Page 1

NATURE EMERGING:

AN ECOLOGICAL PARK FOR GARY, IN ZACHARY B.L. REES

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE THESIS [2016]

B A L L S TAT E U N I V E R S I T Y


NATURE EMERGING:

A POST-INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGICAL PARK FOR GARY, IN

BY: ZACHARY B.L. REES

Undergraduate Landscape Architecture Thesis Bachelor of Landscape Architecture

Professors: Peter Ellery & John Motloch Advisor: Robert Benson

LA 404: Comprehensive Project Ball State University College of Architecture and Planning Department of Landscape Architecture Ball State University Muncie, IN May 2016


ABSTRACT: Carmeuse Lime and Stone of Gary and its stockpile act as a scar on the ecological marvel that is the Lake Michigan Shoreline. The stockpile and the site it resides on diminish local recreational opportunities in addition to tempering local ecological processes through industrial processes and aesthetic degradation. Maintaining this intruder on the shoreline will only continue to deprive us of our historical and ecological sense of place and in its place create a swath of inhospitable land. Through the development of an ecological park, this project created a framework for the post-remediation design of this vital lakeshore site in addition to other sites like it for the purpose of healing the local recreational and ecological systems. In addition to creating a recreational destination, this project also provided a base from which a cohesive environment was developed through the encouragement of natural ecological growth. Even though this site contains many elements to it, they all act as whole in creating a truly unique opportunity for both humans and nature to inhabit a space together. Ecologically rich forests, prairies, wetlands, and beaches are accessible through the use of the 3.8-mile trail system. The sites passive and active recreational zones are arranged along this trail system, making the accessible for all visitors. Various recreational activities within these zones from running and mountain biking to fishing and picnicking make this project a destination to local, regional, and tourist based visitors. An equal focus on the needs of humans and nature allows both to develop simultaneously in an area that is in desperate need of an alternative to heavy industrial practices. This project starts the next chapter in local ecological and cultural history.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: I owe a great deal of gratitude to the entire landscape architecture department here at Ball State University, without which I would not have started on this incredible five year journey. Endless thanks to all of my studio-mates who have inspired me with their ability to overcome the adversity inherent in design school while still producing truly remarkable creations. Over the past five years we have become a family and I am eternally grateful to have all of you in my life, hopefully for years to come. Above all else I would like to thank my entire family for their continuous support in what has been a long journey through periods of adversity, it is because of you all that I was able to persevere. I owe my success in my life and college career to you all. Lastly, I would like to thank my mom Lisa Rees. Her endless pride in my life achievements is and will continue to be missed. I made a promise to you to do everything in life to the best of my ability, I hope this project is proof of that. This is for you.


TABLE OF CONTENTS 08

26

01 | ORIENTATION 11 INTRODUCTION 12 DEFINITIONS / ASSUMPTIONS / DELIMITATIONS 13 LITERATURE REVIEW 24 PROBLEM STATEMENT 25 PROJECT SUMMARY

02 | FRAMEWORK

PROJECT STATEMENT 28 PROJECT REQUIREMENTS 28 GOALS + OBJECTIVES 29 PROGRAM 30 CLIENT + PROJECT SCOPE 31

32

03 | VISION

LOCATION 35 CONTEXT 36 INVENTORY 43 ANALYSIS 45 PRECEDENT STUDIES 46 DESIGN METHODOLOGY 48 MASTER PLAN 54 PLAN ENLARGEMENTS 56 DESIGN CHARACTER 64 CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 76

78

6 |

04 | OUTRO 81 CONCLUSION APPENDIX 82

NATURE EMERGING


ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 7


8 |

NATURE EMERGING


01|

ORIENTATION

INTRODUCTION DEFINITIONS / DELIMITATIONS / ASSUMPTIONS LITERATURE REVIEW PROBLEM STATEMENT SIGNIFICANCE

ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 9


FIG. 01

FIG. 02

10 |

NATURE EMERGING


ORIENTATION: Project Introduction “Once we accept, through the study of Nature, that all life is organically related, organically the same through the linkage of evolution, then humanity is literally a part of Nature. Not figuratively, not poetically, but literally an object like other natural objects.� -Neil Everton, The Fragile Division

As described in the aforementioned quote, modern civilization is faced with the dilemma of how to organically provide the necessary services for all of nature considering that we are directly linked to all the other natural objects on Earth. This project illustrates our obligation as stewards of the landscape to reclaim ecologically unproductive land and in return create a vibrant addition to the local all-inclusive natural community. In order to provide a solution for this problem, this project implements a hybrid of both ecological and park design principles that when combined creates a cohesive ecological park master plan located in Gary, Indiana at a post-remediation Carmeuse Lime and Stone stockpile. As Neil Everton described, not only will this project reclaim land formerly devoid of linkages to nature, but it also restores humanity’s place as but just a part of the overall dynamic natural picture. Overall, this ecological park design aided in the development of a framework for the future reclamation and design of ecological parks along the Lake Michigan Shoreline in order to diminish the abundant intrusive industrial complexes. This project helps in promoting ecological literacy, providing recreational opportunities for the local population, and acts as a catalyst for the future of post-industrial and post-remediation sites along the Lake Michigan Shoreline. ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 11


ORIENTATION: Definitions / Delimitations / Assumptions Definitions

Assumptions

BROWNFIELD: a place that was previously used for industrial or commercial purposes and whose redevelopment can become complicated due to hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants.

• • •

ECOLOGY: a scientific process that deals with the connections between organisms and their environments. ECOLOGICAL DESIGN: a form of design that seeks to minimize environmentally destructive impacts through the integration of living processes. ECOLOGICAL LITERACY: the ability to understand the natural systems, including the organization of ecosystems, which make life on earth viable. ECOLOGICAL PARK: a place that preserves a local ecosystem and enables a community to have space for recreation in addition to the ability to learn about the nature of a place. PLACE: the mental vision an individual perceives a particular space to be as well as the meaning that they place upon it due to their own level of environmental perception. PLACE-MAKING: a design theory that capitalizes on the physical and social character of a neighborhood, town, city, or region in order to create animated public and private spaces. RECLAMATION: the process of restoring land back into a beneficial use for the local human and natural communities.

12 |

NATURE EMERGING

Carmeuse Lime will move its material holding area to the site of the former Dean Mitchell Generating Plant. Even though the site will be remediated prior to the implementation of my research, a collaborative effort between the engineer and landscape architect will be employed to create landforms across the site. All construction on site will comply with local building codes and ordinances.

Delimitations • • •

Although the remediation of brownfields will be briefly discussed, this project will not include any detailed proposals for the remediation of contaminated sites. This research will not include proposals for finding the sources needed for funding. The restoration of native ecological communities will be discussed in this project, however planting typologies will be included in favor of large-scale planting plans.


ORIENTATION: Literature Review Introduction Nature is an ever-present part of our lives; its influences can be seen within all environments from urban to rural and from large to small scales. It affords many of the ecosystem services needed in our daily survival including: the provision of food, the regulation of climate, the support of nutrient cycles, and finally recreational benefits. Because of the perpetual march of technology, many sites that formerly had a rich ecological history were destroyed in order to pave the way for industrial complexes. This destruction has diminished the local sense of identity and in its absence created a sense of placelessness. Architects, landscape architects, and scientists long have written on the topic of remediating brownfield sites, albeit with a noticeable lack of information pertaining to post remediation renewal. It is in this gap of existing literature, after brownfield remediation has occurred, that this project hopes to address. In this Review of Literature, the concepts of ecology-minded design, park design, and placemaking was researched in order to provide the basis for a set of guidelines for an ecological park in the city of Gary, Indiana. While these guidelines can be applicable to projects of various scales, this literature review focuses on how they relate to the creation of an ecological park.

As such, the individual sources were judged by their relevance and value to the goal of creating an ecological park in Gary with the ultimate goal being the integration of the gathered information and insights developed into the scope of the project.

Ecology in Design Ecological processes have been occurring on Earth since the very beginning and are crucial in sustaining life while balancing the needs of humans and nature. In 300 B.C, the ancient Greek philosopher Plato created the first writing of the topic of ecology; in it he mourned the loss of natural hills and forests within the formerly fertile Mediterranean basin that surrounded Athens. This loss was in large part due to deforestation for shipbuilding and fuel needed by the ancient Greeks of that era. He wrote, “to command nature, we must first obey her” (Ndubisi 13). Even in the ancient world, and without our modern technology, Plato was able to understand the intrinsically important relationship between humans and nature. He urged us to use the knowledge gained from studying these relationships to make better decisions about the future of the Earth’s landscape. These base concepts are the core of ecology as we see it today and as such, are immensely important. According to Forster O. Ndubisi in

his 2014 book The Ecological Design and Planning Reader, it took until the transition from an agrarian economy to an industrial one in the 1800s in America for the concepts of ecology to come back to the forefront. Pressure put upon urban landscapes due to population growth and migration caused agricultural land to be converted at will into industrial use (Ndubisi 14). Paralleling Plato’s response to the loss of nature surrounding Athens, American intellectuals such as George Perkins Marsh, Henry David Thoreau, and Frederick Law Olmsted set out to preserve and conserve the natural landscape around them (Ndubisi 15). According to Ndubisi, this era’s thoughts on ecology are effectively summed up in George Perkins Marsh’s 1864 writing Man and Nature; or, Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action. Ndubisi summarizes Marsh’s 1864 writing as effectively the research of how human interactions with nature can drastically alter the landscape and how the method of restoration could be one possible solution (Ndubisi 16). Knowing that ecology's place in the design field is nothing new only emphasizes how important it is in strengthening the overall effectiveness of a project in addition to showing just how important history is in creating a sense of place. In their book written in 1996, Ecological Design, Sim Van Der Ryn and Stuart Cowan seek to clarify what ecology ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 13


