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Designer Analysis  Coco  Chanel      

“Fashion changes,  but  style  endures.”  This  quote  from  Chanel  sums  up  the  

belief of  her  company  and  a  motto  she  carried  her  entire  life.  Coco  Chanel  was  born   in  Samur,  France  on  August  19  1883  to  the  given  name  of  Gabrielle  Bonheur  Chanel.   Though  her  later  years  were  glamorous  her  early  years  were  another  story.  When   Coco  was  six  years  old  her  mother  passed  away  leaving  her  father  to  care  for  her   and  her  five  siblings  (Coco  Chanel,n.d.,para  2).  Soon  after  her  mothers  death  Coco’s   father  took  her  to  and  orphanage  where  nuns  raised  her.  While  at  the  orphanage  the   nuns  taught  her  how  to  sew  which  proved  to  be  a  skill  she  would  use  later  on  in  life   (Coco  Chanel,  n.d.,  para  3).      

It was  while  pursuing  a  career  in  as  a  singer  Gabrielle  acquired  the  name  

Coco. She  performed  at  various  clubs  in  France  where  she  was  given  the  nickname   Coco.  There  are  different  versions  on  where  the  name  Coco  came  from,  some  say  it   came  from  a  song  she  would  sing  while  she  was  on  stage,  however,  in  an  interview   for  The  Atlantic  Coco  said  it  came  from  the  word  cocotte,  which  in  French  means   “kept  woman”  (Coco  Chanel,  n.d.  para  3)  Chanel  had  great  success  from  the  start  of   her  business  until  1939  when  France  declared  war  with  Germany.  It  was  then  she   made  the  tough  decision  to  close  the  doors  to  The  House  of  Chanel.  At  the  age  of  70,   and  after  14  years  of  being  out  of  the  business,  Chanel  re-­‐opened  her  doors  and   released  her  come  back  collection  (Heilbrunn  Timeline,  n.d.,  para  7-­‐8).    

Chanel did  not  start  her  career  designing  clothes  but  hats.  Her  first  millinery  

shop opened  in  1910  on  Rue  Cambon.  A  few  years  later  she  opened  shops  in  

Deauville and  Biarritz  and  it  is  here  she  began  to  make  a  limited  collection  of   clothing  (Biography  Channel  UK,  n.d.,  para  8).    Her  first  big  success  in  the  clothing   industry  came  when  women  saw  her  walking  around  in  a  jersey  dress  she  made  for   herself.    Many  women  asked  where  she  bought  her  dress  to  answer  their  question   she  offered  to  make  a  dress  for  them  (Coco  Chanel,  n.d.,  para  5).  This  simple  act   changed  the  course  of  design  in  women’s  fashion.  This  simple  design  allowed   women  to  dress  with  out  the  help  of  maids,  they  no  longer  needed  to  wear  corsets,   and  this  gave  them  a  more  comfortable  garment  to  wear.      

During her  historic  fashion  career  Coco  made  several  innovations  in  the  

industry as  well  as  created  many  signature  looks.  Her  first  big  innovation  was  the   use  of  jersey  in  her  designs.  During  World  War  1  there  was  a  shortage  of  fabric  but   wool  jersey  was  readily  available.  With  many  of  Deuaville  inhabitants  leaving  their   wardrobes  in  Paris,  and  with  more  active  women  roles  in  the  war  effort,  Chanel’s   wool  sweaters  and  camisoles  dresses  were  very  popular  (“Chanel,Vogue”,  n.d.).   Another  innovation  for  Chanel  was  the  use  of  weighted  hems  in  her  suit  jackets.  A   small  chain  would  be  inserted  in  to  the  hem  of  the  suit  jacket  allowing  the  jacket  to   keep  its  shape  while  the  wearer  is  moving  around.    Another  signature  look  is  the   Chanel  tweed.  The  Chanel  suits  are  automatically  known  for  their  fabric.  The  iconic   Chanel  tweed  was  introduced  in  1928  and  was  woven  for  the  House  of  Chanel  in   Scotland  (“Chanel,Vogue,  n.d.).  Chanel  is  also  responsible  for  the  creation  of  the  little   black  dress.  Chanel  took  this  color  representative  of  mourning  and  created  a  chic   evening  dress  that  is  still  a  staple  in  fashion  to  this  day  (Coco  Chanel,  n.d.,  para  8).     One  last  innovation  I  want  to  talk  about  was  Chanel’s  ability  to  merge  the  masculine  

