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The Broadcast Powerof Nikola Tesla Part I

by Gery Vassilatos HE drama of Twentieth Century Science and its intrlguing relationship with financiers and gov I I ernments unfold together in the remarkable life of Nikola Tesla. His is a biography replete with all the elements of tragedy. Tesla, a great discoverer of unsurpassed force, became the focal point of old insidious forces intent on destroying the future for the selfish sake of the statusquo. Tesla remains a focal point of wonderment, of dream, and of worlds which yet should be to those who are familiar with his biography. For them, Tesla stands astride the quaint past century and the gleaming future. He is a technological Colossus, pointing the way to a new dawn. The biography of Nikola Tesla should be the very first chapter in every child's science text. Yet, we ffnd his name stricken from the record in every avenue of which he alone holds priority. This conspicuous absence prompts wonderment. What the world does with discoverers determines the world course. In the life of Nikola Tesla we see the portrayal of our own future, the fate of the world. The achievements of this researcher were lofty. The world has not yet implemented his greatest works. For a time, all the world's dramatis persone focussed on Tesla. He remains the legend, the theme, the archetype of all Twentieth Century scientists. But who was Nikola Tesla, and where was he from? How did he reach such a mighty stature,and what did he actually invent? Tesla was born in 1856,the son of an illustrious Serbian family. His father, an Orthodox priesl his uncles noteworthy military heroes of highest rank. He was educated in Graz, and later moved to Budapest.Throughout his life he was blessed, or haunted, by vivid visions. In the terminology of Reichenbach he would be termed an extreme sensitive. It was through these remarkable visions that Nikola Tesla invented devices which the Victorian world had never seen. Indeed, his visionary experiences produced the modern tTf

36 Second Quarter1996

world as we know it. He attended various Universities in Eastern Europe during his early adulthood. While delving into his studies, he became aware by the new and insidious scientific trends which questioned the validity of human sense and reason. An impassioned soul, Tesla felt the pain of modern humanity in its intellectual search for a soul. Finding no solace in any of his classes,he sought refuge in a more romantic treatment of science and nature. None could be found. Professors dutifully promoted the "new view" by which it was declared that the natural world was "inert...dead...amere collection of forces". This quantitative regime was mounting force among academes, who were then attempting the total conversion of scientific method.

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Those who would not accept the new order were compelled !o departfrom academicpursuits.Tesla totally rejectedthesenotions on the shongestof inner intuitions. Most of his instructorswould have said that he was not Univenity material. Tesla, sensitiveto every such dogmaticwind, rejected their thesisand sought some befrermeansfor knowing nature.If he was to excel in engineering, there could only be cooperationwith natural force, never violence. It was clear to him that the new scientific world-attack would ultimately lead to violent responsesfrom nature itself. His inner conflict expresseditselfopenly and candidly, bringing young Tesla into certain disrepute,unong rigid Univenity authorities. Universitieswere more like military academiesthan places where original thinking was conducted in open forum. Tesld challenged too many persons of esteemed rank with probing questionsfor which he was given rebuke but no real answers. A gifted researcherand voracious reader, he chanced upon someforgottenvolumes of natural sciencewritten by Goethe.He had not been awarethat Goethe, long before he chosepoetry for

theseeffortswas the strongestdesireto achievesomethingoriginal, and by this, to attain financial independencefor the sake of pure research.His only dream was to have a laboratory facility of his own. The excessivelabors and mental exertionsnearly drove him to the brink of madness.He was, for as time, seizedwith stxange maladies and sensitivitieswhich physicians could not address. Reichenbachaccuratelydescribesthese symptoms,characteristic of extreme sensitives.There come times when the neurological sensitivityof these individuals literally transformsand processes through their being. The emergence of these rare sensitivities affectssuch personsfor the remainder of their lives. Tesla found that his senseswere amplified beyond reason.He was terribly frightened at first nervousexhaustionpermeatinghis frail being. Eventually leaming to managetheserare faculties,he again resumed his life. But the visions which began in his youth were now more vivid and solid than ever before.When they came, unbidden, he could literally touch and walk around them. Now

the vehicle of his scientific themes, had written several magnificenttomes on the

also, he was equal to receiving them. He was waiting for the revelation by which his alternating current motor would appear. Tesla's life came into a new focus while walking in a park with some friends, the year 1881. It was late afternoon, and Tesla became enhanced with the sight of a glorious sunset. Moved to indescribable emotions, he began quoting a verse from Goethe's "Faust":

ilffi,-A1lffi:.'#,l,1'lo*il" Tesla Whileyeta student, hadbecame awareof cer[:"Jil3:*,T;fr,$?T:':"'ilfi

very same emotions, When the new

tain scientific imperatives ;Tl*;il""asonewhostandswatch Goethe was well aware of the new

it,i*;ri;;;;. ih" enqngiated by JOhann YOn trend and scientinc reduction of nature to forces and mecha-

was Oneof these li:T:iff":H:;"#fff, [,fff*:;Goethe. 'i#' andextent":il:'T kffi: thepreservation ;J[T::"";, natural. sionof allactivities

textsand read theseto the exclusion of all other philosophies.It was through this window that we may comprehend all of Tesla'ssciendficmethodsand later For in Teslawe seethe quest statements. for communion with nature, one based on the faith that mind, and ordained skucture form the worldsensation,consciousness, foundations. The sense-validating Q;ralitativeTheme againappearsin Nikola Tesla.Armed with this foundation,he was able to filter and qualify every other new study with which he was presented.In addition, he was irresistibly drawn into the study of electricity, the "new magick". In the following months, he absorbed the electrical engineeringcoursesso rapidly that he no longer attendedclasses. He had taken a technical position in Budapest. Several new intuitionshad seizedhim. Tesla becamefascinated.obsessedwith alternatingeurrent electricity.The problem he faced was considered insurmountable, Tesla was sure that he could devise an enginewhich wasturned, not by contact-currents,but by magnetic field actionsalone. The struggle toward designing such a device, begun as a puzzlingamusemen!was now completelyconsuminghis strength. The answer,tantalizingand near,seemedelusive.Undergirding all

"The glow retreats, done is our day of toil; it yonder hastes,new fields of life exploring, ah, can no wing lift me from this soil... upon his track to follow, follow soaring?"

As he reachedthis last line of verse,Tesla was suddenlyseized by an overwhelmingvision. In il he beheld a greatvortex, whirling eternally in the sun and driving acrossthe earth with its infinite power. Completely absorbed in this glory, he became catatonic and irresponsive...tothe great fear of his companions.His mind and body buzzingwith the power of the vision, he suddenlyblurted oul "seemy motor here...watchme reverseit", They shookhim, believing he had lost his mind completely. Rigid and resistingall of their efforts,he would not move until thevisionsubsided.When he waslinally led to a bench,he seemed completelyhansformed.The remainder of the day was spentin a grand and joyous celebration,Tesla's remaining funds supplying the feast.Throughout the long hours of that night he sharedwith his friends the great sight he had beheld. They spoke of the sure implications portended for the world's future, and departedwith very great expectations. Moving to Strassburg,he was employed as an engineer in a

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It was telephone subsidiary of the Continental Edison Company' inasmallmachineshopthatheconshuctedtheworld'sfirst umagnetic vortex motors"' Their brushless motors, He called them Tesla's whirling magnetic fields ba.filed electrical engineers' Now, in his absolute was Goethe profurri., riere studying his work' judgement of science and human nature: nature leads humanity to "follow, follow soaring". Tesla'sstxangewhi.lingdevicesworkedontheirveryfirsttrial. no There were no connections between the rotors and stators' elficienl sparking, lossy brushes. The motion was smooth and alternating current generators, transformers' and Nu*"ro,r. succes-' "brushless" motors, all were developed by Tesla in quick draftsman' a professional sion. The vision in material form. Himself he mapped out his entire Polyphase System' Tesla emigrated to America with a full pordolio of plans. America would be the place where his dreams would find fulfillment' Continually attracted to engineering problems which none his could master, his sudden visualization of the solutions became he others' well as as respec! this In operation' of mode normal for remained the wonder of all his technical assistants' He worked Thomas Edison in NewJersey for a very short time period until securing a laboratory and financial supPorters of his own' In his first independent venture he developed arc lamps and lighting systems. When his financial supporters betrayed his trusg ti"y tJft'frit" bankrupt ovemight. He became a ditch digger, all the indignities which immigrants faced in America sufiering-the 1880's. He learned the value of publicity after his during incesslantmention of polyphase and alternating current managed to attract the attention of certain new financial supporters' They drew him out of the ditch, but not before he demanded his own laboratory, a machine shop, and a sizable personal percentage "up front". The resultwas our present day electrical distribution system' Tesla did not invenf alternating current' Tesla reinvented alternating currentin the form of Polyphase Current' His Polyphase system *a. a no\rel means for blending three identical alternating currents together simultaneously, but "out of step"' The idea was similar to having three pistons on a crankshaft rather than one' Tesla's method had wonderful advantages, especially when motors were to be operated. Formally, no one could make an alternating current motor turn at all simply because no net motion could be derived from a current which lust "shuttled" to and fro' Polyphase applied a continuous series of separate "pushes" to