ORIENTATION: Literature Review is and its relationship with the design world. They describe the two halves of ecology, nature and humankind, as being made up of differing layers that create the fabric of our lives. It is how these layers are interwoven that we either create a sustainable fabric, or an unsustainable tangle. Ryn and Cowan see the basis of ecological design as the seamless interweaving of both human and natural based design. Without this coherent vision, we see the tangled mess that is our modern neighborhoods, cities, and native ecosystems (Ryn 17). According to Danilo Palazzo and Frederick Steiner in their 2011 book Urban Ecological Design: A Process for Regenerative Places, it is through this coherent vision the connections between differing natural elements and their relationship with humans become clear. With this prior knowledge, designers can create a framework from which inventory, analysis, and design can be extrapolated (Palazzo 3). Sim Van Der Ryn and Stuart Cowan have defined ecological design as, “any form of design that minimizes environmentally destructive impacts by integrating itself with living processes.” In addition to this, they identify that an ecologically minded design considers species diversity, reduces depletion of resources, preserves and rehabilitates nutrient and water cycles, and increase habitat quality. These considerations emphasize the need to adapt to and integrate with nature’s processes

14 |

NATURE EMERGING

rather than attempting to tame what is undeniably untamable (Ryn 18). Each of these design considerations aid in bringing natural flows to the forefront of our conscious. From the flow of water and wind across the landscape to the diversity of species and rhythm of Earth’s processes, these aspects of ecological design help in creating visible what is typically invisible. They effectively root us in our place, making us aware of the natural processes around us while increasing our sense of place and showing just how abundant and fragile they are (Ryn 24). This emphasis on highlighting elements in the landscape that are often overlooked seems to be one of the most important ingredients in creating a design that is both functional yet also teaches the general public about the different aspects of the world around them. That being said, Ryn and Cowan seem to be biased towards smaller scale projects in their shared process for ecology in design because of the focus placed on site specific details such as species diversity and habitat equality in addition to the preservation of natural cycles. In contrast with Sim Van Der Ryn and Stuart Cowan’s view of ecology in design, a series of interwoven layers, Richard T. T. Forman in his 1995 book Land Mosaics: The Ecology of Landscapes and Regions sees it as a patchwork made of different mosaic patterns. Forman sees these mosaics as being within the “human scale.” These mosaic

patterns are measured to be anything from a mile to thousands of miles with examples being anything from a local landscape and region to an entire continent (Forman 4). According to Forman, mosaic patterns are created from a landscape that is considered to be spatially heterogeneous or an uneven but also not random collection of elements that has an underlying organization to it. Solar energy created the initial organizational element in the form of landforms, today it helps grow a variety of plants that we can use to give this organizational structure to the land (Forman 4). According to Forman, land mosaics create distinct boundaries between themselves due to the three main organizational elements that create them. Forman identifies these elements as the substrate, natural disturbances, and human activity. In detail; substrate focuses on the differences in landforms that create variances in vegetation cover, natural disturbances include weather phenomenon and fire that would affect amount of vegetation, and finally human activity such as the plowing of fields for agricultural or the clearing of forests for building materials and fuel (Forman 4). Human activity affecting the land mosaics around Plato in 300 B.C. shows just how universal this concept is in history and how much power humans wield in changing the fabric of the landscape around them. Forman goes on to break the land mosaics


into their main spatial elements. These elements include patches, corridors, and background matrixes (Forman 6). Upon further examination a patch can be anywhere from large to small and from long in shape to round, corridors can resemble a straight or curvilinear line as well as be closed-in or very open in form, and finally matrixes can be one continuous form or a form that is punctuated by elements and include numerous types of elements or be completely homogeneous in form. Any point on the landscape can be located within one of these elements in the patch-corridor-matrix model. In simplifying the building blocks of land mosaics into one model, Forman has drawn a direct correlation to other disciplines including the point-lineplane model that is so inherent in our art and architecture (Forman 7). In applying this process of land mosaics to a project, it is important to first analyze the adjacent landscapes. These adjacent landscapes hold the key in determining the ecological elements appropriate on site. This is due in large part to the proclivity of a landscape to repeat similar elements across its entire space due to similar microclimates and levels of human activity. Elements such as landforms, soils, vegetation, habitat, land use, and human influence can all be inventoried from adjacent sites or from historical data in order to create a more ecologically driven project (Forman 13). Forman believes that

using this process, rather than waiting for humans in general to create landscapes based around natural processes, will aid in the acceptance of ecology in all design professions as well as create the balance we need between natural processes and human interactions with the environment (Forman 14). Timothy Beatley and Kristy Manning’s, 1997 book The Ecology of Place: Planning for Environment, Economy, and Community, provide a consensus on the value of analyzing local landscape elements for their value in creating an ecological design. They believe that this attention to detail helps the project in terms of fitting into the established ecological context as well as provide a sense of place unique to the location (Beatley 87). Viewing these landscape elements at the scale Forman is visualizing shows his bias towards larger scale projects, which is not to say that his views are not valuable. Rather, they should be used in conjunction with larger scales for which his process shows its strengths such as determining proper ecological context in addition to creating a framework plan for development. In visualizing broad strokes when thinking about the process of land mosaics, Richard T. T. Forman has created a concept that can be considered to be the antithesis of Sim Van Der Ryn and Stuart Cowan’s view of ecology in design as a series of intricately interwoven layers. With that being said, both processes should be incorporated into a project in order

to create a more cohesive plan that contains strong ecologically minded design elements at many different scales is more than just the sum of all of its parts. In their book, Sim Van Der Ryn and Stuart Cowan have outlined five principles for the use of ecology in design. With these principles being broad in their extent, they can be applied across all scales and is best suited to use in both their layered approach as well as in Richard T. T. Forman’s mosaic approach to ecological design. Ryn and Cowan’s principles make sure to take into account site specific details in order to create a sense of place, provides methods for understanding the ecological impact of a design, methods to negate these impacts through working with nature, the knowledge that ecological design requires communities to work together and not to rely on experts, and finally the fifth principle describes how to provide perpetual learning and participation opportunities (Ryn 52). When used in conjunction with one another, these principles can aid in integrating the fields of ecology and design.

Design within Place: In modern design, many possibilities are limited by the drive to employ standardizations and other constraints in order to speed up the process from initial design to construction. This emphasis on economies of scale in a design in addition to the lack of interest in terms of ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 15


ORIENTATION: Literature Review site specific details is what this first principle hopes to address (Ryn 54). Elements such as locally-based hardscape materials, a native plant palette, and natural landforms can all be used in addition to other elements to create a sense of place and ground the design its locale.

ecological impacts of our designs (Ryn 55). From designing stormwater and renewable energy infrastructure to decreasing habitat destruction and planting with a native plant palette, designers can work with nature in creating a more cohesive project that has its own unique sense of place.

• Design with Ecological Costs: Modern designers inherently consider the economic implications of a project, accounting for all costs from the design phases on into the final construction. In thinking of designing with ecology in mind, designers need to take this same process in terms of the ecological implications of their design. Identifying the potential ecological impacts of a design is the first step in attempting to diminish their effect on the landscape and is the goal of this second principle (Ryn 55). Elements such as resource depletion, pollution, and habitat destruction should all be considered when proposing a design for project.

• Design for All: Ryn and Cowan believe in their fourth principle that a design should evolve from the shared needs and circumstances of the local human and natural communities (Ryn 55). Richard T. T. Forman’s mosaic approach to ecological design is particularly valuable in determining the needs of the larger context associated with the specific site associated with a project. The best design experience, according to Ryn and Cowan, occurs when a project evolves organically from the shared knowledge of what humans and the natural landscape need (Ryn 55). Following this principle, the program for a project should be straightforward in terms of what can and cannot be done within the available site boundary.

Design with Nature: In this third principle, the goal of the designer lies in the fundamental goal of ecology. Balancing human and natural needs requires the conscious decision on the part of designers to include patterns and processes already seen in the natural landscape to create a more cohesive project. This working with, instead of attempting to tame, natural processes helps in the reduction of

16 |

NATURE EMERGING

Design to Make Nature Visible: In this final principle, Ryn and Cowan believe that in order to reconnect humans to the natural systems around them, designers need to make nature visible. When we design to make these systems visible, it informs us about the ecological consequences associated with

our daily life (Ryn 164). They propose a new design aesthetic that informs people about the hopeful coordinated relationships between local culture, ecology, and design. Robert L. Thayer, Jr., a landscape architect, has defined this new aesthetic concept as visual ecology. In this approach, designed environments are encouraged to include; elements that make us aware of the abstractions we place upon the land, simplify complex natural systems in addition to making them visible, design ways to highlight systems and processes still hidden from view, and place an emphasis on unfamiliar connections to nature to name a few (Ryn 165). Following this principle from the beginning of a project aided in improving ecological literacy and develop a unique sense of place. The successful incorporation of ecology in design requires looking at variety of different scales in order to create a cohesive project. Including Sim Van Der Ryn and Stuart Cowan’s view of ecology in design as a series of intricately interwoven layers aided in site-scale design whereas Richard T. T. Forman’s mosaic approach to ecological design was especially pertinent in determining proper ecological context in addition to creating a framework plan for future development. In using both Ryn and Cowan’s process in conjunction with Forman’s, we can diminish any biases they have in terms of looking at differing scales of


design. That being said, if designers do not begin to consciously design with nature in mind, we will continue to see the tangled mess that comprises our modern neighborhoods, cities, and native ecosystems. In order to combat this inevitable future, the five principles as described by Ryn and Cowan and listed above need to become inherent throughout the design process in order to create that balance between humans and nature, the core principle of ecology as we know it today.