and feminine  in  fashion.  I  already  mentioned  how  she  took  the  fabric  for  men’s   underwear  and  created  garments  that  every  woman  of  the  time  wanted.  She  also   broke  down  the  barriers  between  the  two  genders.  When  designing  her  iconic  suits   she  use  men’s  tailoring  and  construction  to  create  the  jackets.  While  there  are  many   more  innovations  and  a  signature  elements  of  Chanel’s  these  are  a  few  of  her  more   famous  ones.      

To this  day  the  image  of  Chanel,  though  it  has  evolved,  is  still  true  to  the  

original image  Coco  had  for  the  brand.  There  have  only  been  two  major  designers   for  the  brand,  Coco  and  Karl  Lagerfeld.  While  there  were  five  designers  between  the   two  Coco  and  Karl  are  the  most  recognizable.  During  his  time  at  Chanel  Karl  has   stayed  true  to  the  look  of  the  brand  while  doing  something  new  and  inventive  every   season.  One  of  the  ways  his  does  this  is  by  using  the  iconic  Chanel  tweed.  The  below   pictures  are  from  the  2006  couture  show  and  the  2014  couture  show.  



         Spring  2014                                                                      Fall  2006  

In a  recent  article  published  by  the  New  York  Times  Suzy  Menkes  said  “His  ability  to   catch  a  societal  shift,  while  never  stepping  too  far  from  the  heritage  of  Coco  herself,   is  unique,  impressive  and  exhilarating.“  (Menkes,  2013)    When  Karl  took  over  the  

company in  1983  he  reinvigorated  the  brand  and  took  what  was  thought  to  be  a   dying  company  and  made  it  great.  This  is  an  amazing  feat  because  he  did  it  all  while   keeping  the  original  feel  of  Chanel.      

Over the  course  of  the  years  Chanel  has  broadened  their  brand  to  include  

more than  just  hats  and  clothing,  it  all  started  with  Chanel  No.5.  In  1921  Coco   worked  with  Ernest  Beaux  to  create  an  intoxicating  mix  of  fragrances  and  together   they  created  Chanel  No.  5.  Not  only  was  this  the  first  perfume  for  the  brand  it  was   also  the  first  to  bare  a  designers  name.  (Chanel,Vouge,  n.d.)  The  company  has  come   a  long  way  since  the  original  Chanel  No.  5.  They  now  have  various  women’s   fragrances,  men’s  fragrances,  cosmetics,  accessories,  handbags,  and  jewelry.  All  of   these  items  can  still  be  purchased  from  a  Chanel  boutique  as  well  as  department   stores  such  as  Neiman  Marcus  and  Saks  Fifth  Avenue.      

Chanel has  always  had  a  very  loyal  customer  base  but  over  time  the  company  

has tried  to  reach  out  to  a  larger  customer  base.  In  the  early  2000’s  Chanel  hired  a   consulting  firm  that  specialized  in  marketing  to  the  under  30  crowd.  What  was  the   result?  In  2002  Chanel  launched  a  new  perfume  called  Chance  with  the  biggest   marketing  push  in  the  history  of  the  company  (Taipei  Times,  2002).  With  perfume   bringing  the  company  the  most  profit  this  was  the  most  logical  step  in  reaching  a   younger  audience.  Also,  this  new  fragrance  could  also  be  a  gateway  product  for  the   younger  generation.  They  start  out  owning  a  Chanel  fragrance  and  when  they  are   able  to  make  purchases  on  their  own  they  may  become  a  loyal  Chanel  customer  for   everything.    

