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Waffle World.Art.Film.Fashion.Literature.Events 1925

Foreword Dear Reader, You are now holding Waffle Magazine, that is made specially for your enjoyment and enlightment. Breathe, relax and get ready to dive into the world of 1925 and experience the major political, artistic, cinematographic, fashion and literate events of this year.

Content World:


• The beginning of Mussolini’s dictatorship • Mein Kampf


Art: • The 1925 Paris Exhibition

Film: • The Gold Rush • The Phantom of the Opera

• Coco Chanel • Great American Novel • Scott Fitzgerald Looks Into Middle Age by Edwin Clark • Mrs. Dalloway • Stream of consciousness

World. 1925 One of the major events that occurred in 1925 is the beginning of the dictatorship in Italy of Benito Mussolini. After being sworn in as a prime minister of Italy in 1922, he had enough support to declare himself as Il Duce. And finally on January 1925 Mussolini appointed himself as the dictator of Italy.

World. 1925 The progress of the fascist regime was also facilitated by the publishing of the first volume of Adolf Hitler’s personal manifesto Mein Kampf. Written during his stay in prison My Struggle became the bible of German Nazi Party, as it comprised the anti-Semitic ideas, lust for power, and the desire to make Nazi dominate the world.

World. 1925

Art. 1925 Art-Deco: The 1925 Paris Exhibition What is Art-Deco? Art-Deco is a visual arts design that first appeared in France after the First World War. It started to be widely popular in 1930s and 1940s until the end of the Second World War.

Art. 1925

Fireworks bowl; FyrverkeriskĂĽlen, Edward Hald, Sweden, 1921 (designed).

Carter, Stabler & Adams (Great Britain): dish, designed by Mrs Truda Adams

Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes. Dedicated to display modern decorative arts from all over Europe and beyond The exhibition was shaped by France's ambitions in the years immediately after World War I (1914–18). Its aim was to establish the pre-eminence of French taste and luxury goods. French displays dominated the exhibition and Paris itself was put on show as the most fashionable of cities.

Art. 1925 The Hotel d’un Collectionneur The most ambitious project by an individual designer and the most acclaimed display in the exhibition. It housed a suite of elegant rooms conceived by the leading French furniture maker Jacques-Emile Ruhlmann.

Its sumptuous decoration, rich use of color and elegant modernisation of traditional forms and techniques have led many critics to consider the Grand Salon the Greatest achievement of French Art-Deco

Film. 1925

Film. 1925 The Gold Rush (1925) is the quintessential Chaplin film, with a balance of slapstick comedy and pantomime, social satire, and emotional and dramatic moments of tenderness. It was Chaplin's own personal favourite film, that showcases the classic Tramp character as a romantic idealist and lone gold prospector at the turn of the century, with his cane, derby, distinctive walk, tight shabby suit, and moustache. Classic scenes include the starvation scene of two cabin-marooned prospectors boiling and fastidiously eating a stewed shoe, the Tramp's cabinmate deliriously imagining his companion as a large chicken, the teetering cabin on the edge of a cliff, and Chaplin's lonely fantasized New Year's Eve party (with the dancing dinner rolls routine) when he waits for a girl who never comes.

The Phantom of the Opera is a 1925 American silent horror film adaptation of Gaston Leroux’s. It was directed by Rupert Julian and starred Lon Chaney, Sr in the title role of the deformed Phantom who haunts the Paris Opera House, causing murder and mayhem in an attempt to make the woman he loves a star. The movie remains most famous for Chaney's ghastly, self-devised make-up, which was kept a studio secret until the film's premiere.

Fashion. 1925 In 1925, Chanel introduced what was to become known as the classic Chanel suit—a collarless cardigan jacket made of woven wool, with tight-fitting sleeves, braid trim, and gold buttons, matched with a plain but graceful skirt.

Literature. 1925 Published in 1925, the Great Gatsby is the novel that is often referred to as the “Great American Novel�.

Life Magazine's one sentence review:

"Fantastic proof that chivalry, of a sort, is not dead." (May 7, 1925)

A curious book, a mystical, glamorous story of today. (Edwin Clark, 1925)

Scott Fitzgerald Looks Into Middle Age By EDWIN CLARK Of the many new writers that sprang into notice with the advent of the post-war period, Scott Fitzgerald has remained the steadiest performer and the most entertaining. Short stories, novels and a play have followed with consistent regularity since he became the philosopher of the flapper with "This Side of Paradise." With shrewd observation and humor he reflected the Jazz Age. Now he has said farewell to his flappers-perhaps because they have grown up-and is writing of the older sisters that have married. But marriage has not changed their world, only the locale of their parties. To use a phrase of Burton Rascoe's-his hurt romantics are still seeking that other side of paradise. And it might almost be said that "The Great Gatsby" is the last stage of illusion in this absurd chase. For middle age is certainly creeping up on Mr. Fitzgerald's flappers.