lously wealthy at a Young age' Tesla extended Lis generatorfrequenciesin multiples of sixty very until reachingsomethirty thousandcyclesPer second'These marvel the became current high frequeriry altemating Senerators and engneering world' They were copied and of-all tt u ".ua"mic modified by several other subsequent inventors including Alexanderson.Remarkably driven at excessivespeeds,they constitutedTesla's first belief that high frequency alternatingcurrent generatorswould supply the world's Power' High frequencycurrent phenomenawere new and exceedingly culoJs. A line of experimentalresearchwas conductedin order to evaluatenew safeand possiblymore efficientwaysfor hansmiting power along long elevatedlines, Tesla statedthat the transmission of such safe currents acrossve{y long powerline distancesin the future would be a certainty,seeingtheir wonderful new qualities. Tesla found that high frequency currentswere harmlesswhen contactedby the human body. Dischargesfrom these generators haversedthe outer surfaceof materials,never penehatingmafrer with depth. There was no danger when working with high fr"q.r"ncy currents. He also observed their very curious and beautifuf spark effects. They hissed and fizzled all over wire conductors, could stimulate luminescence in low pressure gas bulbs. seemedto traverseinsulativebarriers with ease,and made Iisle pinwheelsspin like delicate little fireworks displays' Though curious, the effects were weak and furtive' They seemed to intimate some future technology which he was yet unable to penetrate.Tesla learned that his intuitions and visions were infallible. What he guessedusually proved true' This very revelation,he later claimed, was his Sreatestdiscovery' personal ^, As the safety of all personnel was his main concern, he was consumedwith the idea of making his High FrequencyPolyphase Systemcompletelysafefor human operaton and consumen alike' An extensiveexamination of each SystemcomPonentwas under' taken with this aim in mind. Tesla was thorough and relentlessin his quest for safetyand efliciency. But, his involvementwith alternatingcurrentswould come to an abrupt and unexpectedend. During a seriesof experimentswhich followed thesehigh frequencytests,an amazingseldom-mentioned accidento""u.r"d in which Tesla observeda phenomenonwhich forever altered his view of electricity and technology'

DISCOVERY SHOCKING experimenterthroughouthis professional and Teslawas an avid rotors. hesla's-iolyphase System made brushless motors and nature that he was able !o intense an such of was life. His curiosity brilliant lighting methods possible. Polyphase made it also possible with no regard for peculiarity electrical an of mysieries the to send elect ical power to very great distances with little loss. plumb sleepfor a few and work would Edison Whereas comiort. iri. o*r, Alternating electrical currents vibrated in the line. Current did not had achieved he until sleep never would Tesla the floor, on flow continuously from end to end, as in Edison's flawed system' hours could last for marathon This venture. experimental in an success Edison's direct current system could not supply electricity beyond two hour a seventy through work to observed *". orr.. He days. a few city blocks before current virtually disappeared' him' awe of in were technicians His fatigue. without period In efforts to discover a more efficient kind of polyphase, Tesla The Victorian Era was flooding over with new eleckical discovexplored higher frequency alternating currents' During this reby the day. Keeping up with the sheer volume of shange eries ,"ur.h, he built and patented several remarkable generators' discoveries and curiosities was a task which Tesla electrical with to perform Higher frequency polyphase was found by Tesla thoroughly enjoyed...and preferred. His Polyphase System in than the common sixty-cycle variety which we faigreater "ffi.u"y order, the pleasurableoccupationofshrdying new still-use. He fully intended on implementing these special genera- perfeciwotking gazettesand slientific journals often fascinatedhis mind to the tors in the systemwhich his Patron and friend, George Westinghouse, iesponsibilities. A millionaire and worldbusiness arrangement rendered Tesla fabu- Ixclusion of all other had proliferated. The

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were quickly closed and opened in his Polyphase System.Swirch terminals were often blasted to pieces when the speed of the switchmanmatched the current phase. Tesla assessedthe situation very accurately. Suddenly applied currents will stress conductors both -I Postttvely E'',.ct Tt'Elt Wkt h, tl', Nos, Dc{od.Nt* elecbically and mechanically' When the speed of the Up Wl&h Sourcq ol EneeJI llflll Bcopend switch-actionis brief enough, and the power reachesa Emryvbn ft|vo mtl fttt at th U.rloJ/d ol MatM suflicientlyhigh crescendo,the effectsaf,enot unlike a tn llnttmttud Amo.iitt-I Ha|, LId.a D''(',V.'/l miniature lightring stroke. Electricity initially heatsthe whlch I.E t.Et to Ant'pdtitr. &6" wire, bringing it to vapor point. The continual applica& Flrry Gol&r tion of current then blaststhe wire apart by electrostatic repulsion.Butwas this mechanisticexplanationresPonsible for eveqypart of the phenomenon? The mostrefractorymetalswere saidto be vaporized by such eleckical blasts.Others had used this phenomhtl$ddbldUd.t.r{|d enon to generatetiny granular diamonds. Yes, there rhll bffib La .a. ad * h 5ll. were other aspectsabout this violent impulse phenomenon which tantalized him. Sufficiently inhigued, he developeda small lightning "generator"consistingof a high voltagedynamo and small capacitorstoragebank. His idea was to blast sectionsof wire with lightningJike currents.He wanted to observethe mechanicallyexplo sive effects which wires sustain under sudden high-poweredeleckifications. Instantaneousapplicationsofhigh current and high voltage could literally convert thin wires into vapor. Chargedto high direct current potentials,his capacitors were allowed to dischargeacrossa sectionof thin wire. Tesla configured his test apparatus to eliminate all possiblecurrent alternations.The applicationof a single switch contactwould here produce a single, explosive electrical surge: a direct current impulse resembling lightning. At first Tesla hand-operated the system, a heavy knife switch on and off. This became snapping manually before the age of thirty, Tesla sought the pure kind ,;;",us the dynamo voltageswere deliberatelyincreased. as less favorable of research he had so long craved' the large knife switchheld in his glovedhand. closed He quickly he effect electrical Whenever he observed any intriguing But as it did so, Tesla was stungby a wire exploded. The Bang! with a hundred study immediately launched into experimental penetrations.Closing the dynamo needle-like of blast knowlpressure new wealth of a him such study brought variations. Each neck, arms, chest,and hands' The face, his he rubbed down. he was he observed, which on phenomena based that, edge irritation was distinct.He thoughtwhile the dynamo whirred down immediately able to formulate new inventions and acquire new to a slowspin.The blastwaspowerful.He musthavebeensprayed patents. Though he Tesla's New York laboratories had several sections. This com- by hot metal droplets as small as smoke particles. No evino wounds. found fortunately he his person, examined plex was arranged as a multilevel gallery, providing a complete felt. powerfully he so which blast stinging the dence of research and production facility. Tesla fabricated several of his Placing a large glassplate between himself and the exploding large transformers and generators in the lower floors, where the wire, he performed the test again.Bang!The wire again turned to floors The upper housed. machine shops of this building were the pressuredstingingeffectwas still felt. But' what was vapor...but had athacted a He laboratories. contained his privaie research these stinging effectsable to penetratethe glass were How this? trusted was a Czito Kolman these, all loyal staff of technicians. Of not surewhetherhe wasexperiencinga Pressure was Now he plate? life. Czito of his remainder for the Tesla by friend who would stand one. The glasswould have screenedany electrical or an effect New York Tesla's of in each foreman shop was the machine mechanicalshrapnel,butwould not appreciablyshield any electrilaboratories. cal effects. Tesla observed that instantaneous applications of either direct Through careful isolation of each experimental componenl or altemating current to lines often caused explosive effects. While Tesla graduallyrealizedthat he was observinga very raxeelechical these had obvious practical applications in improvement and phenomenon.Each"bang" producedthe sameunexpectedshock safety, Tesla was seized by certain peculiar asPectsof the phenomexploding small wire sectionsinto vapor' enon. He had observed these powerful blasts when knife-switches responsein Tesla,while

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The instantaneousburst produced strangeefrectsnever observed with alternatingcurrents.The painful shockingsensationappeared each time he closed or opened the switch. These sudden shock currentswere MPUISES, not alternations.What surprised him was the fact that these needle-like shocla were able to reach him from a disiance: he was standing almost ten feet from the discharge site! These electrical irritations expanded out of the wire in all directions and filled the room in a mys6$ing manner. He had neverbeforeobservedsuchan effecl He thoughtthat the hot metal vapor might be actingas a'carrier' for the electricalcharges.This would explain the shong Pressurewave accompanied by the sensationof electrical shock. He utilized longer wires. When the dischargewire was resistiveenough, no explosion could occur. Wire in place,the dynamo whirred at a slowerspeed.He threw the switch for a brief instanl and was again caught offguard by the stingingpressurewave! The effect per-

He could freely walk around the room during the tesLHe could hold the shield or simply walk without it A small rotary spark switch was arranged in place of the hand-held knife switch. The rotary switch was arranged to intemrpt the dynamo current in slow, successiveintervals.The system was actuated,the motor switch contact procranked it contactsslowly. Snap...snap...snap'..each duced the very s:une room-Iilling irritation. This time itwas most intense.Tesla could not get awayfrom the shocks,regardlessof his distance from the apparatusacrosshis considerablylarge gallery hall. He scarcelycould get near enough to deactivatethe rotating switch. From what he was able to painfully observe,thin sparksof a bright blue-whitecolor stood shaight out of the line with each eleckical contact. The shocke{fectswere felt far beyond the visible sparkterminations. This seemedto indicate that their potential was far greater than the voltage applied to the line. A paradox! The dynamo charge was supplied at a tension of Iifteen thousand volts, yet the stinging sparks were characteristics of electrostatic discharges exceeding some two hundred fifty thousand volts. Somehow this input current was being bansformed into a much higher voltage by an unknown pro. cess. No nahral explanation could be found. No scientilic explanation sufticed.Therewassimplynot enough data on the phenomenonfor an answer. And Tesla knew that this was no ordinary phenomenon. Somewhere in the heart of this activitywas a deep natural secret.Secretsof this kind always opened humanity into new revolutions. Tesla consideredthis strangevoltage multiplying effect from several viewpoints. The problem centered around the fact that there wursno magnetic induction taking place. Transformersraise or lower voltage when current is changing.Here were impulses. Change was happening during the impulse.But there was no bansformerin the circuit. No wireswere closeenoughfor magnetic inductions to take place. Without magneticinduction, there could theoreticallybe ro transformationeffecl No conversionfrom low to high voltage at all. Yel each switch snap brought both the radiating blue-white sparksand their painful sting.

