LOGBOOK Yuxiang ZHOU 669009
Igneous Honeycomb Blocks
Centre of mass
Geometry & Equilibrium
Cracking Shallow footings Pad footing
Wall Unstable soil Deep footings
End bearing piles
Structural elements Friction piles
Types of foundation
Footings and foundation
Compression/ tension Carry loads Bearing system
Glossary : • Moment: the tendency to make an object or a point rotate. • Strip footing: used when loads from a wall or a series of columns is spread in a linear manner. • Retaining wall: used when sites are excavated to create basements or where changes in site levels need to be stabilized. • Slab on ground: a wide horizontal element designed to carry vertical load in bending usually supported by beams.
• Pad footing: also called isolated footings, these types of footing help to spread a point load over a wider area of ground.
Activities ‘on site’
The LOT6 café
The LOT6 caféis a steel-concrete building, which can be seen from the photo is the style of the construction is different with surroundings. The columns in natural grey color transfer the applied gravity and lateral loads down to the foundation. The main material used for the enclosure system is transparent glass, which is divided by aluminum frames. These properties of main materials of concrete and glass is very durable. At the same time, the building can be maintained and cleaned easily as the utilizing of materials use.
underground car park
The south lawn is famous for its efficient space use. The two photos displayed the interior and exterior of south lawn underground car park. South lawn plaza above ground, which is the largest open space in Parkville campus, is supported by numerous reinforced concrete columns underneath. In addition, the excellent design of these columns allow the stormwater flow down to the drainage under the car park. The main material concrete is very durable.
The stairs on the west of union house is mainly built by steel frames. The applied gravity and live loads will be supported and pulled by the steel columns and cables attached to cantilevers. It means both ground and bracing wall will be employed by the forces from the stairs. Accurate engineering calculations were quite important for this project, the design of the stairs from a architect will be integrated into a real workable construction by engineersâ€™ calculations.
The stairs on the west of union house
The roof(roof system) in front of north count union house is mainly made by a composite material, which is might be the combination of rubber and plastic. This composite material should have two major properties-impermeable and durable under exposure of sun. This roof is hanged and supported by these cables shown on the left. The gravity and loads of the roof will be transferred in two ways.
north count union house
Beaurepaire centre pool is built by different materials. For the enclosure system, main materials employed are alumiunm frame and glass. And clay bricks were used in the wall systems. Alloy columns transfer the gravity of the roof and loads down to the ground. The utilizing of alloy and alumiunm is great, because the corrosion wonâ€™t occur in the high humidity. Beaurepaire centre pool
The oval pavilion is a brick-concrete building. •Roof systems, floor systems, wall systems, and foundation systems are used. •The main material of the building is clay bricks. •Columns, walls, and beams are the major elements of the building.
New Melbourne school of design is a precast concrete and steel frames construction. •Roof system, wall system, flooring system, and foundation system are employed in this project. •Concrete slab, steel columns/beams are the main structural elements. •Precast concrete, steel frames, and glass of New Melbourne enclosure system are the major materials for school of design this site.
The entry structure of old geology south lecture theatre is a steel structure. The loads and gravity of the extension roof are transferred down to the ground via the bracing walls and columns of the brick structure building.
The entry structure of old geology south lecture theatre
Frank Tate pavilion
Frank Tate pavilion is a timber-steel frame construction. •Roof systems, floor system are used •Columns, beams are the major structural elements on this project. •Timber, steel are the main materials.
Slabs Concrete system Horizontal structural element Carry loads
Beam & Cantilever
Too much water
Too little water
Shotcrete Curing Limited time
Weak in tension
Retaining walls Bespoke structural elements
Footings Fabrication of the formwork
Pro & Cons
Control Temperature differential Material coefficient Dimensions of the piece
Divide the whole to sections
Moisture Steel mesh/bars
Oxidation Reinforced concrete
Element failing Worse performance
Mixed with water
Points along the beam One end
Points away form ends
Transfer to supports Both ends
More standardized Much faster site process
Desired aesthetic outcome
Glossary : • Joist: a long thick piece of wood, steel or concrete which is used in buildings to support a floor. • Girder: a long thick piece of steel or concrete which supports a roof, floor, bridge or other large structure. • Steel decking: serves as a working platform during construction and as formwork for a sitecast concrete slab. • Concrete plank: framing system to support the concrete slabs. • Span: is the distance measured between two structural supports (vertical and horizontal) not necessarily the same as the member length. • Spacing: is the repeating distance between a series of like or similar elements(vertical and horizontal) measured centreline to centre-line.