When it  comes  to  the  Chanel  clothing  I  don’t  believe  there  is  a  particular  age   ranger  for  Chanel.  The  clothes  can  be  styled  to  fit  just  about  any  age.  What  I  do  think   plays  a  role  in  the  age  of  a  customer  is  price  point.  It  is  much  easier  for  someone   younger,  or  someone  in  the  middle  class,  to  purchase  Chanel  perfume,  hence,  why  it   is  the  most  profitable  product  for  the  company.  It’s  takes  a  more  affluent  client  to   purchase  other  accessories  and  apparel  from  Chanel.    Typically,  when  one  thinks  of   this  affluent  person  they  tend  to  be  older,  wealthy,  possibly  have  a  high  paying   career  field.  All  of  these  factors  give  them  the  ability  to  purchase  these  high  priced   luxury  items.  Just  to  give  an  example  of  the  price  range  between  the  two  I  went  to   Chanel’s  website  to  compare  prices.  A  customer  can  buy  a  1.7  oz  bottle  of  Chance  for   $90.00  a  price  that  the  middle  class  would  probably  be  able  to  afford.  When  I  looked   at  apparel  from  the  new  collection  the  first  dress  I  clicked  on  was  listed  at  $9,150.   This  is  a  huge  price  gap  between  the  two  products.    This  same  price  point  is  laid  out   in  many  of  Chanel’s  competitors  such  as  Christian  Dior.  Dior  also  has  a  lower  priced   fragrance  followed  up  with  a  luxury  priced  apparel  line.   After  researching  for  this  project  my  love  for  Chanel  has  only  grown.  Coco   Chanel  was  one  of  the  most  influential  designers  in  the  fashion  industry.  I  originally   picked  Chanel  because  I  loved  the  simple  elegance  of  the  brand  and  I  wanted  to   expand  my  knowledge  on  what  little  I  knew  about  her.  Her  legacy  continues  to  this   day  and  many  designers  are  still  resurrecting  her  style.  For  their  Spring  2010   collections  Tory  Burch,  Jason  Wu,  and  Donna  Karan  all  tried  resurrecting  Chanel  in   someway  (La  Ferla,  2009).    The  brand  CoCo  built  will  continue  to  grow  for  many   years  there  are  to  many  dedicated  Chanel  fans.    

Bibliography: Chanel. (n.d.). - Voguepedia. Retrieved March 17, 2014, from Coco Chanel Biography. (n.d.). Retrieved March 15, 2014, from FASHION. (n.d.). CHANEL. Retrieved March 17, 2014, from Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. (n.d.). Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel (1883–1971) and the House of Chanel. Retrieved March 17, 2014, from Menkes, S. (2013, October 1). At Chanel, Irony Meets Art. The New York Times. Retrieved March 17, 2014, from TAIPEI TIMES (2002, August 19). Chanel goes after younger clientele . Taipei Time, p. 3. BIOGRAPHY CHANNEL UK. (n.d.). Coco Chanel Biography. Coco Chanel. Retrieved March 16, 2014, from Ferla, R. (2009, September 23). The Mother of Reinvention. The New York Times. Retrieved March 17, 2014, from

Articles Â

Ferla, R. (2009, September 23). The Mother of Reinvention. The New York Times. Retrieved March 17, 2014, from

IN a mock interview with Coco Chanel in the August issue of Harper’s Bazaar, Karl Lagerfeld attempted to channel his muse. Asked “what inspires, you, an architect, an actress?” Chanel, a k a Mr. Lagerfeld, was quick to respond, “An actress, why not?” Why not indeed? If, apart from her work, Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel possessed an overarching talent, it was her gift for selfinvention. In the words of Axel Madsen, one of her many biographers, she “made things up.” The scrappy peasant girl from the Auvergne transformed herself in the public eye from the child of an itinerant peddler to a daughter of privilege brought up by genteel maiden aunts; from a fiercely ambitious courtesan to the social equal of the Duke of Westminster; from a moderately gifted seamstress to a celebrated couturier — and an enduring emblem of what ambition can achieve. “She is the ultimate Gatsby character,” said Rhonda Garelick, a professor of English at the University of Nebraska at Lincoln, and the author of a forthcoming Chanel biography, “Antigone in Vogue.” Professor Garelick argued in an interview that Chanel represents “a very American rags-to-riches story.” “She is a successful poseur who came from nothing and blasted her way into society and celebrity,” Professor Garelick writes. Chanel improvised as she went, “tapping into desires that are far more than sartorial.” Today many of those desires are mirrored in a spate of films, books and fashions that explore the designer who has been called the first modern woman — if not the first modern celebrity. “As a phenomenon, Chanel shoulders a lot of different narratives,” said