;:::l'i** Theshockeffects :ff*,*":3ih.l.l: werefelt spark thevisible farbeyond H'tr;*:J:'n*;lm:*s'T knew H terminations...Tesla H#ff"*l'ilffi::.?":ll'il thatthiswasnoordinary phenomenon. Somewhere ff:i'Jlilffi'1#y"Tf*::5 intheheartof thisactivity secret. natural wasa deep ;:T"ffiffifl:ffi;;;il:JllT of thiskindalways Secrets l*,:"*"liffH'X"""#":J.: ine mystery. Hotvaporwas not available

what was happening here? The pressure wave was sharp and strong,like a miniature thunderclap.It felt strangely "electrical" when the dynamo voltage was sumciently high. In

beyond certain thresholds.It became

used.Perhapshe was fortunateenough

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revolutions. *Jf"Th*;l:lT:;i"n:*il

this shangemanner?Here was a phenomenon which was not described in any of the texts with which he was familiar. And he knew every written thing on electricity.Thinking that he was the victim of some subtle,and possibly deadly short circuil he rigorously examined the circuit design.Though he searched,he could find no eleckical 'fhere were simply no paths for any possible corona leakages. effectsto lind their way back into the switching terminal which he held. Deciding !o better insulate the arrangementin order that all possibleline leakagescould be eradicated,he again attemptedthe experimenl The knife switch rapidly closed and opened,he again felt the unpleasantshockJustas painfully as before. Right through the glassshield! Now he was perplexed. Desiring total distance from the apparatus,he modified the grstem once more by making it "automatic'.

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IMPULSES Tesla noted that the shangesparls were more like elechostatic discharges.Ifthe sparkshad been direct current arcsreachingfrom the test line, he would surely have been killed with the very first closeof the swilch.The physicalpressureand sfrngingpain of these sparksacrosssuchdistancescould not be explained.This phenomenon had never been reported by thosewho should have seenand felt its activities.

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Tesla gradually casre to the conclusion that the shock effect was in the confidence that all elechical phenomena had been both something new, something never before observed. He further observedand mathematicallydescribed,academicianswould be concluded that the effect was never seen before becauseno one very slow to acceptTesla's claims. had ever conskucied such a powerful impulse generator.No one But this academic sloth is not what bothered Tesla. He had had ever reported the phenomenon because no one had ever already found adequatecompensationfor his superior knowledge generatedthe phenomenon. in the world of industry.Tesla,now in possessionof an effectwhich Tesla once envisioneda vortex of pure energy while looking was not predicted by Maxwell, began to question his own knowl.. into a sunsel The result of this great hovidential vision was edge. Had he become a "mechanist", the very thing which he polyphase cunenl A true revelation. But this, this wiu an original reviled when a shrdent?Empirical fact conbadicted what that upon discovery found through an accidenL Itwas an empirical discovery he based his whole life's work. Goethe taught that nahnre leads of enormous signiffcance.Here was a new electrical force, an humanity. utterly new species of electrical force which should have been The choice was clean accept the empirical evidence and reject incorporated into the electrical equations ofJames Clerk Morwell. the conventional theory. For a time he struggled with a way to Surprisingly, it was not "derive" the shock elfect phenomenon by mathematically wresTesla now questionedhis own knowledge. He questionedthe tling "vdidity" from Maxwell's equations...butcould not. A new foundationson which he had placedso much conlidencein the last electricalprinciple had been revealed.Tesla would take this, as he severalyears. Maxwell was the "rule and measureoby which all of did the magnetic vortex, and from it weave a new world. Tesla'spolyphasegeneratorshad been What had historically taken place constructed.Tesla penetratedthe validwas indeed unfortunate. Had Max. ity of Maxwell's mathematicalmethod. f f: _t_ r/ well lived after Tesla's accidental

rtwas weu known High voltage impulse cur".,'il'Jffl".: derived his mathematical descriptions orerechomagnetic inductio' ,t'.T i fents

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pJrhaps newer phenomena.had not factrhere was an electrical

discovery, then the effect might have been included in the laws. Of course, we have to assume that Maxwell would have 'chosenn the phenomenon among those which he considered "fundamental". There was no otherway to see his new discovery now. Empirical fact conhadicted theoretical base. Tesla was compelled to follow. The result was an epiphany which changed Tesla's inventive â‚Źourse. For t}te remainder of his life he would make scientilic assertions which few could believe, and fewer yet would reproduce. There yet exist several reproducible eleckical phenomena which cannot be predicted by Maxwell. They continually appear whenever adventuresome experimenters make accidental observations.

oobroadcast" effectwhose ilil:H:f:Jffi"'i1ffi:f; implementation inamyriad buarredesignswouldset nl;:[:l*U;**t""rt'#:of Teslaapartfromall other :ff';fl*::T'llTi:1'i:"f:I been discovered, and were therefore

statinghis equationsas "final"? In deriving the laws of electromagnetic induction, Maxr,vell had imposed his

observedsince the eighteenthcentury.

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he consideredto be "the most fundamental" induction effectsfrom the start The selectionprocesswas purely arbitrary. After having "decided" which induction efrectswere "the most fundamental", Maxwell then reducedtheseselectedcasesand describedthem mathematically. His hope was to simplif matters for engineerswho were designingnew electrical machines. The results were producing "prejudicial" responsesin engineers who could not bear the thought of any variations from the ustandard".Tesla had experienced this kind of thematic propaganda before, when he was a student.The quandtativewave of blindnesswas catching up with him. Tesla and others knew very well that there were strange and anomalousforms of electromagneticinduction which were constantlyand accidentallybeing observed.These seemedto vary as the experimentalapparatusvaried. New elechicalforce discoveries were a regular feature of every Nature Magazine issue.Adamant

FOCUS High voltageimpulsecurrentsproduceda hithertounknown radiant effect. In facl here wirs an elechical "broadcast" effect whose implementation in a myriad of bizarre designswould set Tesla apart from all other inventors.This new electical force effect wasa pre-eminentdiscoveryof greathistoricalsigniftcance.Despite this fact, few academiciansgrasped its signiftcanceas such. Focussednow on dogmatizingMaxwell's work, they could not accept Tesla's excited announcements.Academes argued that Tesla's effectcould not exisl They insistedthat Tesla revisehis statements. Tesla's mysterious effect could not have been predicted by Maxwell becauseMaxwell did notincorporate itwhen formulating his equations.How could he have done so,when the phenomenon wasjust discovered?Tesla now pondered the academicramifica-

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SecondQuarter 1996 41


with confidence. Positionedbehind his copper mantle,Tesla initiated the action. 7Z727Z...the motorized switch whirring, dynamo voltage interrupted severalhundred timesper second,the shockactionwasnow continuous.He felt a steadyrhythm of elechostaticirritationsright through the barrier accompaniedby a pressurewave which kept expanding. An impossibiltty.No elechical influence should have passedthrough the amount of copper which composedthe shield. Yet this energeticeffectwas penehating,electricallyshocking,and pressured,He had no words to describe this aspect of the new phenomenon.The shocksreally stung. ., Tesla was sure that this new discovery would p.roduce a completelynew breed of inventions,once tamed and regulated.Its effectsdiffered completelyfrom thoseobservedin high frequency alternatingcurrenl These specialradiant sparkswere the result of non-reversingimpulses. In facl this effect relied on the nonreversingnature of each applied burst for its appearance.A quick contactchargeby a powerful high voltagedynamo wasperforming a feat of which no alternatinggeneratorwas capable.Here was a demonshationof "broadcast eleckicity". Most researchersand engineersare fixed in their view of Nikola Tesla and his discoveries.They seem curiously rigidiffed in the thought that his only realm of experimental developmentslay in altemating current electricity. This is an erroneous conception which careful patentstudy reveals.Few recognizethe documented facts thal after his work with alternating currents was completed, Tesla switched over completely to the study of impulse currents, His patentsfrom this period to the end of his careerare filled with the ierminology equatedwith electrical impulsesalone. The secretlay principally in the direct current application in a small time interval. Tesla studied this time increment, believing that it might be possibleto eliminate the pain lield by shortening the Iength of time during which the switch contact is made. In a daring series of experiments, he developed rapid mechanical rotary switcheswhich handled very high direct voltagepotentials. Each contact lasted an averageof one ten-thousandthsecond. Exposing himself to such impulses of very low power, he discoveredto hisjoy and amazementthat the pain field was nearly absent.In its placewas a strangepressureeffectwhich could be felt Nikola Tesla, age 63. right through the copper barriers. Increasingthe power levels of this device produced no pain increase, but did produce an inhiguing increasedpressurelield. The result of simpleintemrpted then his own a"nd possibly other of tions of this new effect.What into Maxwell's high voltage DC, the phenomenon was never before reported which were not incorporated elechicalphenomena force laws?Would academesnow ignore their existence?Would exceptby wihressesof closelightning strokes.This waserroneously theynow evendareto rejectthe possibilityof suchphenomenaon attributed however to pressureeffectsin air. Not able to properly comprehendttreir nature at firsl Tesla also the basisof an incomplete mathematicaldescription? Seeingthat the effectcould grant humanity enortnouspossibili- conservativelyapproachedthe pressurephenomenonasdue to air ties when once tamed, Tesla wished to study and implement the pressure.He had first statedthat the pressurefield efrectwas due radiantelectricalactionunder much saferconditions.The very first to sharp soundwaveswhich proceededoutward from the suddenly stepwhich he took before proceedingwith this experimental line chargedline. In fac! he reported this in a little-knownpublication was the conshuctionof special grounded copper barriers: shields where he first announcedthe discovery.Calling the pressureeffects "elecbified soundwaves",he describedtheir penetratingnature in to block the electricalemanationsfrom reaching him. They were large, body sizedmandesof relatively thick copper. acousticterms. Further experimentation however, gradually brought the new He groundedtheseto insure his own completesafety.In electrical that both the observed pressureeffect and eleckical awaf,eness him. This assembly terms,they formed a "Faraday Cage" around were not taking place in air at all. He demonstratedthat fields reaching Tesla shock from ever static discharges would block out all could take place in oil immersions.Impulse charged these actions write what he saw and Now he both observe the tests. could during