Considerations for Park Design Cities have always contained parks as places of respite for humans and animals alike from the hustle and bustle of their surroundings. As such, their presence is immensely valuable in our shared human and natural landscape. When it comes to defining what constitutes a park or a design is when things can get hazy. In his 2013 book, Public Nature: Scenery, History, and Park Design, co-editor Ethan Carr talks about how there has been a pervasive lack of certainty in defining just what a park is. When looking at the use of the word “park” in modern terminology, it can mean any landscape from small to large and from pastoral to paved. Meanwhile, “design” can be considered to be a concentrated creative effort that requires utility in addition to beauty

and differing levels of inspiration (Carr 1). In contrast, Alexander Garvin in his 2011 book Public Parks: The Key to Livable Cities details that a space can be a great public park as long as it meets the criteria of being aesthetically, environmentally, financially, functionally, politically, and socially sustainable. It is through the adherence to these criteria that public parks have become central in our modern way of life on par with other examples of world infrastructure such as airports, highways, and railways (Garvin 13). It is when we look deeper into these criteria that the key roles of public parks become visible. That being said, the breadth of what is included in Carr’s definition of a public park needs to be synthesized against the criteria provided by Garvin in order to create an overall successful project. In terms of the key roles provided by public parks, Alexander Garvin believes that more benefits exist than the typical accommodation of ecosystems and habitats in addition to improving local air and water quality that are usually associated with a park. Rather, he believes that they provide more subtle benefits that are not typically associated with public parks. Garvin lists these benefits as the enhanced well-being of local populations, growth of a civil atmosphere and create a livable environment while also providing a framework for development (Garvin 33). In contrast to the advantages associated with designing with ecology in

mind, these benefits are more related to the human experience while inhabiting a project. Combining both design processes into one coherent vision aided in creating an ecological park that promotes ecological literacy while also providing economic and recreational opportunities for the local population. In the afterword of 2011’s Gateway: Visions for an Urban National Park, Stephanie Toothman believes there are a number of challenges facing America’s public parks. Toothman believes that changing demographics, changing climate, evolving communication and transportation technologies in addition to local economic restraints are only a select few of the issues facing park designers and planners. Our collective aging infrastructure and changing use-patterns can be seen as opportunities to invest in energy conservation and other sustainable technologies. In reacting to these restraints, we as designers hope to create places that are both welcoming and meaningful in addition to being healthy and enduring public parks for generations to come. In 2008 the National Parks Service, the National Parks Conservation Association, and the Van Alen Institute joined together in order to sponsor “Designing the Parks,” a conference that brought together over five hundred professionals to debate the past, present, and future of public parks. Generated from those discussions, six ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 17


ORIENTATION: Literature Review proposed guiding principles were created as a framework for future park planning and design including; a reverence for the place, engagement of all users, expansion beyond traditional boundaries, advancement of sustainable practices, informed decisionmaking, and finally an integrated process that includes research, planning, design, and review (Brash 215). These principles act as a framework for which more umbrella principles should be derived due to Toothman’s lack of detail in her afterward. With that being said, it appears that the engagement of all potential users of a space in addition to involving more ecologically minded design through the lens of sustainability was essential in developing a public park that is both cohesive in its design as well as successful for all patrons, humans and animals alike. Donald J. Molnar has refined his book, Anatomy of a Park: Essentials of Recreation Area Planning and Design, into the seminal and most detailed piece on considerations in park design. In his 2015 Fourth Edition, Molnar has outlined three umbrella principles to be considered when designing a public park. In conjunction with one another, they create a framework in which all other goals related to programing need to relate in order to create a comprehensive site plan. Molnar’s umbrella principles make sure to address that everything in a design has a purpose, a design is for the people, and finally both functional and aesthetic requirements need

18 |

NATURE EMERGING

to be met together (Molnar 13). When used together, these three principles provided guidance for the programming of a park design.

Everything Must Have a Purpose in Design: Relevant and logical reasoning should always be employed in order to justify the end result and prevent any misuse in terms of land. These methods of reasoning should always back up any decisions made within the design process. That being said, the elements found in the design should also follow the same principle of having an easily identifiable purpose. Establishing appropriate connections with the different zones of the park is an example of a purpose that an element might satisfy (Molnar 13). Varying scales from large to small need to be considered when envisioning the connections between elements in the park in order to create interdependence between them. Molnar lists the following relations as areas that may become of concern in the design process; the park to its context, the use areas to the site, use areas to use areas, major structures to use areas, and finally minor structures to minor structures (Molnar 14-17). Molnar drives home the point that every design decision should be made for a logical reason and to ask one’s self the simple question, “So what?”

Design Must be for the People:

Although people are the main patrons of a public park, design success is typically measured by how well it accommodates machines and equipment, how it eases potential paperwork, or how it fits into a particular formula of quantitative rather than qualitative standards. Attempting to force people into this mold can create an uncomfortable experience for all those involved. Instead, shaping the environment to fit the people must be an organizing principle in order to create a successful public park (Molnar 18). Even though the frequent park users were the most vocal in expressing their needs, both the occasional and non-user patrons’ needs should be considered in order to foster an atmosphere of civility between user bases in and around the park. In terms of designing for the patrons of a park, Molnar identifies the balance between impersonal and personal needs as a matter of concern (Molnar 20). Design elements such as site accessories and informational signage can benefit from design standardization as long as they act to strengthen an overall sense of uniqueness about the space (Molnar 21). Overall though, time-saving standards should be taken as points of departure from which unique solutions can be designed according to the demands of a particular project (Molnar 22). In order to fully realize this principle, one has to avoid the so called “rubber-stamp” use of standardizations and instead use them as starting points in addition


to respecting the patron’s need rather than imposing a personal view on to a project.

Functional and Aesthetic Requirements Must be Met: Two main aspects, the highest dollar value method and the highest human value, can evaluate the quality of a site design. Highest dollar value can be evaluated simply by the amount of money spent on an element in relation to its site design value. The highest dollar value is then considered to be the solution that is the most cost effective in relation to any alternative solutions. Meanwhile, highest human value is judged based on a patron's response to the solution. Adding to our subtracting from a human’s well-being, or human value, is made up by the intangible responses people have to a particular site element. While this intangible value has no dollar value associated with it, it should still be considered in the development of a site design (Molnar 29). Molnar considers the balancing of the dollar and human values as the main matter of concern for this principle and that the successes of a given site design depends on this balance. In order to fully realize the aforementioned umbrella principles in a site design, the aesthetic quality inherently must be considered. Molnar believes that a designer needs to consider principles of artistic composition in addition to the one’s

own intuitive ability when weaving aesthetic elements into a site design. He emphasizes the power of intuition in aiding the designer in navigating the many factors that can modify each other in the pursuit of an aesthetically pleasing design. The importance of this aspect of design becomes all the more clear when one considers that even uninformed viewers can determine if something is visually pleasing or displeasing. According to Molnar, order and variety lie at the core of what should be considered in terms of aesthetics. He believes that regardless of its other elements, an aesthetically pleasing composition should possess these two core concepts (Molnar 33). That being said, order and variety are often times at odds with one another. Too much order results in a monotonous landscape while an abundance of dissimilar elements institutes a sense of chaos. It is in the delicate equilibrium between these two forces that a successful design is born. To design for order and variety in aesthetics, Molnar provides two principles that when used in conjunction with another can create an aesthetically pleasing design. His aesthetic principles make sure to establish an experience that is at once substantial and appropriate for the site design (Molnar 34).

Establish a Substantial Experience: In order to understand the order of something, one has to first place a label on it. Natural

landscapes have distinct characteristics associated with them and as such are easily distinguished from one another, such as a desert from a plain. Molnar believes that a site design can evoke a similar reaction in people, as long as it produces a strong character that is easily identifiable. This strong character can elicit emotions in a patron ranging from peaceful and exciting to exhilarating and wonder. Depending on how strongly a patron reacts upon first contact with a site, the possibility of the space providing the requisite emotional experience increases (Molnar 34). Molnar considers the effects of lines, forms, textures, and colors in conjunction with feelings of dominance and enclosure as the main matters of concern in regards to this principle. It is important when considering the aesthetics of a site design to keep in mind that the full emotional experience does not come from the spaces themselves. Instead, it is through all of the emotion-driven elements on the site that creates the overall experience. Without them a site design would appear to be incomplete and bleak in appearance.

