Chapter One 1. Introduction/Background This study tends to examine the knowledge and the attitudes of the students of the University of Zululand towards contraceptives use. Contraception is the use various devices, drugs, agents, sexual practices, or surgical procedures to prevent conception or impregnation (pregnancy). Contraception helps women plan if and when they want to have a baby. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/162762.php. Worldwide, unplanned pregnancy is a major medical, social, and public health problem. It often results in induced abortion, which occurs at a relatively high rate (Jeon and Seo, 2003). The appropriate use of contraceptive has the great potential in further reducing abortion and preventing the rate of unintended pregnancies; some of the contraceptives also play the significant role in reducing the spread of sexual transmitted diseases. However, Contraceptives are one of the most important aspect in higher levels of institution, as such, they should be given due consideration by students. It is against this background that this research is prompted to examine the studentâ€™s attitudes towards the use of contraceptives in the University of Zululand In order to proffer useful solutions, towards effective and efficient use of contraceptives to prevent problems that can be caused by the lack of knowledge or the strong negative attitudes towards the use of different contraceptives. It is therefore important to come out with mechanisms and techniques that will try to eliminate those problems encountered by the students, for the fact that it does affects students in their academic performance also disturb them. Contraceptive products are offered for free on campus and they are also advertised in the media. Some contraceptives can be purchased from pharmacies without prescription. Contraceptive options include: Hormonal contraceptives (oral contraceptives, skin patch, vaginal ring, implant, injection).Intrauterine devices (IUDs), which contain either a hormone or copper, Barrier devices with or without spermicidal (diaphragm, cervical cap, sponge, condom),
symptothermal), Female sterilization (tubal ligation, Essure), Vasectomy The condom is the only birth control method that provides protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). http://www.marshall.edu/wpmu/wcenter/emergency-contraception-and-birth-control
2. Brief history of the study area The University of Zululand was established in 1960s then as a University College of Zululand with only 41 students, 75% males and 25% females. As a constituent college affiliated to the University of South Africa, it is initially catered mainly for the Zulu and Swazi groups. In 1970 the college was granted university status. Since then the university has continued to expand and has experienced an increased intake of students from other parts of Africa, especially from Botswana, Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Namibia, Nigeria, Swaziland, Tanzania and Zimbabwe. In 1982 the university of Zululand foundation administered board of governors, was established to administer the universityâ€™s fundraising and investment operations. In 1984 the university council was granted autonomy with regard to practically all matters relating to the annual subsidy, provision of facilities and the employment of staff. In 2002 this rural base institution was declared a comprehensive institution offering both traditional degrees and career focused programmes. In 2005 the former six facilities (Arts foundation, Science and Agriculture and Law, Commerce and Administration and Theology and Religion Studies) merge to become four faculties namely Arts, Law, Commerce and Administration, Education and Science and Agriculture. In 2006 the existing information technology infrastructure was replaced by R32.9 million state of the art systems. The building of the new studentâ€™s residences for occupancy in 2008 commences (http://www.sarua.org).
3. Statement of the problem The rate of pregnancy is increasing each and every year in the University of Zululand. Some students they continue to terminate pregnancy legally and illegally in their residence. This is revealed through the escalating number students admitted for delivery and termination of unwanted and unplanned pregnancies in hospitals, irrespective of availability of free contraceptive service that are provided by government which are morning after pill and injection. As such I believe that students lack incorrect information about contraceptives. Some of the students they have negative impact and they know little about the use of 2
contraceptives especially the first year students because they are the one that especially fall pregnant. Male students lack information about the use of contraceptives compare to female students, and they are more likely to say it is their partners responsibility to avoid pregnancy, while both of them they should be responsible for pregnancy. Even though some of the students they know about contraceptives but they donâ€™t make use of them, they are few students that they make use of them , since rate of pregnancy is continuing to increase in the university of Zululand. According
escalating-abortions . A total of 77,771 legal abortions were performed in South Africa in 2011, which indicated a 31% increase since 2010. In 2010, the health department said, 59,447 abortions were carried out. The latest statistics translate to nearly 25,000 more than the annual average for legal abortions over the past ten years. "It is clear that people are not using contraceptives like condoms, so they are also exposing themselves to serious illnesses like Aids and STI"
4. Significant of the study The study seeks to find the knowledge, and attitudes of unizulu students regarding contraceptives. The importance of this study is that it will identify facts regarding the use of contraceptives and the studentsâ€™ suggestion about the use of contraceptives and also proffer solutions towards minimizing problems in Unizulu.
