Yuval Cohen Golan
AN Ants are social insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera. Ants evolved from wasp-like ancestors in the mid-Cretaceous period between 110 and 130 million years ago and diversified after the rise of flowering plants. More than 12,500 out of an estimated total of 22,000 species have been classified.They are easily identified by their elbowed antennae and a distinctive node-like structure that forms a slender waist. Ants form colonies that range in size from a few dozen predatory individuals living in small natural cavities to highly organised colonies that may occupy large territories and consist of millions of individuals. Larger colonies consist mostly of sterile wingless females forming castes of “workers”, “soldiers”, or other specialised groups. Nearly all ant colonies also have some fertile males called “drones” and one or more fertile females called “queens”. The colonies sometimes are described as superorganisms because the ants appear to operate as a unified entity, collectively working together to support the colony.
TS Ants have colonised almost every landmass on Earth. The only places lacking indigenous ants are Antarctica and a few remote or inhospitable islands. Ants thrive in most ecosystems and may form 15â€“25% of the terrestrial animal biomass.Their success in so many environments has been attributed to their social organisation and their ability to modify habitats, tap resources, and defend themselves. Their long co-evolution with other species has led to mimetic, commensal, parasitic, and mutualistic relationships. Ant societies have division of labour, communication between individuals, and an ability to solve complex problems. These parallels with human societies have long been an inspiration and subject of study. Many human cultures make use of ants in cuisine, medication, and rituals. Some species are valued in their role as biological pest control agents.Their ability to exploit resources may bring ants into conflict with humans, however, as they can damage crops and invade buildings. Some species, such as the red imported fire ant, are regarded as invasive species, establishing themselves in areas where they have been introduced accidentally.
DOOR KNOCKERS IN PARIS
ions and leonine beasts door knockers - â€œKings of Beastsâ€? and the most often depicted animals in medieval art - were in ancient times used as a symbol for Sumerian, Assyrian and Persian kings, later this tradition was continued in representing Christ, the king of the tribe of Judah. The lion was said to erase its tracks with its tail, which was either equated to Christâ€™s ability to elude the devil or to the image of the Saviour living unrecognized on earth. Further the lioness gave birth to dead cubs, which were resurrected three days later by their father. When a lion was ill, the only certain cure for him was to kill and eat a monkey, which was a symbol of the evil forces. This was taken as a further symbol for the overcome of the evil by the good. It was also said never to close his eyes even if asleep, being an emblem of vigilance. So it was placed on tombs and beside the entryways to churches. Besides lion heads were used as door knockers. However it has been said that, if shown supporting the pillars of a door, the lion used to be evil, as well as if it was a holding a lamb or was a bicorporate lion of pagan or at least pre-Christian origin. In any case, the lion was predominantly associated with vigilant, valiant, regal, and powerful behaviour. This changed in the later Middle Ages, when the seven deadly sins were associated with animals - the lion became the symbol of pride.
Mantch in the Yiddish language is man, Mentchalach is small man. In the 18th century in Europe those small men used to hold wooden shutters opened. They were made from steel and were also known as the house guards.
Obviously, the purpose of a door knocker is to allow a guest the opportunity to announce his presence. During the superstitious Middle Ages, door knockers took on gruesome faces, such as gargoyles, dogs and lions, to ward off evil spirits from entering the home. The Renaissance awakened an interest in art and design, and door knockers grew more ornate. Once constructed of pounded iron, knockers were cast in delicate shapes and figures in iron and brass for the doors of the wealthier members of society. Door knockers are pervasive throughout history in every culture. The doors of the Cizre-Great Mosque in Anatolia, Turkey, built in 1160, hold two dragon bronze knockers. Ancient Italians hung Medusa heads. English doors sported snarling lions.
