ELF EM Gravity Shield Theory And Experiment Design
Presentation Objective Present an experimental design model for a gravity shield apparatus based on a theory evolved over the last two decades. The model is an approximation meant to be a starting point for experimental analysis. • Point out there is currently no reproduced gravity shield experiment data in the literature • Give historical account of this particular gravity shield theory • Model an experimental apparatus for theory validation • Present experimental efforts to date
Donoghue & Holstein Original Paper
THE VERDICT IS STILL OUT!!!
DeAquino Derives The General Case 1999
Current Status • DeAquino (2002) derived his mg equation directly from the energy Hamiltonian eliminating D&H dependency and Barton uncertainty • Calculation is for electromagnetic radiation (EM) so must assume same effect for EM illumination • Assumes a weightless container will result in weightlessness inside the container volume (gravity cannot stop then start) • Experiments are difficult to design because of the low frequency power densities required (order of several kilowatts per square meter at 100 Hz in a small volume)
General Equation (mg <= mi) °§¨ ª °°¨ « U mg = mi − 2mi ®¨1 + « 2 °¨ « mi c °¨ «¬ °¯©
§ ¨ ε rs µ rs ¨ ¨ 2 ©
· ¸ § · σs 2 ¨¨1 + ( ) ¸¸ + 1¸ ωε rsε 0 ¹ © ¸ ¹
where c = speed of light in vacuum (meters/second), ω = 2*π*f, f = antenna radiated frequency (Hertz), ε0 = permittivity in vacuum, εrs = permittivity of shield, µrs = permeability of shield, σs = conductivity of shield (S/meters), U = radiation illumination energy of shield material, mi = inertial mass of shield atom (gram), mg = gravitational mass of shield atom (gram).
º » » » » ¼
· ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¹
½ ° °° − 1¾ ° ° °¿
Designing An Experiment
c = fλ
Table 2. Table comparison of measured and empirically derived wavelengths for an antenna in seawater.
λ = 4664.9766 f −0.50117542 Empirical curve fit to US Navy published data for frequencies less than 500 Hz
Vp - Comparing Measured To Calculated
ª 1 «ε r ε o µ r µ o λ= f « 2 ¬«
§ § σ ¨ ¨¨ 1 + ¨¨ ωε © o ©
·º · ¸¸ + 1¸¸ » ¸» ¹ ¹ ¼» 2
where : λ = antenna equivalent wavelength, f = antenna signal frequency, εr = antenna surrounding medium permittivity, µr = antenna surrounding medium permeability, σ = antenna surrounding medium conductivity, vp = antenna signal phase velocity, ω = 2πf.
Derivation from Maxwell’s Equations
Dipole Radiated Power ª § § σM ε ε µ µ ¨ ω 2 µ rM µ 0 I 2 z 2 « rM 0 rM 0 ¨ 1 + ¨¨ « ωε rM ε 0 2 ¨ © «¬ © Pr = 12 π where: ω = 2*π*f, f = antenna radiated frequency (Hertz), I = AC current in antenna (Amperes), ε0 = permittivity in vacuum, εrM = permittivity of medium, µ0 = permeability in vacuum, µrM = permeability of medium, σM = conductivity of medium (S/meters), Pr = antenna radiated power (Watt).
An analysis of this Equation shows an antenna surrounded by a medium with slight conductivity and high permeability can efficiently radiate power in the ELF range.
·º · ¸¸ + 1 ¸¸ » ¸» ¹ ¹ »¼ 2
Dipole Radiation Efficiency An antenna radiation efficiency of 100% means all input power is radiated and no heat is dissipated from ohmic resistance (assume resonant so ignore the near field).
Rr Rr + Rohmic
Ohmic resistance for a copper antenna element conductor is:
z ωµ 2πa 2σ
where: Rohmic = antenna element electrical ohmic resistance, z = antenna element length, a = antenna element radius, µ= 4π E-7 for copper, σ= 5.7E+7 for copper.
Medium Absorption 2 ª º § · ε rM εo µrM µo « σM ¸¸ −1» α =ω 1 + ¨¨ « ωεrM εo ¹ » 2 © ¬ ¼
η = 1 − e − kα x where: w = 2*π*f, f = antenna radiated frequency (Hertz), ε0 = permittivity in vacuum, εrM = permittivity of medium, µ0 = permeability in vacuum, µrM = permeability of medium, σM = conductivity of medium (S/meters), α = EM attenuation real attenuation coefficient, k = radiation absorption resonance constant (k ~ unity for ELF), x = thickness of medium material (meters), η = radiation absorption coefficient.
Eta is a less than unity multiplier correcting for the EM energy absorbed by the surrounding medium.
Radiation Power Density For this example geometry, cylinder shield surface illumination energy is radiated power divided by shield surface area (assuming no near field):
Pr 2 Ď€ rh
where: r = radius of surrounding shield (meters), h = length of surrounding shield (meters), Pr = antenna radiated power (Watt), D = antenna radiated power density (Watt/meters^2).
Shield Atom Illumination Cross Section Courtesy of DeAquino
Shield Illumination Energy U
We now have an approximation for the shield atom illumination energy.
Îˇ DS f
Plot Of mg Null For Shield Iron Atom Plugging in the numbers, a mg null occurs at a frequency dependent on the other parameters.
Conductance Medium = 6.3E+7 S/m Conductance Shield = 1.1E+7 S/m Permeability Shield = 13,000
Experimental Apparatus From Model
1 2Ď€ LC
At resonance jXL - jXC=0
Gryator Simulated Inductor Courtesy National Semiconductor
Assume a dipole capacitance of 1nF then resonance at 0.1Hz requires an equivalent inductance of L=2.5E+9H Assume Ro=0.1ohm, C=120,000uF then R=42Gohms
Experiments To Date (System G) German Effort E. Zentgraf et al
French Effort J Naudin
â€˘ Explore experiment geometries that yield higher null frequency to aid antenna tuning â€˘ Explore inductive loop antenna requiring series capacitive tuning (linear power supply regulator with time constant) â€˘ Explore cross field antenna that synthesizes the radiated transverse E and H field
ELF EM Gravity Shield Theory And Experiment Design • Point out there is currently no reproducedgravity shield experiment data in the literat...