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lines were placed in mineral oil and carefully watched. Strong pressureprojectionsemergedfrom sharp wire ends in the oil, as if air were sheamingout under high pressure. Teslafirst believedthat this streamwaswire-absorbedair driven off by electricalpressure.Continual operationof the phenomenon convinced him that the projected stream was not air at all. Furthermore,he was not at-a loss to explain the effecl but was reluctantto mention his own theory of what had been generatedby high voltage direct current impulses. Tesla made eleckical measurementsof this projective sheam. One lead of a galvanometerwas connectedto a copper plate, the other grounded. When impulses were applied to wire line, the unattachedand distantmeter registereda continual direct current. Current through space without wires! Now here was something which impulsesachieved,never observedwith alternaUngcurents of any frequency. Analysis of this situation proved that electrical energy or electrically productive energies were being projected from the impulse device as rays,not waves.Tesla was amazedto lind these rays absolutelylongitudinal in their action through space,describing them in a patent as "light-like rays". These observations conformed with theoretical expectations described in 1854 by Kelvin. In anotherarticleTesla callsthem "dark-rays",and "rayswhich are more light-likein character".The rays neither diminishedwith the inversesquareof the distancenor the invene of the distance from their source.They seemed to stretch out in a progressive shock-shellto great distanceswithout any apparent loss. MAGNETIC ARCS Nikola Tesla now required greater power levels than those provided by his mechanicalrotary switch system.He also sawthe need for controlling ultra-rapid current interruptions of high repetition ("succession")rates. No mechanical switch could perform in this manner. He had to envision and devise some new meansby which ultra-rapidinterruptionscould be obtained.In his best and most efftcient system, highly charged capacitorswere allowed to impulsively dischargeacrossspecial heavy duty magnetic arcs. The magneticarc gap wascapableof handling the largecurrents required by Tesla.In achievingpowerful, sudden impulsesof one polarity, these were the most durable. Horn shaped electrodes were positionedwith a powerful permanentmagneticlield. Placed at right anglesto the arc itself,the currentswhich suddenlyformed in this magneticspacewere acceleratedalong the horns until they were extinguished.Rapidly extinguished! Arcs were thus completely extinguishedwithin a speciliedtime increment.Tesla conliguredthe circuit parametersso as to prevent capacitoralternationsfrom occurring through the arc space.Each arc dischargerepresenteda pure unidirectional impulse of very greatpower.No "contaminatingcurrent reversals'were possibleor permissible. Reversals..,alternations...would ruin the "shock broadcast".The effectwasnever observedwhen alternadngcurrentswere engaged. High voltagewas supplied by a large dynamo. Tesla could speed or slow this dynamo with a hand operated rheostat.Power was applied in parallel across the capacitor. The magnetic arc was

linked almostdirectly to one side of this capacitor,a long and thick copper strap connecting the magnetic arc and the far capacitor plate. This simple asymmetric positioning of the magnetic arc discharger to one side of the dynamo supply produced pure unidirectional electropositiveor elechonegativeimpulses as desired. Tesla designed this very simple and powerfully effective automaticswitchingsystemfor achievingultra-rapidimpulsesof a singlepolarity. Capacitorvalues,arc distances,magneticfields and dynamo voltages were all balanced and adjusted to leld a repedtive train of ultrashort singular impulseswithout "flyback" elfects. The system is not really well understood by engineers,the exceptional activities of the arc plasma inhoducing numerous addifional featuresto the overall system.While the effectswhich Tesla claimed can be reproduced with electron tube impulse circuitry, these produce decidedly inferior effects.The overall power of the basic arc discharge is diflicult to egual. Tesla eventuallyenclosedthe magneticarc, immersingthe gap spacein mineral oil. This blocked premature arcing, while very greatly increasingthe systemoutput. Most imagine that the Tesla impulse systemis merely a "very high frequencyalternator".This is a completelyerroneousnotion, resulting in elfects which can never equal those to which Tesla referred. The magnetic discharge device was a kue stroke of genius.It rapidly extinguishescapacitorchargein a singledisruptive blast.This rapid current rise and declineformed an impulseof extraordina{F power. Tesla called this form of automatic arc switching a "disruptive discharge" circuil distinguishingit from rlumerousother kinds of arc dischargesystems.It is very simply a means for intemrpting a high voltage direct current without allowing any backward current alternations.When these conditions are satisfied,the Tesla Effect is then observed. The asymmetricalpositioningof the capacitorand the magnetic arc determinesthe polarity of the impulse train. If the magneticarc device is placed near the positive charging side, then the sbap is chargednegativeand the resultantcurent dischargeis decidedly negative. Tesla approachedthe testingof his more powerful systemswith certain fear. Each step of the testing processwas necessarilya dangerous one. But he discovered that when the discharges exceeded ten thousand per second, the painful shock elfect was absent.Nervesof the body were obviouslyincapableof registering the separateimpulses.But this insensitivitycould lead to a most seductivedeath. The deadly aspectsof elechicity might remain. Tesla was therefore all the more wary of the experiments. He noticed thal though the pain field was gone, the familiar pressureeffectremained.In its place came a defined and penetrating heat.Tesla was well awarethat such heat could signalinternal elecbocution. He had already made a thorough study of these processes,recognizingthat such heatingprecedesthe formation of electricalarcsthrough the body. Nevertheless,he applied power to the dynamo in small but steady intervals. Each increasebrought increasein the intemal heating effects. He remainedpoisedat eachpower level,sensingand scopinghis own physiologyfor danger signs.He continued raising the power level until the magnetic arc reached its full buzzing roar. Tesla

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fluidic sheathscovered coPper cylinders of found that this heat could be adjustedand, when not extreme'was appeaxance.Smooth, fascinated Tesla' There was an absolutely This size. was speciftc completelyenjoyable.So soothing,reloring, and comfortable radiant eleckicity' in inherent nature aerodynamic energies' this manifestationthat Tesla daily exposedhimself !o the produced remarkable volumes of white discylinders Copper An eleckical'sauna'. from certain sized cylinders were actually He Iater reported these ftndings in medical journals, freely charges.The discharges applied. This inferred that an energy offering the discovery to the medical world for ib therapeutic larger than those being was talcing place withhf the cylinder' This benefits.Tesla was a notorioususer of all such therapiesfrom this baisformation efrect initial observation with the shock-excited time on, often falling into a deep sleep in the warm and penetrating reminded him of his not explode gaveforth far greatervoltages influences.C)nce,having overindulged the electresaunatherapy, wires.Those which did He had never understoodwhy this was used. he fell into a profoundly deep sleepfrom which he emergeda day than were initially instance in which applied energy wrN another was Here later! He reported that this experience was not unpleasant but occurring. Why was this happening? conductor. by a magnified seemingly realizedthat proper "electrodosages"would necessarilyhave'tobe phenomenonmight be this bizarre to understanding key The determinedby medical Personnel. ftom copper the discharges observed He thoughr he here, found the where lengths During this time, Tesla found shorterimpulse with white edged became Each diameters. various of cylinders the radiance rendering heating effect disappeared altogether, near or actually placed within the absolutelyharmless.These impulse trains were so very high that brush discharges when held impulser' The dischargeefrectwas the deepestnenresof one's body could not sensethe permeadng conductive copPerstrap of the were placedwithin the periphery radiant energyfield. Now he could Pumuehis vision of broadcast most pronouncedwhen cylinders energy systemswithout fear of rendering to humanity a technologi- of the copper strap. Tesla noticed that white corona sheathswere actually covering cal curse, rather than a true blessing' the outer cylinder wall at times' These would appear, build in strength, and disappear on sudden dischargewith a surprising TRAI{ISFORMERS length. The sheathing action was repetitive when the cylinder had levels' Tesla opera0edthe magnetic arc $'stem at higher power small volume. Very small cylinders behaved like rods, rates' repetition experim.entingwith various impulse lengths and " "titi".[y only appeared at their edges.The stability of discharges where apparently which current He measured the mys0eriouselechical dischargesvaried with cylinder diameterand sheath shange these ftelds radiant These this system. flowed through space from length. were effecb Strange before. than power operated at far greater Tesla noticed that not every cylinder performed well near the suddenlyappearingatcertaindistancesfrom the magneticimpulser. stableand For one thing,Teslanodcedthat metallicsurfacesnearthe impulser impulser. Only cylinders of specificvolume produced were too small, the If cylinders white electricalsheaths' became covered with white brush-like corona dischaqges.While "otttinoonr was an There unstable. and were intermitent the sparksplayed in uails acrossthe metal surfaces,Tesla observed then the sheaths the hain and impulse the supplied between connection physicalmovement among the metal objects.Tensionsand rock- obvious it? was what But volume. cylinder he was ing motions. Both phenomena occurtng simultaneously, Tesla surveyed the entire range of his recent discoveries' utterly fascinated. The sparls themselves seemed alive. The produced a radiant elechicd effect. Radiant electricity, Impulses effects. What motor moving metal objectsseemedto suggestnew flowing through space. As it flowed, it focussed was mysteriously phenomena? was this shange codition, this synchronicity of as a white fluidic corona' When the shape conductors metal over gaseous with a "hhslng" forth came Brilliant white coronas were just righg the energy soundfrom metal poinb and edges.Metal plateswere soonpoised and volume of the metal conductors greater voltage than the far of corona white all around the device for observation' Tesla recognized at once that appeared as a stable More discoveries' quesdons. More supplied. these efrecb were not identical with those obtained earlier while impulse generator but not as long as edges, their from sparks produced Rods using high frequency dteinating currents. These new discharges which worked very a cylinder selected Tesla did. cylinders copper were white, energetic,and shong. its surface'He all around horizontal several placed "cuts" and well, and The electricalbehavior of copper plates, rods, cylinders, from the spark discharge the testing, on when, surprised totally was variety of a great spheresnear his Primary impulser brought forth length spark Increased than before. larger notably was cylinder cut from appeared brushes white fluidic discharges.Strong discharge conductivity did this diminished the ends of copper plates' These came in prodigious volumes, meansincreasedvoltage.Butwhy uP? voltage the force from sharp especially directions, in all wildly hissing and arcing The cuts diminished conductivity in the cylinder by forcing the points. Tesla hied copper discs.These seemedto produce more He had noted that eleckical stabledischarges.He observedthe curious manner in which these energy into a tighter "squeeze". *raceo the outer surfaceof metal traverse to tendency around the disc edge at times, impuisesdisplayeda white dischargesseemedto ensheathedin a fluidic were often cylinders blending and separating with all the other sparls. Here was a conductors. Certain between coil ends in a havelled which smoothly magnilied example of Reichenbach'sOd force perhaps! white discharge Creatly truly notable' His was something Here layer. constricted tightly He noted the manner in which white brush dischargesappeared the upper coil from produced that than less was far voltage inpui near from copperconductorsof difrerentshapes.Eachform, poised to end? end why from But terminal. This coronal his impulser, gave a characteristiccorona dishibution. The essentialreasonwhy current preferred outer surfaceconcorresponderrcewith specilic geometric form greatly {Pressed becausethey were impulsing' The sudden trim. With certain metal forms the discha^rgeswere very fluidic in duction was precisely