Harold Koda, the curator in charge of the Costume Institute at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. “Her life has a kind of mythic quality.” Interest in the couturier has never really waned, but 2009 has taken shape as a banner year for all things Chanel. In a recession, the perpetual reinvention of her life — not to mention the stillinfluential designs that in their day elevated humble materials into high style — strikes a chord, making Chanel an inspiring figure for lean times. In “Coco Before Chanel,”‘ a gauzy film biography that opens on Sept. 25 in New York and Los Angeles, the director Anne Fontaine reconstructs Chanel’s early years as a “Pretty Woman” saga. The film follows the onetime music-hall singer as she turns the attentions of well-born lovers like Etienne Balsan and Boy Capel to her advantage, wooing them into financing her career as a designer. The movie is framed to capture a youthful heroine who is gritty and vulnerable. “When you know her better at the beginning of her life, you understand her fragility, her stress,” Ms. Fontaine said. “She never knows what is going to happen next and she has no protection, so she must fight against her destiny and create a new way not just to dress but to be.” That film follows “Coco Chanel,” an Emmy-nominated television miniseries broadcast last year on the Lifetime network, which similarly focused on Chanel’s formative years and her efforts to face down privations and social snubs as she refashioned herself as the imperious couturier (played by a caustic Shirley MacLaine) Nor will filmgoers see the simian features and hard-bitten persona of the aged Chanel in “Coco Chanel and Igor Stravinsky,” a biopic that closed the Cannes Film Festival this year. Darker, more villainous aspects of the designer’s history are

explored in “Coco Chanel,” (HarperCollins), a biography by Justine Picardie to be published later this fall. Ms. Picardie discusses Chanel’s affair with a Nazi officer during the occupation of Paris, one in a series of morally compromising choices she made to ensure that even in wartime, with her competitors shuttering all around her, her business would continue to thrive. Portrayals of Chanel as a feisty warrior bent on making her way at any cost carry feminist overtones for some. Chanel “seems to be the third-wave feminist heroine of the moment,” said Mallory Young, an author of “Contemporary Women at the Movies” (Routledge, 2007). A protagonist like Chanel combines “the crucial importance of style and fashion in identity and selffashioning, the promotion of femininity and the relationship of style to power,” Ms. Mallory added. Think Lady Gaga. The notion that Chanel is a role model for aspiring divas informs another work, “The Gospel According to Coco Chanel” (Skirt!, 2009), a self-help guide masquerading as an irreverent biography. “My book is not just for people interested in fashion,” said the author, Karen Karbo. “It is more for people who are looking for a philosophy of living — a biography for a selfabsorbed age.” Chanel’s own towering self-regard is legendary. Her life and style have been copiously documented in past works including “Chanel and Her World” (1985) by her friend and biographer, Edmonde Charles-Roux, and the 1969 Broadway musical “Coco,” starring Katharine Hepburn. Her seminal designs — from the little black dresses and “poor boy” jersey pullovers to the braid- trimmed bouclé collarless jackets and schoolgirl sailor blouses inspired by Colette — are routinely resurrected on fashion runways. Last week during the presentation of spring 2010 collections in New York, Tory Burch, Jason Wu and Donna Karan were among those re-adapting Chanel to modern tastes.

The look — slim, easy and devoid of embellishment — conveys a feeling of “youth and hopefulness,’” Professor Garelick suggested. It is also, she added, well adapted to an economic downturn. “It reflects austerity and speaks to great elegance without requiring lavish materials. It is a kind of fashionable way to establish financial restraint.” Chanel’s signature style may well be fundamental to the survival of the designer’s mystique. “If she was just a demimondaine who had a little millinery shop, even though she had wildly notorious affairs we wouldn’t remember her,” said Mr. Koda of the Costume Institute. She owes her presence in the contemporary consciousness to a “very lively if disputable biography, together with the continuing vigor of the brand.” The survival of that brand has served the designer well indeed. Even people who know little about the proud, brittle couturier seem intuitively to grasp the power of the double-C logo, Professor Garelick pointed out. “They know there is some talismanic power in those C’s.” Now, as decades ago, “They confer a sense of limitless possibilities.”