way (he says he turned down a job at IBM that later went to Paul Rand), he might be as well known today as any of the other acknowledged pioneers. In fact, he worked for many of the same clients, including Orbachs, Bloomingdale’s, Decca Records, RCA Records, Filene’s, 20th Century Fox, The Museum of Modern Art, Container Corporation of America, the New York Transit Authority, Revlon, and more. Judging from the sheer volume of work bearing his signature or type credit, there are few others who can make this claim. Both his General Dynamics work and book packages had a profound influence on younger designers during the 1960s and 70s. Seymour Chwast, co-founder of Push Pin Studios, compares his tattered, well-thumbed copy of Dynamic America, the ambitious corporate history that Nitsche edited and designed between 1957 and 1960, to Herbert Bayer’s landmark Geo-Graphic Atlas for its innovation in the area of information graphics. And Walter Bernard, principal of WBMG, routinely shows slides of Dynamic America in lectures describing his early influences. Bernard also credits the book’s exceptional cinematic pacing as having radically changed the way that he achieved kinetic flow in his own books when he was a designer for American Heritage in the early 1960s. Nitsche’s books, annual reports, and other sequential printed material rely on meticulous attention to the details of page composition, the elegance of simple type presentation, and the expressive juxtaposition of historical and contemporary artifacts on a page. His method exerted an impact on a portion of the field that had become too reliant on rigid Modern formulas, which in turn limited variety and fluidity. Yet this reluctant Modernist was so absorbed with creating and producing his own watudes of other designers. Even today he is surprised to hear that his work made an impression. In fact, during his long career Nitsche neither sought the limelight nor participated in design organizations (other than an invitational membership into the Alliance Graphique Internationale — AGI). Although his work started appearing in European graphic design annuals and magazines back in the early 1930s, Nitsche did not engage in the social politicking that might insure his place in the design pantheon. His induction into the Art Director’s Club Hall of Fame came as a pleasant surprise. But nevertheless, he says that it came too late to ‘do me any good,’ implying that had he been inducted earlier he might have benefited by attracting new clients, which is not the usual outcome anyway. Nevertheless, his induction validates the major contribution that has gone largely unheralded except for those aficionados who know (and collect) his posters and books.* Nitsche’s career began virtually at birth. He was born into a family of commercial photographers on July 7, 1908 in Lausanne, Switzerland. His grandfather had worked in China during late nineteenth century and his father and uncles were noted portrait photographers. The artist Paul Klee was a family friend and exerted a profound in- fluence on young Nitsche, who wanted to be an artist rather than enter the family business. Although Nitsche initially thought he might study with Klee at the Bauhaus, after a short stint at the College Classique in Lausanne when he was 18 years old, he attended the Kunstgewerbeschule in Munich. There he studied with the famous German typographer F.H. Ehmcke and eventually won a prestigious award for a poster competition for an annual Munich ball. In 1930 Nitsche began his peripatetic professional life. He went Cologne, Germany, with Professor Ehmcke where together they designed The International Press Exhibit (Pressa). A year later Paris beckoned. But it was hard to sell what he calls ‘enlightened design’ in the City of Light at that time, recalling that ‘French advertising was unbelievably corny.’ Nevertheless, it was the period when A.M. Cassandre and other French poster artists were beginning to make a profound impact with stylish work that opened up creative possibilities. Moreover, French advertising agencies were smitten by Swiss graphic design, which was largely illustrative. The Draeger Freres agency, for whom Nitsche first worked, welcomed Swiss designers as though they were conquering heroes. Nitsche was next hired by Maximilien Vox, an enterprising typographer, advertising designer, and writer for the influential applied arts magazine Arts & Metiérs Graphiques. He headed his own agency which did typographic work running the gamut from packages to labels to letterheads. At the time, the moderne (or Art Deco) style dominated the French scene, and Nitsche explains that ‘stylistically speaking, I did too many different things.’ However, he learned one essential French design principle: ‘Try to give everything you design a feeling of elegance,’ he says.
“Its so very Swiss.”
Nitsche was also attracted to the Bauhaus and its rationalist discipline which went counter to the French intuitive nature. It was not the look of the avant garde that impressed him: ‘I was not interested in what the Bauhaus produced as much as how they did it,’ he recalls. ‘Having grown up in Switzerland, I think I always had a sense of order.’ Thus that convergence of French and Bauhaus sensibilities defined his early efforts. As a testament to Nitsche’s prolificacy he still has the original accounts ledger in which he chronicled every freelance job (and the payments he received). From around 1930 to 1935 he recorded literally hundreds of illustrations and political cartoons for weekly publications such as the French Vu, and the German Simplicissmus and Querschnitt, as well as scores of advertisements for magazines and newspapers. Working for both French and German clients gave him considerable creative latitude and a fairly decent income during this dangerously inflationary period in Europe. But sensing the larger troubles to come, like many of his contemporaries (incodovitch whom he first met in Paris), Nitsche decided leave Europe for the United States in 1934.
