price is negotiated according to the cotton’s quality. After baling, the cotton lint is hauled to either storage yards, textile mills, or shipped to foreign countries. The cotton seed is delivered to a seed storage area. Where it will remain until it is loaded into trucks and transported to a cottonseed oil mill or directly for livestock feed.

4.5

Cotton’s Journey : http://www.cottonsjourney.com/ storyofcotton/page5.asp


// P R E S E N T

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4.6 A T

T H E textile mill, the bales are opened by machines, and the lint is mixed and cleaned

further by blowing and beating. The short lint that comes out usually is separated and sold for use in other industries. The best part of the lint consists of fibers about 1 inch to 1 ž inches long. The mixed and fluffed-up cotton goes into a carding machine which cleans the fibers some more and makes them lie side by side. The combing action of the carding machine finishes the job of cleaning and straightening the fibers, and makes them into a soft, untwisted rope called a sliver (pronounced sly-ver).

Carding Machine, a machine for carding wool,

Cotton Sliver, a strand, or slender roll, of cot-

cotton, or other fiber consisting of cylinders

ton or in a loose, untwisted state, produced by

having intermeshing wire teeth and revolving

a carding machine and ready for the roving or

at different speeds or in opposite directions.

slubbing which preceeds spinning.

//// / // // // // // /

H

OW COTTON IS sPUN AND WOVEN


// P R E S E N T

// S Y S T E M O F S H I R T

Looms, used for making fabric by weaving yarn or thread. A loom is a device used to weave cloth. The basic purpose of any loom is to hold the warp threads under tension to facilitate the interweaving of the weft threads.

On modern spinning frames, yarn is mare directly from the sliver. The spinning devices take fibers from the sliver and rotate it up to 2,500 revolutions in a second twist that makes fibers into a yarn for weaving or knitting into fabrics. Machines called looms weave cotton yarns into fabrics the same way the first handweaving frames did. Modern looms work at great speeds, interlacing the length-wise yarns (warp) and the crosswise yarns (filling). The woven fabric, called gray goods, is sent to a finishing plant where it is bleached, pre-shrunk, dyed, printed and given a special finish before being made into clothing or products for the home. Other machines make knits for use in shirts, sweaters or blankets.

4.6 Cotton Counts : https://www.cotton.org/pubs/cottoncounts/story/spun-and-woven.cfm

Gray Goods, a fabric in the condition in which it leaves the loom or knitting machine, before any bleaching, dyeing or finishing treatment has been given to it.

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// P R E S E N T

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4.7 A F T E R the lint is baled at the gin,

samples taken from each bale are classed according to fiber strength, length, length uniformity, color, non-fiber content and fineness using high volume instrumentation (HVI) and the aid of an expert called a Classer. Scientific quality control checks are made periodically to ensure that instrument and classer accuracy is maintained. Cotton of a given variety produces fibers of approximately the same length. Since the fibers may vary within a bale, length uniformity allows a determination of the variability within that bale. Other quality factors also are important. The fiber’s fineness is important for determining the type of yarns that can be made from the fiber—the finer the cotton fibers, the finer the yarns. Color or brightness of the fibers also is important. Cotton that is very white generally is of higher value

than cottons whose color may have yellowed with exposure to elements before harvesting. Cotton, being a biological product, typically contains particles of cotton leaves called trash. The amount of trash also influences the cotton’s value since the textile mill must remove trash before processing. The fiber’s strength also is an important measurement that ultimately influences the fabrics made from these fibers. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) establishes classing standards in cooperation with the entire cotton industry.

4.7

Cotton Counts : https://www.cotton.org/pubs/ cottoncounts/fieldtofabric/classing.cfm

//// / // // // // // /

C

LASsING


// P R E S E N T

// S Y S T E M O F S H I R T

// P A G E

4.8 C

otton sEED C O T T O N actually is two crops:

fiber and seed. About one-third of the cottonseed produced from a typical crop is crushed for oil and meal used in food products and in livestock and poultry feed. For each 100 pounds of fiber produced by the cotton plant, it also produces about 162 pounds of cottonseed. Approximately 5 percent of the total seed crop is reserved for planting; the remainder is used for feeding as whole seeds or as raw material for the cottonseed processing industry. After being separated from the lint at the gin, the cotton’s seed is transported to a cottonseed crushing mill. There it is cleaned and conveyed to delinting machines which, operating on the same principle as a gin, remove the remaining short fibers which are known as linters. The linters go through additional processing steps before being made into a wide variety of products ranging

from mattress stuffing to photographic film. After the linters are removed, the seed is put through a machine that employs a series of knives to loosen the hulls from the kernel. The seeds are then passed through shakers and beaters. The separated hulls are marketed for livestock feed or industrial products, and the kernels are ready for the extraction of oil, the seed’s most valuable by-product. Solvent extraction or presses remove the oil. After further processing, the oil is used in cooking or salad oil, shortening and margarine. Limited quantities also go into soaps, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, textile finishes and other products. The remaining meat of the kernel is converted into meal, the second most valuable by-product. High in protein, it is used in feed for all classes of livestock and poultry. Cottonseed meal makes an excellent natural fertilizer for lawns, flower beds and gardens. 4.8 / 4.9

Cotton Counts : https://www.cotton.org/pubs/cottoncounts/fieldtofabric/cottonseed.cfm

Cotton Incorporated : http://www.cottoninc.com/fiber/

//// / // // // // // /

quality/US-Fiber-Chart/US-Cotton-Standards

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4.9 Color Grade

Symbols

Color Grade

Leaf Grade

White

Color Grade

Symbols

Color Grade

Spotted

Good Middling

GM

11

1

Good Middling

GM Sp

13

Strict Middling

SM

21

2

Strict Middling

SM Sp

23

Middling

Mid

31

3

Middling

Mid Sp

33

Strict Low Middling

SLM

41

4

Strict Low Middling

SLM Sp

43

LM

51

5

Low Middling

LM Sp

53

SGO

61

6

Strict Good Ordinary

SGO Sp

63

GO

71

7

Strict Middling

SM Tg

24

Low Middling Strict Good Ordinary Good Ordinary

Tinged LIght Spotted Good Middling

GM Lt Sp

12

Middling

Mid Tg

34

Strict Middling

SM Lt Sp

22

Strict Low Middling

SLM Tg

44

Middling

Mid Lt Sp

32

Low Middling

LM Tg

54

Strict Low Middling

SLM Lt Sp

42

LM Lt Sp

52

Yellow Stained

SGO Lt Sp

62

Strict Low Middling

SM YS

25

Low Middling Strict Good Ordinary

//// / // // // // // /

G

RADES OF U.S. COTTON


// P R E S E N T

// S Y S T E M O F S H I R T

// P A G E

4.10 Y

ARN production

//// / // // // // // /

M O D E R N I Z A T I O N efforts have brought major changes to the U.S. textile industry. Equipment has been streamlined and many operations have been fully automated with computers. Machine speeds have greatly increased. At most mills the opening of cotton bales is fully automated. Lint from several bales is mixed and blended together to provide a uniform blend of fiber properties. To ensure that the new high-speed automated feeding equipment performs at peak efficiency and that fiber properties are consistent, computers group the bales for production/feeding according to fiber properties. The blended lint is blown by air from the feeder through chutes to cleaning and carding machines that separate and align the fibers into a thin web. Carding machines can process cotton in excess of 100 pounds per hour. The web of fibers at the front of the card is then drawn through a funnel-shaped device called a trumpet, providing a soft, rope-like strand called a sliver (pronounced SLY-ver). As many as eight strands of sliver are blended together in the drawing process. Drawing speeds have increased tremendously over the past few years and now can exceed 1,500 feet per minute. Roving frames draw or draft the

slivers out even more thinly and add a gentle twist as the first step in ring spinning of yarn. Ring spinning machines further draw the roving and add twist making it tighter and thinner until it reaches the yarn thickness or “count� needed for weaving or knitting fabric. The yarns can be twisted many times per inch. Ring spinning frames continue to play a role in this country, but openend spinning, with rotors that can spin five to six times as fast as a ring spinning machine, are becoming more widespread. In open-end spinning, yarn is produced directly from sliver. The roving process is eliminated. Other spinning systems have also eliminated the need for roving, as well as addressing the key limitation of both ring and openend spinning, which is mechanical twisting. These systems, air jet and Vortex, use compressed air currents to stabilize the yarn. By removing the mechanical twisting methods, air jet and Vortex are faster and more productive than any other short-staple spinning system. After spinning, the yarns are tightly wound around bobbins or tubes and are ready for fabric forming. Ply yarns are two or more single yarns twisted together. Cord is plied yarn twisted together. 4.10

Cotton Counts : https://www.cotton.org/pubs/cottoncounts/fieldtofabric/yarn.cfm

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4.11 C O T T O N fabric manufacturing starts with the preparation of the yarn for weaving

or knitting. Annually, textile mills in the U.S. normally produce about eight billion square yards each of woven and three billion square yards of knitted cotton goods.

4.11.1

WOVE N FA B RIC S

W E A V I N G

is the oldest method of making yarn into fabric. While modern methods are more complex and much faster, the basic principle of interlacing yarns remains unchanged. On the loom, lengthwise yarns called the warp form the skeleton of the fabric. They usually require a higher degree of twist than the filling yarns that are interlaced widthwise. Traditionally, cloth was woven by a wooden shuttle that moved horizontally back and forth across the loom, interlacing the filling yarn with the hor-

izontally, lengthwise warp yarn. Modern mills use highspeed shuttleless weaving machines that perform at incredible rates and produce an endless variety of fabrics. Some carry the filling yarns across the loom at rates in excess of 2,000 meters per minute. The rapier-type weaving machines have metal arms or rapiers that pick up the filling thread and carry it halfway across the loom where another rapier picks it up and pulls it the rest of the way. Other types employ small projectiles that pick up the

filling thread and carry it all the way across the loom. Still other types employ compressed air to insert the filling yarn across the warp. In addition to speed and versatility, another advantage of these modern weaving machines is their relatively quiet operation.

4.11 / 4.11.1

Cotton Counts : https://www.

cotton.org/pubs/cottoncounts/ fieldtofabric/fabric.cfm

Cotton Counts : https://www.

cotton.org/pubs/cottoncounts/ fieldtofabric/fabric.cfm

//// / // // // // // /

F

ABRIC MANUFACTURING


// P R E S E N T

// S Y S T E M O F S H I R T

// P A G E

WEFT Yarn going across the width of the fabric

SELVEDGE the non-fraying edge

WARP

on the side of the fabric

Yarn going down the

where the wefts are

length of the loom

There are three basic weaves with numerous variations, and cotton can be used in all of them.

The plain weave, in which the filling is alternately passed over one warp yarn and under the next, is used for gingham, percales, chambray, batistes and many other fabrics.

//// / // // // /

The twill weave, in which the yarns are interlaced to form diagonal ridges across the fabric, is used for sturdy fabrics like denim, gabardine, herringbone and ticking.

double-backed

The satin weave, the least common of the three, produces a smooth fabric with high sheen. Used for cotton sateen, it is produced with fewer yarn interlacings and with either the warp or filling yarns dominating the “face� of the cloth. In some plants, optical scanners continuously monitor fabric production looking for flaws as the cloth emerges from the weave machine. When imperfections appear, computers immediately print out the location of the flaw so that it can be removed later during fabric inspection.

Plain Weave

Twill Weave

Satin Weave

85


4.11.2 K nitted fabrics

K N I T T I N G

is a method of constructing fabric by using a series of needles to interlock loops of yarn. Lengthwise rows of these loops, comparable to the warp yarn in woven goods, are called wales. Crosswise rows, comparable to filling yarns, are known as courses. There are numerous similarities in knitting done by hand and machine, but there are also some marked differences. Most cotton is knit on circular machines which have needles fixed to the rim of a rotating cylinder. As the cylinder turns, the needles work their way from stitch to stitch producing a tubular fabric. Its width is regulated by the size of the cylinder, which usually ranges from 9 to 60 inches in diameter. A hand knitter uses two needles forming one stitch at a time. Depending on the width of fabric desired, a modern knitting machine might use over 2,500 needles.

// S Y S T E M O F S H I R T

Instead of a single cone of yarn, a knitting machine may have up to four cones per inch of fabric width. For example, a machine with a 32inch cylinder can have over 2,700 needles and 128 cones of yarn feeding simultaneously. These are typical statistics for a machine used in making underwear knits, but figures vary according to the type of machine used and the fabrics produced. The flat knitting machine is another basic type. Designed with a flat bed, it has dozens of needles arranged in a straight line and produces a knit fabric that is flat, similar to woven fabric. A flat knitting machine makes over one million stitches a minute, and can be set to drop or add stitches automatically in order to narrow or widen the fabric at certain points to conform to specific shapes. Knitting machines can be programmed to produce a wide variety of fabrics and shapes. There are two types of knitted fabrics: weft-knitted and warp-knitted. Weft-knitted fabric, is made by looping together long lengths of yarn. It can be made by hand or machine. The yarn runs in rows across the fabric. If a stitch is dropped it will ladder down the length of the fabric. The fabric is stretchy and comfortable and is used for socks, T-shirts and jumpers. In warp-knitted fabric, the loops interlock ver-

// P A G E

86

tically along the length of the fabric. Warp knits are slightly stretchy and do not ladder. Warp-knitted fabric is made by machine. It is used for swimwear, underwear and geotextiles.

4.11.2 KNITTED FABRICS : https://www.cotton.

org/pubs/cottoncounts/fieldtofabric/fabric. cfm

//// / // //

// P R E S E N T


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4.12 F

ABRICs C O T T O N fabrics, as they come

from the loom in their rough, unfinished stages, are known as greige goods. Most undergo various finishing processes to meet specific end-use requirements. Some mills, in addition to spinning and weaving, also dye or print their fabrics and finish them. Others sell greige goods to converters who have the cloth finished in independent plants. Finishing processes are numerous and complex, reflecting today’s tremendous range and combination of colors, textures and special qualities. In its simplest form, finishing includes cleaning and preparing the cloth, dyeing or printing it and then treating it to enhance performance characteristics. To produce a smooth surface in preparation for dyeing and finishing, the greige goods are passed rapidly over gas-fired jets or heated copper

plates to singe off lint and loose threads. Moving at speeds that can be greater than 200 yards a minute, the material is scoured and bleached in a continuous process that involves the use of hydrogen peroxide. The time for the chemicals to do the preparation reactions occurs from piling the fabric on conveyor belts that pass through steaming chambers, or stacking in large steam-heated, J-shaped boxes before the goods are withdrawn from the bottom. If a more lustrous cloth is desired, the goods are immersed under tension in a caustic soda solution and then later neutralized. The process, called mercerizing, causes the fiber to swell permanently. This gives the fabric a silken sheen, improves its strength and increases its affinity for dye. Mercerizing also can be done at the yarn stage.

4.12

Cotton Counts : https://www.cotton.org/pubs/cot-

//// / // // // // // /

toncounts/fieldtofabric/fabric.cfm


// P R E S E N T

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4.12.1 C ommon cotton fabrics

smooth or textured, thick or sheer, indestructible or luxurious, making them America’s favorites for both home furnishings and clothing. Versatility, softness, breathability, absorbency, performance and durability are just a few of the qualities that have earned it year-round status.

Chambray, a fabric woven

lustrous cotton cloth with

with a mixture of colored and

fine embedded crosswise

white yarn. Used in curtains,

ribs. Resembles poplin. Used

shirts, dresses.

in shirts and blouses, as well as home decorating.

4.12.1

Cotton Bales Seller Canada : http:// cottonbalessellerscanada.blogspot. com/2015_11_01_archive.html

Chenille, a fuzzy cotton yarn or fabric that has pile Canvas, a rugged, woven

protruding around it, named

cloth made with coarse yarn.

for the French word for cat-

Also called duck. Used in

erpillar. Used in heavyweight

cushions, slipcovers, shower

as upholstery; lightweight for

curtains, paint dropcloths.

bedspreads and robes.

//// / // // // // // /

S I L K Y or rough,

Broadcloth, a tightly woven


// P R E S E N T

// S Y S T E M O F S H I R T

// P A G E

Chintz, glazed fabric, often printed with floral designs or stripes. Used in upholstery and curtains for the English country look and romantic bedrooms. Damask, a patterned fabric made on a jacquard loom. Used in table linens and tea towels. Flannel, a plain-weave soft cloth with napped surface. Used in winter pajamas, nightgowns and sheets.

Corduroy, a ribbed pile fabric in various weights and weaves. Used in cushions, curtains, bedspreads, jumpers and pants.

Denim, rugged, durable twill, most popular in indigo blue, but also white, tan, red, black. Used in jeans, slipcovers, bedspreads, casual curtains. Gingham, yarn-dyed and woven usually in checks. Used in kitchen curtains and little girls’ pinafores, and more recently sheets and

//// / // // // // // /

pillowcases.

89


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Jacquard, a fabric woven on the jacquard loom, which produces elaborate, figured weaves. Used in decorative fabrics such as tapestries, brocade and damask.

Matelasse, double-woven in different patterns on a jacquard loom to give a three-dimensional look. Used in outer bedding and elegant tablecloths.

Percale, a smooth, finely combed woven with a minimum thread count of 180 threads per square inch. Used in sheets and clothing.

Knit, a stretchy fabric made by interlocking thread loops together. Used in different weights for T-shirts, underwear, easy-care dresses and Oxford, a fabric made with a modified plain or basket weave. Used in button-down shirts and more recently, sheets and pillowcases.

Poplin, a fabric with a fine horizontal rib effect on the surface and high thread count. Used in high-quality shirting.

//// / // // // // // /

bedsheets.


// P R E S E N T

// S Y S T E M O F S H I R T

// P A G E

Plisse, a fabric treated with a solution that shrinks part of the threads to create a crinkle effect. Used in blanket covers and summer pajamas.

SeerSucker a lightweight cotton fabric with a woven crinkle achieved by altering tension in the warp yarns. Used in synonymous with the classic summer suit; also used in sportswear, curtains, slipcovers.

Terry Cloth, a fabric with moisture-absorbing loop pile covering the entire surface on one or both sides. Used in bath towels, robes and cushion covers.

Sateen, a satin-weave cotton with a smooth, lustrous surface. Striped sateen mixes lustrous with matte-finish stripes. Used in sheets, tablecloths, curtains.

Sheer, a batiste, lawn, organdy, dimity, dotted swiss and voile are all finely woven cotton sheers. Some are crisp,

Twill, a durable fabric with

some are soft. Used in sum-

diagonal lines on its face.

mer party dresses, curtains

Used in pants, shorts, slip-

and summer see-through

covers.

slipcovers for wooden chairs.

Velvet, a warp-pile fabric with short, densely woven cut //// / // // // // // /

pile, giving the fabric a soft, rich texture. Used in draperies, cushions and clothing.

91


// F U T U R E

[ FUTURE SECTION ]


// F U T U R E

// S Y S T E M O F S H I R T

// P A G E

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5 TEXTILE INNOVATIONS A

T E X T I L E or cloth is a flexible mate-

terms in specialized usage. Textile refers to any material

(yarn or thread). Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres

made through weaving, knitting, spreading, crocheting, or

rial consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres of wool, flax, cotton, or other material to produce long

strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or felting.

The words fabric and cloth are used in textile assembly

trades (such as tailoring and dressmaking) as synonyms

//// / // // // // // /

for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these

made of interlacing fibres. Fabric refers to any material

bonding that may be used in production of further goods (garments, etc.). Cloth may be used synonymously with

fabric but often refers to a finished piece of fabric used for a specific purpose (e.g., table cloth). 3

Wikipedia : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Textile


// F U T U R E

// S Y S T E M O F S H I R T

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5.1 O

VERALL MAJOR TRENDS

E-textiles

//// / // // // // // /

Manufacturers are focusing on building electrically-conductive textiles which can be used in the healthcare sector. E-textiles use a disruptive technology that enables sensors and monitoring devices to be embedded in clothes of patients. Leading players in the market are focusing on research and development (R&D) to create the next generation of wearable textiles.

E-textile, a sample garment

E-textile, typical fabric

Rapid Innovaation

Government Support

Technical textiles is an innovation driven industry, and most of the major players are aware of the important role of constant innovation in this industry The R&D spend in the technical textile industry is high, with dedicated centers for research working on building the next disruptive product.

