Zeigler Bros., Inc. is a pioneer and leader in the development and formulation of specialized feeds for the global aquaculture industry. Our commitment is to the worldwide growth of aquaculture through continued research and development. No matter the species or production system, we are experienced and equipped to provide the solutions you need to improve the health and productivity of your aquaculture operation.
INTEGRATED NUTRITION PROGRAM Zeigler’s complete nutrition program integrates the complex factors which influence the success of a diet. Every step in the process of producing and using an aquaculture diet—from the raw ingredient selection to the on-farm feeding program can have considerable influence. Zeigler understands how these factors influence one another, and we use this knowledge to help maximize your opportunity for success.
SUSTAINABLE, TRACEABLE, QUALITY FEEDS
Aquatic Environment & Natural Food Availability
Providing customers with confidence in our feed and the ingredients we use is of great importance to Zeigler. Careful attention is paid to the source of our ingredients, how our products are made and to whom we sell them. Focusing on safety and sustainability is a well-established tradition at Zeigler that is increasingly valued by our customers. A few ways in which Zeigler is pursuing a cleaner, greener future includes: On-Farm Feed Management
Sustainable Formulation Strategies
Responsible Production and Sales Efforts
• Use of renewable plant proteins and oils
• 100% product flow utilization; no waste to landfill
• Incorporation of fish by-products from human food processing
• High efficiency production heat and drying systems
• Fish meal and fish oil substitutes
• Pollution control via non-chemical air-purifying systems
• Utilization of natural, bioactive compounds to improve animal health and further reduce the need for farms to use chemicals and antibiotics
• Recyclable feed bags
Innovative Research and Product Development
Performance and Profitability*
• Electronic, paperless billing
• Maximizing the use of locally supplied ingredients Feed Formulation & Nutrient Content
A selective purchasing program holds our suppliers to a higher standard with pre-established specifications, site visits and stringent testing. This careful oversight, record keeping and quality control continues into the manufacturing and distribution processes. Zeigler products must meet an array of standards and are manufactured in a facility whose quality management system is ISO 9001:2008 registered. In addition, Zeigler meets requirements set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Pennsylvania Department of Health and, of course, our own rigorous company standards.
MEAL (<0.6 mm) —
STARTER FEEDS #1 CRUMBLES (0.6-0.85 mm)
#2 CRUMBLES (0.85-1.2 mm)
* Diagram adapted from Dr. A. Tacon
Feed Manufacturing & Physical Properties
GROW OUT FEEDS 3.0 mm
Finfish Starter 55-15 with VpakTM
Optimized formulation to provide a strong start to fry at first feeding. Suitable for cold-water, warm-water and tropical fish.
Finfish Starter 50-15 with VpakTM
An enhanced, high energy feed designed to transition fingerlings from fry feed.
Finfish High Performance 42-16
Allows easy transition from our high protein starter feeds to the grow-out ration of your choice.
Finfish High Performance 45-16
A higher energy diet designed to help fingerlings transition to grow out feeds.
Economical fishmeal-based diet formulated for a variety of omnivorous aquatic species.
A versatile diet, this cost-efficient fishmeal-based diet is formulated to feed a variety of omnivorous and piscivorous aquatic animals with moderate protein requirements.
Fishmeal-based diet formulated to feed a variety of omnivorous and piscivorous aquatic animals that have been shown to spare protein with lipid.
A high energy fishmeal-based diet formulated to feed a variety of omnivorous and piscivorous aquatic animals that have been shown to have low carbohydrate tolerance.
A high performance, plant protein-based diet specifically formulated for tilapia cultured in intensive recirculating systems. It has a balanced amino acid profile and is highly digestible, resulting in low pollution.
African Catfish 44-12
Formulated for African Catfish, it contains highly digestible marine proteins to support good water quality. Proper feeding will stimulate growth performance and minimize cannibalism.
A highly digestible diet for yellow perch and other members of the perch, pike and walleye families, this diet provides essential nutrients for proper development of temperate and cool-water carnivorous species.
High Performance Grower 45-16
Ideal formulation for omnivorous and piscivorous species that exhibit high protein requirements but do not beneficially utilize fat to spare protein.
Marine Grower 50-15
Formulated for a wide variety of emerging marine species, this diet utilizes marine ingredients to provide adequate essential fatty acids for species where known nutrient requirements are limited.
Finfish Broodstock 38-10
Designed to enhance the fecundity of your broodfish by helping maximize gonadal development. It contains vitamin and carotenoid pigment supplements required for viable egg and sperm development.
Grow Out Feeds
All diets available with Vpak
with minimum order quantities.