Activities 1 “SCALE, ANNOTATION AND WORKING DRAWING CONVENTIONS” •Why ‘scale’ is used for documenting building projects: for the building project, it is impossible to draw the sketches of all details of the building in 1:1 on the paper. A larger scale will be used for accurately documenting the dimensions. The scale drawings allow the building project fit and presented on the paper.
•How ‘scale’ is used for documenting building projects: considering the real dimensions of the building project and the size of drawing paper. Then choose a proper scale(larger or smaller) to start the scale drawings.
According to our group discussion, centimeter is the preferred working units in the building projects. The scale range between 1:5 to 1:300 is appropriate to use for construction documentation.
ACTIVITY2: 'CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTATION TOUR' â€˘Selected questions from the case study questionnaire
What types of information on the elevations are expressed using words? Illustrate how this is done.
1. The amendment for the existing building and surroundings. 2. The specific construction requirements and notes in building process. 3. Detailed explanations for the features in the new project. 4. The name of special building element. 5. The name of different level. Cited from OVAL PAVILION construction drawings.
Illustrate how the section drawing differentiates between building elements that are cut through and those that are shown in elevation(beyond).
Use numbers and letters to mark different parts of the building elements, and utilize same symbol in elevation drawing.
Provide examples of how different materials are shown on drawings at this scale.
Using words or codes to indicate different materials, the references of code will be described in the reference sheet.
Cited from OVAL PAVILION construction drawings.
The drawing set is more informative than the site observation, because designers have to complete the building details(exterior and interior) in different views, but users could not observe all details from a completed construction via limited views. In the other hand, it is more likely to interact with the site by a real visit than traveling the drawings. For the architectural drawings, it will focus more on displaying all designing and planning details including the function of different spaces. But the structural drawings focus more on the building techniques and methods, how to achieve the design proposes in the building process.
Ratio of effective column length to the smallest cross section dimension is greater than 12:1
Ratio of effective column length to the smallest cross section dimension is less than 12:1 Shorter and thicker
Taller and slimmer Short Columns
Late wood Thick, small cells, darker color
Brick veneer construction
Grain direction Why
Strong & stiff
Free moisture Bound moisture
Load bearing walls
Solar Air Less common
Light gauge steel framing Kiln
Wood and timber
GRID of timber posts/poles
Columns Thin, large cells, lighter color
GRID of steel columns
GRID of concrete columns
Cavity Masonry Green sawing
Radial sawn Efficient
Back sawn More common
Very low embodied energy
Slope of grain
Edge knots Centre knots
Properties Conductivity Poor
High flexible and medium plastic
Varies depending on timber type
Timber flanged steel web joists
Solid product LVL
Engineering timber CLT
Damage Fungal attack
Sheet product MDF
CHIPBOARD & STRANDBOARD
Glossary : • Stud: a wall stud is a vertical framing member in a building's wall of smaller cross section than a post.
• Axial load: a force administered along the lines of an axis. • Nogging: an architectural term used for the filling in-between wall framing in buildings. • Buckling: is characterized by a sudden failure of a structural member subjected to high compressive stress. • Lintel: a load-bearing building component. • Seasoned timber: timber with a moisture<15%
ACTIVITY: â€˜STRUCTURAL CONCEPTSâ€™ For the assigned section of the case. Foundation systems, wall systems, floor systems, and roof systems are employed. Concrete is the main material for the floor and foundation systems, blocks and bricks are the major materials for the wall system. In addition, metal decking roof and thermal insulation are also important in this part. It is also important to note that, from the e-module of this week, stud walls are employed in this case. And the light gauge steel frame might be used in the wall system.
Cited from OVAL PAVILION construction drawings(A46-03).
In the foundation system, concrete footing beams and concrete slab used to carry loads and support the building as the substructure. The lateral forces can cause the foundation to impose no uniform pressure on the supporting soil (Ching, 2008, 3.02).
The blockwork will be used as the retaining wall, according to Ching, active and passive earth pressure exerted by a soil mass and developed by a soil mass in response to the horizontal movement of a foundation.
Cavity masonry walls are employed in this case. According to the e-module video about wall this week. Better thermal performance and opportunities for insulation within the cavity, better waterproofing are the advantages of cavity walls.
Glue the beam footings The retaining wall and double the footing of foundation to reinforce.
