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LOGBOOK Yuxiang ZHOU 669009




Modular Compression



Igneous Honeycomb Blocks



Can be


Main properties


Mass construction

Centre of mass


Metamorphic Slabs






Reaction force

Geometry & Equilibrium



Stable soil

Cracking Shallow footings Pad footing

Strip footing


Weather struck



Raft foundations

Wall Unstable soil Deep footings


Columns /piers


Beam Panels

End bearing piles


Compression element


Transfer loads

Vaults Domes


Structural elements Friction piles


Elements Enclosing

Types of foundation

Uneven settlement




Even settlement



Footings and foundation

Bearing capacity



Tension element

Compression/ tension Carry loads Bearing system

Glossary : • Moment: the tendency to make an object or a point rotate. • Strip footing: used when loads from a wall or a series of columns is spread in a linear manner. • Retaining wall: used when sites are excavated to create basements or where changes in site levels need to be stabilized. • Slab on ground: a wide horizontal element designed to carry vertical load in bending usually supported by beams.

• Pad footing: also called isolated footings, these types of footing help to spread a point load over a wider area of ground.

Activities ‘on site’

The LOT6 café

The LOT6 caféis a steel-concrete building, which can be seen from the photo is the style of the construction is different with surroundings. The columns in natural grey color transfer the applied gravity and lateral loads down to the foundation. The main material used for the enclosure system is transparent glass, which is divided by aluminum frames. These properties of main materials of concrete and glass is very durable. At the same time, the building can be maintained and cleaned easily as the utilizing of materials use.

underground car park

Exterior vegetations

The south lawn is famous for its efficient space use. The two photos displayed the interior and exterior of south lawn underground car park. South lawn plaza above ground, which is the largest open space in Parkville campus, is supported by numerous reinforced concrete columns underneath. In addition, the excellent design of these columns allow the stormwater flow down to the drainage under the car park. The main material concrete is very durable.

The stairs on the west of union house is mainly built by steel frames. The applied gravity and live loads will be supported and pulled by the steel columns and cables attached to cantilevers. It means both ground and bracing wall will be employed by the forces from the stairs. Accurate engineering calculations were quite important for this project, the design of the stairs from a architect will be integrated into a real workable construction by engineers’ calculations.

The stairs on the west of union house

The roof(roof system) in front of north count union house is mainly made by a composite material, which is might be the combination of rubber and plastic. This composite material should have two major properties-impermeable and durable under exposure of sun. This roof is hanged and supported by these cables shown on the left. The gravity and loads of the roof will be transferred in two ways.

north count union house

Beaurepaire centre pool is built by different materials. For the enclosure system, main materials employed are alumiunm frame and glass. And clay bricks were used in the wall systems. Alloy columns transfer the gravity of the roof and loads down to the ground. The utilizing of alloy and alumiunm is great, because the corrosion won’t occur in the high humidity. Beaurepaire centre pool

The oval pavilion is a brick-concrete building. •Roof systems, floor systems, wall systems, and foundation systems are used. •The main material of the building is clay bricks. •Columns, walls, and beams are the major elements of the building.

Oval pavilion

New Melbourne school of design is a precast concrete and steel frames construction. •Roof system, wall system, flooring system, and foundation system are employed in this project. •Concrete slab, steel columns/beams are the main structural elements. •Precast concrete, steel frames, and glass of New Melbourne enclosure system are the major materials for school of design this site.

The entry structure of old geology south lecture theatre is a steel structure. The loads and gravity of the extension roof are transferred down to the ground via the bracing walls and columns of the brick structure building.

The entry structure of old geology south lecture theatre

Frank Tate pavilion

Frank Tate pavilion is a timber-steel frame construction. •Roof systems, floor system are used •Columns, beams are the major structural elements on this project. •Timber, steel are the main materials.