Establish an Appropriate Experience: While the order of a site design can be enforced through a dominant effect, Molnar believes that that this effect cannot be ensured unless is sensed to be appropriate in its context. This sense of knowing if something fits within its context is drawn from a person’s ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 19


ORIENTATION: Literature Review innate ability to associate two things that logically belong together. In assuming that what already exists is also understood and accepted, the designer attempts to transfer the existing aesthetic qualities of a site to the proposed new construction. Molnar still believes that unique elements have their place in a site design, so as long as they are rooted in something that is familiar so that they are more readily accepted in terms of aesthetics (Molnar 42). In terms of matters to be concerned with, Molnar cautions that elements need to be suited to; the personality of its place, personality of the user, personality of function, and finally to scale. Following this principle ties a site design to its place and its patrons, instilling a sense of purpose that weaves together the ideas of function and aesthetics. Creating a successful public park requires a number of interwoven elements that must work in conjunction with one another in order to create a cohesive project. In thinking at different scales, we must keep in mind Alexander Garvin’s key roles of public parks in order to preserve the importance of the human element in a project. In the absence of this human element we see the bland, standardized, and out of place landscapes that have become the norm in our daily lives rather than an anomaly. An ecological park however, should also consider this human element in relation to nature and consider

20 |

NATURE EMERGING

both as equal clients throughout the design process. To that end, the principles of park design set forth by Stephanie Toothman and to a larger extent Donald J. Molnar should be used in addition to Sim Van Der Ryn and Stuart Cowan’s principles of ecologically based design to create an ecological park design that seamlessly weaves the different layers into a site design that is equal parts home to humans as it is to nature. The framework created when looking at both sets of principles and their relations with one another was immensely helpful in the design process, providing a place to reference while within the iterative process.

Placemaking in Design Conceptually the idea of a “sense of place” is drawn from the Latin term genius loci, which originally referred to the divine protector of a particular place. The Greeks and Romans believed in spirits that defined the character of a place, no matter the size. Celebrations, rituals, and festivals were held to honor each of the local deities and their believed influence on the environment. Due to the secularization of Western culture in the eighteenth century, genius loci was translated to mean “the genius of a place” and better reflect the sentimental views of place seen at the time (Zelinka 2). That being said, some light needs

to be shed on just what exactly a “place” is considered to be. John L. Motloch, in his 2001 book Introduction to Landscape Design, describes a “place” as the mental vision an individual perceives a particular space to be in addition to the meaning that they place upon it due to their own level of environmental perception. This sense of place occurs at the crossroads of the particular setting and its context in addition to the viewer’s previous experience and current emotional state. It is when a viewer attributes a value to a physically designed setting through their mind’s eye that a place is born (Motloch 242). In his 1993 book, The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America’s Man-Made Landscape, James Howard Kunstler believes that us as a society are irreparably damaging our sense of place. This is in large part due to our seemingly endless need to build without thinking about what we are throwing by the wayside in the process. Kunstler believes that this insatiable need to grow has produced a brutal, depressing, spiritually degrading, ugly, and unhealthy landscape populated with shopping plazas, hotel complexes, and so called office “parks” (Kunstler 10). These types of “landscapes” have become all too common in our daily lives, showing just how complacent we are in sacrificing a sense of place in favor of an increase in economic productivity. If we do not as a design community


encourage a culture of creating a sense of place, this bleak landscape will become omnipresent in our daily life. It is through the retention between generations of the body of knowledge and skills associated with a sense of place that we can overcome this inevitability (Kunstler 113). Kunstler believes that as a society we need to reverse our thinking of ecology as the antithesis of economy in order to think about how we live in relation with where we are and strengthen, or in some instances create, a rich sense of place (Kunstler 249). This sense of place is inherent in our daily life and as such is the third layer, in addition to ecological and park design, to be interwoven into a successful site design. In their 1995 book, Placemaking: The Art and Practice of Building Communities, Lynda H. Schneekloth and Robert G. Shibley believe that the idea of placemaking is a way in which we can alter this bleak future and instill a rich sense of place in daily life. They believe that through mindful placemaking, us as humans can transform the places we find ourselves into places that we live and consider to be our home. As long as humans have roamed the earth, we have found ways to make our places meaningful to us. This was not limited to just the physical world, it also included ways to demarcate communities and connect those people that inhabited them. To that end, Schneekloth and Shibley believe that the art of placemaking is not

just about the relationship of people to their place; it is also about creating relationships between people in their places (Schneekloth 1). This attention to not just the physical but also the psychological elements that make up a space was essential in creating a rich sense of place. Building upon Schneekloth and Shibley’s straightforward view of placemaking, John L. Motloch’s 2001 book Introduction to Landscape Design goes into more detail on the topic going so far as to dedicate an entire chapter to it. In it, Motloch agrees with James Howard Kunstler’s view that we as a society are irreparably damaging our sense of place due to our insatiable need to grow beyond our means. He concedes that contemporary places can often have well-designed physical elements including both buildings and the sites themselves. It is when these places come together into a disorganized, and often times psychologically harmful, assortment of layers that the lack of any particular sense of place becomes apparent. Motloch believes that this phenomenon is in large part due to the pursuit of style and design over local environmental and human health quality. A shift in the way we approach a site design needs to be undergone in order to move the design focus away from this infatuation with design achievement and instead focus on creating innovative solutions to local human and environmental needs (Motloch 242). Altering this design focus aided in the

creation of an experience driven place rather than a design driven one, one that focuses on the needs of both humans and nature alike. Designing for placemaking, or the mental process of comprehending settings, aided in altering this focus aided in creating valuable experience driven places. Successful placemaking instills a sense of placeness in a setting, providing ample opportunity for visitors to form mental images and aid in altering mental states for the better. On the other hand, places that exhibit a sense of placelessness are far less likely to instill these reactions and are therefore much more likely to be forgotten. In landscape design, this creation of placeness is paramount in instilling a sense of satisfaction, belonging, and enhanced quality of life in a visitor to a site. As such, it is the role of the landscape designer to encourage positive placemaking through the creation of preferred relationships between a place, the intended behavior of a visitor, and the setting unique characteristics. Taking into account these relationships helped visitors to the site translate the positive placeness into a place that is both enjoyable and meaningful (Motloch 252). A more cohesive design is inevitably born from keeping these relationships in mind throughout the design process. In regards to the management of placeness, Motloch provides five concepts that can be employed in conjunction with ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 21


ORIENTATION: Literature Review one another to create a design with a strong sense of place.

Fabrics and Events: As placemakers, landscape designers create designed settings to instill mental images in order to encourage a desired emotional response. In order to make these designed settings, a series of design goals and objectives is typically written. In turn these goals and objectives aid in triggering desired behaviors and aid in creating special places. A mosaic begins to appear after the creation of a number of these special places, providing a sense belonging and meaning to a wide range of potential visitors (Motloch 252). Seeing these special places as a mosaic instead of seeing them as they are individually harkens back to Richard T. T. Forman’s own mosaic approach to ecological design. Managing a place’s fabric and events associated with it provided a site design that has a much deeper meaning than a typical project and aided in setting this one apart from its contemporaries.

Psychological Health: Landscape designers can create psychologically healthy landscapes through the design of perceptual characteristics in the landscape. Visual continuity, relatedness, order, and spontaneity should be included in the design process in order to achieve the desired effect. Designing for these perceptual characteristics

22 |

NATURE EMERGING

aided in maximizing the meaning a visitor places upon a landscape and increase their sensory pleasure while also relieving any potential environmental stress (Motloch 253). Managing for psychological health in pursuit of designing a sense of place assisted in creating the highest human experience for potential visitors.

Environmental Characteristics: In order to facilitate positive placeness on a perceptual level and encourage the assignment of meaning, landscape designers establish guidelines and standards according to local physical, biological, and cultural forces. When used together, these forces can alter the perceptual and emotional meanings assigned by a visitor to a particular place. A focus on the relationships between settings, mental images, and behavior can aide in the creation of place-specific guidelines to manage particular zones of use seen within a project (Motloch 253). Managing the environmental characteristics of a project aided in the assignment of positive placeness and in turn encourage the attribution of meaning in a way that is unique to the context.

• Information Load: In a place, people desire an extensive enough stimulus load that allows them to create meanings and increase their sense of belonging while also respecting cultural and social precedents.

According to Motloch, current design education encourages close-minded designs that do not allow for differing levels of personalization by the user. Because of this design for design sake mentality, modern projects often become chaotic while also not building any relationships between the context and its user. In order to combat this mentality, it's is the landscape designer’s job to manage information load so each designed statement can be seen as the concentrated hub of meaning that they were intended to be (Motloch 253). Managing information load seen in a project aided in increasing user understanding and encourage exploration in addition to improving the overall environmental meaning they assign to the landscape.