Technical textile industry is receiving strong support from the governments globally. Governments in various countries are supporting the technical textile industry in the orm of taxation benefits and by importing high-end technology


// F U T U R E

// S Y S T E M O F S H I R T

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5.2 O

VERALL MAJOR applications

Agriculture

Smart Homes

Packaging

Technical textiles are used in the agriculture in the manufacture of fishing nets, crop-covers, shade-nets, etc. Technical textiles not only help in increasing the yield, but also prevent the crops from adverse weather conditions.

Technical textiles are being increasingly used in infrastructural projects, especially smart homes, in the developed countries of Europe and North America.

Building & Construction

Sportswear

Technical textiles are widely used in the manufacture of packaging material owing to their durability. The property of technical textile to withstand heavy loads have made them a highly sought-after material in the technical textile industry. The packaging industry has adopted technical textiles for packing juice, laundry bags, food soaker pads, as well as soft luggage.

Technical textiles are lightweight and highly durable, making them sought-after in the building and construction sector. Technical textiles have played a major role in the modernization of infrastructural activities. Some of the key products in the building and construction sector where technical textiles are used include hoardings and signage, canopies, roofing materials, and architectural membranes.

Today’s sportswear need to have all of the desired properties, including durability, anti-perspiration, and longevity. Technical textiles offer all of these properties, without making the fabric rough or heavyweight. Owing to these properties, technical textiles are widely used in the manufacture of sportswear for golf, tennis, cricket, and mountaineering.

5.1 Future Market In Sights : http://www.

futuremarketinsights.com/articles/techni-

//// / // // // // // /

cal-textiles-market


// F U T U R E

// S Y S T E M O F S H I R T

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5.3 L

ATEST TRENDS + APPLIcations

5.3.1 SWE A T-W IC KI N G, O D O R NEU T R A L IZIN G t EC H N OLOGY

Meanwhile, water and dirt-resistance plus superior insulation are all available thanks to nanotechnology innovation.

With the technology still in its early days, there is no doubt that more developments will come, and that the technology will in time become more practical in

terms of cost. Currently, textiles featuring nanotechnology are predominantly standard fabrics which have had a nano-coating applied. However, as the technology develops, fabrics with nanoparticles integral to the weave are likely to become the norm.

T H E use of nan-

otechnology in fabric allows the properties of a fabric to be adjusted without any increase in weight, thickness or stiffness. Much of the nanotechnology seen in textile application to date has been tailored towards sportswear, in particular enhancing sweat-wicking qualities. Nanotechnology that kills bacteria and is therefore odor-resistant is also present in many of the available products, focusing on undergarments and footwear in particular.

Anti-Odor Perfomarnce Clothing, by Y Athletics. They weave pure silver into the fabrics of their SilverAir line of performance gear to form an ionic shield against odor. They say the result is not only effective, but designed to fight odor naturally throughout both the day (or week if you’re out of detergent/quarters for the laundry) and the entire lifetime of the garment.


5.3.2

L A U N DRY C A R E B EGIN S TO GE T IN ON T HE A C T

// S Y S T E M O F S H I R T

T H A N K S to the close relationship between

textiles and laundry care all textile innovation has an impact on the laundry care market to a certain extent. However, as the technology develops and nanotechnology increasingly becomes part of fabric itself rather than a coating, the qualities should be retained wash after wash, meaning new detergent innovation might not be altogether necessary. Of course, this is not to say that there is no opportunity to be had for laundry care manufacturers. For the time being, light detergents that promise to retain a fabric’s qualities could hold potential, but with nanotechnology relatively new and just a tiny corner of the textile world, it would be unwise to act now with specialized detergents as their appeal would be extremely limited. Instead of producing detergents and fabric softeners intended to preserve and retain a fabric’s qualities, laundry care manufacturers can look to nanotechnology to develop their product range.

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5.3.2 / 5.3.3 / 5.3.4 Euromonitor: http:// blog.euromonitor.

com/2014/06/global-tex-

tile-trends-round-up-theimplications-of-fabric-innovation-nanotechnology.html Nano-Tex: http://www.

standardfiber.com/materials/

fiber-technologies/odor-management/neutralizer-tech Britannia: http://blog.

britanniapackaging.com/blog/ sustainable-garment-packaging-trends-textile-innovation The Guardian: http://www. theguardian.com/sustain-

able-business/sustainable-fashion-blog/fashion-design-philippines-textile-innovation

Early innovations listed on the Consumer Products Inventory include a fabric softener that incorporates silver nanoparticles, which are credited with powerful antibacterial and odor-neutralizing properties. The addition of the softener to the wash adds the particles to the clothing, where they remain to kill bacteria and prevent odor. Other nanotechnology laundry care products listed include a fabric softener that reduces static and prevents detergent residue from clinging to clothing, while another promises enhanced fragrance and another prevents colors from fading. Meanwhile, laundry appliances are also getting in on the act, with numerous appliances listed promising to sterilize the wash, again using silver nano antibacterial technology.

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5.3.4 5.3.3

PL EN T Y OF POT E N T IA L B UT N EW T EC H N OLOGY B R I NGS R IS KS

I T is easy to see how

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a detergent or laundry aid that adds the likes of anti-odor or anti-crease qualities to a fabric would almost certainly have consumer appeal and could potentially add value to the category. Another avenue to explore for textile and laundry care manufacturers alike is the addition of titanium dioxide or zinc oxide nanoparticles, which can protect garments and skin from sun damage.

On the opposite side of the coin, nanotechnology and in particular the use of silver has come under fire for its potential impact on the environment. While nanosilver is not toxic to humans, it has the potential to be toxic to aquatic life, meaning the possibility of silver nanoparticles being washed off in waste water and posing an environmental problem in the years to come. So, rather than adding particles to the wash, laundry care and laundry appliance manufacturers could potentially take the opposite approach and look to remove them. While the path that nanotechnology will take the textile and laundry care industries along is anything but set in stone, what is certain is that a journey that could potentially change the face of both categories has already begun.

WATERLESS DYEI NG

Waterless Dyeing, ColorDry Technology by Nike Inc.

W A T E R L E S S dyeing tech-

nology has been hailed as a major step forward because it drastically cuts the quantity of chemicals used and the amount of wastewater generated, as well as enabling faster dyeing cycles that reduce overall energy consumption. Meanwhile, innovative approaches to fabric choice are bringing overlooked materials into the spotlight. Events in the Philippines, where textile innovation and sustainability have taken on added social significance in the wake of November 2013’s devastating Typhoon Haiyan, provide a great example of this shift.

Earlier this year, the Guardian profiled the work of local artisans such as womenswear designer Tipay Caintic, who knits with pineapple fiber to create a yarn that resembles rayon. Elsewhere in the Philippines, work is underway to increase the fashion industry’s appetite for abaca yarn, a native leaf fiber that is already used in automobile production. This could be a lifeline for the many coconut farmers whose livelihoods were destroyed by the typhoon (it is estimated that about one million farmers were affected).


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5.3.5 S M AR T t E X T IL E S

5.3.6 silk + man mades

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G R A D O Zero Espace is an Italian based company who is doing some amazing things with textile technology and product design. Ying Gao, a fashion designer based in Geneva is creating clothing that combines urban design, architecture and multimedia, and uses sensory technologies to make garments more interactive. CuteCircuit, a London based design duo is taking their smart textiles and technology to the runway, as they showed a collection at New York Fashion Week where the models controlled what their dresses looked like on the runway through their mobile phones. BioCouture is focused on bringing living and bio-based materials to fashion, sportswear and luxury brands - they are growing clothes from microorganisms like cellulose, fungi and algae.

Smart Textile: CuteCircuit, Mercedes

Smart Textile: BioCouture, Known for

Pilot Suite

growing garments from microbes

N E W Monster Silk produced by transgenic silkworms includes certain spider

silk proteins as well as silk proteins. The result is a significantly stronger, more elastic product that can be produced at a cost comparable to that of conventional silk. Similar breakthroughs are appearing for man-mades — some of them including increasing ability to weave them into cloth that was previously 100-percent natural. These new blends are showing up in more and more products ranging from mass market types all the way to top-end fashion offerings.

Still elsewhere, more and more lighter and longer-lasting nonwovens are being introduced in a variety of fields including packaging and autos. In the latter case, one study suggested that more than 40 individual parts now are being made using these nonwovens, principally to allow increased vehicle efficiency, effect cost savings, reduce energy consumption and improve acoustical insulation. All in all, these and other so-called technical fibers are now said to account for 25 percent of global fiber consumption. And they’re being applied to a growing number of other areas like water purification, medicinal products and responsive fibrous systems.


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5.3.7

medical field + leisure

5.3.8 B UY IN G EX PE R IE N C E

// S Y S T E M O F S H I R T

W H E N it comes

to the medical field, for example, new offerings are being designed for less-invasive surgical procedures, infection control, and accelerated healing. And for outside wear, there now are garments that can take a child’s biometrics and

T H E S E innova-

tions are not limited to fibers, fabrics and apparel performance. For one, there are all the new digital technologies designed to transform the buying experience — all aimed at generating higher sales.

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They include paperless receipts, signing for purchases on a touch screen, and ordering online and then picking up the item at a store. Still another wrinkle in the digital sphere, is the availability of virtual fitting rooms, some of which even create 3-D models while a buyer shops online. By making the choice and the right size as quickly as possi-

then text them to a cell phone. More attention also is being given to leisure-time products. And with good reason. Specifically, a growing number of consumers who exercise regularly say they’re looking for technologies that ensure they stay cool and dry during workouts. ble, it gives customers a lot of incentive to make an immediate purchase. Some fashion firms are even experimenting with performance-tracking technology. It’s already in use in online shopping when buyers receive recommendations based on past selections.

Finally, if there’s still any doubt about putting more effort into online selling, they should be quickly dispelled by a recent e-commerce survey. It finds that consumers spend 100 minutes a month shopping online, significantly more than spent in brick and mortar stores.

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5.3.5 / 5.3.6 / 5.3.7 Forbes: http://www.

forbes.com/sites/forbesstylefile/2014/05/07/

what-is-the-future-of-fabric-

these-smart-textiles-will-blowyour-mind/#5d21a3e74914

Textile World: http://www.

textileworld.com/textile-world/ features/2015/02/textiles-

2015-more-improvement-ahead Textile World: http://www.

textileworld.com/textile-world/ features/2015/02/textiles-

2015-more-improvement-ahead


5.3.9

C O N D U C T IVE IN K

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T O K Y O scien-

tists has developed a new conductive ink, consisted of “silver flakes, organic solvent, fluorine rubber and fluorine surfactant�, that makes your clothing smarter. Being printed on textiles in a single step, this ink creates highly conductive and stretchable connections. Even when stretched to more than 3 times its original length, the ink will still

show high conductivity. This functional ink paves the way for new printed electronic apparel such as sportswear and underwear that can monitor vital signs like heart rate, pulse, and muscle movements. Although, this new technology is not fully ready to hit the industry, it definitely makes a promise to change the world of wearables and smart clothing.

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5.3.8 / 5.3.9 / 5.3.10 Textile World: http://www.

textileworld.com/textile-world/ features/2015/02/textiles-

2015-more-improvement-ahead Eureka Alert: http://www. eurekalert.org/pub_releas-

es/2015-06/uot-nci062315.php WT Vox: https://wtvox. com/2015/06/magnet-

ic-fabrics-could-let-youchange-clothes-instantly/?utm_source=dlvr.

it&utm_medium=twitter

Conductive Ink, developed by University of Tokyo researchers can be printed on textiles in a single step to form highly conductive and stretchable connection

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5.3.10 M A G N E TS

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I M A G I N E your garments reshaping themselves to be on trend. Now this is possible with magnetic fabric developed in a cooperation between the IMD Institute for Material Design and BMW AG. The prototype textile is filled with materials that respond to magnets. Thus, when put near electromagnetic fields, the fabric comes to life. Lilian Dedio’s aim was to explore new limits of fabrics. Next, he plans to “develop the idea further by embedding the fabric with a second layer of flat, consisted of controllable electromagnets.” According to him, “that would make it wearable.” However, the fabric is still at the proof-of-concept stage, which makes it more like an experiment than a ready-towear material.

Magnetic Fabric. The goal of this work was to explore new limits of fabrics by experimentally developing their familiar features through unexpected modifications; to create these modifications, different aspects of magnetism are incorporated into traditional fabrics

5.3.11 //// / // // //

UNST A IN AB L E F A BR IC

U N S T A I N A B L E fabric is what the modern multitasking wom-

an needs nowadays. It’s a law of physics that it’s impossible to wear white without ruining it, however, thanks to nanotechnology, there’s now a white shirt that cannot be stained! Elizabeth & Clarke have created an “Unstainable White Shirt” for women. From coffee to wine and even sweat, there is no thread for this fabric. Liquids are kept suspended above the fabric, never allowing stains to touch the silky fibers. “Using a proprietary garment finish that works at the molecular level, the finish zeros in on fabric fibers using tiny ‘whiskers’ that are 100,000 times smaller than a grain of sand.” The tiny fibers don’t clog the fabric weave allowing100% stain repellence without changing the feel and comfort.


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5.4

L 5.4.1 EADERS

3M

B R E A K I N G new

3M Thinsulate Featherless Insulation, a new loose fill insulation alternative to natural down; provides extreme warmth for extreme conditions 5.3.11 / 5.4.1 / 5.4.2 Kickstarter: https://www.kickstarter.com/ projects/1133048795/the-unstainabletmwhite-shirt

FastCo Design: http://www.fastcodesign.

com/3045513/go-ahead-spill-red-wine-allover-this-white-shirt-its-unstainable

3M: http://news.3m.com/press-release/

company/introducing-3m-thinsulate-featherless-insulation

Wiggy’s: http://www.wiggys.com/wig-

gys-blog/2014/01/companies-like-tnf-pa-

tagonia-and-columbia-sportswear-will-notcome-back

Nonwovens Industry: http://www.non-

wovens-industry.com/issues/2015-04-01/

view_breaking-news/freudenberg-interlining-earns-biodegradabilitycertification

Hohenstein: http://www.hohenstein.de/en/ inline/pressrelease_90496.xhtml

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ground in thermal insulation— warmth, without the downsides, 3M Thinsulate Featherless Insulation offers 600 Fill Power protection. Its loose fill down alternative mimics or surpasses the performance of natural down in fill power, loft and performance when wet. Made of durable, lightweight polyester fibers, 3M Thinsulate Featherless Insulation provides warmth without a single feather. Fill power measures the volume, in cubic inches, that an ounce of insulation creates at maximum loft, typically rated on a scale from 450 to 800+. The higher the fill power, the lighter, fluffier and more insulating the product is. Using this measurement, 3M Thinsulate Featherless Insulation provides a rating of 600 Fill Power. With a high focus on product development, 3M continues to broaden its portfolio of insulation products. 3M Thinsulate Featherless Insulation is 3M’s latest development to keep the wearer at the forefront of outerwear design.


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5.4.2

F R EUDE N B E R G

F R E U D E N B E R G Interlining

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recently introduced the first nonwoven polyester lining material made from independently certified biodegradable fibers. The Freudenberg linings have been tested and certified according to procedures and standards developed by Hohenstein Institute, a worldwide textile research, testing, and certification organization. Hohenstein scientists have developed the test methods to evaluate textile biodegradability from every angle. Using ISO standardized soil burial tests, Hohenstein scientists define a textile’s decomposition behavior—how long it takes, what elements remain, and the effect on surrounding water and soil. Additionally,

ecotoxicological analyses using marine bacteria, water fleas, fish eggs, and other biological systems determine the potential

risks the degrading fabric poses to the environment. Hohenstein thoroughly tested Freudenberg’s nonwoven polyester linings and found them to fully meet the criteria for their “Biological Degradability” certification. Now apparel made with Freudenberg linings will have a less intrusive impact on the environment at the end of its useful life when it is discarded in a landfill.

Freudenberg Interlining, made from independently certified biodegradable fibers


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5.4.3 C AR HA RT T + mOUNT VE R N ON FR

non FR and Carhartt, America’s premium work wear brand since 1889, launched Carhartt Flame-Resistant (FR) Extremes Arctic outerwear. The Extremes Arctic line offers wind resistance, durability, warmth and comfort to workers in extreme weather conditions, without added weight or bulk. The outer shell of the Extremes Arctic line is made from an abrasion-resistant 9-ounce FR canvas, using Mount Vernon F’s AMTEX PLUS cotton/high-tenacity nylon FR fabric. Ideally suited to extreme working conditions, Extremes Arctic uses Carhartt’s proprietary Wind Fighter technology to provide protection from the potentially dangerous effects Flame-Resistant (FR) Extremes Arctic outerwear, by Carhartt

of wind chill. Unique features of the line, made up of a parka, coat, biberall and hood, include lightweight insulation for superior warmth without the bulk, FR Sherpa lining to trap air and maintain warmer core body temperature, hi-vis reflective trim for safety, multiple utility pockets for convenient storage (12 total), large, mitten-friendly zipper pulls for ease of use, and inner radio pocket with pass-thru for mic and cord.

5.4.3 / 5.4.4 / 5.4.5 Mount Vernon FR: http://

www.mvmfr.com/about-us/ news/1223-2

Occupational Health and Safety Magazine: https://ohsonline.com/

Directory/ProductCompany. aspx?co=%7B1CF47C-

DA-9F99-4F4E-820F-9D2EBB97136E%7D

Outlast Technologies: http://

www.outlast.com/uploads/media/1Outlast_Viskose_gb.pdf Schoeller: http://www.

schoeller-textiles.com/en/

fabric-groups/soft-shell/schoellerR-wb-400.html

Fabriclink: http://fabriclink. com/features/assets/FMORWM0115.pdf

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M O U N T Ver-


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5.4.4

outlast technologies

5.4.5

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O U T L A S T Technologies, a

leader in phase-change materials (PCMs), launched ‘Universe’ - a PCM viscose fiber and down blend filling material. The heat and moisture regulating PCM viscose fibers combine with down to offer a natural solution for climate comfort – great for use in outerwear. In warm climates, the Outlast fibers absorb excess body heat. As the climate cools, the fibers release the stored heat back to you– working to proactively manage your temperature. While

109

incorporating Universe into a product offers added value and performance, it can also reduce the costs compared to using 100% down. The down adds advantages like lightness, fluffy volume and naturalness, while the Outlast PCM viscose fibers regulate and optimize the climate comfort - resulting in a light filling material that keeps you warm while reducing overheating and sweating.

D E V E L O P E D by Swiss

company Schoeller Textil AG, the new schoeller-WB-400 soft-shells with memory foam are offered in natural shades like warm beige tones and neutral stone grey for Winter2016-17 for a trend combining nature and technology. The jacket fabrics in fluffy wool looks are ideally suited to round cuts, as well as voluminous looks that always return to their original shape and do not crinkle. Schoeller-WB-400 soft-shells with memory foam are ideal companions in autumn or winter. These elastic, comfortable allround Schoeller fabrics are sustainably produced in Switzerland. With functions such as breathability, moisture transport, water repellence and heat retention, these qualities are long-lasting and supersoft companions in sports and leisure. The wearer is kept nice and warm during winter times by the voluminous double fabrics with cozy fleece on both sides. Conclusion: In multifunctional soft-shell clothing, you are always appropriately and comfortably dressed.