One-way span

Two-way span


Steel framing

Slabs Concrete system Horizontal structural element Carry loads

Fixed/rigid joints

Steel system

Beam & Cantilever


Primary beam

Secondary beam

Weak concrete

Too stiff

Too much water


Too little water



Air bubbles


Component s




Shotcrete Curing Limited time

Weak in tension


IN-SITU concrete



Uses Construction

Retaining walls Bespoke structural elements




Footings Fabrication of the formwork

Pro & Cons

Poor vibration

Control Temperature differential Material coefficient Dimensions of the piece

Divide the whole to sections

Disadvantages Permeable

Moisture Steel mesh/bars

Oxidation Reinforced concrete


Precast concrete

Element failing Worse performance



Placing reinforcement


Mixed with water


Points along the beam One end



Floor system


Points away form ends


Chemical reaction



Supported Types



Timber system


Transfer to supports Both ends



Retaining wall

Retaining wall

Columns Joints

Purposes Construction

More standardized Much faster site process


Desired aesthetic outcome

Glossary : • Joist: a long thick piece of wood, steel or concrete which is used in buildings to support a floor. • Girder: a long thick piece of steel or concrete which supports a roof, floor, bridge or other large structure. • Steel decking: serves as a working platform during construction and as formwork for a sitecast concrete slab. • Concrete plank: framing system to support the concrete slabs. • Span: is the distance measured between two structural supports (vertical and horizontal) not necessarily the same as the member length. • Spacing: is the repeating distance between a series of like or similar elements(vertical and horizontal) measured centreline to centre-line.

Activities 1 “SCALE, ANNOTATION AND WORKING DRAWING CONVENTIONS” •Why ‘scale’ is used for documenting building projects: for the building project, it is impossible to draw the sketches of all details of the building in 1:1 on the paper. A larger scale will be used for accurately documenting the dimensions. The scale drawings allow the building project fit and presented on the paper.

•How ‘scale’ is used for documenting building projects: considering the real dimensions of the building project and the size of drawing paper. Then choose a proper scale(larger or smaller) to start the scale drawings.

According to our group discussion, centimeter is the preferred working units in the building projects. The scale range between 1:5 to 1:300 is appropriate to use for construction documentation.

ACTIVITY2: 'CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTATION TOUR' •Selected questions from the case study questionnaire

What types of information on the elevations are expressed using words? Illustrate how this is done.

1. The amendment for the existing building and surroundings. 2. The specific construction requirements and notes in building process. 3. Detailed explanations for the features in the new project. 4. The name of special building element. 5. The name of different level. Cited from OVAL PAVILION construction drawings.

Illustrate how the section drawing differentiates between building elements that are cut through and those that are shown in elevation(beyond).

Use numbers and letters to mark different parts of the building elements, and utilize same symbol in elevation drawing.

Provide examples of how different materials are shown on drawings at this scale.

Using words or codes to indicate different materials, the references of code will be described in the reference sheet.

Cited from OVAL PAVILION construction drawings.

The drawing set is more informative than the site observation, because designers have to complete the building details(exterior and interior) in different views, but users could not observe all details from a completed construction via limited views. In the other hand, it is more likely to interact with the site by a real visit than traveling the drawings. For the architectural drawings, it will focus more on displaying all designing and planning details including the function of different spaces. But the structural drawings focus more on the building techniques and methods, how to achieve the design proposes in the building process.

Ratio of effective column length to the smallest cross section dimension is greater than 12:1


Ratio of effective column length to the smallest cross section dimension is less than 12:1 Shorter and thicker

Taller and slimmer Short Columns

Long Columns

Concrete frames


Late wood Thick, small cells, darker color

Wall systems

Brick veneer construction

Grain direction Why


Strong & stiff



Increased stability



Free moisture Bound moisture

Load bearing walls


Solar Air Less common


Solid Masonry

Light gauge steel framing Kiln

In situ

Reinforced Masonry


Stud walls

Timber framing


Timber frames

Structural frames

Early wood

Wood and timber

GRID of timber posts/poles

Steel frames


Columns Thin, large cells, lighter color

GRID of steel columns

GRID of concrete columns

Cavity Masonry Green sawing

Radial sawn Efficient

Quarter sawn

Back sawn More common

Very high

Weak points

Very low embodied energy

Effective Timber

Very Durable




Slope of grain



Arris knots

Edge knots Centre knots

Properties Conductivity Poor




Density Flexibility

Medium low

Medium low


High flexible and medium plastic


Varies depending on timber type

“I� beam

Box beam

Timber flanged steel web joists


Manufactured product



Solid product LVL

Engineering timber CLT


Damage Fungal attack

Sheet product MDF


Moisture >20%

Swelling, shrinkage


Glossary : • Stud: a wall stud is a vertical framing member in a building's wall of smaller cross section than a post.