FEATURES AND BENEFITS
TROUT FEEDING PROGRAM
Feed often accounts for the largest portion of a farm’s operating cost; therefore, it is important that the feed utilized will yield you the largest profits. Zeigler is a proven choice. Our Research and Development Division is constantly evaluating ingredients and formulations to maximize feed performance and your profitability.
Vpak™ - Natural immune stimulant.
Only the highest quality, sustainably sourced fish meals and fish oils.
Consistently low fines (<1%).
Low phosphorus (<1.3%).
Stable Vitamin C (Stay-C) – Patented by Zeigler.
Improves survivability and overall health. Prevents disease and reduces potential need for antibiotics.
Provides balanced, complete nutrition and a highly digestible and palatable product, while protecting natural resources.
Faster growth, lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and reduced fecal waste (solids).
Less wasted feed, less gill irritation, improved water quality.
Increased compliance with discharge regulations, environmentally friendly.
Levels added are present and bioavailable for at least 6 months from date of manufacture.
Continued trout research has developed a proven feed chart for the Zeigler feeding program. For economical trout feeding on your farm, follow this chart based on percent of body weight. Recommended feeding rate adjusted for temperature (percent of body weight) Recommended Feed Size
Number of fish per lb.
Length in inches
Crumbles No. 1
Crumbles No. 2 Crumbles No. 2
1.5 mm 1.5 mm
2.0 mm 2.0 mm 2.0 mm
80 60 40
3 3.25 4
3.0 2.9 2.7
3.4 3.2 2.9
3.9 3.7 3.3
4.2 3.8 3.4
4.4 3.9 3.5
4.6 4.0 3.6
4.7 4.3 3.9
2.5 mm 2.5 mm
3.0 mm 3.0 mm 3.0 mm
15 12 9
5.5 6 6.5
1.7 1.6 1.5
2.0 1.9 1.8
2.4 2.1 2.0
2.5 2.3 2.2
2.6 2.4 2.3
2.7 2.5 2.4
3.0 2.8 2.7
4.0 mm 4.0 mm 4.0 mm 4.0 mm
7 6 5 4
7 7.25 7.5 8
1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1
1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4
1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5
2.1 2.0 1.8 1.7
2.2 2.1 1.9 1.8
2.3 2.2 2.0 1.9
2.6 2.5 2.3 2.2
5.0 mm 5.0 mm 5.0 mm
3 2 1
9.5 11 13
1.0 0.9 0.9
1.3 1.2 1.0
1.4 1.3 1.2
1.6 1.5 1.3
1.7 1.6 1.4
1.8 1.7 1.5
2.0 1.8 1.6
Recommended feed size for fish Chelated trace minerals.
Date of manufacture on each bag.
Starter (<0.6 mm) —
Crumbles No. 1 (0.6-0.85 mm)
Crumbles No. 2 (0.85-1.2 mm)
3.0 mm (1/8”)
4.0 mm (5/32”)
5.0 mm (3/16”)
6.5 mm (1/4”)
Excellent bioavailability and shelf life.
Strict quality standards assure you a quality product.
Guaranteed fresh – check the tag for a manufacture date.
Over 75 years of nutritional and manufacturing experience.
A wealth of experience and knowledge with which to assist you.
ISO 9001:2008 Registered Quality System.
Ensures quality, consistency and accountability.
Note: Feeding charts for species other than trout are often available through your local agriculture extension agent. Contact your local Zeigler aquatic feed dealer or Zeigler representative for further assistance.
STORAGE AND HANDLING Fish feed is a semi-perishable item requiring proper storage and handling to extend the life of the product and maintain the maximum nutritional benefit. Under proper storage conditions, Zeigler recommends using its products within six (6) months from the date of manufacture.
Recommended Storage Guidelines Super Sacks and Bagged Feed: 1. Store feed in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area.
Following the recommended storage guidelines at the end of this section will significantly reduce the probability of facing the challenges outlined below:
2. Rotate stock to use oldest feed first-—first in, first out principle.
Nutrient Losses As feed ages, essential vitamins, especially Vitamin C, begin to degrade, eventually becoming deficient. High temperatures and humidity further speed this deterioration. Zeigler addresses this problem by:
4. Maintain a minimum of 18 inches between walls and stacked bags to allow for cleaning and placement of traps or bait boxes. This also prevents condensation on walls from damaging feed and allows necessary airflow around the bags.
3. Prevent feed from directly contacting floors.
5. Keep different types of feed separate and clearly marked; be particularly careful not to mix bags of medicated and non-medicated feed together.