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Tesla knew that here is where the secret lies. If resistancein the conductor is great enough, the snapping electrostaticforce cannot move any charges. It is forced to "grow" over the conductor surface until it discharges at the end point where greatly magnified voltagesare obtained. When the wire diameter is small enough, the wire explodes under electrostatic pressures which exceed those seen in dynamite. In effect, Tesla had managed to interrupt a high voltage direct current several thousand times per second. In doing so, he had discovered away to completely separate electrostaticenergy from current impulses. Tesla pondered these facts, wondering if it was . possible to force the magnification effect beyond the limits of standard electromagnetic transformers. In other words, how high could voltage be raised? Was there a limit to the process? In order to achieve such enormous voltage levels, he needed a conductive shape which offered so much resistance to charge movemen! that all the applied energy would become electrostatic. In effect, Tesla wanted to convert a quantity of supply power into a pure electrostatic voltage. This phenomena suggested that his goal was not impossible. Tesla extended his idea of the cut copper cylinder to coils. From the viewpoint of electrostatic impulses, flat copper coils appear to be "continuously cut" cylinders. The electrostaticfield focusesover the coil as it did with the cylinders, from end to end. A simple magnet coil of specific volume would offer so much resistancetirat it would be difficult to predict the actual resultant voltage which results without an empirical test.

shock which any conductor experienced produced an expansive effect, where the electrical charge was rejected by the conductive interior. This "skin effect" was a function of impulse time and conductor resistance. Highly resistant objects forced all of the impulse energy to the surface. Now he was getting somewhere. Frustrated radiant electricity constricted into a tighter surface volume when encountering metal surfaces.This intense surface focussing effect brought the voltage up to tremendous values. Here was a new transformer effect! He believed it was an electrostatic transformation. Impulse currents each possessedan electrostaticnature. The bunching of charge in the impulser brings this electrostatic field to a peak in a small instant of time. Constricting this field volume produces a greatly magnified voltage. Placement of any conductor in the field space alters the field by constricting its shape. When symmetrical conductors of special shape, volume, and resistanceare placed in this space, the field is greatly constricted. Because the impulsing electrostaticfield is very abrupt, it "snaps" over the conductor from end to end.

WHITEFIRE Qonstructing several of these, he was ready for the test. When each copper magrret coil was impulsed, Tesla saw tremendous white brushes leaping from their free ends: dischargesapproaching one million volts! But his supply power was nowhere near these voltages, and the coil was not wrapped in thousands of windings. These previously unexpected voltage magnifications were the result of an energ'ytransformation, one which took electrical power and converted it completely into pressure. Watts into Volts, an unheard thing. It was the key to a new and explosive technology. Tesla also found that such coils required very thin coil forms. He ceased using cellulose and cardboard forms, preferring "squirrel cage" type forms made of thin end-braced wooden rods. Wire was wound about these cylindrically disposed rods, producing the very best effects. Spacings were also tried between successive coil windings with excellent results. Spaced windings reduced sparking to a minimum. Tesla remarked that the electrostatic potentials along the coil surface (from end to end) could be as much as ten thousand volts per inch of winding! A ten inch coil of proper volume could produce one hundred thousand volt discharges.In addition, and in confirmation of his suspicions,no current was ever measured at the free terminals of these coils. A "zero coil current" condition! It was simply another paradox which would occupy the academ! cians for several more argumentative decades. Tesla suddenly realized that coils represented a truly special and valuable component in his quest. The instantaneous resistance which any coil offered to an applied impulse was so immense that current could not flow through the wire length. As a phenomenal

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S e c o n dQ u a r t e r 1 9 9 6 4 5


consequence,no current flowed through the coil windings at all! But sparkingwas observed,travelling from coil end to end. Here was yet another anomaly! He began placing these"secondary" coils within his "primary" impulsercircuit.The straPwhich connectedhis magneticarc to the capacitorsformed the "primary". He made necessarydistinctions among his Transformer components.Few engineersactually ap preciate these distinctions.The "primary" and "secondary" of Tesla Transforners are not magrretic inductors. They are resistive capacitors.Coil-shapedcapacitors!Tesla Transformer action is electrostaticinduction. There were conditionsfor the most efffcientmanifestationof the .. effect.Maxrvell could not predict thesevalues' Tesla empirically discoveredmost of the rules for impulse behavior. He found that the hansformative abilities of these smooth copPer coils were maximum when the coil massequalled the massof the impulser's conductive copper shap. It did not matter how thin the coil windingswere. The equality of copper massesbrought mardmum hansformativeeffects.When this equal mass condition was fuluin resonance'' Iilled, Tesla said that the coil-capacitorswere Electrostaticresonance. Tesla found it possibleto produce millions of elecirostaticvolts by this method. His {irst Transformerswere horizontal in orientation, both free ends of the secondary coil-capacitorproducing unidirectional impulses of great Power' White dischargesfrom indicating eachofthesefree endshad very differentcharac0eristics, appeared always lerminals the unidirectionalflow. Elechopositive appeared always terminals Electronegative brushlike and broad. and dartlike. conskicted His next Transformer seriesemployed vertical cylinders with the baseconnecteddirectly to ground. Free terminalsstood quite a distanceabove the primary capacitor straP,sPoutinga brilliant white crown.Thesemarked a turning pointin his theoriesconcerning electricity,sinceitwas possiblefor him to developwell over one million volts impulsepower in a devicescarcelytaller than a child. Thesedischargeswere of an intensewhite coloration.Whitefire. Very sudden impulsescolor dischargechannelswith the brilliant whitefire becauseTesla Transformersseparatethe effusiveeether from electrons.Tesla Transformer conduct ether, not elechons. The whitefirebrillianceis the disfnctive etheric hademark ofTesla Transformers. During this time, Tesla discovered the peculiar necessityfor streamlininghis Transformers. Clindrical secondary capacitors suddenlybecameconical forms.These presentedthe most bizarre appearanceof all. Tesla used cone-shapedsecondariesto focusthe impulses.Whitefire dischargesfrom these forms evidenced real focussingeffects, the dischargesthemselvesassuming inverted conical shapes.Their greatly intensified nature is seen in photo graphswhich were taken under his own inhigued supervision.The magnified voltageswere reaching those thresholdsin which his laboratory enclosureswere far too small !o continue making indushial scaleprogresson radiant energy systems. The fact that whitefire dischargespass through all matter, notably insulators,revealed the etheric nature. Tesla saw that whitefire dischargescould permeate all materials in a strangely gaseousmanner. This penetrationscarcelyheated mafrer. In facl the whitefire brushes often had a cooling effect' The sparks