Bracing on the wall systems
Steel frames to support the roof
Pitch:1°~ 3° Flat roofs
Flat plates of reinforced concrete
3D plate type structure that are long spanning in two directions
Framed roofs constructed from a series of open web type steel timber elements
Pitched and sloping roofs
Hip roofs Materials
W06 Cold –formed steel sections
Structural steel framed roofs
Very high embodied energy
Light framed roofs
Cold –formed steel sections
Impermeable Cost Porosity/permeability
Durability Fragility Hardness
Reusability High Varied
Oxidation and corrosion Water related damage Window frames
Considerations Wrought Iron
Iron Cast Iron
Alloys Hot rolled
Stainless steel alloys
Steel Cold formed
Copper + tin Copper + zinc
Glossary : • Rafter: is one of a series of sloped structural members (beams) that extend from the ridge or hip to the wall plate. • Eaves: the bottom edge of a roof. • Purlin: a purlin (or historically purline, purloyne, purling, perling) is any longitudinal, horizontal, structural member in a roof. • Alloys: combinations of two or more metals • Cantilever: a beam anchored at only one end. • Soffit: the underside of any construction element. • Portal frame: consist of braced rigid frames (two columns and one beam) with purlins for the roof and girts for the walls. • Top chord: the top beams in a truss are called top chords.
Commentary: other groups had not finished their models until W06 studio.
A02: FULL SIZE IN-CLASS INTERIM SUBMISSION
First visit: foundation and ground floor timber frames were finished
Site1 (Edge Water) Second visit: steel frames were added to some parts of the construction. The floor systems and wall systems of first floor almost done
Steel structure Steel columns and beams employed in the wall and floor systems. The utilizing of steel benefit the increasing of stability because steel is strong in both tension and compression. However, steel is too heavy to widely introduce into the project.
Different types of structure systems employed.
Timber frames are widely used in the project. Although the hardness of timber is not quite high, timber is very durable, and flexible. While the material is popular in Australia because of its effective cost.
Concrete bricks were used in the foundation retaining wall and bearing wall in the superstructure wall systems. And concrete slabs were used in floor systems. Concrete is very durable and quite strong in compression.
Concrete piers, timber floor bearers, timber floor joists, and timber slabs.
First visit: foundation, timber frames and roof systems almost finished
Foundation systems Second visit: no more significant development
Timber frame wall systems
Reinforcement of timber frame, partly utilizing.
Top plates Bottom plates
Vertical studs Nogging
Timber frames are widely used in the project. Although the hardness of timber is not quite high, timber is strong and flexible when parallel to grain direction. It is easy to recycle. While the material is popular in Australia because of its effective cost.
Downpipes and stormwater system
Overlapping cladding and roof elements
Sloping window and door sills
Sloping the ground surface
Keep water away from openings
Neutralise forces to move water through the opening
Prevent water penetrating
Water present at the opening
Surface tension and capillary action
Conditions for penetrate
Air pressure differential
Detailing for heat
Conditions Windows, doors, skylights, etc
Poor construction workmanship
Heat is conducted through the building envelope
Unplanned openings Deterioration of materials
Radiation Thermal mass
Detailing for moisture Planned elements
Conduction Momentum A force to move water through the opening
Themal mass is used to regulate the flow of heat Building envelope and building elements are subjected to radiant heat sources
Seals, gaskets, flooring, insulation, hosing Natural Rubber
EPDM, NEOPRENE, SILICONE Synthetic Rubber
Varies Very durable
Conductivity Properties Density
Reusability High High
Harder resist abrasion
Softer provide better seals
High in heat, varied in cold
Glossary : • Drip: is used between surfaces to prevent water clinging to the underside of surfaces. • Down pipes: a pipe that carries waste water or sewage away from buildings. • Vapour barrier: resists diffusion of moisture through wall, ceiling and floor assemblies of buildings. • Flashing: prevent the passage of water into a structure from a joint. • Gutter: a narrow trough or duct which collects rainwater from the roof of a building and diverts it away from the structure, typically into a drain. • Insulation: materials used to reduce the rate of heat transfer. • Parapet: a barrier which is an extension of the wall at the edge of a roof, terrace, balcony, walkway or other structure. • Sealant: a substance such as paint or polish that is painted onto a surface to protect it from other liquids from going into it, or is put in the space between two materials for the same reason.
Detailing for moisture
Feature panel glass or hollow/solid core infill
Top rail Door leaf
Handel latch & lock
Head Steel windows
High embodied energy and carbon footprint
Transmit heat and light but not electricity
Doors & windows
Reusability Float glass
High when molten, low when cooled
Tinted Glass Wired Glass SHAPED Glass
CLEAR FLOAT Glass
LAMINATED FLOAT Glass
Slumped and formed Glass
Glossary : • Window sash: a frame to hold panes of glass. • Door furniture: any of the items that are attached to a door or a drawer to enhance its functionality or appearance. • Deflection: the degree to which a structural element is displaced under a load. • Stress: a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighbouring particles of a continuous material exert on each other. • Moment of inertia: torque needed for a desired angular acceleration about an axis of rotation. • Shear forces: unaligned forces pushing one part of a body in one direction, and another part the body in the opposite direction.