Order and Spontaneity: To encourage a strong sense of place, the successful management of order and spontaneity is essential. The body of knowledge agrees that the public as a whole prefers this exchange between order and spontaneity as well as the differing levels of relatedness between elements as created by their immediate context (Motloch 254). Projects that employ these dynamic elements can still elicit a feeling of order when faced by spontaneous design decisions while a more reserved project must have elements that relate to each other in order to ensure ease of imageability. It is when these elements break


through the environmental fabric that special places with a strong sense of place and meaning are born. It should also be noted that relatedness increases when built and natural patterns confirm one another, a concept that must be encouraged in the design process (Motloch 255). Successfully designing for both order and spontaneity encouraged visitors to perceive their surroundings and create their own associational meanings for what they are viewing in addition to providing coherence to the overall design that draws attention to special places. Instilling a strong sense of place in a design requires the management of various elements that must work in conjunction with one another to create a project with an overall sense of relatedness. We must remember that in the pursuit of this strong sense of place, we are battling James Howard Kunstler’s current view of society as a juggernaut that is irreparably damaging our sense of place through our seemingly endless need to build without first thinking about what we are throwing by the wayside in the process. It is through Lynda H. Schneekloth and Robert G. Shibley’s view of placemaking as a solution to this alarming process that we can alter this bleak future and instill a rich sense of place in daily life. Successfully designing for placemaking aided in instilling a sense of placeness in a setting, providing ample opportunity for visitors to form their

own mental images in addition to aiding in the alteration of mental states for the better. With the aid of John L. Motloch’s placeness management concepts, a strong sense of place can be overlaid with the principles of park design set forth by Donald J. Molnar in addition to the principles of ecologically based design created by Sim Van Der Ryn and Stuart Cowan in order to create an ecological park design that seamlessly weaves into its human and nature context.

Conclusion The above research has focused on the skills and process necessary to create an ecological park that reclaims both a post remediated and postindustrial landscape into a productive member of the local ecosystem, one that supports ecological systems and the needs of nature and humans alike. The body of knowledge in this Review of Literature has brought to light numerous vital guidelines that must be integrated into the design proposal for the programming and aesthetics for proposed landscape. From designing to make sure natural systems are visible and ensuring that everything has a purpose to maintain the balance between order and spontaneity, these guidelines must be used as the framework from which a cohesive design is born. This framework was crucial as a reference throughout the

design process in order to ensure that the development of an ecological park in Gary, Indiana is cohesive in terms of ecological, visual, and cultural context. That being said, more research must be undergone in the inventory and analysis phase in order to properly apply this vital framework plan. Numerous sites that formerly had a rich ecological history are still languishing in their post-industrial prison. All over the country, sites like the Carmeuse Lime stockpile on the shores of Lake Michigan in Gary, Indiana have deprived us of our sense of identity while creating wide swaths of inhospitable land. It is our job as stewards of the landscape to reclaim this land and bring it back to its former glory, providing places that humans and nature can hold in trust for generations to come. If we do not act now, we will see this landscape that gives us an identity inexplicably disappear. In order to ensure that this does not happen, this place specific framework plan must be implemented and allowed to become a prototype for the future reclamation of land along the shores of a post-industrial Lake Michigan.

ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 23


ORIENTATION: Problem Statement + Significance Problem Statement This project focuses on reclaiming the Lake Michigan Shoreline through the development of an ecological park on a post-remediation industrial landscape in Northwest Indiana and the opportunities in this landscape to promote ecological literacy while also providing recreational opportunities for the local population.

Significance In recent years, it has been greatly debated what should be done with the intrusive industrial complex on the shores of Lake Michigan in Northwest Indiana. Two design efforts have been discussed, although none such grand schemes have come to fruition in reclaiming our shoreline. This project culminated in the creation of an ecological park that has abundant recreational opportunities in addition to containing over one hundred acres of ecological habitat for the City of Gary and Northwest Indiana as a whole. This ecological park provides valuable open space along the lakeshore; creates opportunities for accessing the lakefront, and repairs habitat for native wildlife. In addition, the planned ecological park provides access to the lakefront in an otherwise industrial area and promotes education on local ecological history and in turn creates the next chapter in local history. In terms of professional significance, this project aides in developing insights into the symbiosis between ecological and park design processes. With the culmination of this project, a prototype for the future reclamation of Lake Michigan Lakeshore from intrusive industrial complexes was established.

24 |

NATURE EMERGING


ORIENTATION: Project Summary

• • • • • •

Design Scope

Project Vision

Project Essence

Project Deliverables/ Scales

Post Industrial/ Remediation

Recreational/Ecological Development

Conceptual Planning Landform Typologies Site Master Plan Site Enlargements Habitat Trail Typologies Site Landmarks and Amenity Details

Landform relics designed in conjunction with engineers during the remediation process will drive the site design and program. These forms will be used to teach about ecology including both native plants and animals.

Through the development of an ecological park, this project aims to establish a framework for the post-remediation design of vital lakeshore sites for the purpose of healing the local recreational and ecological systems.

ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 25


26 |

NATURE EMERGING


02|

FRAMEWORK

PROJECT STATEMENT PROJECT REQUIRMENTS GOALS + OBJECTIVES PROGRAM CLIENT + PROJECT SCOPE

ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 27


FRAMEWORK: Project Statement + Requirments Project Statement

Project Requirements

The mission of this project is to establish a vibrant ecological sense of place along the shores of Lake Michigan for the City of Gary through the development of an ecological park. To accomplish this goal, a framework for the post-remediation design of this vital lakeshore site was created in order to initiate the healing process for local recreational and ecological systems. This ecological park aides in encouraging connections between humans and nature through the cohesive implementation of ecological, park, and placemaking design guidelines that can be found within the literature in the orientation section of this booklet. In addition to creating connections between humans and nature, the ecological park provides a recreational destination in the region in addition to the establishment of a framework for natural ecological development.

With this project being along the Lake Michigan Shoreline, it is clear that certain goals, objectives and overall program must be met. The project must take into account the ecological context and value of the site in a predominately industrial area. In addition, the project should consider the value added to a site by providing unique recreational amenities. Lastly, the project must be designed in such a way that it can be used as a framework for the further reclamation of post-industrial sites along Lake Michigan. The rest of this framework section of the booklet will delve deeper into the specifics of these required goals, objectives, and overall program.

28 |

NATURE EMERGING


FRAMEWORK: Goals + Objectives Educate

Connect

This project aims to educate visitors about the ecological and industrial history of the area by creating designed elements that facilitate uninhibited discovery.

This project aims to decrease habitat degradation due to industrial practices by creating an ecological park that is shared equally between humans and nature.

• • •

• • •

Create distinctive outdoor learning elements Reference the industrial history of the site through the use of landmarks Situate educationally driven site structures in key places throughout the site

Activate

Create connections to various habitat types native to the region Reclaim access to the Lake Michigan Shoreline for both humans and nature Provide a network of trails and open spaces that can be used for circulation throughout the ecological park

This project aims to develop programmatic elements in terms of recreational opportunities that can aide in the activation of spaces throughout the site. • • •

Create unique recreational amenities that will draw visitors to the site Highlight the post-industrial landscape of the site through designed interventions Encourage waterfront recreation and circulation to and from the site ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 29


FRAMEWORK: Program

Ecological

Recreational

Emerging

Create Connections to the Natural Environment

Provide Array of Recreational Options

Provide Framework for Shoreline/ Ecological Reclamation

• Reveal Ecological Systems • Native Plant Palette • Relic Land Typologies • Habitat Trail System • Nature Center

30 |

NATURE EMERGING

• Active and Passive Recreation Zones • Public Access to Shoreline • Event-Based Lawn w/ Flex Space Active: Fishing, Frisbee, Sledding, Mountain Biking Passive: Trail Hiking, Fishing, Picnicking, Kite Flying, Reading

• Design Plant Typology Zones • Relic Land Typologies for Naturalization • Shoreline Repossession through Designed Interventions


FRAMEWORK: Client + Project Scope Client This ecological park is designed to cater to four different user groups: residents of the city of Gary, residents of the Northwest Indiana Region, seasonal tourists, and local wildlife. Rather than creating a park that caters specifically to one of these groups, each is represented in the physical amenities present on site as well as the overall site design to allow for a hospitable atmosphere in regards to all of the user groups.

Project Scope The scope of this project revolves around the establishment of an ecological park at the one hundred and eight acre Carmeuse Lime & Stone site that addresses the needs of the aforementioned clients. Everything from master plans and enlargements down to typologies and detailed site character will be produced within the one hundred and eight acre boundary in order to meet the needs of the projects goals and objectives.

ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 31


32 |

NATURE EMERGING


03|

VISION

LOCATION CONTEXT INVENTORY ANALYSIS CASE STUDIES DESIGN CONCEPTS MASTER PLAN PLAN ENLARGEMENTS DESIGN CHARACTER CONSTRUCTION DETAILS

ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 33


34 |

NATURE EMERGING


VISION: Location General Location

Northwest Indiana In Context of Indiana

Located in Northwest Indiana, the City of Gary has been known historically as an industrial city specializing in the production of steel. Between the years of 1979 and 1986, Gary saw a significant loss in its manufacturing industry. Figures averaging around a 43 percent decline were observed, mainly in the oil and steel industries. This project focuses on reclaiming land along the Lake Michigan Shoreline, specifically at the Carmeuse Lime and Stone site, which is becoming available due to Gary no longer being an industrial leader on the world stage.

Gary, Indiana In Context of Northwest Indiana

Site Location This one hundred and eight acre site was chosen due to its rich ecological and historical legacy due to it residing on the marvel that is the Lake Michigan Shoreline. In reclaiming this underutilized site from the nearby industrial complex, this project creates a new precedence for land use along the Lake Michigan Shoreline. Primarily, this proposed project will focus on the Carmeuse Lime and Stone material stockpile.