S C H OE L L E R

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5.4.6

T E IJ IN ARA MID + R IC E UN IVE R SIT Y

5.4.7 ULT R A FLE C T

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T E I J I N Aramid (Arnhem, The Netherlands) together with a research team at Rice University in the USA, have developed carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers with performance properties, far exceeding those of the competition. The fibers are “wet spun” from liquid crystalline dispersion of CNTs in super acids. That process is known to be scalable, because it is similar to that used in

D E V E L O P E D by Chica-

go-based AFM Heatsheets, Ultraflect is an innovative, reflective, lightweight (35 GSM) polyester woven insulation fabric. While reflective insulation technology isn’t new – inducted into the Space Foundation’s Hall of Fame in 1996 and used as protection from the extreme temperature changes of outer space – AFM Heatsheets’ new DWR-coated Ultraflect with Silver Lining technology translates the products originally developed for space environments

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producing rayon, Twaron and Kevlar. The CNT fibers feature the high electrical and thermal conductivity performance of metals, combined with added textile flexibility, robust handling and tenacity. Due to the novel combination of properties, CNT fibers have great potential to

Current end-uses include lifesaving, conductive sutures for heart patients; lightweight data cables for satellites, aircraft and high-end cars (by replacing copper wires); high quality interlink audio cables; conductive sewing yarns; electron sources for digitally accessible X-ray

into today’s demands for comfort, convenience, style, and function. With a single reflective-insulation layer, Ultraflect provides protection in a more compact form. The fabric incorporates an ultra-thin, soft, and durable reflective-insulation membrane laminated to familiar woven fabrics to deliver exceptional protection from the burning rays of the sun, or to stimulate warming. Ultraflect’s goal is to provide stream-lined solutions that impose little change to the appeal of the host fabric in outward appearance, drapeability

and launderability. Ultraflect is an ideal insulation for performance wear, outdoor fashion apparel, and shelter products (i.e. sleeping bags, tents, emergency bivvys, etc.).

inspire new developments in such industries as aerospace, healthcare, automotive, electronics and smart clothing.

sources; and thermal links for cooling space devices and advanced garments.

5.4.6 / 5.4.7

MIT Technology Review: https://www.technologyreview.com/s/509766/nano-

tubes-turned-into-super-fibers Rice University: http://

news.rice.edu/2014/02/13/ rices-carbon-nanotube-fi-

bers-outperform-copper-2 Heatsheets: http://www.

heatsheets.com/solutions/ ultraflect-fabric

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5.4.8

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VOOR M I

// S Y S T E M O F S H I R T

V O O R M I , an innovator of

domestically sourced Precision Blended Wool, recently released its CORE CONSTRUCTION Technology, a new age of weather protective fabric construction that delivers the first true single-layer fabric to contain an integrated weather-proof membrane. The company reports that their CORE CONSTRUCTION represents a major shift in weatherproofing technology: transitioning from decades-old lamination and coating technologies to the integration of weather resistant barriers and other functional cores directly into textiles.

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CORE CONSTRUCTION Technology refers to a new process of co-constructing knit textiles around “functional cores” — often a waterproof membrane. During development, VOORMI may fine tune water resistance and airflow to perfectly match the textile’s properties with the product’s intended use. In practice, CORE CONSTRUCTION Technology will unlock previously impossible or improbable apparel and textile possibilities.


5.4.9

F IB E RV ISION S

// S Y S T E M O F S H I R T

C O O LV I S I O N S , aa

disperse-dyeable polypropylene fiber produced by FiberVisions, has added WoolVisions, an intimate blend of dyeable polypropylene and wool, to its range of superior performance products. Unlike other wool/polypropylene blends, in which different yarns are knit together in a fabric, wool and CoolVisions yarns are intimately blended into a single dyeable yarn, many of which are 60% merino/40% CoolVisions polypropylene, which maximizes the performance potential of each yarn in the content. As a disperse-dyeable, staple synthetic fiber,

CoolVisions is ideal for spinning with fine-micron merino wool, offering color and design options unavailable with solution-dyed polypropylene and wool blends, as well as providing an exceptionally soft hand. Available for both woven and knit constructions, the WoolVisions yarn raises the bar for ‘natural performance’ fabrics by offering a host of advantages over 100% wool or wool that is blended with other synthetic fibers. CoolVisions polypropylene has a better thermal performance than other synthetic fibers—cooling when it is warm and retaining heat when it is cold.

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5.4.8 / 5.4.9 Voormi: http://voormi.com/

pages/core-construction-technology

Wired: http://www.

wired.com/2015/02/

voormi-core-technology/

Outside Magazine: http:// www.outsideonline.

com/2026031/voormis-jacket-based-plan-world-domination

WoolVisions: http://www.

cool-visions.com/repository/ assets/documents/WoolVi-

sions+press+release+final.pdf Sourcing Journal: https://

sourcingjournalonline.com/

fibervisions-introduces-poly-

propylene-merino-wool-fiber-ll

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5.5

S 5.5.1

OURCING

taiwan

T H E industry has been trans-

formed by Taiwan over the last two decades. Once the main pillar of Taiwan’s economic development, textiles have given way to high technology gadgets and components. Fabric mills and garment factories moved offshore during the last 20 years to focus on lower costs and higher volumes.

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Yet the industry has reemerged over the past 15 years, with companies spinning out a plethora of high technology fabrics that are being snapped up by European and North American brands. Those materials are used in products like ski jackets, sports jerseys,

outdoor furniture and firefighters’ protective gear.

“These fabrics have special production, coating and lamination processes, and we want to keep those patents here,” said Robert Jou, a director at the state-funded Taiwan Textile Research Institute. Data from the Taiwan Stock Exchange for 2010, the most recent year for which figures are available, show the average net margin at textile companies was 12.7 percent, compared with 7.6 percent for companies producing electronic products like semiconductors, computers and communication components.

Singtex’s S.Cafe, , a polyester cloth with coffee grounds mixed into it. The coffee grounds, recycled from local 7Eleven convenience stores and Starbucks cafes, absorb odors, giving the fabric added value for athletic clothing.


// F U T U R E

Singtex owns 34 patents, including one for S.Cafe, a polyester cloth with coffee grounds mixed into it. The coffee grounds, recycled from local 7Eleven convenience stores and Starbucks cafes, absorb odors, giving the fabric added value for athletic clothing. Singtex counts the Timberland and Hugo Boss brands as its customers, and has even landed a deal to supply fabric for the Liverpool soccer club’s uniforms. Singtex survived the industry’s exodus to China, but many others did not. Exports dropped by 44 percent in dollar terms from 1997 to 2009, according to data from the Taiwan Ministry of Finance. Mills that did not do research and development, or have the ability to invest in innovation, could not compete and went out of business. There were 7,752 textile companies in 1997, but by 2010, only 4,299 were left, according to the textile institute’s data. This new business environment spawned companies like Hyperbola Textile, whose 24 employees work in a chic loft office in Neihu, a high technology hub in Taipei. Hyperbola found its niche in designing high performance outdoor clothing, like ski jackets and raincoats, and supplies brands like Canada Goose, Lululemon and Patagonia. It also produces fade-resistant outdoor cushions. The company has no factory. Instead, it finds mills in Taiwan to make the fabrics. Although their clients made smaller orders in Taiwan than they would in China,

// S Y S T E M O F S H I R T

they needed fabrics that could withstand harsh weather conditions and demanding environments, which Chinese mills often lack the technology to produce. The company and its partner mills produced 350 types of fabrics to satisfy that demand. Nimble companies like Singtex and Hyperbola have powered the textile sector’s resurrection. Exports for the entire industry, at $12.7 billion in 2011, have climbed to 24 percent below the 1997 peak. But another measure of value, the unit price of fabrics, has risen by 41 percent since 1999 to $5.20 per kilogram, or 2.2 pounds, an indication that the industry has shifted to higher-value products. For those who made the shift to more expensive cloth, profits have surged. Singtex’s revenue increased by 35 percent in 2011 from 2010 and its gross margin — sales revenue minus the cost of the goods — rose to more than 25 percent in 2011, according to Singtex.

Peter Huang, the chairman of Kingwhale Industries, a thermal fleece supplier, said his clients came to his company only after failing to find mainland factories that could meet their needs. “They literally see our product, tell us it’s nice, then fly to Shanghai or Guangzhou with our sample the next day,” Mr. Huang said. “Then we get an awkward request from a Chinese factory asking us to teach them how to set up the production process.”

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Kingwhale is looking to become partners with American fabric labs to keep its edge. Mr. Huang is planning a trip to North Carolina State University this month to buy a patent, and will also check on the price of land nearby for a possible factory to supply fabric directly to the U.S. market. He aims to find a new fabric and turn it into a brand that can be as recognizable as GoreTex, the breathable, waterproof fabric.

Another company, Lealea Group, is taking a similar approach by building its own clothing brand. The company, a major global nylon supplier, spent a year designing about 150 pieces for a new clothing line called FN Ice and opened its first store in Taipei in September. FN Ice’s creative director, Zoe Chen, said Taiwan would eventually lose its technological edge, and when that happens, the “only way to add value will be through promoting brands and lifestyle.” She said the textile industry constantly had to adapt to the harsh reality that there would always be a country that could make what you were making at a fraction of the price. “The Chinese are smart,” she said of the mainland companies. “They will catch up. So I’m always thinking of new ways to push this fabric forward to become something more.” 5.5.1 The New York Times: http://www.nytimes. com/2012/12/13/business/global/textile-

makers-in-taiwan-create-a-high-tech-niche. html?_r=0


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5.5.2

EA ST AF R IC A

I N the past 2 years, a number of

major clothing companies, H&M, Primark, and Tesco—began sourcing some of their garments from Ethiopia. The rest of the apparel industry took notice: since 2013, there has been rising interest in not just Ethiopia but also other East African countries as potential sourcing destinations for apparel. Also contributing to the buzz is the renewal of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA), which gives certain countries in sub-Saharan Africa duty-free access to the US market.

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This year, 40 apparel CPOs, representing a combined $70 billion in 2014 purchasing volume, responded to our survey. We found that East Africa could indeed become a more important center for apparel sourcing, but only if stakeholders— buyers, governments, and manufacturers—work together to improve business conditions in the region.

// S Y S T E M O F S H I R T

75% of apparel stakeholders surveyed said, as they did in 2011 and 2013, that over the next five years they expect to reduce their purchases from Chinese firms. Chinese apparel production has indeed fallen since 2010—but China remains the undisputed giant of garment manufacturing, with approximately $177 billion in apparel exports in 2013. Among CPOs surveyed, Bangladesh remains at the top of the list of future sourcing destinations, with 48 percent of respondents including the country in their top three. And 62 percent said they intend to increase their sourcing value from Bangladesh over the next five years. The next two up-and-coming countries are Vietnam and India, where, respectively, 59 percent and 54 percent of surveyed CPOs plan to increase their sourcing value in the next five years. Yet the combined apparel exports of Bangladesh ($24 billion), Vietnam ($17 billion), and India ($17 billion) still amount to less than one-third of China’s. African nations appear on the list of countries expected to play more important roles in apparel manufacturing. Ethiopia, notably, is seventh on the list.

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According to United Nations projections, sub-Saharan Africa will have the highest growth in working-age population anywhere over the next 20 years. By 2035, the working-age population in the region is expected to be as large as China’s today— more than 900 million people. This massive labor pool is capturing the attention of several industries, including apparel. Within sub-Saharan Africa, East African countries— especially Ethiopia and Kenya, and to a lesser extent Uganda and Tanzania—are of interest to apparel buyers. The governments of both Ethiopia and Kenya are taking steps to develop their domestic textile and garment industries.

Each of the two countries has strengths and weaknesses. McKinsey research has showed that Ethiopia has cost advantages whereas Kenya boasts higher production efficiency. Challenges common to both countries include poor infrastructure, cumbersome customs processes, a dearth of technical and managerial talent, and low levels of social and environmental compliance.


5.5.3 E T HIOP IA

// S Y S T E M O F S H I R T

A P P A R E L buyers

today are sourcing basic, large-volume items from Ethiopia: T-shirts accounted for 46 percent of the country’s exports to the EU-15, and trousers 31 percent. As much as 60 percent of exports are sent to Germany and 10 percent to the United States. But Ethiopia accounts for a mere 0.01 percent of total apparel exports, according to the World Trade Organization.

Why, then, is Ethiopia such a hot topic for apparel buyers? McKinsey’s interviewees and survey respondents said the biggest reason is cost: Ethiopia’s wages for garment workers are among the lowest globally, at below $60 per month, and work-permit costs for foreign workers are less than one-tenth those in neighboring Kenya. Additionally, Ethiopia has low electricity prices. The country has a strong supply of hydroelectric power, and while the power grid is not the most reliable, the Ethiopian government is building a separate grid for new industrial zones currently under development.

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Ethiopia could someday become a source of raw materials: it has more than 3.2 million hectares of land with a suitable climate for cotton cultivation. Yet, barely 7 percent of that land is being used today. The combination of low land-utilization rates, planning errors, low crop yields, and quality problems means Ethiopia has had to import cotton. Social compliance has also been an issue. For example, organic-cotton cultivation recently suffered a setback after garment manufacturers supplying European firms became entangled in land-grabbing accusations in Ethiopia’s Omo Valley. Another problem is production efficiency, which currently runs between 40 and 50 percent, and long lead times. Eighty percent of the CPOs in our survey cited production inefficiency as a challenge to the growth of apparel sourcing in Ethiopia.

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5.5.4 K ENY A

L I K E Ethiopia’s, Kenya’s

apparel industry currently specializes in supplying high-volume bulk basics such as trousers, which account for 58 percent of its exports to the United States. The typical minimum order size is 10,000 pieces; the country’s larger players have minimum order sizes of 25,000 to 50,000 pieces.

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Kenya has benefited greatly from AGOA—92 percent of its apparel exports in 2013 went to the United States, according to UN Comtrade. Suppliers that McKinsey interviewed said the EU’s Economic Partnership Agreement isn’t as much of an incentive: the overall duty-free advantage is less than that of AGOA, and the competition with low-cost Asian countries is stiff, as they too are benefiting from preferential agreements with the European Union. Some Kenyan manufacturers said they aren’t eager to expand their business to Europe because they perceive European buyers as more demanding with respect to lead times, order sizes, and quality.

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The capacity of Kenya’s garment factories has grown markedly in recent years, thanks to foreign direct investments from Asia and the Middle East, as well as support from the Export Processing Zones developed by the Kenyan government. Factories have grown larger and more efficient; they now have around 1,500 employees on average compared with around 560 in the year 2000.

However, as a result of the lack of a local upstream industry, manufacturers must import fabrics—which means considerably longer lead times. Fabrics from overseas can take up to 40 days to make their way through customs and to a garment factory. Manufacturers and buyers alike said that another challenge of doing business in Kenya is comparatively high labor costs, with monthly wages for garment workers in the $120 to $150 range. Energy costs are also high, and because the power supply is spotty, factories often have to rely on generators. In Africa, power from generators works out to be four times as expensive as power from the grid. Like Ethiopia, Kenya will need to address compliance and risk issues if it is to attract more international buyers. According to the CPOs we surveyed, corruption, high crime rates, and poor social compliance

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are among the core challenges they face in Kenya.

If East Africa is to experience sustainable growth in garment manufacturing, collaboration among all stakeholders is a must. Governments, for instance, might consider whether to invest in infrastructure, support local entrepreneurs, diversify free-trade agreements, and build market-oriented educational institutions. Suppliers will need to embrace performance improvements and management training, upgrade their facilities and offerings, and enter into long-term partnerships with buyers. All parties will need to make every effort to ensure social and environmental compliance. Buyers, for their part, would do well to support the capability-building efforts of East African suppliers and begin to evaluate the region as a true strategic option rather than just a testing ground.

5.5.4

McKinsey: http://www.mckinsey.com/

industries/retail/our-insights/east-africathe-next-hub-for-apparel-sourcing


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5.5.5 C A M B ODIA

G A R M E N T production

accounts for 16 percent of Cambodia’s total gross domestic product (GDP) and employs 45 percent of its manufacturing workers, according to the South East Asia Textile Business Review 2009. Garment and textile exports comprise 85 percent of the country’s total exports, the Garment Manufacturers Association in Cambodia (GMAC) reports.

In 2011, Cambodia’s garment and textile industry comprised more than 300 factories employing some 335,000 workers, of whom 91 percent were female, according to the Ministry of Commerce. The industry lacks a strong textile-manufacturing base, and operates largely in the final phases of garment production — mainly cut, sew and trim — and imports almost all of its fabric, which is supplied mostly by China as well as other Asian countries. Cambodia’s garment and textile exports have increased annually since 2001 with the exception of 2009, which marked the beginning of the Great Recession. However, Cambodia rebounded strongly from the global economic downturn,

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with garment and textile exports in 2010 increasing 25 percent year-on-year to total US$3.02 billion; and in 2011, increasing 34 percent to total US$4.05 billion.

The United States is the largest importer of Cambodian garments, followed by the European Union (EU). GMAC figures show that in 2011, Cambodia’s garment exports to the United States were valued at approximately US$2.07 billion, representing 51 percent of its total garment exports and a 14-percent increase year-on-year; and garment exports to the EU were valued at approximately US$1.17 billion, representing 29 percent of its total garment exports and a 66-percent increase over 2012. Cambodia benefits from duty-free and quota-free access to the EU and the United States as well as to many other major world markets.

In 2012, China was the largest investor in the Cambodian garment sector, with investments totaling $121 million; followed by Taiwan, $112 million; and South Korea, $70 million; reports Cambodia’s Ministry of Commerce. Other countries that invested in the sector that year include Singapore, the United States, Malaysia, Japan, Thailand, Australia, England and India.

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Today, the industry employs around 20,000 silk weavers who contribute some US$25 million annually to the country’s GDP, according to the World Trade Organization’s International Trade Centre. However, many Cambodian silk artisans have abandoned the craft, and it is feared that the country’s age-old silk industry may completely dissolve. In September 2009, the FAO launched a silk industry rehabilitation project that included the establishment of a Silkworm Egg Production Center, the construction of seven silk farms, and training for employees; however, project funding has been exhausted.

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The Ministry of Commerce is working to draft a plan to help boost the Cambodian silk sector. In addition, scientists at the Silkworm Egg Production Center have obtained the Eri silkworm, a new high-yield silkworm hybrid that feeds exclusively on cassava — a crop that is abundant in Cambodia, and is more resistant to heat and disease than mulberry trees. The silkworm already is being raised in India, Japan and Thailand, and research is being conducted in Cambodia to determine its potential there.

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Cambodia’s garment and textile industry has weathered the economic storm, but it must make some changes to help it continue its upward climb and remain competitive in the global market. The industry’s dependence on fabric imports, foreign investment and export demand make it particularly vulnerable to global financial crises and rising raw material prices. It has been suggested that the country could take advantage of its abundance of bamboo forests by processing bamboo fiber into fabrics — which not only would decrease the cost of importing fabrics but also would add value to its garments.

Many of Cambodia’s garment workers are unskilled, mainly because of poverty and poor education, and consequently, the industry gives skilled jobs to foreign workers, often at higher costs. GMAC is setting up Cambodia’s first garment training institute, financed by the French Development Agency, to train Cambodian garment workers for specialized jobs in apparel making and merchandising to lessen the industry’s dependence on foreign workers and also to increase worker productivity. According to GMAC,

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Cambodian garment workers are less productive than other garment workers in the region, producing only 30 to 40 shirts per hour, compared to Vietnamese workers, with 60 to 70 shirts per hour; and Chinese workers, with 100 to 120 shirts per hour. Labor unrest also contributes to decreasing worker productivity, so health and safety conditions in the country’s garment and textile factories and its meager wages will remain important issues.

Despite challenges, investment in Cambodia’s garment and textile industry has increased: Data from the Council for the Development of Cambodia (CDC) indicate that Cambodia gained 40 new garment factories valued at US$239 million just in the first half of 2012. Prospects for the industry are good, with the Ministry of Commerce reporting that garment and textile exports in 2012 increased 14 percent year-onyear to total US$4.6 billion.

5.5.5

Textile World: http://www.textileworld.

com/uncategorized/2013/05/cambodia-onthe-rise/


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6 NANOFIBER TECHNOLOGY N A N O E N G I N E E R E D func-

ly fused with the textile material, resulting in that textile

you’ll wear. The potential of nanotechnology in the devel-

‘foreign particles’ can no longer be seen or felt.

tional textiles are going to revolutionize the clothing that

opment of new materials in the textile industry is con-

and non-textile components cannot be differentiated and

siderable. On the one hand, existing functionality can be

Lab-on-fiber technology will allow the implementation

make possible the manufacture of textiles with entirely

actuating systems – all integrated in individual optical

new properties or the combination of different functions in one textile material.