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themselves, though violent in appearance' were "soft" when compared to all other forms of electricity. He had successfully removed the hazard from electricity. In blocking the slow and dense charges,he had freed the mysterious effirsive ather streams inherent in electricity.Becauseof this, new,and intensifiedradiant effecb were constantlymaking their appearanceacrosshis laboratory space. Tesla found that as thesenew "Impulse Transformers"greatly magnified power supplied to them, so also their radiant elechic effectswere equally magniffed. He found it possibleto wirelessly project elechostaticpower to very great distances,lighting special lamps to full candlepower at hundreds of feet' In these experiments,he alsoconceivedof signallingsystems.Itwould be possible 0o switch radiant effects in telegraphic fashion. Distant vacuum tube receiverswould then light or dim in correspondingmanner. Tesla experimentedwith a specialbreed of telegraphicwirelessin 1890. He also found it possible to wirelessly oPeratespecially con' structedmotors by properly interceptingthis space-flowingenergy stream.He had made his own polyphasesystemobsolete!The new vision was vastly more enthralling. The world would be hansformed. He discoveredways to beam the enerry out to any focus, even !o the zenith. His plan to illuminate the night sky with a radiant energy beacon captured the minds of all who listened' the meansby which the radiant eleckicity Tesla now possessed could be Creadymagnilied and hansmised. He could now bansform the very nature of the radiance so that it could carry increasinglygreaterpower. Now he could begin developinga new technology which would completely revitalize the world order. Powdr could be broadcastto any location without wire connections. Radiant electricity could be utilized in completely new appliances.A new world was about to be released! SPACE FLOWING CI,JRRENT Understandingthe analogue between these electrical impulse effectsand the behavior of high Pressuregasesw.ul of paramount importance.This gaseousaspectof impulse electricalradiancewas perhapsthe most mystifying aspectof these new-found energies. Those who sought out Tesla's every lechrre were very aware that a new elechical specieshad been discovered. While yet a shldenl Teslahad becameawareof certainscientilic imperativesenunciatedbyJohann von Goethe. One of thesewas the preservation and extension of all activities-nahrral.Goethe implied that when natural conditions were Preserved during experimentation,then nature itselfwas in the bestconliguration0o reveal more unified phenomenalexhibitions to qualitativeobservers. Tesla recognizedthat his new discoveryof impulse,the resultof an acciden! was a total departure from polyphase alternating current.While his original vision of the vortex was applied by him to the designingof motors and generators,Tesla now redized that this was not its primary message'In fact, taken from the viewpoint which Goettreexpressed,polyphasewas a most unnaturalform of enerS'y. Nahrral acfivity is suffused with impulses, not alternations. Natural activity is initiated as a primary impulse. Nature is flooded with impulses of all kinds. From lightning to nervous activities, all

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as conceived by Faraday. Young James Clerk Mocwell also believed that force lines were dynamic, longitudinal lines of flow. But flowlines of what substance?Here lay the principle problem which occupied physiciststhroughout the Victorian Era. Victorian researchersand natural philosopherswished to discbver the exact nature of the "flowing charge" of which force lines were composed. Most agreed that the mysteriousflowing "substance" had to be an effusive, ultra-gaseousflux, This flux was composed of infinitesimal energy particles which effected the various pressuresand inductions observed. Henry and Faraday shuggledwith the idea of deriving usable elechic power from static charges.The notions was thal since forcelineswere made of a "flowing charge substance",then lixed contactsplaced on chargedm:Nseswould supply electricalpower forever. No one was able, however, to derive this flowing charge. Iossy dischargesprecededevery contact,Most researchers, whose attempts with highly charged leydenJarsfailed,soughta more benign source of concenhatedcharge.The quest shifted to magnets, but the attempt remained as futile as ever. There remained no availableway to derive power from the individual lr / zt at flowing chargesof a forceline. ilOWtnat"spaCe Thomson discoveredelechons JJ. in vacuum discharges,assumingthat these"electric particles' operaledin all instanceswhere electricalactivity was observed.Victorian researchers did not acceptthis view completely. Thomson's "elechons"were viewed as the result of violent collisions acrossa vacuum accelerationspace. It was not possible to ascertain whether thesesame uThomsoncurrents' were active within eleckical conductors operating at small voltages. Very reputable experimenters besides Tesla continued claiming that "spaceflowing electricity' is the real elechicity. Tesla's classicdemonstrations proved that rapid

natural energy movements occur as impulses. Impulses were now seen by Tesla to fill the natural world. But, more fundamentally, Tesla saw that impulses flood the metaphysical world. The mysterious flow of meanings during conversation occurs as a sequence of directed impulses in space. Though inert air vibrates in alternations with sounds uttered, the flow of meaning remains unidirectional. Intentions are also impulses. The unidirectional flow of intentions appear as impulses. Motivations proceed from the manifestation of sudden desires. Overtly expressed as actions, the initiating impulses are then fulfilled. Tesla wished to comprehend where this "motivating force" came from, and where it went during the expressed actions. In all of this, he was very much the wonderful stereotype of the Victorian natural phllosopher. His scientific pursuits followed these considerations until the last. Those who study his announcements recog'nize his metaphysical foundations, the basis of all his subse-

quent scientificquests. Tesla observed the amazing "coordi-

r l

nation' ornew pr,",,o*",,u *;'4 g"t VefV fepUtable expefiment' seemed to bring new technological po-

',lj,311'T;#::J"Tj;'ill ersbesides Tesla continued lillf, new and fortunate position in nature.

I

o

.

"b.okenHaving somehow hisiixarionClalmmg with the unnatural...with polyphase...he re-entered the natural or

.

ing electricityt' icity"iis the real -,,,"-" that ,::":::::j:; the inductionof Could if it h6 be ,h'f pulses..-,^,,,.,

electricity. Tesla'sclassic i,lil$ri'il'Jlij:il:ffi1,I1",*; he producing a metaphysical vortex,

r

into which uutr,"i.,,p,l,:"ori;;; demOnStfatiOnspfovedthat of nature would now flow? Was this the

rapidelectricalimpulses ;T:il:['T""'ff:;T:i;";31fi:: actuallyexceed theability of fixedcharges to transmittheapplied forces. ffiifi:l,TnffiJ,:3iffi*,:fi

electricity the fundamental natural energy...the motivator? Victorian Science was not exactly sure what electricity was, there being so verv manv attributes associated with the

on the nature of both electric and magnetic forces. Gilbert and Descartes shared the belief that these forces were a special kind of "flowing charge", a space radiant stream which took place in tightly constricted lines. Some equated the electromagnetic forces with a "dark light", which Karl von Reichenbach later proved in part. Faraday adopbed and modified the view that electromagnetic forces acted through space because they were a special flow of charge. This effusive charge movement changed when travelling through conductors, becoming more densified and retarded in velocity. Faraday's "lines of force' were not conceived by him to be mere static tensions as modernists view them. Faraday envisioned these force lines as radiant, sheaming lines. They were mobile, moving longitudinally into space. Others would change the names, referring to electric force lines as "dia-electric' or dielectric flux, but the view remained essentially

electrical impulses actually exceed the ability of ffxed charges to transmit the applied forces. Charges lag where electrostatic forces continue propagating. One is compelled to see that electrostatic forces precede the movement of charges. Tesla saw that electrostatic impulses could flow without line charges. His "zero current coils" operated simply because the charges themselves were immobilized. Electricrty was shown to be more in the nature of a flowing force rather than a sheam of massive u{lowing current"? particles. But what then was this view, In Tesla's radiant electricity is a space flowing current which is NOT made of electrons. Later Mctorians believed that there was a substance which both filled all space and permeaied all matter. Several serious researchers claimed to have identfied this gas. Notables, such as Mendeleev predicted the existence of

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several ulha-raxe gases which Preceded hydrogen' These, he claimed, were inert gases.This is why they were rarely detected' The inert gaseswhich Mendeleevpredicted formed an atrnosphere which llooded all of space.These gaseousmixtures composedthe ather. Tesla and others believed that both electrical and magnetic forces were achrally streams of ether gas which had been ftxated in matter.Materialswere somehow"polarized" byvarious "frictive" beabnentsby which an ather gas flow was induced in them' Most materials could maintain the flow indeffnitely, since no work was required on their parl Matter had only to remain polarized, transducing the ather flow' The ather gascontained all the powor' Unlimited power. This ether gas power manilested as the elechomagnetic forces themselves,adequate reason to Pursue the development of an ether gas engne. Such an engine could run forever on the eternal kinetic ener$es of the ether itself, it being both generatedand &iven by the stars. Tesla believedthat radiant electricityis composedof ather gas' He basedthis belief on the fact that his zero current coils were not conducting the "slow and dense" charges usually obsewed in ordinary electricalcircuib. Abrupt impulsesproduced distinctive and difierenteffects...fluidiceffects.The qualitiesascribedby Tesla to "electricity" or things "electrical" in his numerous Patent texts and press inteMews are those which refer to the ether gas' Tesla did not refer to elechon cunents as "electricity"' He did not equate "elecficity" with electronflow. Whenever Tesla spoke of "eleckical" effects he always described their efrusive, gaseousquality. Tesla referred to sPace as the "ambient or nahral medium". Space, he claimed, was that which "conducb electricity". He had found a means by which ttris gaseous electrical flow could be gfeatly concentrated, magnifted, and directed. He saw that this radiant elecblcity was, in reality, a gaseousemanation. An etheric emanation. This is why he made constant reference to fluidic termtnology throughout his lechrres. Resistance,volume, capacity, reservoir, surface area' tension, pressure,pressurerelease:thesewere the terms upon w-hichTesla The terminology of hydraulics' ielied throughouthispresentadons. ether was a gas, it had that because recognized also Tesla aerodynamicrequiremenb. .fBtiiet, in Tesla's lexicon, wiN sPaceflowing electricity: a gas of superlative and transcendent qualities. /Ether was the electricity *hi"h fiilud all of space,a vast reservoir of unsurpassablepower' Motive, dynamic' and free for the taking. ,iEther gas technology would revolutionize the world. ,Ether gas engines would provide an eternalpower sourcefor the world. Science,indusbry,corPorawould tions,financialalignmenb,socialorders,nations...everything issuc) | ncxt (Part 2 in change. Grnnv Vlssr,eros began lvrifing for Borderlands magazineseveral video documentary years ago.He is the producerof the Rayof Drscooary 'seies,Tura Motors,Earth Toncs,and is dso the author of rhe Vril - a borderlandresearchencyclopediawhich now totalsI I Compcndium volumes' As an avid experimenter'lvfr' Vassilat'oshas conhibuted to severaladvancementsin the lields of Radionics and energyresearch' of theborderland"greats"' Thisishisfifthbiographyinanongoingseries