• Axial load: a force administered along the lines of an axis. • Nogging: an architectural term used for the filling in-between wall framing in buildings. • Buckling: is characterized by a sudden failure of a structural member subjected to high compressive stress. • Lintel: a load-bearing building component. • Seasoned timber: timber with a moisture<15%

ACTIVITY: â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;STRUCTURAL CONCEPTSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; For the assigned section of the case. Foundation systems, wall systems, floor systems, and roof systems are employed. Concrete is the main material for the floor and foundation systems, blocks and bricks are the major materials for the wall system. In addition, metal decking roof and thermal insulation are also important in this part. It is also important to note that, from the e-module of this week, stud walls are employed in this case. And the light gauge steel frame might be used in the wall system.

Cited from OVAL PAVILION construction drawings(A46-03).

In the foundation system, concrete footing beams and concrete slab used to carry loads and support the building as the substructure. The lateral forces can cause the foundation to impose no uniform pressure on the supporting soil (Ching, 2008, 3.02).

The blockwork will be used as the retaining wall, according to Ching, active and passive earth pressure exerted by a soil mass and developed by a soil mass in response to the horizontal movement of a foundation.

Cavity masonry walls are employed in this case. According to the e-module video about wall this week. Better thermal performance and opportunities for insulation within the cavity, better waterproofing are the advantages of cavity walls.

Loading path

Glue the beam footings The retaining wall and double the footing of foundation to reinforce.

Bracing on the wall systems

Steel frames to support the roof

Pitch:1°~ 3° Flat roofs


Flat plates of reinforced concrete

3D plate type structure that are long spanning in two directions

Framed roofs constructed from a series of open web type steel timber elements

Trussed roofs

Pitched and sloping roofs

Space frames


Hip roofs Materials

Concrete roofs

W06 Cold –formed steel sections

Structural steel framed roofs


Very durable

Portal frames

Generally effective

Ferrous Metal

Types Nonferrous





Very high embodied energy

Heavier steel

Gable roofs

Light framed roofs

Roof systems

Cold –formed steel sections


Impermeable Cost Porosity/permeability



Durability Fragility Hardness


Very good

Flexibility Density

Reusability High Varied





Oxidation and corrosion Water related damage Window frames

Door handles

Considerations Wrought Iron

Aluminum Ferrous

Iron Cast Iron

Cladding panels

Metal Copper


Roofing material

Alloys Hot rolled

Stainless steel alloys

Steel Cold formed

Reinforcing bars

Structural Steel




Steel sheeting


Brass Cladding




Copper + tin Copper + zinc

Glossary : • Rafter: is one of a series of sloped structural members (beams) that extend from the ridge or hip to the wall plate. • Eaves: the bottom edge of a roof. • Purlin: a purlin (or historically purline, purloyne, purling, perling) is any longitudinal, horizontal, structural member in a roof. • Alloys: combinations of two or more metals • Cantilever: a beam anchored at only one end. • Soffit: the underside of any construction element. • Portal frame: consist of braced rigid frames (two columns and one beam) with purlins for the roof and girts for the walls. • Top chord: the top beams in a truss are called top chords.

Commentary: other groups had not finished their models until W06 studio.


Bolted Joints

First visit: foundation and ground floor timber frames were finished


Site1 (Edge Water) Second visit: steel frames were added to some parts of the construction. The floor systems and wall systems of first floor almost done

Steel structure Steel columns and beams employed in the wall and floor systems. The utilizing of steel benefit the increasing of stability because steel is strong in both tension and compression. However, steel is too heavy to widely introduce into the project.

Fixed Joints

Different types of structure systems employed.

Timber structure

Timber frames are widely used in the project. Although the hardness of timber is not quite high, timber is very durable, and flexible. While the material is popular in Australia because of its effective cost.

Concrete structure

Concrete bricks were used in the foundation retaining wall and bearing wall in the superstructure wall systems. And concrete slabs were used in floor systems. Concrete is very durable and quite strong in compression.

Concrete piers, timber floor bearers, timber floor joists, and timber slabs.

Shallow foundation

First visit: foundation, timber frames and roof systems almost finished

Foundation systems Second visit: no more significant development

Site2 (Newport)

Timber frame wall systems



Reinforcement of timber frame, partly utilizing.