A just published review paper in the February 26, 2016 online edition of ACS Nano discusses electronic and photonic nanotechnologies that are integrated with textiles

and shows their applications in displays, sensing, and drug release within the context of performance, durability,

and connectivity. In these smart clothes the textile structures themselves perform electronic or electric functions. Ideally, the nanoelectronic components will be complete-

of sophisticated, autonomous multifunction sensing and fibers. Such multifunctional labs integrated into a sin-

gle optical fiber, exchanging information and combining

sensorial data, could provide effective auto-diagnostic features as well as new photonic and electro-optic functionalities. The general sensing principle of a plasmonic

fiber sensor is described in detail in the review paper: “In

a plasmonic fiber sensor, a glossy surface plasmon mode propagating along a metal/dielectric interface can be excited at its resonance by an optical fiber core-guided mode via evanescent wave coupling when the phase-matching condition between the two modes is satisfied at a certain frequency

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improved using nanotechnology and on the other, it could


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The presence of such a plasmonic mode manifests itself as a spectral dip in the fiber transmission spectrum, with its spectral location corresponding to the phase-matching frequency. Variations in the refractive index of an analyte adjacent to the metal layer could significantly modify the

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work molecules (MOFs). Concluding their review, after an extensive discussion of fabrication methods and functionalities, the authors also address the issues of toxicity

of nanomaterials in textiles as well as commercial trends

phase-matching condition, thus displacing the spectral

in the global nanotechnology-enhanced textile market.

dip in the optical fiber transmission spectrum.� Already,

Similar prototypes of medical clothing, such as a

temperature, humidity, and pressure sensors have been incorporated in textiles. In future, microfluidics can be

germ-killing jacket, can cost upwards to $10,000.

incorporated in thread-based channels for application in

Textile scientists can dip into a wide range of organic and

tiles can give visual sensing information. Combined with

ties that they wish to create. Some nano-textiles that were

point-of-care diagnostics. Combined with LEDs, these tex-

drug-loaded nanoparticles, textile fibers could provide programmable release of therapeutic drugs.

For example, the designer Matilda Ceesay created a hooded body suit (below) embedded at the molecular level with insecticides to ward off mosquitoes infected with malaria.

The cotton mesh used for this anti-malaria garment was coated with a material where an insect repellent and fabric

are bound at the nano level using metal organic frameW-

inorganic nanoparticles that will give textile the properfabricated by Cornell University science fiber assistant

professor Juan Hinestroza using negatively charged silver and palladium nano-particles embedded into positively

charged cotton. These nano-fashions will guard the wearer against bacteria, repel stains, fight off allergies and ox-

idize smog. These nano-textiles cost about $10,000 per yard to make.

6 / 6.1.1

Nanowerk: http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=42713.php Nanowerk: http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=19451.php ACS Publications: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acsnano.5b08176

CNN: http://www.cnn.com/2007/TECH/10/03/nanotextiles/index. html

Cornell University: http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/2007/05/ //// / // // // // // /

student-creates-garment-bacteria-killing-nanofibers


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6.1

i 6.1.1

nnovAtions

V F

C O R P . is invest-

ing in ‘disruptive’ textile design, to lift its performance apparel and footwear lines in 2015. Having linked up with a US-based nanofiber specialist, VF hopes efficient and sustainable technical fabrics will create competitive advantage in the growing outdoor wear arena. The Greensboro, North Carolina-based VF Corp. revealed it will work with FibeRio Technology to develop and design performance fabrics at its innovation centers for apparel and footwear. Based in McAllen, Texas, FibeRio’s research and work has mainly been used in filtration and medical devices, as well as in the production of industrial-market nonwovens (materials made from long fibers, bonded together by chemical, mechanical, heat or solvent treatment). But, with VF’s sudden interest, the nanofiber technology is now being transferred into apparel.

Forcespinning is the only technology platform capable of both commercial scale melt and solution spinning nanofibers - providing a more sustainable method of production because melt spinning does not require solvents. Additionally, Forcespinning can be used to solution spin with vastly smaller amounts of solvents than traditional nanofiber production processes, such as electrospinning.

FibeRio was listed in the Global Cleatnech 100 in 2013 for environmentally friendly technology, selected from thousands of entries across 18 countries. It has garnered a following in recent years for its centrifugal spinThe higher surface area and smaller ning. In centrifugal spinning, pore size of nanofibers improves the the spinning fluid is placed in a

rotating spinning head. When the rotating speed reaches a critical value, the centrifugal force overcomes the surface tension of the spinning fluid to eject a liquid jet from the nozzle tip of the spinning head. The jet then undergoes a stretching process and is eventually deposited on the collector, forming solidified nanofibers. For materials and fabrics, these fibers act as great insulators, are incredibly breathable and are lightweight. Now, with FibeRio’s more efficient and sustainable Fiberspinning technology, nanofibers are getting a more serious look-in from big name sports retailers and performance apparel manufacturers.

Fiberspinning Technology

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vf corp.

characteristics of textiles and uses significantly less material in the end product, which also allows for lighter weight and lower cost. From VF Corp.’s manufacturing centers in California and North Hampshire (the production homes of VF brands The North Face and Timberland) FibreRio’s Forcespinning technology will be tried, for its big-scale turnover capabilities and efficiencies.


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6.1.2 e spin

e S P I N Technologies was

founded with the mission to develop the technology to commercially manufacture nanofibers and nanofiber-based products. Functioning as a self-funded Advanced Research Facility, eSpin has teamed up with several Federal Agencies and Industrial Partners to develop unique solutions for filtration and environmental remediation, functional textiles, and advanced materials. eSpin works with its Partners to enhance existing, as well as develop new-tothe world products by customized application of nanofibers to meet the current and future needs of the Customer.

Today, eSpin has emerged as a global leader in nanofiber technology with commercial manufacturing capabilities and products in the market place. eSpin currently manufactures and markets customized non-woven nanofiber rolls (nWeb™) for filtration and functional textiles. They have also launched high performance nanofiber-based Air Filters (exceed ® with nanofibers) for commercial, industrial, and residential customers requiring superior sub-micron particle filtration.

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6.1.3 X A N OFI + HE MC ON

R A L E I G H , North Car-

olina startup Xanofi has developed a new manufacturing technology that makes nanofiber production faster, less expensive and scalable. Xanofi is currently talking to companies in various industries who may be interested in licensing the technology. And that could integrate nanotechnology in medicine. Nanofibers are typically made one of two ways. Electrospinning uses an electric charge to form the nanofiber. Meltblowing employs extremely high temperatures to form the nanofibers. Both methods are energy intensive and mechanically harsh. Xanofi has developed a third way: a process that makes nanofibers through the shear force from liquids. Wright said that not only will Xanofi’s technology produce nanofibers at half the cost of current manufacturing techniques, it will also produce yields 20 times higher. A patent is pending.

Xanofi’s technology could be particularly suited to nanofiber manufacturing for medical applications. Nanoparticles and surface coatings for medical applications do not hold up well under the high heat required for meltblowing.

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With Xanofi’s method, those temperatures are not an issue.

Nanofibers are already weaving their way into medical applications. Oregon company, HemCon Medical Technologies, has developed a bandage employing nanofibers that consists of different layers that can absorb fluids, deliver antibiotics and stop blood. HemCon makes nanofibers with electrospinning technology from Czech firm Elmarco.

Other potential nanofiber applications include surgical mats to protect organs from surgical adhesions. Made from bioabsorbable materials, these mats could be left in place after surgery, Wright said. In regenerative medicine, nanofibers could form a scaffolding-like structure that gives cells a place to grow. Researchers are working on such applications right now. Brown University scientists are developing a nanofiber patch for the heart that is intended to help the regeneration of dead cardiac tissue. Made from carbon nanofibers, the patch does not interfere with the heart’s natural electrical pathways. Results from some of Brown’s work so far were published last month.

Xanofi spun out from North Carolina State University, where the technology was developed from seven years of research in the chemical engineering department. The company was founded last September and has raised $300,000 in angel investment.


Xanofi now has a pilot machine at its Raleigh facility. Commercial manufacturing is scheduled to start this summer.

While Xanofi’s system offers promise in medical applications, the technology is a platform technology that will be first commercialized in non-medical uses. Xanofi is first seeking co-development agreements or manufacturing contracts with companies in apparel field.

6.1.4

M E DIC AL FIE LD

D R . Laura Frasier of SNS NanoFiber Technologies recently presented “Advances in Medical Nanotextiles,” a discussion of new nonwoven nanofiber mats that could be used for skin decontamination, hemostats, wound dressings, cell culture devices, and tissue engineering scaffolds. In tests for skin decontamination, for example, washing with soap and water was compared to using the mats to remove sunscreen from the skin. The soap and water method actually caused the sunscreen to go deeper into the hair follicles in the skin, but the mats almost completely removed it. Using the mats for wound dressing and hemostats is especially advantageous because the material doesn’t have to be removed.

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Typically, removing dressings can cause a wound to open and bleed again. Additional applications in pharmaceutical cosmetics have also been explored. Bob Martin of ITW/LPS/Professional Brands and MiniFIBERS Inc. in partnership with MiniFIBERS Inc., recently presented new information about their technology to create metal detectable fibers for the food processing industry, including how the companies are loading additives into these fibers and spinning them, as well as the practical application for this new material. They are also working on x-ray detectable fibers for medical applications, “which could have thousands of uses,” in filtration, medical and other markets, Martin said. NF adoption in life science applications is growing. Solution electrospinning does not damage live cells and works with many polymers which have widely characterized behavior in the human body. The webs formed have very uniform, and very fine, pores. This allows small things to flow and stop bigger things – further the pore size has demonstrated its attractiveness as a bed for growing cells. The NF web can be coated with other known components used in biology –receptor proteins used in chromatography or even antibiotics delivered in specific doses. Individually this list of performance criteria is significant – in combination the performance that will be enabled is over whelming.

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There is over a 100 years of history in electrospinning – it is a well characterized process with known performance and theoretical underpinnings. Industrial nanofiber production installations are common and lab scale equipment can be purchased easily at market-based prices. There is considerable literature in academia, intellectual property and industry about what methods are practiced, what recipes are used and their commercial and performance implications. It is not yet a given that nanofibers are the clear fourth gift from textiles to medicine, but many of the signs are there.

6.1.2 / 6.1.4

Le Souk: http://www.lesouk.co/articles/

material-inspiration/vf-corp-delves-deep-into-nanofiber-textiles

FibeRio: http://fiberiotech.com/fiberio-vf-corporation-form-strategic-partner-

ship-lead-apparel-footwear-markets-nanofiber-technology

Innovation in Textiles: http://www.

innovationintextiles.com/fiberio-and-vf-corporation-to-work-on-next-generation-fabrics-with-nanotechnology

eSpin Technologies: http://www.espintechnologies.com

MedCity News: http://medcitynews.

com/2011/06/a-nanofiber-companys-solu-

tion-could-advance-nanotechnology-in-medicine

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6.1.5

M A G N ETOS PINNIN G

R E S E A R C H E R S at the University of Georgia have

developed an inexpensive way to manufacture extraordinarily thin polymer strings commonly known as nanofibers. These polymers can be made from natural materials like proteins or from human-made substances to make plastic, rubber or fiber, including biodegradable materials. The new method, dubbed “magnetospinning” by the researchers, provides a very simple, scalable and safe means for producing very large quantities of nanofibers that can be embedded with a multitude of materials, including live cells and drugs.

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Many thousands of times thinner than the average human hair, nanofibers are used by medical researchers to create advanced wound dressings—and for tissue regeneration, drug testing, stem cell therapies and the delivery of drugs directly to the site of infection. They are also used in other industries to manufacture fuel cells, batteries, filters and light-emitting screens.

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“The process we have developed makes it possible for almost anyone to manufacture high-quality nanofibers without the need for expensive equipment,” said Sergiy Minko, study co-author and the Georgia Power Professor of Polymers, Fibers and Textiles in UGA’s College of Family and Consumer Sciences. “This not only reduces costs, but it also makes it possible for more businesses and researchers to experiment with nanofibers without worrying too much about their budget.” Currently, the most common nanofiber manufacturing technique— electrospinning—uses high-voltage electricity and specially designed equipment to produce the polymer strings. Equipment operators must have extensive training to use the equipment safely. “In contrast to other nanofiber spinning devices, most of the equipment used in our device is very simple,” Minko said. “Essentially, all you need is a magnet, a syringe and a small motor.”

At laboratory scale, a very simple handcrafted setup is capable of producing spools containing hundreds of yards of nanofibers in a matter of seconds. Polymer that has been melted or liquefied in a solution is mixed with biocompatible iron oxide or another magnetic material and placed inside a hypodermic needle.

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This needle is then positioned near a magnet that is fixed atop a spinning circular platter. As the magnet passes by the tip of the needle, a droplet of the polymer fluid stretches out and attaches to the magnet, forming a nanofiber string that winds around the platter as it continues to spin.

6.1.5

Advanced Textile Source: http://advancedtextilessource.com/2014/10/what-todaysmedical-textiles-can-do

Fred Lybrand: http://fredlybrand.

com/2014/04/15/nanofibers-textiles-thirdgreat-gift-to-medicine

The University of Georgia: http://www. fcs.uga.edu/news/story/facs-research-

ers-use-magnetospinning-to-create-nanofibers


The device can spin at more than 1,000 revolutions per minute, enough time to create more than 50 kilometers—or about 31 miles—of ultra-thin nanofiber. It’s a relatively simple process, but it produces a very high-quality product, said Alexander Tokarev, paper co-author and postdoctoral research associate in Minko’s lab. “The product we can make is just as thin and just as strong as nanofibers created through other methods,” he said. “Plus, users don’t have to worry about the safety issues of using high voltages or the complexity of other machines.”

The researchers can use this method to create a variety of nanofibers simply by changing the polymer placed in the syringe. They can, for example, create specially designed nanofibers that will promote the growth of stem cells. Fibers like these are currently used to create scaffolding for lab-grown tissues and organs. Nanofibers can also be loaded with proteins, nanotubes, fluorescent materials and therapeutic agents. “We can use almost any kind of polymer with this platform, and we can tailor make the nanofibers for different applications,” Minko said. “It’s like cooking. We just change the ingredients a bit, and the kind of fiber we get is very different.” The University of Georgia Research Foundation Inc. has filed a patent application on this new method.

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6.1.6

ARMO R TECHNO LO GY

R E C E N T developments in

polymer science have yielded materials strong enough to stop bullets and light enough to wear comfortably. The most common material that most people have heard of is Kevlar. Products like these have had huge implications for law enforcement and military applications – but scientists haven’t stopped pressing for a better solution. Technologies like these are depended on to save lives. As such, it is critical that they pass rigorous inspection from an unbiased analytical testing laboratory before they hit the shelves.

KEVLAR FIBER Detail

Although polymer body armor is already highly bulletproof and lightweight, that hasn’t stopped researchers at the University of Texas at Dallas from trying to develop something even better. A team of scientists has created a polymer nanofiber that can stretch up to seven times its original length and is tougher than Kevlar. The polymer nanofibers are made up of strands of polyvinylidene fluoride spun with polyvinvylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene and twisted into yarn.

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DYNEEMA FIBER Detail

NW Alpine’s Eyebright Jacket, the company calls it “the lightest fully featured waterproof/ breathable jacket on the market”; made with

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Dyneema

The new nanofiber uses its electromagnetic attributes to absorb incoming energy – like that of a bullet or projectile weapon. Kevlar can absorb as much as 80 joules per gram before breaking, but the new fiber is capable of withstanding up 98 kilojoules per gram. The team found inspiration from the human body itself – collagen fibers in bone withstand pressure by converting it into electrical charges, and these nanofibers operate in a similar fashion.

Much like the DMS Dyneema material, these fibers can be woven into yarn to produce a wearable bulletproof fabric. But as it stands, the researchers at UT Dallas can only produce small amounts of the nanofiber at a time. However, new developments in polymer-nanofiber creation may allow scientists to create large quantities of the material. This would pave the way for a new generation of flexible, bullet-stopping body armor.

The best body armor technology uses woven polymer fibers to form an ultra-strong barrier against projectiles. In November 2014, the World Textile Information Network recognized DSM Dynee-

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ma as Best Innovation – Industrial Textiles, Most Innovative Large Company and Launch of the Year, according to Officer. com. DSM Dyneema claims its polymer fibers are the strongest in the world and the material gains its strength by weaving together thousands of these fibers.

Dyneema is a type of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene that can be used as a multi-filament fiber in yarn, in unidirectional sheets and in tape for ballistic materials, according to Law and Order. The source pointed out UHMWP is more than just plastic– that would be like comparing hemp rope and steel cable. UHMWP can provide up to 15 times more strength than steel. DSM Dyneema maintains that its process results in a material that is 25 to 30 percent lighter than competing body armor. For an officer or soldier on duty, this reduced weight can make a huge difference, allowing them to be more agile, tactical, and responsive.


6.1.7 COLOR A DO ST A T E U N IVE R SIT Y

// S Y S T E M O F S H I R T

I N the research of

the new Department of Design and Merchandising Assistant Professor Vivian Li, nanotechnology fibers have a lot to say about improving health practices and finding renewable energy sources. Li is a fiber scientist in her first year at Colorado State University. The nanotech fiber industry is making radical improvements in textiles used in the military, medical, and clean energy fields. Nanotechnologies have the ability to manipulate atoms to enhance product properties making fibers that are lighter, stronger, and responsive to their surroundings. These fibers are extremely small - less than 100

nanometers - but through chemical bonding, can strengthen and alter the surface of any textile. Through a recent grant from CSU Ventures, Li is launching a project on developing responsive nanofibers. Li is studying carbon nanodots that coat nanofibers made for medical bandages, which can respond to bacteria growth by changing colors. Her work could save lives in the near future through nanofibers that can detect signs of impending wound infections. With the help of graduate student, Daniela Jankovska, Li is currently testing cotton to see how well carbon nanodots are adhering and to test their florescent response.

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6.1.6 / 6.1.7 Polymer Solutions: https://

www.polymersolutions.com/

blog/new-polymer-armors-canstop-bullets

Gizmodo: http://gizmodo.

com/new-nanofiber-is-tougherthan-kevlar-and-stretches-7-ti-

1693784361utm_campaign=socialflow_gizmodo_twitter&utm_ source=gizmodo_twitter&utm_ medium=socialflow

Colorado State University: http://www.dm.chhs.colostate. edu/news/item/?ID=81755

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6.1.8 C O N DUC T IV E I NK

U N I V E R S I T Y of Tokyo research-

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ers have developed a new ink that can be printed on textiles in a single step to form highly conductive and stretchable connections (“Printable elastic conductors with a high conductivity for electronic textile applications”). This new functional ink will enable electronic apparel such as sportswear and underwear incorporating sensing devices for measuring a range of biological indicators such a as heart rate and muscle contraction.

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Electrodes, wires, and via holes can be printed by a single step printing process. The muscle activity sensor was produced by printing once on each side of the material’s surface. Current printed electronics, such as transistors, light emitted diodes and solar panels, can be printed on plastic or paper substrates, but these substrates tend to be rigid or hard. The use of soft, stretchable material would enable a new generation of wearable devices that fit themselves to the human body. However, it has proved difficult to make an ink that is both highly conductive and elastic without a complicated multi-step printing process. Now, Professor Takao Someya’s research group at the Universi-

PRINTED

ty of Tokyo’s Graduate School of Engineering has developed an elastic conducting ink that is easily printed on textiles and patterned in a single printing step. This ink is comprised of silver flakes, organic solvent, fluorine rubber and fluorine surfactant. The ink exhibited high conductivity even when it was stretched to more than three times its original length, which marks the highest value reported for stretchable conductors that can be extended to more than two and a half times their original length. Using this new ink, the group created a wrist-band muscle activity sensor by printing an elastic conductor on a sportswear material and combining it with an organic transis-

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tor amplifier circuit. This sensor can measure muscle activity by detecting muscle electrical potentials over an area of 4x4 square centimeters with nine electrodes placed 2 centimeters apart in a 3x3 grid. “Our team aims to develop comfortable wearable devices. This ink was developed as part of this endeavor,” says Someya. “The biggest challenge was obtaining high conductivity and stretchability with a simple one-step printing process. We were able to achieve this by use of a surfactant that allowed the silver flakes to self-assemble at the surface of the printed pattern, ensuring high conductivity.”