Menkes, S. (2013, October 1). At Chanel, Irony Meets Art. The New York Times. Retrieved March 17, 2014, from  


PARIS — “Chain Scale No. 1” read the art gallery label beside a giant cluster of chains; “Russian Gardenia,” with a red “sold” sticker, was what looked like the drawing of a camellia, and “Falling Pearls” was the title of a framed work that had pearlencrusted double C’s with a heap of fallen baubles on the ground. Karl Lagerfeld’s take on fashion as art at the Chanel show Tuesday was as witty as it was profound. The 75 “artworks” had all been drawn by the designer and turned into a film set, where the audience, including clients and the singer Katy Perry, wandered through a fake art gallery. Before a single garment had appeared — not the tweed suits given a thick new weave to fit with the 21st century ethnic mood, nor the exceptional dresses made out of tiny slivers of color taken off a paint chart — the message was right on the modern world. For who among the audience could resist a “selfie,” taken on a smartphone against images and objects that mimicked brilliantly the Jeff Koons flower vase or the target paintings of Ugo Rondinone. Mr. Lagerfeld is as knowledgeable about modern art as he is about other cultures. His ability to catch a societal shift, while never stepping too far from the heritage of Coco herself, is unique, impressive and exhilarating. “Since the days of Andy Warhol, art became a sort of fashion. People wanted to be part of the art world,” said Mr. Lagerfeld, who seemed to take a sly poke at the “artsy” clothes of fellow designers, while his approach was the opposite.

For against this backdrop of abstract “art” or weird and wonderful installations, the clothes were calm and beautiful as the models (and later the designer) walked the long space. Only the music was violent and wild — the Lagerfeld modernity again — as Jay-Z rapped “Picasso Baby” so loudly that the models’ arty blue- and green-decorated eyes blinked and the chains of the double sets of shoulder bags rattled with vibration. A stunned Riccardo Tisci, the designer of Givenchy, who had been invited because the Jay-Z song refers to him, gasped backstage at the overwhelming energy of the designer. The wonder of this collection was twofold: First, in spite of the set, the “art” did not diminish the clothes; and the collection had artistic elements like complex ruglike knitting, a pink coat that looked like paint-splashed mohair, mixes of lace and mesh, and pants worn with layers of colorful sweaters. Some hemlines dropped to the top of the sock boots that was the Chanel footwear of choice. Variety, color and texture were as bold as the duo of pearls at the neck that could have passed for headphones. There was choice and invention, yet not a single piece looked like it could not be worn for summer 2014. For once, a word so often bandied about in the 21st century was relevant to this KL/Chanel moment: awesome.

TAIPEI TIMES (2002, August 19). Chanel goes after younger clientele . Taipei

Time, p. 3.

Chanel goes after younger clientele Long a favorite brand for older women, the perfume giant decided to hire a consulting company that specializes in marketing to the under-30 crowd A NEW SCENT:

NY TIMES NEWS SERVICE , NEW YORK Mon, Aug 19, 2002 - Page 12

For the past 81 years, the Chanel name has carried a special resonance for women 30 and older, who have made Chanel No. 5 the world's leading fragrance. But the younger market has proved elusive for Chanel, a state of affairs it intends to change with the introduction of its latest fragrance appealing to 20-somethings. Chanel's name for the new fragrance -- Chance -- is fitting. To capture the fancy of this fickle young group of women between the ages of 18 and 29, Chanel is giving Chance the biggest marketing push in the company's history -- with an introductory budget estimated at more than US$12 million. Chanel is flinging itself into a market already crowded by competitors' earlier entrants, like Happy by Clinique and CK One from Calvin Klein. Chanel's aggressive plans are self-explanatory, according to industry observers. "Young consumers are the lifeblood of the beauty industry," said Irma Zandl, president of the Zandl Group in New York, a consulting company that specializes in