Flooring systems

Timber Bracings

Top plates Bottom plates

Diagonal Bracings

Crossing Bracings

Plywood Bracings

Vertical studs Nogging

Timber frames are widely used in the project. Although the hardness of timber is not quite high, timber is strong and flexible when parallel to grain direction. It is easy to recycle. While the material is popular in Australia because of its effective cost.

Downpipes and stormwater system

Overlapping cladding and roof elements

Sloping window and door sills

Grading roofs

Double glazing

Sloping the ground surface

Thermal brakes


Remove opening

Keep water away from openings

Neutralise forces to move water through the opening

Prevent water penetrating

An opening

Water present at the opening

Surface tension and capillary action

Thermal insulation

Conditions for penetrate

Air pressure differential


Controlling heat


Detailing for heat

Conditions Windows, doors, skylights, etc

Poor construction workmanship

Heat is conducted through the building envelope


Water bodies

Unplanned openings Deterioration of materials

Radiation Thermal mass

Detailing for moisture Planned elements

Reflective surfaces

Conduction Momentum A force to move water through the opening

Shading system

Themal mass is used to regulate the flow of heat Building envelope and building elements are subjected to radiant heat sources

Seals, gaskets, flooring, insulation, hosing Natural Rubber


Rubber types

Generally effective


Rubber Cost

Very poor


Varies Very durable


Conductivity Properties Density

Durability Hardness




1.5x water

Reusability High High

Harder resist abrasion

Softer provide better seals


High in heat, varied in cold

Glossary : • Drip: is used between surfaces to prevent water clinging to the underside of surfaces. • Down pipes: a pipe that carries waste water or sewage away from buildings. • Vapour barrier: resists diffusion of moisture through wall, ceiling and floor assemblies of buildings. • Flashing: prevent the passage of water into a structure from a joint. • Gutter: a narrow trough or duct which collects rainwater from the roof of a building and diverts it away from the structure, typically into a drain. • Insulation: materials used to reduce the rate of heat transfer. • Parapet: a barrier which is an extension of the wall at the edge of a roof, terrace, balcony, walkway or other structure. • Sealant: a substance such as paint or polish that is painted onto a surface to protect it from other liquids from going into it, or is put in the space between two materials for the same reason.

Detailing for moisture


Feature panel glass or hollow/solid core infill

Mid rail

Top rail Door leaf

Door frame

Door swing

Steel doors

Bottom rail

Handel latch & lock

Roof opening

Timber doors

Door materials

Timber windows

Window materials

Aluminum windows

Sill Jamb

Head Steel windows

W08 Head


High embodied energy and carbon footprint

Expensive Cost


Transmit heat and light but not electricity


Sustainability Glass

Blown glass

Conductivity Properties

Very durable

Sheet glass

Lamination glass

Window frame

Curtain walls

Doors & windows

Glass history

Lead crystal

Aluminum doors

Plate glass


Reusability Float glass

Very high


Hardness High





Very low

High when molten, low when cooled

2.7x water

Tinted Glass Wired Glass SHAPED Glass



FLAT Glass

Patterned Glass

Glass types

Curved Glass


Photovoltaic Glass


Glass channels


Slumped and formed Glass

Glass fibers

Glossary : • Window sash: a frame to hold panes of glass. • Door furniture: any of the items that are attached to a door or a drawer to enhance its functionality or appearance. • Deflection: the degree to which a structural element is displaced under a load. • Stress: a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighbouring particles of a continuous material exert on each other. • Moment of inertia: torque needed for a desired angular acceleration about an axis of rotation. • Shear forces: unaligned forces pushing one part of a body in one direction, and another part the body in the opposite direction.

Fixed 0% ventilating Swinging Exterior and interior use Casement 100% ventilating

Awning & Hopper 100% ventilating

Sliding 50% ventilating

Double-hung 50% ventilating

Bypass sliding Exterior and interior use

Surface sliding Exterior and interior use

Pocket sliding Interior use


Jalousie 100% ventilating

Pivoting 100% ventilating

Folding Interior use

CHING, ‘Building Construction Illustrated’, 8.04 CHING, ‘Building Construction Illustrated’, 8.02

Activity: â&#x20AC;&#x153;In detailsâ&#x20AC;?

The part assigned only can be observed inside the building because this corner of the function room roof is covered by the tall structure.