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The Broadcast Powerof I{ikola Tesla Parttr

by Gery Vassilatos OMPLETING a tour of the major scientilic instihrtes in America" Tesla expected to retire for a seasonof rest in New York once again. News of his advancements however, flooded every technical trade joumal. The nasre Teslawas everywhere once again. First polypbase and now radiant electricity. He was the "darling" of the press.Tesla caphrred the public eye once again. People everywhere were thrilled with the projected fuhrre visions which Tesla freely provided. He was a model European immigrant suave and debonair. These are probably the qualitieswhich ffrst attracted Anne Morgan- lrresistible, wealthy, unattached,and warm. Tesla was her obsession. Despite his great personal charm and magnetic personality, he maintained his serious tone and poise wherever he went. The vision of the future was far more important than the a.frentionsof a young and llirtatious lady. In anticipadonof theseforthcoming events,Tesla often invited other socially esteemedgueststo his labe ratory for special demonstrations.In this manner, it was noised abroad that what he claimed was in fact real. Anne often attended thesegatherings,breathing silently i:n the shadowsof his laageloft laboratoqy. There were otherswho, dthough not attendingthesedemonshations, were equally watchful of Tesla's newest radiant energy developments,Severalof these Persons'shall we say, were interested in his new discovery and its implications...becausetheir fortunes were threatened.Tesla had swept the world once with polyphase.He wiped outEdison'sDirect Current Systemovernight. sum J.P.Morgan,Edison'srecent "patron", had lost a considerable during that ffasco.It was certain that Tesla would soon sweepthe world againwith broadcastelecbicity. This destabilizinginfluence would not be tolerated.Anne complicatedthe affair considerably. She was in love with Tesla. Obsessedin facl Too obsessedand desperateto let go.

ROYAL SOCIETY LECTURES In the very midst of all these national attentions, Tesla received

an invitation from Lord Kelvin. He was formally requested to addressthe Royal Society,his latestfindingswere earnestlydesired. The English,usually extremely conservative,were sure that Tesla would changethe course of world history. Tesla, adjourning from his daily researchesnow prepared himself for the lectureswhich would start the world-change.He packednearlyeverypieceof delicateequipmentone can imagine. Vacuum tubes,Trinsformers, strangemotors, and equally strange wirelessapparatus.Allwere carefullycratedand penonallybrought to Europeby Teslahimself.His beloved elder and personalmentor, Sir William Crookes,greetedhim.

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In the opening portions of his Royal SocietylecturesTesla first describedhis preliminaqrwork with high voltage high frequency alternatingcurrentsin somelength.He explainedthatthesedevices embodied the very last investigationsand improvements of his PolyphaseSystem.He demonstratedseveralof the ffnt small high -to frequency alternators and iron-core induction coils in order preparehis audiencefor a final announcemenl In thisvery lastdramaiic demonshationTesla revealedto British Academia the disruptive electric dischargeand the properties of electricrays.Teslamade a rare and complete"full discLsurenof the elechic ray effect at the very end of his lecture.It was the very last time he would ever do so again in academiccircles, Tesla showed that the new radiant eleckicity was distinctive. been openly proclaimed during the london Royal Society fraving

lectures.Tesla deliberaiely compared and conbasted the potentimpulse rad!

eries as mere preparatoryinhoductions to impulses. Teslashowedby way of comparisonthat disruptiveffeld impulse banscendentlyexceedall other electro,inductiveeffectsby several orders. He expresseddifficulty in discerning whether the effecb were elechostaticor electrodynamicin nature, preferringto associ atethem more with electrostaticeffects.We deducethathe had onlv recentlybegun developingthe electricimpulse effectbecauseof his hesitancein identiSing the phenomenaproperly. Tesla was skingently exact in all his statements.This seems uncharacteristicof his scientilic nature. But he did this in true scientificopenness.Tesla did not know exactlywhat was occurring in the eleckic impulse at that time, desiring only to share the discovery openly and candidly. Academic disapproval of his personalsemanticscame swiftly in journal afterjournal. It is clear that Sir William Crookes completelygraspedthe signilicanceof Tesla'sentire demonshationand realized the closingformal announcement ofthe new eleckicforce.Crookescould not contain the thrilling implications. He was also sure that the new force would completely revolutionize the scientiffcworld. Crookesupheld Teslathereafteras the true discovererofan unrecognized eleckicalforce.Teslacontinuedcorrespondencewith his mentor after his departurefrom England.He had hoped that his dramatic announcementand demonstrationwould produce a new regime of electrical engineering,and that otherswould now reproduce the radiant electric effects as described. His hopeswould be strangelydashed to piecesin the comingyearswhen the derisive academicattacksbegan. To European academes,the lecture serieswas astounding.It was a glimpseof the future,so clearthatfew could find time to arguewith Tesla at all. Tesla concluded his tour of England and France,everywhereheralded in typical Victorian heroic style. One nighg while in Paris, a telegram informed him that his mother was on point of death.Rushingto her bedside,he managed a few hours offinal conversation. He alwaysreferredto her asthe one who completelyunderstood his strangeabiliues.Was she not the woman who had encouraged him when he fint remarked about his childhood visions?\llien siblingsand friends derided him, shewashis support.Early the next morning, in an adjacenthouse,he wasabruptly awakenby avision. What he beheld changed his life. A seraphichost surrounded his mother. Shewasascendinginto bright clouds.Severalminutesafter thal the announcementcame.His mother had quietly passedaway. He spenta torturousweek in his nativeland for her funeral,and fled back again to New York,

Tesla discovered that ;ffi"::.H"ffiil:;T*',fff

ruary 1892). Fluorescent lamps and

otherruminouswonders;"ffiiJ# excessivg sparking,

encespellbound.All thewhile hisvoice,

thoughimpressive to f,T31;,:fil'5frT;li:,h'ouchHe demonshatedwirelesslamps,lit to full brilliance by radiant electricity. observers, wereactually

He ran small motors at sizable distancesfor hisaudiencesto see.This last lechrre representsthe only recorded instance in which Tesla openly announced his discovery of the elecho-radiantimpulse. He tells the personallyrevolutionizingaspectof his discovery and how it virtually eradicates his previous work. He went bo great detail verbally describing and disclosingthe exactmeansfor eliciting the phenomenon. In his closing time Tesla quickly demonstratesspecial "electrostatic" motors and lamps made to utilize the radiant effect. Examination of these {irstlamp and vane-motordevicesrevealstheir primitive and initial state. Tesla modelled the motor after the Crookes radiometer, statingthis fact publicly for the benelit of his reveredmentor. Tesla finally statedthe vastimplicationsof the discovery.He pointed their minds toward the establishmentof true power transmission. He prophetically announced the new civilization which would emergefrom thesefirst devicesand systems.The world would be completely revolutionized by this new principle. Tesla described beam-kansmissionof electrical energy, and the possibility of har_ nessingthe radiant energiesof spaceitself. Those who had witnessedTesla's entire demonstrauonwere completely enthralled at his results, but misunderstoodhis new announcementcompletely.This becameapparentto Tesla a short while after he, highly decorated and honored, departed for his Parisian tour. British Science was yet delving into Teslian high frequencyalternations.Tesla had already disposedof thesediscov-

instabilities". "lossy Thedistant radiant

effectshedesired were interrupted and distorted whenever sparking occurred.