5. Research question 1. Is there any significant relationship between studentâ€™s attitudes and their knowledge of contraceptives? 2. Is there any significant between attitudes of males and females students towards the use of contraceptives? 3. What are the views, attitudes and behaviour of male and female university students concerning the use of condoms?
4. Which contraceptive methods male and female university students they use the most?
6. Research objectives Objectives of the study are as follows: To measure and analyze knowledge and attitudes about Contraceptive. To find what students do think about the use of contraceptives. To find the most popular contraceptives that is being used by the student
7. Preliminary study / literature review A literature review is an account of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers. It is also viewed as an important part of research process as it tries to relate the current investigation with others earlier undertaken and are believed to be relevant and useful in terms of comparison and building the foundation of constructive criticism for better understanding of the various concepts being investigated. According to Pakistan Journal of Social Science, 5(1): 111-115, 2008, this is what he found about the attitude of undergraduate towards contraceptive use. The null hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between studentâ€™s attitudes and their knowledge of contraception was rejected. This implies that there is a significant relationship between studentâ€™s attitudes towards contraceptive use and their knowledge of contraception. In other words the study reveals clearly that studentsâ€™ attitudes affect their knowledge of contraception. This finding corroborates with the findings of Orubuloye et al (1991) which investigated sexual networking in Nigeria and reported that attitude of Nigerian and young adults and adolescent affect their knowledge of reproduction. In other study on attitude towards the finding that there is a relationship between students attitude and their knowledge of contraception as reported in this study agree with Eggie ston et al (1999) which investigated sexual attitude and behaviour among adolescence and revealed that sexual attitude and behaviour among adolescents have been significantly sharpened by socio-psychological factors and consequently affect their knowledge of contraception. 4
According to them, young adult need better sex education and greater access to family planning services. This study reveals in hypothesis two that there is no significant difference between the attitude of male and female students towards the contraceptives use. This study agrees with the findings of speizer et al. (2001) that investigated the gender differences in adult attitude towards reproductive behaviour of adolescents. In their finding Spezer, Mullen and Amagee revealed that of the average, both male and female adults share similar views towards reproductive behaviour of adolescents. However, women hold a more conservative attitude than a man towards adolescent sexuality. In their study divagate data analysed indicates that 58% of adult women and 48% of adult men disapprove premarital sex among adolescents. In other study on attitude towards abortion and contraception among secondary school girls, a near collaborative finding was reported in which an investigation of first sexual intercourse of adolescents boys and were established by Oronsaye and Odiase (1983). In their study the average of 15 years was established for girls and 16 years for boys. The findings of the studies above agree with this present study which reveals that students attitude towards contraceptive use do not significantly differ on their basis of their gender.
8. Research method There are different methods that are used when the research is conducted or when the research is done. The method that I will use in conducting the research is a survey method. Finn and Elliot-white (2004:4), state that a survey method is a method that requires a sample of respondents to answer a number of questions that have been previously determined as relevant to the research, data will be collected through self-completion-questionnaire, face to face interview.
9. Method of data collection Quantitative and qualitative approach will be used in this study in order to collect data.
9.1 Population of the area of study 5
The target population are the students of the University of Zululand.
9.2 Size of sample Thirty students will be interviewed in the University of Zululand
9.3 Sample selection method Sampling means to make a selection from the sampling frame in order to identify the people or issues to be included in the research. De Vos (1998:191). Simple random sampling is used in this research, this is by drawing units from the target population which comprise of males and female Students of the University of Zululand thus every one stands the equal chance to be selected. Respondents will be selected randomly.
9.4 Data collection method The questionnaire, observation, interview will be used in this study. Copies of the questionnaire will be distributed to the students by a researcher.
9.5 Data analyses Data that will be collected through interview, questionnaire will be analysed by tabulating the result for easy interpretation.
Theory and research are equally important in the process of accumulating knowledge through the scientific method (Bridgle, 2003, Bringle and Hatcher, 2000). Theory in research helps expand the knowledge. According to Lopez L. M, et al theory of concentrative and models have been used extensively in HIV-prevention research and in interventions for preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The purpose of the theory of contraceptives is to increase awareness.