Annotated copy of your drawing

A single material

Movement joints

Ageing gracefully


Health and safety

Material combined so that components are indistinguishable


Construction detailing



Fibrous Materials

Repairable surfaces & resistance to damage

Fibre reinforced polymers

Maintenance access Cleanable surfaces

Fibre reinforced cement




Aluminum sheet composites


Timber composites


Two or more materials are combined in such a way that the individual materials remain easily distinguishable

Glossary : • Sandwich panel: a type of flat panel that consists of two thin aluminium sheets bonded to a non-aluminium core. • Composite beam: a structural member composed of two or more dissimilar materials joined together to act as a unit. • Bending: the behaviour of a slender structural element subjected to an external load applied perpendicularly to a longitudinal axis of the element. • Shirting: elements that covers the crawl space under a mobile home. • Cornice: horizontal decorative molding that crowns a building or furniture element.

ACTIVITY: â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;OFF CAMPUSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Steel plate weld up to connect two precast panels together

This apartment building is a typical concrete construction. There are 6 stories above the ground and one basement used as garage.

There are two types of utilizing of concrete in the basement plan: precast concrete panels and concrete. It is clearly shown on the right via colors.

Pad footings are employed in the basement with concrete columns

Drain pipe is used to drain the stormwater down then flow into the gutter(drain system). It is not an efficient way to deal with stormwater. Stormwater can be stored into the water tank and reuse for flushing, gardening, etc.

Middle studs had installed for 3 weeks. To build the wall, these studs will be installed in the first to connect two plasterboards. Cables can be placed into the wall through these holes in studs. One of the advantages for plaster stud walls.

The base between living room and balcony is to prevent water to come into the apartment. This element, which belongs to enclosure system, plays an important role in waterproofing of the building.

Formwork of the waterproofing base. Strong steel bars reinforce these bases.

Temporary power box

Steel beam connection method is shown on the left; steel column base connection method is shown on the right.

The material â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;concreteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; is strong in compression and weak in tension. Strong steel bars are put into concrete slabs to increase the stiffness in tension. There is basically 100 mm extension of steel bars in the section. The rest will be cut out. Then, concrete will fill the section like the photo shown on the right above.

Exposure Painted black on outside only Material selection, too wide

Suitability of material for the application

Exposure to hot north sun

Compatibility Strength and deflection

Long term performance Fasteners

Materials selection


Timber fascia

Timber plywood glued to timber stud walls

Flat steel sheet glued to plywood

Reduce/reuse recycle waste, minimise use of composites

Collapses and failures


Smog, ozone layer depletion, acid rain, toxicity, radio activity, dioxins


Flat steel sheeting on plywood

Thermal differences

Construction & detailing

Pollution Cut edges

Considerations Waste/recycling/ recycled

Blistering & peeling sheets

Recycled/ plantation/RFA timber

Life cycle

Energy use

Health and IEQ

Renewable/ abundant resources

Reduce VOCs, reduce particles/ dust, green cleaning practices

Issues: climate change, greenhouse effect, global warming

Glossary : • Shear wall: a structural system composed of braced panels (also known as shear panels) to counter the effects of lateral load acting on a structure. • Braced frame: a structural system which is designed primarily to resist wind and earthquake forces. • Corrosion: the gradual destruction of materials (usually metals) by chemical reaction with its environment. • Soft storey: level is less than 70% as stiff as the floor immediately above it, or less than 80% as stiff as the average stiffness of the three floors above it (Wai-Fah Chen, E. M. Lui, 2005) • Fascia: an architectural term for a frieze or band running horizontally and situated vertically under a roof edge, or which forms the outer surface of a cornice, visible to an observer. • IEQ: indoor environment quality.

•Aluminum fascia: Al will not corrode in the high moisture condition; the fascia was placed in a small angle, that’s to drain water down to the roof, drips on the two sides also play an important role to break water flowing. •Thermal/Acoustic insulation: important elements in the modern construction. The reduction of heat transfer and sound transfer is quite necessary for a frequent-use public space. •Impact & fire resistant plasterboard: the element is quite useful to control the fire spreading. These two plasterboards were designed to install between interior and thermal insulation wall because the main material of thermal insulation-foam is combustible, it will contribute to the fire spreading.

669009 Yuxiang ZHOU Logbook  

Logbook final submission CONSTRUCTING ENVIRONMENT University of Melbourne