In all great arid spots nature provides an oasis. So when the Atlantic seaboard was hermetically sealed by law, nature provided an outlet, or inlet rather, in Long Island. A place of innate natural charm, it became lush and luxurious under the stress of this excessive attention, a seat of festive activities. It expresses one phase of the great grotesque spectacle of our American scene. It is humor, irony, ribaldry, pathos and loveliness. Out of this grotesque fusion of incongruities has slowly become conscious a new humor-a strictly American product. It is not sensibility, as witness the writings of Don Marquis, Robert Benchley and Ring Lardner. It is the spirit of "Processional" and Donald Douglas's "The Grand Inquisitor": a conflict of spirituality set against the web of our commercial life. Both boisterous and tragic, it animates this new novel by Mr. Fitzgerald with whimsical magic and simple pathos that is realized with economy and restraint. The story of Jay Gatsby of West Egg is told by Nick Caraway, who is one of the legion from the Middle West who have moved on to New York to win from its restless indifference-well, the aspiration that arises in the Middle West-and finds in Long Island a fascinating but dangerous playground.

In the method of telling, "The Great Gatsby" is reminiscent of Henry James's "Turn of the Screw." You will recall that the evil of that mysterious tale which so endangered the two children was never exactly stated beyond suggested generalization. Gatsby's fortune, business, even his connection with underworld figures, remain vague generalizations. He is wealthy, powerful, a man who knows how to get things done. He has no friends, only business associates, and the throngs who come to his Saturday night parties. Of his uncompromising love-his love for Daisy Buchanan-his effort to recapture the past romance-we are explicitly informed. This patient romantic hopefulness against existing conditions symbolizes Gatsby. And like the "Turn of the Screw," "The Great Gatsby" is more a long short story than a novel.

Nick Carraway had known Tom Buchanan at New Haven. Daisy, his wife, was a distant cousin. When he came East Nick was asked to call at their place at East Egg. The post-war reactions were at their height-every one was restless-every one was looking for a substitute for the excitement of the war years. Buchanan had acquired another woman. Daisy was bored, broken in spirit and neglected. Gatsby, his parties and his mysterious wealth were the gossip of the hour. At the Buchanans Nick met Jordan Baker; through them both Daisy again meets Gatsby, to whom she had been engaged before she married Buchanan. The inevitable consequence that follows, in which violence takes its toll, is almost incidental, for in the overtones-and this is a book of potent overtones-the decay of souls is more tragic. With sensitive insight and keen psychological observation, Fitzgerald discloses in these people a meanness of spirit, carelessness and absence of loyalties. He cannot hate them, for they are dumb in their insensate selfishness, and only to be pitied. The philosopher of the flapper has escaped the mordant, but he has turned grave. A curious book, a mystical, glamourous story of today. It takes a deeper cut at life than hitherto has been enjoyed by Mr. Fitzgerald. He writes well-he always has-for he writes naturally, and his sense of form is becoming perfected.

Literature. 1925 "I want to give life and death, sanity and insanity. I want to criticise the social system, and show it at work, at its most intense.“ (Woolf, in her diary )

Literature. 1925 Woolf parallels a single day in the lives of two people: the privileged, socially elite Clarissa Dalloway, and Septimus Warren Smith, a shellshocked veteran of the First World War. As the day begins Clarissa is buying flowers for a party she will give that night, while Septimus is in Regent's Park listening to the sparrows, who, he believes, sing to him in Greek. By featuring their internal feelings, Woolf allows her characters' thoughts to travel back and forth in time, reflecting and refracting their emotional experiences. This device, often known as 'stream of consciousness’, creates complex portraits of the individuals and their relationships. Woolf also uses the novel as a vehicle for criticism of the society of her day. The main characters, both aspects of Woolf herself, raise issues of deep personal concern: in Clarissa, the repressed social and economic position of women, and in Septimus, the treatment of those driven by depression to the borderlands of sanity.

Literature. 1925 Stream of consciousness

Virginia Woolf’s ‘Mrs Dalloway’ British Library Add. MS 51045, f.136

It's a style of writing evolved by authors at the beginning of the 20th century to express in words the flow of a character's thoughts and feelings. The technique aims to give readers the impression of being inside the mind of the character - an internal view that illuminates plot and motivation in the novel.

Special Thanks to the Literary Modernism class, without which this magazine would never exist

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