Wiring

SPORTSWEAR

PRINTED

Textile

Vital Electrode


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6.1.9

OX ID E FL A K E S

L A R G E flakes of graphene oxide are the essential ingredient in a new recipe for robust carbon fiber created at Rice University. The fiber spun at Rice is unique for the strength of its knots. Most fibers are most likely to snap under tension at the knot, but Rice’s fiber demonstrates what the researchers refer to as “100 percent knot efficiency,” where the fiber is as likely to break anywhere along its length as at the knot. The new work from the Rice lab of chemist James Tour appears online in the journal Advanced Materials. A knotted carbon fiber made at Rice University has the same tensile strength along its entire length. That property may make it suitable for advanced fabrics. The material could be used to increase the strength of many products that use carbon fiber, like composites for strong, light aircraft or fabrics for bulletproof apparel, according to the researchers. Credit goes to the unique properties of graphene oxide flakes created in an environmentally friendly process patented by Rice a few years ago. The flakes that are chemically extracted from graphite seem small. They have an average diameter of 22 microns, a quarter the width of an average human hair. But they’re massive compared with the petroleum-based pitch used in current carbon fiber.

Knotted Carbon Fiber, could be used to increase the strength of many products that use carbon fiber, according to researchers

Like with pitch, the weak van der Waals force holds the graphene flakes together. Unlike pitch, the atom-thick flakes have an enormous surface area and cling to each other like the scales on a fish when pulled into a fiber. The wet-spinning process is similar to one recently used to create highly conductive fibers made of nanotubes, but in this case Xiang just used water as the solvent rather than a super acid. Bendability at the knot is due to the fiber’s bending modulus, which is a measure of its flexibility. Industrial carbon fibers — a source of steel-like strength in ultralight materials ranging from baseball bats to bicycles to bombers — haven’t improved much in decades because the chemistry involved is approaching its limits. But the new carbon fibers spun at room temperature at Rice already show impressive tensile strength and modulus and have the potential to be even stronger when annealed at higher temperatures.

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Heating the fibers to about 2,100 degrees Celsius, the industry standard for making carbon fiber, will likely eliminate the knotting strength, Xiang said, but should greatly improve the material’s tensile strength, which will be good for making novel composite materials. The Rice researchers also created a second type of fiber using smaller 9-micron flakes of graphene oxide. The small-flake fibers, unlike the large, were pulled from the wet-spinning process under tension, which brought the flakes into even better alignment and resulted in fibers with strength approaching that of commercial products, even at room temperature. 6.1.9

Nature Communications: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1038/ ncomms8461

Advanced Materials: http://onlinelibrary.

wiley.com/doi/10.1002/

adma.201301065/abstract

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6.1.10 S POR TS

I N N O V A T I O N S

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bring a maze of complexities to a sport, but elevate the performance level of an athlete and reduce the chances of injury, making sport more enjoyable for the spectators and the athletes. The world of competitive sport is highly influenced by even the minute changes in sports equipment, which could be a matter of winning or losing. In recent times, the sports equipment industry has emerged as a sophisticated yet commercially viable hi-tech industry where advances have revolutionized sports. Additionally, various world-level championships like Olympics and World Cups have popularized the sports equipment industry up to a great extent, making it a lucrative business opportunity for public as well as private venture capitalists. Nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), silica nanoparticles (SNPs), nanoclays fullerenes, etc. are being incorporated into various sports equipment to improve the performance of athletes as well as equipment. Each of these nanomaterials is responsible for an added advantage such as high strength and stiffness, durability, reduced weight, abrasion resistance, etc. in sporting equipment.

Various companies in the area of sporting equipment are coming up with innovative technologies/products, which include Double Core™ & BLX™ by Wilson (tennis), Air D-Fence™ & Nanolok™ by InMat (tennis), nano-CFC® by Holmenkol (skiing), N-FUSED™ by Easton (archery), NSi™ from St. Croix (fly-fishing), Nanopreme™ by Yonex (golf), etc. Over the years, with the evolution of materials in sports equipment, there has

been reduction in the weight of equipment accompanied by considerable improvement in its strength. CNTs, the most frequently used material in nano-enhanced sporting equipment have a higher specific strength and specific stiffness than other conventional materials. They are 100 times stronger but 6 times lighter than steel and as stiff as diamond, which make them an ideal component for making sporting equipment where low weight and high strength are of prime importance. Additionally, various nanocomposites incorporating CNTs are far superior in terms of strength and durability to other conventional materials used in sporting equipment. CNTs are being used to create super-strong handlebars for mountain-bikes, durable tennis racquets and ultra-lightweight bicycle frames. Many champion road-racing cyclists such as Cadel Lee Evans and Floyd Landis won various tournaments including Tour de France using bicycles having CNT incorporated plastic frames. The BMC SLC01 Pro Machine bicycles used by these cyclists were manufactured by the Swiss company, Bicycle Manufacturing Co. (BMC), which weighed just 1055 grams, but possessed 400 times greater tubular strength than steel.

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6.1.11 P ET T EX T IL E S

6.1.10 / 6.1.11 / 6.1.12 Nanowerk: http://www.nanowerk.com/ spotlight/spotid=30661.php

Dog Gone Smart: http://dgspetproducts.

N A N O Pet Products, LLC, a

ExtremeTech: http://www.extremetech.

com/extreme/182065-carbon-nanotube-

Nano Pet Products’ Dog Gone Smart™ Bed, stays clean and kill bacteria naturally

clothing-could-protect-from-poison-gas

Nano Research: http://link.springer.com/ article/10.1007%2Fs12274-014-0405-3

Nano Pet Products’ Dog Gone Smart™ Apparel stands up to the wear and tear of the most active dog

//// / // // // // // /

Wilton, Connecticut-based company dedicated to bringing cleaner and healthier pet products to pet owners worldwide through nanotechnology, recently debuted its Dog Gone Smart Wear brand dog apparel for the first time in the U.S. at The Global Pet Expo. The company manufactures and designs state-of-the-art pet products, The Dog Gone Smart™ Bed and Dog Gone Smart™ Wear apparel line, that utilize a unique blend of patented and award-winning NanoSphere® and ActiveSilver™ performance finishes based on nanotechnology. Using the performance fabric finishes NanoSphere® and ActiveSilver®, these beds stay clean and kill bacteria naturally, standing up to the wear and tear of the most active dog.”

com/index.html


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6.1.12 N A N OT U B E S IN C LOT H IN G

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Because nanotubes further enhance the breakdown capability of the catalyst and can be woven into fabric easily, the NIST team members say the findings could help

protect military personnel involved in cleanup operations. Sarin—used in a 1995 Tokyo subway attack—

N E R V E A G E N T S

are among the world’s most feared chemical weapons, but scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have demonstrated a way to engineer carbon nanotubes to dismantle the molecules of a major class of these chemicals. In principle, they say, the nanotubes could be woven into clothing that destroys the nerve agents on contact before they reach the skin. Single-walled carbon nanotubes, represented by the gray cylinders, can be combined with a catalyst (purple ribbons) that is capable of breaking down Sarin and related toxins into less dangerous components. The idea might one day be used to create clothing for increased protection against nerve agents. The team’s experiments show that nanotubes—special molecules that resemble cylinders formed of chicken wire—can be combined with a copper-based catalyst able to break apart a key chemical bond in the class of nerve agents that includes Sarin. A small amount of catalyst can break this bond in a large number of molecules, potentially rendering a nerve agent far less harmful.

is one of several deadly nerve

agents of a group called organophosphates. Many are classified

as weapons of mass destruction. While organophosphates are harmful if inhaled, they also are dangerous if absorbed through the skin, and can be even be re-released

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solution was initially transparent, almost like water,” says the team’s John Heddleston, “but as soon as we added the paper, the solution started to turn yellow as the

breakdown product accumulated. Measuring this color change over

time told us the amount and rate of catalysis. We began to see a noticeable difference within an hour, and the longer we left it, the more yel-

low it became.” The catalyst-nano-

tube complex far outperformed the catalyst alone.

from clothing if not thoroughly decontaminated. To protect themselves during research, the team did not work with actual nerve

agents, but instead used a “mimic molecule” that contains a chemical bond identical to the one found in organophosphates. Breaking this bond splits the molecule into pieces that are far less dangerous.

The team developed a way to attach the catalyst molecule to the nanotubes and then tested the effectiveness of the tube-cat-

alyst complex to break the bonds. To perform the test, the complex was deposited onto a small sheet of paper and put into a solution containing the mimic molecule. For comparison, the catalyst without nanotubes was tested simultane-

ously in a different solution. Then it was a simple matter of stirring and watching chemistry in action. “The

Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes, represented by gray cylinder, can be combined with a catalyst that is capable of breaking down Sarin and related toxins into less dangerous components


6.1.13 M IL IT A RY UN IF OR M S

M I L I T A R Y uniforms

of the future may offer a new layer of critical protection to wearers thanks to research by teams at the University of Massachusetts Amherst and several other institutions who are developing a nanotube-based fabric that repels chemical and biological agents. UMass Amherst polymer scientists Kenneth Carter and James Watkins, collaborating with team leader Francesco Fornasiero of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), recently received a five-year $1.8 million grant to design ways to manufacture the new material as part of a $13 million project funded by the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency. It’s estimated that the new uniforms could be deployed in the field in less than 10 years. The researchers say the fabric will be able to switch reversibly from a highly breathable state to a protective one in response to the presence of the environmental threat without the need for an external control system. In the protective state, the uniform material will block the chemical threat while maintaining a good breathability level. “The uniform will be like a smart second skin that

// S Y S T E M O F S H I R T

responds to the environment,” says Fornasiero. UMass Amherst polymer scientists bring expertise in additive-driven assembly processes that bring polymers and nanoparticles together to produce hybrid functional materials to the project. Membrane and layer fabrication will take place in part through the university’s Roll-to-Roll Nanofabrication Laboratory.

The new fabric’s reversibility is due to highly breathable membranes with pores made of a few-nanometer-wide, vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes modified with a functional surface layer designed to respond to the presence of a chemical warfare agent, says Watkins at UMass Amherst. The threat response would be triggered by direct chemical warfare agent attack. The fabric would switch to a protective state by closing the pore entrance or by shedding the contaminated surface layer.

For wearer comfort and safety, high breathability is a critical requirement for protective clothing to prevent heat stress when military personnel are engaged in missions in contaminated environments. To provide high breathability, the new composite material will take advantage of the unique transport properties of carbon nanotube pores, which offer gas transport rates two orders of magnitude faster than any other pore of similar size. The polymer scientists point out that biological agents such as bacteria and viruses are close to 10 nanometers in size.

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Because the membrane pores on the uniform are only a few nanometers wide, these membranes will block such agents.

However, chemical agents such as mustard gas and nerve gas can be much smaller and require the membrane pores to be able to react to block that threat. To create a multifunctional membrane, the research team plans to modify the surface of the original prototype carbon nanotube membranes with chemical threat responsive functional groups. These functional groups sense and block the threat like gatekeepers on entrance.

The scientists also plan to develop a second, “shedding” response scheme in which the fabric exfoliates upon reaction with a chemical agent. In this way, the fabric will be able to block chemical agents such as sulfur mustard (blister agent), GD and VX nerve agents, toxins such as staphylococcal enterotoxin and biological spores such as anthrax. Carter at UMass Amherst says, “Mimicking the way real skin responds to threats by exfoliation and shedding of contaminated areas will allow for a dynamic responsive garment, all achieved through controlled chemical reactions in this new advanced fabric.”

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6.1.14 A NT I- POL L E N C O A TS

// S Y S T E M O F S H I R T

J A P A N E S E apparel manufacturer Sanyo Shokai has released to the market a line of men’s coats made with a nanotechnology-treated fabric that repels water and pollen. The high-density fabric undergoes a special resin treatment using a nanoscale coating process called, NanoMATRIX technology developed by Japanese company, Toray. According to the article, NanoMATRIX technology enables “the formation of molecular arrangement and molecular assembly necessary to bring out further advanced functionalities in textile processing” than those achievable with existing nano-processing technologies. The article says that NanoMATRIX is expected to expand the number of applications for which materials can be used.

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Sanyo Shokai’s Anti-Pollen Coat, using a fabric developed by Toray; produced in a nanotechnology process that repels water and pollen

6.1.13 / 6.1.14 UMass Amherst: https://www.umass. edu/newsoffice/article/umass-am-

herst-research-develops-%E2%80%98second-skin%E2%80%99-military-fabric-repel-chemical-and-biological

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: https://www.llnl.gov/news/new-military-apparel-repels-chemical-and-biolog-

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ical-agents

Nanowerk: http://www.nanowerk.com/ news/newsid=4142.php

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6.1.15 IN F OR M A T ION DIS P L A YS

R E S E A R C H E R S

The world’s first stretchable and conformable thin-film transistor (TFT) driven LED display laminated into textiles developed by Holst Centre, imec and CSMT. Wearable devices such as healthcare monitors and activity trackers are now a part of everyday life for many people. Today’s wearables are separate devices that users must remember to wear. The next step forward will be to integrate these devices into our clothing. Doing so will make wearable devices less obtrusive and more comfortable, encouraging people to use them more regularly and, hence, increasing the quality of data collected. A key step towards realizing wearable devices in clothing is creating displays that can be integrated into textiles to allow interaction with the wearer.

The Worlds’s First Stretchable and Conformable Thin-Film Transistor (TFT), driven LED display laminated into textiles developed by Holst Centre, imec and CSMT

The conformable display is very thin and mechanically stretchable. A finegrain veresion of the proven meander interconnect technology was developed y the CMST lab at Ghet University and Holst Centre to link standard (rigid) LEDs into a flexible and stretchable display. The LED displays are fabricated on a polyimide substrate and encapsulated in rubber, allowing the displays to be laminated in to textiles that can be washed. Importantly, the technology uses fabrication steps that are known to the manufacturing industry, enabling rapid industrialization. Following an initial demonstration at the Society for Information Display’s Display Wekk in San Jose, USA earlier this year, Holst Centre has presented the next generation of the display at the International Meeting on Information Display (IMID) in Daegu, Korea. Smaller LEDs are now mounted on an amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO)

//// / // // // // // /

from Holst Centre, imec and CMST, imec’s associated lab at Ghent University, have demonstrated the world’s first stretchable and conformable thin-film transistor (TFT) driven LED display laminated into textiles. This paves the way to wearable displays in clothing providing users with feedback.


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6.1.16 N A N OW IR E C LOT H IN G

T O stay warm when tempera-

//// / // // // // // /

tures drop outside, we heat our indoor spaces — even when no one is in them. But scientists have now developed a novel nanowire coating for clothes that can both generate heat and trap the heat from our bodies better than regular clothes. They report on their technology, which could help us reduce our reliance on conventional energy sources, in the ACS journal Nano Letters.

// S Y S T E M O F S H I R T

Yi Cui and colleagues note that nearly half of global energy consumption goes toward heating buildings and homes. But this comfort comes with a considerable environmental cost – it’s responsible for up to a third of the world’s total greenhouse gas emissions. Scientists and policymakers have tried to reduce the impact of indoor heating by improving insulation and construction materials to keep fuel-generated warmth inside. Cui’s team wanted to take a different approach and focus on people rather than spaces.

The researchers developed lightweight, breathable mesh materials that are flexible enough to coat normal clothes. When compared to regular clothing material, the special nanowire cloth trapped body heat far more effectively. Because the coatings are made out of conductive materials, they can also be actively warmed with an electricity source to further crank up the heat. The researchers calculated that their thermal textiles could save about 1,000 kilowatt hours per person every year — that’s about how much electricity an average U.S. home consumes in one month.

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Nanowire-Coated Fabric, unlike normal cloth, the silver nanowire-coated cloth traps and retains heat from infrared radiation. The cloth can also conduct electricity when it’s near electrical devices, creating even more heat.

6.1.16 / 6.1.17 / 6.1.18 Holst Centre: http://www.holstcentre.com/ news---press/2015/wearable-displays

American Chemical Society: http://www. acs.org/content/acs/en/pressroom/presspacs/2015/acs-presspac-january-7-2015/

nanowire-clothing-could-keep-people-warmwithout-heating-everything-else.html

Gizmodo: http://gizmodo.com/5888248/

carbon-nanotube-coated-fibers-could-oneday-lead-to-self-heating-clothing

Innovation in Textiles: http://www.

innovationintextiles.com/polands-textile-re-

search-institute-develops-new-antiuv-electromagnetic-textiles

Innovation in Textiles: http://www.innova-

tionintextiles.com/polands-nanomitex-devel-

ops-thermoactive-bioactive-and-photocatalytic-textiles


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6.1.18 6.1.17 KUR A R AY L IV IN G

T EXTI LE RESEARCH INSTI TUTE

P O L A N D ’ S Textile Research Institute (TRI) has developed new textiles enabled with anti-UV and anti-electromagnetic capacities. Protective clothing developed with the use of these textiles will be supplied to law enforcement officers, healthcare workers, farmers and other professions, but they will also be used in the manufacturing of curtains and other products.

Kuraray’s Living’s CLAPURE, a propylene nonwoven fabric which feature long-lasting insect control and antibacterial effectiveness

W O R K I N G with Hokkaido University, Kuraray Living has created a soft washable fabric woven with carbon nanotube coated fibers that produces heat when electricity is applied. The material has been in development since 2007, but recent advancements in carbon nanotube technology have given its creators hope that it could be used in commercial products. Once the expensive material can be mass produced so that it comes with a consumer-friendly price tag, products like heated sidewalk mats and cushions could start hitting the market.

Following research and development activities, the TRI is currently pursuing projects which aim to introduce its products to both the domestic and foreign markets, according to the institute’s management. In addition to protective textiles, which are enabled with anti-UV and can be used to manufacture a wide range of special clothing for various professions, other innovative solutions developed by the TRI include protective textile screens fitted with anti-electromagnetic capabilities.

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According to Sójka-Ledakowicz, these products can be used to protect healthcare professionals and patients from the adverse effects of medical devices. In addition to this, the screens are enabled to block the electromagnetic field emitted by electrical energy lines and radio communication equipment. As works on launching production of such protective textile screens are advancing, the institute has been contacted by a Łódź-based hospital, which is interested in acquiring such products. Other projects undertaken by the Polish consortium comprise developing new textile structures, including woven and knitted fabrics, fitted with camouflage properties in visible (VIS) and near infra-red (IR) radiation bands.

Protective clothing, with textiles enabled with anti-UV and anti electromagnetic capacities; developed by Textile Research Institute (TRI)


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7 WEARABLE TECHNOLOGY W E A R A B L E

technology, wearables,

network of physical objects or “things� embedded with

fashion electronics are clothing and accessories incorpo-

objects to exchange data with a manufacturer, operator

fashionable technology, wearable devices, tech togs, or rating computer and advanced electronic technologies. The designs often incorporate practical functions and features.

Wearable devices such as activity trackers are a good ex-

electronics, software, sensors and connectivity to enable

and/or other connected devices, without requiring human intervention. 5

Wikipedia : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wearable_technology

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ample of the Internet of Things, since they are part of the


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7.1 M

AINSTREAM APPAREL COMPANIES

7.1.1 TOM M Y H I L FIGE R

I N 2014 Tommy Hilfiger released limited edition solar powered jackets for men and women. The purpose of these jackets are to charge your electronic devices when you are unable to charge it from a traditional electric outlet. The technology in the jackets was developed with partnership between Hilfiger and Pvilion. The solar panels are flexible and attached onto the jackets with snaps. The solar panels have a cable that connects to batteries located in the front section of the jacket, which also has the USB port (Starr, 2014).

Tommy Hilfiger Solar Powered Jackets can charge your electronic devices when you are unable to charge it from a traditional electric outlet.

Since the energy generated depends on the sun, variables to consider for the solar powered panels performance include the amount and intensity of UV rays (A, B, and C), time, geographic location, and season that the panels are exposed to the sun. A limitation to this type of wearable technology is the added bulk and weight of the battery pack and the solar panels themselves. Also the performance of the jackets are dependent on the sun, so they may be best suited for 4 people living in regions with many sunny days. However, then the jacket itself may not be comfortable to wear in warmer, sunnier conditions.


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7.1.2

NE W B A L A NCE

A T CES this year, New Balance an-

nounced that they will be launching a new division dedicated to improving athletic performance. New Balance’s new division will be called New Balance Digital Sport and it will attempt to better understand, motivate and improve performance of athletes via digital experiences and new wearable technologies. The launch of Digital Sport will have New Balance partnering with some major tech companies such as, Google, Intel, Strava and Zepp, to create smart wearables that are optimized for athletic apparel and movements. The main goal will be to build a digital ecosystem for athletes that use New Balance connected wearables.