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him. Opinion would fade when others gradually sawthe astounding RE\rERSALS these actions,Tesla When Englishengineerswrote, askingthe meansfor generating developmenb which he would produce. In world had changed,but The nature. naive and his noble his impulse effects,Tesla gave them very strict descriptivePaxam- revealed rule. brutish more a toward eters.He never failed to openly disclosethe secret by which his changed spectaculareffectswere oblained. He had learned to freely share BROADCAST POW.ER what he kner,vwith all. He was surprised to discover that the more powerful embodimentsof his work developing to He set were in Europe' him academicsocietieswho so warmly addressed to mal<ea BroadcastElectrical System In order Transformers. initial of incapable utterly Being graduallylosinginterestin his discovery. to devisemore eIficienthansformers' be necessary would it possible to be the effects believed most parameters, duplicatinghis specified examining and dissectingevery very task, this on work set to He "dubious". The impulse effect had very skingent requirementsbefore its fundamentalpart of his existingTransformers' Tesla discoveredthat excessivesparking,though impressiveto manifestation.Carein conshuctingimpulsegeneratorswasthe basic requirement.Engineerswantedequations.Teslagavethem descrip observers,were actually "lossy instabilities"' The distant radiant tions. A few experimenterssucceededin later duplicating Tesla's effectshe desiredwereintemrpted and distortedwheneversparking the broadcastelectricityefrects.But thesesystemswere direct descen- occurred. Both sparking and brush dischargesactually ruined which had a situation eleckicity, radiant efrects of broadcast distant dants of Tesla's earliestand lessefficient designs. It is often in the nature of academesto forgo empirically evident to be remedied. Tesla sought elimination of the dischargesnow factsand argue personaldilferences,especiallywhen foreigrrper- Tesla had already found that metalscould focus radiant elechical sonalitiesaxegiven excessiveaduladon.Fixated on issueshaving !o effects.Addiuonal stability in his Transformerscould be achieved do with words and personalpoise,Tesla'saudiencesfound several with the addition of large coPPersPheresto the active terminals. acrid voices whose equally vile publications dared tamper with Tesla considered.copper spheres to be "ather gas resewoin", providing his transmifrerswith an additional ather gas supply. Tesla'scharacter. Copper spheresattachedto Transformer terminalsreducedthe New criticswere everywhere,evenathome. Dolbear, Thomson' and even Pupin found rime to criticize and deride Tesla, Because required electricallevels for an efficient eleckic radiance' Copper most younger academesrelied entirely on schooling and less on spheressigaificantlyreduced the injurious instabilitiesof visually empirical method, they were easily swayedby academicopinion' spectacularbrush discharges,but did not eliminate them entirely. Tesla underestimatedthe power of media and of opinions in What Tesla required was a new meansfor transmittingthe radiant underratinghis abilities.He quickly found thatpublic opinion could eleckicity without loss. Testswith elevatedcopper spheresfacilitatedefficienthansferof actuallyswayscientificopinion. He failed to seewho wasbehind the power between the Transformer and surrounding space. radiant media campaign. Transformersbecame hue Tesla Transmitters'Tesla irlow, Tesla always Crookes colleagues. his antagonistic Tesla disregarded to broadcastharmlessradiant electricitywith great possible found it younger .$ a loved and admired whom he to Tesla, deferred protege.Tesla reveredthe aged Crookes,upon whose confidence power to very great distances.Numerous subsequentpatentsrehe cameto rely during more difficultyears.Crookeshad beengiven corded his progressiveconquestof the broadcastPowerprinciple. He succeededin making radiant electricitysafefor human use. a hue Tesla Transformerwhen Tesla had given his lectures.The small device was poteng giving the uncharacteristiceffectswhich Itwould simply travelaround conductorsif madeto impulsequickly Tesla had alwaysclaimed.This singlepiece of evidencewas left in enough.Only speciallyentuned receiverscould properly intercept Englandfor all to see.Remarkably,this evidencedid not silencethe the radiant power for utility. Not three years before he had accidentallydiscoveredthe radiant electricaleffect.He dreamt of critics. safelysendingeleckical powerwithoutwires in 1892.Now, in 1895, not quiie did this' Something all of Tesla could seeno reasonin naddup'. EvenTesla could seethat therewas a missingpart of the he had realizedhis dream. Would the systemwork acrossthe vast "equation". Discoveringthis part would explain his own reversals. distanceswhich he envisioned? He took his more portableTransmittersoutdoors,awayfrom the As if thesepersonallydevastatingeventswere not enoughfor him, the insolentyoungAnne continued haunting him at his every turn. confines of his South Fifth Street laboratoly. Both in northern Manhattan and Long Island, Tesla tested his radiant broadcast He continued being "polite" to her, but never more than this. Crookes wrobemany times bo the Royal Society and to Tesla systemswithout reskiction.He measuredthe distantradiant electric concerningthisfact.SurethatTeslawasa modem Faraday,Crookes effectsof thesedesignsin electrostaticvolts. Broadcastpower could continued espousingthe belief that Tesla had discoveredthe next be convertedback into current electricityif so desired,the harmless historicallyimportant electricaladvancement.He was encouraged high voltagebecoming current in appropriatelow resistancebansto continueresearchdespitehis protagonists.Few academeshusted former coils. He found to his very greatsurprisethatvery distantlypositioned Tesla's methods now. Fewer yet listened aly longer to his statevacuum hrbescould be litto greatwhitebrilliancewhen the primary ments. was operating.The requirementfor this actionwas twofold. were system financiers Losing credibility as quickly as he had found it, the systemand the receivershad to be grounded.Second, Firstboth inventions continued His slow to trust investingin his new systems. volumes of copper had to be connectedto the receivers. specilic chronicles new device Each history. theirsteadymarchinto electrical weresatisfied,lampsmaximizedtheir requirements two these When world. the changed have which should the technology a new stepin He plungedhimselfheadlongintowork. Only workwouldvindicate brilliance, and motors operatedwith power.

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Copper in the receiver had to "match" the copper massof the Their reticenceleftTeslain a stateof bewildermenl Once,in a ditch, hansmifrerin a veqyspecialequivalence,otherwiseradiant transfer his conversationalone was sufiicient perfrrme to attract the bees. would not be efiicienLThe requirementsdiffered very much from Now? None would dare leap into the new world sea.Why? What those of ordinary radio antennas.He also found that elevated sharla were there besides themselves?Tesla could simply not copper spheresmore powerfully enhanced the broadcastradiant understandthis new "dearthn, this incredulous conservafismand power from his transmifrers.This was Tesla's meansby which his lack of imagination on the part of New York investors. hansmittersand receiverscould be beter "connected"despitetheir Eagerto begin,Tesla patientlywaited for the messengers to call. distance, Had he known more of the world around him, however,he would Tesla believed that theseelectricalbeamsinvisibly linked both have stoppedwaiting. Shortly after Tesla'sprivate demonshations his hansmitter and receivers together. He considered each as were concluded,Morgan'sagentapproached Teslawith a "business "disconnectedterminals"to ground. Electricalradiancespreadout proposition".The bribe being sizable,conhactswould haveplaced in all directionsfrom the elevatedcopper sphereof his transmitter. Morgan in control of Tesla'snew system.Tesla laughedat the pale The secret in receiving a maximum signal was to match the little Mr. Brown in his pinching-tight tails, informing him that he hansmitter'scopper masswith the receiver mass.Then, the ather himself was already a millionaire. Why should he need such an streamswould actuallyfocusinto the matchedreceiver.This afrnity af{iliation at all? He was escortedvery graciouslyby the amused would take time, the hansmitter energy "searching" for befrer Tesla. ground sites. Radiant elechicity evidenced curiously vegetative While dining in the Waldorf severalhours later, a rude intemrp"growth characteristics". tion informed him that his laboratorieswere ablaze.The connection Receiversnow were outfiued with small copper spheres.These between his refusal to bow and the flames which now reached provided a more elficient aflinity and absorption for the radiated skywardwasnotmade until allwas consumed.Thatnight, theworld power. The additional copper sphereswhich surmounted Tesla changedcompletelyfor Nikola Tesla.He lost everythingof hispast hansmifrerseffectivelylowered the input eleckical power for the Everything. The totality of his technological achievementswere production of focussedether discharges. burned into vapor, Books,pricelesssouvenirs,delicateeguipmenl Tesla took the gas dynamic analogy to another level when he patents,models,drawings,newpiecesof apparatus.Everythingwas found that both low pressuregaseousand vacuum tubes could burned. He read the messagewell. replacecopper. Electro-radianteffectsfrom gas-ftlledglobeswere There wasa two week period where he simply vanished.No one projectedwith lesselectricallossand evengreaterpower. Iarge low could lind him. Kolman Czito, his trusted technical foreman and pressure:ugon gasfilled globeswere empiricallyfound to broadcast machinistfearedfor Tesla'slife. IGtherine UnderwoodJohnsonwas hemendousradiancewhen usedatop histransmitters.Additionally, besideherselfwith anguish.She was the wife of a closefriend, the he found that argongasat low pressurescould serveas:urequivalent only real love of Tesla's life. The lire was meant to kill. It was a receiveras pure copper spheres. messageas clear asanyonewould need. The assassinaHon afrempt Thu &" filled globeswould be lesscostlythan copper spheresto failed to kill the intendedvictim. It certainly did not kill his dreams. disseminatein public use. He was approaching a totally ellicient Whereverhe wasfor thosetwo weeks,the dreamswerewith him. system.Numerouspersonageswereinvitedto observethesehistoric But a part of Nikola Tesla died in the {ire. It wasthe part which was tests.J.H.HammondJr. was one such individual. Enthralled with tied to the past.His eyeson the future,Tesladevelopedhis discovery Tesla's developments,he and his wife invited Tesla repeatedlyto into a major technologywhich the world seemsto have forgotlen. their home in later years.Teslawas their honored guestfor months Of all thosewho prayed and wept over Tesla,sdisappearance,one at a time. Later in years, after World War I, both Tesla and personwas no longer concemed.Never againwould Anne need to Hammond worked on robotics and remote control. be troubled by the thought of Nikola Tesla. His love was already Teslaenvisionedsmall power units for both home and industrial sealed.Tesla recoveredfrom the flames. use.The installationand maintenanceof theseunits would require His subsequentdiscoveriesand inventionssurpassedhis former a small monthly fee. Through thesewirelessunits one could draw works for forty more years;specialradiation projectors,self-acting sufficient power to operate faotoriesand homes alike. Elechical heat engines,power transmitters,remote control and robotics,the usage could be metered. The superiority of this new broadcast "World BroadcastSystem",Beam Broadcasttransmitters,"etheric power systemwas obvious to all who observedit in operation. reactors and etheric engines', cosmic ray motors, psychohonic Tesla also describedthe use of thesepower units foi hansportatelevision...thelist of astoundinginventions is huly awe-inspiring. tion. Transatlanticshipscould simply draw their motive power from Tesla demonshated each of these systemsfor a select group of continentalpower broadcaststations.Trains and automobilescould wibnesses. be operatedby drawing their power. The potential fortuneswould Furthermore,despiterumors of his public and scientificdemise, soon stimulate{inanciersto investheavily in the "coming activity" Tesla maintainedtwo penthousesuitesatop the Hoiel New yorker In keepingwith his publicity-mindedness,severalinvestorswere in a time when suchextravagancewasotherwiseunobtainable.One alwaysinviied to Tesla's private demonshations.Tesla knew that these of suites was converted into a complete radio laboratory, their urge to supporthis new world-shakingventurewould become several accoutrements of which having been rebieved by antique irresistiblewhen once each had beheld his small broadcastpower radio enthusiasts. Tesla was an indefatigableresearcher.The biogsystem.The demonstrationswere deemed by theseindividuals as raphy Nikola of Tesla is replete with truly mysteriousdesignsand "entertaining",in their typical dry tone. Bul he rarely heard from developments. But these are pa.rtsof his biography which must be thesepeople again. told f in other volumes. Here was a new change.Shy moneymen.A true conhadiction.

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