Site Boundary In Context of Gary, Indiana

Site Location Map FIG. 03

ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 35


VISION: Context: Industrialization of Lake Michigan Shoreline | 1900 - 1991

1900

1953

FIG. 05

FIG. 04

1960

1991

FIG. 06

36 |

NATURE EMERGING

FIG. 07


VISION: Context: Formation of a Man-Made Shoreline | 1939 - 1965

1939

1954

FIG. 09

FIG. 08

1958

1965

FIG. 10

FIG. 11 ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 37


VISION: Context: Immediate Site Setting 1] Buffington Harbor 2] Carmeuse Lime & Stone 3] Dean Mitchell Generating Station (Vacant)

4] Industrial Land (Vacant) 5] Gary Redevelopment Commission 6] Majestic Star Casino 0

10 1

8

AC

RE

200

400

Feet 800

S

2

6

4

3

5

38 |

NATURE EMERGING

FIG. 12


VISION: Context: Majestic Star Casino Aerial West of the proposed site lies the Majestic Star Casino [6] while a site run by the City of Gary Redevelopment Commission [5] lies to the south. This aerial highlights the lack of public access to the Lake Michigan Shoreline and abundance of open lawn fields.

FIG. 13 ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 39


VISION: Context: Majestic Star Casino Aerial [Detail] Lying immediately adjacent to the proposed project boundary is the physical casino [6], made up of two boats, located within Buffington Harbor [1]. This aerial highlights the adjacent existing infrastructure in terms of the casino boats, lobby, and garage parking.

FIG. 14

40 |

NATURE EMERGING


VISION: Context: Carmeuse Lime & Stone Aerial Within the site boundary lies Carmeuse Lime & Stone [2], the vacant Dean Mitchell Generating Station [3], vacant industrial land & structures [4], and concrete manufacturing stockpile(s) [5]. This aerial highlights the industrial history of the site and its close proximity to Lake Michigan.

FIG. 15 ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 41


VISION: Context: Aerials Moving East Depicting Abundance of Industry

42 |

NATURE EMERGING

FIG. 16

FIG. 17

FIG. 18

FIG. 19


VISION: Inventory: Site Observation As seen in figures 23 and 24, the Carmeuse Lime & Stone site is predominately made up of rubble strewn vacant industrial land. In figure 22 the abundance of lawn space just north of the Majestic Star Casino that is currently being severely underutilized. Meanwhile, in the background of both figures 22 and 23 the infrastructure for the actual Carmeuse Lime & Stone plant can be seen directly adjacent to the Lake Michigan Shoreline. Figure 21 shows the current largest draw to the area, the Majestic Star Casino.

1

FIG. 21

2

FIG. 22

1

3

2 3

FIG. 23

4

4 FIG. 20

Existing Condition Referance Map

FIG. 24 ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 43


VISION: Inventory: Site Infrastructure Figure 25 shows that Buffington Harbor Dr. [1] will be the most applicable entrance to the proposed site due to it crossing the Elgin, Joliet, & Eastern RR [2] in an area already serviced by infrastructure. Site topography is generally flat but will be altered according to “relic” landforms upon further research into dune formation and general structure.

10 8

0 59

0 59 0

0 5 9

0

0

59

595

0

61 5 58 5

625

0 59 0

59

5

5

58

600

0

61 5 63 5 63

655

620 60 0

585

640 645 660

5 58

590

595

6

FIG. 25

650

585

5

585 5 8

0 59

DR VA TE PR I

605

5 59 590

585 58 5 59 0

5

40

5

62

660

58 5

5

590

600

590 0 58

585 590

LN SE EU RM

58

58

595 620 10 56 625 60

655

5

0

58

585

635

5 585 58

5

600

640

590

0

590

590

0

58

0

59

59

5

0

595 6

00

CA 585

0

585

58

60

5

5

59

59

590

58

59

0

0 59 59

59

5

0

590

590

590

59

59

59 0

590 595 600

5

0 60

595 60 60 5 0 59 0

0 59 5

610

BU 59 0

590

590

0

DR 61

FF 90 590 IN G TO N

HA RB O R

0 5 90

5

60

59

5

0

61

5

58

55 85

59

590

59

59

0

580

5

0

60

590

60

5

RR 59

600

5

59

59

585

n

58

0

0

5

58

5

590

er

59 0

NATURE EMERGING

590

58

58

585

st

5

0

59

0

Ea

60

&

59

t,

59

So 59 ut 0 59 he 0 rn CS 590RR 59 590 X 0 RR

59

0

59

44 |

0

59

lie

590

0

59

0

59

lk

Jo

5

No90 rfo

0

0

60 0

59

585

0

DR

60

0

5

5

590

5

58

590 585

59

IVA TE

5

n,

5

05

59

5 59

gi

59

59

0

5

590

5

PR

59

0 59

90

585

El

2

590

0

585

58

5

58

59 600

58

0

0

585 590

5

59

59

0

0

59

0

59

59

59

5

95 59 0

595

59

5 595 59

60

595

05

59

1

0

61

59

0

0

59

5

58

595

0 59

5

0

58

5

605

585

59

59

0 59 95

60

Railways Industrial Remnants Site Boundary

5 59

585

59

600

59 0 59 0

5

0

0

0

59

59

600 5

59

0

0

595

59

0

Roadways

AC RE S

595

59

595

5 58 5 9 5

5 58 5 59

59

590

59

0

T

5

0 ST 59H

40 E1

590 61 0

585

585

0

0

590

5

59

59

590

64

58

58

59

5 59

5

5 58

5

0

0

58

5 59

10 5 58 5 6 0 6

61

0

590

58

59

400

5ʼ Topography

5 58

59

200

59

0

595

59

0

Feet 800

5

66


VISION: Analysis: Site Natural Systems Figure 26 below shows just how severe the impact the industrialization of the Lake Michigan Shoreline has been in the past one hundred years. With notcieably lacking vegetation and any sembelence of habitat zones, this site needs a major ecological overhall in order to become a productive member of the local community.

10 8

Lake

0

200

Feet 800

400

AC RE S

Lake

Freshwater Pond

Freshwater Pond

Freshwater Pond Freshwater Pond

Freshwater Pond

Freshwater Pond

Freshwater Pond Freshwater Pond Freshwater Emergent Wetland

Freshwater Emergent Wetland Freshwater Forested/Shrub Wetland Freshwater Emergent Wetland

Freshwater Pond

FIG. 26

ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 45


VISION: Precedent Studies Post-industrial projects have been immensely popular in the past ten years, garnering critical acclaim in the design field for their success in returning sites to productive parts of the local community. This shift in the consensus towards highlighting the industrial heritage and ecological legacy of site while providing unique recreational opportunities has been nothing less than extraordinary. Numerous post-industrial projects like Duisburg Nord Landscape Park and Long Dock Park, which are shown, have galvanized the reclamation of other post-industrial sites the world over. As industrial practices become more efficient due to the perpetual march of technology, these precedent studies will become even more valuable as formerly industrial land increasingly becomes available.

FIG. 27

Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord | Latz + Partner

In terms of post-industrial reclamation, Duisburg Nord Landscape Park in Germany is undoubtedly the most referenced within the world of landscape architecture. In this project, Latz + Partner engaged the existing

46 |

NATURE EMERGING

FIG. 28

FIG. 29

industrial character of the site through the development of a new language where existing industrial relics were woven into the new landscape. Site elements include everything from intimate gardens and urban plazas to festival spaces and play nodes. Inhabiting existing industrial spaces is a consistent theme throughout the park (Landezine).


VISION: Precedent Studies

FIG. 30

FIG. 31

Presidio Parklands | James Corner Field Operations

Similar to the Carmeuse Lime & Stone site, Presidio Point in San Francisco is to be constructed on land that did not exist naturally. James Corner Field Operations’ design was created to recalibrate the

FIG. 32

Long Dock Park | Reed Hilderbrand

FIG. 33

Long Dock Park in Beacon, NY was chosen for its transformation of a post-industrial site into a very popular waterfront park. Reed Hilderbrand sought out to create a place where there are abundant opportunities for visitors to experience the art, recreational activities, and environmental

FIG. 32 newly constructed tunnel tops over the Presidio Parkway. An elegant system of elliptical paths move from the Presidio’s main post north to the water’s edge. Three lookouts situated in key locations throughout the park highlight the unique sense of place inherent to the site (Anderson).

FIG. 34 history of the Hudson River and its surrounding landscape. Through sitespecific design intervention, this valuable waterfront location has returned to an active, diverse, and resilient landscape (ASLA). ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 47


VISION: Design Methodology: Design Themes Three Design Schemes

Creating three design concepts was chosen in order to aid in the initial design of programmed zones and circulation throughout the site as well as the general placement of architectural elements and landmarks. Zones including the entrance area and places for both passive and active recreation were included in order to satisfy the recreational component of the ecological park. Meanwhile different habitat zones were included to satisfy the ecological component of the ecological park. Key elements in the linear design process from scheme one through to scheme three were used in the final design scheme.

Three Design Themes

Utilizing three design themes, one for each of the three schemes that embody the principles of ecology in design was vital for the overall success of this project. Each potential theme would aid in ensuring that the goals and objectives set out in the framework section of this booklet were met. Each theme was created in order to make certain that various approaches to the site design were undergone and enabling the ability to synthesize three varied final schemes into one that could be applied to the one hundred and eight acre site itself in the creation of an ecological park.