the under-30 age category. She added that, "A brand not recruiting teens or young adults is just getting old." Over the last six years, Chanel has gradually made inroads into the younger consumer market. In 1996, the company introduced Allure, marketed to women in their late 20s and 30s. Coco Mademoiselle soon followed, and its target market was women 25 and up. "So, it's not something that, you know, we just woke up one day and said `Oh, uh-oh, No. 5 customers are aging, we better go find a younger consumer,'" said Laurie Palma, senior vice president for fragrance and Internet marketing at Chanel Inc. in New York. But neither Allure nor Coco Mademoiselle have made great inroads into the 18 to 34 market, which represents a third of the US$2 billion women's fragrance market. According to a 2001 Women's Fragrance Track Consumer Study by NPD BeautyTrends in Port Washington, New York, which tracks the beauty industry, the leading brands owned and used most often by women 18-to-34 years old include: Happy by Clinique, which had overall sales of US$101 million in 2001; Romance by Ralph Lauren, at US$63 million; Tommy Girl by Tommy Hilfiger, at US$42 million; Victoria's Secret Divine (which is not tracked by NPD, but has annual sales estimated at US$40 million); Lancaster Cool Water Woman at US$30 million; Calvin Klein's Obsession at US$27 million; and CK One at US$20 million. Arie L. Kopelman, president and chief operating officer at Chanel Inc, the US unit of the French couture house Chanel, is confident that Chance will be among the top tier of this group. He predicts that "in the short term," Chance will be "as big as Chanel No. 5." Domestic sales for No. 5 were US$50 million in 2001, putting it in sixth place among all fragrances, according to NPD. Chanel has given Chance a light, fresh, floral scent, which Palma said is meant to convey a youthful, sexy and romantic

attitude. To differentiate it from all other square-shaped Chanel fragrances that are packaged in black and white or beige, the Chance bottle is circular and packaged in pink. The scent, with an entry price point of US$38.50, will be available in domestic department stores later this month and in other countries next spring. The ads, created by an in-house team and photographed by Jean-Paul Goude, also try to differentiate Chance from some of the other successful fragrances geared to 20-somethings. The print ad features a 16-year-old Russian model, Anne Vyalitsyna, dressed in a gown, clinging to the enormous bottle, embracing "her chance." The tag line reads, "The unexpected new Chanel fragrance." "I don't think Chanel in bluejeans would be interesting," Palma said. "That's Tommy or Ralph, which they have already." The television commercial, shot in Venice, Italy, is set to the tune "Taking a Chance on Love" and shows a young couple doing just that. Chance will also have a major Internet program within the Chanel Web site, scented impressions in magazines and extensive sampling efforts, including rollerball mini-bottles in targeted areas like college campuses. "We have tried to make Chance modern and young and do all the things that we needed to do for this generation, but still keep it grounded, rooted in what Chanel is all about." He added, "And you can have your cake and eat it in this situation. They are not mutually exclusive." The marketing effort could turn off some of Chanel's core audience, warned Clive Chajet, a corporate identity and brand consultant. If Chance is for the young, then "all other Chanel fragrances are for older women only. And if you're not using their younger fragrance, then you're old." But, in the end, Zandl said, "It's all about the juice. The

advertising can bring them to the fragrance bar where they're going to test it, but then it's the juice itself is what makes the sale." Published on Taipei Times : 164816 Copyright © 1999-2014 The Taipei Times. All rights reserved.  

Coco Chanel

1908- Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel open first millenary shop. 1913- Opens name sake boutique in Deauville France. 1914- Wool jersey sweaters and camisole dress make first appearance. 1917- Two Pieces Chanel suite is introduced. 1919- Chanel is registered as official couturière 1921- Chanel No. 5 is introduced

History Time Line

Historical Time Line cont. —  1933- Camellia motif as we know it is introduced. —  1939-House of Chanel closes it’s doors due to war

time. —  1954- House of Chanel reopens it’s doors —  1971- Coco Chanel passes away in January —  1983- Karl Lagerfeld becomes head designer

The Early Years —  Chanel’s mother died when she was 6 years old

leaving her father to care for her and her 5 siblings. —  Chanel grew up living in an orphanage where the nuns taught her to sew. —  The name Coco came her brief stint as a club performer.

Coco’s Rise to Success —  First millinery shop opens with great success. —  Shops soon open in Deauville and Biarritz. —  First apparel success with wool jersey sweater and

chemise dress. —  1917 -The two piece Chanel Suit is born. —  1926- The little black dress is born

Innovation and Signature Pieces —  Working with Jersey and an everyday material —  The weighted hem —  Merging men and women’s fashion —  The Chanel Suite —  The “little black dress” —  Chanel Tweed

Misc. Information —  Chanel No. 5 and other Chanel perfumes make the

biggest profit. —  Karl Lagerfeld became lead designer in 1983 reinventing the brand. —  The style of Chanel surpasses age barriers. —  Chanel hired an outside company to help target customers under 30.

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