New Balance Digital Sport will initially focus on three product categories: devices, including the smart-watch; embedded technology, such as intelligent sensors integrated into New Balance footwear and apparel; and performance sport, including sports equipment micro-fob that senses, analyzes and provides feedback on the athlete’s performance. New Balance Run Club will be a digital and physical community of runners where Strava technology will allow runners to connect online and offline. Through the Run Club and New Balance’s future wearables runners will share goals and accomplishments, track performance and ultimately improve if all goes to plan.

New Balance Digital Sport, will attempt to better understand, motivate and improve performance of athletes via digital experiences and new wearable technologies


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7.1.3 RA LP H LAUREN

//// / // // //

R A L P H Lauren has incorporated biosensors into its 2014 Polo shirts. The Polar Tech Shirt is flexible, with silver coated fibers woven throughout the shirt. The fibers help transmit the data collected from the body to a black box by Bluetooth to your smartphone (Kosir, 2015). OMsignal technology (discussed later in this report) was integrated into the shirt. It monitors heart rate, breathing rhythm, calories burnt and intensity of workout activity. The shirt is also made of compression fabric (polyester, nylon, spandex blend), which helps with muscle recovery and blood flow (The PolarTech Shirt, 2016).

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This shirt is intended to help coaches track their athletes progress and it is available for purchasing today. An advisory note cautions that the shirt is not intended to be used for athletes participating in contact sports (football, hockey, boxing, water sports, wrestling). The reason is to prevent injury from the hard black box. The black box is attached with snaps and another caution indicates that it should be removed before washing. It should not get wet, and ideally it should be in cool dry conditions before charging. The black box may also not work properly if there is interference from radio or TV transmissions, so the manual gives guidance on how to resolve those issues (The PolarTech Shirt, 2016) (Lauren, 2016). Another potential issue is the lifespan of the silver fibers because they will oxidize overtime and become non-functional for data transfer.

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SIZE DOWN Ensures snug fit

FLAT SEAMS Minimize friction

SILVER FIBERS WOVEN DIRECTLY INTO FABRIC DETACHABLE BLACK BOX

Read real-time biometric data

Streams stat directly to your iPhone to your iPhone or iPod touch

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Ralph Lauren’s Polar Tech Shirt, Details


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7.2

N

EW WEARABLE TECH COMPANIES

7.2.1 HE DDOKO

H E D D O K O

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smart clothes is designed by a Canadian company that was founded in 2014. The clothes is for people who want to reach fitness goals, reduce injury, get feedback in real time, and get help with rehabilitation if injured. The clothes can be very useful for athletic trainers and coaches to monitor performance of their athletes. Through the Heddoko interface on the web and app, the users can see the progress of other athletes and learn new techniques to improve through one another. (Heddoko, 2016) (Kosir, 2015).

The performance output is given instantly using the Heddoko app on a smart phone or through the web. Through the smart phone app, the movement can be seen in 3D space. The movement is analyzed, recorded, and verbal feedback is given. The web app provides information on injuries, joint angles, precision of movement, force applied to joints, and a dashboard for coaches to track the team progress. Currently, the shirt is available for pre-order directly on the Heddoko website (Heddoko, 2016).

Heddoko Smart Clothes, Full-Body Suit

Heddoko Smart Clothes, 3D Monitoring on Physical Activity

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7.2.2 H E XOS KIN

H E X O S K I N

Hexoskin, In Action

The shirt measures the heart (rate, rate recovery, rate variability), breathing rate, VO2 max, minute ventilation, activity level, acceleration, calories, cadence, and step count. This information gives a sense of how tough your workout is. The fabric is machine washable, data is transmitted via Bluetooth to an app on your smartphone or tablet, and the battery has a 14hr life (Hexoskin, 2016) (Kosir, 2015).

Hexoskin Smart Shirts

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is a Canadian company that was opened in 2006. The Hexoskin smart shirt is currently used by Olympic athletes, professional athletes, medical researchers, and a Canadian space agency. Biking, running, sky diving, weight lifting are physical activities people can do with the clothing for performance tracking. Hexoskin sees their clothes in potential applications such as sport performance, sleep medicine, cardiology, defense, and space exploration. To date, the company has launched two successful Indiegogo fundraising campaigns (St. Jean, 2016). Hexoskin claims its clothes is available on the market for kids, men, women, but it is designed more for 6 professional athletes.


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7.2.3 C I TYZE N S C I E N C ES

// S Y S T E M O F S H I R T

C I T Y Z E N Sciences, a French

company, has developed smart clothes with microsensors since 2008. This company is part of the Smart System program in France, which is larger hub of smart tech scientists. The target market is amateur and professional athletes (Kosir, 2015) (Cityzen Sciences, 2016). The D-shirt is available for clients one-on-one and not for mass production. The shirt has embedded microsensors, so it is capable of monitoring body temperature, heart beat/rate, calories burnt, breathing, sleep quality, workout intensity and speed, muscle activity, and humidity (Kosir, 2015). The sensors are linked

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via Bluetooth to a smartphone for visual representation of the data. New ideas for the D-shirt include incorporating GPS, and electrocardiogram (ECG) sensors (Charara, 2015). Traditionally ECG sensors are used to monitor the heart’s electrical activity (Chen, 2014). Today, its use has extended to store a person’s heart rhythm and match it, like a fingerprint, for identity verification (Basulto, 2014). If Cityzen Sciences is able to develop this technology with carbon fibers into clothes, it can be very useful to military and government personnel.

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Schematic of Cityzen Science’s Digital-Shirt

Cityzen Sciences is currently focusing on developing and selling its sensor technology and big data collection capabilities. The target market for these technologies are sports teams, health companies, and large communication networks like for truckers and broadcasters (Charara, 2015).


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7.2.4 omsignal

O M S I G N A L based

in the United States has developed a biometric sports bra and shirt. Their smart clothing monitor several indicators for personalized health and fitness training (Kosir, 2015).

OMSignal Shirt

OM Smart App

7.1.3 / 7.2.1 / 7.2.3 / 7.2.4 WWD: http://wwd.com/fashion-news/fashion-features/ralph-lauren-polotech-smartshirt-10204865

Sport Techie: http://www.sporttechie.

com/2016/01/05/new-balance-launch-

es-new-division-to-create-digital-experiences-and-wearable-technologies-for-athletes Hedekko: http://www.heddoko.com

Hexoskin: http://www.hexoskin.com

Cityzen Sciences: http://www.cityzensciences.fr/en

OM Smart Box

OMsignal: http://omsignal.com/pages/ omsignal-bra

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Three components are needed (1) the smart fabric, (2) the OM smart box, and (3) the app on a smartphone. The fabric is made of conductive yarns to ensure an accurate reading, it has a unique knit design for greater breathability and comfort, good moisture wicking, and compression to improve blood circulation and muscle recuperation. The OM smart box is lightweight with a waterproof shell. It can store your data or stream it in real time to the app. The box uses a battery that can last for one day use before charging again. The smart app measures heart rate (rest, peak, and recovery states), breathing rhythm (can push yourself if breathing slowly), push score (how hard you’re pushing yourself in strength-training exercises), steps taken, and calories burned. The app can also keep track of fitness goals and personal milestones (OM Signal, 2016).


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7.2.5 A TH OS

A T H O S is a company based in United States that developed the first smart clothing to regulate muscle productivity in real time. The sensors collect electromyography (EMG) data. EMG records electrical signals that the body makes during physical activity. These signals tells how much of a particular muscle you are using. Typically EMG has been used for rehab and to treat muscle diseases. The clothing and app can be like a virtual fitness trainer. This smart clothing is intended to serve professional athletes, like NBA basketball players (Rao, 2013) (Kosir, 2015).

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Figure 3.2.5-B shows examples of Athos smart clothing on the market today. The diagram in Figure 3.2.5-A represents how a person receives muscle data from the sensors based on color coding. For example, the weight lifter is applying pressure on his shoulders and thighs (in green). Moreover, the lifter applies the most pressure is on his right inner muscle (in red). This information would help the lifter adjust his posture so that all the muscles can receive the same pressure and it can help to avoid injury. Other output info includes heart rate, breathing, and muscle activity (Jackson, 2015).

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Figure 3.2.5-A. Biosensing in Action

Special features of the clothes are that they have a 4-way stretch to increase comfort and movement capabilities, and the nylon/lyca, warp knit fabric has compression properties. Muscle compression decreases muscle tiredness and soreness after the physical activity. Figure 3.2.5-B shows technical information of the smart shirt and short. The pushable, oval pods collect the data, and are called The Core. Many biosensors are embedded in clothing to closely monitor muscle activity (Kosir, 2015).

14 UPPER BODY BIOSENSORS

12 EMG and 2 Heart Rates

ATHOS CORE Lasts up to 10 hours; 200 ft Wi-Fi range; Low energy Bluetooth; Built-in accelerometer; Water-resistant; Compatible with all Athos clothes

12 LOWER BODY BIOSENSORS 8 EMG and 4 Heart Rates

Figure 3.2.5-B. Technical Details of Athos Garments


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7.2.6 C LOT HIN G+

C L O T H I N G + is

a company based in Finland and Hong Kong that has been developing wearable biosensors for clothing since the late 1990s. The wearable technology of Clothing+ can serve for athletic training, personal fitness, medical and healthcare monitoring. Clothing+ was the first to produce heart beat and heart rate sensor shirts. Design-wise, the sensors are applied to the back of shirts and as a strap across the torso (Kosir, 2015).

Figure 3.2.6 shows an example of the shirt with a sensor strap. The sensor calculates heart rate variability to inform how well the body transports oxygen through the blood to your muscles. Heart rate variability is measured by the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2), which is the maximum rate that the body can use oxygen for maximum work (Polar, 2016). If the oxygen is transported well and it is easy for you to breathe, you wouldn’t feel tired quickly. The

measurement can also help determine how much time is needed for the body to recover after a physical activity based on your sleep. The data can be signaled to an app that conveys the information in an understandable way. The biosensor on the shirts is low energy and takes advantage of Bluetooth wireless technology (Jabil 2015a and b).

Although the sensor creates bulkiness on the shirt, the technology is free of cables and wires. Clothing+ has also developed methods to lengthen life of their wearable tech by making products machine washable and using universal technology that can be compatible with new innovations coming out in electronics. Major clients of Clothing+ include hospitals, Adidas, Garmin, Under Armour, Suunto, and Polar. Clothing+ was recently acquired by Jabil, a huge company in etextile manufacturing. This acquisition means they will continue with mass production and as leaders in this area (Kosir, 2015) (Jabil 2015a and b).

CHEST STRAP

Figure 3.2.6. Clothing+ Smart Shirt

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With heart rate sensor


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7.2.7 XS E N S IO

X S E N S I O is

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a company that aims to develop smart clothing for runners. Its biosensing technology is currently worked on in laboratories at the Nanoelectronic Devices Lab (EPFL University in Switzerland). As proof-of-concept, Figure 3.2.7 shows a sticky microchip that can be applied to the skin’s surface to monitor metabolites, electrolytes, and proteins from sweat. The chip can potentially measure the hydration, stress, and fatigue levels of competitive runners in real time to help them improve performance (Kosir, 2015).

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Currently, the microchip works by collecting liquid (or sweat) with a small pump. The sweat would flow through a channel on the chip to a “FinFET” transistor. This transistor is very small (20 nanometers), so many sensors can be put on the chip to detect different chemical elements from the sweat. The sweat carries an electric charge that activates the sensor to analyze. A novel layered design of the chip has led it to have dual functionality as (1) a sensor and (2) an amplifier of the electric signal coming from the transis-

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tors and circuits. Usually the sensor and amplifier are separate. The 2-in-1 chip increases accuracy of the measurement, and the chip is sensitive to detect very low concentrations as well. The chip runs on low power and is very stable compared to competitive biosensor technology like nanowires and nanotubes. The next steps in this research is removing the pump and exploring how the sweat can flow though the chip by moisture-wicking from the skin (Xsensio, 2016) (Pessina, 2015) (Rigante, 2015).

Figure 3.2.7. Xsensio’s Sticky Microchip for Biosensing

As previously mentioned, the sensor can detect several compounds from sweat (metabolites, electrolytes, proteins). The metabolites can be vitamins, antioxidants, and amino acids. The electrolytes are compounds, like calcium, potassium, magnesium, and sodium, which carry electric charge and are lost through sweat. Electrolytes greatly influence muscle activity, a balanced pH, and water in the body, so they are very important to monitor for an athlete (Dugdale, 2013). The proteins released from sweat can also be interesting to evaluate because some proteins have antimicrobial properties that protect against pathogens and infectious diseases (Wong, 2001).


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A IQ S M A R T C LOT HING

A I Q Smart Clothing

is a company based in Asia that has developed smart clothes for fitness and health purposes since 2009. They use Kings Metal Fiber technology, which is composed of flexible, conductive stainless steel yarns (Kosir, 2015). These yarns have good durability for washing, and will not oxidize to allow for long-lasting, functional use. Since the yarns don’t oxidize, they would not have harmful reaction to your skin or electronic device. This is important to note because silver coated yarns are a competitor, conductive yarn on the market. A disadvantage to silver yarns are that they oxidize and can lose performance capabilities.

One example of AIQ Smart Clothing is The ThermoMan shown in Figure 3.2.8-A. The electronic heating garments keep the wearer warm without the use of large heating panels or pads that weigh you down while performing outdoor and water activities. The uniquely coated stainless steel yarn is integrated into a special fabric to ensure safety and maintain its softness. Figure 3.2.8-B shows a sample of a clothing piece with ShieldMan technology that uses EZ-Safer fabrics. These fabrics are unique because they protect against potentially harmful, electromagnetic radiation emitted from technology used everyday, like a cell phone and computer (AIQ Smart Clothing, 2016) (Aires Technologies, 2015). One example of AIQ Smart Clothing is The ThermoMan shown in Figure 3.2.8-A. The electronic heating garments keep the wearer warm without the use of large heating panels or pads that weigh you down while performing outdoor and water activities. The uniquely coated stainless steel yarn is integrated into a special fabric to

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Figure 3.2.8-A. ThermoMan, AIQ Smart Clothing

ensure safety and maintain its softness. Figure 3.2.8-B shows a sample of a clothing piece with ShieldMan technology that uses EZ-Safer fabrics. These fabrics are unique because they protect against potentially harmful, electromagnetic radiation emitted from technology used everyday, like a cell phone and computer (AIQ Smart Clothing, 2016) (Aires Technologies, 2015). The incredible aspect to AIQ Smart Clothing is also in their designs. The smart clothing looks very comfortable due to the flexibility of the yarns. This can make their clothing very easy to wear and for people to integrate into their everyday lives. Other advances that AIQ Smart Clothing has developed includes lighting for increased safety, heating in cold weather conditions, and biomonitoring for fitness tracking (AIQ Smart Clothing, 2016).

STAINLESS STEEL Fibers / EZ-Safer Fabrics

Figure 3.2.8-B. ShieldMan Technology Garment

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7.2.9

DUC E R E T EC H N OLOGI E S : L E C H A L S M AR T S HOE

D U C E R E -

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Technologies, a company based in India, has produced Lechal smart shoes and insoles that can provide GPS direction to the wearer. Figure 3.2.9-A displays a side view of the smart shoe. Figure 3.2.9-B and 3.2.9-C show the side and back views of the smart insole. The motion sensor technology and GPS capabilities in these products were developed with a Google Maps partnership (Sung, 2015). A chargeable pod is inserted onto the shoe or the bottom of the insole. The pod has Bluetooth, which can sync to an app on your smartphone to collect the directions in real-time.

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POD WITH MOTION SENSOR TECH

It would inform you of the direction to turn by vibrating. For example, if the right shoe vibrates, the shoe is saying you should make a right turn. You would be able to adjust the vibration intensity and the pattern (Lechal, 2016). The smart shoes and insoles are available on the market today. The motivation behind it is that people no longer have to look down at their phones while walking, running, or biking to new locations. People can get around more safely and be alert to hazards in public places by being able to look around instead of having their eyes on their phones for guidance. Additionally, the smart shoe was developed to help people who are visually impaired, help track progress for fitness, and alert people if they are leaving their smartphones behind (Kooser, 2014).

155

Put in pocket of smart shoe

Figure 3.2.9-A. Ducere Technologies, Lechal Smart Shoe

Figure 3.2.9-B. Ducere Technologies, Side View of Lechal Insole

POD WITH MOTION SENSOR TECH Put in pocket of smart shoe

Figure 3.2.9-C. Ducere Technologies, Back View of Lechal Insole


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7.2.11

CANCERDETECTI NG CLOTHI NG.CO M

7.2.10 R - S HIR T

R - S H I R T is a French based

company who uses a small waterproof chip that is sewn into the clothes. Depending on the needs and wants of the customer, R-shirt is able to customize to any specifications. The company is marketing their smartwear designs to people who have a vigorous office life. They market the fact that company meetings can take place from anywhere in the world. There are various easy to use apps that comes with R-shirt technology. The R-shirt chip is also very good to use as a GPS locator for children. R-shirt’s iBeacon chip is compatible with both iOS and Android processing systems. This company produces their own clothes and can work with any other line of clothing. The R-shirt is just starting to be released to the public but an official launch date has yet to be found.

C A N C E R DetectingClothing. com is a company that certainly could be one that will make a huge name for themselves. Simply put, this is the technology that will be able to detect the presence of cancer in a human body. The company currently has patent pending technology that will be able to see the early stages of cancer and then let the patient know exactly that. This product is still in its early stages but the potential is very endless. It is simply putting on a shirt or bra, and the sensors will be able to detect if any cancer is present. The product has been tested on several different cancers. More information about Cancer Detecting Clothing can be found at their website. Healthcare facilities will certainly take advantage of this new technology.

7.2.5 / 7.2.6 / 7.2.7 / 7.2.8 / 7.2.9 / 7.2.10 / 7.2.11 Athos: https://www.liveathos.com

R-shirt: http://www.r-shirt.fr

CancerDetectingClothing: http://cancerdetectingclothing.com

CancerDetectingClothing.com, is a technology that will be able to see the early stages of cancer in a human body

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Clothing+: http://www.clothingplus.fi/en/home.html


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7.2.12 EX M OB A B Y BY EX M OV E R E

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T H E Exmobaby by Exmovere is looking to be a market leader when it comes to smart baby monitoring technology. The Exmobaby is a smart garment that goes on a baby and then with its sensor is able to tell a person if the baby is sleeping and also be able to keep up with the baby’s vital signs. It has Bluetooth connectivity and also has 3G wireless capability. The device can be customized and have text messages and alerts sent to a parents’ smartphone so they can keep track of the baby’s status.

Exmobaby by Exmovere, a smart garment that goes on a baby and then with it sensor is able to tell a person if the baby is sleeping and also able to keep up with the baby’s vital signs

The main sensor in the Exmobaby is one that measures the ECG readings and also has a FM receiver that transmits data. The device has been known to use very little power which is also a very good thing. Exmobaby is for one thing and one thing only and that is for monitoring babies. This would not be used for anything else but that but for those who have kids and want an optimal monitoring system, the Exmobaby would certainly be a good product to inquire about. Exmobaby by Exmovere, worn by a baby


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7.2.13 M IM O

T H E Mimo Smart Baby and Smart Nursery system is one that is cer-

tainly to be popular in 2015 and for some years beyond. The Mimo is a small onesie type outfit for the baby that has a small turtle looking monitor on it. That monitor is the most important and integral part of Mimo. The sensor is able to track sleep status, breathing, body position, and also allows for you to listen in on the baby.

Mimo Smart Baby, a small onesie type outfit for the baby that has a small turtle looking monitor on it that is able to track sleep status, breathing, body position, and also allows for you to listen in on the baby

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The compatible app will work with both iPhones and Android powered devices. It is there that you can get real time data and keep a certain eye on a baby. The Mimo Smart Baby System can be bought starting at $199 and a twin set can be purchased for $269. The shirt is machine washable and extra ones can be bought at shop.mimobaby.com for $29. This product is certainly a good investment for its price and goes out of its way to make sure that your child is protected and monitoring at all times.


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7.2.14 OWL E T B A B Y CARE

O W L E T Baby Care will

have a product that should be one that consumers in the baby market should embrace big time. It is basically a smartstock that slides over the baby’s feet. The monitor will then be able to alert someone if the baby stops breathing. A compatible app will alow for a parent to check their baby’s heart beat and heart rate and among other vital information.