48 |

NATURE EMERGING

Inhabiting

Inhabiting as a scheme is based on the idea of holding onto the industrial heritage of a site while making it a central piece of the overall composition. Both architectural and horticultural interventions with the existing industrial elements on site drive the circulation to and from the programmed zones as well as creating planes of landscape where there was previously contaminated soil. A clear effort to show the contrast between the existing industrial relics and the proposed future design intervention shapes the overall sense of place as well as the detailed site character.

Recalibrating

Recalibrating as a scheme is organized around the idea of altering a majority of the existing site elements, including ecological principles such as secession and designing to make nature visible, in order to create a new composition that reflects the future of the site rather than the past. As such, this scheme is the most traditionally designed of the three and contains a much more heavy-handed approach to the creation of an ecological park. An effort to create landmarks and zones that will create an iconic sense of place for many years to come is central to this scheme in terms of design character.

Transforming

Transforming as a design scheme is centered on the idea of creating a site design that can transition over its lifetime, from installation through to its climax in the future. In this scheme, the cycles of nature will be embraced rather than cast aside or guarded against. As such, this is the least traditionally designed of the three schemes that in turn emphasizes the principles of an ecological park. An effort to change the previously heavily industrial history of the site through the inclusion of various habitat zones and iconic landmarks is central to this scheme and shapes the overall sense of place as well as the detailed site character.


VISION: Design Methodology: Alternative Design Schemes Water Zone

Beach Zone

Beach Zone Industrial Relic

Industrial Relic Active Zone

Active Zone Plant Screen

Pedestrian Circulation Plant Screen

Active Zone

Industrial Relic

Passive Zone

Passive Zone

Industrial Relic

Industrial Relics

Industrial Relic Industrial Relic Passive Zone

Entrance Zone

Industrial Relics Industrial Relics

Plant Screen

Plant Screen

Passive Zone

Active Zone

Passive Zone

Plant Screen

Inhabiting Scheme

[FIG. 35]

[+] Organic Circulation [+] Zone Counterbalance [-] Not Naturally Formed [-] Arbitrary Central Point

Recalibrating Scheme

[FIG. 36]

[+] Clear Circulation Node [+] More Organic Zones [-] Heavy Hand of Design [-] “Center� Removed from Entrance

0

400

800

Feet 1600

ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 49


VISION: Design Methodology: Prefered Design Schemes Water Zone

Water Zone Beach Zone

Beach Zone

Industrial Relic

Industrial Relic

Pedestrian Circulation

Active Zone

Plant Screen

Passive Zone Industrial Relics

Transition Zone Passive Zone

Passive Zone Active Zone

Industrial Relic

Passive Zone

Entrance Zone

Active Zone

Entrance Zone Pedestrian Circulation

Industrial Relic

Industrial Relic Plant Screen

Passive Zone

Passive Zone

Plant Screen

Transforming Scheme

[FIG. 37]

[+] Natural Circulation Flow [+] Zones Form Organic Bands [+] Central Node for Zones [+] Clearly Defined Entrance

Final Design Scheme

[+] Natural Circulation Flow [+] Zones Form Organic Bands [+] Central Node for Zones [+] Clearly Defined Entrance

0

50 |

NATURE EMERGING

[FIG. 38]

400

800

Feet 1600


VISION: Design Methodology: Master Plan Design Process Application of Final Design Theme

Vegetation

Upon chosing the final design scheme, a variation of the transforming scheme in figure 37 and shown in its final form in figure 38, site elements from the tree canopy and site structures to circulation and ecological zones were overlaid onto the site boundary. The final layers of this master plan mosaic can be seen to the right in figure 39. The the following two pages breaks down this master plan mosaic further into the geometry that the industrial relics created, the circulation that was based off this geometry, the figure ground created by the vegetation and structures present on site, and finally the transition from an intensely used site near the entrance to one that is much more calming near the Lake Michigan Shoreline.

Structures

Industrial Relics

Trail Network

Ecological Zones Beach Wetland Prairie Forest

Master Plan Mosaic [FIG. 39]

Specimen ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 51


VISION: Design Methodology: Master Plan Systems Process

Geometry [FIG. 40] As can be seen in figure 40, topographical mounds on site were situated according to existing industrial relics. Linking each of the mounds through a series of site lines created an opportunity for the placement of trails, site structures, and programed zones.

52 |

NATURE EMERGING

Map Key Vehicular

Pedestrian Boating

Circulation [FIG. 41] Figure 41 shows the final circulation for the project that was created with the use of the geometry observed in figure 40. Both vehicular and boat access was created in order to provide access to multiple user groups. 0

400

800

Feet 1600


VISION: Design Methodology: Master Plan Systems Process

Figure Ground [FIG. 42] In figure 42 the series of enclosed and open spaces created by the vegetation and structures on site can be seen, creating unique opportunities for recreational and ecological opportunities alike. Central open spaces for each zone were created to provide space for spontaneous recreation as well as create site lines to the next zone.

Map Key Lowest Level of Activity Highest Level of Activity

Intensity of Use [FIG. 43] Figure 41 shows the intensity of use that moves from high activity to less active from south to north towards the Lake Michigan Shoreline. This transition was created in order to provide levels of activity for all users groups. 0

400

800

Feet 1600

ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 53


VISION: Master Plan

All Ecological Zones Gary Ecological Park

Map Key 1] Vehicular Entrance 2] Nature Center Zone 3] Relic Zip-Line Zone 4] Secondary Trail Loops 5] Main Trailway 6] Industrial Relic Landform 7] Dune Landformations 8] Pier w/ Boat Dock

54 |

NATURE EMERGING

9] Majestic Star Casino 10] Buffington Harbor 11] Dean Mitchell Generating Station 12] Lake Michigan 13] Forest Zone 14] Prairie Zone 15] Wetland Zone


12

10

9

16

7

3 4 1

8

13

5

6 2

15

4

14

4 11

4

FIG. 44

0

200

400

Feet 800

ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 55


VISION: Plan Enlargements: Nature Center | Parking

Forest Zone Nature Center | Parking

As can be seen in figure 45, the nature center and its accompanying nature center and parking lot is situated at the end of the drive that begins at the park’s vehicular entrance. In figure 46 the drop-off roundabout, just adjacent to the nature center, creates an iconic gateway into the rest of the ecological park while also creating an entrance plaza that circulates around the nature center and its outdoor cafe seating area.

56 |

NATURE EMERGING

Map Key 1] Vehicular Entrance 2] Parking Lot [78 Spaces] 3] Industrial Relic Topography 4] Nature Center w/ Cafe 5] Entrance Plaza 6] Drop-Off Roundabout FIG. 45


A

5 3

1

A

4

6 2 FIG. 46

0

30

60

Feet 120 ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 57


VISION: Plan Enlargements: Zip-Line Course

Prairie Zone Zip-Line Course

As can be seen in figure 47, the zip-line course and its accompanying comfort station and cafe are situated at the convergence of numerous industrial relic mounds. In figure 48 the comfort station and its adjacent cafe plaza creates an iconic landmark that can be seen through the clearing of vegetation in the prairie ecological zone while also creating an opportunity for people to discover it as they circulate through the ecological park.

58 |

NATURE EMERGING

Map Key 1] Main Prairie Trail 2] Comfort Station w/ Cafe 3] Zip-Line Structure 4] Indian Grass Art Piece 5] Viewshed Info Pavilion 6] Secondary Prairie Trail FIG. 47


B

6 5

B

4

2

1

3

FIG. 48

0

30

60

Feet 120 ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 59


VISION: Plan Enlargements: Nature Center | Parking Section Figure 49 shows the human-scale relationship of the nature center and its accompanying cafe plaza. Within the cafe plaza itself the permeability between the building and landscape can be seen, creating a transition where visitors can see all of their options for circulating at the same time.

Building Permeability Big Bluestem Landmark

Greenspace

Drop-Off Roundabout

Nature Center + Plaza [Section A - A’] FIG. 49

60 |

NATURE EMERGING

Plaza

Nature Center

Nature Center Cafe P


Plaza

Nature Center

Plaza

Trailhead Greenspace

0

7.5

Trail

15

Feet 30

ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 61


VISION: Plan Enlargements: Zip-Line Course Section Figure 50 shows the human-scale relationship of the trellis structure and the transition from the plaza entrance through to the first industrial relic mound with its accompanying zip-line structure. In addition, the Big Bluestem landmarks can be seen marking that visitor is in unique place within the ecological park.

Entrance Landmark

Plaza Entrance

Raised Green

Comfort Station Plaza + Zip-Line Structure [Section B - B’] FIG. 50

62 |

NATURE EMERGING

Main Plaza w/ Stair Seating


Zip-Line Structure

Big Bluestem Landmark

Raised Green

Plaza Exit

Trail

Industrial Relic Mound

0

7.5

15

Feet 30 ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 63


VISION: Design Character: Nature Center Aerial

Nature Center Aerial View: Showing the overall view of the nature center plaza looking down from an industrial relic mound. FIG. 51

64 |

NATURE EMERGING


VISION: Design Character: Zip-Line Aerial

Zip-Line Course Aerial: Showing the overall view of the comfort station and cafe with the zip-line structure in the background.