C M Y K / ISSUE 24 /p.31
The Reluctant Modernist The life and work of the quietly pivotal Swiss modern design Erik Nitsche, who's clients ranged from the MOMA to RCA in a career that spanned the 20th century.
ric Nitsche may not be as well known today as his contemporaries, Lester Beall, Paul Rand, or Saul Bass, but he is their equal. Almost 90 years old, this Swiss born graphic designer is arguably one of the last surviving Modern design pioneers. Although he never claimed to be either a progenitor or follower of any dogma, philoso- phy, or style other than his own intuition, the work that earned him induction last year into the New York Art Directorâ€™s Club Hall of Fame, including the total identity for General Dynamics Corporation from 1955 to 1965 and the series of scientific, music, and world history illustrated books, which he designed and packaged during the 1960s and 1970s, fits squarely into the Modernist tradition. Yet Nitscheâ€™s approach was not a cookie-cutter Modern formula that so many designers blindly followed at that time. It was a personal fusion of early influences (clas- sical and otherwise) and contemporary aesthetics based on fast pacing and dramatic juxtapositions. Rather than adherence to Modernist orthodoxy, Nitsche insists that the methodology that most closely resembles a Modern manner, clean, systematic, and ordered, developed because of his restlessness at doing mostly illustrative work during the early part of his career. Although he might not own up to the fact that he had played a formidable role in the Modernist legacy, Nitsche does not deny that he was as good - certainly as prolific, if not more so - than any other designer of his age. He also speculates that had it not been for Wa few poor business decisions along the
Typography made with American cheese.
Sculptures made and photographed by me.
Emotional United States flagsâ€™ poster.
L’inchiostro è un preparato di consistenza variabile, da liquida a pastosa, costituito da soluzioni di coloranti o sospensioni di pigmenti in un fluido disperdente e lavorato con petrolio, con la caratteristica di fissarsi su determinati materiali come la carta o ad altri supporti adatti per mezzo della scrittura, della stampa o mediante l’uso di un timbro. Le differenze di impiego e di struttura li fanno dividere in due categorie: inchiostri per scrivere ed inchiostri per la stampa. Gli inchiostri per scrivere sono essenzialmente soluzioni acquose di prodotti coloranti, a cui vengono aggiunti altri prodotti atti a conferire loro le caratteristiche più idonee per l’impiego. Questo tipo di inchiostro deve dare una traccia nitida senza sbavature, sufficientemente intensa, deve essiccare rapidamente senza attraversare la carta, deve scorrere facilmente sulla penna (normale o stilografica), non deve formare grumi o depositi nei calamai o nei serbatoi delle penne e non deve corrodere i materiali con cui viene a contatto. L’inchiostro di biro, imprigionato nella carta, si può rimuovere lasciandolo in acqua 30 secondi, e successivamente grattando delicatissimamente con una piccola siringa.
Il nero può essere definito come l’impressione visiva che viene sperimentata quando nessuna luce visibile raggiunge l’occhio, che
combina tutti i colori della luce che stimolano in maniera uguale i tre tipi di recettori sensibili ai colori. I pigmenti che assorbono la luce piuttosto che rifletterla, danno luogo al “nero”. Un pigmento nero, tuttavia, risulta da una combinazione di diversi pigmenti che insieme assorbono tutta la luce, di ogni colore. Se vengono impiegate le proporzioni corrette dei tre pigmenti primari, il risultato riflette così poca luce da risultare nero. Questo porta a due descrizioni apparentemente opposte ma complementari del nero. Il nero è la mancanza di tutti i colori che formano la luce, oppure una combinazione di più colori di pigmenti. Vedere anche colori primari e pigmenti primari.
Architecture (Latin architectura, from the Greek arkhitekton, from “chief” and “builder, carpenter, mason”) is both the process and product of planning, designing, and construction. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.
In relation to buildings, architecture has to do with the planning, designing and constructing form, space and ambience that reflect functional, technical, social, environmental, and aesthetic considerations. It requires the creative manipulation and coordination of material, technology, light and shadow. Architecture also encompasses the pragmatic aspects of realizing buildings and structures, including scheduling, cost estimating and construction administration. As documentation produced by architects, typically drawings, plans and technical specifications, architecture defines the structure and/or behavior of a building or any other kind of system that is to be or has been constructed.
TRIBAL ART & TEXTILE SHOW THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 1000 5TH AVE, NEW YORK, NY 10028
TRIBAL ART & TEXTILE SHOW THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 1000 5TH AVE, NEW YORK, NY 10028
Composition project, using random objecets to creat new compositions.
Y O U C A N H E A R T H E OCEAN
P E A N U T
W O R RY D O L L
Worry dolls “Dolls [that] remove worries”),or trouble dolls, are very small and colorful dolls traditionally made in Guatemala.A person (usually a child) who cannot sleep due to worrying can express their worries to a doll and place it under their pillow before going to sleep. Some medical centers use them in conjunction with treatment for disease in children. According to folklore, the doll is thought to worry in the person’s place, thereby permitting the person to sleep peacefully. The person will wake up without their worries, which have been taken away by the dolls during the night. Parents may remove the doll during the night, reinforcing the child’s belief that the worry is gone. Some parents involve the child in making the dolls to further increase the psychological benefits of releasing worries, and instructions may be found online.
THE PUBLIC THEATER POSTERS.