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If something is detected to be going wrong, the parent will get an alert through their smartphone and app. The Owlet Baby Care system can also work without the smartphone

app. Through Bluetooth connectivity, a person can have a BaseStation hooked up to the smartsock in order to retrieve data and information. The sock is engineered to fit any baby up to one year of age. The only drawback to the Owlet Baby Care system is that it is only iOS compatible and it will only work with any device that is running on iOS 8.0 and higher. Still, this is a very good baby monitor.

7.2.12 / 7.2.13 / 7.2.14

Exmobaby: http://exmovere.cn

Mimo Baby: http://mimobaby.com

Owlet Baby Care: https://www.owletcare. com

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Owlet Baby Monitor, uses hospital technology called pulse oximetry to monitor your child and is design to alert you in case your baby stops breathing. Owlet is an extra set of eyes to monitor your baby while he or she sleeps. Owlet is up all night so you don’t have to be.


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7.2.15 C O N D U C T IVE C IR CUITS

S O

F A R , smart fabric

techniques have looked at weaving conductive wires into clothing to create circuits. There are limits to this, given these wires must be integrated into the design from the start, so they offer limited flexibility. One solution, currently being researched by the National Physical Laboratory and Coventry University, lies in printing conductive circuits directly onto fibers of complete garments. This means it becomes part of the clothing, and allows fabrics to stretch and wash. To do this, silver nanoparticles are first chemically bound onto individual fibers. Copper does not bind to fibers, but it does bind to the nanoparticles so this allows the creation of a conductive copper layer which encapsulates fibers. This creates a good adhesion, even when fibers are flexed and stretched. The process can print complex circuits onto existing clothing.

7.2.15

CNet: http://www.cnet.com/news/tommyhilfiger-launches-solar-power-jackets-tocharge-your-phone/

The Guardian: http://www.theguardian. com/healthcare-network/2015/jul/14/

the-future-of-remote-healthcare-could-bewoven-into-your-clothes

7.2.16 B RI TI SH ARMY

T H E Ministry of Defence (MoD) unveiled a new uniform design for the British Army that includes a pair of smart glasses and a smartwatch, which the department hopes to deploy to soldiers sometime in the 2020s. Dubbed the “Future Soldier Vision uniform”, the outfit will feature a pair of specially designed smart glasses with a head-up display combined with a helmet-mounted camera and bone-conducting headphones. The devices are designed to help soldiers increase their awareness without compromising their hearing when on missions. Additionally, a smartwatch that provides communication support and monitors soldiers’ biometrics data from sensors throughout body armor will keep track of life signs during combat. The hope is that this new smart uniform will help troops on the battlefield better communicate with each other and military personnel.

Ministry of Defence’s Future Solder Vision (FSV), is part of the Ministry of Defence’s plan to ensure that British soldiers of the future have high quality equipment, utilising the latest technologies. Today’s unveiling shows what a soldier could be wearing and using on the battlefield in the 2020s, based on current military research and emerging commercial technology.

It will feature a personal computer embedded in a helmet that has a subsystem for hearing protection and customizable segmented body armor with sensors and a power supply. The MoD will also update its standard Heckler & Koch SA80 assault rifle with technology that allows targeting information to be shared with units.


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7.2.17 K NI T T ED C O N T R OL S

A

B R I T I S H compa-

ny is developing wearables that aim to save lives - Intelligent Textiles Ltd (ITL) combines electronics engineering, product designer and knitting. The firm weaves electronics into fabric — not embedding electronics, but weaving them into the product itself.

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ITL developed a full QWERTY keyboard in a single piece of fabric for use in the Stryker, replacing a traditional hardware keyboard that involved 100 components. Multiple components allow for repair, but ITL knits in redundancy so the fabric can “degrade gracefully”. The keyboard works the same as the traditional hardware, with the bonus that it’s less likely to fall on a soldier’s head, and with just one glaring downside: troops can no longer use it as a step for getting in and out of the vehicle. An armored car with knitted controls is one thing, but where the

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technology comes into its own is when used about the person. ITL has worked on vests like the JTAC, a system “for the guys who call down airstrikes” and need “extra computing oomph.” Then there’s SWIPES, a part of the US military’s Nett Warrior system — which uses a chest-mounted Samsung Galaxy Note 2 smartphone — and British military company BAE’s Broadsword system. ITL is currently working on Spirit, a “truly wearable system” for the US Army and United States Marine Corps. It’s designed to be modular, scalable, intuitive and invisible.

“Instead of plastic and circuit boards,” says Thompson, “we use the conductive warp and weft to make up what these circuits can do.” That allows technology to soup up items traditionally made from fabric, for example in fine-tuning which parts of a glove or deep-sea diver’s suit are heated, ensuring the wearer is warm enough where needed without wasting the heating system’s power. And it also allows versatile fabric to replace traditional hardware. Speaking at the Wearable Technology Show here, Swallow describes ITL as a textile company that “pretends to be a military company”...it’s funny how you slip into these domains. One domain where this high-tech fabric has seen frontline action is in the Canadian military’s IAV Stryker armored personnel carrier.

BAE Systems, has created its Broadsword range of devices (pictured) that revolve around a vest called Spine. Spine uses so-called e-textiles to wirelessly charge military equipment and gets its energy and from an inductive charging seat. All of this energy use can then be monitored using a smartphone app.


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7.2.18 ULT R A SON IC S E W IN G

versatile - you can seam, cut, slit, trim, tack, emboss, or cut and seal simultaneously. The process used by an ultrasonic sewing machine is fast - sealing more than 600 feet per minute. It is simple and efficient, with no needles, threads, or other consumables. And, it is flexible. The equipment may be bench or table mounted, or integrated into your automated line. 7.2.17 / 7.2.18

V3: http://www.v3.co.uk/v3-uk/

news/2426271/army-unveils-future-

uniform-equipped-with-smartwatch-andsmart-glasses

CNet: http://www.cnet.com/news/wear-

ables-at-war-how-smart-textiles-are-lightening-the-load-for-soldiers

Sonicitalia: http://www.sonicitalia.com

■ Fast, economical, strong seals ■ No consumables such as staples, adhesives, or clips ■ Consistent results - from start-up to end of run ■ No warm-up time, temperature maintenance or recovery time for an Ultrasonic Sewing Machine ■ Single operation cut and seal with no raw edges ■ Eliminates needles, threads, bobbins associated color matching, inventory, winding and trimming ■ Non-contaminating, eliminates toxic glue or solvents ■ Edges are sealed with no stitch holes preventing penetration of chemicals, bloodborne pathogens, and particulates as required by OSHA

For all its flexibility and versatility, most production carried out by Ultrasonic Sewing Machines is done using two basic modes of operation plunge or continuous - with variations depending on the application. Sealing and cutting can be done in either mode. In the plunge mode, the ultrasonic horn operates perpendicularly to the material and fuses the layers together in the pattern of the stationary anvil. This technique can be used to simultaneously cut and seal the edges of material. Typical applications using this mode include bra straps and buckles, buttonholes, collar stays, darts, strapping,

embossing, grommets, belt loops, filter media (woven and nonwoven), zipper stops, and vertical blinds. With the continuous mode, material is moved beneath a stationary horn. Most slitting applications are done in the continuous mode by an Ultrasonic Sewing Machine. Ultrasonic slitting produces an edge that is smooth, durable, and clean, with no discoloration of the fabric. Ultrasonics prevents unraveling of knitted or woven materials by sealing the slit edge. The sealed edge is tapered without a bead that would add unnecessary bulk.

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T H E ulltrasonic process is

For the “sewn” products industry, there are many advantages with ultrasonic sealing, including:


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Ultrasonic Sewing Machines, used to seam, cut, slit, trim, tack, emboss, or cut and seal simultaneously.

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Armed services personnel, emergency responders, law enforcement officers, and others use ultrasonic technology to assemble their ballistic vests.

Instead of needles, thread or glue, ultrasonic equipment uses ultrasonic energy to create strong molecular bonds, resulting in durable, perfectly sealed seams without stitch holes, glue gaps, fraying or unraveling. Sealed seams mean better protection for the bullet proof materials contained in the vest - such as Spectra-ShieldÂŽ and KevlarÂŽ - ensuring that they are less likely to lose their life-saving effectiveness by being exposed to moisture. They also achieve compliance with National Institute of Justice (NIJ) wet-conditioning standards (NIJ-0101.06) requiring body armor to be waterproof, even after submersion for 30 minutes.

The ultrasonic energy - directed into woven or nonwoven synthetic materials or blends with up to 40 percent natural fibers - results in a rapid heat buildup that causes the synthetic fibers to soften and fuse, creating the strong molecular bond. Ultrasonic sewing machine’s rotary system seals and trims in one quick step, making assembly up to four times faster than with conventional sewing machines and 10 times faster than adhesive methods. In fact, some manufacturers have increased production output by as much as 25 percent since switching from sewing and adhesives machines to ultrasonic bonding technology. The machine operates like a traditional sewing machine so only minimal training is required. It is also available as a modular unit for integration into production lines.

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8 OTHER TECHNOLOGY INNOVATIONS A S

we continue to move toward a life of constant

connectivity, there is no denying that wearable technol-

our Internet-obsessed lives that much easier.

ogy is the future of fashion. It only makes sense that we

From smart watches to pants that can charge your cell

act with our devices.

to some game changing innovations the ability to control

would want our clothes—like everything else— to inter-

We have seen huge advancements in the market for techsaavy style, especially over the last couple years, and we aren’t just talking about trends for the dudes in Silicon

Valley. Designers have joined the movement toward wear-

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ables to create stylish pieces that keep us fresh and make

phone, function has become the key to fashion. Thanks and connect to your clothing is more accessible then ever. 6

Complex: : http://www.complex.com/style/2015/11/the-best-tech-innovations-in-fashion-so-far


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8.1

3 8.1.1

D PRINTING

3 d printed accessories

3 D printing is not common in

apparel, but it can be more common soon as accessories. Start-up companies have launched Kickstarter campaigns to support their 3D printing ideas for apparel accessories.

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One company is reButton, which designs low cost, customizable buttons and cuff links (Obodoechina, 2015). As shown in 4.1.1-A the buttons have a unique screw, patent pending design along their edges. The accessories can be made of plastic or metal. They planned to partner with Shapeways and Sculpteo for printing (Krassenstein, 2015).

Figure 4.1.1-A. 3D-Printed Buttons, By reButton

It’s significant to note that their month long Kickstarter campaign was not successful in that they only raised 0.2% of their goal for $50,000.

Shapeways is a major 3D printing company that works with designers to print many accessory objects. Examples are shown in Figure 4.1.1B and 4.1.1-C. Figure 4.1.1-B displays a polished bronze cufflink or lapel pin by Henry Alfredo. Figure 4.1.1-C shows a nylon bow tie button made by Jubble (Alfredo, 2016) (Jubble, 2014). Shapeways can 3D print designs with several materials including metals (gold, bronze, stainless steel, brass, aluminum) and plastics (nylon, PLA, ABS) (Shapeways, 2016).

Figure 4.1.1-B. 3D-Printed Cuff Links,

Figure 4.1.1-C. 3D-Printed Bow-Tie, By

By Henry Alfredo

Jubble

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8.1.2 3 d printed F OOT WE A R

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F O O T W E A R companies,

such as New Balance, Adidas, and Nike lead by incorporating 3D tech in their shoes. 3D printing technology is expected to grow in the footwear industry to create customizable shoes and cut production costs (Kosir, 2015) (Zaleski, 2015). While footwear companies improve the functionality and performance of shoes with 3D printing, the technology is ongoingly improving itself. This may be a reason why footwear companies are releasing 3D printed shoe tech in limited editions. Addtionally, an important hurdle 3D printing engineerings are trying to surpass is how to scale-up the technology for mass production. Nonetheless, the current 3D printing technology has led to fast iterations in product development. Below are a few examples of shoes with 3D printing technology. Figure 4.1.2 (A, B, C) shows a New Balance shoe with a 3D printed midsole.

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The open-network midsole has improved flexibility, strength, and cushioning. It’s important to customize the cushioning of the midsole because every runner lands differently on their feet. For example, some runner’s may apply more pressure on their heel than others so additional cushioning would be needed in those areas. Additionally, the cushioning can be adapted to the runner’s weight. Pressure sensors are put under the runner’s foot to help customize the midsole. The midsole is made of DuraForm Flex thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), which is denser material than the regular midsole and provided by 3D systems. New Balance is partnering with Nervous System for the 3D printing. Ideally, the midsoles would help reduce injuries and improve performance, but since the shoe is in its beginning stages no data has been collected yet. These shoes are being released as limited edition in April 2016 (Lawton, 2015) (Stinson, 2015).

Figure 4.1.2-A. New Bal-

Figure 4.1.2-B. New Bal-

Figure 4.1.2-C. New Bal-

ance 3-D Printed Shoes,

ance 3-D Printed Shoes,

ance 3-D Printed Shoes,

Side View

Back View

3-D Printed Midsole

8.1 3d Printing Industries: http://3dprintingindustry.com/crowd-funding-2/


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Figure 4.1.2 (D, E, F) displays Adidas shoes with a Futurecraft 3D printed midsole. Adidas is collaborating with Materialise and Soles companies to prototype and manufacture the midsoles (Adidas Group, 2015). The shoes have customized midsoles so that the wearer can have proper cushioning for great running perfor-

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mance. The midsoles are lightweight due to the open network structure. Uniquely, the midsole is made of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), which is very durable and flexible. TPU foam has been used in Adidas running shoes since 2013 and claimed to give a bit more energry boost and comfort to the runner

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(Plastics News, 2013). Adidas anticipates having 3D printers in stores to provide customized running shoes for its customers in the future. The customer’s feet would be scanned as they are running on a trendmil. There is no announcement yet of when the shoes will go on sale (Materialise, 2016).

Figure 4.1.2-D. Adidas Shoe with 3D

Figure 4.1.2-E. Adidas Shoe with 3D

Figure 4.1.2-F. Adidas Shoe with 3D

Printed Midsoles, Side View of the

Printed Midsoles, Top View of 3D

Printed Midsoles, Bottom View of 3D

Whole Shoes

Structural Pattern

Structural Pattern

Nike developed a football cleat with 3D printed studs and has patented a novel method to attach the midsole to the shoe upper using 3D printing. Figure 4.1.2 (G, H, I) displays Nike’s Vapor HyperAgility cleat with a 3D printed bottom. The cleat pattern and where the studs are positioned are meant to increase the athlete’s traction on the ground to allow for fast changes in direction. With the patent, Nike will be ahead of other footwear companies in the shoe production process. In the future, Nike envisions having 3D foot scanners in its stores so that shoes can be printed on demand. Nike also envisions that their customers can purchase a shoe file, so they can 3D print their own shoes (Nelson Jr., 2015). Additionally, they plan to incorporate 3D printing technologies with their Flyknit shoes (Nike News, 2014).

Figure 4.1.2-G. Nike’s 3D Printed Cleats, Side View of the Whole Shoe

Figure 4.1.2-I. Adidas Shoe with 3D Printed Midsoles, Bottom view of 3D printed cleat

Figure 4.1.2-H. Nike’s 3D Printed Cleats, Tilted view of 3D printed cleat showing depth of region

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8.1.3

F A S H ION DE S IGN E RS & 3 - D PR INT IN G

I N universities, stu-

8.1.3

Danitpeleg: http://danitpeleg.com/3d-printing-fashion-process

Figure 4.1.3. 3D-Printed Apparel, Sample of Eric Beaudette’s collection

Another interesting idea from Eric is to use 3D body scanning to customize fit to make garment mock-ups. The mock-ups can be 3D printed, and recycled afterwards to significantly reduce cloth from entering landfills as waste (Hurley, 2016) (Beaudette, 2016). Since the type of polymer used for 3D printed is pure, it would be easy to recycle and reuse in a closed-loop system.

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dents are also exploring 3D printing for functional apparel. In February 2016, Eric Beaudette was recognized for his idea of transformable clothing with 3D printed components. A representation of Eric’s idea is shown in Figure 4.1.3. The clothes can be both for active and formal occasions by attaching and removing the 3D printed accessories. The 3D printed parts can be attached with snaps. Eric is an apparel design student at Cornell University in Ithaca NY.


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8.2 L

ASER CUTTING N I K E incorporates laser cut designs into its apparel for ventilation as shown in

Figure 4.2-A. WGSN forecasts that laser cutting will be a continuing trend for Autumn/Winter 2017/2018. Fabrics being laser cut are “lightweight wovens, leathers, and bonded fleeces.” Although fully laser cut garments appear fragile, they can be mechanically robust. However, the fabrics with two layer support would be more stable, robust, and durable than single layer fabrics. The open network makes the fabric vulnerable to tears between the interconnections upon applied stress.

LASER CUT Detail

LASER CUT Detail

Figure 4.2-A. Laser Cutting in Apparel, Brazilian

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Soccer Player, Neymar Jr., wearing Nike Jersey

Fashion brands such as Anthropologie, Urban Outfitters, and Lorna Jane use laser cutting for aesthetics and as decorative elements in apparel. Figure 4.2-B shows an example of Urban Outfitters’ laser cut apparel. The Urban Outfitters website had many of the laser cut apparel sold out.

Figure 4.2-B. Laser Cut Apparel for Design Aesthetics, Urban Outfitters


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8.3 M A G N E T I C closures are

becoming an interesting alternative, and supplement to buttons and zippers. Magnets are interesting to use for apparel because they can make joining of two fabrics very simple and time efficient. Additionally, these closures can make clothing easier to wear for people with certain disabilities and the elderly. Ian Strikeleather launched a Kickstarter campaign in 2012 to make reversible clothing and detachable collars using magnets (Maly, 2012). Unfortunately, Strikeleather’s campaign was not fully funded. However, in 2014 Under Armour released MagZip jackets with magnetic zipper technology. Under Armour was also motivated to improve zipper closures for people with disabilities (Casteel, 2013). An example of the apparel with magnetic technology are shown in Figure 19.

Figure 4.3. Apparel with magnetic technology, Under Armour’s Storm Micro Jacket

8.3 CNet: http://www.cnet.com/news/interchangeableclothing-uses-magnets-to-switch-up-the-style/

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AGNETS


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8.4

w

ater repellant + fabric spray

8.4.1 cookwear

A N

A U S T R A L I A N start-

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up is using a patented nanotechnology to create hydrophobic chef jackets and aprons. Fabricor says this means uniforms that stay clean for longer, and saving time and money. The company was started because cofounder and MasterChef mentor Adrian Li, was frustrated with keeping his chef jackets and aprons clean. “As a chef I find it really difficult to keep my chef jacket white, and we like our jackets white,” Li said. “We couldn’t find anything on the market which helps this apart from buying new jackets and washing them every day. So we decided to create a new range of

chef jackets using nanotechnology that makes it water repellent and stain-proof.” The nanotechnology application works by modifying the fabric at a molecular level by permanently attaching hydrophobic ‘whiskers’ to individual fibers which elevate liquids, causing them to bead up and roll off.


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The fabric’s patented technology can extend the life of the apparel is because the apparel doesn’t have to be washed as often and can be washed in cooler temperatures, the company stated.

8.4.1

Nanowerk: http://www.nanowerk. com/nanotechnology-news/newsid=37515.php

Fibre2Fashion: http://www.fibre-

2fashion.com/news/company-news/ nano-tex

Fabricor’s Hydrophobic Chef Jacket, constructed with a 7 oz 100% cotton fabric with our hydrophobic stain-stain resistant technology

Fabricor’s hydrophobic fabric has an extreme level of water resistance and keeps stains from forming. The liquid that is repelled, traps particles of dirt, resulting in a self-cleaning shirt. Even sweat is turned away, meaning no sweat stains and no body odor clinging to the uniform. The long-lasting fabric in Fabricor’s chef’s apparel retains its natural softness and breathability. They are launching their technology to the hospitality industry but eventually plan to serve the medical industry by making medical garbs, nurses uniforms and lab coats next. The company has launched a Kickstarter campaign on Thursday 18th September 2014 to raise funds and awareness for their project.

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Fabricor’s products are not made with spray-application like many on the market which can destroy fabrics and contain carcinogenic chemicals. Its hydrophobic properties are embedded into the cotton during the weaving process. According to Li, chefs face the same issues with the apparel they wear. Unsightly spills on their uniforms make it difficult to look professional, and the trying to deal with these spills takes away them from their work. Furthermore, frequent stains mean they have to wash the uniforms after every shift.