Fixed 0% ventilating Swinging Exterior and interior use Casement 100% ventilating
Awning & Hopper 100% ventilating
Sliding 50% ventilating
Double-hung 50% ventilating
Bypass sliding Exterior and interior use
Surface sliding Exterior and interior use
Pocket sliding Interior use
DOOR & DOOR FRAME TERMINILOGY
Jalousie 100% ventilating
Pivoting 100% ventilating
Folding Interior use
CHING, ‘Building Construction Illustrated’, 8.04 CHING, ‘Building Construction Illustrated’, 8.02
Activity: â€œIn detailsâ€?
The part assigned only can be observed inside the building because this corner of the function room roof is covered by the tall structure.
Annotated copy of your drawing
A single material
Health and safety
Material combined so that components are indistinguishable
Repairable surfaces & resistance to damage
Fibre reinforced polymers
Maintenance access Cleanable surfaces
Fibre reinforced cement
Aluminum sheet composites
Two or more materials are combined in such a way that the individual materials remain easily distinguishable
Glossary : • Sandwich panel: a type of flat panel that consists of two thin aluminium sheets bonded to a non-aluminium core. • Composite beam: a structural member composed of two or more dissimilar materials joined together to act as a unit. • Bending: the behaviour of a slender structural element subjected to an external load applied perpendicularly to a longitudinal axis of the element. • Shirting: elements that covers the crawl space under a mobile home. • Cornice: horizontal decorative molding that crowns a building or furniture element.
ACTIVITY: â€˜OFF CAMPUSâ€™
Steel plate weld up to connect two precast panels together
This apartment building is a typical concrete construction. There are 6 stories above the ground and one basement used as garage.
There are two types of utilizing of concrete in the basement plan: precast concrete panels and concrete. It is clearly shown on the right via colors.
Pad footings are employed in the basement with concrete columns
Drain pipe is used to drain the stormwater down then flow into the gutter(drain system). It is not an efficient way to deal with stormwater. Stormwater can be stored into the water tank and reuse for flushing, gardening, etc.
Middle studs had installed for 3 weeks. To build the wall, these studs will be installed in the first to connect two plasterboards. Cables can be placed into the wall through these holes in studs. One of the advantages for plaster stud walls.
The base between living room and balcony is to prevent water to come into the apartment. This element, which belongs to enclosure system, plays an important role in waterproofing of the building.
Formwork of the waterproofing base. Strong steel bars reinforce these bases.
Temporary power box
Steel beam connection method is shown on the left; steel column base connection method is shown on the right.
The material â€˜concreteâ€™ is strong in compression and weak in tension. Strong steel bars are put into concrete slabs to increase the stiffness in tension. There is basically 100 mm extension of steel bars in the section. The rest will be cut out. Then, concrete will fill the section like the photo shown on the right above.
Exposure Painted black on outside only Material selection, too wide
Suitability of material for the application
Exposure to hot north sun
Compatibility Strength and deflection
Long term performance Fasteners
Timber plywood glued to timber stud walls
Flat steel sheet glued to plywood
Reduce/reuse recycle waste, minimise use of composites
Collapses and failures
Smog, ozone layer depletion, acid rain, toxicity, radio activity, dioxins
Flat steel sheeting on plywood
Construction & detailing
Pollution Cut edges
Considerations Waste/recycling/ recycled
Blistering & peeling sheets
Recycled/ plantation/RFA timber
Health and IEQ
Renewable/ abundant resources
Reduce VOCs, reduce particles/ dust, green cleaning practices
Issues: climate change, greenhouse effect, global warming
Glossary : • Shear wall: a structural system composed of braced panels (also known as shear panels) to counter the effects of lateral load acting on a structure. • Braced frame: a structural system which is designed primarily to resist wind and earthquake forces. • Corrosion: the gradual destruction of materials (usually metals) by chemical reaction with its environment. • Soft storey: level is less than 70% as stiff as the floor immediately above it, or less than 80% as stiff as the average stiffness of the three floors above it (Wai-Fah Chen, E. M. Lui, 2005) • Fascia: an architectural term for a frieze or band running horizontally and situated vertically under a roof edge, or which forms the outer surface of a cornice, visible to an observer. • IEQ: indoor environment quality.
•Aluminum fascia: Al will not corrode in the high moisture condition; the fascia was placed in a small angle, that’s to drain water down to the roof, drips on the two sides also play an important role to break water flowing. •Thermal/Acoustic insulation: important elements in the modern construction. The reduction of heat transfer and sound transfer is quite necessary for a frequent-use public space. •Impact & fire resistant plasterboard: the element is quite useful to control the fire spreading. These two plasterboards were designed to install between interior and thermal insulation wall because the main material of thermal insulation-foam is combustible, it will contribute to the fire spreading.