FIG. 52

ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 65


VISION: Design Character: Habitat Trail Typologies

Forest Habitat Trail [FIG. 53]

66 |

0

5

10

Prairie Habitat Trail [FIG. 54]

Mockernut Carya tomentosa

Bur Oak Quercus macrocarpa

Eastern Redbud Cercis canadensis

Flowering Dogwood Cornus florida

Spice Bush Lindera benzoin

New Jersey tea Ceanothus americanus

NATURE EMERGING

Feet 20


VISION: Design Character: Habitat Trail Typologies

Wetland Habitat Trail [FIG. 55]

0

5

10

Feet 20

Beach Habitat Trail [FIG. 56]

Swamp White Oak Quercus bicolor

Black Gum Nyssa sylvatica

Allegheny Serviceberry Amelanchier laevis

Winged Sumac Rhus copallinum

Red Twig Dogwood Cornus sericea

Marram Grass Ammophila breviligulata ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 67


VISION: Design Character: Dune Section

Trailway Sign

Wetland

Deciduous

Evergreen

Herbaceous

Representative Dune Formation Section FIG. 57

Figure 57 above shows the typical dune formation seen on the north end of the ecological park. The topography rolls from herbaceous and evergreen vegetation to deciduous and wetland vegetation. These dune land formations creates topographical variation and opportunites for intimate spaces between dune high points.

0

68 |

NATURE EMERGING

5

10

Feet 20


VISION: Design Character

Habitat Takeaway [FIG. 58] Forest: 41 Acres Prairie: 29 Acres Wetland: 13 Acres Beach: 14 Acres Specimen: 11 Acres Total: 108 Acres Total Trees: 1800 Carbon Absorbed: 86,400 Lbs.

Map Key Beach Wetland Prairie Forest

Trail System Takeaway [FIG. 59] Forest: 1.15 Miles Prairie: 1.25 Miles Wetland: 0.75 Miles Beach: 050 Miles Specimen: 0.15 Miles

Specimen

Total: 3.8 Miles

0

400

800

Feet 1600

ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 69


VISION: Design Character

Typical Habitat Trail Rest Station [FIG. 60]: Showing a typical rest stop along the various habitat trail throughout the site. 70 |

NATURE EMERGING


VISION: Design Character

Viewshed Educational Pavillion [FIG. 61]: Showing information present along the wall relating to the framed view. ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 71


VISION: Design Character

Habitat Trail Rest Station [FIG. 62]

Viewshed Pavilion w/ Trail Signage [FIG. 63]

0

72 |

NATURE EMERGING

2.5

5

Feet 10


VISION: Design Character

Habitat Trail Over Look w/ Bike Storage [FIG. 64] Big Bluestem Landmark [FIG. 65]

0

2.5

5

Feet 10

ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 73


VISION: Design Character

Typical Trash Receptacle w/ Bench [FIG. 66]

Park Map Signage w/ Pathway Lighting [FIG. 67]

0

74 |

NATURE EMERGING

2.5

5

Feet 10


VISION: Design Character

Typical Zone Entrance Sign [FIG. 68]

0

2.5

5

Feet 10

ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 75


VISION: Construction Details

Perennial Planting [FIG. 69]

Not to Scale

Tree Planting [FIG. 71] Not to Scale

Shrub Planting [FIG. 70] Not to Scale

76 |

NATURE EMERGING


ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 77


78 |

NATURE EMERGING


04|

OUTRO

CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX REFERENCES

ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 79


FIG. 72

FIG. 73

80 |

NATURE EMERGING


OUTRO: Conclusion Gary, Indiana and its Carmeuse Lime & Stone site are in need of a bold design intervention. The site occupies a key historical and cultural location along the Lake Michigan Shoreline and must be reclaimed and made a productive member of the community. This project offers a design solution to the numerous issues associated with site while also ensuring that the needs of humans and nature alike are met. To create the solution to the various issues associated with the Carmeuse Lime & Stone Site, extensive research and planning was undergone over the past two semesters. Ecological, recreational, and placemaking guidelines culminated in the designs present in this booklet. Current practices of post-industrial reclamation revolve around the capping of a site without thinking about what will be placed upon the in filled soil and vegetation in the future. More innovative solutions for the post-industrial and post-reclamation of sites are needed to create solutions that are both long-term and sustainable. Transforming the industrial relics of a site while reintroducing habitat, vegetation, and recreational opportunities as shown in this project offers an innovative solution for the use of postindustrial locations adjacent to the Lake Michigan Shoreline. In contrast with typical methods of reclamation, this project creates a model that is at equal points beautiful, ecologically vibrant, and recreationally active while also providing a new framework for shoreline reclamation as land becomes available. ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 81


OUTRO: Appendix: Bibliography Anderson, Lamar. “James Corner’s Three Presidio Parklands Schemes: How to Tell Them Apart.” Sf.curbed.com. Curbed SF, 23 Mar. 2015. Web. 28 Apr. 2016. “At the Hudson’s Edge: Beacon’s Long Dock a Resilient Riverfront Park.” 2015 ASLA Professional Awards. American Society of Landscape Architects, n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2016. Beatley, Timothy, and Kristy Manning. The Ecology of Place: Planning for Environment, Economy and Community. Washington, DC: Island, 1997. Print. Brash, Alexander, Jamie Hand, and Kate Orff, eds. Gateway: Visions for an Urban National Park. New York: Princeton Architectural, 2011. Print. Carr, Ethan, Shaun Eyring, and Richard Guy Wilson. Public Nature: Scenery, History, and Park Design. Charlottesville and London: U of Virginia, 2013. Print. Forman, Richard T. T. Land Mosaics: The Ecology of Landscapes and Regions. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1995. Print. Garvin, Alexander. Public Parks: The Key to Livable Communities. New York and London: W.W. Norton, 2011. Print. Kunstler, James H. The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of Americaś Man-Made Landscape. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 1993. Print. “Landschaftspark Duisburg Nord.” Landezine.com. Landscape Architecture Works, n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2016. Molnar, Donald J. Anatomy of a Park: Essentials of Recreation Area Planning and Design. Fourth ed. Long Grove, IL: Waveland, 2015. Print. Motloch, John L. Introduction to Landscape Design. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2001. Print. Ndubisi, Forster O., ed. The Ecological Design and Planning Reader. Washington, D.C.: Island, 2014. Print. Palazzo, Danilo, and Frederick R. Steiner. Urban Ecological Design: A Process for Regenerative Places. Washington, DC: Island, 2011. Print. Ryn, Sim Van Der, and Stuart Cowan. Ecological Design. Washington, D.C.: Island, 1996. Print. Schneekloth, Lynda H., and Robert G. Shibley. Placemaking: The Art and Practice of Building Communities. New York: Wiley, 1995. Print. Zelinka, Al, and Susan Jackson Harden. Placemaking on a Budget: Improving Small Towns, Neighborhoods, and Downtowns Without Spending a Lot of Money. Chicago, IL: American Planning Association, 2005. Print.

82 |

NATURE EMERGING


OUTRO: Appendix: List of Figures Figure 1, Page 10: Historical Aerial of Site [source: ejearchive.com] Figure 2, Page 10: Existing Conditions Photo Collage Figures 3-7, Page 36: Geological Surveys [source: U.S. Department of the Interior] Figures 8-11, Page 37: Historic Orthophotography [source: igs.indiana.edu] Figure 12, Page 38: Project Context Map Figure 13-19, Pages 39-42: Site Aerial Photography [source: Buddy Rogers] Figure 20, Page 43: Existing Condition Referance Map Figures 21-24, Page 43: Site Existing Conditions Photography Figure 25, Page 44: Site Infrastructure Inventory [source: gis.iu.edu] Figure 26, Page 45: Site Natural System Inventory [source: gis.iu.edu] Figures 27-29, Page 46: Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord Photos [source: Christa Panick / Michael Latz Figures 30-32, Page 47: Presidio Parklands Photos [source: James Corner Field Operations] Figures 32-34, Page 47: Long Dock Park Photos [source; James Ewing Photography] Figures 35-38, Pages 49-50: Design Scheme Diagrams Figure 39, Page 51: Master Plan Mosaic Figures 40-43, Pages 52-53: Master Plan Systems DIagrams Figure 44, Page 55: Master Plan Figure 45, 47, Pages 56, 58: Master Plan Location Key Figure 46, Page 57: Nature Center | Parking Plan Enlargement Figure 48, Page 59: Zip-Line Course Plan Enlargement Figure 49, Page 60: Nature Center Parking Section Figure 50, Page 62: Zip-Line Course Section Figure 51, Page 64: Nature Center Aerial Figure 52, Page 65: Zip-Line Aerial Figure 53-56, Pages 66-67: Habitat Trail Typologies -Pages 66-67: All plant images courtesy of Missouri Botnaical Garden Figure 57, Page 68: Representative Dune Formation Section Figures 58-59, Page 69: Master Plan Takeoffs Figure 60, Page 70: Typical Habitat Trail Rest-Station Figure 61, Page 71: Viewshed Educational Pavillion Figures 62-68, Pages 72-75: Site Design Character Figures 69-71, Page 76: Construction Details Figures 72-73, Page 80: Nature Center & Zip-Line Aerials ZACHARY B.L. REES

| 83


NATURE EMERGING:

AN ECOLOGICAL PARK FOR GARY, IN ZACHARY B.L. REES

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE THESIS [2016]

B A L L S TAT E U N I V E R S I T Y

84 |

NATURE EMERGING

Nature Emerging: An Ecological Park for Gary, IN  

Final Comprehensive Booklet

Nature Emerging: An Ecological Park for Gary, IN  

Final Comprehensive Booklet

Advertisement