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8.4.2 N AN OT E X

N A N O T E X , a leading fabric innovation company providing nano-

technology-based textile enhancements, announced recently three new products – All Conditions, Speed Dry and Aquapel – to their current industry leading portfolio of repellency solutions. While Nano-Tex has a long history of innovation and category leadership in the repellency market, these new products extend the company’s relevance into new merchandise categories. The new products include:

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■ All Conditions — Designed specifically for outdoor apparel (hiking, fishing, camping) All Conditions provides extremely durable resistance to the elements like rain, sleet and snow, all while maintaining breathability, air permeability and moisture vapor transfer, so the wearer stays dry and comfortable, even during physical exertion.

In addition, All Conditions improves the abrasion resistance of the fabric by at least 50%, which is especially important in more rugged environments. All Conditions is also compatible with special finishes, such as localized abrasion and enzyme treatments, without degrading performance.

Nanotex All Conditions, provides breakthrough repellency. Each fiber has been fundamentally transformed through nanotechnology, and the result is a fabric that repels rain, sleet and snow, maintains breathability, provides long-lasting protection, and retains natural softness.

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■ Speed Dry — This new innovation improves the drying rate of swimwear, board shorts and activewear by at least 50%, thus increasing wearer comfort by reducing chafing and wetness against the skin. Speed Dry provides permanent perfomance whether used in salt ware, fresh water or water with chlorine. Nanotex Speed Dry, provides breakthrough water resistance. Each fiber has been fundamentally transformed through nanotechnology and the result is a fabric that reduces water absorption, dries quickly, maximizes comfort, retains its natural softness and maintains breathability.

■ Aquapel — Designed specifically for patio furniture, awnings, and juvenile hard goods, it provides durable protection for items exposed to the harsh elements, and increases abrasion resistance, therefore keeping all of your outdoor items looking new season after season.

Nanotex Aquapel, is the next generation in water repellency performance. Aquapel modifies fabric at the molecular level by permanently attaching hydrophobic ’whiskers’ to individual fibers that elevate liquids, causing them to bead and roll right off the fabric surface. It features a hydrocarbon polymer which is both more ecologically friendly and economically smart. The result is excellent performance-liquid repellency that’s free and PFOA free.

8.4.2 Nano Werk: http://www.nanowerk.com/news/newsid=15773.php

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breathable, durable and fast drying- while remaining both fluorocarbon


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8.4.3 L IQUIDOFF

H A R O L D

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S T E W A R T , is a 23-year-

old electrical engineer who quit his full-time job with the Department of Defense last month. What could possibly prompt a smart young man to leave behind a stable income? A hydrophobic spray. Stewart is the entrepreneur behind LiquidOff, a hydrophobic and oleophobic spray currently raising funds on Kickstarter. His inspiration stemmed from occasionally babysitting his niece and nephew (we all know how kids can spill liquids just about anywhere). Stewart started to wonder why there wasn’t a hydrophobic solution for use with kids’ clothes. “With my background in engineering, I went out to create a solution that was safe yet effective, after realizing that all of the existing applications are toxic and unhealthy. Some even contain carcinogens which are known to cause cancer,” he tells CNET. Since this magic spray didn’t exist, Stewart decided to make it. “R&D definitely took a few months. Trying to learn as much about the technology and its intrinsic properties, as well as learning how certain chemical agents bond to create a desired effect, was a process,” he says. He found a team of nanotechnology researchers to usher the project along. The breakthrough was in deciding to make LiquidOff water-based in order to reach the goals of a safe and eco-friendly product.

8.4.3 LiquidOff, Spray bottle

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sample

CNet: http://www.cnet.com/news/liquidoff-non-toxic-non-hazy-hydrophobic-fabric-spray/

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LiquidOff comes in a spray bottle and it’s geared for use on fabrics and leathers. Shirts, pants, and shoes are all prime targets. Unlike rival NeverWet (which is aimed mainly at wood, metal, and concrete) the water-based spray leaves no haze behind. Users spray LiquidOff on fabric or shoes and allow it to dry. Its lifespan for nonwashable items like shoes or furniture is between three and five years. For clothing, it will last for 20 or more wash cycles before wearing off. The Kickstarter is currently topping $17,000 toward a $25,000 goal with 31 days to go. A 375ml bottle goes for a $55 pledge. That’s enough to treat seven T-shirts or up to 28 pairs of shoes.

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LiquidOff, in action

Stewart won’t reveal all the details of the proprietary solution, but he will say it’s composed of “various nano particles, dispersing additives, and de-ionized water, which bonds to form our hydrophobic and oleophobic barrier.” LiquidOff could become a true contender in the hydrophobic-treatment market if it meets its goal and lives up to its promises of effectiveness and greenness. “It was just finding alternatives to mainstream methods and applying a greener touch to every aspect of the development that led to our finished LiquidOff solution,” says Stewart.

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8.4.4 PA RA F F IN R EP EL L E N T chemistries

P A R A F F I N was

one of the earliest water repellent chemistries used. These repellent products are generally emulsions containing aluminum or zirconium salts of fatty acids, usually stearic acid. They provide good water repellency due to their zirconium ion holding onto fiber, and the fact that their water repellent groups have good orientation on fiber surfaces. They are generally compatible with other types of textile finishes but they have increased flammability. Despite providing good water repellency effects, paraffin repellents do not repel oil and are generally not durable to laundering and dry cleaning. Additionally, fabrics treated with paraffin-based finishes are less permeable by air and vapor, resulting in poor wear comfort. Paraffin repellent finishes can be applied by both padding and exhaustion finishing processes.

8.4.4 / 8.4.5 / 8.4.6,

Carryology: http://www.carryology.com/ insights/blc-leather-durable-water-repellents

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8.4.5 Silicone repellent C hemistries

8.4.6 N ano material based repellent chemistries

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S I L I C O N repellents offer a high degree of water repellency at relatively low concentrations. Yet, their repellency can be reduced if excess amounts are applied. They have only moderate durability to laundering and dry cleaning, and no oil and soil repellency. Waste water, particularly from residual baths of the finish application processes, is toxic to fish. However, some silicone repellents can be applied by exhaustion process. R E P E L L E N T chemistries containing nano-materials are coated on fabrics to achieve desirable properties without a significant increase in weight, thickness or stiffness. The properties that can be imparted on textiles using nanotechnology include water repellency and soil resistance. The use of chemistries containing nano-materials to impart water repellency and stain resistance effects on textile is one of the most common ways nanotechnology is being used in the textile industry. To achieve these attributes, fabrics are embedded with tiny fibers, called nano-whiskers. Nano-whiskers form a cushion of air around fiber to repel water and stains. This treatment is believed to be durable to repeated home laundering cycles.

With respect to hazard, there is limited health and safety and environmental impact assessment available of nano-materials. Available evidence suggests that nano-materials have toxic properties to both human health and the environment and may have greater risk than larger particle. Unlike larger particles, nano-materials are capable of being transported within human cells and be taken up by cellular structures and cause cell damage due to their greater chemical reactivity.


8.4.7 water and flame resistant cotton

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S U P E R P R O T E C T I V E garb for withstanding both flood

and fire is on the horizon now that Chinese chemists have come up with a self-healing, triple-dip coating that renders cotton flame resistant and waterproof. Flame-retardant fabric coatings, found on children’s pajamas and furniture fabrics, often wash away, says Junqi Sun of Jilin University, in China. Sun wondered whether adding a waterproof coating would extend the life of water-soluble fire retardants. He decided to test the idea with an especially durable waterproof coating his group had been working on: a superhydrophobic surface that heals itself.

Carhartt’s Water & Flame Resistant Jacket

Superhydrophobic surfaces, such as those found on duck feathers and lotus leaves, repel water with roughness at the micro- and nanoscale. In addition, they combine that texture with exposed molecules with low surface energy. Sun’s group achieves superhydrophobicity the same way, by topping a porous undercoat with a rough skin of aggregated, cagelike molecules: fluorinated-decyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (F-POSS) molecules. F-POSS’s long, fluorinated alkyl chains are water averse, and its aggregated cages are spiky, which gives water droplets the brush-off. The coating’s self-healing capacity comes from additional F-POSS molecules embedded in the porous undercoat. When the rough surface gets nicked, the opening allows in water from the air, driving underlying F-POSS molecules to fill in and restore the hydrophobicity of the exposed surface. Sun’s team sandwiched a fire retardant in between the waterproof coating and cotton, choosing a combination of the polyelectrolytes ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and branched poly(ethylenimine) (bPEI). Like a burning marshmallow, the combination blocks the transfer of heat and oxygen by swelling, forming a char, and releasing inert gases to push the oxygen away.

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After dipping cotton samples in APP, bPEI, and then F-POSS, Sun’s group tested the coating by holding a flame to the bottom of a 30-cm-long vertical strip of fabric for 12 seconds. Untreated cotton burned away in 14 seconds, yet no more than 4 cm of the treated cotton burned before the flame extinguished itself. Next, the chemists tested the durability of the coating. They mimicked sun bleaching by etching the surface of the coated fabric with O2 plasma, which decomposes F-POSS. Leaving the fabric for one hour in 35% humidity restored the superhydrophobicity. They found that the surface could be healed at least 10 times, although by the 10th cycle, the coating needed four hours at 100% humidity to fully repair its superhydrophobicity.

The researchers then mimicked wear and tear by mechanically rubbing the coated fabric 1,000 times until the cotton fibers began to break down. The flame on the wornout coated cotton still extinguished after burning 13 cm of fabric, and the surface healed itself after four hours. Sun attributes the coating’s “excellent durability” to how deeply the components penetrated the cotton fibers.

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Such durability shows this coating has “real-life promise,” says Jaime C. Grunlan of Texas A&M University. Its combination of hydrophobicity, flame retardancy, and self-healing capability is impressive, he adds. What’s more, Grunlan likes that the researchers show the coated fabric drapes more like untreated fabric than many current flame-retardant coatings.

Sun intends the coating for military clothing and other fabrics that must withstand harsh conditions. Because the toxicity of the fluorinated silsesquioxane is still unknown, Sun’s group is working to replace F-POSS with another Food & Drug Administration-approved fluorocarbon, Teflon.

8.4.7 / 8.4.8

American Chemical Society: http://cen. acs.org/articles/93/web/2015/03/Coating-Turns-Cotton-Fabric-Worthy.html ACS Nano: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/

abs/10.1021/acsnano.5b00121?source=cen Rice University: http://news.rice.

edu/2015/12/09/superhydrophobic-coating-protects-without-the-price

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8.4.8 non -toxic repellant

that water repellent is a great way to keep clothing, shoes, and all sorts of other products safe and dry from water damage, but it can also involve toxic chemicals that aren’t good for us or the environment. Fortunately, a new water-repellent coating developed by researchers from Rice University is not only environmentally friendly, it’s also inexpensive to make. The repellent, composed of a new class of superhydrophobic nanomaterials, takes its inspiration from a humble but nonetheless remarkable example of natural water repelling: the lotus leaf. The researchers’ repellent can be applied to a variety of surfaces via spray- orspin-coating and is hydrocarbon-based, making it an economic and green alternative to conventional fluorocarbon-based repellents that are both hazardous and costly to manufacture. According to the researchers, the lotus leaf’s remarkable ability to repel water is due to its hierarchy of microscopic and nanoscale double structures. In the lotus leaf, these are due to papillae within the epidermis and epicutic-

ular waxes on top. In this material, there is a microstructure created by the agglomeration of alumina nanoparticles mimicking the papillae and the hyperbranched organic moieties simulating the effect of the epicuticular waxes.

To qualify as superhydrophobic, a material needs to demonstrate a water contact angle larger than 150 degrees. A water contact angle is the angle at which the surface of the water meets the surface of the material, quantifying thewettability (yes, it’s a word) of a material. The researchers’ repellent has an angle of about 155 degrees, making it essentially equivalent to the best fluorocarbon-based superhydrophobic coatings on the market. The findings are reported in Applied MateriWals & Interfaces. In addition to helping keep your hiking jacket dry, the researchers say the coating will also be useful in marine applications, especially in environments where water needs to be kept safe from potentially dangerous additives like fluorocarbons.

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8.4.9 Xd apparel

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T H E ideal solu-

tion to keep the cold out and the warmth inside, XD Soft pairs premium recycled polyester outer fabric and lining with Aria insulation by Thermore, a high quality down substitute engineered to deliver the best combination of wearer comfort and thermoregulation. The recycled polyester face fabric and lining are made from PET bottles, currently considered the most

Fabric XD Soft the ideal solution to keep the cold out and the warmth inside, it pairs premium recycled polyester outer fabric and lining with Aria insulation by Thermore, a high quality down substitute engineered to deliver the best combination of wearer comfort and thermoregulation.

sustainable fiber in performance outerwear. Boasting a soft hand that rivals natural down and superior warmth-to-weight properties, Aria insulation by Thermore® is 98% air, part of the reason it breathes and regulates body temperature so well.

XD Apparel has chosen two weights, a high-loft 170g/m2 Aria insulation for classic puff jackets and a lighter weight 115g/m2 insulation for slim, close-fitting garments designed to be worn alone or layered. Thermore® insulation feels like natural down but doesn’t come with the ethical issues associated with natural materials drawn from animals. it won’t lose its warmth when wet, it is easy to care for and dries fast. In addition, Thermore® shares our vision of reducing waste and is continually increasing the percentage of recycled content in its products; Aria currently contains 50% recycled polyester. 8.4.9 / 8.4.10

XD Apparel: http://www.xd-apparel.com/fabrics

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Patagonia: https://www.patagonia.com/pdf/en_US/pfoa_and_flourochemicals.pdf Patagonia: http://www.thecleanestline.com/2015/03/our-dwr-problem.html

Ecotextiles: https://oecotextiles.wordpress.com/2010/02/03/soil-and-stain-resistant-finishes

The Outdoor Industry Association: https://outdoorindustry.org/pdf/FINAL_ZDHC_P05_DWR%20 Research_Nov2012.pdf


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E nvironmental Impact

W A T E R repellency is

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W A T E R repellency is achieved by lowering the surface energy of the fabric

so that water will bead on the surface and won’t “wet out” the garment. This can be achieved with many types of finishes, including waxes, oils and silicones. But these compounds can be penetrated by oil, including lotions and oils from skin. Since fluorocarbons are the most effective at repelling both oil and water they are commonly used in water-repellent finishes on outerwear clothing. Though PFOS and PFOA can occur in water repellents as impurities or by-products of degradation, most water repellents on the market today are PFOS-free.

achieved by lowering the surface energy of the fabric so that water will bead on the surface and won’t “wet out” the garment. This can be achieved with many types of finishes, including waxes, oils and silicones. But these compounds can be penetrated by oil, including lotions and oils from skin. Since fluorocarbons are the most effective at repelling both oil and water they are commonly used in water-repellent finishes on outerwear clothing. Though PFOS and PFOA can occur in water repellents as impurities or by-products of degradation, most water repellents on the market today are PFOS-free. There also are some “PFOAfree” water repellents made with perfluorinated molecules that have shorter carbon chains than the 8-carbon chain structure (C8) that is typically used. The benefit? By-products from shorterchain compounds also have shorter chains, and break down faster in the environment than PFOA. Unfortunately, the shorter-chain structure also tends to perform less effectively in repellency tests. Other fluorinated chemicals, like fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOH), may have

some of the same health and safety issues as PFOS and PFOA. FTOH is a by-product of most water repellents, even those that are PFOS-free and PFOA-free. So instead of removing individual fluorochemicals as potential health and safety concerns are identified, it may be preferable to search for a fluorocarbonfree water repellent as a long term solution. They are the most persistent synthetic chemicals known to man. Once they are in the body, it takes decades to get them out – assuming you are exposed to no more. They are toxic in humans with health effects from increased cholesterol to stroke and cancer. Alarmed by the findings from toxicity studies, the EPA announced on December 30, 2009, that PFC’s (long-chain perfluorinated chemicals) would be on a “chemicals of concern” list and action plans could prompt restrictions on PFC’s and the other three chemicals on the list (The other three chemicals on the list are polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), phthalates and short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs). Three of these four chemicals are used in textile processing).

Although little PFOA can be found in the finished product, the breakdown of the fluorotelomers used on paper products and fabric treatments might explain how more than 90% of all Americans have these hyper-persistent, toxic chemicals in their blood. A growing number of researchers believe that fabric-based, stain-resistant coatings, which are ubiquitous, may be the largest environmental source of this controversial chemical family of PFCs. There are many finishes on the market that claim to provide soil and stain repellants for fabrics. Among the more well-known are: ■ Scotchguard ■ Teflon ■ Zepel ■ NanoTex ■ GreenShield ■ Crypton Green Each one of these finishes uses fluorocarbon chemistry to achieve their results; but they all go about it a bit differently. And therein lies all the difference. //// / // // // // // /

8.4.10

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8.4.11

F lu Orine - free

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T H E R E are a range of fluorine-free technologies that can be used

to imbue fabric with water repellent properties, including but not limited to: wax/paraffin, silicone and stearic-acid melamine. Fluorine-free finishes do represent a drop in performance but can usually be considered acceptable in all but the harshest of conditions. The main variant in performance between fluorochemical and fluorine-free repellents is that the fluorine-free finishes do not provide any oil repellency. It is assumed that a level of oil repellency is essential to keep DWR treated fabrics cleaner for longer, therefore prolonging the water repellency between washes.

However, oil, dirt and soil repellency are not considered essential for sports/outdoor fabrics in terms of fluorochemical requirements and that water repellency and fabric handle are significantly more important features. Perhaps it is the case that oil repellency is simply a bonus of PFC-based finishes, but one that the outdoor industry would not suffer without. This is supported by the fact that respondents to brand and consumer expectation surveys were found to be in agreement that dirt/ soil repellency was the least important property in a DWR treated garment (DWR-Study). However, reduced oil repellency may mean that the fabric gets dirty more quickly which can effect water repellency in the first instance and may also necessitate more frequent washing which again could result in a reduction in repellency performance overall.

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Schoeller Ecorepel is an environment-friendly, PFC-free, water and dirt repelling treatment that is biodegradable, as well as abrasion and wash resistant. The technology is based on long paraffin chains that wrap themselves spiral-like around individual fibers, filaments or yarns in a very fine film. This reduces surface tension so that water droplets and even mud simply run off. The breathability of the fabric is not affected. Gear Aid’s aftermarket ReviveX Durable Waterproofing ($8.50-$13.50) can be used to both bring back or create water repellency on any type of outerwear. Your outdoor jackets come factory-treated with Durable Water Repellent (DWR). Over time, it wears off, leaving you at the mercy of the weather. ReviveX bonds to the fabric to restore water resistance, without impacting breathability. To activate, simply spray the water-based formula on your garments, tumble dry, then enjoy your waterproof gear.

ReviveXÂŽ Durable Waterproofing, by GearAid

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8.4.12 R ipstop nylon fabric

A D V A N T A G E S are

a range of fluorine-free technologies that can be used to imbue fabric with water repellent properties, including but not limited to: wax/paraffin, silicone and stearic-acid melamine. Fluorine-free finishes do represent a drop in performance but can usually be considered acceptable in all but the harshest of conditions. The main variant in performance between fluorochemical and fluorine-free repellents is that the fluorine-free finishes do not provide any oil repellency. It is assumed that a level of oil repellency is essential to keep DWR treated fabrics cleaner for longer, therefore prolonging the water repellency between washes.

Ripstop Nylon Jacket, by GotApparel.com

8.4.11 / 8.4.12 European Outdoor Group: http://www.europeanoutdoorgroup.com/files/DWRStudy_Alice_Davies__digital_.pdf

Fresenius University: http://www.hs-fresenius.de/fileadmin/user_upload/PDF/

Hochschule/Forschung/Idstein/IFAR/PFAS/DWR_Workshop_announcement_final. pdf

Scholer Textiles AG: http://www.schoeller-textiles.com/en/technologies/ecorepelR. html

Gear Aid: https://www.mcnett.com/gearaid/durable-waterproofing#36218 Sanglobal: http://www.sanglobal.com/material.php

WiseGeek: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-ripstop-fabric.htm



System of Shirt