1. Adding excess levels of vitamins to accommodate for losses incurred during manufacturing and storage.
6. If receiving skids of feed in plastic wrap, remove wrap before storing feed in warehouse to allow better airflow around the product.
2. Utilizing stabilized forms of vitamins which resist breakdown in the feed. Zeigler was instrumental in the development of a stabilized form of Vitamin C, L-Ascorbyl-2-Polyphosphate, (Stay-C), which has 80 times more stability than standard Vitamin C in pelleted feeds at room temperature (77˚F).
7. Rodent/insect control: • Keep exterior doors closed when not in use. • Position bait boxes/traps around interior and exterior walls and on either side of warehouse doors to prevent rodents.
These steps help maintain adequate vitamin levels for six months or more. Studies have shown that feed made with Stay-C have adequate levels of Vitamin C even after one year of storage.
• Clean up spilled feed and remove damaged bags as soon as possible. A good housekeeping policy is the key to a good pest-control program.
Rancidity Rancidity is the spoilage of fats and oils. Over time, oxygen chemically breaks fat down, creating undesirable by-products that can cause feed rejection, off flavoring of flesh, Vitamin E deficiency and poor overall growth and health. Adding antioxidants to fat sources and using only the highest quality fish oils can prevent rancidity. Zeigler tests all fish oils for rancidity and contaminants.
• Regularly fog warehouse area with approved insecticide during warm months or in response to severe problems.
Microorganisms When sufficient moisture and warmth are present, most fish feeds can act as a growth media for molds and bacteria. Molds produce poisons called mycotoxins, which can cause symptoms ranging from poor growth to mortality in most aquaculture species.
• Regularly spray problem areas with residual crack-and-crevice-type insecticide. • Keep weeds and brush away from exterior of storage area. • Eliminate poor drainage areas that act as breeding grounds for insects. 8. Handle feed bags with care. Pelleted diets are durable, but excess and abusive handling will increase the dust level, which results in loss to the farmer. Bulk Feed:
To prevent mold from forming, Zeigler maintains low moisture levels (less than 12%), and uses fresh, high quality ingredients, but the real key to mold prevention is good storage conditions. Keeping feed in a cool, dry and well-ventilated warehouse will significantly reduce the potential for mold.
1. Bins should be designed to empty out completely and maintain airflow to prevent condensation.
Infestations: Rodent/Insects Any feed stored for a long period of time is at risk for infestation. Rodents and insects create problems by acting as vectors or agents, carrying disease and mold from one area to another. Left unchecked, they can do major damage to any stored feed supply.
4. Clean inside of bins regularly, removing encrusted material which acts as mold and insect growth areas.
2. Inspect bins regularly for leaks and repair immediately. 3. Allow bins to empty out completely between loads. Many bins have dead areas where old feed and dust can accumulate and spoil. 5. Bins can be sealed and fumigated to kill insects; be sure to use a qualified fumigant applicator.
AQUACULTURE EQUIPMENT Weatherproof belt feeders are an ideal way to provide continuous feeding to your fish and reduce your labor efforts. These feeders run on a spring-wound clock which is available in 12- and 24-hour models. Belt feeders come with 5 lb. or 10 lb. capacities and are easy to use and maintain. Zeigler also carries replacement parts to service your belt feeders. Rugged and weatherproof aerators and belt and demand feeders are also available from Zeigler. For more information, please contact us at 1-800-841-6800 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Setting aside their orchestra careers touring as The Scotch Highlanders, two brothers, Ty and LeRoy Zeigler, moved their young families to rural Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, where they had just purchased a farm and a water-powered grist feed mill. The year was 1935.
The first feeds were manufactured under the Conewago brand, named after the stream which powered their newly purchased mill. Their strong orientation to value, integrity and customer service was soon rewarded by the trust and business of many local farmers. In 1967, the leadership passed to LeRoy’s son, Dr. Tom Zeigler, who transitioned the company from a manufacturer of farm feeds to an internationally recognized producer of specialized animal feeds. Beginning in the 1980s, the company began licensing nutritional and manufacturing technologies globally under its Zeigler brand. The Zeigler family tradition continues today, more than 75 years later, under the leadership of Tom’s sons, Tim and Matt Zeigler. With a renewed spirit toward technology and innovation, the brothers continue to uphold the company traditions of value and integrity, while striving to serve the changing needs of loyal customers.
Zeigler Bros., Inc. P.O. Box 95 Gardners, PA 17324 USA 717-677-6181 phone www.zeiglerfeed.com Zeigler Aquaculture © 2011
Finfish Nutritional Information